The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Birds of Australia, Vol. 1 of 7

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Title: The Birds of Australia, Vol. 1 of 7

Author: John Gould

Release date: April 5, 2021 [eBook #65002]

Language: English

Credits: Richard Tonsing, MWS, and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at https://www.pgdp.net (This file was produced from images generously made available by The Internet Archive)

*** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA, VOL. 1 OF 7 ***

Transcriber’s Note:

The cover image was created by the transcriber and is placed in the public domain.

THE
BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA.

BY
JOHN GOULD, F.R.S.,
F.L.S., F.Z.S., M.E.S., F.ETHN.S., F.R.GEOG.S., M. RAY S., HON. MEMB. OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF TURIN, OF THE ROY. ZOOL. SOC. OF IRELAND, OF THE PENZANCE NAT. HIST. SOC., OF THE WORCESTER NAT. HIST. SOC., OF THE NORTHUMBERLAND, DURHAM AND NEWCASTLE NAT. HIST. SOC., OF THE NAT. HIST. SOC. OF DARMSTADT AND OF THE TASMANIAN SOCIETY OF VAN DIEMEN’S LAND, ETC.
IN SEVEN VOLUMES.
VOL. I.
LONDON:
PRINTED BY RICHARD AND JOHN E. TAYLOR, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET.
PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR, 20, BROAD STREET, GOLDEN SQUARE.
1848.
TO
HER MOST GRACIOUS MAJESTY
VICTORIA,
QUEEN OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND,
THIS WORK,
ON THE
BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA,
IS, WITH HER ROYAL PERMISSION,
DEDICATED
BY HER MAJESTY’S
MOST OBEDIENT AND FAITHFUL
SUBJECT AND SERVANT,
JOHN GOULD.

LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS.

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GENERAL INDEX

  Vol. Page
Ægialitis bicinctus VI. 16
  Monachus VI. 18
  nigrifrons VI. 20
Ægotheles Australis II. 1
  cristatus II. 1
  leucogaster. Vol. I. p. xxvii II. 2
  lunulatus II. 1
  Novæ-Hollandiæ. Vol. I. p. xxvii II. 1
Acanthiza albifrons III. 64
  apicalis. Vol. I. p. xlvi III. 57
  Chestnut-rumped V. 56
  chrysorrhœa. Vol. I. p. xlvi III. 63
  Diemenensis. Vol. I. p. xlv V. 54
  Ewingii. Vol. I. p. xlvi V. 55
  Ewing’s V. 55
  frontalis III. 49
  inornata. Vol. I. p. xlvi III. 59
  lineata. Vol. I. p. xlvi III. 61
  Little III. 60
  Little Brown III. 53
  nana. Vol. I. p. xlvi III. 60
  Plain-coloured III. 59
  pyrrhopygia. Vol. I. p. xlvi III. 39, 58
  pusilla. Vol. I. p. xlvi III. 53
  Red-rumped III. 58
  Reguloïdes. Vol. I. p. xlvi III. 62
  Regulus-like III. 62
  Striated III. 61
  Tasmanian V. 54
  uropygialis. Vol. I. p. xlvi V. 56
  Western III. 57
  Yellow-tailed III. 63
Acanthogenys rufogularis. Vol. I. p. lviii IV. 53
Acanthorhynchus dubius. Vol. I. p. lix IV. 61
  superciliosus. Vol. I. p. lix IV. 62
  tenuirostris. Vol. I. p. lix IV. 61
Acanthylis caudacuta. Vol. I. p. xxix II. 10
Accipiter approximans. Vol. I. p. xxi  
  cirrhocephalus. Vol. I. p. xxi  
  torquatus. Vol. I. p. xxiv 19
Acrocephalus Australis. Vol. I. p. xlv III. 37
  longirostris. Vol. I. p. xlv III. 38
Actitis empusa. Vol. I. p. lxxxv VI. 35
Albatros, Black VII. 44
  Black-eyebrowed VII. 43
  Cautious VII. 40
  Culminated VII. 41
  Short-tailed VII. 39
  Sooty VII. 44
  Wandering VII. 38
  Yellow-billed VII. 42
  Yellow-nosed VII. 42
Albatrus VII. 38
Alcedo fusca II. 18
  gigantea II. 18
  gigas II. 18
  tribrachys II. 25
Alcyone Australis II. 25
  azurea. Vol. I. p. xxxi II. 25
  Diemenensis. Vol. I. p. xxx  
  pulchra. Vol. I. p. xxxi  
  pusilla. Vol. I. p. xxxii II. 26
Alectura Lathami V. 77
Amadina acuticauda III. 90
  annulosa III. 81
  castaneothorax III. 94
  castanotis. Vol. I. p. xlix III. 87
  cincta III. 93
  Gouldiæ. Vol. I. p. xlix III. 88
  Lathami. Vol. I. p. xlix III. 86
  modesta. Vol. I. p. xlix III. 85
  pectoralis III. 95
  ruficauda III. 84
Amytis leucopterus III. 25
  macrourus. Vol. I. p. xliv III. 30
  striatus. Vol. I. p. xliv III. 29
  textilis. Vol. I. p. xliv III. 28, 29
Anas arcuata VII. 14
  atrata VII. 6
  carunculata VII. 18
  Coromandeliana VII. 5
  fasciata VII. 13
  jubata VII. 3
  leucophrys VII. 9
  lobata VII. 18
  melanoleuca VII. 2
  membranacea VII. 13
  nævosa. Vol. I. p. xcii VII. 10
  plutonia VII. 6
  punctata. Vol. I. p. xcii VII. 11
  Radjah VII. 8
  Rhynchotis VII. 12
  semipalmata VII. 2
  superciliosa. Vol. I. p. xci VII. 9
  Tadornoïdes VII. 7
Anoüs ——? VII. 35
  cinereus. Vol. I. p. xcvi VII. 37
  leucocapillus. Vol. I. p. xcv VII. 36
  melanops. Vol. I. p. xcvi VII. 35
  niger VII. 34
  stolidus. Vol. I. p. xcvi VII. 34
Anser Girra VII. 5
  griseus VII. 1
Anseranas melanoleuca. Vol. I. p. xci VII. 2
Anthochæra carunculata. Vol. I. p. lviii IV. 54, 55
  inauris. Vol. I. p. lviii IV. 54
  Lewinii IV. 55
  lunulata. Vol. I. p. lviii IV. 57
  mellivora. Vol. I. p. lviii IV. 56
  Phrygia IV. 48
Anthus Australis. Vol. I. p. xlviii III. 73
  fuliginosus III. 70
  minimus III. 72
  pallescens III. 73
  rufescens III. 76
Aprosmictus erythropterus. Vol. I.  
  p. lxv V. 18
  scapulatus. Vol. I. p. lxv V. 17
Aptenodyta minor VII. 84
Aptenodytes chrysocome VII. 83
  minor VII. 84
  Undina VII. 85
Apteryx Australis. Vol. I. p. lxxxi VI. 2
  Owenii. Vol. I. p. lxxxi VI. 3
  Owen’s VI. 3
Aquila albirostris I. 1
  cuneicaudata. Vol. I. p. xxi  
  fucosa. Vol. I. p. xxi 1
  Morphnoïdes. Vol. I. p. xxi 2
  (Uroaëtus) audax. Vol. I. p. xxi  
Ardea Bullaragang VI. 52
  Caledonica VI. 63
  cœrulea, var. VI. 60
  flavicollis VI. 65
  (Herodias) picata VI. 62
  jugularis VI. 60
  leucophæa. Vol. I. p. lxxxvii VI. 55
  leucops VI. 53
  maculata VI. 68
  Matook VI. 60
  nigra VI. 65
  Novæ-Hollandiæ. Vol. I. p. lxxxvii VI. 53
  Pacifica. Vol. I. p. lxxxvii VI. 52
  pusilla VI. 68
  rectirostris. Vol. I. p. lxxxvii VI. 54
  Sparmannii VI. 63
Ardetta flavicollis. Vol. I. p. lxxxvii VI. 65
  macrorhyncha. Vol. I. p. lxxxviii VI. 66
  pusilla. Vol. I. p. lxxxviii VI. 68
  stagnatilis. Vol. I. p. lxxxviii VI. 67
Artamus albiventris. Vol. I. p. xxxii II. 30
  albovittatus II. 27
  cinereus. Vol. I. p. xxxii II. 29
  leucopygialis. Vol. I. p. xxxii II. 33
  lineatus II. 27
  minor II. 28
  sordidus II. 27
  personatus. Vol. I. p. xxxii II. 31
  superciliosus. Vol. I. p. xxxii II. 32
Astur albus I. 15
  approximans. Vol. I. p. xxiv 17
  cruentus. Vol. I. p. xxiv 18
  fasciatus I. 17
  Novæ-Hollandiæ. Vol. I. p. xxiv 14
  (Leucospiza) Novæ-Hollandiæ. Vol. I. p. xxi  
  (Micronisus) torquatus. Vol. I. p. xxi  
  Novæ-Hollandiæ, albino I. 15
  radiatus. Vol. I. p. xxiv 16, 17
  Raii I. 14
  testaceus (Ernest). Vol. I. p. xxi  
Athene? connivens. Vol. I. p. xxvii 34
Athene Boobook Vol. I. p. xxvi 32
  ? fortis I. 34
  maculata Vol. I. p. xxvi 33
  marmorata Vol. I. p. xxvi  
  rufa Vol. I. p. xxvii 36
  strenua Vol. I. p. xxvii 35
Atrichia clamosa Vol. I. p. xliv III. 34
Attagen Ariel Vol. I. p. c VII. 72
Atticora leucosternon Vol. I. p. xxix II. 12
Avocet, Red-necked VI. 27
Avoset, Terek VI. 34
 
Banksianus Australis Vol. I. p. lxiv  
  galeatus V. 14
Barita Anaphonensis II. 45
  destructor II. 52
  Quoyi II. 53
  strepera II. 42
  Tibicen II. 46, 47
Baza subcristata Vol. I. p. xxvi  
Bee-eater II. 16
  Australian II. 16
  Black and Yellow IV. 48
  Blue-cheeked IV. 68
  Chattering IV. 76
  Cowled IV. 58
  Dusky IV. 20
  Embroidered IV. 48
  Golden-winged IV. 56
  Knob-fronted IV. 58
  Mountain II. 16
  Variegated II. 16
  Wattled IV. 55
Bernicla Coromandeliana VII. 5
  Girra VII. 5
  jubata Vol. I. p. xci VII. 3
Bird, Alarm VI. 9
  Australian Bell- IV. 80
  Bell- II. 81
    IV. 80
  Blood IV. 63
  Brush Wattle- IV. 56
  Butcher II. 52
  Cat IV. 11
  Coach-whip III. 15
  Friar IV. 68
  Great Bower- IV. 9
  Little Wattle- IV. 57
  Lunulated Wattle- IV. 57
  Man-of-War VII. 38
  Mock Regent IV. 48
  Nankeen VI. 63
  New Holland, Tropic VII. 73
  Noisy Brush- III. 34
  Regent IV. 12
  Red-tailed Tropic VII. 73
  Rifle IV. 100
  Satin IV. 10
  Satin Bower- IV. 10
  Silvery-backed Butcher II. 51
  Silvery-crowned Friar- IV. 59
  Small Frigate VII. 72
  Spotted Bower- IV. 8
  Wattle IV. 54, 55
  Yellow-throated Friar- IV. 60
Bittern, Australian VI. 64
  Little Brown VI. 65
  Little Grey VI. 67
  Minute VI. 68
  Thick-billed Green VI. 66
  Yellow-necked VI. 65
Biziura lobata Vol. I. p. xciii VII. 18
  Novæ-Hollandiæ VII. 18
Blue-eye IV. 68
Booby VII. 78
  Brown VII. 78
Botaurus Australis. Vol. I. p. lxxxviii VI. 64
Brachyptrallus Ralloïdes? VI. 71
Brachystoma cinerea IV. 17
Bristle-Bird III. 32
  Long-billed III. 33
Bronze-wing, Harlequin V. 66
  Smith’s Partridge V. 68
  Partridge V. 67
  Plumed Partridge V. 69
Brown-tail V. 54
Burhinus magnirostris VI. 6
Bustard, Australian VI. 4
Buteo melanosternon. Vol. I. p. xxv I. 20
Buzzard, Black-breasted I. 20
 
Cacatua chrysolophus V. 1
  Eos. Vol. I. p. lxiii V. 4
  galeata V. 14
  galerita. Vol. I. p. lxiii V. 1
  Leadbeateri. Vol. I. p. lxiii V. 2
  nasica V. 5
  rosea V. 4
  roseicapilla V. 4
  sanguinea. Vol. I. p. lxiii V. 3
Calamanthus campestris. Vol. I. p. xlviii III. 71
  fuliginosus. Vol. I. p. xlviii III. 70
Calamoherpe longirostris III. 38
Calidris Australis VI. 31
Callocephalon Australe V. 14
  galeatum. Vol. I. p. lxv V. 14
Calodera maculata IV. 8
  nuchalis IV. 9
Callopsitta, Guy V. 45
Calyptorhynchus Banksii. Vol. I. p. lxiv V. 7
  Baudinii. Vol. I. p. lxv V. 13
  Cookii V. 10
  funereus. Vol. I. p. lxiv V. 11
  galeatus V. 14
  Leachii. Vol. I. p. lxiv V. 10
  macrorhynchus. Vol. I. p. lxiv V. 8
  naso. Vol. I. p. lxiv V. 9
  Solandri V. 10
  stellatus V. 7, 10
  Temminckii V. 10
  xanthonotus. Vol. I. p. lxiv V. 12
Campephaga, Black and White II. 62
  humeralis. Vol. I. p. xxxvi II. 63
  Jardine’s II. 60
  Jardinii. Vol. I. p. xxxvi II. 60
  Karu. Vol. I. p. xxxvi II. 61
  leucomela. Vol. I. p. xxxvi II. 62
  Northern II. 61
  White-shouldered II. 63
Caprimulgus albogularis II. 7
  cristatus II. 1
  gracilis? II. 3
  guttatus II. 8
  macrurus. Vol. I. p. xxix II. 9
  megacephalus. Vol. I. p. xxvii  
  mystacalis II. 7
  Novæ-Hollandiæ II. 1
  vittatus II. 1
Carbo hypoleucus VII. 68
  sulcirostris VII. 67
Carpophaga leucomela. Vol. I. p. lxix V. 59
  luctuosa. Vol. I. p. lxix V. 60
  magnifica. Vol. I. p. lxix V. 58
Carvanaca grisea VI. 6
Casarca Tadornoïdes. Vol. I. p. xci VII. 7
Cassowary, New Holland VI. 1
  Southern VI. 1
  Van Diemen’s Land VI. 1
Casuarius Novæ-Hollandiæ VI. 1
Catharacta Skua VII. 21
Catheturus Australis V. 77
Ceblepyris humeralis II. 63
  lineatus II. 58
  melanops II. 55
Centropus macrourus. Vol. I. p. lx  
  melanurus. Vol. I. p. lx  
  Phasianus. Vol. I. p. lxi IV. 92
  variegatus IV. 92
Cerchneis immaculatus. Vol. I. p. xxii  
Cereopsis Australis VII. 1
  cinereus VII. 1
  New Holland VII. 1
  Novæ-Hollandiæ. Vol. I. p. xc VII. 1
Certhia agilis. Vol. I. p. li  
  auriculata IV. 37
  Australasiæ IV. 63
  Australasiana IV. 27
  canescens. Vol. I. p. xxxvi  
  cœrulescens IV. 81
  chrysotis IV. 32
  dibapha IV. 63
  diluta IV. 81
  erythropygia IV. 63
  leucophæa. Vol. I. p. lxi  
  leucoptera? IV. 98
  lunulata IV. 72
  melanops? Vol. I. p. l  
  mellivora IV. 56
  Novæ-Hollandiæ IV. 23
  picumnus IV. 98
  pyrrhoptera? Vol. I. p. l  
  tenuirostris IV. 61
  sanguinolenta IV. 63
Ceyx azurea II. 25
  cyanea II. 25
  pusilla II. 26
Chætura Australis II. 10
  macroptera II. 10
Chalcites lucidus IV. 89
  osculans. Vol. I. p. lxi IV. 88
Chalcophaps chrysochlora. Vol. I. p. lxix V. 62
  longirostris. Vol. I. p. lxi  
Channel-Bill IV. 90
  Australasian IV. 90
Charadrius bicinctus VI. 16
  cucullatus VI. 18
  frenatus VI. 5
  fuscus VI. 5
  grallarius VI. 5
  griseus VI. 5
  hypomelas VI. 12
  lobatus VI. 9
  longipes VI. 5
  magnirostris VI. 6
  marginatus VI. 17
  melanops VI. 20
  Monachus VI. 18
  nigrifrons VI. 20
  pectoralis VI. 11
  ruficapillus VI. 17
  tricolor VI. 11
  veredus. Vol. I. p. lxxxii VI. 14
  xanthocheilus. Vol. I. p. lxxxii VI. 13
Chelidon arborea. Vol. I. p. xx  
  Ariel. Vol. I. p. xx  
Cheniscus Coromandelianus VII. 5
Chenopis atrata VII. 6
Cherry-picker IV. 70
Chladorhynchus pectoralis. Vol. I. p. lxxxiv VI. 26
Chlamydera maculata. Vol. I. p. lii IV. 8
  nuchalis. Vol. I. p. lii IV. 9
Choristopus semipalmatus VII. 2
Chough, White-winged IV. 16
Chrysococcyx osculans. Vol. I. p. lx  
  lucidus. Vol. I. p. lxi IV. 89
Chthonicola, Little III. 72
  minima. Vol. I. p. xlviii III. 72
Ciconia Australis VI. 51
  leucoptera VI. 51
Cincloramphus, Black-breasted III. 75
  Brown III. 74
  Cantatoris III. 75
  Cantillans. Vol. I. p. xlviii III. 75
  cruralis. Vol. I. p. xlviii III. 74
  rufescens. Vol. I. p. xlviii III. 76
  Rufous-tinted III. 76
Cinclosoma castanotus. Vol. I. p. li IV. 5
  cinnamomeus. Vol. I. p. li IV. 6
  Cinnamon-coloured IV. 6
  punctatum. Vol. I. p. li IV. 4
Circus assimilis. Vol. I. p. xxvi 26
  axillaris I. 23
  Jardinii. Vol. I. p. xxvi 27
  (Spilocercus) Jardinii. Vol. I. p. xxv  
Climacteris erythrops. Vol. I. p. lxi IV. 95
  melanotus. Vol. I. p. lxi IV. 96
  melanura. Vol. I. p. lxi IV. 97
  picumnus. Vol. I. p. lxii IV. 98
  rufa. Vol. I. p. lxi IV. 94
  scandens. Vol. I. p. lxi IV. 93
Cobbler’s Awl IV. 61
Cockatoo, Banksian V. 7, 10, 11
  Baudin’s V. 13
  Blood-stained V. 3
  Cook’s V. 10
  Funereal V. 11
  Gang-gang V. 14
  Great-billed Black V. 8
  Great Sulphur-crested V. 1
  Leach’s V. 10
  Leadbeater’s V. 2
  Long-billed V. 5
  Long-nosed V. 5
  Pink V. 2
  Red-tailed Black V. 9
  Rose-breasted V. 4
  Rose-coloured V. 4
  Crested V. 1
  Solander’s V. 10
  The Red-vented V. 5
  The Rose V. 4
  Western Black V. 9
  White-tailed Black V. 13
  Yellow-eared Black V. 12
Collared Plain Wanderer V. 80
Callocalia arborea. Vol. I. p. xxx II. 14
  Ariel. Vol. I. p. xxx II. 15
Colluricincla, Brown II. 76
  brunnea. Vol. I. p. xxxvii II. 76
  Buff-bellied II. 75
  cinerea II. 74
  harmonica. Vol. I. p. xxxvii II. 74
  Harmonious II. 74
  Little II. 78
  parvula. Vol. I. p. xxxvii II. 78
  rectirostris II. 77
Colluricincla rufiventris. Vol. I. p. xxxvii II. 75
  rufogaster Vol. I. p. xxxvii  
  Selbii Vol. I. p. xxxvii II. 77
  strigata II. 77
Columba Antarctica V. 61
  armillaris V. 63
  chalcoptera V. 64
  chrysochlora V. 62
  cuneata V. 74
  dilopha V. 61
  elegans V. 65
  humeralis V. 72
  Jamesonii V. 63
  Javanica V. 62
  Lawsonii V. 65
  leucomela V. 59
  leucomelana V. 59
  Lophotes V. 70
  luctuosa V. 60
  Macquarie V. 74
  magnifica V. 58
  melanoleuca V. 63
  Norfolciensis V. 59
  pallida. Vol. I. p. lx  
  Phasianella V. 75
  picata V. 63
  purpurata V. 55
  scripta V. 67
  Smithii V. 68
  spiloptera V. 74
  superba V. 57
Coot, Australian VI. 74
Coracias pacifica II. 17
  sagittata IV. 13
  strepera II. 42
  Tibicen II. 44
Corcorax Australis IV. 16
  leucopterus. Vol. I. p. liii IV. 16
Cormorant, Australian VII. 66
  Groove-billed VII. 67
  Pied VII. 68, 70
  Spotted VII. 71
  White-breasted VII. 69
Coronica fuliginosa II. 43
  strepera II. 42
Corvus auritus Vol. I. p. xliii  
  Australis IV. 18
  carunculatus IV. 55
  Coronoïdes Vol. I. p. liv IV. 18
  cyanoleucos II. 54
  graculinus II. 42
  melanops II. 55
  squamulosus IV. 10
  streperus II. 42
  paradoxus IV. 55
Corydon galeatus V. 14
Coturnix Australis V. 89
  Chinensis V. 92
  excalfatoria V. 92
  pectoralis Vol. I. p. lxxx V. 88
  Phillippensis V. 92
Coucal, New Holland IV. 92
  variegated IV. 92
Cracticus argenteus Vol. I. p. xxxv II. 51
  cinereus Vol. I. p. xxxv  
  destructor Vol. I. p. xxxv II. 52
  fuliginosus II. 43
  hypoleucus II. 48
  leucopterus Vol. I. p. xxxv  
  nigrogularis Vol. I. p. xxxv II. 49
  picatus Vol. I. p. xxxv II. 50
  streperus II. 42
Cracticus Tibicen II. 46
  Quoyii Vol. I. p. xxxv II. 53
  varius II. 49
Crake, Water VI. 80
  Spotted Water VI. 79
  White-eyebrowed Water VI. 81
Crane, Australian VI. 48
  Blue VI. 53, 60
  White VI. 58
Creadion carunculatus IV. 54, 55
Creeper, Black-backed Tree- IV. 96
  Black-tailed Tree- IV. 97
  Bluish-breasted IV. 81
  Brown Tree- IV. 93
  cœrulean IV. 81
  Cochineal IV. 6
  The Common IV. 98
  Dirigang? IV. 98
  Goruck IV. 56
  Graculine IV. 68
  Hooded IV. 61
  mellivorus IV. 56
  New Holland IV. 23, 25
  Red-eyebrowed Tree- IV. 95
  Red-rumped IV. 63
  Rufous Tree- IV. 94
  Sanguineous IV. 63
  Slender-billed IV. 61
  Small-crested IV. 63
  Spot-eared IV. 32
  White-throated Tree- IV. 98
Crow IV. 18
  Black-faced II. 55
  Wattled IV. 55
  White-eyed IV. 18
Crow-Shrike, Black-throated II. 49
  Grey II. 45
  Hill II. 44
  Quoy’s II. 53
  Pied II. 42, 50
  Piping II. 46
  Sooty II. 43
  Tasmanian II. 48
  White-backed II. 47
Cuculus albostrigatus IV. 85
  cineraceus. Vol. I. p. lx IV. 86
  cyanocephalus IV. 91
  dumetorum Vol. I. p. lx  
  flabelliformis IV. 86
  incertus IV. 86
  inornatus. Vol. I. p. lx IV. 85
  insperatus. Vol. I. p. lx IV. 87
  lucidus IV. 89
  optatus. Vol. I. p. lx IV. 84
  Phasianus IV. 92
  variolosus IV. 86
Cuckoo, Ash-coloured IV. 86
  Australian IV. 84
  Barred-tailed IV. 86
  Black-eared IV. 88
  Blue-headed IV. 91
  Brush IV. 87
  Fan-tailed IV. 86
  Flinders’ IV. 91
  Golden or Bronze IV. 89
  Greater IV. 85
  Lesser IV. 86
  Pheasant IV. 92
  Shining IV. 89
  Unadorned IV. 85
Cuncuma leucogaster Vol. I. p. xxi  
Curlew VI. 42
Curlew, Australian VI. 42
  Pygmy VI. 32
Cygnus atratus VII. 5
Cypselus Australis. Vol. I. p. xxix II. 11
Cysticola campestris III. 41
  exilis. Vol. I. p. xlv III. 42
  lineocapilla. Vol. I. p. xlv III. 43
  magna. Vol. I. p. xlv III. 41
  isura. Vol. I. p. xlv III. 44
  ruficeps. Vol. I. p. xlv III. 45
 
Dab-chick VII. 82
Dacelo cervina. Vol. I. p. xxxi II. 20
  chlorocephala II. 21
  gigantea. Vol. I. p. xxxi II. 18
  gigas II. 18
  Leachii. Vol. I. p. xxxi II. 19
Dædalion candidum. Vol. I. p. xxiv  
Daption Capensis. Vol. I. p. xcix VII. 53
Darter, New Holland VII. 75
Dasyornis III. 29
  Australis. Vol. I. p. xliv III. 32
  ? brunneus. Vol. I. p. xliv  
  longirostris. Vol. I. p. xliv III. 33
Dendrocygna arcuata. Vol. I. p. xcii VII. 14
  Eytoni. Vol. I. p. xcii VII. 15
Diamond Bird II. 35
Dicæum atrogaster II. 34
  hirundinaceum. Vol. I. p. xxxii II. 34
  Swallow II. 34
Dicrurus Balicassius II. 82
  bracteatus. Vol. I. p. xxxviii II. 82
Didunculus strigirostris. Vol. I. p. lxxii  
Diomedea Antarctica VII. 44
  brachyura. Vol. I. p. xcvii VII. 39
  cauta. Vol. I. p. xcvii VII. 40
  chlororhynchos. Vol. I. p. xcvii VII. 42
  chrysostoma VII. 42
  culminata. Vol. I. p. xcvii VII. 41
  exulans. Vol. I. p. xcvii VII. 38
  fuliginosa. Vol. I. p. xcvii VII. 44
  fusca VII. 44
  gibbosa. Vol. I. p. xcvii  
  melanophrys. Vol. I. p. xcvii VII. 43
  olivaceorhyncha. Vol. I. p. xcvii  
  palpebrata VII. 44
Diver VII. 80
Dollar Bird II. 17
Donacola castaneothorax. Vol. I. p. 1 III. 94
  flaviprymna. Vol. I. p. 1 III. 96
  pectoralis. Vol. I. p. 1 III. 95
Dottrel, Allied VI. 19
  Australian VI. 15
  Black-fronted VI. 20
  Double-banded VI. 16
  Hooded VI. 18
  Red-capped VI. 17
Dove, Barred-shouldered Ground- V. 72
  Peaceful V. 73
  Peaceful Ground- V. 74
  White-quilled Rock V. 71
  Turtle V. 74
Dromaius ater VI. 1
  Novæ-Hollandiæ. Vol. I. p. lxxx VI. 1
Dromiceus Australis VI. 1
  Emu VI. 1
  Novæ-Zelandiæ VI. 2
Drongo, Spangled II. 82
Drymodes bruneopygia. Vol. I. p. xlii III. 10
Drymophila carinata II. 95
  trivirgata II. 96
Duck, Australian Wild VII. 9
Duck, Black VII. 9
  Blue-billed VII. 17
  Chestnut-breasted VII. 11
  Eyton’s VII. 15
  Freckled VII. 10
  Grey VII. 9
  Hawkesbury VII. 3
  Lobated VII. 18
  Membranaceous VII. 13
  Mountain VII. 7
  Musk VII. 18
  New Holland VII. 13
  Pink-eyed VII. 13
  Shovel-nosed VII. 12
  Supercilious VII. 9
  Whistling VII. 14
  White VII. 8
  White-eyed VII. 16
  White-winged VII. 16
  Wood VII. 3
 
Eagle Hawk I. 1
  Lacteous I. 15
  Little Australian I. 2
  Little Swamp I. 5
  Mountain, of New S. Wales I. 1
  New Holland White I. 15
  Wedge-tailed I. 1
  Whistling I. 5
  White-bellied I. 3
  White-bellied Sea- I. 3
  White-breasted Rufous I. 4
  White-breasted Sea- I. 4
Egret, Australian VI. 56
  Pied VI. 62
  Plumed VI. 57
  Sombre VI. 59
  Spotless VI. 58
Eidopsaris bicinctus IV. 70
Elanus axillaris. Vol. I. p. xxv 23
  melanopterus. Vol. I. p. xxv  
  notatus I. 23
  scriptus. Vol. I. p. xxv 24
Emblema picta. Vol. I. p. 1 III. 97
Emu, The VI. 1
  of New South Wales VI. 1
Entomophila albogularis. Vol. I. p. lvii IV. 51
  rufogularis. Vol. I. p. lvii IV. 52
  picta. Vol. I. p. lvii IV. 50
Entomyza albipennis. Vol. I. p. lix IV. 69
  Blue-faced IV. 68
  cyanotis. Vol. I. p. lix IV. 68
Eöpsaltria Australis. Vol. I. p. xlii III. 11
  flavicollis III. 11
  griseogularis. Vol. I. p. xlii III. 12
  leucogaster. Vol. I. p. xlii III. 13
  parvula III. 11
Ephthianura albifrons. Vol. I. p. xlvii III. 64
  aurifrons. Vol. I. p. xlvii III. 65
  Orange-fronted III. 65
  tricolor. Vol. I. p. xlvii III. 66
  Tri-coloured III. 66
  White-fronted III. 64
Epimachus Brisbanii IV. 100
  regius IV. 100
Erismatura Australis. Vol. I. p. xciii VII. 17
Erythrodryas rhodinogaster. Vol. I. p. xli III. 1
  rosea. Vol. I. p. xli III. 2
Erythrogonys cinctus. Vol. I. p. lxxxiii VI. 21
Esacus magnirostris. Vol. I. p. lxxxi VI. 6
Estrelda annulosa. Vol. I. p. xlix III. 81
  bella. Vol. I. p. xlix III. 78
  Bichenovii. Vol. I. p. xlix III. 80
  modesta Vol. I. p. 1.  
  oculea. Vol. I. p. xlix III. 79
  Phaëton. Vol. I. p. xlix III. 83
  ruficauda. Vol. I. p. xlix III. 84
  temporalis. Vol. I. p. xlix III. 82
Eudromias Australis. Vol. I. p. lxxxii VI. 15
Eudynamys Australis IV. 91
  Flindersii. Vol. I. p. lxi IV. 91
  Orientalis IV. 91
Eudyptes chrysocome. Vol. I. p. cii VII. 83
  chrysolopha VII. 83
  demersus VII. 83
Eulabeornis castaneoventris. Vol. I. p. xc VI. 78
Euphema aurantia. Vol. I. p. lxvi V. 39
  Bourkii. Vol. I. p. lxvii V. 43
  chrysostoma. Vol. I. p. lxvi V. 37
  discolor V. 47
  elegans. Vol. I. p. lxvi V. 38
  petrophila. Vol. I. p. lxvi V. 40
  pulchella. Vol. I. p. lxvi V. 41
  splendida. Vol. I. p. lxvi V. 42
  undulata V. 44
Eurostopodus albogularis. Vol. I. p. xxviii II. 7
  guttatus. Vol. I. p xxviii II. 8
Eurystomus Australis. Vol. I. p. xxx II. 18
  Orientalis II. 17
 
Falcinellus igneus. Vol. I. p. lxxxvi VI. 47
Falco albus I. 15
  axillaris I. 23
  Berigora I. 11
  Cenchroïdes I. 13
  clarus I. 14
  connivens I. 34
  frontatus. Vol. I. p. xxiii 10
  fucosus I. 1
  (Hierofalco) subniger I. 9
  hypoleucus. Vol. I. p. xxii 7
  (Hypotriorchis) frontatus Vol. I. p. xxiii  
  leucaëtos. Vol. I. p. xxiv  
  leucogaster I. 3
  longipennis. Vol. I. p. xxiii  
  lunulatus. Vol. I. p. xxiii  
  macropus. Vol. I. p. xxii  
  melanogenys. Vol. I. p. xxii 8
  melanops. Vol. I. p. xxiv  
  nisus I. 19
  Novæ-Hollandiæ I. 15
  Peregrinus I. 8
  Ponticerianus. Vol. I. p. xxii  
  radiatus I. 16,17
  subbuteo. Vol. I. p. xxiii  
  subniger. Vol. I. p. xxiii 9
  torquatus I. 19
Falcon, Black I. 9
  Black-cheeked I. 8
  Fair I. 14
  Grey I. 7
  Little I. 10
  Radiated I. 16
  White-fronted I. 10
  Winking I. 34
Falcunculus flavigulus II. 79
  frontatus. Vol. I. p. xxxviii II. 79
  gutturalis II. 81
  leucogaster. Vol. I. p. xxxviii II. 80
Fantail, Northern II. 85
  Rufous-fronted II. 84
Fantail, White-shafted II. 83
Fig-eater IV. 82
Finch, Banded Grass- III. 93
  Beautiful Grass- III. 89
  Bicheno’s III. 80
  Black-rumped III. 81
  Chestnut-breasted III. 94
  Chestnut-eared III. 87
  Crimson III. 83
  Fire-tailed III. 78
  Gouldian III. 88
  Long-tailed Grass- III. 90
  Masked Grass- III. 91
  Painted III. 97
  Plain-coloured III. 85
  Red III. 83
  Red-eared III. 79
  Red-eyebrowed III. 82
  Red-tailed III. 84
  Spotted-sided III. 86
  Temporal III. 82
  White-breasted III. 95
  White-eared Grass- III. 92
  White-headed III. 86
  Yellow-rumped III. 96
Fire-tail III. 78
Flycatcher, Black Fantailed II. 86
  Black-fronted II. 96
  Broad-billed II. 92
  Brown II. 93, 94
  Carinated II. 95
  Coach-whip III. 15
  Hooded III. 7
  Orange-rumped II. 84
  Plumbeous II. 89
  Pretty II. 90
  Red-bellied III. 4
  Restless II. 87
  Rufous-fronted II. 84
  Shining II. 88, 91
  Soft-tailed III. 31
  Solitary III. 69
  Southern III. 11
  Wagtail II. 86
  Yellow-eared IV. 45
  Yellow-tufted IV. 37
Forty-spot II. 37
Fregilus leucopterus IV. 16
Friar IV. 58
  Yellow-throated IV. 60
Fringilla bella III. 78
  Bichenovii III. 80
  Lathami III. 86
  leucocephala III. 86
  oculea III. 79
  Phaëton III. 83
  quinticolor III. 82
  temporalis III. 82
Fulica Australis. Vol. I. p. lxxxix VI. 74
 
Gaira fusca VII. 34
Gallinago Australis VI. 40
Gallinula immaculata VI. 82
  tenebrosa. Vol. I. p. lxxxix VI. 73
  ventralis VI. 72
  Black-backed VI. 69
  Sombre VI. 73
  Spotless VI. 82
Gannet, Australian VII. 76
  Brown VII. 78
  Lesser VII. 79
  Masked VII. 77
  Red-legged VII. 79
Geopelia cuneata. Vol. I. p. lxxii V. 74
  humeralis. Vol. I. p. lxxi V. 72
  placida. Vol. I. p. lxxi V. 73
  tranquilla. Vol. I. p. lxxi V. 73
Geophaps plumifera. Vol. I. p. lxxi V. 69
  scripta. Vol. I. p. lxx V. 67
  Smithii. Vol. I. p. lxx V. 68
Geronticus spinicollis. Vol. I. p. lxxxvi VI. 45
Gerygone albogularis. Vol. I. p. xli II. 97
  Buff-breasted II. 101
  chloronotus. Vol. I. p. xli II. 102
  culicivorus. Vol. I. p. xli II. 99
  fusca. Vol. I. p. xli II. 98
  Fuscous II. 98
  Great-billed II. 100
  Green-backed II. 102
  lævigaster. Vol. I. p. xli II. 101
  magnirostris. Vol. I. p. xli II. 100
  White-throated II. 97
  Western II. 99
Glareola Australis VI. 22
  grallaria. Vol. I. p. lxxxiii VI. 22
  Isabella VI. 22
  Orientalis. Vol. I. p. lxxxiii VI. 23
Glottis Glottoïdes. Vol. I. p. lxxxv VI. 36
Glyciphila albifrons. Vol. I. p. lv IV. 29
  fasciata. Vol. I. p. lv IV. 30
  fulvifrons. Vol. I. p. lv IV. 28
  ocularis. Vol. I. p. lv IV. 31
  subocularis IV. 31
Gnathodon V. 76
  strigirostris. Vol. I. p. lxxii V. 76
Goatsucker, Banded II. 1
  Bristled II. 1
  Cold-River II. 3
  Crested II. 1
  Fichtel’s Vol. I. p. xxvii  
  Gracile II. 3
  Great-headed. Vol. I. p. xxvii  
  Large-tailed II. 9
  New Holland II. 1
  Spotted II. 8
  Wedge-tailed Vol. I. p. xxvii  
  White-throated II. 7
Godwit, Barred-rumped VI. 29
  Black-tailed VI. 28
  Terek VI. 34
Goose, Beautiful Pygmy VII. 4
  Black and White VII. 2
  Cape Barren VII. 1
  Cereopsis VII. 1
  Little VII. 4
  Maned VII. 3
  Mother Cary’s VII. 45
  Semipalmated VII. 2
  Pygmy VII. 5
Goshawk, Australian I. 17
  New Holland I. 14
  Radiated I. 16
  West Australian I. 18
  White I. 15
Gracula cyanotis IV. 68
  picata II. 54
  strepera II. 42
  viridis IV. 13
Grallina Australis. Vol. I. p. xxxv II. 54
  bicolor II. 54
  melanoleuca II. 54
  picata II. 54
  Pied II. 54
Grakle, Blue-eared IV. 68
Grakle, Green IV. 13
  Pied II. 54
  Satin IV. 10
Grape-eater IV. 82
Graucalus, Ground II. 59
  hypoleucus. Vol. I. p. xxxvi II. 57
  melanops. Vol. I. p. xxxv II. 55
  melanotis Vol. I. p. xxxv  
  mentalis. Vol. I. p. xxxvi II. 56
  parvirostris Vol. I. p. xxxv  
  Phasianellus II. 59
  Swainsonii. Vol. I. p. xxxvi II. 58
  Swainson’s II. 58
  tenuirostris II. 60
  varied II. 56
  White-bellied II. 57
Grebe, Australian Tippet VII. 80
  Black-throated VII. 81
  Hoary-headed VII. 82
  Green-leek V. 15
  Greenshank, Australian VI. 36
  Grinder, The II. 87
  Grosbeak, Black-lined III. 78
  Fascinating II. 93
  Spotted III. 86
  Spotted-sided III. 86
Grus Australasianus. Vol. I. p. lxxxvii VI. 48
Gull, Crimson-billed VII. 20
  Jameson’s VII. 20
  Larger VII. 19
  Little VII. 20
  Pacific VII. 19
  Silver VII. 20
  Skua VII. 21
Gygis candida. Vol. I. p. xcv VII. 30
Gymnophrys torquatus IV. 72
Gymnorhina leuconota. Vol. I. p. xxxiv II. 47
  organicum. Vol. I. p. xxxiv II. 48
  Tibicen. Vol. I. p. xxxiv II. 46
 
Hæmatops lunulatus IV. 72
  validirostris IV. 70
Hæmatopus Australasianus VI. 7
  fuliginosus. Vol. I. p. lxxxii VI. 8
  longirostris. Vol. I. p. lxxxii VI. 7
  picatus VI. 7
Haladroma Urinatrix VII. 60
Haladrome, Diving VII. 60
Halcyon incinctus II. 24
  MacLeayii. Vol. I. p. xxxi II. 24
  MacLeay’s II. 24
  pyrrhopygia. Vol. I. p. xxxi II. 22
  Red-backed II. 22
  sacra II. 21
  Sacred II. 21
  sanctus. Vol. I. p. xxxi II. 21
  Sordid II. 23
  sordidus. Vol. I. p. xxxi II. 23
Haliæetus canorus I. 5
  leucogaster I. 3
  leucosternus I. 4
  sphenurus I. 3
Haliaëtus Calei I. 16
  (Ictinoaëtus) canorus Vol. I. p. xxii  
  (Ictinoaëtus) leucosternon Vol. I. p. xxii  
  (Pontoaëtus) leucogaster Vol. I. p. xxi  
Haliastur leucosternus Vol. I. p. xxii 4
  ? sphenurus Vol. I. p. xxii 5
Harrier, Allied I. 26
  Jardine’s I. 27
Hawk, Blue I. 8
  Brown I. 11
  Collared Sparrow I. 19
  Crested I. 25
  Fish I. 6
  Little I. 19
  Little Fish I. 6
  Nankeen I. 13
  New Holland Sparrow I. 19
  Orange-speckled I. 11
  Swamp I. 26
  Western Brown I. 12
  Whistling I. 5
  White I. 15
Hemipode, Black-backed V. 84
  Black-breasted V. 81
  Chestnut-backed V. 85
  Red-chested V. 86
  Sparkling V. 83
  Swift-flying V. 87
  varied V. 82
Hemipodius castanotus. Vol. I. p. lxxix V. 85
  melanogaster. Vol. I. p. lxxix V. 81
  melanotus. Vol. I. p. lxxix V. 84
  pyrrhothorax. Vol. I. p. lxxx V. 86
  scintillans. Vol. I. p. lxxix V. 83
  varius. Vol. I. p. lxxix V. 82
  velox. Vol. I. p. lxxx V. 87
Hen, Port Egmont VII. 21
Herodias Greyi. Vol. I. p. lxxxviii VI. 61
  immaculata. Vol. I. p. lxxxviii VI. 58
  jugularis. Vol. I. p. lxxxviii VI. 60
  Novæ-Hollandiæ VI. 53
  pannosus. Vol. I. p. lxxxviii VI. 59
  plumiferus. Vol. I. p. lxxxviii VI. 57
  picata. Vol. I. p. lxxxviii VI. 62
  syrmatophorus. Vol. I. p. lxxxvii VI. 56
Heron, Australian VI. 55
  Blue Beef VI. 60
  Caledonian Night VI. 63
  Great-billed VI. 54
  Nankeen Night VI. 63
  New Holland Night VI. 63
  Pacific VI. 52
  Spotted VI. 68
  White-fronted VI. 53
  White-necked VI. 52
  White Reef VI. 61
  Yellow-necked VI. 65
Hiaticula bicincta. Vol. I. p. lxxxiii VI. 16
  inornata. Vol. I. p. lxxxiii VI. 19
  monacha. Vol. I. p. lxxxiii VI. 18
  nigrifrons. Vol. I. p. lxxxiii VI. 20
  ruficapilla. Vol. I. p. lxxxiii VI. 17
Himantopus leucocephalus. Vol. I. p. lxxxiv VI. 24
  Novæ-Zealandiæ. Vol. I. p. lxxxiv VI. 25
  palmatus VI. 26
Hirundo caudacuta II. 10
  Javanica II. 13
  leucosternus II. 12
  neoxena. Vol. I. p. xxx II. 13
  nigricans II. 14
  pacifica. Vol. I. p. xxix II. 10
  pyrrhonota II. 14
Honey-eater, Banded IV. 65
  Barred-tailed? IV. 98
  Black IV. 66
  Black and Yellow IV. 48
  Black-cheeked IV. 45
  Black-headed IV. 75
Honey-eater, Black-throated IV. 71
  Blue-cheeked IV. 68
  Brown IV. 31
  Buff-winged IV. 93
  Chattering IV. 76
  Coach-whip III. 15
  Cochineal IV. 63
  Cœrulean IV. 81
  Cowled IV. 58
  Dirigang IV. 98
  Fasciated IV. 30
  Flapping IV. 61
  Fulvous-fronted IV. 28
  Fuscous IV. 44
  Garrulous IV. 76
  Golden-crowned IV. 12
  Golden-winged IV. 56
  Graculine IV. 68
  Knob-fronted IV. 58
  Lanceolate IV. 47
  Long-billed IV. 24
  Lunulated IV. 7, 72
  Luteous IV. 78
  Mellivorous IV. 56
  Moustached IV. 26
  Mustachoe IV. 37
  New Holland IV. 23
  Obscure IV. 67
  Painted IV. 50
  Pale-cheeked IV. 68
  Pied IV. 49
  Red-eyed IV. 72
  Red-headed IV. 64
  Red-throated IV. 52
  Rufous-vented II. 67
  Sanguineous IV. 63
  Singing IV. 33
  Slender-billed IV. 61
  Sombre IV. 77
  Spiny-cheeked IV. 53
  Strong-billed IV. 70
  Swan River IV. 73
  Tasmanian IV. 27
  Tufted-eared IV. 37
  Uniform IV. 46
  Varied IV. 34
  Warty-faced IV. 48
  Wattled IV. 54, 56
  Wattle-cheeked IV. 38
  White-cheeked IV. 25
  White-crowned IV. 68
  White-eared IV. 36
  White-eyebrowed? IV. 27
  White-fronted IV. 29
  White-pinioned IV. 69
  White-plumed IV. 43
  White-throated IV. 51, 74
  Yellow IV. 42
  Yellow-eared IV. 32
  Yellow-faced IV. 45
  Yellow-throated IV. 35
  Yellow-tinted IV. 41
  Yellow-tufted IV. 37
  Yellow-winged IV. 24
Honey-sucker, Black-crowned IV. 72
  Black-throated IV. 29
  Blue-cheeked IV. 68
  Brown IV. 31
  Crimson-throated II. 34
  Larger IV. 33
  White-throated IV. 28
Hornbill, Psittaceous IV. 90
Hornbill, Anomalous IV. 90
Hydrobates lobatus VII. 18
Hydrochelidon fluviatilis. Vol. I. p. xcv VII. 31
Hylacola cauta. Vol. I. p. xlv III. 40
  pyrrhopygia. Vol. I. p. xlv III. 39
 
