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The 1913 Webster Unabridged Dictionary: Letters P & Q
February, 1999  [Etext #666]

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 Begin file 7 of 11:  P and Q.  (Version 0.50) of
          An electronic field-marked version of:

         Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
                 Version published 1913
               by the  C. & G. Merriam Co.
                   Springfield, Mass.
                 Under the direction of
                Noah Porter, D.D., LL.D.

   This electronic version was prepared by MICRA, Inc. of Plainfield, NJ.
   Last edit February 11, 1999.

   MICRA, Inc. makes no proprietary claims on this version of the
1913 Webster dictionary.  If the original printed edition of the
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considered as public domain.

    This version is only a first typing, and has numerous typographic errors, including errors in the field-marks.  Assistance in bringing this dictionary to a more accurate and useful state will be greatly appreciated.
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P (p), the sixteenth letter of the English alphabet, is a nonvocal consonant whose form and value come from the Latin, into which language the letter was brought, through the ancient Greek, from the Phœnician, its probable origin being Egyptian. Etymologically P is most closely related to b, f, and v; as hobble, hopple; father, paternal; recipient, receive. See B, F, and M.

See Guide to Pronunciation, §§ 247, 248, and 184- 195.

Pa (pä), n. A shortened form of Papa.

Pa"age (p"j; 48), n. [OF. paage, paiage, F. péage, fr. (assumed) LL. pedaticum, fr. L. pes, pedis, foot. See Pedage, Pedal.] (O. Eng. Law) A toll for passage over another person's grounds. [Written also peage and pedage.] Burke.

||Paard (pärd), n. [D., a horse.] The zebra. [S. Africa]

Paas (päs), n. Pace [Obs.] Chaucer

Paas (ps), n. [D. paash. See Pasch.] The Easter festival. [Local, U. S.] Bartlett.

Paas egg. See Easter egg, under Easter.

Pab"u*lar (?), a. [L. pabularis.] Of, pertaining to, or fit for, pabulum or food; affording food.

Pab`u*la"tion (?), n. [L. pabulatio, fr. pabulari to feed, fr. pabulum food. See Pabulum.]

1. The act of feeding, or providing food. [Obs.] Cockeram.

2. Food; fodder; pabulum. [Obs.]

Pab"u*lous (?), a. [L. pabulosus.] Affording pabulum, or food; alimental. [R.] Sir T. Browne.

Pab"u*lum (?), n. [L., akin to pascere to pasture. See Pastor.] The means of nutriment to animals or plants; food; nourishment; hence, that which feeds or sustains, as fuel for a fire; that upon which the mind or soul is nourished; as, intellectual pabulum.

Pac (?), n. A kind of moccasin, having the edges of the sole turned up and sewed to the upper. Knight.

Pa"ca (?), n. [Pg., from the native name.] (Zoöl.) A small South American rodent (Cœlogenys paca), having blackish brown fur, with four parallel rows of white spots along its sides; the spotted cavy. It is nearly allied to the agouti and the Guinea pig.

Pa"ca*ble (?), a. [L. pacare to pacify.] Placable. [R.] Coleridge.

Pa*cane" (?), n. (Bot.) A species of hickory. See Pecan.

Pa"cate (?), a. [L. pacatus, p. p. of pacare to pacify, fr. pax, pacis, peace. See Pay to requite, Peace.] Appeased; pacified; tranquil. [R.]

Pa"ca*ted (?), a. Pacified; pacate.

Pa*ca"tion (?), n. [L. pacatio.] The act of pacifying; a peacemaking. Coleridge.

Pace (?), n. [OE. pas, F. pas, from L. passus a step, pace, orig., a stretching out of the feet in walking; cf. pandere, passum, to spread, stretch; perh. akin to E. patent. Cf. Pas, Pass.] 1. A single movement from one foot to the other in walking; a step.

2. The length of a step in walking or marching, reckoned from the heel of one foot to the heel of the other; -- used as a unit in measuring distances; as, he advanced fifty paces. "The heigh of sixty pace ." Chaucer.

Ordinarily the pace is estimated at two and one half linear feet; but in measuring distances be stepping, the pace is extended to three feet (one yard) or to three and three tenths feet (one fifth of a rod). The regulation marching pace in the English and United States armies is thirty inches for quick time, and thirty-six inches for double time. The Roman pace (passus) was from the heel of one foot to the heel of the same foot when it next touched the ground, five Roman feet.

3. Manner of stepping or moving; gait; walk; as, the walk, trot, canter, gallop, and amble are paces of the horse; a swaggering pace; a quick pace. Chaucer.

To-morrow, and to-morrow, and to-morrow,
Creeps in this petty pace from day to day.


In the military schools of riding a variety of paces are taught.


4. A slow gait; a footpace. [Obs.] Chucer.

5. Specifically, a kind of fast amble; a rack.

6. Any single movement, step, or procedure. [R.]

The first pace necessary for his majesty to make is to fall into confidence with Spain.

Sir W. Temple.

7. (Arch.) A broad step or platform; any part of a floor slightly raised above the rest, as around an altar, or at the upper end of a hall.

8. (Weaving) A device in a loom, to maintain tension on the warp in pacing the web.

Geometrical pace, the space from heel to heel between the spot where one foot is set down and that where the same foot is again set down, loosely estimated at five feet, or by some at four feet and two fifths. See Roman pace in the Note under def. 2. [Obs.] -- To keep, or hold, pace with, to keep up with; to go as fast as. "In intellect and attainments he kept pace with his age." Southey.

Pace (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Paced (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Pacing (?).] 1. To go; to walk; specifically, to move with regular or measured steps. "I paced on slowly." Pope. "With speed so pace." Shak.

2. To proceed; to pass on. [Obs.]

Or [ere] that I further in this tale pace.


3. To move quickly by lifting the legs on the same side together, as a horse; to amble with rapidity; to rack.

4. To pass away; to die. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Pace, v. t. 1. To walk over with measured tread; to move slowly over or upon; as, the guard paces his round. "Pacing light the velvet plain." T. Warton.

2. To measure by steps or paces; as, to pace a piece of ground.

3. To develop, guide, or control the pace or paces of; to teach the pace; to break in.

If you can, pace your wisdom
In that good path that I would wish it go.


To pace the web (Weaving), to wind up the cloth on the beam, periodically, as it is woven, in a loom.

Paced (?), a. Having, or trained in, [such] a pace or gait; trained; -- used in composition; as, slow- paced; a thorough-paced villain.

Pa"cer (?), n. One who, or that which, paces; especially, a horse that paces.

Pa*cha" (?), n. [F.] See Pasha.

||Pa`cha*ca*mac" (?), n. A divinity worshiped by the ancient Peruvians as the creator of the universe.

||Pa*chak" (?), n. (Bot.) The fragrant roots of the Saussurea Costus, exported from India to China, and used for burning as incense. It is supposed to be the costus of the ancients. [Written also putchuck.]

Pa*cha"lic (?), a. & n. See Pashalic.

||Pa*chi"si (?), Par*che"si (&?;), n. [Hind., fr. pachis twenty-five, the highest throw in the game.] A game, somewhat resembling backgammon, originating in India.

Pa*chom"e*ter (?), n. [Gr. pa`chos thickness + -meter.] (Physics) An instrument for measuring thickness, as of the glass of a mirror, or of paper; a pachymeter.

||Pa*chon"ta (?), n. (Bot.) A substance resembling gutta-percha, and used to adulterate it, obtained from the East Indian tree Isonandra acuminata.

Pach"y- (?). [Gr. &?; thick.] A combining form meaning thick; as, pachyderm, pachydactyl.

Pach`y*car"pous (?), a. [Pachy- + Gr. &?; fruit.] (Bot.) Having the pericarp thick.

Pach`y*dac"tyl (?), n. [Pachy- + dactyl.] (Zoöl.) A bird or other animal having thick toes.

Pach`y*dac"tyl*ous (?), a. (Zoöl.) Having thick toes.

Pach"y*derm (?), n. [Cf. F. pachyderme.] (Zoöl.) One of the Pachydermata.

Pach`y*der"mal (?), a. (Zoöl.) Of or relating to the pachyderms; as, pachydermal dentition.

||Pach`y*der"ma*ta (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; thick-skinned; pachy`s thick + &?; skin.] (Zoöl.) A group of hoofed mammals distinguished for the thickness of their skins, including the elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, tapir, horse, and hog. It is now considered an artificial group.

Pach`y*der"ma*tous (?), a. 1. (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the pachyderms.

2. Thick-skinned; not sensitive to ridicule.

Pach`y*der"moid (?), a. [Pachyderm + -oid.] (Zoöl.) Related to the pachyderms.

Pach`y*glos"sal (?), a. [Pachy- + Gr. &?; tongue.] (Zoöl.) Having a thick tongue; -- applied to a group of lizards (Pachyglossæ), including the iguanas and agamas.

Pach`y*men`in*gi"tis (?), n. [Pachy- + meningitis.] (Med.) Inflammation of the dura mater or outer membrane of the brain.

Pa*chym"e*ter (?), n. [Pachy- + -meter.] Same as Pachometer.

Pach"y*ote (?), n. [Pachy- + Gr. &?;, &?;, ear.] (Zoöl.) One of a family of bats, including those which have thick external ears.

Pac"i*fi`a*ble (?), a. Capable of being pacified or appeased; placable.

Pa*cif"ic (?), a. [L. pacificus: cf. F. pacifique. See Pacify.] Of or pertaining to peace; suited to make or restore peace; of a peaceful character; not warlike; not quarrelsome; conciliatory; as, pacific words or acts; a pacific nature or condition.

Pacific Ocean, the ocean between America and Asia, so called by Magellan, its first European navigator, on account of the exemption from violent tempests which he enjoyed while sailing over it; -- called also, simply, the Pacific, and, formerly, the South sea.

Syn. -- Peacemaking; appeasing; conciliatory; tranquil; calm; quiet; peaceful; reconciling; mild; gentle.

Pa*cif"ic*a*ble (?), a. Placable. [R.] Bp. Hall.

Pa*cif"ic*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to peace; pacific. [R.] Sir H. Wotton. -- Pa*cif"ic*al*ly, adv. [R.]

Pa*cif`i*ca"tion (?), n. [L. pacificatio: cf. F. pacification. See Pacify.] The act or process of pacifying, or of making peace between parties at variance; reconciliation. "An embassy of pacification." Bacon.

Pa*cif"i*ca`tor (?), n. [L.] One who, or that which, pacifies; a peacemaker. Bacon.

Pa*cif"i*ca*to*ry (?), a. [L. pacificatorius.] Tending to make peace; conciliatory. Barrow.

Pac"i*fi`er (?), n. One who pacifies.

Pac"i*fy (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Pacified (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Pacifying (?).] [F. pacifier, L. pacificare; pax, pacis, peace + -ficare (in comp.) to make. See Peace, and -fy.] To make to be at peace; to appease; to calm; to still; to quiet; to allay the agitation, excitement, or resentment of; to tranquillize; as, to pacify a man when angry; to pacify pride, appetite, or importunity. "Pray ye, pacify yourself." Shak.

To pacify and settle those countries.


Pa*cin"i*an (?), a. (Anat.) Of, pertaining to, or discovered by, Filippo Pacini, an Italian physician of the 19th century.

Pacinian corpuscles, small oval bodies terminating some of the minute branches of the sensory nerves in the integument and other parts of the body. They are supposed to be tactile organs.

Pack (?), n. [Cf. Pact.] A pact. [Obs.] Daniel.

Pack, n. [Akin to D. pak, G. pack, Dan. pakke, Sw. packa, Icel. pakki, Gael. & Ir. pac, Arm. pak. Cf. Packet.]

1. A bundle made up and prepared to be carried; especially, a bundle to be carried on the back; a load for an animal; a bale, as of goods. Piers Plowman.

2. [Cf. Peck, n.] A number or quantity equal to the contents of a pack; hence, a multitude; a burden. "A pack of sorrows." "A pack of blessings." Shak.

"In England, by a pack of meal is meant 280 lbs.; of wool, 240 lbs." McElrath.

3. A number or quantity of connected or similar things; as: (a) A full set of playing cards; also, the assortment used in a particular game; as, a euchre pack. (b) A number of hounds or dogs, hunting or kept together. (c) A number of persons associated or leagued in a bad design or practice; a gang; as, a pack of thieves or knaves. (d) A shook of cask staves. (e) A bundle of sheet-iron plates for rolling simultaneously.

4. A large area of floating pieces of ice driven together more or less closely. Kane.

5. An envelope, or wrapping, of sheets used in hydropathic practice, called dry pack, wet pack, cold pack, etc., according to the method of treatment.

6. [Prob. the same word; but cf. AS. p&?;can to deceive.] A loose, lewd, or worthless person. See Baggage. [Obs.] Skelton.

Pack animal, an animal, as a horse, mule, etc., employed in carrying packs. -- Pack cloth, a coarse cloth, often duck, used in covering packs or bales. -- Pack horse. See Pack animal (above). -- Pack ice. See def. 4, above. -- Pack moth (Zoöl.), a small moth (Anacampsis sarcitella) which, in the larval state, is very destructive to wool and woolen fabrics. -- Pack needle, a needle for sewing with pack thread. Piers Plowman. -- Pack saddle, a saddle made for supporting the load on a pack animal. Shak. -- Pack staff, a staff for supporting a pack; a peddler's staff. -- Pack thread, strong thread or small twine used for tying packs or parcels. -- Pack train (Mil.), a troop of pack animals.

<! p. 1029 !>

Pack (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Packed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Packing.] [Akin to D. pakken, G. packen, Dan. pakke, Sw. packa, Icel. pakka. See Pack, n.] 1. To make a pack of; to arrange closely and securely in a pack; hence, to place and arrange compactly as in a pack; to press into close order or narrow compass; as to pack goods in a box; to pack fish.

Strange materials packed up with wonderful art.


Where . . . the bones
Of all my buried ancestors are packed.


2. To fill in the manner of a pack, that is, compactly and securely, as for transportation; hence, to fill closely or to repletion; to stow away within; to cause to be full; to crowd into; as, to pack a trunk; the play, or the audience, packs the theater.

3. To sort and arrange (the cards) in a pack so as to secure the game unfairly.

And mighty dukes pack cards for half a crown.


4. Hence: To bring together or make up unfairly and fraudulently, in order to secure a certain result; as, to pack a jury or a causes.

The expected council was dwindling into . . . a packed assembly of Italian bishops.


5. To contrive unfairly or fraudulently; to plot. [Obs.]

He lost life . . . upon a nice point subtilely devised and packed by his enemies.


6. To load with a pack; hence, to load; to encumber; as, to pack a horse.

Our thighs packed with wax, our mouths with honey.


7. To cause to go; to send away with baggage or belongings; esp., to send away peremptorily or suddenly; -- sometimes with off; as, to pack a boy off to school.

He . . . must not die

Till George be packed with post horse up to heaven.


8. To transport in a pack, or in the manner of a pack (i. e., on the backs of men or beasts). [Western U.S.]

9. (Hydropathy) To envelop in a wet or dry sheet, within numerous coverings. See Pack, n., 5.

10. (Mech.) To render impervious, as by filling or surrounding with suitable material, or to fit or adjust so as to move without giving passage to air, water, or steam; as, to pack a joint; to pack the piston of a steam engine.

Pack, v. i. 1. To make up packs, bales, or bundles; to stow articles securely for transportation.

2. To admit of stowage, or of making up for transportation or storage; to become compressed or to settle together, so as to form a compact mass; as, the goods pack conveniently; wet snow packs well.

3. To gather in flocks or schools; as, the grouse or the perch begin to pack. [Eng.]

4. To depart in haste; -- generally with off or away.

Poor Stella must pack off to town


You shall pack,
And never more darken my doors again.


5. To unite in bad measures; to confederate for ill purposes; to join in collusion. [Obs.] "Go pack with him." Shak.

To send packing, to drive away; to send off roughly or in disgrace; to dismiss unceremoniously. "The parliament . . . presently sent him packing." South.

Pack"age (?), n. 1. Act or process of packing.

2. A bundle made up for transportation; a packet; a bale; a parcel; as, a package of goods.

3. A charge made for packing goods.

4. A duty formerly charged in the port of London on goods imported or exported by aliens, or by denizens who were the sons of aliens.

Pack"er (?), n. A person whose business is to pack things; especially, one who packs food for preservation; as, a pork packer.

Pack"et (?), n. [F. paquet, dim. fr. LL. paccus, from the same source as E. pack. See Pack.]

1. A small pack or package; a little bundle or parcel; as, a packet of letters. Shak.

2. Originally, a vessel employed by government to convey dispatches or mails; hence, a vessel employed in conveying dispatches, mails, passengers, and goods, and having fixed days of sailing; a mail boat.

Packet boat, ship, or vessel. See Packet, n., 2. -- Packet day, the day for mailing letters to go by packet; or the sailing day. -- Packet note or post. See under Paper.

Pack"et, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Packeted; p. pr. & vb. n. Packeting.] 1. To make up into a packet or bundle.

2. To send in a packet or dispatch vessel.

Her husband
Was packeted to France.


Pack"et, v. i. To ply with a packet or dispatch boat.

Pack"fong` (?), n. [Chin. peh tung.] (Metal.) A Chinese alloy of nickel, zinc, and copper, resembling German silver.

Pack herse. See under 2d Pack.

Pack"house` (?), n. Warehouse for storing goods.

Pack"ing, n. 1. The act or process of one who packs.

2. Any material used to pack, fill up, or make close. Specifically (Mach.): A substance or piece used to make a joint impervious; as: (a) A thin layer, or sheet, of yielding or elastic material inserted between the surfaces of a flange joint. (b) The substance in a stuffing box, through which a piston rod slides. (c) A yielding ring, as of metal, which surrounds a piston and maintains a tight fit, as inside a cylinder, etc.

3. (Masonry) Same as Filling. [Rare in the U. S.]

4. A trick; collusion. [Obs.] Bale.

Cherd packing (Bridge Building), the arrangement, side by side, of several parts, as bars, diagonals, a post, etc., on a pin at the bottom of a chord. Waddell. -- Packing box, a stuffing box. See under Stuffing. -- Packing press, a powerful press for baling cotton, wool, hay, etc. -- Packing ring. See Packing, 2 (c), and Illust. of Piston. -- Packing sheet. (a) A large cloth for packing goods. (b) A sheet prepared for packing hydropathic patients.

Pack"man (?), n.; pl. Packmen (&?;). One who bears a pack; a peddler.

{ Pack saddle, Pack thread }. See under 2d Pack.

Pack"wax` (?), n. (Anat.) Same as Paxwax.

Pack"way` (?), n. A path, as over mountains, followed by pack animals.

{ Pa"co (?), Pa"cos (?), } n. [Sp. paco, fr. Peruv. paco. Cf. Alpaca.]

1. (Zoöl.) Same as Alpaca.

2. [Peruv. paco, pacu, red, reddish, reddish ore containing silver; perh. a different word.] (Min.) An earthy-looking ore, consisting of brown oxide of iron with minute particles of native silver. Ure.

Pact (?), n. [L. pactum, fr. paciscere to make a bargain or contract, fr. pacere to settle, or agree upon; cf. pangere to fasten, Gr. &?;, Skr. pca bond, and E. fang: cf. F. pacie. Cf. Peace, Fadge, v.] An agreement; a league; a compact; a covenant. Bacon.

The engagement and pact of society whish goes by the name of the constitution.


Pac"tion (?), n. [L. pactio: cf. F. paction. See Pact.] An agreement; a compact; a bargain. [R.] Sir W. Scott.

Pac"tion*al (?), a. Of the nature of, or by means of, a paction. Bp. Sanderson.

Pac*ti"tious (?), a. [L. pactitius, pacticius.] Setted by a pact, or agreement. [R.] Johnson.

Pac*to"li*an (?), a. Pertaining to the Pactolus, a river in ancient Lydia famous for its golden sands.

Pa"cu (?), n. (Zoöl.) A South American freah-water fish (Myleies pacu), of the family Characinidæ. It is highly esteemed as food.

Pad (?), n. [D. pad. √21. See Path.] 1. A footpath; a road. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.]

2. An easy-paced horse; a padnag. Addison

An abbot on an ambling pad.


3. A robber that infests the road on foot; a highwayman; -- usually called a footpad. Gay. Byron.

4. The act of robbing on the highway. [Obs.]

Pad, v. t. To travel upon foot; to tread. [Obs.]

Padding the streets for half a crown.


Pad, v. i. 1. To travel heavily or slowly. Bunyan.

2. To rob on foot. [Obs.] Cotton Mather.

3. To wear a path by walking. [Prov. Eng.]

Pad, n. [Perh. akin to pod.] 1. A soft, or small, cushion; a mass of anything soft; stuffing.

2. A kind of cushion for writing upon, or for blotting; esp., one formed of many flat sheets of writing paper, or layers of blotting paper; a block of paper.

3. A cushion used as a saddle without a tree or frame.

4. A stuffed guard or protection; esp., one worn on the legs of horses to prevent bruising.

5. (Zoöl.) A cushionlike thickening of the skin one the under side of the toes of animals.

6. A floating leaf of a water lily or similar plant.

7. (Med.) A soft bag or cushion to relieve pressure, support a part, etc.

8. (Naut.) A piece of timber fixed on a beam to fit the curve of the deck. W. C. Russel.

9. A measure for fish; as, sixty mackerel go to a pad; a basket of soles. [Eng.] Simmonds.

Pad cloth, a saddlecloth; a housing. -- Pad saddle. See def. 3, above. -- Pad tree (Harness Making), a piece of wood or metal which gives rigidity and shape to a harness pad. Knight.

Pad, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Padded; p. pr. & vb. n. Padding.] 1. To stuff; to furnish with a pad or padding.

2. (Calico Printing) To imbue uniformly with a mordant; as, to pad cloth. Ure.

Pad"ar (?), n. [Etymol. uncertain.] Groats; coarse flour or meal. [Obs.] Sir. H. Wotton.

Pad"der (?), n. 1. One who, or that which, pads.

2. A highwayman; a footpad. [Obs.]

Pad"ding, n. 1. The act or process of making a pad or of inserting stuffing.

2. The material with which anything is padded.

3. Material of inferior value, serving to extend a book, essay, etc. London Sat. Rev.

4. (Calico Printing) The uniform impregnation of cloth with a mordant.

Pad"dle (?), v. i. [Prob. for pattle, and a dim. of pat, v.; cf. also E. pad to tread, Prov. G. paddeln, padden, to walk with short steps, to paddle, G. patschen to splash, dash, dabble, F. patouiller to dabble, splash, fr. patte a paw. √21.] 1. To use the hands or fingers in toying; to make caressing strokes. [Obs.] Shak.

2. To dabble in water with hands or feet; to use a paddle, or something which serves as a paddle, in swimming, in paddling a boat, etc.

As the men were paddling for their lives.


While paddling ducks the standing lake desire.


Pad"dle, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Paddled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Paddling (?)] 1. To pat or stroke amorously, or gently.

To be paddling palms and pinching fingers.


2. To propel with, or as with, a paddle or paddles.

3. To pad; to tread upon; to trample. [Prov. Eng.]

Pad"dle, n. [See Paddle, v. i.] 1. An implement with a broad blade, which is used without a fixed fulcrum in propelling and steering canoes and boats.

2. The broad part of a paddle, with which the stroke is made; hence, any short, broad blade, resembling that of a paddle.

Thou shalt have a paddle upon thy weapon.

Deut. xxiii. 13.

3. One of the broad boards, or floats, at the circumference of a water wheel, or paddle wheel.

4. A small gate in sluices or lock gates to admit or let off water; -- also called clough.

5. (Zoöl.) A paddle-shaped foot, as of the sea turtle.

6. A paddle-shaped implement for stirring or mixing.

7. [In this sense prob. for older spaddle, a dim. of spade.] See Paddle staff (b), below. [Prov. Eng.]

Paddle beam (Shipbuilding), one of two large timbers supporting the spring beam and paddle box of a steam vessel. -- Paddle board. See Paddle, n., 3. -- Paddle box, the structure inclosing the upper part of the paddle wheel of a steam vessel. -- Paddle shaft, the revolving shaft which carries the paddle wheel of a steam vessel. -- Paddle staff. (a) A staff tipped with a broad blade, used by mole catchers. [Prov. Eng.] (b) A long-handled spade used to clean a plowshare; -- called also plow staff. [Prov. Eng.] -- Paddle steamer, a steam vessel propelled by paddle wheels, in distinction from a screw propeller. -- Paddle wheel, the propelling wheel of a steam vessel, having paddles (or floats) on its circumference, and revolving in a vertical plane parallel to the vessel's length.

Pad"dle*cock` (?), n. (Zoöl.) The lumpfish. [Prov. Eng.]

Pad"dle*fish` (?), n. (Zoöl) A large ganoid fish (Polyodon spathula) found in the rivers of the Mississippi Valley. It has a long spatula-shaped snout. Called also duck-billed cat, and spoonbill sturgeon.

Pad"dler (?), n. One who, or that which, paddles.

Pad"dle*wood` (?), n. (Bot.) The light elastic wood of the Aspidosperma excelsum, a tree of Guiana having a fluted trunk readily split into planks.

Pad"dock (?), n. [OE. padde toad, frog + -ock; akin to D. pad, padde, toad, Icel. & Sw. padda, Dan. padde.] (Zoöl.) A toad or frog. Wyclif. "Loathed paddocks." Spenser

Paddock pipe (Bot.), a hollow-stemmed plant of the genus Equisetum, especially E. limosum and the fruiting stems of E. arvense; -- called also padow pipe and toad pipe. See Equisetum. -- Paddock stone. See Toadstone. -- Paddock stool (Bot.),a toadstool.

Pad"dock, n. [Corrupted fr. parrock. See Parrock.]

1. A small inclosure or park for sporting. [Obs.]

2. A small inclosure for pasture; esp., one adjoining a stable. Evelyn. Cowper.

Pad"dy (?), a. [Prov. E. paddy worm-eaten.] Low; mean; boorish; vagabond. "Such pady persons." Digges (1585). "The paddy persons." Motley.

Pad"dy, n.; pl. Paddies (#). [Corrupted fr. St. Patrick, the tutelar saint of Ireland.] A jocose or contemptuous name for an Irishman.

Pad"dy, n. [Either fr. Canarese bhatta or Malay pd.] (Bot.) Unhusked rice; -- commonly so called in the East Indies.

Paddy bird. (Zoöl.) See Java sparrow, under Java.

Pad`e*li"on (?), n. [F. pas de lionon's foot.] (Bot.) A plant with pedately lobed leaves; the lady's mantle.

||Pa*del"la (?), n. [It., prop., a pan, a friing pan, fr. L. patella a pan.] A large cup or deep saucer, containing fatty matter in which a wick is placed, -- used for public illuminations, as at St. Peter's, in Rome. Called also padelle.

Pad`e*mel"on (?), n. (Zoöl.) See Wallaby.

Pad"e*soy` (?), n. See Paduasoy.

Padge, n. (Zoöl.) The barn owl; -- called also pudge, and pudge owl. [Prov. Eng.]

||Pa`di*shah" (?), n. [Per. pdishh. Cf. Pasha.] Chief ruler; monarch; sovereign; -- a title of the Sultan of Turkey, and of the Shah of Persia.

Pad"lock` (?), n. [Perh. orig., a lock for a pad gate, or a gate opening to a path, or perh., a lock for a basket or pannier, and from Prov. E. pad a pannier. Cf. Pad a path, Paddler.] 1. A portable lock with a bow which is usually jointed or pivoted at one end so that it can be opened, the other end being fastened by the bolt, -- used for fastening by passing the bow through a staple over a hasp or through the links of a chain, etc.

2. Fig.: A curb; a restraint.

Pad"lock`, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Padlocked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Padlocking.] To fasten with, or as with, a padlock; to stop; to shut; to confine as by a padlock. Milton. Tennyson.

Pad"nag` (?), n. [lst pad + nag.] An ambling nag. "An easy padnag." Macaulay.

Pad"ow (?), n. (Zoöl.) A paddock, or toad.

Padow pipe. (Bot.) See Paddock pipe, under Paddock.

||Pa*dro"ne (?), n.; pl. It. Padroni (#), E. Padrones. [It. See Patron.] 1. A patron; a protector.

2. The master of a small coaster in the Mediterranean.

3. A man who imports, and controls the earnings of, Italian laborers, street musicians, etc.

Pad`u*a*soy" (?), n. [From Padua, in Italy + F. soie silk; or cf. F. pou-de-soie.] A rich and heavy silk stuff. [Written also padesoy.]

Pa*du"cahs (p*d"kz), n. pl.; sing. Paducah (-k). (Ethnol.) See Comanches.

Pæ"an (p`an), n. [L. paean, Gr. paia`n, fr. Paia`n the physician of the gods, later, Apollo. Cf. Pæon, Peony.] [Written also pean.] 1. An ancient Greek hymn in honor of Apollo as a healing deity, and, later, a song addressed to other deities.

2. Any loud and joyous song; a song of triumph. Dryden. "Public pæans of congratulation." De Quincey.

3. See Pæon.

Pæ`do*bap"tism (p`d*bp"tz'm), n. Pedobaptism.

<! p. 1030 !>

Pæ`do*gen"esis (p`d*jn"*ss), n. [Gr. pai^s, paido`s, child + E. genesis.] (Zoöl.) Reproduction by young or larval animals.

Pæ`do*ge*net"ic (-j*nt"k), a. (Zoöl.) Producing young while in the immature or larval state; -- said of certain insects, etc.

Pæ"on (p"n), n. [L. paeon, Gr. paiw`n a solemn song, also, a pæon, equiv. to paia`n. See Pæan.] (Anc. Poet.) A foot of four syllables, one long and three short, admitting of four combinations, according to the place of the long syllable. [Written also, less correctly, pæan.]

Pæ"o*nine (p"*nn), n. (Chem.) An artifical red nitrogenous dyestuff, called also red coralline.

Pæ"o*ny (p"*n), n. (Bot.) See Peony.

Pa"gan (p"gan), n. [L. paganus a countryman, peasant, villager, a pagan, fr. paganus of or pertaining to the country, rustic, also, pagan, fr. pagus a district, canton, the country, perh. orig., a district with fixed boundaries: cf. pangere to fasten. Cf. Painim, Peasant, and Pact, also Heathen.] One who worships false gods; an idolater; a heathen; one who is neither a Christian, a Mohammedan, nor a Jew.

Neither having the accent of Christians, nor the gait of Christian, pagan, nor man.


Syn. -- Gentile; heathen; idolater. -- Pagan, Gentile, Heathen. Gentile was applied to the other nations of the earth as distinguished from the Jews. Pagan was the name given to idolaters in the early Christian church, because the villagers, being most remote from the centers of instruction, remained for a long time unconverted. Heathen has the same origin. Pagan is now more properly applied to rude and uncivilized idolaters, while heathen embraces all who practice idolatry.

Pa"gan, a. [L. paganus of or pertaining to the country, pagan. See Pagan, n.] Of or pertaining to pagans; relating to the worship or the worshipers of false goods; heathen; idolatrous, as, pagan tribes or superstitions.

And all the rites of pagan honor paid.


Pa"gan*dom (-dm), n. The pagan lands; pagans, collectively; paganism. [R.]

{ Pa*gan"ic (p*gn"k), Pa*gan"ic*al (-*kal), } a. Of or pertaining to pagans or paganism; heathenish; paganish. [R.] "The paganic fables of the goods." Cudworth. -- Pa*gan"ic*al*ly, adv. [R.]

Pa"gan*ish (p"gan*sh), a. Of or pertaining to pagans; heathenish. "The old paganish idolatry." Sharp

Pa"gan*ism (-z'm), n. [L. paganismus: cf. F. paganisme. See Pagan, and cf. Painim.] The state of being pagan; pagan characteristics; esp., the worship of idols or false gods, or the system of religious opinions and worship maintained by pagans; heathenism.

Pa*gan"i*ty (p*gn"*t), n. [L. Paganitas.] The state of being a pagan; paganism. [R.] Cudworth.

Pa"gan*ize (p"gan*z), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Paganized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Paganizing (?).] To render pagan or heathenish; to convert to paganism. Hallywell.

Pa"gan*ize, v. i. To behave like pagans. Milton.

Pa"gan*ly, adv. In a pagan manner. Dr. H. More.

Page (pj), n. [F., fr. It. paggio, LL. pagius, fr. Gr. paidi`on, dim. of pai^s, paido`s, a boy, servant; perh. akin to L. puer. Cf. Pedagogue, Puerile.] 1. A serving boy; formerly, a youth attending a person of high degree, especially at courts, as a position of honor and education; now commonly, in England, a youth employed for doing errands, waiting on the door, and similar service in households; in the United States, a boy employed to wait upon the members of a legislative body.

He had two pages of honor -- on either hand one.


2. A boy child. [Obs.] Chaucer.

3. A contrivance, as a band, pin, snap, or the like, to hold the skirt of a woman's dress from the ground.

4. (Brickmaking.) A track along which pallets carrying newly molded bricks are conveyed to the hack.

5. (Zoöl.) Any one of several species of beautiful South American moths of the genus Urania.

Page, v. t. To attend (one) as a page. [Obs.] Shak.

Page, n. [F., fr. L. pagina; prob. akin to pagere, pangere, to fasten, fix, make, the pages or leaves being fastened together. Cf. Pact, Pageant, Pagination.]

1. One side of a leaf of a book or manuscript.

Such was the book from whose pages she sang.


2. Fig.: A record; a writing; as, the page of history.

3. (Print.) The type set up for printing a page.

Page, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Paged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Paging (?).] To mark or number the pages of, as a book or manuscript; to furnish with folios.

Pag"eant (pj"ent or p"jent; 277), n. [OE. pagent, pagen, originally, a movable scaffold or stage, hence, what was exhibited on it, fr. LL. pagina, akin to pangere to fasten; cf. L. pagina page, leaf, slab, compaginare to join together, compages a joining together, structure. See Pact, Page of a book.]

1. A theatrical exhibition; a spectacle. "A pageant truly played." Shak.

To see sad pageants of men's miseries.


2. An elaborate exhibition devised for the entertainmeut of a distinguished personage, or of the public; a show, spectacle, or display.

The gaze of fools, and pageant of a day !


We love the man, the paltry pageant you.


Pag"eant, a. Of the nature of a pageant; spectacular. "Pageant pomp." Dryden.

Pag"eant, v. t. To exhibit in show; to represent; to mimic. [R.] "He pageants us." Shak.

Pag"eant*ry (-r), n. Scenic shows or spectacles, taken collectively; spectacular quality; splendor.

Such pageantry be to the people shown.


The pageantry of festival.

J. A. Symonds.

Syn. -- Pomp; parade; show; display; spectacle.

Page"hood (?), n. The state of being a page.

||Pag"i*na (?), n.; pl. Paginæ (#). [L.] (Bot.) The surface of a leaf or of a flattened thallus.

Pag"i*nal (?), a. [L. paginalis.] Consisting of pages. "Paginal books." Sir T. Browne.

Pag`i*na"tion (?), n. The act or process of paging a book; also, the characters used in numbering the pages; page number. Lowndes.

Pa"ging (?), n. The marking or numbering of the pages of a book.

Pa"god (?), n. [Cf. F. pagode. See Pagoda.] 1. A pagoda. [R.] "Or some queer pagod." Pope.

2. An idol. [Obs.] Bp. Stillingfleet.

Pa*go"da (?), n. [Pg. pagoda, pagode, fr.Hind. & Per. but-kadah a house of idols, or abode of God; Per. but an idol + kadah a house, a temple.] 1. A term by which Europeans designate religious temples and tower-like buildings of the Hindoos and Buddhists of India, Farther India, China, and Japan, -- usually but not always, devoted to idol worship.

2. An idol. [R.] Brande & C.

3. [Prob. so named from the image of a pagoda or a deity (cf. Skr. bhagavat holy, divine) stamped on it.] A gold or silver coin, of various kinds and values, formerly current in India. The Madras gold pagoda was worth about three and a half rupees.

Pa*go"dite (?), n. (Min.) Agalmatolite; -- so called because sometimes carved by the Chinese into the form of pagodas. See Agalmatolite.

||Pa*gu"ma (?), n. (Zoöl.) Any one of several species of East Indian viverrine mammals of the genus Paguma. They resemble a weasel in form.

Pa*gu"ri*an (?), n. [L. pagurus a kind of crab, Gr. &?;.] (Zoöl.) Any one of a tribe of anomuran crustaceans, of which Pagurus is a type; the hermit crab. See Hermit crab, under Hermit.

Pah (?), interj. An exclamation expressing disgust or contempt. See Bah.

Fie! fie! fie! pah! pah! Give me an ounce of civet, good apothecary, to sweeten my imagination.


||Pah (?), n. [From native name.] A kind of stockaded intrenchment. [New Zealand.] Farrow.

Pa"hi (?), n. (Naut.) A large war canoe of the Society Islands.

Pah"le*vi (?), n. Same as Pehlevi.

||Pa*ho"e*ho`e (?), n. (Min.) A name given in the Sandwich Islands to lava having a relatively smooth surface, in distinction from the rough-surfaced lava, called a-a.

Pah"*Utes` (?), n. pl. (Ethnol.) See Utes.

Paid (?), imp., p. p., & a. of Pay. 1. Receiving pay; compensated; hired; as, a paid attorney.

2. Satisfied; contented. [Obs.] "Paid of his poverty." Chaucer.

Pai*deu"tics (?), n. [Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to teach, fr. &?;,&?;, a boy.] The science or art of teaching.

Pai"en (?), n. & a. Pagan. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Pai"gle (?), n. [Etymol. uncertain.] (Bot.) A species of Primula, either the cowslip or the primrose. [Written also pagle, pagil, peagle, and pygil.]

||Pai*ja"ma (?), n. Pyjama.

Pail (?), n. [OE. paile, AS. pægel a wine vessel, a pail, akin to D. & G. pegel a watermark, a gauge rod, a measure of wine, Dan. pægel half a pint.] A vessel of wood or tin, etc., usually cylindrical and having a bail, -- used esp. for carrying liquids, as water or milk, etc.; a bucket. It may, or may not, have a cover. Shak.

Pail"ful (?), n.; pl. Pailfuls (&?;). The quantity that a pail will hold. "By pailfuls." Shak.

Pail*lasse" (?; F. &?;), n. [F., fr. paille straw. See Pallet a bed.] An under bed or mattress of straw. [Written also palliasse.]

Pail`mall" (?), n. & a. See Pall-mall. [Obs.]

Pain (?), n. [OE. peine, F. peine, fr. L. poena, penalty, punishment, torment, pain; akin to Gr. &?; penalty. Cf. Penal, Pine to languish, Punish.] 1. Punishment suffered or denounced; suffering or evil inflicted as a punishment for crime, or connected with the commission of a crime; penalty. Chaucer.

We will, by way of mulct or pain, lay it upon him.


Interpose, on pain of my displeasure.


None shall presume to fly, under pain of death.


2. Any uneasy sensation in animal bodies, from slight uneasiness to extreme distress or torture, proceeding from a derangement of functions, disease, or injury by violence; bodily distress; bodily suffering; an ache; a smart. "The pain of Jesus Christ." Chaucer.

Pain may occur in any part of the body where sensory nerves are distributed, and it is always due to some kind of stimulation of them. The sensation is generally referred to the peripheral end of the nerve.

3. pl. Specifically, the throes or travail of childbirth.

She bowed herself and travailed, for her pains came upon her.

1 Sam. iv. 19.

4. Uneasiness of mind; mental distress; disquietude; anxiety; grief; solicitude; anguish. Chaucer.

In rapture as in pain.


5. See Pains, labor, effort.

Bill of pains and penalties. See under Bill. -- To die in the pain, to be tortured to death. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Pain, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Pained (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Paining.] [OE. peinen, OF. pener, F. peiner to fatigue. See Pain, n.] 1. To inflict suffering upon as a penalty; to punish. [Obs.] Wyclif (Acts xxii. 5).

2. To put to bodily uneasiness or anguish; to afflict with uneasy sensations of any degree of intensity; to torment; to torture; as, his dinner or his wound pained him; his stomach pained him.

Excess of cold, as well as heat, pains us.


3. To render uneasy in mind; to disquiet; to distress; to grieve; as a child's faults pain his parents.

I am pained at my very heart.

Jer. iv. 19.

To pain one's self, to exert or trouble one's self; to take pains; to be solicitous. [Obs.] "She pained her to do all that she might." Chaucer.

Syn. -- To disquiet; trouble; afflict; grieve; aggrieve; distress; agonize; torment; torture.

Pain"a*ble (?), a. [Cf. F. pénible.] Causing pain; painful. [Obs.]

The manacles of Astyages were not . . . the less weighty and painable for being composed of gold or silver.


Pain"ful (?), a. 1. Full of pain; causing uneasiness or distress, either physical or mental; afflictive; disquieting; distressing. Addison.

2. Requiring labor or toil; difficult; executed with laborious effort; as a painful service; a painful march.

3. Painstaking; careful; industrious. [Obs.] Fuller.

A very painful person, and a great clerk.

Jer. Taylor.

Nor must the painful husbandman be tired.


Syn. -- Disquieting; troublesome; afflictive; distressing; grievous; laborious; toilsome; difficult; arduous.

-- Pain"ful*ly, adv. -- Pain"ful*ness, n.

Pai"nim (?), n.[OE. painime pagans, paganism, fr. OF. paienisme paganism, LL. paganismus. See Paganism, Pagan.] A pagan; an infidel; -- used also adjectively. [Written also panim and paynim.] Peacham.

Pain"less (?), a. Free from pain; without pain. -- Pain"less*ly, adv. - - Pain"less*ness, n.

Pains (?), n.Labor; toilsome effort; care or trouble taken; -- plural in form, but used with a singular or plural verb, commonly the former.

And all my pains is sorted to no proof.


The pains they had taken was very great.


The labored earth your pains have sowed and tilled.


Pains"tak`er (?), n. One who takes pains; one careful and faithful in all work. Gay.

Pains"tak`ing, a. Careful in doing; diligent; faithful; attentive. "Painstaking men." Harris.

Pains"tak`ing, n. The act of taking pains; carefulness and fidelity in performance. Beau. & Fl.

Pains"wor`thy (?), a. Worth the pains or care bestowed.

Paint (pnt), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Painted; p. pr. & vb. n. Painting.] [OE. peinten, fr. F. peint, p. p. of peindre to paint, fr. L. pingere, pictum; cf. Gr. poiki`los many-colored, Skr. piç to adorn. Cf. Depict, Picture, Pigment, Pint.] 1. To cover with coloring matter; to apply paint to; as, to paint a house, a signboard, etc.

Jezebel painted her face and tired her head.

2 Kings ix. 30.

2. Fig.: To color, stain, or tinge; to adorn or beautify with colors; to diversify with colors.

Not painted with the crimson spots of blood.


Cuckoo buds of yellow hue
Do paint the meadows with delight.


3. To form in colors a figure or likeness of on a flat surface, as upon canvas; to represent by means of colors or hues; to exhibit in a tinted image; to portray with paints; as, to paint a portrait or a landscape.

4. Fig.: To represent or exhibit to the mind; to describe vividly; to delineate; to image; to depict.

The word is too good to paint out her wickedness.


If folly grow romantic, I must paint it.


Syn. -- To color; picture; depict; portray; delineate; sketch; draw; describe.

Paint, v. t. 1. To practice the art of painting; as, the artist paints well.

2. To color one's face by way of beautifying it.

Let her paint an inch thick.


Paint, n. 1. (a) A pigment or coloring substance. (b) The same prepared with a vehicle, as oil, water with gum, or the like, for application to a surface.

2. A cosmetic; rouge. Praed.

Paint"ed, a. 1. Covered or adorned with paint; portrayed in colors.

As idle as a painted ship
Upon a painted ocean.


2. (Nat. Hist.) Marked with bright colors; as, the painted turtle; painted bunting.

Painted beauty (Zoöl.), a handsome American butterfly (Vanessa Huntera), having a variety of bright colors, -- Painted cup (Bot.), any plant of an American genus of herbs (Castilleia) in which the bracts are usually bright-colored and more showy than the flowers. Castilleia coccinea has brilliantly scarlet bracts, and is common in meadows. -- Painted finch. See Nonpareil. -- Painted lady (Zoöl.), a bright-colored butterfly. See Thistle butterfly. -- Painted turtle (Zoöl.), a common American freshwater tortoise (Chrysemys picta), having bright red and yellow markings beneath.

Paint"er (pnt"r), n. [OE, pantere a noose, snare, F. pantière, LL. panthera, L. panther a hunting net, fr. Gr. panqh`ra; pa^s all + qh`r beast; cf. Ir. painteir a net, gin, snare, Gael. painntear.] (Naut.) A rope at the bow of a boat, used to fasten it to anything. Totten.

Paint"er, n. [Corrupt. of panther.] (Zoöl.) The panther, or puma. [A form representing an illiterate pronunciation, U. S.] J. F. Cooper.

Paint"er, n. [See lst Paint.] One whose occupation is to paint; esp.: (a) One who covers buildings, ships, ironwork, and the like, with paint. (b) An artist who represents objects or scenes in color on a flat surface, as canvas, plaster, or the like.

Painter's colic. (Med.) See Lead colic, under Colic. -- Painter stainer. (a) A painter of coats of arms. Crabb. (b) A member of a livery company or guild in London, bearing this name.

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Paint"er*ly (?), a. Like a painter's work. [Obs.] "A painterly glose of a visage." Sir P. Sidney.

Paint"er*ship, n. The state or position of being a painter. [R.] Br. Gardiner.

Paint"ing, n. 1. The act or employment of laying on, or adorning with, paints or colors.

2. (Fine Arts) The work of the painter; also, any work of art in which objects are represented in color on a flat surface; a colored representation of any object or scene; a picture.

3. Color laid on; paint. [R.] Shak.

4. A depicting by words; vivid representation in words.

Syn. -- See Picture.

Paint"less, a. Not capable of being painted or described. "In paintless patience." Savage.

Pain"ture (?), n. [F. peinture. See Paint, v. t., and cf. Picture.] The art of painting. [Obs.] Chaucer. Dryden.

Paint"y (?), a. Unskillfully painted, so that the painter's method of work is too obvious; also, having too much pigment applied to the surface. [Cant]

Pair (?), n. [F. paire, LL. paria, L. paria, pl. of par pair, fr. par, adj., equal. Cf. Apparel, Par equality, Peer an equal.]

1. A number of things resembling one another, or belonging together; a set; as, a pair or flight of stairs. "A pair of beads." Chaucer. Beau. & Fl. "Four pair of stairs." Macaulay. [Now mostly or quite disused, except as to stairs.]

Two crowns in my pocket, two pair of cards.

Beau. & Fl.

2. Two things of a kind, similar in form, suited to each other, and intended to be used together; as, a pair of gloves or stockings; a pair of shoes.

3. Two of a sort; a span; a yoke; a couple; a brace; as, a pair of horses; a pair of oxen.

4. A married couple; a man and wife. "A happy pair." Dryden. "The hapless pair." Milton.

5. A single thing, composed of two pieces fitted to each other and used together; as, a pair of scissors; a pair of tongs; a pair of bellows.

6. Two members of opposite parties or opinion, as in a parliamentary body, who mutually agree not to vote on a given question, or on issues of a party nature during a specified time; as, there were two pairs on the final vote. [Parliamentary Cant]

7. (Kinematics) In a mechanism, two elements, or bodies, which are so applied to each other as to mutually constrain relative motion.

Pairs are named in accordance with the kind of motion they permit; thus, a journal and its bearing form a turning pair, a cylinder and its piston a sliding pair, a screw and its nut a twisting pair, etc. Any pair in which the constraining contact is along lines or at points only (as a cam and roller acting together), is designated a higher pair; any pair having constraining surfaces which fit each other (as a cylindrical pin and eye, a screw and its nut, etc.), is called a lower pair.

Pair royal (pl. Pairs Royal) three things of a sort; -- used especially of playing cards in some games, as cribbage; as three kings, three "eight spots" etc. Four of a kind are called a double pair royal. "Something in his face gave me as much pleasure as a pair royal of naturals in my own hand." Goldsmith. "That great pair royal of adamantine sisters [the Fates]." Quarles. [Written corruptly parial and prial.]

Syn. -- Pair, Flight, Set. Originally, pair was not confined to two things, but was applied to any number of equal things (pares), that go together. Ben Jonson speaks of a pair (set) of chessmen; also, he and Lord Bacon speak of a pair (pack) of cards. A "pair of stairs" is still in popular use, as well as the later expression, "flight of stairs."

Pair, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Paired (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Pairing.] 1. To be joined in paris; to couple; to mate, as for breeding.

2. To suit; to fit, as a counterpart.

My heart was made to fit and pair with thine.


3. Same as To pair off. See phrase below.

To pair off, to separate from a company in pairs or couples; specif. (Parliamentary Cant), to agree with one of the opposite party or opinion to abstain from voting on specified questions or issues. See Pair, n., 6.

Pair, v. t. 1. To unite in couples; to form a pair of; to bring together, as things which belong together, or which complement, or are adapted to one another.

Glossy jet is paired with shining white.


2. To engage (one's self) with another of opposite opinions not to vote on a particular question or class of questions. [Parliamentary Cant]

Paired fins. (Zoöl.) See under Fin.

Pair, v. t. [See Impair.] To impair. [Obs.] Spenser.

Pair"er (?), n. One who impairs. [Obs.] Wyclif.

Pair"ing, n. [See Pair, v. i.] 1. The act or process of uniting or arranging in pairs or couples.

2. See To pair off, under Pair, v. i.

Pairyng time, the time when birds or other animals pair.

Pair"ment (?), n. Impairment. [Obs.] Wyclif.

||Pa`is (?), n. [OF. puïs, F. pays, country.] (O. E. Law) The country; the people of the neighborhood.

A trial per pais is a trial by the country, that is, by a jury; and matter in pais is matter triable by the country, or jury.

||Pa`i*sa"no (?), n. [Sp., of the country, &?;ative.] (Zoöl.) The chaparral cock.

Paise (?), n. [Obs.] See Poise. Chapman.

Pa"jock (?), n. A peacock. [Obs.] Shak.

Pak"fong` (?), n. See Packfong.

Pal (?), n. [Etymol. uncertain.] A mate; a partner; esp., an accomplice or confederate. [Slang]

Pal"ace (?), n. [OE. palais, F. palais, fr. L. palatium, fr. Palatium, one of the seven hills of Rome, &?; which Augustus had his residence. Cf. Paladin.]

1. The residence of a sovereign, including the lodgings of high officers of state, and rooms for business, as well as halls for ceremony and reception. Chaucer.

2. The official residence of a bishop or other distinguished personage.

3. Loosely, any unusually magnificent or stately house.

Palace car. See under Car. -- Palace court, a court having jurisdiction of personal actions arising within twelve miles of the palace at Whitehall. The court was abolished in 1849. [Eng.] Mozley & W.

Pa*la"cious (?), a. Palatial. [Obs.] Graunt.

Pal"a*din (?), n. [F., fr.It. paladino, fr. L. palatinus an officer of the palace. See Palatine.] A knight-errant; a distinguished champion; as, the paladins of Charlemagne. Sir W. Scott.

Pa"læ*o- (?). See Paleo-.

Pa`læ*og"ra*pher (?), n., Pa`læ*o*graph"ic (&?;), a., etc. See Paleographer, Paleographic, etc.

Pa"læ*o*type (?), n. [Palæo- + -type.] (Phon.) A system of representing all spoken sounds by means of the printing types in common use. Ellis. -- Pa`læ*o*typ"ic*al (#), a. -- Pa`læ*o*typ"ic*al*ly, adv.

||Pa*læs"tra (?), n. See Palestra.

Pa*læs"tric (?), a. See Palestric.

Pa*læ`ti*ol"o*gist (?), n. One versed in palætiology.

Pa*læ`ti*ol"o*gy (?), n. [Palæo- + ætiology.] The science which explains, by the law of causation, the past condition and changes of the earth. -- Pa*læ`ti*o*log"ic*al (#), a.

||Pal"a*ma (?), n.; pl. Palamme (#). [NL., fr. Gr. &?; the palm.] (Zoöl.) A membrane extending between the toes of a bird, and uniting them more or less closely together.

||Pal`a*me"de*æ (?), n. pl. [NL.] (Zoöl.) An order, or suborder, including the kamichi, and allied South American birds; -- called also screamers. In many anatomical characters they are allied to the Anseres, but they externally resemble the wading birds.

Pal`am*pore" (?), n. See Palempore.

||Pa*lan"ka (?), n. [Cf. It., Pg., & Sp. palanca, fr.L. palanga, phalanga a pole, Gr.&?; ] (Mil.) A camp permanently intrenched, attached to Turkish frontier fortresses.

Pal`an*quin" (?), n. [F. palanquin, Pg. palanquim, Javan. palangki, OJavan. palangkan, through Prakrit fr. Skr. parya&?;ka, palya&?;ka, bed, couch; pari around (akin to E. pref. peri-) + a&?;ka a hook, flank, probably akin to E. angle fishing tackle. Cf. Palkee.] An inclosed carriage or litter, commonly about eight feet long, four feet wide, and four feet high, borne on the shoulders of men by means of two projecting poles, -- used in India, China, etc., for the conveyance of a single person from place to place. [Written also palankeen.]

Pa*lap"te*ryx (?), n. [Paleo- + apteryx.] (Paleon.) A large extinct ostrichlike bird of New Zealand.

Pal`a*ta*bil"i*ty (?), n. Palatableness.

Pal"a*ta*ble (?), a. [From Palate.] Agreeable to the palate or taste; savory; hence, acceptable; pleasing; as, palatable food; palatable advice.

Pal"a*ta*ble*ness, n. The quality or state of being agreeable to the taste; relish; acceptableness.

Pal"a*ta*bly, adv. In a palatable manner.

Pal"a*tal (?), a. [Cf. F. palatal.] 1. Of or pertaining to the palate; palatine; as, the palatal bones.

2. (Phonetics) Uttered by the aid of the palate; -- said of certain sounds, as the sound of k in kirk.

Pal"a*tal, n. (Phon.) A sound uttered, or a letter pronounced, by the aid of the palate, as the letters k and y.

Pal"a*tal*ize (?), v. t. (Phon.) To palatize.

Pal"ate (?), n. [L. palatum: cf. F. palais, Of. also palat.] 1. (Anat.) The roof of the mouth.

The fixed portion, or palate proper, supported by the maxillary and palatine bones, is called the hard palate to distinguish it from the membranous and muscular curtain which separates the cavity of the mouth from the pharynx and is called the soft palate, or velum.

2. Relish; taste; liking; -- a sense originating in the mistaken notion that the palate is the organ of taste.

Hard task! to hit the palate of such guests.


3. Fig.: Mental relish; intellectual taste. T. Baker.

4. (Bot.) A projection in the throat of such flowers as the snapdragon.

Pal"ate, v. t. To perceive by the taste. [Obs.] Shak.

Pa*la"tial (?), a. [L. palatium palace. See Palace.] Of or pertaining to a palace; suitable for a palace; resembling a palace; royal; magnificent; as, palatial structures. "Palatial style." A. Drummond.

Pa*la"tial, a. [From Palate.] (Anat.) Palatal; palatine. [Obs.] Barrow.

Pa*la"tial, n. A palatal letter. [Obs.] Sir W. Jones.

Pa*lat"ic (?), a. (Anat.) Palatal; palatine.

Pa*lat"ic, n. (Phon.) A palatal. [R.]

Pa*lat"i*nate (?), n. [F. palatinat. See Palatine.] The province or seigniory of a palatine; the dignity of a palatine. Howell.

Pa*lat"i*nate (?), v. t. To make a palatinate of. [Obs.] Fuller.

Pal"a*tine (?), a. [F. palatin, L. palatinus, fr. palatium. See Palace, and cf. Paladin.] Of or pertaining to a palace, or to a high officer of a palace; hence, possessing royal privileges.

Count palatine, County palatine. See under Count, and County. -- Palatine hill, or The palatine, one of the seven hills of Rome, once occupied by the palace of the Cæsars. See Palace.

Pal"a*tine (?), n. 1. One invested with royal privileges and rights within his domains; a count palatine. See Count palatine, under 4th Count.

2. The Palatine hill in Rome.

Pal"a*tine, a. [From Palate.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the palate.

Palatine bones (Anat.), a pair of bones (often united in the adult) in the root of the mouth, back of and between the maxillaries.

Pal"a*tine n. (Anat.) A palatine bone.

Pal"a*tive (?), a. Pleasing to the taste; palatable. [Obs.] "Palative delights." Sir T. Browne.

Pal"a*tize (?), v. t. To modify, as the tones of the voice, by means of the palate; as, to palatize a letter or sound. -- Pal`a*ti*za"tion (#), n. J. Peile.

Pal"a*to- (?). [From Palate.] A combining form used in anatomy to indicate relation to, or connection with, the palate; as in palatolingual.

||Pal`a*to*na"res (?), n. pl. [NL. See Palato-, and Nares.] (Anat.) The posterior nares. See Nares.

Pal`a*top*ter"y*goid (?), a. [Palato- + pterygoid.] (Anat.) Pertaining to the palatine and pterygoid region of the skull; as, the palatopterygoid cartilage, or rod, from which the palatine and pterygoid bones are developed.

Pa*la"ver (?), n. [Sp. palabra, or Pg. palavra, fr. L. parabola a comparison, a parable, LL., a word. See Parable.]

1. Talk; conversation; esp., idle or beguiling talk; talk intended to deceive; flattery.

2. In Africa, a parley with the natives; a talk; hence, a public conference and deliberation; a debate.

This epoch of parliaments and eloquent palavers.


Pa*la"ver, v. t. & i. [imp. & p. p. Palavered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Palavering.] To make palaver with, or to; to used palaver;to talk idly or deceitfully; to employ flattery; to cajole; as, to palaver artfully.

Palavering the little language for her benefit.

C. Bront&?;

Pa*la"ver*er (?), n. One who palavers; a flatterer.

Pale (?), a. [Compar. Paler (?); superl. Palest.] [F. pâle, fr. pâlir to turn pale, L. pallere to be o&?; look pale. Cf. Appall, Fallow, pall, v. i., Pallid.]

1. Wanting in color; not ruddy; dusky white; pallid; wan; as, a pale face; a pale red; a pale blue. "Pale as a forpined ghost." Chaucer.

Speechless he stood and pale.


They are not of complexion red or pale.

T. Randolph.

2. Not bright or brilliant; of a faint luster or hue; dim; as, the pale light of the moon.

The night, methinks, is but the daylight sick;
It looks a little paler.


Pale is often used in the formation of self- explaining compounds; as, pale-colored, pale-eyed, pale-faced, pale-looking, etc.

Pale, n. Paleness; pallor. [R.] Shak.

Pale, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Paled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Paling.] To turn pale; to lose color or luster. Whittier.

Apt to pale at a trodden worm.

Mrs. Browning.

Pale, v. t. To make pale; to diminish the brightness of.

The glow&?;worm shows the matin to be near,
And gins to pale his uneffectual fire.


Pale, n. [F. pal, fr. L. palus: cf. D. paal. See Pol&?; a stake, and lst Pallet.] 1. A pointed stake or slat, either driven into the ground, or fastened to a rail at the top and bottom, for fencing or inclosing; a picket.

Deer creep through when a pale tumbles down.


2. That which incloses or fences in; a boundary; a limit; a fence; a palisade. "Within one pale or hedge." Robynson (More's Utopia).

3. A space or field having bounds or limits; a limited region or place; an inclosure; -- often used figuratively. "To walk the studious cloister's pale." Milton. "Out of the pale of civilization." Macaulay.

4. A stripe or band, as on a garment. Chaucer.

5. (Her.) One of the greater ordinaries, being a broad perpendicular stripe in an escutcheon, equally distant from the two edges, and occupying one third of it.

6. A cheese scoop. Simmonds.

7. (Shipbuilding) A shore for bracing a timber before it is fastened.

English pale (Hist.), the limits or territory within which alone the English conquerors of Ireland held dominion for a long period after their invasion of the country in 1172. Spencer.

Pale, v. t. To inclose with pales, or as with pales; to encircle; to encompass; to fence off.

[Your isle, which stands] ribbed and paled in
With rocks unscalable and roaring waters.


||Pa"le*a (?), n.; pl. Paleæ (-). [L., chaff.]

1. (Bot.) (a) The interior chaff or husk of grasses. (b) One of the chaffy scales or bractlets growing on the receptacle of many compound flowers, as the Coreopsis, the sunflower, etc.

2. (Zoöl.) A pendulous process of the skin on the throat of a bird, as in the turkey; a dewlap.

Pa`le*a"ceous (?), a. [L. palea chaff.] (Bot.) Chaffy; resembling or consisting of paleæ, or chaff; furnished with chaff; as, a paleaceous receptacle.

Pa`le*arc"tic (?), a. [Paleo- + arctic.] Belonging to a region of the earth's surface which includes all Europe to the Azores, Iceland, and all temperate Asia.

Paled (?), a. [See 5th Pale.] 1. Striped. [Obs.] "[Buskins] . . . paled part per part." Spenser.

2. Inclosed with a paling. "A paled green." Spenser.

||Pa`le*ëch`i*noi"de*a (?), n. pl. [NL. See Paleo-, and Echinoidea.] (Zoöl.) An extinct order of sea urchins found in the Paleozoic rocks. They had more than twenty vertical rows of plates. Called also Palæechini. [Written also Palæechinoidea.]

<! p. 1032 !>

Pale"face` (?), n. A white person; -- an appellation supposed to have been applied to the whites by the American Indians. J. F. Cooper.

||Pa`le*ich"thy*es (?), n. pl. [NL. See Paleo-, and Ichthyology.] (Zoöl.) A comprehensive division of fishes which includes the elasmobranchs and ganoids. [Written also Palæichthyes.]

Pale"ly (?), adv. [From Pale, a.] In a pale manner; dimly; wanly; not freshly or ruddily. Thackeray.

Pal`em*pore" (?), n. A superior kind of dimity made in India, -- used for bed coverings. [Written also palampore, palampoor, etc.] De Colange.

Pale"ness (?), n. The quality or condition of being pale; want of freshness or ruddiness; a sickly whiteness; lack of color or luster; wanness.

The blood the virgin's cheek forsook;
A livid paleness spreads o'er all her look.


Pa*len"que (?), n. pl. (Ethnol.) A collective name for the Indians of Nicaragua and Honduras.

Pa"le*o- (?). [Gr. &?;, adj.] A combining form meaning old, ancient; as, palearctic, paleontology, paleothere, paleography. [Written also palæo-.]

Pa`le*o*bot"a*nist (?), n. One versed in paleobotany.

Pa`le*o*bot"a*ny (?), n. [Paleo- + botany.] That branch of paleontology which treats of fossil plants.

||Pa`le*o*car"ida (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; ancient + &?;, &?;, &?;, a kind of crustacean.] (Zoöl.) Same as Merostomata. [Written also Palæocarida.]

||Pa`le*o*cri*noi"de*a (?), n. pl. [NL. See Paleo-, and Crinoidea.] (Zoöl.) A suborder of Crinoidea found chiefly in the Paleozoic rocks.

Pa`le*o*crys"tic (?), a. [Paleo- + Gr. &?; ice.] Of, pertaining to, or derived from, a former glacial formation.

Pa`le*o*gæ"an (?), a. [Paleo- + Gr. &?; the eart] (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the Eastern hemisphere. [Written also palæogæan.]

Pa"le*o*graph (?), n. An ancient manuscript.

Pa`le*og"ra*pher (?), n. One skilled in paleography; a paleographist.

{ Pa`le*o*graph"ic (?), Pa`le*o*graph"ic*al (?), } a. [Cf. F. paléographique.] Of or pertaining to paleography.

Pa`le*og"ra*phist (?), n. One versed in paleography; a paleographer.

Pa`le*og"ra*phy, n. [Paleo- + -graphy: cf. F. paléographie.] 1. An ancient manner of writing; ancient writings, collectively; as, Punic paleography.

2. The study of ancient inscriptions and modes of writing; the art or science of deciphering ancient writings, and determining their origin, period, etc., from external characters; diplomatics.

||Pa*le"o*la (?), n.; pl. Paleolæ (#). [NL., dim. of L. palea.] (Bot.) A diminutive or secondary palea; a lodicule.

Pa"le*o*lith (?), n. [Paleo- + -lith.] (Geol.) A relic of the Paleolithic era.

Pa`le*o*lith"ic (?), a. (Geol.) Of or pertaining to an era marked by early stone implements. The Paleolithic era (as proposed by Lubbock) includes the earlier half of the "Stone Age;" the remains belonging to it are for the most part of extinct animals, with relics of human beings.

Pa`le*ol"ogist (?), n. One versed in paleology; a student of antiquity.

Pa`le*ol"o*gy (?), n. [Paleo- + -logy.] The study or knowledge of antiquities, esp. of prehistoric antiquities; a discourse or treatise on antiquities; archæology .

Pa`le*on`to*graph"ic*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to the description of fossil remains.

Pa`le*on*tog"ra*phy (?), n. [Paleo- + Gr. &?; existing things + -graphy.] The description of fossil remains.

Pa`le*on`to*log"ic*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to paleontology. -- Pa`le*on`to*log"ic*al*ly, adv.

Pa`le*on*tol"o*gist (?), n. [Cf. F. paléontologiste.] One versed in paleontology.

Pa`le*on*tol"o*gy (?), n. [Paleo- + Gr. &?; existing things + -logy. Cf. Ontology.] The science which treats of the ancient life of the earth, or of fossils which are the remains of such life.

Pa`le*o*phy*tol"o*gist (?), n. A paleobotanist.

Pa`le*o*phy*tol"o*gy (?), n. [Paleo- + phytology.] Paleobotany.

Pa`le*or`ni*thol"o*gy (?), n. [Paleo- + ornithology.] The branch of paleontology which treats of fossil birds.

Pa`le*o*sau"rus (?), n.[NL., fr. Gr. &?; ancient + &?; a lizard.] (Paleon.) A genus of fossil saurians found in the Permian formation.

Pa`le*o*tech"nic (?), a. [Paleo- + technic.] Belonging to, or connected with, ancient art. "The paleotechnic men of central France." D. Wilson.

Pa"le*o*there (?), n. [F. paléothère.] (Paleon.) Any species of Paleotherium.

Pa`le*o*the"ri*an (?), a. [F. paléothérien.] (Paleon.) Of or pertaining to Paleotherium.

||Pa`le*o*the"ri*um (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; ancient + &?; beast.] (Paleon.) An extinct genus of herbivorous Tertiary mammals, once supposed to have resembled the tapir in form, but now known to have had a more slender form, with a long neck like that of a llama. [Written also Palæotherium.]

Pa`le*o*the"roid (?), [Paleothere + -oid.] (Paleon.) Resembling Paleotherium. -- n. An animal resembling, or allied to, the paleothere.

Pa"le*o*type (?), n. See Palæotype.

Pa"le*ous (?), a. [L. palea chaff.] Chaffy; like chaff; paleaceous. [R.] Sir T. Browne.

Pa`le*o*zo"ic (?), a. [Paleo- + Gr. &?; life, fr. &?; to live.] (Geol.) Of or pertaining to, or designating, the older division of geological time during which life is known to have existed, including the Silurian, Devonian, and Carboniferous ages, and also to the life or rocks of those ages. See Chart of Geology.

Pa`le*o*zo*öl"o*gy (?), n. (Geol.) The Paleozoic time or strata.

Pa`le*o*zo*ö"o*gy (?), n. [Paleo- + zoölogy.] The science of extinct animals, a branch of paleontology.

{ Pale"sie (?), Pale"sy }, n. Palsy. [Obs.] Wyclif.

{ Pal`es*tin"i*an (?), Pal`es*tin"e*an (?), } a. Of or pertaining to Palestine.

Pa*les"tra (?), n.; pl. L. Palestræ (#), E. Palestras (#). [NL., fr. L. palaestra, Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to wrestle.] [Written also palæstra.] (Antiq.) (a) A wrestling school; hence, a gymnasium, or place for athletic exercise in general. (b) A wrestling; the exercise of wrestling.

{ Pa*les"tri*an (?), Pa*les"tric (?), Pa*les"tric*al (?), } a. [L. palaestricus, Gr. &?;] Of or pertaining to the palestra, or to wrestling.

Pal"et (?), n. [See Palea.] (Bot.) Same as Palea.

||Pal"e*tot (?), n. [F. paletot, OF. palletoc, prob. fr. L. palla (see Palla) + F. toque cap, and so lit., a frock with a cap or hood; cf. Sp. paletoque.] (a) An overcoat. Dickens. (b) A lady's outer garment, -- of varying fashion.

Pal"ette (?), n. [See Pallet a thin board.]

1. (Paint.) A thin, oval or square board, or tablet, with a thumb hole at one end for holding it, on which a painter lays and mixes his pigments. [Written also pallet.]

2. (Anc. Armor) One of the plates covering the points of junction at the bend of the shoulders and elbows. Fairholt.

3. (Mech.) A breastplate for a breast drill.

Palette knife, a knife with a very flexible steel blade and no cutting edge, rounded at the end, used by painters to mix colors on the grinding slab or palette. -- To set the palette (Paint.), to lay upon it the required pigments in a certain order, according to the intended use of them in a picture. Fairholt.

Pale"wise` (?), adv. (Her.) In the manner of a pale or pales; by perpendicular lines or divisions; as, to divide an escutcheon palewise.

Pal"frey (?), n. [OE. palefrai, OF. palefrei, F. palefroi, LL. palafredus, parafredus, from L. paraveredus a horse for extraordinary occasions, an extra post horse; Gr. &?; along, beside + L. veredus a post horse.]

1. A saddle horse for the road, or for state occasions, as distinguished from a war horse. Chaucer.

2. A small saddle horse for ladies. Spenser.

Call the host and bid him bring
Charger and palfrey.


Pal"freyed (?), a. Mounted on a palfrey. Tickell.

Pal"grave (?), n. See Palsgrave.

||Pa"li (?), n., pl. of Palus.

Pa"li (?), n. [Ceylonese, fr. Skr. pli row, line, series, applied to the series of Buddhist sacred texts.] A dialect descended from Sanskrit, and like that, a dead language, except when used as the sacred language of the Buddhist religion in Farther India, etc.

Pal`i*fi*ca"tion (?), n. [L. palus a stake + -ficare (in comp.) to make: cf. F. palification. See -fy.] The act or practice of driving piles or posts into the ground to make it firm. [R.] Sir H. Wotton.

Pa"li*form (?), a. (Zoöl.) Resembling a palus; as, the paliform lobes of the septa in corals.

Pa*lil"o*gy (?), n. [L. palilogia, Gr. &?;; &?; again + &?; to speak.] (Rhet.) The repetition of a word, or part of a sentence, for the sake of greater emphasis; as, "The living, the living, he shall praise thee." Is. xxxviii. 19.

Pal"imp*sest (?), n. [L. palimpsestus, Gr. &?; scratched or scraped again, &?; a palimpsest; &?; again + &?; to rub, rub away: cf. F. palimpseste.] A parchment which has been written upon twice, the first writing having been erased to make place for the second. Longfellow.

Pal"in*drome (?), n. [Gr. &?; running back again; &?; again + &?; to run: cf. F. palindrome.] A word, verse, or sentence, that is the same when read backward or forward; as, madam; Hannah; or Lewd did I live, & evil I did dwel.

{ Pal`in*drom"ic (?), Pal`in*drom"ic*al (?), } a. Of, pertaining to, or like, a palindrome.

Pa*lin"dro*mist (?), n. A writer of palindromes.

Pal"ing (?), n. 1. Pales, in general; a fence formed with pales or pickets; a limit; an inclosure.

They moved within the paling of order and decorum.

De Quincey.

2. The act of placing pales or stripes on cloth; also, the stripes themselves. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Paling board, one of the slabs sawed from the sides of a log to fit it to be sawed into boards. [Eng.]

||Pal`in*ge*ne"si*a (?), n.[NL.] See Palingenesis.

{ Pal`in*gen"e*sis (?), Pal`in*gen"e*sy (?), } n. [Gr. &?;; &?; again + &?; birth: cf. F. palingénésie. See Genesis.]

1. A new birth; a re-creation; a regeneration; a continued existence in different manner or form.

2. (Biol.) That form of evolution in which the truly ancestral characters conserved by heredity are reproduced in development; original simple descent; -- distinguished from kenogenesis. Sometimes, in zoölogy, the abrupt metamorphosis of insects, crustaceans, etc.

Pal`in*ge*net"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to palingenesis: as, a palingenetic process. - - Pal`in*ge*net"ic*al*ly (#), adv.

Pal"i*node (?), n. [L. palinodia, from Gr. &?;; &?; again + &?; a song. See Ode.] 1. An ode recanting, or retracting, a former one; also, a repetition of an ode.

2. A retraction; esp., a formal retraction. Sandys.

Pal`i*no"di*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to a palinode, or retraction. J. Q. Adams.

Pal"i*no*dy (?), n. See Palinode. [Obs.] Wood.

Pal`inu"rus (?), n. [So called from L. Palinurus, the pilot of Æneas.] (Naut.) An instrument for obtaining directly, without calculation, the true bearing of the sun, and thence the variation of the compass

Pal`i*sade" (?), n. [F. palissade, cf. Sp. palizada, It. palizzata, palizzo, LL. palissata; all fr. L. palus a stake, pale. See Pale a stake.] 1. (Fort.) A strong, long stake, one end of which is set firmly in the ground, and the other is sharpened; also, a fence formed of such stakes set in the ground as a means of defense.

2. Any fence made of pales or sharp stakes.

Palisade cells (Bot.), vertically elongated parenchyma cells, such as are seen beneath the epidermis of the upper surface of many leaves. -- Palisade worm (Zoöl.), a nematoid worm (Strongylus armatus), parasitic in the blood vessels of the horse, in which it produces aneurisms, often fatal.

Pal`i*sade", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Palisaded; p. pr. & vb. n. Palisading.] [Cf. F. palissader.] To surround, inclose, or fortify, with palisades.

Pal`i*sad"ing (?), n. (Fort.) A row of palisades set in the ground.

Pal`i*sa*"do (?), n.; pl. Palisadoes (&?;). A palisade. [Obs.] Shak.

Pal`i*sa"do, v. t. To palisade. [Obs.] Sterne.

Pal"ish (?), a. Somewhat pale or wan.

Pal`is*san"der (?), n. [F. palissandre.] (Bot.) (a) Violet wood. (b) Rosewood.

Pal"is*sy (?), a. Designating, or of the nature of, a kind of pottery made by Bernard Palissy, in France, in the 16th centry.

Palissy ware, glazed pottery like that made by Bernard Palissy; especially, that having figures of fishes, reptiles, etc., in high relief.

||Pal"kee (?), n. [Hind. plk; of the same origin as E. palanquin.] A palanquin. Malcom.

Pall (?), n. Same as Pawl.

Pall, n. [OE. pal, AS. pæl, from L. pallium cover, cloak, mantle, pall; cf. L. palla robe, mantle.] 1. An outer garment; a cloak mantle.

His lion's skin changed to a pall of gold.


2. A kind of rich stuff used for garments in the Middle Ages. [Obs.] Wyclif (Esther viii. 15).

3. (R. C. Ch.) Same as Pallium.

About this time Pope Gregory sent two archbishop's palls into England, -- the one for London, the other for York.


4. (Her.) A figure resembling the Roman Catholic pallium, or pall, and having the form of the letter Y.

5. A large cloth, esp., a heavy black cloth, thrown over a coffin at a funeral; sometimes, also, over a tomb.

Warriors carry the warrior's pall.


6. (Eccl.) A piece of cardboard, covered with linen and embroidered on one side; -- used to put over the chalice.

Pall, v. t. To cloak. [R.] Shak

Pall, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Palled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Palling.] [Either shortened fr. appall, or fr. F. pâlir to grow pale. Cf. Appall, Pale, a.] To become vapid, tasteless, dull, or insipid; to lose strength, life, spirit, or taste; as, the liquor palls.

Beauty soon grows familiar to the lover,
Fades in the eye, and palls upon the sense.


Pall, v. t. 1. To make vapid or insipid; to make lifeless or spiritless; to dull; to weaken. Chaucer.

Reason and reflection . . . pall all his enjoyments.


2. To satiate; to cloy; as, to pall the appetite.

Pall, n. Nausea. [Obs.] Shaftesbury.

||Pal"la (?), n. [L. See Pall a cloak.] (Rom. Antuq.) An oblong rectangular piece of cloth, worn by Roman ladies, and fastened with brooches.

Pal*la"di*an (?), a. (Arch.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, a variety of the revived classic style of architecture, founded on the works of Andrea Palladio, an Italian architect of the 16th century.

Pal*la"dic (?), a. (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or derived from, palladium; -- used specifically to designate those compounds in which the element has a higher valence as contrasted with palladious compounds.

Pal*la"di*ous (?), a. (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or containing, palladium; -- used specifically to designate those compounds in which palladium has a lower valence as compared with palladic compounds.

Pal*la"di*um (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. &?;, fr. &?;, &?;, Pallas.]

1. (Gr. Antiq.) Any statue of the goddess Pallas; esp., the famous statue on the preservation of which depended the safety of ancient Troy.

2. Hence: That which affords effectual protection or security; a safeguard; as, the trial by jury is the palladium of our civil rights. Blackstone.

Pal*la"di*um, n. [NL.] (Chem.) A rare metallic element of the light platinum group, found native, and also alloyed with platinum and gold. It is a silver-white metal resembling platinum, and like it permanent and untarnished in the air, but is more easily fusible. It is unique in its power of occluding hydrogen, which it does to the extent of nearly a thousand volumes, forming the alloy Pd2H. It is used for graduated circles and verniers, for plating certain silver goods, and somewhat in dentistry. It was so named in 1804 by Wollaston from the asteroid Pallas, which was discovered in 1802. Symbol Pd. Atomic weight, 106.2.

<! p. 1033 !>

Pal*la"di*um*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Palladiumized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Palladiumizing (?).] To cover or coat with palladium. [R.]

Pal"lah (?), n. (Zoöl.) A large South African antelope (Æpyceros melampus). The male has long lyrate and annulated horns. The general color is bay, with a black crescent on the croup. Called also roodebok.

Pal"las (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. &?;, &?;.] (Gr. Myth.) Pallas Athene, the Grecian goddess of wisdom, called also Athene, and identified, at a later period, with the Roman Minerva.

Pall"bear*er (?), n. One of those who attend the coffin at a funeral; -- so called from the pall being formerly carried by them.

Pal"let (?), n. [OE. paillet, F. paillet a heap of straw, fr. paille straw, fr. L. palea chaff; cf. Gr. &?; fine meal, dust, Skr. pala straw, palva chaff. Cf. Paillasse.] A small and mean bed; a bed of straw. Milton.

Pal"let, n. [Dim. of pale. See Pale a stake.] (Her.) A perpendicular band upon an escutcheon, one half the breadth of the pale.

Pal"let, n. [F. palette: af. It. paletta; prop. and orig., a fire shovel, dim. of L. pala a shovel, spade. See Peel a shovel.] 1. (Paint.) Same as Palette.

2. (Pottery) (a) A wooden implement used by potters, crucible makers, etc., for forming, beating, and rounding their works. It is oval, round, and of other forms. (b) A potter's wheel.

3. (Gilding) (a) An instrument used to take up gold leaf from the pillow, and to apply it. (b) A tool for gilding the backs of books over the bands.

4. (Brickmaking) A board on which a newly molded brick is conveyed to the hack. Knight.

5. (Mach.) (a) A click or pawl for driving a ratchet wheel. (b) One of the series of disks or pistons in the chain pump. Knight.

6. (Horology) One of the pieces or levers connected with the pendulum of a clock, or the balance of a watch, which receive the immediate impulse of the scape-wheel, or balance wheel. Brande & C.

7. (Mus.) In the organ, a valve between the wind chest and the mouth of a pipe or row of pipes.

8. (Zoöl.) One of a pair of shelly plates that protect the siphon tubes of certain bivalves, as the Teredo. See Illust. of Teredo.

9. A cup containing three ounces, -- &?;ormerly used by surgeons.

Pal"li*al (?), a. [L. pallium a mantle. See Pall.] (Zoöl.) Of or pretaining to a mantle, especially to the mantle of mollusks; produced by the mantle; as, the pallial line, or impression, which marks the attachment of the mantle on the inner surface of a bivalve shell. See Illust. of Bivalve.

Pallial chamber (Zoöl.), the cavity inclosed by the mantle. -- Pallial sinus (Zoöl.), an inward bending of the pallial line, near the posterior end of certain bivalve shells, to receive the siphon. See Illust. of Bivalve.

Pal"li*a*ment (?), n. [LL. palliare to clothe, fr. L. pallium a manltle. See Pall the garment.] A dress; a robe. [Obs.] Shak.

Pal"liard (?), n. [F. paillard, orig., one addicted to the couch, fr. paille straw. See Pallet a small bed.]

1. A born beggar; a vagabond. [Obs.] Halliwell.

2. A lecher; a lewd person. [Obs.] Dryden.

Pal*liasse" (?), n. See Paillasse.

Pal"li*ate (?), a. [L. palliatus, fr. pallium a cloak. See Pall the garment.] 1. Covered with a mant&?;e; cloaked; disguised. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.

2. Eased; mitigated; alleviated. [Obs.] Bp. Fell.

Pal"li*ate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Palliated(?); p. pr. & vb. n. Palliating(?).] 1. To cover with a mantle or cloak; to cover up; to hide. [Obs.]

Being palliated with a pilgrim's coat.

Sir T. Herbert.

2. To cover with excuses; to conceal the enormity of, by excuses and apologies; to extenuate; as, to palliate faults.

They never hide or palliate their vices.


3. To reduce in violence; to lessen or abate; to mitigate; to ease withhout curing; as, to palliate a disease.

To palliate dullness, and give time a shove.


Syn. -- To cover; cloak; hide; extenuate; conceal. -- To Palliate, Extenuate, Cloak. These words, as here compared, are used in a figurative sense in reference to our treatment of wrong action. We cloak in order to conceal completely. We extenuate a crime when we endeavor to show that it is less than has been supposed; we palliate a crime when we endeavor to cover or conceal its enormity, at least in part. This naturally leads us to soften some of its features, and thus palliate approaches extenuate till they have become nearly or quite identical. "To palliate is not now used, though it once was, in the sense of wholly cloaking or covering over, as it might be, our sins, but in that of extenuating; to palliate our faults is not to hide them altogether, but to seek to diminish their guilt in part." Trench.

Pal`li*a"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. palliation.] 1. The act of palliating, or state of being palliated; extenuation; excuse; as, the palliation of faults, offenses, vices.

2. Mitigation; alleviation, as of a disease. Bacon.

3. That which cloaks or covers; disguise; also, the state of being covered or disguised. [Obs.]

Pal"li*a*tive (?), a. [Cf. F. palliatif.] Serving to palliate; serving to extenuate or mitigate.

Pal"li*a*tive (?), n. That which palliates; a palliative agent. Sir W. Scott.

Pal"li*a*to*ry (?), a. Palliative; extenuating.

Pal"lid (?), a. [L. pallidus, fr. pallere to be or look pale. See pale, a.] Deficient in color; pale; wan; as, a pallid countenance; pallid blue. Spenser.

Pal*lid"i*ty (?), n. Pallidness; paleness.

Pal"lid*ly (?), adv. In a pallid manner.

Pal"lid*ness, n. The quality or state of being pallid; paleness; pallor; wanness.

||Pal`li*o*bran`chi*a"ta (?), n. pl. [NL.] (Zoöl.) Same as Brachiopoda.

Pal`li*o*bran"chi*ate (?), a. [See Pallium, and Branchia.] (Zoöl.) Having the pallium, or mantle, acting as a gill, as in brachiopods.

||Pal"li*um (?), n.; pl. L. Pallia(&?;), E. Palliums (#). [L. See Pall the garment.] 1. (Anc. Costume) A large, square, woolen cloak which enveloped the whole person, worn by the Greeks and by certain Romans. It is the Roman name of a Greek garment.

2. (R.C.Ch.) A band of white wool, worn on the shoulders, with four purple crosses worked on it; a pall.

The wool is obtained from two lambs brought to the basilica of St. Agnes, Rome, and blessed. It is worn by the pope, and sent to patriarchs, primates, and archbishops, as a sign that they share in the plenitude of the episcopal office. Befoer it is sent, the pallium is laid on the tomb of St. Peter, where it remains all night.

3. (Zoöl.) (a) The mantle of a bivalve. See Mantle. (b) The mantle of a bird.

Pall`-mall" (?), n. [OF. palemail, It. pallamagio; palla a ball (of German origin, akin to E. ball) + magio hammer, fr. L. malleus. See lst Ball, and Mall a beetle.] A game formerly common in England, in which a wooden ball was driven with a mallet through an elevated hoop or ring of iron. The name was also given to the mallet used, to the place where the game was played, and to the street, in London, still called Pall Mall. [Written also pail-mail and pell-mell.] Sir K. Digby. Evelyn.

Pal*lo"ne (?), n. [It., a large ball, fr. palla ball. See Balloon.] An Italian game, played with a large leather ball.

Pal"lor (?), n. [L., fr. pallere to be or look pale. See Pale, a.] Paleness; want of color; pallidity; as, pallor of the complexion. Jer. Taylor.

Palm (?), n. [OE. paume, F. paume, L. palma, Gr. &?;, akin to Skr. pni hand, and E. fumble. See Fumble, Feel, and cf. 2d Palm.] 1. (Anat.) The inner and somewhat concave part of the hand between the bases of the fingers and the wrist.

Clench'd her fingers till they bit the palm.


2. A lineal measure equal either to the breadth of the hand or to its length from the wrist to the ends of the fingers; a hand; -- used in measuring a horse's height.

In Greece, the palm was reckoned at three inches. The Romans adopted two measures of this name, the lesser palm of 2.91 inches, and the greater palm of 8.73 inches. At the present day, this measure varies in the most arbitrary manner, being different in each country, and occasionally varying in the same. Internat. Cyc.

3. (Sailmaking) A metallic disk, attached to a strap, and worn the palm of the hand, -- used to push the needle through the canvas, in sewing sails, etc.

4. (Zoöl.) The broad flattened part of an antler, as of a full-grown fallow deer; -- so called as resembling the palm of the hand with its protruding fingers.

5. (Naut.) The flat inner face of an anchor fluke.

Palm, n. [AS. palm, L. palma; -- so named fr. the leaf resembling a hand. See lst Palm, and cf. Pam.]

1. (Bot.) Any endogenous tree of the order Palmæ or Palmaceæ; a palm tree.

Palms are perennial woody plants, often of majestic size. The trunk is usually erect and rarely branched, and has a roughened exterior composed of the persistent bases of the leaf stalks. The leaves are borne in a terminal crown, and are supported on stout, sheathing, often prickly, petioles. They are usually of great size, and are either pinnately or palmately many-cleft. There are about one thousand species known, nearly all of them growing in tropical or semitropical regions. The wood, petioles, leaves, sap, and fruit of many species are invaluable in the arts and in domestic economy. Among the best known are the date palm, the cocoa palm, the fan palm, the oil palm, the wax palm, the palmyra, and the various kinds called cabbage palm and palmetto.

2. A branch or leaf of the palm, anciently borne or worn as a symbol of victory or rejoicing.

A great multitude . . . stood before the throne, and before the Lamb, clothed with white robes, and palme in their hands.

Rev. vii. 9.

3. Hence: Any symbol or token of superiority, success, or triumph; also, victory; triumph; supremacy. "The palm of martyrdom." Chaucer.

So get the start of the majestic world
And bear the palm alone.


Molucca palm (Bot.), a labiate herb from Asia (Molucella lævis), having a curious cup-shaped calyx. -- Palm cabbage, the terminal bud of a cabbage palm, used as food. -- Palm cat (Zoöl.), the common paradoxure. -- Palm crab (Zoöl.), the purse crab. -- Palm oil, a vegetable oil, obtained from the fruit of several species of palms, as the African oil palm (Elæis Guineensis), and used in the manufacture of soap and candles. See Elæis. -- Palm swift (Zoöl.), a small swift (Cypselus Batassiensis) which frequents the palmyra and cocoanut palms in India. Its peculiar nest is attached to the leaf of the palmyra palm. -- Palm toddy. Same as Palm wine. -- Palm weevil (Zoöl.), any one of mumerous species of very large weevils of the genus Rhynchophorus. The larvæ bore into palm trees, and are called palm borers, and grugru worms. They are considered excellent food. -- Palm wine, the sap of several species of palms, especially, in India, of the wild date palm (Phœnix sylvestrix), the palmyra, and the Caryota urens. When fermented it yields by distillation arrack, and by evaporation jaggery. Called also palm toddy. -- Palm worm, or Palmworm. (Zoöl.) (a) The larva of a palm weevil. (b) A centipede.

Palm (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Palmed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Palming.] 1. To handle. [Obs.] Prior.

2. To manipulate with, or conceal in, the palm of the hand; to juggle.

They palmed the trick that lost the game.


3. To impose by fraud, as by sleight of hand; to put by unfair means; -- usually with off.

For you may palm upon us new for old.


Pal*ma"ceous (?), a. (Bot.) Of or pertaining to palms; of the nature of, or resembling, palms.

||Pal"ma Chris"ti (?). [L., palm of Christ.] (Bot.) A plant (Ricinus communis) with ornamental peltate and palmately cleft foliage, growing as a woody perennial in the tropics, and cultivated as an herbaceous annual in temperate regions; -- called also castor-oil plant. [Sometimes corrupted into palmcrist.]

Pal"ma*cite (?), n. (Paleon.) A fossil palm.

Pal"mar (?), a. [L. palmaris, fr. palma the palm of the hand: cf. F. palmaire.] 1. (Anat.) Pertaining to, or corresponding with, the palm of the hand.

2. (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the under side of the wings of birds.

||Pal*ma"ri*um (?), n.; pl. Palmaria (#). [NL. See Palmar.] (Zoöl.) One of the bifurcations of the brachial plates of a crinoid.

Pal"ma*ry (?), a. (Anat.) Palmar.

Pal"ma*ry, a. [L. palmarius, palmaris, belonging to palms, deserving the palm or prize, fr. palma a palm.] Worthy of the palm; palmy; preëminent; superior; principal; chief; as, palmary work. Br. Horne.

Pal"mate (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of palmic acid; a ricinoleate. [Obsoles.]

