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Title: Travels in Turkey and back to England

Author: Edmund Chishull

Author of introduction, etc.: Richard Mead

Release date: January 20, 2021 [eBook #64348]

Language: English

Credits: Turgut Dincer and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at (This file was produced from images generously made available by The Internet Archive)




By the late Reverend and Learned


Chaplain to the Factory of the

Printed by W. Bowyer in the Year MDCCXLVII.



No books are generally more entertaining and instructive, than the accounts of travels into foreign countries; and especially those, which are written in the way of Journals. For he, who reads such narratives, is almost apt to fancy himself in company with the traveler, and to take part with him in all his adventures; which at the same time that they shew the peculiar temper, customs, and manners of different nations, excite also a variety of passions, which by their succession please the mind, and make the chief delight even in theatrical performances.

Upon this account it is, that the Letters of Busbequius, during his embassy in Turkey; and the Journies of our ingenious and learned countryman Mr. Maundrell, thro several parts of the same vast empire, which he has so accurately described; are repeatedly read, and always with new pleasure.

Therefore, when Mr. Edmund Chishull, only Son of the late Reverend Mr. Chishull, who was for some years chaplain to the Factory of our Worshipful Turkey Company at Smyrna, brought to me not many months since the present Journal of his Father’s Travels, desiring me to peruse it, and give him my opinion, whether it was a work worthy to be published; I could not refuse his request but applied myself with due care to read and examine it. And I was the more readily induced to this, as I had thro a course of many years the happiness of a perfect acquaintance with his father, even from his return home to his death; and knew him, as well from his conversation, as his writings (particularly that justly celebrated book[iv] of his Antiquitates Asiaticae) to be not only a man of uncommon learning, but likewise of great sagacity, and indefatigable diligence.

And indeed my pains in the perusal of these papers were very well rewarded. For besides an agreable amusement common to other writings of this nature, they gave me very useful instruction as to several passages in ancient historians, and other classic authors; and at the same time illustrated many old inscriptions, several of which are now first published, and others taken with greater exactness, than had been done formerly.

Hence I could not but persuade the young Gentleman to oblige the world with this work, and to have it printed in such a manner, as his freinds should advise him. Tho I easily foresaw, that the doing of this would necessarily be attended with some difficulties; as Mr. Chishull had put into writing those occurrences, which he thought worthy of his notice, at such leisure minutes, as he could snatch from the constant fatigues of his journey; and by that means had sometimes not only thrown many things together without exact order, but often left the places cited from ancient writers to be supplied out of their own works. And besides, his hand being both small and hasty, was frequently not very easy to be read; so that many of the words, as to the manner of spelling, appeared doubtful and uncertain. This made it needful to have the whole first fairly transcribed, and then to fill up the quotations. The former task therefore I committed to a professed penman, and the latter I undertook myself. In the doing of which I not only carefully compared the transcriber’s copy with the original; but had recourse to the authors themselves, and took out of them the several passages, to which the references were made.

When Mr. Chishull left England, he was fellow of Corpus Christi college in Oxford, and had a grant of the traveler’s place from the president and society. He set sail from the Downs September the 12, 1698, in the Neptune frigate, Capt. Thomas commander, and arrived at Smyrna November the 19 following. During the voyage, agreably to his usual diligence, he constantly kept a Journal of what then offered. But as nothing very remarkable occurred at sea; for that reason the account of his Travels, which is here published, begins with a Journey undertaken by him some months after[v] his settlement at Smyrna. However as in his passage he went on shoar first at Cadiz, then at Messina, and after that in the island of Milo; in each of which places he made several observations, which he afterwards sent in a Letter from Smyrna to Dr. Thomas Turner, president of his college: that Letter is likewise now published at the end of this book.

But as he has generally remarked the situation, government, and other curiosities, of the most considerable cities, thro which he passed; it may seem strange, that no account is here given of Smyrna, the place of his residence, and where, as he himself tells us, he continued from November 19, 1698, to February 10, 1701-2. This however was occasioned by his design of treating upon that place in a more distinct and particular manner; for which purpose there is a large number of minutes, or heads, detached in a separate part of the book, relating both to the antient and present state of the city; which were afterwards to have been filled up, and inlarged. Tho as they are now left, nothing more appears, that can be of any service to the public, than what here follows.

The antiquities now extant in this place are these. The castle, which was Roman, and where Dolabella beheaded Trebonius. The large head of Smyrna the Amazon over the gate of the same. The inscription relating to Joannes Ducas over another gate of the same, with the modern oriental eagle on both sides. The small remains of the theatre, in which S. Polycarp was burnt, lately taken to pieces to build the Vizír kane of the place, and bezesten, or market. The reliques of St. John’s church. The space and walls of an ancient cirque. All which are on the said castle hill, which immediately overlooks the city. The ruins of the temple of Apollo at the foot of mount Corycus, in an olive grove, and over the θερμὰ ὕδατα. The ruins of the temple of Aesculapius, or Neptune, in the way to Eshekléer; where was lately found the head of Janus, and another of M. Modius. A rich and delicate pavement of mosaic work by the sea side, towards the north, at a place where the outer wall terminates in the shore; which possibly is the remains of the gymnasium, or some heathen temple. The several inscriptions there lately found, reported in Prideaux, or at the end of this book. The large stones of a yard and half square in a great and massy wall, now part of a kane in the Armenian street, on all of which is marked the letter V, as large as the breadth[vi] of the stone would permit. The remains of an old Roman way, paved with broad and massy stones, but smooth, in the road over the castle hill toward Ephesus. The remains of the ancient wall encompassing the pomoerium, or a large space of ground about two thousand paces distant all round from the castle, or the city. The scarcity of antiquities now to be found in Smyrna arises from hence, that it furnished the greatest part of the Marmora Arundeliana.

The inscriptions here said to be reported in Prideaux, are to be found in the Doctor’s edition of the Marmora Arundeliana. And as to those referred to at the end of our author’s book, such of them will be here subjoined, as are not in the large collection designed by him for a second part of his Antiquitates Asiaticae; of which a few sheets only, containing those which relate to Ephesus, were printed by him a little before his death, and the rest are now in my possession.

In a very pleasant valley near the bank of the river Meles, scarce thirty paces without the city.


On a hill near the castle.



On a square stone in the house of the English consul, being of a later age.


What he has said in relation to the present Smyrna, is as follows.

Smyrna is situated in the latitude of 38gr. 40m. in a deep bay, that enters within the continent about ten leagues; and is so well defended by the Erythraean promontory, now cape Kara Bornu, and mount Corycus, with the hills commonly called Cordilieu, and its own windings, that it is every where a port, affording good depths and secure anchorage. Immediately within the bay are seven islands, lying in length towards the port of Vourlá, antiently Clazomenae, which of old were called the Peristerides; and the biggest of them, Megale, is now by the English named Long Island, over against Fochia Vecchia, or Phocaea. Cape Kara Bornu, or Black Nose (antiently the ἄκρα μέλαινα) afforded, as Strabo says, excellent mill stones; which is not unknown to the present inhabitants, and therefore we there see several mills now employed. Within two leagues and a half of the city the Hermus enters the bay, and there forms a bed of sand; which being met by a point of land from the opposite shore stops up the haven by a very narrow chanel, thus rendring it κλειστὸς, as Strabo then expressed it. On the said point stands a new and strong fort, called Sangiac Castle; because the Grand Signior’s colours are there exposed, on occasions that require it. From hence we sail towards Smyrna, in a fair and long arm of the sea, which imitates the pleasures of a canal; whilst the woody mountains on each side, with the city at one end, and the castle at the other, conspire to give a mutual beauty to one another.


Had our author lived to finish his elaborate account of Smyrna, from the large materials he had collected for that design, it would doubtless have been a very useful work, and thrown much light upon many passages in ancient writers. And indeed every part of his Travels must certainly have received great advantage and improvements from his review. Tho I question not, but in their present state they will meet with such a reception from the public, as will reward the labours of the learned Father, by a proper incouragement given to his industrious Son.

I shall only add, that some intimation having been given of a Map, designed to be published with this book that was judged afterwards not so necessary, as at first was apprehended; since there are so many maps already extant of those countries, which make the subject of these Travels. And therefore as the principal use of such a map would have been to exhibit both the ancient and modern names of several places, which are mentioned by our author; an Index was thought more commodious for that purpose. Besides, as he has occasionally introduced many Turkish and other foreign words, without explaining them; this affords likewise an opportunity for their explication. As the benefit of the reader has been consulted in this alteration; so it is not to be doubted, but he will find the advantage of it in perusing the work.

August 12, 1747.






An Account of a journey round the ancient Ionia, from Smyrna, thro St. George’s, Magnesia, Durguthli, Sardis, Birghée, Tyria, Ephesus, and back to Smyrna, in the year MDCXCIX.

April xxi.

Eight of our nation having lately designed a visit to the church of Ephesus, by name, Messieurs Whalley, Dunster, Coventry, Ashe, Turner, Clotterbooke, Frye, and Chishull, we had first a general meeting, to agree upon what was requisite to the resolution we had taken; at which time Mr. Whalley kindly undertaking the care of our provisions, and the government of our intended journey, we propos’d to make a circuit of our way to Ephesus, that so we might have a larger satisfaction in the sight of those delightsome places, for which Asia Minor was always so justly celebrated.


In prosecution of this design we intended to make our first conáck at Norlícui, to which place having this morning dispatched our baggage upon mules, under the care of a janisary and two servants, we ourselves set forward about three in the afternoon, with another janisary, dragoman, servants, and other requisites. Our company completed the number of twenty three light horse. Six or seven other gentlemen of the English factory were pleased to accompany us as far as Norlícui, where arriving in less than two hours, we all found a kind and hospitable reception from Mr. Benjamin Jones and his lady. After a short repast our freinds returned back to Smyrna, and left us employed in providing for ourselves and horses. This care had now taken up the evening, when it being proposed, that morning and evening prayers should be constantly read to the company during the whole journey, we all readily embraced the motion. Hereupon we immediately put this design in execution, and then pitched upon our lodging.

April xxii.

This morning a quarter before five we leave Norlícui, and proceed on Magnesia road in our way to St. George’s village, expecting to see the ceremonies, which the Greek Christians there perform on the twenty third instant, which is the festival of that saint. And having ascended the top of the adjoining hill, we there make an halt for our mules, and take that opportunity of looking back, and enjoying the delightful prospect, which this place afforded us. We had then the gap of Nymphe on our left hand, and village of Palamútcui on our right, which is pleasantly seated on an ascent, under a grove of pine trees; but before us lay extended the whole plain between the hills of Tartalée[6] and Cordilíeu, being terminated with the view of the Two Brothers[7], the city, castle, and bay of Smyrna.

We continue our journey over the hill, till arriving at an old burying place, we begin to descend by a paved way to a large and high bridge of stone, built over a small, but clear and purling river. From hence we pass on to the groves of Jacácui, which is a village seated on the right hand upon an ascending ground, and fronting the edge of Tartalée. Here we again halted, and drank a[3] dish of coffee, partly to wait for our mules, and partly to entertain ourselves with a view of the plain of Nymphe, into which we had a narrow prospect between the forementioned village and the ridge of the opposite mountain. After this we ascend a tedious and craggy hill, with which tho we were now considerably fatigued, yet we had still courage enough to reject the proposal, which was there made, of baiting, and taking the advantage of a fair commodious fountain, which flows on our right hand from the top of the hill. We therefore proceed about the space of an hour in tolerable good way, till at the descent of the mountain we encounter a rugged and uneasy passage; the road being either choaked up with loose stones, or else worn into abrupt and descending steps. This obliged us to dismount, and lead our horses down the precipice; where we nevertheless received some little satisfaction, in observing the veins of red and white marble, with which each side of this troublesome way is garnished. At the foot of the hill we cross a rivulet, and quickly after repassing the same, ride from thence strait forward in a covert and narrow bottom, which in less than half an hour leads us into the plains of Magnesia. After a short repast in this place we mount our horses, turning to the left out of the road of Magnesia; and tho we were now not more than half an hour from our intended conáck, yet we ride on by mistake too much to the right hand; till, having advanced beyond the town and castle of Magnesia, we come to a Turkish village, where we were directed almost back again to St. George’s. Here we arrived about one a clock, and made it our first business to pitch our tent for the use of our servants, whilst we ourselves were received into a little house, which afforded us the convenience of one chamber, and a sophá, for lodging.

After diner we took a walk about the village, and visited the low humble church, which is here permitted to the Greek Christians. It has outwardly the marks of no inconsiderable antiquity, and within it is the exact model of the primitive Greek churches; consisting first of the πρόναος or outward chapel, then the νάος or body of the church, with three passages from the one into the other, and after all a chancel separate from the nave by lattice work. We here observed no other ornaments, than the pictures of St. George, the Virgin Mary, St. John, and St. Nicholas, and another of our Savior on the roof[4] of the church, which consists of a regular cupola. Before the altar lay the book of the Gospels, with three or four copies of divine service; some containing their ordinary Liturgy, and others adapted to peculiar months of the year. The Greeks were now flocking hither to perform their devotions before the picture of St. George; and the superstition of a woman was remarkable, who prostrated her little infant at the feet of the saint, and eagerly stroking the picture endeavoured to convey some hidden blessing to the body of the child.

April xxiii.

This morning we mounted about nine a clock, when the Greeks were preparing for the ceremony of the day. It was pleasant to see them flock together to the number of some thousands, being of different sex, age, and quality; but all equally regardless of the dirt and rain, which then fell very plentifully. We followed them on horseback a little mile out of the village to a large turpentine tree, under the shade and covert of which they had placed the saints, which we had before observed in the church; and there celebrated their mass. This was no other, than what is ordinary in the rites of the Greek church; except only, that it seemed to have some particular reference to St. George. It may be here proper to observe, that as the priest made two elevations of the elements, the one before, and the other after consecration; the people equally adored them at the former, as well as at the latter[8]. Before the consecration of the wine was completed, the priest mingled a little warm water in the cup, and afterwards put the μαργαρίτης, or consecrated bread, therein. All which he, and the deacon who assisted him, received; and after the whole ceremony one of his assistants distributed two loaves of unconsecrated bread[9] in little peices to the people, which they received with as[5] much hurry as superstition. The congregation now break up, and carry back their saints in a tumultuous manner, one still endeavouring to catch them from another; while he that carries them, runs with what speed he can, and often strikes his head with the board, on which they are painted, as a voluntary penance for his sins.

This ceremony ended, we turned aside to satisfy our curiosity with the sight of the famous river Hermus, which flows scarce two bow’s shot below the turpentine tree mentioned above. This large and noble river yeilds an entertaining sight, especially when it abates something of its usual fulness. It appears graced on each side with a sandy shelving bank. The neighbouring pastures afford abundance of tamarisk, and on the edge of the river asparagus is very plentiful. It may be observed, that as the poets of old called it the golden[10], so the Turks at present call it the silver streamed Hermus; either of which names it seems to deserve from that bright and shining sand, which its water washes. But though the sand be clear, yet the water is still thick and muddy[11], and well answers some epithets of that nature, which are bestowed upon it in ancient poetry.

It was now past midday, when we return to the village, and after the refreshment of a diner prepare for our departure towards Magnesia. Our way thither lay through the same plain, into which we entered yesterday at one a clock; where the beauty and verdure of this campain countrey made amends for the great rain, which annoyed us all this day, as well at the Greek ceremony, as now in our way to Magnesia.

In two hours from St. George’s we begin to enter Magnesia, not without a just admiration of its delicious situation at the foot of mount Sipylus; from whence it was antiently called Magnesia ad Sipylum, to distinguish it from that other, which stood near the river Meander[12]. Having rode into the city, we began to be in distress for an house to receive us; for an uncertain recommendation,[6] which we had hitherto over credulously relied on, we now found to have miscarried. This was observed by an effendi, who saw us pass under his window, and therefore courteously acquainted us by his servant, that if we wanted accommodations, we might be welcome to his house. We gladly embraced the motion, and were conducted into a garden, where we were afforded the use of a pleasure house, consisting of a large sophá room, a kitchen, and an open kiosk, with a beautiful fountain in the middle. The effendi himself came down, and welcomed us to our apartment, adding withall, that if we had any other freind to rely upon, he would not deprive us of a better entertainment; if not, he bid us freely make use of what this place afforded. Returning to his house he presented us with a lamb, and desired to know, if there was any thing else, with which he was capable of obliging us. By our dragoman he likewise informed us, that the cadí of the city was at that time making him a visit, before whom it might not be improper for us to shew ourselves; but at the same time not to come empty handed. According to this motion we waited upon the cadí with two okes of sugar, and as many of coffee. He received us and our present very obligingly; and upon the effendi’s invitation, we there drank a dish of coffee in the company of several Turks, who seemed to be of the better rank, and behaved themselves gentilely, that is, according to the genius of this haughty people, with an agreable mixture of civility and reservedness.

This ceremony performed, we returned to our garden, and there entertained ourselves at supper with just and grateful reflections on the great courtesy and hospitality of our landlord, whole name we had now learnt to be Mahomet effendi. His habitation is very pleasant, yet not so much for the splendid furniture of his house, as for that various and diverting prospect, which it commands over the plain of Hermus; though indeed this is an advantage, which by reason of the ascending situation of Magnesia is common to the meanest cottage in the city. It seemed strange to us to observe several pieces of painted glass in the windows of our effendi’s house, inscribed in Turkish characters with the name of the proprietor, together with some religious sentences of Mahometan devotion. But we were much more surprized, when we were informed, that it was the manufacture of this place; for it is stained with a beautiful as well as deep[7] and durable colour, and comes up to the perfection of the best, we have seen in England. This gave us occasion to reflect on the different fortune of arts and sciences, which, like men, seem to take delight in shifting their station; for while other arts have now left these places, and traveled westward, this alone in exchange for all the rest seems to have retired into this, and is deplored as lost in Christendom.

April xxiv.

We propose to spend this day at Magnesia, in order to observe what may further occur there remarkable. To this end we were favoured with the company of a janisary by one Mahmút agá, to whom this morning we made a short visit; he being the person, to whom at first we expected to have been recommended. The janisary conducted us to the two principal mosques of the city, to a religious college of dervíses, to a madhouse, and to an old seraglio, where the young princes of the Ottoman empire have formerly been educated. At the last of these there remain only the reliques of two or three rich tiváns, and a considerable number of stately old cypress trees, to witness the former grandeur of the place. At the madhouse we could observe nothing besides the bare walls of that hospital, and a brass mortar lying in the yard, which seemed to be remarkable for an old Latin inscription, which it bore, signifying that it was made at Pisa. The religious college is a fair stone building, consisting of one quadrangle, and that encompassed with a regular cloister, which is supported with pillars of the modern Greek module. The two mosques, which we mentioned, are distinguished from the rest, in that they are of royal foundation, an honour which is signified by the two minarées belonging to them; whereas the other eighteen, with which this city is furnished, have but one a piece. Before each of these mosques there is a square and regular area, containing a beautiful fountain in the middle, and enclosed on three sides with cells of religious Turks. The front of the mosque makes the fourth side of the square, and is itself likewise adorned with a spacious portico supported with stately pillars, of which some only are topt with modern capitals. But as the capitals of the rest are of the old Corinthian order, so all the shafts appear plainly to be ancient; some consisting of natural[8] and others of cast artificial marble, but both the one and the other bound near the pedestal with rings of massy brass.

Before we could be admitted into the inside, we were obliged to comply with the zeal of the Turks, who always leave their shoes at the entrance of their mosques. Here we found them both much resembling one another, excepting that one was richer than the other; and whereas the roof of the other consisted of five cupolas, the roof of this was regularly contracted into one. We had now the liberty to view several copies of their Alcoran, and other books of Mahometan prayers, all curiously written and adorned with golden figures. The windows are furnished with excellent painted glass, full of flower work and religious inscriptions; and from the roof hangs a multitude of lamps, together with bright balls contrived to reflect the light, all of them well ranged in a beautiful and artificial manner.

In each of the royal mosques we further observed a splendid kiblé, which is a part separate from the body of the mosque, and answering to the altar of our Christian churches; it is adorned with a rich floor and gilded roof, together with carving and mosaic work on each side, but more particularly in the front, which is contrived to face Mecca. Immediately to the right hand of the kiblé stands a lofty pulpit, being fourteen steps high, and consisting of a portal, rails, and canopy, all of wrought marble. One thing was remarkable as well in these mosques, as in that which we afterwards saw at Ephesus, though we know not whether it has any mystical reference to the Turkish superstition; it is a nich in the front of the kiblé, on each side of which stands a fine slender pillar, hewn out of one entire stone, made without capital or pedestal, but so fixed within the work both above and below, that it remains moveable, and is turned about by the hand at pleasure.

This sight of Magnesia was our employment before diner, but in the afternoon we all attempted to ascend the castle hill on foot; which we quickly found to be a more difficult and painful task, than we at first imagined. The way was inexpressibly steep and craggy, and cost us an hour’s labour, though we made all possible speed; nor after our return could we blame[9] the discretion of one of our companions, who thought fit to retire about the midway. However having at length conquered the ascent, our toil was well rewarded with the surprizing prospect of the city, and adjacent plain; in the latter of which we could distinguish the whole course of the Hermus for many miles together, as also the places where the Amnis Phrygius, or Hyllus, joins it[13].

The fabric of the whole castle is very strong, and the advantage of a hill, which is on all sides a mile high, must have rendered it impregnable, in an age which knew not the use of gunpowder. It was formerly fortified with a considerable number of great guns, which are now removed to the new castle, which defends the bay of Smyrna. Two only remain on a bastion, that fronts the city; on both which we were sorry to see the eagles of the Roman empire. No other apartment of the castle is now kept locked, except a dungeon, in which there were twelve prisoners, lately sent thither by Osmánogli. A sight of these miserable wretches we desired of the agá, nor was he so scrupulous as to deny it us. The same agá likewise shewed us within the precincts of the castle a poor Christian church, dedicated to the memory of St. John; where the Greeks meet upon the day of his feast, and are at the constant charge of two lamps, which burn there throughout the year. We had read and heard of a collection of Roman arms, reserved somewhere in this castle; tho being upon the place, nothing of this nature occurred to us. But Solymán effendi, a most courteous and obliging person, whom we visited this evening, as being the next neighbour, as well as brother of our landlord, assured us, that having many years since had the curiosity to ascend the castle hill, he then saw under ground the collection which we spake of, consisting of headpieces, breastplates, shields, and the like.

The mountainous parts about Magnesia were antiently famous for the production of the loadstone[14]; tho indeed it is disparaged[10] by Pliny[15], and accounted less attractive, than that of other places. However this probably was the city, from whence, as Lucretius says, that stone took the name of magnet[16]; as from the whole country of Lydia the touchstone likewise was called lapis Lydius[17]. This hint gave us the curiosity to carry a sea compass up the castle hill, where we had the satisfaction to see it point to different quarters, as we then placed it upon different stones, and quickly after intirely to lose its whole virtue; two effects which are natural to the magnetic needle, when injured by the nearness of other bodies impregnated with the same quality.

Late in the evening we were now preparing for repose, and endeavouring to forget the fatigue of the castle hill; when Solymán effendi, having laid aside the badges of his character, and put on a more familiar temper, returned our visit. We doubted not from the change of his habit, and the unseasonableness of the hour, but he came to break a Mahometan commandment, and steal his kief (as the Turks pleasantly express it) in the juice of the forbidden grape[18]. This was a tedious and ungrateful task, with which nevertheless, by reason of his own and his brother’s great civility, some of our company were forced to comply. Nor had the wine he freely drank its desired effect, till towards two a clock in the morning.

April xxv.

We begin to rise by five this morning, and after dispatching our baggage take leave of Mahomet effendi, to whose singular humanity and hospitality we had hitherto been so much obliged. As we were riding thro the city, it was pleasant to recollect something of the ancient history of this place, whose present state we had seen the day before. It there occurred to us, that this was that Magnesia, which of all the Asian cities[19] made the first submission to the Roman arms, after the defeat of Antiochus by Scipio.[11] This likewise was that Magnesia, which entered into a league offensive and defensive with the city of Smyrna in the reign of Seleucus son of Antiochus Theus, whereby the inhabitants of the one were mutually made free of the other city; and whereas public monuments of this confederacy were by agreement of both parties to be erected in different places, one of them, which was set up by the Smyrneans, is now to be seen in the gallery at Oxford, inscribed on a large flat marble pillar[20].

There now scarce occur any reliques of antiquity in Magnesia, except that we observed several Ionic and Corinthian pillars in the court of an old mosque, held in great veneration by the Turks for the burial of Hasánogli, a person famous in the history of that nation. Over one of the entrances into the same court there is to be seen a broken inscription of an antient heathen temple, tho too high to be now legible; and on a stone step, placed before the principal mosque of the city, we could read among other decayed words ΚΑΙΣΑΡΙ ΣΕΒΑΣΤΩ. The following inscription likewise is of no contemptible antiquity, which we found on a stone now lying in the staircase of the abovementioned Solymán effendi.



The said effendi not only civilly informed us of this stone, but when we had transcribed the words, he profered to send it after us to Smyrna; adding, that if it was any piece of sanctity, he was unwilling it should remain there to be trampled under foot.

Designing from hence for Durguthli, we continue our journey under the foot of Sipylus, which about two hours from the city ends in a stupendous precipice, consisting of a naked massy stone, and rising perpendicularly almost a furlong high. It was not a little surprizing, as we rode along under the foot of this hill, to observe a certain cliff of the rock, representing an exact nich and statue, with the due shape and proportion of an human body. For Sipylus being the seat of the transformation of the unhappy Niobe[22], there was ground of imagining, that we had either met with her statue, or with that which was the first occasion of the fable; at least it was not improbable, that this was the work of some antient inhabitants of this place, who pleased themselves in fashioning the natural rock into such a figure, as might preserve the tradition of this celebrated poetic fiction.

Not far from hence we begin to leave the mountain on our right hand, having the stream of the Hermus in view on the left; and at a large distance before us the snowy top of the mountain Tmolus. Our road now lay thro a verdant and delightful plain, inriched by many advantages of nature, and not negligently manured by the inhabitants. About the fourth hour of this day’s journey we passed a bridge, erected over a large river; which, as those of the country informed us, is now called Niphti, or Nymphe, and may probably be the Cryos mentioned by Pliny, as one of the[13] streams that feed the Hermus[23]. From this bridge the road lies thro a less fertile plain, till within the neighbourhood of Durguthli it is again better cultivated, and appropriated to the production of cottons. Near our entrance into the town we cross a broad and sandy chanel, which in the winter season conveys no inconsiderable current into the Hermus. We had here no other to rely upon, than the accommodations of a public kane, where, after we had fixed our lodgings, we found that we had arrived in six hours from Magnesia; tho an hour is to be deducted for the rests, which we were obliged to make for the security of our mules.

Durguthli is a town purely of Turkish fabric, and therefore has nothing to entertain the curiosity of any traveler, besides the management of cotton wool; which is here prepared in great abundance, and so transmitted to the market of Smyrna. As to this we observed, that they first sift it from the dust and other refuse, which it contracts in gathering, in a large wicker wheel; after this they separate the wool from the cod, in which it grows; and at last they work it betwixt a wooden and iron roller, which spinning upon one another in a rapid motion draw in the wool, and leave the seed behind.

Walking up and down about the limits of our kane, we were accosted by a Turk, who spake good Italian. He had been many years a slave in Legorn, where he was a witness to the riches and splendor of Italy, and other parts of Christendom. This gave him occasion to express a just indignation against the haughty ignorance of the Turks; who, tho they want all advantages of art, and appearance of true magnificence, yet have the vanity to despise other nations, who enjoy both to a great perfection. In other discourse with an Armenian priest we were informed of a church, which by a peculiar grant of the Grand Signior that nation had newly founded in Durguthli. This was an instance, which seemed to us observable; for tho Christianity is tolerated in Turkey, yet they hold it inconsistent with their law to permit the erection of any new churches, and allow only the liberty of repairing old ones.


We parted in the close of the evening, and repaired in good health to our respective lodgings. But about two in the morning one of our company awaked under an indisposition, which by degrees grew into a severe and dangerous sickness; tho by timely opening a vein, and after that enjoying a little repose, he recovered to the great satisfaction of the whole company. However this discouraged us from proceeding, till another night’s rest should confirm his health. Being thus detained a day at Durguthli, we were informed of some antiquities to be seen among the Armenian graves, on a mount adjoining to the town; whither when we had repaired, we found a curious piece of basso relievo, brought, as they said, from Sardis. But no ancient inscriptions appeared there, except these imperfect words on a marble tombstone.


April xxvii.

Rising early this morning all of us, God be thanked, in perfect health, we still resolve to enlarge our circuit; whence Mr. Coventry and Mr. Frye apprehending too long a journey, determined to return to Smyrna. The remaining part of our company proceed by break of day in the road for Sardis. Just before we arrive at the fountain on our right hand, about half an hour from our conáck, lies the village of Ishmaeljá. And in an hour and an half from thence we observe Urgánlui on the left. We continue our journey thro a spatious and fertile plain, curiously beset on each side the road with variety of round hillocks, which from their number, figure, and situation, in so level a campain, appear plainly to be artificial. They are undoubtedly the work of one or more numerous armies; but whether they were at first designed to bury their heaps of slain[24] (which was the original of those barrows[25], that occur in many plains of England) or whether[15] they were erected as thrones before the pavilion of the general, which was usual in the Roman camp[26], is not easy to determine.

About the fourth hour crossing a small river we have the village of Baricle on the left hand, and larger than that, the village of Achmetléer on the right. Not far from hence the road divides into two paths for Sardis. The lower of these we chose, tho declining a little too much to the left hand, and so passing by a few cottages, which are called by the name of Zericle, we arrive in seven hours at Sardis, one of which is now likewise to be deducted for the stay, which our mules occasioned.

Instead of that Sardis, which antiently was the seat of the kings of Lydia, afterwards in great renown, under the Persian, Grecian, and Roman Empires, and at last honoured with the title of a Metropolitan Christian church; we now find in the same place, at the foot of mount Tmolus, a small Turkish village by the name of Sart. We here had the liberty of a ruinous inconvenient kane, erected in this place for the service of caraváns from Persia; but we much rather embraced the opportunity of pitching our tents under the covert of a few plane trees, which spread a cool and grateful shade upon the bank of Pactólus. This river is constantly mentioned as rising in Tmolus, and washing the Walls of Sardis, particularly it is said by Herodotus to run thro the very market place of the ancient city[27]. Its chanel does not now appear to be considerable, yet it deserved our particular notice for the fame of its golden streams; a story celebrated not more by poets[28] than historians, the latter of whom have imagined this to be the treasure, whence Croesus and his ancestors collected that mighty wealth.

Before the cool of the evening we visited the ruins of this once flourishing city; and towards the western part observed the standing walls of two or three spatious and lofty rooms, not unworthy[16] the palace of the ancient kings of Lydia. They were all arched towards the foundation, and adorned as well as strengthened at each corner with hewn stone; but the main part of the fabric consisted of a broad and durable brick, which is likewise observable in most of the ancient ruins of Asia Minor. From hence we passed thro heaps of rubbish, and tracks of continued foundations, to the eastern part of the city; where stand the pillars and front of another spatious building, the figure and situation of which persuaded us, that they were the remains of the cathedral church. A little southerly from hence we viewed the full extent of another stately room, which however antient it might be, was nevertheless raised out of ruins more antient than itself; as appeared from several rich pillars, and architraves, confusedly placed among the rubbish of the walls. About the distance of a furlong, full south of the antient city, are to be seen the beautiful remains not of an amphitheatre, as has been supposed, but rather of some royal palace. Here we observed six lofty Ionic pillars, all of them still intire, except that the capital of one is distorted by an earthquake. There adjoins to them a fair and magnificent portal, the pilasters of which, being about twenty feet high, and twelve feet distant from each other, are joined at the top by one entire stone, which, by what art or force it was there erected, is difficult to conceive; for tho Pliny[29] pretends to account for the like difficulty in the architecture of the temple of Ephesus, yet that passage gives but little satisfaction in the matter. There occurs nothing else, that is remarkable about Sardis, besides the broken walls of the castle on an adjoining hill; the ascent and prospect of which, however magnified by Sir Paul Rycaut, we yet thought so inferior, to what we lately had found at Magnesia, that it could not raise our curiosity to undertake the climbing of that precipice, especially since we could promise ourselves the same prospect to a greater advantage from the top of Tmolus; and as for two or three broken inscriptions, which are there extant, we were content to peruse them in Dr. Smith’s printed Journal[30].


April xxviii.

We had now determined our course for Birghée, towards which our way lay over the mountain Tmolus. In pursuance of this design we mounted quickly after three this morning, and by that time it was full day we had ascended the first edge of the hill, where we halted to enjoy the entertaining prospect of the plain of Sardis. We had here the opportunity of viewing the castle hill, the antient seat of the city, the whole course of the Hermus[31], and the full extent of the Gygaean lake, about five miles in length, and three in breadth, mentioned in all ancient accounts of Sardis; but what renders it most remarkable, celebrated of old by Homer[32], and well described by Strabo to be about forty furlongs from the city[33]. This sight had now highly satisfied our curiosity, when we turn to the right hand more into the body of the hill, and contrary to our expectation rarely encounter any difficult ascent, by reason of the artificial windings of the way.

Tmolus is in general so pleasant, that it was easy to conceive ourselves in a theatre, where the scene changes every half hour; for sometimes we were surprized with an impending rock, sometimes with a perpendicular precipice, and sometimes with the murmurs of a falling brook; the whole being curiously garnished with trees, shrubs, and herbs of an infinite variety.

In four hours we had at length conquered the highest eminence of the mountain, whence we continue our journey thro a fruitful vale, enclosed on each side with two lofty ridges of the hill. On each of these remains a large quantity of snow, which, as it gradually melts, supplies a rapid current, that descends hence into Pactólus. It was observable, that the air of the whole vale was chilled to that degree by the neighbouring snows, that it was still winter in this place; nor could we here discern any buds or leaves on the same sorts of trees, which we had seen green and flourishing on the kinder parts of the mountain.


This cool and refreshing vale lasted an hour, after which we begin to descend the hill by a more steep and dangerous way, than we before had mounted; but nothing was more disagreable, than so sensible a change of air, which we now experienced, being as it were at once translated out of the frigid into the torrid zone. Such was the difference betwixt the valley we had left, and the southern part of the hill we were now traveling. This heat being added to the laborious and tedious circuits, without which the descent was absolutely impossible, brought us at length by one of the clock almost half dead to Birghée. Nor were we capable of being refreshed, either with the remembrance of that pleasant mountain, we had passed; or with the view of the Caýstrian plain, which we had then before us.

The rich products of mount Tmolus ought not here to be forgot[34], which nature has furnished with that store and variety of plants, that it may deservedly be termed the physic garden of the universe. The valley, which we mentioned, is enriched with a vein of marble, clear and pellucid enough to contend with alabaster. Nor is it to be neglected, that on the southern descent of the hill we traveled over a continued track of stone, adorned with bright and shining particles resembling gold dust; the occasion most probably of so many splendid epithets, which in antient poetry are bestowed on the Pactólus.

Birghée is a fair and considerable Turkish town, adorned with two very handsome mosques; and pleasantly seated in the road from Sardis, at the opposite foot of Tmolus. This makes it probable, it was the Hypaepae of the antients, that situation exactly answering to the description, which Ovid and Strabo have left us of it[35]. We were here received into a public kane, where we enjoyed an hearty and entire repose; tho sweetened rather by the fatigue of the foregoing day, than any entertainment or accommodation of the place.


April xxix.

We continued our journey by four a clock this morning thro the Caýstrian plain for Tyria, and had the satisfaction of fording that celebrated river about three hours from our conáck. Not far from hence we found a stone bridge of three considerable arches, built directly along the bank of the river; and therefore now serving to no other purpose, but only to witness that the stream had changed its chanel. Our way lay from hence near the course of the Caýster, thro a fertile and well cultivated champain; a place inexpressibly delicious, and which can be equalled by nothing, but the sweetness of that immortal verse:

Ἀσίῳ ἐν λειμῶνι Καϋστρίου ἀμφὶ ῥέεθρα. Iliad. β′. ℣. 461.

Or those of Virgil:

Pelagi volucres, et quae Asia circum
Dulcibus in stagnis rimantur prata Cäystri. Georg. i. 384.

It is inhabited by frequent villages, and enclosed on both sides with two high and snowy mountains, namely Tmolus on the right hand, and on the left what Strabo calls Μεσογειότης[36], or the Midland hills.

Soon after eleven a clock we arrived at Tyria, and conácked in an old, dirty, ruinous kane; having by this time learnt, that the weary and thirsty traveler must repine at no reception, which he meets with in Turkey. Tyria yeilds a pleasant prospect, as we ride into the city, gently ascending from the adjacent plain. The buildings are curiously intermixt with trees and gardens, which extend the circuit of the place; tho the number of its houses seems inferior to that of Smyrna. We counted about fourteen mosques, one of which we observed to be royal, that is, adorned with a double minarée. Having entered the town we found the streets negligently kept, and meanly built; but at the same time populous enough, not without the appearance of a considerable trade. It is to be wondered that so large a city, standing in the[20] very heart of Asia, should have no remains of antiquity[37]. There are indeed two Greek churches in the place, where the poor ignorant priests would persuade both themselves and us, that this was the antient Thyatira; but we thought it not fit to rob them of the satisfaction of this error, nor puzzle them with any accounts of antient geography, or late experience, that evince the contrary.

It is pretended in some journals, that two or three valuable inscriptions are to be found in these churches, tho we were now eye witnesses of the contrary; for there occur’d nothing in that, which they call the Metropolitan church, but a defaced monument, whereon no intelligible words were to be read, except ΧΡΗΣΤΕ ΧΑΙΡΕ. Over the entrance of the other there is a piece of devotion, written in modern characters: but more remarkable, in the body of the wall stands a large image of our Savior, elegantly carved in porphyry; tho it now appears rudely mangled, and seems to have felt the fury of the old angry iconoclastae. In the hand is portrayed an open book, inscribed with this sentence out of St. John’s Gospel, viii. 12. Ἐγώ εἰμι τὸ φῶς τοῦ κόσμου. This was an instance, which may perhaps appear to be singular, at least it is contrary to the general practice, as well as persuasion of the Greek church; for tho they have a superstitious fondness for religious pictures, yet they abhor all imagery in relievo, and look upon it as inclining to heathenism and idolatry.

April xxx.

By six this morning we set forward from Tyria in our way for Ephesus, and passing thro the extreme skirt of the city, we observe the inscription of an ancient stone coffin, now converted by the Turks to supply the use of a cistern. It has been defaced towards the upper parts of the chest, and permitted us to read only these following words:

....... Η ΣΟΡΟΣ .......... ΦΛΑΒΙΑΝΩ ......
.... ΟΥΔΕΝΙ ..... Ε ..... ΑΙ .... ΜΕΤΑ .....

Upon the borders of the road, about a mile from Tyria, there stands a commodious fountain, and adjoining thereto a pleasant country house; where, as we staid to drink, an hospitable old Turk offered us the entertainment of the place. We were then obliged to refuse the favour, but not without a fresh regret at the inconveniency of our last night’s lodging, when we might have easily passed on to this advantagous conáck.

We hence travel some hours in a narrow and almost deserted vale, the Caýster still flowing on our right hand; till about one a clock we draw near to the extreme edge of the Alymán, a large mountain lying betwixt the city of Ephesus and the village of Giamobasy, and here ending in an abrupt precipice; on the top of which stands an old castle now converted, as is said, into a college of dervíses. Near this place the Caýster mingles with a large and muddy lake, which most probably was the Stagnum Pegasaeum, mentioned by Pliny[38], as having communication with this river. The Alymán we take to be the Mons Gallesius of the antients[39]; since the Mimas[40], for which some have lately mistaken it, is the highest part of Erythréa, or that cape land, which encloses the bay of Smyrna.