Ibis, Black-necked VI. 46
  Falcinellus VI. 47
  Glossy VI. 47
  lamellicollis VI. 45
  New Holland VI. 45
  spinicollis VI. 45
  Straw-necked VI. 45
  strictipennis VI. 46
  White VI. 46
Ichthyiaëtus leucogaster. Vol. I. p. xx  
Ieracidea Berigora Vol. I. p. xxiii 11
  Occidentalis Vol. I. p. xxiii 12
 
Jabiru, New Holland VI. 51
Jackass, Laughing II. 18
Jungle-fowl V. 79
 
Kestril, Nankeen I. 13
Kingfisher II. 21
  Azure II. 25
  Bush II. 24
  Fawn-breasted II. 20
  Giant II. 18
  Great Brown II. 18
  Leach’s II. 19
  Little II. 26
  Sacred II. 21
  Tridigitated II. 25
Kite I. 22
  Allied I. 21
  Black-shouldered I. 23
  Letter-winged I. 24
  Square-tailed I. 22
Kitta holosericea IV. 10
  virescens IV. 11
Kiwi-kiwi VI. 2
 
Laniarius albicollis II. 64
Lanius curvirostris Vol. I. p. xxx  
  frontatus II. 79
  Karu II. 61
  macularius II. 67
  robustus II. 56
  robustus? Vol. I. p. xxx  
  Saturninus II. 74
  torquatus Vol. I. p. xxx  
Lark, Common III. 73
  Sand VI. 17
  Singing III. 76
  Sky- III. 75
Larus Catarractes VII. 21
  frontalis VII. 19
  fuscus VII. 21
  Georgii VII. 19
  Jamesonii VII. 20
  leucomelas VII. 19
  Pacificus. Vol. I. p. xciii VII. 19
  scopulinus VII. 20
Lathamus azureus V. 41
  concinnus V. 52
  discolor. Vol. I. p. lxvii V. 47
  pusillus V. 54
  rubrifrons V. 47
Leather-neck IV. 60
Leipoa ocellata. Vol. I. p. lxxiii V. 78
  Ocellated V. 78
Lepidogenys subcristatus Vol. I. p. xxvi 25
Leptolophus auricomis V. 45
Leptopteryx albovittata II. 27
  minor II. 28
Leptorhynchus pectoralis VI. 26
Leptotarsis Eytoni. Vol. I. p. xcii VII. 15
Lestris Catarractes. Vol. I. p. xciii VII. 21
Leucosarcia picata. Vol. I. p. lxx V. 63
Licmetis nasicus. Vol. I. p. lxiii V. 5
  pastinator Vol. I. p. lxiii  
  tenuirostris V. 5
Limosa Melanuroïdes. Vol. I. p. lxxxiv VI. 28
  recurvirostra VI. 34
  Terek VI. 34
  uropygialis. Vol. I. p. lxxxiv VI. 29
Lobivanellus lobatus. Vol. I. p. lxxxii VI. 9
  personatus. Vol. I. p. lxxxii VI. 10
Lopholaimus Antarcticus Vol. I. p. lxix V. 61
Lophorhynchus Antarcticus V. 61
  dilophus V. 61
Lorikeet, Porphyry-crowned V. 53
  Red-collared V. 49
  Scaly-breasted V. 50
  Swainson’s V. 48
  Swift V. 47
  Varied V. 51
Lory, King V. 17
  Red-winged V. 18
Loxia bella III. 78
  fascinans II. 93
Lyre-Bird III. 14
 
Macropygia Phasianella. Vol. I. p. lxxii V. 75
Magpie II. 50
  Black II. 43
  Lark II. 54
  Little II. 54
  White II. 48
Malacorhynchus fasciatus VII. 13
  membranaceus. Vol. I. p. xcii VII. 13
Malurus Brownii Vol. I. p. xliii III. 26, 27
  cruentatus III. 27
  cyaneus. Vol. I. p. xliii III. 18
  elegans. Vol. I. p. xliii III. 22
  exilis III. 42
  galactotes III. 35
  Lamberti. Vol. I. p. xliii III. 24
  leucopterus. Vol. I. p. xliii III. 25
  longicaudus. Vol. I. p. xliii III. 19
  malachurus III. 31
  melanocephalus. Vol. I. p. xliii III. 26
  melanotus. Vol. I. p. xliii III. 20
  pectoralis III. 21
  pulcherrimus. Vol. I. p. xliii III. 23
  splendens. Vol. I. p. xliii III. 21
  textilis III. 28
Manakin, Desmaretian II. 34
  Striped-headed II. 38, 39
Manorhina viridis IV. 80
Manorina viridis IV. 80
Manikin, Speckled II. 35
Mareca castanea VII. 11
  punctata VII. 11
Martin II. 14
  Fairy II. 15
  Tree II. 14
Mawepawk, Little II. 1
Megalopterus stolidus VII. 34
Megalurus cruralis III. 74
  galactotes III. 35
Megapode, Mound-raising V. 79
Megapodius menura III. 14
Megapodius Tumulus. Vol. I. p. lxxvii V. 79
Meleagris Lindsayii V. 77
Melicophila picata. Vol. I. p. lvii IV. 49
Meliornis Novæ-Hollandiæ IV. 23
Meliphaga atricapilla IV. 72
  auricomis IV. 37
  Australasiana. Vol. I. p. lv IV. 27
  Balgonera IV. 23
  barbata IV. 23
  Cardinalis IV. 63
  cœrulea IV. 81
  chrysocephala IV. 12
  chrysops IV. 45
  chrysotis IV. 32
  cyanops IV. 68
  fulvifrons IV. 28
  fusca IV. 44
  inornata IV. 27
  leucotis IV. 36
  longirostris. Vol. I. p. lv IV. 24
  lunulata IV. 72
  Novæ-Hollandiæ. Vol. I. p. lv VI. 23
  penicillata IV. 43
  Phrygia IV. 48
  sericea. Vol. I. p. lv IV. 25
  sericeola IV. 25
  tenuirostris IV. 61
  torquata IV. 72
  mystacalis. Vol. I. p. lv IV. 26
Melithreptus albogularis. Vol. I. p. lix IV. 74
  chloropsis. Vol. I. p. lix IV. 73
  gularis. Vol. I. p. lix IV. 71
  lunulatus. Vol. I. p. lix IV. 72
  melanocephalus. Vol. I. p. lix IV. 75
  Novæ-Hollandiæ IV. 23
  validirostris. Vol. I. p. lix IV. 70
Melopsittacus undulatus. Vol. I. p. lxvii V. 44
Menura Lyra III. 14
  Novæ-Hollandiæ III. 14
  paradisea III. 14
  Superb III. 14
  superba. Vol. I. p. xlii III. 14
  vulgaris III. 14
Merops carunculatus IV. 55
  chrysopterus IV. 56
  corniculatus IV. 58
  cyanops IV. 68
  garrulus IV. 76
  melanurus II. 16
  monachus IV. 58
  ornatus. Vol. I. p. xxx II. 16
  Phrygius IV. 48
Micrœca assimilis Vol. I. p. x  
  flavigaster. Vol. I. p. xl II. 94
  Great-winged II. 93
  macroptera. Vol. I. p. xl II. 93
  Yellow-bellied II. 94
Microcygna Coromandeliana VII. 5
Milvus affinis Vol. I. p. xxv 21
  (Hydroictinia) affinis Vol. I. p. xx  
  isurus Vol. I. p. xxv 22
  sphenurus Vol. I. p. xxii 5
Mimeta flavo-cincta IV. 14
  Meruloïdes IV. 13
  viridis IV. 13
Mimetes flavo-cinctus IV. 14
  viridis IV. 13
Miner IV. 76
  Yellow-throated IV. 79
Mirafra Horsfieldii. Vol. I. p. xlix III. 77
  Horsfield’s III. 77
Monarcha carinata. Vol. I. p. xl II. 95
Monarcha trivirgata. Vol. I. p. x II. 96
Moor Hen VI. 72
Morepork II. 4
Motacilla Australis III. 11
  cyanea III. 18
  pusilla III. 53
  solitaria III. 69
  Southern III. 11
  superba III. 18
Muscicapa auricomis IV. 37
  Australis III. 11
  barbata Vol. I. p. xlv  
  crepitans III. 15
  cucullata III. 7
  erythrogaster Vol. I. p. xli  
  erythrogastra III. 4
  Georgiana Vol. I. p. xli  
  Goodenovii III. 5
  gularis Vol. I. p. xli  
  Lathami III. 1
  malachura III. 31
  multicolor III. 3
  mystacea IV. 37
  pectoralis II. 67
  rufifrons II. 84
  vittata Vol. I. p. xli  
Muscipeta carinata II. 95
Mycteria, Australian VI. 51
  Australis. Vol. I. p. lxxxvii VI. 51
Myiägra concinna. Vol. I. p. xxxix II. 90
  latirostris. Vol. I. p. xxxix II. 92
  macroptera II. 93
  nitida. Vol. I. p. xxxix II. 89
  plumbea. Vol. I. p. xxxix II. 89
  Rubeculoïdes II. 91
Myzantha flavigula. Vol. I. p. lx IV. 79
  flavirostris IV. 80
  garrula. Vol. I. p. lx IV. 76
  lutea. Vol. I. p. lx IV. 78
  melanophrys. Vol. I. p. lx IV. 80
  obscura. Vol. I. p. lx IV. 77
Myzomela obscura. Vol. I. p. lix IV. 67
  erythrocephala. Vol. I. p. lix IV. 64
  nigra. Vol. I. p. lix IV. 66
  pectoralis. Vol. I. p. lix IV. 65
  sanguinolenta. Vol. I. p. lix IV. 63
 
Nanodes Bourkii V. 43
  discolor V. 47
  elegans V. 38
  pulchellus V. 41
  undulatus V. 44
  venustus V. 37
  ? zonarius V. 20
Native Companion VI. 48
  Hen VI. 71
Neomorpha acutirostris IV. 19
  crassirostris IV. 19
  Gouldii Vol. I. p. liv IV. 19
  Gould’s IV. 19
Neops chrysoptera IV. 101
Nettapus albipennis Vol. I. p. xc  
  Coromandelianus. Vol. I. p. xci VII. 5
  pulchellus. Vol. I. p. xci VII. 4
Nestor productus. Vol. I. p. lxiv V. 6
Nightjar, Owlet- II. 1
  White-bellied Owlet- II. 2
Nisus Australis I. 19
  (Urospiza) approximans Vol. I. p. xxi  
  (Urospiza) radiatus Vol. I. p. xxi  
  (Urospiza) torquatus Vol. I. p. xxi  
Noctua Boobook I. 32
  maculata I. 33
Noddy VII. 32, 34
  Black VII. 34
  Grey VII. 37
  Lesser VII. 35
Noisy Roller II. 42
Notodela Karu II. 61
Numenius Australis. Vol. I. p. lxxxvi VI. 42
  minutus. Vol. I. p. lxxxvi VI. 44
  uropygialis. Vol. I. p. lxxxvi VI. 43
Nuthatch, New Holland IV. 98
  Orange-winged IV. 101
Nycticorax Caledonicus. Vol. I. p. lxxxviii VI. 63
Nymphicus Novæ-Hollandiæ. Vol. I. p. lxvii V. 45
Nyroca Australis. Vol. I. p. xcii VII. 16
 
Oceanites Wilsonii VII. 65
Ocyphaps Lophotes. Vol. I. p. lxx V. 70
Ocypteras albovittatus II. 27
  cinereus II. 29
  fuscatus II. 29
  minor II. 28
  superciliosus II. 32
Œdicnemus grallarius. Vol. I. p. lxxxi VI. 5
  longipes VI. 5
  magnirostris VI. 6
  recurvirostris VI. 6
Onychoprion fuliginosus? Vol. I. p. xcv VII. 32
  Panaya. Vol. I. p. xcvi VII. 33
  serratus VII. 32
Oreocincla lunulata. Vol. I. p. li IV. 7
  macrorhyncha IV. 7
  Novæ-Hollandiæ IV. 7
Oreoïca, Crested II. 81
  gutturalis. Vol. I. p. xxxviii II. 81
Organ-Bird II. 48
Origma rubricata. Vol. I. p. xlvii III. 69
  solitaria III. 69
Oriole, Crescent-marked IV. 14
  New South Wales IV. 13
Oriolus affinis Vol. I. p. liii  
  flavocinctus. Vol. I. p. liii IV. 14
  regens IV. 12
  variegatus IV. 13
  viridis. Vol. I. p. liii IV. 13
Orthonyx maculatus IV. 99
  Spine-tailed IV. 99
  spinicaudus. Vol. I. p. lxii IV. 99
  Temminckii IV. 99
Osprey, White-headed I. 6
Otis Australis Vol. I. p. lxxxi  
  Australasianus. Vol. I. p. lxxxi VI. 4
Owl, Boobook I. 32
  Brown or Cuckoo I. 32
  Chestnut-faced I. 28
  Delicate I. 31
  Masked Barn I. 29
  Rufous I. 36
  Powerful I. 35
  Sooty I. 30
  Spotted I. 33
  Winking I. 34
Oxyura Australis VII. 17
Oyster-catcher, Black VI. 8
  Sooty VI. 8
  White-breasted VI. 7
 
Pachycephala Australis III. 11
  Black-tailed II. 66
  falcata. Vol. I. p. xxxvii II. 68
Pachycephala fuliginosa II. 64
  fusca II. 64
  Gilbertii. Vol. I. p. xxxvii II. 71
  Gilbert’s II. 71
  glaucura. Vol. I. p. xxxvii II. 65
  Grey-tailed II. 65
  gutturalis. Vol. I. p. xxxvii II. 64
  inornata Vol. I. p. xxxvi  
  Lanoïdes. Vol. I. p. xxxvii II. 69
  Lunulated II. 68
  melanura. Vol. I. p. xxxvii II. 66
  olivacea. Vol. I. p. xxxvii II. 73
  Olivaceous II. 73
  pectoralis. Vol. I. p. xxxvii II. 67
  Plain-coloured II. 72
  Red-throated II. 70
  rufogularis. Vol. I. p. xxxvii II. 70
  Shrike-like II. 69
  simplex. Vol. I. p. xxxvii II. 72
  striata II. 67
Pachyptila Banksii Vol. I. p. xci  
  Forsteri VII. 55
  vittata VII. 55
Palæornis anthopeplus V. 16
  Barrabandi V. 15
  melanura V. 16
  Novæ-Hollandiæ V. 45
  rosaceus V. 15
Pandion Gouldii Vol. I. p. xxi  
  leucocephalus Vol. I. p. xxi 6
Paralcyon gigas II. 18
Pardalote, Allied II. 39
  Black-headed II. 40
  Forty-spotted II. 37
  Red-lored II. 36
  Spotted II. 35
  Striated II. 38
  Yellow-rumped II. 41
Paradalotus affinis. Vol. I. p. xxxiii II. 39
  melanocephalus. Vol. I. p. xxxiii II. 40
  ornatus II. 38
  punctatus. Vol. I. p. xxxiii II. 35
  quadragintus. Vol. I. p. xxxiii II. 37
  rubricatus. Vol. I. p. xxxiii II. 36
  striatus. Vol. I. p. xxxiii II. 38
  uropygialis. Vol. I. p. xxxiii II. 41
Parkinsonius mirabilis III. 14
Paroquet, Pacific V. 52
  Red-shouldered V. 47
  Small V. 54
Parra Gallinacea. Vol. I. p. xc VI. 75
  Gallinaceous VI. 75
Partridge, Australian V. 89
  New Holland V. 82
  Sombre V. 91
  Van Diemen’s Land V. 90
Parrakeet, Adelaide V. 22
  Barnard’s V. 21
  Barraband’s V. 15
  Bauer’s V. 20
  Beautiful V. 34
  Black-spotted, of Van Diemen’s Land V. 46
  Black-tailed V. 16
  Blue-banded V. 37
  Blue-Banded Grass- V. 37
  Blue-bellied V. 48
  Bourke’s Grass- V. 43
  Brown’s V. 31
  Cockatoo V. 45
  Chestnut-shouldered Grass- V. 41
  Crested V. 45
  Crimson-bellied V. 33
  Crimson-fronted V. 52
  Elegant Grass- V. 38
  Fiery V. 30
  Ground V. 38, 46
  Little V. 54
  Long-billed? V. 6
  Many-coloured V. 35
  Musk V. 52
  Musky V. 52
  Orange-bellied V. 41
  Orange-bellied Grass- V. 39
  Pacific V. 52
  Pale-headed V. 26
  Red-backed V. 36
  Pennant’s V. 23
  Red-capped V. 32
  Red-shouldered V. 47
  Rock V. 40
  Rock Grass- V. 40
  Rose-hill V. 27
  Small V. 54
  Splendid V. 28
  Splendid Grass- V. 42
  Swamp V. 46
  Swift V. 47
  The Earl of Derby’s V. 29
  Turcosine V. 41
  Twenty-eight V. 19
  Undulated V. 44
  Warbling Grass- V. 44
  Wilson’s? V. 6
  Yellow-bellied V. 24
  Yellow-collared V. 19
  Yellow-rumped V. 25
Parrot, Barnard’s V. 21
  Bauer’s V. 20
  Blue V. 32
  Blue-bellied V. 48
  Brown’s V. 31
  Caledonian? V. 24
  Canary V. 44
  Crimson-winged V. 18
  Green V. 24
  Ground V. 46
  Mountain V. 16
  New Caledonian? V. 24
  Nonpareil V. 27
  Orange-bellied V. 41
  Pacific V. 52
  Pheasant V. 22
  Phillip Island V. 6
  Pennantian V. 23
  Red-crowned V. 14
  Scarlet and Green V. 17
  Scarlet-breasted V. 15
  Small V. 54
  Smutty V. 31
  Sulphur-headed? V. 24
  Tabuan V. 17
  Undulated V. 44
  Van Diemen’s V. 24
  Varied V. 35
Passer stultus VII. 34
Pedionomus microurus Vol. I. p. lxxix  
  torquatus. Vol. I. p. lxxix V. 80
Pelican, Australian VII. 74
Pelecanoïdes Urinatrix VII. 60
Pelecanopus Pelecanoïdes VII. 23
Pelecanus conspicillatus. Vol. I. p. ci VII. 74
  fiber VII. 78
  nævius VII. 71
Pelecanus plotus VII. 78
  punctatus VII. 71
  Sula VII. 78
  varius VII. 68
Pelidna subarquata VI. 32
Penguin, Apterous VI. 2
  Crested VII. 83
  Fairy VII. 85
  Little VII. 84
Perdix Australis V. 89
  Chinensis V. 92
  Manillensis V. 92
  varia V. 82
Peristera chalcoptera. Vol. I. p. lxx V. 64
  elegans. Vol. I. p. lxx V. 65
  histrionica. Vol. I. p. lxx V. 66
Pernis (Hyptiopus) subcristatus Vol. I. p. xxvi  
Petrel, Allied VII. 59
  Another Blue VII. 52
  Black-bellied Storm VII. 62
  Blue VII. 52
  Broad-billed VII. 55
  Cape VII. 53
  Cook’s VII. 51
  Diving VII. 60
  Fleshy-footed VII. 57
  Frigate VII. 61
  Giant VII. 45
  Great Grey VII. 47
  Grey-backed Storm VII. 64
  Pintado VII. 53
  Short-tailed VII. 56
  Silvery-grey VII. 48
  Soft-plumaged VII. 50
  Spectacled VII. 46
  Wedge-tailed VII. 58
  White-and-Black spotted VII. 53
  White-bellied Storm VII. 63
  White-faced Storm VII. 61
  White-headed VII. 49
  Wilson’s Storm VII. 65
Petroïca bicolor. Vol. I. p. xlii III. 7
  erythrogastra. Vol. I. p. xlii III. 4
  fusca. Vol. I. p. xlii III. 8
  Goodenovii. Vol. I. p. xlii III. 5
  modesta III. 4
  multicolor. Vol. I. p. xlii III. 3
  phœnicea. Vol. I. p. xlii III. 6
  pulchella III. 4
  rhodinogaster III. 1
  rosea III. 2
  superciliosa. Vol. I. p. xlii III. 9
Petrophassa albipennis. Vol. I. p. lxxi V. 71
Pewit, Black-breasted VI. 11
  Masked VI. 10
  Wattled VI. 9
Pezoporus formosus. Vol. I. p. lxvii V. 46
  rufifrons V. 46
Phaëton erubescens VII. 73
  phœnicurus. Vol. I. p. ci VII. 73
Phalacrocorax Carboïdes. Vol. I. p. c VII. 66
  hypoleucus. Vol. I. p. c VII. 68
  leucogaster. Vol. I. p. c VII. 69
  melanoleucus. Vol. I. p. c VII. 70
  pica VII. 68
  punctatus. Vol. I. p. c VII. 71
  sulcirostris. Vol. I. p. c VII. 67
Phaps chalcoptera. Vol. I. p. lxx V. 64
  elegans Vol. I. p. lx  
  histrionica Vol. I. p. lx  
Pheasant III. 14
  Native V. 78
Philedon cœruleus IV. 81
  rubrifrons IV. 28
Philemon garrulus IV. 76
  Phrygius IV. 48
Piezorhynchus nitidus. Vol. I. p. xxxix II. 88
Pigeon, Blue II. 55
  Bronze V. 64
  Bronze-winged V. 64
  Brush Bronze-winged V. 65
  Cape VII. 53
  Crested V. 70
  Ewing’s Fruit- V. 56
  Little Bronze V. 65
  Little Green V. 62
  Magnificent Fruit- V. 58
  Mangrove V. 72
  Norfolk V. 59
  of the Marshes, The Crested V. 70
  Opaline V. 68
  Partridge V. 68
  Pheasant-tailed V. 75
  Pied V. 63
  Superb Fruit- V. 57
  Swainson’s Fruit- V. 55
  Top-knot V. 61
  Torres’ Strait Fruit- V. 60
  White-faced V. 63
  White-fleshed V. 63
  White-headed Fruit- V. 59
Pinguinaria cristata VII. 83
Pipit, Australian III. 73
Pipra Desmaretii II. 34
  punctata II. 35
  striata II. 38
  striata? II. 39
Pitta brachyura IV. 2
  Iris. Vol. I. p. li IV. 3
  Noisy IV. 1
  Rainbow IV. 3
  strepitans. Vol. I. p. 1 IV. 1
  versicolor IV. 1
  Vigorsii. Vol. I. p. li IV. 2
  Vigors’ IV. 2
Platalea flavipes. Vol. I. p. lxxxvii VI. 49
  regia. Vol. I. p. lxxxvii VI. 50
Platycercus Adelaidiæ. Vol. I. p. lxv V. 22
  Barnardi. Vol. I. p. lxv V. 21
  Baueri. Vol. I. p. lxv V. 20
  Brownii. Vol. I. p. lxvi V. 31
  erythropterus V. 18
  eximius. Vol. I. p. lxvi V. 27
  flaveolus. Vol. I. p. lxvi V. 25
  flaviventris. Vol. I. p. lxv V. 24
  hæmatogaster V. 33
  hæmatonotus V. 36
  icterodes V. 29
  icterotis. Vol. I. p. lxvi V. 29
  ignitus. Vol. I. p. lxvi V. 30
  multicolor V. 35
  palliceps. Vol. I. p. lxvi V. 26
  Pennantii. Vol. I. p. lxv V. 23
  pileatus. Vol. I. p. lxvi V. 32
  pulcherrimus V. 34
  semitorquatus. Vol. I. p. lxv V. 19
  splendidus. Vol. I. p. lxvi V. 28
  scapularis V. 17
  scapulatus V. 17
  Stanleyii V. 29
  zonarius V. 20
Plautus albatrus VII. 38
Plectorhyncha lanceolata. Vol. I. p. lvi IV. 47
Plotus Novæ-Hollandiæ. Vol. I. p. ci VII. 75
Plover, Australian Golden VI. 13
  Bridled VI. 5
  Brown VI. 55, 14
  Chestnut-breasted VI. 16
  Great-billed VI. 6
  Grey VI. 12
  Grisled VI. 5
  High-legged VI. 5
  Long-billed VI. 6
  Red-necked VI. 17
  Southern Stone VI. 5
  Wattled VI. 10
Plyctolophus Eos V. 4
  funeralis V. 11
  galeatus V. 14
  galeritus V. 1
  Leadbeateri V. 2
  productus V. 6
  tenuirostris V. 5
Podargus Australis? II. 3
  brachypterus Vol. I. p. xxvii  
  cinereus? II. 3
  Cuvieri II. 4
  Cuvier’s II. 4
  ? gracilis? II. 3
  humeralis. Vol. I. p. xxviii II. 3
  megacephalus Vol. I. p. xxvii  
  Moth-plumaged II. 5
  Phalænoïdes. Vol. I. p. xxviii II. 5
  Plumed II. 6
  plumiferus. Vol. I. p. xxviii II. 6
  Stanleyanus Vol. I. p. xxviii  
  Tawny-shouldered II. 3
Podiceps Australis. Vol. I. p. cii VII. 80
  Dominicus, var. Vol. I. p. cii  
  gularis. Vol. I. p. cii VII. 81
  Nestor VII. 82
  poliocephalus. Vol. I. p. cii VII. 82
Poëphila acuticauda. Vol. I. p. l III. 90
  cincta. Vol. I. p. l III. 93
  Gouldiæ. Vol. I. p. l  
  leucotis. Vol. I. p. l III. 92
  mirabilis. Vol. I. p. xlix III. 89
  personata. Vol. I. p. l III. 91
Polophilus leucogaster IV. 92
  Phasianus IV. 92
  variegatus IV. 92
Polytelis Barrabandi. Vol. I. p. lxv V. 15
  melanura. Vol. I. p. lxv V. 16
Pomatorhinus, Red-breasted IV. 21
  rubeculus. Vol. I. p. lv IV. 21
  superciliosus. Vol. I. p. lv IV. 22
  Temporal IV. 20
  temporalis. Vol. I. p. lv IV. 20
  trivirgatus IV. 20
  White-eyebrowed IV. 22
Porphyrio, Azure-breasted VI. 70
  bellus. Vol. I. p. lxxxix VI. 70
  Black-backed VI. 69
  melanotus. Vol. I. p. lxxxix VI. 69
Porzana fluminea. Vol. I. p. xc VI. 79
  ? immaculata. Vol. I. p. xc VI. 82
  leucophrys. Vol. I. p. xc VI. 81
  palustris. Vol. I. p. xc VI. 80
Praticola campestris III. 71
  fuliginosa III. 70
Pratincole, Australasian VI. 22
  Oriental VI. 23
Prion, Ariel Vol. I. p. xcix  
  Banksii Vol. I. p. xcix  
  Broad-billed VII. 55
  Dove-like VII. 54
  Turtur. Vol. I. p. xcix VII. 54
  vittatus. Vol. I. p. xcix VII. 55
Procellaria Æquinoctialis Vol. I. p. xcvi  
  Antarctica Vol. I. p. xcvii  
  cœrulea. Vol. I. p. xcviii VII. 52
  conspicillata, Vol. I. p. xcvii VII. 46
  Cookii. Vol. I. p. xcviii VII. 51
  flavirostris Vol. I. p. xcvii  
  Forsteri VII. 52, 55
  gigantea. Vol. I. p. xcvii VII. 45
  Glacialoïdes. Vol. I. p. xcviii VII. 48
  hasitata. Vol. I. p. xcvii VII. 47
  Lessonii. Vol. I. p. xcviii VII. 49
  leucocephala VII. 49
  leucoptera VII. 51
  macroptera Vol. I. p. xcvii  
  marina VII. 61
  mollis. Vol. I. p. xcviii VII. 50
  nævia VII. 53
  nivea Vol. I. p. xcvii  
  pelagica VII. 65
  similis VII. 52
  Solandri Vol. I. p. xcvii  
  tridactyla VII. 60
  Turtur VII. 54
  Urinatrix VII. 60
  vagabunda VII. 49
  velox VII. 51
  vittata VII. 55
  Wilsonii VII. 65
Psephotus hæmatogaster. Vol. I. p. lxvi V. 33
  hæmatonotus. Vol. I. p. lxvi V. 36
  multicolor. Vol. I. p. lxvi V. 35
  pulcherrimus. Vol. I. p. lxvi V. 34
Psilopus albogularis II. 97
  brevirostris II. 103
  culicivorus II. 99
  fuscus II. 98
  olivaceus Vol. I. p. xl  
Psittacula Florentis V. 53
Psittacus Australis V. 47, 52
  Banksianus V. 47
  Banksii V. 7, 10
  Barrabandii V. 15
  Baueri V. 20
  Brownii V. 24, 31
  Caledonicus? V. 24
  capitatus V. 27
  chlorolepidotus V. 50
  chrysogaster V. 41
  chrysostomus V. 37
  concinnus V. 52
  Cookii V. 10
  cyanomelas V. 20
  cyanopygius V. 17
  discolor V. 47
  Edwardsii V. 41
  elegans V. 23
  Eos V. 4
  erythropterus V. 18
  eximius V. 27
  flaviventris V. 24
  formosus V. 46
  funereus V. 11
  galeatus V. 14
  galeritus V. 1
  gloriosus V. 23
  humeralis V. 47
  icterotis V. 29
  Leachii V. 10
  magnificus V. 7
  melanotus V. 18
  multicolor V. 35
  nasicus V. 5
  Novæ-Hollandiæ V. 45
  Pacificus V. 52
  Pennantii V. 23
  phœnicocephalus V. 14
  pulchellus V. 41
  purpurea V. 53
  purpureocephalus V. 32
  purpureus V. 53
  pusillus V. 54
  rubrifrons V. 52
  sagittifer Barrabandi V. 15
  scapulatus V. 17
  semitorquatus V. 19
  Solandri V. 10
  splendidus V. 23
  Tabuensis V. 17
  Temminckii V. 10
  tenuirostris V. 5
  terrestris V. 46
  undulatus V. 44
  velatus V. 52
  venustus V. 31, 37
  viridis V. 20
  zonarius V. 20
Psophodes, Black-throated III. 16
  crepitans. Vol. I. p. xliii III. 15
  nigrogularis. Vol. I. p. xliii III. 16
Pteropodocys Phasianella. Vol. I. p. xxxvi II. 59
Ptilinopus Ewingii. Vol. I. p. lxix V. 56
  purpuratus, var. Regina V. 55
  superbus. Vol. I. p. lxix V. 57
  Swainsonii. Vol. I. p. lxix V. 55
Ptilonorhynchus holosericeus. Vol. I. p. lii IV. 10
  MacLeayii IV. 10
  nuchalis IV. 9
  Smithii. Vol. I. p. lii IV. 11
  squamulosus IV. 10
  viridis IV. 11
Ptiloris paradisea IV. 100
  paradiseus. Vol. I. p. lxii IV. 100
Ptilotis auricomis. Vol. I. p. lvi IV. 37
  chrysops. Vol. I. p. lvi IV. 45
  chrysotis. Vol. I. p. lvi IV. 32
  cratitius. Vol. I. p. lvi IV. 38
  flava. Vol. I. p. lvi IV. 42
  flavescens. Vol. I. p. lvi IV. 41
  flavigula. Vol. I. p. lvi IV. 35
  fusca IV. 44
  fuscus. Vol. I. p. lvi IV. 44
  Graceful IV. 39
  leucotis. Vol. I. p. lvi IV. 36
  Lewinii? Vol. I. p. lvi  
  ornatus. Vol. I. p. lvi IV. 39
  penicillatus. Vol. I. p. lvi IV. 43
  Plumed IV. 40
  plumulus. Vol. I. p. lvi IV. 40
  sonorus. Vol. I. p. lvi IV. 33
  unicolor. Vol. I. p. lvi IV. 46
  versicolor. Vol. I. p. lvi IV. 34
Puffinuria Garnotii VII. 60
  Urinatrix. Vol. I. p. c VII. 60
Puffinus assimilis. Vol. I. p. xcix VII. 59
  Australis VII. 59
  brevicaudus. Vol. I. p. xcix VII. 56
  carneipes. Vol. I. p. xcix VII. 57
  sphenurus. Vol. I. p. xcix VII. 58
Pyrrhocorax leucopterus IV. 16
  violaceus IV. 10
Pyrrholæmus brunneus. Vol. I. p. xlvii III. 68
 
Quail, Brown V. 89
  Chinese V. 92
  Greater Brown V. 90
  Little V. 87
  Manilla V. 92
  New Holland V. 89
  Painted V. 82
  Pectoral V. 88
  Stubble V. 88
  Thick-billed V. 85
  Varied V. 82
Quaker VI. 63
 
Rail VI. 78
  Land VI. 76
  Lewin’s Water VI. 77
  Pectoral VI. 76
Rallus brachipus VI. 77
  Lewinii. Vol. I. p. xc VI. 77
  pectoralis. Vol. I. p. xc VI. 76
Raven, South Sea IV. 18
Recurvirostra Novæ-Hollandiæ VI. 27
  rubricollis. Vol. I. p. lxxxiv VI. 27
Red-bill III. 82
Red-knee, Banded VI. 21
Red-throat, Brown III. 68
Reed-Lark, Field III. 71
  Striated III. 70
Rhipidura albiscapa. Vol. I. p. xxxix II. 83
  Dryas Vol. I. p. xxxix  
  flabellifera II. 83
  isura. Vol. I. p. xxxix II. 85
  Motacilloïdes. Vol. I. p. xxxix II. 86
  picata Vol. I. p. xxxix  
  rufifrons. Vol. I. p. xxxix II. 84
Rhynchæa, Australian VI. 41
  Australis. Vol. I. p. lxxxvi VI. 41
Rhynchaspis fasciata VII. 13
  maculatus VII. 12
  membranacea VII. 13
  Rhynchotis VII. 12
Robin III. 3
  Black III. 7
  Dusky III. 8
  Flame-breasted III. 6
  Grey-breasted III. 12
  Norfolk Island III. 4
  Pied III. 7
  Pink-breasted III. 1
  Pink-breasted Wood- III. 1
  Red-capped III. 5
  Rose-breasted Wood- III. 2
  Scarlet-breasted III. 3, 4
  Scrub III. 10
  White-bellied III. 13
  White-eyebrowed III. 9
  Yellow III. 11
  Yellow-breasted III. 11
Roller, Australian II. 17
  Pacific II. 17
  Piping II. 46
  Streaked IV. 13
  Striated IV. 13
  Varied IV. 11
Rose-hill V. 29
  Moreton Bay V. 26
 
Sandpiper, Curlew VI. 32
  Fairy VI. 35
  Great VI. 33
  Green VI. 35
  Grey VI. 12
  Grey-rumped VI. 38
  Least VI. 31
  Little VI. 31
  Marsh VI. 37
  Swiss VI. 12
  Wattled VI. 9
Sarciophorus pectoralis. Vol. I. p. lxxxii VI. 11
Saxicola chrysorrhœa III. 63
  rhodinogaster III. 1
  solitaria. III. 69
  splendens III. 21
Schœniclus albescens. Vol. I. p. lxxxiv VI. 31
  Australis. Vol. I. p. lxxxiv VI. 30
  magnus. Vol. I. p. lxxxiv VI. 33
  subarquatus. Vol. I. p. lxxxiv VI. 32
Scolopax Australis. Vol. I. p. lxxxv VI. 40
  cinerea VI. 34
  Hardwickii VI. 40
  subarquata VI. 32
  Terek VI. 34
Scythrops Australasiæ IV. 90
  Australis IV. 90
  Novæ-Hollandiæ. Vol. I. p. lxi IV. 90
Seïsura inquieta. Vol. I. p. xxxix II. 87
  volitans II. 87
Sericornis, Allied III. 48
  Buff-breasted III. 50
  citreogularis. Vol. I. p. xlvi III. 46
  frontalis. Vol. I. p. xlvi III. 49
  humilis. Vol. I. p. xlvi III. 47
  lævigaster. Vol. I. p. xlvi III. 50
  Large-billed III. 52
  maculatus. Vol. I. p. xlvi III. 51
  magnirostris. Vol. I. p. xlvi III. 52
  osculans Vol. I. p. xlvi III. 48
  parvulus III. 49
  Sombre-coloured III. 47
  Spotted III. 51
  White-fronted III. 49
  Yellow-throated III. 46
Sericulus chrysocephalus. Vol. I. p. lii IV. 12
  magnirostris. Vol. I. p. lii  
  regens IV. 12
Shag, Black VII. 66
  Black and White VII. 68
  Crested VII. 71
  Little VII. 70
  Pied VII. 68
  Spotted VII. 71
Shieldrake, Chestnut-coloured VII. 7
  New Holland VII. 7
  Radjah VII. 8
Shoveller, Australian VII. 12
  New Holland VII. 12
Shrike, Frontal II. 79
  Robust II. 56
Shrike-Tit, Frontal II. 79
  White-bellied II. 80
Sitta? chrysoptera IV. 101
Sittella, Black-capped IV. 104
  chrysoptera. Vol. I. p. lxii IV. 101
  leucocephala. Vol. I. p. lxii IV. 102
  leucoptera. Vol. I. p. lxii IV. 103
  melanocephala IV. 104
  Orange-winged IV. 101
  pileata. Vol. I. p. lxii IV. 104
  White-headed IV. 102
  White-winged IV. 103
Smicrornis brevirostris. Vol. I. p. xli II. 103
  flavescens. Vol. I. p. xli II. 104
  Short-billed II. 103
  Yellow-tinted II. 104
Snipe, Land VI. 31
  New Holland VI. 40
  Terek VI. 34
Soldier, Poor IV. 58
Sparrow, Native III. 79
  Satin II. 91
Sparvius cirrhocephalus Vol. I. p. xxiv  
  lunulatus Vol. I. p. xxiii  
  melanops Vol. I. p. xxiv  
  niveus Vol. I. p. xxiv  
  tricolor Vol. I. p. xxiv  
Spatula Rhynchotis. Vol. I. p. xcii VII. 12
Sphecotheres Australis. Vol. I. p. liii IV. 15
  Australian IV. 15
  canicollis IV. 15
  virescens IV. 15
  viridis IV. 15
Spheniscus VII. 83
  minor. Vol. I. p. cii VII. 84
  Undina. Vol. I. p. cii VII. 85
Sphenœacus galactotes. Vol. I. p. xliv III. 35
  gramineus. Vol. I. p. xliv III. 36
  Grass-loving III. 36
  Tawny III. 35
Sphenostoma cristatum. Vol. I. p. xliii III. 17
  Spine-bill IV. 61
  Slender-billed IV. 61
  White-eyebrowed IV. 62
Spoonbill, Royal VI. 50
  Yellow-legged VI. 49
Squatarola Helvetica. Vol. I. p. lxxxii VI. 12
Squeaker II. 45
Sterna alba VII. 30
  candida VII. 30
  gracilis. Vol. I. p. xciv VII. 27
  guttata VII. 32
  melanauchen. Vol. I. p. xciv VII. 28
  melanorhyncha. Vol. I. p. xciv VII. 26
  Oahuensis. VII. 32
  Panaya VII. 33
  Pelecanoïdes VII. 23
  poliocerca VII. 24
  serrata VII. 32
  stolida VII. 34
  (Sylochelidon) strenuus VII. 22
  velox VII. 26
Sternula Nereis. Vol. I. p. xciv VII. 29
Stilt, Banded VI. 26
  New Zealand VI. 25
  White-headed VI. 24
Stipiturus malachurus. Vol. I. p. xliv III. 31
Strepera II. 42
  arguta. Vol. I. p. xxxiv II. 44
  Anaphonensis. Vol. I. p. xxxiv II. 45
  fuliginosa. Vol. I. p. xxxiv II. 43
  graculina. Vol. I. p. xxxiv II. 42
  melanoptera. Vol. I. p. xxxiv  
  plumbea II. 45
Strepsilas collaris VI. 39
  Interpres. Vol. I. p. lxxxv VI. 39
Strix Boobook I. 32
  castanops. Vol. I. p. xxvi 28
  Cyclops I. 29
  delicatulus. Vol. I. p. xxvi 31
  flammea?. Vol. I. p. xxvi  
  personata. Vol. I. p. xxvi 29
  tenebricosus. Vol. I. p. xxvi 30
Struthidea, Grey IV. 17
  cinerea. Vol. I. p. liii IV. 17
Sula Australis. Vol. I. p. ci VII. 76
  Brasiliensis VII. 78
  candida VII. 79
  erythrorhyncha VII. 79
  fiber VII. 78
  fusca. Vol. I. p. ci VII. 78
  personata. Vol. I. p. ci VII. 77
  piscator. Vol. I. p. ci VII. 79
  rubripes VII. 79
Swallow, Australian Spine-tailed II. 10
  Black-and-white II. 12
  Dun-rumped II. 14
  Grey-breasted Wood- II. 29
  Little Wood- II. 28
  Masked Wood- II. 31
  Needle-tailed? II. 10
  New Holland II. 13
  New Holland? II. 10
  Pin-tailed II. 10
  Welcome II. 13
  White-breasted II. 12
  White eyebrowed Wood- II. 32
  White-rumped Wood- II. 33
  White-vented Wood- II. 30
  Wood- II. 27, 29
Swamp-Hen VI. 70
  Little VI. 82
Swan, Black. Vol. I. p. xci VII. 6
  Black, of Van Diemen VII. 6
  Shawian or Black VII. 6
Swift, Australian II. 11
Sylvia annulosa IV. 81
  chrysops IV. 45
  cyanea III. 18
  flavigastra. Vol. I. p. xlii  
  hirundinacea II. 34
  lateralis IV. 81
  leucophæa. Vol. I. p. xl  
  pusilla III. 53
  rubricata III. 69
  rufiventris. Vol. I. p. xxxvii  
  versicolor. Vol. I. p. lxi  
Sylochelidon poliocerca VII. 24
  strenuus. Vol. I. p. xciv VII. 22
Synoïcus Australis. Vol. I. p. lxxx V. 89
  ? Chinensis. Vol. I. p. lxxx V. 92
  Diemenensis. Vol. I. p. lxxx V. 90
  sordidus. Vol. I. p. lxxx V. 91
 
Tadorna Radjah. Vol. I. p. xci VII. 8
Talegalla Lathami. Vol.I. p. lxxiii V. 77
  Wattled V. 77
Tantalus Falcinellus VI. 47
  igneus VI. 47
Tanypus Australis II. 54
Teal VII. 11
  Coromandel VII. 5
  Girra VII. 5
Terekia cinerea. Vol. I. p. lxxxv VI. 34
  Javanica VI. 34
Tern, Bass’s Straits VII. 24
  Black-billed VII. 26
  Black-naped VII. 28
  Caspian VII. 23
  Crested VII. 23
  Graceful VII. 27
  Marsh VII. 31
  Noddy VII. 34
  Panayan VII. 33
  Powerful VII. 22
  Little VII. 29
  Little Australian VII. 29
Sooty VII. 32
  Torres VII. 25
  Torres’ Straits VII. 23
  White VII. 30
  White-capped VII. 36
  Yellow-billed VII. 23
Tetrao Chinensis V. 92
  Manillensis V. 92
Thalasseus Pelecanoïdes. Vol. I. p. xciv VII. 23
  poliocercus. Vol. I. p. xciv VII. 24
  Torresii. Vol. I. p. xciv VII. 25
Thalassidroma Tropica. Vol. I. p. c  
  leucogaster. Vol. I. p. c VII. 63
  marina. Vol. I. p. c VII. 61
  melanogaster. Vol. I. p. c VII. 62
  Nereis. Vol. I. p. c VII. 64
  Oceanica VII. 65
  Wilsonii. Vol. I. p. c VII. 65
Thick-head, Banded II. 67
Threskiornis strictipennis. Vol. I. p. lxxxvi VI. 46
Thrush II. 75
  Australian II. 74
  Black-browed IV. 80
  Black-crowned II. 64
  Blue-cheeked IV. 68
  Chestnut-backed Ground- IV. 5
  Crested II. 81
  Dilute II. 74
  Grey-headed II. 74
  Guttural II. 64
  Harmonic II. 74
  Lunulated IV. 7
  Mountain IV. 7
  Orange-breasted II. 67
  Port Jackson II. 74
  Punctated IV. 4
  Restless II. 87
  Sordid II. 27
  Spotted Ground- IV. 4
  Volatile II. 87
  White-eared IV. 36
  Yellow-breasted III. 11
Thunder Bird II. 64
Tinnunculus Cenchroïdes. Vol. I. p. xxiii 13
Tody, Red-breasted II. 91
Todus Rubecula II. 91
Totanus Glottoïdes VI. 36
  griseopygius. Vol. I. p. lxxxv VI. 38
  Javanicus VI. 34
  stagnatilis. Vol. I. p. lxxxv VI. 37
Tribonyx, Black-tailed VI. 72
  Mortieri. Vol. I. p. lxxxix VI. 71
  Mortier’s VI. 71
  ventralis. Vol. I. p. lxxxix VI. 72
Trichoglossus Australis V. 52
  chlorolepidotus. Vol. I. p. lxviii V. 50
  concinnus. Vol. I. p. lxviii V. 52
  hæmatodus V. 48
  Matoni V. 50
  multicolor V. 48
  porphyrocephalus. Vol. I. p. lxviii V. 53
  pusillus. Vol. I. p. lxviii V. 54
  rubritorquis. Vol. I. p. lxviii V. 49
  Swainsonii. Vol. I. p. lxviii V. 84
  versicolor. Vol. I. p. lxviii V. 51
Tringa albescens VI. 31
  Australis VI. 30
  Australian VI. 30
  Helvetica VI. 12
  Interpres VI. 39
  lobata VI. 9
  Squatarola VI. 12
  subarquata VI. 32
Tropidorhynchus argenticeps. Vol. I. p. lviii IV. 59
  citreogularis. Vol. I. p. lviii IV. 60
  corniculatus. Vol. I. p. lviii IV. 58
  cyanotis IV. 68
  monachus IV. 58
Turdus badius II. 74
  cyaneus IV. 68
  dilutus II. 74
  dubius. Vol. I. p. xxxix  
  frivolus. Vol. I. p. lv  
  gutturalis II. 64
  harmonicus II. 74
  inquietus II. 87
  leucotis IV. 36
  lunularis II. 64
  lunulatus IV. 7
  maxillaris. Vol. I. p. liii  
  melanophrys IV. 80
  muscicola. Vol. I. p. xxxix  
  prasinus. Vol. I. p. xxxvii  
  punctatus IV. 4
  sordidus II. 27
  varius IV. 7
  volitans II. 87
Turkey VI. 4
  Brush V. 77
  Native VI. 4
Turnix castanotus. Vol. I. p. lxxix  
  melanogaster. Vol. I. p. lxxix  
  melanotus. Vol. I. p. lxxix V. 84
  pyrrhothorax. Vol. I. p. lxxx  
  scintillans. Vol. I. p. lxxix  
  varius. Vol. I. p. lxxix V. 82
  velox. Vol. I. p. lxxx  
Turnstone VI. 39
Turtur? Lophotes V. 70
 
Vanga cinerea. Vol. I. p. xxxv  
  destructor II. 52
  nigrogularis II. 49
Vanellus gallinaceus VI. 9
  griseus VI. 12
  Helveticus VI. 12
  lobatus VI. 9
Vanellus melanogaster VI. 12
  Novæ-Hollandiæ VI. 9
Vultur Audax. Vol. I. p. xxi  
Vulture, New Holland V. 77
 
Warbler, Dwarf III. 60, 62; V. 53
  Exile III. 42
  Lineated III. 43
  Long-billed Sedge- III. 38
  Red-breasted III. 3
  Reed III. 37
  Rock- III. 69
  Ruddy III. 69
  Rufous-headed III. 45
  Rufous-vented. Vol. I. p. xxxvi  
  Rusty-side IV. 81
  Scarlet-backed III. 26
  Soft-tailed III. 31
  Square-tailed III. 44
  Superb III. 18, 24
  Swallow II. 34
  Variegated III. 24
Wedge-bill, Crested III. 17
Whimbrel, Australian VI. 43
  Little VI. 44
Whistling Dick II. 77
White-eye IV. 81
Wonga-wonga V. 63
Wren III. 57
  Banded III. 21
  Beautiful III. 23
  Black-backed III. 20
  Black-headed III. 26
  Blue III. 18
  Brown’s III. 27
  Cautious III. 40
  Emu III. 31
  Graceful III. 22
  Lambert’s III. 24
  Large-tailed III. 30
  Long-tailed III. 19
  Red-rumped III. 39
  Striated III. 29
  Textile III. 28
  White-winged III. 25
 
Xanthomyza Phrygia. Vol. I. p. lvii IV. 48
Xema Jamesonii. Vol. I. p. xciii VII. 20
Xenus cinereus VI. 34
Xerophila leucopsis. Vol. I. p. xlvii III. 67
  white-faced III. 67
 
Zosterops chloronotus. Vol. I. p. lx IV. 82
  dorsalis. Vol. I. p. lx IV. 81
  Green-backed IV. 82
  Grey-backed IV. 81
  luteus. Vol. I. p. lx IV. 83
  Yellow IV. 83
 
The References to the Pages in the above Index will be found correct if the Subscribers will cause them to be numbered in the order in which the respective volumes are arranged, which could not be done in the course of publication.
v

PREFACE.