{ Pal"mate (?), Pal"ma*ted (?), } a. [L. palmatus marked with the palm of a hand, from palma the palm of the hand.]

1. Having the shape of the hand; resembling a hand with the fingers spread.

2. (Bot.) Spreading from the apex of a petiole, as the divisions of a leaf, or leaflets, so as to resemble the hand with outspread fingers. Gray.

3. (Zoöl.) (a) Having the anterior toes united by a web, as in most swimming birds; webbed. See Illust. (i) under Aves. (b) Having the distal portion broad, flat, and more or less divided into lobes; -- said of certain corals, antlers, etc.

Pal"mate*ly (?), adv. In a palmate manner.

Pal*mat"i*fid (?), a. [L. palmatus palmate + root of findere to split.] (Bot.) Palmate, with the divisions separated but little more than halfway to the common center.

Pal*mat"i*lobed (?), a. [L. palmatus palmate + E. lobed.] (Bot.) Palmate, with the divisions separated less than halfway to the common center.

{ Pal*mat"i*sect (?), Pal*mat`i*sect"ed (?), } a. [L. palmatus palmate + secare to cut.] (Bot.) Divided, as a palmate leaf, down to the midrib, so that the parenchyma is interrupted.

Palm"crist (?), n. The palma Christi. (Jonah iv. 6, margin, and Douay version, note.)

Palmed (?), a. Having or bearing a palm or palms.

Palmed deer (Zoöl.), a stag of full growth, bearing palms. See lst Palm, 4.

Palm"er (?), n. [From Palm, v. t.] One who palms or cheats, as at cards or dice.

Palm"er, n.[From Palm the tree.] A wandering religious votary; especially, one who bore a branch of palm as a token that he had visited the Holy Land and its sacred places. Chaucer.

Pilgrims and palmers plighted them together.

P. Plowman.

The pilgrim had some home or dwelling place, the palmer had none. The pilgrim traveled to some certain, designed place or places, but the palmer to all.

T. Staveley.

Palm"er (?), n. 1. (Zoöl.) A palmerworm.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

2. (Angling) Short for Palmer fly, an artificial fly made to imitate a hairy caterpillar; a hackle.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Palm"er*worm` (?), n. (Zoöl.) (a) Any hairy caterpillar which appears in great numbers, devouring herbage, and wandering about like a palmer. The name is applied also to other voracious insects. Joel. i. 4. (b) In America, the larva of any one of several moths, which destroys the foliage of fruit and forest trees, esp. the larva of Ypsolophus pometellus, which sometimes appears in vast numbers.

Pal*mette" (?), n. [F., dim. of palme a palm.] A floral ornament, common in Greek and other ancient architecture; -- often called the honeysuckle ornament.

Pal*met"to (?), n. [Dim. of palm the tree: cf. Sp. palmito.] (Bot.) A name given to palms of several genera and species growing in the West Indies and the Southern United States. In the United States, the name is applied especially to the Chamærops, or Sabal, Palmetto, the cabbage tree of Florida and the Carolinas. See Cabbage tree, under Cabbage.

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Royal palmetto, the West Indian Sabal umbraculifera, the trunk of which, when hollowed, is used for water pipes, etc. The leaves are used for thatching, and for making hats, ropes, etc. -- Saw palmetto, Sabal serrulata, a native of Georgia, South Carolina, and Florida. The nearly impassable jungle which it forms is called palmetto scrub.

Pal"mic (?), a. [Cf. F. palmique.] (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or derived from, the castor-oil plant (Ricinus communis, or Palma Christi); -- formerly used to designate an acid now called ricinoleic acid. [Obsoles.]

||Pal`mi*dac"ty*les (?), n. pl. [NL. See Palm, and Dactyl.] (Zoöl.) A group of wading birds having the toes webbed, as the avocet.

Pal*mif"er*ous (?), a.[L. palmifer; palma a palm + ferre to bear: cf. F. palmifère.] Bearing palms.

Pal"mi*grade (?), a. [L. palma palm of the hand + gradi to walk.] (Zoöl.) Putting the whole foot upon the ground in walking, as some mammals.

Pal"min (?), n. [From palma Christi: cf. F. palmine.] (Chem.) (a) A white waxy or fatty substance obtained from castor oil. (b) Ricinolein. [Obs.]

Pal"mi*ped (?), a.[L. palmipes, -edis, broad-footed; palma the palm of the hand + pes a foot; cf. F. palmipède.] (Zoöl.) Web-footed, as a water fowl. -- n. A swimming bird; a bird having webbed feet.

||Pal*mip"e*des (?), n. pl. [NL.] (Zoöl.) Same as Natatores.

Pal"mis*ter (?), n. [From Palm of the hand.] One who practices palmistry Bp. Hall.

Pal`mis*try (?), n.[See Palmister.] 1. The art or practice of divining or telling fortunes, or of judging of character, by the lines and marks in the palm of the hand; chiromancy. Ascham. Cowper.

2. A dexterous use or trick of the hand. Addison.

Pal"mi*tate (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of palmitic acid.

Pal"mite (?), n. [From Palm.] (Bot.) A South African plant (Prionium Palmita) of the Rush family, having long serrated leaves. The stems have been used for making brushes.

Pal*mit"ic (?), a. (Physiol. Chem.) Pertaining to, or obtained from, palmitin or palm oil; as, palmitic acid, a white crystalline body belonging to the fatty acid series. It is readily soluble in hot alcohol, and melts to a liquid oil at 62° C.

Pal"mi*tin (?), n. [So called because abundant in palm oil.] (Physiol. Chem.) A solid crystallizable fat, found abundantly in animals and in vegetables. It occurs mixed with stearin and olein in the fat of animal tissues, with olein and butyrin in butter, with olein in olive oil, etc. Chemically, it is a glyceride of palmitic acid, three molecules of palmitic acid being united to one molecule of glyceryl, and hence it is technically called tripalmitin, or glyceryl tripalmitate.

Pal`mi*tol"ic (?), a. [Palmitic + -oleic + ic.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, an artificial acid of the oleic acid series, isomeric with linoleic acid.

Pal"mi*tone (?), n. (Chem.) The ketone of palmitic acid.

Palm" Sun`day (?). (Eccl.) The Sunday next before Easter; -- so called in commemoration of our Savior's triumphal entry into Jerusalem, when the multitude strewed palm branches in the way.

Palm"y (?), a. 1. Bearing palms; abounding in palms; derived from palms; as, a palmy shore. Pope.

His golden sands and palmy wine.


2. Worthy of the palm; flourishing; prosperous.

In the most high and palmy state of Rome.


Pal*my"ra (?), n. (Bot.) A species of palm (Borassus flabelliformis) having a straight, black, upright trunk, with palmate leaves. It is found native along the entire northern shores of the Indian Ocean, from the mouth of the Tigris to New Guinea. More than eight hundred uses to which it is put are enumerated by native writers. Its wood is largely used for building purposes; its fruit and roots serve for food, its sap for making toddy, and its leaves for thatching huts.

Pa*lo"la (?), n. [Fr. the native name.] (Zoöl.) An annelid (Palola viridis) which, at certain seasons of the year, swarms at the surface of the sea about some of the Pacific Islands, where it is collected for food.

||Pa`lo*me"ta (?), n. (Zoöl.) A pompano.

Palp (plp), n. [Cf. F. palpe. See Palpable.] (Zoöl.) Same as Palpus.

Palp, v. t. [L. palpare: cf. F. palper.] To have a distinct touch or feeling of; to feel. [Obs.]

To bring a palpèd darkness o'er the earth.


Pal`pa*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality of being palpable, or perceptible by the touch. Arbuthnot.

Pal"pa*ble (?), a. [F. palpable, L. palpabilis, fr. palpare to feel, stroke; cf. palpus the soft palm of the hand.] 1. Capable of being touched and felt; perceptible by the touch; as, a palpable form. Shak.

Darkness must overshadow all his bounds,
Palpable darkness.


2. Easily perceptible; plain; distinct; obvious; readily perceived and detected; gross; as, palpable imposture; palpable absurdity; palpable errors. "Three persons palpable." P. Plowman.

[Lies] gross as a mountain, open, palpable.


-- Pal"pa*ble*ness, n. -- Pal"pa*bly, adv.

Pal*pa"tion (?), n. [L. palpatio, fr. palpare. See Palpable.] 1. Act of touching or feeling.

2. (Med.) Examination of a patient by touch. Quain.

||Pal*pa"tor (?), n. [L., a stroker.] (Zoöl.) One of a family of clavicorn beetles, including those which have very long maxillary palpi.

||Pal"pe*bra (?), n.; pl. Palpebræ (#). [L.] (Zoöl.) The eyelid.

Pal"pe*bral (?), a. [L. palpebralis, fr. palpebra: cf. F. palpébral.] Of or pertaining to the eyelids.

Pal"pe*brate (?), a. (Zoöl.) Having eyelids.

Palped (plpt), a. (Zoöl.) Having a palpus.

||Pal"pi (pl"p), n., pl. of Palpus. (Zoöl.) See Palpus.

Pal"pi*corn (?), n. [See Palpus, and Cornu.] (Zoöl.) One of a group of aquatic beetles (Palpicornia) having short club-shaped antennæ, and long maxillary palpi.

Pal"pi*fer (?), n. [Palpus + L. ferre to bear.] (Zoöl.) Same as Palpiger.

Pal"pi*form (?), a. [Palpus + -form: cf. F. palpiforme.] (Zoöl.) Having the form of a palpus.

Pal"pi*ger (?), n. [See Palpigerous.] (Zoöl.) That portion of the labium which bears the palpi in insects.

Pal*pig"er*ous (?), a. [Palpus + -gerous.] (Zoöl.) Bearing a palpus. Kirby.

Pal"pi*tant (?), a. [L. palpitans, p. pr.] Palpitating; throbbing; trembling. Carlyle.

Pal"pi*tate (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Palpitated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Palpitating(?).] [L. palpitare, palpitatum, v. intens. fr. pappare. See Palpable.] To beat rapidly and more strongly than usual; to throb; to bound with emotion or exertion; to pulsate violently; to flutter; -- said specifically of the heart when its action is abnormal, as from excitement.

Pal`pi*ta"tion (?), n. [L. palpitatio: cf. F. palpitation.] A rapid pulsation; a throbbing; esp., an abnormal, rapid beating of the heart as when excited by violent exertion, strong emotion, or by disease.

Palp"less (?), a. (Zoöl.) Without a palpus.

Pal"po*cil (?), n. [See Palpus, and Cilium.] (Zoöl.) A minute soft filamentary process springing from the surface of certain hydroids and sponges.

||Pal"pus (?), n.; pl. Palpi (#). [NL. See Palp.] (Zoöl.) A feeler; especially, one of the jointed sense organs attached to the mouth organs of insects, arachnids, crustaceans, and annelids; as, the mandibular palpi, maxillary palpi, and labial palpi. The palpi of male spiders serve as sexual organs. Called also palp. See Illust. of Arthrogastra and Orthoptera.

Pals"grave` (?), n. [D. paltsgraaf; palts palace (l. palatium) + graaf count; cf. G. pfalzgraf. See Palace, and Landgrave.] (Ger. Hist.) A count or earl who presided in the domestic court, and had the superintendence, of a royal household in Germany.

Pals"gra*vine` (?), n.[D. paltsgravin: cf. G. pfalzgrafin.] The consort or widow of a palsgrave.

Pal"si*cal (?), a.[From Palsy.] Affected with palsy; palsied; paralytic. [R.] Johnson.

Pal"sied (?), a. Affected with palsy; paralyzed.

Pal"stave` (?), n. [Dan. paalstav.] A peculiar bronze adz, used in prehistoric Europe about the middle of the bronze age. Dawkins.

Pal"ster (?), n. [D. palsterstaf.] A pilgrim's staff. [Obs.] Halliwell.

Pal"sy (?), n.; pl. Palsies (#). [OE. palesie, parlesy, OF. paralesie, F. paralysie, L. paralysis. See Paralysis.] (Med.) Paralysis, complete or partial. See Paralysis. "One sick of the palsy." Mark ii. 3.

Bell's palsy, paralysis of the facial nerve, producing distortion of one side of the face; -- so called from Sir Charles Bell, an English surgeon who described it. -- Scrivener's palsy. See Writer's cramp, under Writer. -- Shaking palsy, paralysis agitans, a disease usually occurring in old people, characterized by muscular tremors and a peculiar shaking and tottering gait.

Pal"sy, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Palsied (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Palsying.] To affect with palsy, or as with palsy; to deprive of action or energy; to paralyze.

Pal"sy*wort` (?), n. (Bot.) The cowslip (Primula veris); -- so called from its supposed remedial powers. Dr. Prior.

Pal"ter (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Paltered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Paltering.] [See Paltry.] 1. To haggle. [Obs.] Cotgrave.

2. To act in insincere or deceitful manner; to play false; to equivocate; to shift; to dodge; to trifle.

Romans, that have spoke the word,
And will not palter.


Who never sold the truth to serve the hour,
Nor paltered with eternal God for power.


3. To babble; to chatter. [Obs.]

Pal"ter, v. t. To trifle with; to waste; to squander in paltry ways or on worthless things. [Obs.] "Palter out your time in the penal statutes." Beau. & Fl.

Pal"ter*er (?), n. One who palters. Johnson.

Pal"ter*ly, a. & adv. Paltry; shabby; shabbily; paltrily. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.] "In palterly clothes." Pepys.

Pal"tock (?), n. [See Paletot.] A kind of doublet; a jacket. [Obs.] Piers Plowman.

Pal"tri*ly (?), adv. In a paltry manner.

Pal"tri*ness, n. The state or quality of being paltry.

Pal"try (?), a. [Compar. Paltrier (&?;); superl. Paltriest.] [Cf. Prov. E. paltry refuse, rubbish, LG. paltering ragged, palte, palter, a rag, a tatter, Dan. pialt, Sw. palta, pl. paltor.] Mean; vile; worthless; despicable; contemptible; pitiful; trifling; as, a paltry excuse; paltry gold. Cowper.

The paltry prize is hardly worth the cost.


Syn. -- See Contemptible.

Pa*lu"dal (?), a. [L. palus, - udis, a marsh.] Of or pertaining to marshes or fens; marshy. [R.]

Paludal fever, malarial fever; -- so called because generated in marshy districts.

Pa*lu"da*ment (?), n. See Paludamentum.

||Pa*lu`da*men*tum (?), n.; pl. Paladumenta (&?;). (Rom. Antiq.) A military cloak worn by a general and his principal officers.

||Pal`u*dic"o*læ (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. L. palus, -udis, a marsh + colere to inhabit.] (Zoöl.) A division of birds, including the cranes, rails, etc.

Pa*lu"di*cole (?), a. [Cf. F. paludicole.] (Zoöl.) Marsh-inhabiting; belonging to the Paludicolæ

||Pal`u*di"na (?), n.; pl. L. Paludinæ (#), E. Paludinas (#). [NL., fr. L. palus, -udis, a marsh, pool.] (Zoöl.) Any one of numerous species of freshwater pectinibranchiate mollusks, belonging to Paludina, Melantho, and allied genera. They have an operculated shell which is usually green, often with brown bands. See Illust. of Pond snail, under Pond.

Pal`u*di"nal (?), a. Inhabiting ponds or swamps.

Pal"u*dine (?), a. [L. palus, -udis, a marsh.] Of or pertaining to a marsh. Buckland.

Pa*lu"di*nous (?), a. 1. (Zoöl.) (a) Paludinal. (b) Like or pertaining to the genus Paludina.

2. Of or pertaining to a marsh or fen. [R.]

Pa*lu"dism (?), n. (Med.) The morbid phenomena produced by dwelling among marshes; malarial disease or disposition.

Pal"u*dose` (?), a.[L. paludosus marshy.] Growing or living in marshy places; marshy.

Pal"ule (?), n. (Zoöl.) See Palulus or Palus.

||Pal"u*lus (?), n.; pl. Paluli (#). [NL., dim. of L. palus a stake.] (Zoöl.) Same as Palus.

||Pa"lus (?), n.; pl. Pali (#). [L., a stake.] (Zoöl.) One of several upright slender calcareous processes which surround the central part of the calicle of certain corals.

Pa*lus"tral (?), a. [L. paluster, -ustris.] Of or pertaining to a bog or marsh; boggy. [R.]

Pa*lus"trine (?), a. Of, pertaining to, or living in, a marsh or swamp; marshy.

Pal"y (?), a. [From Pale, a.] Pale; wanting color; dim. [Poetic] Shak. Whittier.

Pal"y, a. [Cf. F. palé. See Pale a stake.] (Her.) Divided into four or more equal parts by perpendicular lines, and of two different tinctures disposed alternately.

Pam (?), n. [From Palm victory; cf. trump, fr. triumph.] The knave of clubs. [Obs.] Pope.

Pa"ment (?), n. A pavement. [Obs.] Chaucer.

||Pam"pa*no (?), n. [Sp.] (Zoöl.) Same as Pompano.

Pam"pas (?), n. pl. [Sp., fr. Peruv. pampa a field, plain.] Vast plains in the central and southern part of the Argentine Republic in South America. The term is sometimes used in a wider sense for the plains extending from Bolivia to Southern Patagonia.

Pampas cat (Zoöl.), a South American wild cat (Felis pajeros). It has oblique transverse bands of yellow or brown. It is about three and a half feet long. Called also straw cat. -- Pampas deer (Zoöl.), a small, reddish-brown, South American deer (Cervus, or Blastocerus, campestris). -- Pampas grass (Bot.), a very tall ornamental grass (Gynerium argenteum) with a silvery-white silky panicle. It is a native of the pampas of South America.

Pam"per (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Pampered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Pampering.] [Cf. LG. pampen, slampampen, to live luxuriously, pampe thick pap, and E. pap.]

1. To feed to the full; to feed luxuriously; to glut; as, to pamper the body or the appetite. "A body . . . pampered for corruption." Dr. T. Dwight.

2. To gratify inordinately; to indulge to excess; as, to pamper pride; to pamper the imagination. South.

Pam"pered (?), a. Fed luxuriously; indulged to the full; hence, luxuriant. "Pampered boughs." Milton. "Pampered insolence." Pope. -- Pam"pered*ness, n. Bp. Hall.

Pam"per*er (?), n. One who, or that which, pampers. Cowper.

Pam"per*ize (?), v. t. To pamper. [R.] Sydney Smith.

||Pam*pe"ro (?), n.[Sp., fr. pampa a plain.] A violent wind from the west or southwest, which sweeps over the pampas of South America and the adjacent seas, often doing great damage. Sir W. Parish.

Pam*pe"ros (?), n. pl.; sing. Pampero (&?;). [Sp. American.] (Ethnol.) A tribe of Indians inhabiting the pampas of South America.

Pam"phlet (?), n. [OE. pamflet, pamfilet, paunflet, possibly fr. OF. palme the palm of the hand, F. paume (see Palm) + OF. fueillet a leaf, dim. of fueil, m., F. feuille, f., fr. L. folium, pl. folia, thus meaning, a leaf to be held in the hand; or perh. through old French, fr. L. Pamphila, a female historian of the first century who wrote many epitomes; prob., however, fr. OF. Pamflette, the Old French name given to Pamphilus, a poem in Latin verse of the 12th century, pamphlets being named from the popularity of this poem.] 1. A writing; a book. Testament of love.

Sir Thomas More in his pamphlet of Richard the Third.


2. A small book consisting of a few sheets of printed paper, stitched together, often with a paper cover, but not bound; a short essay or written discussion, usually on a subject of current interest.

<! p. 1035 !>

Pam"phlet (?), v. i. To write a pamphlet or pamphlets. [R.] Howell.

Pam`phlet*eer" (?), n. A writer of pamphlets; a scribbler. Dryden. Macaulay.

Pam`phlet*eer", v. i. To write or publish pamphlets.

By pamphleteering we shall not win.

C. Kingsley.

Pam*pin"i*form (?), a. [L. pampinus a tendril + -form.] (Anat.) In the form of tendrils; -- applied especially to the spermatic and ovarian veins.

Pam"pre (?), n. [F. pampre a vine branch, L. pampinus.] (Sculp.) An ornament, composed of vine leaves and bunches of grapes, used for decorating spiral columns.

Pam`pro*dac"tyl*ous (?), a. [Pan- + Gr. &?; forward + &?; finger.] (Zoöl.) Having all the toes turned forward, as the colies.

{ Pan- (?), Pan"ta- (?), Pan"to- (?) }. [Gr. &?;, m., &?;,neut., gen. &?;, all.] Combining forms signifying all, every; as, panorama, pantheism, pantagraph, pantograph. Pan- becomes pam- before b or p, as pamprodactylous.

Pan, n. [OE. See 2d Pane.] 1. A part; a portion.

2. (Fort.) The distance comprised between the angle of the epaule and the flanked angle.

3. [Perh. a different word.] A leaf of gold or silver.

Pan, v. t. & i. [Cf. F. pan skirt, lappet, L. pannus a cloth, rag, W. panu to fur, to full.] To join or fit together; to unite. [Obs.] Halliwell.

Pan (?), n. [Hind. pn, Skr. parna leaf.] The betel leaf; also, the masticatory made of the betel leaf, etc. See &?;etel.

||Pan (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. &?;.] (Gr. Myth.) The god of shepherds, guardian of bees, and patron of fishing and hunting. He is usually represented as having the head and trunk of a man, with the legs, horns, and tail of a goat, and as playing on the shepherd's pipe, which he is said to have invented.

Pan, n. [OE. panne, AS. panne; cf. D. pan, G. pfanne, OHG. pfanna, Icel., Sw., LL., & Ir. panna, of uncertain origin; cf. L. patina, E. paten.] 1. A shallow, open dish or vessel, usually of metal, employed for many domestic uses, as for setting milk for cream, for frying or baking food, etc.; also employed for various uses in manufacturing. "A bowl or a pan." Chaucer.

2. (Manuf.) A closed vessel for boiling or evaporating. See Vacuum pan, under Vacuum.

3. The part of a flintlock which holds the priming.

4. The skull, considered as a vessel containing the brain; the upper part of the head; the brainpan; the cranium. Chaucer.

5. (C&?;rp.) A recess, or bed, for the leaf of a hinge.

6. The hard stratum of earth that lies below the soil. See Hard pan, under Hard.

7. A natural basin, containing salt or fresh water, or mud.

Flash in the pan. See under Flash. -- To savor of the pan, to suggest the process of cooking or burning; in a theological sense, to be heretical. Ridley. Southey.

Pan, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Panned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Panning.] (Mining) To separate, as gold, from dirt or sand, by washing in a kind of pan. [U. S.]

We . . . witnessed the process of cleaning up and panning out, which is the last process of separating the pure gold from the fine dirt and black sand.

Gen. W. T. Sherman.

Pan, v. i. 1. (Mining) To yield gold in, or as in, the process of panning; -- usually with out; as, the gravel panned out richly.

2. To turn out (profitably or unprofitably); to result; to develop; as, the investigation, or the speculation, panned out poorly. [Slang, U. S.]

Pan"a*base (?), n. [Pan- + base. So called in allusion to the number of metals contained in it.] (Min.) Same as Tetrahedrite.

Pan`a*ce"a (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. &?;, fr. &?; all-healing; &?;, &?;, all + &?; to heal.]

1. A remedy for all diseases; a universal medicine; a cure-all; catholicon; hence, a relief or solace for affliction.

2. (Bot.) The herb allheal.

Pan`a*ce"an (?), a. Having the properties of a panacea. [R.] "Panacean dews." Whitehead.

Pa*nache" (?), n. [F., fr. L. penna a feather. See Pen a feather.] A plume or bunch of feathers, esp. such a bunch worn on the helmet; any military plume, or ornamental group of feathers.

A panache of variegated plumes.


{ Pa*na"da (?), Pa*nade" (?), } n. [Sp. panada, fr. L. panis bread: cf. F. panade. See Pantry.] Bread boiled in water to the consistence of pulp, and sweetened or flavored. [Written also panado.]

Pa*nade" (?), n. A dagger. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Pan`a*ma" hat` (?). A fine plaited hat, made in Central America of the young leaves of a plant (Carludovica palmata).

Pan`-A*mer"i*can (?), a. [See Pan- .] Of or pertaining to both North and South America.

Pan`-An"gli*can (?), a. [Pan- + Anglican.] (Eccl.) Belonging to, or representing, the whole Church of England; used less strictly, to include the Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States; as, the Pan- Anglican Conference at Lambeth, in 1888.

Pan"a*ry (?), a. [L. panis bread.] Of or pertaining to bread or to breadmaking.

Pan"a*ry, n. A storehouse for bread. Halliwell.

Pan"cake` (?), n. A thin cake of batter fried in a pan or on a griddle; a griddlecake; a flapjack. "A pancake for Shrove Tuesday." Shak.

Pan"carte` (?), n. [F., fr. LL. pancharta. See Pan-, and Carte.] A royal charter confirming to a subject all his possessions. [Obs.] Holinshed.

Pance (?), n. (Bot.) The pansy. [Also paunce.]

Panch (?), n. (Naut.) See Paunch.

Panch"way (?), n. [Hind. pan&?;oi.] (Naut.) A Bengalese four-oared boat for passengers. [Written also panshway and paunchwas.] Malcom.

Pan*cra"tian (?), a. Pancratic; athletic.

Pan*cra"ti*ast (?), n. One who engaged in the contests of the pancratium.

Pan*cra`ti*as"tic (?), a. Of or pertaining to the pancratium. G. West.

Pan*crat"ic (?), a. [Gr. &?; all- powerful.] (Opt.) Having all or many degrees of power; having a great range of power; -- said of an eyepiece made adjustable so as to give a varying magnifying power.

{ Pan*crat"ic (?), Pan*crat"ic*al (?), } a. [See Pancratium.] Of or pertaining to the pancratium; athletic. Sir T. Browne

Pan"cra*tist (?), n. An athlete; a gymnast.

||Pan*cra"ti*um (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. &?; a complete contest, fr. &?; all-powerful; &?;, &?;, all + &?; strength.]

1. (Gr. Antiq.) An athletic contest involving both boxing and wrestling.

2. (Bot.) A genus of Old World amaryllideous bulbous plants, having a funnel-shaped perianth with six narrow spreading lobes. The American species are now placed in the related genus Hymenocallis.

Pan"cre*as (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?;; &?;, &?;, all + &?; flesh, meat: cf. F. pancréas.] (Anat.) The sweetbread, a gland connected with the intestine of nearly all vertebrates. It is usually elongated and light-colored, and its secretion, called the pancreatic juice, is discharged, often together with the bile, into the upper part of the intestines, and is a powerful aid in digestion. See Illust. of Digestive apparatus.

Pan`cre*at"ic (?), a. [Cf. F. pancréatique.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the pancreas; as, the pancreatic secretion, digestion, ferments.

Pancreatic juice (Physiol.), a colorless alkaline fluid secreted intermittently by the pancreatic gland. It is one of the most important of the digestive fluids, containing at least three distinct ferments, trypsin, steapsin and an amylolytic ferment, by which it acts upon all three classes of food stuffs. See Pancreas.

Pan"cre*a*tin (?), n. [See Pancreas.] (Physiol. Chem.) One of the digestive ferments of the pancreatic juice; also, a preparation containing such a ferment, made from the pancreas of animals, and used in medicine as an aid to digestion.

By some the term pancreatin is restricted to the amylolytic ferment of the pancreatic juice, by others it is applied to trypsin, and by still others to steapsin.

Pan"cy (?), n. See Pansy. [Obs.] Dryden.

Pan"da (?), n. (Zoöl.) A small Asiatic mammal (Ailurus fulgens) having fine soft fur. It is related to the bears, and inhabits the mountains of Northern India.

||Pan*da"nus (?), n. [NL., fr. Malay pandan.] (Bot.) A genus of endogenous plants. See Screw pine.

Pan"dar (?), n. Same as Pander. "Seized by the pandar of Appius." Macaulay.

Pan"dar*ism (?), n. Same as Panderism. Swift.

Pan"dar*ize (?), v. i. To pander. [Obs.]

Pan"dar*ous (?), a. Panderous. [Obs.]

Pan*de"an, a. [From 4th Pan.] Of or relating to the god Pan.

Pandean pipes, a primitive wind instrument, consisting of a series of short hollow reeds or pipes, graduated in length by the musical scale, and fastened together side by side; a syrinx; a mouth organ; -- said to have been invented by Pan. Called also Pan's pipes and Panpipes.

Pan"dect (?), n. [L. pandecta, pandectes, Gr. &?; all-receiving, all-containing; &?;, &?;, all + &?; to receive: cf. F. pandectes, pl.] 1. A treatise which comprehends the whole of any science.

[Thou] a pandect mak'st, and universal book.


2. pl. The digest, or abridgment, in fifty books, of the decisions, writings, and opinions of the old Roman jurists, made in the sixth century by direction of the emperor Justinian, and forming the leading compilation of the Roman civil law. Kent.

Pan*dem"ic (?), a. [L. pandemus, Gr. &?;, &?;; &?;, &?;, all + &?; the people: cf. F. pandémique.] Affecting a whole people or a number of countries; everywhere epidemic. -- n. A pandemic disease. Harvey.

Pan`de*mo"ni*um (?), n. [NL., from Gr. &?;, &?;, all + &?; a demon.] 1. The great hall or council chamber of demons or evil spirits. Milton.

2. An utterly lawless, riotous place or assemblage.

Pan"der (?), n. [From Pandarus, a leader in the Trojan army, who is represented by Chaucer and Shakespeare as having procured for Troilus the possession of Cressida.]

1. A male bawd; a pimp; a procurer.

Thou art the pander to her dishonor.


2. Hence, one who ministers to the evil designs and passions of another.

Those wicked panders to avarice and ambition.


Pan"der, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Pandered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Pandering.] To play the pander for.

Pan"der, v. i. To act the part of a pander.

Pan"der*age (?), n. The act of pandering.

Pan"der*ism (?), n. The employment, arts, or practices of a pander. Bp. Hall.

Pan"der*ly, a. Having the quality of a pander. "O, you panderly rascals." Shak.

Pan*der"mite (?), n. [From Panderma, a port on the Black Sea from which it is exported.] (Min.) A hydrous borate of lime, near priceite.

Pan"der*ous (?), a. Of or relating to a pander; characterizing a pander.

Pan*dic"u*la`ted (?), a. [See Pandiculation.] Extended; spread out; stretched.

Pan*dic`u*la"tion (?), n. [L. pandiculari to stretch one's self, fr. pandere to spread out.] A stretching and stiffening of the trunk and extremities, as when fatigued and drowsy.

Pan"dit (?), n. See Pundit.

Pan"door (?), n. Same as Pandour.

Pan*do"ra (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. Pandw`ra; pa^s, pa^n, all + dw^ron a gift.] 1. (Class. Myth.) A beautiful woman (all-gifted), whom Jupiter caused Vulcan to make out of clay in order to punish the human race, because Prometheus had stolen the fire from heaven. Jupiter gave Pandora a box containing all human ills, which, when the box was opened, escaped and spread over the earth. Hope alone remained in the box. Another version makes the box contain all the blessings of the gods, which were lost to men when Pandora opened it.

2. (Zoöl.) A genus of marine bivalves, in which one valve is flat, the other convex.

Pan"dore (?), n. [F. See Bandore.] An ancient musical instrument, of the lute kind; a bandore. [Written also pandoran.]

Pan"dour (?), n. One of a class of Hungarian mountaineers serving in the Austrian army; -- so called from Pandur, a principal town in the region from which they originally came. [Written also pandoor.]

Her whiskered pandours and her fierce hussars.


Pan*dow"dy (?), n. A deep pie or pudding made of baked apples, or of sliced bread and apples baked together, with no bottom crust.

{ Pan"du*rate, Pan*du"ri*form (?), } a. [L. pandura a pandore + -form: cf. F. panduriforme.] Obovate, with a concavity in each side, like the body of a violin; fiddle-shaped; as, a panduriform leaf; panduriform color markings of an animal.

Pane (?), n. [F. panne.] The narrow edge of a hammer head. See Peen.

Pane, n. [OE. pan part, portion of a thing, F. pan a skirt, lappet, part or piece of a wall, side, fr. L. pannus a cloth, fillet, rag; akin to E. vane. See Vane, and cf. Panel, Pawn pledge.] 1. A division; a distinct piece, limited part, or compartment of any surface; a patch; hence, a square of a checkered or plaided pattern.

2. One of the openings in a slashed garment, showing the bright colored silk, or the like, within; hence, the piece of colored or other stuff so shown.

3. (Arch.) (a) A compartment of a surface, or a flat space; hence, one side or face of a building; as, an octagonal tower is said to have eight panes. (b) Especially, in modern use, the glass in one compartment of a window sash.

4. In irrigating, a subdivision of an irrigated surface between a feeder and an outlet drain.

5. (a) One of the flat surfaces, or facets, of any object having several sides. (b) One of the eight facets surrounding the table of a brilliant cut diamond.

Paned (?), a. 1. Having panes; provided with panes; also, having openings; as, a paned window; paned window sash. "Paned hose." Massinger.

2. (Mach.) Having flat sides or surfaces; as, a six&?;paned nut.

Pan`e*gyr"ic (?), n. [L. panegyricus, Gr. panhgyrico`s: cf. F. panégyrique. See Panegyric, a.] An oration or eulogy in praise of some person or achievement; a formal or elaborate encomium; a laudatory discourse; laudation. See Synonym of Eulogy.

{ Pan`e*gyr"ic (?), Pan`e*gyr"ic*al (?), } a. [L. panegyricus, Gr. panhgyrico`s, from &?; an assembly of the people, a high festival; pa^, pa^n all + &?;, an assembly.] Containing praise or eulogy; encomiastic; laudatory. "Panegyric strains." Pope. -- Pan`e*gyr"ic*al*ly, adv.

Some of his odes are panegyrical.


Pa*neg"y*ris (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?;. See Panegyric.] A festival; a public assembly. [Obs.] S. Harris.

Pan"e*gyr`ist (?), n. [L. panegyrista, Gr. &?; one who attends a &?;: cf. &?; to celebrate or attend a public festival, to make a set speech, esp. a panegyric, in a public assembly. See Panegyric.] One who delivers a panegyric; a eulogist; one who extols or praises, either by writing or speaking.

If these panegyrists are in earnest.


Pan"e*gy*rize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Panegyrized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Panegyrizing (?).] [Gr. &?;. See Panegyrist.] To praise highly; to extol in a public speech; to write or deliver a panegyric upon; to eulogize.

Pan"e*gy*rize, v. i. To indulge in panegyrics. Mitford.

Pan"e*gyr`y (?), n. A panegyric. [Obs.] Milton.

Pan"el (?), n. [Orig., a little piece; OF. panel, pannel, F. panneau, dim. of pan skirt, lappet, part or piece of a wall, side. See 2d Pane.] 1. (Arch.) A sunken compartment with raised margins, molded or otherwise, as in ceilings, wainscotings, etc.

<! p. 1036 !>

2. (Law) (a) A piece of parchment or a schedule, containing the names of persons summoned as jurors by the sheriff; hence, more generally, the whole jury. Blackstone. (b) (Scots Law) A prisoner arraigned for trial at the bar of a criminal court. Burrill.

3. Formerly, a piece of cloth serving as a saddle; hence, a soft pad beneath a saddletree to prevent chafing.

4. (Joinery) A board having its edges inserted in the groove of a surrounding frame; as, the panel of a door.

5. (Masonry) One of the faces of a hewn stone. Gwilt.

6. (Painting) A slab or plank of wood upon which, instead of canvas, a picture is painted.

7. (Mining) (a) A heap of dressed ore. (b) One of the districts divided by pillars of extra size, into which a mine is laid off in one system of extracting coal.

8. (Dressmaking) A plain strip or band, as of velvet or plush, placed at intervals lengthwise on the skirt of a dress, for ornament.

9. A portion of a framed structure between adjacent posts or struts, as in a bridge truss.

Panel game, a method of stealing money in a panel house. -- Panel house, a house of prostitution in which the rooms have secret entrances to facilitate theft by accomplices of the inmates. -- Panel saw, handsaw with fine teeth, -- used for cutting out panels, etc. -- Panel thief, one who robs in a panel house.

Pan"el (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Paneled (?) or Panelled; p. pr. & vb. n. Paneling or Panelling.] To form in or with panels; as, to panel a wainscot.

Paneled back (Arch.), the paneled work covering the window back. See Window back.

Pan`el*a"tion (?), n. The act of impaneling a jury. [Obs.] [Written also panellation.] Wood.

Pane"less (?), a. Without panes.

To patch his paneless window.


Pan"el*ing (?), n. A forming in panels; panelwork. [Written also panelling.]

Pan"el*work` (?), n. (Arch.) Wainscoting.

Pan*eu"lo*gism (?), n. [See Pan-, Eulogy.] Eulogy of everything; indiscriminate praise. [R.]

Her book has a trace of the cant of paneulogism.

National Rev.

Pan"ful (?), n.; pl. Panfuls (#). [See 5th Pan.] Enough to fill a pan.

Pang (?), n. [Prob. for older prange. Cf. Prong.] A paroxysm of extreme pain or anguish; a sudden and transitory agony; a throe; as, the pangs of death.

Syn. -- Agony; anguish; distress. See Agony.

Pang, v. t. To torture; to cause to have great pain or suffering; to torment. [R.] Shak.

Pan*gen"e*sis (?), n. [Pan- + genesis.] (Biol.) An hypothesis advanced by Darwin in explanation of heredity.

The theory rests on the assumption, that the whole organization, in the sense of every separate atom or unit, reproduces itself, the cells throwing off minute granules called gemmules, which circulate freely throughout the system and multiply by subdivision. These gemmules collect in the reproductive organs and products, or in buds, so that the egg or bud contains gemmules from all parts of the parent or parents, which in development give rise to cells in the offspring similar to those from which they were given off in the parent. The hypothesis also assumes that these gemmules need not in all cases develop into cells, but may lie dormant, and be transmitted from generation to generation without producing a noticeable effect until a case of atavism occurs.

Pan`ge*net"ic (?), a. (Biol.) Of or pertaining to pangenesis.

Pang"ful (?), a. Full of pangs. Richardson.

Pang"less, a. Without a pang; painless. Byron.

Pan"go*lin (?), n. [Malay pang&?;lang.] (Zoöl.) Any one of several species of Manis, Pholidotus, and related genera, found in Africa and Asia. They are covered with imbricated scales, and feed upon ants. Called also scaly ant-eater.

Pan*goth"ic (?), a. [Pan- + Gothic.] Of, pertaining to, or including, all the Gothic races. "Ancestral Pangothic stock." Earle.

Pan`hel*len"ic (?), a. [See Panhellenium.] Of or pertaining to all Greece, or to Panhellenism; including all Greece, or all the Greeks.

Pan*hel"len*ism (?), n. A scheme to unite all the Greeks in one political body.

Pan*hel"len*ist, n. An advocate of Panhellenism.

Pan`hel*le"ni*um (?), n. [NL., from Gr. &?;; &?;, &?;, all + &?; the Greeks.] (Gr. Antiq.) An assembly or association of Greeks from all the states of Greece.

Pan"ic (?), n. [L. panicum.] (Bot.) A plant of the genus Panicum; panic grass; also, the edible grain of some species of panic grass.

Panic grass (Bot.), any grass of the genus Panicum.

Pan"ic, a. [Gr. &?; of or pertaining to &?; Pan, to whom the causing of sudden fright was ascribed: cf. F. panique.] Extreme or sudden and causeless; unreasonable; - - said of fear or fright; as, panic fear, terror, alarm. "A panic fright." Dryden.

Pan"ic, n. [Gr. &?; (with or without &?; fear): cf. F. panigue. See Panic, a.] 1. A sudden, overpowering fright; esp., a sudden and groundless fright; terror inspired by a trifling cause or a misapprehension of danger; as, the troops were seized with a panic; they fled in a panic.

2. By extension: A sudden widespread fright or apprehension concerning financial affairs.

Pan"ic*al (?), a. See Panic, a. [Obs.] Camden.

Pan"i*cle (?), n. [L. panicula a tuft on plants, dim. of panus the thread wound upon the bobbin in a shuttle; cf. Gr. &?;, &?;; prob. akin to E. pane: cf. F. panicule. See 2d Pane.] (Bot.) A pyramidal form of inflorescence, in which the cluster is loosely branched below and gradually simpler toward the end.

Pan"i*cled (?), a. (Bot.) Furnished with panicles; arranged in, or like, panicles; paniculate.

{ Pan"ic-strick`en (?), Pan"ic-struck` (?) }, a. Struck with a panic, or sudden fear. Burke.

{ Pa*nic"u*late (?), Pa*nic"u*la`ted (?), } a. [See Panicle.] (Bot) Same as Panicled.

||Pan"i*cum (?), n. [L., panic grass.] (Bot.) A genus of grasses, including several hundred species, some of which are valuable; panic grass.

Pan*id`i*o*mor"phic (?), a. [Pan- + idiomorphic.] (Geol.) Having a completely idiomorphic structure; -- said of certain rocks.

Pan"ier (?), n. See Pannier, 3. [Obs.]

Pan`i*fi*ca"tion (?), n. [L. panis bread + -ficare (in comp.) to make: cf. F. panification.] The act or process of making bread. Ure.

Pa"nim (?), n. See Painim. [Obs.] Milton.

Pan*is"lam*ism (?), n. [Pan- + Islamism.] A desire or plan for the union of all Mohammedan nations for the conquest of the world.

Pa*niv"o*rous (?), a. [L. panis bread + vorare to devour.] Eating bread; subsisting on bread.

Pan*nade" (?), n. The curvet of a horse.

Pan"nage (?), n. [OF. pasnage, LL. pasnadium, pastinaticum, fr. pastionare to feed on mast, as swine, fr. L. pastio a pasturing, grazing. See Pastor.] (O. Eng. Law) (a) The food of swine in the woods, as beechnuts, acorns, etc.; -- called also pawns. (b) A tax paid for the privilege of feeding swine in the woods.

Pan"na*ry (?), a. See Panary. Loudon.

Pan"nel (?), n. [See Panel.] 1. A kind of rustic saddle. Tusser.

2. (Falconry) The stomach of a hawk. Ainsworth.

3. (Mil.) A carriage for conveying a mortar and its bed, on a march. Farrow.

Pan"nier (?), n. [F. panier, fr. L. panarium a bread basket, fr. panis bread. Cf. Pantry.] 1. A bread basket; also, a wicker basket (used commonly in pairs) for carrying fruit or other things on a horse or an ass Hudibras.

2. (Mil. Antiq.) A shield of basket work formerly used by archers as a shelter from the enemy's missiles.

3. A table waiter at the Inns of Court, London.

4. A framework of steel or whalebone, worn by women to expand their dresses; a kind of bustle.

Pan"niered (?), a. Bearing panniers. Wordsworth.

Pan"ni*kel (?), n. [See Pan a dish.] The brainpan, or skull; hence, the crest. [Obs.] Spenser.

Pan"ni*kin (?), n. [Dim. of pan a dish.] A small pan or cup. Marryat. Thackeray.

Pan"nose` (?), a. [See Pannus.] (Bot.) Similar in texture or appearance to felt or woolen cloth.

||Pan"nus (?), n. [L., cloth. See 2d Pane.] (Med.) A very vascular superficial opacity of the cornea, usually caused by granulation of the eyelids. Foster.

Pan`o*is"tic (?), a. [Pan- + Gr. &?; an egg.] (Zoöl.) Producing ova only; -- said of the ovaries of certain insects which do not produce vitelligenous cells.

Pan`om*phe"an (?), a. [L. panomphaeus, Gr. &?;.] Uttering ominous or prophetic voices; divining. [R.]

We want no half gods, panomphean Joves.

Mrs. Browning.

Pan"o*plied (?), a. Dressed in panoply.

Pan"o*ply (?), n. [Gr. &?;; &?;, &?;, all + &?; tool, implement, in pl., armor, arms.] Defensive armor in general; a full suit of defensive armor. Milton.

We had need to take the Christian panoply, to put on the whole armor of God.


Pa*nop"ti*con (?), n. [NL. See Pan- , and Optic.]

1. A prison so contructed that the inspector can see each of the prisoners at all times, without being seen.

2. A room for the exhibition of novelties.

Pan`o*ra"ma (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?;, &?;, all + &?; that which is seen, a view, fr. &?; to see. See Pan- , and Wary.]

1. A complete view in every direction.

2. A picture presenting a view of objects in every direction, as from a central point.

3. A picture representing scenes too extended to be beheld at once, and so exhibited a part at a time, by being unrolled, and made to pass continuously before the spectator.

{ Pan`o*ram"ic (?), Pan`o*ram"ic*al (?), } a. Of, pertaining to, or like, a panorama.

Panoramic camera. See under Camera.

Pa*nor"pi*an (?), a. (Zoöl.) Like, or pertaining to, the genus Panorpa. -- n. Same as Panorpid.

Pa*nor"pid (?), n. (Zoöl.) Any neuropterous insect of the genus Panorpa, and allied genera. The larvæ feed on plant lice.

Pan*phar"ma*con (?), n. [NL. See Pan- , and Pharmacon.] A medicine for all diseases; a panacea. [R.]

Pan`pres`by*te"ri*an (?), a. [Pan- + Presbyterian.] Belonging to, or representative of, those who hold Presbyterian views in all parts of the world; as, a Panpresbyterian council.

{ Pan`sclav"ic (?), Pan`sclav"ism (?), Pan`sclav"ist, Pan`scla*vo"ni*an (?) }. See Panslavic, Panslavism, etc.

Pan"shon (?), n. An earthen vessel wider at the top than at the bottom, -- used for holding milk and for various other purposes. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.

Pan"sied (?), a. [From Pansy.] Covered or adorned with pansies. "The pansied grounds." Darwin.

Pan`slav"ic (?), a. [Pan- + Slavic.] Pertaining to all the Slavic races.

Pan`slav"ism (?), n. A scheme or desire to unite all the Slavic races into one confederacy.

Pan`slav"ist (?), n. One who favors Panslavism.

Pan`sla*vo"ni*an (?), a. See Panslavic.

Pan*soph"ic*al (?), a. [See Pansophy.] All-wise; claiming universal knowledge; as, pansophical pretenders. [R.] John Worthington.

Pan"so*phy (?), n. [Pan- + Gr. &?; wisdom, &?; wise: cf. F. pansophie.] Universal wisdom; esp., a system of universal knowledge proposed by Comenius (1592 -- 1671), a Moravian educator. [R.] Hartlib.

{ Pan*sper"ma*tist (?), Pan"sper`mist (?), } n. (Biol.) A believer in panspermy; one who rejects the theory of spontaneous generation; a biogenist.

Pan`sper"mic (?), a. (Biol.) Of or pertaining to panspermy; as, the panspermic hypothesis.

Pan"sper`my (?), n. [Pan- + Gr. &?; a seed.] (Biol.) (a) The doctrine of the widespread distribution of germs, from which under favorable circumstances bacteria, vibrios, etc., may develop. (b) The doctrine that all organisms must come from living parents; biogenesis; -- the opposite of spontaneous generation.

Pan*ste`re*o*ra"ma (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?;, &?;, all + &?; solid + &?; a view.] A model of a town or country, in relief, executed in wood, cork, pasteboard, or the like. Brande & C.

Pan"sy (?), n.; pl. Pansies (#). [F. Pensée thought, pansy, fr. penser to think, L. pensare to weigh, ponder. See Pensive.] (Bot.) A plant of the genus Viola (V. tricolor) and its blossom, originally purple and yellow. Cultivated varieties have very large flowers of a great diversity of colors. Called also heart's-ease, love-in-idleness, and many other quaint names.

Pant (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Panted; p. pr. & vb. n. Panting.] [Cf. F. panteler to gasp for breath, OF. panteisier to be breathless, F. pantois out of breath; perh. akin to E. phantom, the verb prob. orig. meaning, to have the nightmare.] 1. To breathe quickly or in a labored manner, as after exertion or from eagerness or excitement; to respire with heaving of the breast; to gasp.

Pluto plants for breath from out his cell.


2. Hence: To long eagerly; to desire earnestly.

As the hart panteth after the water brooks.

Ps. xlii. 1.

Who pants for glory finds but short repose.


3. To beat with unnatural violence or rapidity; to palpitate, or throb; -- said of the heart. Spenser.

4. To sigh; to flutter; to languish. [Poetic]

The whispering breeze
Pants on the leaves, and dies upon the trees.


Pant, v. t. 1. To breathe forth quickly or in a labored manner; to gasp out.

There is a cavern where my spirit
Was panted forth in anguish.


2. To long for; to be eager after. [R.]

Then shall our hearts pant thee.


Pant, n. 1. A quick breathing; a catching of the breath; a gasp. Drayton.

2. A violent palpitation of the heart. Shak.

Pan"ta- (?). See Pan-.

Pan"ta*ble (?), n. See Pantofle. [Obs.]

Pan"ta*cosm (?), n. [Panta- + Gr. ko`smos universe.] See Cosmolabe.

Pan"ta*graph (?), n. See Pantograph.

Pan*tag"ru*el*ism (?), n. [From Pantagruel, one of the characters of Rabelais.] 1. The theory or practice of the medical profession; -- used in burlesque or ridicule.

2. An assumption of buffoonery to cover some serious purpose. [R.] Donaldson.

Pan`ta*let" (?), n. [Dim. of pantaloon.] One of the legs of the loose drawers worn by children and women; particularly, the lower part of such a garment, coming below the knee, often made in a separate piece; -- chiefly in the plural.

Pan`ta*loon" (?), n. [F. pantalon, fr. It. pantalone, a masked character in the Italian comedy, who wore breeches and stockings that were all of one piece, from Pantaleone, the patron saint of Venice, which, as a baptismal name, is very frequent among the Venetians, and is applied to them by the other Italians as a nickname, fr. Gr. &?;, lit., all lion, a Greek personal name.] 1. A ridiculous character, or an old dotard, in the Italian comedy; also, a buffoon in pantomimes. Addison.

The sixth age shifts
Into the lean and slippered pantaloon.


2. pl. A bifurcated garment for a man, covering the body from the waist downwards, and consisting of breeches and stockings in one.

3. pl. In recent times, same as Trousers.

Pan`ta*loon"er*y (?), n. 1. The character or performances of a pantaloon; buffoonery. [R.] Lamb.

2. Materials for pantaloons.

Pan"ta*morph (?), n. That which assumes, or exists in, all forms.

Pan`ta*mor"phic (?), a. [Panta- + Gr. &?; form.] Taking all forms.

Pan"ta*scope (?), n. [Panta- + -scope.] (Photog.) A pantascopic camera.

Pan`ta*scop"ic (?), a. Viewing all; taking a view of the whole. See under Camera.

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||Pan`ta*stom"a*ta (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. &?;, &?;, all + &?;, &?;, mouth.] (Zoöl.) One of the divisions of Flagellata, including the monads and allied forms.

Pan*tech"ni*con (?), n. [NL. See Pan- , and Technic.] A depository or place where all sorts of manufactured articles are collected for sale.

Pan*tel"e*graph (?), n. [Pan- + telegraph.] See under Telegraph.

Pant"er (?), n. One who pants. Congreve.

Pan"ter (?), n.[F. panetier. See Pantry.] A keeper of the pantry; a pantler. [Obs.] Tyndale.

Pan"ter, n. [See Painter a rope.] A net; a noose. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Pan`teu*ton"ic (?), a. [Pan- + Teutonic.] Of or pertaining to all the Teutonic races.

Pan"the*ism (?), n. [Pan- + theism.] The doctrine that the universe, taken or conceived of as a whole, is God; the doctrine that there is no God but the combined force and laws which are manifested in the existing universe; cosmotheism.

Pan"the*ist, n. One who holds to pantheism.

{ Pan`the*is"tic (?), Pan`the*is"tic*al (?), } a. Of or pertaining to pantheism; founded in, or leading to, pantheism. -- Pan`the*is"tic*al*ly, adv.

Pan`the*ol"o*gist (?), n. One versed in pantheology.

Pan`the*ol"o*gy (?), n. [Pan- + theology.] A system of theology embracing all religions; a complete system of theology.

Pan*the"on (?), n. [L. pantheon, pantheum, Gr. &?; (sc. &?;), fr. &?; of all gods; &?;, &?;, all + &?; a god: cf. F. panthéon. See Pan-, and Theism.] 1. A temple dedicated to all the gods; especially, the building so called at Rome.

2. The collective gods of a people, or a work treating of them; as, a divinity of the Greek pantheon.

Pan"ther (?), n. [OE. pantere, F. panthère, L. panthera, Gr. &?;, prob. fr. Skr. pundrka a tiger.]

1. (Zoöl.) A large dark-colored variety of the leopard, by some zoölogists considered a distinct species. It is marked with large ringlike spots, the centers of which are darker than the color of the body.

2. (Zoöl.) In America, the name is applied to the puma, or cougar, and sometimes to the jaguar.

Panther cat (Zoöl.), the ocelot. -- Panther cowry (Zoöl.), a spotted East Indian cowry (Cypræa pantherina); -- so called from its color.

Pan"ther*ess, n. (Zoöl.) A female panther.

Pan"ther*ine (?), a. Like a panther, esp. in color; as, the pantherine snake (Ptyas mucosus) of Brazil.

Pan"tile` (?), n. [5th pan + tile.] (Arch.) A roofing tile, of peculiar form, having a transverse section resembling an elongated S laid on its side (&?;).

Pant"ing*ly (?), adv. With palpitation or rapid breathing. Shak.

Pan`ti*soc"ra*cy (?), n. [Panto- + Gr. &?; equal + &?; to rule.] A Utopian community, in which all should rule equally, such as was devised by Coleridge, Lovell, and Southey, in their younger days.

Pan*tis"o*crat (?), n. A pantisocratist.

Pan`ti*so*crat"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to a pantisocracy.

Pan`ti*soc"ra*tist (?), n. One who favors or supports the theory of a pantisocracy. Macaulay.

Pan"tler (?), n. [F. panetier. See Panter, Pantry.] The servant or officer, in a great family, who has charge of the bread and the pantry. [Obs.] Shak.

Pan"to- (?). See Pan-.

Pan`to*chro*nom"e*ter (?), n. [Panto- + chronometer.] An instrument combining a compass, sundial, and universal time dial. Brande & C.

Pan*to"fle (?), n. [F. pantoufle.] A slipper for the foot. [Written also pantable and pantoble.]

Pan"to*graph (?), n. [Panto- + -graph: cf. F. pantographe.] An instrument for copying plans, maps, and other drawings, on the same, or on a reduced or an enlarged, scale. [Written also pantagraph, and incorrectly pentagraph.]

Skew pantograph, a kind of pantograph for drawing a copy which is inclined with respect to the original figure; -- also called plagiograph.

{ Pan`to*graph"ic (?), Pan`to*graph"ic*al (?) }, a. [Cf. F. pantographique.] Of or pertaining to a pantograph; relating to pantography.

Pan*tog"ra*phy (?), n. [Cf. F. pantographie.] A general description; entire view of an object.

Pan`to*log"ic*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to pantology.

Pan*tol"o*gist (?), n. One versed in pantology; a writer of pantology.

Pan*tol"o*gy (?), n. [Panto- + -logy.] A systematic view of all branches of human knowledge; a work of universal information.

Pan*tom"e*ter (?), n. [Panto- + -meter: cf. F. pantomètre.] An instrument for measuring angles for determining elevations, distances, etc.

Pan*tom"e*try (?), n. Universal measurement. [R.] -- Pan`to*met"ric (#), a. [R.]

Pan"to*mime (?), n. [F., fr. L. pantomimus, Gr. &?;, lit., all-imitating; &?;, &?;, all + &?; to imitate: cf. It. pantomimo. See Mimic.] 1. A universal mimic; an actor who assumes many parts; also, any actor. [Obs.]

2. One who acts his part by gesticulation or dumb show only, without speaking; a pantomimist.

[He] saw a pantomime perform so well that he could follow the performance from the action alone.


3. A dramatic representation by actors who use only dumb show; hence, dumb show, generally.

4. A dramatic and spectacular entertainment of which dumb acting as well as burlesque dialogue, music, and dancing by Clown, Harlequin, etc., are features.

Pan"to*mime, a. Representing only in mute actions; pantomimic; as, a pantomime dance.

{ Pan`to*mim"ic (?), Pan`to*mim"ic*al (?), } a. [Cf. F. pantomimique.] Of or pertaining to the pantomime; representing by dumb show. "Pantomimic gesture." Bp. Warburton. -- Pan`to*mim"ic*al*ly, adv.

Pan"to*mi`mist (?), n. An actor in pantomime; also, a composer of pantomimes.

Pan"ton (?), n. [F. patin. See Patten.] (Far.) A horseshoe to correct a narrow, hoofbound heel.

Pan*toph"a*gist (?), n. [See Pantophagous.] A person or an animal that has the habit of eating all kinds of food.

Pan*toph"a*gous (?), a. [Gr. &?;; &?;, &?;, all + &?; to eat.] Eating all kinds of food.

Pan*toph"a*gy (?), n. [Gr. &?;.] The habit or power of eating all kinds of food.

||Pan*top"o*da (?), n. pl. [NL. See Panto-, & -poda.] (Zoöl.) Same as Pycnogonida.

Pan`to*scop"ic (?), a. [Panto- + -scope + -ic.] Literally, seeing everything; -- a term applied to eyeglasses or spectacles divided into two segments, the upper being designed for distant vision, the lower for vision of near objects.

Pan"try (?), n.; pl. Pantries (#). [OE. pantrie, F. paneterie, fr. panetier pantler, LL. panetarius baker, panetus small loaf of bread, L. panis bread. Cf. Company, Pannier, Pantler.] An apartment or closet in which bread and other provisions are kept.

Pan*ur"gic (?), a. [Cf. Gr. &?; knavish.] Skilled in all kinds of work. "The panurgic Diderot." J. Morley.

Pan"ur*gy (?), n. [Gr. &?;, fr. &?;, properly, ready to do anything; hence, knavish, roguish; &?;, &?;, all + &?; work.] Skill in all kinds of work or business; craft. [R.] Bailey.

Pan"yard (?), n. See Pannier. [Obs.] Pepys.

Pa"nym (?), n. & a. See Panim. [Obs.]

Pan*zo"ism (?), n. [Pan- + Gr. &?; an animal.] (Biol.) A term used to denote all of the elements or factors which constitute vitality or vital energy. H. Spencer.

||Pa"o*lo (?), n. [It. Cf. Paul.] An old Italian silver coin, worth about ten cents.

Pap (?), n. [Cf. OSw. papp. Cf. Pap soft food.]

1. (Anat.) A nipple; a mammilla; a teat. Dryden.

The paps which thou hast sucked.

Luke xi. 27.

2. A rounded, nipplelike hill or peak; anything resembling a nipple in shape; a mamelon. Macaulay.

Pap, n. [Cf. D. pap, G. pappe, both perh. fr. L. papa, pappa, the word with which infants call for food: cf. It. pappa.] 1. A soft food for infants, made of bread boiled or softtened in milk or water.

2. Nourishment or support from official patronage; as, treasury pap. [Colloq. & Contemptuous]

3. The pulp of fruit. Ainsworth.

Pap, v. t. To feed with pap. Beau. & Fl.

Pa*pa" (?), n. [F. papa, L. papa; cf. Gr. &?;, &?;, a child's word meaning father. Cf. Pope.]

1. A child's word for father.

2. A parish priest in the Greek Church. Shipley.

Pa`pa*bo"te (?), n. [Probably of Creole origin.] (Zoöl.) The upland plover. [Local, U. S.]

Pa"pa*cy (?), n. [LL. papatia, fr. L. papa a father, bishop. See Pope.] 1. The office and dignity of the pope, or pontiff, of Rome; papal jurisdiction.

2. The popes, collectively; the succession of popes.

3. The Roman Catholic religion; -- commonly used by the opponents of the Roman Catholics in disparagement or in an opprobrious sense.

Pap"a*gay (?), n. (Zoöl.) See Popinjay, 1 (b).

Pa*pa"in (?), n. [From Papaw.] (Physiol. Chem.) A proteolytic ferment, like trypsin, present in the juice of the green fruit of the papaw (Carica Papaya) of tropical America.

Pa"pal (?), a. [F., fr. L. papa bishop. See Papacy.]

1. Of or pertaining to the pope of Rome; proceeding from the pope; ordered or pronounced by the pope; as, papal jurisdiction; a papal edict; the papal benediction. Milman.

2. Of or pertaining to the Roman Catholic Church. "Papal Christians." Bp. Burnet.

Papal cross. See Illust. 3 of Cross. -- Papal crown, the tiara.

Pa"pal*ist (?), n. A papist. [Obs.] Baxter.

Pa*pal"i*ty (?), n. [LL. papalitas: cf. F. papauté.] The papacy. [Obs.] Ld. Berners. Milton.

Pa"pal*ize (?), v. t. To make papal. [R.]

Pa"pal*ize, v. i. To conform to popery. Cowper.

Pa"pal*ly, adv. In a papal manner; popishly

Pa"pal*ty (?), n. The papacy. [Obs.] Milton.

Pa`pa*pho"bi*a (?), n. [NL., fr. L. papa bishop + Gr. &?; to fear.] Intense fear or dread of the pope, or of the Roman Catholic Church. [R.]

Pa"par*chy (?), n. [L. papa bishop + -archy.] Government by a pope; papal rule.

||Pa*pa"ver (?), n. [L., poppy.] (Bot.) A genus of plants, including the poppy.

Pa*pav`er*a"ceous (?), a. (Bot.) Of, pertaining to, or resembling, a natural order of plants (Papaveraceæ) of which the poppy, the celandine, and the bloodroot are well-known examples.

Pa*pav"er*ine (?), n. (Chem.) An alkaloid found in opium. It has a weaker therapeutic action than morphine.

Pa*pav"er*ous (?), a. Of or pertaining to the poppy; of the nature of the poppy. Sir T. Browne.

Pa*paw" (?), n. [Prob. from the native name in the West Indies; cf. Sp. papayo papaw, papaya the fruit of the papaw.] [Written also pawpaw.] 1. (Bot.) A tree (Carica Papaya) of tropical America, belonging to the order Passifloreæ. It has a soft, spongy stem, eighteen or twenty feet high, crowned with a tuft of large, long-stalked, palmately lobed leaves. The milky juice of the plant is said to have the property of making meat tender. Also, its dull orange-colored, melon-shaped fruit, which is eaten both raw and cooked or pickled.

2. (Bot.) A tree of the genus Asimina (A. triloba), growing in the western and southern parts of the United States, and producing a sweet edible fruit; also, the fruit itself. Gray.

Pap"boat` (?), n. 1. A kind of sauce boat or dish.

2. (Zoöl.) A large spiral East Indian marine shell (Turbinella rapha); -- so called because used by native priests to hold the oil for anointing.

Pape (?), n. [Cf. F. pape, fr. L. papa. See Pope.] A spiritual father; specifically, the pope. [Obs.]

Pa"pe*jay (?), n. A popinjay. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Pa"per (?), n. [F. papier, fr. L. papyrus papyrus, from which the Egyptians made a kind of paper, Gr. &?;. Cf. Papyrus.] 1. A substance in the form of thin sheets or leaves intended to be written or printed on, or to be used in wrapping. It is made of rags, straw, bark, wood, or other fibrous material, which is first reduced to pulp, then molded, pressed, and dried.

2. A sheet, leaf, or piece of such substance.

3. A printed or written instrument; a document, essay, or the like; a writing; as, a paper read before a scientific society.

They brought a paper to me to be signed.


4. A printed sheet appearing periodically; a newspaper; a journal; as, a daily paper.

5. Negotiable evidences of indebtedness; notes; bills of exchange, and the like; as, the bank holds a large amount of his paper.

6. Decorated hangings or coverings for walls, made of paper. See Paper hangings, below.

7. A paper containing (usually) a definite quantity; as, a paper of pins, tacks, opium, etc.

8. A medicinal preparation spread upon paper, intended for external application; as, cantharides paper.

Paper is manufactured in sheets, the trade names of which, together with the regular sizes in inches, are shown in the following table. But paper makers vary the size somewhat.

In the manufacture of books, etc., a sheet, of whatever size originally, is termed, when folded once, a folio; folded twice, a quarto, or 4to; three times, an octavo, or 8vo; four times, a sextodecimo, or 16mo; five times, a 32mo; three times, with an offcut folded twice and set in, a duodecimo, or 12mo; four times, with an offcut folded three times and set in, a 24mo.

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Paper is often used adjectively or in combination, having commonly an obvious signification; as, paper cutter or paper-cutter; paper knife, paper-knife, or paperknife; paper maker, paper-maker, or papermaker; paper mill or paper-mill; paper weight, paper-weight, or paperweight, etc.

Business paper, checks, notes, drafts, etc., given in payment of actual indebtedness; -- opposed to accommodation paper. -- Fly paper, paper covered with a sticky preparation, -- used for catching flies. -- Laid paper. See under Laid. -- Paper birch (Bot.), the canoe birch tree (Betula papyracea). -- Paper blockade, an ineffective blockade, as by a weak naval force. -- Paper boat (Naut.), a boat made of water-proof paper. -- Paper car wheel (Railroad), a car wheel having a steel tire, and a center formed of compressed paper held between two plate- iron disks. Forney. -- Paper credit, credit founded upon evidences of debt, such as promissory notes, duebills, etc. -- Paper hanger, one who covers walls with paper hangings. -- Paper hangings, paper printed with colored figures, or otherwise made ornamental, prepared to be pasted against the walls of apartments, etc.; wall paper. -- Paper house, an audience composed of people who have come in on free passes. [Cant] -- Paper money, notes or bills, usually issued by government or by a banking corporation, promising payment of money, and circulated as the representative of coin. -- Paper mulberry. (Bot.) See under Mulberry. -- Paper muslin, glazed muslin, used for linings, etc. -- Paper nautilus. (Zoöl.) See Argonauta. -- Paper reed (Bot.), the papyrus. - - Paper sailor. (Zoöl.) See Argonauta. -- Paper stainer, one who colors or stamps wall paper. De Colange. -- Paper wasp (Zoöl.), any wasp which makes a nest of paperlike material, as the yellow jacket. -- Paper weight, any object used as a weight to prevent loose papers from being displaced by wind, or otherwise. -- Parchment paper. See Papyrine. -- Tissue paper, thin, gauzelike paper, such as is used to protect engravings in books. -- Wall paper. Same as Paper hangings, above. -- Waste paper, paper thrown aside as worthless or useless, except for uses of little account. -- Wove paper, a writing paper with a uniform surface, not ribbed or watermarked.

Pa"per (?), a. Of or pertaining to paper; made of paper; resembling paper; existing only on paper; unsubstantial; as, a paper box; a paper army.

Pa"per, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Papered(?); p. pr. & vb. n. Papering.] 1. To cover with paper; to furnish with paper hangings; as, to paper a room or a house.

2. To fold or inclose in paper.

3. To put on paper; to make a memorandum of. [Obs.]

Pa"per*weight` (?), n. See under Paper, n.

Pa"per*y (?), a. Like paper; having the thinness or consistence of paper. Gray.

Pa*pes"cent (?), a. [From Pap soft food.] Containing or producing pap; like pap. [R.] Arbuthnot.

Pa"pess (?), n. [F. papesse.] A female pope; i. e., the fictitious pope Joan. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.

||Pa`pe*terie" (?), n. [F., paper manufacture, fr. papier paper.] A case or box containing paper and materials for writing.

Pa"phi*an (?), a. [L. Paphius, Gr. &?;, from &?; the city Paphos.] Of or pertaining to Paphos, an ancient city of Cyprus, having a celebrated temple of Venus; hence, pertaining to Venus, or her rites.

Pa"phi*an, n. A native or inhabitant of Paphos.

||Pa`pier"-ma`ché" (?), n. [F. papier mâché, lit., chewed or mashed paper.] A hard and strong substance made of a pulp from paper, mixed with sise or glue, etc. It is formed into various articles, usually by means of molds.

||Pa*pil"i*o (?), n. [L., a butterfly.] (Zoöl.) A genus of butterflies.

Formerly it included numerous species which are now placed in other genera. By many writers it is now restricted to the swallow- tailed butterflies, like Papilio polyxenes, or asterias, and related species.

Pa*pil`io*na"ceous (?), a. 1. Resembling the butterfly.

2. (Bot.) (a) Having a winged corolla somewhat resembling a butterfly, as in the blossoms of the bean and pea. (b) Belonging to that suborder of leguminous plants (Papilionaceæ) which includes the bean, pea, vetch, clover, and locust.

||Pa*pil`i*o"nes (?), n. pl. [NL. See Papilio.] (Zoöl.) The division of Lepidoptera which includes the butterflies.

||Pa*pil`i*on"i*des (?), n. pl. [NL.] (Zoöl.) The typical butterflies.

Pa*pil"la (?), n.; pl. Papillæ (#). [L., a nipple, pimple.] Any minute nipplelike projection; as, the papillæ of the tongue.

Pap"il*lar (?), a. [Cf. F. papillaire.] Same as Papillose.

Pap"il*la*ry (?), a. [Cf. F. papillaire.] Of, pertaining to, or resembling, a papilla or papillæ; bearing, or covered with, papillæ; papillose.

Pap"il*late (?), v. t. & i. To cover with papillæ; to take the form of a papilla, or of papillæ.

Pap"il*late (?), a. Same as Papillose.

Pa*pil"li*form (?), a. [Papilla + -form.] Shaped like a papilla; mammilliform.

||Pap`il*lo"ma (?), n.; pl. Papillomata (#). [NL. See Papilla, and - Oma.] (Med.) A tumor formed by hypertrophy of the papillæ of the skin or mucous membrane, as a corn or a wart. Quain.

Pap`il*lo"ma*tous (?), a. (Med.) Of, pertaining to, or consisting of, papillomata.

Pap"il*lose` (?), a. [Cf. F. papilleux.] Covered with, or bearing, papillæ; resembling papillæ; papillate; papillar; papillary.

Pap"il*lote (?), n. [F., fr. papillon a butterfly.] a small piece of paper on which women roll up their hair to make it curl; a curl paper.

Pap"il*lous (?), a. Papillary; papillose.

Pa*pil"lu*late (?), a. (Zoöl.) Having a minute papilla in the center of a larger elevation or depression.

Pa"pi*on (?), n. [Prob. from native name: cf. Sp. papion.] (Zoöl.) A West African baboon (Cynocephalus sphinx), allied to the chacma. Its color is generally chestnut, varying in tint.

Pa"pism (?), n. [F. papisme. See Pape, Pope.] Popery; -- an offensive term. Milton.

Pa"pist (?), n. [F. papiste. See Pape, Pope.] A Roman catholic; one who adheres to the Church of Rome and the authority of the pope; -- an offensive designation applied to Roman Catholics by their opponents.

{ Pa*pis"tic (?), Pa*pis"tic*al (?), } a. [Cf. F. papistique.] Of or pertaining to the Church of Rome and its doctrines and ceremonies; pertaining to popery; popish; -- used disparagingly. "The old papistic worship." T. Warton. -- Pa*pis"tic*al*ly, adv.

Pa"pist*ry (?), n. The doctrine and ceremonies of the Church of Rome; popery. [R.] Whitgift.

Pa"pized (?), a. [From Pape.] Conformed to popery. [Obs.] "Papized writers." Fuller.

Pa*poose" (?), n. A babe or young child of Indian parentage in North America.

Pap"pi*form (?), a. (Bot.) Resembling the pappus of composite plants.

Pap*poose" (?), n. Same as Papoose.

Pappoose root. (Bot.) See Cohosh.

Pap*pose" (?), a. (Bot.) Furnished with a pappus; downy.

Pap"pous (?), a. (Bot.) Pappose.

Pap"pus (?), n. [L., an old man or grandfather; hence, a substance resembling gray hairs, Gr. &?;.] (Bot.) The hairy or feathery appendage of the achenes of thistles, dandelions, and most other plants of the order Compositæ; also, the scales, awns, or bristles which represent the calyx in other plants of the same order.

Pap"py (?), a. [From Pap soft food.] Like pap; soft; succulent; tender. Ray.

Pap"u*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to Papua.

Pap"u*ars (?), n. pl.; sing. Papuan (&?;). (Ethnol.) The native black race of Papua or New Guinea, and the adjacent islands.

||Pap"u*la (?), n.; pl. Papulæ (#). [L.]

1. (Med.) A pimple; a small, usually conical, elevation of the cuticle, produced by congestion, accumulated secretion, or hypertrophy of tissue; a papule. Quain.

2. (Zoöl.) One of the numerous small hollow processes of the integument between the plates of starfishes.

Pap"u*lar (?), a. 1. Covered with papules.

2. (Med.) Consisting of papules; characterized by the presence of papules; as, a papular eruption.

Pap"ule (?), n.; pl. Papules (&?;). Same as Papula.

Pap"u*lose` (?), a. (Biol.) Having papulæ; papillose; as, a papulose leaf.

Pap"u*lous (?), a. [Cf. F. pap&?;leux.] Covered with, or characterized by, papulæ; papulose.

Pap`y*ra"ceous (?), a. [L. papyraceus made of papyrus.] Made of papyrus; of the consistency of paper; papery.

Pa*pyr"e*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to papyrus, or to paper; papyraceous.

Pap"y*rine (?), n. [Cf. F. papyrin made of paper. See Paper.] Imitation parchment, made by soaking unsized paper in dilute sulphuric acid.

Pa*pyr"o*graph (?), n. [Papyrus + -graph.] An apparatus for multiplying writings, drawings, etc., in which a paper stencil, formed by writing or drawing with corrosive ink, is used. The word is also used of other means of multiplying copies of writings, drawings, etc. See Copygraph, Hectograph, Manifold.

Pap`y*rog"ra*phy (?), n. The process of multiplying copies of writings, etc., by means of the papyrograph. -- Pap`y*ro*graph"ic (#), a.

Pa*py"rus (?), n.; pl. Papyri (#). [L., fr. Gr. &?;. See Paper.] 1. (Bot.) A tall rushlike plant (Cyperus Papyrus) of the Sedge family, formerly growing in Egypt, and now found in Abyssinia, Syria, Sicily, etc. The stem is triangular and about an inch thick.

2. The material upon which the ancient Egyptians wrote. It was formed by cutting the stem of the plant into thin longitudinal slices, which were gummed together and pressed.

3. A manuscript written on papyrus; esp., pl., written scrolls made of papyrus; as, the papyri of Egypt or Herculaneum.

Pâque (?), n. [F. pâque.] See Pasch and Easter.

Par (?), n. (Zoöl.) See Parr.

Par, prep. [F., fr. L. per. See Per.] By; with; -- used frequently in Early English in phrases taken from the French, being sometimes written as a part of the word which it governs; as, par amour, or paramour; par cas, or parcase; par fay, or parfay.

Par (?), n. [L. par, adj., equal. See Peer an equal.]

1. Equal value; equality of nominal and actual value; the value expressed on the face or in the words of a certificate of value, as a bond or other commercial paper.

2. Equality of condition or circumstances.

At par, at the original price; neither at a discount nor at a premium. -- Above par, at a premium. -- Below par, at a discount. -- On a par, on a level; in the same condition, circumstances, position, rank, etc.; as, their pretensions are on a par; his ability is on a par with his ambition. -- Par of exchange. See under Exchange. -- Par value, nominal value; face value.

Par"a- (?). [Gr. para` beside; prob. akin to E. for- in forgive. Cf. For-.] 1. A prefix signifying alongside of, beside, beyond, against, amiss; as parable, literally, a placing beside; paradox, that which is contrary to opinion; parachronism.

2. (Chem.) A prefix denoting: (a) Likeness, similarity, or connection, or that the substance resembles, but is distinct from, that to the name of which it is prefixed; as paraldehyde, paraconine, etc.; also, an isomeric modification. (b) Specifically: (Organ. Chem.) That two groups or radicals substituted in the benzene nucleus are opposite, or in the respective positions 1 and 4; 2 and 5; or 3 and 6, as paraxylene; paroxybenzoic acid. Cf. Ortho-, and Meta-. Also used adjectively.

||Pa*ra" (?), n. [Turk., fr. Per. prah a piece.] A piece of Turkish money, usually copper, the fortieth part of a piaster, or about one ninth of a cent.

Par`a*ban"ic (?), a. [Gr. &?; to pass over.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, a nitrogenous acid which is obtained by the oxidation of uric acid, as a white crystalline substance (C3N2H2O3); -- also called oxalyl urea.

Par"a*blast (?), n. [Cf. Gr. &?; to grow beside. See Para-, and -blast.] (Biol.) A portion of the mesoblast (of peripheral origin) of the developing embryo, the cells of which are especially concerned in forming the first blood and blood vessels. C. S. Minot.

Par`a*blas"tic (?), a. (Biol.) Of or pertaining to the parablast; as, the parablastic cells.

Par"a*ble (?), a. [L. parabilis, fr. parare to provide.] Procurable. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

Par"a*ble, n. [F. parabole, L. parabola, fr. Gr. &?; a placing beside or together, a comparing, comparison, a parable, fr. &?; to throw beside, compare; para` beside + &?; to throw; cf. Skr. gal to drop. Cf. Emblem, Gland, Palaver, Parabola, Parley, Parabole, Symbol.] A comparison; a similitude; specifically, a short fictitious narrative of something which might really occur in life or nature, by means of which a moral is drawn; as, the parables of Christ. Chaucer.

Declare unto us the parable of the tares.

Matt. xiii. 36.

Syn. -- See Allegory, and Note under Apologue.

Par"a*ble, v. t. To represent by parable. [R.]

Which by the ancient sages was thus parabled.


Pa*rab"o*la (?), n.; pl. Parabolas (#). [NL., fr. Gr. &?;; -- so called because its axis is parallel to the side of the cone. See Parable, and cf. Parabole.] (Geom.) (a) A kind of curve; one of the conic sections formed by the intersection of the surface of a cone with a plane parallel to one of its sides. It is a curve, any point of which is equally distant from a fixed point, called the focus, and a fixed straight line, called the directrix. See Focus. (b) One of a group of curves defined by the equation y = axn where n is a positive whole number or a positive fraction. For the cubical parabola n = 3; for the semicubical parabola n = . See under Cubical, and Semicubical. The parabolas have infinite branches, but no rectilineal asymptotes.

||Pa*rab"o*le (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. &?;. See Parable.] (Rhet.) Similitude; comparison.

{ Par`a*bol"ic (?), Par`a*bol"ic*al (?), } a. [Gr. paraboliko`s figurative: cf. F. parabolique. See Parable.]

1. Of the nature of a parable; expressed by a parable or figure; allegorical; as, parabolical instruction.

2. [From Parabola.] (Geom.) (a) Having the form or nature of a parabola; pertaining to, or resembling, a parabola; as, a parabolic curve. (b) Generated by the revolution of a parabola, or by a line that moves on a parabola as a directing curve; as, a parabolic conoid.

Parabolic conoid, a paraboloid; a conoid whose directing curve is a parabola. See Conoid. -- Parabolic mirror (Opt.), a mirror having a paraboloidal surface which gives for parallel rays (as those from very distant objects) images free from aberration. It is used in reflecting telescopes. -- Parabolic spindle, the solid generated by revolving the portion of a parabola cut off by a line drawn at right angles to the axis of the curve, about that line as an axis. -- Parabolic spiral, a spiral curve conceived to be formed by the periphery of a semiparabola when its axis is wrapped about a circle; also, any other spiral curve having an analogy to the parabola.

<! p. 1039 !>

Par`a*bol"ic*al*ly (pr`*bl"*kal*l), adv. 1. By way of parable; in a parabolic manner.

2. In the form of a parabola.

Par`a*bol"i*form (-*fôrm), a. [Parabola + -form.] Resembling a parabola in form.

Pa*rab"o*lism (p*rb"*lz'm), n. [From Parabola.] (Alg.) The division of the terms of an equation by a known quantity that is involved in the first term. [Obs.]

Pa*rab"o*list (-lst), n. A narrator of parables.

Pa*rab"o*loid (-loid), n. [Parabola + -oid: cf. F. paraboloïde.] (Geom.) The solid generated by the rotation of a parabola about its axis; any surface of the second order whose sections by planes parallel to a given line are parabolas.

The term paraboloid has sometimes been applied also to the parabolas of the higher orders. Hutton.

Par`a*bo*loid"al (?), a. Of, pertaining to, or resembling, a paraboloid.

||Par`a*bron"chi*um (?), n.; pl. Parabronchia (#). [NL. See Para-, Bronchia.] (Anat.) One of the branches of an ectobronchium or entobronchium.

Par`a*cel"si*an (?), a. Of, pertaining to, or in conformity with, the practice of Paracelsus, a Swiss physician of the 15th century. Ferrand.

Par`a*cel"si*an, n. A follower of Paracelsus or his practice or teachings. Hakewill.

Par`a*cel"sist (?), n. A Paracelsian.

||Par`a*cen*te"sis (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to pierce at the side, to tap.] (Med.) The perforation of a cavity of the body with a trocar, aspirator, or other suitable instrument, for the evacuation of effused fluid, pus, or gas; tapping.

{ Par`a*cen"tric (?), Par`a*cen"tric*al (?), } a. [Pref. para- + centric, - ical: cf. F. paracentrique.] Deviating from circularity; changing the distance from a center.

Paracentric curve (Math.), a curve having the property that, when its plane is placed vertically, a body descending along it, by the force of gravity, will approach to, or recede from, a fixed point or center, by equal distances in equal times; -- called also a paracentric. -- Paracentric motton or velocity, the motion or velocity of a revolving body, as a planet, by which it approaches to, or recedes from, the center, without reference to its motion in space, or to its motion as reckoned in any other direction.

Par`a*chor"dal (?), a. [Pref. para- + chordal.] (Anat.) Situated on either side of the notochord; -- applied especially to the cartilaginous rudiments of the skull on each side of the anterior part of the notochord. -- n. A parachordal cartilage.

Pa*rach"ro*nism (?), n. [Pref. para- + Gr. &?; time: cf. F. parachronisme.] An error in chronology, by which the date of an event is set later than the time of its occurrence. [R.]

Par"a*chrose (?), a. [Gr. &?; false coloring; para` beside, beyond + &?; color.] (Min.) Changing color by exposure Mohs.

Par"a*chute (?), n. [F., fr. paper to ward off, guard + chute a fall. See Parry, and Chute, Chance.]

1. A contrivance somewhat in the form of an umbrella, by means of which a descent may be made from a balloon, or any eminence.

2. (Zoöl.) A web or fold of skin which extends between the legs of certain mammals, as the flying squirrels, colugo, and phalangister.

Par"a*clete (?), n. [L. paracletus, Gr. &?;, from &?; to call to one, to exhort, encourage; para` beside + &?; to call.] An advocate; one called to aid or support; hence, the Consoler, Comforter, or Intercessor; -- a term applied to the Holy Spirit.

From which intercession especially I conceive he hath the name of the Paraclete given him by Christ.

Bp. Pearson.

Par"a*close (?), n. (Arch.) See Parclose.

Par`ac*mas"tic (?), a. [Gr. &?;. See Para-, and Acme.] (Med.) Gradually decreasing; past the acme, or crisis, as a distemper. Dunglison.

Par`a*con"ic (?), a. [Pref. para- + aconitic.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, an organic acid obtained as a deliquescent white crystalline substance, and isomeric with itaconic, citraconic, and mesaconic acids.

Par`a*co"nine (?), n. [Pref. para- + conine.] (Chem.) A base resembling and isomeric with conine, and obtained as a colorless liquid from butyric aldehyde and ammonia.

||Par`a*co*rol"la (?), n. [Pref. para- + corolla.] (Bot.) A secondary or inner corolla; a corona, as of the Narcissus.

Par`a*cros"tic (?), n. [Pref. para- + acrostic.] A poetical composition, in which the first verse contains, in order, the first letters of all the verses of the poem. Brande & C.

Par`a*cy*an"o*gen (?), n. [Pref. para- + cyanogen.] (Chem.) A polymeric modification of cyanogen, obtained as a brown or black amorphous residue by heating mercuric cyanide.

Par`a*cy"mene, n. [Pref. para- + cymene.] (Chem.) Same as Cymene.

||Par`a*dac"ty*lum, n.; pl. Paradactyla (#). [NL. See Para-, and Dactyl.] (Zoöl.) The side of a toe or finger.

Pa*rade" (?), n. [F., fr. Sp. parada a halt or stopping, an assembling for exercise, a place where troops are assembled to exercise, fr. parar to stop, to prepare. See Pare, v. t.] 1. The ground where a military display is held, or where troops are drilled.

2. (Mil.) An assembly and orderly arrangement or display of troops, in full equipments, for inspection or evolutions before some superior officer; a review of troops. Parades are general, regimental, or private (troop, battery, or company), according to the force assembled.

3. Pompous show; formal display or exhibition.

Be rich, but of your wealth make no parade.


4. That which is displayed; a show; a spectacle; an imposing procession; the movement of any body marshaled in military order; as, a parade of firemen.

In state returned the grand parade.


5. Posture of defense; guard. [A Gallicism.]

When they are not in parade, and upon their guard.


6. A public walk; a promenade.

Dress parade, Undress parade. See under Dress, and Undress. -- Parade rest, a position of rest for soldiers, in which, however, they are required to be silent and motionless. Wilhelm.

Syn. -- Ostentation; display; show. -- Parade, Ostentation. Parade is a pompous exhibition of things for the purpose of display; ostentation now generally indicates a parade of virtues or other qualities for which one expects to be honored. "It was not in the mere parade of royalty that the Mexican potentates exhibited their power." Robertson. "We are dazzled with the splendor of titles, the ostentation of learning, and the noise of victories." Spectator.

Pa*rade" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Paraded; p. pr. & vb. n. Parading.] [Cf. F. parader.] 1. To exhibit in a showy or ostentatious manner; to show off.

Parading all her sensibility.


2. To assemble and form; to marshal; to cause to maneuver or march ceremoniously; as, to parade troops.

Pa*rade", v. i. 1. To make an exhibition or spectacle of one's self, as by walking in a public place.

2. To assemble in military order for evolutions and inspection; to form or march, as in review.

Par"a*digm (?), n. [F. paradigme, L. paradigma, fr. Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to show by the side of, to set up as an example; para` beside + &?; to show. See Para-, and Diction.]

1. An example; a model; a pattern. [R.] "The paradigms and patterns of all things." Cudworth.

2. (Gram.) An example of a conjugation or declension, showing a word in all its different forms of inflection.

3. (Rhet.) An illustration, as by a parable or fable.

{ Par`a*dig*mat"ic (?), Par`a*dig*mat"ic*al (?), } a. [Gr. paradeigmatiko`s.] Exemplary. -- Par`a*dig*mat"ic*al*ly, adv. [Obs.]

Par`a*dig*mat"ic, n. (Eccl. Hist.) A writer of memoirs of religious persons, as examples of Christian excellence.

Par`a*dig"ma*tize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Paradigmatized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Paradigmatizing (?).] [Gr. paradeigmati`zein. See Paradigm.] To set forth as a model or example. [Obs.] Hammond.

{ Par`a*di*sa"ic (?), Par`a*di*sa"ic*al (?), } a. Of or pertaining to, or resembling, paradise; paradisiacal. "Paradisaical pleasures." Gray.

Par"a*di`sal (?), a. Paradisiacal.

Par"a*dise (?), n. [OE. & F. paradis, L. paradisus, fr. Gr. para`deisos park, paradise, fr. Zend pairidaza an inclosure; pairi around (akin to Gr. &?;) + diz to throw up, pile up; cf. Skr. dih to smear, and E. dough. Cf. Parvis.]

1. The garden of Eden, in which Adam and Eve were placed after their creation.

2. The abode of sanctified souls after death.

To-day shalt thou be with me in paradise.

Luke xxiii. 43.

It sounds to him like her mother's voice,
Singing in Paradise.


3. A place of bliss; a region of supreme felicity or delight; hence, a state of happiness.

The earth
Shall be all paradise.


Wrapt in the very paradise of some creative vision.


4. (Arch.) An open space within a monastery or adjoining a church, as the space within a cloister, the open court before a basilica, etc.

5. A churchyard or cemetery. [Obs.] Oxf. Gloss.

Fool's paradise. See under Fool, and Limbo. -- Grains of paradise. (Bot.) See Melequeta pepper, under Pepper. -- Paradise bird. (Zoöl.) Same as Bird of paradise. Among the most beautiful species are the superb (Lophorina superba); the magnificent (Diphyllodes magnifica); and the six-shafted paradise bird (Parotia sefilata). The long-billed paradise birds (Epimachinæ) also include some highly ornamental species, as the twelve-wired paradise bird (Seleucides alba), which is black, yellow, and white, with six long breast feathers on each side, ending in long, slender filaments. See Bird of paradise in the Vocabulary. -- Paradise fish (Zoöl.), a beautiful fresh-water Asiatic fish (Macropodus viridiauratus) having very large fins. It is often kept alive as an ornamental fish. -- Paradise flycatcher (Zoöl.), any flycatcher of the genus Terpsiphone, having the middle tail feathers extremely elongated. The adult male of T. paradisi is white, with the head glossy dark green, and crested. -- Paradise grackle (Zoöl.), a very beautiful bird of New Guinea, of the genus Astrapia, having dark velvety plumage with brilliant metallic tints. -- Paradise nut (Bot.), the sapucaia nut. See Sapucaia nut. [Local, U. S.] -- Paradise whidah bird. (Zoöl.) See Whidah.

Par"a*dise (?), v. t. To affect or exalt with visions of felicity; to entrance; to bewitch. [R.] Marston.

Par`a*dis"e*an (?), a. Paradisiacal.

Par"a*dised (?), a. Placed in paradise; enjoying delights as of paradise.

{ Par`a*dis"i*ac (?), Par`a*di*si"a*cal (?), } a. [L. paradisiacus.] Of or pertaining to paradise; suitable to, or like, paradise. C. Kingsley. T. Burnet. "A paradisiacal scene." Pope.

The valley . . . is of quite paradisiac beauty.

G. Eliot.

{ Par`a*dis"i*al (?), Par`a*dis"i*an (?), } a. Paradisiacal. [R.]

Par`a*dis"ic (?), a. Paradisiacal. [R.] Broome.

Par`a*dis"ic*al (?), a. Paradisiacal. [R.]

Par`a*dos (?), n.; pl. Paradoses (#). [F., fr. parer to defend + dos back, L. dorsum.] (Fort.) An intercepting mound, erected in any part of a fortification to protect the defenders from a rear or ricochet fire; a traverse. Farrow.