We now thought it more advisable not to reach Ephesus till the cool of the morning, but to pass this evening at Kirkingécui, a Christian village, lying near two hours to the east of the city. In search of this place our guide unfortunately led us to the left[22] of the above mentioned lake, up a steep craggy and almost impassible mountain; which when with great difficulty we had conquered, and descended in a way almost as tedious on the other side, we were acquainted by a traveler, that we were out of our road either to Ephesus or Kirkingécui. This struck a damp upon our spirits, being now obliged to tread back so many unwelcome steps in the heat of the day, despair of all present refreshment, and fearful apprehensions of the miscarriage of our mules. It was therefore voted necessary to hire the above mentioned traveler to conduct us to our village, who accordingly led us by a long and tedious way almost under the castle of Ephesus. But from hence we had an hour and an half of pleasant and diverting riding, betwixt two shelving hills, watered at the bottom with a purling brook; whilst on each side we were entertained with a shady scene of bays, myrtle, oleander, Spanish broom, the plane tree, Judas tree, the strawberry tree, lilach tree, and a multitude of other delightful greens. The frequent stops and misfortunes of this day’s journey had made it almost eight a clock, when we arrived at Kirkingécui; where to our incredible satisfaction we found our tents already pitched by our muliteers, who by an unknown and unbeaten path, over two or three mountains, had at last fallen upon the village, more by good fortune than any conduct of their own.

May i. 1699.

The village of Kirkingécui is intirely Christian, and supposed to be the miserable remains of the church of Ephesus. The παπᾶς, or priest, here pretended to shew us a venerable manuscript of the Evangelists, wrote, as he said, by Prochorus, one of the seven deacons, mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles[41]. Upon inspection the character indeed appeared antient, and possibly may be that of the sixth or seventh century; but the book itself is nothing else but a Lectionarium, or Copy of the Gospels, so portioned into lessons, according to the ritual of the Greek church, that, begining at St. John on Easter day, the four Evangelists are read out by the return of the year. The sight of that manuscript, and of the small parish church, was the business of this morning; after which we descended by the same pleasant road, which[23] we had traveled last night, and so arriving about ten a clock we take possession of the public kane at Ephesus[42].

The once glorious and renowned Ephesus was seated in a fruitful vale, encompassed almost round with mountains[43], at a small distance from the Caýster, and about five miles eastward from cape Trogilium; where, at the common charge of all Ionia, the Panionia, or common councils of Ionia, were formerly celebrated. This vale rises advantagously in the middle with two or three little hills[44], on which the several parts of the antient city lay extended. The same spot of ground is still covered with the rich remains of its former glory. Such are the massy walls, the portals, the arches, the aqueducts, the marble chests, together with the dejected cornishes, shafts, and capitals of many lofty pillars. But the face of the whole yeilds a melancholy and disagreable prospect, being overrun with an incredible quantity of rank and luxuriant weeds, which serve only to corrupt the air, and to conceal the curiosities of the place. This we found to be a disadvantagous circumstance, and such as doubled the labour of this day in compassing the circuit of the city, and tracing the uncertain footsteps of so many valuable antiquities. But because these cannot so intelligibly be represented in the order, in which we viewed them, we shall methodically consider Ephesus, as lying in three distinct ruins of a Turkish, Christian, and Heathen city.

The freshest ruins of this place appear to be Turkish, and such as witness, that it has been in considerable repute even under its last barbarous conqueror; who also has changed the name of Ephesus into that of Aiasalúck. Here are to be seen the remains of five or six mosques, besides one which is still used for Mahometan service. In several places there occur the walls of ruined bagnios, tho they are incredibly increased by the fabulous Turks, and reported to have been here to the number of three hundred and sixty six. But that, which most plainly evidences the late riches of the place, are the many beautiful monuments, which we viewed among their burying places, most of them inscribed with fair Turkish characters. Tis observable, that these are cut[24] rising from the plane of the stone, and not indented within the surface; which is the constant fashion of the Turks in all their public monuments, in opposition to the custom of other times and nations. It is not certain, whether the new castle, which stands to the northward of the old citadel, be of Grecian or Turkish fabric; however it is still kept in repair by the Turks, and filled within the circuit of the walls with fifty or sixty small cottages, which with two or three scattering tenements are the only habitations of the present Ephesus.

For such monuments of Christianity, as are here visited by travelers, we are beholden to the tradition of the neighbouring Christians; who shew the place of St. Mark’s and St. Paul’s church, together with the standing walls of that dedicated to St. John; which last apostle, returning from his banishment in Patmos upon the death of Domitian, lived, and died, and was interred at Ephesus[45]. The church of St. John, tho still entire, is however miserably transformed, and converted into the profane use of a Turkish mosque. Like all other mosques of the better fashion, it has a square and spacious yard on the north side, with three different entrances belonging to it. Those to the east and west are reasonably well beautified, being adorned above the portals with curious Turkish sculptures, and materials of rich polished marble. From this yard we enter the mosque by five wooden doors, all of which are carved to an exquisite perfection. Within appear a splendid pulpit and kiblé, both consisting of wrought marble, and the latter more particularly imbellished with painting and gilding of great art and variety. But what are most justly admired and celebrated by all, who have traveled hither, are the four pillars of granate marble, standing in a right line from east to west, and supporting two cupolas, that compose the roof. They are so far disproportioned, that the least is almost three, and the biggest near four feet diameter; besides which the pedestals of some are quite covered with the floor, and all besides one, which is of the compound order, have lost their antient capitals. All these are circumstances, which unanswerably demonstrate, that these pillars are now transported from their first places. And in truth, when the whole fabric is diligently compared with all other Turkish mosques, and this consideration further added, that[25] there appears no sign of an altar to the east, or door to the west end; it will be more than probable, that nothing but the southern wall can be the remains of a Christian church. About a mile to the south west of this place, and in the midst of the antient city, stands an high wall, and adjoining thereto a stately gatehouse, in which are these words, most curiously engraven:

.... ACCENSO ....

Together with this imperfect inscription are to be seen the defaced figure of a man on horseback, and another of a serpent twisted round a tree. This is by most adjudged to be a Christian ruin; and indeed if we consider its beauty and grandeur, as it can be no very modern building, so by reason of its misplaced carvings and inverted inscriptions it cannot be very antient; but may conveniently be refered to those times, in which Christianity began to flourish here. And after this there will be room to put in another conjecture, and to guess from the stateliness of the fabric, that it might be the place, where that famous general council of almost two hundred bishops condemned the heresy of Nestorius, in the year four hundred thirty one; tho his errors are still living among the Indians and Chaldeans, two sects which are numerous in the eastern parts of Asia[46]. Those other Christian monuments, which are commonly shewn at Ephesus, are merely fabulous; and serve only to cheat and abuse the curiosity of many travelers, who undergo no little pains and difficulty in coming hither. Such are the cave of the seven sleepers; the font, in which St. John is said to have baptized so many primitive Christians; and a square watch tower, which ordinarily goes by the name of St. Paul’s prison. This last stands upon a small hill, about a mile nearer the sea, than was the temple of Diana; and is indeed worth visiting by those, who have not so much superstition or credulity; for its situation gives a commanding prospect over the stream of the Caýster, which here seems to rival the Maeander, and plays with many wanton windings in the adjoining plain.

The chief heathen antiquities, that are to be seen at Ephesus, are the remainder of the old citadel, and the foundation of the[26] temple of Diana. The former of these is an intire gate, with two broken walls adjoining on each side, which being situated on a convenient ascent, towards the north east of the ancient city, most probably was a sort or citadel, that defended it on that quarter. This gatehouse has the marks of considerable antiquity, tho it has been rebuilt from other more antient ruins; as is evident from some misplaced stones, and broken reversed inscriptions, that occur in the work. Among these are viewed with great satisfaction three flat marble stones, curiously cut in basso relievo; which tho of different design, and unequal breadth, are placed in a line to adorn the arch of the gate.

The first of these marbles (reckoning from the left hand as we front the gate) has been somewhat injured by time; but from the portraiture of grapes and baskets, and four or five figures in gay and youthful postures, it may be presumed to represent a Bacchanal.

The second marble is a military piece, consisting of many intire figures, all cut in postures very bold and masterly, and such as undoubtedly are the work of some noble hand. It designs a warlike horse surprized by an enemy, with his rider lying at his feet; near which several persons are carried captive by Roman soldiers. The chieftain stands by, and is supplicated by a woman in a large loose mantle, whose intercession seems to intercept the action. This has been by some refered to the destruction of Troy, and by others to a Christian persecution; but with greater probability it may be thought to represent the event of some Roman victory.

The third marble is a sepulchral monument, and represents a dead person extended, from his knees upwards, on a funeral bed; the chief mourner sitting, and five other persons standing in a melancholy posture, and lamenting over him. These likewise are very lively figures, and cut with an inimitable perfection.

Of the temple of Diana there are extant no considerable ruins, nor any thing that is lofty and beautiful enough to bespeak it the remains of that famous structure. But in a marshy ground, near the Lacus Selenusius[47], betwixt the haven Panórmus[48] and the[27] place of the antient city, there stand two broken pieces of a massy wall, in which both the present tradition, and accounts of antient geographers, exactly conspire to prove them the small reliques of the temple. As they themselves consist of square hewn stone, so they are surrounded with heaps of the same materials, among which occur some lofty dejected pillars of beautiful and splendid marble. Under the highest of these ruinous walls there descends an artificial passage, which after two or three short turnings proceeds in a straight line thro many narrow rooms and alleys. This, tho dark and noisome, is customarily visited by travelers, with the assistance of a candle and clue of thread; and is called, by we know not what fancy, the labyrinth of Diana’s temple. But as we observed the like under several large structures, some at Sardis, and others at this very place; so it is notorious, that this is but the ordinary method of strengthening any great foundation, and securing the building by subterraneous arches. Returning from this cavity the traveler has nothing else in view, but venerable heaps of rubbish, and uncertain traces of foundations; and must be forced to supply his curiosity with considering, that this was the place, where once stood and flourished that renowned wonder of the world.

The first temple had been burnt on the same night, in which Alexander the Great was born; and this second was then rebuilding, when that prince was residing at Ephesus, and pursuing his conquests in Asia Minor. He contributed sumptuously to the expence, and afterwards proposed to reimburse the whole, if the Ephesians would consent to inscribe his name upon the fabric[49]. But those citizens had an ambition equal to that of Alexander, and therefore diverted his desires by a fulsom compliment, and the dedication of a famous picture; which was Alexander himself armed with thunder, designed by the inimitable Apelles, and valued at twenty talents of gold[50]. Pliny has likewise told us, that this temple was adorned with an hundred and twenty seven pillars, each sixty feet high, thirty six of which were carved, and that by the celebrated hand of Scopas. The whole structure was four hundred and twenty five feet in length, and two hundred and twenty feet in breadth; and was founded in this watry ground,[28] out of a vain hope to secure it by that means against time and earthquakes.

These are the most remarkable curiosities either of Turkish, Christian, or Heathen antiquity, which in the space of this afternoon we observed at Ephesus. Besides which we viewed many intire pillars of an aqueduct, that passes over the plain from the southern hills; as also in two places the uncertain footsteps of a theatre; and without the new castle a full face[51], with two serpents (cut on a stone) whose heads meet over it, and their bodies descend on each side. This monument is supposed to represent Diana, in the two characters of Luna and Proserpine. But it is to be wished, that some curious traveler might remain two or three days at Ephesus; during which time by removing the weeds, and clearing the confused ruins, he might possibly discover many valuable inscriptions; as by the benefit of a ladder he might take one or two from the wall above mentioned under the Christian ruins, which to our great dissatisfaction we found not legible from the ground.

Among the few imperfect inscriptions discoverable in so short a stay, the name of P. VEDIVS ABOSCANTVS, with mention of his wife and daughter, is once or twice repeated both in Greek and Latin. And ΑΤΤΙΚΟΝ ΗΡΩΔΗΝ, or the name of that ingenious Roman, whose part is so entertaining in the Noctes Atticae of Gellius, is preserved on a fragment among the pillars of the aqueduct. In the same place is frequent mention of M. Antoninus, once particularly on occasion of an honour done by the city to his daughter Fadilla.


This distich likewise on the castle gate is remarkable for the word Ptelea, an old name of Ephesus, which occurs in it.



An invaluable inscription this, if the thing, to which it relates, had been found with it; for it seems to imply the hiding of a medal under the stone, which bore the inscription, that so, when time should destroy the building, the emperor’s face might be communicated to posterity.

Our way did not lead us by the aqueduct six miles from the city, in which is to be seen that large Latin and Greek inscription, printed in Sir George Wheler’s Travels[53]. Nor did we find those imperfect lines, which he took from a stone half buried in the ground[54]. But there is this perfect inscription on a stone near the gate of the old citadel, with which we shall here finish our account of Ephesus.


May ii.

It was a rainy and tempestuous morning, when, as we lay yet a sleep in the public kane, a terrible clap of thunder discharged itself seemingly in the very room. The vehemence of the noise awakened us in great astonishment; and our eyes were no sooner opened, but the whole place seemed to be filled with a red blaze of fire. Each person was first solicitous for the safety of his companions, and afterwards for that of the horses, which were dispersed in their stations about the door. But finding that we had received no detriment, either in our goods or persons, we blessed God for our deliverance; and concluded by an infallible argument, that the displosion must needs be extremely near us, in that the light continued for some time after the sound.

We mount by six a clock, and now determine our return to Smyrna; to which there lies a straight tho difficult and craggy road, over the top of the Alymán; upon which account we thought[30] it preferable to take the way of the plains. This first led us over the bridge of the Caýster, and then quickly after round the abrupt precipice of the Alymán, and that old castle upon its edge, which we had before so much in view, as we rode from Tyria. From hence we pass thro a variety of low woods and pastures, which in themselves were pleasant and diverting; tho the fountains being all dry about this quarter, we were much distressed for want of water. About four hours and a quarter from Ephesus we descry on our left hand, on the rising of the hill, the deplorable remainder of the castle of Metropolis; and at the foot thereof such apparent traces of foundations, with variety of hewn marble, as permitted us no longer to doubt concerning the place of that waste city. And it may be added, that computing our way by hours, as Strabo does by furlongs[55], we did not greatly differ from his account, who places it at little more than a third part of the distance betwixt Ephesus and Smyrna. Not far from hence we begin to approach a small, tho not shallow river, runing on our right hand, which probably is the Phyrites of Pliny[56] mingling, as he describes it, with the Caýster, not far from the Stagnum Pegasaeum, or that lake, which we before observed in our way from Tyria to Ephesus. Beyond this river we saw a large extended pasture, overspread with the flocks, herds, and tents of Turcmen. They had here pitched their station to the number of fourteen hundred; for as we staid to taste their milk, and to view their habitations, they themselves gave us this account, reckoning about two hundred tents, and seven persons more or less appertaining to each. As the whole race of the Turks were nothing else but a numerous colony, that swarmed from Scythia; so these Turcmen seem to be the peculiar descendants of the Nomades Scythae, or Shepherd Scythians, and like them make it their employment to breed and nurture cattle. To this end they never assemble in towns, or betake themselves to houses; but flit from place to place, as the season of the year directs, and seize without control the vast neglected pastures of this desert empire.


In two hours and three quarters from Metropolis we arrive at Trianta, a small but pleasant village, seated on a dry soil, and enjoying a very healthful air; where we proposed to conáck this evening. An agá here hospitably accommodated us with the convenience of his country house, and likewise treated us with a small collation after the Turkish fashion.

May iii.

By seven a clock we leave Trianta, crossing a little river within the limits of the village, and at an hour’s distance another of the same bigness; one or both of which, as they unite in the bottom of the plain, must be the antient Halésus, that ran into the sea at Colophon. We continue in a large and beaten road, leaving Giamóbashy on our left hand, till having Sedícui now in view, we cross over a watry bottom to shorten our way thither. Here we arrive about ten a clock, and stop to refresh ourselves in the consul’s country house; where after a long disuse of chairs, which are not the fashion of the Turks, we once more had the pleasure of sitting down to diner.

Having mounted soon after three, the worshipful consul Raye, with several gentlemen of our nation, did us the honour to meet us about two miles distance from the village. On these therefore we waited home the remainder of our way, and so returned before six a clock in good health to Smyrna; having been much obliged to Mr. Whalley for his care and conduct, as well as mutually to one another for that chearful and unanimous temper, which sweetened all our travels, and deceived the several fatigues of this laborious journey.


An Account of a voyage from Smyrna to Constantinople, and a journey back from thence to Smyrna, in the year MDCCI.

March xxvi.

This day I took my passage for Constantinople on board the King William galley, captain Nehemiah Winter commander, and accordingly went on board at six a clock in the evening; being favoured with the company of Mr. Dunster, Mr. Turner, and Mr. Clotterbooke, who after a short repast returned a shore. On the same ship imbarked for Constantinople the barút agá of Smyrna, with his harém, and a numerous family.

March xxvii.

We set sail this morning with a gentle gale, which served us as far as St. George’s island, that lies before the harbour of Fochia Vecchia, that is Phocaea; betwixt which and the sand head, occasioned by the discharge of the river Hermus, we came to an anchor at the approach of the evening.

March xxviii.

We set sail early this morning with little or no wind, the whole day continuing calm till towards the evening; when the gale began to grow fresh, and favouring us all night advanced us betwixt the main land of Aeolia and the island of Mitylene, or Lesbos, leaving the bay of Cuma, now called Sotaléa, upon our right hand.

March xxix.

This morning with a contrary and very gentle gale we turn betwixt the island and the main, having a fair view of the harbour,[33] city, and castle of Mitylene[57]; the last of which seems to be large and well walled, declining with a moderate descent on the side of a gentle hill. The same coast of the island is stored with many pleasant and considerable villages, well furnished with arable and pasture ground, and large woods at a distance, said to abound with deer. This day we advanced no farther than the isles of Musconisia, formerly Arginusae[58], situated betwixt the continent of Aeolia and the island of Mitylene. Here therefore we came to anchor about midday, lying opposite to the mouth of the Idaean or Adramyttian gulph, made by the two promontories of Cana on one side, and Lecton on the other, and fenced towards the continent of Troas (for so that whole region may be called) with the snowy and aspiring top of mount Ida.

March xxx.

This morning the wind springing fair about four a clock, we advance betwixt the island of Mitylene and the main of Aeolia, the narrowed bogáz is made by cape Siguri, antiently Sigrium, on the island side, and cape Babá, formerly Lecton, on that of the main. Near midday we begin to turn this latter cape, and thereby to gain the sight of Imbros and Tenedos; Lemnos not discovering itself till some hours afterwards, as we advanced with calm weather betwixt Tenedos and the Trojan shore; when the low land of Lemnos, with the round and exalted top of Athos on the other side of it, gave us a delightful prospect.

March xxxi.

This day turning to windward, we advance by nine a clock between the town of Tenedos and the Trojan shore, the narrow distance of about six or seven miles allowing us a distinct prospect of each. Tenedos is a middle sized compact town, fortified with a castle, seated immediately on the shore, and fenced toward the land with a round hill; but exposed to the sea without the advantage of any deep gulph, or commodious harbour. The whole island is green and level, and has the appearance, as well as reputation, of a rich and fertile soil. The wind not favouring us[34] from hence, we proceed slowly the whole day with calm and serene weather; and turning betwixt Tenedos and the Phrygian continent, after enjoying the delightful sight of the Trojan campain on one side, and of Tenedos, Imbros, and Samothracia on the other, we anchored about six in the evening under the celebrated promontory of Sigéum.

April i.

Early in the morning we endeavour to make sail from Sigéum, but being taken in a dead calm, we were employed the whole day in warping, that so passing the mouth of the Hellespont we might lie (if occasion should so require) sheltered by the new castle, and the point on which it stands. Having with great fatigue made two or three warps, the wind at length favoured us so far, as to advance us two leagues within the said new castle of Natolia, when the captain thought it better to anchor, than to proceed in so narrow a chanel and so dark a night.

At this place it will be most proper to set down my thoughts of Troy, and the whole Trojan shore, which for the space of three days I viewed at a convenient distance in calm and serene weather from the poop of the ship, feeding my eyes and mind with an eager and boundless curiosity. That, which in a large sense was called of old by Strabo, as at present by the modern Greeks, the campain of Troas, begins at the promontory of Lecton, and then fronting the isle of Tenedos ends in a delicious green and level country, as far as the strait of the Hellespont. But from the begining of this strait we sail by the main of that, which is properly to be called the campain of Troy. And because our modern travelers give a wild and indistinct account of this famous place, I shall endeavour to describe the bounds, and situation of it, in as clear and distinct terms as possible.

From cape Sigéum (whence antiently was computed the entrance of the Hellespont) you sail about five miles, till you come opposite to the mouth of the Scamander; and from thence about two miles farther to a small prominence of land, by the antients called Rhoetéum. Betwixt this Rhoetéum and Sigéum, the marine, which bent in an even uninterrupted semicircle, afforded a commodious[35] station for the Grecian fleet[59]. But as Strabo well observes, that in his time the Scamander began to interrupt this station, by the sand it discharges on the shore; so it has since gained more considerably on the sea, and formed that whole tongue of land, on which is now built the new castle of Natolia. However in the days of Priam the shore was undoubtedly more regular, as well as more retired. And opposite thereto in the adjoining continent, at such a distance as would admit the engagements, the flights, the pursuits, and the encampments of each army (as they are all described by Homer) we are to conceive of the walls and buildings of antient Troy. But still we must be cautious of pointing out, and distinguishing the very place; since in the reign of Tiberius Caesar we are assured by Strabo, that there remained not the least footstep of antient Troy to satisfy the curiosity of the most searching traveler[60]. So vain are the accounts of our modern journalists, who pretend to have seen the walls, the gates, or other ruins of Troy; that, which now remains, being nothing but the rubbish of new Ilium, or of that city once attempted there by Constantine.

April ii.

We endeavour this morning to continue our voyage, but make no considerable progress; because the gentle gale, that favoured us, could not prevail against the current of the Hellespont, which perpetually flows with a full and rapid course into the Aegéan sea. We therefore drive back, and content ourselves with coming to an anchor in the same place, from whence we weighed this morning; taking the opportunity of going to dine on the Asian shore. After midday a fresher wind advanced us within a small distance from the old castles; where it again deserted us, and obliged us to drop anchor a second time, to maintain the way we had gained in opposition to the violent stream of this chanel.


April iii.

We continue anchored at the same place, being all this day entirely becalmed. And the day following, the calm having changed into a contrary wind detained us still at the same anchor. But however disagreeable this interruption in the course of our voyage might prove to some others of the company, the leisure of those two days was to me very grateful. Nor could I esteem it any loss of time, but rather an advantage, on account of the favourable and unexpected opportunity it afforded me of visiting two so famous castles, together with the villages adjoining to them[61]. Going ashore therefore in the captain’s pinnace to the town on the Asian side (formerly called Abýdos[62], but by the Turks Eskí Natolia Hisar) with great pleasure I walked about the place, but found no footsteps of antiquity[63]. The town is large, but mean; yet famous for a curious sort of earthen ware finely glazed, which is made here, and vended in great quantities. The castle is intire, of a square figure, with bastions projecting at each corner, and with one side flanks the water on a level shore; where are to be seen betwixt twenty and thirty vast guns, such as perhaps are no where else to be found, except in some other parts of Turkey. They are of brass, and have a bore at least three quarters of a yard diameter; and are charged with stone bullets of the same dimensions, which lie at hand spherically cut. The charge of powder, as I was informed on the place by the barút agá of Smyrna, is an hundred and five okes. From Abýdos I crossed over in a small wherry to Sestos[64], that is, from Natolia to Rumeli Hisar, and in the way observed the art of the boatman in avoiding the force of the current, a circumstance mentioned by Strabo[65]. This town stands on a precipice, descending steeply towards the sea shore; and is better built, tho less, than Abýdos. It has a castle consisting of a triangular tower, enclosed within[37] an high wall of this figure, and that again with another triangular wall, all surrounded with a deep foss. In the same level with the water are mounted about thirty guns, of the same or rather bigger size than those of Natolia Hisar; and by each lie great heaps of stones, cut spherically to the dimensions of each canon. In relation to this town of Sestos, and the tower of Leander, once adjoining to the shore a little above the town, I remembered that request of Musaeus:

Σὺ δ’ εἴποτε κεῖθι περήσεις,
Δίζεό μοι τινὰ πύργον[66].

April v.

This morning a fresh wind favouring us at south west we set sail by six a clock, and passing the forementioned castles, within a league on the European shore, arrive at the town Maitos, antiently Madytos[67], seated on a low land within a small recess of the sea, and inhabited intirely by Greeks. The campain on each side is delightful to the traveler, as well as fertile to the inhabitants; being for the most part of a level situation, and in the neighbourhood of the villages it possesses, well cultivated and distinguished into pastures. About three leagues from Maitos we view on the same shore two pleasant and well situated villages, by the name of the Lesser and Greater Galata. Thence about the distance of two leagues we arrive betwixt Lampsacus on the Asian, and Callipolis on the European shore; the former a small town, and the latter a city of no inconsiderable extent; so that now they have changed their fortune, and that character, which they bore in the time of Strabo[68]. About twelve leagues from Callipolis lies the island Marmora, exceeding high ground, abounding with rich veins of durable and pretious marble; the same of which has given it the name of Marmora, instead of the ancient Proconésus. Adjoining to this are two lesser isles, Kutali and Alonia, the latter eminent for the product of excellent wines. Betwixt these islands and the beautiful Thracian shore, which here graces the Propontis, we were advanced by a brisk and favourable gale[38] at the approach of the evening, and from thence are now continuing our voyage, with the same auspicious wind, and hopes, if God permit, to arrive at Constantinople early by to morrow morning.

April vi.

Before ten last evening the wind having changed to our disadvantage, we find ourselves this morning but little advanced from Marmora; however by the benefit of turning to windward, we proceeded this day about the distance of ten leagues. Every other tack brought us near to the Thracian shore, and entertained us with a fair view of the most green and fertile campain I ever yet beheld. By the same means we enjoyed the opportunity of seeing the famous port and city of Heracléa, built behind a small eminence, which protends itself into the sea, and forms an haven on each side of the city. Not far from hence stands on the same shore the fair town of Selymbria; near which the night now overtakes us, and deprives us of that delicious prospect, which the whole day afforded us, of the feilds of Thrace. It was on this day, that captain Winter wanting his log line to be brought him from a chest in the great cabin, was not permitted by the barút agá to send any person down for it, by reason of his harém being there. At length he yeilded to let the captain’s son go, a child of about eight years of age.

April vii.

Early this morning I betake myself to the enjoyment of the same diverting prospect, whilst the ship, by the benefit of tacking, passes by Grande and Piccolo Ponte; and so betwixt nine and ten of the clock comes to an anchor within a short league of the Seven Towers, a castle which forms the extreme point of Constantinople. Here we continued wind bound the remainder of this day, because the narrowness of the chanel, into which we were now to enter; and the force of the current, which runs very rapidly out of the Thracian Bosphorus; did not suffer us to advance against the violent north wind.


April viii.

This morning about nine a clock the wind, which changed nothing of its point, yet abated so much of its strength, that it permitted us to turn from the Seven Towers along the bending walls of Constantinople, as far as the Seraglio point. But the violence of the current prohibiting us to make the harbour of Galata, the ship was again obliged to drop anchor, and wait till she could either make sail with a fair wind, or take the opportunity of a calm to be towed in by hamáls. We had not long cast anchor, when my esteemed freind, Mr. Matthias Goodfellow, was pleased to visit me on board the ship; and carrying me ashore in the boat, which brought him, first introduced me to his excellency, the Lord Paget, and then kindly allotted me a pleasant and convenient apartment in his house at Galata.

April xiii.

This day I attended the funeral of Signior Demetrasco, chief dragoman to the English ambassador, who tho by faith a Latin, yet by birth was of the Greek nation. And accordingly in the way of burying proper to this latter, I observed the manner of carrying the corps of the deceased barefaced, clothed in his late usual habit, and supported by four of his nearest relations; who were followed by women slaves, hired to make a hideous pomp, by tearing their hair, extorting forced and counterfeit tears, and repeating in a continual loud and frightful lamentation, ὦ ἀφέντη μου; that is, O my master!

April xv.

I paid a visit to Signior Rombarts, a gentile and ingenious merchant of the Dutch nation, at his house in Curuchesmée, a village on the Thracian Bosphorus. Here I observed a sophá room remarkably adorned after the richest Turkish fashion, the roof formed into a cupola, and the gilding and painting of the whole so splendidly curious, that it amounted at first to the sum of four thousand hungárs, or two thousand pounds sterling.


April xvii.

I took the opportunity of passing over the chanel to Constantinople, in company of Signior Wright, the Dutch minister of this place, with whom I visited the mint; the Grand Signior’s lions; and the mosques of Sultan Solymán, Sultan Bajazet, Sultan Achmét, and the Validée. That of Bajazet and the Validée are adorned only with two minarées, that of Solymán with four, and that of Achmét with six. They all much resemble one another, both in the inward and outward figure. They first consist of a spatious court, enriched all round with fair and regular cloisters formed by pillars, some of whose shafts are carved with white marble, some with serpentine stone, and some with porphyry; but all the capitals are of the modern Turkish figure. Next is the body of the mosque, covered outwardly with domes, and supported inwardly with four massy pillars, from the tops of which rises a regular cupola, forming the roof of the whole mosque. Whoever exactly compares the beauty and grandeur of these several mosques, will find that of Solymán more regular, and artificial in the outward frame; that of Achmét more magnificent in the whole, and on the outside more beautiful in the work of the pillars; that of the Validée, tho less in bulk and extent than the other two, yet more curious in the inward ornaments and workmanship than either; and that of Bajazet, which is the oldest, inferior to the rest both in bulk and beauty, except that some cast pillars, which form the cloisters of the court, consist of a more polite, shining, and pretious stone.

The same morning I visited the antient cirque of this city, a large oblong space flanked on three sides with the houses of the city, and on the fourth with the walls of the mosque of Sultan Achmét. Therein stand three pillars, the first of square stone, formerly covered with gilded brass, at the end of the cirque, and supposed to have been the goal of the stadium. It now declines much, having suffered greatly by time, and openings in the several joints of the stones. The second pillar is of wreathed brass, not above twelve feet high, lately terminated at the top with figures of three serpents rising from the pillar, and with their necks and heads forming a beautiful triangle. But this monument was rudely broken from the top of the pillar by some attendants of the late Polish ambassador, whose lodgings were appointed in this[41] cirque, opposite to the said pillar[69]. The third pillar is a long square stone, or obelisk, decreasing gradually from its basis, till it ends almost in a point. The matter is granate, or Theban marble; and each side is engraven with birds, beasts, and other hieroglyphical figures[70]. This had once lain upon the ground, and, as we may conceive from the inscriptions, a considerable time; till Theodosius erected it on a large and square basis, adorned on each side with various images; and having fixt on the top of this basis four brass supporters, on these he set the aforesaid hieroglyphical Theban column. There is a Latin inscription on one side of the basis, and a Greek one on the other, importing what I here mention concerning the erection of the pillar. The Greek runs thus:


The Latin thus:


The remaining verse, mentioned by Sir George Sandys, is now covered in the ground[74].

April xxii.

This day having first visited Mr. Schrever (then ill of the plague, of which he died two days after) in a small boat of the countrey, in company with Mr. Goodfellow and Mr. Evans, I made a tour up the Thracian Bosphorus. This chanel we may conceive to begin from the point of Scutari on one side, and that of Tophana on the other; from whence in a winding figure, graced on each side with seraglios of the chief courtiers of this empire, and on[42] the marine with almost continued villages, as also two castles in the narrowest part, it extends about eighteen or twenty miles, as far as the antient rocky isles of the Symplegades, which seem to open and shut, as one advances to them in the Bosphorus[75]. The largest of them is situated on the European shore, and till lately bore an antient Corinthian pillar, to which a vulgar error has given the name of Pompey’s column. It was erected not on a regular basis of its own, but upon an antient heathen altar, that now only remains; the shaft and capital of the pillar, which have lately fallen, being yet visible in four pieces among the cliffs of the rock. On the aforesaid remaining altar may be read this inscription in large Roman letters.


Returning from this pillar we stept on the adjoining shore, to see the large and lofty lantern there erected for the direction of mariners at the entrance of this difficult strait. About four miles from hence, in returning thro the chanel, we go ashore on the European side to visit a famous convent of Greek priests, by the name of Mauromolos, seated in the cliff of an hill, and enjoying a beautiful church, adorned with many rich pieces of religious furniture; as books bound in covers of massy silver; an ἁγία πύλη, or sacred curtain[77], wrought both richly and artfully in silk and golden figures; and a set of painting not of the vulgar sort, but regular and proportionable, the most curious of which was done in Muscovy. These fathers are exempted from their harách, on account of a present of excellent fair cherries, once presented to the Grand Signior. Over a fountain, that serves the convent with water, they have this device, not more proper for the place, than ingenious for the contrivance, in making the same words read forwards or backwards:


I was this day a witness of the strong current flowing towards the Propontis from the Euxine sea, as I had before observed it to[43] force into the Mediterranean from the ocean. Both which are taken notice of by Lucan:

Quaque fretum torrens Maeotidos egerit undas
Pontus, et Herculeis aufertur gloria metis,
Oceanumque negat solas admittere Gades[79].

April xxvi.

This day I crossed the water from Galata to visit the antient Chalcédon, where I saw the poor Greek church dedicated to St. Euphemia[80]; and a little distant from the present village, the place where was held the fourth general council. Returning we row under the shore, to see the Grand Signior’s beautiful seraglio near Scutari. When Chalcédon was an eminent city, which is now reduced to a slender village; Scutari, which by a contrary event is at present a fair and spatious city, was a poor and ignoble village, tho it then had the name of Chrysopolis, as we find by Zosimus[81].

April xxviii.

I retired to Belgrade, a small Greek village, seated about twelve miles from Constantinople, and about five from the Euxine sea; where the English ambassador has a countrey seat. It is pleasantly situated among large woods of oak, beech, chesnut, and other trees, and enjoys an healthy air and water. Here I took the opportunity of riding to visit the famous aqueducts of Constantinople, distant from this village about six miles, which were built by Valentinian the first[82], accurante Clearcho praefecto, as Cassiodorus says[83]; and afterwards repaired by Solymán the Magnificent, who exempted twelve adjacent Greek villages from the customary tribute of this empire, for the care he enjoined them of keeping these aqueducts in repair. The most remarkable of them are three great and lofty fabrics, built over so many valleys betwixt the adjoining hills, of which the longest has many but less arches, and may possibly be the entire work of Solymán. The other two have the appearance of a more antient and regular architecture, consisting[44] of two rows of arches one over the other; and those of the second row enclosed by pillars cut thro the middle, so as to render the fabric both passable like a bridge, and useful for the conveyance of water. The more considerable of these two consists only of four large arches, each twenty yards long, and something above twenty high, supported by octangular pillars of about fifty six yards in circumference towards the bottom. The village of Belgrade is likewise honoured with two royal kiosks, the one of the Grand Signior, the other of the Validée; each situated in two delightful recesses of the neighbouring wood, and adorned with natural avenues thro lofty groves of beech, oak, and chesnut. At each of these kiosks the waters of the public aqueduct are gathered into fair and ample cisterns of hewn stone, from whence they pass in arched chanels under ground to the royal city.

May vii.

After a pleasant retirement of ten days at Belgrade I returned to my lodgings at Galata, to take the opportunity of seeing the remaining curiosities of Constantinople.

May viii.

I walked almost thro the extent of the whole city to visit the famous pillar of Arcadius, a lofty and aspiring fabric, of the Doric order, built with a wonderful regularity and exactness of architecture, bearing on the basis, and on the whole shaft from top to bottom, various warlike figures of men in arms, chariots, galleys, and other ornaments, which in a spiral manner encircle the whole pillar; every figure being so well proportioned to the distance, from whence it is seen, that those at the top, the middle, and the bottom, appear to the eye exactly of the same size. Returning from this pillar I passed by the old pillar of Aurátbasar, defaced by the several conflagrations of the city, and bound in several places with rings of iron by the care and charge of the emperor Manuel, as is witnessed by this inscription on the top.


From this pillar I was desirous of passing thro Atmeidan, that is the hippodromus, or cirque above mentioned, to review the mosque[45] of Sultan Achmét, and make a stricter observation on the three pillars there erected. Here I was informed, that the brass serpentine pillar was erected by the emperor Leo, as a charm against the noisom number of serpents, which in his time infested the city; the same person superstitiously affirming, that since the late defacement of this pillar, by the breaking of the serpents heads, the city was again molested by innumerable noxious serpents. At the foot of the old pillar, formerly covered with brass, I read the remains of that inscription once taken by Sir George Sandys, but since his time part of it buried with earth, and part broken away; which is very erroneously printed in his Travels[84]. On the basis of the hieroglyphical pillar I observed the carved representation of the pillar it self, together with the figures of men labouring to erect it.

May ix.

By the interest of a Greek, who serves the bostangí bashá as his surgeon, I was admitted in company of Mr. John Philips, an eminent merchant, into the great seraglio of Constantinople, where we passed thro two courts, that form the entry of the palace; the first of which has a small arsenal, furnished with arms and ammunition; the second has piazzas on two sides, in which the janisaries are wont to eat, and opens at the upper end into the diván. From these two courts we were permitted to walk round the full extent of the garden, on each side of the palace. They are rude and wild places, affording nothing that is entertaining, but that wherewith nature has furnished them, which is an admirable situation rising into convenient ascents, and capable of infinite improvement, if it were happily in the possession of a Christian prince. The whole plat of ground, which they call the gardens of the seraglio, is covered with cypress and other trees, thro which are cut shady walks, where kiosks are seen of various sorts; the most eminent and remarkable of which is that called the Blew kiosk, fronting the town of Scutari. This and the other called the Alaí kiosk, fronting the city of Galata, are rich and splendid pleasure houses, covered with a gilded cupola, and adorned in their several walls with Indian tiles, and stately chimneypieces of solid brass. Passing thro the extent of the seraglio towards the extreme point, that looks up the Thracian Bosphorus, you observe a Corinthian[46] pillar consisting of white marble, of which the ignorant Turks report a fabulous and ridiculous account; but its true original is discovered by this inscription on one plane of the basis:


On the opposite plane is likewise this religious device:


Near this pillar we were admitted thro a gate, which opens into a green court, and that again into a garden kept in somewhat a regular order. From hence we ascend by a few steps into an apartment of the Grand Signior, where are two rich kiosks, a fish pond, a paved walk, and an open gallery. Here we were shewn the lodgings, where the unhappy princes of the empire are detained prisoners, as also the dark chambers of the ichoglans, and the door that leads into the harém of the Grand Signior. There also are shewn two or three instances of the strength and the activity of Sultan Morát; as a ponderous round stone, which with one finger he is said to have lifted by a ring fixt therein; likewise five thick and substantial sheilds, which being placed upon one another were peirced thro by a cast of his jiríd still sticking in them; also several silver pellets thrown by him with that violence, as to stick in an iron door. The above mentioned gallery is rich and splendid, adorned with various gilding of flower work, and supported with beautiful serpentine pillars. In the sides of one of the kiosks are three orbicular stones of fine porphyry, the middlemost of which is curiously polished, and thereby serves to reflect the prospect of the seraglio and adjoining city, in the nature of a looking glass. At the further end of the garden of the seraglio are the intire walls of an antient Christian church, and near to that the aviary of the Grand Signior, where I observed the hens of Grand Cairo, having blue gills and feathers curiously coloured with grey circles, and in the center of each a spot of black.

This day I retired again to Belgrade, for the advantage of its healthy air and water, and the entertainment of its shady situation. Hence on the twelfth instant I made a tour towards Domuzderé,[47] and the shore of the Black Sea, on which we rode for some space of ground, and returned by that called Ovid’s Tower, thro a fertile tract of ground, curiously varied with corn, grass, and shady woods.

May xx.

I returned again to my lodgings at Galata, and the next day crossed the water in company with Mr. Goodfellow to Constantinople, where after a visit to the mosque of Solymán the Magnificent, we obtained leave to ascend one of the minarées, from which the muezins call the Turks to their namáz, being about an hundred and twenty feet high. Here we took a delightful prospect of the whole situation and extent of Stambol, as likewise of Galata, Pera, and Scutari, with the neighbouring seas, canals, and land that encloses them. But the peculiar happiness of this day was the employment of about two hours, which we leisurely spent in viewing the stupendous church of Sophía[86], now profaned by its conversion into a Turkish mosque. It chiefly merits the regard of any curious traveler for the reliques of its rich mosaic work; the variety of pretious marble[87], which adorns it, consisting of serpentine, alabaster, and porphyry; and the architecture of its large and flat tho sublime cupola[88], in which are still the entire figures of Christ and the twelve Apostles, and in the windows many inscriptions in mosaic work from the New Testament.

May xxiii.

