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Title: A Brief History of the United States

Author: Joel Dorman Steele

Release date: September 1, 2004 [eBook #6434]
Most recently updated: December 29, 2020

Language: English


Produced by Robert Prince, Juliet Sutherland, Charles Franks

and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team.



[Illustration: PLYMOUTH ROCK]

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The experience of all teachers testifies to the lamentable deficiency in historical knowledge among their pupils; not that children dislike the incidents and events of history, for, indeed, they prefer them to the improbable tales which now form the bulk of their reading, but because the books are "dry." Those which are interesting are apt to be lengthy, and the mind consequently becomes confused by the multitude of details, while the brief ones often contain merely the dry bones of fact, uninviting and unreal. An attractive book which can be mastered in a single term, is the necessity of our schools. The present work is an attempt to meet this want in American histories. In its preparation there has been an endeavor to develop the following principles:

1. To precede each Epoch by questions and a map, so that the pupil may become familiar with the location of the places named in the history he is about to study.

2. To select only the most important events for the body of the text, and then, by foot-notes, to give explanations, illustrations, minor events, anecdotes, &c.

3. To classify the events under general topics, which are given in distinct type at the beginning of each paragraph; thus impressing the leading idea on the mind of the pupil, enabling him to see at a glance the prominent points of the lesson, and especially adapting the book to that large and constantly increasing class of teachers, who require topical recitations.

4. To select, in the description of each battle, some characteristic in which it differs from all other battles—its key-note, by which it can be recollected; thus not only preventing a sameness, but giving to the pupil a point around which he may group information obtained from fuller descriptions and larger histories.

5. To give only leading dates, and, as far as possible, to associate them with each other, and thus assist the memory in their permanent retention; experience having proved the committing of many dates to be the most barren and profitless of all school attainments.

6. To give each campaign as a whole, rather than to mingle several by presenting the events in chronological order. Whenever, by the operations of one army being dependent on those of another, this plan might fail to show the inter-relation of events, to prevent such a result by so arranging the campaigns that the supporting event shall precede the supported one.

7. To give something of the philosophy of history, the causes and effects of events, and, in the case of great battles, the objects sought to be attained; thus leading pupils to a thoughtful study of history, and to an appreciation of the fact that events hinge upon each other.

8. To insert, in foot-notes, sketches of the more important personages, especially the Presidents, and thereby enable the student to form some estimate of their characters.

9. To use language, a clause or sentence of which cannot be selected or committed as an answer to a question, but such as, giving the idea vividly, will yet compel the pupil to express it in his own words.

10. To assign to each Epoch its fair proportion of space; not expanding the earlier ones at the expense of the later; but giving due prominence to the events nearer our own time, especially to the Civil War.

11. To write a National history by carefully avoiding all sectional or partisan views.

12. To give the new States the attention due to their importance by devoting space to each one as it is admitted into the Union, and becomes a feature in the grand national development.

13. To lead to a more independent use of the book, and the adoption of the topical mode of recitation and study, as far as possible, by placing the questions at the close of the work, rather than at the bottom of each page.

14. To furnish, under the title of Historical Recreations, a set of review questions which may serve to awaken an interest in the class and induce a more comprehensive study of the book.

Finally—this work is offered to American youth in the confident belief that as they study the wonderful history of their native land, they will learn to prize their birthright more highly, and treasure it more carefully. Their patriotism must be kindled when they come to see how slowly, yet how gloriously, this tree of liberty has grown, what storms have wrenched its boughs, what sweat of toil and blood has moistened its roots, what eager eyes have watched every out-springing bud, what brave hearts have defended it, loving it even unto death. A heritage thus sanctified by the heroism and devotion of the fathers can but elicit the choicest care and tenderest love of the sons.

[Illustration: MOUNT VERNON]


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[Entered according to Act of Congress, A. D. 1872, by A. S. Barnes & Co., in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.]

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The following method of using this work has been successfully employed by many teachers. At the commencement of the study let each pupil be required to draw an outline map of North America, at least 18 x 24 inches in size. This should contain only physical features, viz., coast-line, mountains, lakes, and rivers. If desired, they may be marked very faintly at first, and shaded and darkened when discovered in the progress of the history. As the pupils advance in the text let them mark on their maps, day by day, the places discovered, the settlements, battles, political divisions, etc., with their dates. They will thus see the country growing afresh under their hand and eye, and the geography and the history will be indissolubly linked. At the close of the term their maps will show what they have done, and each name, with its date, will recall the history which clusters around it.

Recitations and examinations may be conducted by having a map drawn upon the blackboard with colored crayons, and requiring the class to fill in the names and dates, describing the historical facts as they proceed. In turn, during review, the pupil should be able, when a date or place is pointed out, to state the event associated with it.

It will be noticed that the book is written on an exact plan and method of arrangement. The topics of the epochs, chapters, sections and paragraphs form a perfect analysis; thus, in each Presidential Administration, the order of subjects is uniform, viz.: Domestic Affairs, Foreign Affairs, and Political Parties—the subsidiary topics being grouped under these heads. The teacher is therefore commended to place on the board the analysis of each Epoch, and conduct the recitation from that without the use of the book in the class.



WHO FIRST SETTLED AMERICA?—It was probably first peopled from Asia, the birth-place of man. In what way this happened, we do not know. Chinese vessels, coasting along the shore according to the custom of early voyagers, may have been driven by storms to cross the Pacific Ocean, while the crews were thankful to escape a watery grave by settling an unknown country or, parties wandering across Behring Strait in search of adventure, and finding on this side a pleasant land, may have resolved to make it their home.

AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES.—In various parts of the continent, remains are found of the people who settled the country in prehistoric times. Through the Mississippi valley, from the Lakes to the Gulf, extends a succession of defensive earthworks.

[Footnote: It is a singular fact that banks of earth grassed over are more enduring than any other work of man. The grassy mounds near Nineveh and Babylon have remained unchanged for centuries. Meantime massive buildings of stone have been erected, have served long generations, and have crumbled to ruin.]

Similar ruins are found in various other sections of the United States. The largest forest trees are often found growing upon them. The Indians have no tradition as to the origin of these structures. They generally crown steep hills, and consist of embankments, ditches, &c., indicating considerable acquaintance with military science. At Newark, Ohio, a fortification exists which covers an area of more than two miles square, and has over two miles of embankment from two to twenty feet high.

Mounds, seemingly constructed as great altars for religious purposes or as monuments, are also numerous. One, opposite St. Louis, covers eight acres of ground, and is ninety feet high. There are said to be 10,000 of these mounds in Ohio alone.

[Illustration: THE SERPENT MOUND.]

A peculiar kind of earthwork has the outline of gigantic men or animals. An embankment in Adams County, Ohio, represents very accurately a serpent 1000 feet long. Its body winds with graceful curves, and in its wide-extended jaws lies a figure which the animal seems about to swallow. In Mexico and Peru, still more wonderful remains have been discovered. They consist not alone of defensive works, altars, and monuments, but of idols, ruined temples, aqueducts, bridges, and paved roads.


THE MOUND BUILDERS is the name given to the people who erected the mounds of North America. They seem to have emigrated to Central America, and there to have developed a high civilization. They built cities, wove cotton, worked in gold, silver, and copper, labored in the fields, and had regular governments.

THE INDIANS who were found on this continent east of the Mississippi, by the first European settlers, did not exceed 200,000 in number. In Mexico, Peru, and the Indies, however, there was an immense population. The Indians were the successors of the Mound Builders, and were by far their inferiors in civilization. We know not why the ancient race left, nor whence the Indians came. It is supposed that the former were driven southward by the savage tribes from the north.


[Footnote: This description applies to the Indians inhabiting the present limits of the United States.]

Arts and Inventions.—The Indian has been well termed the "Red Man of the Forest." He built no cities, no ships, no churches, no school-houses. He constructed only temporary bark wigwams and canoes. He made neither roads nor bridges, but followed foot-paths through the forest, and swam the streams. His highest art was expended in a simple bow and arrow.

Progress and Education.—He made no advancement, but each son emulated the prowess of his father in the hunt and the fight. The hunting-ground and the battle-field embraced everything of real honor or value. So the son was educated to throw the tomahawk, shoot the arrow, and catch fish with the spear. He knew nothing of books, paper, writing, or history.

[Footnote: Some tribes and families seem to have been further advanced than others and to have instructed then children, especially those young men who hoped to become chiefs, in the history and customs of their nation.]

[Illustration: INDIAN LIFE.]

Domestic Life.—The Indian had no cow, or domestic beast of burden. He regarded all labor as degrading, and fit only for women. His squaw, therefore, built his wigwam, cut his wood, and carried his burdens when he journeyed. While he hunted or fished, she cleared the land for his corn by burning down the trees, scratched the ground with a crooked stick or dug it with a clam-shell, and dressed skins for his clothing. She cooked his food by dropping hot stones into a tight willow basket containing materials for soup. The leavings of her lord's feast sufficed for her, and the coldest place in the wigwam was her seat.


[Footnote: This cut represents a species of picture-writing occasionally used by the Indians. Some Indian guides wished to inform their comrades that a company of fourteen whites and two Indians had spent the night at that point. Nos. 9, 10 indicate the white soldiers and their arms; No. 1 is the captain, with a sword; No. 2 the secretary, with the book; No. 3 the geologist, with a hammer; Nos. 7, 8 are the guides, without hats; Nos. 11,12 show what they ate in camp; Nos. 13,14,15 indicate how many fires they made.]

Disposition.—In war the Indian was brave and alert, but cruel and revengeful, preferring treachery and cunning to open battle. At home, he was lazy, improvident, and an inveterate gambler. He delighted in finery and trinkets, and decked his unclean person with paint and feathers. His grave and haughty demeanor repelled the stranger; but he was grateful for favors, and his wigwam stood hospitably open to the poorest and meanest of his tribe.

Endurance.—He could endure great fatigue, and in his expeditions often lay without shelter in the severest weather. It was his glory to bear the most horrible tortures without a sign of suffering.


Religion.—If he had any ideas of a Supreme Being, they were vague and degraded. His dream of a Heaven was of happy hunting-grounds or of gay feasts, where his dog should join in the dance. He worshipped no idols, but peopled all nature with spirits, which dwelt not only in birds, beasts and reptiles, but also in lakes, rivers and waterfalls. As he believed that these had power to help or harm men, he lived in constant fear of offending them. He apologized, therefore, to the animals he killed, and made solemn promises to fishes that their bones should be respected. He placed great stress on dreams, and his camp swarmed with sorcerers and fortune-tellers.

THE INDIAN OF THE PRESENT.—Such was the Indian two hundred years ago, and such he is to-day. He opposes the encroachments of the settler, and the building of railroads. But he cannot stop the tide of immigration. Unless he can be induced to give up his roving habits, and to cultivate the soil, he is doomed to destruction. It is to be earnestly hoped that the red man may yet be Christianized, and taught the arts of industry and peace.

THE NORTHMEN (inhabitants of Norway and Sweden) claim to have been the original discoverers of America. According to their traditions, this continent was seen first about the year 1000, by one Biorne, who had been driven to sea by a tempest. Afterward other adventurers made successful voyages, established settlements, and bartered with the natives. Snorre, son of one of these settlers, is said to have been the first child born of European parents upon our shore.

[Footnote: Snorre was the founder of an illustrious family. One of his descendants is said to have been Albert Thorwaldsen, the great Danish sculptor of the present century. The beautiful photographs of Thorwaldsen's "Day," "Night," and "The Seasons," which hang in so many American parlors, thus acquire a new interest by being linked with the pioneer boy born on New England shores so many centuries ago.]

The Northmen claim to have explored the coast as far south as Florida. How much credit is to be given to these traditions is uncertain. Many historians reject them, while others think there are traces of the Northmen yet remaining, such as the old tower at Newport, R.I., and the singular inscriptions on the rock at Dighton, Mass. Admitting, however, the claims of the Northmen, the fact is barren of all results. No permanent settlements were made, the route hither was lost, and even the existence of the continent was forgotten.