Par`a*dox (?), n.; pl. Paradoxes (#). [F. paradoxe, L. paradoxum, fr. Gr. &?;; para` beside, beyond, contrary to + &?; to think, suppose, imagine. See Para-, and Dogma.] A tenet or proposition contrary to received opinion; an assertion or sentiment seemingly contradictory, or opposed to common sense; that which in appearance or terms is absurd, but yet may be true in fact.

A gloss there is to color that paradox, and make it appear in show not to be altogether unreasonable.


This was sometime a paradox, but now the time gives it proof.


Hydrostatic paradox. See under Hydrostatic.

Par"a*dox`al (?), a. Paradoxical. [Obs.]

Par`a*dox"ic*al (?), a. 1. Of the nature of a paradox.

2. Inclined to paradoxes, or to tenets or notions contrary to received opinions. Southey.

-- Par`a*dox"ic*al*ly, adv. -- Par`a*dox"ic*al*ness, n.

Par"a*dox`er (?), n., Par"a*dox`ist (&?;), n. One who proposes a paradox.

||Par`a*dox"i*des (?), n. [NL.] (Paleon.) A genus of large trilobites characteristic of the primordial formations.

Par`a*dox*ol"o*gy (?), n. [Paradox + -logy.] The use of paradoxes. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

Par`a*dox"ure (-dks"r), n. [Gr. para`doxos incredible, paradoxical + o'yra` tail. So called because its tail is unlike that of the other animals to which it was supposed to be related.] (Zoöl.) Any species of Paradoxurus, a genus of Asiatic viverrine mammals allied to the civet, as the musang, and the luwack or palm cat (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus). See Musang.

Par"a*dox`y (?), n. 1. A paradoxical statement; a paradox.

2. The quality or state of being paradoxical. Coleridge

{ Par"af*fin (pr"f*fn), Par"af*fine (?) }, n. [F. paraffine, fr. L. parum too little + affinis akin. So named in allusion to its chemical inactivity.] (Chem.) A white waxy substance, resembling spermaceti, tasteless and odorless, and obtained from coal tar, wood tar, petroleum, etc., by distillation. It is used as an illuminant and lubricant. It is very inert, not being acted upon by most of the strong chemical reagents. It was formerly regarded as a definite compound, but is now known to be a complex mixture of several higher hydrocarbons of the methane or marsh-gas series; hence, by extension, any substance, whether solid, liquid, or gaseous, of the same chemical series; thus coal gas and kerosene consist largely of paraffins.

In the present chemical usage this word is spelt paraffin, but in commerce it is commonly spelt paraffine.

Native paraffin. See Ozocerite. - - Paraffin series. See Methane series, under Methane.

Par"age, n. [F., fr. L. par, adj., equal. Cf. Peerage, Peer an equal.] 1. (Old Eng. Law) Equality of condition, blood, or dignity; also, equality in the partition of an inheritance. Spelman.

2. (Feudal Law) Equality of condition between persons holding unequal portions of a fee. Burrill.

<! p. 1040 !>

3. Kindred; family; birth. [Obs.] Ld. Berners.

We claim to be of high parage.


Par`a*gen"e*sis (pr`*jn"*ss), n. [Pref. para- + genesis.] (Min.) The science which treats of minerals with special reference to their origin.

Par`a*gen"ic (-k), a. [Pref. para- + the root of ge`nos birth.] (Biol.) Originating in the character of the germ, or at the first commencement of an individual; -- said of peculiarities of structure, character, etc.

Par`a*glob"u*lin (-glb"*ln), n. [Pref. para- + globulin.] (Physiol. Chem.) An albuminous body in blood serum, belonging to the group of globulins. See Fibrinoplastin.

||Par`a*glos"sa (-gls"s), n.; pl. Paraglossæ (- s). [NL., from Gr. para` beside + glw^ssa tongue.] (Zoöl.) One of a pair of small appendages of the lingua or labium of certain insects. See Illust. under Hymenoptera.

Par"ag*nath (?), n. (Zoöl.) Same as Paragnathus.

Pa*rag"na*thous (?), a. (Zoöl.) Having both mandibles of equal length, the tips meeting, as in certain birds.

||Pa*rag"na*thus (?), n.; pl. Paragnathi (#). [NL. See Para-, and Gnathic.] (Zoöl.) (a) One of the two lobes which form the lower lip, or metastome, of Crustacea. (b) One of the small, horny, toothlike jaws of certain annelids.

||Par`a*go"ge (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. &?;, from &?; to lead beside, protract; para` beside + &?; to lead.] 1. (Gram.) The addition of a letter or syllable to the end of a word, as withouten for without.

2. (Med.) Coaptation. [Obs.] Dunglison.

{ Par`a*gog"ic (?), Par`a*gog"ic*al (?), } a. [Cf. F. paragogique.] Of, pertaining to, or constituting, a paragoge; added to the end of, or serving to lengthen, a word.

Paragogic letters, in the Semitic languages, letters which are added to the ordinary forms of words, to express additional emphasis, or some change in the sense.

Par"a*gon (?), n. [OF. paragon, F. parangon; cf. It. paragone, Sp. paragon, parangon; prob. fr. Gr. &?; to rub against; para` beside + &?; whetstone; cf. LGr. &?; a polishing stone.] 1. A companion; a match; an equal. [Obs.] Spenser.

Philoclea, who indeed had no paragon but her sister.

Sir P. Sidney.

2. Emulation; rivalry; competition. [Obs.]

Full many feats adventurous
Performed, in paragon of proudest men.


3. A model or pattern; a pattern of excellence or perfection; as, a paragon of beauty or eloquence. Udall.

Man, . . . the paragon of animals !


The riches of sweet Mary's son,
Boy-rabbi, Israel's paragon.


4. (Print.) A size of type between great primer and double pica. See the Note under Type.

Par"a*gon, v. t. [Cf. OF. paragonner, F. parangonner.]

1. To compare; to parallel; to put in rivalry or emulation with. [Obs.] Sir P. Sidney.

2. To compare with; to equal; to rival. [R.] Spenser.

In arms anon to paragon the morn,
The morn new rising.


3. To serve as a model for; to surpass. [Obs.]

He hath achieved a maid
That paragons description and wild fame.


Par"a*gon, v. i. To be equal; to hold comparison. [R.]

Few or none could . . . paragon with her.


Pa*rag"o*nite (?), n. [From Gr. &?;, p. pr. of &?; to mislead.] (Min.) A kind of mica related to muscovite, but containing soda instead of potash. It is characteristic of the paragonite schist of the Alps.

Par"a*gram (?), n. [Gr. &?; that which one writes beside. See Paragraph.] A pun.

Puns, which he calls paragrams.


Par`a*gram"ma*tist (?), n. A punster.

||Pa`ra*gran"di*ne (?), n. [It., from parare to parry + grandine hail.] An instrument to avert the occurrence of hailstorms. See Paragrêle. Knight.

Par"a*graph (?), n. [F. paragraphe, LL. paragraphus, fr. Gr. para`grafos (sc. grammh`) a line or stroke drawn in the margin, fr. paragra`fein to write beside; para` beside + gra`fein to write. See Para- , and Graphic, and cf. Paraph.] 1. Originally, a marginal mark or note, set in the margin to call attention to something in the text, e. g., a change of subject; now, the character ¶, commonly used in the text as a reference mark to a footnote, or to indicate the place of a division into sections.

This character is merely a modification of a capital P (the initial of the word paragraph), the letter being reversed, and the black part made white and the white part black for the sake of distinctiveness.

2. A distinct part of a discourse or writing; any section or subdivision of a writing or chapter which relates to a particular point, whether consisting of one or many sentences. The division is sometimes noted by the mark &?;, but usually, by beginning the first sentence of the paragraph on a new line and at more than the usual distance from the margin.

3. A brief composition complete in one typographical section or paragraph; an item, remark, or quotation comprised in a few lines forming one paragraph; as, a column of news paragraphs; an editorial paragraph.

Par"a*graph, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Paragraphed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Paragraphing.]

1. To divide into paragraphs; to mark with the character ¶.

2. To express in the compass of a paragraph; as, to paragraph an article.

3. To mention in a paragraph or paragraphs

Par"a*graph`er (?), n. A writer of paragraphs; a paragraphist.

{ Par`a*graph"ic (?), Par`a*graph"ic*al (?), } a. Pertaining to, or consisting of, a paragraph or paragraphs. -- Par`a*graph"ic*al*ly, adv.

Par"a*graph`ist (?), n. A paragrapher.

Par`a*gra*phis"tic*al (?), a. Of or relating to a paragraphist. [R.] Beau. & Fl.

Pa*ra" grass` (?). (Bot.) A valuable pasture grass (Panicum barbinode) introduced into the Southern United States from Brazil.

||Pa`ra`grêle" (?), n. [F., fr. parer to guard + grêle hail.] A lightning conductor erected, as in a vineyard, for drawing off the electricity in the atmosphere in order to prevent hailstorms. [France] Knight.

Par`a*guay"an (?), a. Of or pertaining to Paraguay. -- n. A native or inhabitant of Paraguay.

Pa`ra*guay" tea" (?). See Mate, the leaf of the Brazilian holly.

Par"ail (?), n. See Apparel. [Obs.] "In the parail of a pilgrim." Piers Plowman.

Par"a*keet` (?), n. (Zoöl.) Same as Parrakeet.

Par`a*lac"tic (?), a. [Pref. para- + lactic.] (Physiol. Chem.) Designating an acid called paralactic acid. See Lactic acid, under Lactic.

Par`al*bu"min (?), n. [Pref. para- + albumin.] (Physiol. Chem.) A proteidlike body found in the fluid from ovarian cysts and elsewhere. It is generally associated with a substance related to, if not identical with, glycogen.

Par*al"de*hyde (?), n. [Pref. para- + aldehyde.] (Chem.) A polymeric modification of aldehyde obtained as a white crystalline substance.

||Par`a*leip"sis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to leave on one side, to omit; para` beside + &?; to leave.] (Rhet.) A pretended or apparent omission; a figure by which a speaker artfully pretends to pass by what he really mentions; as, for example, if an orator should say, "I do not speak of my adversary's scandalous venality and rapacity, his brutal conduct, his treachery and malice." [Written also paralepsis, paralepsy, paralipsis.]

||Par`a*lep"sis (?), n. [NL.] See Paraleipsis.

Pa*ra"li*an (?), n. [Gr. &?; near the sea; para` beside + &?; the sea.] A dweller by the sea. [R.]

||Par`a*li*pom"e*non (?), n. pl. [L., fr. Gr. paraleipome`nwn of things omitted, pass. p. pr. (neuter genitive plural) fr. &?; to omit.] A title given in the Douay Bible to the Books of Chronicles.

In the Septuagint these books are called Paraleipome`nwn prw^ton and dey`teron, which is understood, after Jerome's explanation, as meaning that they are supplementary to the Books of Kings W. Smith.

Par`a*lip"sis (?), n. [NL.] See Paraleipsis.

{ Par`al*lac"tic (?), Par`al*lac"tic*al (?), } a. [Cf. F. parallactique.] Of or pertaining to a parallax.

Par"al*lax (?), n. [Gr. &?; alternation, the mutual inclination of two lines forming an angle, fr. &?; to change a little, go aside, deviate; para` beside, beyond + &?; to change: cf. F. parallaxe. Cf. Parallel.] 1. The apparent displacement, or difference of position, of an object, as seen from two different stations, or points of view.

2. (Astron.) The apparent difference in position of a body (as the sun, or a star) as seen from some point on the earth's surface, and as seen from some other conventional point, as the earth's center or the sun.

Annual parallax, the greatest value of the heliocentric parallax, or the greatest annual apparent change of place of a body as seen from the earth and sun; as, the annual parallax of a fixed star. -- Binocular parallax, the apparent difference in position of an object as seen separately by one eye, and then by the other, the head remaining unmoved. -- Diurnal, or Geocentric, parallax, the parallax of a body with reference to the earth's center. This is the kind of parallax that is generally understood when the term is used without qualification. -- Heliocentric parallax, the parallax of a body with reference to the sun, or the angle subtended at the body by lines drawn from it to the earth and sun; as, the heliocentric parallax of a planet. -- Horizontal parallax, the geocentric parallx of a heavenly body when in the horizon, or the angle subtended at the body by the earth's radius. -- Optical parallax, the apparent displacement in position undergone by an object when viewed by either eye singly. Brande & C. -- Parallax of the cross wires (of an optical instrument), their apparent displacement when the eye changes its position, caused by their not being exactly in the focus of the object glass. -- Stellar parallax, the annual parallax of a fixed star.

Par"al*lel (?), a. [F. parallèle, L. parallelus, fr. Gr. &?;; para` beside + &?; of one another, fr. &?; other, akin to L. alius. See Allien.] 1. (Geom.) Extended in the same direction, and in all parts equally distant; as, parallel lines; parallel planes.

Revolutions . . . parallel to the equinoctial.


Curved lines or curved planes are said to be parallel when they are in all parts equally distant.

2. Having the same direction or tendency; running side by side; being in accordance (with); tending to the same result; -- used with to and with.

When honor runs parallel with the laws of God and our country, it can not be too much cherished.


3. Continuing a resemblance through many particulars; applicable in all essential parts; like; similar; as, a parallel case; a parallel passage. Addison.

Parallel bar. (a) (Steam Eng.) A rod in a parallel motion which is parallel with the working beam. (b) One of a pair of bars raised about five feet above the floor or ground, and parallel to each other, -- used for gymnastic exercises. -- Parallel circles of a sphere, those circles of the sphere whose planes are parallel to each other. -- Parallel columns, or Parallels (Printing), two or more passages of reading matter printed side by side, for the purpose of emphasizing the similarity or discrepancy between them. -- Parallel forces (Mech.), forces which act in directions parallel to each other. -- Parallel motion. (a) (Mach.) A jointed system of links, rods, or bars, by which the motion of a reciprocating piece, as a piston rod, may be guided, either approximately or exactly in a straight line. Rankine. (b) (Mus.) The ascending or descending of two or more parts at fixed intervals, as thirds or sixths. -- Parallel rod (Locomotive Eng.), a metal rod that connects the crank pins of two or more driving wheels; -- called also couping rod, in distinction from the connecting rod. See Illust. of Locomotive, in App. -- Parallel ruler, an instrument for drawing parallel lines, so constructed as to have the successive positions of the ruling edge parallel to each other; also, one consisting of two movable parts, the opposite edges of which are always parallel. - - Parallel sailing (Naut.), sailing on a parallel of latitude. -- Parallel sphere (Astron. & Geog.), that position of the sphere in which the circles of daily motion are parallel to the horizon, as to an observer at either pole. -- Parallel vise, a vise having jaws so guided as to remain parallel in all positions.

Par"al*lel (?), n. 1. A line which, throughout its whole extent, is equidistant from another line; a parallel line, a parallel plane, etc.

Who made the spider parallels design,
Sure as De Moivre, without rule or line ?


2. Direction conformable to that of another line,

Lines that from their parallel decline.


3. Conformity continued through many particulars or in all essential points; resemblance; similarity.

Twixt earthly females and the moon
All parallels exactly run.


4. A comparison made; elaborate tracing of similarity; as, Johnson's parallel between Dryden and Pope.

5. Anything equal to, or resembling, another in all essential particulars; a counterpart.

None but thyself can be thy parallel.


6. (Geog.) One of the imaginary circles on the surface of the earth, parallel to the equator, marking the latitude; also, the corresponding line on a globe or map.

7. (Mil.) One of a series of long trenches constructed before a besieged fortress, by the besieging force, as a cover for troops supporting the attacking batteries. They are roughly parallel to the line of outer defenses of the fortress.

8. (Print.) A character consisting of two parallel vertical lines (thus, ||) used in the text to direct attention to a similarly marked note in the margin or at the foot of a page.

Limiting parallels. See under Limit, v. t. -- Parallel of altitude (Astron.), one of the small circles of the sphere, parallel to the horizon; an almucantar. -- Parallel of declination (Astron.), one of the small circles of the sphere, parallel to the equator. -- Parallel of latitude. (a) (Geog.) See def. 6. above. (b) (Astron.) One of the small circles of the sphere, parallel to the ecliptic.

Par"al*lel, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Paralleled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Paralleling (?).] 1. To place or set so as to be parallel; to place so as to be parallel to, or to conform in direction with, something else.

The needle . . . doth parallel and place itself upon the true meridian.

Sir T. Browne.

2. Fig.: To make to conform to something else in character, motive, aim, or the like.

His life is paralleled
Even with the stroke and line of his great justice.


3. To equal; to match; to correspond to. Shak.

4. To produce or adduce as a parallel. [R.] Locke.

My young remembrance can not parallel
A fellow to it.


Par"al*lel, v. i. To be parallel; to correspond; to be like. [Obs.] Bacon.

Par"al*lel`a*ble (?), a. Capable of being paralleled, or equaled. [R.] Bp. Hall.

Par"al*lel*ism (?), n. [Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to place side by side, or parallel: cf. F. parallélisme.]

1. The quality or state of being parallel.

2. Resemblance; correspondence; similarity.

A close parallelism of thought and incident.

T. Warton.

3. Similarity of construction or meaning of clauses placed side by side, especially clauses expressing the same sentiment with slight modifications, as is common in Hebrew poetry; e. g.: --

At her feet he bowed, he fell:
Where he bowed, there he fell down dead.

Judg. v. 27.

Par`al*lel*is"tic (?), a. Of the nature of a parallelism; involving parallelism.

The antithetic or parallelistic form of Hebrew poetry is entirely lost.


Par"al*lel*ize (?), v. t. To render parallel. [R.]

Par"al*lel*less, a. Matchless. [R.]

Par"al*lel*ly, adv. In a parallel manner; with parallelism. [R.] Dr. H. More.

Par`al*lel"o*gram (?), n. [Gr. &?;; &?; parallel + &?; to write: cf. F. parallélogramme. See Parallel, and -gram.] (Geom.) A right-lined quadrilateral figure, whose opposite sides are parallel, and consequently equal; -- sometimes restricted in popular usage to a rectangle, or quadrilateral figure which is longer than it is broad, and with right angles.

Parallelogram of velocities, forces, accelerations, momenta, etc. (Mech.), a parallelogram the diagonal of which represents the resultant of two velocities, forces, accelerations, momenta, etc., both in quantity and direction, when the velocities, forces, accelerations, momenta, etc., are represented in quantity and direction by the two adjacent sides of the parallelogram.

Par`al*lel`o*gram*mat"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to a parallelogram; parallelogrammic.

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{ Par`al*lel`o*gram"mic (?), Par`al*lel`o*gram"mic*al (?), } a. Having the properties of a parallelogram. [R.]

Par`al*lel`o*pi"ped (?), n. [Gr. &?; a body with parallel surfaces; &?; parallel + &?; a plane surface, &?; on the ground, or level with it, level, flat; &?; on + &?; the ground: cf. F. parallélopipède.] (Geom.) A solid, the faces of which are six parallelograms, the opposite pairs being parallel, and equal to each other; a prism whose base is a parallelogram.

Par`al*lel`o*pip"e*don (?), n. [NL.] A parallelopiped. Hutton.

Par`a*log"ic*al (?), a. Containing paralogism; illogical. "Paralogical doubt." Sir T. Browne.

Pa*ral"o*gism (?), n. [Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to reason falsely; para` beside + &?; to reason, &?; discourse, reason: cf. F. paralogisme.] (Logic) A reasoning which is false in point of form, that is, which is contrary to logical rules or formulæ; a formal fallacy, or pseudo- syllogism, in which the conclusion does not follow from the premises.

Pa*ral"o*gize (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Paralogized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Paralogizing (?).] [Gr. &?;.] To reason falsely; to draw conclusions not warranted by the premises. [R.]

Pa*ral"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. &?;; para` beside, beyond + &?; reason.] False reasoning; paralogism.

Par"a*lyse (?), v. t. Same as Paralyze.

Pa*ral"y*sis (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to loosen, dissolve, or disable at the side; para` beside + &?; to loosen. See Para-, and Loose, and cf. Palsy.] (Med.) Abolition of function, whether complete or partial; esp., the loss of the power of voluntary motion, with or without that of sensation, in any part of the body; palsy. See Hemiplegia, and Paraplegia. Also used figuratively. "Utter paralysis of memory." G. Eliot.

Mischievous practices arising out of the paralysis of the powers of ownership.

Duke of Argyll (1887).

Par`a*lyt"ic (?), a. [L. paralyticus, Gr. &?;: cf. F. paralytique.] 1. Of or pertaining to paralysis; resembling paralysis.

2. Affected with paralysis, or palsy.

The cold, shaking, paralytic hand.


3. Inclined or tending to paralysis.

Paralytic secretion (Physiol.), the fluid, generally thin and watery, secreted from a gland after section or paralysis of its nerves, as the pralytic saliva.

Par`a*lyt"ic, n. A person affected with paralysis.

Par`a*lyt"ic*al (?), a. See Paralytic.

Par`a*ly*za"tion (?), n. The act or process of paralyzing, or the state of being paralyzed.

Par"a*lyze (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Paralyzed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Paralyzing (?).] [F. paralyser. See Paralysis.]

1. To affect or strike with paralysis or palsy.

2. Fig.: To unnerve; to destroy or impair the energy of; to render ineffective; as, the occurrence paralyzed the community; despondency paralyzed his efforts.

Par"am (?), n. (Chem.) A white crystalline nitrogenous substance (C2H4N4); -- called also dicyandiamide.

Par`a*mag*net"ic (?), a. [Pref. para- + magnetic.] Magnetic, as opposed to diamagnetic. -- n. A paramagnetic substance. Faraday. -- Par`a*mag*net"ic*al*ly (#), adv.

Par`a*mag"net*ism (?), n. Magnetism, as opposed to diamagnetism. Faraday.

Par`a*ma*le"ic (?), a. [Pref. para- + maleic.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, an acid obtained from malic acid, and now called fumaric acid. [Obs.]

Par`a*ma"lic (?), a. [Pref. para- + malic.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, an organic acid metameric with malic acid.

Par`a*mas"toid (?), a. [Pref. para- + mastoid.] (Anat.) Situated beside, or near, the mastoid portion of the temporal bone; paroccipital; -- applied especially to a process of the skull in some animals.

Par`a*mat"ta (?), n. [So named from Paramatta, in Australia.] A light fabric of cotton and worsted, resembling bombazine or merino. Beck (Draper's Dict.)

Par"a*ment (?), n. [Sp. paramento, from parar to prepare, L. parare.] Ornamental hangings, furniture, etc., as of a state apartment; rich and elegant robes worn by men of rank; -- chiefly in the plural. [Obs.]

Lords in paraments on their coursers.


Chamber of paraments, presence chamber of a monarch.

||Pa`ra*men"to (?), n. [Sp.] Ornament; decoration. Beau. & Fl.

Par"a*mere (?), n. [Pref. para- + -mere.] (Zoöl.) One of the symmetrical halves of any one of the radii, or spheromeres, of a radiate animal, as a starfish.

Pa*ram"e*ter (?), n. [Pref. para- + -meter: cf. F. paramètre.] 1. (a) (Math.) A term applied to some characteristic magnitude whose value, invariable as long as one and the same function, curve, surface, etc., is considered, serves to distinguish that function, curve, surface, etc., from others of the same kind or family. Brande & C. (b) Specifically (Conic Sections), in the ellipse and hyperbola, a third proportional to any diameter and its conjugate, or in the parabola, to any abscissa and the corresponding ordinate.

The parameter of the principal axis of a conic section is called the latus rectum.

2. (Crystallog.) The ratio of the three crystallographic axes which determines the position of any plane; also, the fundamental axial ratio for a given species.

||Par`a*me*tri"tis (?), n. [NL. See Para-, and Metritis.] (Med.) Inflammation of the cellular tissue in the vicinity of the uterus.

Par`a*mi*og"ra*pher (?), n. [Gr. &?; proverb + -graph + -er.] A collector or writer of proverbs. [R.]

Par`a*mi"tome (?), n. [Pref. para- + mitome.] (Biol.) The fluid portion of the protoplasm of a cell.

||Pa"ra*mo (?), n.; pl. Paramos (#). [Sp. pæramo.] A high, bleak plateau or district, with stunted trees, and cold, damp atmosphere, as in the Andes, in South America.

Par"a*morph (?), n. [Pref. para- + Gr. &?; form.] (Min.) A kind of pseudomorph, in which there has been a change of physical characters without alteration of chemical composition, as the change of aragonite to calcite.

Par`a*mor"phism (?), n. (Min.) The change of one mineral species to another, so as to involve a change in physical characters without alteration of chemical composition.

Par`a*mor"phous (?), a. (Min.) Relating to paramorphism; exhibiting paramorphism.

Par"a*mount (?), a. [OF. par amont above; par through, by (L. per) + amont above. See Amount.] Having the highest rank or jurisdiction; superior to all others; chief; supreme; preëminent; as, a paramount duty. "A traitor paramount." Bacon.

Lady paramount (Archery), the lady making the best score. -- Lord paramount, the king.

Syn. Superior; principal; preëminent; chief.

Par"a*mount, n. The highest or chief. Milton.

Par"a*mount`ly, adv. In a paramount manner.

Par"a*mour (?), n. [F. par amour, lit., by or with love. See 2d Par, and Amour.] 1. A lover, of either sex; a wooer or a mistress (formerly in a good sense, now only in a bad one); one who takes the place, without possessing the rights, of a husband or wife; -- used of a man or a woman.

The seducer appeared with dauntless front, accompanied by his paramour


2. Love; gallantry. [Obs.] "For paramour and jollity." Chaucer.

{ Par"a*mour`, Par"a*mours` (?) }, adv. By or with love, esp. the love of the sexes; -- sometimes written as two words. [Obs.]

For par amour, I loved her first ere thou.


Par*am"y*lum (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. para` beside + &?; starch.] (Chem.) A substance resembling starch, found in the green frothy scum formed on the surface of stagnant water.

Par`a*naph"tha*lene (?), n. [Pref. para- + naphthalene.] (Chem.) Anthracene; -- called also paranaphthaline. [Obs.]

||Par`a*noi"a (pr`*noi"), n. [NL., fr. Gr. para`noia.] (Med.) Mental derangement; insanity.

Par*an"thra*cene (?), n. [Pref. para- + anthracene.] (Chem.) An inert isomeric modification of anthracene.

Par`a*nu"cle*us (?), n. [Pref. para- + nucleus.] (Biol.) Some as Nucleolus.

Pa*ra" nut` (p*rä" nt`). (Bot.) The Brazil nut.

Par"a*nymph (?), n. [L. paranymphus, Gr. &?;; para` beside, near + &?; a bride: cf. F. paranymphe.] 1. (Gr. Antiq.) (a) A friend of the bridegroom who went with him in his chariot to fetch home the bride. Milton. (b) The bridesmaid who conducted the bride to the bridegroom.

2. Hence: An ally; a supporter or abettor. Jer. Taylor.

Par`a*nym"phal (?), a. Bridal; nuptial. [R.]

At some paranymphal feast.


Par`a*pec"tin (?), n. [Pref. para- + pectin.] (Chem.) A gelatinous modification of pectin.

Par"a*pegm (?), n. [L. parapegma, Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to fix beside; para` beside + &?; to fix: cf. F. parapegme.] An engraved tablet, usually of brass, set up in a public place.

Parapegms were used for the publication of laws, proclamations, etc., and the recording of astronomical phenomena or calendar events.

Par`a*pep"tone (?), n. [Pref. para- + peptone.] (Phisiol. Chem.) An albuminous body formed in small quantity by the peptic digestion of proteids. It can be converted into peptone by pancreatic juice, but not by gastric juice.

Par"a*pet (?), n. [F., fr. It. parapetto, fr. parare to ward off, guard (L. parare to prepare, provide) + petto the breast, L. pectus. See Parry, and Pectoral.]

1. (Arch.) A low wall, especially one serving to protect the edge of a platform, roof, bridge, or the like.

2. (Fort.) A wall, rampart, or elevation of earth, for covering soldiers from an enemy's fire; a breastwork. See Illust. of Casemate.

Par`a*pet"al*ous (?), a. [Pref. para- + petal.] (Bot.) Growing by the side of a petal, as a stamen.

Par"a*pet`ed, a. Having a parapet.

Par"aph (?), n. [F. paraphe, parafe, contr. fr. paragraphe.] A flourish made with the pen at the end of a signature. In the Middle Ages, this formed a sort of rude safeguard against forgery. Brande & C.

Par"aph, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Paraphed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Paraphing.] [Cf. F. parapher, parafer.] To add a paraph to; to sign, esp. with the initials.

||Par`a*pher"na (?), n. pl. [L.] (Rom. Law) The property of a woman which, on her marriage, was not made a part of her dower, but remained her own.

Par`a*pher"nal (?), a. [Cf. F. paraphernal.] Of or pertaining to paraphernalia; as, paraphernal property. Kent.

Par`a*pher*na"li*a (?), n. pl. [LL. paraphernalia bona, fr. L. parapherna, pl., parapherna, Gr. &?;; para` beside + &?; a bride's dowry, fr. fe`rein to bring. See 1st Bear.]

1. (Law) Something reserved to a wife, over and above her dower, being chiefly apparel and ornaments suited to her degree.

2. Appendages; ornaments; finery; equipments.

||Par`a*phi*mo"sis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?;; &?; beyond + &?; to muzzle.] (Med.) A condition in which the prepuce, after being retracted behind the glans penis, is constricted there, and can not be brought forward into place again.

Par`a*phos*phor"ic (?), a. [Pref. para- + phosphoric.] (Chem.) Pyrophosphoric. [Obs.]

||Par`a*phrag"ma (-frg"m), n.; pl. Paraphragmata (#). [NL., fr. Gr. para` beside + &?;, &?;, an inclosure.] (Zoöl.) One of the outer divisions of an endosternite of Crustacea. -- Par`a*phrag"mal (#), a.

Par"a*phrase (pr"*frz), n. [L. paraphrasis, Gr. para`frasis, from parafra`zein to say the same thing in other words; para` beside + fra`zein to speak: cf. F. paraphrase. See Para-, and Phrase.] A restatement of a text, passage, or work, expressing the meaning of the original in another form, generally for the sake of its clearer and fuller exposition; a setting forth the signification of a text in other and ampler terms; a free translation or rendering; -- opposed to metaphrase.

In paraphrase, or translation with latitude, the author's words are not so strictly followed as his sense.


Excellent paraphrases of the Psalms of David.

I. Disraeli.

His sermons a living paraphrase upon his practice.


The Targums are also called the Chaldaic or Aramaic Paraphrases.


Par"a*phrase, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Paraphrased (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Paraphrasing (?).] To express, interpret, or translate with latitude; to give the meaning of a passage in other language.

We are put to construe and paraphrase our own words.

Bp. Stillingfleet.

Par"a*phrase, v. i. To make a paraphrase.

Par"a*phra`ser (?), n. One who paraphrases.

Par`a*phra"sian (?), n. A paraphraser. [R.]

Par"a*phrast (?), n. [L. paraphrastes, Gr. &?;: cf. F. paraphraste.] A paraphraser. T. Warton.

{ Par`a*phras"tic (?), Par`a*phras"tic*al (?), } a. [Gr.&?;: cf. F. paraphrastique.] Paraphrasing; of the nature of paraphrase; explaining, or translating in words more clear and ample than those of the author; not literal; free. -- Par`a*phras"tic*al*ly, adv.

||Pa*raph"y*sis (?), n.; pl. Paraphyses (#). [NL., fr. Gr. para` beside + &?; growth.] (Bot.) A minute jointed filament growing among the archegonia and antheridia of mosses, or with the spore cases, etc., of other flowerless plants.

{ ||Par`a*ple"gi*a (?), Par"a*ple`gy (?), } n. [NL. paraplegia, fr. Gr. &?; hemiplegia, fr. &?; to strike at the side; para` beside + &?; to strike: cf. F. paraplégie.] (Med.) Palsy of the lower half of the body on both sides, caused usually by disease of the spinal cord. -- Par`a*pleg"ic (#), a.

||Par`a*pleu"ra (?), n.; pl. Parapleuræ (#). [NL. See Para-, and 2d Pleura.] (Zoöl.) A chitinous piece between the metasternum and the pleuron of certain insects.

||Par`a*po"di*um (?), n.; pl. Parapodia (#). [NL., fr. Gr. para` beside + &?;, dim. of &?; foot.] (Zoöl.) One of the lateral appendages of an annelid; -- called also foot tubercle.

They may serve for locomotion, respiration, and sensation, and often contain spines or setæ. When well developed, a dorsal part, or notopodium, and a ventral part, or neuropodium, are distinguished.

Par`a*poph"y*sis (?), n.; pl. Parapophyses (#). [NL. See Para-, and Apophysis.] (Anat.) The ventral transverse, or capitular, process of a vertebra. See Vertebra. -- Par*ap`o*phys"ic*al (#), a.

||Pa*rap"te*rum (?), n.; pl. Paraptera (#). [NL. See Para-, and Pteron.] (Zoöl.) A special plate situated on the sides of the mesothorax and metathorax of certain insects.

{ Par`a*quet" (?), Par`a*qui"to (?), } n. [See Paroquet.] (Zoöl.) See Parrakeet.

Par"a*sang (?), n. [L. parasanga, Gr. &?;, from Old Persian; cf. Per. farsang.] A Persian measure of length, which, according to Herodotus and Xenophon, was thirty stadia, or somewhat more than three and a half miles. The measure varied in different times and places, and, as now used, is estimated at from three and a half to four English miles.

||Par`a*sce"ni*um (?), n.; pl. Parascenia (#). [NL., fr. Gr. &?;; para` beside + &?; stage.] (Greek & Rom. Antiq.) One of two apartments adjoining the stage, probably used as robing rooms.

||Par`a*sce"ve (?), n. [L., from Gr. &?;, lit., preparation.] 1. Among the Jews, the evening before the Sabbath. [Obs.] Mark xv. 42 (Douay ver.)

2. A preparation. [R.] Donne.

Par`a*sche*mat"ic (?), a. [Gr. &?; to change from the true form.] Of or pertaining to a change from the right form, as in the formation of a word from another by a change of termination, gender, etc. Max Müller.

||Par`a*se*le"ne (?), n.; pl. Paraselenæ (#). [NL., from Gr. para` beside + &?; the moon: cf. F. parasélène.] (Meteor.) A mock moon; an image of the moon which sometimes appears at the point of intersection of two lunar halos. Cf. Parhelion.

||Par`a*si"ta (?), n. pl. [NL.] (Zoöl.) (a) An artificial group formerly made for parasitic insects, as lice, ticks, mites, etc. (b) A division of copepod Crustacea, having a sucking mouth, as the lerneans. They are mostly parasites on fishes. Called also Siphonostomata.

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Par"a*si`tal (?), a. (Bot. & Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to parasites; parasitic.

Par"a*site (?), n. [F., fr. L. parasitus, Gr. &?;, lit., eating beside, or at the table of, another; para` beside + &?; to feed, from &?; wheat, grain, food.]

1. One who frequents the tables of the rich, or who lives at another's expense, and earns his welcome by flattery; a hanger-on; a toady; a sycophant.

Thou, with trembling fear,
Or like a fawning parasite, obey'st.


Parasites were called such smell-feasts as would seek to be free guests at rich men's tables.


2. (Bot.) (a) A plant obtaining nourishment immediately from other plants to which it attaches itself, and whose juices it absorbs; -- sometimes, but erroneously, called epiphyte. (b) A plant living on or within an animal, and supported at its expense, as many species of fungi of the genus Torrubia.

3. (Zoöl.) (a) An animal which lives during the whole or part of its existence on or in the body of some other animal, feeding upon its food, blood, or tissues, as lice, tapeworms, etc. (b) An animal which steals the food of another, as the parasitic jager. (c) An animal which habitually uses the nest of another, as the cowbird and the European cuckoo.

{ Par`a*sit"ic (?), Par`a*sit"ic*al (?), } a. [L. parasiticus, Gr. &?;: cf. F. parasitique.]

1. Of the nature of a parasite; fawning for food or favors; sycophantic. "Parasitic preachers." Milton.

2. (Bot. & Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to parasites; living on, or deriving nourishment from, some other living animal or plant. See Parasite, 2 & 3.

Parasitic gull, Parasitic jager. (Zoöl.) See Jager.

-- Par`a*sit"ic*al*ly, adv. -- Par`a*sit"ic*al*ness, n.

Par`a*sit"i*cide (?), n. [Parasite + L. caedere to kill.] Anything used to destroy parasites. Quain.

Par"a*si`tism (?), n. [Cf. F. parasitisme.]

1. The state or behavior of a parasite; the act of a parasite. "Court parasitism." Milton.

2. (Bot. & Zoöl.)The state of being parasitic.

Par"a*sol` (?), n. [F., fr. Sp. or Pg. parasol, or It. parasole; It. parare to ward off, Sp. & Pg. parar (L. parare to prepare) + It. sole sun, Sp. & Pg. sol (L. sol). See Parry, Solar.] A kind of small umbrella used by women as a protection from the sun.

Par"a*sol`, v. t. To shade as with a parasol. [R.]

Par`a*sol*ette" (?), n. A small parasol.

Par`a*sphe"noid (?), a. [Pref. para- + sphenoid.] (Anat.) Near the sphenoid bone; - - applied especially to a bone situated immediately beneath the sphenoid in the base of the skull in many animals. -- n. The parasphenoid bone.

Pa*ras"ti*chy (?), n. [Pref. para- + Gr. &?; a row.] (Bot.) A secondary spiral in phyllotaxy, as one of the evident spirals in a pine cone.

||Par`a*syn*ax"is (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. &?;, from &?; to assemble illegally or secretly.] (Civil Law) An unlawful meeting.

Par`a*syn*thet"ic (?), a. [Gr. &?;. See Para-, and Synthetic.] Formed from a compound word. "Parasynthetic derivatives." Dr. Murray.

Par`a*tac"tic (?), a. (Gram.) Of pertaining to, or characterized by, parataxis.

||Par`a*tax"is (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; a placing beside, fr. &?; to place beside.] (Gram.) The mere ranging of propositions one after another, without indicating their connection or interdependence; -- opposed to syntax. Brande & C.

||Pa*rath"e*sis (?), n.; pl. Paratheses (#). [NL., from Gr. &?; a putting beside, from &?; to put beside.]

1. (Gram.) The placing of two or more nouns in the same case; apposition.

2. (Rhet.) A parenthetical notice, usually of matter to be afterward expanded. Smart.

3. (Print.) The matter contained within brackets.

4. (Eccl.) A commendatory prayer. Shipley.

Par`a*thet"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to parathesis.

||Pa`ra`ton`nerre" (?), n. [F., fr. parer to parry + tonnerre thunderbolt.] A conductor of lightning; a lightning rod.

Par*aun"ter (?), adv. [Par + aunter.] Peradventure. See Paraventure. [Obs.] Chaucer.

||Pa*rauque" (?), n. (Zoöl.) A bird (Nyctidromus albicollis) ranging from Texas to South America. It is allied to the night hawk and goatsucker.

Par`a*vail" (?), a. [OF. par aval below; par through (L. per) + aval down; a- (L. ad) + val (L. vallis) a valley. Cf. Paramount.] (Eng. Law) At the bottom; lowest. Cowell.

In feudal law, the tenant paravail is the lowest tenant of the fee, or he who is immediate tenant to one who holds over of another. Wharton.

{ Par"a*vant` (?), Par"a*vant` (?), } adv. [OF. par avant. See Par, and lst Avaunt.]

1. In front; publicly. [Obs.] Spenser.

2. Beforehand; first. [Obs.] Spenser.

Par`a*ven"ture (?), adv. [Par + aventure.] Peradventure; perchance. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Par`a*xan"thin (?), n. [Pref. Para- + xanthin.] (Physiol. Chem.) A crystalline substance closely related to xanthin, present in small quantity in urine.

Par*ax"i*al (?), a. [Pref. para- + axial.] (Anat.) On either side of the axis of the skeleton.

Par`a*xy"lene (?), n. (Chem.) A hydrocarbon of the aromatic series obtained as a colorless liquid by the distillation of camphor with zinc chloride. It is one of the three metamers of xylene. Cf. Metamer, and Xylene.

Par"boil` (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Parboiled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Parboiling.] [OE. parboilen, OF. parbouillir to cook well; par through (see Par) + bouillir to boil, L. bullire. The sense has been influenced by E. part. See lst Boil.] 1. To boil or cook thoroughly. [Obs.] B. Jonson.

2. To boil in part; to cook partially by boiling.

Par"break` (?), v. i. & t. [Par + break.] To throw out; to vomit. [Obs.] Skelton.

Par"break`, n. Vomit. [Obs.] Spenser.

Par"buc`kle (?), n. (a) A kind of purchase for hoisting or lowering a cylindrical burden, as a cask. The middle of a long rope is made fast aloft, and both parts are looped around the object, which rests in the loops, and rolls in them as the ends are hauled up or payed out. (b) A double sling made of a single rope, for slinging a cask, gun, etc.

Par"buc`kle, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Parbuckled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Parbuckling (?).] To hoist or lower by means of a parbuckle. Totten.

Par"cæ (?), n. pl. [L.] The Fates. See Fate, 4.

Par*case" (?), adv. [Par + case.] Perchance; by chance. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Par"cel (?), n. [F. parcelle a small part, fr. (assumed) LL. particella, dim. of L. pars. See Part, n., and cf. Particle.] 1. A portion of anything taken separately; a fragment of a whole; a part. [Archaic] "A parcel of her woe." Chaucer.

Two parcels of the white of an egg.


The parcels of the nation adopted different forms of self-government.

J. A. Symonds.

2. (Law) A part; a portion; a piece; as, a certain piece of land is part and parcel of another piece.

3. An indiscriminate or indefinite number, measure, or quantity; a collection; a group.

This youthful parcel
Of noble bachelors stand at my disposing.


4. A number or quantity of things put up together; a bundle; a package; a packet.

'Tis like a parcel sent you by the stage.


Bill of parcels. See under 6th Bill. -- Parcel office, an office where parcels are received for keeping or forwarding and delivery. -- Parcel post, that department of the post office concerned with the collection and transmission of parcels. -- Part and parcel. See under Part.

Par"cel, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Parceled (?) or Parcelled; p. pr. & vb. n. Parceling or Parcelling.]

1. To divide and distribute by parts or portions; -- often with out or into. "Their woes are parceled, mine are general." Shak.

These ghostly kings would parcel out my power.


The broad woodland parceled into farms.


2. To add a parcel or item to; to itemize. [R.]

That mine own servant should
Parcel the sum of my disgraces by
Addition of his envy.


3. To make up into a parcel; as, to parcel a customer's purchases; the machine parcels yarn, wool, etc.

To parcel a rope (Naut.), to wind strips of tarred canvas tightly arround it. Totten. -- To parcel a seam (Naut.), to cover it with a strip of tarred canvas.

Par"cel, a. & adv. Part or half; in part; partially. Shak. [Sometimes hyphened with the word following.]

The worthy dame was parcel-blind.

Sir W. Scott.

One that . . . was parcel-bearded [partially bearded].


Parcel poet, a half poet; a poor poet. [Obs.] B. Jonson.

Par"cel*ing, n. [Written also parcelling.]

1. The act of dividing and distributing in portions or parts.

2. (Naut.) Long, narrow slips of canvas daubed with tar and wound about a rope like a bandage, before it is served; used, also, in mousing on the stayes, etc.

Par"cel-mele` (?), adv. [See Parcel, and Meal a part.] By parcels or parts. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Par"ce*na*ry (?), n. [See Parcener, partner.] (Law) The holding or occupation of an inheritable estate which descends from the ancestor to two or more persons; coheirship.

It differs in many respects from joint tenancy, which is created by deed or devise. In the United States there is no essential distinction between parcenary and tenancy in common. Wharton. Kent.

Par"ce*ner (?), n. [Of. parçonnier, parsonnier, fr. parzon, parçun, parcion, part, portion, fr. L. partitio a division. See Partition, and cf. Partner.] (Law) A coheir, or one of two or more persons to whom an estate of inheritance descends jointly, and by whom it is held as one estate.

Parch (pärch), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Parched (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Parching.] [OE. perchen to pierce, hence used of a piercing heat or cold, OF. perchier, another form of percier, F. percer. See Pierce.] 1. To burn the surface of; to scorch; to roast over the fire, as dry grain; as, to parch the skin; to parch corn.

Ye shall eat neither bread, nor parched corn.

Lev. xxiii. 14.

2. To dry to extremity; to shrivel with heat; as, the mouth is parched from fever.

The ground below is parched.


Parch, v. i. To become scorched or superficially burnt; to be very dry. "Parch in Afric sun." Shak.

Parch"ed*ness, n. The state of being parched.

Par*che"si (pär*ch"z), n. See Pachisi.

Parch"ing (pärch"ng), a. Scorching; burning; drying. "Summer's parching heat." Shak. -- Parch"ing*ly, adv.

Parch"ment (-ment), n. [OE. parchemin, perchemin, F. parchemin, LL. pergamenum, L. pergamena, pergamina, fr. L. Pergamenus of or belonging to Pergamus an ancient city of Mysia in Asia Minor, where parchment was first used.] 1. The skin of a lamb, sheep, goat, young calf, or other animal, prepared for writing on. See Vellum.

But here's a parchment with the seal of Cæsar.


2. The envelope of the coffee grains, inside the pulp.

Parchment paper. See Papyrine.

Par"ci*ty (?), n. [L. parcitas, fr. parcus sparing.] Sparingless. [Obs.]

Par"close (?), n. [OF. See Perclose.] (Eccl. Arch.) A screen separating a chapel from the body of the church. [Written also paraclose and perclose.] Hook.

Pard (pärd), n. [L. pardus, Gr. pa`rdos; cf. Skr. pdku tiger, panther.] (Zoöl.) A leopard; a panther.

And more pinch-spotted make them
Than pard or cat o'mountain.


Par"dale (pär"dl), n. [L. pardalis, Gr. pa`rdalis. Cf. Pard.] (Zoöl.) A leopard. [Obs.] Spenser.

{ Par*de" (?), Par*die" (?) }, adv. or interj. [F. pardi, for par Dieu by God.] Certainly; surely; truly; verily; -- originally an oath. [Written also pardee, pardieux, perdie, etc.] [Obs.]

He was, parde, an old fellow of yours.


Par"dine (?), a. (Zoöl.) Spotted like a pard.

Pardine lynx (Zoöl.), a species of lynx (Felis pardina) inhabiting Southern Europe. Its color is rufous, spotted with black.

Par"do (?), n. [Pg. pardao, fr. Skr. pratpa splendor, majesty.] A money of account in Goa, India, equivalent to about 2s. 6d. sterling. or 60 cts.

Par"don (?), n. [F., fr. pardonner to pardon. See Pardon, v. t.] 1. The act of pardoning; forgiveness, as of an offender, or of an offense; release from penalty; remission of punishment; absolution.

Pardon, my lord, for me and for my tidings.


But infinite in pardon was my judge.


Used in expressing courteous denial or contradiction; as, I crave your pardon; or in indicating that one has not understood another; as, I beg pardon.

2. An official warrant of remission of penalty.

Sign me a present pardon for my brother.


3. The state of being forgiven. South.

4. (Law) A release, by a sovereign, or officer having jurisdiction, from the penalties of an offense, being distinguished from amenesty, which is a general obliteration and canceling of a particular line of past offenses.

Syn. -- Forgiveness; remission. See Forgiveness.

Par"don, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Pardoned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Pardoning.] [Either fr. pardon, n., or from F. pardonner, LL. perdonare; L. per through, thoroughly, perfectly + donare to give, to present. See Par- , and Donation.] 1. To absolve from the consequences of a fault or the punishment of crime; to free from penalty; -- applied to the offender.

In this thing the Lord pardon thy servant.

2 Kings v. 18.

I pray you, pardon me; pray heartily, pardom me.


2. To remit the penalty of; to suffer to pass without punishment; to forgive; -- applied to offenses.

I pray thee, pardon my sin.

1 S&?;&?;. xv. 25.

Apollo, pardon
My great profaneness 'gainst thine oracle &?;


3. To refrain from exacting as a penalty.

I pardon thee thy life before thou ask it.


4. To give leave (of departure) to. [Obs.]

Even now about it! I will pardon you.


Pardon me, forgive me; excuse me; -- a phrase used also to express courteous denial or contradiction.

Syn. -- To forgive; absolve; excuse; overlook; remit; acquit. See Excuse.

Par"don*a*ble (?), a. [Cf. F. pardonnable.] Admitting of pardon; not requiring the excution of penalty; venial; excusable; -- applied to the offense or to the offender; as, a pardonable fault, or culprit.

Par"don*a*ble*ness, n. The quality or state of being pardonable; as, the pardonableness of sin. Bp. Hall.

Par"don*a*bly, adv. In a manner admitting of pardon; excusably. Dryden.

Par"don*er (?), n. 1. One who pardons. Shak.

2. A seller of indulgences. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Par"don*ing, a. Relating to pardon; having or exercising the right to pardon; willing to pardon; merciful; as, the pardoning power; a pardoning God.

Pare (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Pared (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Paring.] [F. parer to pare, as a horse's hoofs, to dress or curry, as, leather, to clear, as anchors or cables, to parry, ward off, fr. L. parare to prepare. Cf. Empire, Parade, Pardon, Parry, Prepare.] 1. To cut off, or shave off, the superficial substance or extremities of; as, to pare an apple; to pare a horse's hoof.

2. To remove; to separate; to cut or shave, as the skin, ring, or outside part, from anything; -- followed by off or away; as; to pare off the ring of fruit; to pare away redundancies.

3. Fig.: To diminish the bulk of; to reduce; to lessen.

The king began to pare a little the privilege of clergy.


Par`e*gor"ic (?), a. [L. paregoricus, Gr. &?;, from &?; addressing, encouraging, soothing; para` beside + &?; an assembly: cf. F. parégorique. See Allegory.] Mitigating; assuaging or soothing pain; as, paregoric elixir.

Par`e*gor"ic, n. (Med.) A medicine that mitigates pain; an anodyne; specifically, camphorated tincture of opium; -- called also paregoric elexir.

Pa*rel"con (?), n. [Gr. &?; to draw aside, to be redundant; para` beside + &?; to draw.] (Gram.) The addition of a syllable or particle to the end of a pronoun, verb, or adverb.

Par`e*lec`tro*nom"ic (?), a. (Physiol.) Of or relating to parelectronomy; as, the parelectronomic part of a muscle.

Par*e`lec*tron"o*my (?), n. [Pref. para- + electro- + Gr. &?; law.] (Physiol.) A condition of the muscles induced by exposure to severe cold, in which the electrical action of the muscle is reversed.

{ ||Pa*rel"la (?), ||Pa`relle (?), } n. [Cf. F. parelle.] (Bot.) (a) A name for two kinds of dock (Rumex Patientia and R. Hydrolapathum). (b) A kind of lichen (Lecanora parella) once used in dyeing and in the preparation of litmus.

||Pa*rem"bo*le (&?;), n. [NL., from Gr. &?; an insertion beside. See Para-, and Embolus.] (Rhet.) A kind of parenthesis.

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Pare"ment (?), n. See Parament. [Obs.]

||Par`emp*to"sis (?), n. [NL., from Gr. &?; a coming in beside; para` beside + &?; to fall in.] Same as Parembole.

Pa*ren"chy*ma (?), n. [NL., from Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to pour in beside; para` beside + &?; in + &?; to pour: cf. F. parenchyme.] (Biol.) The soft celluar substance of the tissues of plants and animals, like the pulp of leaves, to soft tissue of glands, and the like.

Pa*ren"chy*mal (?), a. Of, pertaining to, or consisting of, parenchyma.

{ Par`en*chym"a*tous (?), Pa*ren"chy*mous (?), } a. [Cf. F. parenchymateux.] Of, pertaining to, or connected with, the parenchyma of a tissue or an organ; as, parenchymatous degeneration.

||Pa*ren"e*sis (?), n. [L. paraenesis, Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to advise.] Exhortation. [R.]

{ Par`e*net"ic (?), Par`e*net"io*al (?), } a. [Gr. &?;: cf. F. parénétique.] Hortatory; encouraging; persuasive. [R.] F. Potter.

Par"ent (?), n. [L. parens, - entis; akin to parere to bring forth; cf. Gr. &?; to give, beget: cf. F. parent. Cf. Part.] 1. One who begets, or brings forth, offspring; a father or a mother.

Children, obey your parents in the Lord.

Eph. vi. 1.

2. That which produces; cause; source; author; begetter; as, idleness is the parent of vice.

Regular industry is the parent of sobriety.


Parent cell. (Biol.) See Mother cell, under Mother, also Cytula. -- Parent nucleus (Biol.), a nucleus which, in cell division, divides, and gives rise to two or more daughter nuclei. See Karyokinesis, and Cell division, under Division.

Par"ent*age (?), n. [Cf. F. parentage relationship.] Descent from parents or ancestors; parents or ancestors considered with respect to their rank or character; extraction; birth; as, a man of noble parentage. "Wilt thou deny thy parentage?" Shak.

Though men esteem thee low of parentage.


Pa*ren"tal (?), a. [L. parentalis.] 1. Of or pertaining to a parent or to parents; as, parental authority; parental obligations.

2. Becoming to, or characteristic of, parents; tender; affectionate; devoted; as, parental care.

The careful course and parental provision of nature.

Sir T. Browne.

Pa*ren"tal*ly, adv. In a parental manner.

Par`en*ta"tion (?), n. [L. parentatio, fr. parentare to offer a solemn sacrifice in honor of deceased parents. See Parent.] Something done or said in honor of the dead; obsequies. [Obs.] Abp. Potter.

Par"en`tele` (?), n. [F. parentèle, L. parentela.] Kinship; parentage. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Pa*ren"the*sis (?), n.; pl. Parentheses (#). [NL., fr. Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to put in beside, insert; para` beside + &?; in + &?; to put, place. See Para-, En-, 2, and Thesis.]

1. A word, phrase, or sentence, by way of comment or explanation, inserted in, or attached to, a sentence which would be grammatically complete without it. It is usually inclosed within curved lines (see def. 2 below), or dashes. "Seldom mentioned without a derogatory parenthesis." Sir T. Browne.

Don't suffer every occasional thought to carry you away into a long parenthesis.


2. (Print.) One of the curved lines () which inclose a parenthetic word or phrase.

Parenthesis, in technical grammar, is that part of a sentence which is inclosed within the recognized sign; but many phrases and sentences which are punctuated by commas are logically parenthetical. In def. 1, the phrase "by way of comment or explanation" is inserted for explanation, and the sentence would be grammatically complete without it. The present tendency is to avoid using the distinctive marks, except when confusion would arise from a less conspicuous separation.

Pa*ren"the*size (?), v. t. To make a parenthesis of; to include within parenthetical marks. Lowell.

{ Par`en*thet"ic (?), Par`en*thet"ic*al (?), } a. [Cf. Gr. &?;.] 1. Of the nature of a parenthesis; pertaining to, or expressed in, or as in, a parenthesis; as, a parenthetical clause; a parenthetic remark.

A parenthetical observation of Moses himself.


2. Using or containing parentheses.

Par`en*thet"ic*al*ly, adv. In a parenthetical manner; by way of parenthesis; by parentheses.

Par"ent*hood (?), n. The state of a parent; the office or character of a parent.

Pa*ren"ti*cide (?), n. [L. parenticida a parricide; parens parent + caedere to kill.]

1. The act of one who kills one's own parent. [R.]

2. One who kills one's own parent; a parricide. [R.]

Par"ent*less (?), a. Deprived of parents.

Par*ep`i*did"y*mis (?), n. [NL. See Para-, and Epididymis.] (Anat.) A small body containing convoluted tubules, situated near the epididymis in man and some other animals, and supposed to be a remnant of the anterior part of the Wolffian body.

Par"er (?), n. [From Pare, v. t.] One who, or that which, pares; an instrument for paring.

||Pa*rer"gon (?), n. [L.] See Parergy.

Par"er*gy (?), n. [L. parergon, Gr. &?;; para` beside + &?; work.] Something unimportant, incidental, or superfluous. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

||Par"e*sis (?), n. [NL., from Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to let go; &?; from + &?; to send.] (Med.) Incomplete paralysis, affecting motion but not sensation.

Par*eth"moid (?), a. [Pref. para- + ethmoid.] (Anat.) Near or beside the ethmoid bone or cartilage; -- applied especially to a pair of bones in the nasal region of some fishes, and to the ethmoturbinals in some higher animals. -- n. A parethmoid bone.

Pa*ret"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to paresis; affected with paresis.

Par*fay" (?), interj. [Par + fay.] By my faith; verily. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Par"fit (?), a. Perfect. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Par"fit*ly, adv. Perfectly. [Obs.] Chaucer.

{ Par*forn" (?), Par*fourn" (?) }, v. t. To perform. [Obs.] Chaucer. Piers Plowman.

Par"gas*ite (?), n. [So called from Pargas, in Finland.] (Min.) A dark green aluminous variety of amphibole, or hornblende.

Parge"board` (?), n. See Bargeboard.

Par"get (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Pargeted; p. pr. & vb. n. Pargeting.] [OE. pargeten, also spargeten, sparchen; of uncertain origin.] 1. To coat with parget; to plaster, as walls, or the interior of flues; as, to parget the outside of their houses. Sir T. Herbert.

The pargeted ceiling with pendants.

R. L. Stevenson.

2. To paint; to cover over. [Obs.]

Par"get, v. i. 1. To lay on plaster.

2. To paint, as the face. [Obs.] B. Jonson.

Par"get, n. 1. Gypsum or plaster stone.

2. Plaster, as for lining the interior of flues, or for stuccowork. Knight.

3. Paint, especially for the face. [Obs.] Drayton.

Par"get*er (?), n. A plasterer. Johnson.

Par"get*ing, n. [Written also pargetting.] Plasterwork; esp.: (a) A kind of decorative plasterwork in raised ornamental figures, formerly used for the internal and external decoration of houses. (b) In modern architecture, the plastering of the inside of flues, intended to give a smooth surface and help the draught.

Par"get*o*ry (?), n. Something made of, or covered with, parget, or plaster. [Obs.] Milton.

Par*he"lic (?), a. Of or pertaining to parhelia.

Par*hel"ion (?), n.; pl. Parhelia (#). [L. parelion, Gr. &?;, &?;; para` beside + &?; the sun.] A mock sun appearing in the form of a bright light, sometimes near the sun, and tinged with colors like the rainbow, and sometimes opposite to the sun. The latter is usually called an anthelion. Often several mock suns appear at the same time. Cf. Paraselene.

||Par*he"li*um (?), n. See Parhelion.

Par"i- (?). [L. par, paris, equal.] A combining form signifying equal; as, paridigitate, paripinnate.

Pa"ri*ah (?), n. [From Tamil paraiyan, pl. paraiyar, one of the low caste, fr. parai a large drum, because they beat the drums at certain festivals.]

1. One of an aboriginal people of Southern India, regarded by the four castes of the Hindoos as of very low grade. They are usually the serfs of the Sudra agriculturalists. See Caste. Balfour (Cyc. of India).

2. An outcast; one despised by society.

Pariah dog (Zoöl.), a mongrel race of half-wild dogs which act as scavengers in Oriental cities. -- Pariah kite (Zoöl.), a species of kite (Milvus govinda) which acts as a scavenger in India.

Pa*ri"al (?), n. See Pair royal, under Pair, n.

Pa"ri*an (?), a. [L. Parius.] Of or pertaining to Paros, an island in the Ægean Sea noted for its excellent statuary marble; as, Parian marble.

Parian chronicle, a most ancient chronicle of the city of Athens, engraved on marble in the Isle of Paros, now among the Arundelian marbles.

Pa"ri*an, n. 1. A native or inhabitant of Paros.

2. A ceramic ware, resembling unglazed porcelain biscuit, of which are made statuettes, ornaments, etc.

||Par`i*dig`i*ta"ta (?), n. pl. [NL. See Pari-, and Digitate.] (Zoöl.) Same as Artiodactyla.

Par`i*dig"i*tate (?), a. (Anat.) Having an even number of digits on the hands or the feet. Qwen.

||Pa"ri*es (?), n.; pl. Parietes (#). [See Parietes.] (Zoöl.) The triangular middle part of each segment of the shell of a barnacle.

Pa*ri"e*tal (?), a. [L. parietalis, fr. paries, -ietis, a wall: cf. F. pariétal. Cf. Parietary, Pellitory.]

1. Of or pertaining to a wall; hence, pertaining to buildings or the care of them.

2. Resident within the walls or buildings of a college.

At Harvard College, the officers resident within the college walls constitute a permanent standing committee, called the Parietal Committee.

B. H. Hall (1856).

3. (Anat.) (a) Of pertaining to the parietes. (b) Of, pertaining to, or in the region of, the parietal bones, which form the upper and middle part of the cranium, between the frontals and occipitals.

4. (Bot.) Attached to the main wall of the ovary, and not to the axis; -- said of a placenta.

Pa*ri"e*tal, n. 1. (Anat.) One of the parietal bones.

2. (Zoöl.) One of the special scales, or plates, covering the back of the head in certain reptiles and fishes.

Pa*ri"e*ta*ry (?), a. See Parietal, 2.

Pa*ri"e*ta*ry, n. [L. parietaria, fr. parietarius parietal. Cf. Pellitory, Parietal.] (Bot.) Any one of several species of Parietaria. See 1st Pellitory.

||Pa*ri"e*tes (?), n. pl. [L. paries a wall.]

1. (Anat.) The walls of a cavity or an organ; as, the abdominal parietes; the parietes of the cranium.

2. (Bot.) The sides of an ovary or of a capsule.

Pa`ri*et"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, an acid found in the lichen Parmelia parietina, and called also chrysophanic acid.

Pa*ri"e*tine (?), n. [L. parietinus parietal: cf. parietinae ruined walls.] A piece of a fallen wall; a ruin. [Obs.] Burton.

Pa*ri"e*to- (&?;). (Anat.) A combining form used to indicate connection with, or relation to, the parietal bones or the parietal segment of the skull; as, the parieto-mastoid suture.

Pa*rig"e*nin (?), n. [Parillin + -gen + -in.] (Chem.) A curdy white substance, obtained by the decomposition of parillin.

Pa*ril"lin (?), n. [Shortened fr. sarsaparillin.] (Chem.) A glucoside resembling saponin, found in the root of sarsaparilla, smilax, etc., and extracted as a bitter white crystalline substance; -- called also smilacin, sarsaparilla saponin, and sarsaparillin.

Par"ing (?), n. [From Pare, v. t.] 1. The act of cutting off the surface or extremites of anything.

2. That which is pared off. Pope.

Pare off the surface of the earth, and with the parings raise your hills.


Par`i*pin"nate (?), a. [Pari- + pinnate.] (Bot.) Pinnate with an equal number of leaflets on each side; having no odd leaflet at the end.

Par"is (?), n. [From Paris, the son of Priam.] (Bot.) A plant common in Europe (Paris quadrifolia); herb Paris; truelove. It has been used as a narcotic.

It much resembles the American genus Trillium, but has usually four leaves and a tetramerous flower.

Par"is, n. The chief city of France.

Paris green. See under Green, n. -- Paris white (Chem.), purified chalk used as a pigment; whiting; Spanish white.

Par"ish (?), n. [OE. parishe, paresche, parosche, OF. paroisse, parosse, paroiche, F. paroisse, L. parochia, corrupted fr. paroecia, Gr. &?;, fr. &?; dwelling beside or near; para` beside + &?; a house, dwelling; akin to L. vicus village. See Vicinity, and cf. Parochial.]

1. (Eccl. & Eng. Law) (a) That circuit of ground committed to the charge of one parson or vicar, or other minister having cure of souls therein. Cowell. (b) The same district, constituting a civil jurisdiction, with its own officers and regulations, as respects the poor, taxes, etc.

Populous and extensive parishes are now divided, under various parliamentary acts, into smaller ecclesiastical districts for spiritual purposes. Mozley & W.

2. An ecclesiastical society, usually not bounded by territorial limits, but composed of those persons who choose to unite under the charge of a particular priest, clergyman, or minister; also, loosely, the territory in which the members of a congregation live. [U. S.]

3. In Louisiana, a civil division corresponding to a county in other States.

Par"ish, a. Of or pertaining to a parish; parochial; as, a parish church; parish records; a parish priest; maintained by the parish; as, parish poor. Dryden.

Parish clerk. (a) The clerk or recording officer of a parish. (b) A layman who leads in the responses and otherwise assists in the service of the Church of England. -- Parish court, in Louisiana, a court in each parish.

Par"ish*en (?), n. A parishioner. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Pa*rish"ion*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to a parish; parochial. [R.] Bp. Hall.

Pa*rish"ion*er (?), n. [F. paroissien, LL. parochianus.] One who belongs to, or is connected with, a parish.

Pa*ri"sian (?), n. [Cf. F. parisen.] A native or inhabitant of Paris, the capital of France.

Pa*ri"sian, a. Of or pertaining to Paris.

||Pa`ri`si`enne" (?), n. [F.] A female native or resident of Paris.

Par`i*sol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. &?; almost equal, evenly balanced + -logy.] The use of equivocal or ambiguous words. [R.]

{ Par`i*syl*lab"ic (?), Par`i*syl*lab"ic*al (?), } a. [Pari- + syllabic, -ical: cf. F. parisyllabique.] Having the same number of syllables in all its inflections.

Par"i*tor (?), n. [Abbrev. fr. apparitor: cf. L. paritor a servant, attendant.] An apparitor. "Summoned by an host of paritors." Dryden.

Par"i*to*ry (?), n. Pellitory. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Par"i*ty (?), n. [L. paritas, fr. par, paris, equal: cf. F. parité. See Pair, Peer an equal.] The quality or condition of being equal or equivalent; A like state or degree; equality; close correspondence; analogy; as, parity of reasoning. "No parity of principle." De Quincey.

Equality of length and parity of numeration.

Sir T. Browne.

Park (?), n. [AS. pearroc, or perh. rather fr. F. parc; both being of the same origin; cf. LL. parcus, parricus, Ir. & Gael. pairc, W. park, parwg. Cf. Paddock an inclosure, Parrock.] 1. (Eng. Law) A piece of ground inclosed, and stored with beasts of the chase, which a man may have by prescription, or the king's grant. Mozley & W.

2. A tract of ground kept in its natural state, about or adjacent to a residence, as for the preservation of game, for walking, riding, or the like. Chaucer.

While in the park I sing, the listening deer
Attend my passion, and forget to fear.


3. A piece of ground, in or near a city or town, inclosed and kept for ornament and recreation; as, Hyde Park in London; Central Park in New York.

4. (Mil.) A space occupied by the animals, wagons, pontoons, and materials of all kinds, as ammunition, ordnance stores, hospital stores, provisions, etc., when brought together; also, the objects themselves; as, a park of wagons; a park of artillery.

5. A partially inclosed basin in which oysters are grown. [Written also parc.]

Park of artillery. See under Artillery. -- Park phaeton, a small, low carriage, for use in parks.

Park, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Parked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Parking.] 1. To inclose in a park, or as in a park.

How are we parked, and bounded in a pale.


2. (Mil.) To bring together in a park, or compact body; as, to park the artillery, the wagons, etc.

Park"er (?), n. The keeper of a park. Sir M. Hale.

||Par*ke"ri*a (?), n. [NL. So named from W. K. Parker, a British zoölogist.] (Zoöl.) A genus of large arenaceous fossil Foraminifera found in the Cretaceous rocks. The species are globular, or nearly so, and are of all sizes up to that of a tennis ball.

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Parkes"ine (?), n. [So called from Mr. Parkes, the inventor.] A compound, originally made from gun cotton and castor oil, but later from different materials, and used as a substitute for vulcanized India rubber and for ivory; -- called also xylotile.

Park"leaves` (?), n. (Bot.) A European species of Saint John's-wort; the tutsan. See Tutsan.

Par"lance (?), n. [OF., fr. F. parler to speak. See Parley.] Conversation; discourse; talk; diction; phrase; as, in legal parlance; in common parlance.

A hate of gossip parlance and of sway.


{ ||Par*lan"do (?), ||Par*lan"te (?), } a. & adv. [It.] (Mus.) Speaking; in a speaking or declamatory manner; to be sung or played in the style of a recitative.

Parle (?), v. i. [F. parler. See Parley.] To talk; to converse; to parley. [Obs.] Shak.

Finding himself too weak, began to parle.


Parle, n. Conversation; talk; parley. [Obs.]

They ended parle, and both addressed for fight.


Par"ley (?), n.; pl. Parleys (#). [F. parler speech, talk, fr. parler to speak, LL. parabolare, fr. L. parabola a comparison, parable, in LL., a word. See Parable, and cf. Parliament, Parlor.] Mutual discourse or conversation; discussion; hence, an oral conference with an enemy, as with regard to a truce.

We yield on parley, but are stormed in vain.


To beat a parley (Mil.), to beat a drum, or sound a trumpet, as a signal for holding a conference with the enemy.

Par"ley, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Parleyed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Parleying.] To speak with another; to confer on some point of mutual concern; to discuss orally; hence, specifically, to confer orally with an enemy; to treat with him by words, as on an exchange of prisoners, an armistice, or terms of peace.

They are at hand,
To parley or to fight; therefore prepare.


Par"lia*ment (?), n. [OE. parlement, F. parlement, fr. parler to speak; cf. LL. parlamentum, parliamentum. See Parley.] 1. A parleying; a discussion; a conference. [Obs.]

But first they held their parliament.

Rom. of R.

2. A formal conference on public affairs; a general council; esp., an assembly of representatives of a nation or people having authority to make laws.

They made request that it might be lawful for them to summon a parliament of Gauls.


3. The assembly of the three estates of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, viz., the lords spiritual, lords temporal, and the representatives of the commons, sitting in the House of Lords and the House of Commons, constituting the legislature, when summoned by the royal authority to consult on the affairs of the nation, and to enact and repeal laws.

Thought the sovereign is a constituting branch of Parliament, the word is generally used to denote the three estates named above.

4. In France, before the Revolution of 1789, one of the several principal judicial courts.

Parliament heel, the inclination of a ship when made to careen by shifting her cargo or ballast. -- Parliament hinge (Arch.), a hinge with so great a projection from the wall or frame as to allow a door or shutter to swing back flat against the wall. -- Long Parliament, Rump Parliament. See under Long, and Rump.

Par`lia*men"tal (?), a. Parliamentary. [Obs.]

Par`lia*men*ta"ri*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to Parliament. Wood.

Par`lia*men*ta"ri*an, n. 1. (Eng. Hist.) One who adhered to the Parliament, in opposition to King Charles I. Walpole.

2. One versed in the rules and usages of Parliament or similar deliberative assemblies; as, an accomplished parliamentarian.

Par`lia*men"ta*ri*ly (?), adv. In a parliamentary manner.

Par`lia*men"ta*ry (?), a. [Cf. F. parlementaire.]

1. Of or pertaining to Parliament; as, parliamentary authority. Bacon.

2. Enacted or done by Parliament; as, a parliamentary act. Sir M. Hale.

3. According to the rules and usages of Parliament or of deliberative bodies; as, a parliamentary motion.

Parliamentary agent, a person, usually a solicitor, professionally employed by private parties to explain and recommend claims, bills, etc., under consideration of Parliament. [Eng.] -- Parliamentary train, one of the trains which, by act of Parliament, railway companies are required to run for the conveyance of third-class passengers at a reduced rate. [Eng.]

Par"lor (?), n. [OE. parlour, parlur, F. parloir, LL. parlatorium. See Parley.] [Written also parlour.] A room for business or social conversation, for the reception of guests, etc. Specifically: (a) The apartment in a monastery or nunnery where the inmates are permitted to meet and converse with each other, or with visitors and friends from without. Piers Plowman. (b) In large private houses, a sitting room for the family and for familiar guests, -- a room for less formal uses than the drawing-room. Esp., in modern times, the dining room of a house having few apartments, as a London house, where the dining parlor is usually on the ground floor. (c) Commonly, in the United States, a drawing- room, or the room where visitors are received and entertained.

"In England people who have a drawing-room no longer call it a parlor, as they called it of old and till recently." Fitzed. Hall.

Parlor car. See Palace car, under Car.

Par"lous (?), a. [For perlous, a contr. fr. perilous.] 1. Attended with peril; dangerous; as, a parlous cough. [Archaic] "A parlous snuffing." Beau. & Fl.

2. Venturesome; bold; mischievous; keen. [Obs.] "A parlous boy." Shak. "A parlous wit." Dryden. -- Par"lous*ly, adv. [Obs.] -- Par"lous*ness, n. [Obs.]

Par`me*san" (?), a. [F. parmesan, It. parmigiano.] Of or pertaining to Parma in Italy.

Parmesan cheese, a kind of cheese of a rich flavor, though from skimmed milk, made in Parma, Italy.

||Par*nas"si*a (?), n. [NL.] (Bot.) A genus of herbs growing in wet places, and having white flowers; grass of Parnassus.

Par*nas"sian (?), a. [L. Parnassius.] Of or pertaining to Parnassus.

Par*nas"sian, n. [See Parnassus.] (Zoöl.) Any one of numerous species of butterflies belonging to the genus Parnassius. They inhabit the mountains, both in the Old World and in America.

Par*nas"sus (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. &?;.] (Anc. Geog. & Gr. Myth.) A mountain in Greece, sacred to Apollo and the Muses, and famous for a temple of Apollo and for the Castalian spring.

Grass of Parnassus. (Bot.) See under Grass, and Parnassia. -- To climb Parnassus, to write poetry. [Colloq.]

Par`oc*cip"i*tal (?), a. [Pref. para- + occipital.] (Anat.) Situated near or beside the occipital condyle or the occipital bone; paramastoid; -- applied especially to a process of the skull in some animals.

Pa*ro"chi*al (?), a. [LL. parochialis, from L. parochia. See Parish.] Of or pertaining to a parish; restricted to a parish; as, parochial duties. "Parochial pastors." Bp. Atterbury. Hence, limited; narrow. "The parochial mind." W. Black.

Pa*ro"chi*al*ism (?), n. The quality or state of being parochial in form or nature; a system of management peculiar to parishes.

Pa*ro`chi*al"i*ty (?), n. The state of being parochial. [R.] Sir J. Marriot.

Pa*ro"chi*al*ize (?), v. t. To render parochial; to form into parishes.

Pa*ro"chi*al*ly, adv. In a parochial manner; by the parish, or by parishes. Bp. Stillingfleet.

Pa*ro"chi*an (?), a. [See Parochial, Parishioner.] Parochial. [Obs.] "Parochian churches." Bacon.

Pa*ro"chi*an, n. [LL. parochianus.] A parishioner. [Obs.] Ld. Burleigh.

{ Pa*rod"ic (?), Pa*rod"ic*al (?), } a. [Gr. &?;: cf. F. parodique.] Having the character of parody.

Very paraphrastic, and sometimes parodical.

T. Warton.

Par"o*dist (?), n. [Cf. F. parodiste.] One who writes a parody; one who parodies. Coleridge.

Par"o*dy (?), n.; pl. Parodies (#). [L. parodia, Gr. &?;; para` beside + &?; a song: cf. F. parodie. See Para-, and Ode.]

1. A writing in which the language or sentiment of an author is mimicked; especially, a kind of literary pleasantry, in which what is written on one subject is altered, and applied to another by way of burlesque; travesty.

The lively parody which he wrote . . . on Dryden's "Hind and Panther" was received with great applause.


2. A popular maxim, adage, or proverb. [Obs.]

Par"o*dy, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Parodied (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Parodying.] [Cf. F. parodier.] To write a parody upon; to burlesque.

I have translated, or rather parodied, a poem of Horace.


Par"o*ket` (?), n. (Zoöl.) See Paroquet.

Pa*rol" (?), n. [See Parole, the same word.]

1. A word; an oral utterance. [Obs.]

2. (Law) Oral declaration; word of mouth; also, a writing not under seal. Blackstone.

Pa*rol", a. Given or done by word of mouth; oral; also, given by a writing not under seal; as, parol evidence.

Parol arrest (Law), an arrest in pursuance of a verbal order from a magistrate. -- Parol contract (Law), any contract not of record or under seal, whether oral or written; a simple contract. Chitty. Story.

Pa*role" (?), n. [F. parole. See Parley, and cf. Parol.] 1. A word; an oral utterance. [Obs.]

2. Word of promise; word of honor; plighted faith; especially (Mil.), promise, upon one's faith and honor, to fulfill stated conditions, as not to bear arms against one's captors, to return to custody, or the like.

This man had forfeited his military parole.


3. (Mil.) A watchword given only to officers of guards; -- distinguished from countersign, which is given to all guards.

4. (Law) Oral declaration. See lst Parol, 2.

Pa*role", a. See 2d Parol.

Pa*role", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Paroled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Paroling.] (Mil.) To set at liberty on parole; as, to parole prisoners.

Par`o*mol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. fr. &?;, fr. &?; to grant; &?; by, near + &?; to speak together, agree. See Homologous.] (Rhet.) A concession to an adversary in order to strengthen one's own argument.

||Par`o*no*ma"si*a (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to form a word by a slight change; para` beside + &?; to name, fr. &?; a name.] (Rhet.) A play upon words; a figure by which the same word is used in different senses, or words similar in sound are set in opposition to each other, so as to give antithetical force to the sentence; punning. Dryden.

{ Par`o*no*mas"tic (?), Par`o*no*mas"tic*al (?), } a. Of or pertaining to paronomasia; consisting in a play upon words.

Par`o*nom"a*sy (?), n. [Cf. F. paronomasie.] Paronomasia. [R.] B. Jonson.

||Par`o*nych"i*a (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. &?;; para` beside + &?;, &?;, a nail.] (Med.) A whitlow, or felon. Quincy.

Par"o*nym (?), n. A paronymous word. [Written also paronyme.]

Pa*ron"y*mous (?), a. [Gr. &?;; para` beside, near + &?; a name.] 1. Having the same derivation; allied radically; conjugate; -- said of certain words, as man, mankind, manhood, etc.

2. Having a similar sound, but different orthography and different meaning; -- said of certain words, as al&?; and awl; hair and hare, etc.

Pa*ron"y*my, n. The quality of being paronymous; also, the use of paronymous words.

||Par`o*öph"o*ron (?), n. [NL., from Gr. &?; (see Para-) + &?; an egg + &?; to bear.] (Anat.) A small mass of tubules near the ovary in some animals, and corresponding with the parepididymis of the male.

Par"o*quet` (?), n. [F. perroquet, or Sp. periquito; both prob. orig. meaning, little Peter. See Parrot.] (Zoöl.) Same as Parrakeet. [Written also paroket, parroquet, and perroquet.]

Paroquet auk or auklet (Zoöl.), a small auk (Cyclorrhynchus psittaculus) inhabiting the coast and islands of Alaska. The upper parts are dark slate, under parts white, bill orange red. Called also perroquet auk.

||Pa*ror"chis (?), n. [NL. See Para- , and Orchis.] (Anat.) The part of the epididymis; or the corresponding part of the excretory duct of the testicle, which is derived from the Wolffian body.

Pa*ros"te*al (?), (Physiol.) Of or pertaining to parostosis; as, parosteal ossification.

||Par`os*to"sis (?), n. [NL. See Para-, and Ostosis.] (Physiol.) Ossification which takes place in purely fibrous tracts; the formation of bone outside of the periosteum.

Par`os*tot"ic (?), a. Pertaining to parostosis.

Pa*rot"ic (?), a. [See Parotid.] (Anat.) On the side of the auditory capsule; near the external ear.

Parotic region (Zoöl.), the space around the ears.

Pa*rot"id (?), a. [L. parotis, -idis, Gr. &?;, &?;; para` beside, near + &?;, &?;, the ear: cf. F. parotide. ] (Anat.) (a) Situated near the ear; -- applied especially to the salivary gland near the ear. (b) Of, pertaining to, or in the region of, the parotid gland.

Parotid gland (Anat.), one of the salivary glands situated just in front of or below the ear. It is the largest of the salivary glands in man, and its duct opens into the interior of the mouth opposite the second molar of the upper jaw.

Pa*rot"id, n. (Anat.) The parotid gland.

Par`o*ti"tis (?), n. [NL. See Parotid, and -itis.] (Med.) Inflammation of the parotid glands.

Epidemic, or Infectious, parotitis, mumps.

Par"o*toid (?), a. [Parotid + -oid.] (Anat.) Resembling the parotid gland; -- applied especially to cutaneous glandular elevations above the ear in many toads and frogs. -- n. A parotoid gland.

||Pa*rou"si*a (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?;. See Parusia.] (a) The nativity of our Lord. (b) The last day. Shipley.

||Par`o*va"ri*um (?), n. [NL. See Para-, and Ovarium.] (Anat.) A group of tubules, a remnant of the Wolffian body, often found near the ovary or oviduct; the epoöphoron.

Par"ox*ysm (?), n. [F. paroxysme, Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to sharpen, irritate; para` beside, beyond + &?; to sharpen, from &?; sharp.] 1. (Med.) The fit, attack, or exacerbation, of a disease that occurs at intervals, or has decided remissions or intermissions. Arbuthnot.

2. Any sudden and violent emotion; spasmodic passion or action; a convulsion; a fit.

The returning paroxysms of diffidence and despair.


Par`ox*ys"mal (?), a. Of the nature of a paroxysm; characterized or accompanied by paroxysms; as, a paroxysmal pain; paroxysmal temper. -- Par`ox*ys"mal*ly, adv.

Par*ox"y*tone (?), n. [Gr. &?;, a. See Para-, and Oxytone.] (Gr. Gram.) A word having an acute accent on the penultimate syllable.

Par*quet" (?), n. [F. See Parquetry.]

1. A body of seats on the floor of a music hall or theater nearest the orchestra; but commonly applied to the whole lower floor of a theater, from the orchestra to the dress circle; the pit.

2. Same as Parquetry.

Par"quet*age (?), n. See Parquetry.

Par"quet*ed, a. Formed in parquetry; inlaid with wood in small and differently colored figures.

One room parqueted with yew, which I liked well.


Par"quet*ry (?), n. [F. parqueterie, fr. parquet inlaid flooring, fr. parquet, dim. of parc an inclosure. See Park.] A species of joinery or cabinet-work consisting of an inlay of geometric or other patterns, generally of different colors, -- used especially for floors.

Par*quette" (?), n. See Parquet.

Parr (?), n. [Cf. Gael. & Ir. bradan a salmon.] (Zoöl.) (a) A young salmon in the stage when it has dark transverse bands; -- called also samlet, skegger, and fingerling. (b) A young leveret.

<! p. 1045 !>

{ Par"ra*keet` (?), Par"a*keet` }, n. [See Paroquet.] (Zoöl.) Any one of numerous species of small parrots having a graduated tail, which is frequently very long; -- called also paroquet and paraquet.

Many of the Asiatic and Australian species belong to the genus Paleornis; others belong to Polytelis, Platycercus, Psephotus, Euphema, and allied genera. The American parrakeets mostly belong to the genus Conurus, as the Carolina parrakeet (C. Carolinensis).

{ Par"ral (?), Par"rel (?), } n. [F. appareil. See Apparel, n.] 1. (Naut.) The rope or collar by which a yard or spar is held to the mast in such a way that it may be hoisted or lowered at pleasure. Totten.

2. A chimney-piece. Halliwell.

||Par*ra"qua (?), n. (Zoöl.) A curassow of the genus Ortalida, allied to the guan.

||Par*rhe"si*a (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?;; para` beside, beyond + &?; a speaking.] (Rhet.) Boldness or freedom of speech.

Par"ri*ci`dal (?), a. [L. parricidalis, parricidialis. See Parricide.] Of or pertaining to parricide; guilty of parricide.

Par"ri*cide (?), n. [F., fr. L. parricida; pater father + caedere to kill. See Father, Homicide, and cf. Patricide.]

1. Properly, one who murders one's own father; in a wider sense, one who murders one's father or mother or any ancestor.

2. [L. parricidium.] The act or crime of murdering one's own father or any ancestor.

Par`ri*cid"i*ous (?), a. Parricidal. [Obs.]

Par"rock (?), n. [AS. pearruc, pearroc. See Park.] A croft, or small field; a paddock. [Prov. Eng.]

Par"rot (?), n. [Prob. fr. F. Pierrot, dim. of Pierre Peter. F. pierrot is also the name of the sparrow. Cf. Paroquet, Petrel, Petrify.] 1. (Zoöl.) In a general sense, any bird of the order Psittaci.

2. (Zoöl.) Any species of Psittacus, Chrysotis, Pionus, and other genera of the family Psittacidæ, as distinguished from the parrakeets, macaws, and lories. They have a short rounded or even tail, and often a naked space on the cheeks. The gray parrot, or jako (P. erithacus) of Africa (see Jako), and the species of Amazon, or green, parrots (Chrysotis) of America, are examples. Many species, as cage birds, readily learn to imitate sounds, and to repeat words and phrases.

Carolina parrot (Zoöl.), the Carolina parrakeet. See Parrakeet. -- Night parrot, or Owl parrot. (Zoöl.) See Kakapo. -- Parrot coal, cannel coal; -- so called from the crackling and chattering sound it makes in burning. [Eng. & Scot.] -- Parrot green. (Chem.) See Scheele's green, under Green, n. -- Parrot weed (Bot.), a suffrutescent plant (Bocconia frutescens) of the Poppy family, native of the warmer parts of America. It has very large, sinuate, pinnatifid leaves, and small, panicled, apetalous flowers. -- Parrot wrasse, Parrot fish (Zoöl.), any fish of the genus Scarus. One species (S. Cretensis), found in the Mediterranean, is esteemed by epicures, and was highly prized by the ancient Greeks and Romans.

Par"rot, v. t. To repeat by rote, as a parrot.

Par"rot, v. i. To chatter like a parrot.

Par"rot*er (?), n. One who simply repeats what he has heard. [R.] J. S. Mill.

Par"rot*ry (?), n. Servile imitation or repetition. [R.] Coleridge. "The supine parrotry." Fitzed. Hall.

Par"rot's-bill` (?), n. [So called from the resemblance of its curved superior petal to a parrot's bill.] (Bot.) The glory pea. See under Glory.

Par"ry (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Parried (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Parrying.] [F. paré, p. p. of parer. See Pare, v. t.]

1. To ward off; to stop, or to turn aside; as, to parry a thrust, a blow, or anything that means or threatens harm. Locke.

Vice parries wide
The undreaded volley with a sword of straw.


2. To avoid; to shift or put off; to evade.

The French government has parried the payment of our claims.

E. Everett.

Par"ry, v. i. To ward off, evade, or turn aside something, as a blow, argument, etc. Locke.

Par"ry, n.; pl. Parries (&?;). A warding off of a thrust or blow, as in sword and bayonet exercises or in boxing; hence, figuratively, a defensive movement in debate or other intellectual encounter.

Parse (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Parsed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Parsing.] [L. pars a part; pars orationis a part of speech. See Part, n.] (Gram.) To resolve into its elements, as a sentence, pointing out the several parts of speech, and their relation to each other by government or agreement; to analyze and describe grammatically.

Let him construe the letter into English, and parse it over perfectly.


Par"see (?), n. [Hind. & Per. prs a Persian, a follower of Zoroaster, a fire worshiper. Cf. Persian.]

1. One of the adherents of the Zoroastrian or ancient Persian religion, descended from Persian refugees settled in India; a fire worshiper; a Gheber.

2. The Iranian dialect of much of the religious literature of the Parsees.

Par"see*ism (?), n. The religion and customs of the Parsees.

Pars"er (?), n. One who parses.

Par`si*mo"ni*ous (?), a. [Cf. F. parcimonieux. See Parsimony.] Exhibiting parsimony; sparing in expenditure of money; frugal to excess; penurious; niggardly; stingy. -- Par`si*mo"ni*ous*ly, adv. -- Par`si*mo"ni*ous*ness, n.

A prodigal king is nearer a tyrant than a parsimonious.


Extraordinary funds for one campaign may spare us the expense of many years; whereas a long, parsimonious war will drain us of more men and money.


Syn. -- Covetous; niggardly; miserly; penurious; close; saving; mean; stingy; frugal. See Avaricious.

Par"si*mo*ny (?), n. [L. parsimonia, parcimonia; cf. parcere to spare, parsus sparing: cf. F. parcimonie.] Closeness or sparingness in the expenditure of money; -- generally in a bad sense; excessive frugality; niggardliness. Bacon.

Awful parsimony presided generally at the table.


Syn. -- Economy; frugality; illiberality; covetousness; closeness; stinginess. See Economy.

Pars"ley (?), n. [OE. persely, persil, F. persil, L. petroselinum rock parsley, Gr. &?;; &?; stone + &?; parsley. Cf. Celery.] (Bot.) An aromatic umbelliferous herb (Carum Petroselinum), having finely divided leaves which are used in cookery and as a garnish.

As she went to the garden for parsley, to stuff a rabbit.


Fool's parsley. See under Fool. - - Hedge parsley, Milk parsley, Stone parsley, names given to various weeds of similar appearance to the parsley. -- Parsley fern (Bot.), a small fern with leaves resembling parsley (Cryptogramme crispa). -- Parsley piert (Bot.), a small herb (Alchemilla arvensis) formerly used as a remedy for calculus.

Pars"nip (?), n. [OE. parsnepe, from a French form, fr. L. pastinaca; cf. pastinare to dig up, pastinum a kind of dibble; cf. OF. pastenade, pastenaque.] (Bot.) The aromatic and edible spindle-shaped root of the cultivated form of the Pastinaca sativa, a biennial umbelliferous plant which is very poisonous in its wild state; also, the plant itself.

Cow parsnip. See Cow parsnip. -- Meadow parsnip, the European cow parsnip. - - Poison parsnip, the wild stock of the parsnip. -- Water parsnip, any plant of the umbelliferous genus Sium, the species of which are poisonous.

Par"son (?), n. [OE. persone person, parson, OF. persone, F. personne person, LL. persona (sc. ecclesiae), fr. L. persona a person. See Person.]

1. (Eng. Eccl. Law) A person who represents a parish in its ecclesiastical and corporate capacities; hence, the rector or incumbent of a parochial church, who has full possession of all the rights thereof, with the cure of souls.

2. Any clergyman having ecclesiastical preferment; one who is in orders, or is licensed to preach; a preacher.

He hears the parson pray and preach.


