The Project Gutenberg eBook of Historical record of the Twenty-second, or the Cheshire Regiment of Foot

This ebook is for the use of anyone anywhere in the United States and most other parts of the world at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this ebook or online at If you are not located in the United States, you will have to check the laws of the country where you are located before using this eBook.

Title: Historical record of the Twenty-second, or the Cheshire Regiment of Foot

Author: Richard Cannon

Release date: February 17, 2021 [eBook #64581]

Language: English

Credits: Brian Coe, John Campbell and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at (This book was produced from images made available by the HathiTrust Digital Library.)



Footnote anchors are denoted by [number], and the footnotes have been placed at the end of each major section.

Some minor changes to the text are noted at the end of the book.

original cover

and under the Patronage of
Her Majesty the Queen.

British Army
Comprising the
History of every Regiment
By Richard Cannon Esqre.
Adjutant General's Office, Horse Guards.
Printed by Authority.



IN 1689,
TO 1849.









[Pg i]



1st January, 1836.

His Majesty has been pleased to command that, with the view of doing the fullest justice to Regiments, as well as to Individuals who have distinguished themselves by their Bravery in Action with the Enemy, an Account of the Services of every Regiment in the British Army shall be published under the superintendence and direction of the Adjutant-General; and that this Account shall contain the following particulars, viz.:—

—— The Period and Circumstances of the Original Formation of the Regiment; The Stations at which it has been from time to time employed; The Battles, Sieges, and other Military Operations in which it has been engaged, particularly specifying any Achievement it may have performed, and the Colours, Trophies, &c., it may have captured from the Enemy.

—— The Names of the Officers, and the number of Non-Commissioned Officers and Privates Killed or Wounded by the Enemy, specifying the place and Date of the Action.


—— The Names of those Officers who, in consideration of their Gallant Services and Meritorious Conduct in Engagements with the Enemy, have been distinguished with Titles, Medals, or other Marks of His Majesty's gracious favour.

—— The Names of all such Officers, Non-Commissioned Officers, and Privates, as may have specially signalized themselves in Action.


—— The Badges and Devices which the Regiment may have been permitted to bear, and the Causes on account of which such Badges or Devices, or any other Marks of Distinction, have been granted.

By Command of the Right Honorable



John Macdonald,




The character and credit of the British Army must chiefly depend upon the zeal and ardour by which all who enter into its service are animated, and consequently it is of the highest importance that any measure calculated to excite the spirit of emulation, by which alone great and gallant actions are achieved, should be adopted.

Nothing can more fully tend to the accomplishment of this desirable object than a full display of the noble deeds with which the Military History of our country abounds. To hold forth these bright examples to the imitation of the youthful soldier, and thus to incite him to emulate the meritorious conduct of those who have preceded him in their honorable career, are among the motives that have given rise to the present publication.

The operations of the British Troops are, indeed, announced in the "London Gazette," from whence they are transferred into the public prints: the achievements of our armies are thus made known at the time of their occurrence, and receive the tribute[iv] of praise and admiration to which they are entitled. On extraordinary occasions, the Houses of Parliament have been in the habit of conferring on the Commanders, and the Officers and Troops acting under their orders, expressions of approbation and of thanks for their skill and bravery; and these testimonials, confirmed by the high honour of their Sovereign's approbation, constitute the reward which the soldier most highly prizes.

It has not, however, until late years, been the practice (which appears to have long prevailed in some of the Continental armies) for British Regiments to keep regular records of their services and achievements. Hence some difficulty has been experienced in obtaining, particularly from the old Regiments, an authentic account of their origin and subsequent services.

This defect will now be remedied, in consequence of His Majesty having been pleased to command that every Regiment shall, in future, keep a full and ample record of its services at home and abroad.

From the materials thus collected, the country will henceforth derive information as to the difficulties and privations which chequer the career of those who embrace the military profession. In Great Britain, where so large a number of persons are devoted to the active concerns of agriculture, manufactures, and commerce, and where these pursuits have, for so[v] long a period, being undisturbed by the presence of war, which few other countries have escaped, comparatively little is known of the vicissitudes of active service and of the casualties of climate, to which, even during peace, the British Troops are exposed in every part of the globe, with little or no interval of repose.

In their tranquil enjoyment of the blessings which the country derives from the industry and the enterprise of the agriculturist and the trader, its happy inhabitants may be supposed not often to reflect on the perilous duties of the soldier and the sailor,—on their sufferings,—and on the sacrifice of valuable life, by which so many national benefits are obtained and preserved.

The conduct of the British Troops, their valour, and endurance, have shone conspicuously under great and trying difficulties; and their character has been established in Continental warfare by the irresistible spirit with which they have effected debarkations in spite of the most formidable opposition, and by the gallantry and steadiness with which they have maintained their advantages against superior numbers.

In the official Reports made by the respective Commanders, ample justice has generally been done to the gallant exertions of the Corps employed; but the details of their services and of acts of individual[vi] bravery can only be fully given in the Annals of the various Regiments.

These Records are now preparing for publication, under his Majesty's special authority, by Mr. Richard Cannon, Principal Clerk of the Adjutant General's Office; and while the perusal of them cannot fail to be useful and interesting to military men of every rank, it is considered that they will also afford entertainment and information to the general reader, particularly to those who may have served in the Army, or who have relatives in the Service.

There exists in the breasts of most of those who have served, or are serving, in the Army, an Esprit de Corps—an attachment to everything belonging to their Regiment; to such persons a narrative of the services of their own Corps cannot fail to prove interesting. Authentic accounts of the actions of the great, the valiant, the loyal, have always been of paramount interest with a brave and civilized people. Great Britain has produced a race of heroes who, in moments of danger and terror, have stood "firm as the rocks of their native shore:" and when half the world has been arrayed against them, they have fought the battles of their Country with unshaken fortitude. It is presumed that a record of achievements in war,—victories so complete and surprising, gained by our countrymen, our brothers,[vii] our fellow citizens in arms,—a record which revives the memory of the brave, and brings their gallant deeds before us,—will certainly prove acceptable to the public.

Biographical Memoirs of the Colonels and other distinguished Officers will be introduced in the Records of their respective Regiments, and the Honorary Distinctions which have, from time to time, been conferred upon each Regiment, as testifying the value and importance of its services, will be faithfully set forth.

As a convenient mode of Publication, the Record of each Regiment will be printed in a distinct number, so that when the whole shall be completed, the Parts may be bound up in numerical succession.



The natives of Britain have, at all periods, been celebrated for innate courage and unshaken firmness, and the national superiority of the British troops over those of other countries has been evinced in the midst of the most imminent perils. History contains so many proofs of extraordinary acts of bravery, that no doubts can be raised upon the facts which are recorded. It must therefore be admitted, that the distinguishing feature of the British soldier is Intrepidity. This quality was evinced by the inhabitants of England when their country was invaded by Julius Cæsar with a Roman army, on which occasion the undaunted Britons rushed into the sea to attack the Roman soldiers as they descended from their ships; and, although their discipline and arms were inferior to those of their adversaries, yet their fierce and dauntless bearing intimidated the flower of the Roman troops, including Cæsar's favourite tenth legion. Their arms consisted of spears, short swords, and other weapons of rude construction. They had chariots, to the[x] axles of which were fastened sharp pieces of iron resembling scythe-blades, and infantry in long chariots resembling waggons, who alighted and fought on foot, and for change of ground, pursuit or retreat, sprang into the chariot and drove off with the speed of cavalry. These inventions were, however, unavailing against Cæsar's legions: in the course of time a military system, with discipline and subordination, was introduced, and British courage, being thus regulated, was exerted to the greatest advantage; a full development of the national character followed, and it shone forth in all its native brilliancy.

The military force of the Anglo Saxons consisted principally of infantry: Thanes, and other men of property, however, fought on horseback. The infantry were of two classes, heavy and light. The former carried large shields armed with spikes, long broad swords and spears; and the latter were armed with swords or spears only. They had also men armed with clubs, others with battle-axes and javelins.

The feudal troops established by William the Conqueror consisted (as already stated in the Introduction to the Cavalry) almost entirely of horse; but when the warlike barons and knights, with their trains of tenants and vassals, took the field, a proportion of men appeared on foot, and, although these were of inferior degree, they proved stout-hearted Britons of stanch fidelity. When stipendiary troops were employed, infantry always constituted a considerable portion of the military force;[xi] and this arme has since acquired, in every quarter of the globe, a celebrity never exceeded by the armies of any nation at any period.

The weapons carried by the infantry, during the several reigns succeeding the Conquest, were bows and arrows, half-pikes, lances, halberds, various kinds of battle-axes, swords, and daggers. Armour was worn on the head and body, and in course of time the practice became general for military men to be so completely cased in steel, that it was almost impossible to slay them.

The introduction of the use of gunpowder in the destructive purposes of war, in the early part of the fourteenth century, produced a change in the arms and equipment of the infantry-soldier. Bows and arrows gave place to various kinds of fire-arms, but British archers continued formidable adversaries; and, owing to the inconvenient construction and imperfect bore of the fire-arms when first introduced, a body of men, well trained in the use of the bow from their youth, was considered a valuable acquisition to every army, even as late as the sixteenth century.

During a great part of the reign of Queen Elizabeth each company of infantry usually consisted of men armed five different ways; in every hundred men forty were "men-at-arms," and sixty "shot;" the "men-at-arms" were ten halberdiers, or battle-axe men, and thirty pikemen; and the "shot" were twenty archers, twenty musketeers, and twenty harquebusiers, and each man carried, besides his principal weapon, a sword and dagger.


Companies of infantry varied at this period in numbers from 150 to 300 men; each company had a colour or ensign, and the mode of formation recommended by an English military writer (Sir John Smithe) in 1590 was:—the colour in the centre of the company guarded by the halberdiers; the pikemen in equal proportions, on each flank of the halberdiers; half the musketeers on each flank of the pikes; half the archers on each flank of the musketeers, and the harquebusiers (whose arms were much lighter than the muskets then in use) in equal proportions on each flank of the company for skirmishing.[1] It was customary to unite a number of companies into one body, called a Regiment, which frequently amounted to three thousand men: but each company continued to carry a colour. Numerous improvements were eventually introduced in the construction of fire-arms, and, it having been found impossible to make armour proof against the muskets then in use (which carried a very heavy ball) without its being too weighty for the soldier, armour was gradually laid aside by the infantry in the seventeenth century: bows and arrows also fell into disuse, and the infantry were reduced to two classes, viz.: musketeers, armed with matchlock muskets,[xiii] swords, and daggers; and pikemen, armed with pikes from fourteen to eighteen feet long, and swords.

In the early part of the seventeenth century Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, reduced the strength of regiments to 1000 men. He caused the gunpowder, which had heretofore been carried in flasks, or in small wooden bandoliers, each containing a charge, to be made up into cartridges, and carried in pouches; and he formed each regiment into two wings of musketeers, and a centre division of pikemen. He also adopted the practice of forming four regiments into a brigade; and the number of colours was afterwards reduced to three in each regiment. He formed his columns so compactly that his infantry could resist the charge of the celebrated Polish horsemen and Austrian cuirassiers; and his armies became the admiration of other nations. His mode of formation was copied by the English, French, and other European states; but so great was the prejudice in favour of ancient customs, that all his improvements were not adopted until near a century afterwards.

In 1664 King Charles II. raised a corps for sea-service, styled the Admiral's regiment. In 1678 each company of 100 men usually consisted of 30 pikemen, 60 musketeers, and 10 men armed with light firelocks. In this year the King added a company of men armed with hand grenades to each of the old British regiments, which was designated the "grenadier company." Daggers were so contrived as to fit in the muzzles of the muskets, and bayonets[xiv] similar to those at present in use were adopted about twenty years afterwards.

An Ordnance regiment was raised in 1685, by order of King James II., to guard the artillery, and was designated the Royal Fusiliers (now 7th Foot). This corps, and the companies of grenadiers, did not carry pikes.

King William III. incorporated the Admiral's regiment in the second Foot Guards, and raised two Marine regiments for sea-service. During the war in this reign, each company of infantry (excepting the fusiliers and grenadiers) consisted of 14 pikemen and 46 musketeers; the captains carried pikes; lieutenants, partisans; ensigns, half-pikes; and serjeants, halberds. After the peace in 1697 the Marine regiments were disbanded, but were again formed on the breaking out of the war in 1702.[2]

During the reign of Queen Anne the pikes were laid aside, and every infantry soldier was armed with a musket, bayonet, and sword; the grenadiers ceased, about the same period, to carry hand grenades; and the regiments were directed to lay aside their third colour: the corps of Royal Artillery was first added to the Army in this reign.

About the year 1745, the men of the battalion companies of infantry ceased to carry swords; during[xv] the reign of George II. light companies were added to infantry regiments; and in 1764 a Board of General Officers recommended that the grenadiers should lay aside their swords, as that weapon had never been used during the Seven Years' War. Since that period the arms of the infantry soldier have been limited to the musket and bayonet.

The arms and equipment of the British Troops have seldom differed materially, since the Conquest, from those of other European states; and in some respects the arming has, at certain periods, been allowed to be inferior to that of the nations with whom they have had to contend; yet, under this disadvantage, the bravery and superiority of the British infantry have been evinced on very many and most trying occasions, and splendid victories have been gained over very superior numbers.

Great Britain has produced a race of lion-like champions who have dared to confront a host of foes, and have proved themselves valiant with any arms. At Crecy, King Edward III., at the head of about 30,000 men, defeated, on the 26th of August, 1346, Philip King of France, whose army is said to have amounted to 100,000 men; here British valour encountered veterans of renown:—the King of Bohemia, the King of Majorca, and many princes and nobles were slain, and the French army was routed and cut to pieces. Ten years afterwards, Edward Prince of Wales, who was designated the Black Prince, defeated, at Poictiers, with 14,000 men, a French army of 60,000 horse, besides infantry, and took John I., King of France, and his son[xvi] Philip, prisoners. On the 25th of October, 1415, King Henry V., with an army of about 13,000 men, although greatly exhausted by marches, privations, and sickness, defeated, at Agincourt, the Constable of France, at the head of the flower of the French nobility and an army said to amount to 60,000 men, and gained a complete victory.

During the seventy years' war between the United Provinces of the Netherlands and the Spanish monarchy, which commenced in 1578 and terminated in 1648, the British infantry in the service of the States-General were celebrated for their unconquerable spirit and firmness;[3] and in the thirty years' war between the Protestant Princes and the Emperor of Germany, the British Troops in the service of Sweden and other states were celebrated for deeds of heroism.[4] In the wars of Queen Anne, the fame of the British army under the great Marlborough was spread throughout the world; and if we glance at the achievements performed within the memory of persons now living, there is abundant proof that the Britons of the present age are not inferior to their ancestors in the qualities[xvii] which constitute good soldiers. Witness the deeds of the brave men, of whom there are many now surviving, who fought in Egypt in 1801, under the brave Abercromby, and compelled the French army, which had been vainly styled Invincible, to evacuate that country; also the services of the gallant Troops during the arduous campaigns in the Peninsula, under the immortal Wellington; and the determined stand made by British Army at Waterloo, where Napoleon Bonaparte, who had long been the inveterate enemy of Great Britain, and had sought and planned her destruction by every means he could devise, was compelled to leave his vanquished legions to their fate, and to place himself at the disposal of the British Government These achievements, with others of recent dates in the distant climes of India, prove that the same valour and constancy which glowed in the breasts of the heroes of Crecy, Poictiers, Agincourt, Blenheim, and Ramilies, continue to animate the Britons of the nineteenth century.

The British Soldier is distinguished for a robust and muscular frame,—intrepidity which no danger can appal,—unconquerable spirit and resolution,—patience in fatigue and privation, and cheerful obedience to his superiors. These qualities, united with an excellent system of order and discipline to regulate and give a skilful direction to the energies and adventurous spirit of the hero, and a wise selection of officers of superior talent to command, whose presence inspires confidence,—have been the leading causes of the splendid victories gained by the British[xviii] arms.[5] The fame of the deeds of the past and present generations in the various battle-fields where the robust sons of Albion have fought and conquered, surrounds the British arms with a halo of glory; these achievements will live in the page of history to the end of time.