[Footnote: See "The Old Mill at Newport" in Scribner's Magazine,
March, 1879, and the Magazine of American History, September, 1879.]

The true history of this country begins with its discovery by Columbus in 1492. It naturally divides itself into six great epochs.



This epoch extends from the discovery of America in 1492 to the settlement at Jamestown, Va., in 1607. During this period various European nations were exploring the continent, and making widely scattered settlements.



This epoch extends from the settlement at Jamestown, Va., in 1607, to the breaking out of the Revolutionary War in 1775. During this period the scattered settlements grew into thirteen flourishing colonies, subject to Great Britain.



This epoch extends from the breaking out of the Revolutionary War in 1775, to the adoption of the Constitution in 1787. During this period the colonies threw off the government of England, and established their independence.



This epoch extends from the adoption of the Constitution in 1787, to the breaking out of the Civil War in 1861. During this period the States increased in number from thirteen to thirty-four, and grew in population and wealth until the United States became the most prosperous nation in the world.



This epoch extends from the breaking out of the Civil War in 1861, to the surrender of Lee's army in 1865. During this period a gigantic strife was carried on between the Northern and the Southern States, the former struggling for the perpetuation of the Union, and the latter for its division.



This epoch extends from the close of the Civil War to the present time. During this period the seceding States have been restored to their rights in the Union, peace has been fully established, and many interesting events have occurred.


The following works will be found valuable for reference and additional information. It is not the intention to give a catalogue of U. S. Histories and biographies of celebrated Americans, but simply to name a few works which will serve to interest a class and furnish material for collateral reading. Bancroft's and Hildreth's Histories, Irving's Life of Washington, and Sparks's American Biographies, are supposed to be in every school library, and to be familiar to every teacher. They are therefore not referred to in this list. The Lives of the Presidents, the Histories of the different States, and all works of local value are useful, and should be secured, if possible. The Magazine of American History will be found serviceable for reference on disputed points of American History and Biography. Holmes's American Annals is invaluable, and the early volumes of the North American Review contain a great deal of interesting historical matter. The American Cyclopaedia and Thomas's Dictionary of Biography are exceedingly serviceable in preparing essays and furnishing anecdotes. With a little effort a poem, a good prose selection, or a composition on some historical topic may be offered by the class each day to enliven the recitation.

Beamish's Discovery of America by the Northmen.—Bradford's
American Antiquities.—Baldwin's Ancient America.—Squier and
Davis's American Antiquities and Discoveries in the West—Sinding's
History of Scandinavia.-Cattin's North American Indians.
—Thatcher's Indian Biography.—Stone's Life and Times of Red
Jacket, and Life of Brandt—Cooper's Leather Stocking
Tales—Morgan's League of the Iroquois.—Schoolcraft's Memoirs of
Residence Among the Indians, and other works by the same author.
—Foster's Prehistoric Races of the United States of America.
—Bancroft's Native Races—Matthew's Behemoth, a Legend of the
Mound Builders (Fiction).—Lowell's Chippewa Legend (Poetry).
—Whittier's Bridal of Penacook (Poetry).—Jones's Mound-Builders
of Tennesee.—Goodrich's So-called Columbus.—Ancient Monuments in
America, Harper's Magazine, vol.

[Illustration: A SPANISH CARAVEL.
    (From a drawing attributed to Columbus.)]



[Illustration: BALBOA.]

GEOGRAPHICAL KNOWLEDGE IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY.—The people of Europe had then never heard of America. About that time, a great desire for geographical knowledge was awakened. The compass and the astrolabe—an instrument for reckoning latitude—had been already invented. Voyagers were no longer compelled to creep along the shore, but began to strike out boldly into the open sea. The art of printing had just come into use, and books of travel were eagerly read.

[Footnote: Questions on the Geography of the First Epoch.—In the accompanying map there are no divisions of the continent, as none existed at that time. When they are called for in the following questions, the object is to test the pupil's geographical knowledge.

Locate the West Indies. San Salvador (now called Guanahani, gwah-nah-hah'-ne, and Cat Island). Cuba. Hispaniola or Hayti (he-te), name given to the island in 1803 by Dessalines. (See Lipp. Gazetteer.) Newfoundland. Cape Breton. Roanoke Island. Manhattan Island.

Describe the Orinoco River. Mississippi River. St. Lawrence River.
James River. Ohio River. Colorado River. Columbia River. St. John's
River (see map for Epoch V).

Where is Labrador? Central America? Florida? Mexico? New Mexico?
California? Oregon? Peru?

Locate St Augustine. Santa Fe (sahn-tah-fay). New York. Montreal.
Quebec. Albany. Jamestown. Port Royal. Isthmus of Darien. Cape
Henry. Cape Charles. Cape Cod. Chesapeake Bay. Hudson Bay.

Marco Polo and other adventurers returning from the East, told wonderful stories of the wealth of Asiatic cities. Genoa, Florence, and Venice, commanding the commerce of the Mediterranean, had become enriched by trade with the East. The costly shawls, spices, and silks of Persia and India were borne by caravans to the Red Sea, thence on camels across the desert to the Nile, and lastly by ship over the Mediterranean to Europe.]

The great problem of the age was how to reach the East Indies by sea, and thus give a cheaper route to these rich products.

COLUMBUS conceived that by sailing west he could reach the East Indies. He believed the earth to be round, which was then a novel idea. He, however, thought it much smaller than it really is, and that Asia extends much further round the world to the east than it does. Hence, he argued that by going a few hundred leagues west he would touch the coast of Eastern Asia. He was determined to try this new route, but was too poor to pay for the necessary ships, men, and provisions.

[Footnote: Several facts served to strengthen the faith of Columbus in the correctness of his theory. The Azores and the Cape de Verde islands were the most westerly lands then known. There had been washed on their shores by westerly winds, pieces of wood curiously carved, trees, and seeds of unknown species, and especially the bodies of two men of strange color and visage.]

[Footnote: Christopher Columbus was born in Genoa, Italy, 1435. He was trained for the sea from his childhood. Being the eldest of four children, and his father a poor wool-comber, much care devolved upon him. It is said that at thirty his hair was white from trouble and anxiety. His kind and loving disposition is proved by the fact that in his poorest days he saved part of his pittance to educate his young brothers and support his aged father. Columbus was determined, shrewd, and intensely religious. He believed and announced himself to be divinely called to "carry the true faith into the uttermost parts of the earth." Inspired by this thought, no discouragement or contumely could drive him to despair utterly. It was eighteen years from the conception to the accomplishment of his plan. During all this time his life was a marvel of patience, and of brave devotion to his one purpose. His sorrows were many; his triumph was brief. Evil men maligned him to Ferdinand and Isabella. Disregarding their promise that he should be governor-general over all the lands he might discover, the king and queen sent out another governor, and by his order Columbus was sent home in chains! No wonder that the whole nation was shocked at such an indignity to such a man. It is sad to know that although Ferdinand and Isabella endeavored to soothe his wounded spirit by many attentions, they never restored to him his lawful rights. From fluent promises they passed at last to total neglect, and Columbus died a grieved and disappointed old man. At his request, his chains were buried with him, a touching memorial of Spanish ingratitude.]

COLUMBUS AT THE COURT OF PORTUGAL.—He accordingly laid his plan before King John of Portugal, who, being pleased with the idea, referred it to the geographers of his court. They pronounced it a visionary scheme. With a lurking feeling, however, that there might be truth in it, the king had the meanness to dispatch a vessel secretly to test the matter. The pilot had the charts of Columbus, but lacked his heroic courage. After sailing westward from Cape de Verde islands for a few days, and seeing nothing but a wide waste of wildly tossing waves, he returned, ridiculing the idea.

COLUMBUS AT THE COURT OF SPAIN.—Columbus, disheartened by this treachery, betook himself to Spain. During seven long years he importuned King Ferdinand for a reply. All this while he was regarded as a visionary fellow, and when he passed along the streets, even the children pointed to their foreheads and smiled. At last, the learned council declared the plan too foolish for further attention. Turning away sadly, Columbus determined to go to France.

[Footnote: "It is absurd," said those wise men. "Who is so foolish as to believe that there are people on the other side of the world, walking with their heels upward, and their heads hanging down? And then, how can a ship get there? The torrid zone, through which they must pass, is a region of fire, where the very waves boil. And even if a ship could perchance get around there safely, how could it ever get back? Can a ship sail up hill?" All of which sounds very strange to us now, when hundreds of travelers make every year the entire circuit of the globe.]

COLUMBUS SUCCESSFUL.—His friends at the Spanish court, at this juncture, laid the matter before Queen Isabella, and she was finally won to his cause. The king remained indifferent, and pleaded the want of funds. The queen in her earnestness exclaimed, "I pledge my jewels to raise the money." But her sacrifice was not required. St. Angel, the court treasurer, advanced most of the money, and the friends of Columbus the remainder,—in all about $20,000, equal to six times that amount at the present day. Columbus had succeeded at last.

COLUMBUS'S EQUIPMENT.—Though armed with the king's authority,
Columbus obtained vessels and sailors with the greatest difficulty.
The boldest seamen shrank from such a desperate undertaking. At
last, three small vessels were manned; the Pinta (peen'tah), Santa
Maria (ma-re-ah), and Ninah (ne-nah). They sailed from Palos,
Spain, Aug. 3, 1492.

INCIDENTS OF THE VOYAGE.—When the ships struck out boldly westward on the untried sea, and the sailors saw the last trace of land fade from their sight, many, even of the bravest, burst into tears. As they proceeded, their hearts were wrung by superstitious fears. To their dismay, the compass no longer pointed directly north, and they believed that they were coming into a region where the very laws of nature were changed. They came into the track of the trade-wind, which wafted them steadily westward. This, they were sure, was carrying them to destruction, for how could they ever return against it? Signs of land, such as flocks of birds and fresh, green plants, were often seen, and the clouds near the horizon assumed the look of land, but they disappeared, and only the broad ocean spread out before them as they advanced. The sailors, so often deceived, lost heart, and insisted upon returning home. Columbus, with wonderful tact and patience, explained all these appearances. But the more he argued, the louder became their murmurs. At last they secretly determined to throw him overboard. Although he knew their feelings, he did not waver, but declared that he would proceed till the enterprise was accomplished.

Soon, signs of land silenced their murmurs. A staff artificially carved, and a branch of thorn with berries floated near. All was now eager expectation. In the evening, Columbus beheld a light rising and falling in the distance, as of a torch borne by one walking. Later at night, the joyful cry of "Land!" rang out from the Pinta. In the morning the shore, green with tropical verdure, lay smiling before them.

THE LANDING.—Columbus, dressed in a splendid military suit of scarlet embroidered with gold, and followed by a retinue of his officers and men bearing banners, stepped upon the new world, Friday, Oct. 12, 1492. He threw himself upon his knees, kissed the earth, and with tears of joy gave thanks to God. He then formally planted the cross, and took possession of the country in the name of Ferdinand and Isabella.

The wondering natives, who crowded the shore, gazed on them with awe. They supposed the ships to be huge white-winged birds, and the Spaniards to have come from heaven. How sadly and how soon these simple people were undeceived!

FURTHER DISCOVERIES.—Columbus found the land to be an island, which he named St. Salvador. He supposed that he had reached the islands lying off the eastern coast of India, and he therefore called the dark-hued natives, Indians. Careful inquiries were also made concerning the rich products of the East, such as spices, precious stones, and especially gold. The simple people had only a few golden ornaments. These they readily bartered for hawks' bells. Cuba, Hayti, and other islands were discovered and visited in the vain hope of securing Oriental treasures. Columbus even sent a deputation into the interior of Cuba to a famous chief, supposing him to be the great king of Tartary!