I returned again to Belgrade, as well for the opportunity of confirming my health, as for continuing my respects to his Excellency the Lord Paget.

June vi.

I waited on his Excellency from Belgrade to Pera, going first to Boiukderé and thence down the Bosphorus by boat.


June x.

I waited on his Excellency, as well to wish him a good journey, as to receive his commands for Smyrna.

June xiii.

I returned to the house of my esteemed freind, Mr. Goodfellow, in Galata; and the day following took leave of the Dutch ambassador and his family.

June xvi.

I made a visit by boat to the Seven Towers, now a prison for persons of quality, since by the fate of war it has fallen into the hands of the Turks, but antiently the Porta Janicula of Constantinople. The beautiful remains of this gate are still admirable, tho by the Turks suffered to be almost concealed by a dead wall, and the shade of the neighbouring trees. It is a regular and carved arch of white marble, supported by two beautiful pillars, adorned in the pilasters with a sculpture representing several military affairs, and flanked on each side the pillars with twelve tablets of carved work extremely well performed, which contain several poetical stories. Among the rest is Hercules and the Nemeaean lion, the beast prodigious and terrible, but confessing its conqueror by an agreable posture; Luna and Endymion; a winged Pegasus, managed by some of the Muses; a pourtraiture of the known combat of whirlbats; and an imperial figure, crowned by two celestial machines.

Returning by boat along the walls of the city, I observed its crooked figure and posture to the sea; and noted also the several square towers variously interspersed at unequal distances, each bearing an inscription much to the same purport, as may be seen by the following copy, which I took of them in the boat.

On a tower near the Porta Janicula:



On a tower in that part of the wall, which includes the seraglio:


Round the same seraglio:


About the same place:


June xvii.

About midday I saw the ceremonies of the dervíse convent of the order called Meuleví at Pera, consisting of their namáz, somewhat longer than is ordinary at other times and places. After which followed a sermon, that is, a gallimaufry of dreams and nonsense, pronounced by the prior of the convent, as he sat cross-leg’d on the seat of a two elbowed wooden chair. This was succeeded by their music in a gallery over the door; during which about fourteen dervíses led up a religious dance in the area of their theatre (for such is the figure and contrivance of it) in which they turn round almost in the same place with incredible swiftness, without either weariness or giddiness, for the space of half an hour. By this exercise their brain is so habitually fortified against dizziness, that one of them was able to hand upon the half moon of a minarée belonging to the Solymanjá, and from thence to salute the Grand Signior at his palace of Cushcui, at the same time firing off a pistol, and drinking a dish of coffee.

About five this evening I took leave of Mr. Goodfellow, and embarked upon a boat manned with seven hands, which I had hired for ten dollars to transport my self, my horse, and two servants from Galata to Montagnia, being the space of two leagues. When having a fair wind, which by degrees increased, and exposed me to the fatigue of a nauseous sea sickness, after midnight I entered the two capes, which form the Sinus Cianus. In this bay is that famous fountain mentioned by Virgil:

Hylan nautae quo fonte relictum
Clamassent; cum littus, Hyla, Hyla, omne sonaret[89].


June xviii.

By six this morning I landed safe at Montagnia, a small Turkish town, which seems to have been the Apaméa of the antients; Cius, or Prusa ad Arganthonium, being now a little village, that lies farther towards the utmost corner of the bay. Here I hire a guide and horse to carry my self, servants, and baggage to Prusia, antiently Prusa ad Olympum, where by God’s blessing I arrive safely about midday; and taking up my lodgings in the great silk kane, I there determine to repose till to morrow morning.

Prusia is a large and fair city, situate at the foot of Olympus Mysenus, a mountain of exceeding hight, and covered with perpetual snow; which from its bowels furnishes the adjacent city with many large and plentiful fountains, and by the same means gives nourishment to the beautiful and flourishing trees, which intermix themselves with the houses of the place. These are chiefly mulberries, which maintain the industrious worm, that produces the white and lovely silk of Prusia; which I here saw spun from caldrons of hot water, the several cods yeilding at once three threads upon a wheel, turned by the person who tends the caldron. Besides the several cold streams issuing from Olympus, there flows from the same origin a plentiful sulphureous chanel, which is collected into four hot natural baths much frequented, and with marvelous success, as is here generally beleived. The several fabrics of the baths are very stately, of which I shall describe that, which is called the new one, for a specimen of the rest. It consists first of a large oblong room paved with marble, enclosed all round with free stone, and covered at the top with three noble cupolas leaded on the outside. Round the inward walls of the room are sophás, about a yard high, and two broad, sufficient for the undressing of three hundred men. In the middle is a round stone cistern, overflowing with cold water, which continually washes the pavement, and serves for other uses of the bagnio. From this room you enter into a second moderately warm, having on the sides oblong troughs of hot water, and in the middle a fountain of cold; the walls, roof, and pavement being all of white polished marble. From hence you are led by the attendants of the bagnio into a third apartment of an orbicular figure, paved, roofed, and walled with richer marble, that is, of more[51] curious veins and various colours. The pavement hereof is sunk into a round cistern about six yards diameter, which is constantly full of hot water to the depth of about six feet, and surrounded with a stone bench for the ease of those, who care not to swim, or walk about the cistern. As the water constantly runs from thence by passages at the bottom of the cistern, so is it continually supplied by three large chanels, which from as many sides of the room yeild a plentiful stream of water, almost scalding at the first touch.

Besides these baths there is not much remarkable in Prusia, except what may be collected from the history of the place; as that it has the ruins of a castle, built by one of the Comneni, as appears from the following inscription:


It was made the first capital of the Turkish empire by Osmán, or Ottoman, the founder of that monarchy. And it has the monument not only of the said Ottoman, but likewise of his immediate successors, Orchán, Solymán, Amurát, Bagazet, and Mahomet the first.

June xxi.

This morning about eleven a clock I set forward on my journey, in company of a caraván bound to several parts on the road to Smyrna. With these I now travel three hours, and then conáck with them upon a convenient plat of grass, on the plains of Prusia. In the midway we cross the river Hippius runing thro these plains into the Sinus Cianus.

June xxii.

We travel this day to the left of the Palus Artynia, which being fed from mount Olympus, extends itself the length of many miles, and shews several little islands, in which are one or two compact Greek towns. At length the lake vents itself by the chanel of the river Rhyndacus, at which we arrive about six a clock this evening, and passing it at a long wooden bridge, near[52] the ruins of another built of stone, we take up our conáck on the opposite bank, in a village now called Ulubat, but antiently Apollonia ad Rhyndacum.

June xxiii.

We ride eight hours, and then bait on the banks of a little river, which runs towards those called the Adrastian plains. Three hours farther, at the village of Susegierlíck we cross the fair large and sandy chanel of the Aesépus, and proceeding still two hours more we at length conáck upon the hills.

June xxiv.

We this day pass a street called the Irongate, and in seven hours arrive at the fair capacious kane of Mandahóra, where are seven rude porphyry pillars thought to be of Trojan original. Here we repose till towards evening, and then once more crossing the Aesépus, which rising in Ida continues its course under the houses of this village, we proceed about an hour, and then lodge in a grassy plat about an hour to the left of Balihísar.

June xxv.

Rising now a little after midnight we proceed seven hours, and then resting in the woods till three in the afternoon, we pass by the usual conáck of Kurugelchíck, and one hour and an half from thence at length lodge in a pleasant green spot of ground on the mountain Temnus.

June xxvi.

By four a clock we proceed, and having passed the Temnus, by seven a clock we cross the chanel of the Caicus, which here is but small, not being far distant from its fountain head. But an hour farther at Gelemba we again observe it now much enlarged, and runing by the kane and houses of that place, from whence it bends its course on the left hand to Pergamus. At this kane we repose half an hour, and afterwards in the plains two or three hours more; but about midday we again remount, and in four hours cross the Hyllus, at a strait betwixt two hills; in an hour after which, in the midst of a fruitful and delicious plain, we arrive at Thyatira.


June xxvii.

I repose this day at Thyatira, which by the Turks is now called Akhísar. My design in staying here was to observe the scattered remains of architecture, which are to be seen in many places, together with some inscriptions. The most remarkable of these is one published, but erroneously, by Sir George Wheler[90]; which I copied from a stone coffin, on which it is cut.


About five in the evening I begin to move, having now left the caraván, and purposing to travel all night towards Magnesia. Before it is dark I again ford the Hyllus, and after that proceed over those fair plains, in which Scipio Asiaticus first won the empire of Asia for the Romans by the defeat of king Antiochus[95], as we find it described by Livy.


June xxviii.

By nine a clock this morning I reach Magnesia, where I repose myself the remaining part of the day with the following night. And then mounting by five the next morning, after a refreshment of about three hours I arrive at Smyrna safe, and in good health, by three a clock in the afternoon.

Μόνῳ τῷ Θεῷ τῷ ὁδηγοῦντι δόξα.


An Account of a journey from Smyrna to Adrianople, at the end of the year MDCCI, and begining of MDCCII.

February x. A. D. 1701.

This day about nine a clock, being a very rainy morning, I began my departure for Adrianople together with Mr. Farington; being favoured with the company of Consul Raye, Signior Hochepied, and nine or ten of our nation, as far as Hadgelar, where we were detained this evening by the rain.

February xi.

The rain continuing, we still remain at Hadgelar, in the house and company of Signior Laspaul. Among the sepulchers adjoining to this village, upon a stone pillar, are to be seen the four following imperfect inscriptions, cut at different times.

CONSTAN ..........
CONSTANT .........
....... VI ....


February xii.

We set forward this morning by six a clock, and about midday journeying to the left of mount Sipylus, and the fair city of Magnesia, we first cross a small bridge over a river, which feeds the Hermus, and about one a clock pass the Hermus itself, on a bridge of an hundred and sixty paces in length. From hence we ride half an hour on the silver banks of that pleasant river, and thence over the plain to Tartalécui, where we conáck.

February xiii.

We proceed on those fair plains, which lead towards Thyatira, and within an hour of the town come to the Hyllus or Phrygius, not now passable at its usual ford; we therefore ride along its banks, and crossing near to Thyatira arrive there in six hours from our last conáck. This city is seated in a pleasant and fruitful plain, well watered and wooded, and rich in many productions, but particularly that of excellent cottons. About the city I observed a great quantity of misseltoe on pear and almond trees, so thick on some of them, as to form the appearance of a true evergreen, covered with its own leaves and branches. And the like I afterwards observed on an alder, not far from Sorrícui. I here took these three Greek inscriptions, which have not, that I remember, been observed by others; and were before omitted by me, when at this place. The first of which is as follows.



The second is this:


The third thus:


To these may be added the following military epitaph.


February xiv.

We set out by eight a clock this morning, and at an hour’s distance from the city once more cross the Hyllus at the meeting of two opposite hills, which shut in the plains of Thyatira. Hence we pass thro a forest to Gelemba, an hour before which place occur caves with square and regular doors cut out of solid rocks. At Gelemba we lodge in the great kane, by the door of which at the distance of ten or twelve yards runs the famous Caicus. Here we drank a pleasant sort of Turkish liquor, made of grapes steeped in water with flower of mustard seed.

February xv.

By break of day we set forward, and in one hour’s travel begin to mount the foot of Temnus, a low but large and difficult mountain, and at the same place cross the first branch of the Caicus, not far from its fountain. We pass the rest of this day thro a stony road on the Temnus, and upon the same mountain six hours from our conáck lodge at the unpleasant Kurugelchíck; where we were joined by two Turks, Mustaphá and Chalíl, who accompanied us to Adrianople.

February xvi.

We travel still over the Temnus, and on our right hand discover a large open vale on the top of the mountain, rich and well cultivated.[58] In somewhat more than six hours we had passed the Temnus, and enter into a rich plain extended all along the backside of Ida, now Cordág; at the foot of which, about four miles distant from the road we descry the agreable seat of Balihísar. From this side of Ida thro a rich and fertile campain flows the river Aesépus, now called Simow by the Turks, which we cross by an old bridge at the village of Mandahóra, and there take our conáck in a large and convenient kane; which is more to be noted for its seven large pillars of course porphyry, now employed to support the roof of this barbarous edifice, but might possibly once stand in some fabric of antient Troy, from whence Mandahóra is distant about ten hours.

February xvii.

By eight a clock we set forward from Mandahóra, leaving the Aesépus to surround those hills on our right hand, whilst we proceed a shorter way, over small hills and dales, to meet it again in six hours and a half at Susegierlíck, where we were entertained in the public kane with excellent pike taken in that river.

February xviii.

We begin to bend our course more directly towards the Hellespont, and in order thereto proceed over a tract of gentle mountains, which Homer calls πόδα νείατον Ἴδης[99]; now frequented with wild beasts, but pleasant for the prospect they afford us on our right hand, whilst we pursue with our eye the whole course of the Aesépus almost as far as Mihalíck, where it enters the sea. In three hours we pass by an old village and adjoining castle called Minyás, which name it likewise lends to the neighbouring plain and lake; the former of which I take to have been antiently called the plains of Zelia, and the latter the λίμνη Δασκυλίτις[100]. Not far from hence flows a river by the modern name of Mulvetelée, passing into the adjoining lake; after which are small hills and pleasant villages, till in five hours we descend into the plains of Zelia, which are pleasant, fertile, and well cultivated. Here we pass thro large fields of wallnut trees, which bring us in five hours and a half to the banks of a fair and broad river; which I take to be the Tarsius of the antients, and by the Turks is now vulgarly called Tarza. We were here obliged to ferry over[59] with our horses three together in a boat, the stream being not securely fordable. In one hour and half from thence, thro a level and verdant campain to the left of the above mentioned lake, we come to Humumlée, and there conáck. The lake we leisurely viewed from our conáck, and could compute it to be about thirty miles in circumference, being always full of water, and stored with plenty of fish, among which it then furnished us with delicious pikes. We were here informed, that the river, we lately passed, empties it self into this lake, from whence by a new chanel it takes its course to Mihalíck, where together with the Aesépus it soon after falls into the sea. And directly beyond this lake we then beheld the fair exalted hills of Cyzicus, and the Peninsula Cyzicena.

February xix.

By six this morning we leave Humumlée, where we had been lodged not inconveniently in a farmer’s house, and riding thro a continued campain begin to view the snowy head of Ida. But in some time we again lose sight of it, and in five hours from our setting out approach to Bozacgée, seated in the Adrastian plains[101]; and at the same place to a large and fair river, by the Turks named Bocléw[102], which we leave on our left hand, till in two hours we cross it by a dangerous wooden bridge near Sorrícui[103], and there conáck.

February xx.

By six we leave Sorrícui, and proceed a little way, where a fair is held at St. Georgetide, which continues for the space of ten days, and is much frequented. We then mount a high and steep hill, which bears a stately and extended wood of oak; the lower shrubs of which produce a quantity of galls, and at the roots of these the ground is overspread with an excellent and well scented sage. On the top of this hill in three hours we have a near prospect of the sea, and isle of Marmora, with one side of the Peninsula of Cyzicus. By the fifth hour we begin to descend on the other side into a pleasant and green plain, and by the seventh[60] arrive at Dimotico, a market town, vulgarly so called from the corruption, as I suppose, of the antient Didymotichos. At this place occurs a moderate river with a wooden bridge; and an hour beyond the town a large one with a fair bridge of stone, built by the munificence of Sultan Mahomet the fourth. Here are to be observed the marks of a royal way, denoted by two equal and regular barrows on each side, by which lies the Grand Signior’s road to the wars. Hitherto our way had all along surrounded mount Ida, which often favoured us with the sight of its hoary head, and many rivers flowing from its watry bowels. We had now an hour farther to reach our conáck at Pismetlée; but losing our way, we were conducted by a cowherd (who was cudgel’d into this civility by Mustaphá bey) to a small pleasant village an hour farther in our journey, where being obliged to force our reception, we were thereupon lodged in the mosque of the place. This will appear an instance very singular in Turkey, and was looked upon as an abomination by the imám of the parish; who could not enter that place of his worship on the following morning, without saluting us three times with Stifer Alláh, that is, God forbid.

February xxi.

In an hard road betwixt barren hills we travel this day towards Jerdáck, a village which is the scale for passing the Hellespont, seated within half an hour of the antient Lampsacus. This road led us within four hours to the shore of the Propontis, along which we proceed four hours farther to our conáck, where the sea contracts it self into that strait chanel, betwixt Lampsacus and Callipolis. Here we find a large kane, in which are about twelve antient marble pillars, each of one fair intire stone, some round, others chanel’d, and of various orders; all which I conclude to have been undoubted reliques of the antient Lampsacus. In the yard of the mosque at Jerdáck I took the two following Greek inscriptions



February xxii.

By nine this morning we transport ourselves and horses by boat from Jerdáck to Gallipoli, and in three quarters of an hour arrive by God’s blessing on the European shore; where we bid a joyful farewel to that of Asia, after a severe sea sickness, which I endured in the passage. At which time three years and three months had passed, since my first arrival at Smyrna.

Callipolis, now called Gallipoli, was taken by the Turks in the reign of Orchán, and anno Hegirae 760. It is now a city considerably large, but thinly peopled, and decayed in commerce; tho it still plentifully enjoys that of cottons and aniseed. It stands upon a blunt point of land, betwixt two small open bays, of which that to the north is exceeding pleasant, and has on its green banks two fair Turkish sepulchers, the newer and more magnificent being that of Sinán pashá. Adjoining is a kane of very gentile fashion, with a mosque, and other instances of charity. The southern bay has the walls of the antient arsenal, for the lodging of stores and galleys, which formerly wintered in this place. Besides which the vast rocks, which lie before the town, are very remarkable; being a strange but natural mixture of sand, pebbles, and cockleshells, of which materials all the houses of the town are built. Here I saw a stone figure of our Savior’s baptism in the river Jordan, with another of the B. Virgin, carved contrary to the practice of the Greek church in basso relievo.

February xxiii.

We remain at Gallipoli this and the following day, expecting Mr. Farington’s caraván. The breadth of the Hellespont is here much inlarged, which at Lampsacus, according to Xenophon, was but fifteen furlongs[104].

February xxv.

We set forward from Gallipoli in a smooth and pleasant road, which by degrees ascending begins quickly to show us the narrow isthmus of the Chersonésus, with the Propontis on one side,[62] and the gulph of Cardia, or Sinus Melas, on the other, the extreme neck of land being scarce three miles broad. Our road now inclines to the left hand, and so brings us round the blunt end of the gulph, into which flows the fair river Melas, which about the fourth hour from Gallipoli we cross at a regular and well built stone bridge. Hence we have a stony and mountainous way to Allalmalée, a Christian village, where we conáck. Before bed time we had here the company of the poor ignorant παπᾶς, who among other things told us, that he lately gave the bishop of Heracléa seventy dollars to ordain his son a priest.

February xxvi.

We depart from Allalmalée, and in two hours and a half arrive at Malgara, where I observed a Turkish drink called bozók, being a whitish thick beer made of millet seed. This is a large and pleasant town, abounding in the production of honey, and bears the name of a lady, who redeemed its security from plunder for a vast sum of money, from the first Turkish conqueror. It is now reserved as a place of banishment for the prime ministers of the empire. We proceed homeward till about the sixth hour of this day’s journey, when having lost my watch the preceding evening, we searched the company upon some suspicion we had entertained of a catergée, who yesterday joined us; and accordingly we find it concealed in the corner of his breeches. In ten hours we arrive at Derrícui a small Christian village, and there conáck. I must not omit, that this day we discovered to the left the mountains of Samothrace, the course of the Hebrus, and more forward the snowy top of Rodope.

February xxvii.

In two hours from our conáck we arrive at Uzunkuprée, a town which has its name from the fair adjoining bridge of an hundred and sixty six arches, and by Saidino is called Ponte d’Erchiene[105]. We were the full space of fifteen minutes in passing this bridge, and towards the further end, which is the most conspicuous part, we observed ten or twelve heads carved on the battlements, that enclose the bridge, in memory, as it is said, of so many chief workmen strangled by Sultan Morát the first (who founded it) for building it so narrow, as not to admit of two carts at once. In two hours farther we arrive at the sandy and delicious banks of Hebrus, just[63] opposite to the city and castle of Dimotico, where Sultan Morát began to seat the palace of his emperial residence. From hence we pass along the bank of that slow, but then plentiful river[106], and after two hours and a half take up our lodgings in a cold inconvenient hovel at Elchilée.

February xxviii.

By five this morning we proceed in a level sandy road on the banks of the Hebrus, where we observe a vast quantity of wild fowl, and by nine arrive at the palace of my Lord Paget in Adrianople, being filled with admiration at the beauty of the river, campain, and prospect of so fair a city.

Adrianople is seated on the Hebrus, at the place where it receives the Tunsa and the Harda. It is a fair and compact city, about five miles in circumference, rising gently on the side of a small hill from the banks of the Hebrus and Tunsa[107]. What is there remarkable, may be reduced to the seraglio, mosques, and sharshées. The seraglio is built in a flat and verdant plain, at the foot of the city betwixt the Hebrus and Tunsa, but more immediately upon the banks of the latter. It is surrounded almost on all sides with a thick grove of beech and elm, which within form the resemblance of a park, and outwardly yeild a grateful prospect, in regard that the countrey about it is almost wholly naked of wood. A square wall encloses the fabric, which is truly mean, and of a confused intricate figure; but, as is commonly said, well contrived for convenience. The matter is plain free stone, and the covering of lead. Nothing can be more grateful to the eye, than the sight of this level verdant situation; and yet in regard of its lowness, and too near approach to the rivers, nothing more unwholesome. It seems to stand in the very same place, where Constantine gave that famous defeat to Licinnius[108].

The mosques observable in this place are those called Eskijamí, the Three Sheríffs, Sultan Bajazet, and Sultan Selím. The first[64] of these is so called from its antiquity, which Morát the first here established, and converted to that profane use from a Christian church, of which it still retains the intire figure. The second is to be observed for the abundance of porphyry, which appears in the fabric, and the various architecture of the four minarées, together with many serpentine pillars, which support the porticos of the area. The third likewise has many serpentine pillars round the area, and those of interrupted veins and distinct materials, which seem to persuade one, that they are of a cast substance. But the greatest beauty of this city, and as some think of the whole empire, is the mosque of Sultan Selím the second, built by him out of materials brought chiefly from the ruins of Famagusta, in the island of Cyprus. Yet in regard that the area is not square, nor supported with so rich or correspondent pillars, excepting four that adorn the front, I esteem it inferior to the two noble mosques of Solymán and Achmét at Constantinople. Otherwise it is a fair structure, built with great conformity of its several parts, and like a theatre consisting of one stately room ending upwards in a cupola. It is adorned with four regular and beautiful minarées, each of which has two hundred forty four stairs leading into the uppermost balcony. For in each of them are three balconies, that imitate the capitals of pillars, between which the whole body of the column is regularly chanel’d. One of these is famous for having three staircases winding one within another, of which one opens into the three balconies, another into the two highest, and the third only into the last of all. From thence we once took the opportunity of viewing the several parts and precincts of the city, the plat of the seraglio, the course of the rivers, and the face of the countrey below, with the busy care of the several mortals, wandering like so many ants on that spot of earth then subject to our eye. Here I could not but pleasantly recollect those templa serena of Lucretius, L. i. ℣. 8.

Despicere unde queas alios, passimque videre
Errare, atque viam palantes quaerere vitae.

Adjoining to Sultan Bajazet I was shewn a madhouse or bedlam, which is a noble building of a round figure, covered with a regular cupola, and having a large area in the middle, and therein a cistern of water; but conveniently divided all round into six chambers made archwise, and opening on one side into the area. Here were kept three madmen, all furnished with clean mats, and[65] tied close down to the pavement by an iron chain fastned about their neck for greater security.

The sharshées are two long and fair porticos, walled with brick or stone on each side, and securely arched over head, so as to resist fire. The shorter of these adjoins to Sultan Selím, and is appropriated to the shoemakers: but the other, being about four hundred paces long and six broad, is filled with shops of various trades; all which are shallow niches in the wall of equal hight and breadth, and in general so regularly contrived, that the whole represents a beautiful and rich gallery.

The whole way from Gallipoli to this place lies thro a campain rich and fertile, abounding with villages, and those almost all Christian. However it wants the lovely fountains, frequent woods, and pretious shrubs of Asia.

March iv.

Sir Robert Sutton, successor to my Lord Paget in his embassy to this port, who arrived at Adrianople about Christmas last, had now his audience of the grand vizír. My Lord Paget, with the retinue of his own family, and the English merchants now resident in this place, repaired to the palace of his successor about twelve a clock. At the same time came thither from the vizír, the chiaush bashá, with an horse richly furnished for Sir Robert, and about thirty others for the use of his retinue. From hence the two ambassadors conducted by the chiaush bashá, and attended by a large retinue of the English nation, proceeded to the palace of the vizír. Upon their arrival into the room of audience, the vizír soon entered, supported by his kayá and the reis effendi, and congratulated with acclamations from his whole attendance. He seated himself in a corner of the sophá, and the ambassadors sat before him on two stools. After the old ambassador had presented his successor, Mauro Cordato, who is master of the ceremonies, and dragoman to the Ottoman Port, gave and returned the ordinary forms. Then Sir Robert delivered his Majesty’s letter to the vizír, after which both ambassadors were treated with coffee, sherbet, and incense, and the whole ceremony at length concluded with the distribution of about twenty four caftans. The vizír is about sixty years of age, of short stature, and a meek serene[66] countenance; tho at this time somewhat moved with concern for the loss of his only son of two years of age. At this ceremony he appeared in the selimée turbant, which is a cap of state, and was conceived to do an honour to the audience. It resembles the form of a sugar loaf, only indented at the bottom on four sides, and bound obliquely with a gold ribban.

March x.

Sir Robert Sutton had his audience of the Grand Signior at the seraglio of this place, whither he rode about seven a clock on a horse of state, conducted as before by the chiaush bashá, and attended by all the gentlemen of the English nation. At these audiences it is the custom of the Turks to show somewhat of the discipline of their soldiery, together with the process of their justice at the diván. And therefore so soon as his Excellency entered at the first gate of the seraglio, into a large and green court, some companies of the janisaries, ranged on the opposite side, ran with a great but orderly agility, to seize several dishes of their broth, placed at equal distances on the area of the court; after which they were remanded by the churbegées, who ran among the ranks, and instead of words of command ordered them by a certain gentle hissing into their respective stations. During this entertainment his Excellency advanced towards the diván, which is an oblong ground room, opening on the front into a gallery, by which only it is separated from the court above mentioned. It is surrounded on three sides with benches, covered with embroidered silk, and the floor is laid with carpets; otherwise it has no ornaments, nor embellishments of the walls. On the middle of the principal bench, where it faces the door, sat the grand vizír, having one crimson cushion under him, and another to support his feet, by which only he is distinguished from other ministers of the diván. On his right hand upon the same bench sat the caimekám, and Abdollá pashá son of the late Mustaphá Kioprili; but on his left hand the two cadileskérs, the one for Europe, and the other for Asia. The two side benches were took up on the right hand by the nishangeé bashá, and on the left by the tefterdár. Sitting in this order, and maintaining a profound silence, they dispatched several causes of meum and tuum, in the sight of the ambassador and his retinue; in which there was no other process, than the reading several succinct cases to the vizír, together with the[67] depositions of the witnesses, upon which he pronounced his verdict, and the parties were immediately dismissed. But in these, and other affairs of the like kind, the reis effendi and teskergée bashá also assist; the former of which acts as solicitor and secretary to the diván, and the latter is the gentleman usher, who carries all messages and papers betwixt the Grand Signior and the vizír. In the mean time the Grand Signior, tho he is never personally present in the diván, yet he is at his pleasure a witness and overseer of all that passes there, by means of a lattice window, which looks out of his apartments just over the seat of the vizír. These ceremonies ended, there were brought in divers tables and placed before the vizír, the caimekám, the nishangée, and the tefterdár; all which being presently furnished with various Turkish dishes, the ambassador sat down to eat with the vizír, and several gentlemen of the English nation with the other ministers. After this repast (the vizír having first demanded leave for an audience) the ambassador and all the rest of the English gentlemen retired into a distant part of the gallery, which fronts the chamber of the diván, and other lodgings of the seraglio, where they were all vested, and then sat down in order till the diván arose, and the several ministers proceeded to the apartments of the Grand Signior, the latter preceding, and the vizír closing the procession. Soon after his Excellency was called to take his audience, to which himself, and four gentlemen, who were permitted to follow him, were conducted by two capigées, who led them on each hand, in a rude and hasty manner. By these they were thus carried from the outward gallery into a square paved court, and from thence into a railed entry, that landed them immediately in a ground room, which was the presence chamber of the Grand Signior. It was a small room, of a square figure, lined on the sides and floor with crimson silk, and that embellished with an high and thick embroidery of golden branches. In one corner was erected an high sophá about two yards square, adorned with four rich cushions, and an answerable minderá, all of which were in a manner intirely covered with embroidery of pearl. On this sat the Grand Signior, regarding the ambassador in an oblique posture, and sinking so deep in the minderá, that his thighs and legs were not to be distinguished. The other ornaments of the room were two windows, each furnished with two cushions, answerable to those of the sophá; and more remarkable than all the rest, a royal chimney cloth, embroidered like the covering of the floor[68] and walls, but enriched beyond these with various large jewels set in the corners of the work, such as pearls, diamonds, rubies, emeralds and the like. The ambassador stood about three yards distance from the Grand Signior, where he delivered himself to Mauro Cordato in Italian, and he interpreted his credentials immediately to the Sultan. But his Majesty’s letter being handed to Mauro Cordato by his Excellency, it was by him delivered to the nishangée, by him to Abdollá pashá, and by him to the vizír, who laid it before the Grand Signior’s feet. Upon this the Sultan directed himself to the vizír in these words: “We esteem the King of England as our freind. On our part, all due regard shall be had to the sacred capitulations made with him; and accordingly be it your care to see them maintained.” This said, the ambassador was dismissed the audience room, with the four gentlemen, who only were permitted to attend the ceremony. Upon which all the English immediately mounted at the outward gate of the seraglio, and there stood in rank and order to see the janisaries dismissed; which is done in a regular but hasty manner, and seems to resemble the decursio of the Roman army. After this the several Ministers of the diván, begining with the least, and ending with the vizír, made a pompous procession on horses of state, adorned with broad guilded bridles, and housing of the French fashion, wrought with nothing but entire thread of gold. After these followed his Excellency on an horse and furniture of the same quality, and so returned with the attendance of several chiaushes, and all those of the English nation, to his own palace.

The habit of the several ministers of the diván is exactly of the same form with the caftans, which they ordinarily present; but the matter is either silk, or fine grogran, fur’d with sable. Their turbant is that called the mugevezée; but that of the Grand Signior is the same with the common agás, only distinguished by three small, but fine and curious black feathers, with waves of ash colour, being the outmost feathers on the wing of the arguron, a rare Muscovian bird. The present made by the ambassador to the Grand Signior consisted of sixty pieces of different materials, as cloth, silk, sattin, velvet, and the like, all of them at the charge of the company.


March xviii.

My Lord Paget had this day his audience of leave of the grand vizír, where, besides the ordinary forms and ceremonies of coffee, sherbet, incense, and caftans, the letters of the vizír and Sultan were brought in by the reis effendi; and being by him reverently kissed and delivered to the vizír, were by the vizír kissed in the same manner, and delivered to the ambassador, by whom they were kissed again, and committed to Mr. Paget, who bore them respectfully on his two hands during the whole procession to his Excellency’s palace. The Sultan’s letter was enclosed in a cover of cloth of gold, about a foot broad, and a yard long, being wrote on fine Persian paper made of silk.

March xix.

His Excellency had audience of leave of the mufti, a reverend person about seventy years of age, somewhat corpulent, of an insolent and proud aspect, well learned in the Turkish law and polity, and formerly hogia to the present Sultan. He is extremely covetous, and at the same time prodigiously rich, having hoarded, as it is said, one great part of the current gold of the empire, and likewise purchased many vast and extensive possessions about Erzerum and Trebisond, which is his native countrey.

March xx.

His Excellency had audience of leave of the caimekám, a courteous, affable, and obliging person, of no great estate or character, except that his wife is sister to the Sultan. The same day, being Friday, I saw the Grand Signior riding from his palace to the mosque, where he paid his public devotion. He was preceded by several chiaushes, then by six led horses, and then by several solácks, habited in short vests, and adorned with high caps of gilt silver. On each side of his horse walked three churbegées, bearing on their heads so many beautiful white ostrich feathers; and behind him followed on stately horses his selictár agá, and kyslér agá. He is of a low stature, but broad and corpulent; has a short neck, a large squat yellow fleshy face, a flat nose, a low forehead, with cheeks remarkably long and squabby. In his coins[70] he stiles himself, The mighty Sultan of the earth and sea, a Sultan son of a Sultan, Sultan Mustafá Han, son of emperor Mahomet.

March xxi.

His Excellency had audience of leave of the nakéib effendi, who is the son of the mufti, and by patent the designed successor of his father. He is about thirty years of age, of good parts and behaviour, naturally arrogant, but made shew on this occasion of an affected courtesy.

March xxiv.

I this day saw the heads of five robbers brought from Natolia, and laid at the gate of the seraglio, where by custom they are to remain three suns. They are only the skins of so many criminals heads stuffed with straw.

April ii. A. D. 1702.

His Excellency, my Lord Paget, now drawing near to his departure was this day invited to the grand vizír’s, where among many singular tokens of that esteem, which this court truely bears to his person and character, he received a splendid feast, together with the present of a sable vest to the value of two purses; as also a noble horse, and sumptuous furniture, computed at three more.

April iii.

I saw the extravagant devotion of an enthusiastic sect of Turks which they publicly acted in the manner following. After their ordinary midday namáz at a little mosque of this city, they repaired to an adjoining chapel, where were seated many Turks of different quality, who came thither as spectators only, and to entertain their curiosity. These several devotées, who were to act their part, were decently ranked in circular seats, till the prior of their order entered, on which they all rose to reverence him. He immediately seated himself in the corner of the room, and with the whole fraternity struck up a religious hymn, which they carried on in a decent, solemn, and harmonious manner. This done, they rose upon their feet, to the number of about sixty[71] persons, and form’d themselves into a close ring, each one holding his hands on the breast and neck of his foreman. In this posture they advanced round, repeating with a deep and forcible voice, Hú hú; at the same time stamping violently on the ground, and with great force throwing their heads towards the center of the ring. Soon after two step’d within the circle, and turn’d swiftly upon their heel; upon which the whole company quickened their motion, and grew into a warmth and fury, which is rather to be admired, than expressed in words. For two hours and an half they acted a continual fury, sometimes huging one another in a cluster, at other times kneeling in a confused company, and then runing round in a circle without cessation[109], throwing about their hands, tossing their heads, and repeating in hidious cries, Hú héy, Alláh hulláh, Allá hú, or, Allá héy. As they grew hoarser and weaker, both their sound and action exactly resembled the barking and snarling of dogs[110]; till at length being covered with sweat, and worked up to the last pitch of extasy, they concluded with certain versicles, which they repeated from the mouth of the prior, and so dismissed us[111].

April iv.

My Lord Paget paid his last visit this morning to the vizír kayá, who presented him with a gentile horse and furniture. In the afternoon he likewise took his last leave of the reis effendi, who honoured him with the like present, and dismissed him with expressions, that witnessed the sincere and cordial respect he bore him. I shall conclude this narrative with observing only, that about Adrianople grows an excellent red wine, which I take to be that mentioned by Hesiod in his Oper et Dies, L. ii. ℣. 107, where he says: Πετραίη τε σκίη, καὶ Βίβλινος οἶνος.


An Account of a journey from Adrianople, thro Bulgaria, Walachia, Transylvania, Hungary, Germany, Flanders, Holland, and thence to England, in the years MDCCII and MDCCIII.

April viii. A. D. 1702.

This day about ten a clock my Lord Paget set out from Adrianople, and began his journey homeward with a splendid equipage. First proceeded two chiaushes, and six janisaries; then the three flags of the arms of England, the union, and St. George, after these the gentlemen of the horse, with thirteen led horses; next the agá, appointed by the government to conduct his Excellency; who was followed by four coaches, each drawn by six horses, in the last of which rode his Excellency himself, and in the first some gentlemen, who accompanied him in this journey; namely, Count Gylderstope of Sweden, Mr. George Montague, nephew to my Lord Hallifax, and his tutor Mr. Gangain.

For conveniency of carriage, and accommodations of the journey, his Excellency was furnished with seventy one waggons, which were to attend him to the extreme bounds of the Turkish empire, at the sole charge of the Port. Tho this was but the least mark of esteem, which he received from thence; as it may be reasonably computed, that they presented him to the value of near twenty purses of money, since his last arrival at Adrianople, in the following particulars. For the fitting up of his palace in that city, five hundred dollars: for the cushions and other furniture of two sophá rooms, six hundred: for a stately horse from the grand vizír, five hundred: for the rich furniture of the same, a thousand: for a sable vest at the same time, a thousand: for an horse and furniture from the vizír kayá, five hundred: for the like from the reis effendi, five hundred: for fifteen mules from the government,[73] at about fifty dollars each, seven hundred and fifty: for seventy two horses from the same, at thirty dollars each, two thousand one hundred and sixty: and lastly for one hundred days tain, or allowance, from the Port, at the rate of fifty dollars a day, making five thousand.

This day his Excellency and his retinue travel slowly about the space of fifteen miles, and about three a clock arrive at a small village called Senigée, where we find the waggons disposed in their several stations, the apartments of each company alloted, and three tents (tho not pitched this evening) ready for the service of his Excellency; which I here mention once for all, as being the constant method of each following conáck.

April ix.

From Senigée we proceed this morning in three hours to Cokúck Derocut, and from thence in the like time to Boiák Dervent, where we find his Excellency’s tents orderly and conveniently placed, and all things regularly disposed for this night’s lodging. Here we saw an old Bulgar Christian, named Staón, aged one hundred and twenty years[112]; who told us, that he had all his life time been subject to great and continual sickness, and had three times changed his teeth, once in his infancy, and twice in his old age. They were now for the most part intire, his senses of hearing and tasting very lively, and his sight but little decayed; his beard and his eyebrows lately became perfectly black, but the hair of his head milk white, and the skin of his breast like the bark of an old weather beaten beech.

April x.

We travel this day from Dervent to Jenícui, having hitherto found the country to consist of a level campain, and a soil that promised fertility, were it more happily furnished with inhabitants, water, and wood.

April xi.

We now proceed from Jenícui to Pashácui, so called from the residence of Achmét Gerai Sultan, who is a Tartar prince, happily[74] banished from his own barbarous country to this fair and delightful village, situated in a verdant plain, that is better furnished with wood, than the campain we had lately passed; and watered with a small river, which seems to rise from the bowels of mount Haemus, and bend its course towards the Tunsa.

April xii.

From Pashácui we arrive at Comorwa, a rich well cultivated village, and plentifully supplied both with wood and water. In our way hitherto from Adrianople we sometimes observed drummers, placed in the nature of watchmen, to give notice of the security of the road.

April xiii.

From Comorwa we proceed in two hours and a half to Dobral, leaving in view to the right hand a large Turkish town called Cornibat, famous for dying, and preparing the fine purple and yellow leather of this country, which it vends in great quantities. From Dobral we begin to ascend the foot of Haemus, where the way winds so artificially, as to take away the difficulty of ascent. Here crossing a rapid river, which forms its chanel in the body of the mountain, and thro a variety of diverting shades and clifts, we arrive at length at an open plain on the top of the hill, and therein at a true country paradise of Bulgar Christians called Challikcavák[113]; where a new church has been lately obtained for the inhabitants, by the interest of Count Oetingh, embassador extraordinary from his Imperial Majesty. Here the damsels of the parish entertained us this evening with a dance, which tho performed with no great art or variety, yet had a certain plainness and simplicity, which was truly grateful. The women here wear as ornaments, a sort of cravat consisting of various silver coins, and large bossy silver bracelets; who dismissed us the next morning with corn strewed in our way.


April xiv.

On the top of the hill we proceed for some time in a level road, thro a stately grove of oaks; after which the way begins to descend, and being shortened by the pleasure of the shady scene on each side, leads unexpectedly into the adjoining plain. In this we travel about an hour, near the foot of the delightful Haemus, and then find our quarters ready to receive us at a Christian village, called Trágoe. And indeed all the villages, which we had hitherto passed from Adrianople, were intirely inhabited by Christians, who by nation are Bulgarians, but by their faith of the Greek communion.