The records of the several regiments will be found to contain a detail of facts of an interesting character, connected with the hardships, sufferings, and gallant exploits of British soldiers in the various parts of the world, where the calls of their Country and the commands of their Sovereign have required them to proceed in the execution of their duty, whether in[xix] active continental operations, or in maintaining colonial territories in distant and unfavourable climes.

The superiority of the British infantry has been pre-eminently set forth in the wars of six centuries, and admitted by the greatest commanders which Europe has produced. The formations and movements of this arme, as at present practised, while they are adapted to every species of warfare, and to all probable situations and circumstances of service, are calculated to show forth the brilliancy of military tactics calculated upon mathematical and scientific principles. Although the movements and evolutions have been copied from the continental armies, yet various improvements have from time to time been introduced, to insure that simplicity and celerity by which the superiority of the national military character is maintained. The rank and influence which Great Britain has attained among the nations of the world, have in a great measure been purchased by the valour of the Army, and to persons who have the welfare of their country at heart, the records of the several regiments cannot fail to prove interesting.


[1] A company of 200 men would appear thus:—

2020203020 30202020
Harquebuses.Muskets.Halberds. Muskets.Harquebuses.
Archers.Pikes. Pikes.Archers.

The musket carried a ball which weighed 1/10th of a pound; and the harquebus a ball which weighed 1/25th of a pound.

[2] The 30th, 31st, and 32nd Regiments were formed as Marine corps in 1702, and were employed as such during the wars in the reign of Queen Anne. The Marine corps were embarked in the Fleet under Admiral Sir George Rooke, and were at the taking of Gibraltar, and in its subsequent defence in 1704; they were afterwards employed at the siege of Barcelona in 1705.

[3] The brave Sir Roger Williams, in his Discourse on War, printed in 1590, observes:—"I persuade myself ten thousand of our nation would beat thirty thousand of theirs (the Spaniards) out of the field, let them be chosen where they list." Yet at this time the Spanish infantry was allowed to be the best disciplined in Europe. For instances of valour displayed by the British Infantry during the Seventy Years' War, see the Historical Record of the Third Foot, or Buffs.

[4] Vide the Historical Record of the First, or Royal Regiment of Foot.

[5] "Under the blessing of Divine Providence, His Majesty ascribes the successes which have attended the exertions of his troops in Egypt to that determined bravery which is inherent in Britons; but His Majesty desires it may be most solemnly and forcibly impressed on the consideration of every part of the army, that it has been a strict observance of order, discipline, and military system, which has given the full energy to the native valour of the troops, and has enabled them proudly to assert the superiority of the national military character, in situations uncommonly arduous, and under circumstances of peculiar difficulty."—General Orders in 1801.

In the General Orders issued by Lieut.-General Sir John Hope (afterwards Lord Hopetoun), congratulating the army upon the successful result of the Battle of Corunna, on the 16th of January, 1809, it is stated:—"On no occasion has the undaunted valour of British troops ever been more manifest. At the termination of a severe and harassing march, rendered necessary by the superiority which the enemy had acquired, and which had materially impaired the efficiency of the troops, many disadvantages were to be encountered. These have all been surmounted by the conduct of the troops themselves; and the enemy has been taught, that whatever advantages of position or of numbers he may possess, there is inherent in the British officers and soldiers a bravery that knows not how to yield,—that no circumstances can appal,—and that will ensure victory, when it is to be obtained by the exertion of any human means."


















Year Page
1689 Formation of the Regiment 1
—— Henry, Duke of Norfolk appointed to the Colonelcy -
—— Numbered the Twenty-Second Regiment -
—— Stationed at Chester -
—— Embarked for Ireland -
—— Engaged at the siege of Carrickfergus 2
—— Marched to Dundalk, and thence to Armagh -
—— Sir Henry Bellasis, from the Sixth Regiment, appointed to the Colonelcy, in succession to the Duke of Norfolk -
1690 Engaged at the Battle of the Boyne -
—— Reviewed by King William at Finglass -
—— Advanced against Athlone -
—— Rejoined the Army -
—— Employed at the first siege of Limerick -
—— Proceeded into winter-quarters -
—— Engaged with the Rapparees -
1691 Proceeded with the Army against Ballymore 3
1691 Engaged in the Siege and Capture of Athlone [xxvi] 3
—— Engaged at the Battle of Aghrim -
—— Engaged at the Capture of Galway -
—— ——————————  Limerick 4
—— Termination of the War in Ireland -
1695 Proceeded to join the Army in Flanders -
1696 Returned to England -
1697 Treaty of Peace concluded at Ryswick -
1698 Re-embarked for Ireland 5
1701 Appointment of Brigadier-General William Selwyn, by exchange, from the Second Foot, with Lieut.-General Sir Henry Bellasis -
1702 Accession of Queen Anne on the demise of King William III -
—— Regiment embarked for Jamaica -
—— Promotion of Lieut.-Colonel Thomas Handasyd to the Colonelcy, in succession to Major-General Selwyn, deceased -
1705 Establishment augmented by two companies -
1712 Promotion of Lieut.-Colonel Roger Handasyd to the Colonelcy, in succession to his Father, Major-General Thomas Handasyd, retired 6
1713 Treaty of Peace concluded at Utrecht -
1714 Regiment returned to England, leaving two Independent Companies at Jamaica -
1715 Employed in recruiting its Establishment -
1718 Embarked for Ireland -
1726 —————— Minorca -
1727 Detachment embarked for Gibraltar to assist in its Defence against the Spaniards -
1730 Appointment of Colonel William Barrel, from the Twenty-Eighth Regiment, to the Colonelcy, in succession to Colonel Roger Handasyd, removed to the Sixteenth Regiment -
1734 Appointment of Colonel Hon. James St. Clair to the Colonelcy, in succession to Colonel William Barrell, removed to the Fourth Foot [xxvii] 7
1737 Appointment of Major-General John Moyle, from the Thirty-Sixth Regiment, to the Colonelcy, in succession to Colonel Hon. James St. Clair, removed to the First, or Royal Regiment of Foot -
1738 Promotion of Colonel Thomas Paget to the Colonelcy, in succession to Major-General Moyle, deceased -
1741 Promotion of Lieut.-Colonel Richard O'Farrell, from the Ninth Regiment, to the Colonelcy, in succession to Colonel Paget, deceased -
1748 Treaty of Peace concluded at Aix-la-Chapelle -
1749 Regiment relieved at Minorca and proceeded to Ireland -
1751 Royal Warrant, dated 1st July, issued for regulating the Clothing, Colours, Numbers, Facings, Badges, Mottos, and Distinctions of the Regiments of Cavalry and Infantry -
1756 War declared against France -
—— Regiment embarked from Ireland for North America -
1757 Promotion of Lieut.-Colonel Edward Whitmore from the Thirty-Sixth Regiment to the Colonelcy, in succession to Major-General O'Farrell, deceased 8
1758 Engaged in the siege of Louisburg, and the Capture of the Island of Cape Breton -
1759 The Grenadier Company, incorporated with the Louisburg Grenadiers,—Engaged at the Battle of Quebec 9
1760 Embarked from Louisburg, proceeded to Quebec, and advanced to Montreal -
—— Engaged in the conquest of the Canadas -
1761 Proceeded to New York, and embarked for the West Indies [xxviii] 9
—— Engaged in the capture of the Island of Dominica 10
1762 Engaged in the Capture of Martinique, Grenada, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent
—— Embarked with the expedition against the Havannah
—— Storming and Capture of Fort Moro 11
—— Appointment of Major-General Honorable Thomas Gage to the Colonelcy, in succession to Major-General Whitmore, drowned at sea
1763 Treaty of Peace concluded at Fontainebleau
—— The Havannah restored to Spain, in exchange for the Province of Florida, in South America
—— Regiment proceeded to West Florida
1765 Embarked for Great Britain
1773 Proceeded to Ireland
1775 Embarked for North America 12
—— Engaged at the Battle of Bunker's Hill
1776 Quitted Boston, and proceeded to Nova Scotia
—— Embarked for Staten Island, near New York
—— Landed on Long Island, and engaged with the Americans at Brooklyn
—— Gained possession of New York, captured Fort Washington, and reduced part of the Jerseys 13
—— Detached with other Corps and captured Rhode Island
1778 The King of France having united with the Americans, made preparations for the re-capture of Rhode Island, but was compelled to abandon the siege 14
1779 The British Commander-in-Chief resolved to vacate Rhode Island; the Regiment proceeded to New York 15
1782 [xxix] Appointment of Major-General Charles O'Hara to the Colonelcy, in succession to General the Honorable Thomas Gage, removed to the Seventeenth Light Dragoons 15
—— Regiment received instructions to assume the title of the Twenty-Second, or the Cheshire Regiment
1783 The American War having terminated, the regiment embarked for England
1785 Regiment stationed at Windsor and furnished the Guards at the Castle
—— King George the III. authorized an Order of Merit to be instituted in the corps
1787 Proceeded to Jersey and Guernsey, and thence to Portsmouth 16
1788 Proceeded to Chatham and Dover
1790 Embarked for Ireland
1791 Appointment of Major-General David Dundas to the Colonelcy, in succession to Major-General O'Hara, removed to the Seventy-Fourth Highlanders 17
1793 War commenced between Great Britain and France
—— Regiment embarked for the West Indies
1794 Capture of the Island of Martinique
—— ————   ————   St. Lucia
—— ————   ————   Guadaloupe
—— ————   ————   St. Domingo
1795 Returned to England from St. Domingo 18
—— Appointment of Major-General William Crosbie, from the Eighty-Ninth Regiment, to the Colonelcy, in succession to Lieut.-General Dundas, removed to the Seventh Light Dragoons
1798 Proceeded to Guernsey
1798 [xxx] Appointment of Major-General John G. Simcoe, from the Eighty-First Regiment, to the Colonelcy, in succession to Major-General Crosbie, deceased 18
1799 Removed to Portsmouth 19
—— Authorized to enlist boys or lads with a view to being sent to the Cape of Good Hope, preparatory to being embarked for service in the East Indies
1800 Embarked for the Cape of Good Hope
1802 Proceeded to India 20
1803 Arrival at Calcutta
—— The flank companies embarked, and joined the field force assembled for the attack of the province of Cuttack
—— Flank Companies engaged at the Capture of the fort of Barrabatta by storm
1804 Joined the army under Lord Lake and engaged in the siege of Bhurtpore 21
1805 Marched from Fort William and encamped at Benares, thence proceeded to Cawnpore
—— Siege of Bhurtpore continued, and the Flank Companies distinguished themselves in three unsuccessful attacks
—— Rajah Sing submitted and concluded a treaty of peace 22
—— British army withdrew from Bhurtpore
—— The Flank Companies rejoined the regiment at Cawnpore
—— Holkar and Scindia concluded Treaties of Peace
1806 Marched from the banks of the Sutlej to Delhi
—— Removed to Muttra, and received the thanks of the Governor-General in Council and of General Lord Lake, Commander-in-Chief, for its conduct during the war
1806 [xxxi] Appointment of Lieut.-General Sir James Henry Craig, K. B., in succession to General Simcoe, deceased 22
1807 Proceeded to Berhampore
1809 Appointment of Major-General the Honorable Edward Finch to the Colonelcy, in succession to General Sir James Henry Craig, removed to the Seventy-eighth Highlanders
1810 Embarked at Fort William, and formed part of the expedition against the Mauritius
—— Engaged in the capture of the Mauritius 23
1811 Detachment employed at Tamatave in the Island of Madagascar
1812 Proceeded to Bourbon
1813 Removed a second time to the Mauritius
1814 A second Battalion added to the establishment of the regiment, which was reduced in the same year
1815 The Flank Companies rejoined the regiment at the Mauritius from Hindoostan 24
1819 Embarked for England from the Mauritius
—— Landed at Gosport and marched to Northampton 25
1821 Marched to Liverpool and embarked for Ireland
1822 Detachment proceeded against a body of armed men assembled at Newmarket in county of Cork. The officers commanding this detachment received the thanks of H. R. H. the Duke of York, and were presented with a silver cup by the gentlemen and inhabitants of the Town of Newmarket, for attacking and defeating this body of insurgents
1826 Formed into six Service and four Depôt Companies preparatory to embarkation for foreign service 26
—— Service Companies embarked for Jamaica
1830 [xxxii] Depôt Companies embarked for England 27
1831 Service Companies employed in suppressing an insurrection among the slaves in Jamaica
1836 Depôt Companies embarked for Ireland
1837 Service Companies embarked from Jamaica for Ireland, and rejoined by the Depôt Companies
1840 Embarked from Ireland for England
1841 Embarked for Bombay and proceeded to Poonah 28
1842 Proceeded to Scinde, and encamped at Kurrachee
1843 Employed in the destruction of the Fort of Emaum Ghur
—— The march through the Desert to Emaum Ghur, as described by Major-General William E. P. Napier 29
—— The troops returned triumphant to Peer-Abu-Bekr 30
—— Treaty of Peace with the Ameers of Scinde
—— Treacherous attack upon the British residency at Hyderabad, and gallant defence made by the Light Company of the Twenty-Second regiment
—— Light Company joined the army under Major-General Sir Charles Napier 31
—— Battle of Meeanee
—— Surrender of six Ameers on the field of battle
—— British Colours planted on the Fortress of Hyderabad 32
—— Details of the defeat of the Beloochees at Meeanee
—— Gallant conduct of the Twenty-Second regiment 34
—— Threatened attack by Mere Shere Mahomed 36
—— Battle of Hyderabad
—— Flight of Mere Shere Mahomed to the desert 37
—— Particulars of the march of the British troops through the desert
1843 [xxxiii] Honors and distinctions conferred by Queen Victoria, and by the British Parliament, on the Twenty-second regiment for its conduct in the Campaign of Scinde 38
—— Address of Major-General Sir Charles Napier to the troops in distributing the medals conferred on them for their gallantry in this campaign 40
—— Marched from Hyderabad to Kurrachee 42
—— Directed to proceed to Bombay, and Major-General Sir Charles Napier's order on the occasion 43
—— Embarked for Bombay
—— Honorable reception of the Regiment at Bombay
—— Appointment of Major-General Sir Charles Napier to the Colonelcy, in succession to General Honorable E. Finch, deceased 44
1844 Employed on field-service in the Kolapore districts
—— Capture of Forts Punalla and Pownghur
—— Operations in the Sawunt-Warree district 45
—— Investments of the Forts of Monuhurr and Monsentosh
1845 Capture of the village of Seevapore and other Forts
—— Returned to Poonah
1846 Marched to Bombay 46
1847 Removed to Poonah
1849 Proceeded to Bombay
—— Conclusion
Description of the Standards captured at the battles of Meeanee and Hyderabad, and of the Medal conferred in honor of the victories obtained at those places 47







Year Page
1689   Henry Duke of Norfolk 48
——   Sir Henry Bellasis, Kt. 49
1701   William Selwyn 51
1702   Thomas Handasyd
1712   Roger Handasyd 52
1730   William Barrell
1734   Hon. James St. Clair
1737   John Moyle 53
1738   Thomas Paget 54
1741   Richard O'Farrell
1757   Edward Whitmore
1762   Hon. Thomas Gage 55
1782   Charles O'Hara 56
1791   David Dundas 57
1795   William Crosbie 59
1798   John Graves Simcoe 60
1806   Sir James Henry Craig, K.B. 61
1809   Hon. Edward Finch 62
1843   Sir Charles James Napier, G.C.B. 63
Colours of the Regiment to face 1
Costume of the Regiment 32
Engraving of the Beloochee Standard captured at the Battle of Meeanee in 1843; and of the Silver Medal conferred on the Officers and Men engaged in the Battles of Meeanee and Hyderabad 47





Madeley lith. 3 Wellington St. Strand

[Pg 1]







The accession of King William III. and Queen Mary, in February, 1689, was welcomed in England with anticipations of security to the civil and religious institutions of the country, and of prosperity in every branch of national industry; but in Ireland the majority of the people adhered to the interests of the Stuart dynasty, and a body of troops was raised in England, for the deliverance of that country from the power of King James, who had landed there with an armament from France. On this occasion Henry, Duke of Norfolk, evinced zeal for the principles of the Revolution, and raised a regiment of pikemen and musketeers, to which a company of grenadiers was attached; and the corps raised under the auspices of his Grace now bears the title of the TWENTY-SECOND, or the CHESHIRE REGIMENT OF FOOT.