Having in the summer of 1837 brought my work on the “Birds of Europe” to a successful termination, I was naturally desirous of turning my attention to the Ornithology of some other region; and a variety of concurring circumstances induced me to select that of Australia, the Birds of which, though invested with the highest degree of interest, had been almost entirely neglected. Dr. Shaw, in his “Zoology of New Holland,” had devoted a few plates to the subject, from specimens collected by Sir Joseph Banks during the first voyage of Captain Cook; the “Birds of New Holland” by Lewin comprised not more than twenty-six plates; and figures and descriptions of a few species were given in the earlier voyages of Phillip, White and Collins, and the more recent one of King. At a subsequent period the late Mr. Vigors and Dr. Horsfield commenced an elaborate memoir on the Collection of Australian Birds in the possession of the Linnean Society; but unfortunately, they did not proceed farther than the Meliphagidæ, and the non-completion of their labours is the more to be regretted, inasmuch as the Linnean Society’s collection of Australian birds, at that time the finest extant, comprised many species collected by Mr. Brown during his voyage with the celebrated navigator Flinders, and was moreover enriched with some interesting notes by the late Mr. George Caley, by whom the collection was chiefly formed. Descriptions of many Australian birds were also included in the works of Latham, Shaw, Cuvier and Vieillot, as well as in several of the recent French voyages of discovery; still no general work on the subject had been undertaken, and nearly all that had been recorded by the various writers above enumerated, had reference almost exclusively to the productions of New South Wales and Van Diemen’s Land, these being almost the only explored portions of that great country. In the absence, then, of any general work on the Birds of Australia, the field was comparatively a new one, and of no ordinary degree of interest, from the circumstance of its being one of the vifinest possessions of the British Crown, and from its natural productions being as remarkable for the anomalous nature of their forms, as for their beauty, and the singularity of their habits. In the attempt to supply this desideratum I commenced publishing from the materials then accessible, but soon found, from the paucity of information extant upon the subject, that it could not be executed in a manner that would be satisfactory to my own mind or commensurate with the exigencies of science; I therefore determined to proceed to Australia and personally investigate (so far as a stay of two years would allow) the habits and manners of its birds in a state of nature. Accordingly in May 1838 I left England, provided, by the liberality of Government, with letters from Lord Glenelg, at that time Secretary of State for the Colonies, Sir George Grey, Bart., and Gordon Gairdner, Esq., of the Colonial Office, recommending me to the countenance and protection of the various Governors, and requesting them to afford me such aid and assistance in furtherance of my objects as they might have it in their power to render; similar favours were also granted me by the authorities of the Admiralty, who, through their Secretary, Sir John Barrow, directed the captains and commanders of Her Majesty’s ships and vessels employed on the coasts of Australia to further my views, by giving myself and my assistant a passage to such part of the coasts as either of us might be desirous of visiting, only stipulating that the ships under their command should not be detained on any parts of the coasts they were not ordered to visit. His late Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex, in his capacity of President of the Royal Society, was pleased to favour me with a letter addressed to the authorities, civil and military, of Her Majesty’s Colonies, recommending me to their kind offices and protection, as he felt assured that my exertions would materially promote the interests of Natural History. I was also under considerable obligations to the kindness of Captain Washington, R.N., at that time Secretary of the Royal Geographical Society, who furnished me with introductions to Captains Sir John Franklin and Sir Gordon Bremer, R.N., and other influential persons. Having thus acknowledged the facilities afforded me by the home authorities, it becomes my pleasing duty to state that their recommendations and wishes were responded to in the warmest manner by Captain Sir John Franklin, R.N., Governor of Van Diemen’s Land; Sir George Gipps, Governor-General of New South Wales; Lieut.-Colonel Gawler, Governor of South Australia; John Hutt, Esq., Governor of Western Australia; and Captain M’Arthur, Commandant of Port Essington; all of whom rendered me every assistance compatible with the instructions under which they were acting. I should be wanting, however, both in courtesy and gratitude, did I not especially acknowledge the warm friendship, and the many acts of genuine kindness which I received at the hands of my valued viifriends Sir John and Lady Franklin, who, besides facilitating my views in every way, both publicly and privately, with the most generous hospitality received myself and family into their house, where Mrs. Gould and my eldest son, who had accompanied us, remained for nearly ten months, while I pursued my researches in various parts of Van Diemen’s Land and the continent of Australia; and it is only by those who, like myself, have had the advantage of residing in the bosom of this amiable family, that the kindness of their nature and the goodness of their hearts can be duly appreciated, and which can never be erased from my memory. I must acknowledge not less gratefully the many acts of kindness rendered to me by Sir George and Lady Gipps during my stay in Sydney. After exploring Van Diemen’s Land, the islands in Bass’s Straits, South Australia, and New South Wales, into the interior of which country I penetrated to the distance of nearly four hundred miles from the coast-line, I despatched my able assistant, Mr. Gilbert, to explore the western and northern portions of the country, and returned to England in August 1840; I immediately commenced the work de novo, and the result of my labours is now before the public. It fortunately happened at the commencement and during the progress of the work, Her Majesty’s ships the Beagle, under the command of Captains Wickham and Stokes; the Britomart, under Captain Stanley; the Fly, under Captain Blackwood, and the Pelorus under Captain Chambers were employed in surveying the northern and north-western coasts of Australia; and the Erebus and Terror under Captain Sir James C. Ross, in a voyage of discovery towards the south pole. While engaged in the performance of their arduous duties, the officers of those vessels succeeded in procuring many interesting novelties, which, with the greatest liberality, were communicated to me for the present work, whereby its value has been much enhanced. This liberality will be found duly acknowledged in the histories of the species, for the use of which I am indebted to the kindness of B. Bynoe, Esq., Surgeon R.N., Lieut. Emery, R.N., Commander J. M. R. Ince, R.N., Edward Dring, Esq., Purser R.N., Dr. Robertson and Robert M’Cormick, Esq., Surgeons R.N., and John M’Gillivray, Esq.

After spending two years in Western and Northern Australia, Mr. Gilbert returned to England in September 1841, bringing with him the result of his labours, which proved of sufficient value and importance to induce me to believe that much yet remained to be discovered in those countries, and to direct him to return thither, which he accordingly did in the ensuing spring; and after again visiting Swan River, and sedulously exploring the interior so far as practicable, he proceeded to Sydney, and, unfortunately for himself, allowed his love viiiof science, in the advancement of which no one was more ardent, to induce him to join Dr. Leichardt in his overland journey from Moreton Bay to Port Essington. On this expedition, he, as usual, displayed his wonted zeal and activity until the 28th of June, when, the party being treacherously attacked by the natives, his valuable life was sacrificed, I lost a most able coadjutor, and science has to deplore one of her most devoted servants; fortunately, however, in despite of the many difficulties and dangers which beset the party during the remainder of their journey, his journals and notes, together with the specimens he had been able to procure, were preserved and transmitted to me by Dr. Leichardt, and proved of valuable assistance in determining the range of many of the species.

My own researches commenced immediately after passing the Equator, from whence, throughout the entire route to Australia, I omitted no opportunity of studying the habits, and collecting the different species of the oceanic birds that came under my notice: these observations were again resumed on my return to England; and as the outward passage was by the Cape of Good Hope, and the homeward one by Cape Horn, they extended round the globe, and, as will be seen in the course of the work, have led to some important results. And here I must acknowledge my obligations to the various captains with whom I sailed, namely Captain McKellar of the “Parsee,” which vessel conveyed me to Van Diemen’s Land; Captain Harding of the “Black Joke,” in which I proceeded from Launceston to Adelaide; Captain Fell of the “Catherine Stewart Forbes,” in which I returned from Adelaide to Hobart Town; Captain Gilchrist of the “Potentate,” in which I sailed from Hobart Town to Sydney; and Lieutenant Mallard, R.N., of the “Kinnear,” which brought me to England; all of whom rendered me every assistance in their power, and the use of a boat and crew whenever the weather would admit of one being lowered, by which means I was enabled to obtain nearly forty species of Petrel, being the finest collection of the Procellaridæ ever brought together.

At the commencement of the work it was not expected that it would prove so extensive as it has become, since not more than about 300 species were then known, which number has now been increased, by the united efforts of myself and those who have so kindly aided my views, to upwards of 600 species, among which are comprised many forms remarkable for their novelty, the anomalous character of their structure, and the singularity of their habits, such as the Bower Birds (Ptilonorhynchi and Chlamyderæ) and the Mound-raising Birds (Talegalla, Leipoa and ixMegapodius). The singular runs or bowers of the Chlamyderæ were considered by some explorers to be the cradles of the infants of the aborigines, and the mounds of the Megapodius to be tumuli, errors which have been rectified in the present work.

It is not to be supposed that an undertaking of such magnitude as the present could have been brought to a successful termination by the unaided efforts of a single individual, and I have, therefore, very great pleasure in stating that my views were most ably seconded by every one with whom the nature of my investigations brought me in contact; but by none more than by the Rev. Thomas James Ewing, who, besides manifesting the warmest friendship, has ever taken especial interest in promoting the success of the present work; nor must I omit to mention R. C. Gunn, Esq., Lieut. Breton, R.N., the Hon. Henry Elliot, Aide-de-camp to the Governor, Lieut. Friend, R.N., and Captain Booth, all of Van Diemen’s Land. In New South Wales my best thanks are due to George Bennett, Esq., who, like Mr. Ewing, favoured me with his warmest friendship, and evinced an equal anxiety for the success of my undertaking; the Messrs. James and William M’Arthur, of Camden; the Messrs. Stephen and Charles Coxen, of Yarrundi; Charles Throsby, Esq., of Bong-bong; Alexander and William S. MacLeay, Esqs.; Captain P. P. King, and many others. Much valuable information has been communicated to me by George Grey, Esq. (now Governor of New Zealand), whose exertions during his expedition along the north-western coasts of Australia were characterized by a degree of energy of character and perseverance but rarely equalled; whose ornithological collection made during this arduous enterprise, although small, was by no means destitute of interest; and who, upon succeeding Colonel Gawler in the Governorship of South Australia, found time amidst his multifarious occupations to devote considerable attention to Natural History, and to send me some interesting drawings and other details respecting the mounds raised by the Leipoa, &c. In South Australia I received many acts of kind attention and assistance from my friend Captain Sturt, whom I accompanied on one of his expeditions into the interior; and I have much pleasure in acknowledging my obligations to Mr. Eyre, now Lieut.-Governor of New Zealand, and the late J. B. Harvey, Esq.

Nor must I conclude my acknowledgements of the kindness of those who have rendered me their aid, without especially recording the liberality of the Right Hon. The Earl of Derby, who has at all times most readily submitted to my inspection every collection of which he has become the possessor, and allowed me the free use of any objects desirable for the enhancement xof the “Birds of Australia;” neither is the kindness of His Highness the Prince of Canino, Sir Wm. Jardine, Bart., Robert Brown, Professor Owen, H. E. Strickland, W. Yarrell, T. C. Eyton, J. J. Bennett, D. W. Mitchell, and E. Blyth, Esqs., forgotten by one whom they have ever been sedulous to oblige. My thanks are also due to the Trustees, to J. E. Gray, and G. R. Gray, Esqs., of the British Museum; and to the authorities of the Linnean and Zoological Societies of London, the Royal Museums of Berlin, Leyden and Paris, and the Museum at Sydney. I am also considerably indebted to my friend W. C. L. Martin, Esq., author of many valuable works and papers on natural history, for the readiness with which his varied literary attainments and critical acumen have at all times been rendered, whenever solicited, to enhance the accuracy of my labours.

At the conclusion of my “Birds of Europe,” I had the pleasing duty of stating that nearly the whole of the Plates had been lithographed by my amiable wife. Would that I had the happiness of recording a similar statement with regard to the present work; but such, alas! is not the case, it having pleased the All-wise Disposer of Events to remove her from this sublunary world within one short year after our return from Australia, during her sojourn in which country an immense mass of drawings, both ornithological and botanical, were made by her inimitable hand and pencil, and which has enabled Mr. H. C. Richter, to whom, after her lamented death, the execution of the Plates was entrusted, to perform his task in a manner highly satisfactory to myself, and I trust equally so to the Subscribers. The colouring, as in the case of the “Birds of Europe,” and my other works, has been entirely executed by Mr. Bayfield, to whose unwearied exertions and punctuality I must not fail to bear testimony, as well as to the minute accuracy with which his labours have been performed. The printing of the Plates, by Messrs. Hullmandel and Walton, and the letter-press, by Messrs. R. and J. E. Taylor, has also been equally satisfactory.

And I cannot refrain from speaking in the highest terms of my assistant, Mr. Edwin C. Prince, who has been with me from the commencement of my various works. I left him in charge of the whole of my affairs during my absence from England, with a perfect conviction that he would zealously exert himself for my interest, and the confidence I reposed in him has been fully realized, not only during my absence, but during the long period of eighteen years.

It was my most anxious wish that the unique and perfect collection of Australian Birds, xiforming the originals of the present work, should have found a resting-place in the National Museum of this country, inasmuch as it comprised examples of both sexes of nearly every known species in various stages of plumage, each carefully labelled with its correct scientific appellation, the date when and the place where killed, the sex ascertained by dissection, and the colouring of the soft parts; besides which, it comprised the finest specimens I had been able to procure during the long period of ten years, collected together at an expense of more than £2000, and at the cost of three valuable lives, namely, that of Mr. Gilbert above referred to; that of Mr. Johnson Drummond, who was killed by a native while seeking for specimens in Western Australia; and that of a fine young man, one of the attendants assigned to me by Sir John Franklin, who was accidentally killed by the explosion of a gun he was removing from a boat when landing on one of the islands in Bass’s Straits. Regretting that I could not afford to make a donation of it, I addressed a letter to J. E. Gray, Esq., the chief Zoological officer of the British Museum, in which, after stating that the entire collection amounted to nearly 600 species, and upwards of 1800 specimens, with the full complements of eggs of more than 300 species, I made the following offer,—“I believe that in some instances the Government has lent its aid and support to works of such magnitude as the ‘Birds of Australia’ by taking a certain number of copies; were this done in my own case, and not less than twenty-five copies were taken, I should be most happy to present to the Museum both the Collections above-mentioned, but should such an arrangement be declined then I beg to offer them to the Trustees for the sum of £1000.” To my own, as well as to the regret of nearly every scientific man in Europe, my offer was declined by the Trustees. Upon this circumstance becoming known to Edward Wilson, Esq., of Lydstip House, near Tenby in Pembrokeshire, that gentleman immediately purchased the entire collection for his brother, Dr. T. B. Wilson, of Philadelphia in North America, whither it will be shortly removed, and where it will be at all times available for the purposes of science, and form a portion of perhaps the most extensive ornithological collection in the world.

In conclusion I would beg to say, that having brought the “Birds of Australia” to a close, after devoting nearly ten years to its production, I trust it will be admitted that it has been terminated in the same spirit with which it was commenced, and that any errors which may be found will be viewed with leniency, when the extent of the work, and the difficulty of procuring and arranging so large a mass of materials, is taken into consideration; should my labours, such as they are, merit the approbation of those who have so liberally supported it, xiimy own efforts will be amply repaid. Although the work comprises every species known to inhabit Australia up to the present time, it is not to be supposed that it contains the whole of the birds of that vast country, of which so large a portion is yet a terra incognita. Every new district towards the north-west that may be explored will doubtless afford additional species, and which may hereafter form the materials for a supplement.

I originally intended to include the Birds of New Zealand in the present work, but upon further investigation of the subject I found that they belong to a distinct Fauna, which fact, coupled with the vast accession of new species from the continent of Australia, induced me to omit all but those that had been published in the first instance, and one or two others remarkable for their great interest.

Enjoying, by the blessing of Providence, constant good health, and energies as yet unimpaired, I propose still to devote my humble efforts to the advancement of Ornithology, that science which treats of one of the most pleasing portions of the Almighty’s many wonderful works; and with ample materials at my command for illustrating the Birds of another magnificent portion of the domains of the British Crown—India—my next work will probably be on “the Birds of Asia,” which will, irrespective of all other considerations, be of no little interest as forming the connecting link between the Birds of Europe and the Birds of Australia.

JOHN GOULD.

June 12, 1848.

xiii

INTRODUCTION.

Geological researches into the structure of the globe show that a succession of physical changes have modified its surface from the earliest period up to the present time, and that these changes have been accompanied with variations not only in the phases of animal and vegetable life, but often in the development also of organization; and as these changes cannot be supposed to have been operating uniformly over the entire surface of the globe in the same periods of time, we should naturally be prepared for finding the now existing fauna of some regions exhibiting a higher state of development than that of others; accordingly, if we contrast the fauna of the old continents of geographers with the zoology of Australia and New Zealand, we find a wide difference in the degree of organization which creation has reached in these respective regions. In New Zealand, with the exception of a Vespertilio and a Mus, which latter is said to exist there, but which has not yet been sent to this country, the most highly organized animal hitherto discovered, either fossil or recent, is a bird; in Australia, if compared with New Zealand, creation appears to have considerably advanced, but even here the order Rodentia is the highest in the scale of its indigenous animal productions; the great majority of its quadrupeds being the Marsupiata (Kangaroos, &c.) and the Monotremata (Echidna and Ornithorhynchus), which are the very lowest of the Mammalia; and its ornithology being characterized by the presence of certain peculiar genera, Talegalla, Leipoa and Megapodius; birds which do not incubate their own eggs, and which are perhaps the lowest representatives of their class, while the low organization of its botany is indicated by the remarkable absence of fruit-bearing trees, the Cerealia, &c.

My investigation of the natural productions of Australia induces me to believe, that at some remote period that country was divided into at least two portions, since, with a few exceptions, I find the species inhabiting the same latitudes of its eastern and western divisions differing from, but representing each other. Some writers, Captain Sturt and Mr. Jukes, e.g. are of opinion that its subdivision was even greater, and that the sandy deserts now met with in the interior were formerly the beds of the seas that flowed between the archipelago of islands of which they suppose it to have been composed. In a valuable paper by Mr. Jukes, entitled ‘Notes on the Geology of the Coasts of Australia,’ read at the meeting of the Geological Society on the 17th of November 1847, that gentleman stated, that “The eastern coast is occupied by a great range of high land, appearing like a continuous chain of mountains when seen from the sea, and rising in several places to 5000 feet or more above the sea-level. This chain has an axis of granite, with occasional xivlarge masses of greenstone, basalt and other igneous rocks. It is flanked on both sides by thick beds of palæozoic formations, chiefly sandstone, but also containing limestone and coal. In the northern portion of the chain Dr. Leichardt found similar formations—and especially trap and granite near the Burdekin river. In the Port Phillip district there are similar igneous rocks, and on the coast tertiary formations resting on the edges of upturned palæozoic beds. In West Australia, the Darling range consists of granite below, covered by metamorphic rocks; and between it and the sea is a plain composed of tertiary beds. In the colony of North Australia there is a great sandstone plateau, rising about 1800 feet above the sea, and probably of palæozoic age; whilst on the immediate shore and round the Gulf of Carpentaria are beds supposed to belong to the tertiary period. Similar formations constitute the substratum of the central desert; in which Captain Sturt was compelled to turn back, when half-way to the Gulf of Carpentaria, from the southern coast. Hence these tertiary rocks are probably continuous through the whole centre of the island, and during the tertiary period all this portion of the country was submerged, whilst the high lands on the coast rose like four groups of islands from the shallow sea.”—Athenæum, Nov. 24, 1847.

Whichever of these opinions be the correct one, we certainly find the natural productions of all these portions of the country composed of precisely the same types, the generality of which differ entirely from those of the islands of the Indian Archipelago on the one hand, and of New Zealand and Polynesia on the other.

With respect to the position of Australia, it will only be necessary to state that it is situated between the 10th and 45th degrees of south latitude, and the 112th and 154th degrees of longitude east from Greenwich; its extent, in round numbers, may therefore be said to be 3000 miles in length, or from west to east, and inclusive of Van Diemen’s Land nearly the same in breadth, or from north to south. In its present uplifted position its form is nearly square, with a depressed centre bounded by an almost continuous range of hills and plateaux, which, varying in altitude from one to six thousand feet above the level of the sea, in some places approach the coast and present lofty and inaccessible cliffs to the ocean, while in others they trend towards the interior of the country at a distance of from twenty to eighty miles from the coast-line; but inasmuch as these elevations are all of an undulating and not of a precipitous character, no part of the country can be considered as strictly alpine. Nothing can be more different than the features of the country on the exterior and interior of this great barrier, particularly on the eastern coast, where, between the mountains and the sea, the vegetation partakes to a great extent of a tropical character; it is there, on the rich alluvial soil, formed by the debris washed down from the hills, that we find various species of Eucalypti, Fici,and other trees, many of which attain an immense altitude, and forests of towering palms; the surface of the ground beneath clothed with a dense and impervious underwood, composed of dwarf trees, shrubs and tree-ferns festooned with creepers and parasitic plants in the richest profusion, the continuity of which is here and there broken by rich open meadow-like districts admirably adapted for the pasturing of cattle, and to which, from the frequent occurrence of the Angophoræ, a tribe of trees in which the settlers see a fancied resemblance to the apple-trees of Europe, the name of Apple-tree Flats has been given. Within the ranges, on the other hand, we find immense open downs and grassy plains, studded here and there with detached belts and forests of Eucalypti, Acaciæ, &c., presenting a park-like appearance, to which, as we advance farther towards the interior, succeed either extensive marshes or land of a most sterile description. The face of this vast country consequently presents much variety of aspect; the xvinfrequency of rain tends much to give a sombre brown hue to the surface of the ground, which however is relieved by the constant verdure of its trees, the peculiar lanceolate form and the pendent position of which render them almost shadowless. It is in the neighbourhood of the few rivers which intersect the country, and in the lower flats flooded by the waters, when floods occur, that we find the vegetation more luxuriant and the trees attaining a far greater size; the sides of the rivers are moreover fringed with Casuarinæ and other trees, which, although of large size, never arrive at the altitude of the stately Eucalypti, which attain, under favourable circumstances, a size and height which appear perfectly incredible. Mr. Backhouse states that one measured by him on the Lopham Road, near Emu Bay in Van Diemen’s Land, which, “was rather hollow at the bottom and broken at the top, was 49 feet round at about 5 feet from the ground; another that was solid, and supposed to be 200 feet high, was 41 feet round; and a third, supposed to be 250 feet high, was 55½ feet round. As this tree spread much at the base, it would be nearly 70 feet in circumference at the surface of the ground. My companions spoke to each other when at the opposite side of this tree from myself, and their voices sounded so distant that I concluded they had inadvertently left me, to see some other object, and immediately called to them. They in answer remarked the distant sound of my voice, and inquired if I were behind the tree! When the road through this forest was forming, a man who had only about two hundred yards to go, from one company of work-people to another, lost himself: he called, and was repeatedly answered; but getting further astray, his voice became more indistinct, till it ceased to be heard, and he perished. The largest trees do not always carry up their width in proportion to their height, but many that are mere spars are 200 feet high.”

A prostrate tree noticed by Mr. Backhouse in the forest near the junction of the Emu River with the Loudwater “was 35 feet in circumference at the base, 22 feet at 66 feet up, 19 feet at 110 feet up; there were two large branches at 120 feet; the general head branched off at 150 feet; the elevation of the tree, traceable by the branches on the ground, was 213 feet. We ascended this tree on an inclined plane, formed by one of its limbs, and walked four abreast with ease upon its trunk! In its fall it had overturned another 168 feet high, which had brought up with its roots a ball of earth 20 feet across.” There are other remarkable features, which, as they appertain to districts frequently alluded to in the course of the work, it becomes necessary to notice, namely the immense deltas formed by the descent of the waters of the interior, such as the valley of the Murray near its embouchure into the sea, spoken of as the great Murray scrub of South Australia; this enormous flat of nearly one hundred miles in length by more than twenty in breadth is clothed with a vegetation peculiarly its own, the prevailing trees which form a belt down the centre consisting of dwarf Eucalypti, while the margins are fringed with shrub-like trees of various kinds. Nor must the immense belts of Banksiæ, which grow on the sand-hills bordering the sea-coast and in some parts of the interior, or the districts clothed with grass-trees (Xanthorrhæa), be passed over unnoticed; in the intertropical regions of Australia, of which at present so little is known, we find, besides the Eucalypti, Banksiæ and other trees of the southern coast, dense forests of canes, mangroves, &c. Each of these districts has a zoology peculiarly its own: for instance, the Banksiæ are everywhere tenanted by the true Meliphagi; the Eucalypti by the Ptiloti and Trichoglossi; the towering fig-trees by the Regent and Satin birds; the palms by the Carpophagæ or fruit-eating Pigeons, and the grassy plains by the ground Pigeons, Finches and grass Parrakeets. The circumstance of the boles of the trees being destitute of a thick corrugated rind or bark will doubtless account for the total absence of any member of the genus Picus or xviWoodpeckers, a group of birds found in all parts of the world with the exception of Australia and Polynesia.

Such then is a transient view of a few of the great physical features of Australia to which I have thought it requisite to allude in the Introduction of the present work, and I cannot conclude this portion of the subject without mentioning the very remarkable manner in which many of the Australian Birds represent other nearly allied species belonging to the Old World, as if some particular law existed in reference to the subject, the species so represented being evidently destined to fulfil the same offices in either hemisphere. As instances in point, I may mention among the Falconidæ the F. hypoleucus and F. melanogenys, which represent the F. Islandicus and F. Peregrinus; our Merlin and Kestril are equally well represented by the Falco frontatus and Tinnunculus Cenchroïdes of Australia; the Osprey of Europe also is represented by the P. leucocephala; among the wading birds, the Curlew and the Whimbrel of Europe are beautifully represented by the Numenius Australis and N. uropygialis, and the bar-tailed and black-tailed Godwits by the Limosa uropygialis and L. Melanuroïdes. Both Europe and Australia have each one Stilted Plover, one Dottrell (Eudromias), and one Avocet. Among the water birds the Cormorants and Grebes of Europe are similarly represented by the Phalacrocorax Carboïdes, &c., and Podiceps Australis, P. Nestor and P. gularis; and other instances might be noticed, but as they will all be found in the body of the work, it will not be necessary to recapitulate them here. Although so many curious instances of representation and of nearly allied species are found to occur, no country possesses so many genera peculiar to itself as Australia, such as Ægotheles, Falcunculus, Colluricincla, Grallina, Gymnorhina, Strepera, Cinclosoma, Menura, Psophodes, Malurus, Sericornis, Ephthianura, Pardalotus, Chlamydera, Ptilonorhynchus, Struthidea, Licmetis, Calyptorhynchus, Platycercus, Euphema, Nymphicus, Climacteris, Scythrops, Myzantha, Talegalla, Leipoa, Pedionomus, Cladorhynchus, Tribonyx, Cereopsis, Anseranas, and Biziura.

In a country of such vast extent as Australia, spreading over so many degrees of latitude, we might naturally expect to find much diversity in the climate, and such is really the case. Van Diemen’s Land, from its isolated and more southern position, is cooler and characterized by greater humidity than Australia; its vegetation is therefore abundant, and its forests dense and difficult of access. The climate of the continent, on the other hand, between the 25th and 35th degrees of latitude, is much drier, and has a temperature which is probably higher than that of any other part of the world; the thermometer frequently rising to 110°, 120°, and even 130° in the shade; and this high temperature is not unfrequently increased by the hot winds which sweep over the country from the northward, and which indicate most strongly the parched and sterile nature of the interior. Unlike other hot countries, this great heat and dryness is unaccompanied by night dews, and the falls of rain being uncertain and irregular, droughts of many months’ duration sometimes occur, during which the rivers and lagoons are dried up, the land becomes a parched waste, vegetation is burnt up, and famine spreads destruction on every side. It is easier for the imagination to conceive than the pen to depict the horrors of so dreadful a visitation. The indigenous animals and birds retire to the mountains, or to more distant regions exempt from its influence. Thousands of sheep and oxen perish, bullocks are seen dead by the road-side or in the dried-up water-holes, to which, in the hope of relief, they had dragged themselves, there to fall and die; trees are cut down for the sake of the twigs as fodder; the flocks are driven to the mountains in the hope that water may there be found, and every effort is made to avert the impending ruin; but in spite of all that can be done the loss is extreme. At xviilength a change takes place, rain falls abundantly, and the plains, on which but lately not a blade of herbage was to be seen, and over which the stillness of desolation reigned, become green with luxuriant vegetation. Orchideæ and thousands of flowers of the loveliest hues are profusely spread around, as if nature rejoiced in her renovation, and the grain springing up vigorously gives promise of an abundant harvest. This change from sterility to abundance in the vegetable world is accompanied by a correspondent increase of animal life, the waters become stocked with fish, the marshy districts with frogs and other reptiles; hosts of caterpillars and other insects make their appearance, and spreading over the surface of the country commence the work of devastation, which however is speedily checked by the birds of various kinds that follow in their train. Attracted by the abundance of food, hawks of three or four species, in flocks of hundreds, depart from their usual solitary habits, become gregarious and busy at the feast, and thousands of Straw-necked Ibises (Ibis spinicollis), and other species of the feathered race, revel in the profusion of a welcome banquet. It must not however be imagined that this change is effected without its attendant horrors; the heavy rains often filling the river-beds so suddenly, that the onward pouring flood carries with it everything that may impede its course; and woe to the unhappy settler whose house or grounds may lie within the influence of the overwhelming floods! A painful instance of the desolating effects of this sudden irruption of the waters came under my own observation while travelling in the plains bordering the Lower Namoi in New South Wales. On pulling up my horse at one of the huts erected by the stock-keepers charged with the flocks and herds depastured in this vast grazing-ground, I found it occupied by Lieut. Lowe and his nephew, who had gone thither for the purpose of being present at the shearing of the flocks belonging to the former gentleman. Although strangers, their reception of me was warm and hospitable, and I left them with a promise of making their abode a resting-place on my return. My second welcome was such as friends receive from friends, and rejoicing that I had made the acquaintance of persons so worthy and estimable, I left them busy in their operations, happy and prosperous. Seven days after my departure from their dwelling heavy rains suddenly set in; the mountain-streams swelled into foaming torrents, filling the deep gullies; the rivers rose, some to the height of forty feet, bearing all before them. The Namoi having widely overflowed its banks, rolled along with impetuous fury, sweeping away the huts of the stock-keepers in its course, tearing up trees, and hurrying affrighted men and flocks to destruction. Before there was time to escape, the hut in which Lieut. Lowe and his nephew were sojourning was torn up and washed away, and the nephew and two men, overwhelmed by the torrent, sank and perished. Lieut. Lowe stripped to swim, and getting on the trunk of an uprooted tree, hoped to be carried down the eddying flood to some part where he could obtain assistance. But he was floated into the midst of a sea of water stretching as far as he could discern on every side around him. Here he slowly drifted; the rains had ceased, the thermometer was at 100°, a glaring sun and a coppery sky were above him; he looked in vain for help, but no prospect of escape animated him, and the hot sun began its dreadful work. His skin blistered, dried, became parched and hard, like the bark of a tree, and life began to ebb. At length assistance arrived—it came too late; he was indeed just alive, but died almost immediately. He was scorched to death.

Sir Thomas Mitchell, in his recently published “Journal of an Expedition into the interior of Tropical Australia,” has given a most vivid picture of the manner in which floods occasioned by distant rains fill the river-beds, and which I beg leave to transcribe. Sir Thomas being somewhat unwell while encamped on the banks of the Macquarie, the channel of which was deep and dry, sent Mr. Stephenson, one of his party, to Mount Foster, to make inquiries about the river and the stations on it lower down. Mr. xviiiStephenson returned early with two of the mounted police. To his most important question, “What water was to be found lower down in the river, the reply was, ‘Plenty, and a flood coming down from the Turòn mountains.’ The two policemen said that they had travelled twenty miles with it on the day previous, and that it would still take some time to arrive near our camp.... In the afternoon, two of the men taking a walk up the river, reported on their return, that the flood poured in upon them when in the river-bed so suddenly, that they narrowly escaped it. Still the bed of the Macquarie before our camp continued so dry and silent, that I could scarcely believe the flood coming to be real, and so near to us, who had been put to so many shifts for the want of water. Towards evening I stationed a man with a gun a little way up the river, with orders to fire on the flood’s appearance, that I might have time to run and witness what I so much wished to see, as well from curiosity as from urgent need. The shades of evening came, however, but no flood, and the man on the look-out returned to the camp. Some hours later, and after the moon had risen, a murmuring sound, like that of a distant waterfall, mingled with occasional cracks, as of breaking timber, drew our attention, and I hastened to the river-bank. By very slow degrees the sound grew louder, and at length so audible as to draw various persons besides from the camp to the river-side. Still no flood appeared, although its approach was indicated by the occasional rending of trees with a loud noise. Such a phænomenon in a most serene moonlight night was new to us all. At length the rushing sound of waters, and loud cracking of timber, announced that the flood was in the next bend. It rushed into our sight, glittering in the moonbeams, a moving cataract, tossing before it ancient trees, and snapping them against its banks. It was preceded by a point of meandering water, picking its way, like a thing of life, through the deepest parts of the dark, dry and shady bed, of what thus again became a flowing river. By my party, situated as we were at that time, beating about the country, and impeded in our journey solely by the almost total absence of water,—suffering excessively from thirst and extreme heat,—I am convinced the scene never can be forgotten. Here came at once abundance, the produce of storms in the far-off mountains that overlooked our homes.... The river gradually filled up the channel nearly bank-high, while the living cataract travelled onward much slower than I had expected to see it; so slowly, indeed, that more than an hour after its first arrival the sweet music of the head of the flood was distinctly audible, as the murmur of waters and diapason crash of logs travelled slowly through the tortuous windings.... The next morning the river had risen to within six feet of the top of its banks, and poured its turbid waters along in fulness and strength, but no longer with noise. All night that body of water had been in motion downwards, and seemed to me enough to deluge the whole country.”

So little has as yet been ascertained respecting the climatology of western, north-western and northern Australia, that it is not known whether they also are subject to these tremendous visitations; but as we have reason to believe that the intertropical parts of the country are favoured with a more constant supply of rain as well as a lower degree of temperature, it is most probable that they do not there occur.

Independently of the vast accession of birds attracted by the great supply of food, as mentioned above, there are many species which make regular migrations, visiting the southern parts of the continent and Van Diemen’s Land during the months of summer, for the purpose of breeding and rearing their progeny, and which retire again northwards on the approach of winter, following in fact the same law which governs the migrations of the species inhabiting similar latitudes of the Old World. There are also periods when some xixspecies of birds appear to entirely forsake the part of the country in which they have been accustomed to dwell, and to betake themselves to some distant locality, where they remain for five or ten years, or even for a longer period, and whence they as suddenly disappear as they had arrived. Some remarkable instances of this kind came under my own observation. The beautiful little warbling Grass Parrakeet (Melopsittacus undulatus), which, prior to 1838, was so rare in the southern parts of Australia that only a single example had been sent to Europe, arrived in that year in such countless multitudes on the Liverpool plains, that I could have procured any number of specimens, and more than once their delicate bodies formed an excellent article of food for myself and party. The Nymphicus Novæ-Hollandiæ forms another case in point, and the Harlequin Bronze-winged Pigeon (Peristera histrionica) a third; this latter bird occurred in such numbers on the plains near the Namoi in 1839, that eight fell to a single discharge of my gun; both the settlers and natives assured me that they had suddenly arrived, and that they had never before been seen in that part of the country. The aborigines who were with me, and of whom I must speak in the highest praise, for the readiness with which they rendered me their assistance, affirmed, upon learning the nature of my pursuits, that they had come to meet me. The Tribonyx ventralis may be cited as another species whose movements are influenced by the same law. This bird visited the colony of Swan River in 1833, and that of South Australia in 1840, in such countless myriads, that whole fields of corn were trodden down and destroyed in a single night; and even the streets and gardens of Adelaide were, according to Captain Sturt, alive with them.

If we compare the ornithology of Australia with that of any other country in similar latitudes and of the same extent, we shall find that it fully equals, if it does not exceed them all, in the number of species it comprises; and those parts of the country that are still unexplored doubtless contain many yet to be added to the list of its Fauna.

In the course of the present work it will be found that I have given a wide range of habitat to some of the species, and that I have at the same time pointed out slight variations, not amounting to a specific difference, in individuals from different localities. This difference I am unable to account for. I do not believe the birds to be distinct species, but am inclined to regard them as varieties or races of the same species, modified by the character of the situations they frequent. I may mention some curious instances in point: the Artamus sordidus is a migratory bird in Van Diemen’s Land, and is partially stationary in New South Wales, yet all the examples procured in the former country are the largest and most vigorous, which we should naturally attribute to the excess of food afforded by its more humid climate; but precisely the reverse of this occurs with regard to the Graucalus parvirostris, which is also a migratory bird in Van Diemen’s Land, and examples of which, killed in that island, are much more feeble and diminutive than the Graucali obtained in New South Wales. The Halcyon sanctus, again, whose distribution is universal in Australia, varies somewhat in size in every colony, still not sufficiently so as to afford any tangible specific characters.

Upon taking a general view of the Australian ornithology, we find no species of Vulture, only one typical Eagle, and indeed a remarkable deficiency in the number of the species of its birds of prey, with the exception of the nocturnal Owls, among which the members of the restricted genus Strix are more numerous than in any other part of the world; a circumstance which is probably attributable to the great abundance of small nocturnal quadrupeds.

xxAmong the perching birds there is a great excess of the InsectivoræPodargi, Meliphagidæ, Maluridæ, Gymnorhinæ, &c., of the Granivoræ, such as various species of the Fringillidæ and of the Psittacidæ. The latter tribe of birds is more numerous in Australia than in any other part of the world, and forms four great groups, viz. the Calyptorhynchi, which mainly procure their food from the Banksiæ, Casuarinæ and Eucalypti; the Cacatuæ, which feed upon the terrestrial Orchideæ, &c.; the Trichoglossi, which subsist upon the nectar they extract from the flower-cups and blossoms of the Eucalypti; and the ground and grass Parrakeets, which feed almost exclusively on the seeds of the various grasses that abound on the plains; the united groups amounting to nearly sixty species.

Of the Rasorial forms,—while the Pigeons and Hemipodes are numerous, the larger and typical Gallinaceæ are entirely wanting; their only representatives being a few species of Coturnix and Synoïcus. The Grallatorial birds are about equal in number to those of other countries; and among the water birds the true Ducks are but few, while the Procellaridæ which visit the coast are more abundant than in any other part of the world. On a retrospect of the whole we find a greater number of nocturnal birds than is comprised in the ornithology of any other section of the globe. I must not omit to mention too the extraordinary fecundity which prevails in Australia, many of its smaller birds breeding three or four times in a season; but laying fewer eggs in the early spring when insect life is less developed, and a greater number later in the season when the supply of insect food has become more abundant. I have also some reason to believe that the young of many species breed during the first season, for among others I frequently found one section of the Honey-eaters (the Melithrepti) sitting upon eggs while still clothed in the brown dress of immaturity; and we know that such is the case with the introduced Gallinaceæ, three or four generations of which have been often produced in the course of a year.

Another peculiar feature connected with the Australian ornithology is that of its comprising several forms endowed with the power of sustaining and enjoying life without a supply of water, that element without which most others languish and die; for instance, the Halcyons, which I found living and even breeding on the parched plains of the interior during the severe drought of 1838–39, far removed from any water; the food of these birds being insects and lizards.

A considerable number of the older-known of the Australian birds have been described in the general works of Vieillot, Latham, Shaw and others; but their descriptions are so vague, and the species themselves so frequently referred to genera widely different from those to which they really belong, that it has been impossible to identify the whole of them; but wherever they could be identified with certainty their names have been adopted, or quoted in the synonyms.

The “Birds of Europe” were arranged according to the views of the late Mr. Vigors; and in the “Birds of Australia” the arrangement is mainly the same, with some modifications of my own which appeared to me to be necessary.

I have been constrained, for the sake of uniformity in size, to divide the present work into seven volumes; the first of which comprises the Raptores, the small number of which will account for its being somewhat thinner than the others; the second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth volumes comprise the Insessores, Rasores and Grallatores in one continuous series, and the seventh the Natatores.

xxiThe following synoptical table will give a general view of the whole; it contains all the additional information I have received, or been able to procure, during the progress of the work; the characters of the new genera I have found it necessary to institute, &c.; and the references to the volumes in which the respective plates are arranged will render it easy to consult and to quote them.

Order RAPTORES, Ill.

Family FALCONIDÆ, Leach.

Genus Aquila, Briss.

Numerous species of this genus exist in Asia and Europe; the form also occurs in Africa, and in North America; so far as I am aware it is not found in South America, and two species are all that are known in Australia.

1. Aquila fucosa, Cuv. Vol. I. Pl. 1.

This fine Eagle ranges over the whole of the southern portion of Australia and Van Diemen’s Land, but I have no positive evidence of its having been seen in the intertropical regions of the country.

2. Aquila Morphnoïdes, Gould Vol. I. Pl. 2.

A beautiful representative of the Aquila pennata of Europe and India. Since the discovery of this bird at Yarrundi in New South Wales, when I obtained only a single specimen, T. C. Eyton, Esq. has received a second example in a collection obtained at Port Phillip, and a third was procured by Captain Sturt at the Depôt in South Australia.

Genus Ichthyiaëtus, Lafr.

The members of this genus inhabit India and the whole of the Indian Islands, and enjoy an equally extensive range over the continent of Africa. Their natural abode is the margins of large rivers and inlets of the sea; and their chief food consists of fish, dead cetacea and carrion.

3. Ichthyiaëtus leucogaster Vol. I. Pl. 3.

Found all round the coast of Australia, and said to extend its range to India and even to Africa; but this wants confirmation.

An opinion has been lately expressed that the enormous nests observed by Captains Cook and Flinders had been constructed by some species of Dinornis; but it is quite evident from the account given by Flinders that they must have been formed by a bird of the Raptorial order, and I have no doubt that they were the nests of the present bird.

“Near Point Possession,” says Flinders, “were found two nests of extraordinary magnitude. They were built upon the ground, from which they rose above two feet; and were of vast circumference and great interior capacity, the branches of trees and other matter, of which each nest was composed, being enough to fill a small cart. Captain Cook found one of these enormous nests upon Eagle Island, on the east coast.” Subsequently Flinders found another of these nests in which were “several masses resembling those which contain the hair and bones of mice, and are disgorged by the Owls in England after the flesh is digested. These masses were larger, and consisted of the hair of seals and of land animals, of the scaly feathers of penguins, and the bones of birds and small quadrupeds. Possibly the constructor of the nest might be an enormous Owl; and if so, the cause of the bird being never seen, whilst the nests were not scarce, would be from its not going out until dark; but from the very open and xxiiexposed situations in which the nests were found, I should rather judge it to be of the Eagle kind; and that its powers are such as to render it heedless of any attempts of the natives upon its young.”—Flinders’ Voyage, vol. i. pp. 64 and 81.