April xv.

We still continue our journey at the foot of the mountain, till in an hour’s time we arrive at Eskí Stambol; from whence the way, now leaving Haemus at our backs, carries us in four hours more to the first Turkish village, which had occurred in our progress, called Boklar. Mount Haemus being the limit, that divides Thracia from Bulgaria, or Moesia Inferior of the antients, we made this day’s journey in the latter; which hereabouts appears as pleasant, as a just mixture of hills and vales, woods and lawns, arable and pasture ground can make it. The above mentioned Eskí Stambol is a name given by the Turks to the remains of an ancient city (possibly the Oescus Triballorum) which at the foot of Haemus shews the intire tract of two walls; the inward square, and of about a mile in circumference; the outward almost circular, and containing the compass of five miles. But besides these it has no reliques of carved work, or any inscription, that may give light to the true name or history of the place. In one corner only of the inward wall are several crosses, and an image of the Παναγία, or Virgin Mother, barbarously cut, with two or three rude lines of modern Greek characters, in which nothing but the word Βασηλίσαν, or Queen, was now legible, and that corruptly written, as it is here copied. By the abovementioned walls runs a small river from the Haemus, now called by the Italians Monte Argentato, and by the Turks Batkán.


April xvi.

Over a country, which is truly rich, as well as pleasant, and curiously varied by easy ascents and descents, we proceed in five hours from Trágoe to Arnoútcui; a village whose inhabitants are of the Greek communion, tho its name implies them to be of Albanian original.

April xvii.

Thro a pleasant tract of country, containing a grateful variety of arable ground, pasture, and woods, we arrive in seven hours at Uzungée Alon. By the way we passed several villages, as likewise a large market town, wherein are seven mosques, and a palace of the pashá of Nicopoli, which goes by the name of Rásgrad. The cadí of this place, with an alaí chiaush, and other officers, came an hour out of town to meet his Excellency.

April xviii.

Thro a like country, only a little more woody, we continue our journey to Uppéer. And from thence the day following, where we first begin to see the Danube, we proceed thro a rich, pleasant, and well cultivated country, till about twelve a clock we arrive at Tutracán, on the banks of the river.

April xx.

We stay at this place, employed in the care of transporting his Excellency’s equipage on the other side of the water; and in the mean time cannot but reflect with pleasure on the agreable tract of ground, which for five days we had passed thro in Moesia Inferior. A country, which (however decried by Ovid, and disparaged by our modern geographers) for the richness of its soil, variety of rising and falling ground, elegancy of prospect, and a competent provision of wood and water, is perhaps not to be paralleled by any other spot in the universe. But tho the whole tract of this country, which descends gradually from the foot of the Haemus to the banks of the Danube, is rich both in arable and pasture ground; yet the inhabitants seem excessive poor, and are defended from the injuries of the weather by houses very meanly built.


April xxi.

His Excellency and his retinue this day pass the Danube, between Tutracán and the mouth of the Argisch, about eight in the morning, at a passage about a mile broad. Upon landing, his Excellency was complimented from the Prince of Valachia by his cousin german Count Tomáso Cantacuzéno, and was received by a guard of fifty men, and two coaches of six. In the finer of these his Excellency rode about a mile into Valachia, along the banks of the Argisch, and then alighting was entertained under three rich tents, sent likewise by the Prince for his reception.

April xxii.

His Excellency continued his journey about six hours thro the Valachian, a country which on this side is exactly level, and luxuriantly rich, but desolate for want of culture and inhabitants. In the road we meet with wooden crosses, erected in many places to excite the devotion of Christian travelers; as also a convent of monks about two hours short of our conáck, near which the Argisch receives the chanel of the Dembowitza. At length we arrive at a miserable collection of cottages, scarce deserving the name of a village, but blessed with the convenience of a delicious and healthy water; where we find the tents both of the Prince and his Excellency ready pitched for his entertainment this evening. We were conducted hither by Count Tomáso, who undertook the care of the public tain to be furnished for his Excellency.

April xxiii.

We proceed four hours thro a pleasant wood, enriched with lilia convallium, and other flowers; and at length pitch our tents at Popest, which in the Valachian language signifies the same as Priest-town. Here about five in the evening his Excellency received an express by Baron Minsheim from Count Rabutin, with the most unhappy news of the death of his Britannic Majesty, on the eighth past.


April xxiv.

About seven this morning his Excellency set forward, and prepared for his entrance into Bucurest, which is distant about an hour and half from Popest. Not far from his conáck he was met by a rich coach from the Prince of Valachia, complimented by his two eldest sons, and attended with a guard of about five hundred men. His Excellency having mounted the coach, preceded by the guard, made his entry about nine a clock; when he was conducted to a spare palace of the Prince, near that of his own residence, and entreated to use it as his own home. It is a fair and gentile house, built of stone, and covered agreably to the custom of this place with wooden tiles; and being furnished with apartments after the Christian fashion, may be esteemed magnificent, when compared with the barbarous edifices of the neighbouring Turks. From the front it looks into a large garden, and from the right wing into another of somewhat a lesser size; both which are agreable, and afford a convenience of shade and verdure.

This afternoon the Prince came on horseback thro the lesser garden to visit his Excellency, who met him at the garden door, and could scarce prevail with him to precede in going up stairs. He returned in an hour, and gave opportunity to his uncle, Constantinus Cantacuzenus, who has the office of grand stolnicho, or steward, in this court, to pay my Lord the same compliment. The name of the Prince is Joannes Constantinus Bassarabas, who has enjoyed the principality about thirteen years, having succeeded Serbanus Cantacuzenus, brother of the above mentioned Constantinus Stolnichus. He is a promoter of good order and discipline in the province, a reviver of architecture, and incourager of learning both at Bucurest and other places of the principality; into which he has introduced two or three printing presses, and from thence published several books useful for the instruction and edification of the Greek church. He is about forty seven years of age, and has ten children, four of them sons; the second of whom, being about fourteen years of age, is well instructed in the Latin and Greek languages. He is of an affable, mild, and courteous temper; generous, careful of the education of his family, and a great encourager of religion; and therefore liberal in his[79] disbursements for printing and giving away books, erecting of monasteries, adorning of churches, and other acts of piety. His uncle, Constantinus Cantacuzenus Stolnichus, is an elderly person, who has traveled over most parts of Europe; is skilled in the controversies of their own church, as well as in the several liberal sciences; is also well versed in politics, and by his counsels chiefly sustains the present Prince, with the honour and interest of the principality.

April xxv.

By nine this morning his Excellency returned the visit to the Prince, who received him at the head of the stairs, and entertained him at first with a conference of about an hour and half long. After this his Excellency was conducted into the dining room, where, at a long table sumptuously spread, the Prince and his Excellency (the former on the right hand) sat down to diner. On the side of his Excellency sat the two eldest sons of the Prince, his son in law, with the other nobles and officers of the court. On the side of the Prince sat in order the retinue of the ambassador, with our conductor Count Tomaso and others. The feast was protracted at least seven hours, during which passed a great variety of courses, consisting of excellent and costly dishes, with plenty of exquisite wine, and many ceremonious healths; the principal of which were to the Grand Signior, the Emperor of Germany, and the Queen of England, all seconded with salvoes from the soldiery in the adjoining court. Here we were made witnesses to a singular air of courtesy, hospitality, and gentile behavior in the Valachian nobility; but more particularly in the Prince himself, who drank to the health and prosperity of each stranger at the table. At the conclusion of the entertainment he veiled his Excellency with a rich silk robe of the Valachian fashion, lined with an excellent sable fur, upon which his Excellency and his retinue return to their own lodgings. The palace of the Prince, with the apartments, and gardens adjoining, are truly noble and magnificent; and tho not to be compared with those of some other Christian princes, yet much preferable to those, in which the ignorant Turks so ambitiously please themselves.


April xxvi.

This morning we had divine service and a sermon in his Excellency’s family, and in the afternoon he paid a short visit to the Patriarch of Jerusalem, but afterwards a much longer to the abovementioned Constantinus Cantacuzenus Stolnichus. The Patriarch lodges in a large kane, built by the present Prince; where are large apartments and magazines for merchants, the rent of which may yeild about twenty purses per annum, and is by the Prince consigned into that Patriarch’s hands for the use of the Holy sepulcher.

April xxvii.

I visited the press of this place, where I found them printing some pieces of devotion in Arabic, under the care of the Patriarch of Antioch to be distributed by him about his diocess. Beside this, they were undertaking to print a large folio of the famous Maximus Hieromonachus, called Κυριακοδρόμιον, or The course of the several Sundays throughout the year. On this occasion I there bought several books, among which one containing all the Liturgies, Hymns, Rituals, Lessons, and other devotional tracts, used on all occasions in the Greek church through the course of the whole year.

This morning the Prince gave his Excellency another visit, which he returned in the afternoon, and at the same time took leave, with a deep sense of the generous, honourable, and affectionate treatment he had received in this court. After his return from the Prince, he received a visit of leave from Constantinus Cantacuzenus Stolnichus, who then presented him with a gentile horse of the Valachian breed, and at the same time two of the same breed and quality were sent him from the Prince, upon which his Excellency answered the present of Constantinus with a diamond ring, valued at three hundred pounds.

The same day I was favoured with a present of several Greek books, lately printed in this province, from Κῦρ Γεώργιος Καστριώτης; as likewise of some others from his Excellency Constantinus Cantacuzenus. Towards the evening our curiosity led us half an hour out of town to visit a convent, called in the Valachian tongue the[81] Catrochán, and founded by the late Prince Serbanus Cantacuzenus. It is accounted the most beautiful of several in this province, founded by the present and preceding princes; and therefore a short account of this may serve for a specimen of the rest. It is situated on the Dembowitza, which washes it on two sides; while the other two are adorned with a grove of lovely, close, and shady oaks. The neighbouring pastures afford an entertaining prospect, whereas the parts nearer to the convent are disposed into orderly vineyards, and gardens. The fabric it self is an oblong quadrangle, built of regular and massy stone, divided into cells for about forty monks, with lodgings for the abbot, a common refectory, kitchin, and other public apartments. But in the middle of the area is erected the chapel, of the exact figure of the antient Greek churches, that is, distinguished into the νάρθηξ or porch, πρόναος or outward chapel, νάος or body of the church, βῆμα or chancel, and θυσιαστήριον or altar; the several parts being regular and stately, supported with pillars, and covered with high cupolas. The ornaments of painting, gilding, and embroidery are exceeding rich; and the pictures so numerously disposed, as to possess every part of the church in the inside, as well as the outside of the front. Here is shewn the monument of Serbán the founder, with his princess, his brother, and other relations; whose pictures, among others, possess a great part of the western wall. Here also are kept the two horse tails, allowed by the Turks to be carried before this prince, together with the bandiéra of the province, and another called the paschal colours, in which the whole Trinity is profanely represented, and God the Father expressed by the image of a reverend old man, looking over the body of our Savior, as it hangs upon the cross.

Bucurest is a large stragling town of a very peculiar make, the outward parts very mean, consisting of houses, the greater part of which is under ground like our cellars, and covered over at the top with straw or bark of trees. The better sort of houses are about the palace of the Prince, which are covered with handsome wooden tiles, the walls built of substantial stone, and the yards and gardens always very wide[114], enclosed with intire trunks of oaks set as near as possible to each other. The streets appear[82] like a continued bridge, being floored from side to side with massy planks of ten yards long, and as many inches thick; which work, however expensive it may seem, is continued thro all the buildings of the place for the extent of some miles together. The sight of the whole is agreable at a distance, by reason of the several houses of the nobility, the palace of the Prince, and the number of churches and convents. These last are all of one form, regularly built, and rising with cupolas, wherein bells are often hung; which I mention, as being the first I had heard since my arrival in Turkey.

The whole province is luxuriantly rich, abounding with woods and pastures, but thinly inhabited, and that in caves and huts rather than houses. Its chief income proceeds from wax, honey, hides, horses, the mines of salt, and custom on some places of the Danube. By these it is able to maintain its prince and barons splendidly, besides paying a yearly tribute to the Turk, that is settled at three hundred and twenty purses, which are equal to thirty two thousand pounds sterling, besides three times that sum extorted beyond the compact. The lands of the province are intirely in the hands of the Prince and barons; the rest, who are rustics, being all either slaves or servants, whose persons or service are at the disposal of the several nobles, on whom they depend.

April xxviii.

We proceed this morning from Bucurest, and after five hours travel take up our lodging at a small village, called Chrytshulest. In the way we stop a little towards the right hand to visit a gentile palace, which is building by the Prince for his second son, situated on a pleasant lake. And the day following, in seven hours from Chrytshulest, we pitch our tents, and lodge near a small river, called Ilsós.

April xxx.

This day about twelve a clock we arrive at Tergovist, where his Excellency and his retinue are lodged in the palace of the Prince. The form and state hereof much resembles that of Bucurest; only it has the advantage of a much finer garden, and therein of a beautiful stone summer house; both which are regular,[83] and may compare with those of the politer Christendom. The town is pleasantly situated on the Ialomitza, beyond which it enjoys the prospect of a beautiful tract of hills, which make the boundary betwixt this province and that of Transylvania; but on the other hand, the eye loses itself in an even boundless plain, encircled at a large distance with stately woods. The city gives title to the chief Metropolite of Valachia, and in like manner, till within these thirty years, was the residence of their princes; when a rebellion against the Turks being here formed by Prince Ghika, and the neighbourhood of Transylvania contributing to render the place more suspected, his successors were constrained to demolish it, and retire to Bucurest. But within five years the present Prince has obtained fresh leave to reestablish it, on condition he erects no fortifications in the place; and accordingly it begins apace to be repeopled, while the Prince refits his palace, embellishes his gardens, and invites the nobility to erect their respective houses, that so they may attend him in those frequent residences, which for the future he intends to make here.

May i.

We took the opportunity of the stay, we this day made at Tergovist, to go after diner to a convent situated on the adjoining hills; which we found well built of fair freestone, adorned with cupolas well carved in lattice work of the same matter; but above all commanding a delightful prospect over the subject plain, and city of Tergovist, which on account of the palaces, the seats of the nobility, and the many fair convents and churches there extant, affords an entertaining landskip.

May ii.

This day we travel four hours from Tergovist, and at length pitch our tents in a pleasant place, surrounded with pendent woods, by the name of Isvóra, not far from the stream of the Dembowitza, which yet continued to flow on our left hand.

May iii.

This morning we proceed, and within half an hour arrive at the foot of the mountains, where the Dembowitza descends into[84] the plain thro an easy clift, which it perhaps has partly formed by the continual and rapid course of its stream. Thro this plain we travel seven hours, in which time we are obliged to cross the winding chanel of the river twenty times or upwards; and being constantly diverted by the murmur of the falling waters; by the shade of the shelving hills that form the vale, and by the evenness of the ascent which imperceptibly leads us up the mountains, we at length pitch in a fair meadow inclosed like a theatre with surrounding trees and hills, where is a small village by the name of Cotonést.

May iv.

We continue our journey four hours thro the same sort of way, that is, along a narrow shady vale, which conveys the winding waters of the Dembowitza; which having crossed several times, we at length arrive at the village of Dragoslave, and in half an hour farther at that of Rukar, in the Greek map, Ῥούναλο, where we pitch and repose this evening. This village is considerably large, consisting of houses all of the Valachian fashion, that is, built round with trees laid even upon one another, covered with an high and deep roof consisting of wooden tiles, and within having no funnel or chimney to convey the smoke, but open only in several parts of the roof to supply that defect.

May v.

Being now imperceptibly advanced almost as high as the snowy tops of the mountain, which we see at a near distance impending over the village, where we lodge, we are informed, that the remaining ascent for the space of half an hour is very difficult, and that afterwards we are to encounter a much more troublesome descent. His Excellency therefore thought fit to repose here this day, and to take that opportunity of sending before him his waggons, coaches, and the greatest part of his baggage; that on the morrow, when he himself was to set forward, he might pass with the greater ease. In the mean time, considering that we then hoped to pass the limits, that separate the two provinces of Transylvania and Valachia, it will be here proper to set down such general remarks, as occurred in traveling thro the latter.


This province was under the Romans from Trajan to Gallienus, or rather to Aurelian; who, tho he was born here, yet translated the remainder of the Romans hence into Moesia and Pannonia. When it became tributary to the Turks by force of arms, it was glad to accept the imposition of three hundred and twenty purses yearly; whilst Moldavia, which voluntarily submitted to that yoke, was assessed at no more than sixty. Ever since, the nomination of their prince has entirely resided in the Turk, who nevertheless allows him all rights of sovereignty in the principality, except that of declaring war, and coining his own money. That which ordinarily passes in this countrey, is therefore either the Dutch, or Venetian lion dollars; with the quarts of Poland; and a small Saxon coin, here called bains, of which one hundred thirty two make a lion dollar. Justice is here performed according to the ancient laws of the province, which are agreable to the Roman law. The power and act of pronouncing sentence is wholly in the prince, after which, as commonly in Turkey, the execution immediately ensues. For the better adjustment of tribute, and other common duties, the whole province is divided into seventeen counties, of which each is to furnish its respective proportion. In time of war it ordinarily maintains twenty thousand men, of which about the fourth part continue in pay in the time of peace.

The natives ordinarily call themselves Romans, and their province Tzerra Romanesca[115], being persuaded that they are descended of that original. And in favour of this opinion they may allege their language, which is a broken mixture of Latin and Italian, into which have been accidentally adopted some few Turkish and Sclavonic words. They write intirely the Cyrillian Sclavonic character, which seems to be a detortion from the Greek. And these properties of their language, as well as the character[116], they have in common with Moldavia; which two provinces, together with Transylvania, constituted the ancient Dacia, the two former Ripensis, and the last Mediterranea. The wines of this province, especially about Tergovist, are exquisite fine. The Valachian habit much resembles that of the Turks. Their religion[86] is intirely that of the Greek church, and the government of it subject to the Patriarch of Constantinople. Their liturgic rites are performed either in the Greek or Sclavonian tongue; tho I was assured, that in some churches the Valachian was admitted, at least they have frequently the Gospels and other offices in that language, but the liturgy itself more rarely. The churches of each parish, as well as chapels of the many monasteries, which are seen here, are usually very fair, well built, richly adorned, profanely painted, and for the most part furnished with bells; tho in some places I have observed the wooden plank, which is common to the Greeks in Turkey, where bells are not permitted. The νάρθηξ, or porch, is generally daubed with superstitious representations of the punishments of hell; and often the inward walls are profaned with some inconsistent corporeal image of God the Father, a thing here permitted against the professed principles and declarations of the Greek church.

May vi.

We proceed this day over the mountain, on a steep craggy rocky way, lined on each side with an dismal shade, and sometimes looking down into a frightful precipice. By half an hour after ten we arrive at the limits of the two provinces, which are distinguished by a wooden cross on the edge of the mountain, from whence the prospect begins to open into Transylvania. Here my Lord was saluted from the government of Transylvania by Count Michael Mikes, as well as from the magistrates of Cronstadt by their deputy, and at the same time attended by a troop of horse, with the colours of the Emperor, as his ordinary guard; upon which the troop of Cosacks, which had hitherto guarded his Excellency from Tergovist, returned home. In one hour and an half from hence we descend the mountain, and at a narrow passage, where the river Bozza finds its passage out of the snowy hills into the adjoining plain, we arrive at the castle of Bran, a small fortress which defends this pass; where his Excellency was saluted, as he passed, with three different salvos of about twenty one guns. Within canon shot of this fort we find a fair set of huts, ready pitched for the reception of his Excellency, with a buttery, kitchen, and other accommodations, provided for his use by the abovesaid Count Mikes; who now undertook the care of the public allowance[87] and conduct of his Excellency from this place, as far as Hermanstadt.

May vii.

By six this morning we set forward from the castle of Bran, directing our course for Cronstadt, being now about two Hungarian miles, or twelve Italian, distant from it. In half an hour his Excellency was met by major general Glychensberg, governor of the forces at Cronstadt and the parts adjoining; together with lieutenant colonel Graven of the regiment of general Rabutin. The same civility he received from the judge and other magistrates of the city, with whom, and the numerous retinue which came along with them, we now proceed, making a train of a mile long. In the mean time our road lay thro that spot of ground, on which general Heusler was defeated, and made prisoner by Count Tekely in the year sixteen hundred and ninety; as also thro the town of Rosnaw, lying in the middle betwixt Bran and Cronstadt, where there is a considerable castle, which likewise saluted his Excellency, as he passed, with three repeated salvos. About eleven a clock we enter the city, the castle repeating continual salvos, which we find all in arms, and the streets lined on both sides with musqueteers, as also the whole soldiery drawn up in order in the market place. In this is the house of general Glychensberg, where his Excellency was received with all marks of respect and honour, and in an hour’s time invited to a noble entertainment. After diner, by order of Count Mikes, we were attended to our several stations, where a Transylvanian gentleman was appointed to act as commissary, or proveditóre, in each respective quarter. Particularly Mr. Paget and myself were favoured with the company and attendance of one Lodislaus Doeza, a civil, intelligent, and well behaved gentleman of the Helvetian confession. And this afternoon Mr. Paget and I walked up the castle hill, from whence we had a prospect of the city, which is almost triangular, enclosed with a stone wall, situated in a narrow vale, under an high snowy clift of mountains, but on one side looking towards a level and fruitful plain. It is surrounded with three distinct suburbs, beautifully intermixed with gardens; and in one part of these suburbs, which runs more within the hills, stands an handsome Valachian church. A dreadful fire about fourteen years since laid the whole town in ashes, and at the same time utterly[88] consumed the library of the school, which is here instituted for teaching of philosophy and theology. The same calamity almost ruined the cathedral church, of which now nothing but the outward case remains to testify its former grandeur; the roof, which was of arched stone, being now only covered with boards.

The general religion of this place is Lutheran; and the church above mentioned is governed by a dean and thirteen capitularies, who enjoy considerable rents from the thirteen parishes of the district of Cronstadt, which are supplied by them. The ecclesiastical government of the whole district is partly in this chapter, and partly in the superintendent of Cronstadt; which office is sometimes distinct, but for the most part held together with the deanry; and from this superintendent appeals lie to the bishop of the whole province of Transylvania.

The civil government of the town is in a judge elected every two years, a senate, and a commonalty of an hundred men. The sentence of the judge is final, and is governed by laws of the place model’d according to the civil law. The city since the fire is fairly rebuilt, with a certain regularity of walls and windows to the street, and the roofs are all covered, as in Valachia, with wooden tiles. The common language is Saxon; this being one of the cities, which belong to the great colony of that nation, which makes one third of Transylvania.

May ix.

This morning we depart from Cronstadt at six a clock by the way of Feketeholm, which has a church fortified like a garrison. From thence we proceed thro woods and hills to Veledin; where in a cold watery plot of grass, surrounded with woods, we lodge this night in tents. Here I took leave of Count Tomáso, who then presented me with two other books from Constantinus Stolnichus.

May x.

General Glychensberg, who waited on his Excellency to this place from Cronstadt, now returned thither. We proceed thro a troublesome way and dark wood to Sharkan, which at length we find deliciously situated upon a river, which a little way from[89] hence enters the Aluta, now called Alt. Here I lodged at the house of the minister, who was a Lutheran, by name George Sularius; and, it being Sunday, I attended him to their evening service.

May xi.

We set forward thro a fair, rich, and well cultivated country to Fogeras, a large but scattered town, and there take up our station by eleven a clock. His Excellency was here lodged in an house, which belonged to Count Tekely, who was prime minister to the late prince Abaffi, and slain in the defeat of General Heusler near Cronstadt. I had here some conversation with the chief pastor of the place, Michael Rozgoni, a learned Calvinist, who had studied in Holland. At Fogeras is a castle surrounded with a wide mote, and so strong, or at least so fortunate, that it is said never to have been taken by force of arms.

May xii.

From hence we proceed in six hours to Úcha, a village inhabited intirely by Valachs. And setting out early from thence the next morning, by twelve a clock we reach Porumback, a most delightful village, situated very near the banks of the Aluta; which river attended us for these three last days journey, not far from our right hand, under the adjoining hills. His Excellency was here met and complimented by general Rabutin from Hermanstadt, who came accompanied with Count Seau, the Emperor’s chief commissary in Transylvania, and two other officers of the imperial army. The General returned before diner, and left my Lord well accommodated in a pleasant country house of Prince Abaffi; whose barnes, and magazines of grain, with the adjoining fish ponds, and rich meadows, that surround the farm, we viewed this afternoon with great pleasure.

May xiv.

We leave Porumback, and are presently after upon the banks of the Aluta, over which river his Excellency’s whole baggage, with the horses, coaches, waggons, and other necessaries, were transported upon flat bottomed boats. We proceed one Hungarian mile from our conáck, and then his Excellency is again met by general Rabutin,[90] and several officers of the army, together with a train of five hundred persons, consisting of two troops of horse with the magistrates and chief citizens of Hermanstadt. After mutual compliments, my Lord takes his place in the General’s coach, and so they both ride together another Hungarian mile to Hermanstadt, attended with a numerous retinue of guards and citizens into the town, where the canons continually kept firing, and the inhabitants received them in arms. There his Excellency being first lodged in a large and convenient house in the marketplace, very near the palace of the General, about one a clock was conduced thither to diner, where a sumptuous feast was prepared at two tables. At the first sat his Excellency with his retinue, general Rabutin, his Lady, the Princess of Holstein, with the Countesses Seau, Bethlen, Mikes, and some others; as also the Counts Seau, Bethlen, Mikes, Stanville of Lorrain, Costa of Piedmont, Monticelli, and Commissary Belli. After diner his Excellency returned to his lodging, where he was now attended by Count Bethlen, instead of Count Mikes, who was appointed to conduct him from Hermanstadt as far as Clausenburg. In the evening the General complimented his Excellency with the command of the garrison, during his stay in this place; and thereupon pressed him four different times to give the watch word, which nevertheless he peremptorily declined.

May xv.

His Excellency staid this and the following day at Hermanstadt, together with his retinue; where he continued to be treated in the same gentile manner by the General.

May xvii.

This being Sunday, we had divine service and a sermon at his Excellency’s lodgings, and then dined again with the General. And in the evening I was favoured by my landlord, Mr. George Reisner, senator of the city (an ingenious and learned person, who had studied ten years in Holland) with his coach and company to visit his garden, beyond the walls and mote of the city; near to which adjoins a famous large and intire crucifix cut in stone, much adored by the papists of this country. The same gentleman gave me notice of three Roman inscriptions which, as I was[91] informed, had been brought from Ulpia Trajana. The first was upon a stone coffin in the market place, of which the following is a copy.


The others were in the house of General Rabutin, upon the base of two pillars, as I have here given them.

I. O. M.
I. O. M.
PROC. Φ. AVG[118].

The same gentleman shewed me also the cathedral church of this place, entertained me with the music of the organ, and presented me with a book called Breviculus de nationibus Transylvanicis. Another on the same subject was given me the day before by the rector scholae Cibiniensis, which place with the adjoining library I then visited. This night I likewise returned a visit to the reverend Isaacus Zabanius, primarius pastor Cibiniensis, et ecclesiae cathedralis decanus, by whom and his wife I was kindly entertained above three hours. He then gave me an Answer, which he had formerly compiled, to Campiani Rationes decem.

May xviii.

By six this morning his Excellency and retinue leaving Hermanstadt were attended by the General, and gentlemen above mentioned, beyond the adjoining river, after which they all took a cordial leave; especially lieutenant colonel Graven, to whom his Excellency[92] presented a diamond ring. We now proceed in our way, at which time I received an obliging letter from Mr. Dunster, with an account of my successor’s arrival at Smyrna upon the seventeenth of April.

Hermanstadt is a fair city, consisting of well proportioned houses, regularly plaistered and covered with brick; and is incompassed with an intire brick wall, and that again with the water either of a mote, or river, which surrounds it. Over the gate, by which we entered, is the statue of Hermannus, the founder of the place. It is designed to be yet farther fortified by the Germans; for which end they are now marking out the place of a citadel, which they propose to build so strong and regular, as thereby to curb not only this city, but the whole province. It is intirely inhabited by Saxons, and consequently by professors of the Lutheran or Augustan confession. They have here three churches, of which the cathedral is large and well adorned. The General, and German garrison, which now consists of twelve hundred men, as likewise a few other papists, are fain to be contented with a private chapel. General Rabutin is a comely, courteous, and facetious gentleman, of severe discipline, and prudent management of the Imperial soldiery, which thro this whole province, to the number of about ten thousand men, is committed to his charge. He is of French extraction, and was forced to fly while young, on account of a duel, from his native country to the court of Vienna; where after long service he at length obtained favour of the Princess of Holstein then wife to Chancellor Sinsendorff; who after that minister’s death condescended to marry him, and so raised him to his present pitch of fortune. The civil government is in the hands of the Judex Cibiniensis, whose jurisdiction reaches not only over this city, but even the whole Saxon district. Next to him is the Consul Cibiniensis, whose government is confined within the city. And besides these there is a senate of about sixteen, and then a commonalty of about an hundred men. The place in Latin is called Cibinium, from the adjoining river Cibin.

Before eleven a clock we again take up our quarters at Visakna, that is, Saltzburg, so called from the salt mines; which I visited this afternoon, in company with the minister of the place, Joannes Nagy Borosnyai of the Helvetian confession. The salt is here dug, and cut into stones (as they call them) of a square figure, and about an hundred pound in weight. Being so prepared in[93] the cavern, which at the bottom extends itself very wide in the manner of a dome, they are drawn up by cables, of which one winds round an adjoining machine drawn by four horses, and the other unwinds at the same time. The pit itself is square, lined within with planks, as far as the earthy soil reaches, and extending afterwards to the depth of about an hundred yards. These stones are afterwards laid up in magazines, to be transported on occasion by the Maros into the Danube, and thence vended into Turkey or Germany for the use of the Emperor, who is the sole proprietor of all the natural mines, with which this province abounds. The above mentioned minister here gave me some gemmae salis, as pellucid as ordinary crystal. He is a man well learned, and has traveled into many countries, particularly England. At the same place I likewise received a present of some specimina metallica, namely gold, cinnabar, antimony, and others; which were sent me by a gentleman, named Samuel Koloseri, the Emperor’s general inspector of the Transylvanian mines.

May xix.

We depart hence for Tsanad and arrive there before twelve a clock; from whence his Excellency designing for Enyed by the way of Balasfalva, Mr. Montague, Mr. Gangain, and myself take this opportunity of steping out of the way to see Alba Julia, or Wissenburg. We therefore hire a post calash by five a clock in the afternoon, and it being distant three long Hungarian miles in dirty way, we scarce arrive there by twelve at night, having near the city crossed the Maurusius over a wooden bridge. In our way thither we saw a gang of Zingans, or gypses, common in this and the neighbouring provinces, as well as Turkey.

May xx.

His Excellency continued his journey this day to Balasfalva; and in the morning we at Abba Julia wait on the governor, Count Banti, a worthy and courteous protestant nobleman, but for many years weakened and tormented with the colic. We were conducted to him thro the room, where the comitia totius Transylvaniae are now held; and where Count Seau, commissary for his Imperial Majesty, solicites the states for raising of subsidies, and proposes other orders to them from the court of Vienna. This[94] done, we visit likewise Count Seau; who was so complaisant as to shew us the castle where he dwells, being a magnificent palace, and lately the residence of the princes of Transylvania. At the same time we viewed the large Calvinist church adjoining thereto, which is a lofty and stately fabric, but has suffered much from the Tartars, who defaced the fair monuments, and burnt the tower, in the year sixteen hundred and fifty eight. It is now fortified with a ditch and rampart, which is likewise usual all over Transylvania. The above mentioned monuments are of Joannes Corvinus, commonly called Huniades; of Queen Isabella, and her son Ladislaus; of Sigismund, and George Ragotzi, together with the famous Gabriel Bethlen. The same morning we paid a visit to the bishop of the reformed church in Transylvania, who resides here, and is likewise pastor of the place, by name Stephanus Vespreni. He is an old man, seems decayed in his parts, and is troubled with a palsy in his tongue. With him we saw the professor of the Schola Albensis, which in the year sixteen hundred seventy two was translated hither from Patak in Hungary. He is a learned, curious, and laborious man, teaches divinity, natural philosophy, the tongues, and mathematics; has traveled into England and other countries, and is a great admirer of the English; for which reason his study is full of our books, and he both writes, and speaks, and even teaches our language once a week to his scholars. His name is Kaposi Samuel, and was made S. Theologiae Doctor by a diploma from the Prince of Orange. These visits performed, we repair to Count Banti’s to diner, where we were honoured with a splendid feast; the governor keeping his chamber. There sat at table the Lady governess, who is of the family of Bethlen, with Countess Bethlen Samuel, Count Bethlen Nicolas chancellor of the states of Transylvania, Count Apór treasurer, Count Holler president of the states (the two last papists) together with Count Telchi, Joannes Sacks the Judex regius Cibiniensis, with Count Seau, and some others. After diner we spent some time with professor Kaposi, and at night supped with Count Seau.

May xxi.

His Excellency staid this whole day at Balasfalva; and we the morning at Alba Julia, which was antiently called Apulum[119],[95] where we imployed ourselves in viewing some Roman sculptures, and copying the three following inscriptions.

VS[121] SVLPICIA ...
LEG. XIII. G ...

At midday we dined with Count Seau, and by two a clock taking leave of the governor, we set forward in a calash for Enyed[122], two Hungarian miles distant from hence, where we arrived before seven, the road lying all the way near the banks of the Maurusius.

May xxii.

We take a calash this morning, and proceed about an hour from Enyed to meet his Excellency, at the place where he crossed the Maurusius by flat boats; which done, we wait on him back to Enyed, and there arrive about one a clock. After diner I visited the school and college of this place, which is reputed the most flourishing of those, that belong to the reformed Calvinist church in Transylvania. It has three professors, one of philosophy, Stephanus Kolosvari, who has traveled into England; another of divinity, Stephanus Engedi, a learned man, who gave me a popish book, concerning the Emperor’s treatment of the reformed churches in Hungary; and a third of the Greek tongue, logic, and history, Fr. Pariz-Papa, a physician, who presented me with some printed tracts of his own, and a manuscript Itinerary of Dr. Basire prebendary of Durham, left by him in Alba Julia, where he professed divinity during the late usurpation in England.


May xxiii.

We proceed three Hungarian miles from Enyed to Therda, where we arrive about one a clock, and find it a dirty ill built town, but remarkable for its salt pits. It has two Calvinist churches, with one appropriated to the Unitarians. The town stands upon the Aranyas, antiently the Chrysolas, in which the Zingans find gold dust, principally after rain.

May xxiv.

It being Whitsunday, his Excellency halted this day, and in his lodgings had divine service and a sermon. After diner we visit the salt pits, which altogether resemble those of Visakna, except that the salt seems somewhat clearer and stronger. Returning we find the following Roman inscription.

LEG. V. M. HO.

May xxv.

We proceed three Hungarian miles to Clausenburg, the Zeugma of the antients, by the Hungarians called Kolosvar, and in Latin Claudiopolis. Here Governor Banti met my Lord half a mile out of the town, and treated him at diner; after which taking leave, he presented him with a set of six fine coach horses. It is a fair city with a broad and straight street; but still retains on the houses and churches the marks of a dreadful fire, which about five years since almost entirely consumed it. It is seated upon the first branch of the river Samos, and is entirely surrounded with an antient thick wall, on the inside of which I was shewn the two following inscriptions, the latter whereof has the characters beautifully cut.


D. M.
M. AVREL ... PAPIA .. AVG. COL. N. AP[123].
RITO ER. H. CIENO ... VM[124] CV

The Unitarians, who are one of the sects received in Transylvania, have here established their principal seat. I conversed with one of them, Stephanus Stanizlo, professor of philosophy, with whom I visited their plebanus, or chief pastor, and saw their church and college. I likewise visited the Calvinist pastor, as also their church and college, where I saw M. B. Nemethi their professor of philosophy, Sam. Nemethi the divinity professor being absent. In several public places of the city I observed antient dates of time, particularly over one of the gates, where the year was marked, with these characters, that is 1477; and over the Unitarian college thus, , which is 1476[125]. Here Count Bethlen’s commission ending, his Excellency is provided for by Baron Vesselini.

May xxvi.

We stay this day at Clausenburg. The next we proceed two Hungarian miles to Erdicurestúr, where I lodge in a poor Valach house. And the day following we make the like progress thro woods and narrow vales to Balashaza, upon the river Almasch.

May xxix.

Two more Hungarian miles thro the like way bring us to Zilak, a reformed Calvinist village, where I visited the chief pastor, Stephanus Foris Debreezeni. Within half an hour of this place we[98] passed certain mountains very woody, but not exceeding high, which part Transylvania from Hungary; after which we now enter into those parts of Hungary, which lately gave part of his title to the prince of Transylvania.

May xxxi.

Passing two Hungarian miles thro a country more open and well improved, we arrive at Somlyo; in which there is an old palace, once a seat of residence for the kings of Hungary. Here the guards and commissary is again changed, Franciscus Trantzeni, an Hungarian gentleman, now taking that charge. As we continued in this town the following day, I had an opportunity of conversing with the minister, whose name is Zovány.

June i.

We set forward three Hungarian miles to Margarita, and in the way cross the Krasna, near which are the limits that terminate the parts of Hungary. The soil is here luxuriantly rich, well varied with pasture and intervening woods, and everywhere adorned with damask roses, growing wild on short shrubs. Part of my time was here employed in discoursing with the minister, Johannes Banki. But having now passed thro Transylvania, as well as the parts of Hungary subject to the same government, it is here proper to recollect some general observations relating to this province.

Transylvania, which for many years had been tributary to the Turks, and consequently under the protection of that empire, which still allowed them the choice and government of their own princes, was in the year 1687, under the conduct of the Duke of Lorrain, subjected to the arms of the Emperor; and thereupon by capitulation they resigned themselves to the Germans, under whom they have since continued, tho as yet the Emperor has assumed no distinct title from thence. He has ordinarily in garrison here about twelve regiments, which since the peace of Carlowítz serve rather to curb the inhabitants, than to awe the neighbouring Turk. To this end they are now preparing a strong citadel in Hermanstadt, and designing others in proper places, on pretence of charges due to these forts and the standing militia. The Emperor exacts[99] yearly severe taxes, of which they generally complain, as being four times more than was exacted by the Turk. For whereas they then paid the yearly tribute and exaction of about two hundred thousand floreni Rhenenses, there is this year particularly demanded from them, in the present assembly of the government at Alba Julia, the sum of one million forty thousand six hundred, which is charged for the following particulars. The

Quantum militare, 750,000.
Ad fortalitia, 100,000.
Debitum principis Duca[126], 65,600.
Bonificationes superoneratis, 60,000.
Ad salarium camellariae, 15,000.
Inevitabiles extraordinariae expensae 50,000.

These subsidies are demanded at the assembly in the Emperor’s name, by his commissary, Count Seau; and the care of levying and raising it is incumbent on the governor, the chancellor, the treasurers, the assessores tabulae regiae, with other officers and members of the assembly. Thus the civil government of the province is committed to the Transylvanian nobility, distinguished by the officers abovementioned; but the military government is, in the hands of General Rabutin, who holds the province to a rigid and exact obedience.

Transylvania is in the hands of three distinct people. First the Szekeli, which are otherwise corruptly wrote Sciculi, Siculi, or Scytuli[127]. The second are the Saxones. And the third are the Hungari. The first and third of these speak the same Hungarian language, and are Hunns of the same original, only settled in this country at different times. The Saxons speak intirely the German Saxon language, from which nation they are a colony, and settled here under Geysa the second King of Hungary.

They have each of them their distinct laws, customs, and privileges, and are severally divided after this manner. First the Szekeli into seven szeks, namely: Meros-szék, Udvarhel-szék, Harom-szék,[100] Kesdi Orba Sepsi-szék, Csik-szék, Gyorgy-szék, and Arangus-szék. Over each of these seats preside so many captains; and being a warlike robust people, still retaining the ferity of the Scythians, of which the whole body of the Hunni was at first a colony, they have been always exempted from taxes and duties to the government, except only the service of war upon occasion under their respective captains. But of late the Emperor has persuaded them to submit to the like taxes and duties, with all other his Transylvanian subjects. On account of their not holding their lands of the government, there is a peculiar custom obtaining among them, that in defect of heirs their estate escheats not to the government, but to the next neighbour.