Having been speedily completed in numbers, equipped, and disciplined, the regiment was encamped near Chester in the early part of August, and soon afterwards embarked for Ireland, with the forces commanded by Marshal[2] Duke Schomberg. On landing in Ireland, the siege of Carrickfergus was commenced, and the garrison of that fortress was forced to surrender in a few days.

From Carrickfergus, the regiment marched with the army to Dundalk, where the troops were encamped on low and wet ground, and suffered much in their health.

While the regiment was encamped at Dundalk, the Duke of Norfolk was succeeded in the colonelcy by Sir Henry Bellasis, who had commanded the Sixth regiment of foot when it was in the Dutch service.

On the 7th of November the regiment commenced its march from Dundalk for Armagh, for winter-quarters.


In the summer of 1690, the regiment had the honour to serve at the battle of the Boyne, under the eye of its Sovereign, who commanded the army in Ireland in person; and on this occasion it took part in forcing the passage of the river, and in gaining a decisive victory over the army of King James on the 1st of July.

Advancing from the field of battle towards Dublin, the regiment was reviewed by King William at Finglass, on the 8th of July, and mustered six hundred and twenty-eight rank and file under arms. It was afterwards detached, under Lieut.-General Douglas, against Athlone; but that fortress was found better provided for a siege than had been expected, and the regiment rejoined the army.

The TWENTY-SECOND was one of the corps employed at the siege of Limerick. Many things combined to prevent the capture of that fortress until the following year, and when the siege was raised, the regiment proceeded into winter-quarters, from whence it sent out detachments, which had several rencounters with bands of armed peasantry, called Rapparees.


On the 6th of June, 1691, the regiment joined the army[3] commanded by Lieut.-General De Ghinkel (afterwards Earl of Athlone) on its march for Ballymore, which fortress was speedily forced to surrender.

From Ballymore, the regiment marched to Athlone, and had the honour to take part in the siege of that fortress, which was captured by storm on the 1st of July. The grenadier company of the regiment formed part of the storming party, which forded the river Shannon under a heavy fire, and carried the works with great gallantry. The capture of Athlone is one of the many splendid achievements which have exalted the reputation of the British arms, and its reduction proved a presage of additional triumphs.

Astonished and confounded by the capture of Athlone, General St. Ruth retreated, with the French and Irish army under his orders, to a position at Aghrim, where he was attacked on the 12th of July. On this occasion, the regiment formed part of the brigade commanded by its Colonel, Brigadier-General Sir Henry Bellasis, and it contributed towards the complete overthrow of the army of King James, which was driven from the field with severe loss, including its commander, General St. Ruth, who was killed by a cannon-ball.

The regiment had one Ensign and two private soldiers killed; one Major, and twenty-three soldiers wounded.

On the 19th of July the army approached Galway; after sunset six regiments of foot and four squadrons of horse and dragoons passed the river by pontoons, and on the following morning they captured some outworks. On the 21st the garrison surrendered. Brigadier-General Sir Henry Bellasis was nominated Governor of Galway, and he took possession of the town with the TWENTY-SECOND and two other regiments of foot.

The surrender of Galway was followed by the siege[4] and capitulation of Limerick, which city was surrendered in September, and completed the deliverance of Ireland from the power of King James.


After the reduction of Ireland, the regiment was employed in garrison and other duties of home-service, until 1695, when it proceeded to the Netherlands, to reinforce the army commanded by King William III., who was engaged in war for the preservation of the liberties of Europe against the power of Louis XIV. of France. After landing at Ostend, the regiment was placed in garrison.


Some advantages had been gained over the French arms; to counteract which, Louis XIV. attempted to weaken the confederates by forming plans for causing England to become the theatre of civil war. With this view the Duke of Berwick and several other officers in the French service were sent to England in disguise, to instigate the adherents of King James to take arms; a plot was also formed for the assassination of King William, and a French army marched to the coast to be in readiness to embark for England. Under these circumstances the TWENTY-SECOND regiment and a number of other corps were ordered to return to England, where they arrived in March, 1696, and the TWENTY-SECOND landed at Gravesend. The conspirators for the assassination of King William were discovered; several persons were apprehended, the British fleet was sent to blockade the French ports, and the designs of Louis XIV. were frustrated.


In the following year a treaty of peace was concluded at Ryswick, and the British Monarch saw his efforts for the civil and religious liberties of Europe attended with success.


The TWENTY-SECOND regiment was afterwards sent to[5] Ireland, where it was stationed during the remainder of the reign of King William III.


On the 28th of June, 1701, the colonelcy of the regiment was conferred on Brigadier-General William Selwyn, in succession to Lieut.-General Sir Henry Bellasis, who was removed to the Second foot, then styled the Queen Dowager's regiment.


King William died in March, 1702, and was succeeded by Queen Anne, who declared war against France. Brigadier-General Selwyn was nominated Governor of Jamaica, and promoted to the rank of Major-General on the 10th of June, 1702. The TWENTY-SECOND regiment was ordered to proceed to Jamaica, and several other corps also embarked for stations in the West Indies: the British government designing to make a general attack on the possessions of France and Spain in South America.

Major-General Selwyn died at Jamaica, and was succeeded in the colonelcy of the regiment by the Lieut.-Colonel, Thomas Handasyd, by commission dated the 20th of June, 1702.


A considerable body of troops arrived in the West Indies in 1703: but they were afterwards recalled to take part in the war in Europe. The TWENTY-SECOND regiment was left at the island of Jamaica, and during the reign of Queen Anne the regiment was employed in protecting Jamaica, and the other British settlements in the West Indies, which important duty it performed with reputation.


While employed on this duty, the regiment received drafts from several other corps, and in 1705 an augmentation of two companies was made to its establishment.


Colonel Handasyd was promoted to the rank of Brigadier-General in December, 1705, and to that of Major-General in January, 1710. In 1712 he retired from the colonelcy,[6] resigning his commission in favour of his son, Lieut.-Colonel Roger Handasyd, of the regiment.


In the following year the treaty of Utrecht gave peace to Europe; and on the 31st of May, 1711, an order was issued for the men of the regiment fit for duty to be formed into two independent companies for service at Jamaica: the officers and staff returning to Europe to recruit.

The two independent companies thus formed from the TWENTY-SECOND were the nucleus of the FORTY-NINTH regiment, which was formed of independent companies at Jamaica in 1743.


The officers and the serjeants not required for the independent companies, having arrived in England, were actively employed in recruiting in 1715; and in 1718 the regiment proceeded to Ireland.


The regiment was stationed in Ireland during the eight years from 1719 to 1726, and in the spring of the last-mentioned year, it proceeded to the island of Minorca, which had been captured by the English, in 1708, and was ceded to Great Britain by the treaty of Utrecht in 1713, together with the fortress of Gibraltar.


In the beginning of 1727, the Spaniards besieged Gibraltar, and a detachment of the regiment, being sent to reinforce the garrison, had the honor to take part in the successful defence of that important fortress. When the Spaniards raised the siege, the detachment rejoined the regiment at Minorca.


Colonel Handasyd commanded the regiment with reputation until 1730, when he was removed to the Sixteenth foot, and was succeeded by Brigadier-General William Barrell, from the Twenty-eighth regiment.


Brigadier-General Barrell was removed to the Fourth foot in 1734, when King George II. conferred the colonelcy of the TWENTY-SECOND regiment on Colonel[7] the Honorable James St. Clair, from Major in the First foot-guards.


On the 27th of June, 1737, Colonel the Honorable James St. Clair was removed to the First, the Royal regiment of foot, and his Majesty nominated Major-General John Moyle, from the Thirty-sixth, to the colonelcy of the TWENTY-SECOND regiment.


Major-General Moyle died on the 3rd of November, 1738, and the colonelcy was afterwards conferred on Colonel Thomas Paget, from the Thirty-second regiment.


In 1739 Colonel Paget was promoted to the rank of brigadier-general. He died on the 28th of May, 1741, and was succeeded in the colonelcy of the regiment by Lieut.-Colonel Richard O'Farrell, from the Ninth foot.


The TWENTY-SECOND regiment was employed in the protection of the island of Minorca, during the whole of the War of the Austrian Succession, and, peace having been concluded, it was relieved from that duty in 1749, and proceeded to Ireland.


In the Royal Warrant for regulating the uniform and distinctions of the several regiments of the army, dated the 1st of July, 1751, the facings of the TWENTY-SECOND regiment were directed to be of pale buff. The First, or King's colour, was the Great Union; the Second, or Regimental colour, was of pale buff silk, with the Union in the upper canton; in the centre of the colour, the Number of the Rank of the regiment, in gold Roman characters, within a wreath of roses and thistles on the same stalk.


The peace of Aix-la-Chapelle was interrupted in 1755 by the aggressions of the French on the British territory in North America; and on the 18th of May, 1756, war was declared against France; in the same year the TWENTY-SECOND regiment embarked from Ireland for North America.


In 1757 the regiment was formed in brigade with the[8] Forty-third, Forty-eighth, and fourth battalion of the Sixtieth, under Major-General Lord Charles Hay, with the view of being employed in the attack of Louisburg, the capital of the French island of Cape Breton, situate in the Gulf of St. Lawrence; but the expedition was deferred until the following year, and the regiment was stationed in Nova Scotia during the winter. Major-General O'Farrell died in the summer of this year, and the colonelcy of the regiment was conferred on Brigadier-General Edward Whitmore, from the lieut.-colonelcy of the Thirty-sixth regiment.


Embarking from Halifax, in May, 1758, under the command of Lieut.-Colonel Andrew Lord Rollo, the regiment proceeded with the expedition commanded by Lieut.-General (afterwards Lord) Amherst, and a landing was effected on the island of Cape Breton, on the 8th of June, when the British troops evinced great gallantry. The TWENTY-SECOND had Lieutenants Pierce Butler, John Jermyn, and William Hamilton wounded; also several private soldiers killed and wounded.[6]

The siege of Louisburg, the capital of the island, was afterwards commenced; and in carrying on the approaches the troops underwent great fatigue with cheerful alacrity. By their perseverance, and the co-operation of the fleet, the town was taken in July, and two other islands in the Gulf were surrendered. The troops received the thanks of Parliament, and the approbation of the Sovereign, for their conduct on this occasion.


During the year 1759 the TWENTY-SECOND regiment was stationed at Louisburg. Major-General James Wolfe proceeded up the river St. Lawrence, with a small[9] armament,[7] and Quebec was captured; but the nation sustained the loss of Major-General Wolfe, who was killed in the battle on the heights of Abraham, in front of Quebec, on the 13th of September, 1759.


In the spring of 1760 the TWENTY-SECOND and Fortieth regiments proceeded from Louisburg, under Colonel Lord Rollo, of the TWENTY-SECOND, up the river St. Lawrence, to Quebec, from whence they advanced upon Montreal, with the troops under Brigadier-General the Honorable James Murray. The French possessions in Canada were invaded at three points, and the Governor concentrated his forces at Montreal; but he was unable to withstand the valour and discipline of British troops, commanded by officers of talent and experience; he therefore surrendered Montreal, and with it all Canada, the French battalions becoming prisoners of war. The TWENTY-SECOND had thus the honor of taking part in the conquest of the two fine provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, which have since continued to form part of the possessions of the British Crown.


After the conquest of Canada, the TWENTY-SECOND were removed to Albany, from whence they proceeded to New York, in April, 1761, and afterwards embarked, under Lord Rollo, for the West Indies.

The island of Dominica had been declared neutral; but it was found to be so much under the influence of France, and proved a refuge to so many privateers of that nation, that the British government resolved to take possession of it. The TWENTY-SECOND, and other corps under Lord Rollo, landed on the island on the 6th of June, under cover of the fire of the men-of-war, and drove[10] the enemy from his batteries: the grenadiers of the TWENTY-SECOND regiment distinguished themselves on this occasion. In two days the island was reduced to submission with little loss.


From Dominica the TWENTY-SECOND proceeded to Carlisle Bay, Barbadoes, and joined the troops assembled at that place under the orders of Major-General the Honorable Robert Monckton, for the attack of the French island of Martinique. After several attempts on other parts of the island, a landing was effected in Cas des Navières Bay, on the 16th of January, 1762; the works on the heights of Morne Tortenson were captured on the 24th of that month; Morne Garnier was carried on the 27th; and the citadel of Fort Royal surrendered on the 4th of February. These successes were followed by the surrender of the opulent city of St. Pierre, and the submission of the whole island to the British Crown. The Commander of the expedition stated in his despatch—"I cannot find words to render that ample justice which is due to the valor of his Majesty's troops which I have had the honor to command. The difficulties they had to encounter in the attack of an enemy possessed of every advantage of art and nature were great; and their perseverance in surmounting these obstacles, furnishes a noble example of British spirit."

The capture of Martinique was followed by that of Grenada, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent; and the acquisition of these islands gave additional honor to the expedition of which the TWENTY-SECOND regiment formed part.

Additional forces arrived in the West Indies, and the TWENTY-SECOND regiment, mustering six hundred and two rank and file, under the command of Major Loftus, joined the expedition commanded by General the Earl of Albemarle, for the reduction of the wealthy and important Spanish city of the Havannah, in the island of Cuba[11] The TWENTY-SECOND, Fortieth, Seventy-second, and five companies of the Ninetieth, were formed in brigade under Brigadier-General Lord Rollo.

Proceeding through the Straits of Bahama, the armament arrived within six leagues of the Havannah on the 6th of June. A landing was effected on the following day, and the Moro fort, being the key-position of the extensive works which covered the town, was besieged. This proved an undertaking of great difficulty; but every obstacle was overcome by the spirited efforts of the land and sea forces, and the fort was captured by storm on the 30th of July. An extensive series of batteries was prepared, and opened, on the 11th of August, so well-directed a fire on the works which protected the town, that the guns of the garrison were soon silenced, and the important city of the Havannah was surrendered to the British arms. Nine Spanish men-of-war were delivered up; two were found upon the stocks; and three sunk at the entrance of the harbour.

In March of this year Major-General Whitmore, who was drowned at sea, was succeeded in the colonelcy by Major-General the Honorable Thomas Gage, from the Eightieth regiment, a provincial corps which was raised in 1758, and disbanded after the treaty of Fontainebleau.


At the peace of Fontainebleau the Havannah was restored to Spain, in exchange for the province of Florida, on the continent of America; and in 1763 the TWENTY-SECOND regiment proceeded to West Florida.


The regiment was stationed in Florida during the year 1764, and in 1765 it was relieved from duty in that province, and embarked for Great Britain.


From 1766 to 1769 the regiment was employed at various stations in England; during the years 1770, 1771, and 1772, it performed duty in Scotland; and in 1773 it proceeded to Ireland.



While the TWENTY-SECOND were stationed in Ireland the misunderstanding between the English government and the British provinces in North America, on the subject of taxation, was followed by hostilities. The regiment embarked from Ireland for North America in 1775, and joined the troops at Boston under General Gage.

During the night of the 16th of June the Americans commenced fortifying the heights on the peninsula of Charlestown, called Bunker's Hill; and on the following day they were attacked by the flank companies of the British corps, and by a few regiments, and driven from their works. The TWENTY-SECOND lost their commanding officer, Lieut.-Colonel James Abercromby, who died of his wounds. He was succeeded by Major James Campbell.


General Sir William Howe assumed the command of the British troops in North America, on General Gage returning to England in October, 1775; in March, 1776, Boston was vacated, when the TWENTY-SECOND proceeded to Nova Scotia.