The accumulation of so large a mass of materials is readily accounted for when we remember that the bird is in the habit of resorting to the same eyry for a long succession of years, and of annually carrying additional materials to reconstruct the nest.

I myself found and took young birds of this species from similar nests placed on the points of rocks and promontories of the islands in Bass’s Straits.

Genus Haliastur, Selby.

The range of the members of this genus extends over Australia and all the islands to India.

4. Haliastur leucosternus, Gould Vol. I. Pl. 4.

Confined, so far as I am aware, to Australia, and forming a beautiful representative of the Haliastur Ponticerianus of India.

5. Haliastur sphenurus Vol. I. Pl. 5.

Inhabits all parts of Australia yet visited by travellers, even the Depôt in the interior.

Genus Pandion, Sav.

Of the genus Pandion four species are now known; one inhabiting America, another Europe and Asia, a third the Indian Islands, and the fourth Australia.

6. Pandion leucocephalus, Gould Vol. I. Pl. 6.

This species of Pandion performs precisely the same office in Australia that the P. haliaëtus does in Europe and the P. Carolinensis in America; to both of which species it is very nearly allied.

Genus Falco, Linn.

As they are the most typical of all the Hawks, so are the members of the genus Falco the most universally dispersed over the face of the globe; and I question whether the law of representation is in any case more beautifully and clearly shown than by the members of the present group.

7. Falco hypoleucus, Gould Vol. I. Pl. 7.

Up to the present time only four examples of this fine Falcon have been procured; it is a species admirably adapted for the sport of Falconry, and is a beautiful representative of the Falco Gyrfalco of Europe. Its native habitat is the interior of the southern and western portions of Australia.

8. Falco melanogenys, Gould Vol. I. Pl. 8.

India, Europe, and North America on the one hand, and Cape Horn, the Cape of Good Hope and Australia on the other, are all inhabited by Falcons so nearly allied to each other as to favour the opinion that they are merely varieties of each other; but I agree with the Prince of Canino and Professor Kaup in considering them to be distinct and representatives of each other in the respective countries they inhabit. It will doubtless be found that the habits xxiiiand economy of the whole are as similar as they are in outward appearance; and that the Falco melanogenys is as destructive to the ducks of the interior of Australia as the Falco Anatum is in North America.

9. Falco subniger, Gray Vol. I. Pl. 9.

A powerful Falcon differing somewhat in structure from the F. hypoleucus and F. melanogenys. Nothing is known of its habits, and as yet I have only seen four examples, all of which were procured in the interior of South Australia.

10. Falco frontatus, Gould Vol. I. Pl. 10.

A little Falcon with the habits of the Hobby and Merlin combined; found in all parts of Australia to the southward of the 25th degree of S. lat.; among other birds it preys upon the Quails and the little Partridges belonging to the genus Synoïcus.

Genus Ieracidea, Gould.

Generic characters.

Bill and general form of Falco, but the wings less powerful, and the third quill-feather the longest; tarsi more elongated, slender, and covered anteriorly with hexagonal scales; toes more feeble, the hind-toe shorter, and the claws less robust.

So far as our present knowledge extends, the members of this genus are only three in number, all of which are confined to Australia and New Zealand.

11. Ieracidea Berigora Vol. I. Pl. 11.

Professor Kaup considers this species and the succeeding one, I. occidentalis, to be identical, but having had numerous opportunities of observing them, I am satisfied that they are distinct; and in confirmation of this opinion I may state that the I. Berigora, which is from the eastern coast, is always the largest, has the cere blue-grey, and the plumage of the adult light brown, sparingly blotched with white on the breast; while the I. occidentalis, from the western coast, is a more delicately formed bird, has the cere yellow and the breast white, with faint lines of brown down the centre of each feather.

12. Ieracidea occidentalis, Gould Vol. I. Pl. 12.

Genus Tinnunculus, Vieill.

13. Tinnunculus Cenchroïdes Vol. I. Pl. 13.

A beautiful representative of the Kestrils of Europe and India, where, as well as in Africa and in most parts of America, members of this group are to be found.

The range of the Tinnunculus Cenchroïdes extends over the whole of the southern parts of Australia, and that it extends far towards the northern portion of the country is proved by Mr. Gilbert having found it, as well as its nest, during the expedition of Dr. Leichardt from Moreton Bay to Port Essington.

The following is an extract from his Journal:—“October 2. Found, for the first time, the eggs of Tinnunculus Cenchroïdes, four in number, deposited in a hollow spout of a gum-tree overhanging a creek; there was no nest, the eggs being merely deposited on a bed of decayed wood.” They are freckled all over with blotches and minute dots of rich reddish chestnut on a paler ground, and are one inch and five-eighths in length by one inch and a quarter in breadth.

xxiv

Genus Astur, Lacep.

14. Astur Novæ-Hollandiæ Vol. I. Pl. 14.
15. Astur Novæ-Hollandiæ, albino Vol. I. Pl. 15.

I think Professor Kaup is right in proposing a new generic title for this species, differing as it does both in structure and habits from the true Asturs; he also, like myself, considers the white birds to be merely albino varieties of the other; but my friends, the Rev. T. J. Ewing and Ronald C. Gunn, Esq. of Van Diemen’s Land, are both most decidedly opposed to this view of the subject, and found their dissent upon the circumstance of there being none other than white individuals in Van Diemen’s Land.

So far as it is at present known, the southern and eastern portions of Australia and the island of Van Diemen’s Land constitute the habitat of the species.

16. Astur radiatus Vol. I. Pl. 16.

A curious form not quite agreeing with Astur; it is very rare, and nothing whatever is known of its habits.

17. Astur approximans, Vig. & Horsf. Vol. I. Pl. 17.

The Astur approximans has been with propriety removed to the genus Accipiter by Mr. G. R. Gray, and to this genus my A. cruentus is also referable; for although of a larger size than the other members of that form, their structure, except in the shorter middle toe, is very similar.

18. Astur cruentus, Gould Vol. I. Pl. 18.

This species and the preceding are representatives of each other in the eastern and western portions of the continent.

I have lately seen specimens from Port Essington.

Genus Accipiter, Briss.

19. Accipiter torquatus Vol. I. Pl. 19.

Precisely similar in all its actions and in its economy to the Sparrow Hawk, Accipiter nisus of Europe.

xxv

Genus Buteo, Cuv.

Species of the genus Buteo are dispersed over the great continents of Europe, Asia, Africa and America, but only one has yet been discovered in Australia.

20. Buteo melanosternon, Gould Vol. I. Pl. 20.

This bird departs somewhat in form from the typical species of the genus Buteo; but so little is known respecting it that we are ignorant how far this departure may influence its habits and economy. One most singular story has been transmitted to me and is here given as I received it; without vouching for its truth, I may remark that the testimony of the natives may generally be relied upon.

“The natives, Mr. Drummond, and his son Mr. Johnson Drummond, tell me,” says Mr. Gilbert, “that this bird is so bold, that upon discovering an Emu sitting on her eggs it will attack her with great ferocity until it succeeds in driving her from them; when it takes up a stone with its feet, and while hovering over the eggs lets the stone fall upon and crush them, and then descends and devours their contents. I have had numerous opportunities of observing the bird myself, and can bear testimony to its great powers of scent or vision; for upon several occasions, when the natives had placed a small kangaroo or kangaroo-rat in the fork of a tree or on the top of a Xanthorrhæa with the intention of taking it again on our return, we have found that the bird during our short absence had discovered and devoured every part of it except the skin, which was left so perfect, that at first I could not believe that it had not been done by the hand of man.”

Genus Milvus, Cuv.

Asia is the great stronghold of the Kites or restricted genus Milvus; a few species occur in Europe, Africa, and the Indian Islands, and two are natives of Australia.

21. Milvus affinis, Gould Vol. I. Pl. 21.

This representative of the Milvus ater of Europe is found all over Australia, even at Port Essington: Captain Sturt observed it flying over the far interior of South Australia in great numbers.

22. Milvus isurus, Gould Vol. I. Pl. 22.

This species, which is sparingly dispersed over the whole of the southern part of Australia, is an equally beautiful representative of the common Kite, Milvus regalis of Europe.

Genus Elanus, Sav.

Species of this well-defined genus inhabit nearly every part of the world: two are natives of Australia.

23. Elanus axillaris Vol. I. Pl. 23.

The Elanus axillaris is a representative of the Elanus melanopterus of Europe.

24. Elanus scriptus, Gould Vol. I. Pl. 24.

A fine new species rendered conspicuously different from all the other members of the genus by the black-lettered form of the markings under the wings.

Captain Sturt found this bird abundant at the Depôt towards the interior of Australia.

xxvi

Genus Lepidogenys, J. E. Gray.

Of this genus three species are known; they inhabit India, the Indian Islands and Australia.

25. Lepidogenys subcristatus, Gould Vol. I. Pl. 25.

I have no additional information respecting this noble species; all the examples of which, that have come under my notice, have been obtained in the brushes of the east coast of Australia.

Genus Circus, Lacep.

Two if not three kinds of Harriers inhabit Australia, consequently the number of species is nearly equal in Europe, Asia, Africa, America, and Australia; those inhabiting the latter country are precisely of the same form, and perform the same offices as their near allies do in the other parts of the world.

26. Circus assimilis, Jard. & Selb. Vol. I. Pl. 26.
27. Circus Jardinii, Gould Vol. I. Pl. 27.

Family STRIGIDÆ, Leach.

Genus Strix, Linn.

While as a general rule other countries are only inhabited by a single species of the restricted genus Strix, the Fauna of Australia comprises no less than four, all of which appear to be necessary in order to prevent an inordinate increase of the smaller quadrupeds which there abound.

28. Strix castanops, Gould Vol. I. Pl. 28.
29. Strix personata, Vig. Vol. I. Pl. 29.
30. Strix tenebricosus, Gould Vol. I. Pl. 30.
31. Strix delicatulus, Gould Vol. I. Pl. 31.

Genus Athene, Boie.

A genus of diurnal Owls, of which five species are natives of Australia; the smaller kinds are represented in Europe and Asia by the Athene noctua, A. Cuculoides and A. Brama; the larger kinds have no representatives in the northern hemisphere.

32. Athene Boobook Vol. I. Pl. 32.
33. Athene maculata Vol. I. Pl. 33.
34. Athene marmorata, Gould.  

All the upper surface, wings and tail dark brown, obscurely spotted with white round the back of the neck, on the wing-coverts and scapularies; inner webs of the primaries at their base, and the inner webs of the lateral tail-feathers crossed by bands, which are buff next the shaft and white towards the extremity of the webs; face and chin whitish; under surface dark brown, blotched with white and sandy brown; legs and thighs fawn-colour; bill horn-colour; feet yellow.

Inhabits South Australia, is much larger than A. maculata, but so nearly allied to, and so much like that species, that I have not thought it necessary to give a separate figure of it.

xxvii
35. Athene connivens Vol. I. Pl. 34.
36. Athene strenua, Gould Vol. I. Pl. 35.
37. Athene rufa, Gould Vol. I. Pl. 36.

Order INSESSORES, Vig.

Family CAPRIMULGIDÆ, Vig.

Genus Ægotheles, Vig. & Horsf.

The known species of this genus are two in number, both of which, so far as has yet been ascertained, are confined to Australia. In many of their actions, and in their nidification, they are very owl-like, depositing, like those birds, their four or five round white eggs in the hollows of trees, without any nest.

38. Ægotheles Novæ-Hollandiæ Vol. II. Pl. 1.

Inhabits the whole of the southern parts of Australia and Van Diemen’s Land.

39. Ægotheles leucogaster, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 2.

Inhabits the northern or intertropical parts of Australia, where it represents the Æ. Novæ-Hollandiæ.

Genus Podargus, Cuv.

With no one group of the Australian birds have I had so much difficulty in discriminating the species as the genus Podargus. It is almost impossible to determine with certainty the older species described by Latham; could this have been done satisfactorily, even in a single instance, it would have greatly facilitated the investigation of the remainder. Messrs. Vigors and Horsfield regarded the specimens in the Linnean Collection as referable to three species, and have described them under the names of Stanleyanus, humeralis, and Cuvieri; Latham’s description of the species named by him megacephalus accords so well with the P. Stanleyanus, that I suspect both those terms have been applied to one and the same species, an opinion strengthened by Latham’s remarks as to the great size of the head and mandibles of his bird, the total length of which he states to be thirty inches, which is evidently an error.

After examining a large number of specimens comprising individuals of all ages, I have come to the conclusion that the Australian members of this genus constitute six species; four of which, namely, P. megacephalus, P. humeralis, P. Cuvieri, and P. brachypterus, are most closely allied to each other; and two, namely, P. plumiferus and P. Phalænoides, which present specific characters that cannot be mistaken. We have then in Australia a large group of nocturnal birds of this form destined, as it would seem, to keep in check the great families of Cicadæ and Phasmidæ, upon which they mainly subsist; but they do not refuse other insects, and even berries have been found in their stomachs. They are an inanimate and sluggish group of birds, and do not procure their food on the wing so much as other Caprimulgi, but obtain it by traversing the branches of the various trees upon which their favourite insects reside; at intervals during the night they sit about in open places, on rails, stumps of trees, on the roofs of houses and on the tombstones in the churchyards, and by superstitious persons are regarded as omens of death, their hoarse disagreeable voice adding not a little to the terrors induced by their presence.

In their nidification the Podargi differ in a most remarkable manner from all the other Caprimulgidæ, inasmuch as while the eggs of the Ægothelæ are deposited in the holes of trees, and those of the members of the other genera of this family on the ground, these birds construct a flat nest of small sticks on the horizontal branches of trees for the reception of theirs, which are moreover of the purest white.

Although I have no satisfactory evidence that these birds resort to a kind of hybernation for short periods during some portions of the year, I must not omit to mention that I have been assured that they do occasionally retire to and remain secluded in the hollow parts of the trees; and if such should prove to be the case, it may account for the extreme obesity of many of the individuals I procured, which was often so great as to prevent me from preserving their skins. I trust that these remarks will cause the subject to be investigated by those who are xxviiifavourably situated for so doing; for my own part I see no reason why a bird should not pass a portion of its existence in a state of hybernation as well as some species of quadrupeds, animals much higher in the scale of creation.

So great a similarity in plumage reigns throughout the first four of the species enumerated below that I have thought it unnecessary to figure more than two, viz. P. humeralis and P. Cuvieri; the other two may be readily distinguished by the descriptions I have given of them, particularly if the localities be attended to.

40. Podargus megacephalus.  

In the general colouring, form and arrangement of its markings, this species so closely resembles the P. humeralis, that one description applies equally to both; but it may be distinguished by its being somewhat larger in the body and much larger in the head, and by the very great development of the mandibles.

It inhabits the brushes of the east coast, and in its habits and economy resembles the other species of the group.

41. Podargus humeralis, Vig. & Horsf. Vol. II. Pl. 3.
42. Podargus Cuvieri, Vig. & Horsf. Vol. II. Pl. 4.
43. Podargus brachypterus, Gould.  

In its general appearance this bird closely resembles the P. humeralis, but is even smaller in size than P. Cuvieri, while at the same time the bill is larger than that of the former species, and projects much farther from the face than in any other of its congeners; it also differs in the shortness of its wings, which circumstance suggested the specific appellation I have assigned to it.

It is a native of Western Australia.

44. Podargus Phalænoïdes, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 5.
45. Podargus plumiferus, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 6.

Genus Eurostopodus, Gould.

Generic characters.

Bill somewhat more produced and stouter than in Caprimulgus; nostrils lateral and linear; rictus entirely devoid of bristles, but furnished with short, weak, divided and branching hairs; wings longer and more powerful than in Caprimulgus; first and second quills equal and longest; tail moderately long and nearly square; tarsi stout, and clothed anteriorly for their whole length; toes short, thick and fleshy; outer ones equal, and united to the middle one by a membrane for more than half their length; nail of the middle toe strongly pectinated on the inner side.

This genus, so far as is yet known, comprises but two species, both of which are natives of and confined to Australia. They differ considerably in their habits from the true Caprimulgi. Their wing-powers being enormous, they pass through the air with great rapidity, and while hawking for insects during the twilight of the early dawn and evening, they make the most abrupt and sudden turns in order to secure their prey. Like the typical Caprimulgi, they rest on the ground during the day. In every instance in which the site employed for incubation has been discovered, a single egg only has been found; it is deposited on the bare ground, and differs from those of the other Caprimulgi in being much more round in form, and of a dull olive-green spotted with jet black.

The members of this genus are very nearly allied to the Lyncorni, a group of birds inhabiting the Indian Islands.

46. Eurostopodus albogularis Vol. II. Pl. 7.
47. Eurostopodus guttatus Vol. II. Pl. 8.
xxix

Genus Caprimulgus, Linn.

Europe, Asia and Africa are the great strongholds of the members of this genus as at present restricted. A single species only has yet been discovered in Australia, where it frequents the northern or intertropical parts of the country.

48. Caprimulgus macrurus, Horsf. Vol. II. Pl. 9.

This bird is found in Java, and I believe in Southern India.

Family HIRUNDINIDÆ, Vig.

Genus Acanthylis, Boie.

A group of birds possessing enormous powers of flight, and the members of which are distributed over the Indian Islands and Asia; the form is also found in Africa and in America, but in those countries the species are fewer in number: one species only has yet been discovered in Australia.

49. Acanthylis caudacuta Vol. II. Pl. 10.

A migratory bird in most parts of Australia, but whence it comes or whither it goes has not yet been ascertained; of its nidification also nothing is known.

I have alluded to the great wing-powers of the birds of the genus Acanthylis, and in confirmation of which I may mention that an individual of this species was killed in England during the past year: it would be interesting to know the route pursued by the bird in travelling so great a distance as it must have done.

Genus Cypselus, Ill.

Of this genus, as of Acanthylis, there is but one species peculiar to Australia: other members of the group inhabit the continents of Europe, Asia and Africa, but not America.

50. Cypselus Australis, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 11.

Genus Atticora, Boie.

The members of this genus are principally American.

I am not fully satisfied of the propriety of placing the bird I described in the ‘Proceedings of the Zoological Society’ as Hirundo leucosternon in the present genus: if on a further knowledge of the Australian birds it should prove that I have been correct in so doing, the species will be found to inhabit Australia, Africa and America.

51. Atticora leucosternon, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 12.

Since I described and figured this species I have received numerous examples from Swan River, where Mr. Gilbert observed it on the 19th of August flying about the holes of the Boodee (Bettongia Grayii) in pairs; but it was not until the latter end of September that he succeeded in finding their nests placed at the extremities of holes bored in the side of a bank. All the holes that he saw were perfectly round, not more than two inches in diameter, running horizontally, and of the same dimensions, for three feet from the entrance, and then expanding to the extent of four inches and forming the receptacle of the nest, which is constructed of the broad portions of dried grasses and the dry dead leaves of the Acacia. Mr. Johnson Drummond informed him that he had frequently found seven and even nine eggs in a single nest, from which he inferred that more than one female lays in the same nest: the eggs are white, somewhat lengthened, and pointed in form. It would seem that the holes are not constructed exclusively for the purpose of nidification, for upon Mr. Gilbert’s inserting a long grass stalk into one of them five birds made their way out, all of which he succeeded in catching; upon his digging to the extremity in the hope of procuring their eggs, no nest was found, and hence he concludes that their holes are also used as places of resort for the night.

xxx

Genus Hirundo, Linn.

The members of the genus Hirundo, or true Swallows, inhabit Europe, Asia, Africa, North America, the Indian Islands and Australia, where the European and American chimney Swallows, Hirundo rustica and H. rufa, are beautifully represented by the H. neoxena.

52. Hirundo neoxena, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 13.

Genus Chelidon, Boie.

I find that by some unaccountable mistake I have placed the Australian members of this genus in that of Collocalia,—an error which I take this opportunity of correcting.

The two species inhabiting Australia are both represented by others in Europe, Asia, Africa and America. They differ somewhat from each other in habits, one always resorting to the holes of trees for the purpose of nidification, and the other building a clay nest similar to those constructed by the martins of Europe and America.

53. Chelidon arborea.  
    Collocalia arborea, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 14.
54. Chelidon Ariel.  
    Collocalia Ariel, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 15.

Family MEROPIDÆ, Vig.

Genus Merops, Linn.

India and Africa may be said to be the great nursery of this lovely group of birds; one species of which, common in the southern parts of Europe, is beautifully represented in Australia by the Merops ornatus, the only species inhabiting that country.

55. Merops ornatus, Lath. Vol. II. Pl. 16.

Family ——?

Genus Eurystomus, Vieill.

One species of this genus is found in Australia, and others inhabit India and Africa. They are closely allied to the Rollers, and not very distantly related to the Halcyons.

56. Eurystomus Australis, Swains. Vol. II. Pl. 17.

Family HALCYONIDÆ, Vig.

Genus Dacelo, Leach.

The members of the genus Dacelo comprise the largest species of the great family of the Halcyonidæ, and form a conspicuous portion of the ornithology of Australia; but remarkably enough are confined to the south-eastern and northern portions of the country, the south-western parts being uninhabited by any species of this group. I believe that water is not essential to their existence, and that they seldom if ever drink. They feed almost xxxiexclusively upon animal substances, small quadrupeds, birds, snakes, lizards, and insects of every kind being equally acceptable.

Three species inhabit Australia.

57. Dacelo gigantea Vol. II. Pl. 18.

Inhabits the south-eastern portion of Australia, from South Australia to Moreton Bay.

58. Dacelo Leachii, Vig. & Horsf. Vol. II. Pl. 19.

Inhabits the north-eastern portion of Australia, and is common at Cape York.

59. Dacelo cervina, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 20.

Inhabits the north-western parts of Australia, particularly the Cobourg Peninsula.

In his ‘Journal of an Overland Expedition from Moreton Bay to Port Essington,’ Dr. Leichardt states that when near the Gulf of Carpentaria, “The laughing jackass (Dacelo Cervina, Gould) of this part of the country is of a different species from that of the eastern coast, is of a smaller size and speaks a different language; but the noise is by no means so ridiculous as that of Dacelo gigantea; he is heard before sunrise, and immediately after sunset, like his representative of the eastern coast; the latter was observed as far as the upper Lynd, where the new one made its appearance.”—P. 326.

Genus Halcyon, Swains.

The members of this genus, as now restricted, are found in all the islands of the Indian Archipelago, Australia, and New Zealand. The Australian species, which are four in number, have many habits in common with the Dacelos, and like them dwell among other places on the open plains, far away from water, and consequently must live for considerable periods without a supply of that element.

60. Halcyon sanctus, Vig. & Horsf. Vol. II. Pl. 21.
61. Halcyon pyrrhopygia, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 22.

Captain Sturt found this species at the Depôt, and I have received specimens from the Swan River Settlement; consequently it has a very wide range, but is more an inhabitant of the interior than of the districts near the coast.

62. Halcyon sordidus, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 23.
63. Halcyon MacLeayii, Jard. & Selb. Vol. II. Pl. 24.

Independently of the Cobourg Peninsula, I have received specimens of this bird from Moreton Bay and other parts of the east coast.

Genus Alcyone, Swains.

The Australian members of this genus are so intimately allied that I have only deemed it necessary to figure two species, viz. Alcyone azurea and A. pusilla; the two species not figured are both nearly allied to A. azurea, and may be considered its northern and southern prototypes, since the one to which I have given the name of pulchra inhabits the north coast, and the other, which I have called Diemenensis, inhabits Van Diemen’s Land. The A. azurea inhabits the intermediate or rather the south-eastern portions of the country, but no species of the genus has yet been found in Western Australia. They all frequent the margins of rivers, and live on small fish and insects, and have many habits in common with the members of the genus Alcedo, of which the Kingfisher of Europe, A. Ispida, is the type. Although some species are found in New Guinea and the Indian Islands, Australia is the country in which birds of this form are most abundant.

64. Alcyone azurea Vol. II. Pl. 25.
65. Alcyone Diemenensis, Gould.  

All the upper surface deep blue, becoming more vivid on the rump and upper tail-coverts; wings black xxxiiwashed with blue; throat buff; under surface of the body and wings ferruginous orange; on each side of the chest a patch of bluish black; lores and a small patch behind the ears buff; crown of the head indistinctly barred with black; irides and bill black; feet orange. Total length 6½ inches; bill, 2; wing, 3⅛; tail, 1¾; tarsi, ½.

Inhabits Van Diemen’s Land.

More robust than Alcyone azurea, or A. pulchra, and differing from both in the blue of the upper surface being tinged with green.

66. Alcyone pulchra, Gould.  

All the upper surface shining purplish blue; wings brownish black; lores, tuft behind the ear, and throat buff; under surface deep ferruginous orange; sides of the chest fine purplish blue, passing into a rich vinous tint on the flanks; irides and bill black; feet orange. Total length 6 inches; bill, 2; wing, 2⅞; tail, 1½; tarsi ½.

Inhabits the north coast of Australia.

This is the finest coloured species of the Australian Alcyones, and is distinguished by the beautiful vinous colouring of the flanks.

67. Alcyone pusilla Vol. II. Pl. 26.

Family ——?

Genus Artamus, Vieill.

The members of this singular genus are distributed over New Guinea, Ceram, the Indian Islands and the continent of India, but are more numerous in Australia than elsewhere, its fauna comprising no less than seven well-defined species.

68. Artamus sordidus Vol. II. Pl. 27.
69. Artamus minor, Vieill. Vol. II. Pl. 28.

Mr. Gilbert found this species breeding in the interior of the country during Dr. Leichardt’s overland journey to Port Essington.

70. Artamus cinereus, Vieill. Vol. II. Pl. 29.
71. Artamus albiventris, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 30.
72. Artamus personatus, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 31.
73. Artamus superciliosus, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 32.
74. Artamus leucopygialis, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 33.

Family ——?

Genus Dicæum, Cuv.

The continent of India, the Indian Islands and New Guinea are the countries in which the members of this genus abound; as yet only a single species has been found in Australia.

75. Dicæum hirundinaceum Vol. II. Pl. 34.

Family PIPRIDÆ, Vig.

Genus Pardalotus, Vieill.

This form is peculiar to Australia, in every portion of which great country, including Van Diemen’s Land, one or other of the species I have figured are to be found; some of them associated in the same district, and even inhabiting the same trees, while in other parts only a single species exists; for instance, the P. punctatus, xxxiiiP. quadragintus and P. affinis inhabit Van Diemen’s Land; on the whole of the southern coast of the continent from east to west P. punctatus and P. striatus are associated; the north coast is the cradle of the species I have called P. uropygialis, and the east coast that of P. melanocephalus, from both of which countries the others are excluded; the true habitat of the beautiful species I have figured and described as P. rubricatus is not yet known.

The seven species of this little group are each individually very numerous, which, together with their general distribution, may enable them to effect some important operation in the economy of nature; their chief food consisting of the larvæ of insects.

76. Pardalotus punctatus Vol. II. Pl. 35.
77. Pardalotus rubricatus, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 36.
78. Pardalotus quadragintus, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 37.
79. Pardalotus striatus Vol. II. Pl. 38.
80. Pardalotus affinis, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 39.
81. Pardalotus melanocephalus, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 40.
82. Pardalotus uropygialis, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 41.

Family LANIADÆ, Vig.

Genus Strepera, Less.

Prior to the commencement of the present work only two species of this form (S. graculina and S. Anaphonensis) had been described, and these had been referred to a different genus by almost every author who had occasion to mention them; the older writers assigning them to Corvus, Coracias and Gracula, and the more modern ones to Cracticus and Barita: finding that their structure did not agree with the character of either of those genera, I (in 1837) proposed to make the first-mentioned species the type of a new genus (Coronica), not being aware at the time that this had been done some years before by M. Lesson, whose name, having the priority, is necessarily the one adopted.

My researches in Australia have enabled me to add four other species to the group, three possessing well-defined specific characters, and one, the distinctive markings of which are not so apparent, but which, in my opinion, is equally distinct; the specific characters of some groups of birds are, in fact, so difficult to be determined, both from the similarity of the species and the want of a knowledge of their natural habits, as to cause the naturalist no little trouble and research in properly distinguishing them; and to no group does this remark more strongly apply than to the one under consideration; the ample materials, however, at my command, and the possession of a large number of specimens, the sexes of which have all been ascertained by dissection, and the habits of which have been observed in their native localities, enables me to give as perfect an account of this curious group as any I have yet attempted.

On a careful examination of the members of this genus, it will be perceived that their relationship to the Corvidæ, to which they have been usually assigned, is very remote, their size and colour being, in fact, the only features of resemblance; their whole structure and economy is indeed very different from those of every other bird known, except those of Gymnorhina and Cracticus, with which genera they form a very natural group among the great family of Laniadæ or Shrikes.

All the species yet discovered are not only peculiar to Australia, but are strictly confined to the southern portion of that continent; their range being limited to the country comprised within the 25th and 40th degrees of south latitude; future research may, however, add both to the number of species and to the extent of their range; still their great stronghold is undoubtedly the most southern portion of the Australian continent, the islands of Bass’s Straits and Van Diemen’s Land.

Most of these birds seek their food on or near the ground, sometimes in swampy situations, and even on the sea-shore, at others on the most sterile plains far distant from water; grasshoppers and insects of every order are eaten by them with avidity, and to these grain, seeds and fruits are frequently added; they hop with remarkable agility over the broken surface of the ground, and leap from branch to branch with great alacrity: their flight is xxxivfeeble and protracted, and they seldom mount high in the air, except for the purpose of crossing a gully, or for passing from one part of the forest to another, and then merely over the tops of the trees; during flight they usually utter a peculiar shrill cry, which is frequently repeated and answered by other birds of the same troop, for they mostly flit about in small companies of from four to six in number, apparently the parents and their offspring of the year. All the species occasionally descend to the cultivated grounds, orchards and gardens of the settlers, and commit considerable havoc among their fruits and grain; in many parts of Australia, particularly in Van Diemen’s Land, they form an article of food, and are considered good and even delicate eating. They usually build open cup-shaped nests as large as that of the Crow, composed of sticks and other coarse materials, lined with grasses or any other suitable substance that may be at hand; the eggs are generally three, but are sometimes four, in number. The sexes are similar in plumage, and the young assume the livery of the adult from the time they leave the nest.

83. Strepera graculina Vol. II. Pl. 42.
84. Strepera fuliginosa, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 43.
85. Strepera Arguta, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 44.
86. Strepera Anaphonensis Vol. II. Pl. 45.
87. Strepera melanoptera, Gould.  

All the upper surface, wings, and tail black; under surface brownish black, tinged with grey on the abdomen; under tail-coverts and tips of all but the two centre tail-feathers white; irides yellow; bill and feet black.

Total length, 19 inches; bill, 2; wings, 11; tail, 9; tarsi, 2⅝.

This species inhabits South Australia, and is distinguished from all its congeners by the total absence of any white mark on the wings; in other respects it is so similar to S. Arguta, that I have not considered it necessary to give a figure of it.

Genus Gymnorhina, G. R. Gray.

Like Strepera this is strictly an Australian form, all the species of which frequent exclusively the southern parts of the country. Their structure is a mere modification of that of the members of the last genus adapted to a somewhat different mode of life and habits. They are more pastoral than the Streperæ, frequenting as they do the open plains and grassy downs, over which they run or rather hop with great facility. Their chief food consists of grasshoppers and other insects, to which berries and fruits are added, when such kinds of food are procurable. If unmolested in their natural haunts they may be considered a more familiar race than the Streperæ, but if persecuted they become extremely shy and distrustful. Few birds are more ornamental, or give a more animated appearance to the country than the members of this genus, either when running over the surface of the lawn-like ground, or when pouring forth their singular choral-like notes while perched together on the bare branches of a fallen Eucalyptus. The form and situation of the nest is the same as those of the Streperæ, larger, but not unlike that of the European Crow.

Specimens of this form from Western Australia exhibit some trifling differences, but I have not as yet been able to satisfy myself whether they are or are not distinct.

88. Gymnorhina Tibicen Vol. II. Pl. 46.
89. Gymnorhina leuconota, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 47.
90. Gymnorhina organicum, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 48.

Genus Cracticus, Vieill.

The members of this genus, which are universally dispersed over Australia, prey upon small quadrupeds, birds, lizards and insects, which they frequently impale after the manner of the ordinary Shrikes. Their xxxvnidification resembles that of the species belonging to the genera Strepera and Gymnorhina, the nest being a large round structure placed among the branches of the trees, and the eggs four in number. So great a similarity exists between the birds inhabiting New South Wales, Van Diemen’s Land, and Swan River, that I have thought it unnecessary to figure the whole, but the annexed descriptions, with a due attention to the localities, will obviate all difficulty in determining the species.

91. Cracticus nigrogularis, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 49.
92. Cracticus picatus, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 50.
93. Cracticus argenteus, Gould Vol. II. Pl 51.
94. Cracticus destructor Vol. II. Pl. 52.
95. Cracticus cinereus, Gould.  

Inhabits Van Diemen’s Land, and may be distinguished from C. destructor by its much longer bill, and, when fully adult, by its grey back.

96. Cracticus leucopterus, Gould.  

Inhabits Western Australia; is of the same size as C. destructor, but has the white mark on the wings much larger and more clearly defined.

97. Cracticus Quoyii Vol. II. Pl. 53.

Genus Grallina, Vieill.

Only one species of this genus is at present known. It is peculiar to Australia, over every portion of which country it is dispersed; and it may be considered one of the anomalies of the Australian ornithology, since its alliance to any group of birds with which we are acquainted is very remote.

98. Grallina Australis Vol. II. Pl. 54.

Genus Graucalus, Cuv.

The woods of every part of the Old World from India to Australia are tenanted by species of this genus, which, from their great size, their being strictly insectivorous, and individually very numerous, must tend to keep insect life in check, and consequently perform a most important part in the economy of nature.

In my description of Graucalus melanops, I have stated that New South Wales, Van Diemen’s Land, Swan River and Port Essington, are each inhabited by Grauculi so nearly allied to each other that it was questionable whether they were not one and the same species, and that the slight differences they present were attributable to some peculiarity in the districts they inhabit; after much attention to the subject, I have been induced to regard the Van Diemen’s Land bird as distinct, and I have therefore assigned it a name, parvirostris; those of the other countries appear to be local varieties or races peculiar to their respective habitats.

All the members of the group build a flat slight nest of fine short dead twigs, curiously joined together with cobwebs, on which they lay two eggs.

99. Graucalus melanops Vol. II. Pl. 55.
100. Graucalus parvirostris, Gould.  

Forehead, sides of the face and the throat jet black; crown of the head, all the upper surface and centre of xxxvithe wings delicate grey; primaries and the inner webs of the secondaries deep brownish black, the former narrowly and the latter broadly margined with greyish white; tail grey at the base, passing into deep brownish black and largely tipped with white, the grey colour predominating on the two centre feathers, which are destitute of the white tips; chest grey, into which the black of the throat gradually passes; lower part of the abdomen, under surface of the wing and under tail-coverts white; flanks and thighs grey; bill and feet brownish black.

Total length, 12 inches; bill, 1½; wing, 7½; tail, 6; tarsi, 1.

Inhabits Van Diemen’s Land.

101. Graucalus mentalis, Vig. & Horsf. Vol. II. Pl. 56.
102. Graucalus hypoleucus, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 57.
103. Graucalus Swainsonii, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 58.

Genus Pteropodocys, Gould.

Generic characters.

Bill small, shorter than the head, nearly cylindrical; tomia curved and pointing downwards; a well-defined notch at the extremity of the upper mandible; nostrils basal, round, and covered with the short feathers of the forehead; wings long and pointed, the fourth feather the longest; tail lengthened, the four middle and the lateral feather on each side shorter than the rest; tarsi long, stout; toes rather short, the inner toe longer than the outer one, hind-toe large and lengthened, the toe and nail nearly equalling in length the middle toe and nail.

The general structure of the only known species of this form resembles that of Graucalus and of Campephaga, but the bill is so small as to be quite out of proportion with the body; its lengthened wings and tarsi adapt it both for flight and for moving rapidly over the surface of the ground.

104. Pteropodocys Phasianellus, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 59.

Inhabits the whole of the interior of Southern Australia from east to west; the extent of its range northward has not been ascertained. It has many habits in common with the Graucali; but while those birds are destined for the trees the present bird is adapted for the ground, where it procures and feeds upon insects of various genera, particularly locusts and grasshoppers. It frequents the open plains in small companies of from three to six or eight in number, and is very animated in its actions, but at the same time most cautious and shy.

Genus Campephaga, Vieill.

The members of this genus are spread over India and the Indian Islands, and the fauna of Australia comprises four species; they are allied to the Graucali, but are much smaller in size, and more active among the branches.

The sexes are generally very dissimilar in colour and markings, while in Graucalus they are alike. The nidification and the form of the nests of the two genera are very similar.

105. Campephaga Jardinii, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 60.
106. Campephaga Karu Vol. II. Pl. 61.
107. Campephaga leucomela, Vig. & Horsf. Vol. II. Pl. 62.
108. Campephaga humeralis, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 63.

Genus Pachycephala, Swains.

The Pachycephala gutturalis may be regarded as the type of this group of birds, which is peculiarly Australian, and comprises many species, universally distributed over the country. Their habits differ from those of most other insectivorous birds, particularly in their quiet mode of hopping about and traversing the branches of the trees in search of insects and their larvæ: caterpillars constitute a great portion of their food; but coleoptera and other insects are not rejected. The more gaily-attired species, such as P. gutturalis, P. glaucura, P. melanura and P. pectoralis, resort to the flowering Acaciæ, Eucalypti and other stately trees, while the more dull-coloured ones xxxviifrequent the ground: they all build a neat, round, cup-shaped nest, and the eggs are generally four in number. Their powers of flight are not great: some of the species enjoy a wide range of habitat, while others are extremely local. The song of some is loud and rather pleasing, while others merely emit a whistling note, slowly but frequently repeated.

109. Pachycephala gutturalis Vol. II. Pl. 64.
110. Pachycephala glaucura, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 65.
111. Pachycephala melanura, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 66.
112. Pachycephala pectoralis Vol. II. Pl. 67.
113. Pachycephala falcata, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 68.
114. Pachycephala Lanoïdes, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 69.
115. Pachycephala rufogularis, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 70.
116. Pachycephala Gilbertii, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 71.
117. Pachycephala simplex, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 72.
118. Pachycephala olivacea, Vig. & Horsf. Vol. II. Pl. 73.

The two birds described by me in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society, Part V. p. 164, as P. xanthoprocta and P. longirostris, are both immature birds, and are, I believe, from Norfolk Island.

Genus Colluricincla, Vig. & Horsf.

Like the last group, the present is strictly confined to Australia, every one of the colonies of which country, from north to south and from east to west, is inhabited by a species peculiarly and restrictedly its own. They have many characters in common with the Pachycephalæ, which they also resemble in their actions, food, economy and nidification. They are neither Shrikes nor Thrushes, but are most nearly allied to the former; they are insect-feeders to a very great extent, but occasionally partake of mollusks and berries. Some of them defend themselves vigorously with both bill and claws when attacked. Their voice is a loud whistle, some parts of which are not devoid of melody, particularly the loud swelling notes.

The nest is rather slightly built, round and cup-shaped in form, and is mostly placed in the hollow spout of a tree: the eggs are four in number.

119. Colluricincla harmonica Vol. II. Pl. 74.

Inhabits New South Wales.

120. Colluricincla rufiventris, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 75.

Inhabits Western Australia.

121. Colluricincla brunnea, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 76.

Inhabits Port Essington.

122. Colluricincla Selbii, Jard. Vol. II. Pl. 77.

Inhabits Van Diemen’s Land.

123. Colluricincla parvula, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 78.

Inhabits the northern parts of the country.

124. Colluricincla rufogaster, Gould.  

I have assigned this name to a bird lately sent to me by Mr. Strange from the brushes of the Clarence in New South Wales; it may hereafter prove to be identical with the last-mentioned species, C. parvula, the form and xxxviiiadmeasurements being precisely the same; but the bird from New South Wales has a lighter coloured bill, and the whole of the under surface washed with deep rufous.

The locality of the bird described by me in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society, Part IV. p. 6, as Colluricincla fusca, being still unknown, that species has not been included.

Genus Falcunculus, Vieill.

The two species of this genus are not only strictly Australian, but are confined to the southern parts of the country; the F. frontatus inhabiting New South Wales and South Australia, and the F. leucogaster Western Australia. When attacked by their natural enemies or by man, both species defend themselves with their powerful bill and claws with the utmost fury; they also by the same means readily tear off pieces of rotten wood and the thin scaly bark of the Eucalypti in search of insects. The branches of trees are their usual place of resort, and in many of their actions and habits they closely resemble the Tits of Europe and India (genus Parus), while they also assimilate to the Pachycephalæ. They build a round, cup-shaped nest.

125. Falcunculus frontatus Vol. II. Pl. 79.
126. Falcunculus leucogaster, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 80.

Mr. Gilbert states that while staying in the Toodyay district of Western Australia in the month of October, he found the nest of this species among the topmost and weakest perpendicular branches of a Eucalyptus, at a height of at least fifty feet: it was of a deep cup-shaped form, composed of the stringy bark of the gum-tree, and lined with fine grasses, the whole matted together externally with cobwebs; the eggs, which are three or four in number, are of a glossy white with numerous minute speckles of dark olive most thickly disposed at the larger end; they are seven-eighths of an inch long by five-eighths of an inch in breadth. He adds, that under ordinary circumstances it is a somewhat shy bird, but when breeding becomes bold and familiar; as an evidence of which he adduces the fact that a flock of sheep were driven every night beneath the tree upon which the nest was being constructed without giving the least alarm to the birds.

Genus Oreoïca, Gould.

Generic characters.

Bill shorter than the head, stout, compressed laterally, and notched at the tip; culmen bent gradually downwards from the base; lower mandible nearly as stout as the upper; nostrils basal, round, and nearly covered with very fine short hair-like feathers directed forwards, among which are intermingled a few long fine hairs; wings rather long, the first quill short, the third the longest; tertiaries very long, and nearly equalling the primaries; tail short and very slightly rounded; tarsi moderately long and stout, entire posteriorly, and defended anteriorly with hard scuta; feet adapted for the ground; toes very short, particularly the hind one, inner toe rather shorter than the outer; claws short, and nearly straight.

The only species known of this form is strictly Australian, and is a sprightly animated bird frequenting the sterile districts studded with large trees, scrubs, and open glades, where it hops about on the ground in search of insects. Notwithstanding the singularly lengthened form of its scapularies and its terrestrial habits, it appears to me to belong to the same type of form as the Pachycephalæ; its loud piping note and mode of nidification also favours this opinion. It lays three or four eggs, in a round, cup-shaped nest, placed either in a grass tree (Xanthorrhœa) or in a hole or stump of a decayed upright tree.

127. Oreoïca gutturalis Vol. II. Pl. 81.

Genus Dicrurus, Vieill.

A genus of which many species inhabit India and Africa, but of which only one has yet been found in Australia.

128. Dicrurus bracteatus, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 82.
xxxix

Family MUSCICAPIDÆ, Vig.

Genus Rhipidura, Vig. & Horsf.

Many species of this genus occur in India, the Indian Islands, New Guinea, and Polynesia; and five or six are comprised in the fauna of Australia, over every part of which country, including Van Diemen’s Land, one or other member of the group is found to exist.

129. Rhipidura albiscapa, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 83.
130. Rhipidura rufifrons Vol. II. Pl. 84.
131. Rhipidura Dryas, Gould.  

Inhabits the north coast. I have not figured this species because it only differs from R. rufifrons in being of a smaller size, and in the red colouring at the base of the tail-feathers being more extensive.

132. Rhipidura isura, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 85.
133. Rhipidura Motacilloïdes, Vig. & Horsf. Vol. II. Pl. 86.
134. Rhipidura picata, Gould.  

Not figured, being similar in colour but much smaller than R. Motacilloïdes; it inhabits Port Essington.

Genus Seïsura, Vig. & Horsf.

The present genus and Rhipidura are mere modifications of each other; a difference of structure, however, exists of sufficient importance to justify their separation, and, as is always the case, a corresponding difference is found in the habits of the species.

The present form is restricted to Australia.

135. Seïsura inquieta Vol. II. Pl. 87.

Genus Piezorhynchus, Gould.

Generic characters.

Bill longer than the head; deeper than broad, almost cylindrical; compressed on the sides, notched at the tip; nostrils basal, small and round; wings short; first primary moderate, the fourth the longest; tail rather short and round; tarsi moderately long and somewhat feeble; the inner and middle toes connected as far as the first joint, the outer one the longest.

The only species of this genus yet discovered is a native of the northern parts of Australia, from Cape York to Port Essington, where it frequents the dense beds of Mangroves.

136. Piezorhynchus nitidus, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 88.

Genus Myiägra, Vig. & Horsf.

A group of insectivorous birds, the greater number of which inhabit the Indian Islands and Polynesia, and of which four species are found in Australia.

137. Myiägra plumbea, Vig. & Horsf. Vol. II. Pl. 89.
138. Myiägra concinna, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 90.
139. Myiägra nitida, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 91.
140. Myiägra latirostris, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 92.
xl

Genus Micrœca, Gould.

Generic characters.

Bill shorter than the head, depressed, broad at the base; gonys straight; curving downwards and slightly notched at the tip; nostrils round, placed at the base of the bill, which is beset with strong bristles; wings lengthened and powerful, first primary short, the third the longest; tail rather short and nearly square; tarsi moderate and feeble; toes feeble, the external toe much longer than the internal one.

Three species of this genus inhabit Australia, to which country they are confined.