Parson bird (Zoöl.), a New Zealand bird (Prosthemadera Novæseelandiæ) remarkable for its powers of mimicry and its ability to articulate words. Its color is glossy black, with a curious tuft of long, curly, white feathers on each side of the throat. It is often kept as a cage bird.

Par"son*age (?), n. 1. (Eng. Eccl. Law) A certain portion of lands, tithes, and offerings, for the maintenance of the parson of a parish.

2. The glebe and house, or the house only, owned by a parish or ecclesiastical society, and appropriated to the maintenance or use of the incumbent or settled pastor.

3. Money paid for the support of a parson. [Scot.]

What have I been paying stipend and teind, parsonage and vicarage, for?

Sir W. Scott.

Par"soned (?), a. Furnished with a parson.

{ Par*son"ic (?), Par*son"ic*al (?), } a. Of or pertaining to a parson; clerical.

Vainglory glowed in his parsonic heart.


-- Par*son"ic*al*ly, adv.

Par"son*ish (?), a. Appropriate to, or like, a parson; -- used in disparagement. [Colloq.]

Part (?), n. [F. part, L. pars, gen. partis; cf. parere to bring forth, produce. Cf. Parent, Depart, Parcel, Partner, Party, Portion.] 1. One of the portions, equal or unequal, into which anything is divided, or regarded as divided; something less than a whole; a number, quantity, mass, or the like, regarded as going to make up, with others, a larger number, quantity, mass, etc., whether actually separate or not; a piece; a fragment; a fraction; a division; a member; a constituent.

And kept back part of the price, . . . and brought a certain part and laid it at the apostles'feet.

Acts v. 2.

Our ideas of extension and number -- do they not contain a secret relation of the parts ?


I am a part of all that I have met.


2. Hence, specifically: (a) An equal constituent portion; one of several or many like quantities, numbers, etc., into which anything is divided, or of which it is composed; proportional division or ingredient.

An homer is the tenth part of an ephah.

Ex. xvi. 36.

A thought which, quartered, hath but one part wisdom,
And ever three parts coward.


(b) A constituent portion of a living or spiritual whole; a member; an organ; an essential element.

All the parts were formed . . . into one harmonious body.


The pulse, the glow of every part.


(c) A constituent of character or capacity; quality; faculty; talent; -- usually in the plural with a collective sense. "Men of considerable parts." Burke. "Great quickness of parts." Macaulay.

Which maintained so politic a state of evil, that they will not admit any good part to intermingle with them.


(d) Quarter; region; district; -- usually in the plural. "The uttermost part of the heaven." Neh. i. 9.

All parts resound with tumults, plaints, and fears.


(e) (Math.) Such portion of any quantity, as when taken a certain number of times, will exactly make that quantity; as, 3 is a part of 12; -- the opposite of multiple. Also, a line or other element of a geometrical figure.

3. That which belongs to one, or which is assumed by one, or which falls to one, in a division or apportionment; share; portion; lot; interest; concern; duty; office.

We have no part in David.

2 Sam. xx. 1.

Accuse not Nature! she hath done her part;
Do thou but thine.


Let me bear
My part of danger with an equal share.


4. Hence, specifically: (a) One of the opposing parties or sides in a conflict or a controversy; a faction.

For he that is not against us is on our part.

Mark ix. 40.

Make whole kingdoms take her brother's part.


(b) A particular character in a drama or a play; an assumed personification; also, the language, actions, and influence of a character or an actor in a play; or, figuratively, in real life. See To act a part, under Act.

That part
Was aptly fitted and naturally performed.


It was a brute part of him to kill so capital a calf.


Honor and shame from no condition rise;
Act well your part, there all the honor lies.


(c) (Mus.) One of the different melodies of a concerted composition, which heard in union compose its harmony; also, the music for each voice or instrument; as, the treble, tenor, or bass part; the violin part, etc.

For my part, so far as concerns me; for my share. -- For the most part. See under Most, a. -- In good part, as well done; favorably; acceptably; in a friendly manner. Hooker. -- In ill part, unfavorably; with displeasure. -- In part, in some degree; partly. -- Part and parcel, an essential or constituent portion; -- a reduplicative phrase. Cf. might and main, kith and kin, etc. "She was . . . part and parcel of the race and place." Howitt. -- Part of speech (Gram.), a sort or class of words of a particular character; thus, the noun is a part of speech denoting the name of a thing; the verb is a part of speech which asserts something of the subject of a sentence. -- Part owner (Law), one of several owners or tenants in common. See Joint tenant, under Joint. -- Part singing, singing in which two or more of the harmonic parts are taken. -- Part song, a song in two or more (commonly four) distinct vocal parts. "A part song differs from a madrigal in its exclusion of contrapuntual devices; from a glee, in its being sung by many voices, instead of by one only, to each part." Stainer & Barrett.

Syn. -- Portion; section; division; fraction; fragment; piece; share; constituent. See Portion, and Section.

Part (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Parted; p. pr. & vb. n. Parting.] [F. partir, L. partire, partiri, p. p. partitus, fr. pars, gen. partis, a part. See Part, n.]

1. To divide; to separate into distinct parts; to break into two or more parts or pieces; to sever. "Thou shalt part it in pieces." Lev. ii. 6.

There, [celestial love] parted into rainbow hues.


2. To divide into shares; to divide and distribute; to allot; to apportion; to share.

To part his throne, and share his heaven with thee.


They parted my raiment among them.

John xix. 24.

3. To separate or disunite; to cause to go apart; to remove from contact or contiguity; to sunder.

The Lord do so to me, and more also, if aught but death part thee and me.

Ruth i. 17.

While he blessed them, he was parted from them, and carried up into heaven.

Luke xxiv. 51.

The narrow seas that part
The French and English.


4. Hence: To hold apart; to stand between; to intervene betwixt, as combatants.

The stumbling night did part our weary powers.


5. To separate by a process of extraction, elimination, or secretion; as, to part gold from silver.

The liver minds his own affair, . . .
And parts and strains the vital juices.


6. To leave; to quit. [Obs.]

Since presently your souls must part your bodies.


To part a cable (Naut.), to break it. -- To part company, to separate, as travelers or companions.

Part, v. i. 1. To be broken or divided into parts or pieces; to break; to become separated; to go asunder; as, rope parts; his hair parts in the middle.

2. To go away; to depart; to take leave; to quit each other; hence, to die; -- often with from.

He wrung Bassanio's hand, and so they parted.


He owned that he had parted from the duke only a few hours before.


His precious bag, which he would by no means part from.

G. Eliot.

3. To perform an act of parting; to relinquish a connection of any kind; -- followed by with or from.

Celia, for thy sake, I part
With all that grew so near my heart.


Powerful hands . . . will not part
Easily from possession won with arms.


It was strange to him that a father should feel no tenderness at parting with an only son.

A. Trollope.

4. To have a part or share; to partake. [Obs.] "They shall part alike." 1 Sam. xxx. 24.

Part, adv. Partly; in a measure. [R.] Shak.

Part"a*ble (?), a. See Partible. Camden.

Part"age (?), n. [F. See Part, v. & n.]

1. Division; the act of dividing or sharing. [Obs.] Fuller.

2. Part; portion; share. [Obs.] Ford.

Par*take" (?), v. i. [imp. Partook (?); p. p. Partaken (&?;); p. pr. & vb. n. Partaking.] [Part + take.]

1. To take a part, portion, lot, or share, in common with others; to have a share or part; to participate; to share; as, to partake of a feast with others. "Brutes partake in this faculty." Locke.

When I against myself with thee partake.


2. To have something of the properties, character, or office; -- usually followed by of.

The attorney of the Duchy of Lancaster partakes partly of a judge, and partly of an attorney-general.


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Par*take" (?), v. t. 1. To partake of; to have a part or share in; to share.

Let every one partake the general joy.


2. To admit to a share; to cause to participate; to give a part to. [Obs.] Spencer.

3. To distribute; to communicate. [Obs.] Shak.

Par*tak"er (?), n. 1. One who partakes; a sharer; a participator.

Partakers of their spiritual things.

Rom. xv. 27.

Wish me partaker in my happiness.


2. An accomplice; an associate; a partner. [Obs.]

Partakers wish them in the blood of the prophets.

Matt. xxiii. 30.

Par"tan (?), n. [Cf. Ir. & Gael. partan.] (Zoöl.) An edible British crab. [Prov. Eng.]

Part"ed (?), a. 1. Separated; devided.

2. Endowed with parts or abilities. [Obs.] B. Jonson.

3. (Bot.) Cleft so that the divisions reach nearly, but not quite, to the midrib, or the base of the blade; -- said of a leaf, and used chiefly in composition; as, three- parted, five-parted, etc. Gray.

Part"er (?), n. One who, or which, parts or separates. Sir P. Sidney.

Par*terre" (?), n. [F., fr. par on, by (L. per)+terre earth, ground, L. terra. See Terrace.] 1. (Hort.) An ornamental and diversified arrangement of beds or plots, in which flowers are cultivated, with intervening spaces of gravel or turf for walking on.

2. The pit of a theater; the parquet. [France]

Par*the"ni*ad (?), n. [See Parthenic.] A poem in honor of a virgin. [Obs.]

Par*then"ic (?), a. [Gr. &?;, fr. &?; a maid, virgin.] Of or pertaining to the Spartan Partheniæ, or sons of unmarried women.

Par`the*no*gen"e*sis (?), n. [Gr. parqe`nos a virgin + E. genesis.] 1. (Biol.) The production of new individuals from virgin females by means of ova which have the power of developing without the intervention of the male element; the production, without fertilization, of cells capable of germination. It is one of the phenomena of alternate generation. Cf. Heterogamy, and Metagenesis.

2. (Bot.) The production of seed without fertilization, believed to occur through the nonsexual formation of an embryo extraneous to the embrionic vesicle.

Par`the*no*ge*net"ic, a. (Biol.) Of, pertaining to, or produced by, parthenogenesis; as, parthenogenetic forms. -- Par`the*no*ge*net"ic*al*ly, adv.

Par`the*no*gen"i*tive (?), a. (Biol.) Parthenogenetic.

Par`the*nog"e*ny (?), n. (Biol.) Same as Parthenogenesis.

Par"the*non (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. Parqenw`n, fr.parqe`nos a virgin, i. e., Athene, the Greek goddess called also Pallas.] A celebrated marble temple of Athene, on the Acropolis at Athens. It was of the pure Doric order, and has had an important influence on art.

||Par*then"o*pe (pär*thn"*p), n. [L., the name of a Siren, fr. Gr. Parqeno`pn.] 1. (Gr. Myth.) One of the Sirens, who threw herself into the sea, in despair at not being able to beguile Ulysses by her songs.

2. One of the asteroids between Mars and Jupiter, discovered by M. de Gasparis in 1850.

Par"thi*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to ancient Parthia, in Asia. -- n. A native of Parthia.

Parthian arrow, an arrow discharged at an enemy when retreating from him, as was the custom of the ancient Parthians; hence, a parting shot.

Par"tial (?), a. [F., fr. LL. partials, fr. L. pars, gen. partis, a part; cf. (for sense 1) F. partiel. See Part, n.] 1. Of, pertaining to, or affecting, a part only; not general or universal; not total or entire; as, a partial eclipse of the moon. "Partial dissolutions of the earth." T. Burnet.

2. Inclined to favor one party in a cause, or one side of a question, more then the other; baised; not indifferent; as, a judge should not be partial.

Ye have been partial in the law.

Mal. ii. 9.

3. Having a predelection for; inclined to favor unreasonably; foolishly fond. "A partial parent." Pope.

Not partial to an ostentatious display.

Sir W. Scott.

4. (Bot.) Pertaining to a subordinate portion; as, a compound umbel is made up of a several partial umbels; a leaflet is often supported by a partial petiole.

Partial differentials, Partial differential coefficients, Partial differentiation, etc. (of a function of two or more variables), the differentials, differential coefficients, differentiation etc., of the function, upon the hypothesis that some of the variables are for the time constant. -- Partial fractions (Alg.), fractions whose sum equals a given fraction. -- Partial tones (Music), the simple tones which in combination form an ordinary tone; the overtones, or harmonics, which, blending with a fundamental tone, cause its special quality of sound, or timbre, or tone color. See, also, Tone.

Par"tial*ism (?), n. Partiality; specifically (Theol.), the doctrine of the Partialists.

Par"tial*ist n. 1. One who is partial. [R.]

2. (Theol.) One who holds that the atonement was made only for a part of mankind, that is, for the elect.

Par`ti*al"i*ty (?; 277), n. [Cf. F. partialité.] 1. The quality or state of being partial; inclination to favor one party, or one side of a question, more than the other; undue bias of mind.

2. A predilection or inclination to one thing rather than to others; special taste or liking; as, a partiality for poetry or painting. Roget.

Par"tial*ize (?), v. t. & i. To make or be partial. [R.]

Par"tial*ly adv. 1. In part; not totally; as, partially true; the sun partially eclipsed. Sir T. Browne.

2. In a partial manner; with undue bias of mind; with unjust favor or dislike; as, to judge partially. Shak.

Part`i*bil"i*ty (?), n. [From Partible.] The quality or state of being partible; divisibility; separability; as, the partibility of an inherttance.

Part"i*ble (?), a. [L. partibilis, fr. partire to part, divide, fr. L. pars: cf. F. partible. See Part.] Admitting of being parted; divisible; separable; susceptible of severance or partition; as, an estate of inheritance may be partible. "Make the molds partible." Bacon.

Par*tic"i*pa*ble (?), a. Capable of being participated or shared. [R.] Norris.

Par*tic"i*pant (?), a. [L. participans, p. pr. of participare: cf. F. participant. See Participate.] Sharing; participating; having a share of part. Bacon.

Par*tic"i*pant, n. A participator; a partaker.

Participants in their . . . mysterious rites.

Bp. Warburton.

Par*tic"i*pant*ly, adv. In a participant manner.

Par*tic"i*pate (?), a. [L. participatus, p. p. of participare to participate; pars, partis, part + capere to take. See Part, and Capacious.] Acting in common; participating. [R.] Shak.

Par*tic"i*pate (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Participated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Participating.] To have a share in common with others; to take a part; to partake; -- followed by in, formely by of; as, to participate in a debate. Shak.

So would he participateof their wants.


Mine may come when men
With angels may participate.


Par*tic"i*pate, v. t. 1. To partake of; to share in; to receive a part of. [R.]

Fit to participate all rational delight.


2. To impart, or give, or share of. [Obs.] Drayton.

Par*tic`i*pa"tion (?), n. [F. participation, L. participatio.] 1. The act or state of participating, or sharing in common with others; as, a participation in joy or sorrows.

These deities are so by participation.

Bp. Stillingfleet.

What an honor, that God should admit us into such a blessed participation of himself!


2. Distribution; division into shares. [Obs.] Raleigh.

3. community; fellowship; association. [Obs.] Shak.

Par*tic"i*pa*tive (?), a. [Cf. F. participatif.] Capable of participating.

Par*tic"i*pa`tor (?), n. [L.] One who participates, or shares with another; a partaker.

Par`ti*cip"i*al (?), a. [L. participialis: cf. E. participal. See Participle.] Having, or partaking of, the nature and use of a participle; formed from a participle; as, a participial noun. Lowth.

Par`ti*cip"i*al, n. A participial word.

Par`ti*cip"i*al*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Participialized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Participializing.] To form into, or put in the form of, a participle. [R.]

Par`ti*cip"i*al*ly, adv. In the sense or manner of a participle.

Par"ti*ci*ple (?), n. [F. participe, L. participium, fr. particeps sharing, participant; pars, gen. partis, a part + capere to take. See Participate.] 1. (Gram.) A part of speech partaking of the nature both verb and adjective; a form of a verb, or verbal adjective, modifying a noun, but taking the adjuncts of the verb from which it is derived. In the sentences: a letter is written; being asleep he did not hear; exhausted by toil he will sleep soundly, -- written, being, and exhaustedare participles.

By a participle, [I understand] a verb in an adjectival aspect.


Present participles, called also imperfect, or incomplete, participles, end in -ing. Past participles, called also perfect, or complete, participles, for the most part end in -ed, -d, -t, -en, or -n. A participle when used merely as an attribute of a noun, without reference to time, is called an adjective, or a participial adjective; as, a written constitution; a rolling stone; the exhausted army. The verbal noun in -ing has the form of the present participle. See Verbal noun, under Verbal, a.

2. Anything that partakes of the nature of different things. [Obs.]

The participles or confines between plants and living creatures.


Par"ti*cle (?), n. [L. particula, dim of pars, gen partis, a part: cf. F. particule. See Part, and cf. Parcel.] 1. A minute part or portion of matter; a morsel; a little bit; an atom; a jot; as, a particle of sand, of wood, of dust.

The small size of atoms which unite
To make the smallest particle of light.


2. Any very small portion or part; the smallest portion; as, he has not a particle of patriotism or virtue.

The houses had not given their commissioners authority in the least particle to recede.


3. (R. C. Ch.) (a) A crumb or little piece of concecrated host. (b) The smaller hosts distributed in the communion of the laity. Bp. Fitzpatrick.

4. (Gram.) A subordinate word that is never inflected (a preposition, conjunction, interjection); or a word that can not be used except in compositions; as, ward in backward, ly in lovely.

Par"ti*col`ored, a. Same as Party-colored.

Par*tic"u*lar (?), a. [OE. particuler, F. particulier, L. particularis. See Particle.] 1. Relating to a part or portion of anything; concerning a part separated from the whole or from others of the class; separate; sole; single; individual; specific; as, the particular stars of a constellation. Shak.

[/Make] each particular hair to stand an end,
Like quills upon the fretful porpentine.


Seken in every halk and every herne
Particular sciences for to lerne.


2. Of or pertaining to a single person, class, or thing; belonging to one only; not general; not common; hence, personal; peculiar; singular. "Thine own particular wrongs." Shak.

Wheresoever one plant draweth such a particular juice out of the earth.


3. Separate or distinct by reason of superiority; distinguished; important; noteworthy; unusual; special; as, he brought no particular news; she was the particular belle of the party.

4. Concerned with, or attentive to, details; minute; circumstantial; precise; as, a full and particular account of an accident; hence, nice; fastidious; as, a man particular in his dress.

5. (Law) (a) Containing a part only; limited; as, a particular estate, or one precedent to an estate in remainder. (b) Holding a particular estate; as, a particular tenant. Blackstone.

6. (Logic) Forming a part of a genus; relatively limited in extension; affirmed or denied of a part of a subject; as, a particular proposition; -- opposed to universal: e. g. (particular affirmative) Some men are wise; (particular negative) Some men are not wise.

Particular average. See under Average. -- Particular Baptist, one of a branch of the Baptist denomination the members of which hold the doctrine of a particular or individual election and reprobation. -- Particular lien (Law), a lien, or a right to retain a thing, for some charge or claim growing out of, or connected with, that particular thing. -- Particular redemption, the doctrine that the purpose, act, and provisions of redemption are restricted to a limited number of the human race. See Calvinism.

Syn. -- Minute; individual; respective; appropriate; peculiar; especial; exact; specific; precise; critical; circumstantial. See Minute.

Par*tic"u*lar (?), n. 1. A separate or distinct member of a class, or part of a whole; an individual fact, point, circumstance, detail, or item, which may be considered separately; as, the particulars of a story.

Particulars which it is not lawful for me to reveal.


It is the greatest interest of particulars to advance the good of the community.


2. Special or personal peculiarity, trait, or character; individuality; interest, etc. [Obs.]

For his particular I'll receive him gladly.


If the particulars of each person be considered.


Temporal blessings, whether such as concern the public . . . or such as concern our particular.

Whole Duty of Man.

3. (Law) One of the details or items of grounds of claim; -- usually in the pl.; also, a bill of particulars; a minute account; as, a particular of premises.

The reader has a particular of the books wherein this law was written.


Bill of particulars. See under Bill. - - In particular, specially; peculiarly. "This, in particular, happens to the lungs." Blackmore. -- To go into particulars, to relate or describe in detail or minutely.

Par*tic"u*lar*ism (?), n. [Cf. F. particularisme.] 1. A minute description; a detailed statement. [R.]

2. (Theol.) The doctrine of particular election.

3. (German Politics) Devotion to the interests of one's own kingdom or province rather than to those of the empire.

Par*tic"u*lar*ist, n. [Cf. F. particulariste.] One who holds to particularism. -- Par*tic`u*lar*is"tic, a.

Par*tic`u*lar"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Particularities (#). [Cf. F. particularité.] 1. The state or quality of being particular; distinctiveness; circumstantiality; minuteness in detail.

2. That which is particular; as: (a) Peculiar quality; individual characteristic; peculiarity. "An old heathen altar with this particularity." Addison. (b) Special circumstance; minute detail; particular. "Even descending to particularities." Sir P. Sidney. (c) Something of special or private concern or interest.

Let the general trumpet blow his blast,
Particularities and petty sounds
To cease!


Par*tic`u*lar*i*za"tion (?), n. The act of particularizing. Coleridge.

Par*tic"u*lar*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Particularized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Particularizing (?).] [Cf. F. particulariser.] To give as a particular, or as the particulars; to mention particularly; to give the particulars of; to enumerate or specify in detail.

He not only boasts of his parentage as an Israelite, but particularizes his descent from Benjamin.


Par*tic"u*lar*ize, v. i. To mention or attend to particulars; to give minute details; to be circumstantial; as, to particularize in a narrative.

Par*tic"u*lar*ly, adv. 1. In a particular manner; expressly; with a specific reference or interest; in particular; distinctly.

2. In an especial manner; in a high degree; as, a particularly fortunate man; a particularly bad failure.

The exact propriety of Virgil I particularly regarded as a great part of his character.


Par*tic"u*lar*ment (?), n. A particular; a detail. [Obs.]

Par*tic"u*late (?), v. t. & i. [See Particle.] To particularize. [Obs.]

Par*tic"u*late (?), a. 1. Having the form of a particle.

2. Referring to, or produced by, particles, such as dust, minute germs, etc. [R.]

The smallpox is a particulate disease.


Par"ting (?), a. [From Part, v.] 1. Serving to part; dividing; separating.

2. Given when departing; as, a parting shot; a parting salute. "Give him that parting kiss." Shak.

3. Departing. "Speed the parting guest." Pope.

4. Admitting of being parted; partible.

Parting fellow, a partner. [Obs.] Chaucer. -- Parting pulley. See under Pulley. -- Parting sand (Founding), dry, nonadhesive sand, sprinkled upon the partings of a mold to facilitate the separation. -- Parting strip (Arch.), in a sash window, one of the thin strips of wood let into the pulley stile to keep the sashes apart; also, the thin piece inserted in the window box to separate the weights. -- Parting tool (Mach.), a thin tool, used in turning or planing, for cutting a piece in two.

<! p. 1047 !>

Par"ting (?), n. 1. The act of parting or dividing; the state of being parted; division; separation. "The parting of the way." Ezek. xxi. 21.

2. A separation; a leave-taking. Shak.

And there were sudden partings, such as press
The life from out young hearts.


3. A surface or line of separation where a division occurs.

4. (Founding) The surface of the sand of one section of a mold where it meets that of another section.

5. (Chem.) The separation and determination of alloys; esp., the separation, as by acids, of gold from silver in the assay button.

6. (Geol.) A joint or fissure, as in a coal seam.

7. (Naut.) The breaking, as of a cable, by violence.

8. (Min.) Lamellar separation in a crystallized mineral, due to some other cause than cleavage, as to the presence of twinning lamellæ.

Par"ti*san (?), n. [F., fr. It. partigiano. See Party, and cf. Partisan a truncheon.] [Written also partizan.] 1. An adherent to a party or faction; esp., one who is strongly and passionately devoted to a party or an interest. "The violence of a partisan." Macaulay.

Both sides had their partisans in the colony.


2. (Mil.) (a) The commander of a body of detached light troops engaged in making forays and harassing an enemy. (b) Any member of such a corps.

Par"ti*san, a. [Written also partizan.] 1. Adherent to a party or faction; especially, having the character of blind, passionate, or unreasonable adherence to a party; as, blinded by partisan zeal.

2. (Mil.) Serving as a partisan in a detached command; as, a partisan officer or corps.

Partisan ranger (Mil.), a member of a partisan corps.

Par"ti*san, n. [F. pertuisane, prob. fr. It. partigiana, influenced in French by OF. pertuisier to pierce. It was prob. so named as the weapon of some partisans, or party men. Cf. Partisan one of a corps of light troops.] A kind of halberd or pike; also, a truncheon; a staff.

And make him with our pikes and partisans a grave.


Par"ti*san*ship, n. The state of being a partisan, or adherent to a party; feelings or conduct appropriate to a partisan.

||Par*ti"ta (?), n. [It.] (Mus.) A suite; a set of variations.

Par"tite (?), a. [L. partitus, p. p. of partire to part, divide, from pars. See Part, and cf. Party, a.] (Bot.) Divided nearly to the base; as, a partite leaf is a simple separated down nearly to the base.

Par*ti"tion (?), n. [F. partition, L. partitio. See Part, v.] 1. The act of parting or dividing; the state of being parted; separation; division; distribution; as, the partition of a kingdom.

And good from bad find no partition.


2. That which divides or separates; that by which different things, or distinct parts of the same thing, are separated; separating boundary; dividing line or space; specifically, an interior wall dividing one part or apartment of a house, an inclosure, or the like, from another; as, a brick partition; lath and plaster partitions.

No sight could pass
Betwixt the nice partitions of the grass.


3. A part divided off by walls; an apartment; a compartment. [R.] "Lodged in a small partition." Milton.

4. (Law.) The servance of common or undivided interests, particularly in real estate. It may be effected by consent of parties, or by compulsion of law.

5. (Mus.) A score.

Partition of numbers (Math.), the resolution of integers into parts subject to given conditions. Brande & C.

Par*ti"tion (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Partitioned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Partitioning.] 1. To divide into parts or shares; to divide and distribute; as, to partition an estate among various heirs.

2. To divide into distinct parts by lines, walls, etc.; as, to partition a house.

Uniform without, though severally partitioned within.


Par*ti"tion*ment (?), n. The act of partitioning.

Par"ti*tive (?), a. [Cf. F. partitif.] (Gram.) Denoting a part; as, a partitive genitive.

Par"ti*tive, n. (Gram.) A word expressing partition, or denoting a part.

Par"ti*tive*ly, adv. In a partitive manner.

Part"let (?), n. [Dim. of part.] 1. A covering for the neck, and sometimes for the shoulders and breast; originally worn by both sexes, but laterby women alone; a ruff. [Obs.] Fuller.

2. A hen; -- so called from the ruffing of her neck feathers. "Dame Partlett, the hen." Shak.

Part"ly, adv. In part; in some measure of degree; not wholly. "I partly believe it." 1 Cor. xi. 18.

Part"ner (?), n. [For parcener, influenced by part.] 1. One who has a part in anything with an other; a partaker; an associate; a sharer. "Partner of his fortune." Shak. Hence: (a) A husband or a wife. (b) Either one of a couple who dance together. (c) One who shares as a member of a partnership in the management, or in the gains and losses, of a business.

My other self, the partner of my life.


2. (Law) An associate in any business or occupation; a member of a partnership. See Partnership.

3. pl. (Naut.) A framework of heavy timber surrounding an opening in a deck, to strengthen it for the support of a mast, pump, capstan, or the like.

Dormant, or Silent, partner. See under Dormant, a.

Syn. -- Associate; colleague; coadjutor; confederate; partaker; participator; companion; comrade; mate.

Part"ner, v. t. To associate, to join. [Obs.] Shak.

Part"ner*ship, n. 1. The state or condition of being a partner; as, to be in partnership with another; to have partnership in the fortunes of a family or a state.

2. A division or sharing among partners; joint possession or interest.

Rome, that ne'er knew three lordly heads before,
First fell by fatal partnership of power.


He does possession keep,
And is too wise to hazard partnership.


3. An alliance or association of persons for the prosecution of an undertaking or a business on joint account; a company; a firm; a house; as, to form a partnership.

4. (Law) A contract between two or more competent persons for joining together their money, goods, labor, and skill, or any or all of them, under an understanding that there shall be a communion of profit between them, and for the purpose of carrying on a legal trade, business, or adventure. Kent. Story.

Community of profit is absolutely essential to, though not necessary the test of, a partnership.

5. (Arith.) See Fellowship, n., 6.

Limited partnership, a form of partnership in which the firm consists of one or more general partners, jointly and severally responsible as ordinary partners, and one or more special partners, who are not liable for the debts of the partnership beyond the amount of cash they contribute as capital. -- Partnership in commendam, the title given to the limited partnership (F. société en commandité) of the French law, introduced into the code of Louisiana. Burrill. -- Silent partnership, the relation of partnership sustained by a person who furnishes capital only.

Par*took" (?), imp. of Partake.

Par"tridge (?), n. [OE. partriche, pertriche, OF. pertris, perdriz, F. perdrix, L. perdix, -icis, fr. Gr. &?;.] (Zoöl.) 1. Any one of numerous species of small gallinaceous birds of the genus Perdix and several related genera of the family Perdicidæ, of the Old World. The partridge is noted as a game bird.

Full many a fat partrich had he in mew.


The common European, or gray, partridge (Perdix cinerea) and the red-legged partridge (Caccabis rubra) of Southern Europe and Asia are well-known species.

2. Any one of several species of quail-like birds belonging to Colinus, and allied genera. [U.S.]

Among them are the bobwhite (Colinus Virginianus) of the Eastern States; the plumed, or mountain, partridge (Oreortyx pictus) of California; the Massena partridge (Cyrtonyx Montezumæ); and the California partridge (Callipepla Californica).

3. The ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus). [New Eng.]

Bamboo partridge (Zoöl.), a spurred partridge of the genus Bambusicola. Several species are found in China and the East Indies. -- Night partridge (Zoöl.), the woodcock. [Local, U.S.] -- Painted partridge (Zoöl.), a francolin of South Africa (Francolinus pictus). -- Partridge berry. (Bot.) (a) The scarlet berry of a trailing american plant (Mitchella repens) of the order Rubiaceæ, having roundish evergreen leaves, and white fragrant flowers sometimes tinged with purple, growing in pairs with the ovaries united, and producing the berries which remain over winter; also, the plant itself. (b) The fruit of the creeping wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens); also, the plant itself. -- Partridge dove (Zoöl.) Same as Mountain witch, under Mountain. -- Partridge pea (Bot.), a yellow-flowered leguminous herb (Cassia Chamæcrista), common in sandy fields in the Eastern United States. -- Partridge shell (Zoöl.), a large marine univalve shell (Dolium perdix), having colors variegated like those of the partridge. -- Partridge wood (a) A variegated wood, much esteemed for cabinetwork. It is obtained from tropical America, and one source of it is said to be the leguminous tree Andira inermis. Called also pheasant wood. (b) A name sometimes given to the dark-colored and striated wood of some kind of palm, which is used for walking sticks and umbrella handles. -- Sea partridge (Zoöl.), an Asiatic sand partridge (Ammoperdix Bonhami); -- so called from its note. -- Snow partridge (Zoöl.), a large spurred partridge (Lerwa nivicola) which inhabits the high mountains of Asia. -- Spruce partridge. See under Spruce. -- Wood partridge, or Hill partridge (Zoöl.), any small Asiatic partridge of the genus Arboricola.

Par"ture (?), n. Departure. [Obs.] Spenser.

Par*tu"ri*ate (?), v. i. [See Parturient.] To bring forth young. [Obs.]

Par*tu"ri*en*cy (?), n. Parturition.

Par*tu"ri*ent (?), a. [L. parturiens, p. pr. of parturire to desire to bring forth, fr. parere, partum, to bring forth. See Parent.] Bringing forth, or about to bring forth, young; fruitful. Jer. Tailor.

Par*tu`ri*fa"cient (?), n. [L. parturire to desire to bring forth + facere to make.] (Med.) A medicine tending to cause parturition, or to give relief in childbearing. Dunglison.

Par*tu"ri*ous (?), a. Parturient. [Obs.] Drayton.

Par`tu*ri"tion (?), n. [L. parturitio, fr. parturire: cf. F. parturition. See Parturient.] 1. The act of bringing forth, or being delivered of, young; the act of giving birth; delivery; childbirth.

2. That which is brought forth; a birth. [Obs.]

Par*tu"ri*tive (?), a. Pertaining to parturition; obstetric. [R.]

Par"ty (?), n.; pl. Parties (#). [F. parti and partie, fr. F. partir to part, divide, L. partire, partiri. See Part, v.] 1. A part or portion. [Obs.] "The most party of the time." Chaucer.

2. A number of persons united in opinion or action, as distinguished from, or opposed to, the rest of a community or association; esp., one of the parts into which a people is divided on questions of public policy.

Win the noble Brutus to our party.


The peace both parties want is like to last.


3. A part of a larger body of company; a detachment; especially (Mil.), a small body of troops dispatched on special service.

4. A number of persons invited to a social entertainment; a select company; as, a dinner party; also, the entertainment itself; as, to give a party.

5. One concerned or interested in an affair; one who takes part with others; a participator; as, he was a party to the plot; a party to the contract.

6. The plaintiff or the defendant in a lawsuit, whether an individual, a firm, or corporation; a litigant.

The cause of both parties shall come before the judges.

Ex. xxii. 9.

7. Hence, any certain person who is regarded as being opposed or antagonistic to another.

It the jury found that the party slain was of English race, it had been adjudged felony.

Sir J. Davies.

8. Cause; side; interest.

Have you nothing said
Upon this Party 'gainst the Duke of Albany?


9. A person; as, he is a queer party. [Now accounted a vulgarism.]

"For several generations, our ancestors largely employed party for person; but this use of the word, when it appeared to be reviving, happened to strike, more particularly, the fancy of the vulgar; and the consequence has been, that the polite have chosen to leave it in their undisputed possession." Fitzed. Hall.

Party jury (Law), a jury composed of different parties, as one which is half natives and half foreigners. -- Party man, a partisan. Swift. -- Party spirit, a factious and unreasonable temper, not uncommonly shown by party men. Whately. -- Party verdict, a joint verdict. Shak. -- Party wall. (a) (Arch.) A wall built upon the dividing line between two adjoining properties, usually having half its thickness on each property. (b) (Law) A wall that separates adjoining houses, as in a block or row.

Par"ty, a. [F. parti divided, fr. partir to divide. See Part, v., and cf. Partite.] 1. (Her.) Parted or divided, as in the direction or form of one of the ordinaries; as, an escutcheon party per pale.

2. Partial; favoring one party.

I will be true judge, and not party.


Charter party. See under Charter.

Par"ty, adv. Partly. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Par"ty-coat`ed (?), a. Having a motley coat, or coat of divers colors. Shak.

{ Par"ty-col`ored, Par"ti-col`ored } (?), a. Colored with different tints; variegated; as, a party-colored flower. "Parti-colored lambs." Shak.

Par"ty*ism (?), n. Devotion to party.

Par`um*bil"ic*al (?), a. [Pref. para- + umbilical.] (Anat.) Near the umbilicus; -- applied especially to one or more small veins which, in man, connect the portal vein with the epigastric veins in the front wall of the abdomen.

||Pa*ru"si*a (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; presence, fr. &?; to be present; para` beside + &?; to be.] (Rhet.) A figure of speech by which the present tense is used instead of the past or the future, as in the animated narration of past, or in the prediction of future, events.

Par`va*nim"i*ty (?), n. [L. parvus little + animus mind.] The state or quality of having a little or ignoble mind; pettiness; meanness; -- opposed to magnanimity. De Quincey.

Par"ve*nu` (?), n. [F., prop. p. p. of parvenir to attain to, to succeed, to rise to high station, L. pervenire to come to; per through + venire to come. See Par, prep., and Come.] An upstart; a man newly risen into notice.

{ Par"vis, Par"vise } (?), n. [F. parvis, fr. LL. paravisus, fr. L. paradisus. See Paradise.] a court of entrance to, or an inclosed space before, a church; hence, a church porch; -- sometimes formerly used as place of meeting, as for lawyers. Chaucer.

{ Par"vi*tude (?), Par"vi*ty (?), } n. [L. parvitas, fr. parvus little: cf. OF. parvité.] Littleness. [Obs.] Glanvill. Ray.

Par"vo*lin (?), n. (Physiol. Chem.) A nonoxygenous ptomaine, formed in the putrefaction of albuminous matters, especially of horseflesh and mackerel.

Par"vo*line (?), n. (Chem.) A liquid base, C&?;H&?;N, of the pyridine group, found in coal tar; also, any one of the series of isometric substances of which it is the type.

||Pas (?), n. [F. See Pace.] 1. A pace; a step, as in a dance. Chaucer.

2. Right of going foremost; precedence. Arbuthnot.

Pa"san (?), n. (Zoöl.) The gemsbok.

{ Pasch (?), ||Pas"cha (?), } n. [AS. pascha, L. pascha, Gr. &?;, fr. Heb. pesach, fr. psach to pass over: cf. OF. pasque, F. pâque. Cf. Paschal, Paas, Paque.] The passover; the feast of Easter.

Pasch egg. See Easter egg, under Easter. -- Pasch flower. See Pasque flower, under Pasque.

Pas"chal (?), a. [L. paschalis: cf. F. pascal. See Pasch.] Of or pertaining to the passover, or to Easter; as, a paschal lamb; paschal eggs. Longfellow.

Paschal candle (R. C. Ch.), a large wax candle, blessed and placed on the altar on Holy Saturday, or the day before Easter. -- Paschal flower. See Pasque flower, under Pasque.

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Pa*seng" (?), n. (Zoöl.) The wild or bezoar goat. See Goat.

Pash (?), v. t. [Prob. of imitative origin, or possibly akin to box to fight with the fists.] To strike; to crush; to smash; to dash in pieces. [Obs.] P. Plowman. "I'll pash him o'er the face." Shak.

Pash, n. [Scot., the pate. Cf. Pash, v. t.] 1. The head; the poll. [R.] "A rough pash." Shak.

2. A crushing blow. [Obs.]

3. A heavy fall of rain or snow. [Prov. Eng.]

Pa*sha" (?), n. [Turk. psh, bsh; cf. Per. bsh, bdshh; perh. a corruption of Per. pdishh. Cf. Bashaw, Padishah, Shah.] An honorary title given to officers of high rank in Turkey, as to governers of provinces, military commanders, etc. The earlier form was bashaw. [Written also pacha.]

There are three classes of pashas, whose rank is distinguished by the number of the horsetails borne on their standards, being one, two, or three, a pasha of three tails being the highest.

Pa*sha"lic (?), n. [Written also pachalic.] [Turk.] The jurisdiction of a pasha.

Pa*shaw" (?), n. See Pasha.

{ Pas`i*graph"ic (?), Pas`i*graph"ic*al (?) } a. Of or pertaining to pasigraphy.

Pa*sig"ra*phy (?), n. [Gr. &?; for all (dat. pl. of &?; all) + -graphy.] A system of universal writing, or a manner of writing that may be understood and used by all nations. Good.

Pas"i*la`ly (?), n. [Gr. &?; for all (dat. pl. of &?; all) + &?; talking.] A form of speech adapted to be used by all mankind; universal language.

Pask (?), n. [See Pasque.] See Pasch.

Pas"py (?), n. [F. passe-pied.] A kind of minuet, in triple time, of French origin, popular in the reign of Queen Elizabeth and for some time after; -- called also passing measure, and passymeasure. Percy Smith.

Pasque (?), n. [OF. pasque.] See Pasch.

Pasque flower (Bot.), a name of several plants of the genus Anemone, section Pulsatilla. They are perennial herbs with rather large purplish blossoms, which appear in early spring, or about Easter, whence the common name. Called also campana.

Pas"quil (?), n. [It. pasquillo.] See Pasquin. [R.]

Pas"quil, v. t. [R.] See Pasquin.

Pas"quil*ant (?), n. A lampooner; a pasquiler. [R.] Coleridge.

Pas"quil*er (?), n. A lampooner. [R.] Burton.

Pas"quin (?), n. [It. pasquino a mutilated statue at Rome, set up against the wall of the place of the Orsini; -- so called from a witty cobbler or tailor, near whose shop the statue was dug up. On this statue it was customary to paste satiric papers.] A lampooner; also, a lampoon. See Pasquinade.

The Grecian wits, who satire first began,
Were pleasant pasquins on the life of man.


Pas"quin, v. t. To lampoon; to satiraze. [R.]

To see himself pasquined and affronted.


Pas`quin*ade" (?), n. [F. pasquinade, It. pasquinata.] A lampoon or satirical writing. Macaulay.

Pas`quin*ade", v. t. To lampoon, to satirize.

Pass (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Passed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Passing.] [F. passer, LL. passare, fr. L. passus step, or from pandere, passum, to spread out, lay open. See Pace.] 1. To go; to move; to proceed; to be moved or transferred from one point to another; to make a transit; -- usually with a following adverb or adverbal phrase defining the kind or manner of motion; as, to pass on, by, out, in, etc.; to pass swiftly, directly, smoothly, etc.; to pass to the rear, under the yoke, over the bridge, across the field, beyond the border, etc. "But now pass over [i. e., pass on]." Chaucer.

On high behests his angels to and fro
Passed frequent.


Sweet sounds rose slowly through their mouths,
And from their bodies passed.


2. To move or be transferred from one state or condition to another; to change possession, condition, or circumstances; to undergo transition; as, the business has passed into other hands.

Others, dissatisfied with what they have, . . . pass from just to unjust.

Sir W. Temple.

3. To move beyond the range of the senses or of knowledge; to pass away; hence, to disappear; to vanish; to depart; specifically, to depart from life; to die.

Disturb him not, let him pass paceably.


Beauty is a charm, but soon the charm will pass.


The passing of the sweetest soul
That ever looked with human eyes.


4. To move or to come into being or under notice; to come and go in consciousness; hence, to take place; to occur; to happen; to come; to occur progressively or in succession; to be present transitorily.

So death passed upon all men.

Rom. v. 12.

Our own consciousness of what passes within our own mind.

I. Watts.

5. To go by or glide by, as time; to elapse; to be spent; as, their vacation passed pleasantly.

Now the time is far passed.

Mark vi. 35

6. To go from one person to another; hence, to be given and taken freely; as, clipped coin will not pass; to obtain general acceptance; to be held or regarded; to circulate; to be current; -- followed by for before a word denoting value or estimation. "Let him pass for a man." Shak.

False eloquence passeth only where true is not understood.


This will not pass for a fault in him.


7. To advance through all the steps or stages necessary to validity or effectiveness; to be carried through a body that has power to sanction or reject; to receive legislative sanction; to be enacted; as, the resolution passed; the bill passed both houses of Congress.

8. To go through any inspection or test successfully; to be approved or accepted; as, he attempted the examination, but did not expect to pass.

9. To be suffered to go on; to be tolerated; hence, to continue; to live along. "The play may pass." Shak.

10. To go unheeded or neglected; to proceed without hindrance or opposition; as, we let this act pass.

11. To go beyond bounds; to surpass; to be in excess. [Obs.] "This passes, Master Ford." Shak.

12. To take heed; to care. [Obs.]

As for these silken-coated slaves, I pass not.


13. To go through the intestines. Arbuthnot.

14. (Law) To be conveyed or transferred by will, deed, or other instrument of conveyance; as, an estate passes by a certain clause in a deed. Mozley & W.

15. (Fencing) To make a lunge or pass; to thrust.

16. (Card Playing & other games) To decline to take an optional action when it is one's turn, as to decline to bid, or to bet, or to play a card; in euchre, to decline to make the trump.

She would not play, yet must not pass.


17. In football, hockey, etc., to make a pass; to transfer the ball, etc., to another player of one's own side.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

To bring to pass, To come to pass. See under Bring, and Come. -- To pass away, to disappear; to die; to vanish. "The heavens shall pass away." 2 Pet. iii. 10. "I thought to pass away before, but yet alive I am." Tennyson. -- To pass by, to go near and beyond a certain person or place; as, he passed by as we stood there. -- To pass into, to change by a gradual transmission; to blend or unite with. -- To pass on, to proceed. -- To pass on or upon. (a) To happen to; to come upon; to affect. "So death passed upon all men." Rom. v. 12. "Provided no indirect act pass upon our prayers to define them." Jer. Taylor. (b) To determine concerning; to give judgment or sentence upon. "We may not pass upon his life." Shak. -- To pass off, to go away; to cease; to disappear; as, an agitation passes off. -- To pass over, to go from one side or end to the other; to cross, as a river, road, or bridge.

Pass (?), v. t. 1. In simple, transitive senses; as: (a) To go by, beyond, over, through, or the like; to proceed from one side to the other of; as, to pass a house, a stream, a boundary, etc. (b) Hence: To go from one limit to the other of; to spend; to live through; to have experience of; to undergo; to suffer. "To pass commodiously this life." Milton.

She loved me for the dangers I had passed.


(c) To go by without noticing; to omit attention to; to take no note of; to disregard.

Please you that I may pass This doing.


I pass their warlike pomp, their proud array.


(d) To transcend; to surpass; to excel; to exceed.

And strive to pass . . .
Their native music by her skillful art.


Whose tender power
Passes the strength of storms in their most desolate hour.


(e) To go successfully through, as an examination, trail, test, etc.; to obtain the formal sanction of, as a legislative body; as, he passed his examination; the bill passed the senate.

2. In causative senses: as: (a) To cause to move or go; to send; to transfer from one person, place, or condition to another; to transmit; to deliver; to hand; to make over; as, the waiter passed bisquit and cheese; the torch was passed from hand to hand.

I had only time to pass my eye over the medals.


Waller passed over five thousand horse and foot by Newbridge.


(b) To cause to pass the lips; to utter; to pronounce; hence, to promise; to pledge; as, to pass sentence. Shak.

Father, thy word is passed.


(c) To cause to advance by stages of progress; to carry on with success through an ordeal, examination, or action; specifically, to give legal or official sanction to; to ratify; to enact; to approve as valid and just; as, he passed the bill through the committee; the senate passed the law. (e) To put in circulation; to give currency to; as, to pass counterfeit money. "Pass the happy news." Tennyson. (f) To cause to obtain entrance, admission, or conveyance; as, to pass a person into a theater, or over a railroad.

3. To emit from the bowels; to evacuate.

4. (Naut.) To take a turn with (a line, gasket, etc.), as around a sail in furling, and make secure.

5. (Fencing) To make, as a thrust, punto, etc. Shak.

Passed midshipman. See under Midshipman. -- To pass a dividend, to omit the declaration and payment of a dividend at the time when due. -- To pass away, to spend; to waste. "Lest she pass away the flower of her age." Ecclus. xlii. 9. -- To pass by. (a) To disregard; to neglect. (b) To excuse; to spare; to overlook. -- To pass off, to impose fraudulently; to palm off. "Passed himself off as a bishop." Macaulay. -- To pass (something) on or upon (some one), to put upon as a trick or cheat; to palm off. "She passed the child on her husband for a boy." Dryden. -- To pass over, to overlook; not to note or resent; as, to pass over an affront.

Pass, n. [Cf. F. pas (for sense 1), and passe, fr. passer to pass. See Pass, v. i.] 1. An opening, road, or track, available for passing; especially, one through or over some dangerous or otherwise impracticable barrier; a passageway; a defile; a ford; as, a mountain pass.

"Try not the pass!" the old man said.


2. (Fencing) A thrust or push; an attempt to stab or strike an adversary. Shak.

3. A movement of the hand over or along anything; the manipulation of a mesmerist.

4. (Rolling Metals) A single passage of a bar, rail, sheet, etc., between the rolls.

5. State of things; condition; predicament.

Have his daughters brought him to this pass.


Matters have been brought to this pass.


6. Permission or license to pass, or to go and come; a psssport; a ticket permitting free transit or admission; as, a railroad or theater pass; a military pass.

A ship sailing under the flag and pass of an enemy.


7. Fig.: a thrust; a sally of wit. Shak.

8. Estimation; character. [Obs.]

Common speech gives him a worthy pass.


9. [Cf. Passus.] A part; a division. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Pass boat (Naut.), a punt, or similar boat. -- Pass book. (a) A book in which a trader enters articles bought on credit, and then passes or sends it to the purchaser. (b) See Bank book. -- Pass box (Mil.), a wooden or metallic box, used to carry cartridges from the service magazine to the piece. -- Pass check, a ticket of admission to a place of entertainment, or of readmission for one who goes away in expectation of returning.

Pass"a*ble (?), a. [Cf. F. passable.] 1. Capable of being passed, traveled, navigated, traversed, penetrated, or the like; as, the roads are not passable; the stream is passablein boats.

His body's a passable carcass if it be not hurt; it is a throughfare for steel.


2. Capable of being freely circulated or disseminated; acceptable; generally receivable; current.

With men as with false money -- one piece is more or less passable than another.


Could they have made this slander passable.


3. Such as may be allowed to pass without serious objection; tolerable; admissable; moderate; mediocre.

My version will appear a passable beauty when the original muse is absent.


Pass"a*ble*ness, n. The quality of being passable.

Pass"a*bly, adv. Tolerably; moderately.

{ ||Pas`sa*ca*glia (?), ||Pas`sa*ca*glio (?), } n. [Sp. pasacalle a certain tune on the guitar, prop., a tune played in passing through the streets.] (Mus.) An old Italian or Spanish dance tune, in slow three-four measure, with divisions on a ground bass, resembling a chaconne.

{ Pas*sade" (?), Pas*sa"do (?), } n. [F. passade; cf. Sp. pasada. See Pass, v. i.] 1. (Fencing) A pass or thrust. Shak.

2. (Man.) A turn or course of a horse backward or forward on the same spot of ground.

Pas"sage (?), n. [F. passage. See Pass, v. i.] 1. The act of passing; transit from one place to another; movement from point to point; a going by, over, across, or through; as, the passage of a man or a carriage; the passage of a ship or a bird; the passage of light; the passage of fluids through the pores or channels of the body.

What! are my doors opposed against my passage!


2. Transit by means of conveyance; journey, as by water, carriage, car, or the like; travel; right, liberty, or means, of passing; conveyance.

The ship in which he had taken passage.


3. Price paid for the liberty to pass; fare; as, to pay one's passage.

4. Removal from life; decease; departure; death. [R.] "Endure thy mortal passage." Milton.

When he is fit and season'd for his passage.


5. Way; road; path; channel or course through or by which one passes; way of exit or entrance; way of access or transit. Hence, a common avenue to various apartments in a building; a hall; a corridor.

And with his pointed dart
Explores the nearest passage to his heart.


The Persian army had advanced into the . . . passages of Cilicia.


6. A continuous course, process, or progress; a connected or continuous series; as, the passage of time.

The conduct and passage of affairs.

Sir J. Davies.

The passage and whole carriage of this action.


7. A separate part of a course, process, or series; an occurrence; an incident; an act or deed. "In thy passages of life." Shak.

The . . . almost incredible passage of their unbelief.


8. A particular portion constituting a part of something continuous; esp., a portion of a book, speech, or musical composition; a paragraph; a clause.

How commentators each dark passage shun.


9. Reception; currency. [Obs.] Sir K. Digby.

10. A pass or en encounter; as, a passage at arms.

No passages of love
Betwixt us twain henceforward evermore.


11. A movement or an evacuation of the bowels.

12. In parliamentary proceedings: (a) The course of a proposition (bill, resolution, etc.) through the several stages of consideration and action; as, during its passage through Congress the bill was amended in both Houses. (b) The advancement of a bill or other proposition from one stage to another by an affirmative vote; esp., the final affirmative action of the body upon a proposition; hence, adoption; enactment; as, the passage of the bill to its third reading was delayed. "The passage of the Stamp Act." D. Hosack.

The final question was then put upon its passage.


In passage, in passing; cursorily. "These . . . have been studied but in passage." Bacon. - - Middle passage, Northeast passage, Northwest passage. See under Middle, Northeast, etc. -- Of passage, passing from one place, region, or climate, to another; migratory; -- said especially of birds. "Birds of passage." Longfellow. -- Passage hawk, a hawk taken on its passage or migration. -- Passage money, money paid for conveyance of a passenger, -- usually for carrying passengers by water.

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Syn. -- Vestibule; hall; corridor. See Vestibule.

Pas"sa*ger (?), n. [See Passenger.] A passenger; a bird or boat of passage. [Obs.] Ld. Berners.

Pas"sage*way` (?), n. A way for passage; a hall. See Passage, 5.

Pas"sant (?), a. [F., p. pr. of passer. See Pass, v. i.] 1. Passing from one to another; in circulation; current. [Obs.]

Many opinions are passant.

Sir T. Browne.

2. Curs&?;ry, careless. [Obs.]

On a passant rewiew of what I wrote to the bishop.

Sir P. Pett.

3. Surpassing; excelling. [Obs.] Chaucer.

4. (Her.) Walking; -- said of any animal on an escutcheon, which is represented as walking with the dexter paw raised.

{ ||Pas`sé", masc. ||Pas`sé"e, fem. } (?), a. [F.] Past; gone by; hence, past one's prime; worn; faded; as, a passée belle. Ld. Lytton.

Passe"garde` (?), n. [F.] (Anc. Armor) A ridge or projecting edge on a shoulder piece to turn the blow of a lance or other weapon from the joint of the armor.

Passe"ment (?), n. [F.] Lace, gimp, braid etc., sewed on a garment. Sir W. Scott.

Passe*men"terie (E. ps*mn"tr; F. pä`s'mäN`t'r"), n. [F.] Beaded embroidery for women's dresses.

Pas"sen*ger (?), n. [OE. & F. passager. See Passage, and cf. Messenger.] 1. A passer or passer-by; a wayfarer. Shak.

2. A traveler by some established conveyance, as a coach, steamboat, railroad train, etc.

Passenger falcon (Zoöl.), a migratory hawk. Ainsworth. -- Passenger pigeon (Zoöl.), the common wild pigeon of North America (Ectopistes migratorius), so called on account of its extensive migrations.

||Passe" par`tout" (?), n. [F., from passer to pass + partout everywhere.] 1. That by which one can pass anywhere; a safe-conduct. [Obs.] Dryden.

2. A master key; a latchkey.

3. A light picture frame or mat of cardboard, wood, or the like, usually put between the picture and the glass, and sometimes serving for several pictures.

Pass"er (?), n. One who passes; a passenger.

Pass`er-by" (?), n. One who goes by; a passer.

||Pas"se*res (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. L. passer a sparrow.] (Zoöl.) An order, or suborder, of birds, including more that half of all the known species. It embraces all singing birds (Oscines), together with many other small perching birds.

Pas*ser"i*form (?), a. (Zoöl.) Like or belonging to the Passeres.

Pas"ser*ine (?), a. [L. passerinus, fr. passer a sparrow.] (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the Passeres.

The columbine, gallinaceous, and passerine tribes people the fruit trees.

Sydney Smith.

Pas"ser*ine, n. (Zoöl.) One of the Passeres.

Pas`si*bil"i*ty (?), n. [L. passibilitas: cf. F. passibilité.] The quality or state of being passible; aptness to feel or suffer; sensibility. Hakewill.

Pas"si*ble (?), a. [L. passibilis, fr. pati, to suffer: cf. F. passible. See Passion.] Susceptible of feeling or suffering, or of impressions from external agents.

Apolinarius, which held even deity itself passible.


Pas"si*ble*ness, n. Passibility. Brerewood.

||Pas"si*flo"ra (?), n. [NL., from L. passio passion (fr. pati, passus, to suffer) + flos, floris, flower.] (Bot.) A genus of plants, including the passion flower. It is the type of the order Passifloreæ, which includes about nineteen genera and two hundred and fifty species.

||Pas"sim (?), adv. [L.] Here and there; everywhere; as, this word occurs passim in the poem.

Pass"ing (?), n. The act of one who, or that which, passes; the act of going by or away.

Passing bell, a tolling of a bell to announce that a soul is passing, or has passed, from its body (formerly done to invoke prayers for the dying); also, a tolling during the passing of a funeral procession to the grave, or during funeral ceremonies. Sir W. Scott. Longfellow.

Pass"ing, a. 1. Relating to the act of passing or going; going by, beyond, through, or away; departing.

2. Exceeding; surpassing, eminent. Chaucer. "Her passing deformity." Shak.

Passing note (Mus.), a character including a passing tone. -- Passing tone (Mus.), a tone introduced between two other tones, on an unaccented portion of a measure, for the sake of smoother melody, but forming no essential part of the harmony.

Pass"ing, adv. Exceedingly; excessively; surpassingly; as, passing fair; passing strange. "You apprehend passing shrewdly." Shak.

Pass"ing*ly, adv. Exceedingly. Wyclif.

Pas"sion (?), n. [F., fr. L. passio, fr. pati, passus, to suffer. See Patient.] 1. A suffering or enduring of imposed or inflicted pain; any suffering or distress (as, a cardiac passion); specifically, the suffering of Christ between the time of the last supper and his death, esp. in the garden upon the cross. "The passions of this time." Wyclif (Rom. viii. 18).

To whom also he showed himself alive after his passion, by many infallible proofs.

Acts i. 3.

2. The state of being acted upon; subjection to an external agent or influence; a passive condition; -- opposed to action.

A body at rest affords us no idea of any active power to move, and, when set is motion, it is rather a passion than an action in it.


3. Capacity of being affected by external agents; susceptibility of impressions from external agents. [R.]

Moldable and not moldable, scissible and not scissible, and many other passions of matter.


4. The state of the mind when it is powerfully acted upon and influenced by something external to itself; the state of any particular faculty which, under such conditions, becomes extremely sensitive or uncontrollably excited; any emotion or sentiment (specifically, love or anger) in a state of abnormal or controlling activity; an extreme or inordinate desire; also, the capacity or susceptibility of being so affected; as, to be in a passion; the passions of love, hate, jealously, wrath, ambition, avarice, fear, etc.; a passion for war, or for drink; an orator should have passion as well as rhetorical skill. "A passion fond even to idolatry." Macaulay. "Her passion is to seek roses." Lady M. W. Montagu.

We also are men of like passions with you.

Acts xiv. 15.

The nature of the human mind can not be sufficiently understood, without considering the affections and passions, or those modifications or actions of the mind consequent upon the apprehension of certain objects or events in which the mind generally conceives good or evil.


The term passion, and its adverb passionately, often express a very strong predilection for any pursuit, or object of taste -- a kind of enthusiastic fondness for anything.


The bravery of his grief did put me
Into a towering passion.


The ruling passion, be it what it will,
The ruling passion conquers reason still.


Who walked in every path of human life,
Felt every passion.


When statesmen are ruled by faction and interest, they can have no passion for the glory of their country.


5. Disorder of the mind; madness. [Obs.] Shak.

6. Passion week. See Passion week, below. R. of Gl.

Passion flower (Bot.), any flower or plant of the genus Passiflora; -- so named from a fancied resemblance of parts of the flower to the instruments of our Savior's crucifixion.

The flowers are showy, and the fruit is sometimes highly esteemed (see Granadilla, and Maypop). The roots and leaves are generally more or less noxious, and are used in medicine. The plants are mostly tendril climbers, and are commonest in the warmer parts of America, though a few species are Asiatic or Australian.

Passion music (Mus.), originally, music set to the gospel narrative of the passion of our Lord; after the Reformation, a kind of oratorio, with narrative, chorals, airs, and choruses, having for its theme the passion and crucifixion of Christ. -- Passion play, a mystery play, in which the scenes connected with the passion of our Savior are represented dramatically. -- Passion Sunday (Eccl.), the fifth Sunday in Lent, or the second before Easter. -- Passion Week, the last week but one in Lent, or the second week preceding Easter. "The name of Passion week is frequently, but improperly, applied to Holy Week." Shipley.

Syn. -- Passion, Feeling, Emotion. When any feeling or emotion completely masters the mind, we call it a passion; as, a passion for music, dress, etc.; especially is anger (when thus extreme) called passion. The mind, in such cases, is considered as having lost its self- control, and become the passive instrument of the feeling in question.

Pas"sion (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Passioned (?); p. pr & vb. n. Passioning.] To give a passionate character to. [R.] Keats.

Pas"sion, v. i. To suffer pain or sorrow; to experience a passion; to be extremely agitated. [Obs.] "Dumbly she passions, frantically she doteth." Shak.

Pas"sion*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to passion or the passions; exciting, influenced by, or ministering to, the passions. -- n. A passionary.

Pas"sion*a*ry (?), n. [L. passionarius: cf. F. passionaire.] A book in which are described the sufferings of saints and martyrs. T. Warton.

Pas"sion*ate (?), a. [LL. passionatus: cf. F. passionné.] 1. Capable or susceptible of passion, or of different passions; easily moved, excited or agitated; specifically, easily moved to anger; irascible; quick-tempered; as, a passionate nature.

Homer's Achilles is haughty and passionate.


2. Characterized by passion; expressing passion; ardent in feeling or desire; vehement; warm; as, a passionate friendship. "The passionate Pilgrim." Shak.

3. Suffering; sorrowful. [Obs.] Shak.

Pas"sion*ate (?), v. i. 1. To affect with passion; to impassion. [Obs.]

Great pleasure, mixed with pitiful regard,
The godly kind and queen did passionate.


2. To express feelingly or sorrowfully. [Obs.] Shak.

Pas"sion*ate*ly (?), adv. 1. In a passionate manner; with strong feeling; ardently.

Sorrow expresses itself . . . loudly and passionately.


2. Angrily; irascibly. Locke.

Pas"sion*ate*ness, n. The state or quality of being passionate.

Pas"sion*ist, n. (R. C. Ch.) A member of a religious order founded in Italy in 1737, and introduced into the United States in 1852. The members of the order unite the austerities of the Trappists with the activity and zeal of the Jesuits and Lazarists. Called also Barefooted Clerks of the Most Holy Cross.

Pas"sion*less (?), a. Void of passion; without anger or emotion; not easily excited; calm. "Self-contained and passionless." Tennyson.

Pas"sion*tide` (?), n. [Passion + tide time.] The last fortnight of Lent.

Pas"sive (?), a. [L. passivus: cf. F. passif. See Passion.] 1. Not active, but acted upon; suffering or receiving impressions or influences; as, they were passive spectators, not actors in the scene.

The passive air
Upbore their nimble tread.


The mind is wholly passive in the reception of all its simple ideas.


2. Receiving or enduring without either active sympathy or active resistance; without emotion or excitement; patient; not opposing; unresisting; as, passive obedience; passive submission.

The best virtue, passive fortitude.


3. (Chem.) Inactive; inert; not showing strong affinity; as, red phosphorus is comparatively passive.

4. (Med.) Designating certain morbid conditions, as hemorrhage or dropsy, characterized by relaxation of the vessels and tissues, with deficient vitality and lack of reaction in the affected tissues.

Passive congestion (Med.), congestion due to obstruction to the return of the blood from the affected part. -- Passive iron (Chem.), iron which has been subjected to the action of heat, of strong nitric acid, chlorine, etc. It is then not easily acted upon by acids. -- Passive movement (Med.), a movement of a part, in order to exercise it, made without the assistance of the muscles which ordinarily move the part. -- Passive obedience (as used by writers on government), obedience or submission of the subject or citizen as a duty in all cases to the existing government. -- Passive prayer, among mystic divines, a suspension of the activity of the soul or intellectual faculties, the soul remaining quiet, and yielding only to the impulses of grace. -- Passive verb, or Passive voice (Gram.), a verb, or form of a verb, which expresses the effect of the action of some agent; as, in Latin, doceor, I am taught; in English, she is loved; the picture is admired by all; he is assailed by slander.

Syn. -- Inactive; inert; quiescent; unresisting; unopposing; suffering; enduring; submissive; patient.

Pas"sive*ly, adv. 1. In a passive manner; inertly; unresistingly.

2. As a passive verb; in the passive voice.

Pas"sive*ness, n. The quality or state of being passive; unresisting submission.

To be an effect implies passiveness, or the being subject to the power and action of its cause.

J. Edwards.

Pas*siv"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. passivité.] 1. Passiveness; -- opposed to activity. Jer. Taylor.

2. (Physics) The tendency of a body to remain in a given state, either of motion or rest, till disturbed by another body; inertia. Cheyne.

3. (Chem.) The quality or condition of any substance which has no inclination to chemical activity; inactivity.

Pass"-key` (?), n. A key for opening more locks than one; a master key.

Pass"less, a. Having no pass; impassable. Cowley.

Pass"man (?), n.; pl. Passmen (&?;). One who passes for a degree, without honors. See Classman, 2. [Eng. Univ.]

Pass"o`ver (?), n. [Pass + over. See Pasch.] (Jewish Antiq.) (a) A feast of the Jews, instituted to commemorate the sparing of the Hebrews in Egypt, when God, smiting the firstborn of the Egyptians, passed over the houses of the Israelites which were marked with the blood of a lamb. (b) The sacrifice offered at the feast of the passover; the paschal lamb. Ex. xii.

Pass`-pa*role" (?), n. [F. passe- parole.] (Mil.) An order passed from front to rear by word of mouth.

Pass"port (&?;), n. [F. passeport, orig., a permission to leave a port or to sail into it; passer to pass + port a port, harbor. See Pass, and Port a harbor.] 1. Permission to pass; a document given by the competent officer of a state, permitting the person therein named to pass or travel from place to place, without molestation, by land or by water.

Caution in granting passports to Ireland.


2. A document carried by neutral merchant vessels in time of war, to certify their nationality and protect them from belligerents; a sea letter.

3. A license granted in time of war for the removal of persons and effects from a hostile country; a safe- conduct. Burrill.

4. Figuratively: Anything which secures advancement and general acceptance. Sir P. Sidney.

His passport is his innocence and grace.


||Pas"sus (?), n.; pl. L. Passus, E. Passuses (&?;). [L., a step, a pace. See Pace.] A division or part; a canto; as, the passus of Piers Plowman. See 2d Fit.

Pass"word` (?), n. A word to be given before a person is allowed to pass; a watchword; a countersign. Macaulay.

Pas"sy*meas`ure (?), n. [Corrupted fr. It. passamezzo.] [Obs.] See Paspy. Shak.

Past (?), a. [From Pass, v.] Of or pertaining to a former time or state; neither present nor future; gone by; elapsed; ended; spent; as, past troubles; past offences. "Past ages." Milton.

Past master. See under Master.

Past, n. A former time or state; a state of things gone by. "The past, at least, is secure." D. Webster.

The present is only intelligible in the light of the past, often a very remote past indeed.


Past, prep. 1. Beyond, in position, or degree; further than; beyond the reach or influence of. "Who being past feeling." Eph. iv. 19. "Galled past endurance." Macaulay.

Until we be past thy borders.

Num. xxi. 22.

Love, when once past government, is consequently past shame.


<! p. 1050 !>

2. Beyond, in time; after; as, past the hour.

Is it not past two o'clock?


3. Above; exceeding; more than. [R.]

Not past three quarters of a mile.


Bows not past three quarters of a yard long.


Past (?), adv. By; beyond; as, he ran past.

The alarum of drums swept past.


Paste (?), n. [OF. paste, F. pâte, L. pasta, fr. Gr. &?; barley broth; cf. &?; barley porridge, &?; sprinkled with salt, &?; to sprinkle. Cf. Pasty, n., Patty.] 1. A soft composition, as of flour moistened with water or milk, or of earth moistened to the consistence of dough, as in making potter's ware.

2. Specifically, in cookery, a dough prepared for the crust of pies and the like; pastry dough.

3. A kind of cement made of flour and water, starch and water, or the like, -- used for uniting paper or other substances, as in bookbinding, etc., -- also used in calico printing as a vehicle for mordant or color.

4. A highly refractive vitreous composition, variously colored, used in making imitations of precious stones or gems. See Strass.

5. A soft confection made of the inspissated juice of fruit, licorice, or the like, with sugar, etc.

6. (Min.) The mineral substance in which other minerals are imbedded.

Paste eel (Zoöl.), the vinegar eel. See under Vinegar.

Paste, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Pasted; p. pr. & vb. n. Pasting.] To unite with paste; to fasten or join by means of paste.

Paste"board` (?), n. 1. A stiff thick kind of paper board, formed of several single sheets pasted one upon another, or of paper macerated and pressed into molds, etc.

2. (Cookery) A board on which pastry dough is rolled; a molding board.

Pas"tel (?), n. [F.; cf. It. pastello. Cf. Pastil.] 1. A crayon made of a paste composed of a color ground with gum water. [Sometimes incorrectly written pastil.] "Charming heads in pastel." W. Black.

2. (Bot.) A plant affording a blue dye; the woad (Isatis tinctoria); also, the dye itself.

Past"er (?), n. 1. One who pastes; as, a paster in a government department.

2. A slip of paper, usually bearing a name, intended to be pasted by the voter, as a substitute, over another name on a printed ballot. [Cant, U.S.]

Pas"tern (?), n. [Of. pasturon, F. pâturon, fr. OF. pasture a tether, for beasts while pasturing; prop., a pasturing. See Pasture.] 1. The part of the foot of the horse, and allied animals, between the fetlock and the coffin joint. See Illust. of Horse.

The upper bone, or phalanx, of the foot is called the great pastern bone; the second, the small pastern bone; and the third, in the hoof, the coffin bone.

Pastern joint, the joint in the hoof of the horse, and allied animals, between the great and small pastern bones.

2. A shackle for horses while pasturing. Knight.

3. A patten. [Obs.] Dryden.

Pas*teur"ism (?), n. [Fr. Pasteur, a French scientist.] 1. A method of treatment, devised by Pasteur, for preventing certain diseases, as hydrophobia, by successive inoculations with an attenuated virus of gradually increasing strength.

2. Pasteurization.

Pas*teur`i*za"tion (?), n. A process devised by Pasteur for preventing or checking fermentation in fluids, such as wines, milk, etc., by exposure to a temperature of 140° F., thus destroying the vitality of the contained germs or ferments.

Pas*teur"ize (?), v. t. 1. To subject to pasteurization.

2. To treat by pasteurism.

||Pas*tic"ci*o (?), n. [It., fr. pasta. See Paste.] 1. A medley; an olio. [R.] H. Swinburne.

2. (Fine Arts) (a) A work of art imitating directly the work of another artist, or of more artists than one. (b) A falsified work of art, as a vase or statue made up of parts of original works, with missing parts supplied.

{ Pas"til (?), Pas*tille" (?), } n. [F. pastille, L. pastillusa pastus food. See Pasture, and cf. Pastel.] 1. (Pharmacy) A small cone or mass made of paste of gum, benzoin, cinnamon, and other aromatics, -- used for fumigating or scenting the air of a room.

2. An aromatic or medicated lozenge; a troche.

3. See Pastel, a crayon.

Pas"time` (?), n. [Pass + time: cf. F. passetemps.] That which amuses, and serves to make time pass agreeably; sport; amusement; diversion.

Pas"time`, v. i. To sport; to amuse one's self. [R.]

Pas"tor (?), n. [L., fr. pascere, pastum, to pasture, to feed. Cf. Pabulum, Pasture, Food.] 1. A shepherd; one who has the care of flocks and herds.

2. A guardian; a keeper; specifically (Eccl.), a minister having the charge of a church and parish.

3. (Zoöl.) A species of starling (Pastor roseus), native of the plains of Western Asia and Eastern Europe. Its head is crested and glossy greenish black, and its back is rosy. It feeds largely upon locusts.

Pas"tor*age (?), n. The office, jurisdiction, or duty, of a pastor; pastorate.

Pas"tor*al (?), a. [L. pastoralis: cf. F. pastoral. See Pastor.] 1. Of or pertaining to shepherds; hence, relating to rural life and scenes; as, a pastoral life.

2. Relating to the care of souls, or to the pastor of a church; as, pastoral duties; a pastoral letter.

Pastoral staff (Eccl.), a staff, usually of the form of a shepherd's crook, borne as an official emblem by a bishop, abbot, abbess, or other prelate privileged to carry it. See Crook, and Crosier. -- Pastoral Theology, that part of theology which treats of the duties of pastors.

Pas"tor*al (?), n. 1. A poem describing the life and manners of shepherds; a poem in which the speakers assume the character of shepherds; an idyl; a bucolic.

A pastoral is a poem in which any action or passion is represented by its effects on a country life.


2. (Mus.) A cantata relating to rural life; a composition for instruments characterized by simplicity and sweetness; a lyrical composition the subject of which is taken from rural life. Moore (Encyc. of Music).

3. (Eccl.) A letter of a pastor to his charge; specifically, a letter addressed by a bishop to his diocese; also (Prot. Epis. Ch.), a letter of the House of Bishops, to be read in each parish.

||Pas`to*ra"le (?), n. [It.] 1. (Mus.) A composition in a soft, rural style, generally in 6-8 or 12-8 time.

2. A kind of dance; a kind of figure used in a dance.

Pas"tor*al*ly (?), adv. 1. In a pastoral or rural manner.

2. In the manner of a pastor.

Pas"tor*ate (?), n. [Cf. F. pastorat. See Pastor.] The office, state, or jurisdiction of a pastor.

Pas"tor*less, a. Having no pastor.

Pas"tor*ling (?), n. An insignificant pastor. [R.]

Pas"tor*ly, a. Appropriate to a pastor. Milton.

Pas"tor*ship, n. Pastorate. Bp. Bull.

Pas"try (?), n.; pl. Pastries (&?;). 1. The place where pastry is made. [Obs.] Shak.

2. Articles of food made of paste, or having a crust made of paste, as pies, tarts, etc.

Pastry cook, one whose occupation is to make pastry; as, the pastry cook of a hotel.

Pas"tur*a*ble (?), a. Fit for pasture.

Pas"tur*age (?), n. [OF. pasturage, F. pâturage. See Pasture.] 1. Grazing ground; grass land used for pasturing; pasture.

2. Grass growing for feed; grazing.

3. The business of feeding or grazing cattle.

Pas"ture (?), n. [OF. pasture, F. pâture, L. pastura, fr. pascere, pastum, to pasture, to feed. See Pastor.] 1. Food; nourishment. [Obs.]

Toads and frogs his pasture poisonous.


2. Specifically: Grass growing for the food of cattle; the food of cattle taken by grazing.

3. Grass land for cattle, horses, etc.; pasturage.

He maketh me to lie down in green pastures.

Ps. xxiii. 2.

So graze as you find pasture.


Pas"ture, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Pastured (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Pasturing.] To feed, esp. to feed on growing grass; to supply grass as food for; as, the farmer pastures fifty oxen; the land will pasture forty cows.

Pas"ture, v. i. To feed on growing grass; to graze.

Pas"ture*less, a. Destitute of pasture. Milton.

Pas"tur*er (?), n. One who pastures; one who takes cattle to graze. See Agister.

Pas"ty (?), a. Like paste, as in color, softness, stickness. "A pasty complexion." G. Eliot.

Pas"ty, n.; pl. Pasties (#). [OF. pasté, F. pâté. See Paste, and cf. Patty.] A pie consisting usually of meat wholly surrounded with a crust made of a sheet of paste, and often baked without a dish; a meat pie. "If ye pinch me like a pasty." Shak. "Apple pasties." Dickens.

A large pasty baked in a pewter platter.

Sir W. Scott.

Pat (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Patted (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Patting.] [Cf. G. patschen, Prov. G. patzen, to strike, tap.] To strike gently with the fingers or hand; to stroke lightly; to tap; as, to pat a dog.

Gay pats my shoulder, and you vanish quite.


Pat, n. 1. A light, quik blow or stroke with the fingers or hand; a tap.

2. A small mass, as of butter, shaped by pats.

It looked like a tessellated work of pats of butter.


Pat, a. [Cf. pat a light blow, D. te pas convenient, pat, where pas is fr. F. passer to pass.] Exactly suitable; fit; convenient; timely. "Pat allusion." Barrow.

Pat, adv. In a pat manner.

I foresaw then 't would come in pat hereafter.


||Pa*ta"ca (?), n. [Sp.] The Spanish dollar; -- called also patacoon. [Obs.]

||Pa`tache" (?), n. [F. & Sp. patache, P. patacho.] (Naut.) A tender to a fleet, formerly used for conveying men, orders, or treasure. [Spain & Portugal]

Pa`ta*coon" (?), n. [Sp.] See Pataca.

||Pa*ta"gi*um (?), n.; pl. Patagia (#). [L., an edge or border.] 1. (Anat.) In bats, an expansion of the integument uniting the fore limb with the body and extending between the elongated fingers to form the wing; in birds, the similar fold of integument uniting the fore limb with the body.

2. (Zoöl.) One of a pair of small vesicular organs situated at the bases of the anterior wings of lepidopterous insects. See Illust. of Butterfly.

Pat`a*go"ni*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to Patagonia. -- n. A native of Patagonia.

Pat"a*mar (?), n. [From the native name.] (Naut.) A vessel resembling a grab, used in the coasting trade of Bombay and Ceylon. [Written also pattemar.]

Pa*tas" (?), n. (Zoöl.) A West African long-tailed monkey (Cercopithecus ruber); the red monkey.

Pat`a*vin"i*ty (?), n. [L. patavinitas, fr. Patavium: cf. F. patavinité] The use of local or provincial words, as in the peculiar style or diction of Livy, the Roman historian; -- so called from Patavium, now Padua, the place of Livy's nativity.

Patch (?), n. [OE. pacche; of uncertain origin, perh. for placche; cf. Prov. E. platch patch, LG. plakk, plakke.] 1. A piece of cloth, or other suitable material, sewed or otherwise fixed upon a garment to repair or strengthen it, esp. upon an old garment to cover a hole.

Patches set upon a little breach.


2. Hence: A small piece of anything used to repair a breach; as, a patch on a kettle, a roof, etc.

3. A small piece of black silk stuck on the face, or neck, to hide a defect, or to heighten beauty.

Your black patches you wear variously.

Beau. & Fl.

4. (Gun.) A piece of greased cloth or leather used as wrapping for a rifle ball, to make it fit the bore.

5. Fig.: Anything regarded as a patch; a small piece of ground; a tract; a plot; as, scattered patches of trees or growing corn.

Employed about this patch of ground.


6. (Mil.) A block on the muzzle of a gun, to do away with the effect of dispart, in sighting.

7. A paltry fellow; a rogue; a ninny; a fool. [Obs. or Colloq.] "Thou scurvy patch." Shak.

Patch ice, ice in overlapping pieces in the sea. -- Soft patch, a patch for covering a crack in a metallic vessel, as a steam boiler, consisting of soft material, as putty, covered and held in place by a plate bolted or riveted fast.

Patch (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Patched (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Patching.] 1. To mend by sewing on a piece or pieces of cloth, leather, or the like; as, to patch a coat.

2. To mend with pieces; to repair with pieces festened on; to repair clumsily; as, to patch the roof of a house.

3. To adorn, as the face, with a patch or patches.

Ladies who patched both sides of their faces.


4. To make of pieces or patches; to repair as with patches; to arrange in a hasty or clumsy manner; -- generally with up; as, to patch up a truce. "If you'll patch a quarrel." Shak.

Patch"er (?), n. One who patches or botches. Foxe.

Patch"er*y (?), n. Botchery; covering of defects; bungling; hypocrisy. [R.] Shak.

Patch"ing*ly (?), adv. Knavishy; deceitfully. [Obs.]

{ Pa*tchou"li, Pa*tchou"ly } (?), n. [CF. F. patchouli; prob. of East Indian origin.] 1. (Bot.) A mintlike plant (Pogostemon Patchouli) of the East Indies, yielding an essential oil from which a highly valued perfume is made.

2. The perfume made from this plant.

Patchouly camphor (Chem.), a substance homologous with and resembling borneol, found in patchouly oil.

Patch"work` (?), n. Work composed of pieces sewed together, esp. pieces of various colors and figures; hence, anything put together of incongruous or ill-adapted parts; something irregularly clumsily composed; a thing putched up. Swift.

Patch"y (?), a. Full of, or covered with, patches; abounding in patches.

||Pa`té" (?), a. (Her.) See Patté.

||Pa`té" (?), n. [F. pâté.] 1. A pie. See Patty.

2. (Fort.) A kind of platform with a parapet, usually of an oval form, and generally erected in marshy grounds to cover a gate of a fortified place. [R.]

Pate (?), n. [Cf. LG. & Prov. G. pattkopf, patzkopf, scabby head; patt, patz, scab + kopf head.] 1. The head of a person; the top, or crown, of the head. [Now generally used in contempt or ridicule.]

His mischief shall return upon his own head, and his violent dealing shall come down upon his own pate.

Ps. vii. 16.

Fat paunches have lean pate.


2. The skin of a calf's head.

Pat"ed (?), a. Having a pate; -- used only in composition; as, long-pated; shallow- pated.

Pa*tee" (?), n. See Pattee.

Pat`e*fac"tion (?), n. [L. patefactio, fr. patefacere to open; patere to lie open + facere to make.] The act of opening, disclosing, or manifesting; open declaration. Jer. Taylor.

||Pat"e*la (?), n. [Hind. patel.] A large flat-bottomed trading boat peculiar to the river Ganges; -- called also puteli.

||Pa*tel"la (?), n.; pl. Patellæ (#). [L., a small pan, the kneepan, dim. of patina, patena, a pan, dish.] 1. A small dish, pan, or vase.

2. (Anat.) The kneepan; the cap of the knee.

3. (Zoöl.) A genus of marine gastropods, including many species of limpets. The shell has the form of a flattened cone. The common European limpet (Patella vulgata) is largely used for food.

4. (Bot.) A kind of apothecium in lichens, which is orbicular, flat, and sessile, and has a special rim not a part of the thallus.

Pa*tel"lar (?), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the patella, or kneepan.

Pa*tel"li*form (?), a. [Patella + form: cf. F. pattelliforme.] 1. Having the form of a patella.

2. (Zoöl.) Resembling a limpet of the genus Patella.

||Pa*tel"lu*la (?), n.; pl. Patellulæ (#). [NL., dim. of L. patella. See Patella.] (Zoöl.) A cuplike sucker on the feet of certain insects.

Pat"en (?), n. [LL. patina, patena, fr. L. patina, patena, a pan; cf. L. patere to be open, E. patent, and Gr. &?; a kind of flat dish: cf. F. patène. Cf. Patina.] 1. A plate. [Obs.]

2. (Eccl.) The place on which the consecrated bread is placed in the Eucharist, or on which the host is placed during the Mass. It is usually small, and formed as to fit the chalice, or cup, as a cover.

[Written also patin, patine.]

||Pat"e*na (?), n. [LL.] (Eccl.) A paten.

||Pa*te"na (?), n. [Cf. Pg. patena a paten.] A grassy expanse in the hill region of Ceylon.

Pa"ten*cy (?), n. [See Patent.] 1. The condition of being open, enlarged, or spread.

2. The state of being patent or evident.

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Pat"ent (pt"ent or pt"ent), a. [L. patens, -entis, p. pr. of patere to be open: cf. F. patent. Cf. Fathom.] 1. (Oftener pronounced pt"ent in this sense) Open; expanded; evident; apparent; unconcealed; manifest; public; conspicuous.

He had received instructions, both patent and secret.


2. Open to public perusal; -- said of a document conferring some right or privilege; as, letters patent. See Letters patent, under 3d Letter.

3. Appropriated or protected by letters patent; secured by official authority to the exclusive possession, control, and disposal of some person or party; patented; as, a patent right; patent medicines.

Madder . . . in King Charles the First's time, was made a patent commodity.


4. (Bot.) Spreading; forming a nearly right angle with the steam or branch; as, a patent leaf.

Patent leather, a varnished or lacquered leather, used for boots and shoes, and in carriage and harness work. -- Patent office, a government bureau for the examination of inventions and the granting of patents. -- Patent right. (a) The exclusive right to an invention, and the control of its manufacture. (b) (Law) The right, granted by the sovereign, of exclusive control of some business of manufacture, or of the sale of certain articles, or of certain offices or prerogatives. -- Patent rolls, the registers, or records, of patents.

Pat"ent, n. [Cf. F. patente. See Patent, a.] 1. A letter patent, or letters patent; an official document, issued by a sovereign power, conferring a right or privilege on some person or party. Specifically: (a) A writing securing to an invention. (b) A document making a grant and conveyance of public lands.

Four other gentlemen of quality remained mentioned in that patent.


In the United States, by the act of 1870, patents for inventions are issued for seventeen years, without the privilege of renewal except by act of Congress.

2. The right or privilege conferred by such a document; hence, figuratively, a right, privilege, or license of the nature of a patent.

If you are so fond over her iniquity, give her patent to offend.


Pat"ent, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Patented; p. pr. & vb. n. Patenting.] To grant by patent; to make the subject of a patent; to secure or protect by patent; as, to patent an invention; to patent public lands.

Pat"ent*a*ble (?), a. Suitable to be patented; capable of being patented.

Pat`ent*ee" (?), n. One to whom a grant is made, or a privilege secured, by patent. Bacon.

Pat"ent-ham"mered (?), a. (Stone Cutting) Having a surface dressed by cutting with a hammer the head of which consists of broad thin chisels clamped together.

Pat"ent*ly (?; see Patent, a.), adv. Openly; evidently.

||Pat"e*ra (?), n.; pl. Pateræ(&?;). [ L., fr. patere to lie open.] 1. A saucerlike vessel of earthenware or metal, used by the Greeks and Romans in libations and sacrificies.

2. (Arch.) A circular ornament, resembling a dish, often worked in relief on friezes, and the like.

Pat`e*re"ro (?), n. See Pederero. [Obs.]

||Pa`ter*fa*mil`i*as (?), n.; pl. Pateresfamilias (#). [L., fr. pater father + familias, gen. of familia family.] (Rom. Law) The head of a family; in a large sense, the proprietor of an estate; one who is his own master.

Pa*ter"nal (?), a. [L. paternus, fr. pater a father: cf. F. paternel. See Father.] 1. Of or pertaining to a father; fatherly; showing the disposition of a father; guiding or instructing as a father; as, paternal care. "Under paternal rule." Milton.

2. Received or derived from a father; hereditary; as, a paternal estate.

Their small paternal field of corn.


Paternal government (Polit. Science), the assumption by the governing power of a quasi-fatherly relation to the people, involving strict and intimate supervision of their business and social concerns, upon the theory that they are incapable of managing their own afffairs.

Pa*ter"nal*ism (?), n. (Polit. Science) The theory or practice of paternal government. See Paternal government, under Paternal. London Times.

Pa*ter"nal*ly, adv. In a paternal manner.

Pa*ter"ni*ty (?), n. [L. paternitas: cf. F. paternité. See Paternal.] 1. The relation of a father to his child; fathership; fatherhood; family headship; as, the divine paternity.

The world, while it had scarcity of people, underwent no other dominion than paternity and eldership.

Sir W. Raleigh.

2. Derivation or descent from a father; male parentage; as, the paternity of a child.

3. Origin; authorship.

The paternity of these novels was . . . disputed.

Sir W. Scott.

Pa"ter*nos`ter (?), n. [L., Our Father.] 1. The Lord's prayer, so called from the first two words of the Latin version.

2. (Arch.) A beadlike ornament in moldings.

3. (Angling) A line with a row of hooks and bead&?;shaped sinkers.

Paternoster pump, Paternoster wheel, a chain pump; a noria. -- Paternoster while, the space of time required for repeating a paternoster. Udall.

Path (pth), n.; pl. Paths (pz). [As. pæð, pað; akin to D. pad, G. pfad, of uncertain origin; cf. Gr. pa`tos, Skr. patha, path. √21.] 1. A trodden way; a footway.

The dewy paths of meadows we will tread.


2. A way, course, or track, in which anything moves or has moved; route; passage; an established way; as, the path of a meteor, of a caravan, of a storm, of a pestilence. Also used figuratively, of a course of life or action.

All the paths of the Lord are mercy and truth.

Ps. xxv. 10.

The paths of glory lead but to the grave.


Path (p), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Pathed (pd); pr.p. & vb. n. Pathing.] To make a path in, or on (something), or for (some one). [R.] "Pathing young Henry's unadvised ways." Drayton.

Path, v. i. To walk or go. [R.] Shak.

Path`e*mat"ic (?), a. [Gr. &?;, fr. &?; a suffering, &?;, to suffer.] Of, pertaining to, or designating, emotion or suffering. [R.] Chalmers.

Pa*thet"ic (?), a. [L. patheticus, Gr. &?;, fr. &?;, &?;, to suffer: cf. F. pathétique. See Pathos.] 1. Expressing or showing anger; passionate. [Obs.]

2. Affecting or moving the tender emotions, esp. pity or grief; full of pathos; as, a pathetic song or story. "Pathetic action." Macaulay.

No theory of the passions can teach a man to be pathetic.

E. Porter.

Pathetic muscle (Anat.), the superior oblique muscle of the eye. -- Pathetic nerve (Anat.), the fourth cranial, or trochlear, nerve, which supplies the superior oblique, or pathetic, muscle of the eye. -- The pathetic, a style or manner adapted to arouse the tender emotions.

Pa*thet"ic*al (?), a. Pathetic. [R.] -- Pa*thet"ic*al*ly, adv. -- Pa*thet"ic*al*ness, n.

Path"e*tism (?), n. [Cf. F. pathétisme.] See Mesmerism. L. Sunderland.

Path"find`er (?), n. One who discovers a way or path; one who explores untraversed regions.

The cow is the true pathfinder and pathmaker.

J. Burroughs.

Path"ic (?), n. [L. pathicus, Gr. &?;, passive, fr. &?;, &?;, to suffer] A male who submits to the crime against nature; a catamite. [R.] B. Jonson.

Path"ic, a. [Gr. &?;.] Passive; suffering.

Path"less (?), a. Having no beaten path or way; untrodden; impenetrable; as, pathless woods.

Trough the heavens' wide, pathless way.


Path"mak`er (?), n. One who, or that which, makes a way or path.

Path"o*gene (?), n. [See Pathogenic.] (Biol.) One of a class of virulent microörganisms or bacteria found in the tissues and fluids in infectious diseases, and supposed to be the cause of the disease; a pathogenic organism; a pathogenic bacterium; -- opposed to zymogene.

Path`o*gen"e*sis (?), n. (Med.) Pathogeny.

Path`o*ge*net"ic (?), a. (Med.) Pathogenic.

Path`o*gen"ic (?), a. [Gr. &?; disease + the root of &?; birth.] (Med. & Biol.) Of or pertaining to pathogeny; producting disease; as, a pathogenic organism; a pathogenic bacterium.

Pa*thog"e*ny (?), n. (Med.) (a) The generation, and method of development, of disease; as, the pathogeny of yellow fever is unsettled. (b) That branch of pathology which treats of the generation and development of disease.