From Nova Scotia, the regiment sailed with the expedition to Staten Island, near New York; and, additional troops having arrived from Europe, it was formed in brigade with the Forty-third, Fifty-fourth, and Sixty-third, under Brigadier-General Francis Smith.

A landing was effected on Long Island on the 22nd of August; and on the 27th of that month the TWENTY-SECOND were engaged in driving the Americans from their positions at Flat Bush to their fortified lines at Brooklyn. The flank companies had several men killed and wounded on this occasion; the loss of the battalion companies was limited to two men.

The Americans abandoned their lines at Brooklyn, and passed the river to New York. They were followed by[13] the British, who gained possession of New York, captured Fort Washington, and reduced a great part of the Jerseys.

During the winter the regiment was detached, with several other corps, under Lieut.-Generals Clinton and Earl Percy, against Rhode Island. The regiment embarked on this service in the beginning of December, and a landing being effected at daybreak on the 9th of that month, the island was speedily reduced to submission.


During the year 1777 the regiment was stationed in Rhode Island. On the 10th of July the American Colonel, Barton, arrived at Rhode Island with a few active men, surprised Major-General Richard Prescott in his quarters, and conveyed him from the island a prisoner.


In May, 1778, it was ascertained that Major-General Sullivan had taken the command of the American troops at Providence, with the view of making a descent on Rhode Island; and on the night of the 24th of May the battalion companies of the TWENTY-SECOND, the flank companies of the Fifty-fourth, and a company of Hessians, embarked under Lieut.-Colonel Campbell of the TWENTY-SECOND, to attack the enemy's quarters. After landing three miles below Warren, early on the following morning, a detachment under Captain Seir of the TWENTY-SECOND destroyed a battery at Papasquash Point, making a Captain and six American artillery men prisoners. Another detachment destroyed a number of boats, a galley of six twelve pounders, and two sloops, in the Kickamuct River. The party then marched to Warren, destroyed a park of artillery, a quantity of stores, and a privateer sloop. Afterwards proceeding to Bristol, a further quantity of stores was destroyed. The Americans assembled in great numbers, and fired on the British from a great distance, but did little injury. Lieutenant[14] Hamilton of the TWENTY-SECOND, eight British, and four Hessian soldiers were wounded.

On the 30th of May another detachment, under Major Eyre of the Fifty-fourth, made a successful incursion to a creek near Taunton River, and inflicted a severe loss on the Americans.

The King of France having united with the Americans, a French armament arrived off the coast, and formidable preparations were made for the re-capture of Rhode Island. The French fleet, however, sustained some severe losses from a storm, and from the English navy. A numerous American force under Major-General Sullivan landed at Howland's Ferry, on the 9th of August, and commenced the siege of Newport, in defence of which place the TWENTY-SECOND were employed. The place being defended with great resolution, and the Americans being disappointed of aid from the French fleet, they raised the siege, and retired on the 29th of August. The TWENTY-SECOND, Forty-third, and flank companies of the Thirty-eighth and Fifty-fourth regiments, marched under Brigadier-General Smith, by the east road, to intercept the retreating enemy. A stand was made by the Americans, and some sharp fighting occurred, in which the TWENTY-SECOND, under Lieut.-Colonel Campbell, highly distinguished themselves. The Americans were driven from Quakers' Hill, when they fell back to their works at the north end of the island, from which they afterwards withdrew. Major-General Pigot stated in his public despatch,—"To these particulars I am, in justice, obliged to add Brigadier-General Smith's report, who, amidst the general tribute due to the good conduct of every individual under his command, has particularly distinguished Lieut.-Colonel Campbell and the TWENTY-SECOND regiment, on whom, by their position, the[15] greatest weight of the action fell." The regiment had eleven rank and file killed; Lieutenant Cleghorn, Ensigns Bareland, Proctor, and Adam, two serjeants, and forty-eight rank and file wounded; one man missing.


The British Commander-in-Chief in North America, Lieut.-General Sir Henry Clinton, having resolved to vacate Rhode Island, the regiment embarked from thence on the 25th of October, 1779, and proceeded to New York, where it arrived on the 27th of that month.


During the remainder of the American War the regiment was stationed at New York and the posts in advance of that city.


General the Honorable Thomas Gage was removed to the Seventeenth Light Dragoons in April, 1782, and King George III. conferred the colonelcy of the TWENTY-SECOND regiment on Major-General Charles O'Hara, from captain and lieut.-colonel in the Second foot-guards.

A letter, dated the 31st of August, 1782, conveyed to the regiment His Majesty's pleasure that it should be designated the TWENTY-SECOND, or the CHESHIRE regiment, in order that a connexion between the corps and that county should be cultivated, with the view of promoting the success of the recruiting service.


The American War having terminated, the regiment returned to Europe in 1783 and was stationed in South Britain.


In 1785, while the regiment was stationed at Windsor, under the command of Lieut.-Colonel Crosbie, and furnished the usual guard at the Castle, where his Majesty resided, an "ORDER OF MERIT" was instituted in the corps, with the view of promoting good order and discipline,—the field-officers, captains, and adjutant for the time being, to be members of the order. The order consisted[16] of THREE CLASSES: the first wore a silver medal gilt, suspended to a blue riband two inches broad, and worn round the neck; the second a silver medal, and the third a bronze medal, similarly worn. The candidates for the third class must have served seven years with an unblemished character; for the second, fourteen; and for the first, twenty-one years. On the 1st of July, the King was graciously pleased to accept from Lieut.-Colonel Crosbie a medal of the first class of the regimental Order of Merit: and on the 3rd of that month, the regiment being then encamped in Windsor Forest, assembled on parade, with the non-commissioned officers and soldiers selected to receive medals in front, the rules of the order were read; the corps presented arms, the band played "God save the King;" the members of the order took off their hats, and the commanding officer invested each member with his medal; the drums beating a point of war during the whole time.


In 1787 the regiment proceeded to Guernsey and Jersey, where its establishment was augmented; and it was ordered to be held in readiness for foreign service, in consequence of some revolutionary proceedings in Holland. In October the regiment proceeded to Portsmouth, and its establishment was soon afterwards reduced. Previous to leaving Guernsey, it received the thanks of the Lieut.-Governor for its excellent conduct.


On quitting Portsmouth in 1788 for Chatham, the regiment received a very flattering mark of the high estimation in which its conduct was held by the inhabitants.


The regiment left Chatham and Dover in the spring of 1790, and proceeding to Ireland landed at Cork on the 5th of April.


Major-General Charles O'Hara was removed to the Seventy-fourth Highlanders in April, 1791, and was[17] succeeded in the colonelcy of the TWENTY-SECOND by Major-General David Dundas, Adjutant-General of the Army in Ireland.


In 1792, a slight alteration was made in the uniform, and the establishment was augmented.


Meanwhile a revolution had taken place in France, and the violent conduct of the republican government in that country occasioned a war between Great Britain and France, which commenced in 1793. In September of that year the flank companies of the TWENTY-SECOND regiment embarked for the West Indies, for the purpose of taking part in the capture of the French West India islands. They were followed by the battalion companies in December.


The flank companies joined the armament under General Sir Charles (afterwards Earl) Grey, who effected a landing at three different points on the island of Martinique, in February, 1794, and accomplished in a short period the conquest of that valuable colony.

The grenadier brigade under His Royal Highness Prince Edward, afterwards the Duke of Kent, and the light infantry under Major-General Dundas, were engaged in the conquest of St. Lucia in the beginning of April.

After the conquest of St. Lucia, an attack was made on Guadaloupe, and that valuable island was speedily rescued from the power of the republican government of France.

The regiment proceeded to the island of Martinique, where it was joined by the flank companies.

Two hundred men, commanded by Lieut.-Colonel Lysaght, proceeded to the island of St. Domingo, and formed part of the garrison of Cape St. Nicholas Mole: and five companies joined the garrison of Busy-town, which place was besieged by the enemy.

In April, the TWENTY-SECOND, Twenty-third, and[18] Forty-first regiments, with some other troops, embarked under the command of Brigadier-General John Whyte, for the attack of Port-au-Prince, the capital of the French possessions in the island of St. Domingo. A landing was effected on the 31st of May; some severe fighting occurred, in which the TWENTY-SECOND distinguished themselves: Fort Bizzotton was captured, and the enemy was forced to abandon Port-au-Prince, which was taken possession of by the British troops. The regiment had Captain Wallace killed on this occasion, also several private soldiers killed and wounded. Unfortunately a malignant fever broke out in the town, and the British lost forty officers and six hundred soldiers by disease within two months after the capture of the place.

A detachment of the regiment formed part of the garrison of Fort Bizzotton, which was attacked by two thousand of the enemy on the 5th of December. The British defended their post with great gallantry, and repulsed the assailants. Lieutenant Hamilton of the TWENTY-SECOND distinguished himself.

Another portion of the regiment was stationed at Jeremie, and a detachment at Irois.


Having sustained severe loss from the climate of St. Domingo, the regiment was relieved from duty at that island, and returned to England in 1795.

Lieut.-General Dundas was removed to the Seventh Light Dragoons, and the colonelcy of the TWENTY-SECOND was conferred on Major-General William Crosbie, from the Eighty-ninth regiment.


The regiment was stationed in England recruiting its ranks until December, 1798, when it proceeded to Guernsey.

Major-General Crosbie died this year, and was succeeded by Major-General John Graves Simcoe, from the Eighty-first regiment.



In November, 1799, the regiment was withdrawn from Guernsey, and landed at Portsmouth on the 15th of that month.

On its return from the West Indies, the regiment enlisted a number of boys, or youths; and in 1798 it received drafts of boys, or lads, from other corps; it was designated a boy regiment, and sent to the Cape of Good Hope, where the youths, it was conjectured, would be gradually accustomed to a warm climate, and become better adapted for service in the East Indies, than recruits sent direct from Europe to India.


In January and February, 1800, the regiment embarked for the Cape of Good Hope, where it arrived in May and June following. The companies on board of one transport, the Surat Castle, suffered severely in consequence of their crowded state: the crew was composed of Lascars, among whom much disease prevailed; the infection was communicated to the soldiers, and the men of the TWENTY-SECOND suffered in their health; sixty soldiers were sent on shore, to a general hospital, before the ship left England. The survivors arrived at the Cape in a sickly state; they had been obliged to aid in working the vessel during the voyage, and the masts and rigging had been damaged during a gale of wind.


The head-quarters were established at Muisenberg, and afterwards encamped at Wynberg, a tongue of land projecting from the east side of Table Mountain. The sick men received every attention which could be procured by Major-General Francis Dundas, commanding at the Cape, and as they recovered they joined the head-quarters, which were removed to Simon's-town in January, 1801, and again encamped at Wynberg in March. In May the regiment marched into Cape Town, and in September joined the camp at Rondebosch.


The lads having become much improved in size and strength, the light infantry company joined the flank battalion; and the grenadiers were detached to the interior, and stationed at Graaff Reinett.


Leaving the camp in January, 1802, the regiment was removed to Muisenberg, Simon's-town, and Graaff Reinett.

The period having arrived for the regiment to proceed to India, it was joined by a number of volunteers from corps serving at the Cape of Good Hope, and embarked from thence in September, October, and November, when it mustered thirty-one officers, and one thousand and fifty-five non-commissioned officers and soldiers fit for duty.


In February, 1803, the last division of the regiment landed at Fort William, Calcutta, where the other companies had previously arrived.

At this period two powerful chieftains, Dowlat Rao Scindia and Jeswunt Rao Holkar, had usurped the powers of the Peishwa, and were desolating the Mahratta states with war; and these two chiefs, with the Rajah of Berar, formed a confederacy against the British and their allies. Under these circumstances the flank companies of the regiment embarked from Fort William, and joined the field force, under Lieut.-Colonel Harcourt, assembled for the attack of the province of Cuttack. On entering that province, the troops had to overcome numerous difficulties from the nature of the country, the season of the year, and the resistance of the enemy, which they surmounted with great gallantry.

On the 4th of October, the flank companies of the TWENTY-SECOND regiment highly distinguished themselves at the capture of the fort of Barrabatta by storm, when they led the assault, and took several of the enemy's colours. They had one man killed; Captain Harlston and eight[21] soldiers wounded. The colours captured by the TWENTY-SECOND, with some others taken by the Ninth and Nineteenth Native Infantry, were publicly displayed at Calcutta, and afterwards lodged at Fort William, with an inscription of the names of the corps by which taken.


The flank companies of the regiment remained in the field, and the splendid successes of the British arms appeared likely to bring about a speedy termination of the war; but hostilities were protracted by the defection of the Rajah of Bhurtpore. The flank companies of the TWENTY-SECOND joined the army under Lord Lake: they had two men killed and three wounded at the capture of Deeg, in December, and were engaged in the attempt to bring the refractory Rajah Sing to submission by the siege of the strong fortress of Bhurtpore.


In the meantime, the regiment had commenced its march from Fort William, for the Upper provinces, and in January, 1805, it halted and encamped at Benares; but resumed its march in February, and proceeded to Cawnpore.

The siege of Bhurtpore was carried on, and the flank companies were engaged in the unsuccessful attempt to capture that place by storm on the 9th of January, when they had eleven men killed and twenty-four wounded. They were also engaged in the desperate attempt to capture the place by storm, on the 21st of January, when they had Captain Menzies and four men killed; Captains Lindsay and McNight, Lieutenants Mansergh, Sweetman, and Caswell, and thirty-one non-commissioned officers and soldiers, wounded. At the third unsuccessful attack, on the 21st of February, they had two serjeants and three soldiers killed; three serjeants and four soldiers wounded.

Serjeant John Ship, of the regiment, led the forlorn hope on each occasion, and his gallant conduct was[22] rewarded with the commission of ensign in the Sixty-fifth regiment.

Rajah Sing submitted, and concluded a treaty of peace with the British: the army withdrew from Bhurtpore, and the surviving officers and soldiers of the flank companies joined the regiment at Cawnpore, in June.

Holkar continued his resistance to the British authority, and Scindia evinced a disposition to renew hostilities. These events occasioned the regiment to quit Cawnpore, in October, to pursue the army of Holkar, who was driven from place to place, until the British troops arrived at the banks of the Hyphasis, or Sutlej, where he submitted, and a treaty of peace was concluded in December. Scindia also concluded a second treaty, and the British power and influence in India were thus augmented and consolidated.


From the banks of the Sutlej, the regiment marched to Delhi, where it arrived in February, 1806, and in March it was removed to Muttra, where it received the thanks of General Lord Lake, and of the Governor-General in Council, for its conduct during the war.

On the 30th of October, General Simcoe, who died in 1806, was succeeded in the colonelcy of the regiment by Lieut.-General Sir James Henry Craig, from the Eighty-sixth foot.


Leaving Muttra in July, 1807, the regiment proceeded to Berhampore, where it arrived on the 7th of August.


Major-General the Honorable Edward Finch was appointed colonel of the regiment on the 18th of September, 1809, from the Fifty-fourth foot, in succession to Sir James Henry Craig, K.B., removed to the Seventy-eighth Highlanders.


The regiment remained at Berhampore until August, 1810, when it embarked in boats, and proceeded to Fort William, in order to form part of the expedition against[23] the Mauritius, under Major-General the Honorable J. Abercromby. A landing was effected in the bay of Mapou, on the 29th of November, without opposition, and on the following day the troops advanced towards the capital; being exposed to severe heat, and unable to procure water, the soldiers became exhausted, and arriving at the powder-mills, five miles from Port Louis, they halted near the stream. Resuming the march on the 1st of December, the troops were opposed by the enemy in force, and some sharp fighting occurred, in which the TWENTY-SECOND took part and had several men wounded. The French were driven from their ground, and they fell back upon Port Louis; the British took post in front of the position occupied by the French. Being unable to withstand the valour and discipline of the invading army, the governor, General de Caen, surrendered the island to the British arms.


After the capture of the Mauritius, the regiment was stationed a short time at that island, and in January it sent a detachment of five officers and seventy men to Tamatave, in the Island of Madagascar. In March and April the regiment was removed to the island of Bourbon, where it was joined by the survivors of the detachment from Madagascar, reduced in number, by disease, to two officers and twenty-five men: they had been made prisoners by the enemy, and re-captured by the British ships of war.