141. Micrœca macroptera. Vol. II. Pl. 93.
142. Micrœca assimilis, Gould.  

All the upper surface brown, primaries dark brown; tail brownish black; the tips and the terminal half of the external margins of the two outer feathers white; the three next on each side also tipped with white, the extent of the white becoming less upon each feather as they approach the centre of the tail; the four middle feathers without the white tip; throat, centre of the abdomen and under tail-coverts white, passing into pale brown on the sides of the chest and flanks; irides reddish brown; bill and feet blackish brown.

Total length, 4⅝ inches; bill, 9
16
; wings, 3⅜; tail, 2⅛; tarsi, 9
16
.

Inhabits Western Australia; and is so nearly allied to the Micrœca macroptera, from which it only differs in being much less in size and in having the base of the outer tail-feather brown, that I have not considered it necessary to figure it.

143. Micrœca flavigaster Vol. II. Pl. 94.

Genus Monarcha, Vig. & Horsf.

Several species of this genus occur in the Indian Islands and two in Australia. They are insectivorous birds, and procure their food by quietly hopping about among the branches of the trees.

144. Monarcha carinata Vol. II. Pl. 95.
145. Monarcha trivirgata Vol. II. Pl. 96.

Genus Gerygone, Gould.

Generic characters.

Bill shorter than the head, swollen, notched at the tip; commissure straight; nostrils basal, lateral, oval; rictus beset with two or three extremely fine and weak bristles; wings moderately long, first quill almost spurious, second long, third, fourth and fifth equal and longest; tail rather short and square; tarsi entire, slender, moderately long; toes extremely short and small, the lateral toes even, and united to the middle one nearly to the first joint; claws much curved.

The term Psilopus was originally proposed by me for this genus, but that name having been previously employed, Gerygone was substituted for it.

A group inhabiting every part of Australia, and probably New Guinea and Polynesia. Their chief food consists of insects of the most diminutive size, such as aphides, gnats and mosquitos. The more thickly-billed species may probably feed upon larger insects and their larvæ. They mostly frequent the thick umbrageous woods, where they dart about for insects under the canopy of the dense foliage, or sally forth into the open glade like true Flycatchers. Their nests are of a domed form, with the entrance near the top, some species protecting the opening by constructing a projection above it like the eaves of a house; the eggs are generally four in number, and spotted with red like those of the Maluri and Pari.

xli
146. Gerygone albogularis, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 97.
147. Gerygone fusca, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 98.
148. Gerygone culicivorus, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 99.
149. Gerygone magnirostris, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 100.
150. Gerygone lævigaster, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 101.
151. Gerygone chloronotus, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 102.

Genus Smicrornis, Gould.

Generic characters.

Bill very small and short, swollen at the sides; nostrils basal, oblong and protected by an operculum; at the base of the bill a few fine hairs; wings moderately long, first quill very short; the first, third, fourth and fifth equal and the longest; tail short and square; tarsi moderate; toes rather short, adapted for clinging; the hinder and the middle toes equal in length.

The members of this genus are the smallest birds of the Australian fauna. I have described two species, one inhabiting New South Wales and the other Port Essington; and had I characterized the bird of this form inhabiting Western Australia as distinct, I should most likely not have been in error, as it is probable that when the subject has been more fully investigated it will prove to be so.

152. Smicrornis brevirostris, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 103.
153. Smicrornis flavescens, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 104.

Family SYLVIADÆ, Vig.

Subfamily SAXICOLINÆ, Bonap.

Genus Erythrodryas, Gould.

Generic characters.

As in Petroïca, but with the bill shorter and more flattened at the base, where it is beset with a number of fine hairs which curve forward and overhang the nostrils; wings shorter and more rounded; first and second primaries much shorter than the rest; the fifth the longest; tarsi shorter; toes more lengthened; lateral toes nearly even; claws much sharper and more curved.

The members of the genus Erythrodryas are much more delicate in structure than the Petroïcæ, have their feeble bill strongly beset with bristles, and are more arboreal in their habits; their usual places of resort being the innermost recesses of the forest, where, in a state of quiet seclusion, they flit about in search of insects; the true Petroïcæ, on the other hand, frequent open plains, are more bold and vigorous, and possess a structure which adapts them for the ground over which they pass like the Saxicolæ.

The two species of this genus, all that are at present known, are confined to the south-eastern portions of Australia and Van Diemen’s Land.

154. Erythrodryas rhodinogaster Vol. II. Pl. 1.
155. Erythrodryas rosea, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 2.

Genus Petroïca, Swains.

The birds I have retained in this genus might with propriety be divided by separating the pied Robins from the red-breasted species. The dusky Robin of Van Diemen’s Land and the white eyebrowed Robin of the north-east coast of Australia would also constitute another group of equal value with Erythrodryas, Drymodes and Eöpsaltria.

The red-breasted Petroïcæ are confined to the south-eastern portions of Australia, Van Diemen’s Land and Norfolk Island; but I believe that the range of the pied birds extends to New Guinea.

xliiEach of the sections I have indicated present some difference in their nidification and in the colouring of their eggs, which tends to confirm the propriety of the view I have taken of the subject.

156. Petroïca multicolor Vol. II. Pl. 3.
157. Petroïca erythrogastra Vol. II. Pl. 4.
158. Petroïca Goodenovii Vol. II. Pl. 5.
159. Petroïca phœnicea, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 6.
160. Petroïca bicolor, Swains. Vol. II. Pl. 7.
161. Petroïca fusca, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 8.
162. Petroïca superciliosa, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 9.

Genus Drymodes, Gould.

Generic characters.

Bill straight, rather compressed on the sides near the tip, nearly as long as the head; a slight notch at the tip; beset at the base with a few fine bristles; wings moderately long, rounded, the first quill very short, the fifth the longest; tail rather long, slightly rounded; tarsi long, slender, entire before; toes moderately long, the outer toe rather longer than the inner; the hind-toe and nail shorter than the middle toe and nail.

The only species of this genus yet discovered ranges over the whole of the country from Southern to Western Australia. Its form is adapted for the ground, but it occasionally resorts to low shrubby trees.

163. Drymodes brunneopygia, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 10.

Genus Eöpsaltria, Swains.

Three species of this genus are all that are yet known; two of these are natives of Western Australia, and the third of New South Wales.

164. Eöpsaltria Australis Vol. II. Pl. 11.
165. Eöpsaltria griseogularis, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 12.
166. Eöpsaltria leucogaster, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 13.

Subfamily MENURINÆ, G. R. Gray.

Genus Menura, Dav.

It might have been expected that the various explorations which have of late years been made into the previously unknown regions of Australia would have led to the discovery of some additional species of this genus, or of some new form more nearly allied to it than those with which it is associated, but nothing of the kind has occurred.

167. Menura superba, Dav. Vol. II. Pl. 14.

This remarkable bird is not only confined to Australia, but exclusively to the south-eastern part of the country. I regret to say that I have not been able to gain any further information respecting its nidification, although I have urged many persons in Australia to pay particular attention to the subject.

xliii

Genus Psophodes, Vig. & Horsf.

Among the many novelties comprised in the present work is a second species of this form, of which only one was previously known.

168. Psophodes crepitans Vol. II. Pl. 15.

Inhabits the south-eastern parts of Australia.

169. Psophodes nigrogularis, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 16.

This new species is a native of the western coast.

Genus Sphenostoma, Gould.

Generic characters.

Bill very short, compressed laterally, wedge-shaped, upper mandible without a notch at the tip, two or three fine hairs at the base; tomia straight; nostrils basal, round, open; wings very short and round, the fourth, fifth and sixth primaries nearly equal and the longest; tail long and graduated; tarsi moderately long and strong, shielded before with several plates, entire behind; toes short, hind-toe strong, lateral toes unequal, the inner one the shortest.

The only known species of this genus frequents the sterile parts of the interior of Australia generally, particularly those portions of the country clothed with low shrubs and bushes.

170. Sphenostoma cristata, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 17.

Genus Malurus, Vieill.

The members of this genus are among the most beautiful of the Australian birds; in no group, in fact, with the exception of the Trochilidæ or Humming-birds, is the splendour of their plumage excelled. Their gay attire is, however, only assumed during the pairing season, and is retained for a very short period, after which the sexes are alike in colouring.

The genus is strictly an Australian one, and with one or two exceptions, all the species are confined to the southern parts of the continent and Van Diemen’s Land.

171. Malurus cyaneus Vol. II. Pl. 18.
172. Malurus longicaudus, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 19.
173. Malurus melanotus, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 20.
174. Malurus splendens Vol. II. Pl. 21.
175. Malurus elegans, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 22.
176. Malurus pulcherrimus, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 23.
177. Malurus Lamberti, Vig. & Horsf. Vol. II. Pl. 24.
178. Malurus leucopterus, Quoy & Gaim. Vol. II. Pl. 25.
179. Malurus melanocephalus, Vig. & Horsf. Vol. II. Pl. 26.
180. Malurus Brownii, Vig. & Horsf. Vol. II. Pl. 27.

Genus Amytis, Less.

A form nearly allied to Malurus, strictly Australian, and of which three species are known, inhabiting the southern half of the country and not occurring in Van Diemen’s Land.

xliv
181. Amytis textilis Vol. II. Pl. 28.
182. Amytis striatus Vol. II. Pl. 29.
183. Amytis macrourus, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 30.

Genus Stipiturus, Less.

A form confined to Australia. Although some slight variation occurs in the specimens from Van Diemen’s Land, Southern and Western Australia, I believe that they are all referable to one and the same species, viz.—

184. Stipiturus malachurus Vol. II. Pl. 31.

Genus Dasyornis, Vig. & Horsf.

A group of birds adapted for situations covered with an almost impenetrable vegetation, reed-beds, &c. The two species figured are all that are at present known; of these one is from the eastern and the other from the western parts of Australia.

185. Dasyornis Australis, Vig. & Horsf. Vol. II. Pl. 32.
186. Dasyornis longirostris, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 33.

Prior to my visit to Australia, I described a bird in the ‘Proceedings of the Zoological Society,’ Part V. p. 150, as D.? brunneus, but as I have not since met with the bird in any collection from Australia I presume it is not a native of that country.

Genus Atrichia, Gould.

Rictus totally devoid of bristles; bill as long as the head, compressed laterally; the upper mandible distinctly notched at the tip; gonys ascending from the rictus and then following the line of the bill; culmen ascending high in front; nostrils moderately large, covered with an operculum, and placed in a groove near the base of the bill; wings short, round, concave, the first three primaries graduated, the fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh equal; tail lengthened, rounded, the stems rigid, the webs loose and decomposed; tarsi and feet robust, the hind-toe armed with a strong nail; outer and inner toes equal in length.

The only species of this genus yet discovered is as singular in its structure as it is shy and retiring in its habits; the total absence of vibrissæ in a bird apparently closely allied to Dasyornis, in which they are so much developed, renders it one of the anomalies of the Australian fauna.

187. Atrichia clamosa, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 34.

Subfamily ——?

Genus Sphenœacus, Strickl.

A group of reed- and grass-frequenting birds, which are found not only in every part of Australia, but also in the Indian Islands and India.

188. Sphenœacus galactotes Vol. II. Pl. 35.
189. Sphenœacus gramineus, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 36.
xlv

Genus Acrocephalus, Naum.

Of this European and Indian form two species inhabit Australia, where they frequent the reed-beds and the dense herbage of marshy situations.

190. Acrocephalus Australis, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 37.
191. Acrocephalus longirostris, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 38.

Subfamily ——?

Genus Hylacola, Gould.

Bill shorter than the head, compressed; equally broad and high at the base; culmen gradually declining from the base to the tip; slightly notched at the apex; rictus beset with a few fine hairs; nostrils basal, oblong, rather large and defended by an operculum; wings short, round and concave; first, second and third primaries graduated; the fourth, fifth and sixth equal, and the longest; tail rather long and round; tarsi moderate in size; toes rather lengthened, the lateral toes equal.

A genus comprising two species peculiar to the southern parts of the country, one of which enjoys an extensive range from South Australia to Moreton Bay; the other has, as yet, only been found in the Great Murray Scrub.

192. Hylacola pyrrhopygia Vol. II. Pl. 39.
 
193. Hylacola cauta, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 40.

When I characterized this species in the ‘Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London,’ I had only seen a single example; I have since received a second, proving the correctness of my view of its being quite distinct from the H. pyrrhopygia, a fact disputed by Mr. Strickland, who had stated it to be his opinion that my figures were referable to one and the same species, but who upon an examination of the specimens themselves acknowledged he was in error.

Subfamily ——?

Genus Cysticola, Less.

However numerous birds of this form may be in Europe, Africa, Asia and the Indian Islands, Australia outvies them all in the number of species that frequent its grassy plains. With the exception of Van Diemen’s Land, every colony is inhabited by one or more species performing there precisely similar offices to those executed by the remaining species in the other parts of the world.

194. Cysticola magna, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 41.
195. Cysticola exilis Vol. II. Pl. 42.
196. Cysticola lineocapilla, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 43.
197. Cysticola isura, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 44.
198. Cysticola ruficeps, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 45.

Subfamily ——?

Genus Sericornis, Gould.

Generic characters.

Bill strong, straight, nearly as long as the head, compressed laterally towards and notched at the tip; nostrils basal, lateral, oval, and covered by an operculum; wings moderate, rounded, the first quill very short, the fourth, xlvififth and sixth nearly equal and the longest; tail moderate and square; tarsi long; hind-toe and claw strong, and nearly equal to the middle toe and claw in length; outer and inner toes equal; plumage soft and silky to the touch.

A group of small birds peculiar to Australia, and confined almost exclusively to the southern portion of the country. Their habits lead them to frequent the most retired parts of the forests, damp and secluded places and scrubby gullies where the herbage is thick and dense; but some species are found on the flat islands near the coast, covered with Salsolæ and other shrub-like trees; they usually frequent the ground, over which they pass with celerity, and when their haunts are intruded upon conceal themselves under the fallen or elided herbage. Their flight is peculiar and never protracted, and they all build domed nests like that of the common Wren (Troglodytes Europæus).

199. Sericornis citreogularis, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 46.
200. Sericornis humilis, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 47.
201. Sericornis osculans, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 48.
202. Sericornis frontalis Vol. II. Pl. 49.
203. Sericornis lævigaster, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 50.
204. Sericornis maculatus, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 51.
205. Sericornis magnirostris, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 52.

Subfamily ——?

Genus Acanthiza, Vig. & Horsf.

With the exception of the north coast, the Acanthizæ are dispersed over all the wooded districts of Australia and Van Diemen’s Land; some species frequenting the brushes, while others tenant the shrubs and belts of trees on the plains; others again are only found in such districts as the belts of the Murray.

Like some other large groups at present included under one generic title, the Acanthizæ might be divided with propriety; thus the A. pusilla, A. Diemenensis, &c., which are feeble in structure and strictly arboreal, might form one section; while the A. chrysorrhœa, A. Reguloïdes, &c., which resort to the ground, might form another. The nests of all the species that I have seen are of a domed form like that of the European Wren.

The members of this genus and the Maluri are frequently the foster-parents of the shining Cuckoo (Chrysococcyx lucidus).

206. Acanthiza pusilla Vol. II. Pl. 53.
207. Acanthiza Diemenensis, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 54.
208. Acanthiza Ewingii, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 55.
209. Acanthiza uropygialis, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 56.
210. Acanthiza apicalis, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 57.
211. Acanthiza pyrrhopygia, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 58.
212. Acanthiza inornata, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 59.
213. Acanthiza nana, Vig. & Horsf. Vol. II. Pl. 60.
214. Acanthiza lineata, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 61.
215. Acanthiza Reguloïdes, Vig. & Horsf. Vol. II. Pl. 62.
216. Acanthiza chrysorrhœa Vol. II. Pl. 63.

Genus Ephthianura, Gould.

Bill shorter than the head, nearly straight, compressed laterally, notched at the tip, gonys incurved; nostrils basal, linear, and covered by a membrane; wings long, first quill spurious, second very long, third and fourth equal xlviiand longest; tertials very long; tail short and truncate; tarsi entire, moderately long, slight; toes slender, the hinder toe and claw shorter than the middle one, the inner toe rather shorter than the outer.

Three species of this form are all that are at present known, and of these two are figured for the first time in the present work. They all inhabit the southern part of Australia, where they frequent the open districts studded with bushes and low trees; the E. albifrons is occasionally found on the open plains.

217. Ephthianura albifrons Vol. II. Pl. 64.
218. Ephthianura aurifrons, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 65.
219. Ephthianura tricolor, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 66.

Genus Xerophila, Gould.

Generic characters.

Bill short, semiconical, robust at the base, without any notch at the tip; and provided with a few hairs at the base of the upper mandible; nostrils round and covered by minute feathers; wings moderate in size; first primary short, the third and fourth the longest; tertiaries broad and somewhat elongated; tail moderate, square and slightly concave; tarsi robust; hind-toe strong, anterior toes feeble, the exterior longer than the inner one.

A curious form, of which only one species is known, and the situation of which in the natural system is quite undetermined. It has many of the actions and manners of the Acanthizæ, but its robust and gibbose bill precludes its being placed with that group. It is mainly terrestrial in its habits and builds a domed nest.

220. Xerophila leucopsis, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 67.

Genus Pyrrholæmus, Gould.

Generic characters.

Bill shorter than the head, slightly compressed at the sides, with a very minute notch at the tip, and beset with a few hairs at the base; nostrils linear and covered with an operculum; wings short, round, first primary rather short, the third the longest; tail short, round and concave, tarsi moderate; external toe longer than the inner one.

Another anomalous form, the structure of which does not approximate very nearly to that of any other genus, but is perhaps most nearly allied to Acanthiza. The only species known frequents scrubby places and thick underwood; is much on the ground, but occasionally mounts on a twig to sing.

221. Pyrrholæmus brunneus, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 68.

Genus Origma, Gould.

Bill nearly as long as the head, incurved, carinated, indented near the tip; nostrils oval, lateral, basal, and covered by an operculum; wings moderate, rounded, first quill short, fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh nearly equal and longest; tail moderate and slightly rounded; tarsi moderate; toes rather short, the outer toe much longer than the inner; plumage dense.

We are here again presented with another form, the structure, habits, and manners of which are all equally singular. The only species yet discovered inhabits New South Wales, where it frequents stony gullies and rocky situations in the neighbourhood of caverns, to the roofs of which it attaches its pendent nest, as shown in the Plate.

222. Origma rubricata Vol. II. Pl. 69.

Genus Calamanthus, Gould.

Generic characters.

Bill shorter than the head, dilated at the base, compressed laterally towards the tip; culmen sharp and advancing upon the forehead; nostrils lateral, large, oval, and covered by an operculum; rictus destitute of bristles; wings xlviiishort, round, the fourth quill the longest, the third, fifth, sixth and seventh equal; tail rather short and round; tarsi moderately long, defended anteriorly with indistinct scales; hind-toe rather long, with a long claw; lateral toes uneven, the outer one the shortest.

This group comprises two species, one inhabiting Van Diemen’s Land, the other Southern and Western Australia; they are terrestrial in their habits, but occasionally perch on the smaller branches of the trees.

223. Calamanthus fuliginosus Vol. II. Pl. 70.
224. Calamanthus campestris, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 71.

Genus Chthonicola, Gould.

Generic characters.

Bill short, gradually descending from the base; the upper mandible slightly notched at the tip, compressed laterally; tomia curving inwards; wings concave; the first primary very short, the third, fourth, fifth and sixth nearly equal and the longest; tail slightly concave, and all the feathers of an equal length; tarsi moderately long; toes short, the hinder toe somewhat longer than the middle one; front claws more curved than in the genus Anthus.

The single species known of this genus combines in a remarkable manner the outward appearance, habits and manners of the Acanthizæ and Anthi, but is, I believe, more nearly allied to the former than to the latter.

225. Chthonicola minima Vol. II. Pl. 72.

Rather widely dispersed over the grassy flats of New South Wales, and constructs a domed nest in a depression of the ground like the true Sylviæ.

Subfamily MOTACILLINÆ, Bonap.

Genus Anthus, Bechst.

Whether this Old World form is represented in Australia by more than a single species, is a point I have not satisfactorily determined; every part of its extra-tropical regions, including Van Diemen’s Land, is inhabited by Pipits which differ somewhat in size in almost every colony; still their difference is so slight that I have hitherto regarded them as mere varieties or local races.

226. Anthus Australis, Vig. & Horsf. Vol. II. Pl. 73.

Subfamily ——?

Genus Cincloramphus, Gould.

Bill rather shorter than the head; culmen slightly arched; the tip distinctly notched; the commissure slightly angulated at the base, and somewhat incurved for the remainder of its length; nostrils lateral, oval; wings moderate, rigid, first quill very long and nearly equal to the second and third, which are the longest; tertials nearly as long as the primaries; tail rather small and cuneiform; tarsi very strong and scutellated anteriorly; toes long and powerful, particularly the hinder one and claw, which is articulated on the same plane with the inner toe; lateral toes nearly equal.

The members of this genus, which are three in number, are closely allied to the Indian genus Megalurus, and present even a greater disparity in the size of the sexes; they are all confined to Australia, where they frequent the grassy plains and open districts. The song of the males is more animated than that of any other bird inhabiting the country.

227. Cincloramphus cruralis Vol. II. Pl. 74.
228. Cincloramphus cantillans, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 75.
229. Cincloramphus rufescens, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 76.

xlixSubfamily ALAUDINÆ, Bonap.

Genus Mirafra, Horsf.

One, if not two, species of this well-defined genus inhabit Australia. At present one only has been characterized; but the bird of this form, frequenting the intertropical portions of the country, may prove to be a distinct species.

230. Mirafra Horsfieldii, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 77.

Family FRINGILLIDÆ, Vig.

The Finches of Australia comprise twenty well-marked species, referable to several genera or subgenera, each of which exhibit a slight difference in structure, accompanied, as is always the case, by a difference in habit, and in the districts inhabited; thus the true Estreldæ frequent grassy patches in the glades of the forests, the open parts of gullies, &c.; the Amadinæ, the stony hills and flats; the Poëphilæ, the grass beds of the open plains; and the Donacolæ, the grasses of the marshy districts and reed-beds: of the habits of Emblema nothing is known; its pointed bill indicates some peculiarity in its economy differing from those of the other genera.

All the species build, I believe, large grassy nests with a spout-like opening.

The whole of those figured are peculiar to Australia.

Genus Estrelda, Swains.

231. Estrelda bella Vol. II. Pl. 78.
232. Estrelda oculea Vol. II. Pl. 79.
233. Estrelda Bichenovii Vol. II. Pl. 80.
234. Estrelda annulosa, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 81.
235. Estrelda temporalis Vol. II. Pl. 82.
236. Estrelda Phaëton, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 83.
237. Estrelda ruficauda, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 84.
238. Estrelda modesta.  
    Amadina modesta, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 85.

Genus Amadina, Swains.

239. Amadina Lathami Vol. II. Pl. 86.
240. Amadina castanotis, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 87.

Genus Poëphila, Gould.

Generic characters.

Bill considerably swollen at the base, rendering it nearly as deep and broad as it is long; wings moderately long, the first quill rudimentary, the four next equal in length; feet plantigrade, toes slender; the middle toe much longer than the lateral ones, which are equal in length; hind-toe much shorter than the middle one; tail strictly cuneiform, the two middle feathers much produced.

241. Poëphila Gouldiæ.  
    Amadina Gouldiæ, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 88.
242. Poëphila mirabilis, Homb. et Jacq. Vol. II. Pl. 89.
l243. Poëphila acuticauda, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 90.
244. Poëphila personata, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 91.
245. Poëphila leucotis, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 92.
246. Poëphila cincta, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 93.

Genus Donacola, Gould.

Generic characters.

As in the genus Amadina, but with the bill much more developed and gibbose at the base, with the culmen elevated and the lower mandible retiring backward on the face; wings shorter and rounder; feet more adapted for clinging, and remarkable for the greater development of the hind-toe and nail; tail-feathers rigid.

247. Donacola castaneothorax, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 94.
248. Donacola pectoralis, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 95.
249. Donacola flaviprymna, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 96.

Genus Emblema, Gould.

Generic characters.

Bill nearly as long as the head, conical, and much resembling that of the genus Ploceus; wings moderately long as compared with the body; first quill rudimentary, the four next equal in length; tertiaries much lengthened; tail moderately long and nearly square, or slightly rounded; feet plantigrade; toes extremely slender, the middle toe much longer than the lateral ones, which are equal in length.

250. Emblema picta, Gould Vol. II. Pl. 97.

The single example of this beautiful bird, which was procured and presented to me by B. Bynoe, Esq., is I believe all that has ever been seen; I regret to say it no longer graces my collection, having been stolen therefrom, together with some other valuable birds, in the year 1846.

Family MERULIDÆ, Vig.

Genus Pitta, Vieill.

The members of this genus extend from tropical India throughout the islands of the Indian Archipelago to Australia; one or two species also occur in Africa. Of the three inhabiting Australia the Pitta Iris is figured for the first time in the present work, and is one of the very finest species of this lovely group of birds.

251. Pitta strepitans, Temm. Vol. IV. Pl. 1.

Since my account of this species was printed I have received its eggs, accompanied by the following notes from Mr. Strange of Sydney:—

“I never saw any bird whose actions are more graceful than those of the Pitta strepitans, when seen in its native brushes, where its presence is indicated by its singular call, resembling the words ‘want a watch,’ by imitating which you can call it close to the muzzle of your gun; no sooner, however, does it commence breeding than it becomes shy and retiring, keeping out of sight in the most artful manner, moving about from place to place, and occasionally uttering its cry until it has drawn you away from the nest. The nests I have seen were placed in the spur of a fig-tree near the ground, outwardly constructed of sticks and lined with moss, leaves and fine pieces of bark; the eggs are four in number,” of a pale creamy-white marked all over with irregularly-shaped blotches of brown and deep vinous grey, the latter appearing as if beneath the surface of the shell; they are one inch and a quarter in length by seven-eighths of an inch in breadth.

li
252. Pitta Vigorsii, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 2.

I regret to say that up to the present time I have not been able to obtain any information respecting this species, the specimen of which, in the Linnean Society’s Collection, is the only evidence we have of its occurring in Australia; I believe New Guinea to be its true habitat.

253. Pitta Iris, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 3.

Genus Cinclosoma, Vig. & Horsf.

Among the novelties comprised in the present work, there are none more important than the additional members of this genus; three well-defined species being described and figured, of which only one was previously known. The form is peculiar to Australia, and is, I believe, closely allied to my genus Ianthocincla, a group of birds confined to India.

254. Cinclosoma punctatum, Vig. & Horsf. Vol. IV. Pl. 4.
255. Cinclosoma castanotus, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 5.
256. Cinclosoma cinnamomeus, Gould Vol. IV. Pl 6.

When my drawing of this species was made, I had only seen the male; since then Captain Sturt has presented me with a female, which differs from the opposite sex in the absence of the black markings of the throat, breast and wings, which parts are brownish grey.

Genus Oreocincla, Gould.

Bill as long, or longer than the head, slightly incurved, compressed laterally; the tip of the upper mandible overhanging the under; notch considerably removed from the tip; tomia or cutting edges sharp; nostrils basal, oval; rictus beset with a few short hairs; wings moderately long and rigid, first quill very short, the fourth and fifth nearly equal, and the longest; tail rather short and square, the feathers rigid, and running to a point exteriorly; tarsi moderate, scales entire; toes slender, particularly the hinder one; outer toes nearly equal, but the inner one rather the shortest; general plumage silky to the touch; the rump-feathers spinous, as in Ceblepyris and Graucalus.

Species of this genus inhabit India, the Indian Islands and Australia, in which latter country, although much difference in size is observable in specimens from different localities, I believe only one exists. It is decidedly a brush bird, and has many habits in common with the typical Thrushes, but is more shy and retiring.

257. Oreocincla lunulata Vol. IV. Pl. 7.

Family PARADISEIDÆ, G. R. Gray.

I certainly consider the accounts I have given of the extraordinary habits of the Chlamyderæ and Ptilonorhynchi as some of the most valuable and interesting portions of my work, and however incredible they may appear I am happy to say they have been fully confirmed by other observers.

Genus Chlamydera, Gould.

Generic characters.

Bill moderate, culmen elevated, and arched to the tip which is emarginated, compressed on the sides; gonys slightly advancing upwards; nostrils basal, lateral, exposed, rounded, and pierced in a membrane; wings long and pointed, first primary short, second primary shorter than the third and fourth, which are equal, and the longest; tail long and slightly rounded; tarsi robust, defended anteriorly with broad scuta; toes long and strong; outer toe longer than the inner, hind-toe long and robust; claws long, curved, and acute.

lii
258. Chlamydera maculata, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 8.

Inhabits South Australia, New South Wales, and according to Mr. Gilbert’s Journal of his overland journey to Port Essington, the intertropical regions of the east coast.

In one of Mr. Gilbert’s many interesting letters received since the account above referred to was printed, he says, “the questions as to the nidification of Chlamydera is now settled by Mr. C. Coxon having found a nest in December with three young birds; in form it was very similar to that of the common Thrush of Europe, being of a cup-shape, constructed of dried sticks with a slight lining of feathers, and fine grass, and was placed among the smaller branches of an Acacia overhanging a pool of water.”

259. Chlamydera nuchalis Vol. IV. Pl. 9.

“I found matter for conjecture,” says Captain Stokes, “in noticing a number of twigs with their ends stuck in the ground, which was strewed over with shells, and their tops brought together so as to form a small bower; this was 2½ feet long, 1½ feet wide at either end. it was not until my next visit to Port Essington that I thought this anything but some Australian mother’s toy to amuse her child; there I was asked, one day, to go and see the ‘birds’ playhouse,’ when I immediately recognised the same kind of construction I had seen at the Victoria River; the bird (Chlamydera nuchalis of Mr. Gould’s work) was amusing itself by flying backwards and forwards, taking a shell alternately from each side, and carrying it through the archway in its mouth.”—Discoveries in Australia, vol. ii, p. 97.

Genus Ptilonorhynchus, Kuhl.

260. Ptilonorhynchus holosericeus, Kuhl. Vol. IV. Pl. 10.

That this bird continues its singular habits under the disadvantages of captivity, I learn from the following passage in a letter lately received from Mr. Strange of Sydney.

“My aviary is now tenanted by a pair of Satin Birds, which I hoped would have bred, as for the last two months they have been constantly engaged in constructing bowers, which I find are built for the express purpose of courting the female in. Both sexes assist in their erection, but the male is the principal workman. At times the male will chase the female all over the aviary, then go to the bower, pick up a gay feather or a large leaf, utter a curious kind of noise, set all his feather erect, and run around the bower, into which at length the female proceeds, when he becomes so excited that his eyes appear ready to start from his head, and he continues opening first one wing and then the other, uttering a low whistling note, and like the common Cock, seems to be picking up something from the ground, until at last the female goes gently towards him, when, after two turns around her, he suddenly makes a dash and the scene ends.” This pair of birds was sent to England by Mr. Strange for the Earl of Derby, and had they not unfortunately died from cold while rounding Cape Horn, they would doubtless have continued their singular habits in his lordship’s magnificent aviary at Knowsley.

The habitat of this species appears to be confined to the south-eastern part of New South Wales, for it has not as yet been found in any other portion of the country.

261. Ptilonorhynchus Smithii, Vig. & Horsf. Vol. IV. Pl. 11.

Genus Sericulus, Swains.

A single species only of this form has yet been discovered.

262. Sericulus chrysocephalus Vol. IV. Pl. 12.

The brushes of the south-eastern part of Australia is the only locality in which this bird has yet been found.

liiiFamily ——?

Subfamily ORIOLINÆ, G. R. Gray.

Genus Oriolus, Linn.

Typical Orioles are widely distributed over Europe, Africa, Asia, the Indian Islands and Australia, but none have yet been discovered in Polynesia or America.

Three species inhabit Australia, two of which are figured; the third from the northern part of the country is so nearly allied to the O. viridis, that a description alone will be sufficient.

263. Oriolus viridis, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 13.
264. Oriolus affinis, Gould.  

Inhabits the neighbourhood of Port Essington, and only differs from the preceding species in having a shorter wing, a much larger bill, and the white spots at the tip of the lateral tail-feathers much smaller.

265. Oriolus flavovinctus Vol. IV. Pl. 14.

Genus Sphecotheres, Vieill.

Australia presents us with a single species of this genus; others inhabit New Guinea and the neighbouring islands; but as yet we have no evidence of the form occurring on the continent of India.

266. Sphecotheres Australis, Swains. Vol. IV. Pl. 15.

Nothing whatever is known of the nidification of this bird; in all probability it will prove to be very similar to that of the Orioles.

Family ——?

Genus Corcorax, Less.

A genus containing only one species which possesses many singular habits; its actions among the branches, its mode of progression over the ground, and its nidification, being equally remarkable.

267. Corcorax leucopterus Vol. IV. Pl. 16.

Family ——?

Genus Struthidea, Gould.

Generic characters.

Bill shorter than the head, robust, swollen, arched above, deeper than broad; gonys angular; nostrils basal, lateral, round and open; wings moderate, round, first primary short, the fourth and fifth the longest; secondaries long and broad; tarsi scutellated in front, plain behind; toes long and strong, the outer one longer than the inner one; claws strong, compressed and much curved.

The only known species of this form is confined to the interior of the southern and eastern parts of Australia, where it inhabits stony ridges, and is mostly observed on the Callitris.

268. Struthidea cinerea, Gould Vol. IV. Pl 17.

In my account of this species, I have stated that its actions are very similar to those of the Corcorax leucopterus, and the following extract from Mr. Gilbert’s Journal of his overland journey to Port Essington shows that the two birds assimilate still more closely in their nidification:—

“Oct. 19.—Strolled about in search of novelties, and was amply repaid by finding the eggs of Struthidea cinerea. I disturbed the bird several times from a rosewood-tree growing in a small patch of scrub, and felt assured livit had a nest, but could only find one, which I considered to be that of a Grallina; determined, if possible, to solve the difficulty, I lay down at a short distance within full view of the tree, and was not a little surprised at seeing the bird take possession of, as I believed, the Grallina’s nest; I immediately climbed the tree and found four eggs, the medium length of which was one inch and a quarter by seven-eighths of an inch in breadth; their colour was white, with blotches, principally at the larger end, of reddish brown, purplish grey and greenish grey; some of the blotches appearing as if they had been laid on with a soft brush. From the appearance of the nest I should say it was an old one of a Grallina, but it contained a much greater quantity of grass for a lining than I ever observed in the nest of that bird; if this be not the case, then the nests of the two birds are precisely similar, being like a great basin made of mud, and placed on a horizontal branch.

“Oct. 21.—In the evening I again met with the Struthidea, which I disturbed from a nest like the one above described, and from the new appearance of the structure I am inclined to believe it to be constructed by the bird itself, although it does so closely resemble that of Grallina, especially as in this case the nest was placed in a situation far from water, and there were no Grallinæ in the neighbourhood. This nest, like the last, had a very thick lining of fine grass, and appeared as if just finished for the reception of the eggs.”

There is no doubt that the nests above described by Mr. Gilbert were those of Struthidea; those of Corcorax and Grallina are precisely similar; and it is somewhat singular that three birds differing so much in structure should build the same kind of mud nests.

Family CORVIDÆ, Leach.

Genus Corvus, Linn.

It is exceedingly interesting to trace the range of the members of this genus or the true Crows; not so much on account of their wide distribution, as from the circumstance of the form being non-existent in some countries which appear admirably adapted for their well-being; thus while the species are widely distributed over the whole of Europe, Asia, Africa, North America, the Indian Islands and Australia, none are to be found in South America, Polynesia or New Zealand.

269. Corvus Coronoides, Vig. & Horsf. Vol. IV. Pl. 18.

This is the only species that has yet been discovered in Australia.

Family ——?

Genus Neomorpha, Gould.

This form is strictly Polynesian, and the species confined to New Zealand.

270. Neomorpha Gouldii, G. R. Gray Vol. IV. Pl. 19

Genus Pomatorhinus, Horsf.

The members of this genus range from India throughout all the islands to Australia, but are not found in Africa or Polynesia; three species are comprised in the fauna of Australia.

Much diversity of opinion exists among ornithologists as to the place this group should occupy in the general system; by most writers they have been placed with the Meliphagidæ, but having had ample opportunities of observing the Australian species in a state of nature, I am enabled to affirm that they do not assimilate in any degree with those birds either in their habits, actions, economy or nidification, in all which particulars they differ from every group of birds that has come under my notice.

lv
271. Pomatorhinus temporalis Vol. IV. Pl. 20.
272. Pomatorhinus rubeculus, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 21.
273. Pomatorhinus superciliosus, Vig. & Horsf. Vol. IV. Pl. 22.

Family MELIPHAGIDÆ, Vig.

By far the greater and most prominent portion of the botany of Australia consisting of only two or three genera of trees—the Eucalypti, Banksiæ, &c.—we should naturally expect its ornithology to comprise some great groups of birds destined to dwell thereon, and such we find to be the case, the true Honey-eaters and the Honey-feeding Parrakeets being remarkably numerous; the former tribe of birds comprise no less than fifty-eight species, which appear to be naturally divided into several groups, each characterized by some modification of structure: although the whole are truly insectivorous, the pollen and the honey in the flower-cups of the Eucalypti are largely partaken of, and for procuring which their lengthened tongue terminating in filaments assuming the form of a brush is most admirably adapted, combined with which is a remarkably narrow gape and an incapacious stomach.

Australia is the great nursery of this tribe of birds, but a few species are found in New Guinea and some of the Polynesian islands.

Genus Meliphaga, Vig. & Horsf.

No example of this genus has yet been discovered in the northern or intertropical regions of Australia, all the species known being confined to the southern parts of the continent, the islands in Bass’s Straits and Van Diemen’s Land. The members of this group feed principally upon the pollen and honey of the flower-cups, but occasionally upon insects; in disposition they are tame and familiar; and they frequent the Banksiæ in preference to other trees.

The sexes are alike in plumage, and the young assume the adult plumage at an early period of their existence.

274. Meliphaga Novæ-Hollandiæ Vol. IV. Pl. 23.
275. Meliphaga longirostris, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 24.
276. Meliphaga sericea, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 25.
277. Meliphaga mystacalis, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 26.
278. Meliphaga Australasiana Vol. IV. Pl. 27.

Genus Glyciphila, Swains.

The members of this genus resort to higher trees than the Meliphaga, are more shy in disposition, possess considerable powers of flight, and partake more exclusively of insect food. Of the four Australian species, two, G. fulvifrons and G. albifrons, inhabit the southern parts of the country, the G. fasciata the northern portion, and the little G. ocularis is universally distributed over the country, and if I mistake not, is also found in New Guinea and Timor.

The young of G. fulvifrons and G. albifrons differ considerably from the adult in their markings.

279. Glyciphila fulvifrons Vol. IV. Pl. 28.
280. Glyciphila albifrons, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 29.
281. Glyciphila fasciata, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 30.
282. Glyciphila ocularis, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 31.
lvi

Genus Ptilotis, Swains.

The species of this group are not only more numerous than those of any other division of the Meliphagidæ, but they also comprise some of the most beautiful and gaily-coloured members of the family. Nearly all the species are either prettily marked about the face, or have the ear-coverts largely developed and characterized by a colouring different from that of the other parts of the plumage. The Eucalypti and Acaciæ are the trees upon which they are usually found; the species with olive-green backs, such as P. flavigula and P. leucotis, frequent the dwarf or thickly-leaved kinds, the foliage of which assimilates in colour to that of their plumage; the more gaily-attired species with bright yellow cheeks and ear-coverts, such as P. ornatus and P. plumulus, are most frequently found among the flowering Acaciæ; some species, particularly P. penicillata, descend from the trees and seek Coleoptera and other insects on the ground; the Casuarinæ are the favourite trees of P. sonorus and P. versicolor; while the P. chrysotis, P. chrysops and P. fusca are almost entirely confined to the brushes and seek their food among the Eucalypti, the hanging festoons of Tecoma and other beautiful brush creepers. The members of this group are principally Australian, but I believe that some species inhabit New Guinea; they mainly subsist upon insects, to which berries are sometimes added.

The sexes are alike in plumage, but the females are smaller than the males, and the young assume the adult livery from the nest.

283. Ptilotis chrysotis Vol. IV. Pl 32.
284. Ptilotis sonorus, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 33.
285. Ptilotis versicolor, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 34.
286. Ptilotis flavigula, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 35.
287. Ptilotis leucotis Vol. IV. Pl. 36.
288. Ptilotis auricomis Vol. IV. Pl 37.
289. Ptilotis cratitius, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 38.
290. Ptilotis ornatus, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 39.
291. Ptilotis plumulus, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 40.
292. Ptilotis flavescens, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 41.
293. Ptilotis flava, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 42.
294. Ptilotis penicillatus, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 43.
295. Ptilotis fusca, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 44.
296. Ptilotis chrysops Vol. IV. Pl. 45.
297. Ptilotis unicolor, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 46.

Genus Plectorhyncha, Gould.

Generic characters.

Bill shorter than the head, slightly arched, very pointed, almost conical and acute; nostrils basal and partly covered by an operculum; an obsolete notch near the tip of the upper mandible; wings moderate, the first feather short, the third and fourth the longest; tail moderate and square; tarsi strong; hind-toe and claw long, powerful and longer than the middle toe and claw; lateral toes unequal; the outer one the longest, and united to the middle one nearly to the first joint.

Of this singular form only one species has yet been discovered. It inhabits the plains of the eastern portion of Australia, where it dwells among the Eucalypti and Acaciæ; and is a very noisy garrulous bird.

The sexes are alike in plumage, and the young assume the adult plumage at a very early age.

298. Plectorhyncha lanceolata, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 47.

Genus Xanthomyza, Swains.

Of this genus only one species is known.

lvii
299. Xanthomyza Phrygia Vol. IV. Pl. 48.

The habitat of this bird appears to be confined to the south-eastern portion of Australia. It generally frequents the highest branches of the lofty Eucalypti, both of the brushes and of the plains, but is most abundant in the districts near the coast. In its disposition it is bold and extremely pugnacious.

The sexes are alike in plumage, and but little difference is observable between nestling and adult birds.

The nests I saw were round and cup-shaped, and were mostly placed in the fork of a tree.

Genus Melicophila, Gould.

Generic characters.

Bill as long as the head, gradually curving downwards from the base, nearly cylindrical and very pointed; nostrils basal and covered with an operculum; wings rather lengthened, the first primary short, the third the longest; tail moderately long, and nearly square; tarsi long and stout.

A genus containing only a single species, which so far as we yet know is confined to Southern and Western Australia.

300. Melicophila picata, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 49.

Possesses many singular habits, and differs from most other species of the Meliphagidæ in the totally different colouring of the sexes; as well as in assembling in vast flocks, which continue soaring about during the greater portion of the day. I was not aware until after my drawing was made that this bird has a small fleshy appendage beneath the eye of an ashy-grey colour, which is invisible in a dried skin. The nest and eggs are said to be very similar to those of Petroïca multicolor, and to be placed in similar situations.

Genus Entomophila, Gould.

Generic characters.

Bill nearly as long as the head, somewhat broad at the base, becoming compressed and pointed at the apex; tomia of the upper mandible arched and slightly notched at the tip; nostrils basal, oval, pierced in a membrane and protected by an operculum; wings rather long, first quill spurious, the second nearly as long as the third, which is the longest; tail short and nearly square; tarsi short and rather feeble; hind-toe short and stout; lateral toes unequal, the inner one being rather the shortest.

301. Entomophila picta, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 50.

The pointed wings of the examples of this bird I had seen prior to my visit to Australia, led me to infer that its habits were more aërial than those of the other members of the family, and such proved to be the case; for while the greater number of the latter cling to and creep about the branches, the present bird flies about the trees, captures insects on the wing, and during flight displays the beautiful yellow of its wings and the white markings of its tail to the greatest advantage.

Its frail cup-shaped nest is sometimes suspended among the drooping leaves of the Acacia pendula.

302. Entomophila albogularis, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 51.
303. Entomophila rufogularis, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 52.

I fear I have committed an error in referring the birds from the north coast (E. albogularis and E. rufogularis) to the present genus, for upon further consideration I believe they will prove to be sufficiently different from every other form yet characterized to justify their being separated into a distinct genus.

Genus Acanthogenys, Gould.

Generic characters.

Bill as long as the head, compressed, slightly arched, acute at the tip; the edges of the upper mandible notched near the tip, and delicately serrated; nostrils sub-basal; from the base of the mandibles a naked stripe runs below lviiithe eyes, and below this the cheeks are covered with stiff spines; wings moderate, the first quill-feather very short, third, fourth and fifth equal and the longest; tail moderate, nearly equal; feet robust, hind-toe strong and longer than the middle one, outer toe united at its base to the middle toe; claws hooked.

The genus Acanthogenys, of which only one species is known, is a form intermediate in size and in structure between the smaller Honey-eaters (Meliphagæ, Ptiloti, &c.) on the one hand, and the larger kinds (Anthochæræ) on the other.

304. Acanthogenys rufogularis, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 53.

This species is widely distributed over the interior of the southern portion of Australia, from east to west; the sexes are alike in plumage, and the young are very similar, but are destitute of the spines on the cheek, which are scarcely assumed during the first year. The Banksiæ are the trees mostly frequented by this bird, the presence of which is indicative of sterile sandy districts.

Genus Anthochæra, Vig. & Horsf.

A genus peculiarly Australian, three species of which are exclusively confined to the southern or extra-tropical parts of the country, and one to Van Diemen’s Land.

305. Anthochæra inauris, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 54.
306. Anthochæra carunculata Vol. IV. Pl. 55.
307. Anthochæra mellivora Vol. IV. Pl. 56.
308. Anthochæra lunulata, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 57.

These four birds might with propriety be separated into two genera, those with auricular appendages, A. inauris and A. carunculata, having many characters differing from those of A. mellivora and A. lunulata.

Genus Tropidorhynchus, Vig. & Horsf.

The law of representation in Australia is chiefly confined to the species inhabiting the eastern and western coasts, but with the members of this genus it takes the opposite direction, or north and south, for more singular and perfect representatives of each other cannot be found than are the T. corniculatus and T. citreogularis of the south-eastern parts of the country, the T. argenticeps and T. sordidus of the north-western. Extra Australian species inhabit New Guinea and the neighbouring countries.