The Saxons have in like manner their seven seats alloted from their first settlement, namely: Szerdaky-szék, Szeben-szék, Brassoy-szék, Medyes-szék, Segyvar-szék, Bestereze-szék, and Erdovidek-szék. Each of these seats have their capital city, called Regia et libera civitas. Over this city, and the seat or district belonging to it, presides a judex regius, called in their language, konings rickter. But the authority and prerogative of the Judex Cibiniensis, that is of Hermanstadt, extends itself over the several Saxon seats; except that he of Brassow or Cronstadt pretends in many cases an exemption, which has been allowed, because of its too great distance from the tribunal of Szeben, or Hermanstadt. Besides the authority of this judge, there is a subordinate government in each city by a senate, which ordinarily consists of about sixteen, and a centumvirate or commonalty, tho it seldom contains a complete hundred. Each in their several districts have the jus gladii, and all other prerogatives of an intire jurisdiction.

The third and richer part of Transylvania, possessed by the Hungarians, is supposed and called the seat of the only Transylvanian nobility; and accordingly it is divided into seven comitatus, or residences, of its several courts, namely: The comitatus Huniadensis, Albensis, Thordensis, Claudiopolitanus, Interior et Exterior Zolnokiensis, Doboczensis, and Krasnaiensis. Now each of these counties has four comites, of which two are called supremi, and two inferiores; in whose hands, together with other nobles under them, remain the whole jurisdiction and possession of their respective counties; the other inhabitants being not only tenants, but subjects, as they call them, and in some manner slaves to their[101] respective nobles, to whom they ordinarily owe the work of three, and sometimes of more days in the week.

Besides these, the Valachi are every where in great numbers intermixted among the Transylvanian nations, but have no jurisdiction or dominion of their own; and therefore they remain as nourishers of cattle, and in that service slaves and subjects to the rest. And not only Valachs[128], but likewise (tho in lesser numbers) there are found up and down in Transylvania, Rascians, Muscovites, Armenians, Jews, and others.

Those called the received religions in Transylvania, that is, those who above the space of an age have obtained the protection of their princes under oath, and of the Emperor under articles upon their late subjection, are four; the Roman Catholic; the Lutheran; the Calvinist, which is here called peculiarly the Reformed; and the Unitarian. The first of these is more frequent in Szekulia, but yet not so prevalent as to possess even a tenth part of all Transylvania. The second, or Lutheran, is common to all the Saxon nation in this province. The third flourishes in Szekulia, and the comitatus Hungarici. The fourth prevails here and there likewise in the same countries, but those who profess it are not so numerous in either. However they have a flourishing college at Clausenberg, together with a large church; tho neither for beauty, nor the number of its communicants, equal to that of the Calvinist confession. These several religions are well known, and distinguished by their faith and principles, all over Europe. I shall therefore only say this concerning the discipline of the three last, that their several parishes collected into distinct dioceses are subject to their respective seniors; and these seniors, in their order, are likewise subject to a provincial bishop, who has his court, in which he judges matrimonial and other spiritual causes, and has also the sole power of ordaining, as likewise of calling and presiding over their yearly synod. And to this synod there is adjoined a consistory, which is in the nature of an upper house, and a council to the bishop.

The Lutheran churches are in many places splendid, adorned with organs and pictures, and little differing from the form of our[102] larger churches, except that the altar is immoveable, and built of stone, and sometimes too profusely painted. Their worship consists of forms of prayers, then hymns, after these lessons and sermons, and lastly prayers and concluding hymns. The worship of the Unitarians exactly corresponds with that of the Calvinists. These latter have sermons twice a week, besides Sundays, as also morning and evening service throughout the week, at which appear large and devout congregations in many places. Their service is a metre psalm, a prayer from the pulpit, and then concludes with another psalm. They have a form of prayer, and an injunction of their bishop to make use of no other; but the custom of most ministers has introduced the use of their own premeditated devotions, and accordingly the people begin to disesteem those, who confine themselves to the form. The Lutherans, Calvinists, and Unitarians live peaceably with one another; but are not admitted to each others communion of Christ’s body, without a special declaration of conformity. The Lutherans in some places consecrate a wafer, and in other places leaven bread. They likewise have auricular confession, but abuse it not, as the Papists. Their main difference from the Calvinists consists in their avowed corporeal ubiquitarian presence. Among other known tenets of the Unitarians, by which they take away the force of the Christian sacraments, tho they generally use infant baptism not to give scandal to the Calvinists, yet they rather wish to delay it till the age of twelve years or upwards, and often practice accordingly.

These three protestant religions remain as yet in the undisturbed profession of their faith. But upon several late encroachments of the Jesuits, and other priests, in confidence of the popish government, to which they are subject; upon the withdrawing of the tithes usually paid to the protestant ministers from the salt mines, and now given to popish monks; and lastly upon the care, which is taken by the court of Vienna, to supply all offices of the province with papist ministers: upon these several accounts, I say, the whole reformed people of Transylvania, especially the Calvinists, begin to be under great apprehensions, and from the governor to the meanest gentleman, earnestly embraced this occasion of recommending their cause to the good services of his Excellency at the Imperial court; after which they implored the prayers and good wishes of the church of England, and in many places took a solemn melancholy leave of us, as if they were just entering upon a martyrdom.


The religion of the Valachs, Muscovites, Armenians, Rascians, and others, is that of their respective nations in their proper seats and countries. And it may be farther noted in relation to the religion of Transylvania, that as in Hungary, so here likewise, the Jesuits, who were before excluded by a positive article, have now an express liberty of entering and setling in this province. Nor can I omit to remark the great and blameable facility both of the Calvinists, and Lutherans, in matters of divorce.

After the religion of Transylvania, the natural soil of the country falls under consideration; which is luxuriantly rich, well cultivated, full of inhabitants, and conveniently distinguished with a sufficient quantity of wood, hills, and water. The surface of the earth is almost every where black, without the least stone to be observed in many places; and in several tracts so fertile, as not to require the advantage of dung, except only some parts of Siculia where it is used. Besides all kinds of grain, which grow on the surface of the earth, within it abounds with veins of metals, minerals, and fossils of all sorts, particularly of gold; so that, as I was informed by the Emperor’s inspector of his mines, there was last year dug here to the value of twenty five thousand zechins. But among other fossils the native cinnabar is most rare, and the quicksilver which is here found to perfection. Salt is dug in several places, in the manner described above[129]; by which a large revenue accrues to the Emperor, to whom the property of all mines belongs. But in the mean time the people suffer in the price of this commodity; for since their late subjection to the Emperor, a stone of salt weighing about an hundred pounds can scarce be bought for three florins, whereas heretofore three stones of salt were sold for one florin. The money current in Transylvania is that of the Emperor, the quarts of Poland, with some other coins. The reports related by some, who were eye witnesses, concerning diverse particles of gold found in the products of their vineyards, both here and about the celebrated mountain of Tokái, are very remarkable; of which I shall only mention these following. A piece of gold is said to have grown to a vine, instead of the green tendrel, by which it takes hold of the adjoining trees, or other substance that supports it. Pure gold was found in a grape, instead of its ordinary natural stone. Small gold drops were observed[104] to adhere to the skin of a grape. And even an intire grape had been seen to consist of a perfect coat of gold.

As to the temper and disposition of the inhabitants, they appear cordial and hospitable, drink almost continually, and eat plentifully, are unpolite but importunate in their civility, and even the vulgar sort usually speak Latin; they are of a robust constitution, and principally the Siculians, who have likewise a fierce and stately mein. Their habit is a short waistcoat made very close to the body[130], and sleeves with flaps to them, that come over the backs of their hands. Their breeches are likewise close to their thighs, and from thence continued down in the form of a stocking to their feet. But on their legs they commonly wear yellow or red boots, to which are constantly fixed spurs, often three inches long. Over their waistcoat, when they go abroad, they throw a loose but short fur vest, which is either embroidered, or adorned with silver loops, on each side before. The habit of the women, who for the most part are beautiful and courteous, is a close narrow bodice, and from thence petticoats, as usual with us in England; but over their arms they wear loose linen sleeves, resembling those of a bishop’s rochet. Their head dress is low, and among those of the better sort richly adorned with pretious stones; much resembling some old English pictures, particularly those of Henry the eighth’s wives. They likewise wear over their shoulders the same sort of fur vest, as the men; but the inferior sort are usually drest, when abroad, in a long and loose black mantle, reaching from their shoulders down to the ground, and all round gathered into deep and numberless folds, not unlike the gowns worn by the islanders in the Archipelago. Maids likewise wear a black ring of velvet on their head, which they call a crown, and resembles the figure of an hat without brims. With regard to matrons, their law formerly admitted no proof of adultery, unless under the eye witness of twenty four persons at least; which in a virtuous age was an egregious testimony to the chastity of their women, but in a vitious one must needs prove too great an encouragment to that heinous sin. The Hungarians and Siculians have an odd fashion of shaving their head round the lower part, and leaving the hair at the top, which afterwards they tie into a knot, and let it hang over one or other of their temples. This custom they might possibly have received of[105] old from the Sicambrians (who once built the city Sicambria, and settled a colony there) since they were antiently famed for the like manner of knotting of their hair[131]. We may further observe a certain infelicity of Transylvania, as well as the adjoining parts of Hungary, in persuading themselves at least, that they are infested with witchcraft. For women of all ages are yearly executed for that crime, and this commonly upon evidence of their having threatned mischief to their neighbours, their children, goods, cattle, or other effects, and some correspondent effect, which has seemed afterwards to happen. In the Saxon seats of Transylvania they often put them to that vulgar trial of water; and I have heard it avowed by those, who have declared themselves to have been eye witnesses, that some suspected persons could never sink below the surface of the water, when others immediately subsided to the bottom[132]. And in such cases the poor afflicted, tortured, and now perhaps distracted person, confesses the indictment, and then without the least repreive is committed to the faggot. But as ignorant places have been always reputed most subject to witchcraft, this very well suits the state of Transylvania; where every petty district is the seat of its own judicature, and the power of life and death is consequently lodged in illiterate and superstitious persons.

June ii.

But it is now time to proceed on our journey, in which one Hungarian mile and a half carried us to Szekhelyhíd, where his Excellency lodged in the house of a popish prelate, by name Joannes Smitz, of the order of the Praemonstratenses, a gentile and agreable person. In his parlour, where he had an altar and crucifix, I observed over the former a profane picture of the Holy Trinity, representing an Old Man, with his Son sitting betwixt his legs, and at the son’s feet the Holy Ghost in the shape of a dove.

June iii.

Three Hungarian miles and a half farther brought us this day to Debrecyn, thro a rich soil, not destitute of wood, nor water;[106] the latter of which is plentifully found in this countrey, as also in Transylvania and Valachia, by reason of its frequent and extended lakes; tho fountains are scarce any where to be observed. This city has lately obtained the privilege of being libera et regia from the Emperor, in consideration of its late grievous oppressions between the Turkish and German forces; since which, like other free cities, it is governed by its own judge, senate, and commonalty. It is large and populous, and sets up for the bulwark of the reformed church in Hungary; which character it maintains by its large and well disciplined college of almost two hundred students, under the care of two eminent professors; one of divinity, named Johannes Koes, who is likewise bishop or superintendent of the province; and the other of philosophy, whose name is Michael Vaári. As this college is kept in good repair, so the students are allowed their constant diet, and the professors receive their salary, at the sole charge of the city. There are likewise two spatious churches, served by three able and learned pastors, Thomas Veresedgyhazi, Michael Rapoti, and Stephanus Patai. The city is likewise furnished at the public charge with a capacious and well stored dispensary.

Before his Excellency approached this place, he was complimented by several messengers from the mayor, who commands the militia here, then by the judge, senators, and others; and at length by the bishop, professors, pastors, and scholars. With this retinue his Excellency entered the city, which was orderly lined with arms as far as his lodgings. These were appointed for him in the house of one Stephanus Dobozi, a rich, generous, and learned gentleman; who among other public designs is now undertaking to print a new version of the Hungarian Bible, to be distributed among the reformed Christians of that kingdom.

June iv.

This being Corpus Christi day, his Excellency continued at Debrecyn; at which time I took the opportunity of visiting the bishop, professors, and pastors of the town, the first of whom presented me with an handkerchief of the Hungarian fashion. I was introduced to them by one Paul Gyongyóssi, who met us in this place from a neighbouring cure. He had lately traveled into England, and resided sometime in Glocester Hall, Oxford, where[107] he was known to my brother of dear memory. But in his return home thro Vienna his books were seized, to the value of five hundred florins, by Cardinal Colonicza, archbishop of Strigonium; on which account he now solicited the favour and interest of his Excellency. He presented me with the Canones Ecclesiae Reformatae Hungariae.

June v.

This morning the judge and magistrates of Debrecyn presented his Excellency with a gentile sword, and two small vessels of the best Tokái wine. And after traveling one Hungarian mile and a half thro a dead extended plain, void of tree or shrub, we came to Ujvaros. Here I first took notice of the Hungarian sheep, which are distinguished from most others by their horns, which are long, straight, and twisted; also by their wool, which is exceeding coarse.

June vi.

Three Hungarian miles thro the same level and naked plain brought us this day to Csege, which is a pass over the Tibiscus. In our way hither we had in view on the right hand, at the distance of about five miles, the celebrated mountain of Tokái, in compass about ten Hungarian miles, and renowned for its generous wines. At the aforesaid Csege we ferry over the Tibiscus in two large flat bottomed boats, thence we travel for some time with the river on our right hand, and then strike into the plain to Csat, a large village about one Hungarian mile from Csege, where we fix our quarters.

June vii.

His Excellency stayed this day at Csat, at which time I had some conversation with the minister, Stephanus Szirák, formerly a traveler in England. Here I took notice of the fair, white, and stately cattle of Hungary; and walked in the feilds, to enjoy a more distinct prospect of the mountain Tokái.

June viii.

We proceed one Hungarian mile and a half thro the same plain to Proszlo, which is situated on a large and diffused lake, supplied[108] by the Tibiscus, into which it empties itself. In our way hither, we left at a near distance on our right hand the city Agria, and the mountains denominated from thence.

June ix.

We move one Hungarian mile and a half forward in the same plain, and at the same distance from the mountains of Agria, to Alány. Before diner his Excellency with a retinue went an English mile from hence, in order to visit a new country house and garden belonging to the worthy General Glychensberg; who by donation from the Emperor possesses great part of this village, as likewise of that where we lodged last night. I had here an occasion to observe the Hungarian houses under ground, having unawares like to have dropt into a chimney. We took notice likewise of a plica Polonica in the hair of his Excellency’s landlord; who told us, that it being once cut off by his wife, he became perfectly blind for three months, and did not recover his sight, till the plica was grown out and formed again. The same thing is common to most horses in this country.

June x.

From Alány we go on this day two Hungarian miles to Arokszalles, thro the same plain, the soil of which is as black as coal, and in most places overrun with weeds and marshes for want of tillage. In the midway we cross the small river Both, by which is a posthouse of the same name. Arokszalles is a popish village, the first of that sort we had seen in Hungary. It belongs to the Prince of Newburg, Grand Master of the Teutonic order, who has bought lately of the Emperor a large compass of ground on both sides the Tibiscus for a million of florins. From our quarters we have in view to the right of our road, at the foot of a pleasant tract of mountains, the city Gyongyossi, lately taken from the Protestants (as they told us at Debrecyn) by the injuries of the Jesuits and other Romanists.

June xi.

We continue our journey one Hungarian mile to Hatwan, thro the same plain, along the foss of an antient Roman camp. The[109] hills of Gyongyóssi are still at a near distance on our right hand, in which four Hungarian miles from Arokszalles is the famous gold mine of Kremnytz, with others of silver, iron, and other minerals, in the same neighbourhood. Hatwan was lately a walled city, and is now inhabited by Romanists, being the property of the Prince of Solmes, grand master to the King of the Romans. The Emperor constantly employs five hundred labourers in the mines of Kremnytz, tho of late years they are said to fail. At Hatwan, as in all Hungary, I observed the method of burying their corn in holes under ground, as Hirtius remarks of the Africans[133].

June xii.

At Hatwan we immediately cross the small river Zagywa, and thence proceed one Hungarian mile and half thro a pleasant variety of woods and pastures, valleys and hills, to Kerepes; where at a neat German house his Excellency staid to breakfast, and then went forward the same length of way thro a naked, tho not so level a plain, to Pest. At his entry here he is saluted by the canon from the opposite castle of Buda, and lodged at the Fountain inne. Pest is now a small but compact city, intirely built out of the ruins, to which it was reduced by the two late sieges of Buda. Its antient wall, with the battlements and bastions, is still intire, and incloses it in the figure of an half moon, terminating on the banks of the Danube, which completes the remaining circuit of the city. There are still extant three or four minarées of Turkish mosques, now devoted to Christian use. But what gives just offence both to Turks and Christians is a new pillar, erected in the market place, and bearing on its top a large stone sculpture of the Trinity; a figure as common, as it is scandalous, in Germany.

June xiii.

This day his Excellency remained here, which gave Mr. Paget and myself an opportunity of passing over to Buda on a flying bridge, which is maintained by the city Pest. The famous city of Buda is the capital of Hungary, and was the seat of its Kings till the year fifteen hundred twenty nine, when by treachery it fell[110] into the hands of Solymán the Great; since which it was several times attempted by the Christian arms, but never successfully, till the year sixteen hundred sixty eight. And it yet remains in the same condition, in which that terrible siege had left it, with regard to its fortifications; but the private houses, especially those of the Rascian and Water Town, are again handsomely rebuilt. That, which is called the Upper Town, is likewise begining to be reinhabited, but not equally with the other two. The situation of the whole city lies in the following manner. From the banks of the Danube, which here runs N. W. and S. E. there arises a steep and oblong hill, the length of about half a mile, and the hight of about two hundred paces, on which stands, what is called the Upper Town. This on the N. W. end has that famous castle, which was the palace of the Hungarian Kings; and from thence the walls and other fortifications are continued round the town. On both ends of the hill are two small valleys, each of which has a large suburb; that on the N. W. end called the Rascian, and that on the S. E the Water Town. The latter of these is larger, and much better built; and extends itself not only in the valley above mentioned, but likewise betwixt the Danube and a great part of the hill, on which the wall and Upper Town is built. Just beyond the Rascian Town is a steep and sharp rocky hill, which in case of a siege must needs annoy the castle; and along the backside of the city wall is extended, at a nearer distance, another rising ground, which must likewise gall that side of the fortification. These therefore the Imperialists must possess with proper forts, whenever they undertake to repair the wall and castle of Buda; the present remains of which were shewn us this morning by the lieutenant of the ordnance, the most remarkable whereof were these which follow. The hall of the royal palace, in which the carved windows, chimney pieces, and other decorations, shewed the work of an excellent hand; and were embelished, among other devises, with the arms of Matthias Corvinus. The several canons, mortar pieces, bombs, and other artillery, which make the present ammunition of the castle. The two breaches, one entered by the Bavarians, and the other by the Imperialists, when they took the place. The wooden gate, hewn at the bottom by the Imperialists, which action gave the last rout to the Turks. The stone arched chamber, which they maintained to the last; tho the Bavarians had been many days lodged in the next adjoining apartment, and nothing but a single wall remained betwixt the two[111] enemies. The well and capacious cistern, sufficient to afford water for that numerous Turkish garrison, which at first consisted of twenty four thousand men. What else occurs observable in this place, is first the prospect, which we took from the Water Town of old Buda, or Sicambria of the Romans, about an English mile from hence, up the stream of the river. And secondly, the famous sulphureous baths, exactly opposite to the city Pest, which are supplied by a plentiful hot fountain, that runs from the steep rocky hill before mentioned in the neighbourhood of the Rascian Town.

At midday we were invited to diner by the administrator, or chief civil magistrate of the place. By his office he is president of the camera Budensis, which consists of twelve officers, and enjoys great revenues, as well as an entire jurisdiction for many miles round the city. His Imperial Majesty has about fourteen hundred men in Garrison at Buda and Pest, under General Pefferhoft, who was now gone to demolish the fortifications of Erla; it being the Emperor’s design to divest this country of all its lesser forts, which at this juncture might be a refuge to any rebellious subjects. The whole country of Hungary to this place is a black and rich soil, without one stone to be observed, except in towns; and abounds with lakes. The wine of Buda exactly resembles that of Bourdeaux, and for these two last years, by an agent of the Earl of Nottingham, has began to be imported into England, by the way of Breslaw.

June xiv.

Early this morning we depart from Buda, when his Excellency was again saluted by the guns of the castle. Three Hungarian miles thro a rich, woody, and well watered country bring us to Biéske; a village where the Protestant are most numerous, but were nevertheless deprived of the parish church last year by the Romanists.

June xv.

Three more Hungarian miles carry us this day to Koes, thro a continued wood, wherein are observable many curious trees, herbs, and flowers, particularly the fraxinella; to say nothing of[112] the damask roses, hyacinths, barbaréae, lilia convallium, and some others, obvious in our whole road thro Hungary.

June xvi.

From Koes, where his Excellency lodged the last night, in an house of Count Estzerhazi, Palatin of Hungary, it is one Hungarian mile to Igmand, at which we arrive by eight a clock this morning. And one mile from thence toward the right hand we stop to see the city and fort of Komora. In a post calash we arrive on the banks of the Danube by ten a clock, and passing over in a boat enter the city, which is seated on the point of the island Schut, where it is washed on one side by the Danube itself; and on the other by that branch of it, which takes the name of Wag, from that river falling into it not far above the city Komora. The extreme point of this island is possessed by the castle and fort, consisting of four bastions, and an angle at the farther end, which represents the figure of a tortoise. Before the gate and drawbridge there is a place of arms, and before that another strait fortification with two bastions and an half moon, added by the present Emperor. This was the last bulwark against the Turks, before the success of the last war, and is called the Virgin Fort, in token of its having never been taken by the enemy. To perpetuate the memory of this, the statue of a virgin is erected in one angle of that bastion, which is on the left hand at the entrance of the place. After this view of the castle we content ourselves with a slighter view of the town, which appears neat and compact; and by two a clock return to his Excellency’s quarters at Igmand, the whole way lying over a green, naked, and level plain. In the castle of Komora I found the three following inscriptions, two of them in Latin, and the third in Greek, which are cut upon stone coffins.

D. M.


D. M.

June xvii.

Our next stage, which was three Hungarian miles, brought us from Igmand to Rab, thro a level country, and well cultivated. Half an hour before we enter the town, his Excellency is met by a troop of Hussars well mounted, and each man carrying a small flag in his hand. Rab, which is the proper government of the Prince of Baden, is pleasantly seated at the confluence of the rivers Rab and Rabnitz, which unite near the walls of the castle, and then in one stream immediately fall into the Danube. The castle is large, and well fortified with seven bastions, four cavaliers, and proportionable outworks. It contains within an ample space of ground, possessed with houses, and divided into streets, which make the best part of the city, the rest being more scattered and diffused on both sides of the Rabnitz. It is now about a century, since this place was taken from the Turks by a stratagem of Count Schaurtzenburg, who applying a petard to one of the gates in the night, at one stroke blew open the great iron door, which flew many paces within the town, and is now kept as a memorial of the fact in the cathedral church. The Turks marched in the sight of this garrison to the siege of Vienna, and received several shot from thence; and at their return, had the Imperialists of this place known their defeat, they might have intercepted their passage, by cutting down the bridges of the Rab.

June xviii.

His Excellency staying this day at Rab, I took the opportunity of visiting Stephanus Morsai, the reformed minister of the place. And about ten a clock Mr. Stepney, her Majesty’s Envoy Extraordinary at Vienna, with the young Earl of Bridgwater, and his brother Mr. Egerton, came to Rab to meet my Lord Paget, and welcome him into these parts.


June xix.

This day, thro frequent villages and fruitful feilds, we continue our journey two Hungarian miles to Hungrisch Altenburg, a small town with fair buildings, enclosed with a wall, and seated on the river Leyta, which at the distance of half a mile falls into the Danube. Here Mr. Stepney, my Lord Paget, and some others proceed directly to Vienna.

June xx.

Three Hungarian miles, thro a delicious and well tilled country, in sight of Presburg castle, we proceed to Pruck; just at the entrance of which we cross the Leyta, and by that means pass out of Hungary into Austria, of which Pruck is the first town in this road. It is a considerable compact place, neatly built with an appearing magnificence, which they affect by building their houses high and uniform towards the street. It has a castle and a strong wall, tho not sufficient against the present art of war. In the market place is a pillar, that bears a profane image of the Trinity, the Father in the figure of an old man, the Son standing at his right hand, and the Holy Ghost in the shape of a dove hovering betwixt their heads. Here is an handsome convent of Augustin friars, and in the market place a new church not yet finished, which promises something both beautiful and magnificent.

June xxi.

This day, being Sunday, we continue at Pruck, when I took an occasion of walking by the banks of the Leyta, in pleasant and delightful meadows.

June xxii.

Four German miles from hence bring us to Schweka, a neat village near Eberstorff; where is a palace of the Emperor, and a large park, enclosed by the Danube and the Schweka.

June xxiii.

By three in the afternoon his Excellency moves from hence, and in an hour and a half, at the distance of two German miles, happily arrives at Vienna; where he is lodged in the suburbs, betwixt[115] the Caristhian gate and the Favorita, in a palace of Count Sterembergh. After the repose of a day or two his Excellency had a separate audience of the Emperor, and Empress, the Archduke Carlo, and the four Archdutchesses. And being visited by most of the nobility, courtiers, and ministers of the place, he afterwards took occasion of returning their respective visits.

Vienna is seated on a point of land, made by the confluence of the river Wien and a branch of the Danube, which latter here enlarges itself about a thousand paces from its main chanel. The city is of a moderate circumference, scarce containing more than four thousand paces within the circuit of the walls; but round these, at a large distance, are extended many diffused suburbs, by means of which it may be placed among the larger cities of Europe. The fortifications are effective, regular, and intire; a large uninterrupted glacis, a strong pale, a deep and wide foss, a substantial curtain lined with brick, thirteen bastions, and as many ravelins, with six well defended gates. Answerable to these there are two arsenals within the city; one for ammunition and artillery belonging to the Emperor, and the other for small arms belonging to the citizens. The streets, tho few of them broad, are yet all of them fair and moderately straight, ranged on each side with lofty houses of four or five stories high, built with a good appearance, tho not really magnificent; for they shew a regularity of architecture in their windows, cornishes, and water tables, but the materials are only brick walls incrusted in imitation of freestone. Among the buildings of the city are interspersed several oblong piazzas, adorned with fountains, tho of no great art or curiosity. Yet there are two squares, each of which exhibits a considerable public monument; one being the pillar of the Blessed Virgin, and the other that of the most Holy Trinity. The former of these is a brass column, adorned round the four corners of the basis with as many figures of angels, and on the chapiter bearing a noble statue of the Madonna, with her feet resting on a dragon. It was begun by the last Emperor, and finished by the present; and exhibits four religious or superstitious inscriptions, the chief of which is a triumphant declaration of the immaculate conception, as now confirmed by a papal verdict, and hence forward to be received as an article of faith. The latter pillar, called that of the Holy Trinity, is a magnificent column of marble and freestone rising sixty six feet high, almost in the form of a pyramid. It was the work[116] of ten years, finished in 1692, at the expence of a hundred thousand florins, and erected by the present Emperor in commemoration of this city, and the dukedom of Austria, being delivered from the plague in the year 1679. It is adorned in three corners with these inscriptions, Deo Patri Creatori, Deo Filio Redemptori, Deo Spiritui Sanctificatori; and in three other places with larger devotions and dedications, composed by his Imperial Majesty. From the basis it rises in continual orbs and protuberances of clouds, surrounded with several intire angelic figures, out of which are seen the wings and heads of others. But on the top is represented in gilt brass the Most Holy Trinity: the Holy Ghost, as a dove, irradiated; the Son in an human figure, holding a cross; and the Father at his left hand, with no marks of majesty, but clothed in a loose gown, like an old man, bearing a globe in his right hand. At the bottom is the Emperor himself, kneeling indeed in a posture of devotion, but otherwise represented with more marks of honour and majesty, than the Divine Being which he adores. The figure of God the Father is very frequent in Austria, and variously expressed, some times in a nightgown and cap, and at other times with a papal crown.

The cathedral church of this place is dedicated to St. Stephen, and is a stately antient building, having an high tower adorned throughout with crotchets so strong, that it withstood several canon shot in the late siege. It is now repaired, and bears in the work the date of that year, which was 1683. On the spire it has a cross rising from between the wings of the Roman eagle, instead of the half moon, which stood there before by compact with Solymán the Magnificent. The inside of the church is divided into three isles, at the upper end of which are many magnificent altars, with at least thirty more dispersed about the pillars and other corners of the church. Near the principal of these the walls are almost covered with pictures and sculpture, superstitiously dedicated on occasion of so many vows there made; which I call therefore, in the words of that ingenious heathen poet, Tabulis sacer votivis paries. Over the great altar is placed the picture of the Madonna, by the name of Sta. Maria de Boes, brought not long since from Hungary on occasion of its having shed tears; of which, I saw one at Sancta Margarita, who pretended to be an eye witness. The anniversary of the day it was brought to Vienna, and of that, on which it wept, are celebrated by a public feast, when the Emperor likewise hears mass on the occasion. There is likewise another miraculous[117] image of the Virgin at the lower north door of the cathedral, which is daily so thronged with worshipers on their knees, that it gives offence to the bishop of this city, who is endeavouring to suppress the picture, as well as the abuse. In this door is a white stone, worn considerably by the touch of all that enter there, as being thought to be one of those, with which St. Stephen was martyred. Round the body of the church are frequent monuments well carved, and some sculptures of the History of the Gospel, which can scarce any where be exceeded. There is likewise a new saint, whose statue of stone has been lately erected on all the bridges of Vienna. He is styled under his picture, S. Joannes Mepomienus, Martyr, who was drowned by a King of Bohemia for not discovering a confession of the Queen.

Besides this cathedral there are four or five parochial churches, of which the most remarkable is that of St. Michael; but among such a multitude of conventual churches, and each of these furnished with a large number of altars, the parochial are in a great measure obscured. The most splendid convents of the place are first, that of the Dominicans; after this the Benedictines, formerly belonging to the Scotch; then two belonging to the Jesuits, of which one is called the Domus professa, the other the college; next the Minorite Franciscans, then the Angustines, and lastly the Capuchines. Of these the Minorite Franciscans have in their chapel a pattern of the Scala sancta; the Augustines the Capella aulica, and the pattern of the Temple of Loretto; the Capuchines a small but pretty chapel in one side of their church, wherein are buried the deceased of the Imperial family. The roof of the church belonging to the college of Jesuits is now newly painted in perspective, that is inimitable, by P. Pozzo of that society; who likewise did the celebrated perspective in the church of that society at Rome.

Vienna was made the seat of the Imperial family by Ferdinand the second, who translated it from Gratz. The imperial and royal palaces belonging to this place are, one old one in the city, usually called the Bourg; another in the suburb opposite to the Corinthian gate, called the Favorite; a third at Eberstorff, two hours distant from the city; and a fourth at Luxemburg, at the distance of two hours and a half. All these are plain, but capacious and convenient buildings; and the Emperor divides his residence[118] betwixt them, according to the different seasons of the year. But at Schonbran, about two English miles distant from Vienna, is a new palace as yet in some measure unfinished; which is built for the King of the Romans after the Italian mode, adorned in the pinacles with statues, a gentle ascent and spatious stairs up to the entrance, beautified with a regular garden behind, and on the front two ranges of stables and offices, that form a regular square court. The rooms and apartments within are stately and well proportioned, and the doors and chimney pieces richly built with Polonian marble. Besides these, in the way to Eberstorff are to be seen the stately remains of the palace, called Neugebac; which was destroyed by the Turks in the late siege, and is not yet repaired. However there appears a regular front, consisting of proper pillars; and in some apartments of this ruined house are kept several wild beasts of great curiosity. These, with some others at Schonbran, I took an opportunity of viewing, and shall here give a brief account of them. At Neugebac are two lions, one of which is about five years old, but the most stately and majestic as can well be seen. Three cassawares, a species of bird without wings, the body of the size and shape of a sheep, the legs long and thick in proportion, the neck tall with a blue but blunt crest, the feathers black and exactly resembling those of an ostrich. Three tigers, one of a large and unusual size. Two leopards well spotted, their ears short, their head like that of a cat, but their body more approaching to a mongrel greyhound; they are swift, and hunt hares, or other creatures, which are thrown into their walk. Several lynces, nothing different (as I am informed) from the panther; they are spotted with larger circles than a tiger or leopard, and much resemble a wild cat, but exceed it in size. An hyaena, much resembling a mastif, but the nose more round and contracted, a large belly, and a brindled spotted skin. A beaver, which is a little amphibious animal, of a flat figure, with a short neck and legs, a soft and thick fur, and a bare tail. These which follow, are at Schonbran. Several wild goats, the males with large horns, and therefore by the antients called aegoceros. Two ostriches, the one five, the other fifteen years old, the head higher than the ordinary stature of a man, the feathers black, except on the tail and tip of the wings, where they are milk white, the thighs perfectly bare, the legs long and substantial, the feet divided into two broad pulpy claws, which are thought poisonous, and in figure somewhat resembling those of a camel, whence they are called in[119] Latin camelostruthi. Two antilopes. A she elk, a timerous animal, which is made much like an hind, with a broad excrescent mouth. Three uri, in the figure of a bull, but a thicker and shorter neck, with the appearance of prodigious strength, and one of them, very large. But concerning these two last species a fuller account may be seen in Caesar, De B. Gall. Lib. vi. cap. 5.

There are three libraries in this place. One is called Bibliotheca Windhagiana, which belongs to the Dominican convent. Another is at the college of Jesuits, which is larger and better collected. But the third, which exceeds them both, and perhaps all others in these parts of the world, is that, which belongs to the Emperor at his palace in this city. In the Dominican library I saw a monstrous human foetus kept in spirits of wine; with another dried and stuffed, which is double in all its parts, as having two heads, four hands, four legs, and two trunks as far as the navel, where they unite into one body. But what I observed in the Caesarian library will deserve a more distinct relation, which I shall give in the following particulars.

The most eminent Greek Mss. in the Catalogue of Nesselius, with other curiosities by him mentioned, and particularly the pictures belonging to the res vestiaria of the antients; all which may be seen in the catalogue which I had there with me.

Besides what occurs in the Nesselian Catalogue, the antient Ambrosian Ms. of part of Livy, which is clear and legible; tho the contrary is asserted by Dr. Brown[134]. It is the oldest copy now extant of that author, and tho it ends with Lib. XLV; yet there is added at the bottom of the page, Liber XLVI incipit feliciter, as if it was extant at that time, which is conceived by Lambecius to be about a thousand years since.

The Ms. German Bible of the Emperor Wenceslaus, in the margin of which, among other curious pictures relating to the sacred story, he is himself painted in more than fifty places, as washing in his bagnio, where he was once prisoner; together with the bagnio girl, who furthered his escape, and whom afterwards he so passionately loved.

A copy of the golden bull, containing the constitutions of the empire by Charles the fourth, in the first year of his empire. It[120] is now a great curiosity, and was written for the use of the Emperor Wenceslaus, but forty years after the original published at Waremburg in 1356, and still reserved at Augsburg.

An elegant, tho not very antient Ms. of Cicero’s Orations, with another more antient of Ovid’s Metamorphoses.

The Letter of the present Tartar Han to the present Emperor, finely wrote on a long roll of silk.

A printed book of the Confucian philosophy in the Sinese character and language, published by the Jesuits.

A Ms. book of Latin letters, written by the present Emperor to Lambecius, in a neat and elegant stile; in which he always begins with, Chare Lambeci. To this is affixed the following Epigram on the present King of France by the said Emperor, attested by Lambecius to have been written by the Emperor in his presence at Luxemburg, 17 May 1666.

Bella fugis, sequeris bellas, pugnaeque repugnas,
Et bellatori sunt tibi bella tori.
Imbelles imbellis amas, totusque videris
Mars ad opus Veneris, Martis ad arma Venus.

The celebrated Ms. of Jacobus Strada, antiquary to Maximilian the second, concerning antient medals; consisting of eight volumes in this order: Vol. i. and ii. De nummis consularibus. Vol. iii. De Latinis, a Julio Caesare ad Nervum. Vol. iv. De iisdem, a Nervo ad Alexandrum Severum. Vol. v. De iisdem, ab Alexandro Severo ad Claudium Secundum. Vol. vi. De nummis Graecis a Julio Caesare ad Nervum. Vol. vii. De iisdem, a Nervo ad Alexandrum Severum. Vol. viii. De iisdem, ab Alexandro Severo ad triginta illos sub Gallieno tyrannos. This work contains a collection of fair and choice medals, all exquisitely delineated by a pencil, each of which fills a whole page in folio; but the explication added by the author shews him to have been more laborious than learned, and discovers many notorious mistakes, as well in the tongues, as the history, to which the medals relate.

Two fragments, one in the Greek, the other in the Latin tongue, written on antient bark.

The case of this library is very mean, being unfurnished with seats and benches, and divided into four or five distinct apartments, besides another more separate from the rest, in which are kept all prohibited, that is, controversial books in divinity, together[121] with the small remainder of Matthias Corvinus’s library brought from Buda. But it is still a greater disadvantage to this library, that since the death of Nesselius it has for two years been without a librarian, and therefore is difficult of access, and not without a considerable fee. This defect is attributed to the great scarcity of learned men in these parts, especially those of the Roman faith; for which reason the two preceding librarians, Lambecius and Nesselius, being before Lutherans, were obliged to renounce their faith, when they accepted that employ.

Over against the library is a long gallery, adjoining likewise to the palace, wherein is contained the Emperor’s treasury. A noble and truly royal collection is here of innumerable curiosities, both of art and nature, with vast riches in silver, gold, pretious stones, and jewels. But this likewise has the disgrace of being meanly exposed to sale, nor is it ever shewn under the exorbitant fee of twenty five florins; however I obtained two opportunities of viewing it, in the latter of which I took a large and distinct catalogue of the chief rarities deposited there, which would be too large to be here inserted.

The university of this place is a numerous society, appropriated to several distinct nations, particularly those of the empire, and the Emperor’s hereditary dominions; but it is remarkable for nothing but a low contracted institution, and administered wholly by the Jesuites, except that they refuse the office of rector magnificus, as being an expensive honour. The schools are tolerable and convenient apartments, adjoining to the Jesuits college; but the particular students are lodged privately, as every one’s circumstances and conveniency best serve him. But what they call the academy is in its kind more flourishing than the university; being a society instituted at the charge of the whole province of Austria, to instruct the young gentry and nobility in riding, fencing, dancing, the modern tongues, heraldry, history, and other polite arts. Their riding school is a noble room; and adjoining thereto is a stable of about forty managed horses, for the maintaining of which their instructor in horsemanship receives ten thousand florins annually from the public.

The present Imperial family ordinarily residing in this palace consists of the Emperor; the Empress Leonora; the King and[122] Queen of the Romans; Archduke Charles; with the four Archdutchesses, Marta Elisabeth, Maria Anna, Maria Josepha, Maria Magdalena. Of these the Emperor has now passed sixty two years of his age, the King of the Romans twenty four, and the Archduke will be seventeen in October next; the two elder of the Archdutchesses have been some time marriageable, but the two younger are in their state of childhood. The Emperor is of a mild disposition, and conscientiously just, except where influenced by popish principles; he reasons solidly, has a happy memory, is both a lover and composer of music, skilled in the Hungarian, Sclavonian, and French tongues, and has an elegant taste of the Italian and Latin. Both he and his Empress appear truly devout in their way, which they testify by many instances of diffusive liberality and charity, as likewise by their frequent walks in processions, and daily visiting and dining in religious convents. Their garb, especially that of the Empress, is exceeding plain; their coaches and liveries of the old fashion; and their ceremonious dress is the habit and mode of Spain. Only they have now and then, what they call their Gala days, in which there is a great resort to court, and none appear there but in suits of gold and silver embroidery. So that it is the wisdom of this government, which has little reason to brag of its riches, to make this sort of luxury necessary, at a time when its more wealthy neighbours have either by prudent choice, or wholesome laws, wholly retrenched these superfluities. But to return to the character of the family. The Emperor is not only devout, but even bigoted to the Romish church, and fondly addicted to the priests, especially the Jesuits. The King of the Romans on the contrary is severely imbittered against them, but the Archduke is inclinable to tread in his father’s steps. The Empress will sometimes undertake pilgrimages on foot to some famous shrine, or image, in the adjoining country; and promises herself no doubt great benefits from that painful superstition.