At last, urged by his crew, he relinquished the search, and turned his vessels homeward.

HIS RECEPTION, on his return, was flattering in the extreme. The whole nation took a holiday. His appearance was hailed with shouts and the ringing of bells. The king and queen were dazzled by their new and sudden acquisition. As Columbus told them of the beautiful land he had discovered, its brilliant birds, its tropical forests, its delicious climate, and above all, its natives waiting to be converted to the Christian faith, they sank upon their knees, and gave God thanks for such a signal triumph.


[Footnote: The body of Columbus was deposited in the Convent of San Francisco, Valladohd, Spain. It was thence transported, in 1513, to the Carthusian Monastery of Seville where a handsome monument was erected, by command of Ferdinand and Isabella with the simple inscription—"To Castile and Leon, Colon gave a new world." In 1536 his body, and that of his son Diego, were removed to the city of Saint Domingo, Hayti, and interned in the principal chapel. But they were not permitted to rest even there, for in 1796 they were brought to Havana with imposing ceremonies. His final resting place in the Cathedral is marked by a slab elaborately carved, on which is inscribed in Spanish,

   "Oh, rest thou, image of the great Colon,
   Thousand centuries remain, guarded in the urn,
   And in the remembrance of our nation."]

SUBSEQUENT VOYAGES.—Columbus afterward made three voyages. In 1498 he discovered the mainland, near the Orinoco River. He never, however, lost the delusion that it was the eastern coast of Asia, and died ignorant of the grandeur of his discovery.

HOW THE CONTINENT WAS NAMED.—Americus Vesputius (a-mer-i-cus ves-pu-she-us), a friend of Columbus, accompanied a subsequent expedition to the new world. A German named Waldsee-Mueller published an interesting account of his adventures, in which he suggested that the country should be called America. This work, being the first description of the new world, was very popular, and the name was soon adopted by geographers.

JOHN CAB'-OT, a navigator of Bristol, England, by studying his charts and globes, decided that since the degrees of longitude diminish in length as they approach the pole, the shortest route to India must be by sailing northwest instead of west, as Columbus had done. He easily obtained royal authority to make the attempt. After a prosperous voyage, he came in sight of the sterile region of Labrador, and sailed along the coast for many leagues. This was fourteen months before Columbus discovered the continent. Cabot supposed that he had reached the territory of the "Great Cham," king of Tartary. Nevertheless, he landed, planted a banner, and took possession in the name of the king of England. On his return home he was received with much honor, was dressed in silk, and styled the "Great Admiral." The booty which he brought back consisted of only two turkeys and three savages.

[Footnote: There is a map of Cabot's preserved at Paris, on which the land he first saw, and named Prima Vista, corresponds with Cape Breton. On it is the date 1494. If this be authentic, it will give the priority of the discovery of the American continent to Cabot by four years, and decide that Cape Breton, and not Labrador nor the Orinoco River, was first seen by European eyes. Very little is definitely known of John Cabot, and even the time and place of his birth and death are matters of conjecture.]

SEBASTIAN CABOT continued his father's discoveries. During the same summer in which Columbus reached the shore of South America, Sebastian, then a youth of only twenty-one, discovered Newfoundland, and coasted as far south as Chesapeake Bay. As he found neither the way to India, nor gold, precious stones, and spices, his expedition was considered a failure. Yet, by his discoveries, England acquired a title to a vast territory in the new world. Though he gave to England a continent, no one knows his burial-place.

We shall now follow the principal explorations made within the limits of the future United States, by the SPAINIARDS, FRENCH, ENGLISH, and DUTCH. The Spaniards explored mainly the southern portion of North America, the French the northern, and the English the middle portion along the coast.


Feeling in Spain.—America, at this time, was to the Spaniard a land of vague, but magnificent promise, where the simple natives wore unconsciously the costliest gems, and the sands of the rivers sparkled with gold. Every returning ship brought fresh news to quicken the pulse of Spanish enthusiasm. Now, Cortez had taken Mexico, and reveled in the wealth of the Montezumas; now, Pizarro had conquered Peru, and captured the riches of the Incas; now, Magellan, sailing through the straits which bear his name, had crossed the Pacific, and his vessel returning home by the Cape of Good Hope, had circumnavigated the globe. Men of the highest rank and culture, warriors, adventurers, all flocked to the new world. Soon Cuba, Hispaniola, Porto Rico, and Jamaica were settled, and ruled by Spanish governors. Among the Spanish explorers of the sixteenth century we notice the following:

PONCE DE LEON (pon'-tha-da-la-on') was a gallant soldier, but an old man, and in disgrace. He coveted the glory of conquest to restore his tarnished reputation, and, besides, he had heard of a magical fountain in this fairy land, where one might bathe and be young again. Accordingly he equipped an expedition, and sailed in search of this fabled treasure. On Easter Sunday (Pascua Florida, in Spanish), 1512, he came in sight of a land gay with spring flowers. In honor of the day, he called it Florida. He sailed along the coast, and landed here and there, but returned home at last, an old man still, haying found neither youth, gold, nor glory.

[Footnote: About eight years afterward, De Ayllon (da-ile-yon') made a kidnapping expedition to what is now known as South Carolina. Desiring to obtain laborers for the mines and plantations in Hayti, he invited some of the natives on board his vessels, and, when they were all below, he suddenly closed the hatches and set sail. The speculation, however, did not turn out profitably. One vessel sank with all on board, and many, preferring starvation to slavery, died on the voyage. History tells us that in 1525, when De Ayllon went back with the intention of settling the country, the Indians practised upon him the lesson of cruelty he had taught them. His men were lured into the interior. Their entertainers, falling upon them at night, slew the larger part, and De Ayllon was only too glad to escape with his life.]

BALBOA crossed the Isthmus of Darien the next year, and from the summit of the Andes beheld the wide expanse of the Pacific Ocean. Wading into its waters with his naked sword in one hand, and the banner of Castile (kas-teel) in the other, he solemnly declared that the ocean, and all the shores which it might touch, belonged to the crown of Spain forever.

DE NARVAEZ (nar-vah-eth) received a grant of Florida, and (1528) with 300 men attempted its conquest. Striking into the interior, they wandered about, lured on by the hope of finding gold. Wading through swamps, crossing deep rivers by swimming and by rafts, fighting the lurking Indians who incessantly harassed their path, and nearly perishing with hunger, they reached at last the Gulf of Mexico. Hastily constructing some crazy boats, they put to sea. After six weeks of peril and suffering, they were shipwrecked, and De Narvaez was lost. Six years afterward, four—the only survivors of this ill-fated expedition—reached the Spanish settlements on the Pacific coast.

[Illustration: DE SOTO'S MARCH]

FERDINAND DE SOTO, undismayed by these failures, undertook anew the conquest of Florida. He set out with 600 choice men, amid the fluttering of banners, the flourish of trumpets, and the gleaming of helmet and lance. For month after month this procession of cavaliers, priests, soldiers, and Indian captives strolled through the wilderness, wherever they thought gold might be found. They traversed what is now Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. In the third year of their wanderings (1541) they emerged upon the bank of the Mississippi. After another year of fruitless explorations, De Soto died. (See Map, Epoch I). At the dead of night his followers sank his body in the river, and the sullen waters buried his hopes and his ambition. "He had crossed a large part of the continent," says Bancroft, "and found nothing so remarkable as his burial-place." De Soto had been the soul of the company. When he died, the other adventurers were anxious only to get home in safety. They constructed boats and descended the river, little over half of this gallant array finally reaching the settlements in Mexico.

MELENDEZ (ma-len-deth), wiser than his predecessors, on landing (1565) forthwith laid the foundations of a colony. In honor of the day, he named it St. Augustine. This is the oldest town in the United States.

[Footnote: Many Spanish remains still exist. Among these is Fort Marion, once San Marco, which was founded in 1565 and finished in 1755. It is built of coquina—a curious stone composed of small shells.]


California, in the sixteenth century, was a general name applied to all the region northwest of Mexico. It is said to have originated in an old Spanish romance very popular in the time of Cortez, in which appeared a character called California, queen of the Amazons. The Mexicans told the Spaniards that most of their gold and precious stones came from a country far to the northwest. Cortez, therefore, immediately turned his attention to that direction, and sent out several expeditions to explore the Californias. All these adventurers returned empty-handed from the very region where, three centuries afterward, the world was startled by the finding of an El Dorado such as would have satisfied the wildest dreams of Cortez and his credulous followers.

CABRILLO (1542) made the first voyage along the Pacific coast, going as far north as the present limits of Oregon.

NEW MEXICO was explored and named by Espejo (es-pay'-ho) who (1582) founded Santa Fe, which is the second oldest town in the United States. This was seventeen years after the settlement of St. Augustine.


Spain, at the close of the sixteenth century, held possession not only of the West Indies, but of Yucatan, Mexico, and Florida.

[Footnote: A writer of that time locates Quebec in Florida, and a map of Henry II. gives that name to all North America.]

The Spanish explorers had traversed a large portion of the present Southern States, and of the Pacific coast. All this vast territory they claimed by the rights of discovery and possession.

[Footnote: The conquests of the new world enriched Spain, which became the wealthiest and most powerful country in Europe. This made other nations all the more anxious to find the western passage to India. The routes by the Cape of Good Hope and by the Straits of Magellan were long and dangerous. To find the shorter northwestern route now became the great wish of all maritime nations, and has been anxiously sought down to the present time.]


The French were eager to share in the profits which Spain was acquiring in the new world. Within seven years after the discovery of the continent, the fisheries of Newfoundland were frequented by their mariners.

[Footnote: Cape Breton was named by the fishermen in remembrance of their home in Brittany, France.]

VER-RA-ZA-NI (zah-ne), a Florentine, was the first navigator sent by the French king to find the new way to the Indies. Sailing westward from Madeira (1524), he reached land near the present harbor of Wilmington.

[Footnote: A letter of Verrazani's giving an account of this voyage, and, until of late, thought to be reliable, is now considered by many to be a forgery perpetrated by some Italian anxious to secure for his country the glory of the discovery.]

He supposed this had never been seen by Europeans, although we know that Cabot had discovered it nearly thirty years before. He coasted along the shores of Carolina and New Jersey, entered the harbors of New York and Newport, and returned with the most glowing description of the new lands he had found. He named the country New France. This term was afterwards confined to Canada.

CARTIER (kar-te-a) ascended the River St. Lawrence (1535) to the Indian village of Hochelaga (ho-she-lah-ga) the present site of Montreal. The town was pleasantly situated at the foot of a lofty hill which Cartier climbed. Stirred by the magnificent prospect, he named it Mont Real (Mong Ra-al), Regal Mountain.

[Footnote: Cartier had discovered and named the Gulf and River St. Lawrence the previous year. In 1541-2, he and Lord Roberval attempted to plant a colony near Quebec. It was composed chiefly of convicts and proved a failure.]

JOHN RIBAUT (re-bo) led the first expedition (1562) under the auspices of Coligny.

[Footnote: Jean Ribaut, as his name is given in Coligny's Ms. and in his own journal published in 1563, was an excellent seaman.]

[Footnote: Coligny (ko-lon-ye) was an admiral of France, and a leader of the Huguenots (Hu-ge-nots), as the Protestants were then called. He had conceived a plan for founding an empire in America. This would furnish an asylum for his Huguenot friends, and at the same time advance the glory of the French. Thus religion and patriotism combined to induce him to send out colonists to the new world.]

The company landed at Port Royal, S.C. So captivated were they, that when volunteers were called for to hold the country for France, so many came forward "with such a good will and joly corage," wrote Ribaut, "as we had much to do to stay their importunitie." They erected a fort, which they named Carolina in honor of Charles IX., king of France. The fleet departed, and this little band of thirty were left alone on the continent. From the North Pole to Mexico, they were the only civilized men. Food became scarce. They tired of the eternal solitude of the wilderness, and finally built a rude ship, and put to sea. Here a storm shattered their vessel. Famine overtook them, and, in their extremity, they killed and ate one of their number. A vessel at last hove in sight, and took them on board only to carry them captives to England. Thus perished the colony, but the name still survives.