309. Tropidorhynchus corniculatus Vol. IV. Pl. 58.
310. Tropidorhynchus argenticeps, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 59.
311. Tropidorhynchus citreogularis, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 60.
312. Tropidorhynchus sordidus.  

Inhabits the Cobourg Peninsula, and is precisely similar to T. citreogularis, but is smaller in all its admeasurements except in the bill, which is more developed.

Genus Acanthorhynchus, Gould.

Bill elongated, slender and acute, compressed on the sides; tomia incurved; culmen acute and elevated; nostrils basal, elongated, and covered with an operculum; wings moderate in size and semi-rotund; first and fifth primaries equal; the third and fourth nearly equal in length, and the longest; tail moderate in size and slightly forked; tarsi lengthened and strong; middle toe long and robust, external toe exceeding the inner one in length.

This genus, like many others of the family, may be regarded as strictly Australian: it comprises two, if not three, well-marked species, each of which is confined to a particular part of the country; the A. tenuirostris dwelling in the eastern, and the A. superciliosus in the western districts: both inhabit countries precisely in the same degree of latitude, and form beautiful representatives of each other. Van Diemen’s Land is the native habitat of lixthe species I have named A. dubius, which, as will be seen, I had made synonymous with A. tenuirostris, but which I am now inclined to consider distinct, an opinion in which Mr. Blyth coincides.

313. Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris Vol. IV. Pl. 61.
314. Acanthorhynchus dubius, Gould.  
315. Acanthorhynchus superciliosus, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 62.

Genus Myzomela, Vig. & Horsf.

Five well-marked species of this genus are distributed over Australia; numerous others are found in New Guinea and the neighbouring islands; the form also occurs in the Polynesian Islands, but is not found in Van Diemen’s Land.

316. Myzomela sanguineolenta Vol. IV. Pl. 63.
317. Myzomela erythrocephala, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 64.
318. Myzomela pectoralis, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 65.
319. Myzomela nigra, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 66.
320. Myzomela obscura, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 67.

Genus Entomyza, Swains.

Two species of this well-defined genus are comprised in the Australian fauna, one of which inhabits the south-eastern parts of the country, or New South Wales; the other, which so far as we yet know is strictly confined to the north-eastern coast, is very plentiful at Port Essington and in the neighbouring districts.

The form appears to be confined to Australia, for I have never seen it from any other country.

321. Entomyza cyanotis Vol. IV. Pl. 68.

This bird has the habit—a somewhat remarkable one among the Honey-eaters—of selecting the nest of Pomatorhinus temporalis for the reception of its eggs.

322. Entomyza albipennis, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 69.

Genus Melithreptus, Vieill.

No one group of birds is more universally distributed over Australia than the Melithrepti, for their range extends from Van Diemen’s Land on the south to the most northern part of the continent; and they are equally numerous from east to west, each part of country being inhabited by a species peculiarly its own. The Eucalypti are the trees upon which they are almost exclusively found. I believe the form is unknown out of Australia.

323. Melithreptus validirostris, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 70.
324. Melithreptus gularis, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 71.
325. Melithreptus lunulatus Vol. IV. Pl. 72.
326. Melithreptus chloropsis, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 73.
327. Melithreptus albogularis, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 74.
328. Melithreptus melanocephalus, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 75.
lx

Genus Myzantha, Vig. & Horsf.

During the progress of this work three additional species of this genus have been discovered, one in the interior of New South Wales, the second at Swan River, and the third on the north-west coast; consequently it is a genus the members of which are widely distributed over nearly every part of Australia.

329. Myzantha garrula Vol. IV. Pl. 76.
330. Myzantha obscura, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 77.
331. Myzantha lutea, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 78.
332. Myzantha flavigula, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 79.
333. Myzantha melanophrys Vol. IV. Pl. 80.

Family ——?

Genus Zosterops, Vig. & Horsf.

Three well-defined species of this genus inhabit the continent of Australia and Van Diemen’s Land; two are found on Norfolk Island, and numerous others inhabit the Indian Islands and the continent of India even to the Himalaya Mountains.

In placing this group next to the Honey-eaters, I have been influenced by their approximation to those birds in some of their habits: they also exhibit a further degree of affinity in the form and structure of their nest, but not in the colouring of their eggs, which are always blue in colour.

334. Zosterops dorsalis, Vig. & Horsf. Vol. IV. Pl. 81.
335. Zosterops chloronotus, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 82.
336. Zosterops luteus, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 83.

Family CUCULIDÆ, Leach.

The family Cuculidæ is very fairly represented in Australia, since we there find species belonging to the greater number of the Old World genera, and one, Scythrops, which has not hitherto, I believe, been found elsewhere. With the exception of Centropus and Eudynamys, they, like their prototypes, are parasitic in their nidification, and depend upon other birds for the hatching of their eggs and the feeding of their offspring.

Genus Cuculus, Linn.

337. Cuculus optatus, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 84.

Since my description of this species was printed I have seen specimens from India, with the name of Cuculus micropterus attached to them: should this name have been published prior to the one I have assigned to it, my name must sink into a synonym.

338. Cuculus inornatus, Vig. & Horsf. Vol. IV. Pl. 85.
    Columba pallida, Lath. Gen. Hist. vol. viii. p. 30.  
339. Cuculus cineraceus, Vig. & Horsf. Vol. IV. Pl. 86.
340. Cuculus insperatus, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 87.
341. Cuculus dumetorum, Gould  

This species, which inhabits the north-western coast, differs from C. insperatus in being of a much smaller size and in the whole of the plumage being of a browner hue.

lxi

Genus Chrysococcyx, Boie.

The members of this genus are distributed over most parts of the Old World; two species occur in Australia.

342. Chrysococcyx osculans.  
    Chalcites osculans, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 88.
343. Chrysococcyx lucidus Vol. IV. Pl. 89.

Genus Scythrops, Lath.

The only known species of this remarkable form inhabits the eastern parts of Australia, and according to information derived from the notes made by Mr. Gilbert during Dr. Leichardt’s Expedition, extends its range northward from thence to within the tropics.

I have recently had a young specimen presented to me by Lady Dowling, one of two taken from a branch of a tree while being fed by birds not of its own species, an important fact as showing the parasitic habits of the bird.

344. Scythrops Novæ-Hollandiæ, Lath. Vol. IV. Pl. 90.

Genus Eudynamys, Vig. & Horsf.

One species only of this form inhabits Australia; others are found in the Indian Islands and on the continent of India.

345. Eudynamys Flindersii Vol. IV. Pl. 91.

Genus Centropus, Ill.

On reference to my account of the Centropus Phasianus, it will be seen I have stated that some variation exists in the form of the bill in specimens from different localities, intimated a belief of there being more than one species, and remarked that should such prove to be the case, the term macrourus might be applied to the Port Essington birds, and melanurus to those from the north-west coast; and these names are provisionally given until future research has proved whether they be or be not distinct.

346. Centropus Phasianus Vol. IV. Pl. 92.
347. Centropus macrourus, Gould.  
348. Centropus melanurus, Gould.  

Family CERTHIADÆ, Vig.

Genus Climacteris, Temm.

Several species of this well-defined and singular group of Australian birds have lately been discovered; two out of the six now known are all that had been described prior to the publication of the present work. With the exception of Van Diemen’s Land and the Cobourg Peninsula, every colony is inhabited by one or other of the following species:—

349. Climacteris scandens, Temm. Vol. IV. Pl. 93.
350. Climacteris rufa, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 94.
351. Climacteris erythrops, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 95.
352. Climacteris melanotus, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 96.
353. Climacteris melanura, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 97.
lxii354. Climacteris picumnus, Temm. Vol. IV. Pl. 98.

Genus Orthonyx, Temm.

Much difference of opinion has arisen among ornithologists respecting the situation of this bird in the natural system, and as to what genus it is most nearly allied; I regret to say that not having seen much of it in its native wilds, I am unable to clear up these disputed points. The form is strictly Australian, and the single species known is confined to the south-eastern part of the country.

355. Orthonyx spinicaudus, Temm. Vol. IV. Pl. 99.

M. Jules Verreaux, who has written a highly interesting account of this bird, states that it is strictly terrestrial, and scratches among the detritus and fallen leaves for its food, throwing back the earth like the Gallinaceæ. It never climbs, as was formerly supposed, but runs over fallen trunks of trees;—is rather solitary in its habits, seldom more than two being seen together. Its often-repeated cry of cri-cri-cri-crite betrays its presence, when its native haunts, the most retired parts of the forest, are visited. Its chief food consists of insects, their larvæ, and woodbugs. It builds a large domed nest, of slender mosses; the entrance being by a lateral hole near the bottom. The eggs are white and disproportionately large. The situation of the nest is the side of a slanting rock or large stone, the entrance-hole being level with the surface.—Revue Zoologique, July 1847.

Genus Ptiloris, Swains.

In placing this beautiful bird near the Climacteres, I am influenced in the first place by the great similarity of its structure, and in the next by the account I have received of its actions in a state of nature; I allude more particularly to its mode of ascending the trees, which precisely resembles that of the Certhiæ. One species only of this form is found in Australia, but many allied genera, Promerops, &c., inhabit New Guinea and the neighbouring islands.

356. Ptiloris paradiseus, Swains. Vol. IV. Pl. 100.

That the range of this species extends from the eastern parts of Australia to within the tropics, is proved by Mr. Gilbert’s having once seen it near the Gulf of Carpentaria during his last Expedition.

Genus Sittella, Swains.

The Sittella chrysoptera was the only species of this Australian form known to previous writers; to this has been added one from Southern and Western Australia, another from Moreton Bay, and a third from the north coast.

The form does not exist in Van Diemen’s Land.

357. Sittella chrysoptera Vol. IV. Pl. 101.
358. Sittella leucocephala, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 102.
359. Sittella leucoptera, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 103.
360. Sittella pileata, Gould Vol. IV. Pl. 104.

Family PSITTACIDÆ, Leach.

No one group of birds gives to Australia so tropical and foreign an air as the numerous species of this great family, by which it is tenanted, each and all of which are individually very abundant. Immense flocks of white Cockatoos may be seen perched among the green foliage of the Eucalypti; the brilliant scarlet breasts of the Rose-hills blaze forth from the yellow-flowering Acaciæ; the Trichoglossi or Honey-eating Parrakeets enliven the lxiiiflowering branches of the larger Eucalypti with their beauty and their lively actions; the little Grass Parrakeets frequent the plains of the interior and render these solitary spots a world of animation; nay, the very towns, particularly Hobart Town and Adelaide, are constantly visited by flights of this beautiful tribe of birds, which traverse the streets with arrow-like swiftness, and chase each other precisely after the manner the Swifts are seen to do in our own islands. In the public roads of Van Diemen’s Land the beautiful Platycerci may be constantly seen in small companies, performing precisely the same offices as the Sparrow in England. I have also seen flocks of from fifty to a hundred, like tame pigeons, at the barn-doors in the farm-yards of the settlers, to which they descend for the refuse grain thrown out with the straw by the threshers. As might naturally be expected, the agriculturist is often sadly annoyed by the destruction certain species effect among his newly-sown and ripening corn, particularly where the land has been recently cleared and is adjacent to the brushes. Fifty-five well-defined species of this great family are described and figured in the present work. They appear to constitute four great groups, each comprising several genera, nearly the whole of which are strictly and peculiarly Australian; for instance, neither Calyptorhynchus, Platycercus, Euphema, Psephotus, Melopsittacus, or Nymphicus have been found in any other country; and whether we consider the elegance of their forms or the beauty of their plumage, they may vie with the members of this extensive family from any part of the world.

Genus Cacatua, Briss.

Australia, the Molucca and Philippine Islands and New Guinea are the great nurseries of the members of this genus. They incubate in holes of trees or in rocks, and lay two eggs.

361. Cacatua galerita Vol. V. Pl. 1.

There are evidently several varieties or races of this species in Australia, each possessing a modification in the form of the bill doubtless given for some specific purpose; the Van Diemen’s Land bird is the largest, and has the upper mandible attenuated, while the Port Essington bird is altogether smaller, and has a much more arched bill.

362. Cacatua Leadbeaterii Vol. V. Pl. 2.

This species ranges over all the southern portions of Australia between the 20th and 30th degrees of S. latitude. I have never seen a specimen from the north, and I believe it does not inhabit that part of the country; its true habitat appears to be the interior, for it is never found near the coast.

363. Cacatua sanguinea, Gould Vol. V. Pl. 3.

This species has been found on the north coast, and was observed by Captain Sturt at the Depôt in Central Australia; we may hence infer that its range extends over all the intermediate country.

364. Cacatua Eos Vol. V. Pl. 4.

This fine bird, which is strictly Australian, is distributed over all parts of the interior of the country, and is as abundant in the north as it is in the south; it was also observed by Captain Sturt at the Depôt.

The specimens from the north are of a larger size and have the orbits more denuded than those from the south.

Genus Licmetis, Wagl.

The two species forming the genus Licmetis are not only confined to Australia, but, so far as we yet know, to the southern portions of that continent; one inhabits the western and the other the eastern part of the country. Their singularly formed bill being admirably adapted for procuring their food on the ground, they are more terrestrial in their habits than the other members of the family.

365. Licmetis nasicus Vol. V. Pl. 5.
366. Licmetis pastinator, Gould.

lxivLores scarlet; general plumage white; the base of the feathers of the head and front of the neck scarlet, showing through and giving those parts a stained appearance; the basal half of the inner webs of the primaries, the inner webs of all the other feathers of the wing, and the inner webs of the tail-feathers beautiful brimstone-yellow; naked space round the eye greenish blue; irides light brown; bill white; feet dull olive-grey.

Inhabits Western Australia.

Differs from L. nasicus in being of a much larger size; but the colouring being similar, I have not thought it necessary to figure it.

Genus Nestor, Wagl.

Of this genus two species are known, one of which was exclusively confined to Phillip Island, and the other inhabits New Zealand; they are evidently the remains of a race, all the other members of which are probably extinct.

367. Nestor productus, Gould Vol. V. Pl. 6.

The few examples of this species that may exist in captivity are all that survive, none remaining on Phillip Island, their native habitat.

Genus Calyptorhynchus, Vig. & Horsf.

The Calyptorhynchi are strictly arboreal, and are evidently formed to live upon the seeds of the Banksiæ, Eucalypti, and other trees peculiar to the country they inhabit; they diversify their food by occasionally devouring large caterpillars; as they mostly move about in small companies of from four to six in number they can scarcely be considered gregarious. Their flight is rather powerful, but at the same time laboured and heavy; and their voice is a low crying call, totally different from the harsh screaming notes of the Cacatuæ. Each division of the country, from the north coast of the continent to Van Diemen’s Land, is inhabited by its own peculiar species.

I have never seen a member of this genus from any other country than Australia, but I have heard that an extraordinary Parrot, said to be larger than any at present in our collections, inhabits New Guinea, and which, from the description given of it, will probably be of this form. The Calyptorhynchi lay from two to four eggs in the holes of trees.

368. Calyptorhynchus Banksii Vol. V. Pl. 7.
369. Calyptorhynchus macrorhynchus, Gould Vol. V. Pl. 8.

Inhabits the north coast, where it represents the C. Banksii of the eastern and the C. naso of the western coasts.

370. Calyptorhynchus naso, Gould Vol. V. Pl. 9.

This species, which is confined to Western Australia, is rendered conspicuous by the small size of its crest, and by its bill being nearly as large as that of C. macrorhynchus, while its wings are much shorter than those of that species.

371. Calyptorhynchus Leachii Vol. V. Pl. 10.

Inhabits the south-eastern parts of the continent, and differs from all the others in its smaller size, the gibbose form of its bill, and in the paucity of its crest.

372. Calyptorhynchus funereus Vol. V. Pl. 11.

Confined, I believe, to New South Wales, and South Australia?

373. Calyptorhynchus xanthonotus, Gould Vol. V. Pl. 12.

The true habitat of this species is Van Diemen’s Land, but I have lately received a specimen from Port Lincoln, which proves that its range extends to South Australia. It is distinguished from C. funereus by its much smaller size, and by the uniformity of the yellow colouring of the tail.

lxv
374. Calyptorhynchus Baudinii, Vig. Vol. V. Pl. 13.

Inhabits Western Australia, and is distinguished by its small size and by the white marks on the tail.

Genus Callocephalon, Less.

Of this form only a single species is known.

375. Callocephalon galeatum Vol. V. Pl. 14.

Inhabits the southern coast of Australia and Van Diemen’s Land.

Genus Polytelis, Wagl.

This genus comprises two species, both of which are peculiar to the southern portions of Australia. They have many characters common to, and resemble in appearance, the Palæorni of India.

376. Polytelis Barrabandi Vol. V. Pl. 15.
377. Polytelis melanura Vol. V. Pl. 16.

Genus Aprosmictus, Gould.

Generic characters.

As in Platycercus, but the bill more feeble; cere and nostrils covered with fine hair-like feathers; wings longer and less concave; tail more square; tarsi shorter and toes longer than in that genus.

Two, if not three species of this form inhabit Australia, and others are found in New Guinea and the neighbouring islands. They are distinguished from the Platycerci by the possession of a well-developed os furcatorium, a bone which is entirely wanting in the members of that genus; in their habits they are mainly arboreal, and in their disposition are morose and sullen.

378. Aprosmictus scapulatus Vol. V. Pl. 17.

This species appears to be confined to New South Wales.

379. Aprosmictus erythropterus Vol. V. Pl. 18.

The red-winged Parrakeets from the north coast are nearly a fourth smaller than those inhabiting the Liverpool plains and similar districts of the south coast; are they varieties of each other or distinct species?

Genus Platycercus, Vig.

In my opinion the New Zealand birds that have been placed in this genus are not true Platycerci, all the known species of which are confined to Australia; they comprise fourteen species which appear to be naturally divisible into minor groups, to which generic appellations may hereafter be given; for instance the P. semitorquatus, P. Baueri, P. Barnardi, &c. form one; the P. Adelaidiæ, P. Pennantii, P. flaveolus, P. flaviventris, &c. form another; P. eximius, P. splendidus, P. icterotis, &c. form a third; and P. pileatus a fourth.

The members of this and the two next genera lay from seven to ten eggs in the holes of trees.

380. Platycercus semitorquatus Vol. V. Pl. 19.
381. Platycercus Baueri Vol. V. Pl. 20.
382. Platycercus Barnardii, Vig. & Horsf. Vol. V. Pl. 21.
383. Platycercus Adelaidiæ, Gould Vol. V. Pl. 22.
384. Platycercus Pennantii Vol. V. Pl. 23.
385. Platycercus flaviventris Vol. V. Pl. 24.
lxvi386. Platycercus flaveolus, Gould Vol. V. Pl. 25
387. Platycercus palliceps, Vig. Vol. V. Pl. 26.
388. Platycercus eximius Vol. V. Pl. 27.
389. Platycercus splendidus, Gould Vol. V. Pl. 28.
390. Platycercus icterotis Vol. V. Pl. 29.
391. Platycercus ignitus, Leadb. Vol. V. Pl. 30.
392. Platycercus Brownii Vol. V. Pl. 31.
393. Platycercus pileatus, Vig. Vol. V. Pl. 32.

Genus Psephotus, Gould.

Generic characters.

As in Euphema, but the cere, in which the nostrils are placed, more swollen or developed; wings rather short and the tail much lengthened; the lateral feathers short and not so regularly graduated; feet more adapted for terrestrial progression.

All the members of this genus are confined to Australia, and hold an intermediate station between the Platycerci on the one hand and the Euphemæ on the other. They pass much of their time on the ground, where the principal part of their food is procured; inhabit the interior rather than the country near the coast, and are adapted for the open plains, where they often assemble in vast flocks.

I have figured four species, and I have seen a drawing in the possession of Mr. Brown, made by Ferdinand Bauer from a bird said to have been found near the Gulf of Carpentaria, which will probably form a fifth.

394. Psephotus hæmatogaster, Gould Vol. V. Pl. 33.

This species differs from all the other members of the genus, as well as from those of the allied genera, in the pointed form of the tips of its primaries.

If they be not local varieties of each other, there are two birds confounded under this name, one having yellow and the other scarlet under tail-coverts; it will be necessary, however, to see other examples before we can decide whether they are or are not distinct. Captain Sturt brought specimens with yellow under tail-coverts from the Depôt in the interior of South Australia.

395. Psephotus pulcherrimus, Gould Vol. V. Pl. 34.
396. Psephotus multicolor Vol. V. Pl. 35.
397. Psephotus hæmatonotus, Gould Vol. V. Pl. 36.

Genus Euphema, Wagl.

The members of this genus are exclusively Australian and appear to be confined to the extra-tropical parts of the country, no species having yet been seen from the north coast. Our knowledge of this group has been extended from three to seven species, all of which are abundantly distributed over the southern portions of the continent, and two of them over Van Diemen’s Land.

398. Euphema chrysostoma Vol. V. Pl. 37.
399. Euphema elegans, Gould Vol. V. Pl. 38.
400. Euphema aurantia, Gould Vol. V. Pl. 39.
401. Euphema petrophila, Gould Vol. V. Pl. 40.
402. Euphema pulchella Vol. V. Pl. 41.
403. Euphema splendida, Gould Vol. V. Pl. 42.

Captain Sturt procured a single male example of this beautiful bird during his journey into the interior of South Australia.

lxvii
404. Euphema Bourkii Vol. V. Pl. 43.

Captain Sturt found this species in abundance at the Depôt in Central Australia.

Genus Melopsittacus, Gould.

Generic characters.

Bill moderate; culmen arched; tomia descending at the base, then ascending and curving downwards to the tip; nostrils basal, lateral, open, and seated in a broad swollen cere; wings rather long, pointed, first primary very long, the second the longest; tail long and much graduated; tarsi moderate and covered with minute scales; toes slender, the outer toe much longer than the inner one.

The only known species of this form is strictly gregarious, assembles in vast flocks, and is admirably adapted for plains and downs covered with grasses, upon the seeds of which it entirely subsists.

405. Melopsittacus undulatus Vol. V. Pl. 44.

In all probability this bird is universally dispersed over the whole of the interior of Australia, since independently of its previously known range from Swan River on the west to New South Wales on the east, Mr. Gilbert observed it in every part of the country between Moreton Bay and the Gulf of Carpentaria.

Genus Nymphicus, Wagl.

As of Melopsittacus, there is only one species known of this genus. It is strictly Australian, and will doubtless hereafter be found to be universally distributed over that vast country; it is equally adapted for the plains, and the two birds are frequently found associated.

406. Nymphicus Novæ-Hollandiæ Vol. V. Pl. 45.

There are two distinct varieties of this species, one having a much darker colouring than the other.

Genus Pezoporus, Ill.

Of this terrestrial form but one species is known, which is very generally distributed over the temperate portions of Australia, the islands in Bass’s Straits and Van Diemen’s Land. The eggs are laid on the bare ground.

407. Pezoporus formosus Vol. V. Pl. 46.

Genus Lathamus, Less.

Of this form only a single species is known to exist in Australia, and that species had been assigned to a different genus by almost every recent writer on ornithology, Messrs. Vigors and Horsfield placing it in their genus Nanodes, Wagler in his genus Euphema, &c.; subsequently M. Lesson made it the type of his genus Lathamus, giving it at the same time the specific appellation of rubrifrons, which must of course give place to that of discolor, long before applied to it by Latham.

Having had ample opportunities of observing this bird in a state of nature, I concur in the propriety of M. Lesson’s views in separating it into a distinct genus; at the same time I must remark that in its habits, nidification, food and whole economy, it is most closely allied to the Trichoglossi or honey-eating Parrakeets, and in no degree related to the Euphemæ.

408. Lathamus discolor Vol. V. Pl. 47.
lxviii

Genus Trichoglossus, Vig. & Horsf.

The arboreal group of Trichoglossi or honey-eating Lorikeets, if not so numerous in species as the grass-feeding Parrakeets, are individually much more abundant and are more universally dispersed, being found in every part of the country yet visited; several species inhabit New South Wales: only one has yet been found in Western Australia. Other members of the genus are found in New Guinea and the Moluccas, but Australia is the great nursery for the birds of this form.

In their structure, habits and mode of nidification, and in their economy, no two groups of the same family can be more widely different than the Trichoglossi and the Platycerci; the pencilled tongue, diminutive stomach, thick skin, tough flesh, and fœtid odour of the former presenting a decided contrast to the simple tongue, capacious crop and stomach, thin skin, delicate flesh and freedom from odour of the latter; besides which the Trichoglossi possess a strong os furcatorium, which organ is wanting in the Platycerci; hence while the Trichoglossi are powerful, swift and arrow-like in their flight, the Platycerci are feeble, pass through the air in a succession of undulations near the ground, and never fly to any great distance. The mode in which the two groups approach and alight upon and quit the trees is also remarkably different; the Trichoglossi dashing among and alighting upon the branches simultaneously, and with the utmost rapidity, and quitting them in like manner, leaving the deafening sound of their thousand voices echoing through the woods; while the Platycerci rise to the branches after their undulating flight and leave them again in the like quiet manner, no sound being heard but their inward piping note.

The eggs of the Trichoglossi are from two to four in number.

409. Trichoglossus Swainsonii, Jard. & Selb. Vol. V. Pl. 48.
410. Trichoglossus rubritorquis, Vig. & Horsf. Vol. V. Pl. 49.

“Procured at Port Molle on the north-east coast, previously only found at Port Essington.”—J. M’Gillivray.

411. Trichoglossus chlorolepidotus. Vol. V. Pl. 50.
412. Trichoglossus versicolor, Vig. Vol. V. Pl. 51.
413. Trichoglossus concinnus. Vol. V. Pl. 52.
414. Trichoglossus porphyrocephalus, Diet. Vol. V. Pl. 53.
415. Trichoglossus pusillus. Vol. V. Pl. 54.

Order RASORES, Ill.

Family COLUMBIDÆ, Leach.

The members of this important family are distributed over every portion of the globe, in no part of which are they more numerous than in Australia, since that country is inhabited by no less than twenty-one species, which, like its Psittacidæ, comprise several well-marked and distinct genera, and appear to be naturally divided into two great groups, the one arboreal, the other terrestrial; the Ptilinopi, Carpophagæ and Lopholaimus, with their expansive gullets and broad hand-like feet forming part of the former, and the Phaps, Geophaps and Geopeliæ the latter. The Ptilinopi and other allied forms are, in consequence of the peculiar character of the vegetation, confined, without a single exception, to the eastern and northern parts of the country.

The species of the genus Phaps, a form which I believe to be confined to Australia, are more widely dispersed than those of any other section of the family, being universally distributed over the entire country from north to south and from east to west; even the parched deserts of the interior are visited by them if a supply of water be within reach of their evening flight, which is performed with the most extraordinary rapidity and power.

lxix

Genus Ptilinopus, Swains.

The species of this genus, the most brilliant and highly-coloured of the Columbidæ, range over Australia, New Guinea, Malacca, Celebes, and Polynesia; two of the three Australian species are I believe confined to that country.

416. Ptilinopus Swainsonii, Gould Vol. V. Pl. 55.
417. Ptilinopus Ewingii, Gould Vol. V. Pl. 56.
418. Ptilinopus superbus Vol. V. Pl. 57.

Genus Carpophaga, Selby.

The species of this genus are widely dispersed over Australia, New Guinea, Malacca, Celebes and Polynesia. Strictly arboreal in their habits and feeding entirely upon fruits, berries and seeds, they frequent the towering fig-trees when their fruit is ripe, and the lofty palms for the sake of their large round seeds. I have frequently observed large flocks moving about from one part of the forest to another, consequently they may be considered a gregarious race; their short tarsi and dilated feet are ill-adapted for the ground, and I have never seen them descend from the trees, not even for water.

419. Carpophaga magnifica Vol. V. Pl. 58.
420. Carpophaga leucomela Vol. V. Pl. 59.
421. Carpophaga luctuosa Vol. V. Pl. 60.

Genus Lopholaimus, G. R. Gray.

The single species of this genus is strictly a fruit-eating Pigeon, and is confined, so far as we yet know, to the brushes of New South Wales, where it moves about in large flocks and feeds upon the wild figs and other fruits and berries which the trees of the brushes afford.

422. Lopholaimus Antarcticus Vol. V. Pl. 61.

A noble bird ornamented with a large occipital crest.

Genus Chalcophaps, Gould.

Generic characters.

Bill slender, moderate and straight, the tip vaulted and rather arched; nostrils lateral, membranous and swollen, with the opening in the middle of the bill; wings long, second and third primaries nearly equal and the longest; tail moderate and much rounded; tarsi rather shorter than the middle toe, robust and covered with transverse scales; toes long, the lateral and the hind-toes nearly as long as the outer; claws moderate and curved.”—Gray and Mitchell’s Genera of Birds, Art. Gourinæ.

A genus of Brush Pigeons, the members of which seek their food on the ground and live on the fallen seeds and berries they find there. Two species inhabit Australia, one of which is confined to the eastern and the other to the northern coast; other species are found in Java, Sumatra, and on the continent of India, the whole forming a group well worthy of investigation by the scientific ornithologist.

423. Chalcophaps chrysochlora Vol. V. Pl. 62.

The bird of this form inhabiting the country in the neighbourhood of Port Essington differs from those inhabiting New South Wales in the much greater length of the mandibles, and is altogether a much finer bird: consequently I am induced to believe that it is distinct from its southern prototype; I would therefore provisionally name it—

424. Chalcophaps longirostris.  

I have not figured it, inasmuch as the colouring is similar, but more brilliant, and has the bands across the rump more distinct than in C. chrysochlora.

lxx

Genus Leucosarcia, Gould.

Generic characters.

Bill lengthened, almost cylindrical, fleshy for two-thirds of its length from the base; nostrils lateral and covered by an oval swollen operculum; wings very short and concave; tail short; tarsi lengthened and defended in front by large distinct scuta; toes rather short, hind-toe situated high upon the tarsus.

A genus proposed by me for the reception of the Wonga-Wonga Pigeon of the Australian Brushes, a bird having many peculiar habits, but which, being mainly terrestrial, lead it to frequent the ground in the midst of the dense forests, where it moves about in pairs, feeding upon seeds and berries. Its flesh being remarkably white and extremely delicate, it is one of the best birds for the table inhabiting Australia, or indeed any other country.

The colour of the flesh suggested the generic term I have assigned to it.

425. Leucosarcia picata Vol. V. Pl. 63.

Genus Phaps, Selby.

The members of this genus, generally known by the name of Bronze-wings, form an excellent viand for the settlers, and one of the greatest boons bestowed upon the explorer, since they not only furnish him with a supply of nutritious food, but direct him by their straight and arrow-like evening flight to the situations where he may find water, that element without which man cannot exist.

426. Phaps chalcoptera.  
    Peristera chalcoptera Vol. V. Pl. 64.
427. Phaps elegans.  
    Peristera elegans Vol. V. Pl. 65.
428. Phaps histrionica.  
    Peristera histrionica, Gould Vol. V. Pl. 66.

“This beautiful pigeon,” says Captain Sturt, “is an inhabitant of the interior. It lays its eggs in February, depositing them under any low bush in the middle of the open plains. In the end of March and the beginning of April they collect in large flocks and live on the seed of the rice-grass, which the natives also collect for food. During the short period this harvest lasts the flavour of this pigeon is most delicious, but at other times it is indifferent. It flies to water at sunset, but like the Bronze-wing only wets the bill. It is astonishing indeed that so small a quantity as a bare mouthful should be sufficient to quench its thirst in the burning deserts it inhabits. It left us in the beginning of May, and I think migrated to the N.E., for the further we went to the westward the fewer did we see of it.”

Mr. Gilbert observed this species in vast flocks on the plains in latitude 19° S.

Genus Geophaps, Gould.

Generic characters.

Bill very short and robust; eyes surrounded with a bare skin; wings very short and rounded; tertiaries long, and broad at their ends; tarsi moderately long; toes shorter than the tarsus, the inner toe rather the longest.

The members of this genus are peculiar to Australia; are more terrestrial in their habits than any other form of pigeons inhabiting that country; incubate on the ground; squat like the partridges when their haunts are intruded upon; inhabit the plains and open downs; have white pectoral muscles; are excellent food for man; run with great rapidity; fly swiftly for short distances; and when disturbed either perch on the larger branches, on which they squat lengthwise, or descend to the ground and run off after the manner of the true Gallinaceæ.

429. Geophaps scripta Vol. V. Pl. 67.
430. Geophaps Smithii Vol. V. Pl. 68.
lxxi431. Geophaps plumifera, Gould Vol. V. Pl. 69.

“Lat. 17° 30′, March 6. I was fortunate enough to kill for the first time Geophaps plumifera, a species hitherto only known from a single specimen sent home by Mr. Bynoe of H.M.S. Beagle. The irides are bright orange, the naked skin before and surrounding the eyes bright crimson; the bill dark greenish grey; the scales of the legs and toes greenish grey; skin between the scales light ashy grey. Its flight and actions on the ground are precisely similar to those of the other species of the genus. I only saw the specimen I killed, but afterwards learned that one of my companions had seen a flock rise precisely like Geophaps scripta.”—Gilbert’s Journal.

“It was on the return of my party from the eastern extremity of Cooper’s Creek,” says Captain Sturt, “that we first saw and procured specimens of this beautiful little bird. Its locality was entirely confined to about thirty miles along the banks of the creek in question; it was generally perched on some rock fully exposed to the sun’s rays, and evidently taking a pleasure in basking in the tremendous heat. It was very wild and took wing on hearing the least noise, but its flight was short and rapid. In the afternoon this little pigeon was seen running in the grass on the creek side, and could hardly be distinguished from a quail. It never perched on the trees; when it dropped after rising from the ground, it could seldom be flushed again, but ran with such speed through the grass as to elude our search.”

Genus Ocyphaps, Gould.

Generic characters.

Head furnished with a lengthened occipital crest; wings rather short, the third primary gradually narrowed to a point; tail rather long and much rounded; tarsi as long as the middle toe; the inner toe shorter than the outer.

A genus consisting of a single species whose natural habitat is the basin of the interior of Australia, over the vast expanse of which its long pointed wings enable it to pass at pleasure from one district to another whenever a scarcity of food prompts it so to do: although mainly terrestrial in its habits, it is more frequently seen on the trees than the members of the genus Phaps; its food consists of small seeds and berries.

432. Ocyphaps Lophotes Vol. V. Pl. 70.

Genus Petrophassa, Gould.

Generic characters.

As in Ocyphaps, but with the wings shorter, more rounded and destitute of the bronzy lustre; and with a more rounded tail.

So little is known respecting the single species of this Australian genus that I am unable to say more than that it inhabits rocky situations near the sea-coast.

433. Petrophassa albipennis, Gould Vol. V. Pl. 71.

Genus Geopelia, Swains.

A form of Ground Doves very generally distributed over the Indian Islands and Australia, and of which three or four species are peculiar to the latter country; grassy hills, flats and extensive plains are the situations these birds affect, consequently in Australia they are almost exclusively confined to the interior; they pass over the ground in a quiet and peaceful manner; and when disturbed fly to some neighbouring tree, descend again almost immediately and search about for the minute seeds of annuals and other plants, upon which they principally subsist.

434. Geopelia humeralis Vol. V. Pl. 72.
435. Geopelia tranquilla, Gould Vol. V. Pl. 73.
436. Geopelia placida, Gould.  

lxxiiInhabits the neighbourhood of Port Essington, is much smaller than G. tranquilla, but in colour and marking is precisely similar to that species.

437. Geopelia cuneata Vol. V. Pl. 74.

“All that we read or imagine of the softness and innocence of the dove,” says Captain Sturt, “is realized in this beautiful and delicate bird; it is common on the Murray and the Darling, and was met with in various parts of the interior. Two remained with us at the Depôt in latitude 39° 40′, longitude 142°, during a great part of the winter, and on one occasion roosted on the tent-ropes near the fire. Its note is exceedingly plaintive, similar to, but softer than, that of the turtle-dove of Europe.”

Genus Macropygia, Swains.

A genus the members of which are distributed over India, Java, New Guinea, Ceram, the Moluccas, Australia, &c. Only one species, M. Phasianella, has yet been found in the last-mentioned country, but others may be discovered when its eastern and northern parts have been more fully explored.

438. Macropygia Phasianella Vol. V. Pl. 75.

The interior of the dense brushes are the favourite haunts of this bird, but it occasionally resorts to the crowns of the low hills and the open glades of the forest, where it searches for its food on the ground; on being disturbed it flies to the branches of the nearest tree, spreading out its broad tail at the moment of alighting.

Genus Didunculus, Peale.

Since I drew and described this most anomalous form, under the name assigned to it by Sir William Jardine, two important facts have been ascertained respecting it, viz. that it is identical with the bird described by Mr. Titian Peale of America under the name of Didunculus, and that the Samoan Islands and not Australia is its true habitat.

Didunculus strigirostris.

439. Gnathodon strigirostris, Jard. Vol. V. Pl. 76.

Family MEGAPODIDÆ, G. R. Gray.

The genera Talegalla, Leipoa and Megapodius form part of a great family of birds inhabiting Australia, New Guinea, Celebes, and the Philippine Islands, whose habits and economy are most singular and differ from those of every other group of birds which now exists upon the surface of our globe. In their structure they are most nearly allied to the Gallinaceæ, while in some of their actions and in their mode of flight they much resemble the Rallidæ; the small size of their brain, coupled with the extraordinary means employed for the incubation of their eggs, indicates an extremely low degree of organization.

The three species of the family inhabiting Australia, although referable to three distinct genera, have many habits in common, particularly in their mode of nidification—each and all depositing their eggs in mounds of earth and leaves, which, becoming heated either by the fermentation of the vegetable matter, or by the sun’s rays, form a kind of natural hatching-apparatus, from which the young at length emerge fully feathered, and capable of sustaining life by their own unaided efforts.

lxxiii

Genus Talegalla, Less.

440. Talegalla Lathami Vol. V. Pl. 77.

Inhabits all the brushes and scrubby forests of the eastern parts of Australia. Mr. M’Gillivray informs me, in a letter lately received from him, dated on board H.M.S. “Rattlesnake,” February 6th, 1848, “At Port Molle I shot in the brushes both Megapodius and Talegalla,” which proves that the range of the latter bird is much greater than I have stated.

Genus Leipoa, Gould.

Generic characters.

Bill nearly as long as the head, slender, swollen at the base; tomia undulating, and curving downwards; nostrils large, oblong, defended by an operculum and placed in the centre of a groove; head sub-crested; wings large, round and concave; the first five primaries equal and longest; tertiaries nearly as long as the primaries; tail round and composed of fourteen feathers; tarsi moderately robust, scutellated in front, posteriorly defended with round scales; toes somewhat short; the lateral toes nearly equal in length.

441. Leipoa ocellata, Gould Vol. V. Pl. 78.

Since I wrote my account of this bird, it has been found to be abundantly dispersed over all parts of the Murray Scrub in South Australia.

The following highly interesting account has been forwarded to me by His Excellency Captain Sir George Grey, being the result of his observations of the bird made while Governor of South Australia:—

“Government House, Adelaide, December 12th, 1842.
My dear Mr. Gould,

“I have lately returned from the Murray, where I have been studying the habits and manners of the Leipoa ocellata, which is very plentiful in the sandy districts of the Scrub. The eyes of the living bird are of a bright, light hazel; its legs and feet dark brown, but not so dark as shown in your Plate; whilst the bare parts on the head and face are of a very delicate and clear blue. The gizzard is very large and muscular; the inner coats peculiarly horny and hard. Its food consists chiefly of insects, such as Phasmidæ and a species of Cimex; it also feeds on the seeds of various shrubs. The entire lungs and intestines of the one which I dissected were full of Tænioïdes. I have never seen any other animal infested with them to anything like the same extent, and yet the bird was perfectly healthy. It possesses the power of running with extraordinary rapidity; it roosts at night on trees, and never flies if it can avoid so doing;—the male bird weighs about four pounds and a half.

“The mounds they construct are from 12 to 13 yards in circumference at the base, and from 2 to 3 feet in height; the general form being that of a dome. The sand and grass are sometimes scraped up for a distance of from 15 to 16 feet from its outer edge.

“The mound appears to be constructed as follows: a nearly circular hole of about 18 inches in diameter, is scratched in the ground to the depth of 7 or 8 inches, and filled with dead leaves, dead grass and similar materials; and a large mass of the same substances is placed all round it upon the ground. Over this first layer a large mound of sand, mixed with dried grass, &c., is thrown, and finally the whole assumes the form of a dome, as I have before stated.

“When an egg is to be deposited, the top is laid open, and a hole scraped in its centre to within 2 or 3 inches of the bottom of the layer of dead leaves. The egg is placed in the sand just at the edge of the hole, in a vertical position, with the smaller end downwards. The sand is then thrown in again, and the mound left in its original form. The egg which has been thus deposited is therefore completely surrounded and enveloped in soft sand, having from 4 to 6 inches of sand between the lower end of the egg and the layer of dead leaves. When a second egg is laid it is deposited in precisely the same plane as the first, but at the opposite side of the hole before alluded to. When a third egg is laid it is placed in the same plane as the others, but, as it were, at the third corner of a square. When the fourth egg is laid, it is still placed in the same plane; but in the fourth corner of the square, or rather of the lozenge, the figure being of this form,

; the next four eggs in succession are placed in the lxxivinterstices, but always in the same plane, so that at last there is a circle of eight eggs all standing upright in the sand with several inches of sand intervening between each. The male bird assists the female in opening and covering up the mound; and provided the birds are not themselves disturbed, the female continues to lay in the same mound, even after it has been several times robbed. The natives say that the females lay an egg every day.

“Eight is the greatest number I have heard of from good authority as having been found in one nest; but I opened a mound which had been previously robbed of several eggs, and found that two had been laid opposite to each other in the same plane in the usual manner; and a third deposited in a plane parallel to that in which the other two were placed, but 4½ inches below them. This circumstance led me to imagine it was possible that there might be sometimes successive circles of eggs in different planes.

“I enclose three sketches which will convey to you a complete idea of the form of the mound, and of the manner in which the eggs are placed in it. These sketches were drawn by Mr. Knight, from a rude one of mine, and are very accurate.

No. 1.

This sketch represents a section through the mound after the sand has been cleared out in
such a manner that the eggs could all be removed, and the bottom of the nest of leaves be laid
bare. It shows the form of the opening the natives make in the mound when they rob it of its
eggs; this opening has however been continued below where the eggs are placed, in order to
show the form of the interior nest.

The pale tint represents that portion which is made of sand; the darker tint the part which is
made of leaves, &c.

No. 2.

This sketch represents a section through the mound in its undisturbed state; the pale tint
indicates the portion of sand, the darker tint the leaves, &c.

No. 3.

This sketch shows a bird’s eye view of the mound as seen from
above; the sand is supposed to have been so far thrown out as to
leave the tops of the eggs exposed, and to show them standing
upright in their relative positions.

“One of the mounds of these birds which had been robbed of its eggs on the 11th November, some of which were quite fresh, had two fresh eggs laid in it on the 27th of the same month, and the birds were seen at the nest on the morning of the 28th, apparently for the purpose of laying, when the male bird was shot.

“Sometimes several of these mounds are constructed close to one another. I found two within 200 or 300 yards, and have seen five within the distance of four or five miles. They were built in precisely the same situations that I have seen them in other parts of the continent, that is, in a sandy, scrubby country, the site of the mound being in some little open glade, in the very thickest part of the scrub.

“The eggs are of a light pink, the colour being brightest and most uniform when freshly laid. As the time of hatching approaches, they become discoloured and marked in places with dark spots.

The greatest length of these eggs is about 36
10
inches.
The greatest breadth of these eggs is about 22
10
inches.
Circumference in direction of length 10 inches.
Circumference in direction of breadth 72
10
inches.

“The temperature of the nests I have examined has always been warm; not so much so, however, as I should have thought necessary for the purpose of hatching eggs.

“There are two great peculiarities about these eggs; the first is, that both ends are of nearly the same size; which form is peculiarly adapted to the position in which they are always placed; the egg being compressed in every part as nearly as possible towards the axis, in which the centre of gravity lies, there is the least possible lxxvtendency to its equilibrium being destroyed when it is placed in a vertical position. A second peculiarity is the extreme thinness of the shell, and its consequent fragility. This is so great, that unless the egg is handled with the greatest care, it is sure to be broken, and every effort which has been made to hatch these eggs under domestic fowls has failed, the egg having in every instance been broken by the bird under which it was placed.

“The native name for the bird on the Murray River is Marrak-ko or Marra-ko; in Western Australia the name of the bird is Ngow-o or Ngow. The name in Western Australia is given from the tuft on its head, Ngoweer meaning a tuft of feathers.

“I have found this bird in different parts of that portion of Australia included between the 26th and 36th parallels of south latitude, and the 113th and 141st parallels of east longitude, and I think that there is every probability that it inhabits a much wider range. It is found in all the scrubby districts of South Australia.

“Yours truly, G. Grey.”
“December 14th.

“P.S.—I have, by cross examination of several natives, elicited the following account of this bird, and I am quite satisfied of its truth.

“There is only one male and one female to each nest: they repair an old nest, and do not build a new one; both assist in scratching the sand to the nest. The female commences laying about the beginning of September, or when the spear-grass begins to shoot. Both sexes approach the nest together when the female is about to lay, and they take an equal share in the labour of covering and uncovering the mound. After every sunrise the female lays an egg, and lays altogether from eight to ten. If the natives rob the nest, the female will lay again in the same nest, but she will only lay the full number of eggs twice in one summer. From the commencement of building, until the last eggs are hatched, four moons elapse (this would give a very long period of time before the eggs were hatched). The young one scratches its way out alone; the mother does not assist it. They usually come out one at a time; occasionally a pair appear together. The mother, who is feeding in the scrub in the vicinity, hears its call and runs to it. She then takes care of the young one as a European hen does of its chick. When the young are all hatched the mother is accompanied by eight or ten young ones, who remain with her until they are more than half-grown. The male bird does not accompany them. The two sexes have different calls: that of the female is constantly uttered while she walks about in the scrub with her young ones.