Pa*thog`no*mon"ic (?), a. [Gr. &?; skilled in judging of diseases; &?; a disease + &?; skilled: cf. F. pathognomonique. See Gnomic.] (Med.) Specially or decisively characteristic of a disease; indicating with certainty a disease; as, a pathognomonic symptom.

The true pathognomonic sign of love jealousy.


Pa*thog"no*my (?), n. [Gr. &?; passion + &?; a judgment, fr. &?;, &?;, to know.] Expression of the passions; the science of the signs by which human passions are indicated.

{ Path`o*log"ic (?), Path`o*log"ic*al (?), } a. [Gr. &?;: cf. F. pathologique.] Of or pertaining to pathology. -- Path`o*log"ic*al*ly, adv.

Pa*thol"o*gist (?), n. [Cf. F. pathologiste.] One skilled in pathology; an investigator in pathology; as, the pathologist of a hospital, whose duty it is to determine the causes of the diseases.

Pa*thol"o*gy (-j), n.; pl. Pathologies (-jz). [Gr. pa`qos a suffering, disease + -logy: cf. F. pathologie.] (Med.) The science which treats of diseases, their nature, causes, progress, symptoms, etc.

Pathology is general or special, according as it treats of disease or morbid processes in general, or of particular diseases; it is also subdivided into internal and external, or medical and surgical pathology. Its departments are nosology, ætiology, morbid anatomy, symptomatology, and therapeutics, which treat respectively of the classification, causation, organic changes, symptoms, and cure of diseases.

Celluar pathology, a theory that gives prominence to the vital action of cells in the healthy and diseased function of the body. Virchow.

||Path`o*pœ"la (?), n.; pl. -ias (#). [NL., from Gr. &?;; &?; passion + &?; to make.] (Rhet.) A speech, or figure of speech, designed to move the passion. Smart.

Pa"thos (?), n. [L., from Gr. pa`qos a suffering, passion, fr. &?;, &?;, to suffer; cf. &?; toil, L. pati to suffer, E. patient.] That quality or property of anything which touches the feelings or excites emotions and passions, esp., that which awakens tender emotions, such as pity, sorrow, and the like; contagious warmth of feeling, action, or expression; pathetic quality; as, the pathos of a picture, of a poem, or of a cry.

The combination of incident, and the pathos of catastrophe.

T. Warton.

Path"way (?), n. A footpath; a beaten track; any path or course. Also used figuratively. Shak.

In the way of righteousness is life; and in the pathway thereof is no death.

Prov. xii. 28.

We tread the pathway arm in arm.

Sir W. Scott.

Pat"i*ble (?), a. [L. patibilis, fr. pati to suffer.] Sufferable; tolerable; endurable. [Obs.] Bailey.

Pa*tib"u*la*ry (?), a. [L. patibulum a gallows: cf. F. patibulaire.] Of or pertaining to the gallows, or to execution. [R.] Carlyle.

Pa*tib"u*la`ted, a. Hanged on a gallows. [R.]

Pa"tience (?), n. [F. patience, fr. L. patientia. See Patient.] 1. The state or quality of being patient; the power of suffering with fortitude; uncomplaining endurance of evils or wrongs, as toil, pain, poverty, insult, oppression, calamity, etc.

Strenthened with all might, . . . unto all patience and long-suffering.

Col. i. 11.

I must have patience to endure the load.


Who hath learned lowliness
From his Lord's cradle, patience from his cross.


2. The act or power of calmly or contentedly waiting for something due or hoped for; forbearance.

Have patience with me, and I will pay thee all.

Matt. xviii. 29.

3. Constancy in labor or application; perseverance.

He learned with patience, and with meekness taught.


4. Sufferance; permission. [Obs.] Hooker.

They stay upon your patience.


5. (Bot.) A kind of dock (Rumex Patientia), less common in America than in Europe; monk's rhubarb.

6. (Card Playing) Solitaire.

Syn. -- Patience, Resignation. Patience implies the quietness or self-possession of one's own spirit under sufferings, provocations, etc.; resignation implies submission to the will of another. The Stoic may have patience; the Christian should have both patience and resignation.

Pa"tient (?), a. [F., fr. L. patiens, -entis, p. pr. of pati to suffer. Cf. Pathos, Passion.] 1. Having the quality of enduring; physically able to suffer or bear.

Patient of severest toil and hardship.

Bp. Fell.

2. Undergoing pains, trails, or the like, without murmuring or fretfulness; bearing up with equanimity against trouble; long-suffering.

3. Constant in pursuit or exertion; persevering; calmly diligent; as, patient endeavor.

Whatever I have done is due to patient thought.

Sir I. Newton.

4. Expectant with calmness, or without discontent; not hasty; not overeager; composed.

Not patient to expect the turns of fate.


5. Forbearing; long-suffering.

Be patient toward all men.

1 Thess. v. 14.

Pa"tient, n. 1. ONe who, or that which, is passively affected; a passive recipient.

Malice is a passion so impetuous and precipitate that often involves the agent and the patient.

Gov. of Tongue.

2. A person under medical or surgical treatment; -- correlative to physician or nurse.

Like a physician, . . . seeing his patient in a pestilent fever.

Sir P. Sidney.

In patient, a patient who receives lodging and food, as treatment, in a hospital or an infirmary. -- Out patient, one who receives advice and medicine, or treatment, from an infirmary.

Pa"tient, v. t. To compose, to calm. [Obs.] "Patient yourself, madam." Shak.

Pa"tient*ly, adv. In a patient manner. Cowper.

{ Pat"in (?), Pat"ine }, n. A plate. See Paten. "Inlaid with patines of bright gold." Shak.

Pat"ina (?), n. [It., fr. L. patina a dish, a pan, a kind of cake. Cf. Paten.] 1. A dish or plate of metal or earthenware; a patella.

2. (Fine Arts) The color or incrustation which age gives to works of art; especially, the green rust which covers ancient bronzes, coins, and medals. Fairholt.

||Pa"ti*o (pä"t*), n. [Sp., a court] (Metal) A paved yard or floor where ores are cleaned and sorted, or where ore, salt, mercury, etc., are trampled by horses, to effect intermixture and amalgamation.

The patio process is used to reduce silver ores by amalgamation.

Pat"ly (?), adv. Fitly; seasonably. Barrow.

Pat"ness, n. Fitness or appropriateness; striking suitableness; convenience.

The description with equal patness may suit both.


Pa`tois" (?), n. [F.] A dialect peculiar to the illiterate classes; a provincial form of speech.

The jargon and patois of several provinces.

Sir T. Browne.

Pa*tonce" (?), a. [Cf. F. patte d'once paw of an ounce.] (Her.) Having the arms growing broader and floriated toward the end; -- said of a cross. See Illust. 9 of Cross.

Pa"tri*al (?), a. [L. patria fatherland, country, fr. pater father.] (Lat. Gram.) Derived from the name of a country, and designating an inhabitant of the country; gentile; -- said of a noun. -- n. A patrial noun. Thus Romanus, a Roman, and Troas, a woman of Troy, are patrial nouns, or patrials. Andrews.

Pa"tri*arch (?), n. [F. patriarche, L. patriarcha, Gr. &?;, fr. &?; lineage, especially on the father's side, race; &?; father + &?; a leader, chief, fr. &?; to lead, rule. See Father, Archaic.] 1. The father and ruler of a family; one who governs his family or descendants by paternal right; -- usually applied to heads of families in ancient history, especially in Biblical and Jewish history to those who lived before the time of Moses.

2. (R. C. Ch. & Gr. Ch.) A dignitary superior to the order of archbishops; as, the patriarch of Constantinople, of Alexandria, or of Antioch.

3. A venerable old man; an elder. Also used figuratively.

The patriarch hoary, the sage of his kith and the hamlet.


The monarch oak, the partiarch of trees.


Pa`tri*ar"chal (?), a. [Cf. F. patriarcal.] 1. Of or pertaining to a patriarch or to patriarchs; possessed by, or subject to, patriarchs; as, patriarchal authority or jurisdiction; a patriarchal see; a patriarchal church.

2. Characteristic of a patriarch; venerable.

About whose patriarchal knee
Late the little children clung.


3. (Ethnol.) Having an organization of society and government in which the head of the family exercises authority over all its generations.

Patriarchal cross (Her.), a cross, the shaft of which is intersected by two transverse beams, the upper one being the smaller. See Illust. (2) of Cross. -- Patriarchal dispensation, the divine dispensation under which the patriarchs lived before the law given by Moses.

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Pa`tri*ar"chate (p>amac/`tr*är"kt), n. [Cf. F. patriarcat.] 1. The office, dignity, or jurisdiction of a patriarch. Jer. Taylor.

2. The residence of an ecclesiastic patriarch.

3. (Ethnol.) A patriarchal form of government or society. See Patriarchal, a., 3.

Pa"tri*arch*dom (?), n. The office or jurisdiction of a patriarch; patriarchate. [R.]

Pa`tri*ar"chic (?), a. [L. patriarchicus, Gr. &?;.] Patriarchal.

Pa"tri*arch*ism (?), n. Government by a patriarch, or the head of a family.

Pa"tri*arch*ship, n. A patriarchate. Ayliffe.

Pa"tri*arch`y (?), n. [Gr. &?;.] 1. The jurisdiction of a patriarch; patriarchship. Brerewood.

2. Government by a patriarch; patriarchism.

Pa*tri"cian (?), a. [L. patricius, fr. patres fathers or senators, pl. of pater: cf. F. patricien. See Paternal.] 1. (Rom. Antiq.) Of or pertaining to the Roman patres (fathers) or senators, or patricians.

2. Of, pertaining to, or appropriate to, a person of high birth; noble; not plebeian.

Born in the patrician file of society.

Sir W. Scott.

His horse's hoofs wet with patrician blood.


Pa*tri"cian, n. [L. patricius: cf. F. patricien.] 1. (Rom. Antiq.) Originally, a member of any of the families constituting the populus Romanus, or body of Roman citizens, before the development of the plebeian order; later, one who, by right of birth or by special privilege conferred, belonged to the nobility.

2. A person of high birth; a nobleman.

3. One familiar with the works of the Christian Fathers; one versed in patristic lore. [R.] Colridge.

Pa*tri"cian*ism (?), n. The rank or character of patricians.

Pa*tri"ci*ate (?), n. The patrician class; the aristocracy; also, the office of patriarch. Milman.

Pat*ri"ci`dal (?), a. Of or pertaining to patricide; parricidal.

Pat*ri"cide (?), n. [L. pater father + caedere to kill. Cf. Parricide.] 1. The murderer of his father.

2. The crime of one who murders his father. Same as Parricide.

Pat`ri*mo"ni*al (?), a. [L. patrimonialis: cf. F. patrimonial.] Of or pertaining to a patrimony; inherited from ancestors; as, a patrimonial estate.

Pat`ri*mo"ni*al*ly, adv. By inheritance.

Pat"ri*mo*ny (?), n.; pl. Patrimonies (#). [L. patrimonium, fr. pater father: cf. F. patrimoine. See Paternal.] 1. A right or estate inherited from one's father; or, in a larger sense, from any ancestor. "'Reave the orphan of his patrimony." Shak.

2. Formerly, a church estate or endowment. Shipley.

Pa"tri*ot (?), n. [F. patriote; cf. Sp. patriota, It. patriotto; all fr. Gr. &?; a fellow-countryman, fr. &?; established by forefathers, fr. &?; father. See Father.] One who loves his country, and zealously supports its authority and interests. Bp. Hall.

Such tears as patriots shaed for dying laws.


Pa"tri*ot, a. Becoming to a patriot; patriotic.

Pa`tri*ot"ic (?), a. [Cf. F. patriotique, Gr. &?; belonging to a fellow-countryman.] Inspired by patriotism; actuated by love of one's country; zealously and unselfishly devoted to the service of one's country; as, a patriotic statesman, vigilance.

Pa`tri*ot"ic*al (?), a. Patriotic; that pertains to a patriot. -- Pa`tri*ot"ic*al*ly, adv.

Pa"tri*ot*ism (?), n. [Cf. F. patriotisme.] Love of country; devotion to the welfare of one's country; the virtues and actions of a patriot; the passion which inspires one to serve one's country. Berkley.

Pa`tri*pas"sian (?), n. [LL. Patripassiani, pl.; L. pater father + pati, passus, to suffer: cf. F. patripassiens.] (Eccl. Hist.) One of a body of believers in the early church who denied the independent preëxistent personality of Christ, and who, accordingly, held that the Father suffered in the Son; a monarchian. -- Pa`tri*pas"sian*ism (#), n.

Pa"trist (?), n. One versed in patristics.

{ Pa*tris"tic (?), Pa*tris"tic*al (?), } a. [F. patristique. See Paternal.] Of or pertaining to the Fathers of the Christian church.

The voluminous editor of Jerome anf of tons of patristic theology.

I. Taylor.

Pa*tris"tics (?), n. That departnent of historical theology which treats of the lives and doctrines of the Fathers of the church.

Pa"tri*zate (?), v. i. [L. patrissare, patrizare;cf. Gr. &?;.] To imitate one's father. [R.]

Pa*troc"i*nate (?), v. t. [L. patrocinatus, p. p. of patrocinari to patronize, fr. patronus patron.] To support; to patronize. [Obs.] Urquhart.

Pa*troc`i*na"tion (?), n. The act of patrocinating or patronizing. [Obs.] "Patrocinations of treason." Bp. Hall.

Pa*troc"i*ny (?), n. [L. patrocinium.] [Obs.] See Patrocination.

Pa*trol" (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Patrolled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Patrolling.] [F. patrouiller, O. & Prov. F. patrouiller to paddle, paw about, patrol, fr. patte a paw; cf. D. poot paw, G. pfote, and E. pat, v.] To go the rounds along a chain of sentinels; to traverse a police district or beat.

Pa*trol" (?), v.t To go the rounds of, as a sentry, guard, or policeman; as, to patrol a frontier; to patrol a beat.

Pa*trol", n. [F. patrouille, OF. patouille. See Patrol, v. i.] 1. (Mil.) (a) A going of the rounds along the chain of sentinels and between the posts, by a guard, usually consisting of three or four men, to insure greater security from attacks on the outposts. (b) A movement, by a small body of troops beyond the line of outposts, to explore the country and gain intelligence of the enemy's whereabouts. (c) The guard or men who go the rounds for observation; a detachment whose duty it is to patrol.

2. Any perambulation of a particular line or district to guard it; also, the men thus guarding; as, a customs patrol; a fire patrol.

In France there is an army of patrols to secure her fiscal regulations.

A. Hamilton.

Pa*trole" (?), n. & v. See Patrol, n. & v.

Pa*trol"man (?), n.; pl. Patrolmen (&?;). One who patrols; a watchman; especially, a policeman who patrols a particular precinct of a town or city.

Pa"tron (?), n. [F., fr. L. patronus, fr. pater a father. See Paternal, and cf. Patroon, Padrone, Pattern.] 1. One who protects, supports, or countenances; a defender. "Patron of my life and liberty." Shak. "The patron of true holiness." Spenser.

2. (Rom. Antiq.) (a) A master who had freed his slave, but still retained some paternal rights over him. (b) A man of distinction under whose protection another person placed himself. (c) An advocate or pleader.

Let him who works the client wrong
Beware the patron's ire.


3. One who encourages or helps a person, a cause, or a work; a furtherer; a promoter; as, a patron of art.

4. (Eccl. Law) One who has gift and disposition of a benefice. [Eng.]

5. A guardian saint. -- called also patron saint.

6. (Naut.) See Padrone, 2.

Patrons of Husbandry, the grangers. See Granger, 2.

Pa"tron, v. t. To be a patron of; to patronize; to favor. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

Pa"tron, a. Doing the duty of a patron; giving aid or protection; tutelary. Dryden.

Patron saint (R. C. Ch.), a saint regarded as the peculiar protector of a country, community, church, profession, etc., or of an individual.

Pa"tron*age (?), n. [F. patronage. Cf. LL. patronaticum, and L. patronatus.] 1. Special countenance or support; favor, encouragement, or aid, afforded to a person or a work; as, the patronage of letters; patronage given to an author.

2. Business custom. [Commercial Cant]

3. Guardianship, as of a saint; tutelary care. Addison.

4. The right of nomination to political office; also, the offices, contracts, honors, etc., which a public officer may bestow by favor.

5. (Eng. Law) The right of presentation to church or ecclesiastical benefice; advowson. Blackstone.

Pa"tron*age, v. t. To act as a patron of; to maintain; to defend. [Obs.] Shak.

Pa"tron*al (?), a. [L. patronalis; cf. F. patronal.] Patron; protecting; favoring. [R.] Sir T. Browne.

Pa"tron*ate (?), n. [L. patronatus.] The right or duty of a patron; patronage. [R.] Westm. Rev.

Pa"tron*ess (?), n. [Cf. F. patronnesse.] A female patron or helper. Spenser.

Night, best patroness of grief.


Pa`tron*i*za"tion (?), n. The act of patronizing; patronage; support. [R.]

Pa"tron*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Patronized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Patronizing (?).] 1. To act as patron toward; to support; to countenance; to favor; to aid.

The idea has been patronized by two States only.

A. Hamilton.

2. To trade with customarily; to frequent as a customer. [Commercial Cant]

3. To assume the air of a patron, or of a superior and protector, toward; -- used in an unfavorable sense; as, to patronize one's equals.

Pa"tron*i`zer (?), n. One who patronizes.

Pa"tron*i`zing (?), a. Showing condescending favor; assuming the manner of airs of a superior toward another. -- Pat"ron*i`zing*ly, adv. Thackeray.

Pa"tron*less (?), a. Destitute of a patron.

Pa`tro*nom`a*yol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. &?;, &?;, a father + E. onomatology.] That branch of knowledge which deals with personal names and their origin; the study of patronymics.

Pa`tro*nym"ic (?), a. [L. patronymicus, Gr. &?;; &?; father + &?; name: cf. F. patronymique.] Derived from ancestors; as, a patronymic denomination.

Pa`tro*nym"ic, n. [Gr. &?;.] A modification of the father's name borne by the son; a name derived from that of a parent or ancestor; as, Pelides, the son of Peleus; Johnson, the son of John; Macdonald, the son of Donald; Paulowitz, the son of Paul; also, the surname of a family; the family name. M. A. Lower.

Pa`tro*nym"ic*al (?), a. Same as Patronymic.

Pa*troon" (?), n. [D. patroon a patron, a protector. See Patron.] One of the proprietors of certain tracts of land with manorial privileges and right of entail, under the old Dutch governments of New York and New Jersey.

Pa*troon"ship, n. The office of a patroon. Irving.

{ ||Pat`té" (?), Pat*tee" (?), } a. [F. patté, fem. pattée, fr. patte paw, foot. Cf. Patten.] (Her.) Narrow at the inner, and very broad at the other, end, or having its arms of that shape; -- said of a cross. See Illust. (8) of Cross. [Written also paté, patee.]

Pat"te*mar (?), n. See Patamar.

Pat"ten (?), n. [F. patin a high- heeled shoe, fr. patte paw, foot. Cf. Panton, Patté.] 1. A clog or sole of wood, usually supported by an iron ring, worn to raise the feet from the wet or the mud.

The patten now supports each frugal dame.


2. A stilt. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.

Pat"ten*ed (?), a. Wearing pattens. "Some pattened girl." Jane Austen.

Pat"ter (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Pattered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Pattering.] [Freq. of pat to strike gently.] 1. To strike with a quick succession of slight, sharp sounds; as, pattering rain or hail; pattering feet.

The stealing shower is scarce to patter heard.


2. To mutter; to mumble; as, to patter with the lips. Tyndale. [In this sense, and in the following, perh. from paternoster.]

3. To talk glibly; to chatter; to harangue. [Colloq.]

I've gone out and pattered to get money.


Pat"ter, v. t. 1. To spatter; to sprinkle. [R.] "And patter the water about the boat." J. R. Drake.

2. [See Patter, v. i., 2.] To mutter; as prayers.

[The hooded clouds] patter their doleful prayers.


To patter flash, to talk in thieves' cant. [Slang]

Pat"ter, n. 1. A quick succession of slight sounds; as, the patter of rain; the patter of little feet.

2. Glib and rapid speech; a voluble harangue.

3. The cant of a class; patois; as, thieves's patter; gypsies' patter.

Pat"ter*er (?), n. One who patters, or talks glibly; specifically, a street peddler. [Cant, Eng.]

Pat"tern (?), n. [OE. patron, F. patron, a patron, also, a pattern. See Patron.] 1. Anything proposed for imitation; an archetype; an exemplar; that which is to be, or is worthy to be, copied or imitated; as, a pattern of a machine.

I will be the pattern of all patience.


2. A part showing the figure or quality of the whole; a specimen; a sample; an example; an instance.

He compares the pattern with the whole piece.


3. Stuff sufficient for a garment; as, a dress pattern.

4. Figure or style of decoration; design; as, wall paper of a beautiful pattern.

5. Something made after a model; a copy. Shak.

The patterns of things in the heavens.

Heb. ix. 23.

6. Anything cut or formed to serve as a guide to cutting or forming objects; as, a dressmaker's pattern.

7. (Founding) A full-sized model around which a mold of sand is made, to receive the melted metal. It is usually made of wood and in several parts, so as to be removed from the mold without injuring it.

Pattern box, chain, or cylinder (Figure Weaving), devices, in a loom, for presenting several shuttles to the picker in the proper succession for forming the figure. -- Pattern card. (a) A set of samples on a card. (b) (Weaving) One of the perforated cards in a Jacquard apparatus. -- Pattern reader, one who arranges textile patterns. -- Pattern wheel (Horology), a count- wheel.

Pat"tern, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Patterned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Patterning.] 1. To make or design (anything) by, from, or after, something that serves as a pattern; to copy; to model; to imitate. Milton.

[A temple] patterned from that which Adam reared in Paradise.

Sir T. Herbert.

2. To serve as an example for; also, to parallel.

To pattern after, to imitate; to follow.

Pat"ty (?), n.; pl. Patties (#). [F. pâté. See Pasty.] A little pie.

Pat"ty*pan` (?), n. 1. A pan for baking patties.

2. A patty. [Obs.]

Pat"u*lous (?), a. [L. patulus, fr. patere to be open, extend.] Open; expanded; slightly spreading; having the parts loose or dispersed; as, a patulous calyx; a patulous cluster of flowers.

The eyes are large and patulous.

Sir J. Hill.

||Pau (?), n. See Pah.

Pau*cil"o*quent (?), a. Uttering few words; brief in speech. [R.]

Pau*cil"o*quy (?), n. [L. pauciloquium; paucus little + loqui to speak.] Brevity in speech. [R.]

Pau`ci*spi"ral (?), a. [L. paucus few + E. spiral.] (Zoöl.) Having few spirals, or whorls; as, a paucispiral operculum or shell.

Pau"ci*ty (?), n. [L. paucitas, fr. paucus few, little: cf. F. paucité See Few.] 1. Fewness; smallness of number; scarcity. Hooker.

Revelation denies it by the stern reserve, the paucity, and the incompleteness, of its communications.

I. Taylor.

2. Smallnes of quantity; exiguity; insufficiency; as, paucity of blood. Sir T. Browne.

{ Pau"gie, Pau"gy } (?), n.; pl. Paugies (#). [Corrupted from Amer. Indian mishcuppauog. See Scup.] (Zoöl.) The scup. See Porgy, and Scup.

Pau*hau"gen (?), n. [North Amer. Indian.] (Zoöl.) The menhaden; -- called also poghaden.

Paul (?), n. See Pawl.

Paul, n. An Italian silver coin. See Paolo.

Paul"dron (?), n. [See Powldron.] (Mil. Antiq.) A piece of armor covering the shoulder at the junction of the body piece and arm piece.

{ Pau"li*an (?), Pau"li*an*ist (?), } n. (Eccl. Hist.) A follower of Paul of Samosata, a bishop of Antioch in the third century, who was deposed for denying the divinity of Christ.

Pau"li*cian (?), n. [Etymol. uncertain.] (Eccl. Hist.) One of a sect of Christian dualists originating in Armenia in the seventh century. They rejected the Old Testament and the part of the New.

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Pau"lin (?), n. (Naut.) See Tarpaulin.

Pau"line (?), a. [L. Paulinus, fr. Paulus Paul.] Of or pertaining to the apostle Paul, or his writings; resembling, or conforming to, the writings of Paul; as, the Pauline epistles; Pauline doctrine.

My religion had always been Pauline.

J. H. Newman.

Paul"ist (?), n. (R. C. Ch.) A member of The Institute of the Missionary Priests of St. Paul the Apostle, founded in 1858 by the Rev. I. T. Hecker of New York. The majority of the members were formerly Protestants.

||Pau*low"ni*a (?), n. [NL. So named from the Russian princess Anna Pavlovna.] (Bot.) A genus of trees of the order Scrophulariaceæ, consisting of one species, Paulownia imperialis.

The tree is native to Japan, and has immense heart-shaped leaves, and large purplish flowers in panicles. The capsules contain many little winged seeds, which are beautiful microscopic objects. The tree is hardy in America as far north as Connecticut.

Paum (?), v. t. & i. [See Palm to cheat.] To palm off by fraud; to cheat at cards. [Obs.] Swift.

Paunce (?), n. [See Pansy.] (Bot.) The pansy. "The pretty paunce." Spenser.

Paunch (?), n. [OF. panch, pance, F. panse, L. pantex, panticis.] 1. (Anat.) The belly and its contents; the abdomen; also, the first stomach, or rumen, of ruminants. See Rumen.

2. (Naut.) A paunch mat; -- called also panch.

3. The thickened rim of a bell, struck by the clapper.

Paunch mat (Naut.), a thick mat made of strands of rope, used to prevent the yard or rigging from chafing.

Paunch, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Paunched (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Paunching.] 1. To pierce or rip the belly of; to eviscerate; to disembowel. Shak.

2. To stuff with food. [Obs.] Udall.

Paunch"y (?), a. Pot-bellied. [R.] Dickens.

Paune (?), n. A kind of bread. See Pone.

Pau"per (?), n. [L. See Poor.] A poor person; especially, one development on private or public charity. Also used adjectively; as, pouper immigrants, pouper labor.

Pau"per*ism (?), n. [Cf. F. paupérisme.] The state of being a pauper; the state of indigent persons requiring support from the community. Whatly.

Syn. -- Poverty; indigence; penury; want; need; destitution. See Poverty.

Pau`per*i*za"tion (?), n. The act or process of reducing to pauperism. C. Kingsley.

Pau"per*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Pauperized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Pauperizing (?).] To reduce to pauperism; as, to pauperize the peasantry.

||Pau*rop"o*da (?), n. pl. [NL., from Gr. &?; small + -poda.] (Zoöl.) An order of small myriapods having only nine pairs of legs and destitute of tracheæ.

Pause (?), n. [F., fr. L. pausa. See Pose.] 1. A temporary stop or rest; an intermission of action; interruption; suspension; cessation.

2. Temporary inaction or waiting; hesitation; suspence; doubt.

I stand in pause where I shall first begin.


3. In speaking or reading aloud, a brief arrest or suspension of voice, to indicate the limits and relations of sentences and their parts.

4. In writing and printing, a mark indicating the place and nature of an arrest of voice in reading; a punctuation point; as, teach the pupil to mind the pauses.

5. A break or paragraph in writing.

He writes with warmth, which usually neglects method, and those partitions and pauses which men educated in schools observe.


6. (Mus.) A hold. See 4th Hold, 7.

Syn. -- Stop; cessation; suspension.

Pause, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Paused (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Pausing.] [Cf. F. pauser, L. pausare. See Pause, n., Pose.] 1. To make a short stop; to cease for a time; to intermit speaking or acting; to stop; to wait; to rest. "Tarry, pause a day or two." Shak.

Pausing while, thus to herself she mused.


2. To be intermitted; to cease; as, the music pauses.

3. To hesitate; to hold back; to delay. [R.]

Why doth the Jew pause? Take thy forfeiture.


4. To stop in order to consider; hence, to consider; to reflect. [R.] "Take time to pause." Shak.

To pause upon, to deliberate concerning. Shak.

Syn. -- To intermit; stop; stay; wait; delay; tarry; hesitate; demur.

Pause, v. t. To cause to stop or rest; -- used reflexively. [R.] Shak.

Paus"er (?), n. One who pauses. Shak.

Paus"ing*ly, adv. With pauses; haltingly. Shak.

||Paux"i (?), n. [From the native name: cf. Sp. pauji.] (Zoöl.) A curassow (Ourax pauxi), which, in South America, is often domesticated.

Pav"age (?), n. [Cf. F. pavage.] See Pavage. [R.]

Pav"an (?), n. [F. pavane; cf. It. & Sp. pavana, and Sp. pavon, pavo, a peacock, L. pavo.] A stately and formal Spanish dance for which full state costume is worn; -- so called from the resemblance of its movements to those of the peacock. [Written also pavane, paven, pavian, and pavin.]

||Pa`vé" (?), n. [F., from paver to pave. See Pave.] The pavement.

||Nymphe du pavé (&?;), a prostitute who solicits in the street. [A low euphemism.]

Pave (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Paved (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Paving.] [F. paver to pave, LL. pavare, from L. pavire to beat, ram, or tread down; cf. Gr. &?; to beat, strike.] 1. To lay or cover with stone, brick, or other material, so as to make a firm, level, or convenient surface for horses, carriages, or persons on foot, to travel on; to floor with brick, stone, or other solid material; as, to pave a street; to pave a court.

With silver paved, and all divine with gold.


To pave thy realm, and smooth the broken ways.


2. Fig.: To make smooth, easy, and safe; to prepare, as a path or way; as, to pave the way to promotion; to pave the way for an enterprise.

It might open and pave a prepared way to his own title.


Pave"ment (?), n. [F., fr. LL. pavamentum, L. pavimentum. See Pave.] That with which anythingis paved; a floor or covering of solid material, laid so as to make a hard and convenient surface for travel; a paved road or sidewalk; a decorative interior floor of tiles or colored bricks.

The riches of heaven's pavement, trodden gold.


Pavement teeth (Zoöl.), flattened teeth which in certain fishes, as the skates and cestracionts, are arranged side by side, like tiles in a pavement.

Pave"ment, v. t. To furnish with a pavement; to pave. [Obs.] "How richly pavemented!" Bp. Hall.

Pav"en (?), n. See Pavan.

Pav"er (?), n. One who paves; one who lays a pavement. [Written also pavier and pavior.]

Pav`e*sade" (?), n. [F. See Pavise.] A canvas screen, formerly sometimes extended along the side of a vessel in a naval engagement, to conceal from the enemy the operations on board.

{ Pa*vese" (?), Pa*vesse" (?) }, n. Pavise. [Obs.]

Pa"vi*age (?), n. (Law) A contribution or a tax for paving streets or highways. Bouvier.

Pav"i*an (?), n. See Pavan.

Pav"id (?), a. [L. pavidus, from pavere to be afraid.] Timid; fearful. [R.] Thackeray.

Pa*vid"i*ty (?), n. Timidity. [R.]

Pav"ier (?), n. A paver.

Pa"vi*in (p"v*n), n. (Chem.) A glucoside found in species of the genus Pavia of the Horse-chestnut family.

Pa*vil"ion (?), n. [F. pavillon, fr. L. pavilio a butterfly, also, a tent, because spread out like a butterfly's wings.] 1. A temporary movable habitation; a large tent; a marquee; esp., a tent raised on posts. "[The] Greeks do pitch their brave pavilions." Shak.

2. (Arch.) A single body or mass of building, contained within simple walls and a single roof, whether insulated, as in the park or garden of a larger edifice, or united with other parts, and forming an angle or central feature of a large pile.

3. (Mil.) A flag, colors, ensign, or banner.

4. (Her.) Same as Tent (Her.)

5. That part of a brilliant which lies between the girdle and collet. See Illust. of Brilliant.

6. (Anat.) The auricle of the ear; also, the fimbriated extremity of the Fallopian tube.

7. A covering; a canopy; figuratively, the sky.

The pavilion of heaven is bare.


Pa*vil"ion, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Pavilioned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Pavilioning.] To furnish or cover with, or shelter in, a tent or tents.

The field pavilioned with his guardians bright.


Pav"in (?), n. See Pavan.

Pav"ing (?), n. 1. The act or process of laying a pavement, or covering some place with a pavement.

2. A pavement.

Pav"ior (?), n. 1. One who paves; a paver.

2. A rammer for driving paving stones.

3. A brick or slab used for paving.

Pa*vise (?), n. [OF. pavaix, F. pavois; cf. It. pavese, LL. pavense; perh. named from Pavia in Italy.] (Mil. Antiq.) A large shield covering the whole body, carried by a pavisor, who sometimes screened also an archer with it. [Written also pavais, pavese, and pavesse.] Fairholt.

Pa*vis"or (?), n. (Mil. Antiq.) A soldier who carried a pavise.

||Pa"vo (?), n. [L., a peacock. See Peacock.] 1. (Zoöl.) A genus of birds, including the peacocks.

2. (Astron.) The Peacock, a constellation of the southern hemisphere.

Pa"von (?), n. A small triangular flag, esp. one attached to a knight's lance; a pennon.

Pa*vone" (?), n. [Cf. It. pavone, Sp. pavon, fr. L. pavo.] (Zoöl.) A peacock. [Obs.] Spenser.

Pa*vo"ni*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to a peacock. [R.] Southey.

Pav"o*nine (?), a. [L. pavoninus, fr. pavo a peacock. See Peacock.] 1. (Zoöl.) Like, or pertaining to, the genus Pavo.

2. Characteristic of a peacock; resembling the tail of a peacock, as in colors; iridescent. P. Cleaveland.

Paw (p), n. [OE. pawe, poue, OF. poe: cf. patte, LG. pote, D. poot, G. pfote.] 1. The foot of a quadruped having claws, as the lion, dog, cat, etc.

2. The hand. [Jocose] Dryden.

Paw clam (Zoöl.), the tridacna; - - so called because shaped like an animal's paw.

Paw, v. i. To draw the forefoot along the ground; to beat or scrape with the forefoot. Job xxxix. 21.

Paw, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Pawed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Pawing.] 1. To pass the paw over; to stroke or handle with the paws; hence, to handle fondly or rudely.

2. To scrape or beat with the forefoot.

His hot courser pawed the Hungarian plane.


Pawk (?), n. (Zoöl.) A small lobster. Travis.

Paw"ky (?), a. [Cf. AS. pæcean to deceive.] Arch; cunning; sly. [Scot.] Jamieson.

Pawl (?), n. [W. pawl a pole, a stake. Cf. Pole a stake.] (Mach.) A pivoted tongue, or sliding bolt, on one part of a machine, adapted to fall into notches, or interdental spaces, on another part, as a ratchet wheel, in such a manner as to permit motion in one direction and prevent it in the reverse, as in a windlass; a catch, click, or detent. See Illust. of Ratchet Wheel. [Written also paul, or pall.]

Pawl bitt (Naut.), a heavy timber, set abaft the windlass, to receive the strain of the pawls. -- Pawl rim or ring (Naut.), a stationary metallic ring surrounding the base of a capstan, having notches for the pawls to catch in.

Pawl, v. t. To stop with a pawl; to drop the pawls off.

To pawl the capstan. See under Capstan.

Pawn (?), n. See Pan, the masticatory.

Pawn, n. [OE. paune, poun, OF. peon, poon, F. pion, LL. pedo a foot soldier, fr. L. pes, pedis, foot. See Foot, and cf. Pioneer, Peon.] (Chess) A man or piece of the lowest rank.

Pawn, n. [OF. pan pledge, assurance, skirt, piece, F. pan skirt, lappet, piece, from L. pannus. See Pane.] 1. Anything delivered or deposited as security, as for the payment of money borrowed, or of a debt; a pledge. See Pledge, n., 1.

As for mortgaging or pawning, . . . men will not take pawns without use [i. e., interest].


2. State of being pledged; a pledge for the fulfillment of a promise. [R.]

Redeem from broking pawn the blemish'd crown.


As the morning dew is a pawn of the evening fatness.


3. A stake hazarded in a wager. [Poetic]

My life I never held but as a pawn
To wage against thy enemies.


In pawn, At pawn, in the state of being pledged. "Sweet wife, my honor is at pawn." Shak. -- Pawn ticket, a receipt given by the pawnbroker for an article pledged.

Pawn, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Pawned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Pawning.] 1. To give or deposit in pledge, or as security for the payment of money borrowed; to put in pawn; to pledge; as, to pawn one's watch.

And pawned the last remaining piece of plate.


2. To pledge for the fulfillment of a promise; to stake; to risk; to wager; to hazard.

Pawning his honor to obtain his lust.


Pawna*ble (?), a. Capable of being pawned.

Pawn"bro`ker (?), n. One who makes a business of lending money on the security of personal property pledged or deposited in his keeping.

Pawn"bro`king, n. The business of a pawnbroker.

Pawn*ee" (?), n. (Law) One or two whom a pledge is delivered as security; one who takes anything in pawn.

Paw`nees" (?), n. pl.; sing. Pawnee (&?;). (Ethnol.) A tribe of Indians (called also Loups) who formerly occupied the region of the Platte river, but now live mostly in the Indian Territory. The term is often used in a wider sense to include also the related tribes of Rickarees and Wichitas. Called also Pani.

{ Pawn"er (?), Pawn*or" (?), } n. (Law) One who pawns or pledges anything as security for the payment of borrowed money or of a debt.

Paw`paw" (?), n. (Bot.) See Papaw.

Pax (?), n. [L. pax peace. See Peace.] 1. (Eccl.) The kiss of peace; also, the embrace in the sanctuary now substituted for it at High Mass in Roman Catholic churches.

2. (R. C. Ch.) A tablet or board, on which is a representation of Christ, of the Virgin Mary, or of some saint and which, in the Mass, was kissed by the priest and then by the people, in mediæval times; an osculatory. It is still used in communities, confraternities, etc.

Kiss the pax, and be quiet like your neighbors.


Pax"il*lose` (?), a. [L. paxillus a small stake.] (Geol.) Resembling a little stake.

||Pax*il"lus (?), n.; pl. Paxilli (#). [L., a peg.] (Zoöl.) One of a peculiar kind of spines covering the surface of certain starfishes. They are pillarlike, with a flattened summit which is covered with minute spinules or granules. See Illustration in Appendix.

Pax"wax` (?), n. [For faxvax, fr. AS. fea&?; hair (akin to OHG. fahs) + weaxan to grow. See Wax to grow, and cf. Faxed, Pectinate.] (Anat.) The strong ligament of the back of the neck in quadrupeds. It connects the back of the skull with dorsal spines of the cervical vertebræ, and helps to support the head. Called also paxywaxy and packwax.

Pax"y*wax`y (?), n. (Anat.) See Paxwax.

Pay (?), v. t. [OF. peier, fr. L. picare to pitch, i&?; pitch: cf. OF. peiz pitch, F. poix. See Pitch a black substance.] (Naut.) To cover, as bottom of a vessel, a seam, a spar, etc., with tar or pitch, or waterproof composition of tallow, resin, etc.; to smear.

Pay, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Paid (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Paying.] [OE. paien, F. payer, fr. L. pacare to pacify, appease, fr. pax, pacis, peace. See Peace.] 1. To satisfy, or content; specifically, to satisfy (another person) for service rendered, property delivered, etc.; to discharge one's obligation to; to make due return to; to compensate; to remunerate; to recompense; to requite; as, to pay workmen or servants.

May no penny ale them pay [i. e., satisfy].

P. Plowman.

[She] pays me with disdain.


2. Hence, figuratively: To compensate justly; to requite according to merit; to reward; to punish; to retort or retaliate upon.

For which, or pay me quickly, or I'll pay you.

B. Jonson.

3. To discharge, as a debt, demand, or obligation, by giving or doing what is due or required; to deliver the amount or value of to the person to whom it is owing; to discharge a debt by delivering (money owed). "Pay me that thou owest." Matt. xviii. 28.

Have patience with me, and I will pay thee all.

Matt. xviii. 26.

If they pay this tax, they starve.


4. To discharge or fulfill, as a duy; to perform or render duty, as that which has been promised.

This day have I paid my vows.

Prov. vii. 14.

5. To give or offer, without an implied obligation; as, to pay attention; to pay a visit.

Not paying me a welcome.


To pay off. (a) To make compensation to and discharge; as, to pay off the crew of a ship. (b) To allow (a thread, cord, etc.) to run off; to unwind. -- To pay one's duty, to render homage, as to a sovereign or other superior. -- To pay out (Naut.), to pass out; hence, to slacken; to allow to run out; as, to pay out more cable. See under Cable. -- To pay the piper, to bear the cost, expense, or trouble. [Colloq.]

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Pay (p), v. i. To give a recompense; to make payment, requital, or satisfaction; to discharge a debt.

The wicked borroweth, and payeth not again.

Ps. xxxvii. 21.

2. Hence, to make or secure suitable return for expense or trouble; to be remunerative or profitable; to be worth the effort or pains required; as, it will pay to ride; it will pay to wait; politeness always pays.

To pay for. (a) To make amends for; to atone for; as, men often pay for their mistakes with loss of property or reputation, sometimes with life. (b) To give an equivalent for; to bear the expense of; to be mulcted on account of.

'T was I paid for your sleeps; I watched your wakings.

Beau. & Fl.

-- To pay off. [Etymol. uncertain.] (Naut.) To fall to leeward, as the head of a vessel under sail. -- To pay on. [Etymol. uncertain.] To beat with vigor; to redouble blows. [Colloq.] -- To pay round [Etymol. uncertain.] (Naut.) To turn the ship's head.

Pay, n. 1. Satisfaction; content. Chaucer.

2. An equivalent or return for money due, goods purchased, or services performed; salary or wages for work or service; compensation; recompense; payment; hire; as, the pay of a clerk; the pay of a soldier.

Where only merit constant pay receives.


There is neither pay nor plunder to be got.


Full pay, the whole amount of wages or salary; maximum pay; especially, the highest pay or allowance to civil or military officers of a certain rank, without deductions. -- Half pay. See under Half. -- Pay day, the day of settlement of accounts. -- Pay dirt (Mining), earth which yields a profit to the miner. [Western U.S.] -- Pay office, a place where payment is made. -- Pay roll, a roll or list of persons entitled to payment, with the amounts due.

Pay"a*ble (?), a. [Cf. F. payable. Cf. Pacable.] 1. That may, can, or should be paid; suitable to be paid; justly due. Drayton.

Thanks are a tribute payable by the poorest.


2. (Law) (a) That may be discharged or settled by delivery of value. (b) Matured; now due.

Pay*ee" (?), n. The person to whom money is to be, or has been, paid; the person named in a bill or note, to whom, or to whose order, the amount is promised or directed to be paid. See Bill of exchange, under Bill.

Pay"en (?), n. & a. Pagan. [F.] [Obs.] Chaucer.

Pay"er (?), n. One who pays; specifically, the person by whom a bill or note has been, or should be, paid.

Pay"mas`ter (?), n. One who pays; one who compensates, rewards, or requites; specifically, an officer or agent of a government, a corporation, or an employer, whose duty it is to pay salaries, wages, etc., and keep account of the same.

Pay"ment (?), n. [F. payment, paiement. See Pay to requite.] 1. The act of paying, or giving compensation; the discharge of a debt or an obligation.

No man envieth the payment of a debt.


2. That which is paid; the thing given in discharge of a debt, or an obligation, or in fulfillment of a promise; reward; recompense; requital; return. Shak.

3. Punishment; chastisement. [R.]

Payn (?), n. [OF. & F. pain, fr. L. panis bread.] Bread. Having Piers Plowman.

Payn`de*main" (?), n. [OF. pain bread + demaine manorial, lordly, own, private. See Payn, and Demesne. Said to be so called from the figure of our Lord impressed upon it.] The finest and whitest bread made in the Middle Ages; -- called also paynemain, payman. [Obs.]

Pay"nim (?), n. & a. See Painim.

Payn"ize (?), v. t. [From Mr. Payne, the inventor.] To treat or preserve, as wood, by a process resembling kyanizing.

Pay*or" (?), n. (Law) See Payer. [R.]

Payse (?), v. t. To poise. [Obs.] Spenser.

Pay"tine (?), n. (Chem.) An alkaloid obtained from a white bark resembling that of the cinchona, first brought from Payta, in Peru.

Pea (?), n. [OF. peis. See Poise.] The sliding weight on a steelyard. [Written also pee.]

Pea, n. (Naut.) See Peak, n., 3.

Pea, n.; pl. Peas (#) or Pease (#). [OE. pese, fr. AS. pisa, or OF. peis, F. pois; both fr. L. pisum; cf. Gr. &?;, &?;. The final s was misunderstood in English as a plural ending. Cf. Pease.] 1. (Bot.) A plant, and its fruit, of the genus Pisum, of many varieties, much cultivated for food. It has a papilionaceous flower, and the pericarp is a legume, popularly called a pod.

When a definite number, more than one, is spoken of, the plural form peas is used; as, the pod contained nine peas; but, in a collective sense, the form pease is preferred; as, a bushel of pease; they had pease at dinner. This distinction is not always preserved, the form peas being used in both senses.

2. A name given, especially in the Southern States, to the seed of several leguminous plants (species of Dolichos, Cicer, Abrus, etc.) esp. those having a scar (hilum) of a different color from the rest of the seed.

The name pea is given to many leguminous plants more or less closely related to the common pea. See the Phrases, below.

Beach pea (Bot.), a seashore plant, Lathyrus maritimus. -- Black-eyed pea, a West Indian name for Dolichos sphærospermus and its seed. -- Butterfly pea, the American plant Clitoria Mariana, having showy blossoms. -- Chick pea. See Chick-pea. -- Egyptian pea. Same as Chick-pea. -- Everlasting pea. See under Everlasting. -- Glory pea. See under Glory, n. -- Hoary pea, any plant of the genus Tephrosia; goat's rue. -- Issue pea, Orris pea. (Med.) See under Issue, and Orris. -- Milk pea. (Bot.) See under Milk. -- Pea berry, a kind of a coffee bean or grain which grows single, and is round or pea-shaped; often used adjectively; as, pea-berry coffee. -- Pea bug. (Zoöl.) Same as Pea weevil. -- Pea coal, a size of coal smaller than nut coal. -- Pea crab (Zoöl.), any small crab of the genus Pinnotheres, living as a commensal in bivalves; esp., the European species (P. pisum) which lives in the common mussel and the cockle. -- Pea dove (Zoöl.), the American ground dove. -- Pea-flower tribe (Bot.), a suborder (Papilionaceæ) of leguminous plants having blossoms essentially like that of the pea. G. Bentham. -- Pea maggot (Zoöl.), the larva of a European moth (Tortrix pisi), which is very destructive to peas. -- Pea ore (Min.), argillaceous oxide of iron, occurring in round grains of a size of a pea; pisolitic ore. -- Pea starch, the starch or flour of the common pea, which is sometimes used in adulterating wheat flour, pepper, etc. -- Pea tree (Bot.), the name of several leguminous shrubs of the genus Caragana, natives of Siberia and China. -- Pea vine. (Bot.) (a) Any plant which bears peas. (b) A kind of vetch or tare, common in the United States (Lathyrus Americana, and other similar species). -- Pea weevil (Zoöl.), a small weevil (Bruchus pisi) which destroys peas by eating out the interior. -- Pigeon pea. (Bot.) See Pigeon pea. -- Sweet pea (Bot.), the annual plant Lathyrus odoratus; also, its many-colored, sweet-scented blossoms.

Pea"bird` (?), n. (Zoöl.) The wryneck; -- so called from its note. [Prov. Eng.]

Pea"bod*y bird` (?). (Zoöl.) An American sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis) having a conspicuous white throat. The name is imitative of its note. Called also White- throated sparrow.

Peace (?), n. [OE. pees, pais, OF. pais, paiz, pes, F. paix, L. pax, pacis, akin to pacere, paciscere, pacisci, to make an agreement, and prob. also pangere to fasten. Cf. Appease, Fair, a., Fay, v., Fang, Pacify, Pact, Pay to requite.] A state of quiet or tranquillity; freedom from disturbance or agitation; calm; repose; specifically: (a) Exemption from, or cessation of, war with public enemies. (b) Public quiet, order, and contentment in obedience to law. (c) Exemption from, or subjection of, agitating passions; tranquillity of mind or conscience. (d) Reconciliation; agreement after variance; harmony; concord. "The eternal love and pees." Chaucer.

Peace is sometimes used as an exclamation in commanding silence, quiet, or order. "Peace! foolish woman." Shak.

At peace, in a state of peace. -- Breach of the peace. See under Breach. -- Justice of the peace. See under Justice. -- Peace of God. (Law) (a) A term used in wills, indictments, etc., as denoting a state of peace and good conduct. (b) (Theol.) The peace of heart which is the gift of God. -- Peace offering. (a) (Jewish Antiq.) A voluntary offering to God in token of devout homage and of a sense of friendly communion with Him. (b) A gift or service offered as satisfaction to an offended person. -- Peace officer, a civil officer whose duty it is to preserve the public peace, to prevent riots, etc., as a sheriff or constable. -- To hold one's peace, to be silent; to refrain from speaking. -- To make one's peace with, to reconcile one with, to plead one's cause with, or to become reconciled with, another. "I will make your peace with him." Shak.

Peace, v. t. & i. To make or become quiet; to be silent; to stop. [R.] "Peace your tattlings." Shak.

When the thunder would not peace at my bidding.


Peace"a*ble (?), a. [OE. peisible, F. paisible.] Begin in or at peace; tranquil; quiet; free from, or not disposed to, war, disorder, or excitement; not quarrelsome. -- Peace"a*ble*ness, n. -- Peace"a*bly, adv.

Syn. -- Peaceful; pacific; tranquil; quiet; mild; undisturbed; serene; still. -- Peaceable, Peaceful. Peaceable describes the state of an individual, nation, etc., in reference to external hostility, attack, etc.; peaceful, in respect to internal disturbance. The former denotes "in the spirit of peace;" latter; "in the possession or enjoyment of peace." A peaceable adjustment of difficulties; a peaceful life, scene.

Peace"break`er (?), n. One who disturbs the public peace. -- Peace"break`ing, n.

Peace"ful (?), a. 1. Possessing or enjoying peace; not disturbed by war, tumult, agitation, anxiety, or commotion; quiet; tranquil; as, a peaceful time; a peaceful country; a peaceful end.

2. Not disposed or tending to war, tumult or agitation; pacific; mild; calm; peaceable; as, peaceful words.

Syn. -- See Peaceable.

--Peace"ful*ly, adv.. -- Peace"ful*ness, n.

Peace"less, a. Without peace; disturbed. Sandys.

Peace"mak`er (?), n. One who makes peace by reconciling parties that are at variance. Matt. v. 9.

--Peace"mak`ing, n.

Peach (?), v. t. [See Appeach, Impeach.] To accuse of crime; to inform against. [Obs.] Foxe.

Peach, v. i. To turn informer; to betray one's accomplice. [Obs. or Colloq.]

If I be ta'en, I'll peach for this.


Peach (?), n. [OE. peche, peshe, OF. pesche, F. pêche, fr. LL. persia, L. Persicum (sc. malum) a Persian apple, a peach. Cf. Persian, and Parsee.] (Bot.) A well-known high-flavored juicy fruit, containing one or two seeds in a hard almond-like endocarp or stone; also, the tree which bears it (Prunus, or Amygdalus Persica). In the wild stock the fruit is hard and inedible.

Guinea, or Sierra Leone, peach, the large edible berry of the Sarcocephalus esculentus, a rubiaceous climbing shrub of west tropical Africa. -- Palm peach, the fruit of a Venezuelan palm tree (Bactris speciosa). -- Peach color, the pale red color of the peach blossom. -- Peach-tree borer (Zoöl.), the larva of a clearwing moth (Ægeria, or Sannina, exitiosa) of the family Ægeriidæ, which is very destructive to peach trees by boring in the wood, usually near the ground; also, the moth itself. See Illust. under Borer.

Peach"-col`ored (?), a. Of the color of a peach blossom. "Peach-colored satin." Shak.

Peach"er (?), n. One who peaches. [Low] Foxe.

Pea"chick` (?), n. (Zoöl.) The chicken of the peacock.

Peach"y (?), a. Resembling a peach or peaches.

Pea"cock` (?), n. [OE. pecok. Pea- in this word is from AS. peá, pwa, peacock, fr. L. pavo, prob. of Oriental origin; cf. Gr. &?;, &?;, Per. tus, twus, Ar. twu&?;s. See Cock the bird.] 1. (Zoöl.) The male of any pheasant of the genus Pavo, of which at least two species are known, native of Southern Asia and the East Indies.

The upper tail coverts, which are long and capable of erection, are each marked with a black spot bordered by concentric bands of brilliant blue, green, and golden colors. The common domesticated species is Pavo cristatus. The Javan peacock (P. muticus) is more brilliantly colored than the common species.

2. In common usage, the species in general or collectively; a peafowl.

Peacock butterfly (Zoöl.), a handsome European butterfly (Hamadryas Io) having ocelli like those of peacock. -- Peacock fish (Zoöl.), the European blue-striped wrasse (Labrus variegatus); -- so called on account of its brilliant colors. Called also cook wrasse and cook. -- Peacock pheasant (Zoöl.), any one of several species of handsome Asiatic pheasants of the genus Polyplectron. They resemble the peacock in color.

Pea"fowl` (?), n. [See Peacock.] (Zoöl.) The peacock or peahen; any species of Pavo.

Pe"age (?), n. See Paage.

Pea"grit` (?), n. (Min.) A coarse pisolitic limestone. See Pisolite.

Pea"hen` (?), n. [See Peacock.] (Zoöl.) The hen or female peafowl.

Pea"-jack`et (?), n. [Prob. fr. D. pij, pije, a coat of a coarse woolen stuff.] A thick loose woolen jacket, or coat, much worn by sailors in cold weather.

Peak (?), n. [OE. pek, AS. peac, perh of Celtic origin; cf. Ir. peac a sharp- pointed thing. Cf. Pike.] 1. A point; the sharp end or top of anything that terminates in a point; as, the peak, or front, of a cap. "Run your beard into a peak." Beau. & Fl.

2. The top, or one of the tops, of a hill, mountain, or range, ending in a point; often, the whole hill or mountain, esp. when isolated; as, the Peak of Teneriffe.

Silent upon a peak in Darien.


3. (Naut.) (a) The upper aftermost corner of a fore-and-aft sail; -- used in many combinations; as, peak-halyards, peak-brails, etc. (b) The narrow part of a vessel's bow, or the hold within it. (c) The extremity of an anchor fluke; the bill. [In the last sense written also pea and pee.]

Fore peak. (Naut.) See under Fore.

Peak, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Peaked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Peaking.] 1. To rise or extend into a peak or point; to form, or appear as, a peak.

There peaketh up a mighty high mount.


2. To acquire sharpness of figure or features; hence, to look thin or sicky. "Dwindle, peak, and pine." Shak.

3. [Cf. Peek.] To pry; to peep slyly. Shak.

Peak arch (Arch.), a pointed or Gothic arch.

Peak, v. t. (Naut.) To raise to a position perpendicular, or more nearly so; as, to peak oars, to hold them upright; to peak a gaff or yard, to set it nearer the perpendicular.

Peaked (?), a. 1. Pointed; ending in a point; as, a peaked roof.

2. (Oftener &?;) Sickly; not robust. [Colloq.]

<! p. 1055 !>

Peak"ing (?), a. 1. Mean; sneaking. [Vulgar]

2. Pining; sickly; peakish. [Colloq.]

Peak"ish, a. 1. Of or relating to a peak; or to peaks; belonging to a mountainous region. "Her peakish spring." Drayton. "His peakish dialect." Bp. Hall.

2. Having peaks; peaked.

3. Having features thin or sharp, as from sickness; hence, sickly. [Colloq.]

Peak"y (?), a. 1. Having a peak or peaks. Tennyson.

2. Sickly; peaked. [Colloq.]

Peal (?), n. [Etymol. uncertain.] (Zoöl.) A small salmon; a grilse; a sewin. [Prov. Eng.]

Peal, v. i. To appeal. [Obs.] Spencer.

Peal, n. [An abbrev. of F. appel a call, appeal, ruffle of a drum, fr. appeller to call, L. appellare. See Appeal.] 1. A loud sound, or a succession of loud sounds, as of bells, thunder, cannon, shouts, of a multitude, etc. "A fair peal of artillery." Hayward.

Whether those peals of praise be his or no.


And a deep thunder, peal on peal, afar.


2. A set of bells tuned to each other according to the diatonic scale; also, the changes rung on a set of bells.

To ring a peal. See under Ring.

Peal, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Pealed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Pealing.] 1. To utter or give out loud sounds.

There let the pealing organ blow.


2. To resound; to echo.

And the whole air pealed
With the cheers of our men.


Peal, v. t. 1. To utter or give forth loudly; to cause to give out loud sounds; to noise abroad.

The warrior's name,
Though pealed and chimed on all the tongues of fame.

J. Barlow.

2. To assail with noise or loud sounds.

Nor was his ear less pealed.


3. To pour out. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.

Pean (?), n. [OF. pene, F. panne.] (Her.) One of the furs, the ground being sable, and the spots or tufts or.

Pe"an (?), n. A song of praise and triumph. See Pæan.

Pe"an*ism (?), n. [Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to chant the pæan.] The song or shout of praise, of battle, or of triumph. [R.]

Pea"nut (?), n. (Bot.) The fruit of a trailing leguminous plant (Arachis hypogæa); also, the plant itself, which is widely cultivated for its fruit.

The fruit is a hard pod, usually containing two or three seeds, sometimes but one, which ripen beneath the soil. Called also earthnut, groundnut, and goober.

Pear (pâr), n. [OE. pere, AS. peru, L. pirum: cf. F. poire. Cf. Perry.] (Bot.) The fleshy pome, or fruit, of a rosaceous tree (Pyrus communis), cultivated in many varieties in temperate climates; also, the tree which bears this fruit. See Pear family, below.

Pear blight. (a) (Bot.) A name of two distinct diseases of pear trees, both causing a destruction of the branches, viz., that caused by a minute insect (Xyleborus pyri), and that caused by the freezing of the sap in winter. A. J. Downing. (b) (Zoöl.) A very small beetle (Xyleborus pyri) whose larvæ bore in the twigs of pear trees and cause them to wither. -- Pear family (Bot.), a suborder of rosaceous plants (Pomeæ), characterized by the calyx tube becoming fleshy in fruit, and, combined with the ovaries, forming a pome. It includes the apple, pear, quince, service berry, and hawthorn. -- Pear gauge (Physics), a kind of gauge for measuring the exhaustion of an air-pump receiver; -- so called because consisting in part of a pear-shaped glass vessel. -- Pear shell (Zoöl.), any marine gastropod shell of the genus Pyrula, native of tropical seas; -- so called from the shape. -- Pear slug (Zoöl.), the larva of a sawfly which is very injurious to the foliage of the pear tree.

Pearch (?), n. [Obs.] See Perch.

Pearl (?), n. A fringe or border. [Obs.] -- v. t. To fringe; to border. [Obs.] See Purl.

Pearl stitch. See Purl stitch, under Purl.

Pearl, n. [OE. perle, F. perle, LL. perla, perula, probably fr. (assumed) L. pirulo, dim. of L. pirum a pear. See Pear, and cf. Purl to mantle.] 1. (Zoöl.) A shelly concretion, usually rounded, and having a brilliant luster, with varying tints, found in the mantle, or between the mantle and shell, of certain bivalve mollusks, especially in the pearl oysters and river mussels, and sometimes in certain univalves. It is usually due to a secretion of shelly substance around some irritating foreign particle. Its substance is the same as nacre, or mother-of- pearl. Pearls which are round, or nearly round, and of fine luster, are highly esteemed as jewels, and compare in value with the precious stones.

2. Hence, figuratively, something resembling a pearl; something very precious.

I see thee compassed with thy kingdom's pearl.


And those pearls of dew she wears.


3. Nacre, or mother-of-pearl.

4. (Zoöl.) A fish allied to the turbot; the brill.

5. (Zoöl.) A light-colored tern.

6. (Zoöl.) One of the circle of tubercles which form the bur on a deer's antler.

7. A whitish speck or film on the eye. [Obs.] Milton.

8. A capsule of gelatin or similar substance containing some liquid for medicinal application, as ether.

9. (Print.) A size of type, between agate and diamond.

This line is printed in the type called pearl.

Ground pearl. (Zoöl.) See under Ground. -- Pearl barley, kernels of barley, ground so as to form small, round grains. -- Pearl diver, one who dives for pearl oysters. -- Pearl edge, an edge of small loops on the side of some kinds of ribbon; also, a narrow kind of thread edging to be sewed on lace. -- Pearl eye, cataract. [R.] -- Pearl gray, a very pale and delicate blue-gray color. -- Pearl millet, Egyptian millet (Penicillaria spicata). -- Pearl moss. See Carrageen. -- Pearl moth (Zoöl.), any moth of the genus Margaritia; -- so called on account of its pearly color. -- Pearl oyster (Zoöl.), any one of several species of large tropical marine bivalve mollusks of the genus Meleagrina, or Margaritifera, found in the East Indies (especially at Ceylon), in the Persian Gulf, on the coast of Australia, and on the Pacific coast of America. Called also pearl shell, and pearl mussel. -- Pearl powder. See Pearl white, below. -- Pearl sago, sago in the form of small pearly grains. -- Pearl sinter (Min.), fiorite. -- Pearl spar (Min.), a crystallized variety of dolomite, having a pearly luster. -- Pearl white. (a) Basic bismuth nitrate, or bismuth subchloride; -- used chiefly as a cosmetic. (b) A variety of white lead blued with indigo or Berlin blue.

Pearl (?), a. Of or pertaining to pearl or pearls; made of pearls, or of mother-of-pearl.

Pearl, v. t. 1. To set or adorn with pearls, or with mother-of-pearl. Used also figuratively.

2. To cause to resemble pearls; to make into small round grains; as, to pearl barley.

Pearl, v. i. 1. To resemble pearl or pearls.

2. To give or hunt for pearls; as, to go pearling.

Pearl*a"ceous (?), a. Resembling pearl or mother-of-pearl; pearly in quality or appearance.

Pearl"ash` (?), n. (Chem.) A white amorphous or granular substance which consists principally of potassium carbonate, and has a strong alkaline reaction. It is obtained by lixiviating wood ashes, and evaporating the lye, and has been an important source of potassium compounds. It is used in making soap, glass, etc.

Pearl"-eyed` (?), a. Having a pearly speck in the eye; afflicted with the cataract.

Pearl"fish` (?), n. (Zoöl.) Any fish whose scales yield a pearl-like pigment used in manufacturing artificial pearls, as the bleak, and whitebait.

{ Pearl"ins (?), Pearl"ings (?), } n. pl. [Prob. a corruption of purflings. See Purfle.] A kind of lace of silk or thread. [Scot.] Sir W. Scott.

{ Pearl"ite (?), Pearl"stone` (?), } n. (Min.) A glassy volcanic rock of a grayish color and pearly luster, often having a spherulitic concretionary structure due to the curved cracks produced by contraction in cooling. See Illust. under Perlitic.

Pearl"wort` (?), n. (Bot.) A name given to several species of Sagina, low and inconspicuous herbs of the Chickweed family.

Pearl"y (?), a. 1. Containing pearls; abounding with, or yielding, pearls; as, pearly shells. Milton.

2. Resembling pearl or pearls; clear; pure; transparent; iridescent; as, the pearly dew or flood.

Pear"main (?), n. (Bot.) The name of several kinds of apples; as, the blue pearmain, winter pearmain, and red pearmain.

Pear"-shaped` (?), a. Of the form of a pear.

Peart (?), a. [A variant of pert, a.] Active; lively; brisk; smart; -- often applied to convalescents; as, she is quite peart to-day. [O. Eng. & Colloq. U. S.]

There was a tricksy girl, I wot, albeit clad in gray,
As peart as bird, as straight as bolt, as fresh as flowers in May.

Warner (1592).

Peas"ant (?), n. [OF. païsant (the i being perh. due to confusion with the p. pr. of verbs), païsan, F. paysan, fr. OF. & F. pays country, fr. L. pagus the country. See Pagan.] A countryman; a rustic; especially, one of the lowest class of tillers of the soil in European countries.

Syn. -- Countryman; rustic; swain; hind.

Peas"ant, a. Rustic, rural. Spenser.

Peas"ant*like` (?), a. Rude; clownish; illiterate.

Peas"ant*ly, a. Peasantlike. [Obs.] Milton.

Peas"ant*ry (?), n. 1. Peasants, collectively; the body of rustics. "A bold peasantry." Goldsmith.

2. Rusticity; coarseness. [Obs.] p. Butler.

Peas"cod` (?), n. The legume or pericarp, or the pod, of the pea.

Pease (?), n.; Peases (#), Peasen (#). [See Pea.] 1. A pea. [Obs.] "A peose." "Bread . . . of beans and of peses." Piers Plowman.

2. A plural form of Pea. See the Note under Pea.

Pea"stone` (?), n. (Min.) Pisolite.

Peas"weep` (?), n. [So called from its note.] [Prov. Eng.] (Zoöl.) (a) The pewit, or lapwing. (b) The greenfinch.

Peat (?), n. [Cf. Pet a fondling.] A small person; a pet; -- sometimes used contemptuously. [Obs.] Shak.

Peat, n. [Prob. for beat, prop., material used to make the fire burn better, fr. AS. b&?;tan to better, mend (a fire), b&?;t advantage. See Better, Boot advantage.] A substance of vegetable origin, consisting of roots and fibers, moss, etc., in various stages of decomposition, and found, as a kind of turf or bog, usually in low situations, where it is always more or less saturated with water. It is often dried and used for fuel.

Peat bog, a bog containing peat; also, peat as it occurs in such places; peat moss. -- Peat moss. (a) The plants which, when decomposed, become peat. (b) A fen producing peat. (c) (Bot.) Moss of the genus Sphagnum, which often grows abundantly in boggy or peaty places. -- Peat reek, the reek or smoke of peat; hence, also, the peculiar flavor given to whisky by being distilled with peat as fuel. [Scot.]

Peat"y (?), a. Composed of peat; abounding in peat; resembling peat.

Pe"ba (?), n. [Cf. Pg. peba.] (Zoöl.) An armadillo (Tatusia novemcincta) which is found from Texas to Paraguay; -- called also tatouhou.

Peb"ble (?), n. [AS. papolstn; cf. L. papula pimple, mote. See Stone.] 1. A small roundish stone or bowlder; especially, a stone worn and rounded by the action of water; a pebblestone. "The pebbles on the hungry beach." Shak.

As children gathering pebbles on the shore.


2. Transparent and colorless rock crystal; as, Brazilian pebble; -- so called by opticians.

Pebble powder, slow-burning gunpowder, in large cubical grains. -- Scotch pebble, varieties of quartz, as agate, chalcedony, etc., obtained from cavities in amygdaloid.

Peb"ble, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Pebbled; p. pr. & vb. n. Pebbling.] To grain (leather) so as to produce a surface covered with small rounded prominences.

Peb"bled (?), a. Abounding in pebbles. Thomson.

Peb"ble*stone` (?). A pebble; also, pebbles collectively. "Chains of pebblestone." Marlowe.

Peb"bly (?), a. Full of pebbles; pebbled. "A hard, pebbly bottom." Johnson.

||Pe`brine" (?), n. [F.] An epidemic disease of the silkworm, characterized by the presence of minute vibratory corpuscles in the blood.

Pe*can" (?), n. [Cf. F. pacane the nut.] (Bot.) A species of hickory (Carya olivæformis), growing in North America, chiefly in the Mississippi valley and in Texas, where it is one of the largest of forest trees; also, its fruit, a smooth, oblong nut, an inch or an inch and a half long, with a thin shell and well-flavored meat. [Written also pacane.]

Pec"a*ry (?), n. (Zoöl.) See Peccary.

Pec`ca*bil"i*ty (?), n. The state or quality of being peccable; lability to sin.

The common peccability of mankind.

Dr. H. More.

Pec"ca*ble (?), a. [Cf. F. peccable. See Peccant.] Liable to sin; subject to transgress the divine law. "A frail and peccable mortal." Sir W. Scott.

Pec`ca*dil"lo (?), n.; pl. Peccadillos (#). [Sp. pecadillo, dim. of pecado a sin, fr. L. peccatum. See Peccant.] A slight trespass or offense; a petty crime or fault. Sir W. Scott.

Pec"can*cy (?), n. [L. peccantia.] 1. The quality or state of being peccant.

2. A sin; an offense. W. Montagu.

Pec"cant (?), a. [L. peccans, -antis, p. pr. of peccare to sin: cf. F. peccant.] 1. Sinning; guilty of transgression; criminal; as, peccant angels. Milton.

2. Morbid; corrupt; as, peccant humors. Bacon.

3. Wrong; defective; faulty. [R.] Ayliffe.

Pec"cant, n. An offender. [Obs.] Whitlock.

Pec"cant*ly, adv. In a peccant manner.

Pec"ca*ry (?), n.; pl. Peccaries (#). [From the native South American name: cf. F. pécari, Sp. pecar.] (Zoöl.) A pachyderm of the genus Dicotyles.

The collared peccary, or tajacu (Dicotyles torquatus), is about the size and shape of a small hog, and has a white ring aroung the neck. It ranges from Arkansas to Brazil. A larger species (D. labiatus), with white cheeks, is found in South America.

||Pec*ca"vi (?). [L.] I have sinned; -- used colloquially to express confession or acknowledgment of an offense. Aubrey.

Pec"co (?), n. See Pekoe.

Peck, n. [Perh. akin to pack; or, orig., an indefinite quantity, and fr. peck, v. (below): cf. also F. picotin a peak.] 1. The fourth part of a bushel; a dry measure of eight quarts; as, a peck of wheat. "A peck of provender." Shak.

2. A great deal; a large or excessive quantity. "A peck of uncertainties and doubts." Milton.

Peck, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Pecked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Pecking.] [See Pick, v.] 1. To strike with the beak; to thrust the beak into; as, a bird pecks a tree.

2. Hence: To strike, pick, thrust against, or dig into, with a pointed instrument; especially, to strike, pick, etc., with repeated quick movements.

3. To seize and pick up with the beak, or as with the beak; to bite; to eat; -- often with up. Addison.

This fellow pecks up wit as pigeons peas.


4. To make, by striking with the beak or a pointed instrument; as, to peck a hole in a tree.

Peck, v. i. 1. To make strokes with the beak, or with a pointed instrument. Carew.

2. To pick up food with the beak; hence, to eat.

[The hen] went pecking by his side.


To peck at, to attack with petty and repeated blows; to carp at; to nag; to tease.

<! p. 1056 !>

Peck (?), n. A quick, sharp stroke, as with the beak of a bird or a pointed instrument.

Peck"er (?), n. 1. One who, or that which, pecks; specif., a bird that pecks holes in trees; a woodpecker.

2. An instrument for pecking; a pick. Garth.

Flower pecker. (Zoöl.) See under Flower.

Peck"ish, a. Inclined to eat; hungry. [Colloq.] "When shall I feel peckish again?" Beaconsfield.

Pec"kled (?), a. Speckled; spotted. [Obs.]

||Pe*cop"te*ris (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; to comb + &?; a kind of fern.] (Paleon.) An extensive genus of fossil ferns; -- so named from the regular comblike arrangement of the leaflets.

||Pec"o*ra (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. L. pecus. See Pecuniary.] (Zoöl.) An extensive division of ruminants, including the antelopes, deer, and cattle.

Pec"tate (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of pectic acid.

Pec"ten (?), n. [L. pecten, - inis, a comb, a kind of shellfish. See Pectinate.] 1. (Anat.) (a) A vascular pigmented membrane projecting into the vitreous humor within the globe of the eye in birds, and in many reptiles and fishes; -- also called marsupium. (b) The pubic bone.

2. (Zoöl.) Any species of bivalve mollusks of the genus Pecten, and numerous allied genera (family Pectinidæ); a scallop. See Scallop.

3. (Zoöl.) The comb of a scorpion. See Comb, 4 (b).

Pec"tic (?), a. [Gr. &?; curdled.] (Chem.) Of or pertaining to pectin; specifically, designating an acid obtained from ordinary vegetable jelly (pectin) as an amorphous substance, tough and horny when dry, but gelatinous when moist.

Pec"tin (?), n. [Gr. &?; curdled, congealed, from &?; to make fast or stiff: cf. F. pectine.] (Chem.) One of a series of carbohydrates, commonly called vegetable jelly, found very widely distributed in the vegetable kingdom, especially in ripe fleshy fruits, as apples, cranberries, etc. It is extracted as variously colored, translucent substances, which are soluble in hot water but become viscous on cooling.

Pec"ti*nal (?), a. [L. pecten comb. See Pectinate.] Of or pertaining to a comb; resembling a comb.

Pec"ti*nal, n. A fish whose bone&?; resemble comb teeth. Sir T. Browne.

{ Pec"ti*na`te (?), Pec"ti*na`ted (?), } a. [L. pectinatus, p. pr. of pectinare to comb, from pecten, -inis, a comb; cf. Gr. &?; to comb, AS. feax hair, OHG. fahs, E. paxwax.] 1. Resembling the teeth of a comb.

2. (Nat. Hist.) Having very narrow, close divisions, in arrangement and regularity resembling those of a comb; comblike; as, a pectinate leaf; pectinated muscles. See Illust. (e) of Antennæ.

3. Interlaced, like two combs. [R.] "Our fingers pectinated, or shut together." Sir T. Browne.

Pectinate claw (Zoöl.), a claw having a serrate edge, found in some birds, and supposed to be used in cleaning the feathers.

Pec"ti*nate*ly (?), adv. In a pectinate manner.

Pec`ti*na"tion (?), n. 1. The state of being pectinated; that which is pectinated. Sir T. Browne.

2. The act of combing; the combing of the head.

3. (Nat. Hist.) Comblike toothing.

Pec*tin"e*al (?), a. [See Pecten.] (Anat.) (a) Of or pertaining to the pecten. (b) Relating to, or connected with, the pubic bone.

Pec*tin"i*branch (?), n. (Zoöl.) One of the Pectinibranchiata. Also used adjectively.

||Pec`ti*ni*bran`chi*a"ta (?), n. pl. [NL. See Pecten, and Branchia.] (Zoöl.) A division of Gastropoda, including those that have a comblike gill upon the neck.

Pec`ti*ni*bran"chi*ate (?), a. [L. pecten, -inis, a comb + E. branchiate.] (Zoöl.) Having pectinated gills.

Pec*tin"i*form (?), a. Comblike in form.

Pec*tize" (?), v. i. [Gr. &?; solid.] To congeal; to change into a gelatinous mass. [R.] H. Spencer.

Pec"to*lite (?), n. [L. pecten a comb + -lite.] (Min.) A whitish mineral occurring in radiated or fibrous crystalline masses. It is a hydrous silicate of lime and soda.

Pec"to*ral (?), a. [L. pectoralis, fr. pectus, -oris the breast; cf. F. pectoral.] 1. Of or pertaining to the breast, or chest; as, the pectoral muscles.

2. Relating to, or good for, diseases of the chest or lungs; as, a pectoral remedy.

3. (Zoöl.) Having the breast conspicuously colored; as, the pectoral sandpiper.

Pectoral arch, or Pectoral girdle (Anat.), the two or more bony or cartilaginous pieces of the vertebrate skeleton to which the fore limbs are articulated; the shoulder girdle. In man it consists of two bones, the scapula and clavicle, on each side. -- Pectorial cross (Eccl.), a cross worn on the breast by bishops and abbots, and sometimes also by canons. - - Pectorial fins, or Pectorials (Zoöl.), fins situated on the sides, behind the gills. See Illust. under Fin. -- Pectorial rail. (Zoöl.) See Land rail (b) under Land. -- Pectorial sandpiper (Zoöl.), the jacksnipe (b).

Pec"to*ral (?), n. [L. pectorale a breastplate, neut. of pectorials.] 1. A covering or protecting for the breast.

2. (Eccl.) (a) A breastplate, esp. that worn by the Jewish high person. (b) A clasp or a cross worn on the breast.

3. A medicine for diseases of the chest organs, especially the lungs.

Pec"to*ral*ly (?), adv. As connected with the breast.

Pec`to*ri*lo"qui*al (?), a. [Cf. F. pectoriloque.] Pertaining to, or of the nature of, pectoriloquy.

Pec`to*ril"o*quism (?), n. Pectoriloquy.

Pec`to*ril"o*quous (?), a. Pectoriloquial.

Pec`to*ril"o*quy (?), n. [L. pectus, -oris, the breast + loqui to speak: cf. F. pectoriloquie.] (Med.) The distinct articulation of the sounds of a patient's voice, heard on applying the ear to the chest in auscultation. It usually indicates some morbid change in the lungs or pleural cavity.

Pec"tose` (?), n. [Pectic + cellulose.] (Chem.) An amorphous carbohydrate found in the vegetable kingdom, esp. in unripe fruits. It is associated with cellulose, and is converted into substances of the pectin group.

Pec*to"sic (?), a. (Chem.)Of, pertaining to, resembling, or derived from, pectose; specifically, designating an acid supposed to constitute largely ordinary pectin or vegetable jelly.

||Pec*tos"tra*ca (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; fixed + &?; shell of a testacean.] (Zoöl.) A degenerate order of Crustacea, including the Rhizocephala and Cirripedia.

Pec"tous (?), a. (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or consisting of, pectose.

||Pec"tus (?), n.; pl. Pectora (#). [L., the breast.] (Zoöl.) The breast of a bird.

Pec"ul (?), n. See Picul.

Pec"u*late (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Peculated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Peculating.] [L. peculatus, p. p. of peculari to peculate, akin to peculium private property. See Peculiar.] To appropriate to one's own use the property of the public; to steal public moneys intrusted to one's care; to embezzle.

An oppressive, . . . rapacious, and peculating despotism.


Pec`u*la"tion (?), n. The act or practice of peculating, or of defrauding the public by appropriating to one's own use the money or goods intrusted to one's care for management or disbursement; embezzlement.

Every British subject . . . active in the discovery of peculations has been ruined.


Pec"u*la`tor (?), n. [L.] One who peculates. "Peculators of the public gold." Cowper.

Pe*cul"iar (?), a. [L. peculiaris, fr. peculium private property, akin to pecunia money: cf. OF. peculier. See Pecuniary.] 1. One's own; belonging solely or especially to an individual; not possessed by others; of private, personal, or characteristic possession and use; not owned in common or in participation.

And purify unto himself a peculiar people.

Titus ii. 14.

Hymns . . . that Christianity hath peculiar unto itself.


2. Particular; individual; special; appropriate.

While each peculiar power forgoes his wonted seat.


My fate is Juno's most peculiar care.


3. Unusual; singular; rare; strange; as, the sky had a peculiarappearance.

Syn. -- Peculiar, Special, Especial. Peculiar is from the Roman peculium, which was a thing emphatically and distinctively one's own, and hence was dear. The former sense always belongs to peculiar (as, a peculiar style, peculiar manners, etc.), and usually so much of the latter as to involve feelings of interest; as, peculiar care, watchfulness, satisfaction, etc. Nothing of this kind belongs to special and especial. They mark simply the relation of species to genus, and denote that there is something in this case more than ordinary; as, a special act of Congress; especial pains, etc.

Beauty, which, either walking or asleep,
Shot forth peculiar graces.


For naught so vile that on the earth doth live,
But to the earth some special good doth give.


Pe*cul"iar, n. 1. That which is peculiar; a sole or exclusive property; a prerogative; a characteristic.

Revenge is . . . the peculiar of Heaven.


2. (Eng. Canon Law) A particular parish or church which is exempt from the jurisdiction of the ordinary.

Court of Peculiars (Eng. Law), a branch of the Court of Arches having cognizance of the affairs of peculiars. Blackstone. -- Dean of peculiars. See under Dean, 1.

Pe*cul`iar"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Peculiarities (&?;). 1. The quality or state of being peculiar; individuality; singularity. Swift.

2. That which is peculiar; a special and distinctive characteristic or habit; particularity.

The smallest peculiarity of temper on manner.


3. Exclusive possession or right. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.

Pe*cul"iar*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Pecularized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Pecularizing (?).] To make peculiar; to set appart or assign, as an exclusive possession. [R.] Dr. John Smith.

Pe*cul"iar*ly, adv. In a peculiar manner; particulary; in a rare and striking degree; unusually.

Pe*cul"iar*ness, n. The quality or state of being peculiar; peculiarity. Mede.

||Pe*cu"li*um (?), n. [L. See Peculiar.] 1. (Rom. Law) The saving of a son or a slave with the father's or master's consent; a little property or stock of one's own; any exclusive personal or separate property. Burrill.

2. A special fund for private and personal uses.

A slight peculium only subtracted to supply his snuff box and tobacco pouch.

Sir W. Scott.

Pe*cu"ni*al (?), a. Pecuniary. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Pe*cun"ia*ri*ly (?), adv. In a pecuniary manner; as regards money.

Pe*cun"ia*ry (?), a. [L. pecuniarius, fr. pecunia money, orig., property in cattle, fr. pecus cattle: cf. F. pécuniaire. See Fee, and cf. Peculiar.] 1. Relating to money; monetary; as, a pecuniary penalty; a pecuniary reward. Burke.

Pe*cu"ni*ous (?), a. [L. pecuniosus, fr. pecunia: cf. F. pécunieux.] Abounding in money; wealthy; rich. [Obs.] Sherwood.

Ped (?), n. [OE. See Peddler.] A basket; a hammer; a pannier. [Obs.] Halliwell.

Ped"age (?), n. [LL. pedagium, for pedaticum. See Paage.] A toll or tax paid by passengers, entitling them to safe-conduct and protection. [Obs.] Spelman.

Ped"a*gog (?), n. Pedagogue.

Ped`a*gog"ic (?), n. [From Pedagogic, a.; cf. G. pedagogik.] See Pedagogics.

{ Ped`a*gog"ic (?), Ped`a*gog"ic*al (?), } a. [Gr. &?;: cf. F. pédagogique. See Pedagogue.] Of or pertaining to a pedagogue; suited to, or characteristic of, a pedagogue.

Ped`a*gog"ics (?), n. The science or art of teaching; the principles and rules of teaching; pedagogy.

Ped"a*gog*ism (?), n. [Cf. F. pédagogisme.] The system, occupation, character, or manner of pedagogues. Milton.

Avocation of pedantry and pedagogism.

De Foe.

Ped"a*gogue (?), n. [F. pédagogue, L. paedagogus, Gr. &?;; pai^s, paido`s, a boy + &?; to lead, guide; cf. &?; leading. See Page a servant, Agent.] 1. (Gr. Antiq.) A slave who led his master's children to school, and had the charge of them generally.

2. A teacher of children; one whose occupation is to teach the young; a schoolmaster.

3. One who by teaching has become formal, positive, or pedantic in his ways; one who has the manner of a schoolmaster; a pedant. Goldsmith.

Ped"a*gogue, v. t. [Cf. L. paedagogare to instruct.] To play the pedagogue toward. [Obs.] Prior.

Ped"a*go`gy (?), n. [Gr. &?;: cf. F. pédagogie.] Pedagogics; pedagogism. South.

Pe"dal (?), a. [L. pedalis, fr. pes, pedis, foot. See Foot, and cf. Pew.] 1. Of or pertaining to the foot, or to feet, literally or figuratively; specifically (Zoöl.), pertaining to the foot of a mollusk; as, the pedal ganglion.

2. (&?;) Of or pertaining to a pedal; having pedals.

Pedal curve or surface (Geom.), the curve or surface which is the locus of the feet of perpendiculars let fall from a fixed point upon the straight lines tangent to a given curve, or upon the planes tangent to a given surface. -- Pedal note (Mus.), the note which is held or sustained through an organ point. See Organ point, under Organ. -- Pedal organ (Mus.), an organ which has pedals or a range of keys moved by the feet; that portion of a full organ which is played with the feet.

Pe"dal (?), n. [Cf. F. pédale, It. pedale. See Pedal, a.] 1. (Mech.) A lever or key acted on by the foot, as in the pianoforte to raise the dampers, or in the organ to open and close certain pipes; a treadle, as in a lathe or a bicycle.

2. (Geom.) A pedal curve or surface.

Pe*da"li*an (?), a. Relating to the foot, or to a metrical foot; pedal. [R.] Maunder.

Pe*dal"i*ty (?), n. The act of measuring by paces. [R.] Ash.

Pe*da"ne*ous (?), a. [L. pedaneus of the size of a foot.] Going on foot; pedestrian. [R.]

Ped"ant (?), n. [F. pédant, It. pedante, fr. Gr. &?; to instruct, from pai^s boy. See Pedagogue.] 1. A schoolmaster; a pedagogue. [Obs.] Dryden.

A pedant that keeps a school i'th' church.


2. One who puts on an air of learning; one who makes a vain display of learning; a pretender to superior knowledge. Addison.

A scholar, yet surely no pedant, was he.


{ Pe*dan"tic (?), Pe*dan"tic*al (?), } a. Of or pertaining to a pedant; characteristic of, or resembling, a pedant; ostentatious of learning; as, a pedantic writer; a pedantic description; a pedantical affectation. "Figures pedantical." Shak.

Pe*dan"tic*al*ly, adv. In a pedantic manner.

Pe*dan"tic*ly (?), adv. Pedantically. [R.]

Ped"ant*ism (?), n. The office, disposition, or act of a pedant; pedantry. [Obs.]

Ped"ant*ize (?), v. i. [Cf. F. pédantiser.] To play the pedant; to use pedantic expressions. [R.]

Ped`an*toc"ra*cy (?), n. [Pedant + democracy.] The sway of pedants. [R.] J. S. Mill.

Ped"ant*ry (?), n. [Cf. F. pédanterie.] The act, character, or manners of a pedant; vain ostentation of learning. "This pedantry of quotation." Cowley.

'T is a practice that savors much of pedantry.

Sir T. Browne.

Ped"ant*y (?), n. An assembly or clique of pedants. [Obs.] Milton.

Pe*da"ri*an (?), n. [L. pedarius, fr. pedarius belonging to the foot, fr. pes, pedis, foot.] (Rom. Antiq.) One of a class eligible to the office of senator, but not yet chosen, who could sit and speak in the senate, but could not vote; -- so called because he might indicate his opinion by walking over to the side of the party he favored when a vote was taken.

Ped"a*ry (?), n.; pl. Pedaries (#). [L. pedarius of the foot.] A sandal. [Obs.] Latimer.

||Pe*da"ta (?), n. pl. [NL. See Pedate.] (Zoöl.) An order of holothurians, including those that have ambulacral suckers, or feet, and an internal gill.

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Ped"ate (?), a. [L. pedatus, p. p. of pedare to furnish with feet, fr. pes, pedis, a foot.] (Bot.) Palmate, with the lateral lobes cleft into two or more segments; -- said of a leaf. -- Ped"ate*ly, adv.

Pe*dat"i*fid (?), a. [Pedate + root of L. findere to split.] [Colloq.] Cleft in a pedate manner, but having the lobes distinctly connected at the base; -- said of a leaf.

Ped"dle (?), v. i. [From Peddler.] 1. To travel about with wares for sale; to go from place to place, or from house to house, for the purpose of retailing goods; as, to peddle without a license.

2. To do a small business; to be busy about trifles; to piddle.

Ped"dle, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Peddled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Peddling (?).] To sell from place to place; to retail by carrying around from customer to customer; to hawk; hence, to retail in very small quantities; as, to peddle vegetables or tinware.

Ped"dler (?), n. [OE. pedlere, pedlare, also peddare, peoddare, fr. OE. ped a basket, of unknown origin.] One who peddles; a traveling trader; one who travels about, retailing small wares; a hawker. [Written also pedlar and pedler.] "Some vagabond huckster or peddler." Hakluyt.

Ped"dler*y (?), n. [Written also pedlary and pedlery.] 1. The trade, or the goods, of a peddler; hawking; small retail business, like that of a peddler.

2. Trifling; trickery. [Obs.] "Look . . . into these their deceitful peddleries." Milton.

Ped"dling, a. 1. Hawking; acting as a peddler.

2. Petty; insignificant. "The miserable remains of a peddling commerce." Burke.

Ped"er*ast (?), n. [Gr. paiderasth`s; pai^s, paido`s, a boy + 'era^n to love: cf. F. pédéraste.] One guilty of pederasty; a sodomite.

Ped`er*as"tic (?), a. [Gr. paiderastiko`s.] Of or pertaining to pederasty.

Ped"er*as`ty (?), n. [Gr. paiderasti`a: cf. F. pédérastie.] The crime against nature; sodomy.

Ped`e*re"ro (?), n. [Sp. pedrero, fr. OSp. pedra, Sp. piedra, a stone, L. petra, fr. Gr. &?;. So named because it was at first charged with stones.] (Mil.) A term formerly applied to a short piece of chambered ordnance. [Written also paterero and peterero.]

||Pe*de"sis (?), n. [NL., from Gr. &?; a leaping.] Same as Brownian movement, under Brownian.

Ped"es*tal (?), n. [Sp. pedestal; cf. F. piédestal, It. piedestallo; fr. L. es, pedis, foot + OHG. stal standing place, station, place, akin to E. stall. See Foot, and Stall, and Footstall.] 1. (Arch.) The base or foot of a column, statue, vase, lamp, or the like; the part on which an upright work stands. It consists of three parts, the base, the die or dado, and the cornice or surbase molding. See Illust. of Column.

Build him a pedestal, and say, "Stand there!"


2. (a) (Railroad Cars) A casting secured to the frame of a truck and forming a jaw for holding a journal box. (b) (Mach.) A pillow block; a low housing. (c) (Bridge Building) An iron socket, or support, for the foot of a brace at the end of a truss where it rests on a pier.

Pedestal coil (steam Heating), a group of connected straight pipes arranged side by side and one above another, -- used in a radiator.

Ped"es*taled (?), a. Placed on, or supported by, a pedestal; figuratively, exalted. Hawthorne.

Pedestaled haply in a palace court.


Pe*des"tri*al (?), a. [L. pedester, -esteris, fr. pes, pedis, a foot: cf. F. pédestere. See Pedal.] Of or pertaining to the feet; employing the foot or feet.

Pe*des"tri*al*ly, adv. In a pedestrial manner.

Pe*des"tri*an (?), a. Going on foot; performed on foot; as, a pedestrian journey.

Pe*des"tri*an, n. A walker; one who journeys on foot; a foot traveler; specif., a professional walker or runner.

Pe*des"tri*an*ism (?), n. The act, art, or practice of a pedestrian; walking or running; traveling or racing on foot.