The King of the Romans was gone to the siege of Landaw before our arrival; but the remainder of the Imperial family I had frequent opportunity of seeing, particularly at their supper, or the operas, which are sometimes acted in a theatre at the Favorite. It is their custom to salute the Emperor by bowing the knee. Their table is truly moderate, and a remarkable example of temperance and parsimony. Their operas are excessive dull, the action[123] mean and trivial, and therefore more agreable to the low genius and relish of this place. Another occasion, that offered me the sight of the Emperor and the Archduke, was at a certain sport, with which in summer time they frequently divert themselves. They send out a large and expensive train of carts, laden with tents, canvas, poles, and other utensils, into one of their adjoining parks. There in an open green a tent is pitched for the Emperor and his retinue, round which a large and long space of ground is enclosed with high rails of canvas. When the Emperor is arrived, and ready to begin his diversion, a rank of huntsmen sound their horns, the rails drop at one end, and the grand cacciatóre rides out with his attendants to drive in an herd of deer, enclosed near at hand for this purpose. This done, they are forced up to the Emperor’s tent, till at the distance of about twenty yards they stand in a throng together. Hereupon his Imperial Majesty takes a well poised carbine, rests it upon a fixt support, then applies a perspective glass to the barrel, and discharges among the herd; and thus, with the help of the Archduke, he stuns, or maims perhaps, a dozen at twice as many shots. At length they sit down to diner, there talk over their diversion, and give this ignoble slaughter the name of a hunt.

During my stay at Vienna, I had the opportunity of three accidental but remarkable sights. The first of these was the execution of a woman by decollation, whose head the executioner struck off, as she sat in a chair, at one blow, levelled against the back part of her neck, with a two handed stroke, and a broad two edged sword. At these executions there assists, as in Italy, a number of about twenty persons, called the confraternity of the dead, habited in black, with masks, broad brimed hats, and mourning staves. They are a fixed society, composed of citizens of the middle rank, on whom their confessors impose it, as a piece of penance, to assist incognito on these occasions. But most remarkable was the fact and behaviour of the criminal, who was about twenty six years of age, and in the absence of her husband, now three years imprisoned at Presburg, had admitted the embraces of a young man, whom she passionately loved, but at length discovered to be upon the design of marrying another woman. After the most earnest but fruitless endeavours to divert his intention, she invites him one morning to a walk beyond the Favorite, and in a remote place enticing him to kiss her, takes occasion to[124] shoot him in the head. This done, she immediately resigns herself to justice, reveals the whole fact, and implores her speedy dispatch; that so she might have his company in the other world, without whom she could not live in this. She walked with a fresh undaunted countenance to the place of sentence, which tho before designed and notified accordingly, yet is never formally pronounced till the time of execution. From thence she returned to the place of her death, sat down in the chair, and then received the stroke, without ever wavering her body, changing her complexion, or dreading the blow she was to feel. At these executions they often catch the blood of the criminal, as good against the falling sickness[135].

Another ceremony that occurred, while I resided here, was the investiture of the Duke of Saxony, and other inferior Princes of that circle, now at length demanded of his Imperial Majesty, at the Favorite, on the eighth of August. The five several representatives of the Elector and other Princes kneeling before the Emperor, who was seated on a low throne, did fealty in behalf of their respective patrons, rehearsed their pedigrees and title to their principalities, and requested of his Imperial Majesty to be invested in their several dignities. This being granted to them, they then took the proper oath at the feet of the Emperor; afterwards kissed the handle of a sword, which he held forth to each of them; and at last retiring to their first places, there on their knees they recognized the authority of his Imperial Majesty, and so were dismissed.

The third solemnity was a pompous procession, undertaken to accompany the bones of three Saints, namely, Sancta Victoria, Sanctus Alexander, and Sanctus Justus, from St. Stephen’s to the chapel of the Emperor’s palace in the city. They were newly brought from Italy, where being observed by Prince Leichtenstein in his late embassy to Rome, and found to have some relation to Hungary, of which two of them were natives; they were thought proper to be transmitted to Vienna, and accordingly purchased very dear, one of them standing him in no less than four thousand florins. In this procession marched all the religious orders, ranked in their several fraternities, except that the Jesuit disposed[125] themselves promiscuously among the laity. After the monks and friars followed the meaner people, to the number of about two thousand; then the gentry, tho in a smaller number; after them a few of the nobility; then the Archduke and Emperor; and last of all the Empress and Archdutchesses. Each person of this numerous train maintained a decent gravity, except the Archbishop of Vienna, who being dressed in his episcopal robes and mitre walked like a horse in gaudy trappings, flinging about his legs, surveying his rich vestments, and looking up to the ladies and other spectators, who admired him from the windows, under which he passed.

August xxvii.

This day I went in a calash, together with Mr. Montague and Mr. Gaugain, to Petronel, a village on the Danube, about twenty four English miles from Vienna, seated in the place of the antient Carnuntum, where M. Antoninus held his capital quarters to bridle the Marcomanni for the space of three years, and then retiring on account of his indisposition to Vindobona died there. While we were on the road, I was entertained by those gentlemen, with a relation of what they had seen the day before. Count Sherradin of Bohemia had several times shot a pistol bullet into a mark of the size of a florin, at the distance of forty yards. And at this he is said to be so expert, that his pages will venture to hold a florin between their thumb and forefinger, which he dextrously uses to strike without hurting them. The like is sometimes practised by the present King of Poland, tho he once broke the fingers of a page in making the experiment. We here saw the remains of a triumphal arch, the fornix of which is yet intire; erected, as is thought by Nesselius and Lambecius, on occasion of that Pannonian expedition of Tiberius, which is so much celebrated by Paterculus[136]. The inhabitants here shewed us various Roman coins, tho none of any noted value. The village now belongs to Count Traun, who is descended from Babo, count of Abensberg, who had forty children by two lawful wives; thirty two of which, being sons, were presented by him to the Emperor, Henry the second, who prefered them all. Count Traun has here a stately palace, called the Castle, where we saw the story of the thirty two sons of Count Babo painted at large[137]. The house is moted round,[126] as is usual all over this country. In the inside is a noble hall, well painted in the roof, and at the entrance of the gate is fixt an antient Latin inscription, which I have here transcribed.


August xxix.

His Excellency with his whole family retired this day from Vienna to Baden, a small town, yet enclosed with an old wall, and celebrated for its baths, which are of pure sulphur. They rise in several places about the town, without any mixture of steel or other mineral, and are there collected into several square cisterns railed about with wood; where people of different quality bathe in distinct bagnios, and in some cases with good success. The town is seated four hours from Vienna, at the foot of the hills, which I take to be the Pannonian Alps. In this place Mr. Paget and I used the constant exercise of walking morning and evening, where I experienced a happy restoration of my health, once much debilitated in Turkey. Gloria in excelsis Deo!

September xxv.

His Excellency now sent Mr. Paget and myself to see the castle of Luxemburg, situated in the way betwixt Baden and Vienna. It is a mean building, in the form of a small quadrangle, and moted round. I observed several curious pictures in it, one particularly fine of the seven liberal sciences, in the dining room of the Emperor; another of the present King of France, when about four years of age; a third of Charles the fifth; a fourth of Matthias Corvinus and his father Huniades. The dining room is observable for an accident of thunder, which, while the Emperor and his family were at diner, entered the room at one quarter,[127] passed in a semicircle about the table, and made its way thro the opposite wall with great explosion; while the Emperor remained in his seat with a remarkable calmness and serenity of mind. Adjoining to this building is a delightful park enclosed with pales; and nearer to the house a thick grove of elm and oak, in which is a long walk, and avenues so cut, as to resemble all the streets of Vienna.

September xxix.

This day Mr. Paget and I by the direction of his Excellency went to see a glass house, newly erected in the hills adjoining to this place, at the distance of about three hours. Our way thither lay thro a delicious vale, which conveys a small river, is graced with green meadows on each side, and above these with rising hills, adorned with a variety of trees, but particularly pines and firs. I here observed the several curiosities of that art and manufacture, which, tho frequent in England, I had never before seen. Returning home we stept a little to the left hand, to visit a convent of Cistercian monks, by the name of St. Cross, founded in the year 1131, by St. Leopold, Marquess of Austria. During the late siege of Vienna it was burnt by the Tartars (the common fate of all this country for thirty or forty Holland miles round Vienna) but soon after rebuilt by its own abbot, Clement Scheffer, in a more stately and splendid manner. Here reside an abbot, a prior, and about sixty monks, all royally maintained by noble revenues belonging to the monastery. They are neatly and gentilely dressed, lodged in pleasant chambers, have their public appartments alike magnificent, a fine garden, and prospects beautified with vistos and avenues cut in the adjoining woods. The abbot was then absent, but the prior and librarian treated us at supper, where we were served with seven or eight dishes, the best old wines, and conversation far from monkish. The librarian particularly was pleased to ridicule the custom of signing all the doors of this country with C. M. B. which the people fondly esteem a charm against fire and thievery; but he, as he said, instead of Cuspar Malcheir Bulkasar, was wont to interpret these letters Cax Mundus Beelzebub. At the same time I could not but be highly offended at a certain jocular freedom, with which he treated the Holy Scripture, saying with a profane mirth, when he delivered to us a glass of wine, Transeat a me calix iste; and when he had tossed off[128] his own, Consummatum est. In truth we here saw not any token of popish zeal or superstition, as is usual in other places, no crucifixes, or images of the Trinity, Virgin, and the like; but instead of these, the whole Imperial family excellently well painted, and these in rooms, which for grandeur exceeded any, that the Emperor is master of in his palaces about Vienna. Here they favoured us with a lodging after a gentile and candid entertainment, and dismissed us in the like manner by eight a clock the next morning. Their library was mean, but the case very neat; tho the library had been much larger before the destruction by the Tartars. However I saw here a good Latin Ms. of the New Testament, without the Epistles of St. Peter, James, or John; and the Apocalypse placed immediately after St. John’s Gospel.

October iv.

My Lord and his family now returned from Baden to Vienna, where he lodged within the city in the house of C. Stratman, at the rate of five hundred florins a month. At Baden I was able to observe nothing, except some small matters relating to country affairs. As their way of making wine in the field, where they mash the grapes in broad open tubs, and tun it into large casks, as they lie in the cart. The manner of enclosing their vineyards with high poles joined at the top, and burnt at bottom to secure them from corrupting by the moisture of the ground. The manner of drawing sometimes with asses, and at other times with oxen, joining the harness to their horns without the use of yokes. I observed likewise their custom of calling a public officer upon the death of any animal; before which they dare not touch the carcass, he only being impowered to carry it away to a certain place, and there flea it, for which he receives three florins. This officer is called the hound slayer, because twice a year he is obliged to kill all the dogs both in town and country, that are found without a collar, which is thought an institution against spreading of infectious diseases.

October v.

This day I waited upon Mr. Stepney, who among other papers from England shewed me that traiterous Epigram, written in praise of Sorrel, or the horse, from which his late Majesty received his fatal fall.


October xxv.

There was brought to his Excellency’s house a male child, seven years of age, born at Rigetsch, three miles and a half from Papa, of a beautiful countenance, but without legs or thighs; and the left hand deformed, but the right intire. It walks, and raises itself with ease, while its trunk supplies the use of one leg, and the right hand that of the other. The hips terminate in a round figure, not unlike a woman’s breasts, and have in the middle an excrescence exactly resembling a large nipple. The child is healthy and lively, and from the crown of the head to the extremity of the trunk is three palms and a half long.

I had now, in company of several English gentlemen, an opportunity of seeing the Emperor’s collection of pictures, which is exposed at the price of twelve florins. It consists of three long galleries, with four or five large and square chambers. The whole number of pieces amounts to a thousand six hundred and sixty three, performed by the best hands of Europe, particularly these which follow: Albert Durer, Anton. Correggio, Bassan, Palma senior and junior, Prugel senior and junior, Paul Veronese, Bronzini, Franck senior, Paduanino, Jo. Bellino, Poussin, Gerome Poss, Portononi, Spagnoletto, Raphael Sancio, Giorgioni, Titian, Tintoretto, Van Ach, Holbein, Rubens, Van Dick, John de Heem, Pauditz, and others. Among these there was one piece of Raphael, which seemed to excel the rest, being a saint holding a crucifix, which belonged to the cabinet of King Charles the first of England, and was sold by Oliver to this court for twelve thousand florins. Besides this collection of pictures, there is another set of rarities, preserved in a cabinet at one end of the third gallery, and consisting of intaglios and cameos; among which is a large head of Domitian in agate; a series of gold medals, and among them two of Otho, to which is added a Pisennius Niger in silver of the third size. In the same cabinet are several small statues of brass and stone, among the rest those of Venus and Hercules; and likewise several antient busts, particularly of Plato and Aristotle; with divers sepulchral lamps, urns, and other remains of antiquity. To say nothing of the curiosities found in the tomb of Childeric the first by Leopold William, Archduke of[130] Austria, and uncle to this Emperor, at Tournay in the year 1657. Among these are some remarkable gold coins of that time, with the repeated emblem of flies or bees, the wings of which at a distance give the figure of a flower de lys, and are supposed to be the real arms of France, tho this resemblance has occasioned their being mistaken for that flower. But more especially is to be remembred the order of antient busts ranged on one side of the three galleries, among which are several heads of Emperors, and Satyrs, with one of Socrates; as likewise an intire figure of Magna Mater turrita, with a lion under her chair, a tympanum in her left hand, and patina in her right; which cost this court a thousand florins at Rome.

November iii.

I went to visit Mr. C. Boét, a famous painter in enamel, who had a salary from his late Majesty, whose picture, with those of other confederate Princes, drawn by him he now shewed me. But that which is most remarkable, he is at present working for this court the largest piece, that ever was known in enamel, being an oval of eighteen inches by fifteen; which contains the figures of the Emperor and Empress, King and Queen of the Romans, with the Archduke, the four Archdutchesses, and the two young Daughters of the King of the Romans. He was sent for hither by his late Majesty on purpose for this work, for which when finished he is by compact to receive four thousand ducats of gold. The materials of it are a copper plate covered with a white enamel, which being hardened in the fire, is afterwards painted over in colours of a peculiar composition, with oil of lavender and rosemary; and then again put into the fire to receive a gloss, and additional hardness; after which it is liable to no accident, but that of breaking. It may be observed, that all the red colours in this work are made of gold.

November vi.

This day by order of his Excellency I waited on the two young Messieurs Olmeus and others, in order to see the Emperor’s treasury the third time, and thereby perfected my catalogue of those rarities.[131] And his Excellency being then preparing for his departure, the Emperor presented him with six thousand dollars.

November viii.

His Excellency with his retinue now set forward from Vienna towards Holland, and proceed two german miles to Entzersdorff. A little before the midway we cross the Danube over a wooden bridge four hundred paces in length, and continue near the banks of the river to the above mentioned town. And as we continued there the following day, I walked down to the banks of the Danube, where it flows under the castle of St. Leopold, near Cloyster Newburg, and in the extreme point of Mons Cetius.

November x.

This day we proceed two German miles and a half further to Stockeran, and there meet C. Schlick, Mr. Stepney, Mr. Montague, and Mr. Gangain, with whom we proceed three miles and a half further to our lodgings at Holibrun. And from thence his Excellency, with the said company, the next morning goes out an hour to Count Sereny’s, there to wait on the King of the Romans, now returning from the campaign on the Rhine. By one a clock the King and Queen arrived at the Count’s, where his Excellency had an audience of both their Majesties; after which they sat down to table, and his Excellency and company dined with the court, and afterwards returned to Holibrun.

November xii.

This day we advance about five miles further in Austria, and then crossing the Teya enter into Moravia, now called Makren, and take up our quarters at Znaim, the Medoslanium of Ptolemy. This is a fair and fortified town, tho of the old fashion, upon the river Teya, which runs hence into the Morawa, antiently the Marus, and with that into the Danube. In the year 1645 this town was taken and pillaged by the Swedes. It has two market places, in each of which is a good fountain; and in one of them the image of the Virgin, erected on a fair pillar, and inscribed with a new sort of Gloria Patri, that is, Lavs Deo, Mariaeqve Virgini, Sanctisque svis. There are likewise several convents,[132] of Capuchines, Dominicans, Jesuits, and Premonstratensians; and it is remarkable for excellent endive.

November xiii.

We stay this day at Znaim, and the day following proceed three German miles to Budwitz, thro pleasant woods of fir, with fertile open feilds. And moving from thence the next morning, three more German miles carry us thro Babitz and Drumna to Pernitz, by a pleasant way, thro a country sometimes open and well tilled; and at other times thro delightful woods of pine or fir, intermixt with juniper and a few birch; but scarce any other shrubs or trees in the whole country. At Pernitz is a convent of Paulins, so called from Sto. Francisco di Paula, a strict order, that eats no flesh nor fish throughout the year. In this place live several Jews, who are bound to wear blue ruffs, as a mark of distinction.

November xvi.

Two German miles thro woods of fir and arable ground bring us to Iglaw. This city, reasonably well fortified, has a large and clean market place, round which the houses have false fronts, and are handsomely painted on the outside with pleasant landskips or histories. At the upper end of it is a statue of the Virgin on a column, like that at Znaim; both seeming to be an imitation of that at Vienna. We bait an hour at Iglaw, and then pass on one German mile to a small village, called Steken. But immediately beyond the wall of Iglaw we pass a river of the same name, and there enter into Bohemia, whence we continue our way over a large lake, with a road cast up betwixt the two branches of it, and delicate woods of fir adorning its banks. This wood is of large extent, and seems to be a continuation of the Sylva Hercynia in this country, now called Behemerwaldt.

November xvii.

We stay this day at Steken, where I had leisure to observe in general concerning Moravia, that the country is fertile and well tilled, except where it is overrun with pine or fir woods. The people are all slaves to the lords of the several mansions; but this extends only to their labour, not the property of their gain. The[133] language of the place is Behemish, a dialect of the Sclavonian; but at inns and other public houses they ordinarily speak Tuysech. The government it divided into five districts, of which there are as many captains, but the command of the whole province is committed by the Emperor to Count Thorn. The river Morawa is likewise called Mark by the Germans; which latter name seems to relate to the antient inhabitants, the Marcomanni (who with the Quadi were here settled) as the former name does to the Moravians. Through the whole extent of the country we frequent meet with large lakes, at the distance perhaps of an English mile.

November xviii.

This day we proceed one mile and a half to Tuytschenbrodt, an old fortification on the river Sazawa, and from thence two miles to Habern, in a wood on the right hand. Tuytschenbrodt was the place, where General Zeiska beat the Emperor Sigismund, and by that defeat drove him out of Bohemia.

November xix.

One mile brings us this day to Janikaw, and two more from thence to Czaslaw; the place where Ferdinand the second narrowly escaped being assassinated by an Italian, hid for that purpose in an oven. Half a mile farther carries us to a small hamlet, called Wasser Cratz. Of these towns Janikaw is the place, where the battle was fought betwixt the Swedes and Imperialists in 1645; and Czaslaw, where General Zeiska lies buried.

November xx.

From Wasser Cratz we proceed one quarter of a German mile, and then having the city of Kuttenberg on our left hand, a little farther in the road we pass by two Imperial mines, where they are now at work, and dig up a mixt oar, consisting of copper, lead, and silver, a specimen of which they then shewed us. At one mile and a half from our last lodging we come to Kottin, and there breakfast. Then proceeding another mile and a half, we arrive at Blanyan. From Kottin flows the river Elb, which takes its name about five miles below that place, and is there scarce navigable.[134] As we travel, we keep it in sight on the right hand, and the woods still on the left.

November XXI.

Two miles and a half from Branyan carry us to Oval, thro an open arable country, with a continued tract of woods on our left hand. In the midway we bait at the poor town of Bohaimsbrodt. But the day following for two miles and a half we pass thro a pleasant grove of birch and pine, and afterwards thro open ploughed feilds to Prague.

November xxiii.

His Excellency staying this day at Prague, I took that opportunity of viewing every thing I could of that noble city, which is thought to be the largest in Germany. It is inclosed with one intire wall, two third parts of which are regularly divided into curtains and bastions; but the remaining third is old and defenceless. Tho indeed the whole town is commanded by ascending ground, that no fortification can make it long defensible. The Muldaw, a large and rapid river, divides it into two parts, which are again joined by a fair and stately bridge of stone, seventeen hundred feet long and thirty five broad, supported by twenty four arches. Both parts of the city are adorned with great variety of magnificent buildings, the most remarkable of which I visited in this order.

Adjoining to the Star inn, where his Excellency lodged, is the new convent of Irish Cordeliers; and in the same neighbourhood are two seminaries, one called that of the Archbishop, and the other that of St. Norbert, patron of this kingdom; both which profess academical learning, but in societies distinct from the university of the place.

Hence the way leads us to the townhouse, a large and stately building, which at one corner has a piece of clock work, giving the motions of the seven planets. On one side of this opens a fair piazza, with two curious pieces of workmanship. The first of these is a statue of the B. Virgin trampling on the Dragon, erected on a stone pillar, on the pedestal of which are four Angels defeating the like venomous monsters. This implies a triumphant declaration[135] of her immaculate conception, and imitates that work before observed at Vienna. The second curiosity is a fountain of carved marble, with a basin of twelve sides, on which are cut very beautifully the twelve signs of the Zodiac.

From hence we pass to a college of Jesuits, a noble and spatious building. The church is a fine fabric, and prodigiously rich; the cloister large, and adorned with agreable pictures; among the rest are large tables divided into little squares, containing the short history and pourtraiture of the eminent persons of their order for preaching, missions, and conversions, among whom are a great number of English.

The same way leads us to the bridge above mentioned, and thence to another college of the Jesuits; but the third, and most splendid of this order, is in that part of Prague called the new city, which we had not an opportunity of seeing.

We now turn to the right hand, and in an eminent part of the city are brought to the Emperor’s palace, old and irregular in outward appearance, but within its precincts is the old cathedral church, an handsome Gothic building of the year 923, as appears by an inscription on the chief altar. The stateliness of the old architecture, with the richness as well as beauty of the modern ornaments, make it a venerable pile. They have here a picture of the Virgin, which is pretended to be of St. Luke’s hand. At the gate entering into this palace there is another in sight, which is the residence of the Archbishop.

From the cathedral we are carried to the Capuchin cloister, which consists of a small but most beautiful quadrangle. Round the four sides, under a fair portico, are painted thirty different copies of so many of the most eminent and miraculous images of the Virgin, each in the proper garb, posture, and colours of the originals; and the remaining space of the wall beneath is filled with votive tables, in acknowledgement of favours received from each picture. I thought this collection observable, in that it is an apparent instance of the different representations of the B. Virgin, who is not invoked under the same character in all places, and on all occasions; but according to the fancy of the first painters, and the superstition of the late devotees, is split into so many[136] distinct objects of worship; as the Lady de Victoria, de Litera, de Consilio, Crysostomiana, Cyrilliana, Bernardina, Lauretana, Eremitana, Cellensis, Passaviensis, Wranoviensis, Hallensis. As this shews how polytheism crept in among the heathen, who first of all worshiped God under so many distinct attributes, and afterwards as so many distinct beings; so it argues greater superstition in the church of Rome: for instead of the several characters of Venus, as Cypria, Cytherea, Victrix, and others; or of Diana, as Aricinia, Leucophryne, Taurica[139]; we have many more of Sta. Maria. In the middle of this quadrangle is an handsome imitation of the chapel of Loretto with the Virgin and our Savior above the altar in the complection of Moors; and on the outside walls are various religious stories elegantly represented.

From hence we proceed to the celebrated cloister of Premonstratensians, called the Shawhoff in which above an hundred persons are maintained in a princely manner. I was here shewn a rich chapel, wherein before the incursion of the Swedes were many large and curious statues of solid brass, particularly those of the twelve Apostles; which by Count Koningsmarck were converted into canon, when he took this part of the city, tho he was soon again repulsed. In the middle of the church, in a stately open monument, is preserved the body of St. Norbert, the founder of this order. Over the tomb is suspended a gilt crown of a prodigious size, the diameter of the rimb being at least three ells. After the chapel I saw their library, which is neat and well filled, but with books in the taste of the last age. They have here a monkish contrivance of a wheeling desk with six sides, on each of which may lie several books, so as to be turned round in their order, without falling off in the motion. From the library we passed to their private chapel, wherein is a crucifix, which the monk, who shewed it us, attested to have seen illuminated in the night, while no candle was in the room. In an adjoining gallery is a large statue of our Savior, which they affirm to have once sweat blood about the neck, and shew the marks thereof still remaining. From hence we are carried to their winter refectory, a large and regular stove room, well contrived for warmth and beauty at the same time. But their summer refectory is a pattern of beauty, proportion, and magnificence, being paved with black and white marble, with[137] three large windows on one side, and round the walls about twelve large pictures of eminent persons of their order; and the whole is exceedingly well contrived, both for the entertainment of the mind, and repose of the body. They shewed us likewise another large room, with a numerous collection of their most meritorious members in little squares; and last of all the chambers of the monks, with two adjoining gardens, one for the fathers, the other for the brethren of the society, which completed the pleasure of the sight.

Next to this convent we went to see a Jewish synagogue, of which there are eight in this place, the number of that nation amounting to above ten thousand, who for distinction sake are all obliged to wear a blue ruff.

On the stately bridge over the Muldaw are to be observed several curious statues of the Virgin; of our Savior; and of the new Saint lately set up in all parts of this kingdom, as well as on all the bridges of Vienna, being a curious piece of cast brass with this inscription:


He was here drowned for not revealing to the King of Bohemia a confession of his Queen.

The famous university of this place, which in the time of John Huss consisted of forty thousand students, is not even now so far diminished, but that when they have occasion to assault the Jews, or other citizens, they can muster about twelve thousand. They consist of young persons, not collected into regular societies, as with us, but lodging in private houses, from whence they repair to the public schools at the appointed hours of lecture. There are three of these schools, one in each part of the city, where all academical learning is professed by the ablest of the Jesuits; for these have the sole direction of the university, and are the only rich prevailing persons in Bohemia, particularly in the capital city, where they amount to the number of a thousand.


November xxiv.

This day we leave Prague, and proceed four miles, thro an open ploughed country, to Sloney. In the way we receive the confirmation of the good news, which we first heard at Iglaw; that seventeen Spanish galleons in the port of Vigo were fallen under the power of our grand fleet, eleven being taken, and six sunk; and that the whole squadron of Chateaurenault, being twenty nine men of war, were either sunk or taken.

November xxv.

His Excellency continues yet at Sloney, a small but walled town, with a large market place, as usual in these parts. It was formerly a seat of protestants, and therefore barbarously destroyed by Ferdinand the third. The day following we intend for Launa, three miles from hence; but the place being taken up for the quarters of five thousand Saxon soldiers, now moving against Bavaria, we lodge at Clamston, half an hour short of it; where we continue two days, by reason of a great quantity of snow, which then fell.

November xxix.

Leaving Clamston, at the distance of one quarter of a German mile we pass under the walls of Launa, and there cross the Egra by a long wooden bridge, covered with a penthouse, as is usual in this country. From thence we come to Bitin, the estate of Prince Lobcowitz, where we bait one hour; and from thence proceed to Deplitz, the estate and seat of Count Clery, remarkable for an hot bath.

November xxx.

His Excellency from hence designed the straight road, by the way of Framstein, Friburg (where are silver mines, and the tombs of the electors of Saxony) Waltheim, Coldick, Walcowitz, and so to Leipsick. In the mean time he permitted me to quit his retinue, in order to see Dresden. With this intent I take a post waggon from Deplitz to Peterswaldt, the distance of two miles, in which I pass the hill of Kaiasberg. From Peterswaldt I take a new post,[139] and soon after I have left the town pass the boundary of Bohemia and Saxony; and at two miles end changing post at a little village not far from Pirn, by this third post I come under its walls, and presently am upon the banks of the Elbe, along which I ride about half an hour, and then quitting the river arrive about five a clock at Dresden, being in all six miles from Deplitz. It being now dark, I repair immediately to my lodgings at the house of one Leonard Serert, betwixt the two market places, a civil host, who spoke both French and Italian. The way from Peterswaldt to Dresden is very agreable, being interspersed with woods of fir. The villages are better built, and more populous, than those of Bohemia; where indeed neither towns nor villages are thin, but the people very few, and those dejected with a sense of poverty and slavery, occasioned partly by the tyranny of the church, and partly by the constitution of the government, which makes the peasants slaves to their Lords, as in Moravia.

December i.

I continue at Dresden this and the three following days, to observe the curiosities of the place. It is a neat well built town, with straight and fair streets, compact but not large, enclosed within a regular fortification, and a deep foss constantly filled with water. It stands upon the Elbe, over which it has a noble bridge, almost as long as that of Prague, supported by eighteen arches, and on each side affording a delightful prospect along the bending chanel of the water. By this bridge the city is joined to a neat suburb, called Old Dresden, the residence chiefly of merchants, among whom I found two Englishmen, Mr. Northleigh and Mr. Dealing, by both whom I was kindly treated. Dresden was always the residence of the Electors of Saxony, till this present Elector was chosen King of Poland. However it is the ordinary seat both of the Electress, and the Prince, who is six years old; but both of them happened to be absent now. The Deputy of the Elector is the Prince of Furstemberg, who is of the Popish religion, but the whole town is intirely Lutheran. They have three churches, St. Cross, Sta. Sophia, and the chapel of the court. St. Cross is a large antient Gothic building, well adorned in the inside, particularly with a carved and stately altar. The number of ministers is about twelve, whose revenue is very small, and therefore the people here complain, that they make up that defect by the abuses[140] of confession. The palace is a fair stone building, consisting of two courts, of which the first is large and regular, adorned both within and without with very good carving, and painting in fresco, which deserves regard, particularly one part of it that fronts the street, and represents a Roman triumph. The gardens are likewise curious, and the riding school is remarkably spatious; but what obscures every thing else in Dresden, and perhaps all others of the same kind in Germany, is the kunstkammer, with the arsenal, and stable of the Elector. Each of these are shewn to strangers at the price of three florins, the curiosities of which I reduced into a catalogue. On the bridge at Dresden is erected a curious brass crucifix, not inferior to that of Prague in the workmanship, but far exceeding it in design, and bearing an inscription, that disavows all superstitious worship.

December iv.

At six a clock this evening, it being then very dark, I take a passage in the ordinary post chaise for Leipsick, paying four florins for the space of thirteen German miles. By ten at night we come to Misten, and there cross the Elbe over a large covered bridge. The benefit of the star light gives me opportunity to observe some part of the town, particularly the castle seated on very high ground. Hence we continue our journey all night, till about ten a clock the next morning we come to Wurzen, where we dine; and then ferrying over the Muldaw, now a large and rapid river, after having endured a cold and severe snow all the day, we arrive at Leipsick about five a clock in the afternoon, where I provide myself with a private lodging.

December vi.

This morning his Excellency and his retinue arrive at Leipsick by eleven a clock, and lodge at the Golden hen in the high street, to which place I therefore now remove myself.

Leipsick is a neat and compact place, well built, the streets almost straight, and conveniently wide. The market place is a regular quadrangle, surrounded with fair and lofty houses, among which is the town hall, or court of justice. Not far from the market is another small square, at one end of which is a new and spatious room, to which we ascend by stone steps. This serves[141] for an exchange, where the merchants meet. The city has three large churches, one of St. Nicholas, another of St. Thomas, and a third called the New Church. These are all well beautified within, especially that of St. Nicholas, the altar of which is a neat pile, representing in good sculpture the burial and resurrection of our Savior, his shewing his wounds to St. Thomas and the other disciples, and over the whole his ascension in a cloud. At the upper end of the two outward isles are painted two good pieces of perspective. The town has no public buildings, besides an old castle, and a new hospital; the latter of which serves both for the reception of lunatics, and also a house of correction for vagabonds. The fortification is regular, and of the new fashion, but not of any great importance; however it has a foss, that may be filled with water upon occasion from the Pleiss, which washes the walls of the city.

The town is governed by a senate of twenty three, of whom three, called Burgomasters, have the prime authority; and by a chief magistrate, who has the title of consul, and is chosen annually. The present consul is one Romanus, a young gentleman of great fortune, and vast designs; who is erecting a noble palace in the city, built of free stone. Among the senators are several persons of quality, who have fair estates, and a learned education.

There is a good library belonging to the city, lately purchased at the expence of the senators, and which they daily improve by new accessions. Among the citizens of this rank and character I contracted an acquaintance with Mr. Wagner, who speaks good English, and has been long preparing a comment on the obscurities of Barclay’s Euphormio, concerning which he has commissioned me to make several enquiries. Another person of the like learning and civility is Mr. Graevius (brother to the eminent critic in Holland) who has the care of the city library, and favoured me with the sight of it. These with many other particulars, that might be mentioned, are arguments of a rich and flourishing city; which is occasioned partly from the confluence of students to the university; and partly from the benefit of three celebrated fairs of fourteen days each, which are annually kept here, and furnished with merchandizes of all sorts, not only from the several parts of Germany, but likewise from Italy, Hungary, France, Holland, England, and other countries.


The staple commodities of the town are the linen manufacture, and a natural blue earth, which is dug only in some metalic mines of Saxony, and which to the vast advantage of this place is exported from hence to England, Holland, and elsewhere, for the use of dying. As to the execution of justice, adultery is here a capital crime, but in this case the criminal must be convicted by his own confession, to which they oblige him by force of torture. The beauty of the city, which appears to a good advantage by day light, is however not lost in the night, by means of their new lamps, which are ranged in an orderly manner, stand very close to each other, and are kept with great neatness. The gardens of the principal gentlemen, and merchants here resident, are without the fortifications; and being as well exceeding rich, as beautified with great art, add a noble ornament to the place.

The university is in a flourishing state, and has a true taste of polite literature, especially as to philosophical studies. Tho I know not whether they merit that character with regard to classical learning. It is not now so numerous as formerly; because Hall, which within these ten years has been erected into an university by the King of Prussia, depriving them of their numbers, has reduced them perhaps from three to one thousand students. They have six colleges, called Paulinum, Petrinum, Majorum and Minorum Principum, Rubrum, and B. Mariae Virginis. Each of these have their praepositus, and some few stipends. But when we mention academical colleges abroad, we must fall much below the idea of those, with which we are so happily acquainted at Oxford and Cambridge. In these colleges are their auditories, or schools, of public lectures for philosophy, and the three superior faculties. These are regularly taught by their respective professors, of which the university is furnished with six in divinity, five in law, four in physic, and nine in philosophy, humanity, and history. Besides these, several of the more eminent doctors, and elder students, have their private lectures, to which the younger resort at their pleasure, and this with greater frequency and better success, than to the lectures publicly established. The degrees in philosophy are that of batchelor and master of arts; in the faculties, of licentiate and doctor. Persons of note in the university, whom I visited, were Dr. Efficke professor of divinity; and Dr. Otto Menchenius professor of moral philosophy, who is likewise the editor[143] of the Acta Eruditorum, of which I purchased an intire set from the year 1682 to this present time, consisting of twenty five volumes in quarto. Other eminent persons, with whom I had a more frequent conversation, were Dr. Goëtze, Dr. Menchenius junior, and Mr. Olearius junior. The two former are doctors of law, and the latter professor of humanity. To these I may add Mr. Thomas Fritsel bookseller, a person who has made an useful tour over Europe; speaks several modern languages, as well as Latin; and to whom I was obliged for a particular mark of courtesy, and the present of several useful books. Not only he, but the three gentlemen last mentioned speak good English, which language is much esteemed and studied in this place. Dr. Menchenius shewed me the little work of Alcyonius De exilio, which I was glad to see, because it is said to have been compiled out of Cicero’s treatise De gloria; which the plagiary for that reason took occasion to suppress. Dr. Goëtze among several fair manuscripts, and old editions of classic authors, shewed me a neat but antient satyr On the Pope and Court of Rome. It is a manuscript, as yet unprinted, in Elegiac verse, entitled Eironeia Gaufridi. He has also a curious and fair manuscript of Columella, another of a Greek Menologion, a very old Greek Testament, printed in Spain, with the Latin in the margin; but exactly referring in every word by cautious notes from the known to the unknown language, lest the monks of that time should have taken γενέσεως to signify liber, and βίβλος generationis. In another old Spanish book, concerning the antiquities of that country, he shewed me a copy of the old Gothic character; in which it is observable, that the vowels are generally incorporated with the consonants, which they follow.

In the two libraries of this place, the one belonging to the university, the other to the senate, I took notice of the following curiosities.

In the former I observed two celebrated pictures of Luther and Melancthon, both taken after their death. Several specimens of what they called moneta bracteata, lately found in Saxony; but which I take to have been only leaves of silver covering a mass of inferior metal. An old manuscript of Homer, with large Scholia, which they here think have never been published. The draught of an old idol worshiped in Germany; the original of which was[144] a short brass image of an human figure, hollow within, and contrived to make an artificial wind issue out of his mouth, like the globes of that sort now become so common.

In the library of the senate I observed an Egyptian mummy. Several Roman urns and funeral lamps. Saxon urns, like others which I observed at Dresden and elsewhere, full of thin fragments of bones; in one of which were found several small iron and brass instruments, and upon a thin plate of brass the two following letters, ⲱ. ⲉ. A fine collection of coins. A good manuscript of Theocritus. A noble specimen of the rich silver mines in Saxony, in a mass about three feet long and two broad, the whole of which almost is pure metal.

Adjoining to the Collegium Paulinum is the university church, where they have prayers on festival days. It is full of antient and modern monuments, all of good work. This university took its rise from the dispersion of the Hussites, and the banishment of John Huss himself from Prague. And by its first constitution it is appropriated to four nations; the Misnians (of whom Leipsick is the metropolis) the other hereditary countries of the Elector of Saxony, the Bavarians, and the Poles. The chief magistrate annually elected here is called rector magnificus, as in other German universities; and in him, with his subordinate officers, rests the sole government and jurisdiction of this learned body. The present rector is Dr. Cyprianus, professor of divinity.

It was in Leipsick, that I first observed the Lutheran manner of communicating. The priest and the deacon, who assists him, are habited in surplices, copes, and sleeves, like those of the Greeks and Romanists. The service is chanted by the priests standing, and the people round about at a distance, but in the same posture. The consecration being ended, the communicants draw near, and on the north side of the altar approach the priest, who delivers into the mouth of each of them still standing the consecrated wafer. The communicants from thence walk round the back part of the altar, and so come to the deacon, from whom they likewise standing receive the cup, and thence return orderly to their proper places. In the mean time, while the species are delivered by the priest on one side and the deacon on the other, two choristers habited likewise in copes and surplices attend each, holding under them a rich pall of velvet, or other stuff, to receive any particle[145] of the elements, which may fall accidentally. This done, they likewise chant a thanksgiving service in a standing posture, and so depart. The ecclesiastics of the place wear large white ruffs, not only in time of divine service, but likewise as their ordinary habit when in public; and with this a round cloth cap, like that lately alloted to the commoners in the university of Oxford.

These are the principal observations I had leisure to make at Leipsick, where his Excellency staid from the sixth to the fourteenth of this month. On this day therefore we proceed on our journey five German miles to Hall over an open arable country. This is an antient city, founded and perfected by the several Othos, Emperors of Germany. It is now large, but meanly built, tho famous for its salt pits, from whence it has the name of Hall. In these they work night and day with an uninterrupted diligence, nor ever cease, but in the time of divine service on Sundays. It is situated on the river Sala, which name corresponds with that of the city.

The King of Prussia, as has been said, Sovereign of the place, opened an university here some years since, which at present flourishes with about a thousand students, and several professors of eminent note, among these are Strychius, Thomasius, and Franckius. The last is the person, who sent me formerly into Turkey several little tracts of his own composition, which had been translated into Latin and Italian, in order to be distributed here. I therefore visited him this evening, and discoursed with him upon his famous project of an ample charity; by which he maintains above six hundred children of both sexes, and that by no other fund, than collections gathered by his own industry. Three hundred of these, being boys, he has reduced to a college, which he now calls the Orphanotrophium. It is an handsome building, well contrived for the reception of so many poor orphans, for their diet, lodging, schooling, clothing, and afterwards their removal to some proper calling. He has here a printing house for the use of the society, and from thence have now been published several treatises, of which he presented me with two, concerning the Jewish history, and the ecclesiastical government of Bohemia. The King of Prussia, who is thought the principal supporter of this great charity, has lately authorized the Orphanotrophium under an ample patent, and allowed both the society, and the founder of it, several honourable[146] and advantageous privileges. By this great undertaking Mr. Franck proposes to lay a scheme and foundation for the reformation of manners, and better advancement of learning at the same time. But as he is one of the primary Pietists in all Germany, the opposite party among the Lutherans in these parts, who in distinction call themselves the Orthodox, cease not to calumniate both him and his design. Tho how justly, God only knows. He delivered me a packet for Mr. Ludolf, and commissioned me to salute Dr. Bray, and Mr. Woodward of Stepney, with whom he corresponds in relation to this intended reformation.