[Footnote: The most feeble were landed in France. It is said that Queen Elizabeth while conversing with those sent to England, first thought of colonizing the new world]

LAUDONNIERE (Lo-don-yare), two years after, built a fort, also called Carolina, on the St. John's River.

[Footnote: The history of this colony records an amusing story concerning the long life of the natives. A party visited a chief in the midst of the wilderness who gravely assured them that he was the father of five generations, and had lived 250 years. Opposite him, in the same hut, sat his father, a mere skeleton, whose "age was so great that the good man had lost his sight, and could speak one onely word but with exceeding great paine." The credulous Frenchmen gazed with awe on this wonderful pair, and congratulated themselves on having come to such a land,—where certainly there would be no need of Ponce de Leon's fabled fountain.]

Soon the colonists were reduced to the verge of starvation.

[Footnote: Their sufferings were horrible. Weak and emaciated, they fed themselves with roots, sorrel, pounded fish-bones, and even roasted snakes. "Oftentimes," says Laudonniere, "our poor soldiers were constrained to give away the very shirts from their backs to get one fish. If at any time they shewed unto the savages the excessive price which they tooke, these villaines would answer them roughly: 'If thou make so great account of thy merchandise, eat it, and we will eat our fish;' then fell they out a laughing, and mocked us with open throat."]

They were on the point of leaving, when they were reinforced by Ribaut. The French now seemed fairly fixed on the coast of Florida. The Spaniards, however, claimed the country. Melendez, about this time, had made a settlement in St. Augustine. Leading an expedition northward through the wilderness, in the midst of a fearful tempest, he attacked Fort Carolina and massacred almost the entire population.

CHAMPLAIN (sham-plane), at the beginning of the seventeenth century, crossed the Atlantic in two pigmy barks—one of twelve, the other of fifteen tons—and ascended the St. Lawrence on an exploring tour. At Hochelaga all was changed. The Indian town had vanished, and not a trace remained of the savage population which Cartier saw there seventy years before.

[Footnote: This fact illustrates the frequent and rapid changes which took place among the aboriginal tribes.]

Champlain was captivated by the charms of the new world, and longed to plant a French empire and the Catholic faith amid its savage wilds.

DE MONTS (mong) received a grant of all the territory between the fortieth and forty-sixth parallels of latitude.

[Footnote: Between the sites of Philadelphia and Montreal.]

This tract was termed Acadia, a name afterward confined to New Brunswick and the adjacent islands, and now to Nova Scotia. With Champlain, he founded Port Royal, N. S., in 1605. This was the first permanent French settlement in America. It was three years before a cabin was built in Canada, and two before the James River was discovered.

CHAMPLAIN RETURNED in 1608, and established a trading post at Quebec. This was the first permanent French settlement in Canada. The next summer, in his eager desire to explore the country, he joined a war party of the Hurons against the Iroquois, or Five Nations of Central New York.

[Footnote: The interference of Champlain with the Indians secured the inveterate hostility of the Iroquois tribes. Not long after, they seized the missionaries who came among them, tortured and put them to death. This cut off any farther explorations toward the south. The French, therefore, turned their attention toward the west.]

On this journey he discovered that beautiful lake which bears his name. Amid discouragements which would have overwhelmed a less determined spirit, Champlain firmly established the authority of France on the banks of the St. Lawrence. "The Father of New France," as he has been termed, reposes in the soil he won to civilization.

THE JESUIT MISSIONARIES.—The explorers of the Mississippi valley were mostly Jesuit priests. The French names which they gave still linger throughout that region. Their hope was to convert the Indians to the Christian faith. They pushed their way through the forest with unflagging energy. They crept along the northern shore of Lake Ontario. They traversed the Great Lakes. In 1668 they founded the mission of St. Mary, the oldest European settlement in Michigan. Many of them were murdered by the savages; some were scalped; some were burned in rosin-fire; some scalded with boiling water. Yet, as soon as one fell out of the ranks, another sprang forward to fill the post. We shall name but two of these patient, indefatigable pioneers of New France.

FATHER MARQUETTE (mar-ket), hearing from some wandering Indians of a great river which they termed the "Father of Waters," determined to visit it. He floated in a birch-bark canoe down the Wisconsin to the Mississippi (1673), and thence to the mouth of the Arkansas.

[Footnote: Soon after, while on another expedition, he went ashore for the purpose of quiet devotion. After waiting long for his return, his men, seeking him, found that he had died while at prayer. He was buried near the mouth of the Marquette. Years after, when the tempest raged, and the Indian was tossing on the angry waves, he would seek to still the storm by invoking the aid of the pious Marquette.]

LA SALLE was educated as a Jesuit, but had established a trading post at the outlet of Lake Ontario. He undertook various expeditions full of romantic adventure. Inflamed with a desire to find the mouth of the Mississippi, he made his way (1682) to the Gulf of Mexico. He named the country Louisiana, in honor of Louis XIV., king of France.

RESULTS OF FRENCH ENTERPRISE.—Before the close of the seventeenth century, the French had explored the Great Lakes, the Fox, Maumee, Wabash, Wisconsin and Illinois Rivers, and the Mississippi from the Falls of St. Anthony to the Gulf. They had traversed a region including what is now known as Louisiana, Arkansas, Mississippi, Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, Kansas, the Canadas and Acadia.

[Footnote: As we shall see hereafter, the English at this time clung to a narrow strip along the Atlantic coast.]

In 1688 it had a population of 11,000.

* * * * *


We have seen how the Cabots, sailing under an English flag, discovered the American continent, exploring its coast from Labrador to Albemarle Sound. Though the English claimed the northern part of the continent by right of this discovery, yet during the sixteenth century they paid little attention to it. At the close of that period, however, maritime enterprise was awakened and British sailors cruised on every sea. Like the other navigators of the day, they were eager to discover the western passage to Asia.

[Illustration: Drake Beholds the Pacific]

FROBISHER made the first of these attempts to go north of America to Asia—Cabot's plan repeated. He pushed through unknown waters, threading his perilous way among icebergs, until (1576) he entered Baffin Bay. Here he heaped a pile of stones, declared the country an appendage of the British crown, and returned home.

[Footnote: One of the sailors brought back a stone which was thought to contain gold. A fleet of fifteen vessels was forthwith equipped for this new El Dorado The northwest passage to Cathay was forgotten. After innumerable perils incident to Arctic regions, the ships were loaded with the precious ore and returned. Unfortunately history neglects to tell us what became of the cargo.]

SIR FRANCIS DRAKE was a famous sailor. In one of his expeditions on the Isthmus of Panama, he climbed to the top of a lofty tree, whence he saw the Pacific Ocean. Looking out on its broad expanse, he resolved to "sail an English ship on those seas." Returning to England he equipped a squadron. He sailed through the Straits of Magellan, coasting along the Pacific shore to the southern part of Oregon. He refitted his ship in San Francisco harbor, and thence sailing westward, returned home (1579) by the Cape of Good Hope.

[Footnote: He was thus the first Englishman who explored the Pacific coast, and the second European who circumnavigated the globe.]

SIR HUMPHREY GILBERT was not a sailor, but he had studied the accounts of American discoveries, and concluded that instead of random expeditions after gold and spices, companies should be sent out to form permanent settlements. His attempts to colonize the new world, however, ended fatally. Sailing home in a bark of only ten-tons burden, in the midst of a fearful storm the light of his little vessel suddenly disappeared. Neither ship nor crew was ever seen again.

SIR WALTER RALEIGH was a half-brother of Gilbert, and adopted his views of American colonization. Being a great favorite with Queen Elizabeth, he easily obtained from her a patent of an extensive territory, which was named Virginia in honor of Elizabeth, the Virgin Queen.

[Footnote: Raleigh was not only a man of dauntless courage, but he also added to a handsome person much learning and many accomplishments. Meeting Queen Elizabeth one day while she was walking, he spread his mantle over a wet place in the path for her to tread upon. She was so pleased with his gallantry that she admitted him to court, and he continued a favorite during her entire lifetime. Conversing with her one day upon the singular properties of tobacco, the new Indian weed which was coming into use, he assured her that he could tell the exact weight of smoke in any quantity consumed. The incredulous Queen dared him to a wager. Accepting it, Raleigh weighed his tobacco, smoked it, and then carefully weighing the ashes, stated the difference. Paying the bet, Elizabeth remarked that she "had before heard of turning gold into smoke, but he was the first who had turned smoke into gold." This incident illustrates the friendly relations between Raleigh and the Queen. After her death, he was accused by James I. of treason, was imprisoned for many years, and at the age of 65 was executed. On the scaffold he asked for the axe, and feeling the edge, observed, with a smile, "This is a sharp medicine, but a sound cure for all diseases." Then composedly laying his bead on the block, and moving his lips as in prayer, he gave the fatal signal.]

Raleigh's first attempt to plant a colony was on Roanoke Island. The settlers made no endeavor to cultivate the soil, but spent most of their time in hunting for gold and pearls.

[Footnote: They believed the Roanoke River had its head-waters in golden rocks, by the Pacific Ocean. The walls of a great city near its fountain were affirmed to be thickly studded with pearls.]

At last they were nearly starved, when Drake, happening to stop there on one of his exploring tours, took pity on them and carried them home. They had lived long enough in America to learn the use of tobacco and the potato. These they introduced into England. The custom of "drinking tobacco," as it was called, soon became the fashion.

[Footnote: An amusing story is told of Raleigh while he was learning to smoke. On entering his study one morning to bring his master a cup of ale, his servant saw a cloud of smoke issuing from Sir Walter's mouth. Frantically dashing the liquor in his face, he rushed down stairs imploring help, for his master would soon be burnt to ashes!]

Raleigh's Second Attempt.—Raleigh, undiscouraged by this failure, still clung to his colonizing scheme. The next time he sent out families, instead of single men. John White was appointed governor of the city of Raleigh, which they were to found on Chesapeake Bay. A granddaughter of Governor White, born soon after they reached Roanoke Island, was the first English child born in America. The governor, on returning to England to secure supplies, found the public attention absorbed by the threatened attack of the Spanish Armada. It was three years before he was able to come back. Meanwhile, his family, and the colony he had left alone in the wilderness, had perished. How, we do not know. The imagination can only picture what history has failed to record.

Raleigh had now spent about $200,000, a great sum for that day, on this American colony; and, disheartened, transferred his patent to other parties.

TRADING VOYAGES.—Fortunately for American interests, trading ventures were more profitable than colonizing ones. English vessels frequented the Banks of Newfoundland, and probably occasionally visited Virginia.

[Footnote: The English ships were at that time accustomed to steer southward along the coast of Spain, Portugal, and Africa, as far as the Canary Islands, then they followed the track of Columbus to the West India Islands, and thence along the coast of Florida]

Gosnold, a master of a small bark (1602), discovered and named Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard, and other neighboring localities. Loading his vessel with sassafras-root, which was then highly esteemed as a medicine, he returned home to publish the most favorable reports of the region he had visited. Some British merchants accordingly sent out the next year a couple of vessels under Captain Pring. He discovered several harbors in Maine, and brought back his ships loaded with furs and sassafras.

[Footnote: northward to the point they wished to reach. Navigators knew this was a roundabout way, but they were afraid to try the northern route straight across the Atlantic. Gosnold made the voyage directly from England to Massachusetts, thus shortening the route 3,000 miles. This gave a great impulse to colonization, since it was in effect bringing America 3,000 miles nearer England.]

As the result of these various explorations, many felt an earnest desire to colonize the new world. James I. accordingly granted the vast territory of Virginia, as it was called, to two companies, the London and the Plymouth.