Pe*des"tri*an*ize (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Pedestrianized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Pedestrianizing.] To practice walking; to travel on foot.

Pe*des"tri*ous (?), a. Going on foot; not winged. [Obs.] "Pedestrious animals." Sir T. Browne.

Ped`e*ten"tous (?), a. [L. pes, pedis, foot + tendere to stretch out: cf. L. tentim by degrees.] Proceeding step by step; advancing cautiously. [R.]

That pedetentous pace and pedetentous mind in which it behooves the wise and virtuous improver to walk.

Sydney Smith.

{ Ped"i- (?), Ped"o- (?) }. [See Foot.] Combining forms from L. pes, pedis, foot, as pedipalp, pedireme, pedometer.

Pe"di*al (?), a. Pertaining to the foot, or to any organ called a foot; pedal. Dana.

Ped"i*cel (?), n. [F. pédicelle. See Pedicle.] 1. (Bot.) (a) A stalk which supports one flower or fruit, whether solitary or one of many ultimate divisions of a common peduncle. See Peduncle, and Illust. of Flower. (b) A slender support of any special organ, as that of a capsule in mosses, an air vesicle in algæ, or a sporangium in ferns.

2. (Zoöl.) A slender stem by which certain of the lower animals or their eggs are attached. See Illust. of Aphis lion.

3. (Anat.) (a) The ventral part of each side of the neural arch connecting with the centrum of a vertebra. (b) An outgrowth of the frontal bones, which supports the antlers or horns in deer and allied animals.

Ped"i*celed (?), a. Pedicellate.

||Ped`i*cel*la"ri*a (?), n.; pl. Pedicellariæ (#). [NL. See Pedicel.] (Zoöl.) A peculiar forcepslike organ which occurs in large numbers upon starfishes and echini. Those of starfishes have two movable jaws, or blades, and are usually nearly, or quite, sessile; those of echini usually have three jaws and a pedicel. See Illustration in Appendix.

Ped"i*cel`late (?), a. Having a pedicel; supported by a pedicel.

||Ped`i*cel*li"na (?), n. [NL. See Pedicel.] (Zoöl.) A genus of Bryozoa, of the order Entoprocta, having a bell-shaped body supported on a slender pedicel. See Illust. under Entoprocta.

Ped"i*cle (?), n. [L. pediculus a little foot, dim. of pes foot: cf. F. pédicule. See edal, and cf. Pedicel.] Same as Pedicel.

Pe*dic"u*lar (?), a. [L. pedicularis, fr. pediculus a louse: cf. F. pédiculaire.] Of or pertaining to lice; having the lousy distemper (phthiriasis); lousy. Southey.

Pe*dic"u*late (?), a. (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the Pediculati.

||Pe*dic`u*la"ti (?), n. pl. [NL. See Pedicle.] (Zoöl.) An order of fishes including the anglers. See Illust. of Angler and Batfish.

Pe*dic`u*la"tion (?), n. (Med.) Phthiriasis.

Ped"i*cule (?), n. [See Pedicle.] A pedicel.

||Pe*dic`u*li"na (?), n. pl. [NL. See Pediculus.] (Zoöl.) A division of parasitic hemipterous insects, including the true lice. See Illust. in Appendix.

Pe*dic"u*lous (?), a. [L. pediculosus.] Pedicular.

||Pe*dic"u*lus (?), n.; pl. Pediculi (#). [L., a louse.] (Zoöl.) A genus of wingless parasitic Hemiptera, including the common lice of man. See Louse.

Ped"i*form (?), a. [Pedi- + - form.] Shaped like a foot.

Pe*dig"er*ous (?), a. [Pedi- + -gerous.] (Zoöl.) Bearing or having feet or legs.

Ped"i*gree (?), n. [Of unknown origin; possibly fr. F. par degrés by degrees, -- for a pedigree is properly a genealogical table which records the relationship of families by degrees; or, perh., fr. F. pied de grue crane's foot, from the shape of the heraldic genealogical trees.] 1. A line of ancestors; descent; lineage; genealogy; a register or record of a line of ancestors.

Alterations of surnames . . . have obscured the truth of our pedigrees.


His vanity labored to contrive us a pedigree.


I am no herald to inquire of men's pedigrees.

Sir P. Sidney.

The Jews preserved the pedigrees of their tribes.


2. (Stock Breeding) A record of the lineage or strain of an animal, as of a horse.

Ped"i*lu`vy (?), n. [Pedi- + L. luere to wash: cf. It. & Sp. pediluvio, F. pédiluve.] The bathing of the feet, a bath for the feet. [Obs.]

||Pe*dim"a*na (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. L. pes, pedis, foot + manus hand.] (Zoöl.) A division of marsupials, including the opossums.

Ped"i*mane (?), n. [Cf. F. pédimane.] (Zoöl.) A pedimanous marsupial; an opossum.

Pe*dim"a*nous (?), a. [See Pedimana.] (Zoöl.) Having feet resembling hands, or with the first toe opposable, as the opossums and monkeys.

Ped"i*ment (?), n. [L. pes, pedis, a foot. See Foot.] (Arch.) Originally, in classical architecture, the triangular space forming the gable of a simple roof; hence, a similar form used as a decoration over porticoes, doors, windows, etc.; also, a rounded or broken frontal having a similar position and use. See Temple.

Ped`i*men"tal (?), a. Of or pertaining to a pediment.

Ped"i*palp (?), n. [Cf. F. pédipalpe.] (Zoöl.) One of the Pedipalpi.

||Ped`i*pal"pi (?), n pl. [NL. See Pedipalpus.] (Zoöl.) A division of Arachnida, including the whip scorpions (Thelyphonus) and allied forms. Sometimes used in a wider sense to include also the true scorpions.

Ped`i*pal"pous (?), a. (Zoöl.) Pertaining to, or resembling, the pedipalps.

Ped`i*pal"pus (?), n.; pl. Pedipalpi (#). [NL. See Pes, and Palpus.] (Zoöl.) One of the second pair of mouth organs of arachnids. In some they are leglike, but in others, as the scorpion, they terminate in a claw.

Ped"i*reme (?), n. [Pedi- + L. remus oar.] (Zoöl.) A crustacean, some of whose feet serve as oars.

{ Ped"lar, Ped"ler } (?), n. See Peddler.

Pe`do*bap"tism (?), n. [Gr. &?;, &?;, a child + E. baptism.] The baptism of infants or of small children. [Written also pædobaptism.]

Pe`do*bap"tist (?), n. One who advocates or practices infant baptism. [Written also pædobaptist.]

Ped"o*man`cy (?), n. [Pedi- + -mancy.] Divination by examining the soles of the feet.

Pe*dom"e*ter (?), n. [Pedi-, pedo- + -meter: cf. F. pédomètre.] (Mech.) An instrument for including the number of steps in walking, and so ascertaining the distance passed over. It is usually in the form of a watch; an oscillating weight by the motion of the body causes the index to advance a certain distance at each step.

{ Ped`o*met"ric (?), Ped`o*met"ric*al (?), } a. Pertaining to, or measured by, a pedometer.

Ped`o*mo"tive (?), a. [Pedi-, pedo- + -motive.] Moved or worked by the action of the foot or feet on a pedal or treadle.

Pe*dot"ro*phy (?), n. [Gr. &?;, fr. &?;, &?;, a child + &?; to nourish: cf. F. pédotrophie.] The art of nourishing children properly.

||Pe`dre*gal" (?), n. [Sp., a stony place, fr. piedra stone.] A lava field. [Mexico & Western U.S.]

Pe*dun"cle (?), n. [Formed fr. (assumed) L. pedunculus, dim. of pes, pedis, a foot: cf. F. pédoncule.] 1. (Bot.) The stem or stalk that supports the flower or fruit of a plant, or a cluster of flowers or fruits.

The ultimate divisions or branches of a peduncle are called pedicels. In the case of a solitary flower, the stalk would be called a peduncle if the flower is large, and a pedicel if it is small or delicate.

2. (Zoöl.) A sort of stem by which certain shells and barnacles are attached to other objects. See Illust. of Barnacle.

3. (Anat.) A band of nervous or fibrous matter connecting different parts of the brain; as, the peduncles of the cerebellum; the peduncles of the pineal gland.

Pe*dun"cled (?), a. Having a peduncle; supported on a peduncle; pedunculate.

Pe*dun"cu*lar (?), a. [Cf. F. pédonculaire.] Of or pertaining to a peduncle; growing from a peduncle; as, a peduncular tendril.

||Pe*dun`cu*la"ta (?), n. pl. [NL. See Peduncle.] (Zoöl.) A division of Cirripedia, including the stalked or goose barnacles.

{ Pe*dun"cu*late (?), Pe*dun"cu*la`ted (?), } a. (Biol.) Having a peduncle; growing on a peduncle; as, a pedunculate flower; a pedunculate eye, as in a lobster.

Pee (?), n. See 1st Pea.

Pee, n. (Naut.) Bill of an anchor. See Peak, 3 (c).

Peece (?), n. & v. [Obs.] See Piece.

||Pee"chi (?), n. (Zoöl.) The dauw.

Peek (?), v. i. [OE. piken: cf. F. piquer to pierce, prick, E. pique. Cf. Peak.] To look slyly, or with the eyes half closed, or through a crevice; to peep. [Colloq.]

Peek"a*boo (?), n. A child's game; bopeep.

Peel (?), n. [OE. pel. Cf. Pile a heap.] A small tower, fort, or castle; a keep. [Scot.]

Peel, n. [F. pelle, L. pala.] A spadelike implement, variously used, as for removing loaves of bread from a baker's oven; also, a T-shaped implement used by printers and bookbinders for hanging wet sheets of paper on lines or poles to dry. Also, the blade of an oar.

Peel, v. t. [Confused with peel to strip, but fr. F. piller to pillage. See Pill to rob, Pillage.] To plunder; to pillage; to rob. [Obs.]

But govern ill the nations under yoke,
Peeling their provinces.


Peel, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Peeled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Peeling.] [F. peler to pull out the hair, to strip, to peel, fr. L. pilare to deprive of hair, fr. pilus a hair; or perh. partly fr. F. peler to peel off the skin, perh. fr. L. pellis skin (cf. Fell skin). Cf. Peruke.] 1. To strip off the skin, bark, or rind of; to strip by drawing or tearing off the skin, bark, husks, etc.; to flay; to decorticate; as, to peel an orange.

The skillful shepherd peeled me certain wands.


2. To strip or tear off; to remove by stripping, as the skin of an animal, the bark of a tree, etc.

Peel, v. i. To lose the skin, bark, or rind; to come off, as the skin, bark, or rind does; -- often used with an adverb; as, the bark peels easily or readily.

Peel, n. The skin or rind; as, the peel of an orange.

Pee"le (?), n. (Zoöl.) A graceful and swift South African antelope (Pelea capreola). The hair is woolly, and ash-gray on the back and sides. The horns are black, long, slender, straight, nearly smooth, and very sharp. Called also rheeboc, and rehboc.

Peel"er (?), n. One who peels or strips.

Peel"er, n. [See Peel to plunder.] A pillager.

Peel"er, n. A nickname for a policeman; -- so called from Sir Robert Peel. [British Slang] See Bobby.

Peel"house` (?), n. See 1st Peel. Sir W. Scott.

Peen (?), n. [Cf. G. pinne pane of a hammer.] (a) A round-edged, or hemispherical, end to the head of a hammer or sledge, used to stretch or bend metal by indentation. (b) The sharp-edged end of the head of a mason's hammer. [Spelt also pane, pein, and piend.]

Peen, v. t. To draw, bend, or straighten, as metal, by blows with the peen of a hammer or sledge.

Peenge (?), v. i. To complain. [Scot.]

Peep (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Peeped (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Peeping.] [Of imitative origin; cf. OE. pipen, F. piper, pépier, L. pipire, pipare, pipiare, D. & G. piepen. Senses 2 and 3 perhaps come from a transfer of sense from the sound which chickens make upon the first breaking of the shell to the act accompanying it; or perhaps from the influence of peek, or peak. Cf. Pipe.] 1. To cry, as a chicken hatching or newly hatched; to chirp; to cheep.

There was none that moved the wing, or opened the mouth, or peeped.

Is. x. 14.

2. To begin to appear; to look forth from concealment; to make the first appearance.

When flowers first peeped, and trees did blossoms bear.


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3. To look cautiously or slyly; to peer, as through a crevice; to pry.

eep through the blanket of the dark.


From her cabined loophole peep.


Peep sight, an adjustable piece, pierced with a small hole to peep through in aiming, attached to a rifle or other firearm near the breech.

Peep (?), n. 1. The cry of a young chicken; a chirp.

2. First outlook or appearance.

Oft have we seen him at the peep of dawn.


3. A sly look; a look as through a crevice, or from a place of concealment.

To take t' other peep at the stars.


4. (Zoöl.) (a) Any small sandpiper, as the least sandpiper (Trigna minutilla). (b) The European meadow pipit (Anthus pratensis).

Peep show, a small show, or object exhibited, which is viewed through an orifice or a magnifying glass. -- Peep-o'-day boys, the Irish insurgents of 1784; -- so called from their visiting the house of the loyal Irish at day break in search of arms. [Cant]

Peep"er (?), n. 1. A chicken just breaking the shell; a young bird.

2. One who peeps; a prying person; a spy.

Who's there? peepers, . . . eavesdroppers?

J. Webster.

3. The eye; as, to close the peepers. [Colloq.]

Peep"hole` (?), n. A hole, or crevice, through which one may peep without being discovered.

Peep"ing hole`. See Peephole.

Pee"pul tree` (?). [Hind. ppal, Skr. pippala.] (Bot.) A sacred tree (Ficus religiosa) of the Buddhists, a kind of fig tree which attains great size and venerable age. See Bo tree. [Written also pippul tree, and pipal tree.]

Peer (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Peered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Peering.] [OF. parir, pareir equiv. to F. paraître to appear, L. parere. Cf. Appear.] 1. To come in sight; to appear. [Poetic]

So honor peereth in the meanest habit.


See how his gorget peers above his gown!

B. Jonson.

2. [Perh. a different word; cf. OE. piren, LG. piren. Cf. Pry to peep.] To look narrowly or curiously or intently; to peep; as, the peering day. Milton.

Peering in maps for ports, and piers, and roads.


As if through a dungeon grate he peered.


Peer, n. [OE. per, OF. per, F. pair, fr. L. par equal. Cf. Apparel, Pair, Par, n., Umpire.] 1. One of the same rank, quality, endowments, character, etc.; an equal; a match; a mate.

In song he never had his peer.


Shall they consort only with their peers?

I. Taylor.

2. A comrade; a companion; a fellow; an associate.

He all his peers in beauty did surpass.


3. A nobleman; a member of one of the five degrees of the British nobility, namely, duke, marquis, earl, viscount, baron; as, a peer of the realm.

A noble peer of mickle trust and power.


House of Peers, The Peers, the British House of Lords. See Parliament. -- Spiritual peers, the bishops and archibishops, or lords spiritual, who sit in the House of Lords.

Peer v. t. To make equal in rank. [R.] Heylin.

Peer v. t. To be, or to assume to be, equal. [R.]

Peer"age (?), n. [See Peer an equal, and cf. Parage.] 1. The rank or dignity of a peer. Blackstone.

2. The body of peers; the nobility, collectively.

When Charlemain with all his peerage fell.


Peer"dom (?), n. Peerage; also, a lordship. [Obs.]

Peer"ess, n. The wife of a peer; a woman ennobled in her own right, or by right of marriage.

{ Peer"ie, Peer"y } (?), a. [See 1st Peer, 2.] Inquisitive; suspicious; sharp. [Prov. Eng. & Scot.] "Two peery gray eyes." Sir W. Scott.

Peer"less (?), a. Having no peer or equal; matchless; superlative. "Her peerless feature." Shak.

Unvailed her peerless light.


--Peer"less*ly, adv. -- Peer"less*ness, n.

Peert (?), a. Same as Peart.

Peer"weet (?), n. Same as Pewit (a & b).

Pee"vish (?), a. [OE. pevische; of uncertain origin, perh. from a word imitative of the noise made by fretful children + -ish.] 1. Habitually fretful; easily vexed or fretted; hard to please; apt to complain; querulous; petulant. "Her peevish babe." Wordsworth.

She is peevish, sullen, froward.


2. Expressing fretfulness and discontent, or unjustifiable dissatisfaction; as, a peevish answer.

3. Silly; childish; trifling. [Obs.]

To send such peevish tokens to a king.


Syn. -- Querulous; petulant; cross; ill-tempered; testy; captious; discontented. See Fretful.

Pee"vish*ly, adv. In a peevish manner. Shak.

Pee"vish*ness, n. The quality of being peevish; disposition to murmur; sourness of temper.

Syn. -- See Petulance.

{ Pee"vit (?), Pee"wit (?), } n. (Zoöl.) See Pewit.

Peg (?), n. [OE. pegge; cf. Sw. pigg, Dan. pig a point, prickle, and E. peak.] 1. A small, pointed piece of wood, used in fastening boards together, in attaching the soles of boots or shoes, etc.; as, a shoe peg.

2. A wooden pin, or nail, on which to hang things, as coats, etc. Hence, colloquially and figuratively: A support; a reason; a pretext; as, a peg to hang a claim upon.

3. One of the pins of a musical instrument, on which the strings are strained. Shak.

4. One of the pins used for marking points on a cribbage board.

5. A step; a degree; esp. in the slang phrase "To take one down peg."

To screw papal authority to the highest peg.


And took your grandess down a peg.


Peg ladder, a ladder with but one standard, into which cross pieces are inserted. -- Peg tankard, an ancient tankard marked with pegs, so as divide the liquor into equal portions. "Drink down to your peg." Longfellow. -- Peg tooth. See Fleam tooth under Fleam. -- Peg top, a boy's top which is spun by throwing it. -- Screw peg, a small screw without a head, for fastening soles.

Peg (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Pegged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Pegging (?).] 1. To put pegs into; to fasten the parts of with pegs; as, to peg shoes; to confine with pegs; to restrict or limit closely.

I will rend an oak
And peg thee in his knotty entrails.


2. (Cribbage) To score with a peg, as points in the game; as, she pegged twelwe points. [Colloq.]

Peg, v. i. To work diligently, as one who pegs shoes; -- usually with on, at, or away; as, to peg away at a task.

||Pe`ga*dor" (?), n. [Sp., a sticker.] (Zoöl.) A species of remora (Echeneis naucrates). See Remora.

Pe*ga"se*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to Pegasus, or, figuratively, to poetry.

Peg"a*soid (?), a. [Pegasus + -oid.] (Zoöl.) Like or pertaining to Pegasus.

Peg"a*sus (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. &?;.] 1. (Gr. Myth.) A winged horse fabled to have sprung from the body of Medusa when she was slain. He is noted for causing, with a blow of his hoof, Hippocrene, the inspiring fountain of the Muses, to spring from Mount Helicon. On this account he is, in modern times, associated with the Muses, and with ideas of poetic inspiration.

Each spurs his jaded Pegasus apace.


2. (Astron.) A northen constellation near the vernal equinoctial point. Its three brightest stars, with the brightest star of Andromeda, form the square of Pegasus.

3. (Zoöl.) A genus of small fishes, having large pectoral fins, and the body covered with hard, bony plates. Several species are known from the East Indies and China.

Peg"ger (?), n. One who fastens with pegs.

Peg"ging (?), n. The act or process of fastening with pegs.

Pegm (?), n. [L. pegma a movable stage, Gr. &?;, orig., a framework.] A sort of moving machine employed in the old pageants. [Obs.] B. Jonson.

Peg"ma*tite (?), n. [From Gr. &?; something fastened together, in allusion to the quartz and feldspar in graphic granite: cf. F. pegmatite. See Pegm.] (Min.) (a) Graphic granite. See under Granite. (b) More generally, a coarse granite occurring as vein material in other rocks.

Peg`ma*tit"ic (?), a. (Min.) Of, pertaining to, or resembling, pegmatite; as, the pegmatic structure of certain rocks resembling graphic granite.

Peg"ma*toid (?), a. [Pegmatite + -oid.] (Min.) Resembling pegmatite; pegmatic.

Peg"o*man`cy (?), n. [Gr. phgh` fountain + -mancy.] Divination by fountains. [R.]

Peg"roots` (pg"rts`), n. Same as Setterwort.

Peh"le*vi` (?), n. [Parsee Pahlavi.] An ancient Persian dialect in which words were partly represented by their Semitic equivalents. It was in use from the 3d century (and perhaps earlier) to the middle of the 7th century, and later in religious writings. [Written also Pahlavi.]

Pein (?), n. See Peen.

Pei*ram"e*ter (?), n. [Gr. &?; a trail + -meter.] A dynamometer for measuring the force required to draw wheel carriages on roads of different constructions. G. Francis.

Pei*ras"tic (?), a. [Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to try, fr. &?; a trail.] Fitted for trail or test; experimental; tentative; treating of attempts.

Peise (?), n. [See Poise.] A weight; a poise. [Obs.] "To weigh pence with a peise." Piers Plowman.

Peise, v. t. To poise or weight. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Lest leaden slumber peise me down.


Pei"trel (?), n. (Anc. Armor) See Peytrel.

Pe*jor"a*tive (?), a. [F. péjoratif, fr. L. pejor, used as compar. of malus evil.] Implying or imputing evil; depreciatory; disparaging; unfavorable.

Pek"an (?), n. [F. pekan.] (Zoöl.) See Fisher, 2.

Pek"oe (?), n. [Chin. pih-hoau: cf. F. pekoë] A kind of black tea. [Written also pecco.]

Pe"la (?), n. (Zoöl.) See Wax insect, under Wax.

Pel"age (?), n. [F. pelage, fr. L. pilus hair.] (Zoöl.) The covering, or coat, of a mammal, whether of wool, fur, or hair.

Pe*la"gi*an (?), a. [L. pelagius, Gr. &?;, fr. &?; the sea: cf. F. pélagien.] Of or pertaining to the sea; marine; pelagic; as, pelagian shells.

Pe*la"gi*an, n. [L. Pelagianus: cf. F. pélagien.] (Eccl. Hist.) A follower of Pelagius, a British monk, born in the later part of the 4th century, who denied the doctrines of hereditary sin, of the connection between sin and death, and of conversion through grace.

Pe*la"gi*an, a. [Cf. F. pélagien.] Of or pertaining to Pelagius, or to his doctrines.

Pe*la"gi*an*ism (?), n. [Cf. F. pélagianisme.] The doctrines of Pelagius.

Pe*lag"ic (?), a. [L. pelagicus.] Of or pertaining to the ocean; -- applied especially to animals that live at the surface of the ocean, away from the coast.

Pel`ar*gon"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, an organic acid (called also nonoic acid) found in the leaves of the geranium (Pelargonium) and allied plants.

||Pel`ar*go"ni*um (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; a stork.] (Bot.) A large genus of plants of the order Geraniaceæ, differing from Geranium in having a spurred calyx and an irregular corolla.

About one hundred and seventy species are known, nearly all of them natives of South Africa, and many having very beautiful blossoms. See the Note under Geranium.

{ Pe*las"gi*an (?), Pe*las"gic (?), } a. [L. Pelasgus, Gr. &?; a Pelasgian.] 1. Of or pertaining to the Pelasgians, an ancient people of Greece, of roving habits.

2. (Zoöl.) Wandering.

Pel"e*can (?), n. (Zoöl.) See Pelican.

||Pel`e*can`i*for"mes (?), n. pl. [NL. See Pelican, and -form.] (Zoöl.) Those birds that are related to the pelican; the Totipalmi.

Pel"e*coid (?), n. [Gr. &?; a hatchet + -oid.] (Geom.) A figure, somewhat hatched-shaped, bounded by a semicircle and two inverted quadrants, and equal in area to the square ABCD inclosed by the chords of the four quadrants. [Written also pelicoid.] Math. Dict.

||Pel`e*cyp"o*da (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; a hatchet + -poda.] (Zoöl.) Same as Lamellibranchia.

Pel"e*grine (?), a. See Peregrine. [Obs.]

Pel"er*ine (?), n. [F. pèlerine a tippet, fr. pèlerin a pilgrim, fr. L. peregrinus foreign, alien. See Pilgrim.] A woman's cape; especially, a fur cape that is longer in front than behind.

Pelf (?), n. [OE. pelfir booty, OF. pelfre, akin to pelfrer to plunder, and perh. to E. pillage. Cf. Pilfer.] Money; riches; lucre; gain; -- generally conveying the idea of something ill-gotten or worthless. It has no plural. "Mucky pelf." Spenser. "Paltry pelf." Burke.

Can their pelf prosper, not got by valor or industry?


Pelf"ish, a. Of or pertaining to pelf. Stanyhurst.

{ Pel"fray (?), Pel"fry (?), } n. Pelf; also, figuratively, rubbish; trash. [Obs.] Cranmer.

Pel"i*can (?), n. [F. pélican, L. pelicanus, pelecanus, Gr. &?;, &?;, &?;, the woodpecker, and also a water bird of the pelican kind, fr. &?; to hew with an ax, akin to Skr. paraçu.] [Written also pelecan.] 1. (Zoöl.) Any large webfooted bird of the genus Pelecanus, of which about a dozen species are known. They have an enormous bill, to the lower edge of which is attached a pouch in which captured fishes are temporarily stored.

The American white pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) and the brown species (P. fuscus) are abundant on the Florida coast in winter, but breed about the lakes in the Rocky Mountains and British America.

2. (Old Chem.) A retort or still having a curved tube or tubes leading back from the head to the body for continuous condensation and redistillation.

The principle is still employed in certain modern forms of distilling apparatus.

Frigate pelican (Zoöl.), the frigate bird. See under Frigate. -- Pelican fish (Zoöl.), deep-sea fish (Eurypharynx pelecanoides) of the order Lyomeri, remarkable for the enormous development of the jaws, which support a large gular pouch. -- Pelican flower (Bot.), the very large and curiously shaped blossom of a climbing plant (Aristolochia grandiflora) of the West Indies; also, the plant itself. -- Pelican ibis (Zoöl.), a large Asiatic wood ibis (Tantalus leucocephalus). The head and throat are destitute of feathers; the plumage is white, with the quills and the tail greenish black. -- Pelican in her piety (in heraldry and symbolical art), a representation of a pelican in the act of wounding her breast in order to nourish her young with her blood; -- a practice fabulously attributed to the bird, on account of which it was adopted as a symbol of the Redeemer, and of charity. -- Pelican's foot (Zoöl.), a marine gastropod shell of the genus Aporrhais, esp. Aporrhais pes-pelicani of Europe.

Pel"ick (?), n. (Zoöl.) The American coot (Fulica).

Pel"i*coid (?), n. See Pelecoid.

||Pel`i*co*sau"ri*a (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; a wooden bowl (but taken to mean, pelvis) + &?; a lizard.] (Paleon.) A suborder of Theromorpha, including terrestrial reptiles from the Permian formation.

Pe"li*om (?), n. [See Pelioma.] (Min.) A variety of iolite, of a smoky blue color; pelioma.

||Pe`li*o"ma (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?;, fr. &?; livid.] 1. (Med.) A livid ecchymosis.

2. (Min.) See Peliom.

Pe*lisse" (?), n. [F., fr. L. pelliceus, pellicius, made of skins, fr. pellis a skin. Cf. Pelt skin, Pilch, and see 2d Pell.] An outer garment for men or women, originally of fur, or lined with fur; a lady's outer garment, made of silk or other fabric.

Pell (?), v. t. [Cf. Pelt, v. t.] To pelt; to knock about. [Obs.] Holland.

Pell, n. [OF. pel, F. peau, L. pellis a skin. See Fell a skin.] 1. A skin or hide; a pelt.

2. A roll of parchment; a parchment record.

Clerk of the pells, formerly, an officer of the exchequer who entered accounts on certain parchment rolls, called pell rolls. [Eng.]

Pel"lack (?), n. [Cf. Gael. Peileag.] (Zoöl.) A porpoise.

Pell"age (pl"j), n. [See 2d Pell.] A customs duty on skins of leather.

<! p. 1059 !>

Pel"la*gra (pl"l*gr), n. (Med.) An erythematous affection of the skin, with severe constitutional and nervous symptoms, endemic in Northern Italy.

Pel"la*grin (?), n. One who is afficted with pellagra. Chambers's Encyc.

Pel"let (?), n. [F. pelote, LL. pelota, pilota, fr. L. pila a ball. Cf. Platoon.] 1. A little ball; as, a pellet of wax &?; paper.

2. A bullet; a ball for firearms. [Obs.] Bacon.

As swift as a pellet out of a gun.


Pellet molding (Arch.), a narrow band ornamented with smalt, flat disks.

Pel"let, v.&?;. To form into small balls. [Obs.] Shak.

Pel"let*ed, a. Made of, or like, pellets; furnished with pellets. [R.] "This pelleted storm." Shak.

||Pel`li*bran`chi*a"ta (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. pellis garment + branchia a gill.] (Zoöl.) A division of Nudibranchiata, in which the mantle itself serves as a gill.

Pel"li*cle (?), n. [L. pellicu&?;a, dim. of pellis skin: cf. F. pellicule.] 1. A thin skin or film.

2. (Chem.) A thin film formed on the surface of an evaporating solution.

Pel*lic"u*lar (?), a. Of or pertaining to a pellicle. Henslow.

Pel*li"le (?), n. (Zoöl.) The redshank; -- so called from its note. [Prov. Eng.]

Pel"li*to*ry (?), n. [OE. paritorie, OF. paritoire, F. pariétaire; (cf. It. & Sp. parietaria), L. parietaria the parietary, or pellitory, the wall plant, fr. parietarus belonging to the walls, fr. paries, parietis a wall. Cf. Parietary.] (Bot.) The common name of the several species of the genus Parietaria, low, harmless weeds of the Nettle family; -- also called wall pellitory, and lichwort.

Parietaria officinalis is common on old walls in Europe; P. pennsylvanica is found in the United States; and six or seven more species are found near the Mediterranean, or in the Orient.

Pel"li*to*ry, n. [Sp. pelitre, fr. L. pyrethrum. See Bertram.] (Bot.) (a) A composite plant (Anacyclus Pyrethrum) of the Mediterranean region, having finely divided leaves and whitish flowers. The root is the officinal pellitory, and is used as an irritant and sialogogue. Called also bertram, and pellitory of Spain. (b) The feverfew (Chrysanthemum Parthenium); -- so called because it resembles the above.

Pell`-mell" (&?;), n. See Pall- mall.

Pell`mell", adv. [F. pêle- mêle, prob. fr. pelle a shovel + mêler to mix, as when different kinds of grain are heaped up and mixed with a shovel. See Pell shovel, Medley.] In utter confusion; with confused violence. "Men, horses, chariots, crowded pellmell." Milton.

Pel*lu"cid (?), a. [L. pellucidus; per (see Per-) + lucidus clear, bright: cf. F. pellucide.] Transparent; clear; limpid; translucent; not opaque. "Pellucid crystal." Dr. H. More. "Pellucid streams." Wordsworth.

{ Pel`lu*cid"i*ty (?), Pel*lu"cid*ness (?), } n. [L. pelluciditas.] The quality or state of being pellucid; transparency; translucency; clearness; as, the pellucidity of the air. Locke.

Pel*lu"cid*ly, adv. In a pellucid manner.

||Pel"ma (?), n.; pl. Pelmata (#). [NL., fr. Gr. &?;.] (Zoöl.) The under surface of the foot.

Pe*lo"pi*um (?), n. [NL., fr. L. Pelops, brother of Niobe, Gr. &?;.] (Chem.) A supposed new metal found in columbite, afterwards shown to be identical with columbium, or niobium.

Pel`o*pon*ne"sian (?), a. [L. Peloponnesius, fr. Peloponnesus, Gr. &?;, lit., the Island of Pelops; &?;, &?;, Pelops + &?; an island.] Of or pertaining to the Peloponnesus, or southern peninsula of Greece. -- n. A native or an inhabitant of the Peloponnesus.

||Pe*lo"ri*a (?), n. [NL., from Gr. &?; monstrous.] (Bot.) Abnormal regularity; the state of certain flowers, which, being naturally irregular, have become regular through a symmetrical repetition of the special irregularity.

Pe*lo"ric (?), a. (Bot.) Abnormally regular or symmetrical. Darwin.

Pel"o*tage (?), n. [F.] Packs or bales of Spanish wool.

Pelt (?), n. [Cf. G. pelz a pelt, fur, fr. OF. pelice, F. pelisse (see Pelisse); or perh. shortened fr. peltry.] 1. The skin of a beast with the hair on; a raw or undressed hide; a skin preserved with the hairy or woolly covering on it. See 4th Fell. Sir T. Browne.

Raw pelts clapped about them for their clothes.


2. The human skin. [Jocose] Dryden.

3. (Falconry) The body of any quarry killed by the hawk.

Pelt rot, a disease affecting the hair or wool of a beast.

Pelt, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Pelted; p. pr. & vb. n. Pelting.] [OE. pelten, pulten, pilten, to thrust, throw, strike; cf. L. pultare, equiv. to pulsare (v. freq. fr. pellere to drive), and E. pulse a beating.] 1. To strike with something thrown or driven; to assail with pellets or missiles, as, to pelt with stones; pelted with hail.

The children billows seem to pelt the clouds.


2. To throw; to use as a missile.

My Phillis me with pelted apples plies.


Pelt, v. i. 1. To throw missiles. Shak.

2. To throw out words. [Obs.]

Another smothered seems to peltand swear.


Pelt, n. A blow or stroke from something thrown.

||Pel"ta (?), n.; pl. Peltæ. [L., a shield, fr. Gr. &?;.] 1. (Antiq.) A small shield, especially one of an approximately elliptic form, or crescent-shaped.

2. (Bot.) A flat apothecium having no rim.

{ Pel"tate (?), Pel"ta*ted (?), } a. [Cf. F. pelté. See Pelta.] Shield-shaped; scutiform; (Bot.) having the stem or support attached to the lower surface, instead of at the base or margin; -- said of a leaf or other organ. -- Pel"tate*ly (#), adv.

Pelt"er (?), n. One who pelts.

Pel"ter (?), n. A pinchpenny; a mean, sordid person; a miser; a skinflint. [Obs.] "Let such pelters prate." Gascoigne.

Pel"ti*form (?), a. [Pelta + - form.] Shieldlike, with the outline nearly circular; peltate. Henslow.

Pel"ting (?), a. Mean; paltry. [Obs.] Shak.

Pelt"ry (?), n. [F. pelleterie peltry, furriery, fr. pelletier a furrier, fr. OF. pel skin, F. peau, L. pelis. See Pelt a skin, Pell, n., Fell a skin.] Pelts or skins, collectively; skins with the fur on them; furs.

Pelt"ry*ware` (?), n. Peltry. [Obs.]

||Pe*lu"do (?), n. [Sp. peludo hairy.] (Zoöl.) The South American hairy armadillo (Dasypus villosus).

Pe*lu"si*ac (?), a. [L. Pelusiacus.] Of or pertaining to Pelusium, an ancient city of Egypt; as, the Pelusiac (or former eastern) outlet of the Nile.

Pel"vic (?), a. Of, pertaining to, or in the region of, the pelvis; as, pelvic cellulitis.

Pelvic arch, or Pelvic girdle (Anat.), the two or more bony or cartilaginous pieces of the vertebrate skeleton to which the hind limbs are articulated. When fully ossified, the arch usually consists of three principal bones on each side, the ilium, ischium, and pubis, which are often closely united in the adult, forming the innominate bone. See Innominate bone, under Innominate.

Pel*vim"e*ter (?), n. [Pelvis + -meter.: cf. F. pelvimètre.] An instrument for measuring the dimensions of the pelvis. Coxe.

Pel"vis (?), n. [L., a basin, laver; cf. Gr. &?;, &?;, bowl.] 1. (Anat.) The pelvic arch, or the pelvic arch together with the sacrum. See Pelvic arch, under Pelvic, and Sacrum.

2. (Zoöl.) The calyx of a crinoid.

Pelvis of the kidney (Anat.), the basinlike cavity into which the ureter expands as it joins the kidney.

Pem"mi*can (?), n. [Written also pemican.] 1. Among the North American Indians, meat cut in thin slices, divested of fat, and dried in the sun.

Then on pemican they feasted.


2. Meat, without the fat, cut in thin slices, dried in the sun, pounded, then mixed with melted fat and sometimes dried fruit, and compressed into cakes or in bags. It contains much nutriment in small compass, and is of great use in long voyages of exploration.

||Pem*phi"gus (?), n. [Nl., fr. Gr. &?;, &?;, a bubble.] (Med.) A somewhat rare skin disease, characterized by the development of blebs upon different part of the body. Quain.

Pen (?), n. [OE. penne, OF. penne, pene, F. penne, fr. L. penna.] 1. A feather. [Obs.] Spenser.

2. A wing. [Obs.] Milton.

3. An instrument used for writing with ink, formerly made of a reed, or of the quill of a goose or other bird, but now also of other materials, as of steel, gold, etc. Also, originally, a stylus or other instrument for scratching or graving.

Graven with an iron pen and lead in the rock.

Job xix. 24.

4. Fig.: A writer, or his style; as, he has a sharp pen. "Those learned pens." Fuller.

5. (Zoöl.) The internal shell of a squid.

6. [Etymol. uncertain.] (Zoöl.) A female swan. [Prov. Eng.]

Bow pen. See Bow-pen. -- Dotting pen, a pen for drawing dotted lines. -- Drawing, or Ruling, pen, a pen for ruling lines having a pair of blades between which the ink is contained. -- Fountain pen, Geometric pen. See under Fountain, and Geometric. -- Music pen, a pen having five points for drawing the five lines of the staff. -- Pen and ink, or pen- and-ink, executed or done with a pen and ink; as, a pen and ink sketch. -- Pen feather. A pin feather. [Obs.] -- Pen name. See under Name. -- Sea pen (Zoöl.), a pennatula. [Usually written sea- pen.]

Pen, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Penned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Penning (?).] To write; to compose and commit to paper; to indite; to compose; as, to pen a sonnet. "A prayer elaborately penned." Milton.

Pen, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Penned (?) or Pent (&?;); p. pr. & vb. n. Penning.] [OE. pennen, AS. pennan in on-pennan to unfasten, prob. from the same source as pin, and orig. meaning, to fasten with a peg.See Pin, n. & v.] To shut up, as in a pen or cage; to confine in a small inclosure or narrow space; to coop up, or shut in; to inclose. "Away with her, and pen her up." Shak.

Watching where shepherds pen their flocks at eve.


Pen, n. [From Pen to shut in.] A small inclosure; as, a pen for sheep or for pigs.

My father stole two geese out of a pen.


Pe"nal (?), a. [L. poenalis, fr. poena punishment: cf. F. pénal. See Pain.] Of or pertaining to punishment, to penalties, or to crimes and offenses; pertaining to criminal jurisprudence: as: (a) Enacting or threatening punishment; as, a penal statue; the penal code. (b) Incurring punishment; subject to a penalty; as, a penalact of offense. (c) Inflicted as punishment; used as a means of punishment; as, a penal colony or settlement. "Adamantine chains and penal fire." Milton.

Penal code (Law), a code of laws concerning crimes and offenses and their punishment. -- Penal laws, Penal statutes (Law), laws prohibited certain acts, and imposing penalties for committing them. -- Penal servitude, imprisonment with hard labor, in a prison, in lieu of transportation. [Great Brit.] -- Penal suit, Penal action (Law), a suit for penalties.

Pe*nal"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. LL. poenalitas. See Penalty.] The quality or state of being penal; lability to punishment. Sir T. Browne.

Pe"nal*ize (?), v. t. 1. To make penal.

2. (Sport.) To put a penalty on. See Penalty, 3. [Eng.]

Pe"nal*ly (?), adv. In a penal manner.

Pe"nal*ty (?), n.; pl. Penalties (#). [F. pénalité. See Penal.] 1. Penal retribution; punishment for crime or offense; the suffering in person or property which is annexed by law or judicial decision to the commission of a crime, offense, or trespass.

Death is the penalty imposed.


2. The suffering, or the sum to be forfeited, to which a person subjects himself by covenant or agreement, in case of nonfulfillment of stipulations; forfeiture; fine.

The penalty and forfeit of my bond.


3. A handicap. [Sporting Cant]

The term penalty is in law mostly applied to a pecuniary punishment.

Bill of pains and penalties. See under Bill. -- On, or Under, penalty of, on pain of; with exposure to the penalty of, in case of transgression.

Pen"ance (?), n. [OF. penance, peneance, L. paenitentia repentance. See Penitence.] 1. Repentance. [Obs.] Wyclif (Luke xv. 7).

2. Pain; sorrow; suffering. [Obs.] "Joy or penance he feeleth none." Chaucer.

3. (Eccl.) A means of repairing a sin committed, and obtaining pardon for it, consisting partly in the performance of expiatory rites, partly in voluntary submission to a punishment corresponding to the transgression. Penance is the fourth of seven sacraments in the Roman Catholic Church. Schaff- Herzog Encyc.

And bitter penance, with an iron whip.


Quoth he, "The man hath penance done,
And penance more will do."


Pen"ance, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Penanced (?).] To impose penance; to punish. "Some penanced lady elf." Keats.

Pen"ance*less, a. Free from penance. [R.]

Pe*nang" nut` (?). [From the native name.] (Bot.) The betel nut. Balfour (Cyc. of India).

Pen*an"nu*lar (?), a. [L. pene, paene, almost + E. annular.] Nearly annular; having nearly the form of a ring. "Penannular relics." D. Wilson.

Pe"na*ry (?), a. Penal. [Obs.] Gauden.

||Pe*na"tes (?), n. pl. [L.] (Rom. Antiq.) The household gods of the ancient Romans. They presided over the home and the family hearth. See Lar.

Pen"aunt (?), n. [OF. penant, peneant. See Penitent.] A penitent. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Pence (?), n., pl. of Penny. See Penny.

Pen"cel (?), n. [See Pennoncel.] A small, narrow flag or streamer borne at the top of a lance; -- called also pennoncel. [Obs.] Piers Plowman. Chaucer.

||Pen`chant" (?), n. [F., fr. pencher to bend, fr. (assumed) LL. pendicare, L. pendere. See Pendant.] Inclination; decided taste; bias; as, a penchant for art.

Pen"chute` (?), n. See Penstock.

Pen"cil (?), n. [OF. pincel, F. pinceau, L. penicillum, penicillus, equiv. to peniculus, dim. of penis a tail. Cf. Penicil.] 1. A small, fine brush of hair or bristles used by painters for laying on colors.

With subtile pencil depainted was this storie.


2. A slender cylinder or strip of black lead, colored chalk, slate etc., or such a cylinder or strip inserted in a small wooden rod intended to be pointed, or in a case, which forms a handle, -- used for drawing or writing. See Graphite.

3. Hence, figuratively, an artist's ability or peculiar manner; also, in general, the act or occupation of the artist, descriptive writer, etc.

4. (Opt.) An aggregate or collection of rays of light, especially when diverging from, or converging to, a point.

5. (Geom.) A number of lines that intersect in one point, the point of intersection being called the pencil point.

6. (Med.) A small medicated bougie.

Pencil case, a holder for pencil lead. - - Pencil flower (Bot.), an American perennial leguminous herb (Stylosanthes elatior). -- Pencil lead, a slender rod of black lead, or the like, adapted for insertion in a holder.

Pen"cil, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Penciled (?) or Pencilled; p. pr. & vb. n. Penciling or Pencilling.] To write or mark with a pencil; to paint or to draw. Cowper.

Where nature pencils butterflies on flowers.


Pen"ciled (?), a. [Written also pencilled.] 1. Painted, drawn, sketched, or marked with a pencil.

2. Radiated; having pencils of rays.

3. (Nat. Hist.) Marked with parallel or radiating lines.

Pen"cil*ing (?), n. [Written also pencilling.] 1. The work of the pencil or bruch; as, delicate penciling in a picture.

2. (Brickwork) Lines of white or black paint drawn along a mortar joint in a brick wall. Knight.

{ Pen"cil*late (?), Pen"cil*la`ted (?), } a. Shaped like a pencil; penicillate.

Pen"craft (?), n. 1. Penmanship; skill in writing; chirography.

2. The art of composing or writing; authorship.

I would not give a groat for that person's knowledge in pencraft.


<! p. 1060 !>

Pend (?), n. Oil cake; penock. [India]

Pend, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Pended; p. pr. & vb. n. Pending.] [L. pendere.] 1. To hang; to depend. [R.]

Pending upon certain powerful motions.

I. Taylor.

2. To be undecided, or in process of adjustment.

Pend, v. t. [Cf. pen to shut in, or AS. pyndan, E. pound an inclosure.] To pen; to confine. [R.]

ended within the limits . . . of Greece.


Pend"ant (?), n. [F., orig. p. pr. of pendre to hang, L. pendere. Cf. Pendent, Pansy, Pensive, Poise, Ponder.] 1. Something which hangs or depends; something suspended; a hanging appendage, especially one of an ornamental character; as to a chandelier or an eardrop; also, an appendix or addition, as to a book.

Some hang upon the pendants of her ear.


Many . . . have been pleased with this work and its pendant, the Tales and Popular Fictions.


2. (Arch.) A hanging ornament on roofs, ceilings, etc., much used in the later styles of Gothic architecture, where it is of stone, and an important part of the construction. There are imitations in plaster and wood, which are mere decorative features. "[A bridge] with . . . pendants graven fair." Spenser.

3. (Fine Arts) One of a pair; a counterpart; as, one vase is the pendant to the other vase.

4. A pendulum. [Obs.] Sir K. Digby.

5. The stem and ring of a watch, by which it is suspended. [U.S.] Knight.

Pendant post (Arch.), a part of the framing of an open timber roof; a post set close against the wall, and resting upon a corbel or other solid support, and supporting the ends of a collar beam or any part of the roof.

Pend"ence (?), n. [See Pendent.] Slope; inclination. [Obs.] Sir H. Wotton.

Pend"en*cy (?), n. 1. The quality or state of being pendent or suspended.

2. The quality or state of being undecided, or in continuance; suspense; as, the pendency of a suit. Ayliffe.

Pend"ent (?), a. [L. pendens, -entis, p. pr. of pendere to hang, to be suspended. Cf. Pendant.] 1. Supported from above; suspended; depending; pendulous; hanging; as, a pendent leaf. "The pendent world." Shak.

Often their tresses, when shaken, with pendent icicles tinkle.


2. Jutting over; projecting; overhanging. "A vapor sometime like a . . . pendent rock." Shak.

Pen*den"tive (?), n. [F. pendentif, fr. L. pendere to hang.] (Arch.) (a) The portion of a vault by means of which the square space in the middle of a building is brought to an octagon or circle to receive a cupola. (b) The part of a groined vault which is supported by, and springs from, one pier or corbel.

Pend"ent*ly, adv. In a pendent manner.

Pen"dice (?), n. [Cf. Pentice.] A sloping roof; a lean-to; a penthouse. [Obs.] Fairfax.

Pen"di*cle (?), n. [Cf. Appendicle.] An appendage; something dependent on another; an appurtenance; a pendant. Sir W. Scott.

Pen*di*cler (?), n. An inferior tenant; one who rents a pendicle or croft. [Scot.] Jamieson.

Pend"ing (?), a. [L. pendere to hang, to be suspended. Cf. Pendent.] Not yet decided; in continuance; in suspense; as, a pending suit.

Pend"ing, prep. During; as, pending the trail.

Pen"drag*on (?), n. A chief leader or a king; a head; a dictator; -- a title assumed by the ancient British chiefs when called to lead other chiefs.

The dread Pendragon, Britain's king of kings.


Pen"du*lar (?), a. Pendulous.

Pen"du*late (?), v. i. To swing as a pendulum. [R.]

Pen"dule (?), n. [F.] A pendulum. [R.] Evelyn.

||Pen"du`line (?), n. [F. See Pendulum.] (Zoöl.) A European titmouse (Parus, or Ægithalus, pendulinus). It is noted for its elegant pendulous purselike nest, made of the down of willow trees and lined with feathers.

Pen`du*los"i*ty (?), n. [See Pendulous.] The state or quality of being pendulous. Sir T. Browne.

Pen"du*lous (?), a. [L. pendulus, fr. pendere to hang. Cf. Pendant, and cf. Pendulum.] 1. Depending; pendent loosely; hanging; swinging. Shak. "The pendulous round earth." Milton.

2. Wavering; unstable; doubtful. [R.] "A pendulous state of mind." Atterbury.

3. (Bot.) Inclined or hanging downwards, as a flower on a recurved stalk, or an ovule which hangs from the upper part of the ovary.

Pen"du*lous*ly, adv. In a pendulous manner.

Pen"du*lous*ness, n. The quality or state of being pendulous; the state of hanging loosely; pendulosity.

Pen"du*lum (?), n.; pl. Pendulums (#). [NL., fr. L. pendulus hanging, swinging. See Pendulous.] A body so suspended from a fixed point as to swing freely to and fro by the alternate action of gravity and momentum. It is used to regulate the movements of clockwork and other machinery.

The time of oscillation of a pendulum is independent of the arc of vibration, provided this arc be small.

Ballistic pendulum. See under Ballistic. -- Compensation pendulum, a clock pendulum in which the effect of changes of temperature of the length of the rod is so counteracted, usually by the opposite expansion of differene metals, that the distance of the center of oscillation from the center of suspension remains invariable; as, the mercurial compensation pendulum, in which the expansion of the rod is compensated by the opposite expansion of mercury in a jar constituting the bob; the gridiron pendulum, in which compensation is effected by the opposite expansion of sets of rodsof different metals. -- Compound pendulum, an ordinary pendulum; -- so called, as being made up of different parts, and contrasted with simple pendulum. -- Conical or Revolving, pendulum, a weight connected by a rod with a fixed point; and revolving in a horizontal cyrcle about the vertical from that point. -- Pendulum bob, the weight at the lower end of a pendulum. -- Pendulum level, a plumb level. See under Level. -- Pendulum wheel, the balance of a watch. -- Simple or Theoretical, pendulum, an imaginary pendulum having no dimensions except length, and no weight except at the center of oscillation; in other words, a material point suspended by an ideal line.

||Pe*nel"o*pe (p*nl"*p), n. [From. L. Penelope, the wife of Ulysses, the hero of the Odyssey, Gr. Phnelo`ph.] (Zoöl.) A genus of curassows, including the guans.

Pen`e*tra*bil"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. pénétrabilité.] The quality of being penetrable; susceptibility of being penetrated, entered, or pierced. Cheyne.

Pen"e*tra*ble (?), a. [L. penetrabilus: cf. F. pénétrable.] Capable of being penetrated, entered, or pierced. Used also figuratively.

And pierce his only penetrable part.


I am not made of stones,
But penetrable to your kind entreats.


-- Pen"e*tra*ble*ness, n. -- Pen"e*tra*bly, adv.

Pen"e*trail (?), n. Penetralia. [Obs.] Harvey.

||Pen`e*tra"li*a (?), n. pl. [L., fr. penetralis penetrating, internal. See Penetrate.] 1. The recesses, or innermost parts, of any thing or place, especially of a temple or palace.

2. Hidden things or secrets; privacy; sanctuary; as, the sacred penetralia of the home.

{ Pen"e*trance (?), Pen"e*tran*cy (?), } n. The quality or state of being penetrant; power of entering or piercing; penetrating power of quality; as, the penetrancy of subtile effluvia.

Pen"e*trant (?), a. [L. penetrans, p. pr. of penetrare: cf. F. pénétrant.] Having power to enter or pierce; penetrating; sharp; subtile; as, penetrant cold. "Penetrant and powerful arguments." Boyle.

Pen"e*trate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Penetrated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Penetrating.] [L. penetratus, p. p. of penetrare to penetrate; akin to penitus inward, inwardly, and perh. to pens with, in the power of, penus store of food, innermost part of a temple.] 1. To enter into; to make way into the interior of; to effect an entrance into; to pierce; as, light penetrates darkness.

2. To affect profoundly through the senses or feelings; to touch with feeling; to make sensible; to move deeply; as, to penetrate one's heart with pity. Shak.

The translator of Homer should penetrate himself with a sense of the plainness and directness of Homer's style.

M. Arnold.

3. To pierce into by the mind; to arrive at the inner contents or meaning of, as of a mysterious or difficult subject; to comprehend; to understand.

Things which here were too subtile for us to penetrate.


Pen"e*trate, v. i. To pass; to make way; to pierce. Also used figuratively.

Preparing to penetrate to the north and west.

J. R. Green.

Born where Heaven's influence scarce can penetrate.


The sweet of life that penetrates so near.


Pen"e*tra`ting (?), a. 1. Having the power of entering, piercing, or pervading; sharp; subtile; penetrative; as, a penetrating odor.

2. Acute; discerning; sagacious; quick to discover; as, a penetrating mind.

Pen"e*tra`ting*ly, adv. In a penetrating manner.

Pen"e*tra`tion (?), n. [L. penetratio: cf. F. pénétration.] 1. The act or process of penetrating, piercing, or entering; also, the act of mentally penetrating into, or comprehending, anything difficult.

And to each in ward part,
With gentle penetration, though unseen,
Shoots invisible virtue even to the deep.


A penetration into the difficulties of algebra.


2. Acuteness; insight; sharp discoverment; sagacity; as, a person of singular penetration. Walpole.

Syn. -- Discernment; sagacity; acuteness; sharpness; discrimination. See Discernment, and Sagacity.

Pen"e*tra*tive (?), a. [Cf. F. pénétratif.] 1. Tending to penetrate; of a penetrating quality; piercing; as, the penetrative sun.

His look became keen and penetrative.


2. Having the power to affect or impress the mind or heart; impressive; as, penetrative shame. Shak.

3. Acute; discerning; sagacious; as, penetrative wisdom. "The penetrative eye." Wordsworth.

Led on by skill of penetrative soul.


Pen"e*tra*tive*ness, n. The quality of being penetrative.

Pen"fish` (?), n. (Zoöl.) A squid.

Pen"fold` (?), n. See Pinfold.

Pen"go*lin (?), n. (Zoöl.)The pangolin.

Pen"guin (?), n. [Perh. orig. the name of another bird, and fr. W. pen head + gwyn white; or perh. from a native South American name.] 1. (Zoöl.) Any bird of the order Impennes, or Ptilopteri. They are covered with short, thick feathers, almost scalelike on the wings, which are without true quills. They are unable to fly, but use their wings to aid in diving, in which they are very expert. See King penguin, under Jackass.

Penguins are found in the south temperate and antarctic regions. The king penguins (Aptenodytes Patachonica, and A. longirostris) are the largest; the jackass penguins (Spheniscus) and the rock hoppers (Catarractes) congregate in large numbers at their breeding grounds.

2. (Bot.) The egg-shaped fleshy fruit of a West Indian plant (Bromelia Pinguin) of the Pineapple family; also, the plant itself, which has rigid, pointed, and spiny- toothed leaves, and is used for hedges. [Written also pinguin.]

Arctic penguin (Zoöl.), the great auk. See Auk.

Pen"guin*er*y (?), n. (Zoöl.) A breeding place, or rookery, of penguins.

Pen"hold`er (?), n. A handle for a pen.

Pen"house` (?), n. A penthouse. [Obs.]

Pen*i"ble (?), a. [OF. penible. Cf. Painable.] Painstaking; assidous. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Pen"i*cil (?), n. [L. penicillum, penicillus, a painter's brush, a roil of lint, a tent for wounds.] (mented.) A tent or pledget for wounds or ulcers.

Pen`i*cil"late (?), a. [Cf. F. pénicillé. See Penicil.] (Biol.) Having the form of a pencil; furnished with a pencil of fine hairs; ending in a tuft of hairs like a camel's-hair brush, as the stigmas of some grasses.

Pen`i*cil"li*form (?), a. (Bot.) Penicillate.

Pen*in"su*la (?), n. [L. peninsula or paeninsula; paene almost + insula an island. See Isle.] A portion of land nearly surrounded by water, and connected with a larger body by a neck, or isthmus.

Pen*in"su*lar (?), a. [Cf. F. péninsulaire.] Of or pertaining to a peninsula; as, a peninsular form; peninsular people; the peninsular war.

Pen*in"su*late (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Peninsulated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Peninsulating.] To form into a peninsula.

South River . . . peninsulates Castle Hill farm.

W. Bentley.

Pe"nis (p"ns), n. [L.] (Anat.) The male member, or organ of generation.

Pen"i*tence (?), n. [F. pénitence, L. paenitentia. See Penitent, and cf. Penance.] The quality or condition of being penitent; the disposition of a penitent; sorrow for sins or faults; repentance; contrition. "Penitence of his old guilt." Chaucer.

Death is deferred, and penitenance has room
To mitigate, if not reverse, the doom.


Syn. -- Repentance; contrition; compunction.

Pen"i*ten*cer (?), n. [F. pénitencier.] A priest who heard confession and enjoined penance in extraordinary cases. [Written also penitenser.] [Obs.] Chaucer.

Pen"i*ten*cy (?), n. Penitence. [Obs.]

Pen"i*tent (?), a. [F. pénitent, L. paenitens, -entis, poenitens, p. pr. of paenitere, poenitere, to cause to repent, to repent; prob. akin to poena punishment. See Pain.] 1. Feeling pain or sorrow on account of sins or offenses; repentant; contrite; sincerely affected by a sense of guilt, and resolved on amendment of life.

Be penitent, and for thy fault contrite.


The pound he tamed, the penitent he cheered.


2. Doing penance. [Obs.] Shak.

Pen"i*tent, n. 1. One who repents of sin; one sorrowful on account of his transgressions.

2. One under church censure, but admitted to penance; one undergoing penance.

3. One under the direction of a confessor.

Penitents is an appellation given to certain fraternities in Roman Catholic countries, distinguished by their habit, and employed in charitable acts.

Pen`i*ten"tial (?), a. [Cf. F. pénitentiel.] Of or pertaining to penitence, or to penance; expressing penitence; of the nature of penance; as, the penitential book; penitential tears. "Penitential stripes." Cowper.

Guilt that all the penitential fires of hereafter can not cleanse.

Sir W. Scott.

Pen`i*ten"tial, n. (R. C. Ch.) A book formerly used by priests hearing confessions, containing rules for the imposition of penances; -- called also penitential book.

Pen`i*ten"tial*ly, adv. In a penitential manner.

Pen`i*ten"tia*ry (?), a. [Cf. F. pénitentiaire.] 1. Relating to penance, or to the rules and measures of penance. "A penitentiary tax." Abp. Bramhall.

2. Expressive of penitence; as, a penitentiary letter.

3. Used for punishment, discipline, and reformation. "Penitentiary houses." Blackstone.

Pen`i*ten"tia*ry, n.; pl. Penitentiaries (#). [Cf. F. pénitencier. See Penitent.] 1. One who prescribes the rules and measures of penance. [Obs.] Bacon.

2. One who does penance. [Obs.] Hammond.

3. A small building in a monastery where penitents confessed. Shpiley.

4. That part of a church to which penitents were admitted. Shipley.

5. (R. C. Ch.) (a) An office of the papal court which examines cases of conscience, confession, absolution from vows, etc., and delivers decisions, dispensations, etc. Its chief is a cardinal, called the Grand Penitentiary, appointed by the pope. (b) An officer in some dioceses since A. D. 1215, vested with power from the bishop to absolve in cases reserved to him.

6. A house of correction, in which offenders are confined for punishment, discipline, and reformation, and in which they are generally compelled to labor.

Pen`i*ten"tia*ry*ship, n. The office or condition of a penitentiary of the papal court. [R.] Wood.

Pen"i*tent*ly, adv. In a penitent manner.

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Penk (?), n. A minnow. See Pink, n., 4. [Prov. Eng.] Walton.

Pen"knife` (?), n.; pl. Penknives (#). [Pen + knife.] A small pocketknife; formerly, a knife used for making and mending quill pens.

Pen"man (?), n.; pl. Penmen (&?;). 1. One who uses the pen; a writer; esp., one skilled in the use of the pen; a calligrapher; a writing master.

2. An author; a composer. South.

Pen"man*ship, n. The use of the pen in writing; the art of writing; style or manner of writing; chirography; as, good or bad penmanship.

||Pen"na (?), n.; pl. Pennæ (#). [L.] (Zoöl.) A perfect, or normal, feather.

Pen"na"ceous (?), a. (Zoöl.) Like or pertaining to a normal feather.

Pen"nach (?), n. [OF. pennache. See Panache.] A bunch of feathers; a plume. [Obs.] Holland.

Pen"nached (?), a. [Cf. OF. pennaché. See Panache.] Variegated; striped. [Obs.] Evelyn.

Pen"nage (?), n. [L. penna feather.] Feathery covering; plumage. [Obs.] Holland.

Pen"nant (?), n. [OE. penon, penoun, pynoun, OF. penon, F. pennon, fr. L. penna feather. See Pen a feather, and cf. Pennon, Pinion.] (Naut.) (a) A small flag; a pennon. The narrow, or long, pennant (called also whip or coach whip) is a long, narrow piece of bunting, carried at the masthead of a government vessel in commission. The board pennant is an oblong, nearly square flag, carried at the masthead of a commodore's vessel. "With flags and pennants trimmed." Drayton. (b) A rope or strap to which a purchase is hooked.

{ Pen"nate (?), Pen"na*ted (?), } a. [L. pennatus feathered, winged, from penna feather, wing.] 1. Winged; plume- shaped.

2. (Bot.) Same as Pinnate.

||Pen*nat"u*la (?), n.; pl. L. Pennatulæ (#), E. Pennatulas (#). [NL., fr. L. penna a feather.] (Zoöl.) Any one of numerous species of Pennatula, Pteroides, and allied genera of Alcyonaria, having a featherlike form; a sea-pen. The zooids are situated along one edge of the side branches.

||Pen*nat`u*la"ce*a (?), n. pl. [NL. See Pennatula.] (Zoöl.) A division of alcyonoid corals, including the seapens and related kinds. They are able to move about by means of the hollow muscular peduncle, which also serves to support them upright in the mud. See Pennatula, and Illust. under Alcyonaria.

Penned (?), a. 1. Winged; having plumes. [Obs.]

2. Written with a pen; composed. "Their penned speech." Shak.

Pen"ner (?), n. 1. One who pens; a writer. Sir T. North.

2. A case for holding pens. [Obs.]

Pen"ni*form (?), a. [L. penna feather + -form: cf. F. penniforme.] Having the form of a feather or plume.

Pen*nig"er*ous (?), a. [L. penniger; penna feather + gerere to bear.] (Zoöl.) Bearing feathers or quills.

Pen"ni*less (?), a. [From Penny.] Destitute of money; impecunious; poor. -- Pen"ni*less*ness, n.

Pen"ni*nerved` (?), a. [L. penna feather + E. nerve.] Pinnately veined or nerved.

Pen*nip"o*tent (?), a. [L. pennipotens; penna wing + potens strong.] Strong of wing; strong on the wing. [Poetic] Davies (Holy Roode).

Pen"non (?), n. [Cf. Pinion.] A wing; a pinion. Milton.

Pen"non, n. [See Pennant.] A pennant; a flag or streamer. Longfellow.

{ Pen"non*cel`, Pen"non*celle` (?) }, n. [OF. penoncel. See Pennant.] See Pencel.

Pen"ny (?), a. [Perh. a corruption of pun, for pound.] Denoting pound weight for one thousand; -- used in combination, with respect to nails; as, tenpenny nails, nails of which one thousand weight ten pounds.

Pen*ny, n.; pl. Pennies (#) or Pence (&?;). Pennies denotes the number of coins; pence the amount of pennies in value. [OE. peni, AS. penig, pening, pending; akin to D. penning, OHG. pfenning, pfenting, G. pfennig, Icel. penningr; of uncertain origin.] 1. An English coin, formerly of copper, now of bronze, the twelfth part of an English shilling in account value, and equal to four farthings, or about two cents; -- usually indicated by the abbreviation d. (the initial of denarius).

"The chief Anglo-Saxon coin, and for a long period the only one, corresponded to the denarius of the Continent . . . [and was] called penny, denarius, or denier." R. S. Poole. The ancient silver penny was worth about three pence sterling (see Pennyweight). The old Scotch penny was only one twelfth the value of the English coin. In the United States the word penny is popularly used for cent.

2. Any small sum or coin; a groat; a stiver. Shak.

3. Money, in general; as, to turn an honest penny.

What penny hath Rome borne,
What men provided, what munition sent?


4. (Script.) See Denarius.

Penny cress (Bot.), an annual herb of the Mustard family, having round, flat pods like silver pennies (Thlaspi arvense). Dr. Prior. -- Penny dog (Zoöl.), a kind of shark found on the South coast of Britain: the tope. -- Penny father, a penurious person; a niggard. [Obs.] Robinson (More's Utopia). -- Penny grass (Bot.), pennyroyal. [R.] -- Penny post, a post carrying a letter for a penny; also, a mail carrier. -- Penny wise, wise or prudent only in small matters; saving small sums while losing larger; -- used chiefly in the phrase, penny wise and pound foolish.

Pen"ny (?), a. Worth or costing one penny.

Pen"ny-a-lin"er (?), n. One who furnishes matter to public journals at so much a line; a poor writer for hire; a hack writer. Thackeray.

Pen`ny*roy"al (?), n. [A corruption of OE. puliall royal. OE. puliall is ultimately derived fr. L. puleium, or pulegium regium (so called as being good against fleas), fr. pulex a flea; and royal is a translation of L. regium, in puleium regium.] (Bot.) An aromatic herb (Mentha Pulegium) of Europe; also, a North American plant (Hedeoma pulegioides) resembling it in flavor.

Bastard pennyroyal (Bot.) See Blue curls, under Blue.

Pen"ny*weight` (?), n. A troy weight containing twenty-four grains, or the twentieth part of an ounce; as, a pennyweight of gold or of arsenic. It was anciently the weight of a silver penny, whence the name.

Pen"ny*wort` (?), n. (Bot.) A European trailing herb (Linaria Cymbalaria) with roundish, reniform leaves. It is often cultivated in hanging baskets.

March, or Water, pennywort. (Bot.) See under March.

Pen"ny*worth` (?), n. 1. A penny's worth; as much as may be bought for a penny. "A dear pennyworth." Evelyn.

2. Hence: The full value of one's penny expended; due return for money laid out; a good bargain; a bargain.

The priests sold the better pennyworths.


3. A small quantity; a trifle. Bacon.

Pen"ock (?), n. See Pend.

Pen`o*log"ic*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to penology.

Pe*nol"o*gist (?), n. One versed in, or a student of, penology.

Pe*nol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. &?;, or L. poena, punishment + -logy.] The science or art of punishment. [Written also pœnology.]

Pen"rack` (?), n. A rack for pens not in use.

Pens (?), n., pl. of Penny. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Pen"sa*tive (?), a. Pensive. [Obs.] Shelton.

Pen"sel (?), n. A pencel. Chaucer.

Pen"si*ble (?), a. Held aloft. [Obs.] Bacon.

Pen"sile (?), a. [L. pensilis, fr. pendere to hang: cf. OE. pensil. See Pendant.] Hanging; suspended; pendent; pendulous. Bacon.

The long, pensile branches of the birches.

W. Howitt.

Pen"sile*ness, n. State or quality of being pensile; pendulousness.

Pen"sion (?), n. [F., fr. L. pensio a paying, payment, fr. pendere, pensum, to weight, to pay; akin to pend&?;re to hang. See Pendant, and cf. Spend.] 1. A payment; a tribute; something paid or given. [Obs.]

The stomach's pension, and the time's expense.


2. A stated allowance to a person in consideration of past services; payment made to one retired from service, on account of age, disability, or other cause; especially, a regular stipend paid by a government to retired public officers, disabled soldiers, the families of soldiers killed in service, or to meritorious authors, or the like.

To all that kept the city pensions and wages.

1 Esd. iv. 56.

3. A certain sum of money paid to a clergyman in lieu of tithes. [Eng.] Mozley & W.

4. [F., pronounced &?;.] A boarding house or boarding school in France, Belgium, Switzerland, etc.

Pen"sion, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Pensioned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Pensioning.] To grant a pension to; to pay a regular stipend to; in consideration of service already performed; -- sometimes followed by off; as, to pension off a servant.

One knighted Blackmore, and one pensioned Quarles.


Pen"sion*a*ry (?), a. 1. Maintained by a pension; receiving a pension; as, pensionary spies. Donne.

2. Consisting of a pension; as, a pensionary provision for maintenance.

Pen"sion*a*ry (?), n.; pl. Pensionaries (#). [Cf. F. pensionnaire. Cf. Pensioner.] 1. One who receives a pension; a pensioner. E. Hall.

2. One of the chief magistrates of towns in Holland.

Grand pensionary, the title of the prime minister, or or president of the Council, of Holland when a republic.

Pen"sion*er (?), n. 1. One in receipt of a pension; hence, figuratively, a dependent.

The fickle pensioners of Morpheus' train.


Old pensioners . . . of Chelsea Hospital.


2. One of an honorable band of gentlemen who attend the sovereign of England on state occasions, and receive an annual pension, or allowance, of £150 and two horses.

3. [Cf. F. pensionnaire one who pays for his board. Cf. Pensionary, n.] In the university of Cambridge, England, one who pays for his living in commons; -- corresponding to commoner at Oxford. Ld. Lytton.

Pen"sive (?), a. [F. pensif, fr. penser to think, fr. L. pensare to weigh, ponder, consider, v. intens. fr. pendere to weigh. See Pension, Poise.] 1. Thoughtful, sober, or sad; employed in serious reflection; given to, or favorable to, earnest or melancholy musing.

The pensive secrecy of desert cell.


Anxious cares the pensive nymph oppressed.


2. Expressing or suggesting thoughtfulness with sadness; as, pensive numbers. Prior.

Pen"sived (?), a. Made pensive. [R.] Shak.

Pen"sive*ly (?), adv. In a pensive manner.

Pen"sive*ness, n. The state of being pensive; serious thoughtfulness; seriousness. Hooker.

Pen"stock (?), n. [Etymol. uncertain; perh. fr. pen an inclosure + stock.] 1. A close conduit or pipe for conducting water, as, to a water wheel, or for emptying a pond, or for domestic uses.

2. The barrel of a wooden pump.

Pent (?), p. p. or a. [From Pen, v. t.] Penned or shut up; confined; -- often with up.

Here in the body pent.

J. Montgomery.

No pent-up Utica contracts your powers.

J. M. Sewall.

Pen"ta- (?). [Gr. &?;, a later combining form of &?; five. See Five.] 1. A combining form denoting five; as, pentacapsular; pentagon.

2. (Chem.) Denoting the degree of five, either as regards quality, property, or composition; as, pentasulphide; pentoxide, etc. Also used adjectively.

Pen`ta*ba"sic (?), a. [Penta- + basic.] (Chem.) Capable of uniting with five molecules of a monacid base; having five acid hydrogen atoms capable of substitution by a basic radical; -- said of certain acids.

Pen`ta*cap"su*lar (?), a. [Penta- + capsular.] (Bot.) Having five capsules.

Pen`ta*che"ni*um (?), n. [NL. See Penta-, and Achenium.] (Bot.) A dry fruit composed of five carpels, which are covered by an epigynous calyx and separate at maturity.

Pen`ta*chlo"ride (?), n. [Penta- + chloride.] (Chem.) A chloride having five atoms of chlorine in each molecule.

Pen"ta*chord (?), n. [L. pentachordus five-stringed, Gr. &?;; &?; five + &?; string.] 1. An ancient instrument of music with five strings.

2. An order or system of five sounds. Busby.

Pen*tac"id (&?;), a. [Penta- + acid.] (Chem.) Capable of neutralizing, or combining with, five molecules of a monobasic acid; having five hydrogen atoms capable of substitution by acid residues; -- said of certain complex bases.

Pen"ta*cle (?), n. [Gr. &?; five.] A figure composed of two equilateral triangles intersecting so as to form a six-pointed star, -- used in early ornamental art, and also with superstitious import by the astrologers and mystics of the Middle Ages.

Pen`ta*coc"cous (?), a. [See Penta- , Coccus.] (Bot.) Composed of five united carpels with one seed in each, as certain fruits.

Pen"ta*con`ter (?), n. (Gr. Antiq.) See Penteconter.

Pen*tac"ri*nin (?), n. (Physiol. Chem.) A red and purple pigment found in certain crinoids of the genus Pentacrinus.

Pen*tac"ri*nite (?), n. [Penta- + Gr. &?; a lily.] (Zoöl.) Any species of Pentacrinus.

Pen*tac"ri*noid (?), n. [Pentacrinus + -oid.] (Zoöl.) An immature comatula when it is still attached by a stem, and thus resembles a Pentacrinus.

||Pen*tac"ri*nus (?), n. [NL. See Penta-, and Crinum.] (Zoöl.) A genus of large, stalked crinoids, of which several species occur in deep water among the West Indies and elsewhere.

Pen*ta"cron (?), n.; pl. L. Pentacra (#), E. Pentacrons (#). [NL., fr. Gr. &?; five + &?; a summit.] (Geom.) A solid having five summits or angular points.

Pen`ta*cros"tic (?), n. [Penta- + acrostic.] A set of verses so disposed that the name forming the subject of the acrostic occurs five times -- the whole set of verses being divided into five different parts from top to bottom.

Pen"tad (?), n. [Gr. &?;, &?;, a body of five, fr. &?; five.] (Chem.) Any element, atom, or radical, having a valence of five, or which can be combined with, substituted for, or compared with, five atoms of hydrogen or other monad; as, nitrogen is a pentad in the ammonium compounds.

Pen"tad, a. (Chem.) Having the valence of a pentad.

{ Pen`ta*dac"tyl, Pen`ta*dac"tyle } (?), a. [Gr. &?; with five fingers or toes. See Penta- , and Dactyl.] 1. (Anat.) Having five digits to the hand or foot.

2. Having five appendages resembling fingers or toes.

Pen`ta*dac"tyl*oid (?), a. [Pentadactyl + -oid.] (Anat.) Having the form of, or a structure modified from, a pentadactyl limb.

Pen`ta*dec"ane (?), n. [Penta- + Gr. &?; ten.] (Chem.) A hydrocarbon of the paraffin series, (C15H32) found in petroleum, tar oil, etc., and obtained as a colorless liquid; -- so called from the fifteen carbon atoms in the molecule.

Pen`ta*dec`a*to"ic (?), a. [Penta- + decatoic.] (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or derived from, pentadecane, or designating an acid related to it.

Pen`ta*decyl"ic (?), a. [Penta- + decylic.] (Chem.) Same as Quindecylic.

Pen`ta*del"phous (?), a. [Penta- + Gr. &?; brother.] (Bot.) Having the stamens arranged in five clusters, those of each cluster having their filaments more or less united, as the flowers of the linden.

<! p. 1062 !>

Pen"ta*fid (?), a. [Penta- + root of L. findere to split.] (Bot.) Divided or cleft into five parts.

Pen"ta*glot (?), n. [Penta- + -glot, as in polyglot.] A work in five different tongues.

Pen"ta*gon (?), n. [Gr. &?;; &?; (see Penta-) + gwni`a angle: cf. L. pentagonium, F. pentagone.] (Geom.) A plane figure having five angles, and, consequently, five sides; any figure having five angles.

Regular pentagon, a pentagon in which the angles are all equal, and the sides all equal.

Pen*tag"o*nal (?), a. [Cf. F. pentagonal, pentagone, L. pentagonus, pentagonius, Gr. &?;.] Having five corners or angles.

Pentagonal dodecahedron. See Dodecahedron, and Pyritohedron.

Pen*tag"o*nal*ly, adv. In the form of a pentagon; with five angles. Sir T. Browne.

Pen*tag"o*nous (?), a. Pentagonal.

Pen"ta*gram (?), n. [Gr. &?;, neut. of &?; having five lines. See Penta-, and -gram.] A pentacle or a pentalpha. "Like a wizard pentagram." Tennyson.

{ Pen`ta*graph"ic (?), Pen`ta*graph"ic*al (?), } a. [Corrupted fr. pantographic, - ical.] Pantographic. See Pantograph.

||Pen`ta*gyn"i*a (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; (see Penta-) + &?; female.] (Bot.) A Linnæan order of plants, having five styles or pistils.

{ Pen`ta*gyn"i*an (?), Pen*tag"y*nous (?), } a. (Bot.) Of or pertaining to plants of the order Pentagyna; having five styles.

Pen`ta*he"dral (?), a. Having five sides; as, a pentahedral figure.

Pen`ta*hed"ric*al (?), a. Pentahedral. [R.]

Pen`ta*he"dron (?), n. [Penta- + Gr. "e`dra seat, base.] A solid figure having five sides.

Pen`ta*he"drous (?), a. Pentahedral. Woodward.

Pen"tail` (?), n. (Zoöl.) A peculiar insectivore (Ptilocercus Lowii) of Borneo; -- so called from its very long, quill-shaped tail, which is scaly at the base and plumose at the tip.

||Pen*tal"pha (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?;: cf. F. pentalpha. See Penta-, and Alpha.] A five-pointed star, resembling five alphas joined at their bases; -- used as a symbol.

||Pen*tam"e*ra (?), n. pl. [NL. See Pentamerous.] (Zoöl.) An extensive division of Coleoptera, including those that normally have five-jointed tarsi. It embraces about half of all the known species of the Coleoptera.

Pen*tam"er*an (?), n. (Zoöl.) One of the Pentamera.

Pen*tam"er*ous (?), a. [Penta- + Gr. &?; part.] 1. (Biol.) Divided into, or consisting of, five parts; also, arranged in sets, with five parts in each set, as a flower with five sepals, five petals, five, or twice five, stamens, and five pistils.

2. (Zoöl.) Belonging to the Pentamera.

||Pen*tam"e*rus (?), n. [NL. See Pentamerous.] (Paleon.) A genus of extinct Paleozoic brachiopods, often very abundant in the Upper Silurian.

Pentamerus limestone (Geol.), a Silurian limestone composed largely of the shells of Pentamerus.

Pen*tam"e*ter (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. &?;; &?; (see Penta-) + &?; measure.] (Gr. & L.Pros.) A verse of five feet.

The dactylic pentameter consists of two parts separated by a diæresis. Each part consists of two dactyls and a long syllable. The spondee may take the place of the dactyl in the first part, but not in the second. The elegiac distich consists of the hexameter followed by the pentameter. Harkness.

Pen*tam"e*ter, a. Having five metrical feet.

Pen`ta*meth"yl*ene (?), n. [Penta- + methylene.] (Chem.) A hypothetical hydrocarbon, C5H10, metameric with the amylenes, and the nucleus of a large number of derivatives; -- so named because regarded as composed of five methylene residues. Cf. Trimethylene, and Tetramethylene.

||Pen*tan"dri*a (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; (see Penta-) + &?;, &?;, man, male.] (Bot.) A Linnæan class of plants having five separate stamens.

{ Pen*tan"dri*an (?), Pen*tan"drous (?), } a. (Bot.) Of or pertaining to the class Pentadria; having five stamens.

Pen"tane (?), n. [See Penta-.] (Chem.) Any one of the three metameric hydrocarbons, C5H12, of the methane or paraffin series. They are colorless, volatile liquids, two of which occur in petroleum. So called because of the five carbon atoms in the molecule.

Pen"tan`gle (?), n. [Penta- + angle.] A pentagon. [R.] Sir T. Browne.

Pen*tan"gu*lar (?), a. [Penta- + angular.] Having five corners or angles. [R.]

Pen`ta*pet"al*ous (?), a. [Penta- + petal.] (Bot.) Having five petals, or flower leaves.

Pen*taph"yl*lous (?), a. [Penta- + Gr. &?; leaf.] (Bot.) Having five leaves or leaflets.

Pen*tap"o*dy (?), n. [Penta- + Gr. &?;, &?;, foot.] (Pros.) A measure or series consisting of five feet.

Pen"tap*tote (?), n. [L. (pl.) pentaptota. Gr. &?; with five cases; &?; (see Penta-) + &?; falling.] (Gram.) A noun having five cases.

Pen"tap*tych (?), n. [Penta- + Gr. &?;, &?;, a fold.] (Fine Arts) A picture, or combination of pictures, consisting of a centerpiece and double folding doors or wings, as for an altarpiece.

Pen"tar*chy (?), n. [Gr. &?;: cf. F. pentarchie. See Penta-, and -archy.] A government in the hands of five persons; five joint rulers. P. Fletcher. "The pentarchy of the senses." A. Brewer.

Pen"ta*spast (?), n. [L. pentaspaston, Gr. &?; (see Penta-) + &?; to pull: cf. F. pentaspaste.] A purchase with five pulleys. [R.]

Pen`ta*sper"mous (?), a. [Penta- + Gr. &?; seed.] (Bot.) Containing five seeds.

Pen"ta*stich (?), n. [Gr. &?; of five verses; &?; (see Penta-) + &?; line, verse.] A composition consisting of five verses.

Pen*tas"ti*chous (?), a. [Penta- + Gr. &?; a row.] (Bot.) Having, or arranged in, five vertical ranks, as the leaves of an apple tree or a cherry tree.

||Pen`ta*stom"i*da (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. &?; (see Penta-) + &?; a mouth.] (Zoöl.) Same as Linguatulina.

Pen"ta*style (?), a. [Penta- + Gr. &?; a pillar.] (Arch.) Having five columns in front; - - said of a temple or portico in classical architecture. -- n. A portico having five columns.

Pen"ta*teuch (?), n. [L. pentateuchus, Gr. &?;; &?; (see Penta-) + &?; a tool, implement, a book, akin to &?; to prepare, make ready, and perh. to E. text. See Five, and Text.] The first five books of the Old Testament, collectively; -- called also the Law of Moses, Book of the Law of Moses, etc.

Pen`ta*teu"chal (?), a. Of or pertaining to the Pentateuch.

Pen`ta*thi*on"ic (?), a. [Penta- + thionic.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, an acid of sulphur obtained by leading hydrogen sulphide into a solution of sulphur dioxide; -- so called because it contains five atoms of sulphur.

||Pen*tath"lon (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?;; &?; five + &?; a contest.] (Gr. Antiq.) A fivefold athletic performance peculiar to the great national games of the Greeks, including leaping, foot racing, wrestling, throwing the discus, and throwing the spear.

Pen`ta*tom"ic (?), a. [Penta- + atomic.] (Chem.) (a) Having five atoms in the molecule. (b) Having five hydrogen atoms capable of substitution.

Pen*tav"a*lent (?), a. [Penta- + L. valens, p. pr. See Valence.] (Chem.) Having a valence of five; -- said of certain atoms and radicals.

Pen"te*con`ter (?), n. [Gr. &?; (sc. &?;), fr. &?; fifty.] (Gr. Antiq.) A Grecian vessel with fifty oars. [Written also pentaconter.]

Pen"te*cost (?), n. [L. pentecoste, Gr. &?; (sc. &?;) the fiftieth day, Pentecost, fr. &?; fiftieth, fr. &?; fifty, fr. &?; five. See Five, and cf. Pingster.] 1. A solemn festival of the Jews; -- so called because celebrated on the fiftieth day (seven weeks) after the second day of the Passover (which fell on the sixteenth of the Jewish month Nisan); -- hence called, also, the Feast of Weeks. At this festival an offering of the first fruits of the harvest was made. By the Jews it was generally regarded as commemorative of the gift of the law on the fiftieth day after the departure from Egypt.

2. A festival of the Roman Catholic and other churches in commemoration of the descent of the Holy Spirit on the apostles; which occurred on the day of Pentecost; -- called also Whitsunday. Shak.

Pen`te*cos"tal (?), a. Of or pertaining to Pentecost or to Whitsuntide.

Pen`te*cos"tals (?), n. pl. Offerings formerly made to the parish priest, or to the mother church, at Pentecost. Shipley.

Pen`te*cos"ter (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?;, fr. &?; fifty.] (Gr. Antiq.) An officer in the Spartan army commanding fifty men. Mitford.

Pen`te*cos"ty (?), n.; pl. Pentecosties (#). [Gr. &?;, fr. &?; the fiftieth, &?; fifty.] (Gr. Antiq.) A troop of fifty soldiers in the Spartan army; -- called also pentecostys. Jowett (Thucyd. ).

{ Pen*tel"ic (?), Pen*tel"i*can (?), } a. Of or pertaining to Mount Pentelicus, near Athens, famous for its fine white marble quarries; obtained from Mount Pentelicus; as, the Pentelic marble of which the Parthenon is built.

Pen"tene (?), n. [See Penta-.] (Chem.) Same as Amylene.

Pent"house` (?), n. [A corruption of pentice.] A shed or roof sloping from the main wall or building, as over a door or window; a lean-to. Also figuratively. "The penthouse of his eyes." Sir W. Scott.

Pent"house`, a. Leaning; overhanging. "Penthouse lid." Shak. "My penthouse eyebrows." Dryden.

Pen"tice (?), n. [F. appentis a penthouse. See Append.] A penthouse. [Obs.] Sir H. Wotton.

Pen"tile` (?), n. See Pantile.

Pen"tine (?), n. [See Penta-.] (Chem.) An unsaturated hydrocarbon, C5H8, of the acetylene series. Same as Valerylene.

Pen*to"ic (?), a. [See Penta-.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or desingating, an acid (called also valeric acid) derived from pentane.

Pen"tone (?), n. [See Penta-.] (Chem.) Same as Valylene.

Pen*tox"ide (?), n. [Penta- + oxide.] (Chem.) An oxide containing five atoms of oxygen in each molecule; as, phosphorus pentoxide, P2O5.

Pen"tre*mite (?), n. (Zoöl.) Any species of Pentremites.

||Pen`tre*mi"tes (?), n. [NL., from Gr. &?; five + L. remus an oar.] (Zoöl.) A genus of crinoids belonging to the Blastoidea. They have five petal-like ambulacra.

Pent"roof` (?), n. [F. pente slope + E. roof, or from penthouse roof.] See Lean-to.

Pen"trough` (?), n. A penstock.

Pen"tyl (?), n. [Penta + - yl.] (Chem.) The hypothetical radical, C5H11, of pentane and certain of its derivatives. Same as Amyl.

Pen*tyl"ic (?), a. Pertaining to, derived from, or containing, pentyl; as, pentylic alcohol

{ Pe"nu*chle (?), Pin"o*cle (?) }, n. A game at cards, played with forty-eight cards, being all the cards above the eight spots in two packs.

Pe"nult (?), n. [Abbreviated fr. penultima.] (Gram. & Pros.) The last syllable but one of a word; the syllable preceding the final one.

Pe*nul"ti*ma (?), n. [L. (sc. syllaba), fr. penultimus, paenultimus, the last but one; paene almost + ultimus the last.] Same as Penult.

Pe*nul"ti*mate (?), a. Last but one; as, the penultimate syllable, the last syllable but one of a word.

Pe*nul"ti*mate, n. The penult.

Pe*num"bra (?), n. [NL., fr. L. paene almost + umbra shade.] 1. An incomplete or partial shadow.

2. (Astron.) The shadow cast, in an eclipse, where the light is partly, but not wholly, cut off by the intervening body; the space of partial illumination between the umbra, or perfect shadow, on all sides, and the full light. Sir I. Newton.

The faint shade surrounding the dark central portion of a solar spot is also called the penumbra, and sometimes umbra.

3. (Paint.) The part of a picture where the shade imperceptibly blends with the light.

Pe*num"brala. Of or pertaining to a penumbra; resembling a penumbra; partially illuminated.

Pe*nu"ri*ous (?), a. [From Penury.] 1. Excessively sparing in the use of money; sordid; stingy; miserly. "A penurious niggard of his wealth." Milton.

2. Not bountiful or liberal; scanty.

Here creeps along a poor, penurious stream.

C. Pitt.

3. Destitute of money; suffering extreme want. [Obs.] "My penurious band." Shak.

Syn. -- Avaricious; covetous; parsimonious; miserly; niggardly; stingy. See Avaricious.

--Pe*nu"ri*ous*ly, adv. -- Pe*nu"ri*ous*ness, n.

Pen"u*ry (?), n. [L. penuria; cf. Gr. &?; hunger, &?; poverty, need, &?; one who works for his daily bread, a poor man, &?; to work for one's daily bread, to be poor: cf. F. pénurie.] 1. Absence of resources; want; privation; indigence; extreme poverty; destitution. "A penury of military forces." Bacon.

They were exposed to hardship and penury.


It arises in neither from penury of thought.


2. Penuriousness; miserliness. [Obs.] Jer. Taylor.

Pen"wip`er (?), n. A cloth, or other material, for wiping off or cleaning ink from a pen.

Pen"wom`an (?), n.; pl. Penwomen (&?;). A female writer; an authoress. Johnson.

Pe"on (?), n. See Poon.

Pe"on, n. [Sp. peon, or Pg. pe&?;o, one who travels on foot, a foot soldier, a pawn in chess. See Pawn in chess.] 1. A foot soldier; a policeman; also, an office attendant; a messenger. [India]

2. A day laborer; a servant; especially, in some of the Spanish American countries, debtor held by his creditor in a form of qualified servitude, to work out a debt.

3. (Chess) See 2d Pawn.

Pe"on*age (?), n. The condition of a peon.

Pe"on*ism (?), n. Same as Peonage. D. Webster.

Pe"o*ny (?), n.; pl. Peonies (#). [OE. pione, pioine, pioni, OF. pione, F. pivoine, L. paeonia, Gr. &?;, fr. &?;, &?;, the god of healing. Cf. Pæan.] (Bot.) A plant, and its flower, of the ranunculaceous genus Pæonia. Of the four or five species, one is a shrub; the rest are perennial herbs with showy flowers, often double in cultivation. [Written also pæony, and piony.]

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Peo"ple (?), n. [OE. peple, people, OF. pueple, F. peuple, fr. L. populus. Cf. Populage, Public, Pueblo.] 1. The body of persons who compose a community, tribe, nation, or race; an aggregate of individuals forming a whole; a community; a nation.

Unto him shall the gathering of the people be.

Gen. xlix. 10.

The ants are a people not strong.

Prov. xxx. 25.

Before many peoples, and nations, and tongues.

Rev. x. 11.

Earth's monarchs are her peoples.


A government of all the people, by all the people, for all the people.

T. Parker.

Peopleis a collective noun, generally construed with a plural verb, and only occasionally used in the plural form (peoples), in the sense of nations or races.

2. Persons, generally; an indefinite number of men and women; folks; population, or part of population; as, country people; -- sometimes used as an indefinite subject or verb, like on in French, and man in German; as, people in adversity.