In July, 1812, the regiment returned to the Mauritius; but again proceeded to Bourbon, in August, and was removed to the Mauritius a second time in May, 1813.


A number of men having volunteered from the militia to the TWENTY-SECOND regiment, His Royal Highness the Prince Regent was pleased to approve of a second battalion being formed, and it was placed on the establishment of the army on the 10th of February, 1814. The war in Europe being terminated soon afterwards, by[24] the abdication of Napoleon Bonaparte, and the restoration of the Bourbon dynasty to the throne of France, the second battalion was disbanded at Chester, on the 24th of October, transferring the men fit for duty to the first battalion, which they joined at the Mauritius, in April, 1815, in so good a state, as to be specially noticed in general orders, and Captain Thomas Poole, commanding the party, received the thanks of the governor.

On the 1st of June, 1815, the rifle company of the first battalion of the Twelfth regiment, together with the first battalion of the Eighty-seventh regiment, and the flank companies of the TWENTY-SECOND regiment, were formed into a field brigade, and on the 16th of June embarked from the Mauritius to join the army in Bengal. The troops arrived at Bengal on the 2nd and 3rd of August; re-embarked on the 23rd of September, and landed at the Mauritius on the 14th of November, 1815. The light company of the TWENTY-SECOND regiment, while on passage to Bengal, was wrecked in the Straits between Ceylon and the opposite continent. The conduct of the flank companies, while in India, was highly commended in general orders issued before they embarked from Fort William,—on their return to the Mauritius.

While the flank companies were thus employed, the remainder of the TWENTY-SECOND regiment was placed under canvas at Pamplemousse, seven miles from Port Louis, as it was suffering severely from a prevailing disease at the Mauritius. There being but a small force left on the island, and this reduced in numbers and efficiency by disease, a meditated insurrection had nearly attained an outbreak, but for timely information.


The regiment occupied various stations at the Mauritius, under the command of Colonel Dalrymple, until July, 1819, when it embarked for England. Previous to quitting[25] the island it was inspected by Major-General Ralph Darling, who expressed, in general orders, his admiration of its appearance, and of its excellent conduct while serving under his command.

Though the TWENTY-SECOND had participated in the capture of the Mauritius, the French inhabitants of the island presented a large and handsome gold snuff-box to the regiment on its embarkation for England, bearing this inscription, "Aux Officiers du 22 Régiment de S. M.—Souvenir des Habitans de l'île Maurice; 1819;" thus testifying their good feeling, and appreciation of the orderly and soldierlike conduct of the corps during its service of nine years in the colony.

After landing at Gosport, in November and December, the regiment marched to Northampton, under the orders of Colonel Sir Hugh Gough, K.C.B.


In the Autumn of 1821 the regiment marched to Liverpool, where it embarked on the 9th of October, for Ireland. Having landed at Dublin on the 10th of October, the regiment marched to Buttevant, with detachments at Mallow, Bantyre, Charleville, Newmarket, and Ballyclough.

Some changes of quarters afterwards took place in consequence of the riotous and violent proceedings of the misguided peasantry at this part of the country, and the disposition evinced to violate the law.


On the evening of the 25th of January, 1822, three thousand men assembled with such arms as they could procure, for an attack on Newmarket; and they were repulsed, with severe loss, by thirty men of the regiment, under Captain Thomas Keappock and Lieutenant Samuel Green, who received the expression of the approbation of His Royal Highness the Duke of York, the Commander-in-Chief, and were presented with a silver cup, by the[26] noblemen, gentlemen, and inhabitants of the town and vicinity of Newmarket,—"In testimony of the high sense entertained of their gallant conduct in attacking and defeating an armed body of three thousand insurgents, with thirty men."

A reinforcement was sent to Newmarket, and the regiment performed many marches, and much extra duty, in consequence of the disturbed state of the country.


The head-quarters of the regiment were stationed at Buttevant during the year 1823, and the first nine months of 1824; and the state of the regiment was repeatedly commended in orders by the General Officers who made the half-yearly inspections.


In October, 1824, the regiment marched to Dublin; it was subsequently stationed in Galway, and in the summer of 1826 it was divided into six service and four depôt companies, in order that the former might proceed on foreign service.

The service companies embarked from Cork in November and December, in three divisions, commanded by Lieut.-Colonel P. C. Taylor, Major James Steuart, and Captain Thomas Poole, and the last division arrived at the island of Jamaica in February, 1827.


The service companies suffered severely from the effects of the climate of Jamaica; in September and October, 1827, they lost three officers, seventeen serjeants, and one hundred and twenty men, from fever; the total loss during the first year was Lieut.-Colonel P. C. Taylor, Major James Steuart, Captain William Norton, Lieutenant Edward Gordon, Ensign E. T. Evans, Paymaster R. Barlow, Adjutant William Potenger, and one hundred and seventy-two non-commissioned officers and soldiers.


In the following year the losses were much less numerous; and in April, 1829, Lieut.-Colonel C. G. Falconar[27] arrived and assumed the command. In June of the same year, the regiment received the thanks of the civil authorities for the prompt assistance rendered in extinguishing an alarming fire in the vicinity of Spanish Town.


On the 7th of June, 1830, the depôt companies embarked from Cork for South Britain, where they were stationed until the summer of 1836, when they embarked from Liverpool for Ireland, and landed at Dublin.


The regiment was employed in suppressing a formidable insurrection among the slaves in Jamaica in the winter of 1831-2; the two flank companies were encamped on the scene of the insurrection in the following winter, and when the regiment left Falmouth, in Jamaica, in the latter part of the year 1833, the thanks of the custos and magistrates were awarded to the corps for its good conduct.[8]


The service companies performed duty at the island of Jamaica until the beginning of 1837, when they commenced embarking for Europe, and landed at Cork in March and April; they were afterwards joined by the depôt companies.


The regiment remained in Ireland during the years 1838 and 1839; and embarking from Dublin on the 19th of December, 1840, landed at Liverpool on the 21st of that month.


The TWENTY-SECOND regiment, having been selected[28] to proceed to India, embarked from Gravesend in January, 1841, and landed at Bombay in May following. It afterwards proceeded to Poonah, where an encampment was formed, and the regiment was stationed there during the remainder of the year.


In the following year the regiment quitted the camp at Poonah by divisions, and proceeding to the country of Scinde, was encamped some time near Kurrachee. The regiment was encamped in two separate divisions at Kurrachee, as cholera had broken out violently in its ranks, from which it suffered severely, and during its prevalence a field-officer's detachment, under Major Poole, consisting of two companies, was ordered to proceed by the Indus, in the month of April, 1842, to Sukkur, in Upper Scinde, previously to the withdrawal of the British force from Beloochistan.

The navigation of the Indus had been acquired by the British in 1839, and application was made to the Ameers, who governed the country, for a portion of land on the banks of the river. This they agreed to give; but at the same time meditated the destruction of the British power in the country by treachery. The TWENTY-SECOND quitted the camp at Kurrachee in November, and proceeded up the country.


The regiment formed part of the force assembled under Major-General Sir Charles Napier, and was employed in the destruction of the fort of Emaum Ghur, in the desert, on the 14th and 15th of January, 1843.

Major-General W. F. P. Napier, in his work entitled "The Conquest of Scinde," has given, with his characteristic eloquence, the following spirited description of the march to Emaum Ghur, a march which His Grace the Duke of Wellington described in the House of Lords, "as one of the most curious military feats he had ever known to[29] be performed, or had ever perused an account of in his life. Sir Charles Napier (added His Grace) moved his troops through the desert against hostile forces; he had his guns transported under circumstances of extreme difficulty, and in a manner the most extraordinary; and he cut off a retreat of the enemy which rendered it impossible for them ever to regain their positions."

"It was a wild and singular country, the wilderness through which they (the Anglo-Indian troops) were passing. The sand-hills stretched north and south for hundreds of miles in parallel ridges, rounded at top, and most symmetrically plaited, like the ripple on the sea-shore after a placid tide. Varying in their heights, their breadth and steepness, they presented one uniform surface, but while some were only a mile broad, others were more than ten miles across; some were of gentle slopes and low, others lofty, and so steep that the howitzers could only be dragged up by men. The sand was mingled with shells, and ran in great streams resembling numerous rivers, skirted on each side by parallel streaks of soil, which nourished jungle, yet thinly and scattered. The tracks of the hyena and wild boar, and the prints of small deer's footsteps, were sometimes seen at first, but they soon disappeared, and then the solitude of the waste was unbroken.

"For eight days these intrepid soldiers traversed this gloomy region, living from hand to mouth, uncertain each morning if water could be found in the evening; and many times it was not found. They were not even sure of their right course; yet with fiery valour and untiring strength, they continued their dreary dangerous way. The camels found very little food, and got weak, but the stout infantry helped to drag the heavy howitzers up the sandy steeps; and all the troops, despising[30] the danger of an attack from the Beloochees, worked with a power and will that overcame every obstacle. On the eighth day they reached Emaum Ghur, eager to strike and storm, and then was seen how truly laid down is Napoleon's great maxim, that moral force is in war to physical force, as four to one. Mahomed Khan, with a strong fortress well provided, and having a garrison six times as numerous as the band coming to assail him, had fled with his treasure two days before; taking a southerly direction, he regained the Indus by tracks with which his people were well acquainted, leaving all his stores of grain and powder behind."

As Emaum Ghur could only serve as a stronghold in which the Beloochees might be able to resist British supremacy, Major-General Sir Charles Napier determined upon destroying the fortress. It was a place of great strength, and was constructed of unburnt bricks, into which the shot easily penetrates, but brings nothing down, so that recourse was had to mining. The place was full of gunpowder and grain, and the former was employed in blowing up the fortress, which was effected on the 15th of January.

After this difficult and harassing service, the troops returned triumphant on the 23rd of January, to Peer-Abu-Bekr, where Major-General Sir Charles Napier reunited his whole army. It is to be observed that the march was performed without the loss of a man, or without even a sick soldier, and the Ameers' troops were dispersed, and their plan of campaign frustrated.

A treaty of peace was signed by the Ameers on the 14th of February: directions were sent to the British political resident, Major Outram, by the Ameers, to quit Hyderabad, the capital, and before this was complied with, eight thousand Beloochees, commanded by several[31] Ameers in person, attempted to force an entrance into the enclosure of the British residency. The light company of the TWENTY-SECOND regiment, mustering one hundred men, under Captain T. S. Conway, Lieutenant F. P. Harding, and Ensign R. Pennefather, was the only force at the residency, the enclosure of which was surrounded by a wall from four to five feet high. The gallant officers and soldiers of this company kept the eight thousand Scindian troops, with six pieces of artillery, at bay nearly four hours; and when their ammunition was nearly expended, they retreated to the river, with Major Outram, and embarking on board of two steam-vessels, joined the troops under Major-General Sir Charles Napier, at Hala. The light company had two men killed and four wounded on this occasion.

The Ameers having thus commenced hostilities, assembled a numerous force to destroy the few British troops in the country. Major-General Sir Charles Napier, trusting to the valour of the troops under his orders, advanced to meet the enemy. On the 17th of February, twenty-two thousand Scindian troops were discovered in position behind the bank of a river at Meeanee. The British, mustering two thousand eight hundred men, advanced in echelon of regiments to attack their numerous opponents, and the TWENTY-SECOND, commanded by Lieut.-Colonel J. L. Pennefather, had the honor to lead the attack. A numerous body of Beloochees discharged their matchlocks and pistols at the TWENTY-SECOND, and then rushed forward sword in hand to close upon the British line; but these bold and skilful swordsmen went down under the superior power of the musket and bayonet.

After a severe contest the Scindian army was defeated, and, on the day following the victory, six of the Ameers delivered their swords to the British General upon the[32] field of battle. The Beloochees lost five thousand men, and all their guns, ammunition, and treasure were taken, together with their camp and standards. On the 20th of February, the British colours waved in triumph over the fortress of Hyderabad.

In Major-General Napier's admirable work on "The Conquest of Scinde," is given the following spirited and picturesque description of the battle of Meeanee:—

"The Ameers' right was found to be strengthened and covered by the village of Kattree, which was filled with men; that flank offered no weak point. But in the Shikargah on their left the General instantly detected a flaw. It has been before said this Shikargah was covered by a wall, having only one opening, not very wide, through which it was evident the Beloochees meant to pour out on the flank and rear of the advancing British line. The General rode near this wall, and found it was nine or ten feet high; he rode nearer, and marked it had no loop-holes for the enemy to shoot through; he rode into the opening under a play of matchlocks, and, looking behind the wall, saw there was no scaffolding to enable the Beloochees to fire over the top. Then the inspiration of genius came to the aid of heroism. Taking a company of the TWENTY-SECOND, he thrust them at once into the opening, telling their brave Captain, Tew, that he was to block up that entrance; to die there, if it must be,—never to give way! And well did the gallant fellow obey his orders: he died there, but the opening was defended. The great disparity of numbers was thus abated, and the action of six thousand men paralysed by the more skilful action of only eighty! It was, on a smaller scale as to numbers, a stroke of generalship like that which won Blenheim for the Duke of Marlborough.



Madeley lith. 3 Wellington St. Strand.


"Now the advancing troops, in echelon of regiments, approached the enemy's front. The British right passed securely under the wall of the Shikargah, cheered and elated as they moved by the rattling sound of Tew's musketry. * * * * Meanwhile the dead level of the plain was swept by the Beloochee cannon and matchlocks, which were answered from time to time by Lloyd's batteries, yet not frequently, for rapidly and eagerly did the troops press forward to close with their unseen foes. When the TWENTY-SECOND had got within a hundred yards of the high sloping bank of the Fulaillee, they threw their fire at the top of the bank, where the heads of the Beloochees could be just seen, bending with fiery glances over the levelled matchlocks, and the voice of the General, shrill and clear, was heard along the line, commanding the charge.

"Then rose the British shout; the English guns were run forward into position, the infantry closed upon the Fulaillee with a run, and rushed up the sloping bank. The Beloochees, having their matchlocks laid ready in rest along the summit, waited until the assailants were within fifteen yards ere their volley was delivered; the rapid pace of the British, and the steepness of the slope on the inside, deceived their aim, and the execution was not great; the next moment the TWENTY-SECOND were on the top of the bank, thinking to bear down all before them, but they staggered back in amazement at the forest of swords waving in their front! Thick as standing corn, and gorgeous as a field of flowers, stood the Beloochees in their many-coloured garments and turbans; they filled the broad deep bed of the Fulaillee, they clustered on both banks, and covered the plain beyond. Guarding their heads with their[34] large dark shields, they shook their sharp swords, beaming in the sun, their shouts rolled like a peal of thunder, as with frantic gestures they rushed forwards, and full against the front of the TWENTY-SECOND dashed with demoniac strength and ferocity. But with shouts as loud, and shrieks as wild and fierce as theirs, and hearts as big, and arms as strong, the Irish soldiers met them with that queen of weapons the musket, and sent their foremost masses rolling back in blood."

The following extracts from the despatch of Major-General Sir Charles Napier testify the part borne by the TWENTY-SECOND in the victory of Meeanee:—

"Lieutenant-Colonel Pennefather was severely wounded as with the high courage of a soldier he led his regiment (TWENTY-SECOND) up the desperate bank of the Fulaillee. Major Wyllie, Captains Tucker and Conway, Lieutenants Harding and Phayre, were all wounded, while gloriously animating their men to sustain the shock of numbers."

"Captains Meade, Tew, and Cookson, with Lieutenant Wood, all fell honorably, urging on the assault with unmitigated valour.

"Major Poole, of the TWENTY-SECOND, and Captain Jackson of the Twenty-fifth native infantry, who succeeded to the command of those regiments, proved themselves worthy of their dangerous posts.

"The Acting Assistant Quartermaster-General, Lieutenant McMurdo, of the TWENTY-SECOND regiment, had his horse killed, and, while on foot leading some soldiers in a desperate dash down the enemy's side of the bank, he cut down a Chieftain. He has greatly assisted me by his activity and zeal during the whole of our operations.