“The natives frequently find the eggs and nests, but they seldom see the old birds, which are very timid and quick-sighted. They run very fast, like the Emu, roost on trees, and live for a long time without water, but drink when it rains. The natives state that the Entozoæ which I found in the bird mentioned above were unusual, and that it must have been in ill health.

“It is a remarkably stout, compact bird, and appears, when alive, to have as large a body as the female turkey, but it is shorter on the legs.”

To this valuable account I may add the following, furnished by Mr. Gilbert:—

“Wongan Hills, Western Australia, September 28, 1842.

“This morning I had the good fortune to penetrate into the dense thicket I had been so long anxious to visit in search of the Leipoa’s eggs, and had not proceeded far before the native who was with me told me to keep a good look-out, as we were among the Ngou-oo’s hillocks, and in half an hour after we found one, around which the brush was so thick that we were almost running over before seeing it; so anxious was I to see the hidden treasures within that in my haste I threw aside the black fellow and began scraping off the upper part of the mound; this did not at all please him, and he became very indignant, at the same time making me understand, ‘that as I had never seen this nest before I had better trust to him to get out the eggs, or I should, in my haste and impatience, certainly break them.’ I therefore let him have his own way, and he began scraping off the earth very carefully from the centre, throwing it over the side, so that the mound very soon presented the appearance of a huge basin; about two feet in depth of earth was in this way thrown off, when the large ends of two eggs met my anxious gaze; both these eggs were resting on their smaller apex, and the earth around them had to be very carefully removed to avoid breaking the shell, which is extremely fragile when first exposed to the atmosphere; this mound was about three feet in height and seven to nine feet in circumference; the form, as left by the bird, was in outline the segment of a circle. About a hundred yards from this first nest we came upon a second, rather larger, of the same external form and appearance; it contained three eggs. Although we saw seven or eight more lxxvimounds, only these two contained eggs; we were too early; a week later and we should doubtless have found many more. To give you an idea of the place this bird chooses for its remarkable mode of rearing its young, I will describe it as nearly as I can:—The Wongan Hills are about thirteen hundred feet above the level of the sea, in a north-north-east direction from Drummond’s house in the Toodyay; their sides are thickly clothed with a dense forest of Eucalypti; and at their base is a thicket, extending for several miles, of upright-growing and thick, bushy plants, so high in most parts that we could not see over their tops, and so dense, that if we separated only for a few yards, we were obliged to cooey, to prevent our straying from each other; this thicket is again shadowed by a very curious species of dwarf Eucalyptus bearing yellow blossoms and growing from fifteen to thirty feet in height, known to the natives as the spear-wood, and of which they make their spears, digging sticks, dowaks, &c.; the whole formation is a fine reddish ironstone gravel, and this the Leipoa scratches up from several yards around, and thus forms its mound, to be afterwards converted into a hot-bed for the reproduction of its offspring. The interior of the mounds is composed of the finer particles of the gravel mixed with vegetable matter, the fermentation of which produces a warmth sufficient for the purpose of hatching. Mr. Drummond, who had been for years accustomed to hot-beds in England, gave it as his opinion that the heat around the eggs was about 80°. In both the nests with eggs the White Ant was very numerous, making its little covered galleries of earth around and attached to the shell, thus showing a beautiful provision of Nature in preparing the necessary tender food for the young bird when emerging from the shell; one of the eggs I have preserved shows the White Ant’s tracks most beautifully; the largest mound I saw, and which appeared as if in a state of preparation for eggs, measured forty-five feet in circumference, and if rounded in proportion on the top would have been full five feet in height. I remarked in all the nests not ready for the reception of eggs the inside or vegetable portion was always wet and cold, and I imagine, from the state of others, that the bird turns out the whole of the materials to dry before depositing its eggs and covering them up with the soil; in both cases where I found eggs the upper part of the mound was perfectly and smoothly rounded over, so that any one passing it without knowing the singular habit of the bird might very readily suppose it to be an ant-hill: mounds in this state always contain eggs within, while those without eggs are not only not rounded over, but have the centres so scooped out that they form a hollow. The eggs are deposited in a very different manner from those of the Megapodius; instead of each being placed in a separate excavation in different parts of the mound, they are laid directly in the centre, all at the same depth, separated only by about three inches of earth, and so placed as to form a circle. I regret we were so early; had we been a week later, the probability is I should have found the circle of eggs complete. Is it not singular that all the eggs were equally fresh, as if their development was arrested until the full number was deposited, so that the young might all appear about the same time? No one considering the immense size of the egg can for a moment suppose the bird capable of laying more than one without at least the intermission of a day, and perhaps even more. The average weight of the egg is eight ounces, and four of them on being blown yielded nearly a pint and a half. Like those of the Megapodius, they are covered with an epidermis-like coating, and are certainly as large, being three inches and three quarters in length, by two and a half in breadth; they vary in colour from a very light brown to a light salmon. During the whole day we did not succeed in obtaining sight of the bird, although we saw numerous tracks of its feet, and many places where it had been scratching; we also saw its tracks on the sand when crossing the dried beds of the swamps at least two miles from the breeding thicket, which proves that the bird, in procuring its food, does not confine itself to the brushes around its nest, but merely resorts to them for the purpose of incubating. The native informed us that the only chance of procuring the bird was by stationing ourselves in sight of the mound at a little distance, and remaining quiet and immoveable till it made its appearance at sun-down; this I attempted, and, with the native, encamped within twenty yards of the mound about an hour before sunset, taking the precaution to conceal ourselves well with bushes from the quick eye of the bird, but leaving just a sufficient opening to get a fair sight with my gun; in a half-sitting, half-crouching position I thus remained in breathless anxiety for the approach of the bird I had so long wished to see, not daring to move a muscle, for fear of moving a branch or making a noise by crushing a dead leaf, till I was so cramped I could scarcely bear the pain in my limbs; the bird did not however make its appearance, and the native, with the fear of wading through the thicket in darkness (for there was no moon), became so impatient, that he started up and began to talk so loud and make so much noise, that I was compelled to give up all hopes of seeing the bird that night; however, just as we were passing the mound we started the bird lxxviifrom the opposite side, but from the denseness of the thicket and the darkness closing around us, I had no chance of getting a shot at it. Mr. Roe, the Surveyor-general, who examined several mounds during his expedition to the interior in the year 1836, found the eggs nearly ready to hatch in the month of November, and invariably seven or eight in number; while another authority has informed me of an instance of fourteen being taken from one mound.”

In a subsequent letter Mr. Gilbert states that the flavour of the egg is very similar to that of the Tortoise or Turtle, and that when mixed with tea its similarity to the peculiar roughness and earthy flavour of that of the Hawk’s-bill Turtle is very remarkable.

Genus Megapodius, Quoy & Gaim.

The members of this genus inhabit all the Indian and Philippine Islands and Australia. Mr. G. R. Gray informs me that “the females of some species associate together in bands during the night and deposit their eggs in a cavity which they dig to the depth of two or three feet; that the successive deposits of eggs amount to a hundred or more and are left to be hatched by the solar rays; that some cover them with sand and others with the remains of plants; and that the eggs are extremely large for the size of the birds, and are generally of a cinnamon colour.”

442. Megapodius tumulus, Gould Vol. V. Pl. 79.

The following interesting account of the breeding-places of this remarkable bird has been transmitted to me by Mr. John M’Gillivray as the result of his observations on Nogo or Megapodius Island in Endeavour Straits. It will be seen that its range is more extensive than I had assigned to it:—

“The most southern locality known to me for this singular bird is Haggerston Island (in lat. 12° 3′ south), where I observed several of its mounds of very large size, but did not see any of the birds. During the survey of Endeavour Straits in H.M.S. Bramble, I was more fortunate, having succeeded in procuring both male and female on the island marked ‘Nogo’ upon the chart, where I resided for several days for that sole purpose. On this small island, not more than half a mile in length, rising at one extremity into a low rounded hill densely covered with jungle (or what in New South Wales would be called ‘brush’), three mounds, one of them apparently deserted before completion, were found. The two others were examined by Mr. Jukes and myself. The most recent, judging from the smoothness of its sides and the want of vegetable matter, was situated upon the crest of the hill, and measured 8 feet in height (or 13½ from the base of the slope to the summit) and 77 feet in circumference. In this mound, after several hours’ hard digging into a well-packed mass of earth, stones, decaying branches and leaves and other vegetable matter, and the living roots of trees, we found numerous fragments of eggs, besides one broken egg containing a dead and putrid chick, and another whole one, which proved to be addled. All were imbedded at a depth of six feet from the nearest part of the surface, at which place the heat produced by the fermentation of the mass was considerable. The egg, 3¼ by 2⅛ inches, was dirty brown, covered with a kind of epidermis, which easily chipped off, exposing a pure white surface beneath. Another mound, situated at the foot of the hill close to the beach, measured no less than 150 feet in circumference, and to form this immense accumulation of materials the ground in the vicinity had been scraped quite bare by the birds, and numerous shallow excavations pointed out whence the materials had been derived. Its form was an irregular oval, the flattened summit not being central as in the first instance, but situated nearer the larger end, which was elevated 14 feet from the ground, the slope measuring in various directions 18, 21½, and 24 feet. At Port Lihou, in a small bay a few miles to the westward, at Cape York and at Port Essington, I found other mounds which were comparatively low, and appeared to have been dug into by the natives. The great size the tumuli (which are probably the work of several generations) have attained on Haggerston and Nogo Islands arises doubtless from those places being seldom visited by the Aborigines. I found several eggs of large size in the ovarium of a female shot in August, while the condition of the oviduct showed that an egg had very recently passed; hence it is probable that, in spite of their great comparative size, one bird lays several; but whether each mound is resorted to by more than one pair, I had not the means of ascertaining.

lxxviii“Few birds are more wary and less easily procured than the Megapodius; it inhabits the belts of brush along the coast, and I never found the tumulus at a greater distance from the sea than a few hundred yards. When disturbed it seldom rises at once, unless on the margin of a thicket, but runs off to some distance and then takes to wing, flying heavily, but without any of the whirring noise of the true Gallinaceæ. It seldom takes a long flight, and usually perches on a tree, remaining there in a crouching attitude with outstretched neck, but flying off again upon observing any motion made by its pursuer; and it is only by cautiously creeping up under cover of the largest trees that it can be approached within gunshot. As an example of its shyness, I may mention that a party of three persons, scattered about in a small jungle on Nogo Island, for the purpose of shooting the Megapodius, did not see a single bird, although they put up several, one of which came towards me and perched, unconscious of my presence, within 20 yards. At Port Essington I have shot this bird among mangroves, the roots of which were washed by the sea at high water; and Capt. F. P. Blackwood killed one while running on the mud in a similar locality, in both instances close to a mound. I never witnessed the escape of the young from the mound; but one, as large as a quail, and covered with feathers, was brought to Lieut. Ince by a native, who affirmed that he had dug it out along with several eggs.

“Iris yellowish brown; stomach a complete gizzard, being thick and muscular, containing small quartz pebbles, small shells (Helix and Bulimus), and black seeds; intestine 34 inches in length, of the size of a goosequill, and nearly uniform in thickness, much twisted and contracted at intervals; cæcum slender, dilated at the extremity, and 46
8
inches in length.”

Family TINAMIDÆ?, G. R. Gray.

Subfamily TURNICINÆ, G. R. Gray.

Genus Pedionomus, Gould.

Generic characters.

Bill nearly as long as the head, straight, compressed towards the tip; nostrils basal, placed in a groove, and protected by an operculum; wings short and concave, first, second and third primaries equal in length; tertiaries longer than the primaries; tail nearly obsolete; tarsi elongated and defended in front with transverse scales; toes four in number, the hinder one feeble and placed high on the tarsus.

Few of the discoveries I made in Australia interested me more than that of the species forming the subject of the present genus, and of which during my sojourn in the country I only obtained a male. Subsequently Mr. Strange sent me another example, which from its much larger size and the circumstance of its neck being adorned with a beautiful collar of mingled black and white feathers, I considered a distinct species and characterized it as such, under the name P. torquatus, and assigned that of microurus to the males or birds destitute of the collar, an error which the observations of Sir George Grey and Mr. Strange have enabled me to rectify, and which shows that this bird is another of the anomalies so often met with in Australia, since, contrary to the general rule, the female is a far finer and more conspicuously-coloured bird than her mate.

“You ask me,” says Sir George Grey, “to tell you something about Pedionomus. There is but one species; you have described two, P. torquatus and P. microurus; the former is the female and the latter is the male. We have now three of these birds in confinement, all similar to your P. torquatus. We had four; the fourth, which died, was like your P. microurus; and was certainly a male; they were all caught in the same net, hence I infer that several females associate with one male.

“We have had several of these birds in confinement at different times; they eat pounded wheat, raw and boiled rice, bread and flies; the latter appear to be their favourite food. They soon become perfectly tame; the three now in our possession we have had for upwards of four months.

“These birds are migratory; they appear at Adelaide in June and disappear about January; where they go has not yet been ascertained. They never fly if they can avoid so doing, and are often caught by dogs; when disturbed, they crouch down and endeavour to hide themselves in a tuft of grass. When running about they are lxxixin the habit of raising themselves in a nearly perpendicular position on the extremities of their toes, so that the hinder part of the foot does not touch the ground, and of taking a wide survey around them. The Emu sometimes stands in a similar position. I have not yet ascertained anything respecting their nests, eggs or time of breeding. The call of those we have in confinement precisely resembles that of the Emu, not the whistle, but the hollow-sounding noise like that produced by tapping on a cask, which the Emu utters, but is of course much fainter.”

The Plate therefore represents two females, and the appellation of microurus given to the male bird should be the one adopted. As the male has not been figured, the following description of that sex is given:—

Crown of the head, back and upper surface mottled with black, brown and fawn-colour, the latter occupying the external edge of the feathers, and the black and brown forming alternate circular markings on each feather; throat, neck, chest and flanks dull fawn-colour, the feathers of the neck and chest blotched with brown; flanks marked with the same colour, assuming the form of bars; tail-feathers almost invisible; centre of the abdomen and under tail-coverts buffy-white, without spots or markings; irides straw-yellow passing into black at the point; feet greenish yellow.

Total length, 4½ inches; bill, 11
16
; wing, 3¼; tarsi, ⅞.

Independently of the plains of South Australia formerly given as the restricted habitat of this species, I have lately received a letter from Mr. Strange of Sydney, in which he states a female had been procured in the neighbourhood of Botany Bay. I am also in possession of an egg of this bird, which in general character resembles that of Turnix; it is somewhat suddenly contracted at the smaller end, the ground-colour is stone-white, sprinkled with small blotches of umber-brown and vinous-grey, the latter colour appearing as if beneath the surface of the shell, the sprinkled markings predominating at the larger end; the length of the egg is 1 inch and one-eighth by seven-eighths in breadth.

443. Pedionomus torquatus, Gould, female Vol. V. Pl. 80.
    —— microurus, Gould, male.  

Genus Turnix, Bonn.

However widely the members of this genus are dispersed, inhabiting as one or other of them do all quarters of the Old World, Australia is the great nursery of the race, since it is in that country that we find the species more numerous than elsewhere; they not only inhabit every part of the continent that has yet been explored, but they extend their range to the islands adjacent to the coast and even to Van Diemen’s Land; some species enjoy a wide range across the continent from east to west, while others are very local; grassy plains and stony ridges thickly interspersed with scrubs and grasses are the situations they frequent; their eggs are invariably four in number, pointed in form, and very like those of the Sandpipers; their only nest is a few grasses placed in a hollow on the ground; in their habits and actions they differ considerably from the Quails and Partridges, and, strange as it may appear, approach more closely to the Tringæ, particularly to those species with the more attenuated form of bill; when rising from almost beneath your feet, they fly, especially the smaller species, straight and with arrow-like swiftness to the distance of one or two hundred yards, and then suddenly pitch to the ground. Their flesh, although eatable, is dry and deficient in flavour when compared with that of the Quails and Partridges.

444. Turnix melanogaster.  
    Hemipodius melanogaster, Gould Vol. V. Pl. 81.
445. Turnix varius.  
    Hemipodius varius Vol. V. Pl. 82.
446. Turnix scintillans.  
447. Hemipodius scintillans, Gould Vol. V. Pl. 83.
448. Turnix melanotus.  
    Hemipodius melanotus, Gould Vol. V. Pl. 84.
449. Turnix castanotus.  
    Hemipodius castanotus, Gould Vol. V. Pl. 85.
lxxx450. Turnix pyrrhothorax.  
    Hemipodius pyrrhothorax, Gould Vol. V. Pl. 86.
451. Turnix velox.  
    Hemipodius velox, Gould Vol. V. Pl. 87.

Family TETRAONIDÆ, Leach.

Genus Coturnix, Mœhr.

One true Quail is all that has yet been described as inhabiting Australia; as might be expected, it is a denizen of the plains, as well as of all the open districts of any extent where grass-lands occur; it also resorts to the arable districts in great abundance. A difference exists in specimens from the western and eastern coasts, the former having a deep fawn or light rufous tint pervading the under surface; and it is possible that this difference of colouring may be characteristic of a second and distinct species.

452. Coturnix pectoralis, Gould Vol. V. Pl. 88.

Genus Synoïcus, Gould.

Generic characters.

As in Perdix, but with no spur on the tarsi, and the tail almost obsolete.

The great paucity of the Gallinaceæ in Australia is very remarkable, the members of the present genus being almost the only representatives of that group of birds inhabiting the country. The similarity of the habits and economy of these birds to those of the true Partridges, particularly to our own well-known species the Perdix cinerea, allies them more nearly to those birds than to the Quails.

Grassy meads, the sides of rushy creeks, and districts clothed with dense herbage, are the favourite resorts of these birds, which move about in small coveys, and when flushed fly but a short distance before they again alight. As an article of food they are all that can be wished.

Every part of the country, from Port Essington on the north to Van Diemen’s Land on the south, is inhabited by one or other species of the genus, which are, I doubt not, more numerous than I have represented, for I feel confident that the bird found at Port Essington is quite distinct from those of the south coast.

453. Synoïcus Australis Vol. V. Pl. 89.
454. Synoïcus Diemenensis, Gould Vol. V. Pl. 90.
455. Synoïcus sordidus, Gould Vol. V. Pl. 91.
456. Synoïcus? Chinensis Vol. V. Pl. 92.

Order GRALLATORES, Ill.

Family STRUTHIONIDÆ, Vig.

Genus Dromaius, Vieill.

I formerly entertained an opinion that there were two species of Emu inhabiting Australia, but I have not had sufficient proofs that such is the case. The small specimens in the possession of the Linnean Society of London and in the Jardin des Plantes at Paris, may only be stunted birds which had been kept in captivity, but as some doubt still remains in my mind the subject should be kept in view.

457. Dromaius Novæ-Hollandiæ Vol. VI. Pl. 1.
lxxxi

Genus Apteryx, Shaw.

New Zealand is the only country wherein the members of this genus now exist; but they doubtless formerly ranged over that continent of which the greater part is submerged beneath the surface of the ocean, and of which a few isolated spots—New Zealand, Norfolk and Phillip Islands among others—alone remain.

458. Apteryx Australis, Shaw Vol. VI. Pl. 2.
459. Apteryx Owenii, Gould Vol. VI. Pl. 3.

Genus Otis, Linn.

A country better adapted than Australia for the members of this genus can scarcely be imagined, yet singularly enough only one species has yet been found there. Africa may be considered the cradle of the race, for it is on that continent that they are most numerous; Europe and India are also inhabited by various species. The Otis nigriceps of the plains of Upper India, and the O. Australis are beautiful representatives of each other in the respective countries they inhabit.

460. Otis Australis, Gray.  
    Otis Australasianus, Gould Vol. VI. Pl. 4.

The range of this bird over the country is probably universal; both Dr. Leichardt and Mr. Gilbert observed it within the tropical portion of Australia, and Captain Sturt found it in the desert interior.

Family CHARADRIADÆ, Leach.

Genus Œdicnemus, Temm.

The Œdicnemi occur in Europe, Africa, Asia and Australia, in which latter country one if not two species exist that are not found elsewhere.

461. Œdicnemus grallarius Vol. VI. Pl. 5.

The birds of this form inhabiting the northern coast have longer legs and shorter wings, and I have no doubt are distinct; but I have not seen a sufficient number of specimens to enable me to affirm that such is actually the case.

Genus Esacus, Less.

The genera Œdicnemus and Esacus are merely modifications of the same form; the variation in that of the bill being expressly adapted for procuring the kinds of food upon which the species respectively subsist; the Œdicnemus frequenting the stony deserts of the interior of the country feeds upon insects of various kinds, and the tender shoots of herbage; while the Esacus, resorting to the salt-marshes and the shores of the sea, lives upon crabs, mollusks and other marine animals.

462. Esacus magnirostris Vol. VI. Pl. 6.

So far as our knowledge extends, the present bird is confined to the shores of the northern and north-western parts of Australia. It is beautifully represented in India by the E. recurvirostris, and these two species are all that are known to ornithologists.

lxxxii

Genus Hæmatopus, Linn.

I believe that there is no country in the world of any extent the shores of which are not inhabited by one or other of the numerous species of this genus; but it would seem that all those which exist in the southern hemisphere are totally different from those of the northern.

Two species inhabit Australia, viz.

463. Hæmatopus longirostris, Vieill. Vol. VI. Pl. 7.
464. Hæmatopus fuliginosus, Gould Vol. VI. Pl. 8.

Genus Lobivanellus, Strikl.

Two species of this beautiful form inhabit Australia, one the northern and the other the southern parts of the country; I believe they are both confined to this portion of the globe. Other species are found in India and Africa.

465. Lobivanellus lobatus Vol. VI. Pl. 9.
466. Lobivanellus personatus, Gould Vol. VI. Pl. 10.

Genus Sarciophorus, Strickl.

A genus nearly allied to the last, and of which a single species inhabits Australia; like Lobivanellus, it is an Old World form.

467. Sarciophorus pectoralis Vol. VI. Pl. 11.

Genus Squatarola, Cuv.

The single species of this genus inhabits Europe, Asia, North America and Australia.

468. Squatarola Helvetica Vol. VI. Pl. 12.

Genus Charadrius, Linn.

The Australian fauna comprises two species of this form, of which one, the Charadrius veredus, might, perhaps, with propriety be separated into a distinct genus, or placed in that of Eudromias.

469. Charadrius xanthocheilus, Wagl. Vol. VI. Pl. 13.
470. Charadrius veredus, Gould Vol. VI. Pl. 14.

Genus Eudromias, Boie.

Of this genus of upland Plovers two species at least are known, viz. the E. morinellus of Europe and the E. Australis of Australia.

471. Eudromias Australis, Gould Vol. VI. Pl. 15.

This bird inhabits the low hills and plains of the interior, a kind of habitat precisely similar to that of its European prototype.

Since my account of this species was written some additional information has been acquired respecting it.

lxxxiii“This singular bird,” says Captain Sturt, in the Appendix to his Account of his recent expedition into the interior of South Australia, “made its appearance in 1841 suddenly on the plains of Adelaide, seeming to have come from the north. It occupied the sand-hills at the edge of the Mangrove swamps and fed round the puddles of water on the plains. This bird afforded my friend, Mr. Torrens, an abundant harvest, as it was numerous round his house; but although some few have visited South Australia every subsequent year, they have never appeared in such numbers as on the first occasion. It runs very fast along the ground. Mr. Browne and I met or rather crossed several flights of these birds in August of 1845, going south. They were on the large open plains and were very wild.”

Genus Hiaticula, G. R. Gray.

Five species of this genus inhabit Australia, and others occur in New Zealand, the Indian Islands, India, Europe, Africa and America, consequently few genera have their members more widely dispersed. Almost all the species found in Australia are peculiar to the country, and are more numerous on the southern than they are on the northern parts of that continent; shingly beaches and low flat shores are their principal places of resort.

472. Hiaticula bicincta Vol. VI. Pl. 16.
473. Hiaticula ruficapilla Vol. VI. Pl. 17.
474. Hiaticula monacha Vol. VI. Pl. 18.
475. Hiaticula inornata, Gould Vol. VI. Pl. 19.
476. Hiaticula nigrifrons Vol. VI. Pl. 20.

Genus Erythrogonys, Gould.

Generic characters.

Bill longer than the head, straight, rather depressed; nostrils basal, linear; wings long and powerful, the first feather the longest; tertiaries nearly as long as the primaries; tail short and nearly square; legs long; toes four in number, slender, the hind-toe extremely diminutive and free, the outer toe united to the middle one nearly to the first joint; thighs naked above the knee.

The single species of this genus appears to be strictly Australian, for I have never seen examples from any other country.

477. Erythrogonys cinctus, Gould Vol. VI. Pl. 21.

In structure, actions and economy this elegantly formed bird is very nearly allied to the Hiaticulæ on the one hand, and the Schœnicli on the other.

Genus Glareola, Briss.

I have for many years questioned the propriety of placing the Pratincoles in the same group with the Plovers, or even in the same order, believing them as I do to be a terrestrial form of the Fissirostral birds. Linnæus placed them near the Swallows, and I think he was right in so doing; and Mr. Blyth, one of the most philosophical of ornithologists, entertains, I believe, the same opinion; but as nearly all other writers have placed them with the Charadriadæ, I have adopted their view of the subject, and have accordingly retained them in that group.

Species of this genus inhabit India, the Indian Islands, Europe and Africa.

478. Glareola grallaria, Temm. Vol. VI. Pl. 22.
479. Glareola Orientalis, Leach Vol. VI. Pl. 23.
lxxxiv

Family SCOLOPACIDÆ, Vig.

Genus Himantopus., Briss.

Europe, India and Africa are inhabited by one, North America by a second, South America by a third and perhaps a fourth, New Zealand by a fifth, and Australia by a sixth species of this elegant but singular genus; the Australian bird, which is more abundant in the southern than in the northern parts of the country, is perhaps the finest and most ornamental of the whole.

480. Himantopus leucocephalus, Gould Vol. VI. Pl. 24.
481. Himantopus Novæ-Zealandiæ Vol. VI. Pl. 25.

Genus Chladorhynchus, G. R. Gray.

The only known species of this form is peculiar to Australia.

482. Chladorhynchus pectoralis Vol. VI. Pl. 26.

Observed in great numbers by Captain Sturt, during his journey into the interior, in the Appendix to which he says,—“This singular bird, with legs so admirably adapted by their length for wading into the shallow lakes and sheets of water, near which it is found, was seen in large flocks. It was very abundant on Lepson’s Lake to the northward of Cooper’s Creek; and on Strzelecki’s Creek it was sitting on the water with other wild fowl making a singular plaintive whistle.”

Genus Recurvirostra, Linn.

This form, like that of Himantopus, is widely distributed over the globe, since species inhabit America, Africa, Europe, India and Australia, in which latter country, as in Europe, only one species is found, viz.

483. Recurvirostra rubricollis, Temm. Vol. VI. Pl. 27.

Genus Limosa, Briss.

Two very distinct species of this genus inhabit Australia, one the southern and the other the northern divisions of the country; others occur in Java, Sumatra, India, Africa, Europe and North America.

484. Limosa Melanuroïdes, Gould Vol. VI. Pl. 28.
485. Limosa uropygialis, Gould Vol. VI. Pl. 29.

Genus Schœniclus, Mœhr.

I have figured four species of this genus as inhabiting Australia, not more than one, or at most two, of which, however, is or are peculiar to that country. The species of this genus range over many degrees of latitude, and occur in America as well as in most parts of the Old World.

486. Schœniclus Australis Vol. VI. Pl. 30.
487. Schœniclus albescens Vol. VI. Pl. 31.
488. Schœniclus subarquatus Vol. VI. Pl. 32.
489. Schœniclus magnus, Gould Vol. VI. Pl. 33.

This species, I believe, also inhabits India and Japan.

lxxxv

Genus Terekia, Bonap.

The only known species of this form inhabits Java, Sumatra, India and Europe, and as I killed a specimen in Australia that country must also be included within its range.

490. Terekia cinerea Vol. VI. Pl. 34.

Genus Actitis, Ill.

One species of this genus inhabits Australia, where it represents the Actitis hypoleucus of Europe and Actitis macularius of America.

491. Actitis empusa, Gould Vol. VI. Pl. 35.

Genus Glottis, Nils.

The only species of this genus found in Australia appears to me to be identical with the Glottis Glottoïdes of India.

492. Glottis Glottoïdes Vol. VI. Pl. 36.

Genus Totanus, Bechst.

Of this genus two species are all that have yet been discovered in Australia; one of these I have regarded as identical with the Totanus stagnatilis of Europe, and if this view be correct, then the range of the species will extend from Asia to Australia; certain it is that I have seen specimens from all the intermediate countries which are strictly identical with the European bird. The second species is an inhabitant of the north coast, and is allied to the T. calidris.

493. Totanus stagnatilis Vol. VI. Pl. 37.
494. Totanus griseopygius, Gould Vol. VI. Pl. 38.

Genus Strepsilas, Ill.

If any bird may be regarded as a Cosmopolite it is the Turnstone, for it inhabits the sea-shores of every part of the globe.

495. Strepsilas Interpres Vol. VI. Pl. 39.

Genus Scolopax, Linn.

If the slight difference which occurs in the Snipes from Port Essington on the north and from Van Diemen’s Land on the south be regarded as mere local variations, then only one species of this form exists in Australia.

496. Scolopax Australis, Lath. Vol. VI. Pl. 40.

Captain Sturt informs us that this Snipe is common in South Australia, but scarce in the interior of the country; that it breeds in great numbers in the valley of Mypunga, but is only to be found in those localities where the ground is constantly soft.

lxxxvi

Genus Rhynchæa, Cuv.

The few species comprised in this genus are widely dispersed over the face of the globe; one inhabits the southernmost parts of America, another South Africa, a third India, and a fourth Australia. They affect different situations from those resorted to by the true Snipes, usually selecting drier ground and knolls under low bushes contiguous to marshy lands, where they can readily procure food and water.

497. Rhynchæa Australis, Gould Vol. VI. Pl. 41.

“This beautiful bird,” says Captain Sturt, “was very scarce in the interior, and indeed is not common anywhere. Some three or four couples visit my residence at Grange yearly, and remain in the high reeds at the bottom of the creek, among which they doubtless breed, but I never found one of their nests. They lie basking in the shade of a tree on the sand-hills during the day, and separate when alarmed.”

Genus Numenius, Linn.

Three species of this form are found in Australia, to which part of the globe they are confined, and wherein they represent the species inhabiting the northern hemisphere, with which their habits, actions and economy are strictly in accordance.

498. Numenius Australis, Gould Vol. VI. Pl. 42.
499. Numenius uropygialis, Gould Vol. VI. Pl. 43.
500. Numenius minutus, Gould Vol. VI. Pl. 44.

Family ARDEIDÆ, Leach.

Subfamily TANTALINÆ, G. R. Gray.

Genus Geronticus, Wagl.

The three species of Ibises inhabiting Australia have been separated by ornithologists into as many genera, and the difference which exists in their habits and economy tends to prove the propriety of their subdivision; for while the Geronticus congregates in flocks of thousands and mainly subsists upon caterpillars, grasshoppers and locusts, a kind of food which it readily obtains on the heated plains, the Threskiornis assembles in small companies of from four to six in number and resorts to the rushy banks of the lagoons and other humid situations, and feeds upon newts, frogs, lizards, snakes and fish, and the Falcinellus resorts to similar situations, but I have had no opportunity of observing its habits.

501. Geronticus spinicollis Vol. VI. Pl. 45.

I have never seen examples of this species from any other country than Australia, which would therefore appear to be its restricted habitat.

Genus Threskiornis, G. R. Gray.

502. Threskiornis strictipennis Vol. VI. Pl. 46.

Found in most parts of Eastern Australia during wet seasons.

503. Falcinellus igneus Vol. VI. Pl. 47.

lxxxviiThis species is numerous in the northern and eastern districts of Australia, whence its range extends throughout the whole of the islands to India and Europe.

Subfamily GRUINÆ, G. R. Gray.

Genus Grus, Linn.

Species of this genus inhabit Europe, Asia, Africa, North America and Australia.

504. Grus Australasianus, Gould Vol. VI. Pl. 48.

The Australian Crane is a noble bird, and is deservedly admired both by the Aborigines and Europeans. The eastern and northern parts of the country are the only localities yet known to be inhabited by this fine bird; future research may however find that it possesses a wider range.

Subfamily PLATALEINÆ, Bonap.

Genus Platalea, Linn.

Two species of this genus inhabit Australia, both of which are, I believe, peculiar to that country, where they perform precisely the same offices as their prototypes in Europe, Asia, Africa and America.

505. Platalea flavipes, Gould Vol. VI. Pl. 49.
506. Platalea regia, Gould Vol. VI. Pl. 50.

Subfamily CICONINÆ, G. R. Gray.

Genus Mycteria, Linn.

The noble species of this genus inhabiting Australia is, I believe, identical with the bird of the same form inhabiting India, and if such be the case, then it enjoys a wide range of habitat. Africa and America are inhabited by species belonging to this or to a very nearly allied genus.

507. Mycteria Australis, Lath. Vol. VI. Pl. 51.

Subfamily ARDEINÆ, G. R. Gray.

Genus Ardea, Linn.

The Herons range over every part of the globe. The sixteen species inhabiting Australia include examples of the genera Ardea, Herodias, Nycticorax, Botaurus and Ardetta, and I think they should be still further divided, the Reef Herons, Herodias jugularis, H. Greyii, &c. differing considerably both in structure and habits from the other members of the genus; the Ardea pacifica and A. Novæ-Hollandiæ also, are not typical Ardeæ, but fill a station intermediate between the true Herons and the Egrets.

508. Ardea pacifica, Lath. Vol. VI. Pl. 52.

Numerous in the southern but rare within the tropical parts of Australia.

509. Ardea Novæ-Hollandiæ, Lath. Vol. VI. Pl. 53.

Frequents the whole of the southern coasts of Australia and Van Diemen’s Land.

510. Ardea rectirostris, Gould Vol. VI. Pl. 54.

Found on the north coast of Australia, and I believe also in the Indian Islands.

511. Ardea leucophæa, Gould Vol. VI. Pl. 55.

The range of this species, which is very rare in Australia, appears to extend to the southern parts of India.

lxxxviii

Genus Herodias, Boie.

Nearly every part of the globe is tenanted by members of this genus. Those inhabiting Australia are very nearly allied to, but I believe are quite distinct from, the species found in India, Europe and America, and of which they are the Australian representatives.

512. Herodias syrmatophorus, Gould Vol. VI. Pl. 56.
513. Herodias plumiferus, Gould Vol. VI. Pl. 57.
514. Herodias immaculata, Gould Vol. VI. Pl. 58.
515. Herodias pannosus, Gould Vol. VI. Pl. 59.
516. Herodias jugularis Vol. VI. Pl. 60.
517. Herodias Greyii Vol. VI. Pl. 61.
518. Herodias picata, Gould Vol. VI. Pl. 62.

Genus Nycticorax, Steph.

Europe, Africa and America are all inhabited by Night Herons; consequently it is one of the most widely-distributed sections of the family.

The single Australian species of this well-defined genus is rendered conspicuously different from all other known species by the cinnamon colour of its back.

519. Nycticorax Caledonicus Vol. VI. Pl. 63.

“Shot at Cape York and Port Essington, in which latter place it is rather abundant. Yangko of the Cape York aborigines, Alăwool of the Port Essington natives.”—J. M’Gillivray.

Genus Botaurus, Steph.

520. Botaurus Australis, Gould Vol. VI. Pl. 64.

The Australian Bittern is very similar to the European, B. stellaris.

Genus Ardetta, G. R. Gray.

The members of this genus of Mangrove Bitterns usually frequent the extensive belts of mangroves and low dells covered with reed-beds and dense herbage.

Africa and America are each inhabited by birds of this form, one species of which is also found in Europe, several in India and the adjacent islands, and three in Australia, viz.—

521. Ardetta flavicollis Vol. VI. Pl. 65.

This species is said to inhabit Java and India, and although I have figured it under the name assigned to the Indian and Javanese bird, I am still inclined to believe that it is distinct.

522. Ardetta macrorhyncha, Gould Vol. VI. Pl. 66.
523. Ardetta stagnatilis, Gould Vol. VI. Pl. 67.
524. Ardetta pusilla Vol. VI. Pl. 68.

This species, with the little Bittern of the British Islands and several others inhabiting Africa and America, would admit of being separated into a distinct genus.

lxxxix

Family RALLIDÆ, Leach.

Of this family no less than sixteen species inhabit Australia, and are comprised in the following genera, viz. Porphyrio, Fulica, Gallinula, Rallus and Porzana, all of which are European forms; and Parra, Eulabeornis and Tribonyx: of the latter, the first is common to India and the Indian Islands, and the other two are confined, so far as we know, to Australia.

Genus Porphyrio, Briss.

525. Porphyrio melanotus, Temm. Vol. VI. Pl. 69.
526. Porphyrio bellus, Gould Vol. VI. Pl. 70.

Genus Tribonyx, DuBus.

527. Tribonyx Mortieri, DuBus Vol. VI. Pl. 71.

Inhabits the southern parts of Australia and Van Diemen’s Land.

528. Tribonyx ventralis, Gould Vol. VI. Pl. 72.

Inhabits the interior of Australia.

“This bird,” says Captain Sturt, “appeared suddenly in South Australia in 1840. It came from the north, fresh flights coming up and pushing on those which had preceded them. It was moreover evident that they had been unaccustomed to the sight of man, for they dropped in great numbers in the streets and gardens of Adelaide and ran about like fowls. At last they increased so much in number as to swarm on all the waters and creeks, doing great damage to the crops in their neighbourhood. They took the entire possession of the creek near my house, and broke down and wholly destroyed about an acre and a quarter of wheat as if cattle had bedded on it. They made their first appearance in November, and left in the beginning of March, gradually retiring northwards as they had advanced.”

Genus Gallinula, Briss.

The true Gallinulæ are very numerous, and are found in nearly every part of the world. Australia is inhabited by a species peculiarly its own, distributed over all the southern parts of the continent.

529. Gallinula tenebrosa, Gould Vol. VI. Pl. 73.

Nearly allied to, and a representative of, the Water-Hen of Europe, Gallinula chloropus.

Genus Fulica, Linn.

Fulicæ are found in nearly every part of the great continents of Europe, Asia, Africa and America, and one species in Australia.

530. Fulica Australis, Gould Vol. VI. Pl. 74.

This bird, which is strictly confined to Australia, is rather smaller than its European ally.

Genus Parra, Linn.

A tropical form, the structure of which is admirably adapted for progression over the aquatic plants and floating leaves of the lagoons and inland waters it frequents and over which it passes with facility; its expansive feet, spreading over a large surface of fallen grasses and leaves, readily sustaining it, which they would not do were they of the ordinary form.

Species of this form are found in India, Africa and America.

xc
531. Parra gallinacea, Temm. Vol. VI. Pl. 75.

Inhabits the northern parts of Australia and New Guinea.

Genus Rallus, Linn.

We have here again a genus of birds the range of the species of which is most extensive, for there is no country in which one or other of them is not to be found.

532. Rallus pectoralis, Cuv. Vol. VI. Pl. 76.
533. Rallus Lewinii, Swains. Vol. VI. Pl. 77.

Genus Eulabeornis, Gould.

Generic characters.

Bill longer than the head, nearly straight, but slightly curved downwards; compressed laterally; nostril long and open, situated in a large groove which runs along the upper mandible for nearly two-thirds of its length from the base; wings rather short and feeble, very much rounded; tertiaries long, nearly reaching to the end of the wing; legs rather long, more powerful than in the genus Rallus; toes not so much lengthened as in that genus; tail long cuneiform; the webs loose and of a decomposed character.

A genus established for the reception of a singular species of Rail inhabiting the north coast of Australia, and in which Mr. G. R. Gray has since placed four other species from different localities.

534. Eulabeornis castaneoventris, Gould Vol. VI. Pl. 78.

Genus Porzana, Vieill.

The Porzanæ inhabit Europe, Africa, India and Australia; the four species inhabiting the latter country are generally distributed, even within the tropics.

535. Porzana fluminea, Gould Vol. VI. Pl. 79.
536. Porzana palustris, Gould Vol. VI. Pl. 80.
537. Porzana leucophrys, Gould Vol. VI. Pl. 81.
538. Porzana immaculata Vol. VI. Pl. 82.

Order NATATORES, Ill.

Upon taking a general view of the birds of this Order inhabiting Europe and Australia, our attention cannot fail to be arrested by some remarkable contrasts which present themselves to our notice. I allude to the great excess in the number of species of some of the principal groups, and the paucity of others; for instance, of the true Anatidæ or Ducks, exclusive of the Mergansers, the European fauna comprises at least forty species, while eighteen are all that are known in Australia; of the Laridæ or Gulls, exclusive of the Terns, twenty species inhabit Europe, while three are all that are known in Australia; on the other hand, sixteen species of Terns frequent the shores of Australia, while only twelve resort to those of Europe; of the family Procellaridæ or Petrels, nearly forty species enliven the Australian seas, while seven are all that are known to inhabit the seas of Europe; no Puffins or Guillemots are found in the seas south of the Equator; while the Penguins are unknown north of the line; and the Grebes and Cormorants are equally numerous in both hemispheres.

Family ANATIDÆ, Leach.

Genus Cereopsis, Lath.

But one species of this singular and strictly Australian form has yet been discovered.

539. Cereopsis Novæ-Hollandiæ, Lath. Vol. VII. Pl. 1.
xci

Genus Anseranas, Less.

Like Cereopsis, this genus contains but a single species, which is equally confined to Australia.

540. Anseranas melanoleuca Vol. VII. Pl. 2.

Genus Bernicla, Steph.

The Australian bird hitherto referred to this genus should certainly receive a new generic appellation, since it does not agree either in form or habits with the true Berniclæ.

541. Bernicla jubata Vol. VII. Pl. 3.

Genus Nettapus, Brandt.

Of this beautiful genus of Pygmy Geese there are at least four species known; one inhabiting Africa, one India, and two Australia.

542. Nettapus pulchellus, Gould Vol. VII. Pl. 4.
543. Nettapus albipennis, Gould.  
    Nettapus Coromandelianus Vol. VII. Pl. 5.

I feel confident that the Australian bird which I have figured under the name of N. Coromandelianus, is quite distinct from the Indian, and I have therefore assigned it a new name.

My figures are stated to be of the natural size, but this is an error: they are considerably smaller.

Genus Cygnus, Linn.

Only one species, the C. atratus, is, I believe, found south of the line; for the Black-necked Swan of Chili will doubtless prove to be generically distinct.

544. Cygnus atratus Vol. VII. Pl. 6.

This “rara avis in terris” is not only strictly confined to Australia, but is so exclusively an inhabitant of the southern districts, that no notice has been recorded of its having been seen in Torres’ Straits, or on any part of the north coast.

Genus Casarca, Bonap.

This ornamental section of the Anatidæ is not very numerous in species.

545. Casarca Tadornoïdes Vol. VII. Pl. 7.

A beautiful representative of the C. rutila of Europe.

Genus Tadorna, Leach.

546. Tadorna Radjah Vol. VII. Pl. 8.

An equally beautiful representative of the T. Vulpanser.

Genus Anas, Linn.

Of true Ducks three species are found in Australia.

547. Anas superciliosa, Gmel. Vol. VII. Pl. 9.

xciiThis bird assimilates very closely in its structure and in its economy to the Anas Boschas of Europe, but in its plumage it is very different.

548. Anas nævosa, Gould Vol. VII. Pl. 10.

A very singular Duck, perhaps more nearly allied to Chaulelasmus than to Anas. It is a very rare bird, and has only yet been seen on the western and southern coasts of Australia; its true habitat is probably the distant interior.

549. Anas punctata, Cuv. Vol. VII. Pl. 11.

This species has much the appearance of the Teal (genus Querquedula), but in its structure is nearly allied to the true ducks (genus Anas), with which I have provisionally placed it.

Genus Spatula, Boie.

The great continents of America, Africa, Asia and Australia, are each inhabited by one or more species of this restricted genus.

550. Spatula Rhynchotis Vol. VII. Pl. 12.

This bird is, I believe, restricted to Australia.

Genus Malacorhynchus, Swains.

A very delicate form, of which the single species, confined to Australia, is the only one known.

551. Malacorhynchus membranaceus Vol. VII. Pl. 13.

Genus Dendrocygna, Swains.

This form is found in India, Africa, America and Australia: the bird I have separated into a distinct genus, under the appellation of Leptotarsis, should be included in this genus, the difference which it presents being too slight to warrant their separation.

552. Dendrocygna arcuata Vol. VII. Pl. 14.
553. Dendrocygna Eytoni.  
    Leptotarsis Eytoni, Gould Vol. VII. Pl. 15.

“Many of the reaches,” says Captain Stokes, when speaking of the river Adelaide of the north-western part of Australia, “swarmed with wild fowl, consisting almost wholly of ducks, which, from a habit of perching on the trees, have received the name of Wood Ducks. Their singularly long legs, with the web very much arched near the toes, gives great pliability to the foot and a power of grasping, which enables them to perch on trees. When on the wing they make a peculiar pleasing, whistling sound, that can be heard at a great distance, and which changes as they alight into a sort of chatter. Their perching on trees is performed in a very clumsy manner, swinging and pitching to and fro. We subsequently often found them on the rivers of the north coast, but not within some miles of their mouths or near their upper waters, from which it would appear that they inhabit certain reaches of the rivers only; we never found them in swamps. The farthest south they were met with was on the Albert River, in the Gulf of Carpentaria, in lat. 18° S., which gives them a range of six and a half degrees of latitude over the northern part of the continent. These ducks are the Leptotarsis Eytoni of Mr. Gould.”

Genus Nyroca, Flem.

Two species at least of this genus are known, one inhabiting Europe and India and the other Australia: both have the irides white.

554. Nyroca Australis, Gould Vol. VII. Pl. 16.
xciii

Genus Erismatura, Bonap.