People were tempted to lend by great premiums.


People have lived twenty-four days upon nothing but water.


3. The mass of comunity as distinguished from a special class; the commonalty; the populace; the vulgar; the common crowd; as, nobles and people.

And strive to gain his pardon from the people.


4. With a possessive pronoun: (a) One's ancestors or family; kindred; relations; as, my people were English. (b) One's subjects; fellow citizens; companions; followers. "You slew great number of his people." Shak.

Syn. -- People, Nation. When speaking of a state, we use people for the mass of the community, as distinguished from their rulers, and nation for the entire political body, including the rulers. In another sense of the term, nation describes those who are descended from the same stock; and in this sense the Germans regard themselves as one nation, though politically subject to different forms of government.

Peo"ple (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Peopled p. pr. & vb. n. Peopling (&?;).] [Cf. OF. popler, puepler, F. puepler. Cf. Populate.] To stock with people or inhabitants; to fill as with people; to populate. "Peopled heaven with angels." Dryden.

As the gay motes that people the sunbeams.


Peo"pled (?), a. Stocked with, or as with, people; inhabited. "The peopled air." Gray.

Peo"ple*less, a. Destitute of people. Poe.

Peo"pler (?), n. A settler; an inhabitant. "Peoplers of the peaceful glen." J. S. Blackie.

Peo"plish (?), a. Vulgar. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Pe*o"ri*as (?), n. pl.; sing. Peoria (&?;). (Ethnol.) An Algonquin tribe of Indians who formerly inhabited a part of Illinois.

Pe*pas"tic (?), a. & n. [Gr. &?; to ripen, suppurate: cf. F. pépastique.] (Med.) Same as Maturative.

{ Pep"e*rine (?), ||Pep`e*ri"no (?), } n. [It. peperino, L. piper pepper. So called on account of its color.] (Geol.) A volcanic rock, formed by the cementing together of sand, scoria, cinders, etc.

||Pep"lis (?), n. [L., a kind of plant, Gr. &?;.] (Bot.) A genus of plants including water purslane.

||Pep"lus (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. &?;.] 1. An upper garment worn by Grecian and Roman women.

2. A kind of kerchief formerly worn by Englishwomen. [Obs.] Fairholt.

||Pe"po (?), n. [L., a kind of melon, from Gr. &?;.] (Bot.) Any fleshy fruit with a firm rind, as a pumpkin, melon, or gourd. See Gourd.

Pep"per (?), n. [OE. peper, AS. pipor, L. piper, fr. Gr. &?;, &?;, akin to Skr. pippala, pippali.] 1. A well-known, pungently aromatic condiment, the dried berry, either whole or powdered, of the Piper nigrum.

Common, or black, pepper is made from the whole berry, dried just before maturity; white pepper is made from the ripe berry after the outer skin has been removed by maceration and friction. It has less of the peculiar properties of the plant than the black pepper. Pepper is used in medicine as a carminative stimulant.

2. (Bot.) The plant which yields pepper, an East Indian woody climber (Piper nigrum), with ovate leaves and apetalous flowers in spikes opposite the leaves. The berries are red when ripe. Also, by extension, any one of the several hundred species of the genus Piper, widely dispersed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the earth.

3. Any plant of the genus Capsicum, and its fruit; red pepper; as, the bell pepper.

The term pepper has been extended to various other fruits and plants, more or less closely resembling the true pepper, esp. to the common varieties of Capsicum. See Capsicum, and the Phrases, below.

African pepper, the Guinea pepper. See under Guinea. -- Cayenne pepper. See under Cayenne. -- Chinese pepper, the spicy berries of the Xanthoxylum piperitum, a species of prickly ash found in China and Japan. -- Guinea pepper. See under Guinea, and Capsicum. -- Jamaica pepper. See Allspice. -- Long pepper. (a) The spike of berries of Piper longum, an East Indian shrub. (b) The root of Piper, or Macropiper, methysticum. See Kava. -- Malaguetta, or Meleguetta, pepper, the aromatic seeds of the Amomum Melegueta, an African plant of the Ginger family. They are sometimes used to flavor beer, etc., under the name of grains of Paradise. -- Red pepper. See Capsicum. -- Sweet pepper bush (Bot.), an American shrub (Clethra alnifolia), with racemes of fragrant white flowers; -- called also white alder. -- Pepper box or caster, a small box or bottle, with a perforated lid, used for sprinkling ground pepper on food, etc. -- Pepper corn. See in the Vocabulary. -- Pepper elder (Bot.), a West Indian name of several plants of the Pepper family, species of Piper and Peperomia. -- Pepper moth (Zoöl.), a European moth (Biston betularia) having white wings covered with small black specks. -- Pepper pot, a mucilaginous soup or stew of vegetables and cassareep, much esteemed in the West Indies. -- Pepper root. (Bot.). See Coralwort. -- pepper sauce, a condiment for the table, made of small red peppers steeped in vinegar. -- Pepper tree (Bot.), an aromatic tree (Drimys axillaris) of the Magnolia family, common in New Zealand. See Peruvian mastic tree, under Mastic.

Pep"per, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Peppered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Peppering.] 1. To sprinkle or season with pepper.

2. Figuratively: To shower shot or other missiles, or blows, upon; to pelt; to fill with shot, or cover with bruises or wounds. "I have peppered two of them." "I am peppered, I warrant, for this world." Shak.

Pep"per, v. i. To fire numerous shots (at).

Pep"per*brand` (?), n. (Bot.) See 1st Bunt.

Pep"per*corn` (?), n. 1. A dried berry of the black pepper (Piper nigrum).

2. Anything insignificant; a particle.

Pep"per dulse` (?). (Bot.) A variety of edible seaweed (Laurencia pinnatifida) distinguished for its pungency. [Scot.] Lindley.

Pep"per*er (?), n. A grocer; -- formerly so called because he sold pepper. [Obs.]

Pep"per*grass` (?), n. (Bot.) (a) Any herb of the cruciferous genus Lepidium, especially the garden peppergrass, or garden cress, Lepidium sativum; -- called also pepperwort. All the species have a pungent flavor. (b) The common pillwort of Europe (Pilularia globulifera). See Pillwort.

Pep"per*idge (?), n. [Cf. NL. berberis, E. barberry.] (Bot.) A North American tree (Nyssa multiflora) with very tough wood, handsome oval polished leaves, and very acid berries, -- the sour gum, or common tupelo. See Tupelo. [Written also piperidge and pipperidge.]

Pepperidge bush (Bot.), the barberry.

Pep"per*ing, a. Hot; pungent; peppery. Swift.

Pep"per*mint (?), n. [Pepper + mint.] 1. (Bot.) An aromatic and pungent plant of the genus Mentha (M. piperita), much used in medicine and confectionery.

2. A volatile oil (oil of peppermint) distilled from the fresh herb; also, a well-known essence or spirit (essence of peppermint) obtained from it.

3. A lozenge of sugar flavored with peppermint.

Peppermint camphor. (Chem.) Same as Menthol. -- Peppermint tree (Bot.), a name given to several Australian species of gum tree (Eucalyptus amygdalina, E. piperita, E. odorata, etc.) which have hard and durable wood, and yield an essential oil.

Pep"per*wort` (?), n. (Bot.) See Peppergrass.

Pep"per*y (?), a. 1. Of or pertaining to pepper; having the qualities of pepper; hot; pungent.

2. Fig.: Hot-tempered; passionate; choleric.

Pep"sin (?), n. [Gr. &?; a cooking, digesting, digestion, fr. &?;, &?;, to cook, digest: cf. F. pepsine. Cf. Dyspepsia.] (Physiol. Chem.) An unorganized proteolytic ferment or enzyme contained in the secretory glands of the stomach. In the gastric juice it is united with dilute hydrochloric acid (0.2 per cent, approximately) and the two together constitute the active portion of the digestive fluid. It is the active agent in the gastric juice of all animals.

As prepared from the glandular layer of pigs' or calves' stomachs it constitutes an important article of pharmacy.

Pep`sin*hy`dro*chlo"ric (?), a. (Physiol. Chem.) Same as Peptohydrochloric.

Pep*sin"o*gen (?), n. [Pepsin + -gen.] (Physiol. Chem.) The antecedent of the ferment pepsin. A substance contained in the form of granules in the peptic cells of the gastric glands. It is readily convertible into pepsin. Also called propepsin.

Pep"tic (?), a. [L. pepticus, Gr. &?;. See Pepsin.] 1. Relating to digestion; promoting digestion; digestive; as, peptic sauces.

2. Able to digest. [R.]

Tolerably nutritive for a mind as yet so peptic.


3. (Physiol. Chem.) Pertaining to pepsin; resembling pepsin in its power of digesting or dissolving albuminous matter; containing or yielding pepsin, or a body of like properties; as, the peptic glands.

Pep"tic, n. 1. An agent that promotes digestion.

2. pl. The digestive organs.

Is there some magic in the place,
Or do my peptics differ?


Pep"tics (?), n. The science of digestion.

Pep"to*gen (?), n. [Peptone + -gen.] (Physiol.) A substance convertible into peptone.

Pep`to*gen"ic (?), a. Same as Peptogenous.

Pep*tog"e*nous (?), a. (Physiol. Chem.) Capable of yielding, or being converted into, peptone.

Pep`to*hy`dro*chlo"ric (?), a. [See Peptone, and Hydrochloric.] (Physiol. Chem.) Designating a hypothetical acid (called peptohydrochloric acid, pepsinhydrochloric acid, and chloropeptic acid) which is supposed to be formed when pepsin and dilute (0.1-0.4 per cent) hydrochloric acid are mixed together.

Pep"tone (?), n. [Gr. &?; cooked.] (Physiol. Chem.) (a) The soluble and diffusible substance or substances into which albuminous portions of the food are transformed by the action of the gastric and pancreatic juices. Peptones are also formed from albuminous matter by the action of boiling water and boiling dilute acids. (b) Collectively, in a broader sense, all the products resulting from the solution of albuminous matter in either gastric or pancreatic juice. In this case, however, intermediate products (albumose bodies), such as antialbumose, hemialbumose, etc., are mixed with the true peptones. Also termed albuminose.

Pure peptones are of three kinds, amphopeptone, antipeptone, and hemipeptone, and, unlike the albumose bodies, are not precipitated by saturating their solutions with ammonium sulphate.

Pep"to*nize (?), v. t. (Physiol.) To convert into peptone; to digest or dissolve by means of a proteolytic ferment; as, peptonized food.

Pep"to*noid (?), n. [Peptone + -oid.] (Physiol. Chem.) A substance related to peptone.

||Pep`to*nu"ri*a (?), n. [NL. See Peptone, and Urine.] (Med.) The presence of peptone, or a peptonelike body, in the urine.

Pep`to*tox"ine (?), n. [Peptone + toxic + -ine.] (Physiol. Chem.) A toxic alkaloid found occasionally associated with the peptones formed from fibrin by pepsinhydrochloric acid.

Pe"quots (?), n. pl.; sing. Pequot (&?;). (Ethnol.) A tribe of Indians who formerly inhabited Eastern Connecticut. [Written also Pequods.]

Per- (?). [See Per.] 1. A prefix used to signify through, throughout, by, for, or as an intensive as perhaps, by hap or chance; perennial, that lasts throughout the year; perforce, through or by force; perfoliate, perforate; perspicuous, evident throughout or very evident; perplex, literally, to entangle very much.

2. (Chem.) Originally, denoting that the element to the name of which it is prefixed in the respective compounds exercised its highest valence; now, only that the element has a higher valence than in other similar compounds; thus, barium peroxide is the highest oxide of barium; while nitrogen and manganese peroxides, so-called, are not the highest oxides of those elements.

Per (?), prep. [L. Cf. Far, For-, Pardon, and cf. Par, prep.] Through; by means of; through the agency of; by; for; for each; as, per annum; per capita, by heads, or according to individuals; per curiam, by the court; per se, by itself, of itself. Per is also sometimes used with English words.

Per annum, by the year; in each successive year; annually. -- Per cent, Per centum, by the hundred; in the hundred; -- used esp. of proportions of ingredients, rate or amount of interest, and the like; commonly used in the shortened form per cent. -- Per diem, by the day. [For other phrases from the Latin, see Quotations, Phrases, etc., from Foreign Languages, in the Supplement.]

Per*act" (?), v. t. [L. peractus, p. p. of peragere.] To go through with; to perform. [Obs.] Sylvester.

Per`a*cute" (?), a. [L. peracutus. See Per-, and Acute.] Very sharp; very violent; as, a peracute fever. [R.] Harvey.

Per`ad*ven"ture (?), adv. & conj. [OE. per aventure, F. par aventure. See Per, and Adventure.] By chance; perhaps; it may be; if; supposing. "If peradventure he speak against me." Shak.

Peradventure there be fifty righteous within the city.

Gen. xviii. 24.

Per`ad*ven"ture, n. Chance; hap; hence, doubt; question; as, proved beyond peradventure. South.

Pe*ræ"o*pod (?), n. [Gr. &?; on the opposite side + -pod.] (Zoöl.) One of the thoracic legs of a crustacean. See Illust. of Crustacea.

Per"a*grate (?), v. t. [L. peragratus, p. p. of peragrate.] To travel over or through. [Obs.]

Per`agra"tion (?), n. [L. peragratio: cf. F. peragration.] The act or state of passing through any space; as, the peragration of the moon in her monthly revolution. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

Per*am"bu*late (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Perambulated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Perambulating.] [L. perambulatus, p. p. of perambulare to perambulate; per through + ambulare to walk. See Per-, and Amble.] To walk through or over; especially, to travel over for the purpose of surveying or examining; to inspect by traversing; specifically, to inspect officially the boundaries of, as of a town or parish, by walking over the whole line.

Per*am"bu*late, v. i. To walk about; to ramble; to stroll; as, he perambulated in the park.

Per*am`bu*la"tion (?), n. 1. The act of perambulating; traversing. Bacon.

2. An annual survey of boundaries, as of town, a parish, a forest, etc.

3. A district within which one is authorized to make a tour of inspection. "The . . . bounds of his own perambulation." [Obs.] Holyday.

Per*am"bu*la`tor (?), n. 1. One who perambulates.

2. A surveyor's instrument for measuring distances. It consists of a wheel arranged to roll along over the ground, with an apparatus of clockwork, and a dial plate upon which the distance traveled is shown by an index. See Odometer.

3. A low carriage for a child, propelled by pushing.

||Per`a*me"les (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; a pouch + L. meles a badger.] (Zoöl.) Any marsupial of the genus Perameles, which includes numerous species found in Australia. They somewhat resemble rabbits in size and form. See Illust. under Bandicoot.

Per"bend (?), n. See Perpender.

Per"break` (?), n. [Obs.] See Parbreak.

Per*bro"mate (?), n. (Chem.)A salt of perbromic acid.

Per*bro"mic (?), a. [Pref. per- + bromic.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, the highest oxygen acid, HBrO4, of bromine.

Per*bro"mide (?), n. (Chem.) A bromide having a higher proportion of bromine than any other bromide of the same substance or series.

||Per"ca (?), n. [L., a perch.] (Zoöl.) A genus of fishes, including the fresh-water perch.

||Per`cale" (?), n. [F.] A fine cotton fabric, having a linen finish, and often printed on one side, - - used for women's and children's wear.

||Per`ca`line" (?), n. [F.] A fine kind of French cotton goods, usually of one color.

Per*car"bide (?), n. [Pref. per- + carbide.] (Chem.)A compound containing a relatively large amount of carbon. [R.]

Per*car"bu*ret (?), n. [Pref. per- + carburet.] (Chem.) A percarbide. [Obsoles.]

Per*car"bu*ret`ed, a. (Chem.) Combined with a relatively large amount of carbon.

Per*case" (?), adv. [OE. per cas. See Parcase.] Perhaps; perchance. [Obs.] Bacon.

Perce (?), v. t. To pierce. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Per*ceiv"a*ble (?), a. Capable of being perceived; perceptible. -- Per*ceiv"a*bly, adv.

Per*ceiv"ance (?), n. Power of perceiving. [Obs.] "The senses and common perceivance." Milton.

Per*ceive" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Perceived (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Perceiving.] [OF. percevoir, perceveir, L. percipere, perceptum; per (see Per-) + capere to take, receive. See Capacious, and cf. Perception.] 1. To obtain knowledge of through the senses; to receive impressions from by means of the bodily organs; to take cognizance of the existence, character, or identity of, by means of the senses; to see, hear, or feel; as, to perceive a distant ship; to perceive a discord. Reid.

2. To take intellectual cognizance of; to apprehend by the mind; to be convinced of by direct intuition; to note; to remark; to discern; to see; to understand.

Jesus perceived their wickedness.

Matt. xxii. 18.

You may, fair lady,
Perceive I speak sincerely.


Till we ourselves see it with our own eyes, and perceive it by our own understandings, we are still in the dark.


3. To be affected of influented by. [R.]

The upper regions of the air perceive the collection of the matter of tempests before the air here below.


Syn. -- To discern; distinguish; observe; see; feel; know; understand. -- To Perceive, Discern. To perceive a thing is to apprehend it as presented to the senses or the intellect; to discern is to mark differences, or to see a thing as distinguished from others around it. We may perceive two persons afar off without being able to discern whether they are men or women. Hence, discern is often used of an act of the senses or the mind involving close, discriminating, analytical attention. We perceive that which is clear or obvious; we discern that which requires much attention to get an idea of it. "We perceive light, darkness, colors, or the truth or falsehood of anything. We discern characters, motives, the tendency and consequences of actions, etc." Crabb.

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Per*ceiv"er (?), n. One who perceives (in any of the senses of the verb). Milton.

Perce"ly (?), n. Parsley. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Per*cent"age (?), n. [Per cent + -age, as in average. See Per, and Cent.] (Com.) A certain rate per cent; the allowance, duty, rate of interest, discount, or commission, on a hundred.

Per"cept (?), n. [From L. percipere, perceptum.] That which is perceived. Sir W. Hamilton.

The modern discussion between percept and concept, the one sensuous, the other intellectual.

Max Müller.

Per*cep`ti*bil"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. perceptibilité.] 1. The quality or state of being perceptible; as, the perceptibility of light or color.

2. Perception. [R.] Dr. H. More.

Per*cep"ti*ble (?), a. [L. perceptibilis: cf. F. perceptible. See Perceive.] Capable of being perceived; cognizable; discernible; perceivable.

With a perceptible blast of the air.


-- Per*cep"ti*ble*ness, n. -- Per*cep"ti*bly, adv.

Per*cep"tion (?), n. [L. perceptio: cf. F. perception. See Perceive.] 1. The act of perceiving; cognizance by the senses or intellect; apperhension by the bodily organs, or by the mind, of what is presented to them; discernment; apperhension; cognition.

2. (Metaph.) The faculty of perceiving; the faculty, or peculiar part, of man's constitution by which he has knowledge through the medium or instrumentality of the bodily organs; the act of apperhending material objects or qualities through the senses; -- distinguished from conception. Sir W. Hamilton.

Matter hath no life nor perception, and is not conscious of its own existence.


3. The quality, state, or capability, of being affected by something external; sensation; sensibility. [Obs.]

This experiment discovereth perception in plants.


4. An idea; a notion. [Obs.] Sir M. Hale.

"The word perception is, in the language of philosophers previous to Reid, used in a very extensive signification. By Descartes, Malebranche, Locke, Leibnitz, and others, it is employed in a sense almost as unexclusive as consciousness, in its widest signification. By Reid this word was limited to our faculty acquisitive of knowledge, and to that branch of this faculty whereby, through the senses, we obtain a knowledge of the external world. But his limitation did not stop here. In the act of external perception he distinguished two elements, to which he gave the names of perception and sensation. He ought perhaps to have called these perception proper and sensation proper, when employed in his special meaning." Sir W. Hamilton.

Per*cep"tive (?), a. [Cf. F. perceptif.] Of or pertaining to the act or power of perceiving; having the faculty or power of perceiving; used in perception. "His perceptive and reflective faculties." Motley.

Per`cep*tiv"i*ty (?), n. The quality or state of being perceptive; power of perception. Locke.

||Per*ces"o*ces (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. L. perca a perch + esox, -ocis, a pike.] (Zoöl.) An order of fishes including the gray mullets (Mugil), the barracudas, the silversides, and other related fishes. So called from their relation both to perches and to pikes.

Perch (prch), n. [Written also pearch.] [OE. perche, F. perche, L. perca, fr. Gr. pe`rkh; cf. perkno`s dark-colored, Skr. pçni spotted, speckled, and E. freckle.] (Zoöl.) 1. Any fresh-water fish of the genus Perca and of several other allied genera of the family Percidæ, as the common American or yellow perch (Perca flavescens, or Americana), and the European perch (P. fluviatilis).

2. Any one of numerous species of spiny-finned fishes belonging to the Percidæ, Serranidæ, and related families, and resembling, more or less, the true perches.

Black perch. (a) The black bass. (b) The flasher. (c) The sea bass. -- Blue perch, the cunner. -- Gray perch, the fresh-water drum. -- Red perch, the rosefish. -- Red-bellied perch, the long- eared pondfish. -- Perch pest, a small crustacean, parasitic in the mouth of the perch. -- Silver perch, the yellowtail. -- Stone, or Striped, perch, the pope. -- White perch, the Roccus, or Morone, Americanus, a small silvery serranoid market fish of the Atlantic coast.

Perch (?), n. [F. perche, L. pertica.] 1. A pole; a long staff; a rod; esp., a pole or other support for fowls to roost on or to rest on; a roost; figuratively, any elevated resting place or seat.

As chauntecleer among his wives all
Sat on his perche, that was in his hall.


Not making his high place the lawless perch
Of winged ambitions.


2. (a) A measure of length containing five and a half yards; a rod, or pole. (b) In land or square measure: A square rod; the 160th part of an acre. (c) In solid measure: A mass 16½ feet long, 1 foot in height, and 1½ feet in breadth, or 24¾ cubic feet (in local use, from 22 to 25 cubic feet); -- used in measuring stonework.

3. A pole connecting the fore gear and hind gear of a spring carriage; a reach.

Perch, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Perched (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Perching.] [F. percher. See Perch a pole.] To alight or settle, as a bird; to sit or roost.

Wrens make prey where eagles dare not perch.


Perch, v. t. 1. To place or to set on, or as on, a perch.

2. To occupy as a perch. Milton.

Per*chance" (?), adv. [F. par by (L. per) + chance. See Par, and Chance.] By chance; perhaps; peradventure.

Perch"ant (?), n. [F.] A bird tied by the foot, to serve as decoy to other birds by its fluttering.

Perch"er (?), n. [From Perch, v. i.] 1. One who, or that which, perches. J. Burroughs.

2. One of the Insessores.

3. [From Perch a pole.] A Paris candle anciently used in England; also, a large wax candle formerly set upon the altar. [Obs.] Bailey.

Per"che*ron (?), n. [F.] One of a breed of draught horses originating in Perche, an old district of France; -- called also Percheron-Norman.

Per*chlo"rate (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of perchloric acid.

Per*chlo"ric (?), a. [Pref. per- + chloric.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, the highest oxygen acid (HClO4), of chlorine; -- called also hyperchloric.

Per*chlo"ride (?), n. (Chem.) A chloride having a higher proportion of chlorine than any other chloride of the same substance or series.

Per*chro"mic (?), a. [Pref. per- + chromic.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, a certain one of the highly oxidized compounds of chromium, which has a deep blue color, and is produced by the action of hydrogen peroxide.

Per"ci*form (?), a. [NL., & L. perca a perch + -form.] (Zoöl.) Pertaining to the Perciformes.

||Per`ci*for"mes (?), n. pl. [NL.] (Zoöl.) An extensive tribe or suborder of fishes, including the true perches (Percidæ); the pondfishes (Centrarchidæ); the sciænoids (Sciænidæ); the sparoids (Sparidæ); the serranoids (Serranidæ), and some other related families.

{ Per*cip"i*ence (?), Per*cip"i*en*cy (?), } n. The faculty, act or power of perceiving; perception. Mrs. Browning.

Per*cip"i*ent (?), a. [L. percipiens, -entis, p. pr. of percipere. See Perceive.] Having the faculty of perception; perceiving; as, a percipient being. Bentley. -- n. One who, or that which, is percipient. Glanvill.

Per*close" (?), n. [OF. parclose an inclosed place; L. per through + claudere, clausum, to shut.] 1. (Eccl. Arch.) Same as Parclose.

2. Conclusion; end. [Obs.] Sir W. Raleigh.

Per"coid (?), a. [L. perca a perch + -oid: cf. F. percoïde.] (Zoöl.) Belonging to, or resembling, the perches, or family Percidæ. -- n. Any fish of the genus Perca, or allied genera of the family Percidæ.

||Per*coi"de*a (?), n. pl. [NL.] (Zoöl.) Same as Perciformes.

Per"co*late (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Percolated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Percolating.] [L. percolatus, p. p. of percolare to percolate; per through + colare to strain.] To cause to pass through fine interstices, as a liquor; to filter; to strain. Sir M. Hale.

Per"co*late, v. i. To pass through fine interstices; to filter; as, water percolates through porous stone.

Per`co*la"tion (?), n. [L. percolatio.] The act or process of percolating, or filtering; filtration; straining. Specifically (Pharm.), the process of exhausting the virtues of a powdered drug by letting a liquid filter slowly through it.

Per"co*la`tor (?), n. One who, or that which, filters. "[Tissues] act as percolators." Henfrey.

||Per`co*mor"phi (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. L. perca perch + Gr. &?; form.] (Zoöl.) A division of fishes including the perches and related kinds.

Per"cu*laced (?), a. [Prob. corrupt. fr. portcullised.] (Her.) Latticed. See Lattice, n., 2.

Per*cur"rent (?), a. [L. percurrens, p. pr. of percurrere to run through; per through + currere to run.] Running through the entire length.

Per*cur"so*ry (?), a. [L. percursor one who runs through, fr. percurrere. See Percurrent.] Running over slightly or in haste; cursory. [R.]

Per*cuss" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Percussed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Percussing.] [L. percussus, p. p. of percutere; per + quatere to shake, strike. See Quash.] To strike smartly; to strike upon or against; as, to percuss the chest in medical examination.

Flame percussed by air giveth a noise.


Per*cuss", v. i. (Med.) To strike or tap in an examination by percussion. See Percussion, 3. Quain.

Per*cus"sion (?), n. [L. percussio: cf. F. percussion. See Percuss.] 1. The act of percussing, or striking one body against another; forcible collision, esp. such as gives a sound or report. Sir I. Newton.

2. Hence: The effect of violent collision; vibratory shock; impression of sound on the ear.

The thunderlike percussion of thy sounds.


3. (Med.) The act of tapping or striking the surface of the body in order to learn the condition of the parts beneath by the sound emitted or the sensation imparted to the fingers. Percussion is said to be immediate if the blow is directly upon the body; if some interventing substance, as a pleximeter, is, used, it is called mediate.

Center of percussion. See under Center. -- Percussion bullet, a bullet containing a substance which is exploded by percussion; an explosive bullet. -- Percussion cap, a small copper cap or cup, containing fulminating powder, and used with a percussion lock to explode gunpowder. -- Percussion fuze. See under Fuze. -- Percussion lock, the lock of a gun that is fired by percussion upon fulminating powder. -- Percussion match, a match which ignites by percussion. -- Percussion powder, powder so composed as to ignite by slight percussion; fulminating powder. -- Percussion sieve, Percussion table, a machine for sorting ores by agitation in running water.

Per*cuss"ive (?), a. Striking against; percutient; as, percussive force.

Per*cu"tient (?), a. [L. percutiens, p. pr. of percutere. See Percuss.] Striking; having the power of striking. -- n. That which strikes, or has power to strike. Bacon.

Per"di*cine (?), a. [See Perdix.] (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the family Perdicidæ, or partridges.

Per*die" (?), adv. See Parde. Spenser.

Per"di*foil (?), n. [L. perdere to lose + folium leaf.] (Bot.) A deciduous plant; - - opposed to evergreen. J. Barton.

Per*di"tion (?), n. [F., fr. L. perditio, fr. perdere, perditum, to ruin, to lose; per (cf. Skr. par away) + -dere (only in comp.) to put; akin to Gr. &?;, E. do. See Do.] 1. Entire loss; utter destruction; ruin; esp., the utter loss of the soul, or of final happiness in a future state; future misery or eternal death.

The mere perdition of the Turkish fleet.


If we reject the truth, we seal our own perdition.

J. M. Mason.

2. Loss of diminution. [Obs.] Shak.

Per*di"tion*a*ble (?), a. Capable of being ruined; worthy of perdition. [R.] Pollok.

||Per"dix (pr"dks), n. [L., a partridge, Gr. pe`rdix.] (Zoöl.) A genus of birds including the common European partridge. Formerly the word was used in a much wider sense to include many allied genera.

Per*du" (pr*d" or pr"d), n. [See Perdu, a.] 1. One placed on watch, or in ambush.

2. A soldier sent on a forlorn hope. Shak.

{ Per*du", Per*due" } (pr*d" or pr"d), a. [F. perdu, f. perdue, lost, p. p. of perdre to lose, L. perdere. See Perdition.] 1. Lost to view; in concealment or ambush; close.

He should lie perdue who is to walk the round.


2. Accustomed to, or employed in, desperate enterprises; hence, reckless; hopeless. "A perdue captain." Beau. & Fl.

Per`du*el"lion (?), n. [L. perduellio; per + duellum, bellum, war.] (Civil Law) Treason.

Per"du*lous (?), a. [See Perdu, a.] Lost; thrown away. [Obs.] Abp. Bramhall.

Per*dur`a*bil"i*ty (?), n. Durability; lastingness. [Archaic] Chaucer.

Per*dur"a*ble (pr*dr"*b'l; 277), n. [Cf. F. perdurable, OE. pardurable. See Perdure.] Very durable; lasting; continuing long. [Archaic] Chaucer. Shak.

-- Per*dur"a*bly, adv. [Archaic]

{ Per*dur"ance (pr*dr"ans), Per`du*ra"tion (pr`d*r"shn), } n. Long continuance. [Archaic]

Per*dure" (pr*dr"), v. i. [L. perdurare; per through + durare to last.] To last or endure for a long time; to be perdurable or lasting. [Archaic]

The mind perdures while its energizing may construct a thousand lines.


Per*dy" (?), adv. Truly. See Parde. [Obs.]

Ah, dame! perdy ye have not done me right.


Pere (?), n. A peer. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Per*e"gal (?), a. [OF. par very (L. per) + egal equal, L. aequalis.] Fully equal. [Obs.] Chaucer. "Peregal to the best." Spenser.

Per"e*gri*nate (?), v. i. [L. peregrinatus, p. p. of peregrinari to travel. See Pilgrim.] To travel from place to place, or from one country to another; hence, to sojourn in foreign countries.

Per"e*gri*nate (?), a. [L. peregrinatus, p. p.] Having traveled; foreign. [Obs.] Shak.

Per`e*gri*na"tion (?), n. [L. peregrinatio: cf. F. pérégrination.] A traveling from one country to another; a wandering; sojourn in foreign countries. "His peregrination abroad." Bacon.

Per"e*gri*na`tor (?), n. [L.] One who peregrinates; one who travels about.

Per"e*grine (?), a. [L. peregrinus. See Pilgrim.] Foreign; not native; extrinsic or from without; exotic. [Spelt also pelegrine.] "Peregrine and preternatural heat." Bacon.

Peregrine falcon (Zoöl.), a courageous and swift falcon (Falco peregrinus), remarkable for its wide distribution over all the continents. The adult plumage is dark bluish ash on the back, nearly black on the head and cheeks, white beneath, barred with black below the throat. Called also peregrine hawk, duck hawk, game hawk, and great-footed hawk.

Per"e*grine (?), n. The peregrine falcon.

Per`e*grin"i*ty (?), n. [L. peregrinitas: cf. F. pérégrinité.] 1. Foreignness; strangeness. [Obs.] "Somewhat of a peregrinity in their dialect." Johnson.

2. Travel; wandering. [R.] Carlyle.

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Per"el (?), n. Apparel. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Per*empt" (?), v. t. [L. peremptus, p. p. of perimere to take away entirely, to destroy; per (see Per-) + OL. emere to take. See Redeem.] (Law) To destroy; to defeat. [R.] Ayliffe.

Per*emp"tion (?), n. [L. peremptio: cf. F. péremption.] (Law) A quashing; a defeating. [Obs.]

Per"emp*to*ri*ly (?), adv. In a peremptory manner; absolutely; positively. Bacon.

Per"emp*to*ri*ness, n. The quality of being peremptory; positiveness.

Per"emp*to*ry (?), a. [L. peremptorius destructive, deadly, decisive, final: cf. F. péremptorie. See Perempt.] 1. Precluding debate or expostulation; not admitting of question or appeal; positive; absolute; decisive; conclusive; final.

Think of heaven with hearty purposes and peremptory designs to get thither.

Jer. Taylor.

2. Positive in opinion or judgment; decided; dictatorial; dogmatical.

Be not too positive and peremptory.


Briefly, then, for we are peremptory.


3. Firmly determined; unawed. [Poetic] Shak.

Peremptory challenge (Law) See under Challenge. -- Peremptory mandamus, a final and absolute mandamus. -- Peremptory plea, a plea by a defendant tending to impeach the plaintiff's right of action; a plea in bar.

Syn. -- Decisive; positive; absolute; authoritative; express; arbitrary; dogmatical.

Per*en"ni*al (?), a. [L. perennis that lasts the whole year through; per through + annus year. See Per-, and Annual.] 1. ing or continuing through the year; as, perennial fountains.

2. Continuing without cessation or intermission; perpetual; unceasing; never failing.

The perennial existence of bodies corporate.


3. (Bot.) Continuing more than two years; as, a perennial steam, or root, or plant.

Syn. -- Perpetual; unceasing; never failing; enduring; continual; permanent; uninterrupted.

Per*en"ni*al, n. (Bot.) A perennial plant; a plant which lives or continues more than two years, whether it retains its leaves in winter or not.

Per*en"ni*al*ly, adv. In a perennial manner.

||Per*en`ni*bran`chi*a"ta (?), n. pl. [NL. See Perennial, and Branchia.] (Zoöl.) Those Batrachia which retain their gills through life, as the menobranchus.

Per*en`ni*bran"chi*ate (?), a. [See Perennial, and Branchiate.] 1. (Anat.) Having branchæ, or gills, through life; -- said especially of certain Amphibia, like the menobranchus. Opposed to caducibranchiate.

2. (Zoöl.) Belonging to the Perennibranchiata.

Per*en"ni*ty (?), n. [L. perennitas.] The quality of being perennial. [R.] Derham.

Per`er*ra"tion (?), n. [L. pererrare, pererratum, to wander through.] A wandering, or rambling, through various places. [R.] Howell.

Per"fect (?), a. [OE. parfit, OF. parfit, parfet, parfait, F. parfait, L. perfectus, p. p. of perficere to carry to the end, to perform, finish, perfect; per (see Per-) + facere to make, do. See Fact.] 1. Brought to consummation or completeness; completed; not defective nor redundant; having all the properties or qualities requisite to its nature and kind; without flaw, fault, or blemish; without error; mature; whole; pure; sound; right; correct.

My strength is made perfect in weakness.

2 Cor. xii. 9.

Three glorious suns, each one a perfect sun.


I fear I am not in my perfect mind.


O most entire perfect sacrifice!


God made thee perfect, not immutable.


2. Well informed; certain; sure.

I am perfect that the Pannonains are now in arms.


3. (Bot.) Hermaphrodite; having both stamens and pistils; -- said of flower.

Perfect cadence (Mus.), a complete and satisfactory close in harmony, as upon the tonic preceded by the dominant. -- Perfect chord (Mus.), a concord or union of sounds which is perfectly coalescent and agreeable to the ear, as the unison, octave, fifth, and fourth; a perfect consonance; a common chord in its original position of keynote, third, fifth, and octave. -- Perfect number (Arith.), a number equal to the sum of all its divisors; as, 28, whose aliquot parts, or divisors, are 14, 7, 4, 2, 1. See Abundant number, under Abundant. Brande & C. -- Perfect tense (Gram.), a tense which expresses an act or state completed.

Syn. -- Finished; consummate; complete; entire; faultless; blameless; unblemished.

Per"fect (?), n. The perfect tense, or a form in that tense.

Per"fect (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Perfected; p. pr. & vb. n. Perfecting.] [L. perfectus, p. p. of perficere. See Perfect, a.] To make perfect; to finish or complete, so as to leave nothing wanting; to give to anything all that is requisite to its nature and kind.

God dwelleth in us, and his love is perfect in us.

1 John iv. 12.

Inquire into the nature and properties of the things, . . . and thereby perfect our ideas of their distinct species.


Perfecting press (Print.), a press in which the printing on both sides of the paper is completed in one passage through the machine.

Syn. -- To finish; accomplish; complete; consummate.

Per"fect*er (?), n. One who, or that which, makes perfect. "The . . . perfecter of our faith." Barrow.

Per*fect`i*bil"i*an (?), n. A perfectionist. [R.] Ed. Rev.

Per`fec*tib"i*list (?), n. A perfectionist. See also Illuminati, 2. [R.]

Per*fect`i*bil"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. perfectibilité.] The quality or state of being perfectible.

Per*fect"i*ble (?), a. [Cf. F. perfectible.] Capable of becoming, or being made, perfect.

Per*fec"tion (?), n. [F. perfection, L. perfectio.] 1. The quality or state of being perfect or complete, so that nothing requisite is wanting; entire development; consummate culture, skill, or moral excellence; the highest attainable state or degree of excellence; maturity; as, perfection in an art, in a science, or in a system; perfection in form or degree; fruits in perfection.

2. A quality, endowment, or acquirement completely excellent; an ideal faultlessness; especially, the divine attribute of complete excellence. Shak.

What tongue can her perfections tell?

Sir P. Sidney.

To perfection, in the highest degree of excellence; perfectly; as, to imitate a model to perfection.

Per*fec"tion, v. t. To perfect. [Obs.] Foote.

Per*fec"tion*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to perfection; characterized by perfection. [R.] Bp. Pearson.

Per*fec"tion*ate (?), v. t. To perfect. Dryden.

Per*fec"tion*ism (?), n. The doctrine of the Perfectionists.

Per*fec"tion*ist, n. One pretending to perfection; esp., one pretending to moral perfection; one who believes that persons may and do attain to moral perfection and sinlessness in this life. South.

Per*fec"tion*ment (?), n. [Cf. F. perfectionnement.] The act of bringing to perfection, or the state of having attained to perfection. [R.] I. Taylor.

Per*fect"ive (?), a. Tending or conducing to make perfect, or to bring to perfection; -- usually followed by of. "A perfective alteration." Fuller.

Actions perfective of their natures.


Per*fec"tive*ly, adv. In a perfective manner.

Per"fect*ly (?), adv. In a perfect manner or degree; in or to perfection; completely; wholly; throughly; faultlessly. "Perfectly divine." Milton.

As many as touched were made perfectly whole.

Matt. xiv. 36.

Per"fect*ness, n. The quality or state of being perfect; perfection. "Charity, which is the bond of perfectness." Col. iii. 14.

Per*fer"vid (?), a. [Pref. per- + fervid.] Very fervid; too fervid; glowing; ardent.

Per*fi"cient (?), a. [L. perficiens, p. pr. of perficere to perform. See Perfect.] Making or doing throughly; efficient; effectual. [R.] Blackstone.

Per*fi"cient, n. One who performs or perfects a work; especially, one who endows a charity. [R.]

Per*fid"i*ous (pr*fd"*s; 277), a. [L. perfidious.] 1. Guilty of perfidy; violating good faith or vows; false to trust or confidence reposed; teacherous; faithless; as, a perfidious friend. Shak.

2. Involving, or characterized by, perfidy. "Involved in this perfidious fraud." Milton.

Per*fid"i*ous*ly, adv. In a perfidious manner.

Per*fid"i*ous*ness, n. The quality of being perfidious; perfidy. Clarendon.

Per"fi*dy (pr"f*d), n.; pl. Perfidies (- dz). [L. perfidia, fr. L. perfidus faithless; per (cf. Skr. par away) + fides faith: cf. F. perfidie. See Faith.] The act of violating faith or allegiance; violation of a promise or vow, or of trust reposed; faithlessness; treachery.

The ambition and perfidy of tyrants.


His perfidy to this sacred engagement.


Per"fit (pr"ft), a. Perfect. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Per*fix" (pr"fks), v. t. [Pref. per- + fix.] To fix surely; to appoint. [Obs.]

Per"fla*ble (?), a. [L. perflabilis. See Perflate.] Capable of being blown through. [Obs.]

Per*flate" (?), v. t. [L. perflatus, p. p. of perflare to blow through.] To blow through. [Obs.] Harvey.

Per*fla"tion (?), n. [L. perflatio.] The act of perflating. [Obs.] Woodward.

Per*fo"li*ate (?), a. [Pref. per- + L. folium leaf.] 1. (Bot.) Having the basal part produced around the stem; -- said of leaves which the stem apparently passes directory through.

2. (Zoöl.) Surrounded by a circle of hairs, or projections of any kind.

Per`fo*ra"ta (pr`f*r"t), n. pl. [NL. See Perforate.] (Zoöl.) (a) A division of corals including those that have a porous texture, as Porites and Madrepora; -- opposed to Aporosa. (b) A division of Foraminifera, including those having perforated shells.

Per"fo*rate (pr"f*rt), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Perforated (- r`td); p. pr. & vb. n. Perforating.] [L. perforatus, p. p. of perforare to perforate; per through + forare to bore. See Bore, v.] To bore through; to pierce through with a pointed instrument; to make a hole or holes through by boring or piercing; to pierce or penetrate the surface of. Bacon.

{ Per"fo*rate (pr"f*rt), Per"fo*ra`ted (pr"f*r"td), } a. Pierced with a hole or holes, or with pores; having transparent dots resembling holes.

Per`fo*ra"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. perforation.] 1. The act of perforating, or of boring or piercing through. Bacon.

2. A hole made by boring or piercing; an aperture. "Slender perforations." Sir T. Browne.

Per"fo*ra*tive (?), a. [Cf. F. perforatif.] Having power to perforate or pierce.

Per"fo*ra`tor (?), n. [Cf. F. perforateur.] One who, or that which, perforates; esp., a cephalotome.

Per*force" (?), adv. [F. par (L. per) + force.] By force; of necessary; at any rate. Shak.

Per*force", v. t. To force; to compel. [Obs.]

Per*form" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Performed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Performing.] [OE. performen, parfourmen, parfournen, OF. parfornir, parfournir, to finish, complete; OF. & F. par (see Par) + fournir to finish, complete. The word has been influenced by form; cf. L. performare to form thoroughly. See Furnish.] 1. To carry through; to bring to completion; to achieve; to accomplish; to execute; to do.

I will cry unto God most high, unto God that performeth all things for me.

Ps. lvii. 2.

Great force to perform what they did attempt.

Sir P. Sidney.

2. To discharge; to fulfill; to act up to; as, to perform a duty; to perform a promise or a vow.

To perform your father's will.


3. To represent; to act; to play; as in drama.

Perform a part thou hast not done before.


Syn. -- To accomplish; do; act; transact; achieve; execute; discharge; fulfill; effect; complete; consummate. See Accomplish.

Per*form", v. i. To do, execute, or accomplish something; to acquit one's self in any business; esp., to represent sometimes by action; to act a part; to play on a musical instrument; as, the players perform poorly; the musician performs on the organ.

Per*form"a*ble (?), a. Admitting of being performed, done, or executed; practicable.

Per*form"ance (?), n. The act of performing; the carrying into execution or action; execution; achievement; accomplishment; representation by action; as, the performance of an undertaking of a duty.

Promises are not binding where the performance is impossible.


2. That which is performed or accomplished; a thing done or carried through; an achievement; a deed; an act; a feat; esp., an action of an elaborate or public character. "Her walking and other actual performances." Shak. "His musical performances." Macaulay.

Syn. -- Completion; consummation; execution; accomplishment; achievement; production; work; act; action; deed; exploit; feat.

Per*form"er (?), n. One who performs, accomplishes, or fulfills; as, a good promiser, but a bad performer; especially, one who shows skill and training in any art; as, a performer of the drama; a performer on the harp.

Per"fri*cate (?), v. t. [L. perfricatus, p. p. of perfricare.] To rub over. Bailey.

Per*fu"ma*to*ry (?), a. Emitting perfume; perfuming. [R.] Sir E. Leigh.

Per*fume" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Perfumed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Perfuming.] [F. parfumer (cf. Sp. perfumar); par (see Par) + fumer to smoke, L. fumare, fr. fumus smoke. See Fume.] To fill or impregnate with a perfume; to scent.

And Carmel's flowery top perfumes the skies.


Per"fume (?), n. [F. parfum; cf. Sp. perfume. See Perfume, v.] 1. The scent, odor, or odoriferous particles emitted from a sweet-smelling substance; a pleasant odor; fragrance; aroma.

No rich perfumes refresh the fruitful field.


2. A substance that emits an agreeable odor.

And thou shalt make it a perfume.

Ex. xxx. 35.

Per*fum"er (?), n. 1. One who, oe that which, perfumes.

2. One whose trade is to make or sell perfumes.

Per*fum"er*y (?), n. 1. Perfumes, in general.

2. [Cf. F. parfumerie.] The art of preparing perfumes.

Per*func"to*ri*ly (?), adv. In a perfunctory manner; formally; carelessly. Boyle.

Per*func"to*ri*ness, n. The quality or state of being perfunctory.

Per*func"to*ry (?), a. [L. perfunctorius, fr. perfunctus dispatched, p. p. of perfungi to discharge, dispatch; per (see Per) + fungi to perform. See Function.] 1. Done merely to get rid of a duty; performed mechanically and as a thing of rote; done in a careless and superficial manner; characterized by indifference; as, perfunctory admonitions. Macaulay.

2. Hence: Mechanical; indifferent; listless; careless. "Perfunctory in his devotions." Sharp.

Per*func"tu*rate (?), v. t. To perform in a perfunctory manner; to do negligently. [R.]

Per*fuse" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Perfused (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Perfusing.] [L. perfusus, p. p. of perfundere to pour over; per + fundere to pour.] To suffuse; to fill full or to excess. Harvey.

Per*fu"sion (?), n. [L. perfusio.] The act of perfusing.

Per*fu"sive (?), a. Of a nature to flow over, or to spread through.

{ Per`ga*me"no*us (?), Per`ga*men*ta"ceous (?), } a. [L. pergamena parchment. See Parchment.] Like parchment.

Per*haps" (?), adv. [Per + hap chance.] By chance; peradventure; perchance; it may be.

And pray God, if perhaps the thought of thine heart may be forgiven thee.

Acts viii. 22.

Per"i- (?). [Gr. &?;, prep.] A prefix used to signify around, by, near, over, beyond, or to give an intensive sense; as, perimeter, the measure around; perigee, point near the earth; periergy, work beyond what is needed; perispherical, quite spherical.

Pe"ri (?), n.; pl. Peris (#). [Per. per a female genus, a fairy.] (Persian Myth.) An imaginary being, male or female, like an elf or fairy, represented as a descendant of fallen angels, excluded from paradise till penance is accomplished. Moore.

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Per`i*a"gua (?), n. See Pirogue.

Per"i*anth (?), n. [Pref. peri- + Gr. &?; flower: cf. F. périanthe.] (Bot.) (a) The leaves of a flower generally, especially when the calyx and corolla are not readily distinguished. (b) A saclike involucre which incloses the young fruit in most hepatic mosses. See Illust. of Hepatica.

||Per`i*an"thi*um (?), n. [NL.] (Bot.) The perianth.

Per"i*apt (?), n. [Gr. &?;, fr. &?; hung about, &?; to hang about; &?; about + &?; to tie: cf. F. périapte.] A charm worn as a protection against disease or mischief; an amulet. Coleridge.

Now help, ye charming spells and periapts.


Per`i*as"tral (?), a. Among or around the stars. "Comets in periastral passage." R. A. Proctor.

Per`i*as"tron (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; about + &?; a star.] (Astron.) That point, in the real or apparent orbit of one star revolving around another, at which the former is nearest to the latter.

Per"i*au"ger (?), n. See Pirogue. W. Irving.

Per"i*blast (?), a. [Gr. &?; to grow around. See Peri-, and -blast.] (Biol.) The protoplasmic matter which surrounds the entoblast, or cell nucleus, and undergoes segmentation. -- Per`i*blas"tic, a.

Per"i*blem (?), n. [Pref. peri- + root of Gr. &?; to sprout.] (Bot.) Nascent cortex, or immature cellular bark.

||Pe*rib"o*los (?), n. [Nl., fr. Gr. &?;, fr. &?;, adj., going round, fr. &?; to throw round; cf. L. peribolus.] In ancient architecture, an inclosed court, esp., one surrounding a temple.

Per`i*bran"chi*al (?), a. (Anat.) Surrounding the branchiæ; as, a peribranchial cavity.

Per`i*bran"chi*al (?), a. (Anat.) Around the bronchi or bronchial tubes; as, the peribronchial lymphatics.

||Per`i*cam"bi*um (?), n. [NL. See Peri-, and Cambium.] (Biol.) A layer of thin-walled young cells in a growing stem, in which layer certain new vessels originate.

{ Per`i*car"di*ac (?), Per`i*car"di*al (?), } a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to pericardium; situated around the heart.

Pericardial fluid (Physiol.), a serous fluid of a pale yellow color contained in the pericardium.

Per`i*car"di*an (?), a. Pericardiac.

Per`i*car"dic (?), a. Pericardiac.

||Per`i*car*di"tus (?), n. [NL. See Pericardium, and -itis.] (Med.) Inflammation of the pericardium. Dunglison.

Per`i*car"di*um (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?;, fr. &?; about or near the heart; &?; about + &?; heart.] (Anat.) The double baglike fold of serous membrane which incloses the heart.

The inner layer is closely adherent to the outer surface of the heart, and is called the cardiac pericardium. The outer layer loosely incloses the heart and the adherent inner layer, and is called the parietal pericardium. At the base of the heart the two layers are continuous, and form a narrow closed cavity filled with fluid, in which the pulsations of the heart cause little friction.

Per"i*carp (?), n. [Gr. &?;; &?; around + &?; fruit: cf. F. péricarpe.] (Bot.) The ripened ovary; the walls of the fruit. See Illusts. of Capsule, Drupe, and Legume.

{ Per`i*car"pi*al (?), Per`i*car"pic (?) }, a. (Bot.) Of or pertaining to a pericarp.

Per`i*cel"lu*lar (?), a. (Anat.) Surrounding a cell; as, the pericellular lymph spaces surrounding ganglion cells.

Per"i*chæth (?), n. [See Perichætium.] (Bot.) The leafy involucre surrounding the fruit stalk of mosses; perichætium; perichete.

Per`i*chæ"ti*al (?), a. (Bot.) Of or pertaining to the perichæth.

||Per`i*chæ"ti*um (?), n.; pl. Perichætia (#). [NL., fr. Gr. &?; about + &?; flowing hair, foliage.] (Bot.) Same as Perichæth.

Per`i*chæ"tous (?), a. [See Perichætium.] (Zoöl.) Surrounded by setæ; -- said of certain earthworms (genus Perichætus).

Per"i*chete (?), n. Same as Perichæth.

Per`i*chon"dri*al (?), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the perichondrium; situated around cartilage.

||Per`i*chon*dri"tis (?), n. [NL. See Perichondrium, and -itis.] (Med.) Inflammation of the perichondrium.

||Per`i*chon"dri*um (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; around + &?; cartilage.] (Anat.) The membrane of fibrous connective tissue which closely invests cartilage, except where covering articular surfaces.

Per`i*chor"dal (?), a. Around the notochord; as, a perichordal column. See Epichordal.

{ Per"i*clase (?), Per`i*cla"site (?), } n. [Pref. peri- + Gr. &?; to break.] (Min.) A grayish or dark green mineral, consisting essentially of magnesia (magnesium oxide), occurring in granular forms or in isometric crystals.

||Per`i*clin"i*um (?), n.; pl. Periclinia (#). [NL., fr. Gr. &?; around + &?; a bed.] (Bot.) The involucre which surrounds the common receptacle in composite flowers.

Pe*ric"li*tate (?), v. t. [L. periclitatus, p. p. of periclitari, fr. periculum.] To endanger. [Obs.]

Periclitating, pardi! the whole family.


Pe*ric`li*ta"tion (?), n. [L. periclitatio: cf. F. périclitation.] 1. Trial; experiment. [Obs.]

2. The state of being in peril. [Obs.]

||Pe*ric"o*pe (?), n. [L., section of a book, Gr. &?;; &?; around + &?; to cut.] A selection or extract from a book; especially (Theol.), a selection from the Bible, appointed to be read in the churches or used as a text for a sermon.

Per`i*cra"ni*al (?), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the pericranium.

Per`i*cra"ni*um (?), n. [NL.] (Anat.) The periosteum which covers the cranium externally; the region around the cranium.

Pe*ric"u*lous (?), a. [L. periculosus. See Perilous.] Dangerous; full of peril. [Obs.]

||Pe*ric"u*lum (?), n.; pl. Pericula (#). [L.] (Rom. & O.Eng. Law) 1. Danger; risk.

2. In a narrower, judicial sense: Accident or casus, as distinguished from dolus and culpa, and hence relieving one from the duty of performing an obligation.

Per"i*derm (?), n. 1. (Bot.) The outer layer of bark.

2. (Zoöl.) The hard outer covering of hydroids and other marine animals; the perisarc.

||Per`i*di*as"to*le (?), n. (Physiol.) The almost inappreciable time which elapses between the systole and the diastole of the heart.

||Pe*rid"i*um (?), n.; pl. Peridia (#). [NL., fr. Gr. &?; about + &?;, a dim. ending.] (Bot.) The envelope or coat of certain fungi, such as the puffballs and earthstars.

Per"i*dot (?), n. [F. péridot.] (Min.) Chrysolite.

Per"i*do*tite (?), n. [Cf. F. péridotite.] (Min.) An eruptive rock characterized by the presence of chrysolite (peridot). It also usually contains pyroxene, enstatite, chromite, etc. It is often altered to serpentine.

The chief diamond deposits in South Africa occur in a more or less altered peridotite.

Per"i*drome (?), n. [Gr. &?;, fr. &?; running around, fr. &?; to run round; &?; round + &?; to run: cf. F. péridrome.] (Archæol.) The space between the columns and the wall of the cella, in a Greek or a Roman temple.

Per`i*e"cians (?), n. pl. See Periœcians.

||Per`i*en"te*ron (?), n. [NL. See Peri-, and Enteron.] (Anat.) The primitive perivisceral cavity.

Per"i*er`gy (?), n. [Gr. &?;, fr. &?; overcareful; &?; about, beyond + &?; work.] 1. Excessive care or diligence. [Obs.]

2. (Rhet.) A bombastic or labored style. [R.]

Per`i*gan`gli*on"ic (?), a. (Anat.) Surrounding a ganglion; as, the periganglionic glands of the frog.

Per`i*gas"tric (?), a. (Zoöl.) Surrounding the stomach; -- applied to the body cavity of Bryozoa and various other Invertebrata.

Per`i*ge"an (?), a. Pertaining to the perigee.

Perigean tides, those spring tides which occur soon after the moon passes her perigee.

{ Per"i*gee (?), Per`i*ge"um (?), } n. [NL. perigeum, fr. Gr. &?; about, near + &?; the earth: cf. F. périgée.] (Astron.) That point in the orbit of the moon which is nearest to the earth; -- opposed to apogee. It is sometimes, but rarely, used of the nearest points of other orbits, as of a comet, a planet, etc. Called also epigee, epigeum.

Per`i*gen"e*sis (?), n. (Biol.) A theory which explains inheritance by the transmission of the type of growth force possessed by one generation to another.

Per`i*gen"e*tic (?), a. (Biol.) Of or pertaining to perigenesis.

Per"i*gone (?), n. [Pref. peri- + Gr. &?; productive organs.] 1. (Bot.) (a) Any organ inclosing the essential organs of a flower; a perianth. (b) In mosses, the involucral bracts of a male flower.

2. (Zoöl.) A sac which surrounds the generative bodies in the gonophore of a hydroid.

||Per`i*go"ni*um (?), n.; pl. Perigonia (#). [NL.] Same as Perigone.

Per"i*gord pie` (?). [From Périgord, a former province of France.] A pie made of truffles, much esteemed by epicures.

Per"i*graph (?), n. [Gr. &?; outline; &?; round, about + &?; to write.] A careless or inaccurate delineation of anything. [R.]

||Per`i*gyn"i*um (?), n.; pl. Perigynia (#). [NL. See Perigynous.] (Bot.) Some unusual appendage about the pistil, as the bottle-shaped body in the sedges, and the bristles or scales in some other genera of the Sedge family, or Cyperaceæ.

Pe*rig"y*nous (?), a. [Pref. peri- + Gr. &?; woman.] (Bot.) Having the ovary free, but the petals and stamens borne on the calyx; -- said of flower such as that of the cherry or peach.

{ Per`i*hel"ion (?), Per`i*he"li*um (?), } n.; pl. Perihelia (#). [NL., fr. Gr. &?; about, near + &?; the sun.] (Astron.) That point of the orbit of a planet or comet which is nearest to the sun; -- opposed to aphelion.

Per"il (?), n. [F. péril, fr. L. periculum, periclum, akin to peritus experienced, skilled, and E. fare. See Fare, and cf. Experience.] Danger; risk; hazard; jeopardy; exposure of person or property to injury, loss, or destruction.

In perils of waters, in perils of robbers.

2 Cor. xi. 26.

Adventure hard
With peril great achieved.


At, or On, one's peril, with risk or danger to one; at the hazard of. "On thy soul's peril." Shak.

Syn. -- Hazard; risk; jeopardy. See Danger.

Per"il, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Periled (?) or Perilled; p. pr. & vb. n. Periling or Perilling.] To expose to danger; to hazard; to risk; as, to peril one's life.

Per"il (?), v. i. To be in danger. [Obs.] Milton.

||Pe*ril"la (?), n. [Etymol. uncertain.] (Bot.) A genus of labiate herbs, of which one species (Perilla ocimoides, or P. Nankinensis) is often cultivated for its purple or variegated foliage.

Per"il*ous (?), a. [OF. perillous, perilleus, F. périlleux, L. periculosus. See Peril.] [Written also perillous.] 1. Full of, attended with, or involving, peril; dangerous; hazardous; as, a perilous undertaking.

Infamous hills, and sandy, perilous wilds.


2. Daring; reckless; dangerous. [Obs.] Latimer.

For I am perilous with knife in hand.


-- Per"il*ous*ly, adv. -- Per"il*ous*ness, n.

Per"i*lymph (?), n. (Anat.) The fluid which surrounds the membranous labyrinth of the internal ear, and separates it from the walls of the chambers in which the labyrinth lies.

Per`i*lym*phan"gi*al (?), a. (Anat.) Around, or at the side of, a lymphatic vessel.

Per`i*lym*phat"ic (?), a. (Anat.) (a) Pertaining to, or containing, perilymph. (b) Perilymphangial.

Per*im"e*ter (?), n. [Gr. &?;; &?; around + &?; measure: cf. F. périmètre.] 1. (Geom.) The outer boundary of a body or figure, or the sum of all the sides.

2. An instrument for determining the extent and shape of the field of vision.

{ Per`i*met"ric (?), Per`i*met"ric*al (?), } a. Of or pertaining to the perimeter, or to perimetry; as, a perimetric chart of the eye.

Per*im"e*try (?), n. The art of using the perimeter; measurement of the field of vision.

Per"i*morph (?), n. [Pref. peri- + Gr. &?; form.] (Min.) A crystal of one species inclosing one of another species. See Endomorph.

Per`i*my"sial (?), a. (Anat.) (a) Surrounding a muscle or muscles. (b) Of or pertaining to the perimysium.

||Per`i*my"si*um (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; about + &?; muscle.] (Anat.) The connective tissue sheath which surrounds a muscle, and sends partitions inwards between the bundles of muscular fibers.

||Per`i*næ"um (?), n. See Perineum.

Per`i*ne"al (?), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the perineum.

Per`i*ne"o*plas`ty (?), n. [Perineum + -plasty.] (Med.) The act or process of restoring an injured perineum.

Per`i*ne*or"rha*phy (?), n. [Perineum + Gr. &?; to sew.] (Med.) The operation of sewing up a ruptured perineum.

||Per`i*ne*phri"tis (?), n. [NL. See Peri-, and Nephritis.] (Med.) Inflammation of the cellular tissue around the kidney. -- Per`i*ne*phrit"ic, a.

||Per`i*ne"um (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?;, &?;.] (Anat.) The region which is included within the outlet of the pelvis, and is traversed by the urinogenital canal and the rectum.

Per`i*neu"ri*al (?), a. (Anat.) Surrounding nerves or nerve fibers; of or pertaining to the perineurium.

||Per`i*neu"ri*um (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; about + &?; a nerve.] (Anat.) The connective tissue sheath which surrounds a bundle of nerve fibers. See Epineurium, and Neurilemma.

Per`i*nu"cle*ar (?), a. (Biol.) Of or pertaining to a nucleus; situated around a nucleus; as, the perinuclear protoplasm.

Pe"ri*od (?), n. [L. periodus, Gr. &?; a going round, a way round, a circumference, a period of time; &?; round, about + &?; a way: cf. F. période.] 1. A portion of time as limited and determined by some recurring phenomenon, as by the completion of a revolution of one of the heavenly bodies; a division of time, as a series of years, months, or days, in which something is completed, and ready to recommence and go on in the same order; as, the period of the sun, or the earth, or a comet.

2. Hence: A stated and recurring interval of time; more generally, an interval of time specified or left indefinite; a certain series of years, months, days, or the like; a time; a cycle; an age; an epoch; as, the period of the Roman republic.

How by art to make plants more lasting than their ordinary period.


3. (Geol.) One of the great divisions of geological time; as, the Tertiary period; the Glacial period. See the Chart of Geology.

4. The termination or completion of a revolution, cycle, series of events, single event, or act; hence, a limit; a bound; an end; a conclusion. Bacon.

So spake the archangel Michael; then paused,
As at the world's great period.


Evils which shall never end till eternity hath a period.

Jer. Taylor.

This is the period of my ambition.


5. (Rhet.) A complete sentence, from one full stop to another; esp., a well-proportioned, harmonious sentence. "Devolved his rounded periods." Tennyson.

Periods are beautiful when they are not too long.

B. Johnson.

The period, according to Heyse, is a compound sentence consisting of a protasis and apodosis; according to Becker, it is the appropriate form for the coördinate propositions related by antithesis or causality. Gibbs.

6. (Print.) The punctuation point [.] that marks the end of a complete sentence, or of an abbreviated word.

7. (Math.) One of several similar sets of figures or terms usually marked by points or commas placed at regular intervals, as in numeration, in the extraction of roots, and in circulating decimals.

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8. (Med.) The time of the exacerbation and remission of a disease, or of the paroxysm and intermission.

9. (Mus.) A complete musical sentence.

The period, the present or current time, as distinguished from all other times.

Syn. -- Time; date; epoch; era; age; duration; limit; bound; end; conclusion; determination.

Pe"ri*od (?), v. t. To put an end to. [Obs.] Shak.

Pe"ri*od, v. i. To come to a period; to conclude. [Obs.] "You may period upon this, that," etc. Felthman.

Per*i"o*date (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of periodic acid.

Per`i*od"ic (?), a. [Pref. per- + iodic.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, derived from, or designating, the highest oxygen acid (HIO&?;) of iodine.

{ Pe`ri*od"ic (?), Pe`ri*od"ic*al (?), } a. [L. periodicus, Gr. &?;: cf. F. périodique.] 1. Of or pertaining to a period or periods, or to division by periods.

The periodicaltimes of all the satellites.

Sir J. Herschel.

2. Performed in a period, or regular revolution; proceeding in a series of successive circuits; as, the periodical motion of the planets round the sun.

3. Happening, by revolution, at a stated time; returning regularly, after a certain period of time; acting, happening, or appearing, at fixed intervals; recurring; as, periodical epidemics.

The periodic return of a plant's flowering.


To influence opinion through the periodical press.


4. (Rhet.) Of or pertaining to a period; constituting a complete sentence.

Periodic comet (Astron.), a comet that moves about the sun in an elliptic orbit; a comet that has been seen at two of its approaches to the sun. -- Periodic function (Math.), a function whose values recur at fixed intervals as the variable uniformly increases. The trigonomertic functions, as sin x, tan x, etc., are periodic functions. Exponential functions are also periodic, having an imaginary period, and the elliptic functions have not only a real but an imaginary period, and are hence called doubly periodic. -- Periodic law (Chem.), the generalization that the properties of the chemical elements are periodic functions of their atomic wieghts. "In other words, if the elements are grouped in the order of their atomic weights, it will be found that nearly the same properties recur periodically throughout the entire series." The following tabular arrangement of the atomic weights shows the regular recurrence of groups (under I., II., III., IV., etc.), each consisting of members of the same natural family. The gaps in the table indicate the probable existence of unknown elements.

A similar relation had been enunciated in a crude way by Newlands; but the law in its effective form was developed and elaborated by Mendelejeff, whence it is sometimes called Mendelejeff's law. Important extensions of it were also made by L. Meyer. By this means Mendelejeff predicted with remarkable accuracy the hypothetical elements ekaboron, ekaluminium, and ekasilicon, afterwards discovered and named respectively scandium, gallium, and germanium.

-- Periodic star (Astron.), a variable star whose changes of brightness recur at fixed periods. -- Periodic time of a heavenly body (Astron.), the time of a complete revolution of the body about the sun, or of a satellite about its primary.

Pe`ri*od"ic*al, n. A magazine or other publication which appears at stated or regular intervals.

Pe`ri*od"ic*al*ist, n. One who publishes, or writes for, a periodical.

Pe`ri*od"ic*al*ly, adv. In a periodical manner.

Pe`ri*od"ic*al*ness, n. Periodicity.

Pe`ri*o*dic"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Periodicities (#). [Cf. F. périodicité.] The quality or state of being periodical, or regularly recurrent; as, the periodicity in the vital phenomena of plants. Henfrey.

Per*i"o*dide (?), n. [Pref. per- + iodide.] An iodide containing a higher proportion of iodine than any other iodide of the same substance or series.

Per`i*o*don"tal (?), a. [Pref. peri- + Gr. &?;, &?;, tooth.] (Anat.) Surrounding the teeth.

Pe`ri*od"o*scope (?), n. [Period + -scope.] (Med.) A table or other means for calculating the periodical functions of women. Dunglison.

{ ||Per`i*œ"ci, Per`i*œ"cians, } n. pl. [NL. perioeci, fr. Gr. &?;; &?; around + &?; house, dwelling.] Those who live on the same parallel of latitude but on opposite meridians, so that it is noon in one place when it is midnight in the other. Compare Antœci.

Per"i*o*ple (?), n. [F. périople, from Gr. &?; about + &?; the hoof of a horse.] (Anat.) The external smooth horny layer of the hoof of the horse and allied animals.

Per`i*op"lic (?), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the periople; connected with the periople.

Per`i*os"te*al (?), a. (Anat.) Situated around bone; of or pertaining to the periosteum.

||Per`i*os"te*um (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; round the bones; &?; around + &?; a bone: cf. L. periosteon.] (Anat.) The membrane of fibrous connective tissue which closely invests all bones except at the articular surfaces.

||Per`i*os*ti"tis (?), n. [NL. See Periosteum, and -itis.] (Med.) Inflammation of the periosteum.

||Per`i*os"tra*cum (?), n.; pl. Periostraca (#). [NL., fr. Gr. &?; around + &?; shell of a testacean.] (Zoöl.) A chitinous membrane covering the exterior of many shells; -- called also epidermis.

Per`i*o"tic (?), a. [Pref. peri- + Gr. &?;, &?;, the ear.] (Anat.) Surrounding, or pertaining to the region surrounding, the internal ear; as, the periotic capsule. -- n. A periotic bone.

Per`i*pa*te"cian (?), n. A peripatetic. [Obs.]

Per`i*pa*tet"ic (?), a. [L. peripateticus, Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to walk about; &?; about + &?; to walk: cf. F. péripatétique.] 1. Walking about; itinerant.

2. Of or pertaining to the philosophy taught by Aristotle (who gave his instructions while walking in the Lyceum at Athens), or to his followers. "The true peripatetic school." Howell.

Per`i*pa*tet"ic, n. 1. One who walks about; a pedestrian; an itinerant. Tatler.

2. A disciple of Aristotle; an Aristotelian.

Per`i*pa*tet"ic*al (?), a. Peripatetic. [R.] Hales.

Per`i*pa*tet"i*cism (?), n. [Cf. F. péripatétisme.] The doctrines or philosophical system of the peripatetics. See Peripatetic, n., 2. Lond. Sat. Rev.

||Pe*rip"a*tus (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; a walking about.] (Zoöl.) A genus of lowly organized arthropods, found in South Africa, Australia, and tropical America. It constitutes the order Malacopoda.

Per`i*pet"al*ous (?), a. (Bot.) Surrounding, or situated about, the petals.

Pe*riph"er*al (?), a. 1. Of or pertaining to a periphery; constituting a periphery; peripheric.

2. (Anat.) External; away from the center; as, the peripheral portion of the nervous system.

{ Per`i*pher"ic (?), Per`i*pher"ic*al (?), } a. [Cf. F. périphérique. See Periphery.] See Peripheral.

Pe*riph"er*y (?), n.; pl. Peripheries (#). [L. peripheria, Gr. &?;; &?; around + &?; to bear, carry: cf. F. périphérie.] 1. The outside or superficial portions of a body; the surface.

2. (Geom.) The circumference of a circle, ellipse, or other figure.

Per"i*phrase (?), n. [L. periphrasis, Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to think about, to be expressed periphrastically; &?; + &?; to speak: cf. F. périphrase. See Phrase.] (Rhet.) The use of more words than are necessary to express the idea; a roundabout, or indirect, way of speaking; circumlocution. "To describe by enigmatic periphrases." De Quincey.

Per"i*phrase, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Periphrased (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Periphrasing.] [Cf. F. périphraser.] To express by periphrase or circumlocution.

Per"i*phrase, v. i. To use circumlocution.

||Pe*riph"ra*sis (?), n.; pl. Periphrases (#). [L.] See Periphrase.

{ Per`i*phras"tic (?), Per`i*phras"tic*al (?), } a. [Gr. &?;: cf. F. périphrastique.] Expressing, or expressed, in more words than are necessary; characterized by periphrase; circumlocutory.

Periphrastic conjugation (Gram.), a conjugation formed by the use of the simple verb with one or more auxiliaries.

Per`i*phras"tic*al*ly, adv. With circumlocution.

Per"i*plast (?), n. [Pref. peri- + Gr. &?; to mold, form.] (Biol.) Same as Periblast. -- Per`i*plas"tic (#), a. Huxley.

{ ||Per`ip*neu*mo"ni*a (?), Per`ip*neu"mo*ny (?), } n. [L. peripneumonia, Gr. &?;: cf. F. péripneumonie. See Peri-, Pneumonia.] (Med.) Pneumonia. (Obsoles.)

Per`ip*neu*mon"ic (?), a. [L. peripneumonicus, Gr. &?;: cf. F. péripneumonique.] (Med.) Of or pertaining to peripneumonia.

Per"i*proct (?), n. [Pref. peri- + Gr. &?; the anus.] (Zoöl.) The region surrounding the anus, particularly of echinoderms.

||Per`i*proc*ti"tis (?), n. [NL. See Peri-, and Proctitus.] (Med.) Inflammation of the tissues about the rectum.

Pe*rip"ter*al (?), a. [Gr., fr. &?; + &?; feather, wing, row of columns.] (Arch.) Having columns on all sides; -- said of an edifice. See Apteral.

Pe*rip"ter*ous (?), a. 1. (Arch.) Peripteral.

2. (Zoöl.) Feathered all around.

Per"i*sarc (?), n. [Pref. peri- + Gr. &?;, &?;, flesh.] (Zoöl.) The outer, hardened integument which covers most hydroids.

Pe*ris"cian (?), a. [Gr. &?;; &?; around + &?; shadow: cf. F. périscien.] Having the shadow moving all around.

{ Pe*ris"cians (?), ||Pe*ris"ci*i (?), } n. pl. [NL. See Periscian.] Those who live within a polar circle, whose shadows, during some summer days, will move entirely round, falling toward every point of the compass.

Per"i*scope (?), n. [Pref. peri- + -scope.] A general or comprehensive view. [R.]

Per`i*scop"ic (?), a. [Cf. F. périscopique.] Viewing all around, or on all sides.

Periscopic spectacles (Opt.), spectacles having concavo-convex or convexo-concave lenses with a considerable curvature corresponding to that of the eye, to increase the distinctness of objects viewed obliquely.

Per"ish (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Perished (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Perishing.] [OE. perissen, perisshen, F. périr, p. pr. périssant, L. perire to go or run through, come to nothing, perish; per through + ire to go. Cf. Issue, and see -ish.] To be destroyed; to pass away; to become nothing; to be lost; to die; hence, to wither; to waste away.

I perish with hunger!

Luke xv. 17.

Grow up and perish, as the summer fly.


The thoughts of a soul that perish in thinking.


Per"ish, v. t. To cause perish. [Obs.] Bacon.

Per`ish*a*bil"i*ty (?), n. Perishableness.

Per"ish*a*ble (?), a. [F. périssable.] Liable to perish; subject to decay, destruction, or death; as, perishable goods; our perishable bodies.

Per"ish*a*ble*ness, n. The quality or state of being perishable; liability to decay or destruction. Locke.

Per"ish*a*bly, adv. In a perishable degree or manner.

Per"ish*ment (?), n. [Cf. OF. perissement.] The act of perishing. [R.] Udall.

||Per`i*so"ma (?), n.; pl. Perisomata (#). [NL.] (Zoöl.) Same as Perisome.

Per"i*some (?), n. [Pref. peri- + -some body.] (Zoöl.) The entire covering of an invertebrate animal, as echinoderm or cœlenterate; the integument.

Per"i*sperm (?), n. [F. périsperme. See Peri-, and Sperm.] (Bot.) The albumen of a seed, especially that portion which is formed outside of the embryo sac. -- Per`i*sper"mic (#), a.

{ Per`i*spher"ic (?), Per`i*spher"ic*al (?), } a. Exactly spherical; globular.

||Per`i*spom"e*non (?), n.; pl. Perispomena (#). [NL., from Gr. &?;, pr. pass. p. of &?; to draw around, to circumflex; &?; around + &?; to draw.] (Gr. Gram.) A word which has the circumflex accent on the last syllable. Goodwin.

Per"i*spore (?), n. (Bot.) The outer covering of a spore.

Per"is*sad (?), a. [Gr. &?; odd, from &?; over.] (Chem.) Odd; not even; -- said of elementary substances and of radicals whose valence is not divisible by two without a remainder. Contrasted with artiad.

Per"isse (?), v. i. To perish. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Per`is*so*dac"tyl (?), n. (Zoöl.) One of the Perissodactyla.

||Per`is*so*dac"ty*la (?), n. pl. [NL., from Gr. &?; odd (fr. &?; over) + &?; finger.] (Zoöl.) A division of ungulate mammals, including those that have an odd number of toes, as the horse, tapir, and rhinoceros; -- opposed to Artiodactyla.

Per`is*so*log"ic*al (?), a. [Cf. F. périssologique.] Redundant or excessive in words. [R.]

Per`is*sol"o*gy (?), n. [L. perissologia, Gr. &?;; &?; odd, superfluous + &?; discourse.] Superfluity of words. [R.] G. Campbell.

||Per`i*stal"sis (?), n. [NL. See Peristaltic.] (Physiol.) Peristaltic contraction or action.

Per`i*stal"tic (?), a. [Gr. &?; clasping and compressing, fr. &?; to surround, wrap up; &?; round + &?; to place, arrange: cf. F. péristaltique.] (Physiol.) Applied to the peculiar wormlike wave motion of the intestines and other similar structures, produced by the successive contraction of the muscular fibers of their walls, forcing their contents onwards; as, peristaltic movement. -- Per`i*stal"tic*al*ly (#), adv.

||Per`is*te"ri*a (?), n. [NL. See Peristerion.] (Bot.) A genus of orchidaceous plants. See Dove plant.

||Per`is*te"ri*on (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; a dovecote, a kind of verbena, fr. &?; a dove, pigeon; cf. L. peristereon.] (Bot.) The herb vervain (Verbena officinalis).

Pe*ris"ter*ite (?), n. [Gr. &?; a pigeon.] (Min.) A variety of albite, whitish and slightly iridescent like a pigeon's neck.

Pe*ris`ter*o*mor"phous (?), a. [Gr. &?; a pigeon + -morphous.] (Zoöl.) Like or pertaining to the pigeons or Columbæ.

Pe*ris`ter*op"o*dous (?), a. [Gr. &?; a pigeon + &?;, &?;, foot.] (Zoöl.) Having pigeonlike feet; -- said of those gallinaceous birds that rest on all four toes, as the curassows and megapods.

Pe*ris"to*le (?), n. [NL.: cf. F. péristole. See Peristaltic.] (Physiol.) Peristaltic action, especially of the intestines.

||Pe*ris"to*ma (?), n.; pl. Peristomata (#). [NL.] Same as Peristome.

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Per"i*stome (?), n. [Pref. peri- + Gr. &?;, &?;, mouth.] 1. (Bot.) The fringe of teeth around the orifice of the capsule of mosses. It consists of 4, 8, 16, 32, or 64 teeth, and may be either single or double.

2. (Zoöl.) (a) The lip, or edge of the aperture, of a spiral shell. (b) The membrane surrounding the mouth of an invertebrate animal.

Per`i*sto"mi*al (?), a. (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to a peristome.

||Per`i*sto"mi*um (?), n. [NL.] Same as Peristome.

Per`i*streph"ic (?), a. [Gr. &?; to turn round.] Turning around; rotatory; revolving; as, a peristrephic painting (of a panorama).

Per"i*style (?), n. [L. peristylum, Gr. &?;, &?;; &?; about + &?; a column: cf. F. péristyle.] (Arch.) A range of columns with their entablature, etc.; specifically, a complete system of columns, whether on all sides of a court, or surrounding a building, such as the cella of a temple. Used in the former sense, it gives name to the larger and inner court of a Roman dwelling, the peristyle. See Colonnade.

Per`i*sys"to*le (?), n. [Pref. peri- + systole: cf. F. périsystole.] (Physiol.) The interval between the diastole and systole of the heart. It is perceptible only in the dying.

Pe*rite" (?), a. [L. peritus.] Skilled. [Obs.]

||Per`i*the"ci*um (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; around + &?; box.] (Bot.) An organ in certain fungi and lichens, surrounding and enveloping the masses of fructification. Henslow.

Pe*rit"o*mous (?), a. [Gr. &?; cut off all around. See Peri-, and Tome.] (Min.) Cleaving in more directions than one, parallel to the axis.

Per`i*to*næ"um (?), n. (Anat.) Same as Peritoneum.

Per`i*to*ne"al (?), a. [Cf. F. péritonéal.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the peritoneum.

Per`i*to*ne"um (?), n. [L. peritoneum, peritonaeum, Gr. &?;, &?;, fr. &?; to stretch all around or over; &?; around + &?; to stretch.] (Anat.) The smooth serous membrane which lines the cavity of the abdomen, or the whole body cavity when there is no diaphragm, and, turning back, surrounds the viscera, forming a closed, or nearly closed, sac. [Written also peritonæum.]

||Per`i*to*ni"tis (?), n. [NL. See Peritoneum, and -itis.] (Med.) Inflammation of the peritoneum.

Per`i*tra"che*al (?), a. (Zoöl.) Surrounding the tracheæ.

Per"i*treme (?), n. [Pref. peri- + Gr. &?; a hole.] (Zoöl.) (a) That part of the integument of an insect which surrounds the spiracles. (b) The edge of the aperture of a univalve shell.

||Pe*rit"ri*cha (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; about + &?;, &?;, hair.] (Zoöl.) A division of ciliated Infusoria having a circle of cilia around the oral disk and sometimes another around the body. It includes the vorticellas. See Vorticella.

||Per`i*tro"chi*um (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?;; &?; around + &?; a wheel.] (Mech.) The wheel which, together with the axle, forms the axis in peritrochio, which see under Axis.

Per*it"ro*pal (?), a. [Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to turn around; &?; around + &?; to turn: cf. F. péritrope.] 1. Rotatory; circuitous. [R.]

2. Having the axis of the seed perpendicular to the axis of the pericarp to which it is attached.

Per*it"ro*pous (?), a. Peritropal.

||Per`i*typh*li"tis (?), n. [NL. See Peri-, and Typhlitis.] (Med.) Inflammation of the connective tissue about the cæcum.

Per`i*u"ter*ine (?), a. (Med.) Surrounding the uterus.

Per`i*vas"cu*lar (?), a. Around the blood vessels; as, perivascular lymphatics.

Per`i*ver"te*bral (?), a. (Anat.) Surrounding the vertebræ.

Per`i*vis"cer*al (?), a. (Anat.) Around the viscera; as, the perivisceral cavity.

Per`i*vi*tel"line (?), a. [Pref. peri- + vitelline.] (Biol.) Situated around the vitellus, or between the vitellus and zona pellucida of an ovum.

Per"i*wig (?), n. [OE. perrwige, perwicke, corrupt. fr. F. perruque; cf. OD. peruyk, from French. See Peruke, and cf. Wig.] A headdress of false hair, usually covering the whole head, and representing the natural hair; a wig. Shak.

Per"i*wig, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Perwigged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Perwigging (?).] To dress with a periwig, or with false hair. Swift.

Per"i*win`kle (?), n. [From AS. pinewincla a shellfish, in which pine- is fr. L. pina, pinna, a kind of mussel, akin to Gr. &?;. Cf. Winkle.] (Zoöl.) Any small marine gastropod shell of the genus Littorina. The common European species (Littorina littorea), in Europe extensively used as food, has recently become naturalized abundantly on the American coast. See Littorina.

In America the name is often applied to several large univalves, as Fulgur carica, and F. canaliculata.

Per"i*win`kle, n. [OE. pervenke, AS. pervince, fr. L. pervinca.] (Bot.) A trailing herb of the genus Vinca.

The common perwinkle (Vinca minor) has opposite evergreen leaves and solitary blue or white flowers in their axils. In America it is often miscalled myrtle. See under Myrtle.

Per"jen*et (?), n. [Cf. Pear, and Jenneting.] A kind of pear. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Per"jure (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Perjured (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Perjuring.] [F. parjurer, L. perjurare, perjerare; per through, over + jurare to swear. See Jury.] 1. To cause to violate an oath or a vow; to cause to make oath knowingly to what is untrue; to make guilty of perjury; to forswear; to corrupt; -- often used reflexively; as, he perjured himself.

Want will perjure
The ne'er-touched vestal.


2. To make a false oath to; to deceive by oaths and protestations. [Obs.]

And with a virgin innocence did pray
For me, that perjured her.

J. Fletcher.

Syn. -- To Perjure, Forswear. These words have been used interchangeably; but there is a tendency to restrict perjure to that species of forswearing which constitutes the crime of perjury at law, namely, the willful violation of an oath administered by a magistrate or according to law.

Per"jure, n. [L. perjurus: cf. OF. parjur, F. parjure.] A perjured person. [Obs.] Shak.

Per"jured (?), a. Guilty of perjury; having sworn falsely; forsworn. Shak. "Perjured persons." 1 Tim. i. 10. "Their perjured oath." Spenser.

Per"jur*er (?), n. One who is guilty of perjury; one who perjures or forswears, in any sense.

{ Per*ju"ri*ous (?), Per"ju*rous (?), } a. [L. perjuriosus, perjurus.] Guilty of perjury; containing perjury. [Obs.] Quarles. B. Johnson.

Per"ju*ry (?), n.; pl. Perjuries (#). [L. perjurium. See Perjure, v.] 1. False swearing.

2. (Law) At common law, a willfully false statement in a fact material to the issue, made by a witness under oath in a competent judicial proceeding. By statute the penalties of perjury are imposed on the making of willfully false affirmations.

If a man swear falsely in nonjudicial affidavits, it is made perjury by statute in some jurisdictions in the United States.

Perk (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Perked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Perking.] [Cf. W. percu to trim, to make smart.] To make trim or smart; to straighten up; to erect; to make a jaunty or saucy display of; as, to perk the ears; to perk up one's head. Cowper. Sherburne.

Perk, v. i. To exalt one's self; to bear one's self loftily. "To perk over them." Barrow.

To perk it, to carry one's self proudly or saucily. Pope.

Perk, a. Smart; trim; spruce; jaunty; vain. "Perk as a peacock." Spenser.

Perk, v. i. To peer; to look inquisitively. Dickens.

Per"kin (?), n. A kind of weak perry.

Per"kin*ism (?), n. (Med.) A remedial treatment, by drawing the pointed extremities of two rods, each of a different metal, over the affected part; tractoration, -- first employed by Dr. Elisha Perkins of Norwich, Conn. See Metallotherapy.

Perk"y (?), a. Perk; pert; jaunty; trim.

There amid perky larches and pines.


Per*la"ceous (?), a. [See Pearl.] Pearly; resembling pearl.

Per"lid (?), n. (Zoöl.) Any insect of the genus Perla, or family Perlidæ. See Stone fly, under Stone.

Per"lite (?), n. (Min.) Same as Pearlite.

Per*lit"ic (?), a. (Min.) Relating to or resembling perlite, or pearlstone; as, the perlitic structure of certain rocks. See Pearlite.

Per"lous (?), a. Perilous. [Obs.] Spenser.

Per`lus*tra"tion (?), n. [L. perlustrare to wander all through, to survey. See 3d Luster.] The act of viewing all over. [Archaic] Howell.

Per"ma*na*ble (?), a. Permanent; durable. [Obs.] Lydgate.

{ Per"ma*nence (?), Per"ma*nen*cy (?), } n. [Cf. F. permanence.] The quality or state of being permanent; continuance in the same state or place; duration; fixedness; as, the permanence of institutions; the permanence of nature.

Per"ma*nent (?), a. [L. permanens, -entis, p. pr. of permanere to stay or remain to the end, to last; per + manere to remain: cf. F. permanent. See Per-, and Mansion.] Continuing in the same state, or without any change that destroys form or character; remaining unaltered or unremoved; abiding; durable; fixed; stable; lasting; as, a permanent impression.

Eternity stands permanent and fixed.


Permanent gases (Chem. & Physics), hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon monoxide; -- also called incondensible or incoercible gases, before their liquefaction in 1877. -- Permanent way, the roadbed and superstructure of a finished railway; -- so called in distinction from the contractor's temporary way. -- Permanent white (Chem.), barium sulphate (heavy spar), used as a white pigment or paint, in distinction from white lead, which tarnishes and darkens from the formation of the sulphide.

Syn. -- Lasting; durable; constant. See Lasting.

Per"ma*nent*ly, adv. In a permanent manner.

Per*man"ga*nate (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of permanganic acid.

Potassium permanganate. (Chem.) See Potassium permanganate, under Potassium.

Per`man*gan"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, one of the higher acids of manganese, HMnO4, which forms salts called permanganates.

Per*man"sion (?), n. [L. permansio. See Permanent.] Continuance. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

Per`me*a*bil"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. perméabilité.] The quality or state of being permeable.

Magnetic permeability (Physics), the specific capacity of a body for magnetic induction, or its conducting power for lines of magnetic force. Sir W. Thomson.

Per"me*a*ble (?), a. [L. permeabilis: cf. F. perméable. See Permeate.] Capable of being permeated, or passed through; yielding passage; passable; penetrable; -- used especially of substances which allow the passage of fluids; as, wood is permeable to oil; glass is permeable to light. I. Taylor.

Per"me*a*bly, adv. In a permeable manner.

Per"me*ant (?), a. [L. permeans, p. pr.] Passing through; permeating. [R.] Sir T. Browne.

Per"me*ate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Permeated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Permeating.] [L. permeatus, p. p. of permeare to permeate; per + meare to go, pass.] 1. To pass through the pores or interstices of; to penetrate and pass through without causing rupture or displacement; -- applied especially to fluids which pass through substances of loose texture; as, water permeates sand. Woodward.

2. To enter and spread through; to pervade.

God was conceived to be diffused throughout the whole world, to permeate and pervade all things.


Per`me*a"tion (?), n. The act of permeating, passing through, or spreading throughout, the pores or interstices of any substance.

Here is not a mere involution only, but a spiritual permeation and inexistence.

Bp. Hall.

Per"mi*an (?), a. [From the ancient kingdom of Permia, where the Permian formation exists.] (Geol.) Belonging or relating to the period, and also to the formation, next following the Carboniferous, and regarded as closing the Carboniferous age and Paleozoic era. -- n. The Permian period. See Chart of Geology.

Per"mi*ans (?), n. pl.; sing. Permian (&?;). (Ethnol.) A tribe belonging to the Finnic race, and inhabiting a portion of Russia.

Per*mis"ci*ble (?), a. [L. permiscere to mingle; per + miscere to mix.] Capable of being mixed.

Per*miss" (?), n. [See Permit.] A permitted choice; a rhetorical figure in which a thing is committed to the decision of one's opponent. [Obs.] Milton.

Per*mis`si*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality of being permissible; permissibleness; allowableness.

Per*mis"si*ble (?), a. That may be permitted; allowable; admissible. -- Per*mis"si*ble*ness, n. -- Per*mis"si*bly, adv.

Per*mis"sion (?), n. [L. permissio: cf. F. permission. See Permit.] The act of permitting or allowing; formal consent; authorization; leave; license or liberty granted.

High permission of all-ruling Heaven.


You have given me your permission for this address.


Syn. -- Leave; liberty; license. -- Leave, Permission. Leave implies that the recipient may decide whether to use the license granted or not. Permission is the absence on the part of another of anything preventive, and in general, at least by implication, signifies approval.

Per*mis"sive (?), a. 1. Permitting; granting leave or liberty. "By his permissive will." Milton.

2. Permitted; tolerated; suffered. Milton.

Per*mis"sive*ly, adv. In a permissive manner.

Per*mis"tion (?), n. [L. permistio, permixtio, fr. permiscere, permistum, and permixtum. See Permiscible.] The act of mixing; the state of being mingled; mixture. [Written also permixtion.]