"Innumerable are the individual acts of intrepidity[35] which took place between our soldiers and their opponents, too numerous for detail in this despatch, yet well meriting a record."

In the NOTIFICATION of the Right Honorable Lord Ellenborough, the Governor-General of India, it was directed,

"That the unserviceable guns, taken at Hyderabad, shall be sent to Bombay, and there cast into a triumphal column, whereon shall be inscribed in the English, and two native languages, the names of Major-General Sir Charles Napier, K.C.B., and of the several officers mentioned by His Excellency in his despatch, and likewise the names of the several officers, non-commissioned officers, and privates mentioned in the reports, that thus the names may be for ever recorded of those who, at Meeanee, obtained for themselves that glory in the field, which is the reward dearest to a true soldier."

Major Poole, commanding the TWENTY-SECOND regiment, in consequence of Lieutenant-Colonel Pennefather having been severely wounded, stated in his report, respecting the soldiers of the regiment under his command, who had distinguished themselves in the battle of Meeanee, "that the officers generally assert that they feel difficulty in making selections, where the conduct of every man of their companies was so satisfactory. In so general a field of action and persevering exertion, I equally feel at a loss where to draw a distinction; but it may be proper to mention the names of Private James O'Neill, of the light company, who took a standard whilst we were actively engaged with the enemy, and drummer Martin Delaney, who shot, bayoneted, and captured the arms of Meer Whullee Mahomed Khan, who was mounted, and directing the enemy in the hottest part of the engagement."


The loss of the TWENTY-SECOND regiment at the battle of Meeanee was, Captain J. McLeod Tew,[9] one serjeant, and twenty-two rank and file killed; Lieut.-Colonel J. L. Pennefather, Captain T. S. Conway, Lieutenants W. M. G. McMurdo and F. P. Harding, Ensigns R. Pennefather and H. Bowden, one serjeant, one corporal, and fifty privates wounded.

The whole of the Ameers did not submit, and the Chiefs who continued to resist assembled an army, which was commanded by Meer Shere Mahomed. The British advanced from Hyderabad at daybreak on the morning of the 24th of March, and about half-past eight o'clock twenty thousand Scindian troops were discovered in order of battle behind a nullah. Arrangements were immediately made for commencing the action, and the TWENTY-SECOND regiment led the attack in gallant style. Major John Poole commanded the brigade, and Captain F. D. George the regiment, and, stimulated by the heroic example of these officers, the TWENTY-SECOND advanced steadily against the enemy's left, exposed to a heavy fire of matchlocks, without returning a shot, until they arrived within forty paces of the entrenchment, when they stormed the position occupied by the Beloochees with that determined bravery which has ever distinguished British soldiers. Lieutenant Henry J. Coote first mounted the rampart, seized one of the enemy's standards, and was severely wounded while in the act of waving it, and cheering on his men; Lieutenant C. T. Powell seized another standard; and the soldiers, being encouraged by the gallant[37] example of their officers, displayed that heroism which adorns the British military character. Privates J. Doherty, C. Lynar, E. Jobin, J. McCartin, J. Walmsley, G. Roberts, E. Watson and J. Oakley, shot the defenders, and then captured fourteen standards, and made five prisoners. Privates S. Cowen, S. Alder, and G. Banbury also captured standards; and Corporal Tim. Kelly shot one of the Scindians, and took from him a silver-knobbed standard. The Beloochee infantry and artillery fought well, but were unable, although greatly superior in numbers, to resist the determined attack of disciplined soldiers.

Major-General Sir Charles Napier stated in his public despatch, "The battle was decided by the troop of Horse Artillery, and Her Majesty's TWENTY-SECOND regiment.

"Of Lieutenant McMurdo's abilities as Acting Assistant Quartermaster-General, I cannot speak too highly; and regret to say, he has received a sabre wound from a Beloochee, the third that he cut down in single combat during the day.

"To the commanders of brigades and regiments, and the officers, non-commissioned officers, and privates under their command, I have to return my thanks for their valiant bearing in the action."

The loss of the enemy was very great, and eleven pieces of cannon were taken in position on the nullah, together with seventeen standards. The Beloochee force was completely defeated, and their commander, Meer Shere Mahomed, fled to the desert.[10] Among the killed was[38] the great promoter of the war, Hoche Mahomed Seedee. Twenty-three rank and file of the regiment were killed on this occasion; Lieutenants Thomas Chute, Henry J. Coote, H. A. G. Evans, and John Brennan, Ensign Richard Pennefather, six serjeants, one drummer, four corporals, and one hundred and twenty-three privates wounded. At the battle of Hyderabad, the regiment mustered only five hundred and sixty-two rank and file; the remainder being sick and convalescent, having been left at Sukkur in Upper Scinde.

As a mark of Royal approbation for these victories, Her Majesty, on the 4th of July, 1843, was pleased to appoint Major-General Sir Charles James Napier a Knight Grand Cross of the Most Honorable Military Order of the Bath; Lieutenant-Colonel Pennefather,[11] Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel[39] Poole, Brevet Majors Frederick George, and Thomas Conway, were also nominated Companions of the Bath, and their brevet rank was dated from the above period.

Her Majesty was also graciously pleased to command that a medal should be conferred upon the Officers, Non-commissioned Officers, and Soldiers engaged in the battles of Meeanee and Hyderabad.

On the 18th of August, 1843, the TWENTY-SECOND received the Royal authority to bear upon the regimental or second colour, and on the appointments, the word "Scinde," in commemoration of its distinguished gallantry in the campaign against the Ameers of that country, during the early part of the year 1843.

Her Majesty, on the 2nd of July, 1844, conferred increased honor on the TWENTY-SECOND, by authorising the corps to bear on the regimental colour and appointments, in addition to the word "Scinde," the words "Meeanee" and "Hyderabad," in commemoration of the distinguished gallantry displayed in the general engagements fought at those places respectively, on the 17th of February, and 24th of March, 1843.

On the 12th of February, 1844, the thanks of Parliament were voted to Major-General Sir Charles Napier, G.C.B., and to the troops under his command, "for the eminent skill, energy, and gallantry, displayed by him in the recent military operations in Scinde, particularly in[40] the two decisive battles of Meeanee and Hyderabad;" to the several officers serving under Sir Charles Napier, "for their unwearied zeal and conspicuous gallantry;" and to the troops, "for their brave and meritorious conduct."

Major-General Sir Charles Napier, on presenting the regiments at Kurrachee with the Medals conferred on them for their gallantry in this campaign, addressed the soldiers as follows:—

"Soldiers! the Battle of Meeanee is among those of which history will speak as proving the superiority of discipline over numbers; and it is well, Soldiers! that we should dwell upon these things; that we may understand how Medals are won, and why they are bestowed.

"Had we been without discipline, valour alone would not have won the victories of Meeanee and Hyderabad! Valour is like the Strength of a man, Discipline is like his Mind, that directs his strength to effective exertion. If two pugilists have a boxing-match, and one strikes at random, while the other boxes with science, planting every blow home, we know how the fight must be soon decided. So it is with two armies,—the one disciplined, the other without discipline. The General of the disciplined Army directs his columns upon that part of the enemy's position which he deems to be the weakest; as the mind of the boxer directs his blow against the opening offered by his unskilful enemy. But this is not all,—obedience to orders (which is discipline) enables us to bring up all the necessary provisions of war to the day and to the hour; thus food and ammunition are at hand to support the blow of battle, just as the shoulder and the body are thrown forward to support and give vigour to the blow of the pugilist. But not only is valour useless without discipline, but it is even dangerous; for without discipline the rashly brave would run[41] heedlessly against the enemy, the cautious would seek 'vantage ground, and the timid would retreat. Thus the Army would be scattered: but when an Army is disciplined, the ponderous charges of Cavalry, the steady tramp of the advancing Infantry, preparing to charge with a mighty shout, and the rolling thunder of Artillery pouring forth its iron shower, all combine simultaneously to strike and overthrow the enemy. Thus, Soldiers, are Medals won, more by discipline than by any extraordinary efforts of individual courage. To reward this obedience medals are bestowed, so that every man who wears this honoured badge is known to the world as one who, in the midst of the noise, the danger, and confusion of battle, had obeyed orders, and performed the three great duties of a Soldier—first, not to fire without orders; next, when he does fire, to level low, so as to make sure of striking down an enemy; thirdly, to keep his rank and dress upon his colours. The Medal tells the world that he has bravely done these things, and no man can walk with one of these Medals on his breast without feeling the conscious pride of an intrepid Soldier! His caste may be high caste, or it may be low caste, but the Soldier, who bears on his breast a medal won in battle, is above all the castes in the world. The pleasure of giving you these Medals, Soldiers of the 12th Regiment (Native Infantry), is indeed great to me. I saw your valiant conduct, and I rejoice in distributing the reward which you honorably earned, and my satisfaction is increased by the presence of so large a body of Europeans, for it affords me an opportunity of saying to my countrymen that they will find these swarthy warriors of the East staunch and true in action as they were at Meeanee and Hyderabad, when they followed the example set them by the glorious TWENTY-SECOND[42] regiment. They will fight to the last drop of their blood, and stand or fall by the side of their European comrades. If the Almighty so wills it, that in these eventful times, War should again arise, and that I am once more permitted to lead an Army into the field, I should go into action with perfect confidence in the courage of the Native Troops. I speak of what I know of their gallantry, not from what I hear, but from what I have seen, and from my own knowledge, of their daring courage.

"Here I must address myself in a more direct manner to the Officers now before me, and in justice to them say, that their conduct, and the conduct of all the British Officers in these two battles, was very noble. For several hours the two lines were fighting close to each other, and as I cast my eye along the field, I everywhere saw the British Officers display their worthiness as Military leaders, and with unflinching intrepidity animating their Soldiers to battle! To them, therefore, I will now first distribute these honorable decorations."

The Governor then dismounted, and advancing to the line of officers of several regiments, and who had not before received their medals, his Excellency presented each with the Medal,—the bands playing "God save the Queen."

On giving that which belonged to Lieutenant Marston, of the 25th N. I., the General observed,—"But for you, Marston, I probably should not have had this pleasure;" alluding to this Officer having intrepidly thrown himself in front of his General when attacked by a Beloochee Chief, whom the Lieutenant cut down ere he could reach the General.

On the 18th of April the regiment left Hyderabad, and proceeded to Kurrachee, where the right wing and head-quarters embarked on the 27th of April, and sailed to[43] Bombay. Previously to the embarkation of the regiment for Bombay, the following order was issued by Major-General Sir Charles Napier, Governor of Scinde:—

"27th April, 1843.


    "You well know why I send you to Bombay, and you also know how much I dislike doing so. But nothing shall stand in the way of your health and well-being, that I have the power to remove. Cut up by Disease and by Battle, you require rest, that you may again join us, and add to the Laurels with which you are already decorated.

"C. J. Napier, Major-General,

The reception of the regiment at Bombay, on the 2nd of May, was distinguished by high marks of honor, by command of the Governor, on which occasion the accompanying order was issued:—

"Bombay, Monday, 1st May, 1843.

"Garrison Orders.

    "By the Honorable the Governor.—The Head-Quarters of Her Majesty's TWENTY-SECOND Regiment of Foot having arrived from Scinde, will be disembarked to-morrow morning at sunrise.

"On this occasion the Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Garrison, desirous of paying every mark of honor to this distinguished Corps, will himself receive it at the Apollo Pier.

"On the landing of the first Division, a Royal Salute is to be fired from the Saluting Battery.

"The Troops composing the Garrison will be drawn up in Review Order, in a convenient position, and will salute Her Majesty's TWENTY-SECOND regiment, as it passes on its way to Fort George Barracks.


"His Excellency directs the attendance of all Military Officers at the Presidency who may not be sick, or engaged on other duty.

"The Commandant of the Garrison is requested to carry out the above order.

"Bruce Seton, Major,
Town Major."

The General Staff of the Garrison testified their admiration of the gallant conduct of the regiment, by giving a public banquet to the Officers of the corps; and the inhabitants of Bombay, including the Civil Authorities, raised a handsome subscription, to be applied to the benefit of the sufferers in the regiment, widows and orphans, by the Campaign in Scinde.

The left wing landed at Panwell on the 16th of May, and proceeded from thence to Poonah, where it arrived on the 23rd of May. The right wing and head-quarters arrived at Poonah, from Bombay, on the 1st of June.

General the Honorable Edward Finch died on the 27th of October, 1843, and the colonelcy of the regiment was conferred on Major-General Sir Charles James Napier, K.C.B.


On the 17th and 18th of October, 1844, the regiment marched from Poonah in wings to Bowree, and on the 19th the whole moved together for Field Service in the Kolapore districts, where the regiment lost two officers, and thirty non-commissioned officers and privates, by cholera.

A portion of the regiment was employed in taking the north pettah under the walls of the fort of Punalla, on the 27th of November; on the 28th, 29th, and 30th of November the regiment, under the command of Brevet Lieut.-Colonel John Poole, was employed in the investment of Punalla and Pownghur, and on the 1st of December was at the capture of those forts, the latter of which was[45] taken by the regiment. During these operations the TWENTY-SECOND formed part of the third brigade of the force employed under Major-General Delamotte.

On the 26th of December a wing of the regiment marched, and joined the first brigade on service in the Sawunt-Warree district; the other wing remained near Kolapore.

On the 31st of December, 1844, a wing of the regiment arrived at Susseedroog from Kolapore, and joined the first brigade of the Field Force in the Sawunt-Warree country, and was employed in investing the forts of Monuhurr and Monsentosh, and participated in all the operations for driving the enemy out of their stockades in the densely wooded country between Susseedroog and the Forts.


The regiment had several skirmishes with the enemy; on the 17th of January, 1845, part of the wing descended the Elephant rock with other troops, and took the village of Seevapore, in the Concan, close under Fort Monuhurr, where one man was killed and seven wounded. The whole of the soldiers were employed, part in the Deccan or heights above, and part in the Concan close under the forts, investing them from the 17th to the 26th of January, during which period the forts were constantly shelled by the British artillery, the enemy from the forts firing their great guns and musketry.

On the night of the 26th of January the enemy vacated the forts unperceived, and escaped through a dense jungle, leaving the forts in the possession of the Anglo-Indian army.

The wing joined the regiment at Kolapore on the 6th of February, escorting prisoners taken during the insurrection. The regiment was employed in doing duty over about six hundred prisoners until its recall to Poonah, for which place it marched on the 16th of April, and arrived on the 2nd of May, 1845.


A wing of the regiment, consisting of four hundred rank and file, under the command of Captain Souter, marched from Poonah for Bombay on the 25th of December, 1845.


The head-quarters of the regiment, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Samuel Brandram Boileau, consisting of five companies, marched from Poonah to Bombay on the 15th of August, 1846, and joined the wing of the TWENTY-SECOND at that station. The march was performed in the middle of the monsoon, in eight days, rain consequently falling nearly the whole of the way.

The regiment remained together at Bombay, having six companies at Colaba, and three at Fort George, until the 14th of November, 1846, when the head-quarters, with five of the companies which were stationed at Colaba, were ordered to Poonah, in consequence of fever of a malarious nature having attacked the men, nearly every soldier at Colaba having been admitted into hospital in less than two months; the casualties were very numerous.


The left wing, consisting of four companies, marched from Bombay on the 12th of January, 1847, and arrived at Poonah on the 21st of January. During the year 1848 the regiment continued to be stationed at Poonah.


On the 25th of January, 1849, the regiment proceeded to Bombay, and was subsequently stationed at Colaba. The left wing, consisting of four companies, embarked for Kurrachee on the 24th of January.

In June, 1849, the period to which the Record has been extended, the regiment remained at Colaba, and consisted of fifty-three serjeants, nineteen drummers, and 1042 rank and file, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Sydney John Cotton, Lieutenant-Colonel Boileau being in command of the Poonah brigade.




For Cannon's Military Records.

Madeley lith. 3 Wellington St. Strand.


Description of the Beloochee Standard captured at the Battle of Meeanee, on the 17th of February, 1843.