THE LONDON COMPANY, whose principal men resided at London, had the tract between the thirty-fourth and thirty-eighth degrees of latitude. This was called South Virginia. They sent out a colony in 1607 under Captain Newport. He made at Jamestown the first permanent English settlement in the United States.

[Footnote: The river was called James, and the town Jamestown, in honor of the king of England. The headlands received the names of Cape Henry and Cape Charles from the king's sons; and the deep water for anchorage "which put the emigrants in good comfort," gave the name Point Comfort.]

THE PLYMOUTH COMPANY, whose principal men resided in Plymouth, had the tract between the forty-first and forty-fifth degrees of latitude. This was called North Virginia.

[Footnote: They sent out a colony under Captain Popham (poo-am), in the same year with the London Company. He settled at the mouth of the Kennebec, but the entire party returned home the next spring, discouraged by the severity of the climate.]

THE CHARTER granted to these companies was the first under which English colonies were planted in the United States. It is therefore worthy of careful study. It contained no idea of self-government. The people were not to have the election of an officer. The king was to appoint a council which was to reside in London, and have general control of all the colonies; and also a council to reside in each colony, and have control of its local affairs. The Church of England was the established religion. Moreover, for five years, all the proceeds of the colonial industry and commerce were to be applied to a common fund, no one being allowed the fruits of his individual labor.


During all this time, the Dutch manifested no interest in the new world. In the beginning of the seventeenth century, however, Captain Henry Hudson, an English navigator in the Dutch service, entered the harbor of New York. Hoping to reach the Pacific Ocean, he afterward ascended the noble river which bears his name (1609).

[Illustration: Henry Hudson]

On this discovery, the Dutch based their claim to the region extending from the Delaware River to Cape Cod. They gave to it the name of New Netherland.


1. The Spaniards confined their settlements and explorations to the West Indies and the adjacent mainland, and in the United States made settlements only in Florida and New Mexico.

2. The French claimed the whole of New France, and made their first settlements in Acadia and Canada.

3. The English explored the Atlantic coast at various points, and claimed this vast territory, which they termed Virginia, having made their first settlement at Jamestown.

[Footnote: After this time, the English is the only nation that directly influences the history of the United States. The country was settled mainly by emigrants from Great Britain, and in the next epoch all the colonies become dependencies of that empire.]

4. The Dutch laid claim to New Netherland, but made no settlement till 1613.

The Rival Claims.—These four claims overlapped one another, and necessarily produced much confusion. While the first few settlements were separated by hundreds of miles of savage forests, this was of little account. But as the settlements increased, the rival claims became a source of constant strife, and were decided principally by the sword.

[Footnote: It is noticeable that the English grants all extended westward to the Pacific Ocean, the French southward from the St. Lawrence to the Gulf, and the Spanish northward to the Arctic Ocean. None of the European nations had any idea of the immense territory they were donating.]

Two Centuries of Exploration and One of Settlement.—These explorations had lasted during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, and at the close of the sixteenth century, the only permanent settlements were those of the Spaniards at St. Augustine and Santa Fe. In the beginning of the seventeenth century, permanent settlements multiplied. They were made by

The FRENCH at Port Royal, N S., in 1605;

The ENGLISH at Jamestown, in 1607;

The FRENCH at Quebec, in 1608;

The DUTCH at New York, in 1613;

The ENGLISH at Plymouth, in 1620.

[Footnote: Here lay the shaggy continent from Florida to the Pole, outstretched in savage slumber. On the bank of the James River was a nest of woebegone Englishmen, a handful of fur-traders at the mouth of the Hudson, and a few shivering Frenchmen among the snowdrifts of Acadia; while amid still wilder desolation Champlain upheld the banner of France over the icy rock of Quebec. These were the advance guard of civilization, the messengers of promise to a desert continent. Yet, not content with inevitable woes, they were rent by petty jealousies and miserable quarrels, while each little fragment of rival nationalities, just able to keep up its own wretched existence on a few square miles, begrudged to all the rest the smallest share in a domain which all the nations of Europe could not have sufficed to fill.—Parkman.]

Summary of the History of the First Epoch, arranged in Chronological Order.

1492. Columbus discovered the New World, October 12 1497. The Cabots discovered Labrador, July 3 1498. The Cabots explored the Atlantic Coast South America was discovered by Columbus, August 10 Vasco de Gama sailed round the Cape of Good Hope and discovered a passage to India 1512. Ponce de Leon discovered Florida, April 6 1513. Balboa saw the Pacific Ocean, September 29 1519-21. Cortez conquered Mexico 1520. Magellan discovered and sailed through the straits which bear his name, into the Pacific Ocean; and his vessel returning home by the Cape of Good Hope, had made the first circumnavigation of the globe 1524. Verrazani explored the coast of North America 1528. Narvaez explored part of Florida 1534-35. Cartier discovered the Gulf of St. Lawrence and ascended the river to Montreal 1539-41. De Soto rambled over the Southern States and in 1541 discovered the Mississippi River 1540-42. Cabrillo explored California and sailed along the Pacific Coast 1541-42. Roberval attempted to plant a colony on the St. Lawrence, but failed 1562. Ribaut attempted to plant a Huguenot colony at Port Royal, but failed 1564. Laudonniere attempted to plant a Huguenot colony on the St. John's River. It was destroyed by the Spaniards 1565. Melendez founded a colony at St. Augustine, Florida; first permanent settlement in the United States 1576-7. Frobisher tried to find a northwest passage; entered Baffin Bay, and twice attempted to found a colony in Labrador, but failed 1578-80. Drake sailed along Pacific Coast to Oregon; wintered in San Francisco, and circumnavigated the globe 1582. Espejo founded Santa Fe; second oldest town in the United States 1583. Gilbert was lost at sea 1583-7. Raleigh twice attempted to plant a colony in Virginia 1602. Gosnold discovered Cape Cod, May 14 1605 De Monts established a colony at Port Royal, Nova Scotia first permanent French settlement in America 1607 The English settled Jamestown first permanent English settlement in America, May 23 1608 Champlain planted a colony at Quebec first permanent French settlement in Canada, 1609 Hudson discovered the Hudson River, Champlain discovered Lake Champlain, 1613 Settlement of New York by the Dutch, 1620 Pilgrims settled at Plymouth first English settlement in New England December 21


Irving's Columbus-Parkman's Pioneers of France Jesuits in North
America, and Discovery of the Great West—Longfellow's Sir Humphrey
Gilbert (Poem)—De Vere's Romance of American History—Abbott's
Biography of Illustrious Men and Women—T. Irving's De Soto in
Florida—Help's Spanish Conquest of America-Biddle's Sebastian
Cabot—Nicholls's John Cabot—Barlow's Vision of Columbus (Poem)
and Poems on Columbus by Samuel Rogers and F R Lowell-Simms's
Damsel of Danen (Poem)—Scibner's Monthly, Nov 1874 art, Pictures
from Florida—Harper's Magazine, Nov etc 1874, art The first
Century of the Republic—Prescott's Ferdinand and Isabella
(Columbus)—Hawk's History of North Carolina (Lost Colony of
Roanoke)—Shea's Discovery and Exploration of the Mississippi
Valley—Wallace's Fair God (Fiction)—Barnes's Popular History of
United States




* * * * *

From 1607—the Founding of Jamestown,
To 1775—the Breaking out of the Revolution.

This Epoch traces the early history of the thirteen colonies—Virginia, Massachusetts, Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, North Carolina, New York, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Georgia. The Cavaliers land in Virginia, and the Puritans in Massachusetts. Immigration increases and the settlements multiply along the whole coast. The colonies, however, still have little history in common. Each by itself struggles with the wilderness, contends with the Indian, and develops the principles of liberty.

[Footnote: Questions on the Geography of the Second Epoch.—Names of
places in italic letters may be found on the map for Epoch III. Locate
Jamestown. Salem. Charlestown. Boston. Cambridge. Swanzea.
Providence. Bristol. Hadley. Hatfield. Portsmouth. Dover. Hartford.
Wethersfield. New Haven. Windsor. Saybrook. New York. Albany.
Schenectady. Elizabethtown. Wilminton. Philadelphia. St. Mary's.
Edenton. Charleston. Savannah. Haverhill. Deerfield. St. Augustine.
Quebec. Louisburg.

Locate Fort Venango. Oswego. Presque Isle. Fort Le Boeuf. Crown
Point. Fort Ticonderoga. Fort Niagara. Fort du Quesne. Fort William
Henry. Fort Edward.

Describe the Ohio River. Monongahela River. French Creek. Chowan
River. Ashley River, Cooper River. River St. John. Potomac River.
James River. Hudson River. Connecticut River. Mohawk River.
Delaware River. Kennebec River. Penobscot River. Mystic River. Miami
River. St. Lawrence River.

Locate Manhattan Island. Alleghany Mountains. Cape Breton.
Massachusetts Bay. Albemarle Sound. Chesapeake Bay.]


THE CHARACTER of the colonists was poorly adapted to endure the hardships incident to a settlement in a new country. They were mostly gentlemen by birth, unused to labor. They had no families, and came out in search of wealth or adventure, expecting, when rich, to return to England. The climate was unhealthy, and before the first autumn half of their number had perished.

JOHN SMITH saved the colony from ruin. First as a member of the council, and afterward as president, his services were invaluable. He persuaded the settlers to erect a fort and to build log huts for the winter. He made long voyages, carefully exploring Chesapeake Bay, securing the friendship of the Indians, and bringing back boat-loads of supplies. He trained the tender gentlemen till they learned how to swing the axe in the forest. He declared that "he who would not work, might not eat." He taught them that industry and self-reliance are the surest guarantees to fortune.

[Footnote: Captain John Smith was born to adventure. While yet a boy he leaves his home in Lincolnshire, England, to engage in Holland wars. After a four-years service he builds a lodge of boughs in a forest, where he hunts, rides, and studies military tactics. Next we hear of him on his way to fight the Turks. Before reaching France he is robbed, and escapes death from want only by begging alms. Having embarked for Italy, a fearful storm arises; he, being a heretic, is deemed the cause, and is thrown overboard, but he swims to land. In the East, a famous Mussulman wishes to fight some Christian knight "to please the ladies;" Smith offers himself and slays three champions in succession. Taken prisoner in battle and sold as a slave, his head is shaved and his neck bound with an iron ring; he kills his master, arrays himself in the dead man's garments, mounts a horse and spurs his way to a Russian camp. Having returned to England, he embarks for the new world. On the voyage he excites the jealousy of his fellows and is landed in chains; but his worth becomes so apparent that he is finally made president of the colony. His marvelous escapes seem now more abundant than ever. A certain fish inflicts a dangerous wound, but he finds an antidote and afterward eats part of the same fish with great relish. He is poisoned, but overcomes the dose and severely beats the poisoner. His party of fifteen is attacked by Opechancanough (Op-e-kan-ka-no), brother and successor of Powhatan, with seven hundred warriors; Smith drags the old chief by his long hair into the midst of the Indian braves, who, amazed at such audacity, immediately surrender. He is shockingly burned on a boat by the explosion of a bag of powder at his side; but he leaps into the water, where he barely escapes death by drowning. These and many other wonderful exploits he published in a book after his return to England. Historians very generally discredit them, and even the story of his rescue by Pocahontas (p. 48) is considered very doubtful. His services were, however, of unquestionable value to Virginia; and his disinterestedness appears from the fact that he never received a foot of land in the colony his wisdom had saved. Of his last years we know little. He died near London, 1631.]

Smith's Adventures were of the most romantic character. In one of his expeditions up the Chickahommy he was taken prisoner by the Indians. With singular coolness he immediately attempted to interest his captors by explaining the use of his pocket compass and the motions of the moon and stars. At last they permitted him to write a letter to Jamestown. When they found that this informed his friends of his misfortune, they were filled with astonishment.