The members of this genus, although but few in number, are found in Europe, Asia, Africa, America and Australia.

555. Erismatura Australis Vol. VII. Pl. 17.

This species, the only one of the genus inhabiting Australia, is, I believe, strictly confined to the western parts of the country, as hitherto it has not been seen elsewhere.

Genus Biziura, Leach.

A genus of which only a single species is known to exist, and which is singularly different from every other member of the family. It is strictly Australian, and may be regarded as one of the anomalies of its fauna.

556. Biziura lobata Vol. VII. Pl. 18.

Family LARIDÆ, Leach.

Genus Larus, Linn.

The members of this genus are distributed over the sea-shores of every part of the globe. Only one species inhabits Australia, to which country it is confined, and where it represents the Larus marinus of Europe and America.

557. Larus Pacificus Vol. VII. Pl. 19.

Genus Xema, Leach.

A genus of Gulls, the members of which are delicate in their structure, elegant in their appearance, and graceful in all their actions. Many species are found in Europe and America, and others inhabit Africa; one species only has been characterized as Australian, but I believe that another will be found in Torres’ Straits very similar to, but much larger than, the X. Jamesonii of the southern parts of that continent.

558. Xema Jamesonii Vol. VII. Pl. 20.

Subfamily ——?

Genus Lestris, Ill.

The high latitudes of both the northern and southern hemispheres are frequented by parasitic Gulls.

One species of this form has been found in the Australian seas, and another has been discovered within the Antarctic circle.

559. Lestris Catarractes Vol. VII. Pl. 21.

Although I have figured and described this Australian bird as identical with the Skua Gull of Europe, it is likely that hereafter reasons may be found for separating them.

In a letter just arrived from Mr. J. M’Gillivray, dated on board H.M.S. Rattlesnake, Feb. 6, 1848, that gentleman says, “The Lestris Catarractes was noticed on various occasions in different parts of the South Indian Ocean; while off the Cape of Good Hope a solitary individual and subsequently two in company were seen. I have observed it following and hovering over a bait towing astern, and once saw it chase a Cape Petrel and force it to alight on the water. This bird seldom remained with us for more than half an hour at a time, during which it made a few circular flights about the ship.”

xcivSubfamily STERNINÆ, Bonap.

The members of this family inhabiting Australia and Europe are nearly equal in number, and in each country examples of the same forms are found to exist; the Australian fauna has also a Gygis and an Onychoprion neither of which inhabit the European seas, and four species of Anoüs, of which only one frequents the northern hemisphere.

Genus Sylochelidon, Brehm.

560. Sylochelidon strenuus Vol. VII. Pl. 22.

A representative of the S. Caspius of Europe.

Genus Thalasseus, Boie.

The members of this genus, the type of which is the T. Cantiacus of the British Islands, are widely dispersed over most parts of the Old World, and three distinct species inhabit Australia.

561. Thalasseus Pelecanoïdes Vol. VII. Pl. 23.
562. Thalasseus poliocercus, Gould Vol. VII. Pl. 24.
563. Thalasseus Torresii, Gould Vol. VII. Pl. 25.

Since my account of this species was printed I have seen adult specimens from Southern India, which country is in all probability its true habitat.

Genus Sterna, Linn.

The members of this genus, as now restricted, enjoy so wide a range over the globe, that they may be said to be universally dispersed: three species are found in Australia.

564. Sterna melanorhyncha, Gould Vol. VII. Pl. 26.
565. Sterna gracilis, Gould Vol. VII. Pl. 27.
566. Sterna melanauchen, Temm. Vol. VII. Pl. 28.

“This beautiful bird,” says Mr. M’Gillivray, “is very local in its breeding-places, the only one known to me being one of the ‘three sand-banks’ near Sir Charles Hardy’s Islands. The eggs are two in number, deposited in a slight hollow in the sand. I have seen this bird on another neighbouring sand-bank, also on Solitary Island, near Cape York, and in Endeavour Straits, but was unable to procure a specimen from any of the three last-mentioned localities, on account of its excessive shyness. It is one of the most noisy of the Terns, and I generally saw it in small parties of half-a-dozen, or thereabouts. The fully-fledged young of the year differs from the adult in having the black on the head dark brown mottled with white, and the whole of the upper surface and wings variegated with dark brownish grey.”

Genus Sternula, Boie.

Europe and Australia are both tenanted by little Terns, the specific distinctness of which cannot be questioned, however much that of the large Terns (genus Sylochelidon) may be: ought we not then to infer that some peculiar law prevails, and that if one be distinct the other is also? However that may be, it is certain that birds regarded as identically the same, because no external difference is perceptible, breed at opposite seasons in the two hemispheres, and that if the birds of one hemisphere be brought and retained in the other, they continue to moult their feathers and to breed at the same period that they would have done had they remained in their native country.

567. Sternula Nereis, Gould Vol. VII. Pl. 29.
xcv

Genus Gelochelidon, Brehm.

It would be strange if this form did not exist in Australia, when all the other European genera of Terns are found there; still I have no other evidence of such being the case, than that of a specimen in the collection of King’s College, London, which is said to be from Van Diemen’s Land, and to which in the year 1837 I gave the name of Sterna macrotarsa.

568. Gelochelidon macrotarsus, Gould.  

Crown of the head and back of the neck black; all the upper surface and primaries light silvery-grey; remainder of the plumage white; bill and feet black.

As I did not meet with this bird myself either in Van Diemen’s Land or in any other of the Australian regions, I have not figured it.

Genus Gygis, Wagl.

One species of this Polynesian genus of Terns is found in Australia.

569. Gygis candida Vol. VII. Pl. 30.

Genus Hydrochelidon, Boie.

The value of minor genera or subgenera, as naturalists may choose to designate them, is much strengthened, when species, which have been assigned to either of them from countries so distant from each other as Australia and Europe, are found to possess similar habits, but differing from those of the other members of the family. Thus the members of the present little group inhabit the inland waters and marshes of both countries; make their nests among the rushes, and lay thickly-marked eggs, in both of which particulars they differ from the other Terns; the generality of which deposit their eggs on the shingles of the sea-shore, while others, the Gygis candida for instance, lay their single egg on the horizontal branch of a tree, so totally unprotected, that how it is retained in its position during windy weather is a perfect mystery; others again, such as the Noddies, bring together large masses of sea-weed, which they either pile upon the swinging branch of a Mangrove or on the jutting point of a rock. All these facts should be studied by ornithologists before they discard subgenera proposed by their fellow-labourers, and replace the species they may have so divided in the genera of the older writers, who must necessarily have known less of the subject; for wherever a difference occurs in the habits of the members of any great family a variation more or less marked will be found in their structure. So far as my own observations go, and they have not been few, if I have read the great book of nature aright, the genera, instead of being reduced, might with propriety be multiplied without the risk of our being burthened with a genus for every species, as some writers affect to fear would then be the case.

570. Hydrochelidon fluviatilis, Gould Vol. VII. Pl. 31.

A fine marsh Tern differing from its European prototypes H. nigra, H. leucoptera and H. leucopareia.

Genus Onychoprion, Wagl.

Of this form two species frequent the Australian seas.

571. Onychoprion fuliginosus Vol. VII. Pl. 32.

Although I have figured one of the two Australian birds of this genus under the above appellation, rather than run the risk of unnecessarily adding to the number of species, I have no doubt it will prove to be distinct from the American bird.

xcvi“Found breeding in prodigious numbers on Raine’s Islet and Bramble Key in May and June, associated with Noddies (Anoüs stolidus). The Sooty Tern deposits its solitary egg in a slight excavation in the sand without lining of any kind. The egg varies considerably in its markings. After the party employed in building the beacon on Raine’s Islet had been on shore about ten days, and the Terns had had their nests robbed repeatedly, the birds collected into two or three large flocks and laid their eggs in company, shifting their quarters repeatedly on finding themselves continually molested; for new-laid eggs were much in request among people who had for some time been living upon ship’s fare. By sitting down and keeping quiet I have seen the poor birds dropping their eggs within two yards of where I sat, apparently glad to get rid of their burthen at all hazards. During the month of June 1844 about 1500 dozen of eggs were procured by the party upon the Island. About the 20th of June nearly one half of the young birds (hatched twenty-five or thirty days previously) were able to fly, and many were quite strong upon the wing. Great numbers of young birds unable to fly were killed for the pot;—in one mess of twenty-two men the average number consumed daily in June was fifty, and supposing the convicts (twenty in number) to have consumed as many, 3000 young birds must have been killed in one month; yet I could observe no sensible diminution of the number of young, a circumstance which will give the reader some idea of the vast numbers of birds of this species congregated on a mere vegetated sand-bank like Raine’s Islet.”—J. M’Gillivray.

572. Onychoprion Panaya Vol. VII. Pl. 33.

Genus Anoüs, Leach.

Unlike other Terns which frequent the sea-shores and rivers, the Noddies inhabit the wide ocean, far remote from land, and which, like the Petrels, they seldom quit, except at the breeding season, when they congregate in vast multitudes on small islands suited to the purpose. Great nurseries of this kind are to be found in every ocean; in the North Atlantic, one of the Tortugas, called Noddy Key, is a favourite resort, and the Bahama Islands are another; in the South Pacific and Indian Oceans, beside other situations, the Houtmann’s Abrolhos, off the western coast of Australia, are resorted to in such immense numbers that Mr. Gilbert was perfectly astonished at the multitudes with which he found himself surrounded, upon landing on those remote and little-explored islands.

573. Anoüs stolidus Vol. VII. Pl. 34.

“The large Noddy,” says Mr. M’Gillivray, “is abundantly distributed over Torres’ Straits, but I never met with it to the southward of Raine’s Islet, on which, as at Bramble Key, it was found breeding in prodigious numbers. Unlike its constant associate, the Sooty Tern, it constructs a shallow nest of small twigs arranged in a slovenly manner, over which are strewed about a handful of fragments of coral from the beach, shells, and occasionally portions of tortoise-shell and bones of turtle. The nest is sometimes placed upon the ground, but more usually upon tufts of grass and other herbage, at about a foot from the ground.”

574. Anoüs melanops, Gould Vol. VII. Pl. 35.
575. Anoüs leucocapillus, Gould Vol. VII. Pl. 36.
576. Anoüs cinereus, Gould Vol. VII. Pl. 37.

Family PROCELLARIDÆ, Bonap.

There is perhaps no group of birds respecting which so much confusion exists and the extent of whose range over the ocean is so little known, as that forming the present family.

Having, as I have before stated, paid much attention to these birds during my voyages to and from Australia and in its neighbourhood, my researches were rewarded by my obtaining a knowledge of at least forty different species, nearly all of which are peculiar to the seas of the southern hemisphere. The powers of flight with which these birds are endowed are perfectly astonishing: they appear to be constantly performing migrations round the globe from west to east; and Australia lying in their tract, all the species may be found near its shores at one or other season of the year.

xcviiIt is but natural to suppose that this great group of birds has been created for some especial purpose, and may we not infer that they have been placed in the Southern Ocean to prevent an undue increase of the myriads of mollusks and other low marine animals with which those seas abound, and upon which all the Procellaridæ mainly subsist?

Genus Diomedea, Linn.

Of this genus, which comprises among its members the largest of the Oceanic birds, three species range over the North Pacific Ocean; and six others the seas southward of the equator.

577. Diomedea exulans, Linn. Vol. VII. Pl. 38.

The weight of this species varies from seventeen to twenty pounds, and the expanse of its extended wings averages the enormous breadth of 11 feet.

578. Diomedea brachyura, Temm. Vol. VII. Pl. 39.
579. Diomedea cauta, Gould Vol. VII. Pl. 40.
580. Diomedea culminata, Gould Vol. VII. Pl. 41.
581. Diomedea chlororhynchos, Lath. Vol. VII. Pl. 42.
582. Diomedea melanophrys, Temm. Vol. VII. Pl. 43.
583. Diomedea fuliginosa Vol. VII. Pl. 44.
584. Diomedea gibbosa, Gould.  

Face, ear-coverts, chin, abdomen, upper and under tail-coverts white; the remainder of the plumage very dark brown, approaching on the occiput, back of the neck and wings to black; bill yellowish horn-colour, becoming darker at the tip and at the base; feet in the dried specimen dark brown, but doubtless of a bluish grey, inclining to flesh-colour in the living bird.

The above is the description of a specimen in the collection of the Zoological Society of London, to which it was presented by F. Debell Bennett, Esq., who had procured it in the North Pacific. It differs from every other that has come under my notice in the peculiar swollen and raised form of the base of the upper mandible, which moreover advances high upon the forehead.

585. Diomedea olivaceorhyncha, Gould.  

I propose this name for a species, examples of which are wanting to our collections, and of which a bill only has as yet come under my notice. It is in the possession of Sir Wm. Jardine, Bart., is 3 inches and ⅜ths long from the gape to the tip, of a uniform olive-green, and in form more slender and elegant than that of the other members of the genus. The locality in which it was procured is not known, but it is supposed to have been obtained in the China seas.

The last two species were not seen by me in the Australian seas, but are given in order to complete a monograph of the Diomedeæ.

Genus Procellaria, Linn.

Of the fifteen species I have placed in this genus as now restricted, figures of only eight have been given.

586. Procellaria gigantea Vol. VII. Pl. 45.
587. Procellaria Æquinoctialis.  
588. Procellaria conspicillata, Gould Vol. VII. Pl. 46.
589. Procellaria hasitata, Kuhl. Vol. VII. Pl. 47.
590. Procellaria Atlantica, Gould.  

xcviiiMale: the whole of the plumage deep chocolate-black; bill and feet jet-black.

This is one of the commonest species inhabiting the Atlantic, and no ship passes between our shores and the Cape of Good Hope without encountering it; it is a species respecting which very considerable confusion exists in the writings of nearly all the older authors. It is the P. fuliginosa of Forster’s Drawings, No. 93 B, and the P. fuliginosa of Lichtenstein’s edition of Forster’s MSS. p. 23, which term cannot be retained, as it had already been applied by Latham to a very different bird from Otaheite; it is the P. grisea of Kuhl but not of Linnæus, who has given the term to another species, consequently grisea cannot be retained for it; and hence I have been induced to give it a new appellation, and thereby prevent misapprehension for the future.

591. Procellaria macroptera, Smith.  

I think that a bird I killed in the seas off Van Diemen’s Land, where it was tolerably abundant, and which differs from the last in being of a larger size, in having much longer wings and a greyer face, may be identical with the P. macroptera of Smith, and I therefore retain it under that appellation, in preference to assigning it a new name.

592. Procellaria Solandri, Gould.  

Head, back of the neck, shoulders, primaries and tail dark brown; back, wing-coverts and upper tail-coverts slate-grey, each feather margined with dark brown; face and all the under surface brown, washed with grey on the abdomen; bill, tarsi, toes and membranes black.

This is a remarkably robust and compact bird. I shot a single individual in Bass’s Straits on the 13th of March 1839. M. Natterer thought that it might be identical with the bird figured in Banks’s drawings, to which Dr. Solander has affixed the term melanopus, an opinion in which I cannot concur; I have therefore named it in honour of that celebrated botanist. The specimen above described may possibly not be fully adult, as the dark colouring of the under surface only occupies the extreme tips of the feathers, the basal portions of which are snow-white.

593. Procellaria Glacialoïdes, Smith Vol. VII. Pl. 48.
594. Procellaria Lessonii, Garn. Vol. VII. Pl. 49.
595. Procellaria mollis, Gould Vol. VII. Pl. 50.
596. Procellaria Cookii, G. R. Gray Vol. VII. Pl. 51.
597. Procellaria cœrulea, Gmel. Vol. VII. Pl. 52.
598. Procellaria flavirostris, Gould.  

Feathers of the head and all the upper surface brown with pearl edges, fading into white on the tips of the upper tail-coverts; wings and tail deep blackish brown; all the under surface pure white; the feathers of the under surface of the shoulder with a streak of brown down the centre; bill yellow, passing into dark horn-colour at the tip; tarsi and feet fleshy white.

This fine species was procured off the Cape of Good Hope, in lat. 36° 39′ S., long. 10° 3′ E., by His Excellency Governor Grey, on his passage to South Australia. It is distinguished from its congeners by its much larger size, and by the yellow colouring of the bill. The female is somewhat smaller than her mate.

This bird so nearly approaches in form the members of the genus Puffinus, that it is almost questionable whether it should not be included in that group.

599. Procellaria nivea, Gmel.  
600. Procellaria Antarctica, Gmel.  
xcix

Genus Daption, Steph.

A genus established for the reception of the Procellaria Capensis of Linnæus, a species abounding in all the temperate latitudes of the southern seas.

601. Daption Capensis Vol. VII. Pl. 53.

Genus Prion, Lacep.

A genus of fairy-like Petrels confined to the southern hemisphere: much confusion exists respecting these birds, and they are so puzzling that I regret to say I have not been able to throw any light upon the subject.

Of the following species two only have been figured:—

602. Prion Turtur Vol. VII. Pl. 54.
603. Prion vittatus Vol. VII. Pl. 55.
604. Prion Banksii.  

Found in the temperate latitudes of the Atlantic and Pacific, and I believe in similar latitudes all round the globe.

605. Prion Ariel, Gould.  

I killed this species in Bass’s Straits, where it was rather numerous.

Genus Puffinus, Briss.

The members of this genus inhabit the seas of both the northern and southern hemisphere, but are nowhere more abundant than round Australia, the fauna of which country comprises four species, which make one or other of the groups of islands lying off the coast their great nurseries or breeding-places.

606. Puffinus brevicaudus, Brandt Vol. VII. Pl. 56.

It will be seen that I have alluded in forcible terms to the great abundance of this species in Bass’s Straits, in confirmation of which I annex the following extract from Flinders’ Voyage, vol. i. p. 170:—

“A large flock of Gannets was observed at daylight, and they were followed by such a number of the sooty petrels as we had never seen equalled. There was a stream of from fifty to eighty yards in depth, and of three hundred yards or more in breadth; the birds were not scattered, but were flying as compactly as a free movement of their wings seemed to allow; and during a full hour and a half this stream of Petrels continued to pass without interruption, at a rate little inferior to the swiftness of the Pigeon. On the lowest computation I think the number could not have been less than a hundred millions. Taking the stream to have been fifty yards deep by three hundred in width, and that it moved at the rate of thirty miles an hour, and allowing nine cubic yards of space to each bird, the number would amount to 151,500,000. The burrows required to lodge this quantity of birds would be 75,750,000; and allowing a square yard to each burrow, they would cover something more than 18½ geographic square miles of ground.”

607. Puffinus carneipes, Gould Vol. VII. Pl. 57.
608. Puffinus sphenurus, Gould Vol. VII. Pl. 58.
609. Puffinus assimilis, Gould Vol. VII. Pl. 59.
c

Genus Puffinuria, Less.

One species of this genus inhabits the Australian seas.

610. Puffinuria Urinatrix Vol. VII. Pl. 60.

Genus Thalassidroma, Vig.

The little tenants of the ocean belonging to this genus are so universally dispersed, that they are found in all the seas except those of the very high latitudes of both hemispheres. The Australian fauna is particularly rich in birds of this form, inasmuch as no less than five distinct species frequent the seas which wash the shores of that country.

611. Thalassidroma marina, Less. Vol. VII. Pl. 61.
612. Thalassidroma melanogaster, Gould Vol. VII. Pl. 62.
613. Thalassidroma leucogaster, Gould Vol. VII. Pl. 63.
    Thalassidroma Tropica, Gould.  

Head, back, wings, tail and breast dark sooty black; chin, under coverts of the wings, abdomen, flanks, under tail-coverts, and a broad crescent-shaped band across the upper tail-coverts snow-white; bill, feet and legs black.

Total length, 7¾ inches; bill, ⅞; wing, 6½; tail, 3½; tarsi, 1¾; middle toe and nail, 1¼.

I observed this species in the Atlantic, where it is confined to the equatorial regions, being most abundant in the vicinity of the line. It is the largest member of the genus with which I am acquainted, and is rendered very conspicuous by the white mark on its throat.

614. Thalassidroma Nereis, Gould Vol. VII. Pl. 64.
615. Thalassidroma Wilsonii, Bonap. Vol. VII. Pl. 65.

Family PELECANIDÆ, Leach.

Genus Phalacrocorax, Briss.

The great family of the Cormorants, whose range is universal, are well represented in Australia, since five species inhabit and are peculiar to that country, where they perform precisely the same offices as the other species of the genus do in Europe and America.

616. Phalacrocorax Carboïdes, Gould Vol. VII. Pl. 66.
617. Phalacrocorax sulcirostris Vol. VII. Pl. 67.
618. Phalacrocorax hypoleucus Vol. VII. Pl. 68.
619. Phalacrocorax leucogaster, Gould Vol. VII. Pl. 69.
620. Phalacrocorax melanoleucus, Vieill. Vol. VII. Pl. 70.
621. Phalacrocorax punctatus Vol. VII. Pl. 71.

Genus Attagen, Mœhr.

Although I have figured but one, there are evidently two if not three species of this genus which visit the Australian shores; but I have not had sufficient opportunities to investigate the subject satisfactorily.

622. Attagen Ariel, Gould Vol. VII. Pl. 72.
623. Attagen Aquila?  
ci

Genus Phaëton, Linn.

The beautiful species of this form which graces the fauna of Australia, ranges over the greater part of the Pacific Ocean, and among other places retires to Norfolk Island and Raine’s Islet for the purpose of breeding.

624. Phaëton phœnicurus Vol. VII. Pl. 73.

Genus Pelecanus, Linn.

The members of this genus are very widely dispersed, since every great country has one or more species assigned to it. That inhabiting Australia is as fine and as beautifully marked as any other member of the group.

625. Pelecanus conspicillatus, Temm. Vol. VII. Pl. 74.

Genus Plotus, Linn.

Asia, Africa, America and Australia are each tenanted by a species of this genus, the members of which, although few in number, are not well understood nor are their specific differences easily decyphered.

626. Plotus Novæ-Hollandiæ, Gould Vol. VII. Pl. 75.

Genus Sula, Briss.

Four fine species of this genus appertain to the Australian fauna, since they not only frequent the seas adjacent to the shores of that country, but all of them resort to its rocks and islands for the purpose of breeding.

The genus comprises several other species which inhabit the sea coasts of nearly every part of the globe.

627. Sula Australis, Gould Vol. VII. Pl. 76.

Inhabits the southern coast of Australia and Van Diemen’s Land, and is a beautiful representative of the Sula Bassana and S. melanura of Europe.

628. Sula personata, Gould Vol. VII. Pl. 77.

Common on the east coast.

629. Sula fusca, Briss. Vol. VII. Pl. 78.

“This species of Booby,” says Mr. M’Gillivray, “is generally distributed on the north-east and north coasts of New Holland; but I found it breeding only upon Bramble Key, although I once, on Raine’s Islet, found a solitary egg. The nest is slovenly made of dried herbage, a foot in diameter, with scarcely any cavity, and contains two eggs, of which in every instance one was clean and the other very dirty. The eggs, which are white, vary considerably in size. The largest measured 28
12
inches by 17
12
; the smallest 2
12
by 1
12
, and one of average size, 2½ by 1¾ inches. Both sexes incubate, and the birds while sitting on their eggs allowed of a very near approach, and before flying off disgorged the contents of their stomachs, chiefly a species of Clupea or herring. I need scarcely add that their bite is very severe. During our visits to Darnley Island I observed several tame Boobies among the native villages, generally perched on the canoes hauled up on the beach. These birds were allowed their full liberty, and after fishing in the weirs upon the reefs until they had procured a sufficiency of food, returned to the huts.”

Inhabits the north coast.

630. Sula piscator, Linn. Vol. VII. Pl. 79.

Inhabits the north coast.

cii

Family COLYMBIDÆ, Leach.

Genus Podiceps, Lath.

There is no country of any extent wherein Grebes are not to be found; and as their wing-powers are very limited, they are mostly stationary.

I have elsewhere remarked how beautifully the European Grebes are represented by those inhabiting Australia, and the truth of this remark will be rendered at once apparent on reference to the Plates of the following species:—

631. Podiceps Australis, Gould Vol. VII. Pl. 80.
632. Podiceps gularis, Gould Vol. VII. Pl. 81.
633. Podiceps poliocephalus, Jard. & Selb. Vol. VII. Pl. 82.

Family SPHENISCIDÆ, Gould.

Of this southern group of birds three or four species have been known to visit the shores of Van Diemen’s Land and the islands in Bass’s Straits, which, in fact, constitute one of the great breeding-places of some of the members of this family.

Genus Eudyptes, Vieill.

634. Eudyptes chrysocome Vol. VII. Pl. 83.

Genus Spheniscus, Briss.

635. Spheniscus minor, Temm. Vol. VII. Pl. 84.
636. Spheniscus Undina, Gould Vol. VII. Pl. 85.
1

TABLE OF THE RANGE OR DISTRIBUTION OF THE SPECIES.

Name of Species. South-eastern portion of Australia or New South Wales. South Australia. Swan River or Western Australia. Northern Australia. Van Diemen’s Land. Extra Australian. Number of Volume and Plate.
Aquila fucosa, Cuv. * * *   *   Vol. I. Pl. 1.
—— Morphnoïdes, Gould *           — 2.
Ichthyiaëtus leucogaster * * * * * India and Africa? — 3.
Haliastur leucosternus, Gould *     *     — 4.
—— sphenurus * * * *     — 5.
Pandion leucocephalus, Gould * * * * *   — 6.
Falco hypoleucus, Gould   * *       — 7.
—— melanogenys, Gould * * * * *   — 8.
—— subniger, Gray   *         — 9.
—— frontatus, Gould * * * * *   — 10.
Ieracidea Berigora * *     *   — 11.
—— occidentalis, Gould   * *       — 12.
Tinnunculus Cenchroïdes * * * *     — 13.
Astur Novæ-Hollandiæ * *         — 14.
—— —— (albino) * *     *   — 15.
—— radiatus *           — 16.
—— approximans, Vig. & Horsf. * *     *   — 17.
—— cruentus, Gould     * *?     — 18.
Accipiter torquatus * * * * *   — 19.
Buteo melanosternon, Gould * * *       — 20.
Milvus affinis, Gould * * * * *   — 21.
—— isurus, Gould * *         — 22.
Elanus axillaris * * * *     — 23.
—— scriptus, Gould   *   *     — 24.
Lepidogenys subcristatus, Gould *     *     — 25.
Circus assimilis, Jard. & Selb. * * *   *   — 26.
—— Jardinii, Gould * *         — 27.
Strix castanops, Gould         *   — 28.
—— personata, Vig. * * * *     — 29.
—— tenebricosus, Gould *           — 30.
—— delicatulus, Gould * * * *     — 31.
Athene Boobook * * * *? *   — 32.
—— maculata * *     *   — 33.
—— marmorata, Gould   *         Intro., p. xxv.
——? connivens *   *       Vol. I. Pl. 34.
—— strenua, Gould *           — 35.
—— rufa, Gould       *     — 36.
Ægotheles Novæ-Hollandiæ * * *       Vol. II. Pl. 1.
—— leucogaster, Gould       *     — 2.
Podargus megacephalus *           Intro., p. xxviii.
—— humeralis, Vig. & Horsf. *           Vol. II. Pl. 3.
—— Cuvieri, Vig. & Horsf.   *     *   — 4.
—— brachypterus, Gould   * *       Intro., p. xxvi.
—— Phalænoïdes, Gould       *     Vol. II. Pl. 5.
—— plumiferus, Gould *           — 6.
Eurostopodus albogularis *           — 7.
—— guttatus * * * *     — 8.
Caprimulgus macrurus, Horsf.       *   Java — 9.
Acanthylis caudacuta *       *   — 10.
2Cypselus Australis, Gould *           Vol. II. Pl. 11.
Atticora leucosternon, Gould * * *       — 12.
Hirundo neoxena, Gould * * *   *   — 13.
Chelidon arborea * * * * *   — 14.
—— Ariel, Gould * * *       — 15.
Merops ornatus, Lath. * * * *     — 16.
Eurystomus Australis, Swains. *     *     — 17.
Dacelo gigantea * *         — 18.
—— Leachii, Vig. & Horsf.       *     — 19.
—— cervina, Gould       *     — 20.
Halcyon sanctus, Vig. & Horsf. * * * *     — 21.
—— pyrrhopygia, Gould * * *       — 22.
—— sordidus, Gould *           — 23.
—— MacLeayii, Jard. & Selby *     *     — 24.
Alcyone azurea * *         — 25.
—— Diemenensis, Gould         *   Intro., p. xxxi.
—— pulchra, Gould       *     Intro., p. xxxii.
—— pusilla       *   New Guinea. Vol. II. Pl. 26.
Artamus sordidus * * *   *   — 27.
—— minor, Vieill. *           — 28.
—— cinereus, Vieill.     * *   Timor — 29.
—— albiventris, Gould       *     — 30.
—— personatus, Gould   * *       — 31.
—— superciliosus, Gould * *         — 32.
—— leucopygialis, Gould * *   *     — 33.
Dicæum hirundinaceum * * *       — 34.
Pardalotus punctatus * * *   *   — 35.
—— rubricatus, Gould *?           — 36.
—— quadragintus, Gould         *   — 37.
—— striatus * * *       — 38.
—— affinis, Gould         *   — 39.
—— melanocephalus, Gould *           — 40.
—— uropygialis, Gould       *     — 41.
Strepera graculina *           — 42.
—— fuliginosa, Gould   *     *   — 43.
—— arguta, Gould   *     *   — 44.
—— Anaphonensis *   *       — 45.
—— melanoptera, Gould   *         Intro., p. xxxiv.
Gymnorhina Tibicen *   *?       Vol. II. Pl. 46.
—— leuconota, Gould * *         — 47.
—— organicum, Gould         *   — 48.
Cracticus nigrogularis, Gould * *         — 49.
—— picatus, Gould       *     — 50.
—— argenteus, Gould       *     — 51.
—— destructor * *         — 52.
—— cinereus, Gould         *   Intro., p. xxxv.
—— leucopterus, Gould   * *       Intro., p. xxxv.
—— Quoyii       *   New Guinea. Vol. II. Pl. 53.
Grallina Australis * * * *     — 54.
Graucalus melanops * * * *     — 55.
—— parvirostris, Gould         *   Intro., p. xxxv.
—— mentalis, Vig. & Horsf.         *   Vol. II. Pl. 56.
3Graucalus hypoleucus, Gould       *     Vol. II. Pl. 57.
—— Swainsonii, Gould *     *     — 58.
Pteropodocys Phasianellus, Gould * * *       — 59.
Campephaga Jardinii, Gould *     *     — 60.
—— Karu       *   New Guinea. — 61.
—— leucomela, Vig. & Horsf. *           — 62.
—— humeralis, Gould * * * *     — 63.
Pachycephala gutturalis * * *       — 64.
—— glaucura, Gould         *   — 65.
—— melanura, Gould       *     — 66.
—— pectoralis * * *       — 67.
—— falcata, Gould       *     — 68.
—— Lanoïdes, Gould       *     — 69.
—— rufogularis, Gould   *         — 70.
—— Gilbertii, Gould   * *       — 71.
—— simplex, Gould       *     — 72.
—— olivacea, Vig. & Horsf. *       *   — 73.
Colluricincla harmonica * *         — 74.
—— rufiventris, Gould   * *       — 75.
—— brunnea, Gould       *     — 76.
—— Selbii, Jard.         *   — 77.
—— parvula, Gould       *     — 78.
—— rufogaster, Gould *           Intro., p. xxxvi.
Falcunculus frontatus * *         Vol. II. Pl. 79.
—— leucogaster, Gould     *       — 80.
Oreoïca gutturalis * * *       — 81.
Dicrurus bracteatus, Gould *     *     — 82.
Rhipidura albiscapa, Gould * * *   *   — 83.
—— rufifrons *           — 84.
—— Dryas, Gould       *     Intro., p. xxxix.
—— isura, Gould       *     Vol. II. Pl. 85.
—— Motacilloïdes, Vig. & Horsf. * * *       — 86.
—— picata, Gould       *     Intro., p. xxxix.
Seïsura inquieta * * *       Vol. II. Pl. 87.
Piezorhynchus nitidus, Gould       *     — 88.
Myiägra plumbea, Vig. & Horsf. *           — 89.
—— concinna, Gould       *     — 90.
—— nitida, Gould *       *   — 91.
—— latirostris, Gould       *     — 92.
Micrœca macroptera * *         — 93.
—— assimilis, Gould     *       Intro., p. xl.
—— flavigaster, Gould       *     Vol. II. Pl. 94.
Monarcha carinata *           — 95.
—— trivirgata *     *     — 96.
Gerygone albogularis, Gould *   *       — 97.
—— fuscus, Gould *           — 98.
—— culicivorus, Gould     *       — 99.
—— magnirostris, Gould       *     — 100.
—— lævigaster, Gould       *     — 101.
—— chloronotus, Gould       *     — 102.
Smicrornis brevirostris, Gould * * *?       — 103.
—— flavescens, Gould       *     — 104.
4Erythrodryas rhodinogaster   *     *   Vol. II. Pl. 1.
—— rosea, Gould *           — 2.
Petroïca multicolor * * *   *   — 3.
—— erythrogastra           Norfolk Island — 4.
—— Goodenovii * * *       — 5.
—— phœnicea, Gould * *     *   — 6.
—— bicolor, Swains. * * *       — 7.
—— fusca, Gould         *   — 8.
—— superciliosa, Gould       *     — 9.
Drymodes brunneopygia, Gould   * *       — 10.
Eöpsaltria Australis *           — 11.
—— griseogularis, Gould     *       — 12.
—— leucogaster, Gould     *       — 13.
Menura superba, Dav. *           — 14.
Psophodes crepitans *           — 15.
—— nigrogularis, Gould     *       — 16.
Sphenostoma cristata, Gould * *         — 17.
Malurus cyaneus * *         — 18.
—— longicaudus, Gould         *   — 19.
—— melanotus, Gould   *         — 20.
—— splendens     *       — 21.
—— elegans, Gould     *       — 22.
—— pulcherrimus, Gould     *       — 23.
—— Lamberti, Vig. & Horsf. *           — 24.
—— leucopterus, Quoy & Gaim. * * *       — 25.
—— melanocephalus, Vig. & Horsf. *           — 26.
—— Brownii, Vig. & Horsf. *     *     — 27.
Amytis textilis *           — 28.
—— striatus, Gould *           — 29.
—— macrourus, Gould     *       — 30.
Stipiturus malachurus * * *   *   — 31.
Dasyornis Australis, Vig. & Horsf. *           — 32.
—— longirostris, Gould     *       — 33.
Atrichia clamosa, Gould     *       — 34.
Sphenœacus galactotes *     *     — 35.
—— gramineus, Gould * * *       — 36.
Acrocephalus Australis, Gould * *         — 37.
—— longirostris, Gould       *     — 38.
Hylacola pyrrhopygia * *         — 39.
—— cauta, Gould   *         — 40.
Cysticola magna, Gould A           — 41. A Unknown
—— exilis * *         — 42.
—— lineocapilla, Gould       *     — 43.
—— isura, Gould *           — 44.
—— ruficeps, Gould *           — 45.
Sericornis citreogularis, Gould *           — 46.
—— humilis, Gould         *   — 47.
—— osculans, Gould   *         — 48.
—— frontalis * *         — 49.
—— lævigaster, Gould       *     — 50.
—— maculatus, Gould * * * *     — 51.
—— magnirostris, Gould *           — 52.
5Acanthiza pusilla *           Vol. II. Pl. 53.
—— Diemenensis, Gould         *   — 54.
—— Ewingii, Gould         *   — 55.
—— uropygialis, Gould *           — 56.
—— apicalis, Gould     *       — 57.
—— pyrrhopygia, Gould   *         — 58.
—— inornata, Gould   * *       — 59.
—— nana, Vig. & Horsf. * *         — 60.
—— lineata, Gould * *         — 61.
—— Reguloïdes, Vig. & Horsf. * *         — 62.
—— chrysorrhœa * * *   *   — 63.
Ephthianura albifrons * * *       — 64.
—— aurifrons, Gould * *         — 65.
—— tricolor, Gould *           — 66.
Xerophila leucopsis, Gould   *         — 67.
Pyrrholæmus brunneus, Gould   * *       — 68.
Origma rubricata *           — 69.
Calamanthus fuliginosus         *   — 70.
—— campestris, Gould   * *       — 71.
Chthonicola minima * *         — 72.
Anthus Australis, Vig. & Horsf. * * * * *   — 73.
Cincloramphus cruralis *           — 74.
—— cantillans, Gould * * * *     — 75.
—— rufescens * * * *     — 76.
Mirafra Horsfieldii, Gould *     *?     — 77.
Estrelda bella *       *   — 78.
—— oculea     *       — 79.
—— Bichenovii *   *       — 80.
—— annulosa, Gould       *     — 81.
—— temporalis * *         — 82.
—— Phaëton       *     — 83.
—— ruficauda, Gould *           — 84.
—— modesta, Gould *           — 85.
Amadina Lathamii * *         — 86.
—— castanotis, Gould * * * *     — 87.
Poëphila Gouldiæ, Gould       *     — 88.
—— mirabilis, Homb. & Jacq.       *     — 89.
—— acuticauda, Gould       *     — 90.
—— personata, Gould       *     — 91.
—— leucotis, Gould       *     — 92.
—— cincta, Gould *           — 93.
Donacola castaneothorax, Gould *           — 94.
—— pectoralis, Gould       *     — 95.
—— flaviprymna, Gould       *     — 96.
Emblema picta, Gould       *     — 97.
Pitta strepitans, Temm. *           Vol. IV. Pl. 1.
—— Vigorsii, Gould       *     — 2.
—— Iris, Gould       *     — 3.
Cinclosoma punctatum, Vig. & Horsf. * *     *   — 4.
—— castanotus, Gould   * *       — 5.
—— cinnamomeus, Gould   *         — 6.
Oreocincla lunulata *       *   — 7.
6Chlamydera maculata, Gould * *         Vol. IV. Pl. 8.
—— nuchalis       *     — 9.
Ptilonorhynchus holosericeus, Kuhl *           — 10.
—— Smithii, Vig. & Horsf. *           — 11.
Sericulus chrysocephalus *           — 12.
Oriolus viridis *           — 13.
—— affinis, Gould       *     Intro., p. liii.
—— flavocinctus       *     Vol. IV. Pl. 14.
Sphecotheres Australis, Swains. *           — 15.
Corcorax leucopterus * *         — 16.
Struthidea cinerea, Gould * *         — 17.
Corvus Coronoïdes, Vig. & Horsf. * * * * *   — 18.
Neomorpha Gouldii, G. R. Gray           New Zealand — 19.
Pomatorhinus temporalis *           — 20.
—— rubeculus, Gould       *     — 21.
—— superciliosus, Vig. & Horsf. * * *       — 22.
Meliphaga Novæ-Hollandiæ * *     *   — 23.
—— longirostris, Gould     *       — 24.
—— sericea, Gould *           — 25.
—— mystacalis, Gould     *       — 26.
—— Australasiana * *     *   — 27.
Glyciphila fulvifrons * * *   *   — 28.
—— albifrons, Gould * * *       — 29.
—— fasciata, Gould             — 30.
—— ocularis, Gould * * * *     — 31.
Ptilotis chrysotis *           — 32.
—— sonorus, Gould * * *       — 33.
—— versicolor, Gould       *     — 34.
—— flavigula, Gould             — 35.
—— leucotis *   *?       — 36.
—— auricomis *           — 37.
—— cratitius, Gould   *         — 38.
—— ornatus, Gould     *       — 39.
—— plumulus, Gould     *       — 40.
—— flavescens, Gould       *     — 41.
—— flava, Gould       *     — 42.
—— penicillatus, Gould * *         — 43.
—— fusca, Gould *           — 44.
—— chrysops * *         — 45.
—— unicolor, Gould       *     — 46.
Plectorhyncha lanceolata, Gould *           — 47.
Xanthomyza Phrygia * *         — 48.
Melicophila picata, Gould   * *       — 49.
Entomophila picta, Gould *           — 50.
—— albogularis, Gould       *     — 51.
—— rufogularis, Gould       *     — 52.
Acanthogenys rufogularis, Gould * * *       — 53.
Anthochæra inauris, Gould         *   — 54.
—— carunculata * * *       — 55.
—— mellivora * *     *   — 56.
—— lunulata, Gould     *       — 57.
7Tropidorhynchus corniculatus *           Vol. IV. Pl. 58.
—— argenticeps, Gould       *     — 59.
—— citreogularis, Gould *           — 60.
—— sordidus, Gould         *   Intro., p. lviii.
Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris *           Vol. IV. Pl. 61.
—— dubius, Gould         *   Intro., p. lix.
—— superciliosus     *       Vol. IV. Pl. 62.
Myzomela sanguineolenta *     *     — 63.
—— erythrocephala, Gould       *     — 64.
—— pectoralis, Gould       *     — 65.
—— nigra, Gould * * * *     — 66.
—— obscura, Gould       *     — 67.
Entomyza cyanotis *           — 68.
—— albipennis, Gould       *     — 69.
Melithreptus validirostris, Gould         *   — 70.
—— gularis, Gould * *         — 71.
—— lunulatus * *         — 72.
—— chloropsis, Gould     *       — 73.
—— albogularis, Gould *     *     — 74.
—— melanocephalus, Gould         *   — 75.
Myzantha garrula * *     *   — 76.
—— obscura, Gould     *       — 77.
—— lutea, Gould       *     — 78.
—— flavigula, Gould *           — 79.
—— melanophrys         *   — 80.
Zosterops dorsalis, Vig. & Horsf. * *     *   — 81.
—— chloronotus, Gould     *       — 82.
—— luteus, Gould       *     — 83.
Cuculus optatus, Gould       *     — 84.
—— inornatus, Vig. & Horsf. * * *   *   — 85.
—— cineraceus, Vig. & Horsf. * * *   *   — 86.
—— insperatus, Gould *           — 87.
—— dumetorum       *     Intro., p. lx.
Chrysococcyx osculans, Gould * * *       Vol. IV. Pl. 88.
—— lucidus * * * * * New Zealand? — 89.
Scythrops Novæ-Hollandiæ, Lath. *     *     — 90.
Eudynamys Flindersii *     *     — 91.
Centropus Phasianus *           — 92.
—— macrourus       *     Intro., p. lxi.
—— melanurus       *     Intro., p. lxi.
Climacteris scandens, Temm. * *         Vol. IV. Pl. 93.
—— rufa, Gould     *       — 94.
—— erythrops, Gould *           — 95.
—— melanotus, Gould       *     — 96.
—— melanura, Gould       *     — 97.
—— picumnus, Temm. * *         — 98.
Orthonyx spinicaudus, Temm. *           — 99.
Ptiloris paradiseus, Swains. *     *     — 100.
Sittella chrysoptera *           — 101.
—— leucocephala, Gould *     *     — 102.
—— leucoptera, Gould       *     — 103.
—— pileata, Gould   * *       — 104.
8Cacatua galerita * * * * *   Vol. V. Pl. 1.
—— Leadbeaterii * * *       — 2.
—— sanguinea, Gould   *   *     — 3.
—— Eos * *   *     — 4.
Licmetis nasicus * *         — 5.
—— pastinator     *       Intro., p. lxiii.
Nestor productus, Gould           Phillip Island. Vol. V. Pl. 6.
Calyptorhynchus Banksii *           — 7.
—— macrorhynchus, Gould       *     — 8.
—— naso, Gould     *       — 9.
—— Leachii * *         — 10.
—— funereus *           — 11.
—— xanthonotus, Gould   *?     *   — 12.
—— Baudinii, Vig.     *       — 13.
Callocephalon galeatum *       *   — 14.
Polytelis Barrabandii *           — 15.
—— melanura   * *       — 16.
Aprosmictus scapulatus *           — 17.
—— erythropterus *     *     — 18.
Platycercus semitorquatus     *       — 19.
—— Bauerii   *         — 20.
—— Barnardii, Vig. & Horsf. * *         — 21.
—— Adelaidiæ, Gould   *         — 22.
—— Pennantii * *         — 23.
—— flaviventris         *   — 24.
—— flaveolus, Gould * *         — 25.
—— palliceps, Vig. *           — 26.
—— eximius *       *   — 27.
—— splendidus, Gould *           — 28.
—— icterotis     *       — 29.
—— ignitus, Lead. *?           — 30.
—— Brownii       *     — 31.
—— pileatus, Vig.     *       — 32.
Psephotus hæmatogaster, Gould * *         — 33.
—— pulcherrimus, Gould *           — 34.
—— multicolor * *         — 35.
—— hæmatonotus, Gould * *         — 36.
Euphema chrysostoma *?       *   — 37.
—— elegans, Gould * * *       — 38.
—— aurantia, Gould   *     *   — 39.
—— petrophila, Gould   * *       — 40.
—— pulchella *           — 41.
—— splendida, Gould   * *       — 42.
—— Bourkii * *         — 43.
Melopsittacus undulatus * * * *     — 44.
Nymphicus Novæ-Hollandiæ * * * *     — 45.
Pezoporus formosus * * *   *   — 46.
Lathamus discolor *       *   — 47.
Trichoglossus Swainsonii, Jard. & Selby * *     *   — 48.
—— rubritorquis, Vig. & Horsf.       *     — 49.
9Trichoglossus chlorolepidotus *           Vol. V. Pl. 50.
—— versicolor, Vig.       *     — 51.
—— concinnus * *     *   — 52.
—— porphyrocephalus, Diet.   * *       — 53.
—— pusillus * *     *   — 54.
Ptilinopus Swainsonii, Gould *           — 55.
—— Ewingii, Gould       *     — 56.
—— superbus       *     — 57.
Carpophaga magnifica *           — 58.
—— leucomela *           — 59,
—— luctuosa       *     — 60.
Lopholaimus Antarcticus *           — 61.
Chalcophaps chrysochlora *           — 62.
—— longirostris       *     Intro., p. lxix.
Leucosarcia picata *           Vol. V. Pl. 63.
Phaps chalcoptera * * * * *   — 64.
—— elegans *