The Beloochee Standard, represented in the engraving, was taken at the Battle of Meeanee, on the 17th of February, 1843, by Private James O'Neill of the TWENTY-SECOND regiment, as narrated at page 35 of the Historical Record. The Standard is triangular; the longest side is about seven feet in length, and the other sides measure each about five feet. The Staff is nine feet in length.

The Standards captured at the Battle of Hyderabad, on the 24th of March, 1843, were of a similar rude description, and do not afford a just idea of the Army which they may be supposed to have led on. No person, on viewing these Trophies, would suppose the Beloochee Army, to which they belonged, to have been composed of men so gallant and so formidable; so well armed, and so expert in the use of their arms, as the Scindian troops proved themselves in these battles.

Description of the Silver Medal struck in commemoration of the Victories of Meeanee and Hyderabad, and conferred on the Officers and Men engaged in those Battles.

On the obverse; the bust of Her Majesty, with the inscription "Victoria Regina."

On the reverse; the words "Meeanee," "Hyderabad," "1843," enclosed within branches of Laurel, and surmounted by the Imperial Crown.


[6] Cape Breton had been captured by the British in 1745, but was restored to the French at the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748. It was retaken in 1758 (as above narrated), and was finally ceded to Great Britain by the treaty of Fontainebleau, in 1763.

[7] The grenadier company of the TWENTY-SECOND regiment, which had been incorporated with the "Louisburg Grenadiers," formed part of the armament, and was engaged in the battle on the heights of Abraham on the 13th of September, 1759.

[8] When the Marquis of Normanby (then Earl of Mulgrave) presented the regiment with New Colours at Jamaica, he remarked, in reference to the conduct of the regiment,—"I had myself the means of knowing upon the many times I have been at Falmouth, whilst your head-quarters were there, that the regiment was universally popular, and their departure generally regretted. During the few pleasant days I passed at Shuttlewood, in the camp of which the flank companies of the TWENTY-SECOND regiment formed a part, I remember upon remarking to the Major-General there commanding, the perfect good conduct of all there, he said, 'Yes, I never knew better men.'"

[9] Lieutenant Thomas Chute succeeded to the vacancy caused by the death of Captain Tew; Ensign Richard Pennefather was promoted Lieutenant; and Serjeant-Major Thomas Stack was appointed ensign in the TWENTY-SECOND regiment, the commissions being dated 18th February, 1843, the day following the battle of Meeanee.

[10] The following interesting circumstance is recorded by Major-General Napier, in his history of the conquest of Scinde, respecting the march into the desert in pursuit of Meer Shere Mahomed:—

"On one of those long marches, which were almost continual, the Twenty-fifth Sepoys, being nearly maddened by thirst and heat, saw one of their water-carriers approaching with full skins of water; they rushed towards him in crowds, tearing away the skins and struggling together, with loud cries of Water! Water! At that moment, some half-dozen straggling soldiers of the TWENTY-SECOND came up, apparently exhausted, and asked for some. At once the generous Indians withheld their hands from the skins, forgot their own sufferings, and gave the fainting Europeans to drink; then they all moved on, the Sepoys carrying the TWENTY-SECOND men's muskets for them, patting them on the shoulders, and encouraging them to hold out. It was in vain; they did so for a short time, but soon fell. It was then discovered that these noble fellows were all wounded, some deeply, but thinking there was to be another fight, they had concealed their hurts, and forced nature to sustain the loss of blood, the pain of wounds, the burning sun, the long marches, and the sandy desert, that their last moments might be given to their country on another field of battle!"

Names of men of the TWENTY-SECOND regiment who concealed their wounds, received in the Battle of Hyderabad, and marched with their regiment the next day, thinking another battle was at hand.

Serjeant Haney, John Durr, John Muldowney, Robert Young, Henry Lines, Patrick Gill, James Andrews, Thomas Middleton, James Mulvey, and Silvester Day.

[11] Lieutenant-Colonel Pennefather was appointed Aide-de-Camp to the Queen, with the rank of Colonel, in 1846, the honor having been deferred until this period in consequence of his short standing as a Lieutenant-Colonel in 1843, the year in which the victories of Meeanee and Hyderabad were gained.

Colonel Pennefather exchanged to the Twenty-eighth Regiment, with Lieut.-Colonel S. J. Cotton, on the 2nd December, 1847, and becoming supernumerary on the arrival of the Twenty-eighth regiment from India in 1848, was placed on half-pay. In August, 1848, Colonel Pennefather was appointed to serve on the Staff of the army in Ireland.







Henry, Duke of Norfolk, K.G.

Appointed 16th March, 1689.

Lord Henry Howard, son of Henry, Earl of Norwich, afterwards Duke of Norfolk, was summoned to parliament in 1678, by the title of Lord Mowbray: and on the death of Prince Rupert, in 1682, his lordship was nominated governor and constable of Windsor Castle, and warden of the forest of Windsor; also lord lieutenant of Berkshire and Surrey. On the decease of his father, in 1684, he succeeded to the dignity of Duke of Norfolk, and of Earl Marshal of England; and in May, 1685, he was elected a Knight of the most noble order of the Garter. On the breaking out of the rebellion of the Duke of Monmouth, the Duke of Norfolk took great interest in raising a regiment of foot for the service of King James II., now the twelfth regiment of foot, of which he was appointed colonel. His Grace did not approve of the measures of the court, and evinced a strong attachment to the protestant religion. One day (says Bishop Burnet) the King gave the Duke of Norfolk the sword of state to carry with him to the Popish chapel, which he carried as far as the door and then stopped, not being willing to enter the chapel. The King said, "My Lord, your father would have[49] gone farther;" to which the Duke answered,—"Your Majesty's father was the better man, and he would not have gone so far." His Grace resigned his regiment, and joined in the invitation to the Prince of Orange. When the Prince landed, the Duke of Norfolk was in London, and was one of the Peers who petitioned the King for a free parliament. He afterwards proceeded to his seat in Norfolk, declared for the Prince of Orange, and brought that and some of the neighbouring counties into the Prince's interest. On the elevation of the Prince of Orange to the throne, his Graced was sworn a member of the privy council; and afterwards used his interest and influence in raising a corps of infantry, now the TWENTY-SECOND REGIMENT, of which he was appointed colonel in March, 1689; but he resigned his commission in the same year. He died on the 2nd of April 1701.

Sir Henry Bellasis, Kt.

Appointed 28th September, 1689.

Sir Henry Bellasis was educated in strict principles of loyalty and attachment to monarchical government, and when a youth he suffered in the royal cause during the usurpation of Cromwell. Soon after the restoration he was nominated captain of an independent company in garrison at Hull, of which fortress the Lord Bellasis (or Belasyse) was appointed governor; but he resigned, in 1673, in consequence of the Test Act, he being a Roman Catholic. In the summer of 1674, Sir Henry Bellasis raised a company of musketeers and pikemen for the service of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, and was engaged at the siege of Grave in the autumn of that year. He also served at the siege of Maestricht in 1676; at the battle of Mont-Cassel in 1677; and in the following spring he succeeded Colonel Ashley in the command of a regiment which is now the sixth foot. At the battle of St. Denis, in 1678, he evinced signal valour and ability, vying in feats of gallantry with his commanders the Prince of Orange and the celebrated Earl of Ossory, and was wounded. During the rebellion of the Duke of Monmouth,[50] in 1685, he accompanied his regiment to England; and in 1687 circumstances occurred which occasioned him to withdraw from the Dutch service; but he preserved his attachment to the Protestant interest and to the Prince of Orange. In 1689 he succeeded the Duke of Norfolk in the colonelcy of the TWENTY-SECOND regiment, with which corps he served in Ireland under the veteran Duke Schomberg. He served as brigadier-general under King William in 1690; was at the battle of the Boyne; and at the siege of Limerick, where he again distinguished himself. In 1691 he acquired new honours at the siege of Athlone; he also displayed bravery and judgment at the battle of Aghrim; and on the reduction of Galway he was appointed governor of that fortress, and took possession of the town on the 26th of July, with his own and two other regiments of foot. The rank of major-general was conferred on this distinguished officer in April, 1692, and he commanded a brigade under King William in Flanders, in the autumn of that year. He acquired additional reputation at the battle of Landen, in 1693; also in the command of a brigade under King William during the following campaign; and in October, 1694, his Majesty rewarded him with the rank of lieut.-general. His meritorious conduct procured him the favour and confidence of his Sovereign, by whom he was employed on important services. He commanded the camp on the Bruges canal, in May, 1695; and a division of the covering army was placed under his orders during the siege of Namur. At the close of the campaign he was appointed president of the general court-martial which tried the officers who surrendered Dixmude and Deinse to the enemy, and sentenced Major-General Ellemberg to be shot. He continued to serve in the Netherlands until the peace of Ryswick. In 1701 he obtained the colonelcy of the Queen Dowager's regiment (now second foot) in exchange with Colonel Selwyn. In 1702 he was second in command of the British troops in the expedition to Cadiz; and having been charged with participating in the plunder of Port St. Mary, he was tried by a court-martial and dismissed the service. His reputation was thus unfortunately tarnished; but his crime does not appear to have been considered of a heinous nature, as he was subsequently elected a member of parliament for the city of Durham; was appointed by Queen Anne, in[51] 1711, one of the commissioners to inquire into several particulars respecting the accounts of the army in Spain; and in June, 1713, he was appointed governor of Berwick. He died on the 14th of December, 1717.

William Selwyn.

Appointed 28th June, 1701.

William Selwyn served in the army of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, in the time of King Charles II., and afterwards held a commission under the British crown. In 1688 he was nominated captain and lieut.-colonel in the second foot guards, with which corps he served in Flanders, and in 1691 King William gave him the colonelcy of the second foot, vacant by the decease of Lieut.-General Kirke. He served at the head of his regiment at the battle of Landen on the 29th of July, 1693, and distinguished himself under the eye of his sovereign; he also served at the siege of Namur, in the summer of 1695, and was promoted to the rank of brigadier-general during the siege. He subsequently commanded a brigade of infantry in the Netherlands, under King William III., who nominated him governor of the island of Jamaica. He exchanged to the TWENTY-SECOND regiment in 1701; and was promoted to the rank of major-general on the 10th June, 1702. He died in June, 1702.

Thomas Handasyd.

Appointed 20th June, 1702.

After a progressive service in the subordinate commissions, Thomas Handasyd was promoted to the lieut.-colonelcy of the TWENTY-SECOND regiment, with which corps he proceeded to the island of Jamaica; and in June, 1702, Queen Anne promoted him to the colonelcy of the regiment. He served in the West Indies; was advanced to the rank of brigadier-general in 1705, and to that of major-general in 1710. In[52] 1712, he resigned the colonelcy of the TWENTY-SECOND regiment in favour of his non.

Roger Handasyd.

Appointed 3rd April, 1712.

This Officer served many years in the TWENTY-SECOND regiment, and was promoted by Queen Anne to the lieut.-colonelcy of that corps, which he commanded some time at the island of Jamaica. He succeeded his father in the colonelcy of the regiment in 1712; was removed to the sixteenth foot in 1730,—promoted to the rank of brigadier-general in 1735,—to that of major-general in 1739,—and to lieut.-general in 1743. He died in 1763.

William Barrell.

Appointed 25th August, 1730.

This officer entered the army in the reign of William III.; he obtained the rank of captain in 1698, and his distinguished conduct in the wars of Queen Anne was rewarded with the brevet rank of colonel on the 1st of January, 1707. In 1715 he was promoted to the colonelcy of the Twenty-eighth foot; in 1727 he was appointed brigadier-general; in 1730 he was removed to the TWENTY-SECOND regiment, and in 1734 to the King's Own. In the following year he was promoted to the rank of major-general; in 1739 to that of lieut.-general; and he was also appointed governor of Pendennis Castle. He died on the 9th of August, 1749.

The Honorable James St. Clair.

Appointed 30th October, 1734.

The Honorable James St. Clair entered the army in the reign of Queen Anne, and served under the celebrated John Duke of Marlborough. He was several years an officer in the third foot guards, in which corps he rose to the[53] commission of major, with the rank of colonel, and in 1734 King George II. nominated him to the colonelcy of the TWENTY-SECOND regiment, from which he was removed, in 1737, to the first, the royal regiment. In 1739 he was promoted to the rank of brigadier-general; in 1741 to that of major-general; and to that of lieut.-general in 1745, at which time he was performing the duty of quartermaster-general in the Netherlands, to the army commanded by His Royal Highness the Duke of Cumberland. In the following year he commanded an expedition which was originally designed for the attack of the French settlements in Canada; but was countermanded, and afterwards proceeded against the French seaport L'Orient and the peninsula of Quiberon; no important results were, however, achieved. He was subsequently employed on an embassy to the courts of Vienna and Turin.[12] On the decease of his brother, in 1750, he became entitled to the dignity of Lord Sinclair, a Scottish peerage; but he preferred a seat in the House of Commons, of which he had been many years a member, and therefore did not assume the title. In 1761 he was promoted to the rank of general. He died at Dysart, in November, 1762.

John Moyle.

Appointed 27th June, 1737.

John Moyle entered the army in the reign of Queen Anne, and served with reputation under the celebrated John Duke of Marlborough; he rose to the lieut.-colonelcy of a newly raised regiment of foot, and in 1708 was promoted to the rank of colonel in the army. At the peace of Utrecht his regiment was disbanded. In 1723 King George I. conferred the colonelcy of the Thirty-sixth regiment on Colonel Moyle, who was promoted to the rank of brigadier-general in 1727, and to that of major-general in 1735; in 1737 he was removed to the TWENTY-SECOND regiment. He died on the 3rd of November, 1738.


Thomas Paget.

Appointed 13th December, 1738.

This officer entered the army in the reign of King William III., and was many years an officer of the eighth horse, now seventh dragoon guards, with which corps he served under the celebrated John Duke of Marlborough. On the 1st of August, 1710, he was promoted to the lieut.-colonelcy of the eighth horse; he was afterwards lieut.-colonel of the first troop of horse grenadier guards; and in July, 1732, was nominated colonel of the Thirty-second regiment, from which he was removed, in 1738, to the TWENTY-SECOND. In 1739 he was promoted to the rank of brigadier-general. He died on the 28th of May, 1741.

Richard O'Farrell.

Appointed 12th August, 1741.

Richard O'Farrell was nominated ensign in a regiment of foot on the 1st of May, 1692; and he served with reputation in the wars of King William III. and of Queen Anne. On the 20th of December, 1722, he was promoted to the lieut.-colonelcy of the ninth foot, and he performed the duties of commanding officer to that corps many years, with credit to himself and advantage to the service. On the decease of Brigadier-General Paget, in 1741, King George II. rewarded the long and faithful services of Lieut.-Colonel O'Farrell with the colonelcy of the TWENTY-SECOND regiment. In 1746 Colonel O'Farrell was promoted to the rank of brigadier-general, and in 1754 to that of major-general. His decease occurred in 1757.

Edward Whitmore.

Appointed 11th July, 1757.

Edward Whitmore entered the army in the reign of King George II., and serving with distinction in the wars of the[55] Austrian succession, was promoted to the lieut.-colonelcy of the Thirty-sixth regiment on the 17th of July, 1747. He performed the duty of commanding officer of the Thirty-sixth regiment with reputation ten years; and in July, 1757, King George II. rewarded him with the colonelcy of the TWENTY-SECOND regiment. He was nominated brigadier-general in America in December, 1757; in 1758 he commanded a brigade under Lieut.-General (afterwards Lord) Amherst, in the descent on Cape Breton, and at the siege and capture of Louisburg, of which fortress he was afterwards nominated governor. On the 19th of February, 1761, he was promoted to the rank of major-general. During the following winter he left Louisburg for Boston; during the voyage the ship was driven, by severe weather, into the harbour of Plymouth, and Major-General Whitmore, being on deck, in the night, fell overboard and was drowned.

The Honorable Thomas Gage.

Appointed 29th March, 1762.