They could not understand by what magical art he could make a few marks on paper express his thoughts. They considered him a being of a superior order, and treated him with the utmost respect. He was carried from one tribe to another, and at last brought to the great chief, Powhatan, by whom he was condemned to die. His head was laid on a stone, and the huge war-club of the Indian executioner was raised to strike the fatal blow. Suddenly Pocahantas, the young daughter of the chief, who had already become attached to the prisoner, threw herself upon his neck and pleaded for his pardon (see note, p. 46). The favorite of the tribe was given her desire. Smith was released, and soon sent home with promises of friendship. His little protector was often thereafter to be seen going to Jamestown with baskets of corn for the white men.

[Footnote: This was undertaken by the express order of the company to seek a passage to the Pacific Ocean and thus to India. Captain Newport before his return to England made a trip up the James River for the same purpose but on reaching the falls concluded that the way to India did not lie in that direction. These attempts which seem so preposterous to us now show what inadequate ideas then prevailed concerning the size of this continent.]

[Footnote: His route was over the peninsula, since rendered so famous by McClellan's campaign.]


[Footnote: As another evidence of the simplicity of the Indians, it is said that having seized a quantity of gunpowder belonging to the colonists, they planted it for seed, expecting to reap a full harvest of ammunition for the next contest.]

A SECOND CHARTER was now obtained by the company (1609). This vested the authority in a governor instead of a local council. The colonists were not consulted with regard to the change, nor did the charter guarantee to them any rights.

THE "STARVING TIME."—Unfortunately, Smith was disabled by a severe wound and compelled to return to England. His influence being removed, the settlers became a prey to disease and famine. Some were killed by the Indians. Some, in their despair, seized a boat and became pirates. The winter of 1609-10 was long known as the Starving Time. In six months they were reduced from 490 to 60. At last they determined to flee from the wretched place. "None dropped a tear, for none had enjoyed one day of happiness." The next morning, as they slowly moved down with the tide, to their great joy they met their new governor, Lord Delaware, with abundant supplies and a company of emigrants. All returned to the homes they had just deserted, and Jamestown colony was once more rescued from ruin.

THE THIRD CHARTER.—Up to this time the colony had proved a failure and was publicly ridiculed in London. To quiet the outcry, the charter was changed (1612). The council in London was abolished, and the stockholders were given power to regulate the affairs of the company themselves.

THE MARRIAGE OF POCAHONTAS (1613).—The little Indian girl had now grown to womanhood. John Rolfe, a young English planter, had won her love and wished to marry her. In the little church at Jamestown, rough almost as an Indian's wigwam, she received Christian baptism, and, in broken English, stammered the marriage vows according to the service of the Church of England.

Three years after, with her husband, she visited London. The childlike simplicity and winning grace of Lady Rebecca, as she was called, attracted universal admiration. She was introduced at court and received every mark of attention. As she was about to return to her native land with her husband and infant son, she suddenly died.

[Footnote: This son became a man of wealth and distinction. Many of the leading families of Virginia have been proud to say that the blood of Pocahontas coursed through their veins.]

FIRST COLONIAL ASSEMBLY.—Governor Yeardley (yard'-le) believed that the colonists should have "a hande in the governing of themselves." He accordingly called at Jamestown, June 28, 1619, the first legislative body that ever assembled in America. It consisted of the governor, council, and deputies, or "burgesses," as they were called, chosen from the various plantations, or "boroughs." Its laws had to be ratified by the company in England, but, in turn, the orders from London were not binding unless ratified by the colonial assembly. These privileges were afterward (1621) embodied in a written constitution—the first of the kind in America. A measure of freedom was thus granted the young colony, and Jamestown became a nursery of liberty.

PROSPERITY OF THE COLONY.—The old famine troubles had now all passed. The attempt to work in common had been given up, and each man tilled his own land and had the avails. Tobacco was an article of export. The colonists raised it so eagerly that at one time even the streets of Jamestown were planted with it. Gold-hunting had ceased, and many of the former servants of the company owned plantations. Settlements lined both banks of the James for 140 miles. Best of all, young women of good character were brought over by the company. These sold readily as wives to the settlers. The price was fixed at the cost of the passage—100 pounds of tobacco—but they were in such demand that it soon went up to 150 pounds. Domestic ties were formed. The colonists, having homes, now became Virginians. All freemen had the right to vote. Religious toleration was enjoyed. Virginia became almost an independent republic.

[Footnote: In the early life of this colony, particles of mica glittering in the brook were mistaken for gold dust. "There was no talk, no hope, but dig gold, wash gold, refine gold, load gold." Newport carried to England a shipload of the worthless stuff. Smith remonstrated in vain against this folly.]

SLAVERY INTRODUCED.—In 1619 the captain of a Dutch trading vessel sold to the colonists twenty negroes. They were employed in cultivating tobacco. As their labor was found profitable, larger numbers were afterward imported.

[Footnote: From this circumstance, small as it seemed at the time, the most momentous consequences ensued,—consequences that, long after, rent the republic with strife, and moistened its soil with blood.]

INDIAN TROUBLES.—After the death of Powhatan, the firm friend of the English, the Indians formed a plan for the extermination of the colony. So secretly was this managed that on the very morning of the massacre (March 22, 1622) they visited the houses and sat at the tables of those whose murder they were plotting. At a preconcerted moment they attacked the colonists on all their widely-scattered plantations. Over three hundred men, women, and children fell in one day. Fortunately, a converted Indian had informed a friend whom he wished to save, and thus Jamestown and the settlements near by were prepared. A merciless war ensued, during which the colony was reduced from 4,000 to 2,500; but the Indians were so severely punished that they remained quiet for twenty years. Then came a fearful massacre of five hundred settlers (1644), which ended in the natives being expelled from the region.

VIRGINIA A ROYAL PROVINCE.—The majority of the stockholders gladly granted to the infant colony those rights for which they were struggling at home. King James, becoming jealous of the company because of its patriotic sentiments, took away the charter (1624), and made Virginia a royal province. Henceforth the king appointed the governor and council, though the colony still retained its assembly.

A PERIOD OF OPPRESSION.—The British Parliament enforced the Navigation Act (1660), which ordered that the commerce of the colony should be carried on in English vessels, and that their tobacco should be shipped to England. Besides this, their own assembly was composed mainly of royalists, who levied exorbitant taxes, refused to go out of office when their term had expired, fixed their own salary at 250 pounds of tobacco per day, restricted the right of voting to "freeholders and housekeepers," and imposed on Quakers a monthly fine of one hundred dollars for absence from worship in the English Church. Two parties gradually sprung up in their midst; one, the aristocratic party, was composed of the rich planters and the officeholders in the colony; the other comprised the liberty-loving portion of the people, who felt themselves deprived of their political rights.

[Footnote: It is a curious fact that the royalists who fled from England in Cromwell's time took refuge in Virginia, and were hospitably entertained, while the "regicides" (the judges who condemned Charles I) fled to Massachusetts and were concealed from their pursuers.]

BACON'S REBELLION.—These difficulties came to a crisis in 1676, when Governor Berkeley failed to provide for the defence of the settlements against the Indians. At this juncture, Nathaniel Bacon, a patriotic young lawyer, rallied a company, defeated the Indians, and then turned to meet the governor, who had denounced him as a traitor. During the contest which followed, Berkeley was driven out of Jamestown and the village itself burned.

[Illustration: The Ruins at Jamestown.]

[Footnote: Going up the James River, just before reaching City Point, one sees on the right-hand bank the ruins of an old church. The crumbling tower, with its arched doorways, is almost hidden by the profusion of shrubbery which surrounds it. Its moss covered walls, entwined with ivy planted by loving hands which have since crumbled into dust, look desolately out upon the old churchyard at its back. Here, pushing aside the rank vines and tangled bushes which conceal them, one finds a few weather—beaten tombstones A huge buttomwood tree, taking root below, has burst apart one of these old slabs and now, with its many fellows spreads its lofty branches high over the solitary dead. And this is all that remains of that Jamestown whose struggles we have here recorded.]

In the midst of this success, Bacon died. No leader could be found worthy to take his place, and the people dispersed. Berkeley revenged himself with terrible severity. On hearing of the facts, Charles II. impatiently declared, "He has taken more lives in that naked country than I did for the murder of my father."

* * * * *


THE PLYMOUTH COMPANY made several attempts to explore North Virginia. Captain John Smith, already so famous in South Virginia, examined the coast from Penobscot to Cape Cod, drew a map of it, and called the country NEW ENGLAND. The company, stirred to action by his glowing accounts, obtained a new patent (1620) under the name of the Council for New England. This authorized them to make settlements and laws, and to carry on trade through a region reaching from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and comprising over a million square miles. New England, however, was settled with no consent of king or council.


SETTLEMENT.—Landing of the Pilgrims.—One stormy day in the fall of 1620, the Mayflower, with a band of a hundred pilgrims, came to anchor in Cape Cod harbor. The little company, gathering in the cabin, drew up a compact, in which they agreed to enact just and equal laws, which all should obey. One of their exploring parties landed at Plymouth, as it was called on Smith's chart, December 21.

[Footnote: The exact number of the pilgrims was 102.]

[Footnote: This was Dec. 11, Old Style. In 1752, eleven days were added to correct an error in the calendar, thus making this date the 22d. Only 10 days, however, should have been allowed, and therefore the correct date is the 21st, New Style.]

Finding the location suitable for a settlement, they all came ashore, and amid a storm of snow and sleet commenced building their rude huts.

[Footnote: They were called Pilgrims because of their wanderings. About seventy years before this time the state religion of England had been changed from Catholic to Protestant; but a large number of the clergy and people were dissatisfied with what they thought to be a half-way policy on the part of the new church, and called for a more complete purification from old observances and doctrines. For this, they were called Puritans. They still believed in a state church, that is, that the nation of England was the church of England; and that the queen, as the head of both, could appoint church officers and prescribe the form of religious worship. They, however, wanted a change, and desired the government to make it to suit them. The government not only refused, but punished the Puritan clergy for not using the prescribed form of worship. This led some of them to question the authority of the government in religious matters. They came to believe that any body of Christians might declare themselves a church, choose their own officers, and be independent of all external authority. When they began to form these local churches, they separated themselves from the Church of England, and for this reason are called Separatists and Independents. One of these churches of Separatists was at Scrooby, in the east of England. Not being allowed to worship in peace, they fled to Holland (1608), where they lived twelve years. But evil influences surrounded their children, and they longed for a land where they might worship God in their own way and save their families from worldly follies. America offered such a home. They came, resolved to brave every danger, trusting to God to shape their destinies.]

[Footnote: The little shallop sent out to reconnoitre before landing, lost, in a furious storm, its rudder, mast, and sail. Late at night, the party sought shelter under the lee of a small island. They spent the next day in cleaning their rusty weapons and drying their wet garments. Every hour was precious, as the season was late and their companions in the Mayflower were waiting their return; but "being ye last day of ye week, they prepared there to keepe ye Sabbath." No wonder that the influence of such a people has been felt throughout the country, and that "Forefathers' Rock," on which they first stepped, is yet held in grateful remembrance.]

THE CHARACTER of the Pilgrim settlers was well suited to the rugged, stormy land which they sought to subdue. They had come into the wilderness with their families in search of a home where they could educate their children and worship God as they pleased. They were earnest, sober-minded men, actuated in all things by deep religious principle, and never disloyal to their convictions of duty.

THEIR SUFFERINGS during the winter were severe. At one time there were only seven well persons to take care of the sick. Half of the little band died. Yet when spring came, not one of the company thought of returning to England.