Per*mit" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Permitted; p. pr. & vb. n. Permitting.] [L. permittere, permissum, to let through, to allow, permit; per + mittere to let go, send. See Per-, and Mission.] 1. To consent to; to allow or suffer to be done; to tolerate; to put up with.

What things God doth neither command nor forbid . . . he permitteth with approbation either to be done or left undone.


2. To grant (one) express license or liberty to do an act; to authorize; to give leave; -- followed by an infinitive.

Thou art permitted to speak for thyself.

Acis xxvi. 1.

3. To give over; to resign; to leave; to commit.

Let us not aggravate our sorrows,
But to the gods permit the event of things.


Syn. -- To allow; let; grant; admit; suffer; tolerate; endure; consent to. -- To Allow, Permit, Suffer, Tolerate. To allow is more positive, denoting (at least originally and etymologically) a decided assent, either directly or by implication. To permit is more negative, and imports only acquiescence or an abstinence from prevention. The distinction, however, is often disregarded by good writers. To suffer has a stronger passive or negative sense than to permit, sometimes implying against the will, sometimes mere indifference. To tolerate is to endure what is contrary to will or desire. To suffer and to tolerate are sometimes used without discrimination.

Per*mit", v. i. To grant permission; to allow.

Per"mit (?), n. Warrant; license; leave; permission; specifically, a written license or permission given to a person or persons having authority; as, a permit to land goods subject to duty.

Per*mit"tance (?), n. The act of permitting; allowance; permission; leave. Milton.

Per`mit*tee" (?), n. One to whom a permission or permit is given.

Per*mit"ter (?), n. One who permits.

A permitter, or not a hinderer, of sin.

J. Edwards.

Per*mix" (?), v. t. To mix; to mingle. [Obs.]

Per*mix"tion (?), n. See Permission.

Per*mut"a*ble (?), a. [Cf. F. permutable.] Capable of being permuted; exchangeable. -- Per*mut"a*ble*ness, n. -- Per*mut"a*bly, adv.

Per`mu*ta"tion (?), n. [L. permutatio: cf. F. permutation. See Permute.] 1. The act of permuting; exchange of the thing for another; mutual transference; interchange.

The violent convulsions and permutations that have been made in property.


2. (Math.) (a) The arrangement of any determinate number of things, as units, objects, letters, etc., in all possible orders, one after the other; -- called also alternation. Cf. Combination, n., 4. (b) Any one of such possible arrangements.

3. (Law) Barter; exchange.

Permutation lock, a lock in which the parts can be transposed or shifted, so as to require different arrangements of the tumblers on different occasions of unlocking.

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Per*mute" (?), v. t. [L. permutare, permutatum; per + mutare to change: cf. F. permuter.] 1. To interchange; to transfer reciprocally.

2. To exchange; to barter; to traffic. [Obs.]

Bought, trucked, permuted, or given.


Per*mut"er (?), n. One who permutes.

Pern (?), v. t. [See Pernancy.] To take profit of; to make profitable. [Obs.] Sylvester.

Pern, n. (Zoöl.) The honey buzzard.

Per"nan*cy (?), n. [OF. prenance, fr. prendre, prenre, penre, to take, L. prendere, prehendere.] (Law) A taking or reception, as the receiving of rents or tithes in kind, the receiving of profits. Blackstone.

Per"nel (?), n. See Pimpernel. [Obs.]

Per*ni"cion (?), n. [See 2d Pernicious.] Destruction; perdition. [Obs.] hudibras.

Per*ni"cious (?), a. [L. pernix, -icis.] Quick; swift (to burn). [R.] Milton.

Per*ni"cious, a. [L. perniciosus, from pernicies destruction, from pernecare to kill or slay outright; per + necare to kill, slay: cf. F. pernicieux. Cf. Nuisance, Necromancy.] Having the quality of injuring or killing; destructive; very mischievous; baleful; malicious; wicked.

Let this pernicious hour
Stand aye accursed in the calendar.


Pernicious to his health.


Syn. -- Destructive; ruinous; deadly; noxious; injurious; baneful; deleterious; hurtful; mischievous.

-- Per*ni"cious*ly, adv., -- Per*ni"cious*ness, n.

Per*nic"i*ty (?), n. [L. pernicitas. See 1st Pernicious.] Swiftness; celerity. [R.] Ray.

||Per"ni*o (?), n. [L.] (Med.) A chilblain.

Per`noc*ta"li*an (?), n. One who watches or keeps awake all night.

Per`noc*ta"tion (?), n. [L. pernoctatio, fr. pernoctare to stay all night; per + nox, noctis, night.] The act or state of passing the whole night; a remaining all night. "Pernoctation in prayer." Jer. Taylor.

Per"nor (?), n. [See Pern, v.] (Law) One who receives the profits, as of an estate.

Per"not fur"nace (?). [So called from Charles Pernot, its inventor.] A reverberatory furnace with a circular revolving hearth, -- used in making steel.

Per"ny*i moth" (?). (Zoöl.) A silk- producing moth (Attacus Pernyi) which feeds upon the oak. It has been introduced into Europe and America from China.

Per*of"skite (?), n. [From von Perovski, of St.Petersburg.] (Min.) A titanate of lime occurring in octahedral or cubic crystals. [Written also Perovskite.]

Pe*rogue (?), n. See Pirogue.

Per"o*nate (?), a. [L. peronatus rough&?;booted, fr. pero, -onis, a kind of rough boot.] (Bot.) A term applied to the stipes or stalks of certain fungi which are covered with a woolly substance which at length becomes powdery. Henslow.

Per`o*ne"al (?), a. [Gr. &?; the fibula.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the fibula; in the region of the fibula.

Per"o*rate (?), v. i. [See Peroration.] To make a peroration; to harangue. [Colloq.]

Per`o*ra"tion (?), n. [L. peroratio, fr. perorate, peroratum, to speak from beginning to end; per + orate to speak. See Per-, and Oration.] (Rhet.) The concluding part of an oration; especially, a final summing up and enforcement of an argument. Burke.

Per*ox`i*da"tion (?), n. Act, process, or result of peroxidizing; oxidation to a peroxide.

Per*ox"ide (?), n. (Chem.) An oxide containing more oxygen than some other oxide of the same element. Formerly peroxides were regarded as the highest oxides. Cf. Per-, 2.

Per*ox"i*dize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Peroxidized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Peroxidizing.] (Chem.) To oxidize to the utmost degree, so as to form a peroxide.

Per*pend" (?), v. t. [L. perpendere, perpensum; per + pendere to weight.] To weight carefully in the mind. [R.] "Perpend my words." Shak.

Per*pend", v. i. To attend; to be attentive. [R.] Shak.

Per*pend"er (?), n. [F. parpaing, pierre parpaigne; of uncertain origin.] (Masonry) A large stone reaching through a wall so as to appear on both sides of it, and acting as a binder; -- called also perbend, perpend stone, and perpent stone.

Per*pen"di*cle (?), n. [L. perpendiculum; per + pendere to hang: cf. F. perpendicule.] Something hanging straight down; a plumb line. [Obs.]

Per`pen*dic"u*lar (?), a. [L. perpendicularis, perpendicularius: cf. F. perpendiculaire. See Perpendicle, Pension.] 1. Exactly upright or vertical; pointing to the zenith; at right angles to the plane of the horizon; extending in a right line from any point toward the center of the earth.

2. (Geom.) At right angles to a given line or surface; as, the line ad is perpendicular to the line bc.

Perpendicular style (Arch.), a name given to the latest variety of English Gothic architecture, which prevailed from the close of the 14th century to the early part of the 16th; -- probably so called from the vertical style of its window mullions.

Per`pen*dic"u*lar (?), n. 1. A line at right angles to the plane of the horizon; a vertical line or direction.

2. (Geom.) A line or plane falling at right angles on another line or surface, or making equal angles with it on each side.

Per`pen*dic`u*lar"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. perpendicularité.] The quality or state of being perpendicular.

Per`pen*dic"u*lar*ly (?), adv. In a perpendicular manner; vertically.

Per"pend stone` (?). See Perpender.

Per*pen"sion (?), n. [See Perpend.] Careful consideration; pondering. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

Per*pen"si*ty (?), n. Perpension. [Obs.]

Per"pent stone` (?). See Perpender.

Per*pes"sion (?), n. [L. perpessio, fr. perpeti, perpessus, to bear steadfastly; per + pati to bear.] Suffering; endurance. [Obs.] Bp. Pearson.

Per"pe*tra"ble (?), a. Capable of being perpetrated. R. North.

Per"pe*trate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Perpetrated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Perpetrating.] [L. perpetratus, p. p. of perpetrare to effect, perpetrare; per + patrare to perform.] To do or perform; to carry through; to execute, commonly in a bad sense; to commit (as a crime, an offense); to be guilty of; as, to perpetrate a foul deed.

What the worst perpetrate, or best endure.


Per`pe*tra"tion (?), n. [L. perpetratio: cf. F. perpétration.] 1. The act of perpetrating; a doing; -- commonly used of doing something wrong, as a crime.

2. The thing perpetrated; an evil action.

Per"pe*tra`tor (?), n. [L.] One who perpetrates; esp., one who commits an offense or crime.

Per*pet"u*a*ble (?), a. Capable of being perpetuated or continued.

Varieties are perpetuable, like species.


Per*pet"u*al (?), a. [OE. perpetuel, F. perpétuel, fr. L. perpetualis, fr. perpetuus continuing throughout, continuous, fr. perpes, -etis, lasting throughout.] Neverceasing; continuing forever or for an unlimited time; unfailing; everlasting; continuous.

Unto the kingdom of perpetual night.


Perpetual feast of nectared sweets.


Circle of perpetual apparition, or occultation. See under Circle. -- Perpetual calendar, a calendar so devised that it may be adjusted for any month or year. -- Perpetual curacy (Ch. of Eng.), a curacy in which all the tithes are appropriated, and no vicarage is endowed. Blackstone. -- Perpetual motion. See under Motion. -- Perpetual screw. See Endless screw, under Screw.

Syn. -- Continual; unceasing; endless; everlasting; incessant; constant; eternal. See Constant.

Per*pet"u*al*ly, adv. In a perpetual manner; constantly; continually.

The Bible and Common Prayer Book in the vulgar tongue, being perpetually read in churches, have proved a kind of standard for language.


Per*pet"u*al*ty (?), n. The state or condition of being perpetual. [Obs.] Testament of Love.

Per*pet"u*ance (?), n. Perpetuity. [Obs.]

Per*pet"u*ate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Perpetuated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Perpetuating.] [L. perpetuatus, p. p. of perpetuare to perpetuate. See Perpetual.] To make perpetual; to cause to endure, or to be continued, indefinitely; to preserve from extinction or oblivion; to eternize. Addison. Burke.

Per*pet"u*ate (?), a. [L. perpetuatus, p. p.] Made perpetual; perpetuated. [R.] Southey.

Per*pet`u*a"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. perpétuation.] The act of making perpetual, or of preserving from extinction through an endless existence, or for an indefinite period of time; continuance. Sir T. Browne.

Per`pe*tu"i*ty (?), n. [L. perpetuitas: cf. F. perpétuité.] 1. The quality or state of being perpetual; as, the perpetuity of laws. Bacon.

A path to perpetuity of fame.


The perpetuity of single emotion is insanity.

I. Taylor.

2. Something that is perpetual. South.

3. Endless time. "And yet we should, for perpetuity, go hence in debt." Shak.

4. (Annuities) (a) The number of years in which the simple interest of any sum becomes equal to the principal. (b) The number of years' purchase to be given for an annuity to continue forever. (c) A perpetual annuity.

5. (Law) (a) Duration without limitations as to time. (b) The quality or condition of an estate by which it becomes inalienable, either perpetually or for a very long period; also, the estate itself so modified or perpetuated.

Per*plex" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Perplexed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Perplexing.] [L. perplexari. See Perplex, a.] 1. To involve; to entangle; to make intricate or complicated, and difficult to be unraveled or understood; as, to perplex one with doubts.

No artful wildness to perplex the scene.


What was thought obscure, perplexed, and too hard for our weak parts, will lie open to the understanding in a fair view.


2. To embarrass; to puzzle; to distract; to bewilder; to confuse; to trouble with ambiguity, suspense, or anxiety. "Perplexd beyond self-explication." Shak.

We are perplexed, but not in despair.

2 Cor. iv. 8.

We can distinguish no general truths, or at least shall be apt to perplex the mind.


3. To plague; to vex; to tormen. Glanvill.

Syn. -- To entangle; involve; complicate; embarrass; puzzle; bewilder; confuse; distract. See Embarrass.

Per*plex", a. [L. perplexus entangled, intricate; per + plectere, plexum, to plait, braid: cf. F. perplexe. See Per-, and Plait.] Intricate; difficult. [Obs.] Glanvill.

Per*plexed" (?), a. Entangled, involved, or confused; hence, embarrassd; puzzled; doubtful; anxious. -- Per*plex"ed*ly (#), adv. -- Per*plex"ed*ness, n.

Per*plex"ing (?), a. Embarrassing; puzzling; troublesome. "Perplexing thoughts." Milton.

Per*plex"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Perplexities (#). [L. perplexitas: cf. F. perplexité.] The quality or state of being perplexed or puzzled; complication; intricacy; entanglement; distraction of mind through doubt or difficulty; embarrassment; bewilderment; doubt.

By their own perplexities involved,
They ravel more.


Per*plex"ive*ness (?), n. The quality of being perplexing; tendency to perplex. [Obs.] Dr. H. More.

Per*plex"ly, adv. Perplexedly. [Obs.] Milton.

Per`po*ta"tion (?), n. [L. perpotatio, fr. perpotate. See Per-, and Potation.] The act of drinking excessively; a drinking bout. [Obs.]

Per"qui*site (?), n. [L. perquisitum, fr. perquisitus, p. p. of perquirere to ask for diligently; per + quaerere to seek. See Per-, and Quest.] 1. Something gained from a place or employment over and above the ordinary salary or fixed wages for services rendered; especially, a fee allowed by law to an officer for a specific service.

The pillage of a place taken by storm was regarded as the perquisite of the soldiers.


The best perquisites of a place are the advantages it gaves a man of doing good.


2. pl. (Law) Things gotten by a man's own industry, or purchased with his own money, as opposed to things which come to him by descent. Mozley & W.

Per"qui*sit*ed, a. Supplied with perquisites. [Obs.] "Perquisited varlets frequent stand." Savage.

Per`qui*si"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. perquisition.] A thorough inquiry of search. [R.] Berkeley.

Per*ra"di*al (?), a. (Zoöl.) Situated around the radii, or radial tubes, of a radiate.

Per"rie (?), n. [F. pierreries, pl., fr. pierre stone, L. petra.] Precious stones; jewels. [Obs.] [Written also perre, perrye, etc.] Chaucer.

Per"ri*er (?), n. [OF. perriere, perrier, F. perrier. Cf. Pederero.] (Mil.) A short mortar used formerly for throwing stone shot. Hakluyt.

Per`ro*quet" (?), n. [F.] (Zoöl.) See Paroquet, Parakeet.

||Per`ruque" (?), n. [F.] See Peruke.

Per*ru"qui*er (?), n. [F.] A marker of perukes or wigs.

Per"ry (?), n. [OF. peré, F. poiré, fr. poire a pear, L. pirum. See Pear the fruit.] A fermented liquor made from pears; pear cider. Mortimer.

Per"ry, n. A suddent squall. See Pirry. [Obs.]

Pers (?), a. [F. pers.] Light blue; grayish blue; -- a term applied to different shades at different periods. -- n. A cloth of sky-blue color. [Obs.] "A long surcoat of pers." Chaucer.

Per"salt` (?), n. (Chem.) A term formerly given to the salts supposed to be formed respectively by neutralizing acids with certain peroxides. [Obsoles.]

Per"sant (?), a. [F. perçant, p. pr. of percer to pierce.] Piercing. [Obs.] Spenser.

Per`scru*ta"tion (?), n. [L. perscrutatio, fr. perscrutari to search through.] A thorough searching; a minute inquiry or scrutiny. Carlyle

Per"se*cot (?), n. See Persicot.

Per"se*cute (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Persecuted (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Persecuting.] [F. persécueter, L. persequi, persecutus, to pursue, prosecute; per + sequi to follow, pursue. See Per-, and Second.] 1. To pursue in a manner to injure, grieve, or afflict; to beset with cruelty or malignity; to harass; especially, to afflict, harass, punish, or put to death, for adherence to a particular religious creed or mode of worship.

Do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you.

Matt. v. 44.

2. To harass with importunity; to pursue with persistent solicitations; to annoy. Johnson.

Syn. -- To oppress; harass; distress; worry; annoy.

Per`se*cu"tion (?), n. [F. persécution, L. persecutio.] 1. The act or practice of persecuting; especially, the infliction of loss, pain, or death for adherence to a particular creed or mode of worship.

Persecution produces no sincere conviction.


2. The state or condition of being persecuted. Locke.

3. A carrying on; prosecution. [Obs.]

Per"se*cu`tor (?), n. [L.: cf. F. persécuteur.] One who persecutes, or harasses. Shak.

Per"se*cu`trix (?), n. [L.] A woman who persecutes.

Per"se*id (?), n. (Astron.) One of a group of shooting stars which appear yearly about the 10th of August, and cross the heavens in paths apparently radiating from the constellation Perseus. They are beleived to be fragments once connected with a comet visible in 1862.

Per"se*us (?), n. [L., from Gr. &?;.] 1. (Class. Myth.) A Grecian legendary hero, son of Jupiter and Danaë, who slew the Gorgon Medusa.

2. (Astron.) A consellation of the northern hemisphere, near Taurus and Cassiopea. It contains a star cluster visible to the naked eye as a nebula.

Per*sev"er (?), v. i. To persevere. [Obs.]

Per`se*ver"ance (?), n. [F. persévérance, L. perseverantia.] 1. The act of persevering; persistence in anything undertaken; continued pursuit or prosecution of any business, or enterprise begun. "The king-becoming graces . . . perseverance, mercy, lowliness." Shak.

Whose constant perseverance overcame
Whate'er his cruel malice could invent.


2. Discrimination. [Obs.] Sir J. Harrington.

3. (Theol.) Continuance in a state of grace until it is succeeded by a state of glory; sometimes called final perseverance, and the perseverance of the saints. See Calvinism.

Syn. -- Persistence; steadfastness; constancy; steadiness; pertinacity.

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Per`se*ver"ant (?), a. [L. perseverans, -antis, p. pr.: cf. F. persévérant.] Persevering. [R.] "Perseverant faith." Whitby. -- Per`se*ver"ant*ly, adv. [R.]

Per`se*vere" (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Persevered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Persevering.] [F. persévérer, L. perseverare, fr. perseverus very strict; per + severus strict, severe. See Per-, and Severe.] To persist in any business or enterprise undertaken; to pursue steadily any project or course begun; to maintain a purpose in spite of counter influences, opposition, or discouragement; not to give or abandon what is undertaken.

Thrice happy, if they know
Their happiness, and persevere upright.


Syn. -- To Persevere, Continue, Persist. The idea of not laying aside is common to these words. Continue is the generic term, denoting simply to do as one has done hitherto. To persevere is to continue in a given course in spite of discouragements, etc., from a desire to obtain our end. To persist is to continue from a determination of will not to give up. Persist is frequently used in a bad sense, implying obstinacy in pursuing an unworthy aim.

Per`se*ver"ing (?), a. Characterized by perseverance; persistent. -- Per`se*ver"ing*ly, adv.

Per"sian (?), a. [From Persia: cf. It. Persiano. Cf. Parsee, Peach, Persic.] Of or pertaining to Persia, to the Persians, or to their language.

Persian berry, the fruit of Rhamnus infectorius, a kind of buckthorn, used for dyeing yellow, and imported chiefly from Trebizond. -- Persian cat. (Zoöl.) Same as Angora cat, under Angora. -- Persian columns (Arch.), columns of which the shaft represents a Persian slave; -- called also Persians. See Atlantes. -- Persian drill (Mech.), a drill which is turned by pushing a nut back and forth along a spirally grooved drill holder. -- Persian fire (Med.), malignant pustule. -- Persian powder. See Insect powder, under Insect. -- Persian red. See Indian red (a), under Indian. -- Persian wheel, a noria; a tympanum. See Noria.

Per"sian, n. 1. A native or inhabitant of Persia.

2. The language spoken in Persia.

3. A thin silk fabric, used formerly for linings. Beck.

4. pl. (Arch.) See Persian columns, under Persian, a.

Per"sic (?), a. [L. Persicus. Cf. Persian.] Of or relating to Persia. -- n. The Persian language.

||Per`si*ca"ri*a (?), n. [NL., from LL. persicarius a peach tree. See Peach.] (Bot.) See Lady's thumb.

Per"si*cot (?), n. [F. See Peach.] A cordial made of the kernels of apricots, nectarines, etc., with refined spirit.

||Per`si`flage" (?), n. [F., fr. persifler to quiz, fr. L. per + siffler to whistle, hiss, L. sibilare, sifilare.] Frivolous or bantering talk; a frivolous manner of treating any subject, whether serious or otherwise; light raillery. Hannah More.

||Per`si`fleur (?), n. [F.] One who indulges in persiflage; a banterer; a quiz. Carlyle.

Per*sim"mon (?), n. [Virginia Indian.] (Bot.) An American tree (Diospyros Virginiana) and its fruit, found from New York southward. The fruit is like a plum in appearance, but is very harsh and astringent until it has been exposed to frost, when it becomes palatable and nutritious.

Japanese persimmon, Diospyros Kaki and its red or yellow edible fruit, which outwardly resembles a tomato, but contains a few large seeds.

Per"sis (?), n. [Etymol. uncertain.] A kind of coloring matter obtained from lichens.

Per"sism (?), n. A Persian idiom.

Per*sist" (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Persisted; p. pr. & vb. n. Persisting.] [L. persistere; per + sistere to stand or be fixed, fr. stare to stand: cf. F. persister. See Per-, and Stand.] To stand firm; to be fixed and unmoved; to stay; to continue steadfastly; especially, to continue fixed in a course of conduct against opposing motives; to persevere; - - sometimes conveying an unfavorable notion, as of doggedness or obstinacy.

If they persist in pointing their batteries against particular persons, no laws of war forbid the making reprisals.


Some positive, persisting fops we know,
Who, if once wrong, will needs be always so.


That face persists.
It floats up; it turns over in my mind.

Mrs. Browning.

Syn. -- See Persevere, and Insist.

{ Per*sist"ence (?), Per*sist"en*cy (?), } n. [See Persistent.] 1. The quality or state of being persistent; staying or continuing quality; hence, in an unfavorable sense, doggedness; obstinacy.

2. The continuance of an effect after the cause which first gave rise to it is removed; as: (a) (Physics) The persistence of motion. (b) (Physiol.) Visual persistence, or persistence of the visual impression; auditory persistence, etc.

Per*sist"ent (?), a. [L. persistens, -entis, p. pr. of persistere. See Persist.] 1. Inclined to persist; having staying qualities; tenacious of position or purpose.

2. (Biol.) Remaining beyond the period when parts of the same kind sometimes fall off or are absorbed; permanent; as, persistent teeth or gills; a persistent calyx; -- opposed to deciduous, and caducous.

Per*sist"ent*ly, adv. In a persistent manner.

Per*sist"ing, a. Inclined to persist; tenacious of purpose; persistent. -- Per*sist"ing*ly, adv.

Per*sist"ive (?), a. See Persistent. Shak.

Per*solve" (?), v. t. [L. persolvere.] To pay wholly, or fully. [Obs.] E. Hall.

Per"son (?), n. [OE. persone, persoun, person, parson, OF. persone, F. personne, L. persona a mask (used by actors), a personage, part, a person, fr. personare to sound through; per + sonare to sound. See Per-, and cf. Parson.] 1. A character or part, as in a play; a specific kind or manifestation of individual character, whether in real life, or in literary or dramatic representation; an assumed character. [Archaic]

His first appearance upon the stage in his new person of a sycophant or juggler.


No man can long put on a person and act a part.

Jer. Taylor.

To bear rule, which was thy part
And person, hadst thou known thyself aright.


How different is the same man from himself, as he sustains the person of a magistrate and that of a friend!


2. The bodily form of a human being; body; outward appearance; as, of comely person.

A fair persone, and strong, and young of age.


If it assume my noble father's person.


Love, sweetness, goodness, in her person shined.


3. A living, self-conscious being, as distinct from an animal or a thing; a moral agent; a human being; a man, woman, or child.

Consider what person stands for; which, I think, is a thinking, intelligent being, that has reason and reflection.


4. A human being spoken of indefinitely; one; a man; as, any person present.

5. A parson; the parish priest. [Obs.] Chaucer.

6. (Theol.) Among Trinitarians, one of the three subdivisions of the Godhead (the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost); an hypostasis. "Three persons and one God." Bk. of Com. Prayer.

7. (Gram.) One of three relations or conditions (that of speaking, that of being spoken to, and that of being spoken of) pertaining to a noun or a pronoun, and thence also to the verb of which it may be the subject.

A noun or pronoun, when representing the speaker, is said to be in the first person; when representing what is spoken to, in the second person; when representing what is spoken of, in the third person.

8. (Biol.) A shoot or bud of a plant; a polyp or zooid of the compound Hydrozoa Anthozoa, etc.; also, an individual, in the narrowest sense, among the higher animals. Haeckel.

True corms, composed of united personæ . . . usually arise by gemmation, . . . yet in sponges and corals occasionally by fusion of several originally distinct persons.

Encyc. Brit.

Artificial, or Fictitious, person (Law), a corporation or body politic. blackstone. -- Natural person (Law), a man, woman, or child, in distinction from a corporation. -- In person, by one's self; with bodily presence; not by representative. "The king himself in person is set forth." Shak. -- In the person of, in the place of; acting for. Shak.

Per"son (?), v. t. To represent as a person; to personify; to impersonate. [Obs.] Milton.

||Per*so"na (?), n.; pl. Personæ (#). [L.] (Biol.) Same as Person, n., 8.

Per"son*a*ble (?), a. 1. Having a well-formed body, or person; graceful; comely; of good appearance; presentable; as, a personable man or woman.

Wise, warlike, personable, courteous, and kind.


The king, . . . so visited with sickness, was not personable.

E. Hall.

2. (Law) (a) Enabled to maintain pleas in court. Cowell. (b) Having capacity to take anything granted.

Per"son*age (?), n. [F. personnage.] 1. Form, appearance, or belongings of a person; the external appearance, stature, figure, air, and the like, of a person. "In personage stately." Hayward.

The damsel well did view his personage.


2. Character assumed or represented. "The actors and personages of this fable." Broome. "Disguised in a false personage." Addison.

3. A notable or distinguished person; a conspicious or peculiar character; as, an illustrious personage; a comely personage of stature tall. Spenser.

Per"son*al (?), a. [L. personalis: cf. F. personnel.] 1. Pertaining to human beings as distinct from things.

Every man so termed by way of personal difference.


2. Of or pertaining to a particular person; relating to, or affecting, an individual, or each of many individuals; peculiar or proper to private concerns; not public or general; as, personal comfort; personal desire.

The words are conditional, -- If thou doest well, -- and so personal to Cain.


3. Pertaining to the external or bodily appearance; corporeal; as, personal charms. Addison.

4. Done in person; without the intervention of another. "Personal communication." Fabyan.

The immediate and personal speaking of God.


5. Relating to an individual, his character, conduct, motives, or private affairs, in an invidious and offensive manner; as, personal reflections or remarks.

6. (Gram.) Denoting person; as, a personal pronoun.

Personal action (Law), a suit or action by which a man claims a debt or personal duty, or damages in lieu of it; or wherein he claims satisfaction in damages for an injury to his person or property, or the specific recovery of goods or chattels; -- opposed to real action. -- Personal equation. (Astron.) See under Equation. -- Personal estate or property (Law), movables; chattels; -- opposed to real estate or property. It usually consists of things temporary and movable, including all subjects of property not of a freehold nature. -- Personal identity (Metaph.), the persistent and continuous unity of the individual person, which is attested by consciousness. -- Personal pronoun (Gram.), one of the pronouns I, thou, he, she, it, and their plurals. -- Personal representatives (Law), the executors or administrators of a person deceased. -- Personal rights, rights appertaining to the person; as, the rights of a personal security, personal liberty, and private property. -- Personal tithes. See under Tithe. -- Personal verb (Gram.), a verb which is modified or inflected to correspond with the three persons.

Per"son*al, n. (Law) A movable; a chattel.

Per"son*al*ism (?), n. The quality or state of being personal; personality. [R.]

Per`son*al"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Personalities (#). [Cf. F. personnalité. Cf. Personality.] 1. That which constitutes distinction of person; individuality.

Personality is individuality existing in itself, but with a nature as a ground.


2. Something said or written which refers to the person, conduct, etc., of some individual, especially something of a disparaging or offensive nature; personal remarks; as, indulgence in personalities.

Sharp personalities were exchanged.


3. (Law) That quality of a law which concerns the condition, state, and capacity of persons. Burrill.

Per"son*al*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Personalized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Personalizing (?).] To make personal. "They personalize death." H. Spencer.

Per"son*al*ly, adv. 1. In a personal manner; by bodily presence; in person; not by representative or substitute; as, to deliver a letter personally.

He, being cited, personally came not.


2. With respect to an individual; as regards the person; individually; particularly.

She bore a mortal hatred to the house of Lancaster, and personally to the king.


3. With respect to one's individuality; as regards one's self; as, personally I have no feeling in the matter.

Per"son*al*ty (?), n. 1. The state of being a person; personality. [R.]

2. (Law) Personal property, as distinguished from realty or real property.

Per"son*ate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Personated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Personating (?).] [L. personare to cry out, LL., to extol. See Person.] To celebrate loudly; to extol; to praise. [Obs.]

In fable, hymn, or song so personating
Their gods ridiculous.


Per"son*ate, v. t. [L. personatus masked, assumed, fictitious, fr. persona a mask. See Person.] 1. To assume the character of; to represent by a fictitious appearance; to act the part of; hence, to counterfeit; to feign; as, he tried to personate his brother; a personated devotion. Hammond.

2. To set forth in an unreal character; to disguise; to mask. [R.] "A personated mate." Milton.

3. To personify; to typify; to describe. Shak.

Per"son*ate, v. i. To play or assume a character.

Per"son*ate (?), a. [L. personatus masked.] (Bot.) Having the throat of a bilabiate corolla nearly closed by a projection of the base of the lower lip; masked, as in the flower of the snapdragon.

Per`son*a"tion (?), n. The act of personating, or conterfeiting the person or character of another.

Per"son*a`tor (?), n. One who personates. "The personators of these actions." B. Jonson.

Per`son*e"i*ty (?), n. Personality. [R.] Coleridge.

Per*son`i*fi*ca"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. personnification.] 1. The act of personifying; impersonation; embodiment. C. Knight.

2. (Rhet.) A figure of speech in which an inanimate object or abstract idea is represented as animated, or endowed with personality; prosopop&?;ia; as, the floods clap their hands. "Confusion heards his voice." Milton.

Per*son"i*fi`er (?), n. One who personifies.

Per*son"i*fy (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Personified (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Personifying (?).] [Person + -fy: cf. F. personnifier.] 1. To regard, treat, or represent as a person; to represent as a rational being.

The poets take the liberty of personifying inanimate things.


2. To be the embodiment or personification of; to impersonate; as, he personifies the law.

Per"son*ize (?), v. t. To personify. [R.]

Milton has personized them.

J. Richardson.

||Per`son`nel" (?), n. [F. See Personal.] The body of persons employed in some public service, as the army, navy, etc.; -- distinguished from matériel.

Per*spec"tive (?), a. [L. perspicere, perspectum, to look through; per + spicere, specere, to look: cf. F. perspectif; or from E. perspective, n. See Spy, n.] 1. Of or pertaining to the science of vision; optical. [Obs.] Bacon.

2. Pertaining to the art, or in accordance with the laws, of perspective.

Perspective plane, the plane or surface on which the objects are delineated, or the picture drawn; the plane of projection; -- distinguished from the ground plane, which is that on which the objects are represented as standing. When this plane is oblique to the principal face of the object, the perspective is called oblique perspective; when parallel to that face, parallel perspective. -- Perspective shell (Zoöl.), any shell of the genus Solarium and allied genera. See Solarium.

Per*spec"tive, n. [F. perspective, fr. perspectif: cf. It. perspettiva. See Perspective, a.] 1. A glass through which objects are viewed. [Obs.] "Not a perspective, but a mirror." Sir T. Browne.

2. That which is seen through an opening; a view; a vista. "The perspective of life." Goldsmith.

3. The effect of distance upon the appearance of objects, by means of which the eye recognized them as being at a more or less measurable distance. Hence, aërial perspective, the assumed greater vagueness or uncertainty of outline in distant objects.

Aërial perspective is the expression of space by any means whatsoever, sharpness of edge, vividness of color, etc.


4. The art and the science of so delineating objects that they shall seem to grow smaller as they recede from the eye; -- called also linear perspective.

5. A drawing in linear perspective.

Isometrical perspective, an inaccurate term for a mechanical way of representing objects in the direction of the diagonal of a cube. -- Perspective glass, a telescope which shows objects in the right position.

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Per*spec"tive*ly (?), adv. 1. Optically; as through a glass. [R.]

You see them perspectively.


2. According to the rules of perspective.

Per*spec"to*graph (?), n. [L. perspectus (p. p. of perspicere to look through) + - graph.] An instrument for obtaining, and transferring to a picture, the points and outlines of objects, so as to represent them in their proper geometrical relations as viewed from some one point.

Per`spec*tog"ra*phy (?), n. The science or art of delineating objects according to the laws of perspective; the theory of perspective.

Per"spi*ca*ble (?), a. [L. perspicabilis, fr. perspicere.] Discernible. [Obs.] Herbert.

Per`spi*ca"cious (?), a. [L. perspicax, -acis, fr. perspicere to look through: cf. F. perspicace. See Perspective.] 1. Having the power of seeing clearly; quick-sighted; sharp of sight.

2. Fig.: Of acute discernment; keen.

-- Per`spi*ca"cious*ly, adv. -- Per`spi*ca"cious*ness, n.

Per`spi*cac"i*ty (?), n. [L. perspicacitas: cf. F. perspicacité. See Perspicacious.] The state of being perspicacious; acuteness of sight or of intelligence; acute discernment. Sir T. Browne.

Per"spi*ca*cy (?), n. Perspicacity. [Obs.]

Per*spi"cience (?), n. [L. perspicientia, fr. perspiciens, p. p. of perspicere. See Perspective.] The act of looking sharply. [Obs.] Bailey.

Per"spi*cil (?), n. [LL. perspicilla, fr. L. perspicere to look through.] An optical glass; a telescope. [Obs.] Crashaw.

Per`spi*cu"i*ty (?), n. [L. perspicuitas: cf. F. perspicuité.] 1. The quality or state of being transparent or translucent. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

2. The quality of being perspicuous to the understanding; clearness of expression or thought.

3. Sagacity; perspicacity.

Syn. -- Clearness; perspicuousness; plainness; distinctness; lucidity; transparency. See Clearness.

Per*spic"u*ous (?), a. [L. perspicuus, from perspicere to look through. See Perspective.] 1. Capable of being through; transparent; translucent; not opaque. [Obs.] Peacham.

2. Clear to the understanding; capable of being clearly understood; clear in thought or in expression; not obscure or ambiguous; as, a perspicuous writer; perspicuous statements. "The purpose is perspicuous." Shak.

-- Per*spic"u*ous*ly, adv. -- Per*spic"u*ous*ness, n.

Per*spir`a*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality or state of being perspirable.

Per*spir"a*ble (?), a. [Cf. F. perspirable.] 1. Capable of being perspired. Sir T. Browne.

2. Emitting perspiration; perspiring. [R.] Bacon.

Per`spi*ra"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. perspiration.] 1. The act or process of perspiring.

2. That which is excreted through the skin; sweat.

A man of average weight throws off through the skin during 24 hours about 18 ounces of water, 300 grains of solid matter, and 400 grains of carbonic acid gas. Ordinarily, this constant exhalation is not apparent, and the excretion is then termed insensible perspiration.

Per*spir"a*tive (?), a. Performing the act of perspiration; perspiratory.

Per*spir"a*to*ry (?), a. Of, pertaining to, or producing, perspiration; as, the perspiratory ducts.

Per*spire" (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Perspired (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Perspiring.] [L. perspirare to breathe through; per + spirare. See Per-, and Spirit.] 1. (Physiol.) To excrete matter through the skin; esp., to excrete fluids through the pores of the skin; to sweat.

2. To be evacuated or excreted, or to exude, through the pores of the skin; as, a fluid perspires.

Per*spire", v. t. To emit or evacuate through the pores of the skin; to sweat; to excrete through pores.

Firs . . . perspire a fine balsam of turpentine.


Per*strep"er*ous (?), a. [L. perstrepere to make a great noise.] Noisy; obstreperous. [Obs.] Ford.

Per*stringe" (?), v. t. [L. perstringere; per + stringere to bind up, to touch upon.] 1. To touch; to graze; to glance on. [Obs.]

2. To criticise; to touch upon. [R.] Evelyn.

Per*suad"a*ble (?), a. That may be persuaded. -- Per*suad"a*ble*ness, n. -- Per*suad"a*bly, adv.

Per*suade" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Persuaded; p. pr. & vb. n. Persuading.] [L. persuadere, persuasum; per + suadere to advise, persuade: cf. F. persuader. See Per- , and Suasion.] 1. To influence or gain over by argument, advice, entreaty, expostulation, etc.; to draw or incline to a determination by presenting sufficient motives.

Almost thou persuadest me to be a Christian.

Acts xxvi. 28.

We will persuade him, be it possible.


2. To try to influence. [Obsolescent]

Hearken not unto Hezekiah, when he persuadeth you.

2 Kings xviii. 32.

3. To convince by argument, or by reasons offered or suggested from reflection, etc.; to cause to believe.

Beloved, we are persuaded better things of you.

Heb. vi. 9.

4. To inculcate by argument or expostulation; to advise; to recommend. Jer. Taylor.

Syn. -- To convince; induce; prevail on; win over; allure; entice. See Convince.

Per*suade" (?), v. i. To use persuasion; to plead; to prevail by persuasion. Shak.

Per*suade", n. Persuasion. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.

Per*suad"ed, p. p. & a. Prevailed upon; influenced by argument or entreaty; convinced. -- Per*suad"ed*ly, adv. -- Per*suad"ed*ness, n.

Per*suad"er (?), n. One who, or that which, persuades or influences. "Powerful persuaders." Milton.

Per*sua`si*bil"i*ty (?), n. Capability of being persuaded. Hawthorne.

Per*sua"si*ble (?), a. [Cf. L. persuasibilis persuasive, F. persuasible persuasible.] 1. Capable of being persuaded; persuadable.

2. Persuasive. [Obs.] Bale.

-- Per*sua"si*ble*ness, n. -- Per*sua"si*bly, adv.

Per*sua"sion (?), n. [L. persuasio; Cf. F. persuasion.] 1. The act of persuading; the act of influencing the mind by arguments or reasons offered, or by anything that moves the mind or passions, or inclines the will to a determination.

For thou hast all the arts of fine persuasion.


2. The state of being persuaded or convinced; settled opinion or conviction, which has been induced.

If the general persuasion of all men does so account it.


My firm persuasion is, at least sometimes,
That Heaven will weigh man's virtues and his crimes
With nice attention.


3. A creed or belief; a sect or party adhering to a certain creed or system of opinions; as, of the same persuasion; all persuasions are agreed.

Of whatever state or persuasion, religious or political.


4. The power or quality of persuading; persuasiveness.

Is 't possible that my deserts to you
Can lack persuasion?


5. That which persuades; a persuasive. [R.]

Syn. -- See Conviction.

Per*sua"sive (?), a. [Cf. F. persuasif.] Tending to persuade; having the power of persuading; as, persuasive eloquence. "Persuasive words." Milton.

Per*sua"sive, n. That which persuades; an inducement; an incitement; an exhortation. -- Per*sua"sive*ly, adv. -- Per*sua"sive*ness, n.

Per*sua"so*ry (?), a. Persuasive. Sir T. Browne.

Per*sul"phate (?), n. (Chem.) A sulphate of the peroxide of any base. [R.]

Per*sul"phide (?), n. (Chem.) A sulphide containing more sulphur than some other compound of the same elements; as, iron pyrites is a persulphide; -- formerly called persulphuret.

Per*sul`pho*cy"a*nate (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of persulphocyanic acid. [R.]

Per*sul`pho*cy*an"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, a yellow crystalline substance (called also perthiocyanic acid), analogous to sulphocyanic acid, but containing more sulphur.

Per*sul`pho*cy*an"o*gen (?), n. (Chem.) An orange-yellow substance, produced by the action of chlorine or boiling dilute nitric acid and sulphocyanate of potassium; -- called also pseudosulphocyanogen, perthiocyanogen, and formerly sulphocyanogen.

Per*sul"phu*ret (?), n. (Chem.) A persulphide. [Obs.]

Pert (?), a. [An aphetic form of OE. & OF. apert open, known, true, free, or impudent. See Apert.] 1. Open; evident; apert. [Obs.] Piers Plowman.

2. Lively; brisk; sprightly; smart. [Obs.] Shak.

3. Indecorously free, or presuming; saucy; bold; impertinent. "A very pert manner." Addison.

The squirrel, flippant, pert, and full of play.


Pert, v. i. To behave with pertness. [Obs.] Gauden.

Per*tain" (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Pertained (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Pertaining.] [OE. partenen, OF. partenir, fr. L. pertinere to stretch out, reach, pertain; per + tenere to hold, keep. See Per-, and Tenable, and cf. Appertain, Pertinent.] 1. To belong; to have connection with, or dependence on, something, as an appurtenance, attribute, etc.; to appertain; as, saltness pertains to the ocean; flowers pertain to plant life.

Men hate those who affect that honor by ambition which pertaineth not to them.


2. To have relation or reference to something.

These words pertain unto us at this time as they pertained to them at their time.


Per*ter`e*bra"tion (?), n. [L. perterebratus, p. p. of perterebrare to bore through.] The act of boring through. [Obs.] Ainsworth.

Per*thi`o*cy*an"o*gen (?), n. (Chem.) Same as Persulphocyanogen.

Perth"ite (?), n. [So called from Perth, in canada.] (Min.) A kind of feldspar consisting of a laminated intertexture of albite and orthoclase, usually of different colors. -- Per*thit"ic (#), a.

Per`ti*na"cious (?), a.[L. pertinax, -acis; per + tenax tenacious. See Per-, and Tenacious.] 1. Holding or adhering to any opinion, purpose, or design, with obstinacy; perversely persistent; obstinate; as, pertinacious plotters; a pertinacious beggar.

2. Resolute; persevering; constant; steady.

Diligence is a steady, constant, and pertinacious study.


Syn. -- Obstinate; stubborn; inflexible; unyielding; resolute; determined; firm; constant; steady.

-- Per`ti*na"cious*ly, adv. -- Per`ti*na"cious*ness, n.

Per`ti*nac"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. pertinacité.] The quality or state of being pertinacious; obstinacy; perseverance; persistency. Macaulay.

Syn. -- See Obstinacy.

Per"ti*na*cy (?), n. [L. pertinere to pertain. See Pertinence.] The quality or state of being pertinent; pertinence. [Obs.]

Per"ti*na*cy, n. [L. pertinacia, fr. pertinax. See Pertinacious.] Pertinacity. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Per"ti*nate (?), a. Pertinacious. [Obs.]

Per"ti*nate*ly, adv. Pertinaciously. [Obs.]

{ Per"ti*nence (?), Per"ti*nen*cy (?), } n. [Cf. F. pertinence. See Pertinent.] The quality or state of being pertinent; justness of relation to the subject or matter in hand; fitness; appositeness; relevancy; suitableness.

The fitness and pertinency of the apostle's discourse.


Per"ti*nent (?), a. [L. pertinens, -entis, p. pr. of pertinere: cf. F. pertinent. See Pertain.] 1. Belonging or related to the subject or matter in hand; fit or appropriate in any way; adapted to the end proposed; apposite; material; relevant; as, pertinent illustrations or arguments; pertinent evidence.

2. Regarding; concerning; belonging; pertaining. [R.] "Pertinent unto faith." Hooker.

Syn. -- Apposite; relevant; suitable; appropriate; fit.

-- Per"ti*nent*ly, adv. -- Per"ti*nent*ness, n.

Pert"ly (?), adv. In a pert manner.

Pert"ness, n. The quality or state of being pert.

Per*tran"sient (?), a. [L. pertransiens, p. pr. of pertransire.] Passing through or over. [R.]

Per*turb" (?), v. t. [L. perturbare, perturbatum; per + turbare to disturb, fr. turba a disorder: cf. OF. perturber. See Per-, and Turbid.] 1. To disturb; to agitate; to vex; to trouble; to disquiet.

Ye that . . . perturb so my feast with crying.


2. To disorder; to confuse. [R.] Sir T. Browne.

Per*turb`a*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality or state of being perturbable.

Per*turb"a*ble (?), a. Liable to be perturbed or agitated; liable to be disturbed or disquieted.

Per*turb"ance (?), n. Disturbance; perturbation. [R.] "Perturbance of the mind." Sharp.

Per"tur*bate (?), v. t. [From L. perturbatus, p. p.] To perturb. [Obs.] Dr. H. More.

Per"tur*bate (?), a. Perturbed; agitated. [R.]

Per`tur*ba"tion (?), n. [L. perturbatio: cf. F. perturbation.] 1. The act of perturbing, or the state of being perturbed; esp., agitation of mind.

2. (Astron.) A disturbance in the regular elliptic or other motion of a heavenly body, produced by some force additional to that which causes its regular motion; as, the perturbations of the planets are caused by their attraction on each other. Newcomb.

Per`tur*ba"tion*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to perturbation, esp. to the perturbations of the planets. "The perturbational theory." Sir J. Herschel.

Per"tur*ba*tive (?), a. Tending to cause perturbation; disturbing. Sir J. Herschel.

Per"tur*ba`tor (?), n. A perturber. [R.]

Per*turbed" (?), a. Agitated; disturbed; troubled. Shak. -- Per*turb"ed*ly, adv.

Per*turb"er (?), n. One who, or that which, perturbs, or cause perturbation.

Per*tus"ate (?), a. [See Pertuse.] (Bot.) Pierced at the apex.

{ Per*tuse" (?), Per*tused" (?) }, a. [L. pertusus, p. p. of pertundere to beat or thrust through, to bore through; per + tundere to beat: cf. F. pertus. Cf. Pierce.] Punched; pierced with, or having, holes.

Per*tu"sion (?), n. [L. pertusio.] The act of punching or piercing with a pointed instrument; as, pertusion of a vein. [R.] Arbuthnot.

2. A punched hole; a perforation. Bacon.

||Per*tus"sis (?), n. [NL., fr. L. per through, very + tussis cough.] (Med.) The whooping cough.

Per"uke (?), n. [F. perruque, It. perrucca, parrucca, fr. L. pilus hair. Cf. Periwig, Wig, Peel to strip off, Plush, Pile a hair.] A wig; a periwig.

Per"uke, v. t. To dress with a peruke. [R.]

||Per"u*la (?), n.; pl. Perulæ (#). [L., dim. of pera wallet, Gr. &?;: cf. F. pérule.] 1. (Bot.) One of the scales of a leaf bud.

2. (Bot.) A pouchlike portion of the perianth in certain orchides.

Per"ule (?), n. Same as Perula.

Pe*rus"al (?), n. [From Peruse.] 1. The act of carefully viewing or examining. [R.] Tatler.

2. The act of reading, especially of reading through or with care. Woodward.

Pe*ruse" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Perused (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Perusing.] [Pref. per- + use.] 1. To observe; to examine with care. [R.]

Myself I then perused, and limb by limb


2. To read through; to read carefully. Shak.

Pe*rus"er (?), n. One who peruses.

Pe*ru"vi*an (?), a. [Cf. F. péruvien, Sp. peruviano.] Of or pertaining to Peru, in South America. -- n. A native or an inhabitant of Peru.

Peruvian balsam. See Balsam of Peru, under Balsam. -- Peruvian bark, the bitter bark of trees of various species of Cinchona. It acts as a powerful tonic, and is a remedy for malarial diseases. This property is due to several alkaloids, as quinine, cinchonine, etc., and their compounds; -- called also Jesuit's bark, and cinchona. See Cinchona.

Per*vade" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Pervaded; p. pr. & vb. n. Pervading.] [L. pervadere, pervasum; per + vadere to go, to walk. See Per-, and Wade.] 1. To pass or flow through, as an aperture, pore, or interstice; to permeate.

That labyrinth is easily pervaded.


2. To pass or spread through the whole extent of; to be diffused throughout.

A spirit of cabal, intrigue, and proselytism pervaded all their thoughts, words, and actions.


Per*va"sion (?), n. [L. pervasio. See Pervade.] The act of pervading, passing, or spreading through the whole extent of a thing. Boyle.

Per*va"sive (?), a. Tending to pervade, or having power to spread throughout; of a pervading quality. "Civilization pervasive and general." M. Arnold.

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Per*verse" (?), a. [L. perversus turned the wrong way, not right, p. p. of pervertereto turn around, to overturn: cf. F. pervers. See Pervert.] 1. Turned aside; hence, specifically, turned away from the right; willfully erring; wicked; perverted.

The only righteous in a word perverse.


2. Obstinate in the wrong; stubborn; intractable; hence, wayward; vexing; contrary.

To so perverse a sex all grace is vain.


Syn. -- Froward; untoward; wayward; stubborn; ungovernable; intractable; cross; petulant; vexatious. -- Perverse, Froward. One who is froward is capricious, and reluctant to obey. One who is perverse has a settled obstinacy of will, and likes or dislikes by the rule of contradiction to the will of others.

Per*versed" (?), a. Turned aside. [Obs.]

Per*vers"ed*ly (?), adv. Perversely. [Obs.]

Per*verse"ly, adv. In a perverse manner.

Per*verse"ness, n. The quality or state of being perverse. "Virtue hath some perverseness." Donne.

Per*ver"sion (?), n. [L. perversio: cf. F. perversion. See Pervert.] The act of perverting, or the state of being perverted; a turning from truth or right; a diverting from the true intent or object; a change to something worse; a turning or applying to a wrong end or use. "Violations and perversions of the laws." Bacon.

Per*ver"si*ty (?), n. [L. perversitas: cf. F. perversité.] The quality or state of being perverse; perverseness.

Per*ver"sive (?), a.Tending to pervert.

Per*vert" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Perverted; p. pr. & vb. n. Perverting.] [F. pervertir, L. pervertere, perversum; per + vertere to turn. See Per-, and Verse.] 1. To turnanother way; to divert. [Obs.]

Let's follow him, and pervert the present wrath.


2. To turn from truth, rectitude, or propriety; to divert from a right use, end, or way; to lead astray; to corrupt; also, to misapply; to misinterpret designedly; as, to pervert one's words. Dryden.

He, in the serpent, had perverted Eve.


Per*vert", v. i. To become perverted; to take the wrong course. [R.] Testament of Love.

Per"vert (?), n. One who has been perverted; one who has turned to error, especially in religion; -- opposed to convert. See the Synonym of Convert.

That notorious pervert, Henry of Navarre.


Per*vert"er (?), n. One who perverts (a person or thing). "His own parents his perverters." South. "A perverter of his law." Bp. Stillingfleet.

Per*vert"i*ble (?), a. Capable of being perverted.

Per*ves"ti*gate (?), v. t. [L. pervestigatus, p. p. of pervestigare.] To investigate thoroughly. [Obs.]

Per*ves`ti*ga"tion (?), n. [L. pervestigatio.] Thorough investigation. [Obs.] Chillingworth.

Per"vi*al (?), a. [See Pervious.] Pervious. [Obs.] -- Per"vi*al*ly, adv. [Obs.] Chapman.

Per`vi*ca"cious (?), a. [L. pervicax, -acis.] Obstinate; willful; refractory. [Obs.] -- Per`vi*ca"cious*ly, adv. -- Per`vi*ca"cious*ness, n. [Obs.]

Per`vi*cac"i*ty (?), n. Obstinacy; pervicaciousness. [Obs.] Bentley.

Per"vi*ca*cy (?), n. [L. pervicacia.] Pervicacity. [Obs.]

Per*vig`i*la"tion (?), n. [L. pervigilatio, fr. pervigilare.] Careful watching. [Obs.]

Per"vi*ous (?), a. [L. pervis; per + via a way. See Per-, and Voyage.] 1. Admitting passage; capable of being penetrated by another body or substance; permeable; as, a pervious soil.

[Doors] . . . pervious to winds, and open every way.


2. Capable of being penetrated, or seen through, by physical or mental vision. [R.]

God, whose secrets are pervious to no eye.

Jer. Taylor.

3. Capable of penetrating or pervading. [Obs.] Prior.

4. (Zoöl.) Open; -- used synonymously with perforate, as applied to the nostrils or birds.

Per"vi*ous*ness, n. The quality or state of being pervious; as, the perviousness of glass. Boyle.

Per"vis (?), n. See Parvis.

Per"y (?), n. A pear tree. See Pirie. [Obs.]

||Pes (?), n.; pl. Pedes . [L., the foot.] (Anat.) The distal segment of the hind limb of vertebrates, including the tarsus and foot.

Pe*sade" (?), n. [F.] (Man.) The motion of a horse when, raising his fore quarters, he keeps his hind feet on the ground without advancing; rearing.

Pes"age (?), n. [F., fr. peser to weigh.] A fee, or toll, paid for the weighing of merchandise.

Pes"ane (?), n. (Anc. Armor.) See Pusane.

Pes"ant*ed (?), a. [F. pesant heavy.] Made heavy or dull; debased. [Obs.] "Pesanted to each lewd thought's control." Marston.

Pe*schit"o (?), n. See Peshito.

Pese (?), n. [See Pea.] A pea. [Obs.] Chaucer.

||Pe*se"ta (?), n. [Sp.] A Spanish silver coin, and money of account, equal to about nineteen cents, and divided into 100 centesimos.

{ Pe*shit"o (?), Pe*shit"to (?), } n. [Syriac peshîtâ simple.] The earliest Syriac version of the Old Testament, translated from Hebrew; also, the incomplete Syriac version of the New Testament. [Written also peschito.]

Pes"ky (?), a. [Etymol. uncertain.] Pestering; vexatious; troublesome. Used also as an intensive. [Colloq. & Low, U.S.] Judd.

||Pe"so (?), n. [Sp.] A Spanish dollar; also, an Argentine, Chilian, Colombian, etc., coin, equal to from 75 cents to a dollar; also, a pound weight.

Pes"sa*ry (?), n.; pl. Pessaries (#). [L. pessarium, pessum, pessus, Gr. &?;: cf. F. pessaire.] (Med.) (a) An instrument or device to be introduced into and worn in the vagina, to support the uterus, or remedy a malposition. (b) A medicinal substance in the form of a bolus or mass, designed for introduction into the vagina; a vaginal suppository.

Pes"si*mism (?), n. [L. pessimus worst, superl. of pejor worse: cf. F. pessimisme. Cf. Impair.] 1. (Metaph.) The opinion or doctrine that everything in nature is ordered for or tends to the worst, or that the world is wholly evil; -- opposed to optimism.

2. A disposition to take the least hopeful view of things.

Pes"si*mist (?), n. [L. pessimus worst: cf. F. pessimiste.] 1. (Metaph.) One who advocates the doctrine of pessimism; -- opposed to optimist.

2. One who looks on the dark side of things.

{ Pes"si*mist (?), Pes`si*mis"tic (?), } a. (Metaph.) Of or pertaining to pessimism; characterized by pessimism; gloomy; foreboding. "Giving utterance to pessimistic doubt." Encyc. Brit.

Pes`si*mis"tic*al (?), a. Pessimistic.

Pes"si*mize (?), v. i. To hold or advocate the doctrine of pessimism. London Sat. Rev.

||Pes"su*lus (?), n.; pl. Pessuli (#). [L., a bolt.] (Anat.) A delicate bar of cartilage connecting the dorsal and ventral extremities of the first pair of bronchial cartilages in the syrinx of birds.

Pest (?), n. [L. pestis: cf. F. peste.] 1. A fatal epidemic disease; a pestilence; specif., the plague.

England's sufferings by that scourge, the pest.


2. Anything which resembles a pest; one who, or that which, is troublesome, noxious, mischievous, or destructive; a nuisance. "A pest and public enemy." South.

Pes`ta*loz"zi*an (?), a. Belonging to, or characteristic of, a system of elementary education which combined manual training with other instruction, advocated and practiced by Jean Henri Pestalozzi (1746-1827), a Swiss teacher. -- n. An advocate or follower of the system of Pestalozzi.

Pes`ta*loz"zi*an*ism (?), n. The system of education introduced by Pestalozzi.

Pes"ter (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Pestered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Pestering.] [Abbrev. fr. impester, fr. OF. empaistrier, empestrer, to entangle the feet or legs, to embarrass, F. empêtrer; pref. em-, en- (L. in in) + LL. pastorium, pastoria, a fetter by which horses are prevented from wandering in the pastures, fr. L. pastorius belonging to a herdsman or shepherd, pastor a herdsman. See In, and Pasture, Pastor.] 1. To trouble; to disturb; to annoy; to harass with petty vexations.

We are pestered with mice and rats.

Dr. H. More.

A multitude of scribblers daily pester the world.


2. To crowd together in an annoying way; to overcrowd; to infest. [Obs.] Milton.

All rivers and pools . . . pestered full with fishes.


Pes"ter*er (?), n. One who pesters or harasses.

Pes"ter*ment (?), n. The act of pestering, or the state of being pestered; vexation; worry. "The trouble and pesterment of children." B. Franklin.

Pes"ter*ous (?), a.Inclined to pester. Also, vexatious; encumbering; burdensome. [Obs.] Bacon.

Pest"ful (?), a. Pestiferous. "After long and pestful calms." Coleridge.

Pest`house" (?), n. A house or hospital for persons who are infected with any pestilential disease.

Pes"ti*duct (?), n. [L. pestis pest + ductus a leading, fr. ducere to lead.] That which conveys contagion or infection. [Obs.] Donne.

Pes*tif"er*ous (?), a. [L. pestiferus, pestifer; pestis pest + ferre to bear: cf. F. pestifère.] 1. Pest-bearing; pestilential; noxious to health; malignant; infectious; contagious; as, pestiferous bodies. "Poor, pestiferous creatures begging alms." Evelyn. "Unwholesome and pestiferous occupations." Burke.

2. Noxious to peace, to morals, or to society; vicious; hurtful; destructive; as, a pestiferous demagogue.

Pestiferous reports of men very nobly held.


Pes*tif"er*ous*ly, adv. In a pestiferuos manner.

Pes"ti*lence (?), n. [F. pestilence, L. pestilentia. See Pestilent.] 1. Specifically, the disease known as the plague; hence, any contagious or infectious epidemic disease that is virulent and devastating.

The pestilence That walketh in darkness.

Ps. xci. 6.

2. Fig.: That which is pestilent, noxious, or pernicious to the moral character of great numbers.

I'll pour this pestilence into his ear.


Pestilence weed (Bot.), the butterbur coltsfoot (Petasites vulgaris), so called because formerly considered a remedy for the plague. Dr. Prior.

Pes"ti*lent (?), a. [L. pestilens, -entis, fr. pestis pest: cf. F. pestilent.] Pestilential; noxious; pernicious; mischievous. "Corrupt and pestilent." Milton. "What a pestilent knave is this same!" Shak.

Pes`ti*len"tial (?), a. [Cf. F. pestilentiel.] 1. Having the nature or qualities of a pestilence. "Sends the pestilential vapors." Longfellow.

2. Hence: Mischievous; noxious; pernicious; morally destructive.

So pestilential, so infectious a thing is sin.

Jer. Taylor.

Pes`ti*len"tial*ly, adv. Pestilently.

Pes`ti*len"tious (?), a. Pestilential. [Obs.]

Pes"ti*lent*ly (?), adv. In a pestilent manner; mischievously; destructively. "Above all measure pestilently noisome." Dr. H. More.

Pes"ti*lent*ness, n. The quality of being pestilent.

Pes`til*la"tion (?), n. [LL. pestillum, L. pistillum. See Pestle.] The act of pounding and bruising with a pestle in a mortar. Sir T. Browne.

Pes"tle (ps"'l; 277), n. [OE. pestel, OF. pestel, LL. pestellum, L. pistillum, pistillus, a pounder, pestle, fr. pisere, pinsere, to pound, crush, akin to Gr. &?;, Skr. pish. Cf. Pistil.] 1. An implement for pounding and breaking or braying substances in a mortar.

2. A constable's or bailiff's staff; -- so called from its shape. [Obs.] Chapman.

3. The leg and leg bone of an animal, especially of a pig; as, a pestle of pork.

Pes"tle (?), v. t. & i. [imp. & p. p. Pestled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Pestling (?).] To pound, pulverize, bray, or mix with a pestle, or as with a pestle; to use a pestle.

Pet (?), n. [Formerly peat, perhaps from Ir. peat, akin to Gael. peata.] 1. A cade lamb; a lamb brought up by hand.

2. Any person or animal especially cherished and indulged; a fondling; a darling; often, a favorite child.

The love of cronies, pets, and favorites.


3. [Prob. fr. Pet a fondling, hence, the behavior or humor of a spoiled child.] A slight fit of peevishness or fretfulness. "In a pet she started up." Tennyson.

Pet, a. Petted; indulged; admired; cherished; as, a pet child; a pet lamb; a pet theory.

Some young lady's pet curate.

F. Harrison.

Pet cock. [Perh. for petty cock.] (Mach.) A little faucet in a water pipe or pump, to let air out, or at the end of a steam cylinder, to drain it.

Pet, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Petted; p. pr. & vb. n. Petting.] To treat as a pet; to fondle; to indulge; as, she was petted and spoiled.

Pet, v. i. To be a pet. Feltham.

Pet"al (?), n. [Gr. &?; a leaf, a leaf or plate of metal, fr. &?; outspread, broad, flat: cf. F. pétale. See Fathom.] 1. (Bot.) One of the leaves of the corolla, or the colored leaves of a flower. See Corolla, and Illust. of Flower.

2. (Zoöl.) One of the expanded ambulacra which form a rosette on the black of certain Echini.

Pet"aled (?), a. (Bot.) Having petals; as, a petaled flower; -- opposed to apetalous, and much used in compounds; as, one-petaled, three-petaled, etc.

Pet`al*if"er*ous (?), a. [Petal + -ferous.] Bearing petals.

Pe*tal"i*form (?), a. (Bot.) Having the form of a petal; petaloid; petal-shaped.

Pet"al*ine (?), a. [Cf. F. pétalin.] (Bot.) Pertaining to a petal; attached to, or resembling, a petal.

Pet"al*ism (?), n. [Gr. &?;, fr. &?; a leaf: cf. F. pétalisme.] (Gr. Antiq.) A form of sentence among the ancient Syracusans by which they banished for five years a citizen suspected of having dangerous influence or ambition. It was similar to the ostracism in Athens; but olive leaves were used instead of shells for ballots.

Pet"al*ite (?), n. [Cf. F. pétalite.] (Min.) A rare mineral, occurring crystallized and in cleavable masses, usually white, or nearly so, in color. It is a silicate of aluminia and lithia.

Pe*tal"o*dy (?), n. [Petal + Gr. &?; form.] (Bot.) The metamorphosis of various floral organs, usually stamens, into petals.

Pet"al*oid (?), a. [Petal + - oid: cf. F. pétaloïde.] (Bot.) Petaline.

Pet`al*oid"e*ous (?), a. (Bot.) Having the whole or part of the perianth petaline.

Petaloideous division, that division of endogenous plants in which the perianth is wholly or partly petaline, embracing the Liliaceæ, Orchidaceæ, Amaryllideæ, etc.

||Pet`a*los"ti*cha (?), n. pl. [NL., from Gr. &?; a leaf + &?; a row.] (Zoöl.) An order of Echini, including the irregular sea urchins, as the spatangoids. See Spatangoid.

Pet"al*ous (?), a. Having petals; petaled; -- opposed to apetalous.

||Pet"a*lum (?), n.; pl. Petala (#). [NL.] A petal.

Pe*tar" (?), n. See Petard. [Obs.] "Hoist with his own petar." Shak.

Pe*tard" (?), n. [F. pétard, fr. péter to break wind, to crack, to explode, L. pedere, peditum.] (Mil.) A case containing powder to be exploded, esp. a conical or cylindrical case of metal filled with powder and attached to a plank, to be exploded against and break down gates, barricades, drawbridges, etc. It has been superseded.

{ Pet`ar*deer", Pet`ar*dier" } (?), n. [F. pétardier.] (Mil.) One who managed a petard.

||Pet"a*sus (?), n. [L., from Gr. &?;.] (Gr. & Rom. Antiq.) The winged cap of Mercury; also, a broad-brimmed, low-crowned hat worn by Greeks and Romans.

Pe*tau"rist (?), n. [L. petaurista a ropedancer, Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to dance on a rope, fr. &?; a pole, a stage for ropedancers: cf. F. pétauriste.] (Zoöl.) Any flying marsupial of the genera Petaurus, Phalangista, Acrobata, and allied genera. See Flying mouse, under Flying, and Phalangister.

||Pe*tech"i*æ (?), n. pl.; sing. Petechia (&?;). [NL., fr. LL. peteccia; cf. F. pétéchie, It. petecchia, Sp. petequia, Gr. &?; a label, plaster.] (Med.) Small crimson, purple, or livid spots, like flea-bites, due to extravasation of blood, which appear on the skin in malignant fevers, etc.

Pe*tech"i*al (?), a. [Cf. F. pétéchial, LL. petecchialis.] (Med.) Characterized by, or pertaining to, petechiæ; spotted.

Petechial fever, a malignant fever, accompanied with livid spots on the skin.

Pe"ter (?), n. A common baptismal name for a man. The name of one of the apostles,

Peter boat, a fishing boat, sharp at both ends, originally of the Baltic Sea, but now common in certain English rivers. -- Peter Funk, the auctioneer in a mock auction. [Cant, U.S.] -- Peter pence, or Peter's pence. (a) An annual tax or tribute, formerly paid by the English people to the pope, being a penny for every house, payable on Lammas or St.Peter's day; -- called also Rome scot, and hearth money. (b) In modern times, a voluntary contribution made by Roman Catholics to the private purse of the pope. -- Peter's fish (Zoöl.), a haddock; -- so called because the black spots, one on each side, behind the gills, are traditionally said to have been caused by the fingers of St. Peter, when he caught the fish to pay the tribute. The name is applied, also, to other fishes having similar spots.

<! p. 1073 !>

Pet"er (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Petered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Petering.] [Etymol. uncertain.] To become exhausted; to run out; to fail; -- used generally with out; as, that mine has petered out. [Slang, U.S.]

Pet"er*el (?), n. (Zoöl.) See Petrel.

Pet`e*re"ro (?), n. (Mil.) See Pederero.

Pe"ter*man (?), n.; pl. Petermen (&?;). A fisherman; -- so called after the apostle Peter. [An obs. local term in Eng.] Chapman.

Pe"ter*sham (?), n. [Named after Lord Petersham.] A rough, knotted woolen cloth, used chiefly for men's overcoats; also, a coat of that material.

Pe"ter*wort` (?), n. (Bot.) See Saint Peter's-wort, under Saint.

{ Pet"i*o*lar (?), Pet"i*o*la*ry (?), } a. [Cf. F. pétiolarie.] (Bot.) Of or pertaining to petiole, or proceeding from it; as, a petiolar tendril; growing or supported upon a petiole; as, a petiolar gland; a petiolar bud.

{ Pet"i*o*late (?), Pet"i*o*la`ted (?), } a. (Bot. & Zoöl.) Having a stalk or petiole; as, a petioleate leaf; the petiolated abdomen of certain Hymenoptera.

Pet"i*ole (?), n. [F. pétiole, fr. L. petiolus a little foot, a fruit stalk; cf. pes, pedis, a foot.] 1. (Bot.) A leafstalk; the footstalk of a leaf, connecting the blade with the stem. See Illust. of Leaf.

2. (Zoöl.) A stalk or peduncle.

Pet"i*oled (?), a. Petiolate.

Pet`i*ol"u*late (?), a. (Bot.) Supported by its own petiolule. Gray.

Pet"i*o*lule (?), n. [Cf. F. pétiolule.] (Bot.) A small petiole, or the petiole of a leaflet.

Pet"it (?), a. [F. See Petty.] Small; little; insignificant; mean; -- Same as Petty. [Obs., except in legal language.]

By what small, petit hints does the mind catch hold of and recover a vanishing notion.


Petit constable, an inferior civil officer, subordinate to the high constable. -- Petit jury, a jury of twelve men, impaneled to try causes at the bar of a court; -- so called in distinction from the grand jury. -- Petit larceny, the stealing of goods of, or under, a certain specified small value; -- opposed to grand larceny. The distinction is abolished in England. -- Petit maître (&?;). [F., lit., little master.] A fop; a coxcomb; a ladies' man. Goldsmith. -- Petit serjeanty (Eng. Law), the tenure of lands of the crown, by the service of rendering annually some implement of war, as a bow, an arrow, a sword, a flag, etc. -- Petit treason, formerly, in England, the crime of killing a person to whom the offender owed duty or subjection, as one's husband, master, mistress, etc. The crime is now not distinguished from murder.

Pe*ti"tion (?), n. [F. pétition, L. petitio, fr. petere, petitum, to beg, ask, seek; perh. akin to E. feather, or find.] 1. A prayer; a supplication; an imploration; an entreaty; especially, a request of a solemn or formal kind; a prayer to the Supreme Being, or to a person of superior power, rank, or authority; also, a single clause in such a prayer.

A house of prayer and petition for thy people.

1 Macc. vii. 37.

This last petition heard of all her prayer.


2. A formal written request addressed to an official person, or to an organized body, having power to grant it; specifically (Law), a supplication to government, in either of its branches, for the granting of a particular grace or right; -- in distinction from a memorial, which calls certain facts to mind; also, the written document.

Petition of right (Law), a petition to obtain possession or restitution of property, either real or personal, from the Crown, which suggests such a title as controverts the title of the Crown, grounded on facts disclosed in the petition itself. Mozley & W. -- The Petition of Right (Eng. Hist.), the parliamentary declaration of the rights of the people, assented to by Charles I.

Pe*ti"tion, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Petitioned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Petitioning.] To make a prayer or request to; to ask from; to solicit; to entreat; especially, to make a formal written supplication, or application to, as to any branch of the government; as, to petition the court; to petition the governor.

You have . . . petitioned all the gods for my prosperity.


Pe*ti"tion, v. i. To make a petition or solicitation.

Pe*ti"tion*a*ri*ly (?), adv. By way of begging the question; by an assumption. [R.] Sir T. Browne.

Pe*ti"tion*a*ry (?), a. 1. Supplicatory; making a petition.

Pardon Rome, and any petitionary countrymen.


2. Containing a petition; of the nature of a petition; as, a petitionary epistle. Swift.

Pe*ti`tion*ee" (?), n. A person cited to answer, or defend against, a petition.

Pe*ti"tion*er (?), n. One who presents a petition.

Pe*ti"tion*ing, n. The act of presenting apetition; a supplication.

Pet"i*tor (?), n. [L., fr. petere to seek.] One who seeks or asks; a seeker; an applicant. [R.] Fuller.

Pet"i*to*ry (?), a. [L. petitorius, fr. petere, petitum, to beg, ask: cf. F. pétitore.] Petitioning; soliciting; supplicating. Sir W. Hamilton.

Petitory suit or action (Admiralty Law), a suit in which the mere title to property is litigated and sought to be enforced, as distinguished from a possessory suit; also (Scots Law), a suit wherein the plaintiff claims something as due him by the defendant. Burrill.

Pe*tong" (?), n. (Metal.) See Packfong.

Pe*tral"o*gy (?), n. See Petrology.

Pet"ra*ry (?), n. [L. petra stone. Cf. Sp. petraria, and E. Pederero.] An ancient war engine for hurling stones.

Pe"tre (p"tr), n. See Saltpeter.

Pe*tre"an (p*tr"an), a. [L. petraeus, Gr. petrai^os, fr. pe`tra a rock.] Of or pertaining to rock. G. S. Faber.

Pe"trel (?), n. [F. pétrel; a dim. of the name Peter, L. Petrus, Gr. &?; a stone (John i. 42); -- probably so called in allusion to St. Peter's walking on the sea. See Petrify.] (Zoöl.) Any one of numerous species of longwinged sea birds belonging to the family Procellaridæ. The small petrels, or Mother Carey's chickens, belong to Oceanites, Oceanodroma, Procellaria, and several allied genera.

Diving petrel, any bird of the genus Pelecanoides. They chiefly inhabit the southern hemisphere. -- Fulmar petrel, Giant petrel. See Fulmar. -- Pintado petrel, the Cape pigeon. See under Cape. -- Pintado petrel, any one of several small petrels, especially Procellaria pelagica, or Mother Carey's chicken, common on both sides of the Atlantic.

Pe*tres"cence (?), n. The process of changing into stone; petrification.

Pe*tres"cent (?), a. [L. petra rock, stone, Gr. &?;.] Petrifying; converting into stone; as, petrescent water. Boyle.

Pet`ri*fac"tion (?), n. [See Petrify.] 1. The process of petrifying, or changing into stone; conversion of any organic matter (animal or vegetable) into stone, or a substance of stony hardness.

2. The state or condition of being petrified.

3. That which is petrified; popularly, a body incrusted with stony matter; an incrustation.

4. Fig.: Hardness; callousness; obduracy. "Petrifaction of the soul." Cudworth.

Pet`ri*fac"tive (?), a. 1. Having the quality of converting organic matter into stone; petrifying.

2. Pertaining to, or characterized by, petrifaction.

The . . . petrifactive mutations of hard bodies.

Sir T. Browne.

Pe*trif"ic (?), a. [Cf. F. pétrifique.] Petrifying; petrifactive.

Death with his mace petrific, cold and dry.


Pet"ri*fi*cate (?), v. t. To petrify. [Obs.]

Our hearts petrificated were.

J. Hall (1646).

Pet`ri*fi*ca"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. pétrification. See Petrify.] 1. See Petrifaction.

2. Fig.: Obduracy; callousness. Hallywell.

Pet"ri*fy (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Petrified (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Petrifying (?).] [L. petra rock, Gr. &?; (akin to &?; a stone) + -fy: cf. F. pétrifier. Cf. Parrot, Petrel, Pier.] 1. To convert, as any animal or vegetable matter, into stone or stony substance.

A river that petrifies any sort of wood or leaves.


2. To make callous or obdurate; to stupefy; to paralyze; to transform; as by petrifaction; as, to petrify the heart. Young. "Petrifying accuracy." Sir W. Scott.

And petrify a genius to a dunce.


The poor, petrified journeyman, quite unconscious of what he was doing.

De Quincey.

A hideous fatalism, which ought, logically, to petrify your volition.

G. Eliot.

Pet"ri*fy, v. i. 1. To become stone, or of a stony hardness, as organic matter by calcareous deposits.

2. Fig.: To become stony, callous, or obdurate.

Like Niobe we marble grow,
And petrify with grief.


Pe"trine (?), a. Of or pertaining to St.Peter; as, the Petrine Epistles.

Pet"ro- (?). A combining form from Gr. &?; a rock, &?; a stone; as, petrology, petroglyphic.

Pe*trog"a*le (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; a rock + &?; a weasel.] (Zoöl.) Any Australian kangaroo of the genus Petrogale, as the rock wallaby (P. penicillata).

Pet`ro*glyph"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to petroglyphy.

Pe*trog"ly*phy (?), n. [Petro + Gr. &?; to carve.] The art or operation of carving figures or inscriptions on rock or stone.

{ Pet`ro*graph"ic (?), Pet`ro*graph"ic*al (?), } a. Pertaining to petrography.

Pe*trog"ra*phy (?), n. [Petro + -graphy.] 1. The art of writing on stone.

2. The scientific description of rocks; that department of science which investigates the constitution of rocks; petrology.

Pet`ro*hy"oid (?), a. [Petro + hyoid.] (Anat.) Pertaining to petrous, oe periotic, portion of the skull and the hyoid arch; as, the petrohyoid muscles of the frog.

Pe*trol" (?), n. Petroleum. [R.]

Pet`ro*la"tum (?), n. (Chem. & Pharm.) A semisolid unctuous substance, neutral, and without taste or odor, derived from petroleum by distilling off the lighter portions and purifying the residue. It is a yellowish, fatlike mass, transparent in thin layers, and somewhat fluorescent. It is used as a bland protective dressing, and as a substitute for fatty materials in ointments. U. S. Pharm.

Petrolatum is the official name for the purified product. Cosmoline and vaseline are commercial names for substances essentially the same, but differing slightly in appearance and consistency or fusibility.

Pe*tro"le*um (?), n. [NL., fr. L. petra a rock + oleum oil: cf. F. pétrole. Cf. Petrify, and Oil.] Rock oil, mineral oil, or natural oil, a dark brown or greenish inflammable liquid, which, at certain points, exists in the upper strata of the earth, from whence it is pumped, or forced by pressure of the gas attending it. It consists of a complex mixture of various hydrocarbons, largely of the methane series, but may vary much in appearance, composition, and properties. It is refined by distillation, and the products include kerosene, benzine, gasoline, paraffin, etc.

Petroleum spirit, a volatile liquid obtained in the distillation of crude petroleum at a temperature of 170° Fahr., or below. The term is rather loosely applied to a considerable range of products, including benzine and ligroin. The terms petroleum ether, and naphtha, are sometimes applied to the still more volatile products, including rhigolene, gasoline, cymogene, etc.

{ ||Pé`tro`leur" (?), n. m. ||Pé`tro`leuse" (?), n. f. }[F.] One who makes use of petroleum for incendiary purposes.

Pet"ro*line (?), n. (Chem.) A paraffin obtained from petroleum from Rangoon in India, and practically identical with ordinary paraffin.

{ Pet`ro*log"ic (?), Pet`ro*log"ic*al (?), } a. Of or pertaining to petrology.

Pet`ro*log"ic*al*ly, adv. According to petrology.

Pe*trol"o*gist (?), n. One who is versed in petrology.

Pe*trol"o*gy (?), n. [Petro + -logy.] 1. The department of science which is concerned with the mineralogical and chemical composition of rocks, and with their classification: lithology.

2. A treatise on petrology.

Pet`ro*mas"toid (?), a. [Petro + mastoid.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the petrous and mastoid parts of the temporal bone, periotic.

Pet`ro*my"zont (?), n. [Petro + Gr. &?; to suck in.] (Zoöl.) A lamprey.

Pet`ro*nel (?), n. [OF. petrinal, fr. peitrine, petrine, the breast, F. poitrine; so called because it was placed against the breast in order to fire. See Poitrel.] A sort of hand cannon, or portable firearm, used in France in the 15th century.

Pe*tro"sal (?), a. [See Petrous.] (Anat.) (a) Hard; stony; petrous; as, the petrosal bone; petrosal part of the temporal bone. (b) Of, pertaining to, or in the region of, the petrous, or petrosal, bone, or the corresponding part of the temporal bone.

Petrosal bone (Anat.), a bone corresponding to the petrous portion of the temporal bone of man; or one forming more or less of the periotic capsule.

Pe*tro"sal, n. (Anat.) (a) A petrosal bone. (b) The auditory capsule. Owen.

Pet`ro*si"lex (?), n. [Petro + silex.] (Min.) Felsite.

Pet`ro*si*li"cious (?), a. Containing, or consisting of, petrosilex.

Pet`ro*ste"a*rine (?), n. [Petro + stearine.] A solid unctuous material, of which candles are made.

Pe"trous (?), a. [L. petrosus, fr. petra a stone.] 1. Like stone; hard; stony; rocky; as, the petrous part of the temporal bone. Hooper.

2. (Anat.) Same as Petrosal.

Pet"ti*chaps (?), n. (Zoöl.) See Pettychaps.

Pet"ti*coat (?), n. (Zoöl.) [Petty + coat.] A loose under-garment worn by women, and covering the body below the waist.

Petticoat government, government by women, whether in politics or domestic affairs. [Colloq.] -- Petticoat pipe (Locomotives), a short, flaring pipe surrounding the blast nozzle in the smoke box, to equalize the draft.

Pet"ti*fog (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Pettifogged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Pettifogging (?).] [Petty + fog to pettifog.] To do a petty business as a lawyer; also, to do law business in a petty or tricky way. "He takes no money, but pettifogs gratis." S. Butler.

Pet"ti*fog, v. t. To advocate like a pettifogger; to argue trickily; as, to pettifog a claim. [Colloq.]

Pet"ti*fog`ger (?), n. A lawyer who deals in petty cases; an attorney whose methods are mean and tricky; an inferior lawyer.

A pettifogger was lord chancellor.


Pet"ti*fog`ger*y (?), n.; pl. - ies (&?;). The practice or arts of a pettifogger; disreputable tricks; quibbles.

Quirks of law, and pettifoggeries.


Pet"ti*fog`ging (?), a. Paltry; quibbling; mean.

Pet"ti*fog`ging, n. Pettifoggery.

Pet`ti*fog"u*lize (?), v. i. To act as a pettifogger; to use contemptible tricks. De Quincey.

Pet"ti*ly, adv. In a petty manner; frivolously.

Pet"ti*ness, n. The quality or state of being petty or paltry; littleness; meanness.

Pet"tish (?), a. [From Pet.] Fretful; peevish; moody; capricious; inclined to ill temper. "A pettish kind of humor." Sterne. -- Pet"tish*ly, adv. -- Pet"tish*ness, n.

Pet"ti*toes (?), n. pl. [Petty + toes.] The toes or feet of a pig, -- often used as food; sometimes, in contempt, the human feet. Shak.

||Pet"to (?), n. [It., fr. L. pectus.] The breast.

In petto, in the breast; hence, in secrecy; in reserve.

Pet"ty (?), a. [Compar. Pettier (?); superl. Pettiest.] [OE. petit, F. petit; probably of Celtic origin, and akin to E. piece. Cf. Petit.] Little; trifling; inconsiderable; also, inferior; subordinate; as, a petty fault; a petty prince. Denham.

Like a petty god
I walked about, admired of all.


Petty averages. See under Average. -- Petty cash, money expended or received in small items or amounts. -- Petty officer, a subofficer in the navy, as a gunner, etc., corresponding to a noncommissionned officer in the army.

For petty constable, petty jury, petty larceny, petty treason, See Petit.

Syn. -- Little; diminutive; inconsiderable; inferior; trifling; trivial; unimportant; frivolous.

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Pet"ty*chaps (?), n. (Zoöl.) Any one of several species of small European singing birds of the subfamily Sylviinæ, as the willow warbler, the chiff- chaff, and the golden warbler (Sylvia hortensis).

Pet"ty*whin (?), n. [Petty + whin.] (Bot.) The needle furze. See under Needle.

{ Pet"u*lance (?), Pet"u*lan*cy (?), } n. [L. petulania: cf. F. pétulance. See Petulant.] The quality or state of being petulant; temporary peevishness; pettishness; capricious ill humor. "The petulancy of our words." B. Jonson.

Like pride in some, and like petulance in others.


The lowering eye, the petulance, the frown.


Syn. -- Petulance, Peevishness. -- Peevishness implies the permanence of a sour, fretful temper; petulance implies temporary or capricious irritation.

Pet"u*lant (?), a. [L. petulans, -antis, prop., making slight attacks upon, from a lost dim. of petere to fall upon, to attack: cf. F. pétulant. See Petition.] 1. Forward; pert; insolent; wanton. [Obs.] Burton.

2. Capriciously fretful; characterized by ill- natured freakishness; irritable. "Petulant moods." Macaulay.

Syn. -- Irritable; ill-humored; peevish; cross; fretful; querulous.

Pet"u*lant*ly, adv. In a petulant manner.

Pe*tul"ci*ty (?), n. [See Petulcous.] Wantonness; friskiness. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.

Pe*tul"cous (?), a. [L. petulcus. Cf. Petulant.] Wanton; frisky; lustful. [Obs.] J. V. Cane.

Pe*tu"ni*a (?), n. [NL., fr. Braz. petun tobacco.] (Bot.) A genus of solanaceous herbs with funnelform or salver-shaped corollas. Two species are common in cultivation, Petunia violacera, with reddish purple flowers, and P. nyctaginiflora, with white flowers. There are also many hybrid forms with variegated corollas.

{ Pe*tunse", Pe*tuntse", Pe*tuntze" } (?), n. [From Chinese.] Powdered fledspar, kaolin, or quartz, used in the manufacture of porcelain.

Pet"worth mar"ble (?). A kind of shell marble occurring in the Wealden clay at Petworth, in Sussex, England; -- called also Sussex marble.

Petz"ite (?), n. [From Petz, who analyzed it.] (Min.) A telluride of silver and gold, related to hessite.

Peu*ced"a*nin (?), n. (Chem.) A tasteless white crystalline substance, extracted from the roots of the sulphurwort (Peucedanum), masterwort (Imperatoria), and other related plants; -- called also imperatorin.

Peu"cil (?), n. [Gr. &?; pine tree.] (Chem.) A liquid resembling camphene, obtained by treating turpentine hydrochloride with lime. [Written also peucyl.]

Pew (?), n. [OE. pewe, OF. puie parapet, balustrade, balcony, fr. L. podium an elevated place, a jutty, balcony, a parapet or balcony in the circus, where the emperor and other distinguished persons sat, Gr. &?;, dim. of &?;, &?;, foot; -- hence the Latin sense of a raised place (orig. as a rest or support for the foot). See Foot, and cf. Podium, Poy.] 1. One of the compartments in a church which are separated by low partitions, and have long seats upon which several persons may sit; -- sometimes called slip. Pews were originally made square, but are now usually long and narrow.

2. Any structure shaped like a church pew, as a stall, formerly used by money lenders, etc.; a box in theater; a pen; a sheepfold. [Obs.] Pepys. Milton.

Pew opener, an usher in a church. [Eng.] Dickens.

Pew, v. t. To furnish with pews. [R.] Ash.

Pe"wee (?), n. [So called from its note.] 1. (Zoöl.) A common American tyrant flycatcher (Sayornis phœbe, or S. fuscus). Called also pewit, and phœbe.

2. The woodcock. [Local, U.S.]

Wood pewee (Zoöl.), a bird (Contopus virens) similar to the pewee (See Pewee, 1), but of smaller size.

Pe"wet (?), n. (Zoöl.) Same as Pewit.

Pew"fel`low (?), n. 1. One who occupies the same pew with another.

2. An intimate associate; a companion. Shak.

Pe"wit (?), n. [Prob. of imitative origin; cf. OD. piewit, D. kievit, G. kibitz.] (Zoöl.) (a) The lapwing. (b) The European black-headed, or laughing, gull (Xema ridibundus). See under Laughing. (c) The pewee. [Written also peevit, peewit, pewet.]

Pew"ter (?), n. [OE. pewtyr, OF. peutre, peautre, piautre: cf. D. peauter, piauter, It. peltro, Sp. & Pg. peltre, LL. peutreum, pestrum. Cf. Spelter.] 1. A hard, tough, but easily fusible, alloy, originally consisting of tin with a little lead, but afterwards modified by the addition of copper, antimony, or bismuth.

2. Utensils or vessels made of pewter, as dishes, porringers, drinking vessels, tankards, pots.

Pewter was formerly much used for domestic utensils. Inferior sorts contain a large proportion of lead.

Pew"ter*er (?), n. One whose occupation is to make utensils of pewter; a pewtersmith. Shak.

Pew"ter*y (?), a. Belonging to, or resembling, pewter; as, a pewtery taste.

Pex"i*ty (?), n. [L. pexitas, fr. pexus woolly, nappy, p. p. of pectere to comb.] Nap of cloth. [Obs.]

Pey"er's glands` (?). [So called from J. K. Peyer, who described them in 1677.] (Anat.) Patches of lymphoid nodules, in the walls of the small intestiness; agminated glands; -- called also Peyer's patches. In typhoid fever they become the seat of ulcers which are regarded as the characteristic organic lesion of that disease.

Pey"trel (?), n. [OF. peitral. See Poitrel.] (Anc. Armor) The breastplate of a horse's armor or harness. [Spelt also peitrel.] See Poitrel. [Obs.] Chaucer.

||Pe*zi"za (?), n. [NL., corrupt. from L. pezica a sessile mushroom, fr. Gr. &?;, fr. &?;, &?;, a foot.] (Bot.) A genus of fungi embracing a great number of species, some of which are remarkable for their regular cuplike form and deep colors.

Pez"i*zoid (?), a. [Peziza + - oid.] (Bot.) Resembling a fungus of the genus Peziza; having a cuplike form.

||Pfen"nig (?), n.; pl. Pfennigs (#), G. Pfennige (#). [G. See Penny.] A small copper coin of Germany. It is the hundredth part of a mark, or about a quarter of a cent in United States currency.

||Pha*cel"lus (?), n.; pl. Phacelli (#). [NL., fr. Gr. &?; a bundle of fagots.] (Zoöl.) One of the filaments on the inner surface of the gastric cavity of certain jellyfishes.

Phac"o*chere (?), n. [Gr. &?; a lentil seed, a wart + &?; a pig.] (Zoöl.) The wart hog.

Pha"coid (?), a. [Gr. &?; a lentil + -oid.] Resembling a lentil; lenticular.

Phac"o*lite (?), n. [Gr. &?; lentil + -lite.] (Min.) A colorless variety of chabazite; the original was from Leipa, in Bohemia.

||Pha"cops (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; a lentil + &?;, &?;, the eye.] (Paleon.) A genus of trilobites found in the Silurian and Devonian formations. Phacops bufo is one of the most common species.

Phæ*a"cian (?), a. Of or pertaining to the Phæacians, a fabulous seafaring people fond of the feast, the lyre, and the dance, mentioned by Homer.

Phæ"no*gam (?), n. (Bot.) Any plant of the class Phænogamia.

||Phæ`no*ga"mi*a (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. &?; to show + &?; marriage.] (Bot.) The class of flowering plants including all which have true flowers with distinct floral organs; phanerogamia.

{ Phæ`no*ga"mi*an (?), Phæ`no*gam"ic (?), } a. Same as Phænogamous.

Phæ*nog"a*mous (?), a. (Bot.) Having true flowers with with distinct floral organs; flowering.