December xv.

From Hall we now pass to Koendern, and by the way cross the Sala in a ferry boat at Alsleber, leaving Eisleben, the birth place of Luther, a little on the right hand. The day following we continue our journey from Koendern to Aschersleben, leaving Paidleburg in sight on the left hand. And the next day we move forward to Halberstadt, palling from Upper into Lower Saxony in this day’s journey. Halberstadt is a large town, subject to the King of Prussia, having about fourteen churches, which are pretty equally divided betwixt Protestants and Papists.

December xviii.

This day we leave Halberstadt and proceed to Hessen, a small village belonging to Rodolphus Augustus, Duke of Brunswick; who has here an old moted house, with a pleasant garden, and a fountain of brass work, which for the variety of animals there artfully represented, and the device of the whole, deserves to be remarked. We continue here the two following days, and then set out for Wolfembutel, where we arrive at night, and lodge in the suburbs.

December xxii.

His Excellency departed this morning from Wolfembutel with a design to go directly to Hildesheim; upon which I desire leave to take a different road, in order to see Brunswick, Hanover, and Hamburg. However I spent this day at Wolfembutel, in observing what was curious there.


The town is pleasantly seated on the river Ocker, in a place not so intirely level as the other parts of Lower Saxony, but enjoying a variety of rising and declining ground, with a convenient mixture of woods, which hitherto we observed to be intirely wanting from Leipsick to this place. The city is compactly built, has fair and large streets, tho no very stately edifices, and is well fortified with a regular wall, and a double foss. It has two remarkable churches, one of which is the cathedral, an old Gothic building, adorned with a variety of sculpture and statues; and the other is a new church, lately erected by the present Duke of this place, in a peculiar form. It has an ascent at the front by a handsome staircase on two sides, and then opens into a perfect oval, which is supported by six stately pillars, and covered with a cupola. Directly facing the door is a piece of good work in sculpture, representing the Virgin, and other religious figures; and under this in a small orbicular desk, which appears as an ornament of the work, is seen the pulpit. Underneath is a table of wood, set so distinct from the wall, that it cannot properly be called an altar, and at each end are two high steps for the kneeling of the communicants. For the Lutherans, who in some places communicate standing, do the same in others kneeling; and the notion of an altar, with the posture of receiving, are in their opinion things indifferent. The castle of this place (which alone is properly Wolfembutel) is just without the wall of the city, and is the residence of the Duke. He has here an academy for the use of young gentlemen of all nations, where they are instructed in the arts of fencing, riding, dancing, and other exercises. But what is most remarkable, in the precincts of the castle is the celebrated library, founded by Christianus Augustus, the father of this Prince. It consists of two large and spatious galleries, ranged all round with books, and filled in the middle with a double row of desks, which in the inner gallery likewise contain shelves for books of lesser volumes. It was collected with great assiduity, and at a vast expence, by the said Prince; who himself employed his pains intirely in this design, and wrote the several catalogues digested in various orders, and consisting of eight volumes in folio, with his own hand. The present librarian is the famous Mr. Leibnitz, who at this time did not reside upon the place; but an assistant of his shewed the library, and observed to me the following curiosities. A collection of printed Bibles, the largest and most curious, which[148] are any where to be found. A large manuscript English Bible in folio, which seems very antient and begins thus: In the erste made God of nought the hevens and the ery, and the ery forsooth was vein and veyd, and darknesses weren upon the face of the zee. At the bottom of the first page is wrote Lumley in later characters. A manuscript Greek Testament; and two printed copies, one of Aldus and the other at Hagenoa, in which is wanting that famous testimony of St. John concerning the three, that bear witness in heaven. An antient manuscript of St. Jerome’s Bible, written about four hundred years since, by one who subscribes himself Abbas Gaufridus Vitulus; and at the end of the same has delineated himself, with the head of a calf. A manuscript Aethiopic Testament, given by father Kircher to the founder of the library. A copy of the Psalms, written in those characters, which are called Ciceroniani and Cyprianici. A voluminous collection of modern Histories, in four hundred manuscript volumes in folio; among which are thirteen called Chroniques d’Angleterre. The whole number cost the Duke two thousand four hundred crowns; but it is thought, he purchased them much to dear. A fair turning desk with six leaves, like that before described in the Praemonstratensian library at Prague. A fair Herbal, with each flower delineated in its proper colours. A roll of the Pentateuch, and a vail now used by the Jews in reading the Law. Several reliques of Luther, as his spoon, drinking glass, leaden inkbottle, and a Letter in his own hand to one of his contemporary bishops, in which he sends the salutes of his wife in these words: Salutat te, Dominus meus, Ketha reverenter. Two books written by Prince Christian himself, founder of the library: one De ludo scacchia, in the German language; the other in folio, called Cryptographia, treating of cyphers and other secret devices, in the title of which he calls himself Gustavus Selenus, meaning Augustus Luneburgicus. A fair edition of the vulgate Latin Bible by Aldus at Venice, which reads in Genesis iii. 15, Ipsum conteret caput tuum, instead of the usual ipsa.

The present Duke Antonius Ulricus, and his brother Rudolphus Augustus, who resides at Brunswick, have the title of Brunswick and Lunenburg in common with their eldest brother the Duke of Zell, and their nephew the Duke of Hanover. But their proper government is the territory of Brunswick and Wolfembutel which they govern by joint name and authority, both being equally[149] sovereign in each. Rudolphus is about seventy two years of age, plain and unaffected in his carriage, insomuch that sometimes he takes a private journey to Hamburg where he walks the streets in the disguise of a country gentleman. But Antonius is a more polite and accomplished prince, affecting the French behaviour and education; for which end he here maintains the academy above mentioned He is courtly, and condescending, and greatly beloved by his subjects. He is now about sixty three years of age, and has two sons; of which he, who shall live to be his heir, will jointly inherit the authority and dominions both of his father and uncle Rudolphus.

December xxiii.

This morning I take the post waggon for Brunswick, which is seated on the same river as Wolfembutel, in a watry plain, having a large extent, but narrow streets, and houses of the old fashion almost intirely of wood, most of which have a date over the door of three or four hundred years standing. The stadthouse is of the same or greater antiquity, and adorned with a variety of statues on the outside. The town is fortified, but neither with great regularity nor strength. The castle is the residence of the Duke, being an old decayed building. I staid here from nine in the morning till three in the afternoon, where I found the mum, for which this place is so celebrated, not so good, as that they export for sale. It is made only of malt well brewed, and the liquor boiled a second time in an equal quantity of the same. However the art is peculiar to this place, and cannot be imitated at Wolfembutel, tho it is so very near. Nor, on the other hand, can the excellent beer of Wolfembutel be equal’d here. They are likewise famous for a large sort of sausage, which is made of raw meat and spices.

At three a clock I depart for Hanover by the way of Peine, with an intention, as is here the custom, to travel all night. In the way betwixt seven and eight a clock (which at this time of the year had been entirely dark, unless for the benefit of the moon) the post horses tired in an open feild, and refused to stir a step farther; by which means we were detained above an hour, till the postilion procured others from a neighbouring village. I was then in company of an Italian man and a French woman, whose[150] company somewhat relieved the affliction of this accident. By twelve a clock we reach Peine, and after half an hour’s refreshment the Italian and I proceed for Hanover, thro a wide and watry common.

December xxiv.

By eight a clock this morning I arrive at Hanover, where I wait on Mr. Cresset, and his chaplain Mr. Lombard. And being invited by the former to diner, we no sooner rise from table, but news was brought, that my Lord Paget, having changed his mind, had turned out of the road for Heldesheim to this place; to whom therefore I repair at his lodgings without the gate of the city.

December xxv.

Tho this was Christmas day, his Excellency had nevertheless no service in his family. And the day following I made a visit to Mr. Scott, Sir Chumley Deering, Mr. Wright, and some others. The next day being Sunday, his Excellency had service in his family. At five a clock in the evening I was introduced by Mr. Scott, and lady Belmont, to kiss the hand of the Princess Dowager Sophía, who did me the honour to discourse with me half an hour about the state of Turkey. The same night a tragedy was acted at the theatre of the court, and afterwards the Mariage forcé of Moliere; which I then saw, for the opportunity of seeing at the same time the Prince Elector, the Prince his son, and the Princess his daughter, with the Electress Dowager, who were all present.

December xxviii.

His Excellency proceeds in his way to Osnaburg; but I continue still at Hanover, with an intention to take post for Hamburg, and dine this day with Mr. Cresset. The day following in the afternoon I visit the library and cabinet of Abbot Gerhardus, otherwise called Molanus. His cabinet consists of a vast collection of modern coins, particularly those of Germany, among which he has intire sets of the houses of Brunswick and Saxony. He has likewise a rich and numerous collection of medals of all the European kingdoms, stampt upon the most celebrated occasions; and many of them are gold, some of which weigh an hundred[151] ducats, and others but little less. Those of Sweden seemed to me the noblest both for the work and device, particularly one of Gustavus Adolphus, upon marching his army over the frozen Baltick, with this inscription: NATURA HOC DEBVIT VNI. Another of Charles the eleventh, with the reverse of the North star, and inscribed: NESCIT OCCASVM. Those of the house of Hanover are likewise curious, particularly one of the Princess Dowager, stampt by her about fourteen years since; the reverse a sun setting without a cloud, and the words: Senza turbarmi al fin m’accosto. Another of the young Prince George Augustus, the reverse a fountain springing up in a strong perpendicular column of water, with this legend: VIS INSITA DVCIT IN ALTVM. Besides these he has a good collection of antient medals; the most remarkable of which were Julianus the first; and Antinous of the first size, if genuine, the reverse a sheep.

By eleven a clock this night I depart in the post waggon for Zell, and in the way make these observations on Hanover, and the persons I saw there. The town is moderately large, fair, and compact, seated on the Leine, and reasonably well fortified. The palace of the Prince is old, and mean in outward appearance, but within beautiful and splendid. The clergy here is but meanly esteemed, and more meanly provided for; except that Abbot Gerhardus has an income (the sole remainder of church lands not sequestered) to the yearly value of eight hundred pounds sterling. By this preferment he is superintendent of the whole clergy in the territories of the Duke of Brunswick Hanover, and is by the same incapable of marrying. The Elector is a sage, discreet, just, and sober Prince. The Princess his mother is courteous, affable, condescending, and prudent; well versed in the Dutch, English, French, and Italian languages; and gay and vigorous to a miracle at the age of seventy two. The young Prince is brisk, affable, and ingenious. The Princess, daughter to the Elector, comely, ingenious, lively, and her courteous behaviour charms all, who converse with her. Mr. Cresset, who has long resided as Envoy to this court, and those of Zell, Brunswick, and Wolfembutel, is a wise and pious gentleman, has a family well governed, and lives much to the honour of himself and his country.


December xxx.

By seven a clock this morning I arrive at Zell, where I remain the rest of the day, and take that opportunity of seeing the castle; as likewise the venerable old Duke, William George, now eighty years of age; to whom I was admitted by the favour of Mr. Robbeton and Mr. De la Forest, two gentlemen who here shewed me great civility.

December xxxi.

I set forward from Zell, and lodge this night at a post house, in a small village called Sorndorf. The country is here pleasant, with a variety of fir, oak, and other wood, but for the most part barren, and overrun, with heath.

January i.

From Sorndorf I reach Harburg by twelve a clock this day, dine there, and then take boat for Hamburg cross the Elbe. The river is here above a German mile broad, and interspersed with various islands. In the evening I delivered Mr. Cresset’s recommendations to Mr. Aldersey, who thereupon received me courteously, and procured me a good lodging from Mr. Townly in the English house. I was detained here to the twenty eighth of this month, partly by the extremity of the frost, which had made the Elbe now unpassable; and partly by the kindness of our English merchants, who reside in this place.

Hamburg is a free imperial city, chief of the Hanse towns, and seated on the north side of the Elbe, where it receives the Alster. The figure of it is semicircular, being almost straight towards the Elbe, which it receives by many chanels into the very heart of the city. Some of these chanels serve as harbours to the ships, others to convey goods to the magazines of merchants, and others to bring water to the houses, particularly of the brewers, who have cranes to draw water into their vessels. It is about two Italian miles in length, and above five in circumference. The streets are well paved, tho narrow, and the houses beautiful in the front, especially in the Wantrum, the Green, and Catherine street. The fortifications are substantial, consisting intirely of ramparts of[153] earth, covered with grass, and not faced with brick. They are constantly maintained in good repair; tho it is commonly objected to them, that the inward works are too high, so that being raised too much above the outward, they are exposed to the first attack of the enemy. There are six gates, all beautiful and stately buildings; that particularly, which is called the gate of Altena, because it leads to that place, is said to have cost an hundred thousand crowns. The strength of the city was lately tried, in the year 1686 (If I mistake not) by the King of Denmark, who then laid siege to it, tho without success. He had depended upon the treachery of two principal burgers, who had promised to admit him into the town; but their treason being accidentally detected, and they put to the torture, the matter was soon confessed, and they deservedly executed. The head of one of them is still exposed on an iron Spike over the Steingate. In confidence of this concerted treachery that Prince came so unprovided, that he could invest no more of the town, than that which faces Altena which gave occasion to the Holland gazeteer to say, that the King of Denmark had besieged the eighth part of Hamburg. During the siege he was baffled even by the small castle, called Sternfort, about a mile distant from the town; which by a line of communication they releived every day at twelve a clock, and so maintained it against the enemy. To add to the strength of the city they are now building a new detached work, consisting of an intire rampart, to be continued from the east side of the Alster to the Elbe, which is a noble fortification, and will at the same time guard and enlarge the space of the city. It is divided into the New and the Old City, the former of which is the more stately and beautiful of the two.

The religion of this place is Lutheran, in which the government is so strict, as to admit of no other religious assembly, except that of the church of England, which is allowed to the English company. The city is divided into five parishes, that of St. Catharine, St. Peter, St. James, St. Nicholas, and St. John. To each of these are dedicated so many fair and spatious churches, all well adorned with sculptures, paintings, organs, and altars. That of St. Catharine exceeds the rest, and is particularly remarkable for a noble stone pulpit, the whole consisting of the bed marble, carved into the figures of the twelve Apostles, and other religious devices; for several large inimitable pieces of painting in fresco[154] against the north wall; and for a stately organ, supposed to be the largest and finest in the world. It has fifty four stops, and consists of five thousand pipes, all gradually proportioned from the biggest, which is three fourths of an English yard in diameter, to the least, no larger than the last joint of ones little finger. In the same church is admirably well painted the Temple of Solomon in perspective. Besides these parish churches, there is the cathedral, commonly there called the Dome; and a new church in the middle of the New City. The Dome is now almost out of use, except for some occasional sermons; and the porch, with the several isles, are possessed by booksellers shops: tho this is what is likewise common to the porches, and other outward apartments, of the most frequented churches. The five parish churches, and that of the New City, have each of them their pastor, and besides him two or three chaplains; so that the number of clergymen here amounts to above twenty, of which one is superintendant over them, and the clergy of the whole territory. This however is very small, as not reaching down the river Elbe farther than the limits of Altena, a large town within half a mile of Hamburg, belonging to the King of Denmark. On the other sides it is encompassed with the dominions of the Duke of Holstein, at the distance of two or three miles; only up the Elbe it has a narrow tract of ground subject to the city, for the space of twenty miles, in which are some small villages, that acknowledge its jurisdiction. The church lands belonging to the cathedral are now possessed by burgers, or others of the city; but under the same titles, by which they formerly belonged to the church, as dean, canons, and others. Which sequestration, as it seems to be a sacrilegious usurpation; so their continuing the right under the same titles, is only a monument and confession of the crime.

The government of the city is by a free and sovereign jurisdiction of their own, which is lodged in three orders of men, the burgomasters, the senate, and the burgers. The burgomasters are four persons chosen out of the senate, of which two are yearly regent. The senate consists of about twenty, chosen as vacancies happen out of the burgers. The burgers compose the whole body of the citizens, ranked under their five distinct parishes. This government some what resembles that of antient Rome, by consuls, senate, and people; and is excellent in itself, but very liable to be perverted by the prevalency of any of the parts, of[155] which it consists. This is at present seen in the case of Hamburg, where the burgers by reason of their multitude, and the seditious spirit of inferior persons, have so far usurped the power of the place, that they terrify the senate, and stop all public proceedings, which are not to their relish. Particularly they are now so obstinate, as to refuse their consent to the supply towards the war, required by the Emperor, and to other public levies of the city, till they can extort the consent of the senate for restoring one Dr. Meyer to his pastoral office of St James. This is a violent seditious man, suspected of an ill life, but of a ready overbearing eloquence in the pulpit; who, about five years since had quitted his pastoral office in Hamburg, for another like charge, and superintendency in Pomerania. His parishioners now recall him to his cure at Hamburg, which he publicly declines; but privately encourages, and thereby occasions a lamentable faction and sedition in the town. His own and two other parishes press his return, and refuse to treat of other business, till the senate shall consent thereto. But they being duly cautious of admitting so dangerous a person into the city, who is now more particularly suspected of intriguing against them, in dependence on the King of Sweden, will never admit thereof; especially as he insists upon returning in his own rank, and in prospect of the same seniority, he before obtained in the place.

The burgomasters of this place never appear in public, but in a peculiar dress; which consists of an high crowned hat made of cloth, plated thick and strong in numerous folds; with a large ruff; and a black velvet coat ending at the knees, and plaited from the middle. There are likewise several other antient habits used by all public persons, even to midwives, dressers of the dead, and those who bear the corps to funerals. The habit of their divines is a round black cap, a ruff, and a gown without sleeves. All these may commonly be seen at once in the solemnity of a funeral, which they here affect to make very pompous for all persons, even those of little children. The burgomasters, senators, divines, lawyers, physicians, and as many of all sorts, as they can procure, attend the corps from the house to the church; for which they are each paid a certain fee, the chief about a florin, and inferiors proportionably. It is observable, that the bearers of the corps have a peculiar step, all moving their leg at the same time croswise from one side to the other.


This city wholly subsists by trade, which it still enjoys to a great degree. But they now complain, that they begin to be robbed of their former flourishing commerce by Lubeck and Bremen, and even the poor town of Altena, which with regret they see rising under their walls. Here is the staple of linen from Germany; cloth from England; and wines from Spain, France, and the Rhine. Of this last the city preserves a vast stock in public cellars; the largest of which, being a magazine of Rhenish wine, I visited one evening, and was there assured, that they have the wine of every year since 1623; and accordingly we then drank of three sorts, 1623, 1664, and 1678. At the same time I tried the perfect clearness of the loaf sugar of this place; which they purify to such a degree, that it does not discolour the cleared Rhenish wine.

The English company, which upon the decay of Antwerp removed to this place, is a regular, gentile, and hospitable society of merchants. They were here granted large privileges, which they still enjoy; tho at home our English parliament has lately infringed those, which they had permitted them. Their goods from England are imported free of custom, except that they pay a trifle as an acknowledgement. Their own jurisdiction, and religion, is freely granted them. The town first presented them with a large piece of building, which they obliged themselves to keep in perpetual repair. In this there is a public chapel; and an apartment, which they call the Ordinary room, where all the company, who are unmarried, dine and sup at one table, and the deputy governor and assistants meet upon public occasions. Adjoining to it is the house of the deputy governor, the minister, and the secretary; all likewise given by the town, and maintained by them. The governor of this company at present resides in England; but the other officers, as the deputy governor, secretary, and assistants, to the number of twenty four, are all resident upon the place, and dispatch all business relating to the society; which is contrary to the custom of the Turkey company, the governing part whereof always resides in England. The deputy governor and secretary are chosen, or confirmed, either quarterly or yearly; and the same is practised with the minister, whose salary, besides the benefit of an house, is two hundred pounds a year. The number of merchants, assistants, and others, may here amount from thirty to forty persons; and with their wives, children, and servants, their congregation[157] (which is very regular) is seen on Sunday from an hundred and fifty to two hundred persons. My conversation during my stay at Hamburg was chiefly among these; and I had more particularly the friendship of Mr. Free, deputy governor; Mr. Aldersey, secretary; Mr. Emerson, minister; Mr. Stratford, Manning, Lethieullier, and Remington merchants; and their respective families. I preached every Sunday, while I continued here; and received many tokens of favour from the whole company; particularly on the sixteenth of January, a present of a silver tankard, value forty crowns. At the same time I had the honour of being known to Mr. Wyat, her Majesty’s resident at this place, and deputed likewise to the Hanse towns of Bremen and Lubeck.

There is a good and well furnished library belonging to this city, which adjoins to the church of St. John. And during my stay here I had the opportunity of conversing with Jo. Albertus Fabricius, a person of great learning, and famous for some works he has already published. I visited likewise Mynhéer Langerman, a druggist, who shewed me some curious ores; and pieces of eight, fished up from a Spanish wreck; with the piedra de puerco, about the size of a large nutmeg, which is found in the bladder of some hogs in the Philippine islands, a great sudorific, and esteemed a sovereign remedy against intermitting fevers. One stone is usually valued at a hundred ducats.

The night I visited the wine cellar at Mr. Manning’s house, we saw a man, named George Po, born at Prague, who eat raw flesh, glass, paper, and above all things raw flax and tow, which he devoured very greedily, and called it his chief delicacy. He likewise swallows large stones, and accustoms himself to devour all unnatural substances, even perukes; tho of this last he is now somewhat cautious, since his twin brother died by eating one at Halberstadt. A senator’s wife of this city maintains an opera house, where they have a prodigious large stage, and great variety of well painted scenes. Here Mr. Lethieullier one night entertained us to our great satisfaction. At the same place, and belonging to the same woman, is shewn the famous model of Solomon’s Temple, being the exact resemblance of that fabric, as described by the best authors, expressed in every part by carved wood work to the hight of an English yard, and all the inward apartments perfectly exhibited to the eye, as the workman takes it to pieces for the satisfaction[158] of the spectators. This ingenious machine cost no less than ten thousand dollars.

The inhabitants of Hamburg are censured as proud, formal, and ceremonious; the magistrates as addicted to vice, libertinism, and self interest; and the people as turbulent, and seditious; whence many prognosticate ill to the trade, and future power of the city. The language, which they here speak, is called the Plat Dutch, being a medium betwixt that of Germany and Holland.

During my stay here, I was informed of a detestable practice, frequent among many melancholy and disordered persons of this place; who being weary of life, and apprehensive of the sin of self murder, rather choose to murder some innocent child, and by that means to be brought to capital punishment, by which they attain their desire of death, with the advantage, as they imagine, of a previous time for repentance, without the guilt of their own hand. At the same time they esteem the child, whom they choose to sacrifice, to be without any guilt of conscience, as having not yet arrived to years of discretion[140]. This tragedy happens every year, as many experienced witnesses among our merchants assured me; and they attribute the frequency of the practice to the great facility of their confessors, in affording peace and fair promises to all sorts of dying penitents.

Another tragedy lately acted at Hamburg was of a monstrous virago, born in the dukedom of Zell, who by an unnatural disposition of her uterine parts was capable of acting the part of a man; and accordingly she made it her practice in rambling from place to place to marry at each a young woman, several of whom she had murdered. With her last spouse, whom she had let into all her mysterious impiety, she murdered one of her former wives; as likewise a man, whom they had cajoled for sometime into their company, and whose head they afterwards boiled for venefical uses, as they pretended. But being caught and tortured, they confessed this black history of their life, and were executed here about a year since.

The campain about the neighbourhood of Hamburg is green, and well distinguished with wood and shade; but at a farther[159] distance, like other parts of Lower Saxony, it is a dull and unfruitful heath. The immediate circuit of the walls affords delicious walks, all kept in good repair, and adorned on each side with rows of trees, kept in a beautiful order. Sometime after we had received the account of the capture of the Spanish galleons at Vigo, happening to have a leisure hour, I amused myself in writing the following short poem upon that agreable subject.

Erit altera, quae vehat Argo
Delectos heroas. Virg. Ecl. iv. ℣. 34.
Hactenus Argoos cecinisti, Graecia, nautas,
Et rudis aethereo pinus in axe micat;
Altera Britannas nunc implet Iberia puppes,
Terraque Phrixeam Cantabra mittit ovem.
Alter es Aeëtes, Lodoix, vinctusque sopore
Aeterno serpens Gallica classis erit.
Aesoniden, Ormonde, refers; et forte puella,
Quae tibi Medeam praestet, Ibera fuit.
At quantum Argolicae praeluxerit Angla juventae,
Sit memor aeterno carmine fama loqui.
Unica tunc unam decoravit praeda carinam;
Millia nunc referunt vellera mille rates.
Anna, parens orbis, pretiosam carpere lanam
Incipe, et augusta fila novare manu;
Protinus optato flavescent saecla metallo,
Et fluet e fusis aurea vita tuis.

January xxviii.

Resolving at last to take leave of my good friends at Hamburg, Mynhéer Platia, with two other merchants, and myself, hire a post waggon for Holland. We set forward by seven a clock in the morning, and continue our way two German miles up the river, by the village of Offensey to Blankeness; there we cross the Elbe, and proceed to a town called Buxtchude in the dominion of Sweden, and by night arrive at a poor house in the wood called Arnswoldt. Here we drive in with our waggon, and alight at the same room, which was to receive us and our horses, and be at the same time our chamber and parlour, and the kitchin of our old[160] landlady, who was smoked like a ham of bacon. We found her with her houshold, brooding over a fire hearth in the middle of this apartment, common to her self and cattle. Over which there was no chimney, but a wooden rack well stored with bacon, where the smoke was employed to prepare the provision of the year, without wasting itself at the funnel of a chimney. We are laid on a large heap of straw[141], whilst the cows are chewing the cud on each side, and lulling us to sleep. It was here I first saw the black bread of this country, called bonpournickel; and was told, that this with plenty of swines flesh, and the thick water of this flat country, were the only dainties of the place. However, it was our good fortune not to be reduced to that diet; for we fared well on our hamper, which we brought with us from Hamburg.

January xxix.

Leaving this disagreable place very early, we arrive at the gates of Bremen late at night, and are therefore obliged to lodge in the suburbs, till we could enter the town the next morning. It is a large and fair city, free of the empire, and one of the most considerable Hanse towns, seated on the Weser, or Visurgis. Here we baited at the wine cellar over against the Exchange, where there is a magazine of good Rhenish, inferior in nothing but the quantity of vessels, and largeness of the stock, to that of Hamburg. We then proceed by nine a clock (after I had visited Mr. Willet, an English merchant) and on the farther side of the town cross the river under a noble gate, which in an inscription calls this VETVSTISSIMVS VISVRGIS TRAIECTVS. The Weser is here fair, wide, and almost straight, affording a reception for the vessels belonging to the town; but those of a greater burthen are obliged to remain some leagues lower. At this river we now leave Lower Saxony, and enter the circle of Westphalia. In an hour and a half we come to Delmenhorst, an old town and castle belonging to the King of Denmark. From thence we proceed to Wildeshusen, a town in the dominion of the Elector of Hanover, where we lodge.


January xxxi.

We go on this day to Klopperburg, a town of the Lower Bishoprick of Munster; from whence in a little time we reach the banks of the Hase, and in a few hours more the town thence called Haselun, where we take up our lodging that night.

February i.

We had hitherto found Westphalia a desolate and wild country, overrun with heath, except here and there adorned with small groves of stately oak, in the middle of which we commonly found a single farm house, enclosed with rude pales like a park, which in summer time must be truly pleasant. In several places by the road side are seen posts, with iron boxes on the top, for the receipt of charity, as if the land it self confessed its poverty. However in this day’s journey the appearance began to alter, for about ten a clock we arrived at Lingen, a pretty compact and well built town, which lately belonged to King William, but now to the King of Prussia. The neighbourhood is well stored with woods; the skirts of the town adorned with frequent gardens, and alleys of trees orderly planted; and the whole place by a show of riches and beauty confessing, as it were, the benefit of a moderate and protestant government.

Just beyond the limits of this town we cross the Ems, or Amasia, by a ferry boat, and afterwards continue our journey to Northern, the first town of the United Provinces, in the limits of which we now pass out of Westphalia into Overissel. After a short bait we proceed to Otmarsh, and there lodge. This is the first place, since I left Hamburg, where I was offered a bed, having hitherto slept in my cloaths upon the straw.

February ii.

We now proceed by the way of Almeloo, and so to Deventer, over the plains, where his late Majesty delighted sometimes to hunt. These plains are covered with heath, and therefore afford not so good riding; but at the same time they are enclosed within long tracts of hills rising gently, which give the sportsman a convenient sight of the chase.


February iii.

We stop this day at Deventer, and put up at a public inn, where we dine with some Danish officers; and after diner I pay a visit to the learned Gisbertus Cuperus, who entertained me very obligingly, shewed me his library, coins, inscriptions, and other curiosities. In his library were several large volumes of letters, written by him in the name of the states, or on other public occasions. Among his coins was one with the title of IMP. VNICVS. And among his inscriptions this which follows:


He seemed to think this was Hercules of Mackshusen, a town not far distant from hence. I continue the following day at Deventer, and from thence write to my freinds at Hamburg.

February v.

From Deventer I now proceed in three hours to Loo, where I was entertained for some hours in viewing the house and gardens of his late Majesty, and then go forward to a village called Fortshausen, where I take up my lodging. The next day I continue my journey to Amersford, where I dine, and by four a clock reach Utrecht.

February vii.

This and the two following days I remain at Utrecht, where I now first visit, and contract a very agreable acquaintance with Mr. Paul Foley, student of that university; who the day after obliged me with his company in a treck schuyt to Leyden, where I view the physic garden, and adjoining galleries of natural rarities; the academy, anatomy theatre, great church, and other curiosities of the place. And the next morning I take the like passage for Rotterdam.

February xii.

This day I went to the Hague, where at length I again met his Excellency; having seen Delft and Ryswick in the way. At[163] Delft particularly I was entertained with a sight of the great church, and fine monument erected there in memory of William the first, Prince of Orange. And the next day I continue to attend his Excellency at the Hague.

February xiv.

This day, being Sunday, I depart from the Hague, with his Excellency, Mr. Paget, and Mr. Foley, in a treck schuyt, by the way of Leyden, for Amsterdam; where we put up at the Oude Heeren logement. And staying here the two following days, after paying a visit to Mr. Marcus, I amuse myself with viewing the magazine of the admiralty, the stadthouse, and spinhouse; the hospital of boys and girls, with that of old women; the rasphouse, and other public buildings.

February xviii.

I return this day to Leyden, and there see Mr. De la Faye, brother of the English minister of that place; and with him visit Jacobus Gronovius, professor of eloquence and history, and at this time rector magnificus; from whom I receive a copy of Mynhéer Cosson’s inscriptions, among which are some not published in the Memoria Cossoniana.

February xix.

We now leave Leyden, and go back to Rotterdam, where his Excellency is lodged at the Doole for about eight days, and then removes to Winestreet. During this time I become acquainted with Mr. Richard Davis on the Heering vliet, the chief promoter of the new episcopal English church, now building at the upper end of that vliet. I observe whatever is remarkable here, particularly the statue of Erasmus, and the house of his birth; and likewise pay a visit to Mons. Bayle.

March vi.

I attend his Excellency to the Hague, and the next day, being Sunday, I go to Rotterdam, there preach to the episcopal congregation, and return to the Hague that evening. The day following[164] I walk from thence to the House in the wood, which is a fine summer retirement, neatly built, and furnished with good painting, by Frederic Henry, Prince of Orange.

March x.

I depart with Dr. Timeni for Leyden, where I now propose a long stay. And here I contract an acquaintance with Mr. Neufville, an ingenious and polite gentleman, master of a good library, and a curious collection of antiquities. With him also and Dr. Timeni I visit several of the professors, as Gronovius, Perizonius, and Triglandius; and see likewise the library, and especially the manuscripts of this university. Among other curiosities in the museum of Mr. Neufville, I observed the following inscriptions, cut in marble tablets.


This, which follows, is on a stone opposite to the former.

D. M.
COS. AQVARVM ET M .........


This, which follows, was on a gemm.


On the opposite side was a bent bow, with a quiver and arrow, as likewise a serpent twining about the bow; and on the right side was ingraven the word ΑΝΤΙΨΙΛΟΥ.

March xvii.

I now desire my dismission from the family of his Excellency, and hire a lodging for myself. And such was his generosity, that two days afterwards he was pleased to send me the residue of my salary, with half as much more, as was then due, at the rate of eighty pounds a year.

March xxvi.

I see the curious work in cut paper by a woman at Rotterdam. And three days afterwards going to Delft, I visit Mr. Leewenhoek, and see his microscopes, with many curious discoveries upon insects, and other minute animals. The same day I pass to the Hague, to gratify my curiosity in viewing such things, as before had escaped my observation.

March xxx.

The wind setting fair for England, I hasten to Rotterdam, to take leave of his Excellency, who embarked at two a clock. Here I purchase a large number of books, and other necessaries, to a considerable value.

April ii.

I quit my lodgings at Rotterdam, and remove to the Hague. The day following I visit the church of Launsdone where I found this inscription under two brass basins: Margareta, Hermani Comitis Henebergae uxor, filia Gulielmi Caesaris, anno MCCLXXVI 365 enixa[166] est pueros etc. sicut in hac tabula ex vetustis tam manuscriptis, quam typis excusis, chronicis positum ac enarratum est. The same afternoon I pass on to Honstardyke, where I see the orangery four hundred and fifty yards long; the East India buffalo, male and female; the aviary, in which is a white peacock, the birds called lepelaars, and variety of foreign ducks and geese; the stable of foreign beasts, among which is the mamót of East India (like a stag, but with twisted horns) and a cassaware; the gardens, in which are several beautiful statues, particularly one of a gladiator; the house consisting of one intire quadrangle within two good galleries, the Queen’s japan cabinet, and the King’s well furnished with curious paintings.

April xvii.

I now return again to Amsterdam, by the way of Gouda, in company with Mr. Vandeput. Here we stop to observe the excellent painted glass in the several windows of that church; and then proceeding in our passage by the treck schuyt arrive at Amsterdam by six a clock next morning, and after diner make a visit to Dr. Cockburn. The next day we are introduced by the Doctor to see Mr. De Wild’s cabinet, richly furnished with coins, gems, sculptures, and statues. Among the rest of his curiosities he has an excellent piece, representing the Massacre of the De Witts, a good brass Otho, and a fine Venus Anadyomene. The day following the Doctor procured for us the like favour from Mr. Vincent, whose cabinet consists of a very numerous and well disposed collection of animals and shells.

April xxii.

Mr. Cockburn, son of the Doctor, Mr. Vandeput, and I, divert ourselves, by making a short excursion to Sardam, in North Holland, remarkable for the great number of windmills that surround it, and the large quantity of timber, which always lies there ready prepared for building of ships. We return in the evening to Amsterdam; and the next day I purchase of Mynhéer Visscher a set of Geographical Charts, both Old and New; and then visit Mynhéer Uilenbroek, a curious gentleman, possessed of a very large and well chosen library, as also a cabinet of coins and other rarities.


April xxiv.

I depart for Harlem, and there visit the learned Antony Van Dale, by profession a physician, in opinion an anabaptist. He entertained me very obligingly with a sight of the neat gardens, costly tulips, and other amusements of that place. In discoursing with him on divers subjects of learning, he seemed in some things over sceptical, questioning particularly the authority of the Apocalypse. I go the same night to Leyden, and from thence the next day to Rotterdam.

April xxviii.

Returning again to Harlem, Mr. Van Dale carries me to visit Mynhéer Koolaert, a merchant, and father of a beautiful daughter, named Hester, about seventeen years of age, born deaf and consequently dumb; but taught to speak (tho not very articulately) by one Dr. Amman, who has published a book upon that art, of which the young lady gave me a copy in Dutch, and her father another in Latin. She asked me after Mr. Rombouts of Constantinople; and I answering he is dead, she discerned what I said by the motion of my lips. By the same means she can discourse at large with her mother even in the dark, by feeling her lips when speaking. She writes well, and paints curiously. And her mother is an excellent Latinist. The same day Mr. Van Dale shewed me a specimen of the first printing, kept in the town house of this place; and in the market place the inscription, asserting that invention to Harlem:


The next day I leave Harlem, and return to Amsterdam.

May i.

This morning, with Dr. Cockburn and Mr. Vandeput, I visit the learned Mr. le Clerc. He shewed me the Thesaurus linguae Latinae of Rob. Stephanus, improved by manuscript notes of the author’s own hand; as also Irenaeus, Lib. v. cap. 2. concerning the presence in the sacrament; and complained of Mr. Grabe, as misrepresenting[168] the church of England in his notes. In the afternoon, in company with Mr. Vandeput, I review the cabinet of Mynhéer Uilenbroek; and by his leave copy the two following sepulchral inscriptions, one in Latin, and the other in Greek, the former of which is peculiarly remarkable for the corruption of the language.

D. M. S.

May iii.

Mr. Vandeput, Dr. Cockburn’s youngest son, and myself, hire a couple of chaises, and make a journey into North Holland. We pass Monnikedam, the Beemster, and so to Alckmair; where we observe the beautiful and clean streets, the stadthouse, the church, and noble picture there of the year 1504, the delightful woods, and artificial walks. We return that night, but not without being imposed on by the owner of our chaises.


May xi.

Having continued thus long at Amsterdam, enjoying the company of my good friends, and amusing my self with the variety of entertainments, which this place affords to strangers, I now depart for Naerden in the treck schuyt by the way of Muyden, whither I am kindly accompanied by Mr. Le Jolle. There I arrive by two a clock, and having viewed that complete and compact fortification, I depart at six in a post chaise for Utrecht, where I arrive by nine, and lodge without the gate. In the morning I repair to Mr. Foley, and am by him invited to lodge in his apartment. He carried me to visit Holthenus, a learned divine and minister of the place, who had then the care of the new edition of Gruter; and has a good collection of coins, among which was observable Nerva of the largest size, the reverse a palm tree, with the legend FISCI IVDAICI CALVMNIA ABLATA.

May xiv.

Mr. Foley and my self hire a traveling chaise and pair at Utrecht, with which we proceed to Amerford, and from thence to the King’s house at Loo, where we arrive by three a clock in the afternoon. And upon our return to Utrecht the day following, I begin to think of England, and accordingly prepare my self for a voyage by the first convenient passage.


To the Reverend Dr. Thomas Turner.

Reverend Sir,

Your great goodness will excuse the tardiness of this letter, when I assure you, that I have been long ambitious of collecting any thing, that might deserve your notice; tho hitherto I have been successless in that desire. Many things indeed have occurred observable to me; but I could not hope at the same time, that they might appear such to you. For it is common with unexperienced travelers to be transported with pleasure and admiration, when their accounts are not able to raise the same affections in their freinds; either because they converse with men of better judgment, or because the most valuable relations must needs be heard with a greater coldness, than the things were seen. But notwithstanding these discouragements, I have lately looked back upon my Journal, to see if any thing might there appear remarkable at this distance; and tho a short voyage by sea must be barren of all real curiosity, yet for the subject of this letter I shall now trouble you with some of the things, which I observed at Cadiz, Messina, and Milo, the three only places, where we touched in our passage hither.

In Cadiz, as in most other parts of the Spanish dominions, there is nothing very curious, but in their churches or convents; and this, when once seen, is to be deplored, rather than admired. For when you first come into the town, you are not so much struck with a face of religion, as with the notion of a certain politic game, where the priests are soon discovered to be the only winners. Since in the whole place there is nothing fat and well favoured, but the clergy. The rest of the inhabitants appear meagre, wan, and melancholy, being mostly employed either in repairing to mass, or returning from it; sometimes counting their beads, and at other times perhaps lugging an heavy Saint in their arms. And therefore, were they not supported under this condition by a certain natural pride, which is fed partly with the real history of their former state, and partly with a romantic imagination of their present grandeur; they would soon become so sensible of their slavish poverty and superstition, as either to break their own hearts, or that yoke, which oppresses them.