THE INDIANS, fortunately, did not disturb them. A pestilence had destroyed the tribe inhabiting the place where they landed. They were startled, however, one day in early spring by a voice in their village crying in broken English, "Welcome!" It was the salutation of Sam'-o-set, an Indian whose chief, Mas-sa-suit, soon after visited them. The treaty then made lasted for fifty years. Ca-non'-i-cus, a Narraganset chief, once sent a bundle of arrows, wrapped in a rattlesnake skin, as a token of defiance. Governor Bradford returned the skin filled with powder and shot. This significant hint was effectual.

[Illustration: WELCOME—PLYMOUTH, 1621]

The progress of the Colony was slow. Their harvests were insufficient to feed themselves and the new-comers. During the "famine of 1623," the best dish they could set before their friends was a bit of fish and a cup of water.

[Footnote: As an illustration of their pious content it is said that Elder Brewster was wont over a meal consisting only of clams to return thanks to God who "had given them to suck the abundance of the seas, and of the treasures hid in the sands."]

After four years they numbered only 184. The plan of working in common having failed here as at Jamestown, land was assigned to each settler. Abundance ensued. The colony was never organized by royal charter; therefore they elected their own governor, and made their own laws. In 1692, Plymouth was united with Massachusetts Bay colony, under the name of Massachusetts.


SETTLEMENT.—John Endicott and five associates having obtained a grant of land about Massachusetts Bay, secured (1628) a royal charter giving authority to make laws and govern the territory. This company afterward transferred all their rights to the colony. It was a popular measure, and many prominent Puritan families flocked to this land of liberty. Some gathered around Governor Endicott, who had already started Salem and Charlestown, some established colonies at Dorchester and Watertown, and one thousand under Governor Winthrop founded Boston (1630).

RELIGIOUS DISTURBANCES.—The people of Massachusetts Bay, while in England, were Puritans, but not Separatists. Having come to America to establish a Puritan Church, they were unwilling to receive persons holding opinions differing from their own, lest their purpose should be defeated. They accordingly sent back to England those who persisted in using the forms of the Established Church, and allowed only members of their own church to vote in civil affairs.

Roger Williams, an eloquent and pious young minister, taught that each person should think for himself in all religious matters, and be responsible to his own conscience alone. He declared that the magistrates had, therefore, no right to punish blasphemy, perjury, or Sabbath-breaking. The clergy and magistrates were alarmed at what they considered a doctrine dangerous to the peace of the colony, and he was ordered (1635) to be sent to England. It was in the depth of winter, yet he fled to the forest and found refuge among the Indians. The next year, Canonicus, the Narraganset sachem, gave him land to found a settlement, which he gratefully named Providence.

Mrs. Anne Hutchinson, during the same year, aroused a violent and bitter controversy. She claimed to be favored with special revelations of God's will. These she expounded to crowded congregations of women, greatly to the scandal of the clergy and people. Finally she also was banished.

The Quakers, about twenty years after these summary measures, created fresh trouble by their peculiar views. They were fined, whipped, imprisoned, and sent out of the colony; yet they as constantly returned, glorying in their sufferings. At last four were executed. The people beginning to consider them as martyrs, the persecution gradually relaxed.

A UNION OF THE COLONIES of Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, New Haven, and Connecticut, was formed (1643) under the title of THE UNITED COLONIES OF NEW ENGLAND. This was a famous league in colonial times. The object was a common protection against the Indians and the encroachments of the Dutch and French settlers.

KING PHILIP'S WAR.—During the life of Massasuit, Plymouth enjoyed peace with the Indians, as did Jamestown during that of Powhatan. After Massasoit's death, his son, Philip, brooded with a jealous eye over the encroachments of the whites. With profound sagacity, he planned a confederation of the Indian tribes against the intruders. The first blow fell on the people of Swansea as they were quietly going home from church on Sunday (July 14, 1675). The settlers flew to arms, but Philip escaped, and soon excited the savages to fall upon the settlements high up the Connecticut valley.

[Footnote: At Hadley the Indians surprised the people on Fast day, June 12,1676. Seizing their muskets at the sound of the savage war-whoop, the men rushed out of the meeting-house to fall into line. But the foe was on every side. Confused and bewildered, the settlers seemed about to give way, when suddenly a strange old man with long white beard and ancient garb appeared among them. Ringing out a quick, sharp word of command, he recalled them to their senses. Following their mysterious leader, they drove the enemy headlong before them. The danger passed, they looked around for their deliverer. But he had disappeared as mysteriously as he had come. The good people believed that God had sent an angel to their rescue. But history reveals the secret. It was the regicide Colonel Goffe. Fleeing from the vengeance of Charles II, with a price set upon his head he had for years wandered about, living in mills, clefts of rocks, and forest caves. At last he had found an asylum with the Hadley minister. From his window he had seen the stealthy Indians coming down the hill. Fired with desire to do one more good deed for God's people, he rushed from his hiding-place, led them on to victory, and then returned to his retreat, never more to reappear.—One learns with regret that recent research throws great doubt over the truth of this thrilling story. It is curious to notice also that there is no proof that Philip possessed any eloquence or was even present in any fight, though all these statements have hitherto been made by reliable historians.]

[Illustration: A FORTIFIED HOUSE.]

The colonists fortified their houses with palisades, carried their arms with them into the fields when at work, and stacked them at the door when at church. The Narraganset Indians favored Philip, and seemed on the point of joining his alliance. They had gathered their winter's provisions, and fortified themselves in the midst of an almost inaccessible swamp. Fifteen hundred of the colonists accordingly attacked them in this stronghold. The Indian wigwams and stores were burned, and one thousand warriors perished. In the spring the war broke out anew along a frontier of three hundred miles, and to within twenty miles of Boston. Nowhere fighting in the open field, but by ambuscade and skulking, the Indians kept the whole country in terror. Driven to desperation by their atrocities, the settlers hunted down the savages like wild beasts. Philip was chased from one hiding-place to another. His family being captured at last, he fled, broken-hearted, to his old home on Mt. Hope, near Bristol, E. I., where he was shot by a faithless Indian.

[Illustration: KING PHILIP.]

NEW ENGLAND A ROYAL PROVINCE.—The Navigation Act (p. 51), which we have seen so unpopular in Virginia, was exceedingly oppressive in Massachusetts, which possessed a thriving commerce. In spite of the decree the colony opened a trade with the West Indies. The royalists in England determined that this bold republican spirit should be quelled. An English officer who attempted to enforce the Navigation Act having been compelled to return home, Charles II, eagerly seized upon the excuse thus offered, and made Massachusetts a royal province. The king died before his plan was completed, but James II. (1686) declared the charters of all the New England colonies forfeited, and sent over Sir Edmund Andros, as first royal governor of New England. He carried things with a high hand. The colonies endured his oppression for three years, when, learning that his royal master was dethroned, they rose against their petty tyrant and put him in jail. With true Puritan sobriety they then quietly resumed their old form of government. This lasted for three years, when Sir William Phipps came as royal governor over a province embracing Massachusetts, Maine, and Nova Scotia. From this time till the Revolution, Massachusetts remained a royal province.

SALEM WITCHCRAFT (1692).—A strange delusion known as the Salem witchcraft, produced the most intense excitement. The children of Mr. Parris, a minister near Salem, performed pranks which could be explained only by supposing that they were under Satanic influence. Every effort was made to discover who had bewitched them. An Indian servant was flogged until she admitted herself to be guilty. Soon others were affected, and the terrible mania spread rapidly. Committees of examination were appointed and courts of trial convened. The most improbable stories were credited. To express a doubt of witchcraft was to indicate one's own alliance with the evil spirit. Persons of the highest respectability, clergymen, magistrates, and even the governor's wife were implicated. At last, after fifty-five persons had been tortured and twenty hung, the people awoke to their folly.

[Footnote: A belief in witchcraft was at that time universal. Sir Matthew Hale, one of the most enlightened judges of England, repeatedly tried and condemned persons accused of witchcraft. Blackstone himself, at a later day, declared that to deny witchcraft was to deny Revelation. Cotton Mather, the most prominent minister of the colony, was active in the rooting out of this supposed crime. He published a book full of the most ridiculous witch stories. One judge, who engaged in this persecution, was afterward so deeply penitent that he observed a day of fasting in each year, and on the day of general fast rose in his place in the Old South Church at Boston, and in the presence of the congregation handed to the pulpit a written confession acknowledging his error, and praying for forgiveness.]

* * * * *


THESE COLONIES were so intimately united with Massachusetts that they have almost a common history. Gorges (gor-jez) and Mason, about two years after the landing of the Pilgrims, obtained from the Council for New England the grant of a large tract of land which lay between the Merrimac and Kennebec Rivers. They established some small fishing stations near Portsmouth and at Dover. This patent being afterward dissolved, Mason took the country lying west of the Piscataqua, and named it New Hampshire; Gorges took that lying east, and termed it the province of Maine.

[Footnote: To distinguish it from the islands along the coast, this country had been called the Mayne (main) land, which perhaps gave rise to its present name. New Hampshire was so called from Hampshire in England, Mason's home. The settlers of New Hampshire were long vexed with suits brought by the men into whose hands Mason's grant had fallen.]

Massachusetts, however, claimed this territory, and to secure it paid six thousand dollars to the heirs of Gorges. Maine was not separated from Massachusetts till 1820. The feeble settlements of New Hampshire also placed themselves under the protection of Massachusetts. "Three times, either by their own consent or by royal authority, they were joined in one colony, and as often separated," until 1741, when New Hampshire became a royal province, and so remained until the Revolution.

* * * * *


[Footnote: This State is named from its principal river—
(Connecticut being the Indian word for Long River).]

SETTLEMENT.—About eleven years after the landing of the Pilgrims, Lord Say-and-Seal and Lord Brooke obtained from the Earl of Warwick a transfer of the grant of the Connecticut valley, which he had secured from the Council for New England. The Dutch claimed the territory, and before the English could take possession, built a fort at Hartford, and commenced traffic with the Indians. Some traders from Plymouth sailing up the river were stopped by the Dutch, who threatened to fire upon them. But they kept on and established a post at Windsor (win'-zer). Many people from Boston, allured by the rich meadow lands, settled near. In the autumn of 1635, John Steele, one of the proprietors of Cambridge, led a pioneer company "out west," as it was then called, and laid the foundations of Hartford. The next year the main band, with their pastor—Thomas Hooker, a most eloquent and estimable man—came, driving their flocks before them through the wilderness. In the meantime John Winthrop established a fort at the mouth of the river, and thus shut out the Dutch. This colony, in honor of the proprietors, was named Saybrook.

[Footnote: John Winthrop appears in history without blemish. Highly educated and accomplished, he was no less upright and generous. In the bloom of life, he left all his brilliant prospects in the old world to follow the fortunes of the new. When his father had made himself poor in nurturing the Massachusetts colony, this noble son gave up voluntarily his own large inheritance to "further the good work." It was through his personal influence and popularity at court that the liberal charter was procured from Charles II. which guaranteed freedom to Connecticut.]

THE PEQUOD WAR.—The colonists had no sooner become settled in their new home than the Pequod Indians endeavored to persuade the Narragansets to join them in a general attack upon the whites. Roger Williams hearing of this, and forgetting all the injuries he had received, on a stormy night set out in his canoe for the Indian village. Though the Pequod messengers were present, he prevailed upon the old Narraganset chief to remain at home. So the Pequods lost their ally and were forced to fight alone. They commenced by murdering thirty colonists. Captain Mason, therefore, resolved to attack their stronghold on the Mystic River. His party approached the fort at daybreak (June 4, 1637). Aroused by the barking of a dog, the sleepy sentinel shouted "Owanux! Owanux!" (the Englishmen! ) but it was too late. The troops were already within the palisades. The Indians, rallying, made a fierce resistance, when Captain Mason, seizing a firebrand, hurled it among the wigwams. The flames quickly swept through the encampment. The English themselves barely escaped. The few Indians who fled to the swamps were hunted down. The tribe perished in a day.