The Honorable Thomas Gage, second son of Thomas, first Viscount Gage, of Castle Island, in Ireland, having served some time in the subordinate commissions, was appointed major of the Forty-fourth foot in February, 1747; and he was further promoted to the lieut.-colonelcy of the regiment on the 2nd of March, 1751. He was serving with his regiment in America, when a dispute occurred between Great Britain and France respecting the territory on the banks of the Ohio, and he commanded the advance-guard of the forces sent against Fort Du Quesne, which the French had built to command the entrance into the country on the Ohio and Mississippi. In the disastrous action on the 9th of July, 1755, Major-General Braddock was killed, and Lieut.-Colonel the Honorable Thomas Gage was wounded. He continued to serve in America, where he raised a provincial regiment, which was numbered the eightieth, light-armed foot, of which he was appointed colonel in May, 1758; he was also appointed brigadier-general in North America, and the efforts of the army effected the conquest of Canada, which has continued to form part of the British dominions from that period. He[56] was promoted to the rank of major-general in 1761, and in the same year he performed the duty of Commander-in-Chief in North America, and also succeeded Sir Jeffrey Amherst as Colonel-in-Chief of the sixtieth regiment, which he held two months, when Lieut.-General Amherst was re-appointed. In March, 1762, he was appointed colonel of the TWENTY-SECOND foot; and in April, 1770, he was promoted to the rank of lieut.-general. When the misunderstanding between Great Britain and her North American colonies began to assume a serious aspect, he was appointed Captain-General and Governor-in-Chief of Massachusetts Bay, and he arrived at Boston in May, 1774. Hostilities commenced in the following year, and his active exertions to suppress the rebellion were rewarded in August, 1775, with the appointment of Commander-in-Chief in North America, which he resigned in a few months afterwards. In April, 1782, he was appointed colonel of the seventeenth light dragoons; he was promoted to the rank of general in November following, and in 1785 he was removed to the eleventh dragoons. He died in 1787.

Charles O'Hara.

Appointed 18th April, 1782.

Charles O'Hara was appointed cornet in the third dragoons in December, 1752, and in 1756 he was promoted to lieutenant and captain in the second foot guards. He served in Portugal in 1762, and performed the duties of quartermaster-general to the army under Lieut.-General the Earl of Loudoun. In 1769 he was promoted to the rank of captain and lieut.-colonel; and he served with his regiment in North America. In the autumn of 1781 he was promoted to the rank of major-general. He commanded the brigade of foot guards under Lieut.-General Earl Cornwallis, in Virginia; distinguished himself at the passage of the Catawba river on the 1st of February, 1781; and was wounded at the battle of Guildford on the 15th of March. In 1782 he was nominated to the colonelcy of the TWENTY-SECOND regiment; was removed to the Seventy-fourth highlanders in 1791, and was advanced to the rank of lieut.-general in 1793. He commanded[57] the British troops at Toulon, and was wounded and taken prisoner in an action with the French republican troops on the 30th of November, 1793. His services were rewarded with the appointment of governor of Gibraltar, and in 1798 he was promoted to the rank of general. It is recorded that he possessed a happy combination of talents; was a brave and enterprising soldier, a strict disciplinarian, and a polite and accomplished gentleman. He died at Gibraltar on the 21st of February, 1802.

David Dundas.

Appointed 2nd April, 1791.

David Dundas was one of the most distinguished officers of the age in which he lived, for his perfect knowledge of the principles of military tactics. He commenced his military education at the age of thirteen in the academy at Woolwich, and at fifteen he assisted in a survey of Scotland; in 1756 he obtained a commission in the Fifty-sixth regiment. In 1758 he proceeded with the expedition to the coast of France as an assistant quartermaster-general; and in the following year obtained the command of a troop in a newly raised regiment of light dragoons (Eliott's light horse), now the fifteenth, or King's hussars. He served with his regiment in Germany in 1760 and 1761; in the following summer he accompanied an expedition to Cuba, as aide-de-camp to Major-General Eliott, and was actively employed in the reduction of the Havannah. After the peace he resumed his post in his regiment, in which he rose to the rank of major; and, urged by an ardent desire to acquire a perfect knowledge of every branch of his profession, he obtained permission to proceed to the Continent, to observe the practice of the French and Austrian armies. In 1775 he obtained the lieut.-colonelcy of the twelfth light dragoons, joined the regiment in Ireland shortly afterwards, and in 1778 received the appointment of quartermaster-general in that country. In 1782 he was removed to the lieut.-colonelcy of the second Irish horse, now the fifth dragoon guards. In 1785 he again proceeded to the Continent, attended the exercises of the Prussian troops during[58] three summers, and after his return he presented His Majesty with a detailed account of their evolutions.

Colonel Dundas, having become a proficient tactician, produced, in 1788, a highly useful work on the principles of military movements, which became the basis of our army regulations for field exercises and movements. His abilities obtained for him the favour and attention of King George III., who appointed him adjutant-general in Ireland, for the purpose of introducing his system of tactics into the army of that country. In 1790 Colonel Dundas was promoted to the rank of major-general. In 1791 he obtained the colonelcy of the TWENTY-SECOND foot, and in the same year was placed on the Irish staff, but he resigned that appointment in 1793 to engage in service of actual warfare. After the commencement of hostilities with the French republic, Major-General Dundas was employed on a military mission to the island of Jersey, and was subsequently sent to the Continent to confer with the Duke of York respecting the siege of Dunkirk. From Flanders he proceeded to Toulon, where he commanded under Lieut.-General O'Hara, and when the lieut.-general was taken prisoner, he succeeded to the command of the garrison. His services there, although he was ultimately obliged to evacuate the place, called forth the approbation of his Sovereign and of the British nation. After abandoning Toulon, he made a descent on Corsica, which island was reduced and annexed to the British dominions; but shortly afterwards he received directions to proceed to Flanders, where he arrived in the spring of 1794, and commanded a brigade of cavalry at the battle of Tournay on the 22nd of May, 1794. Major-General Dundas was actively employed in the retreat through Holland, and the corps under his immediate command gained considerable advantage over the enemy in two successive actions near Gelder-Malsen; he highly distinguished himself also in an attack upon the French post at Thuyl, in December of the same year. He continued with the British troops in Germany during the summer of 1795, and in December was appointed colonel of the seventh light dragoons. After his return to England he was appointed quartermaster-general to the army; and he composed the celebrated regulations for the field exercises and movements for the cavalry, which were approved by his Royal Highness the Duke of[59] York, and by King George III., and ordered to be exclusively adopted throughout the cavalry.

In 1799 Lieut.-General Dundas commanded a division of the allied army under the Duke of York, in the expedition to Holland; he distinguished himself in several actions with the enemy, and was highly commended by His Royal Highness in his public despatches. In 1801 he was appointed colonel of the second, or Royal North British dragoons, and was constituted governor of Fort George. In 1802 he was promoted to the rank of general; and in the following year, when the French were preparing to invade England, he was placed in command of the troops in the southern district, which comprised the counties of Kent and Sussex. In 1804 he was appointed governor of the Royal Hospital at Chelsea, and created a Knight of the Bath. On the 18th of March, 1809, His Majesty was pleased to confer on this distinguished veteran the appointment of Commander-in-Chief of the army, on the resignation of Field-Marshal His Royal Highness the Duke of York, which appointment he held until the 25th of May, 1811, when His Royal Highness was re-appointed. He was also appointed colonel-in-chief of the rifle brigade on the 31st of August, 1809. He was promoted to the colonelcy of the King's dragoon guards on the 27th of January, 1813. He died in 1820, after a distinguished service of upwards of sixty years.

William Crosbie.

Appointed 23rd December, 1795.

After serving in the subordinate commissions, William Crosbie was nominated captain of a company in the Twenty-eighth regiment, on the 9th of May, 1769; and in October, 1778, he was promoted to the majority of the seventh Royal Fusiliers, with which corps he served in the Carolinas; in April, 1781, he obtained the lieut.-colonelcy of the TWENTY-SECOND regiment. While stationed at Windsor in 1785, he obtained the permission of King George III. for the introduction of an order of merit in the corps, which under his command obtained a high reputation for correct discipline.[60] He was promoted to the rank of colonel in 1790; and in 1793 received a letter of service for raising the Eighty-ninth regiment, of which he was appointed colonel. In 1794 he was advanced to the rank of major-general, and was removed to the TWENTY-SECOND regiment in 1795. He died on the 16th of June, 1798, at Portsmouth, of which fortress he was lieut.-governor at the time of his decease.

John Graves Simcoe.

Appointed 18th June, 1798.

John Graves Simcoe, son of Captain Simcoe of the Royal Navy, evinced great talent from his youth. It is recorded that, when a boy, he was taken prisoner at sea, and conveyed up the river St. Lawrence, to Quebec; and he constructed a chart of the river, which was given to Major-General Wolfe, who sailed with an expedition against Quebec, in 1759. On the 27th of April, 1770, he was appointed ensign in the Thirty-fifth regiment, with which corps he served at Boston, in 1775; he was appointed captain in the fortieth regiment in December, 1775, and served at Long Island and New York in 1776, and in the expedition to Pennsylvania in 1777, when he distinguished himself at the battle of Brandywine, and was wounded. In October of the same year, he was placed at the head of a provincial corps, called "The Queen's Rangers," with the rank of major-commandant, and was promoted to the rank of lieut.-colonel in 1778. His services with this corps are spoken of by Lieut.-General Sir Henry Clinton, in a letter to Lord George Germaine, in the following terms:—"Lieut.-Colonel Simcoe has been at the head of a battalion since October, 1777, and since that time he has been perpetually with the advance of the army. The history of the corps under his command is a series of gallant, skilful, and successful enterprises against the enemy, without a single reverse. The Queen's Rangers have killed, or taken, twice their own numbers. Colonel Simcoe himself has been thrice wounded; and I do not scruple to assert, that his successes have been no less the fruit of the most extensive knowledge of his profession which study and the[61] experience within his reach could give him, than of the most watchful attention and shining courage." After repeatedly distinguishing himself in North and South Carolina, and Virginia, he was included in the capitulation of York Town, and returned to England in a state of debility from excessive exertion, &c. In 1790 he was promoted to the rank of colonel, and in the following year raised a corps of infantry called the Queen's Rangers, of which he was appointed colonel on the 1st of September, 1791. He subsequently proceeded to the West Indies, where he evinced the same talent, energy, and courage which shone so conspicuously in the American war. In 1794 he was promoted to the rank of major-general, and in 1796 to the local rank of lieut.-general in the island of St. Domingo. In January, 1798, he was appointed Colonel of the Eighty-first regiment, and was removed, in June following, to the TWENTY-SECOND regiment, the colonelcy of which corps he retained until his decease in 1806.

Sir James H. Craig, K.B.

Appointed 30th October, 1806.

James Henry Craig was appointed ensign in the thirtieth foot, in 1763, and served with his regiment at Gibraltar; in 1771 he was promoted to captain in the Forty-seventh regiment, with which corps he served several campaigns in America; and in 1777 he was promoted to the majority, and in 1781 to the lieut.-colonelcy, of the Eighty-second regiment, from which he was removed, in 1783, to the sixteenth. He was promoted to the rank of colonel in 1790, and to that of major-general in 1794; in 1795 he was nominated to the colonelcy of the Forty-sixth regiment: he was advanced to the rank of lieut.-general in 1801, and removed to the Eighty-sixth in 1804. He commanded an expedition to the Mediterranean, in 1805, with the local rank of general, and the dignity of a knight of the Bath; the troops under his orders landed at Naples, and subsequently took possession of the island of Sicily. In 1806 he was removed to the TWENTY-SECOND regiment; and in 1807 he was appointed governor of Upper and Lower Canada, with the local rank of general[62] in America; in 1809 he was removed to the Seventy-eighth Highlanders. He was also appointed governor of Blackness Castle. He died on the 12th of January, 1812.

The Honorable Edward Finch.

Appointed 18th September, 1809.

In 1778 the Honorable Edward Finch was appointed cornet in the eleventh light dragoons, and in 1779 he was promoted to a lieutenancy in the Eighty-seventh foot. He embarked for the West Indies, in January, 1780, and served there, and in North America, until 1782, when he returned to England, and was appointed lieutenant and captain in the second foot guards; in 1792 he was promoted to captain and lieut.-colonel in the same corps. He served the campaigns of 1793 and 1794, in Flanders, under His Royal Highness the Duke of York, and shared in the several actions in which the foot guards distinguished themselves. In 1796 he was promoted to the rank of colonel, and in 1799 he commanded the first battalion of his regiment in the expedition to Holland, where he served in several actions under Lieut.-General Sir Ralph Abercromby and His Royal Highness the Duke of York. He commanded the brigade of light cavalry in the expedition to Egypt, in 1800, with the rank of brigadier-general, and was promoted to the rank of major-general, in January, 1801. After commanding the light cavalry in Egypt some time, he was placed at the head of a brigade of infantry, and was honored with the Order of the Crescent from the Grand Seignior. He commanded a brigade of foot guards in the expedition to Hanover in 1805; and in 1807 he commanded a brigade at the capture of Copenhagen. In 1808 he was promoted to the rank of lieut.-general, and appointed colonel of the Fifty-fourth regiment, and in 1809 he was removed to the TWENTY-SECOND. He was promoted to the rank of general in 1819. His decease occurred on the 27th of October, 1843.


Sir Charles James Napier, G.C.B.

Appointed 21st November, 1843.

The following Regimental Order was issued by Major-General Sir Charles Napier, upon his appointment by Her Majesty to the Colonelcy of the TWENTY-SECOND Regiment.


    Her Majesty has been graciously pleased to place me at your head, and I shall end my military career wearing the uniform of the Regiment. Your Glory must be my Glory, and well I know it will increase, when you have again an opportunity to use your Arms! Never were the Musket and Bayonet wielded by stronger men, nor were the Royal Colours of England ever confided to more intrepid Soldiers!

"Many General Officers have been made Colonels of Regiments that they had formerly commanded, and with whose glory their own fame is associated; but old Comrades have passed away,—to the new men, they are strangers,—and nought remains to bind them to their Regiments, but Memory and Renown! My good fortune has been greater, for while I rejoice in the past and present honors of my old Corps, the Fiftieth Regiment, I am, as Colonel of the TWENTY-SECOND, placed among men at whose head I have so lately fought, and to whose valour I owe so much!!

"Soldiers, we are not men without feeling as pseudo Philosophers pretend! Obedience, Discipline, War, they deprive us not of Manly sentiments. I shall always have the strongest attachment to the corps with whom I have served, and among the honors won for me by the Army of Scinde, the greatest is that of being your Colonel!!

(Signed) "C. J. Napier, Major-General,
"Colonel 22nd Regiment.

"Kurrachee, 23rd January, 1844."

The following Postscript to the Official letter to Major-General Sir Charles Napier, announcing his appointment as[64] Colonel of the TWENTY-SECOND Regiment, was in the Duke of Wellington's own hand-writing:—

"P.S. I recommended this arrangement to Her Majesty, principally on the ground that it would be satisfactory to you, as this was the only one of Her Majesty's Regiments in India engaged in the two glorious battles fought at Meeanee and Hyderabad, in Scinde; and Her Majesty was graciously pleased to approve of the recommendation on that ground."


Printed by William Clowes and Sons, Stamford Street,
For Her Majesty's Stationery Office.


[12] David Hume, the historian, was secretary to General St. Clair, during the expedition to the coast of France, and the embassy to Vienna and Turin.


Obvious typographical errors and punctuation errors have been corrected after careful comparison with other occurrences within the text and consultation of external sources.

Except for those changes noted below, all misspellings in the text, and inconsistent or archaic usage, have been retained.

Pg xxix: 'thence to Portmouth' replaced by 'thence to Portsmouth'.
Pg 34: 'a deperate dash' replaced by 'a desperate dash'.
Pg 41: 'stanch and true' replaced by 'staunch and true'.
Pg 45: 'until its recal' replaced by 'until its recall'.
Pg 52: 'Anne to that' replaced by 'Anne to the'.
Pg 59: '27th of Januuary' replaced by '27th of January'.