There are several religious houses in this city, one of Franciscans, another of Dominicans, a third of Augustins, and a fourth of Capuchins; besides some nunneries, and a fifth convent called the Mercy, being founded for the redemption of Christian slaves. There is likewise an hospital, named the Hospital of St. John of God; where we saw a large and decent infirmary for sick and wounded persons, whether natives or foreigners. There is nothing much remarkable in these places, besides the altar pieces of their chapels, which are every where gaudily and richly furnished; but those particularly of the cathedral church, and Dominican convent, are adorned with tables of wrought and massy silver. On the walls is seen abundance of painting and imagery, the device of which is for the most part offensive, or ridiculous. An instance of the latter was the picture of St. Michael, with a pair of scales in his hand, weighing the merits of departed saints: of the former, the pourtraiture of God the Father, in the shape of an old man; with many other blasphemous representations of the Trinity. Either in their vestries, or their chapels, there is commonly the Saint of their order pourtrayed at large, in a gaudy habit, and inclosed in a case of glass. Other lesser images of Saints they expose in holes of the wall, where it faces the town; and to these the devouter part of the people pay their several occasional oraisons, as they pass the streets. This large multitude of altars and saints, which every where appears at Cadiz, could not but remind me of what the priestess in Petronius sais: Utique nostra regio tam praesentibus plena est numinibus, ut facilius possis deum, quam hominem invenire[144]. But not to tire your patience with the many odd pieces of superstition, which occur in every corner of the city, I shall give you a relish of the whole in the two following instances.

The first of these is a specious inscription over the entrance to a private house, occasion by the following accident. In a late solemn procession upon Corpus Christi day there happened a storm of rain, which was in danger of offering some disrespect to the host; and therefore they thought convenient to give it shelter in the next house, they could step into. Among these zealous people this was construed such a blessing to the man and his family, that the house is ever since looked upon as sacred; and the owner has been at a considerable charge to erect a pair of marble pillars at the entrance into his porch, adorned with carving, and inscribed after this magnificent manner: “That in the year 1692,[172] Innocent XII being Pope, Charles II King of Spain, Buzzia Bishop of Cadiz, and Don Velasco governor of the same Herculean city.” Cum arca vera, panem angelicum carnem factum continens, triumphali processionis pompa, die festo Dominici Corporis deduceretur, et, saeviente turbine, irreverentiae periculum immineret; harum aedium dominus, Didacus de Barias, exivit obviam absconditae majestati, et fidei Centurionis aemulus procidit, indignum se profitens, cujus tectum Dominus subiret, eumque honorifice in oratorio suo suscipere meruit. Quare, Deo favente, sacra catholica majestas cooperari volens domui huic praeeminentiae praerogativam concessit, etc. This accident has rendred Didacus de Barias a meer Saint, and his house a most inviolable sanctuary, in the esteem of the poor Spaniards. Tho our English merchants well know him to be a rank Jew, who being therefore liable to death by the law of Spain, was always forced to live under disguise, and now gladly embraced this opportunity of passing for a zealot. The Jews indeed have formerly been very insolent in Spain. One of the last instances of which was a certain indignity of a shoemaker, who buried a crucifix under the place, where his customers tried on their shoes, that by this stratagem he might oblige Christians to stamp upon the cross. But this nation being since banished that kingdom under the pain of the severest death, they, who still covertly remain so, are obliged to profess themselves of the popish faith, which they can do without any great regret; it being easy to be of two religions, where both consist only in external show and ceremonies.

The other memorable piece of superstition is to be observed in the convent of the Capuchin friery, who within these three years have acquired an extraordinary esteem, by means of a certain lady, who acknowledged herself cured of a dangerous malady by virtue of their intercession. This was an hint, which they thought very improvable; and have therefore since set up for such a stock of merit, that their cloister is already filled with waxen figures of legs, arms, heads, women’s breasts, and other offerings, of so many maimed and distempered persons, whom these Saints have restored by their peculiar interest in heaven. One particularly, who was indebted to them for a more than ordinary blessing, has erected a stately monument on that account, before the entrance into their convent. It is an handsome Ionic pillar, made of white marble, inrailed with a large square of stone, in the front of which is a crucifix, and an image of the Virgin, under the title of the[173] Triumphant Lady. And this new figure is already become such an idol, that the zealous gossips of the town will often approach it upon their knees, at near the distance of a furlong.

Having been detained about a week at Cadiz, we set sail October 11, 1699, and by the favour of a fortunate west wind were advanced within nine days near the entrance of the Faro of Messina; where we lay becalmed two or three days, under the island of Stromboli, as after our departure from Messina we did likewise under mount Aetna. Each of these was an opportunity of entertaining our sight with the dreadful curiosity of those burning mountains; where we observed the crater of both to cast up a continued pillar of smoke, and at repeated distances a terrible red blaze of fire. Afterwards being favoured with a gentle gale, a pilot came from the city to steer us thro the difficult strait of Scylla and Charybdis. Here I was curious to observe the situation of these places, especially because the latter is used in a confused and uncertain sense in classic authors. But upon a diligent view of the place it self, and a companion of some clear expressions in antiquity, the best judgment I could form of it was this, which follows. In Thucydides[145], and other good historians, Charybdis signifies the whole strait betwixt Sicily and Calabria; but in Homer[146], Virgil[147], and other poets, it is restrained to that peculiar whirlpool, which flows under the opposite rock of Scylla. Betwixt these two we found the current so various, that our ship was obliged to stand five or six different ways in a few minutes sailing; and at the same time it was surprizing to hear the waves bubble in a continued hideous noise, well expressed in the poets by the barking of dogs round the bowels of Scylla.

As we lay at anchor at Messina, we were presented with a delightful landskip, which the narrow winding of the Faro, the verdure of the opposite shores, the wall, the citadel, and town itself afforded. The front of the whole city is one continued pile of buildings, extending three quarters of a mile in length, from the Viceroy’s house to that called the French bastion. It intirely consists of free stone, being raised four story high, adorned with carved windows, balconies, battlements, and other ornaments, all answering to each other with an exact regularity. No house has any doors to the sea, but the entrance is at large gates, which front so many streets[174] of the city, placed at equal distances, and each of them inscribed with some religious device. This range is contrived, as for ornament, so likewise for defence; it being at the bottom of a prodigious thickness, so as to withstand a siege, and decreasing proportionably towards the top. The whole running in a bend, which is every where equidistant from the sea, represents a curvilineal amphitheatre. The inner part of the city does not answer to this magnificence of the front; tho there often occur many single pieces of great art and curiosity. Such as the King’s statue on horseback, exactly resembling that of our late King Charles at Windsor. The Statue of Don John of Austria, in memory of the victory obtained by him at Lepanto in 1571. The beautiful structure of a public fountain, adorned at the bottom with four large and masterly figures, representing Nilus, Iberus, Tiber, and Euripus. But more curious than the rest is a figure of Neptune on the mole, cast in solid brass, and attended on each side with two very natural representations of the monsters Scylla and Charybdis.

But it was not so entertaining to observe these, as deplorable to see, what St. Paul bewailed at Athens, a city wholly given to idolatry and superstition. It affords a melancholy consideration to any serious spectator, to be witness to so many vain and hypocritical addresses made to the images and altars, which abound in this deluded place. For this brings the like scandal upon Christianity, as was so offensive under the ranked heathenism, and too truly exposes the subjects of it to that derision of Lucretius:

Nec pietas ulla est velatum saepe videri
Vertier ad lapidem, et quascunque accedere ad aras[148].

They are here furnished with nunneries and monasteries to the number of sixty odd, most of which are loftily built, and add the greatest grace to the structure of the city. In the college of St. Nicholas I observed the pictures of our five Jesuits, who were executed for the popish plot, with a specious account when, and how, they were crowned with martyrdom for the profession of the faith in England. In the nunnery of Sta. Maria della Scala they shew a stone sculpture of the Virgin and our Savior, which they verily beleive to have been taken from the life. In the cathedral church there are twelve noble figures of the Apostles, exquisitely carved in clear and[175] costly marble. The isle, which composes the body of the church, is ranged on each side with thirteen stately pillars, twelve of which are antient of the Corinthian order, brought formerly from a temple of Neptune, that stood near the promontory Pelórus. There are here three gaudy altars, that want nothing, which art or expence could contribute to adorn them; for below they are set with work of lapis lazuli, and above are covered with cupolas of true mosaic. But over the high altar, at the east end of the cathedral, is preserved in golden characters, and embellished with a rich variety of other ornaments, one of the greatest delusions in all popery. It is a letter, which according to the tradition of this church was sent to the Messanians by the B. Virgin, upon their conversion by St. Paul, soon after he touched at Rhegium. It is reasonably concise, and therefore I shall venture to trouble you with the words, as faithfully transcribed.

Maria Virgo, Joachim filia, Dei humillima, Christi Iesu crucifixi mater, ex tribu Juda, stirpe David, Messanensibus omnibus salutem, et Dei Patris Omnipotentis benedictionem.

VOS omnes fide magna legatos ac nuncios per publicum documentum ad nos misisse constat. Filium nostrum, Dei genitum, Deum et hominem esse fatemini, et in caelum post suam resurrectionem ascendisse, Pauli Apostoli electi praedicatione mediante, viam veritatis agnoscentes. Ob quod vos et ipsam civitatem benedicimus, cujus perpetuam protectricem nos esse volumus. Anno Filii nostri XLII. Ind. 1. 3 nonas Junii. Luna XXVII. V. Ex Hierosolymis.

Maria Virgo.

Quae supra hoc chirographum approbavit.

You see, that he, who had the impudence to forge this imposture, had likewise the stupidity to date it by two epochas, the latter of which did not commence before the reign of Constantine the Great, and the former not till that of Justinian. The Hebrew original they confess not to be now extant. And as to this, which they call the authentic translation, it would be impossible to beleive them serious in venting so foul a cheat; but that they pompously expose it to all the world in their metropolitan church, and celebrate it by a yearly feast, and public rejoicings of a whole month’s continuance; that it has been confirmed by repeated indulgences from the court of Rome; and that at the west end of the church there are divers solemn inscriptions, importing, that in some general[176] calamities of Sicily, there particularly specified, the Virgin still protected her Messina, according to her most faithful promise in the Holy Letter. This naturally brings to one’s mind the antient devotion of the same place towards Ceres and Proserpina, as mentioned by Cicero, when he says: Vetus est haec opinio, quae constat ex antiquissimis Graecorum literis et monumentis, insulam Siciliam totam esse Cereri et Proserpinae consecratam. Hoc cum ceterae gentes sic arbitrantur; tum ipsis Siculis tam persuasum est, ut animis eorum insitum et innatum esse videatur[149]. It is to be wondered at, that these people have not yet registered an accident, of which as to the fact our English merchants were eye witnesses, namely; that in the late repeated earthquakes of Sicily in 1693 the tower of this cathedral, which stands at the west end distinct from the body of the church, was so distorted by one shock, that it stood very dangerously in an oblique declining posture; but that about a week afterwards another shock restored it to its former true perpendicular situation.

After five days spent in viewing these and other curiosities of Messina, we set sail the thirtieth of October, and by the ninth of the next month were obliged by contrary winds to stand into the port of Milo. This isle, known to the antients by the name of Melos, and esteemed the largest of all the Cyclades, is deservedly famous for its fair and commodious harbour; which entring at a narrow chanel afterwards enlarges itself circularly into a lake, rather than a bay; being always calm, and spatious enough to receive a fleet of an hundred and fifty sail. I went ashore at this place with the greater satisfaction, considering that among other antiquities it lays claim to Socrates and Aristophanes. It has a city of the same name, inhabited at present, like the other islands of the Archipelago, chiefly by Greek Christians, who have been burthened in the late war by a cruel tax of sixteen thousand dollars to the Venetians, as well as to the Turks; but by the benefit of the present peace, as its tribute to the former wholly ceases, so that to the latter is much mitigated. It is observable, that in every cultivated feild about the town, there stands a small Greek chapel, constantly adorned with the painted images of the Virgin and St. George; and thither the zealous women of the place often retire with a priest, to say some supererogatory masses for the benefit of their[177] private relations, whether dead or living. In a cave on the island there is a natural hot bath, which has proved very successful in many malignant maladies. Walking on the strand I observed another of the same nature, like that of Licinius Crassus, mentioned by Pliny, Lib. xxxi. cap. 2. The heat of this was so great, that I could not bear to keep my hand in it. The same shore affords a vein of black sand, of which we there gathered a quantity very clear and beautiful for the use of writing.

After a stop of four or five days at Milo, we had a very entertaining passage thro the isles of the Archipelago, and on the nineteenth of the same month arrived, by God’s providence, in good health at Smyrna; where I often remember, how many ways I stand indebted to you, which will be always gratefully acknowledged by,

Reverend Sir,

Your etc.

E. Chishull.

Smyrna, June 13, 1700.




[2] Deest forsan ΛΗΙΟΝ.

[3] De Venere Stratonicide vid. Tacit. Annal. Lib. iii. cap. 63.

[4] Vid. ἱερὰ ὁδὸς, apud Harpocrat.

[5] ΚΛΕΙΜΑΞ, scalare, de quo vide Reines. Inscript. antiq. Class. sept. num. xvi.

[6] Tartalée seems to be the Mastusia of the antients, well describ’d by Pliny, Lib. v. cap. 29, to lie a tergo Smyrnae.

[7] The Two Brothers are two eminences of Mons Corycus, concerning which see Strabo, Lib. xiv. p. 670.

[8] This practice of the Greek church, at the first elevation of the elements, is what gives just offence both to the Roman and Reformed churches; for tho of late they have generally embraced the doctrine of transubstantiation, yet by this act they pay a divine worship to the bread and wine even before this pretended conversion into the body and blood of Christ. Not but that this observation may be well improved to evince the novelty of this persuasion among the Greeks; and to shew, that both these ceremonies were at first but a meer bodily respect to the elements, and implied nothing of a divine adoration.

[9] To such as are not conceiv’d always worthy, or ready to communicate, the Greeks after the celebration of their Liturgy distribute the ἀντίδωρον, or bread barely blessed, but not consecrated; which they conceive to be a symbol of the body of the Virgin Mary, and to be given instead of that of Christ.


Nec pulcher Ganges, atque auro turbidus Hermus,
Laudibus Italiae certent. Virg. Georg. ii. 137.


Non illi satis est turbato sordidus auro
Hermus. Mart. L. viii. Ep. 77.

[12] Liv. Lib. xxxvii. cap. 37. Circa Magnesiam, quae ad Sipylum est, posuit castra. Idem cap. 44. A Magnesia, quae ad Meandrum est, et ab Epheso legati ad dedendas urbes venerunt.

[13] Καταφέρεται δ’ ὁ Πακτωλὸς εἰς Ἑρμὸν, εἰς ὃν καὶ ὁ Ὕλλος ἐμβάλλει, νυνὶ Φρύγιος καλούμενος. Strabo, Lib. xiii. pag. 626.

[14] Magnesia ad Sipylum, a qua magnes lapis ferrum attrahens nomen sortitus est; ut idem a Lydia Lydius, et ab Heraclea Heraclius dictus est. Hill in Dionys. Periegesin. Tho he seems to be mistaken in confounding this stone with the touchstone, or lapis Lydius.

[15] Nat. Hist. Lib. xxxvi. cap. 16.


Lapis hic ut ferrum ducere possit,
Quem magneta vocant patrio de nomine Graii,
Magnetum quia sit patriis in finibus ortus. L. vi. ℣. 608.

[17] Auri argentique mentionem comitatur lapis, quem coticulam appellant; quondam non solitus inveniri nisi in flumine Tmolo, nunc vero passim; quem alii Lydium, alii Heraclium vocant. Plin. Lib. xxxiii. cap. 8.

[18] Like what Aristides says: Ὁ φίλοινος οὐχ ἡγεῖται ζημίαν, εἰ μηδεὶς αὐτῷ πίνοντι συνείσεται. Orat. Platonic. prim. pag. 182. edit. P. Steph.

[19] Liv. Lib. xxxvii. cap. 44. Legati ab Thyatira et Magnesia ad Sipylum ad reddendas urbes venerunt, says this historian, immediately after the action betwixt Scipio and Antiochus. This action is at large described by Appian as well as Livy, as happening betwixt Thyatira and Sardis, upon the banks of the Amnis Phrygius, near Magnesia ad Sipylum; which is not the Hermus (as some have thought) but a river running into the Hermus, which Homer and Herodotus call Hyllus, as Strabo relates in the passage cited above, p. 9.

[20] See Marm. Oxon. ed. ab H. Prid. pag. 1.

[21] This Statius Quadratus was that very proconsul, in whose presence, and by whose authority, St. Polycarp, bishop of Smyrna, was burnt alive in the amphitheatre of that city. His name is falsely written Τάτιος Κ. in the Alexandrian Chronicle, and Στράτιος in the Epistle of the church of Smyrna. But this stone confirms that correction, which has been made by bishop Pearson and Valesius. It likewise favours that learned argument maintained by bishop Pearson, Dissert. ii. cap. xvi, xvii. pag. 291, by which he places this proconsulship and the martyrdom of St. Polycarp in the tenth year of Antoninus Pius, A. C. 147. For in the fourth year of M. Antoninus, to which the Alexandrian Chronicle refers it; as also in the year 167, to which it is referred by Eusebius and Valesius; there were two Caesars, concerning whom Eutropius says: Tunc primum Rom. respublica duobus aequo jure imperium administrantibus paruit, cum usque ad eum singulos semper habuisset Augustos. Lib. viii. cap. 5. But this inscription mentions only one Caesar, in the singular number. And as for that Quadratus, whom Bucherius and Usserius will have proconsul in Asia in the year 169, his name was not Statius, but T. Numidius. See also mention of Quadratus in Aristidis Orat. Genethliac. in Apellam; and in his Sermon. Sacror. iv.

[22] Καὶ γάρ τ’ ἠΰκομος Νιόβη ἐμνήσατο σίτου, etc.

Νῦν δέ που ἐν πέτρῃσιν, ἐν οὔρεσιν οἰοπόλοισιν
Ἐν Σιπύλῳ, ὅθι φασὶ θεάων ἔμμεναι εὐνὰς
Νυμφάων, αἵτ’ ἀμφ’ Ἀχελώϊον ἐῤῥώσαντο,
Ἔνθα, λίθος πὲρ ἐοῦσα θεῶν ἐκ κήδεα πέσσει.

Hom. Iliad. ω. 602. On which passage the Scholia, usually ascribed to Didymus, have the following remark: Θρηνοῦσαν οὖν τὴν Νιόβην ἀφάτως τὸ τοιοῦτον δυστύχημα, Ζεὺς ἐλεήσας εἰς λίθον μετέβαλεν, ὃς καὶ μέχρι νῦν ἐν Σιπύλῳ τῆς Φρυγίας ὁρᾶται παρὰ πάντων πηγὰς δακρύων προϊέμενος. And Pausanias, Attic. Lib. i. cap. 21. says: Ταύτην τὴν Νιόβην καὶ αὐτὸς εἶδον ἀνελθὼν ἐς τὸν Σίπυλον τὸ ὄρος. Ἥδε πλησίον μὲν πέτρα καὶ κρημνός ἐστιν, οὐδὲν παρόντι σχῆμα παρεχόμενος γυναικὸς, οὔτε ἄλλως, οὔτε πενθούσης· εἰ δέ γε ποῤῥωτέρω γένοιο, δεδακρυμένην δόξεις ὁρᾷν καὶ κατηφῆ γυναῖκα.

[23] Plin. Lib. v. cap. 29. A Smyrna Hermus amnis campos facit, et nomini suo adoptat; oritur juxta Dorglaeum Phrygiae civitatem, multosque colligit fluvios, inter quos Hyllum et Cryon.

[24] See mention of these by Herodian, under the name of πολυάνδρια, in his description of that massacre of the Alexandrians by Caracalla, Lib. iv. cap. 17. edit. Oxon.

[25] The sense of the word barrows or burroughs is by Verstegan deduced from burying, and therefore well answers the Greek πολυάνδρια. Chap. vii. p. 211.

[26] Thus Lucan, Stetit aggere fultus Cespitis. Lib. v. ℣. 316.

And Tacitus, Annal. L. i. cap. 17. Congerunt cespites. See Lipsii not.

[27] Ὅς σφι ψῆγμα χρυσοῦ καταφορέων ἐκ τοῦ Τμώλου διὰ μέσης τῆς ἀγορῆς ῥέει, καὶ ἔπειτα ἐς τὸν Ἕρμον ποταμὸν ἐκδιδοῖ, ὁ δὲ ἐς θάλασσαν. Lib. v. cap. 101. And Strabo says, Lib. xiii. p. 625. Ῥεῖ δ’ ὁ Πακτωλὸς ἀπὸ τοῦ Τμώλου, καταφέρων τὸ παλαιὸν χρυσοῦ ψῆγμα πολύ· ἀφ’ οὗ τὸν Κροίσου λεγόμενον πλοῦτον, καὶ τῶν προγόνων αὐτοῦ διονομασθῆναί φασί.


Passaque ab auriferis tellus exire metallis
Pactolon, qua culta secat non vilior Hermus. Lucan. Lib. iii. ℣. 209.

[29] Lib. xxxvi. cap. 14. Summa miracula, epistylia tantae molis attolli potuisse, etc. See mention of this difficulty in Wotton’s Reflections upon ancient and modern learning, pag. 67. edit. 1694.

[30] Epistolae quatuor, pag. 136, 137.

[31] Ἕρμος, says Strabo, Lib. xiii. pag. 626. ἐξ ὄρους ἱεροῦ τῆς Δινδυμένης εἰς τὴν Σαρδιανὴν φέρεται, κατὰ τὰ συνεχῆ πεδία, μέχρι τῆς θαλάττης.


Iliad. β′. ℣. 863 Τὼ Γυγαίη τέκε λίμνη,
Oἳ καὶ Μῄονας ἦγον ὑπὸ Τμώλῳ γεγαῶτας.

[33] Ἐν δὲ σταδίοις τεσσαράκοντα ἀπὸ τῆς πόλεως ἐστὶν ἡ Γυγαία μὲν ὑπὸ τοῦ ποιητοῦ λεγομένη. Strab. ubi supra.

[34] Ὑπέρκειται τῶν Σάρδεων ὁ Τμῶλος, εὔδαιμον ὄρος. Strabo, Lib. xiii. pag. 625.


Ovid. Met. Lib. xi. ℣. 150. Riget arduus alto
Tmolus in ascensu; clivoque extensus utroque
Sardibus hinc, illinc parvis finitur Hypaepis.

Ὕπαιπα δὲ πόλις ἐστὶ καταβαίνουσιν ἀπὸ τοῦ Τμώλου εἰς τὸ τοῦ Καΰστρου πεδίον. Lib. xiii. pag. 627.

[36] Ὁ μέν γε Τμῶλος ἱκανῶς συνῆπται, καὶ περιγραφὴν ἔχει μετρίαν, ἐν αὐτοῖς ἀφοριζόμενος τοῖς Λυδίοις μέρεσιν· ἡ δὲ μεσόγαιος εἰς τὸ ἀντικείμενον μέρος διατείνει μέχρι Μυκάλης. L. xiii. p. 629. And a little after: Τῷ δὴ Καῦστριανῷ πεδίῳ μεταξὺ πίπτοντι τῆς τε Μεσωγειότητος, καὶ τοῦ Τμώλου, συνεχές ἐστι πρὸς ἑὼ τὸ Κιλβιανὸν πεδίον.

[37] The modern name Tyria well answers to the antient Τυριαῖον which Xenophon mentions as a well inhabited city, not far from Καΰστρου πεδίον. De expedit. Cyri, L. i.

[38] Lib. v. cap. 29. Ephesus alluitur Cäystro, in Cilbianis jugis orto, multosque amnes deferente, et stagnum Pegasaeum, quod Phyrites amnis expellit.

[39] This is plain from Strabo, who having finished his account of Ephesus, and proceeding from thence towards Smyrna, says, Εἶτα τὸ Γαλλήσιον ὄρος, καὶ ἡ Κολοφὼν, etc. Lib. xiv. pag. 642.

[40] This likewise appears from Strabo, who tells us, that betwixt Erythrae, or the western part of that cape land, and the isthmus, which joins the same cape land to the continent, stands the mountain Mimas. Μεταξὺ τῶν Ἐρυθρῶν καὶ τοῦ ὑποκρήμνου Μίμας ἐστὶν, ὄρος ὑψηλόν. Ibid. pag. 645.

[41] Chap. vi. ℣. 5. De Joannis autographo, Ephesi servato, vid. Pfaffii Dissert. p. 154.

[42] Οἱ ἐξ Ἐφέσου εἰς Σάρδις εἰσὶ τεσσεράκοντα καὶ πεντακόσιοι στάδιοι. Herodot. Lib. v. cap. 54.

[43] The mountains, that enclose the city and plain of Ephesus, are Gallesius to the north, Mycale to the south, and Pactyas to the east.

[44] Ephesus attollitur monte Pione, alluitur Caystro. Plin. Lib. v. cap. 29.

[45] Concerning this church see Procopii Ἀνέκδοτα, p. 12. and Ἰουστ. Κτισμ. pag. 45, where it is said to have been rebuilt by an order from Justinian.

[46] See F. Simon’s Histoire critique de la creance et des coûtumes des nations du Levant, chap. 7, 8.

[47] Plin. Lib. xxxvi. c. 14. In solo id palustri fecere. And Lib. v. c. 29. Templum Dianae complexi e diversis regionibus duo Selenuntes, that is, two Selenusian lakes.

[48] Strabo, Lib. xiv. pag. 639, et 642. Εἶτα Πύγελα πολίχνιον (which now is called Scala Nova) εἶτα λιμὴν Πάνορμος καλούμενος, ἔχων ἱερὸν τῆς Ἐφεσίας Ἀρτέμιδος· εἶθ’ ἡ πόλις. And again:

Μετὰ δὲ τὴν ἐκβολὴν τοῦ Καΰστρου λίμην ἐστὶν ἐκ τοῦ πελάγους ἀναχεομένη· καλεῖται δὲ Σεληνουσία, καὶ ἐφεξῆς ἄλλη σύῤῥους αὐτῇ.

[49] These particulars, as collected out of several authors, are to be seen in Supplem. in Q. Curt. Lib. ii. cap. 7.

[50] See these and other particulars in Plin. Lib. xxxvi. cap. 14.

[51] This is the face of the moon aspide cincta comas. See Thes. Rom. Ant. Vol. v. p. 779.

[52] Herodian. Lib. I. cap. 39. Ἡ δὲ πρεσβυτάτη τῶν Κομμόδου ἀδελφῶν (Φαδίλλα ἦν ὄνομα αὐτῇ) εἰσδραμοῦσα, etc.

See likewise Grut. pag. MLXVI, n. 13. and Fabrett. Inscriptiones, pag. 746.

[53] Pag. 255. But the reader may see it more perfect in the few sheets, which were printed, of the second part of Antiq. Asiat.

[54] See pag. 254.

[55] Ἐξ Ἐφέσου μέχρι Σμύρνης ὁδός ἐστιν ἐπ’ εὐθείας τριακόσιοι εἴκοσι στάδιοι· εἰς γὰρ Μητρόπολιν ἑκατὸν καὶ εἴκοσι στάδιοι, οἱ λοιποὶ δὲ εἰς Σμύρναν. Strab. Lib. xiv. p. 632.

[56] Lib. v. cap. 29. Ephesus alluitur Câystro multos amnes deferente, et stagnum Pegasaeum, quod Phyrites amnis expellit.

[57] Mitylene, made more remarkable for those words of the Lesbians to Pompey, then fled hither:

Fac, Magne, locum, quem cuncta revisant
Saecula, quem veniens hospes Romanus adoret. Lucan. Lib. viii. ℣. 114.

[58] See Strab. Lib. xiii. pag. 615.

[59] Hence Virgil, Culic. ℣. 312.

Omnis ut in cineres Rhoetei litoris ora,
Classibus ambustis, flamma superante, daretur.

See likewise Xenoph. Hist. Graec. L. i. in prin. ὡς ἤνοιγε περὶ τὸ Ῥοίτειον. And P. Mel. L. i. c. 18. Extra sinum sunt Rhoetea littora.

[60] Lib. viii. p. 599. Οὐδὲν ἴχνος σώζεται τῆς ἀρχαίας πόλεως.

And in like manner, Lucan, Lib. ix. ℣. 968.

Tota teguntur
Pergama dumetis, et jam periere ruinae.

[61] Polybius makes the breadth of the Hellespont here to be no more than two furlongs, Lib. xvi. p. 735.

[62] In some modern prints Aidos. The most memorable siege of this place by king Philip of Macedon is related by Livy, Lib. xxxi. cap. 17.

[63] Γενόμενος δὲ μεταξὺ Τρωάδος καὶ τῆς ἀρχαίας Ἰλίου, καὶ τόπον εὑρὼν εἰς πόλεως κατασκευήν ἐπιτήδειον, θεμελίους τε ἐπήξατο, καὶ τείχους τὶ μέρος εἰς ὕψος ἀνέστησεν· ὅπερ ἄχρι νῦν ὁρᾷν ἔνεστι ἐπὶ τὸν Ἑλλήσποντον πλέουσιν. Zosim. Lib. ii. pag. 105. ed. Oxon.

[64] Europamque Asiae, Sestonque admovit Abydo. Lucan. Lib. ii. ℣. 674.

[65] Lib. xiii. pag. 59.

[66] Her. et Leand. ℣. 23, 24.

[67] Callipolis quoque ac Madytos dedita, et castella quaedam ignobilia. Liv. Lib. xxxi. cap. 16.

[68] Lib. xiii. p. 589. Ἡ Λάμψακος ἐπὶ θαλάττῃ πόλις ἐστὶν εὐλίμενος καὶ ἀξιόλογος. Et mox: Ἐν τῇ στεῤῥᾷ τῆς Χεῤῥονήσου πολίχνιον ἐστὶ Καλλίπολις.

[69] Concerning these monuments particularly see Gyllius, Constantinop. topogr. Lib. ii. c. 12, 13.

[70] Concerning the interpretation of which, together with an history of the Rom. obelisks, see Ammian. Marcell. Lib. xvii. c. 4, and Smith, Constantinop. brev. notit. p. 117.

[71] Πρόκλῳ in Anthologia, Lib. iv. p. 488.

[72] See Zosim. Lib. iv. p. 265.

[73] See Cang. Constant. Christian. Lib. ii. pag. 105.

[74] L. i. p. 34. of his Travels.

[75] Concerning these see Pliny, Lib. iv. cap. 13.

[76] See Gruter, pag. ccxxviii, and Wheler, pag. 207.

[77] See Du Fresne, Glossar. Graec. Tab. i. oper. praemiss.

[78] This is part of an epigram, Εἰς Διομήδους τάφον, Antholog. Lib. vi. p. 563.

[79] Lib. iii. ℣. 277. Concerning the current of the Maeotis see Polybius, Lib. iv. p. 307; and of that at Gades, Mr. Halley’s Discourse in Le Clerc’s Physic. L. ii. c. 8.

[80] Concerning the antient situation of Chalcédon see Zosim. L. ii. p. 100, and of this church, L. v. p. 314, and Evagr. L. ii. c. 3.

[81] Lib. ii. pag. 106.

[82] For Valentinian’s building these aqueducts see Socrates by Valesius, and Niceph. Constantin. Hist. vol. ii. p. 418.

[83] In his Chronicon.

[84] Book i. pag. 34.

[85] In relation to this inscription the medal of Belisarius may be observed, on the reverse of which are the words DEVICTIS GOTHIS.

[86] See Eusebius’s Life of Constantine.

[87] An account of the like rich marble work may be seen in Stat. Sylv. Lib. i. c. 5. where he describes the bath of Claudius Etruscus.

[88] The particulars of each are described in the exact and faithful account of Grelot, which may be compared with that of Procopius.

[89] Eclog. vi. vers. 43.

[90] Pag. 232 of his Travels.

[91] Idem forsan ac σαββατείῳ apud Joseph. Antiq. Jud. edit. Oxon. p. 722. l. ult.

[92] ΕΦ Ω. vid. Grut. pag. DCCXLIX. num. 4.

[93] Αυδηνᾶιος, ὄνομα μηνὸς παρὰ Μακεδόσιν, ὁ Ἰανουάριος. Suidas.

[94] In this inscription the Ι is always added to the last vowel of the dative singular, which in small letters is now usually placed under it.

[95] Lib. xxxvii.

[96] Vid. Marmor. Oxon. p. 297, ed. Prid.

[97] By this and the following inscription we find, there were several schools here, where young persons were trained up to athletic exercises in honour of Hercules. For as Lipsius observes, Saturnal. Serm. L. iii. c. 23. Athletis et gladiatoribus Hercules praeesse putabatur, qui facta ejus et robur aemularentur. De athletis lapis Graecus Romae indicat; in quo aliquoties nominati, οἱ περὶ τὸν Ἡρακλέα ἀθληταὶ, id est, Herculanei athletae. So in other inscriptions we have οἱ περὶ τὸν Διόνυσον τεχνῖται, artists employed in the rites of Bacchus.

[98] In this inscription the Ι is added to the last vowel of the dative case, as in that above, pag. 53.

[99] Iliad. γ. ℣. 339.

[100] See Strabo, Lib. xii. pag. 550.

[101] See Homer, Iliad. β. in catalog. ℣. 335.

[102] This river must be the Granicus, which seems to bend its course towards the Peninsula of Cyzicus.

[103] While I was absent from the conáck, some Turks brought medals to be sold, which I lost the opportunity of purchasing, because Mr. Farington suspected them to be spies.

[104] Ἔπλευσαν ἐς Αἰγὸς ποταμοὺς, ἀντίον τῆς Λαμψάκου, διεῖχε δὲ ὁ Ἑλλήσποντος ταύτης σταδίους ὡς πεντεκαίδεκα. Hist. Graec. L. ii. p. 455. edit. Leunclav.

[105] Pag. 42.

[106] The Hebrus is large and full in winter, yet carries but a slow stream, which in the summer time is scarce able to flow. Hence Ovid. Heroid. ii. ℣. 115.

Et sacer admissas exigit Hebrus aquas.

But Virgil, who, as appears from his geography of Troy, was not so well acquainted with these parts, says: Aen. i. ℣. 321.

Volucremque fuga praevertitur Hebrum.

[107] Zosimus, Lib. ii. p. 95. ed. Oxon. Καθ’ ὃ τωνος εειος ποταμὸς τῷ Ἑβρῳ συμβάλλει.

[108] Ibidem.

[109] See Pythagorae Symbolum, Προσκυνεῖν περιφερόμενος, apud Lil. Gyrald. Tom. ii. p. 669. edit. 1696.

[110] So Justin describing the rites of Bacchus, with which the soldiers of Alexander were inspired says: Exercitus ejus repentino impetu mentis in sacros dei ululatus instinctus, cum stupore regis, sine noxa discurrit. Lib. xii. c. 7.

[111] See this sect described, and called Tzophilar, by Hottinger, Hist. orient. pag. 365.

[112] Concerning the longevity of the Aemimontian Thracians see Amm. Marc. L. xxvii. c. 4.

[113] Here I happily attained that wish of Virgil, Georg. Lib. ii. ℣. 488.

O, qui me gelidis in vallibus Haemi
Sistat, et ingenti ramorum protegat umbra!

[114] Suam quisque domum spatio circundat, sive adversus casus ignis remedium, sive inscitia aedificandi. Ne caementorum apud illos, aut tegularum usus. Tacit. De m. G. c. xvi.

[115] Aur. Victor. Epit. cap. XL. Galerius ortus Dacia Ripensi, quem locum Romulianum ex vocabulo Romulae matris appellarat.

[116] The Sclavonian character is twofold; one said to be invented by St. Hierom, which is now used by the Rascians and Bosnians; the other by St. Cyril, proper to Valachia, Moldavia, Muscovy, &c.

[117] This inscription was first published by Reinesius, Class. vi. n. 90. and from him by Sponius, Miscell. erud. antiq. p. 294. But both of them vary somewhat from the reading here given.

[118] It is probable these stones might all come from Ulpia Trajana, formerly called Sarmazegethusa, concerning which see Zamosius, in Analect. Antiq. Transyl. c. 4.

[119] Ovid. ad Liviam, ℣. 387.

Danubiusque rapax, et Dacius orbe remoto
Apulus, huic hosti per breve Pontus iter.

[120] Sabina, Nova Ceres; et Julia Pia, Nova Vesta: Bonarot. Observ. p. 4. Nymphae Avgvstae, Spon, Recherch. d’Antiq. Diss. xxix. p. 481. Saxopol. in Dacia, Nymphis salvtiferis sacrvm.

[121] In libello inscript. Analecta lap. Transylv. prov. legitur Rvffinvs, sed reclamante lapide.

[122] In Latin Enyedinum, or Aniadinum, from the via Annia, mentioned in an inscription in Zamosius, c. v.

[123] Forte COLON, AP. ut in Zamosii Inscript. cap. 7. COL. APVL. et COLONIAE APVLENSIS.

[124] Forte CENOTAPHIVM.

[125] The like cyphers I afterwards saw at Vienna, near Porta Rubra; where I took notice of the following date, , which in our modern characters is 1467.

[126] His designed ransom, after his death in Poland, was unjustly detained in this province.

[127] Concerning the antient characters of the Siculians, and their manner of writing downwards like the Sinese, see Zamos. c. 3.

[128] So great is the aversion of these Valachs to the killing of calves, that to redeem one taken by General Robutin, they offered him the choice of all their children.

[129] See pag. 92.

[130] Veste non fluitante, sed stricta, et singulos artus exprimente. Tacitus De moribus Germanorum, cap. xvii.

[131] So Martial, Spectac. Epigr. 3. Crinibus in nodum tortis venere Sicambri.

And Tacitus says the like of the Suevi, De morib. Germ. c. 38. Insigne gentis obliquare crinem, nodoque substringere.

[132] This trial of water, as well as that of fire, is authorized by the laws of Ladislaus, King of Hungary. Decret. S. Ladislai, Lib. ii. cap. 28.

[133] Est in Africa consuetudo incolarum, ut in agris, et in omnibus fere villis, sub terra specus condendi frumenti gratia clam habeant; atque id propter bella maxime, hostiumque subitum adventum praeparent: De bello Africano, cap. 65.

[134] Travels into divers parts of Europe, p. 145.

[135] Vid. Plin. Lib. xxviii. c. i. et Harduin. in loc.

[136] Lib. ii. cap. 96 et 114.

[137] See Imhof. Lib. x. cap. 16.

[138] Spon, who has published this inscription, observes, that by these QVADRIBIS might be meant, seminumina quadriviis praesidentia; quales in biviis et triviis Hermi seu Mercurii ab antiquis culti. Miscell. erud. antiq. pag. 84.

[139] Vid. Apul. De Iside: Cujus numen unicum multiformi specie, ritu vario, nomine multijuge totus veneratur orbis. Metam. Lib. ii. pag. 280.

[140] See an instance of this in Sweden, reported in the Huetiana, p. 124. N. LIV.

[141] Ovid. Fast. L. i. ℣. 205.

Nec pudor in stipula placidam cepisse quietem,
Et foenum capiti supposuisse, fuit.

[142] These two are published both in Grut. but each of them with some little variation. pag. CCCLII, n. 5. and Fleetwood, pag. 152.

[143] ΟΦΡ ΑΝ ΕΣ ΑΔΩ.

[144] Cap. 17.

[145] Lib. iv. parag. 24.

[146] Odyss. M. ℣. 235.

[147] Aen. iii. ℣. 420.

[148] Lib. v. ℣. 1197.

[149] In Verr. iv. cap. 48.



Page 15. line 5. read Achmetléer.
24. 4. not.
44. 29. Aurátbasar.
76. 13. alaí chiaush.
77. 28. lilia.
88. 33. thither.
92. 29. Judex.
93. 32. Banti.
108. 9. Glychensberg.
133. 20. Ferdinand.
142. 20. by.
168. 10. ALIAM.

Transcriber’s Note: The errata have been corrected. Originals read: Achmetcléar; nor; Aarátbasar; alaí, chiaush; lillia; hither; jndex; Banfi; Glychebsberg; Ferdinard; be; AILAM.