THE THREE COLONIES.—1. The New Haven Colony was founded (1638) by a number of wealthy London families. They took the Bible for law, and only church members could vote. 2. The Connecticut Colony, proper, comprising Hartford, Wethersfield and Windsor, adopted a written constitution in which it was agreed to give to all freemen the right to vote. This was the first instance in history of a written constitution framed by the people. 3. The Saybrook Colony was at first governed by the proprietors, but was afterward sold to the Connecticut colony. This reduced the three colonies to two.

[Illustration: THE CHARTER OAK.]

A ROYAL CHARTER was obtained (1662) which united both these colonies and guaranteed to all the rights upon which the Connecticut colonists had agreed. This was a precious document, since it gave them almost independence, and was the most favorable yet granted to any colony. Twenty-four years after, Governor Andros marching from Boston over the route where the pious Hooker had led his little flock fifty years before, came "glittering with scarlet and lace" into the assembly at Hartford, and demanded the charter. A protracted debate ensued. The people crowded around to take a last look at this guarantee of their liberties, when suddenly the lights were extinguished. On being relighted, the charter was gone. William Wadsworth had seized it, escaped through the crowd and hidden it in the hollow of a tree, famous ever after as the Charter Oak. However, Andros pronounced the charter government at an end. "Finis" was written at the close of the minutes of their last meeting. When the governor was so summarily deposed in Boston the people brought the charter from its hiding-place, the general court reassembled, and the "finis" disappeared.

[Footnote: Another attempt to infringe upon charter rights occurred in 1693. Governor Fletcher ordered the militia placed under his own command. Having called them out to listen to his royal commission, he began to read. Immediately Captain Wadsworth ordered the drums to be beaten. Fletcher commanded silence, and began again. "Drum, drum!" cried Wadsworth. "Silence!" shouted the governor. "Drum, drum, I say!" repeated the captain; and then turning to Fletcher, with a meaning look, he added: "If I am interrupted again, I will make the sun shine through you." The governor did not press the matter.—The story of the Charter Oak is denied by some, who claim that contemporary history does not mention it, and that probably Andros seized the charter, while the colonists had previously made a copy.]


[Footnote: An island of a reddish appearance was observed lying in the bay. This was known to the Dutch as Roode or Red Island. Hence the name of the island and State of Rhode Island.—Brodhead.]

SETTLEMENT. Roger Williams settled Providence Plantation in 1636, the year in which Hooker came to Hartford. Other exiles from Massachusetts followed, among them the celebrated Mrs. Hutchinson. A party of these purchased the island of Aquiday and established the Rhode Island Plantation. Roger Williams stamped upon these colonies his favorite idea of religious toleration, i.e., that the civil power has no right to interfere with the religious opinions of men.

[Footnote: William Blackstone, being as dissatisfied with the yoke of the "lords brethren" in Boston as with that of the "lord bishops" in England, some time before this removed to the banks of what is now called the Blackstone, near Providence. He, however, acknowledged the jurisdiction of Massachusetts.]

[Footnote: Persecuted refugees from all quarters flocked to Providence; and Williams shared equally with all the lands he had obtained, reserving to himself only two small fields which, on his first arrival, he had planted with his own hands.]

A CHARTER.—The colonists wished to join the New England Union, but were refused on the ostensible plea that they had no charter. Williams accordingly visited England and obtained a charter uniting the two plantations. On his return the people met, elected their officers, and (1647) agreed on a set of laws guaranteeing freedom of faith and worship to all,—"the first legal declaration of liberty of conscience ever adopted in Europe or America."


SETTLEMENT.—Soon after the discovery of the Hudson, as previously described (p. 39), Dutch ships began to visit the river to traffic in furs with the Indians. Afterward the West India Company obtained a grant of New Netherland, and under its patronage permanent settlements were made at New Amsterdam and also at Fort Orange (Albany). The company allowed persons who should plant a colony of fifty settlers to select and buy land of the Indians, which it was agreed should descend to their heirs forever. These persons were called "patroons" (patrons) of the manor.

[Footnote: Some huts were built by the Dutch traders on Manhattan Island in 1613. and a trading-post was established a year or two after. A fort was completed, in 1615, south of the present site of Albany. Eight or nine years later, a party of Walloons or Protestants from Belgian provinces were brought over by the company. About the same time, Fort Orange was erected, and eighteen families built their bark huts under its protection. In 1626, Minuit, the first governor, arrived in New Amsterdam, and purchased Manhattan Island of the Indians for about $24, nearly 1 mill per acre.—Some of the old Dutch manors remain to this day. The famous anti-rent difficulties (p. 182) grew out of such titles.]


The history of New York for twenty years is only an account of
Indian butcheries., varied by difficulties with the Swedes on the
Delaware, and the English on the Connecticut.

[Footnote: These disputes arose from the fact that the Dutch claimed the territory lying between the Delaware and the Connecticut.]


These disturbances are monotonous enough in the recital, but doubtless thrilled the blood of the early Knickerbockers. Peter Stuyvesant was the last and ablest of the four Dutch governors. He agreed with Connecticut upon the boundary line, and taking an armed force, marched upon the Swedes, who at once submitted to him. But the old Governor hated democratic institutions, and was terribly vexed in this wise. There were some English in the colony, and they longed for the rights of self-government which the Connecticut people enjoyed. They kept demanding these privileges and talking of them to their Dutch neighbors. At this juncture an English fleet came to anchor in the harbor, and demanded the surrender of the town in the name of the Duke of York. Stout-hearted old Peter pleaded with his council to fight. But in vain. They rather liked the idea of English rule. The surrender was signed, and at last the reluctant governor attached his name. In September, 1664, the English flag floated over Manhattan Island. The colony was named New York in honor of the proprietor.


THE ENGLISH GOVERNORS disappointed the people by not granting them their coveted rights. A remonstrance against being taxed without representation was burned by the hangman. So that when, after nine years of English rule, a Dutch fleet appeared in the harbor, the people went back quietly under their old rulers. But the next year peace being restored between England and Holland, New Amsterdam became New York again. Thus ended the Dutch rule in the colonies. Andros, who twelve years after played the tyrant in New England, was the next governor, but he ruled so arbitrarily that he was called home. Under his successor, Dongan, an assembly of the representatives of the people was called, by permission of the Duke of York. This was but a transient gleam of civil freedom, for two years alter, when the Duke of York became James II., king of England, he forgot all his promises, forbade legislative assemblies, prohibited printing-presses, and annexed the colony to New England. When, however, Andros was driven from Boston, Nicholson, his lieutenant and apt tool of tyranny in New York, fled at once. Captain Leisler, supported by the democracy but bitterly opposed by the aristocracy, thereupon administered affairs very prudently until the arrival of Governor Sloughter (slaw-ter) who arrested him on the absurd charge of treason. Sloughter was unwilling to execute him, but Leisler's enemies, at a dinner party, made the governor drunk, obtained his signature, and before he became sober enough to repent, Leisler was no more.

[Footnote: For many years the Atlantic Ocean was infested by pirates. A little after the events narrated above, William Kidd, a New York shipmaster, was sent out to cruise against these sea-robbers. He turned pirate himself and became the most noted of them all. Returning from his cruise, he was at length captured while boldly walking in the streets of Boston. He was carried to England, tried, and hung. His name and deeds have been woven into popular romance, and the song "My name is Captain Kidd, as I sailed, as I sailed," is well known. He is believed to have buried his ill-gotten riches on the coast of Long Island or the banks of the Hudson, and these localities have been oftentimes searched by credulous persons seeking for Kidd's treasure.]

From this time till the Revolution, the struggles of the people with the royal governors for their rights, developed the spirit of liberty and paved the way for that eventful crisis.

* * * * *


SETTLEMENT.—The present State of New Jersey was embraced in the territory of New Netherland, and the Dutch made settlements at several places near New York. Soon after New Netherland passed into the hands of the Duke of York, he gave the land between the Hudson and the Delaware to Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. In 1664, a company from Long Island and New England settled at Elizabethtown, which they named after Carteret's wife. This was the first permanent English settlement in the State.

[Footnote: This tract was called New Jersey in honor of Carteret, who had been governor of Jersey island in the English Channel.]

EAST AND WEST JERSEY.—Lord Berkeley sold his share to some English
Quakers. This part was called West Jersey. A company of Quakers soon
settled at Burlington. Others followed, and thus West Jersey became a
Quaker colony. Sir George Carteret's portion was called East Jersey.
After his death it was sold to William Penn and eleven other Quakers.

[Footnote: It was settled, however, largely by Puritans and Scotch Presbyterians. The latter having refused to accept the English form of religion, had been bitterly persecuted. Fleming their native country they found an asylum in this favored land.]

NEW JERSEY UNITED.—Constant disputes arose out of the land titles. Among so many proprietors the tenants hardly knew from whom to obtain their titles for land. The proprietors finally (1702) surrendered their rights of government to the English crown, and the whole of New Jersey was united with New York under one governor, but with a separate assembly. Thirty-six years after, at the earnest request of the people, New Jersey was set apart as a distinct royal province.


SETTLEMENT.—The first permanent settlement in Delaware was made (1638) by the Swedes, on a tract which they called New Sweden, lying near Wilmington. They also made the first settlement in Pennsylvania, a few miles below Philadelphia. The Dutch subsequently conquered these settlements, but they continued to prosper long after the Swedish and Dutch rule had yielded to the constantly growing English power.

William Penn, the founder of Pennsylvania, was a celebrated English Quaker, He obtained from Charles II. a grant of the land lying west of the Delaware.

[Footnote: The Quakers, avoiding unmeaning forms, aim to lead purely spiritual lives. Their usual worship is conducted in solemn silence, each soul for itself. They take no oath, make no compliments, remove not the hat to king or ruler, and "thee" and "thou" both friend and foe. Every day is to them a holy day, and the Sabbath simply a day of rest. We can readily see how this must have scandalized the Puritans. William Penn became a Quaker while in college at Oxford. Refusing to wear the customary student's surplice, he with others violently assaulted some fellow-students and stripped them of their robes. For this he was expelled. His father would not allow him to return home. Afterward relenting, he sent him to Paris, Cork, and other cities, to soften his Quaker peculiarities. After several unhappy quarrels, his father proposed to overlook all else if he would only consent to doff his hat to the king, the Duke of York, and himself. Penn still refusing, he was again turned out of doors. He was several times imprisoned for his religious extremes. On the death of his father, to whom he had once more been reconciled, he became heir to quite a fortune. He took the territory which forms Pennsylvania in payment of a debt of 16,000 pounds due his father from the crown.]

This tract Penn named Sylvania, but the king insisted upon calling it Pennsylvania

[Footenote: Penn offered the secretary who drew up the charter twenty guineas to leave off the prefix "Penn" This request being denied, the king was appealed to, who commanded the tract to be called Pennsylvania] (Penn's woods) in honor of William Penn's father.

The Duke of York added to this grant the present State of Delaware, which soon came to be termed the "Three lower counties on the Delaware." Penn wished to form a refuge for his Quaker brethren, who were bitterly persecuted in England. He at once sent over large numbers, as many as two thousand in a single year. The next year he came himself, and was received by the settlers with the greatest cordiality and respect.

PHILADELPHIA FOUNDED.—The year following (1683) Penn purchased land of the Swedes and laid out a city which he named Philadelphia, signifying brotherly love. It was in the midst of the forest, and the startled deer bounded past the settler who came to survey his new home. Yet within a year it contained one hundred houses; in two years numbered over two thousand inhabitants; and in three years gained more than New York had in half a century.

THE GREAT LAW was a code agreed upon by the legislative body which Penn called from among the settlers soon after his arrival. It made faith in Christ a necessary qualification for voting and office-holding; but also provided that no one believing in "Almighty God" should be molested in his religious views. The Quakers, having been persecuted themselves, did not celebrate their liberty by persecuting others. Penn, himself, surrendered the most of his power to the people. His highest ambition seemed to be to advance their interests. He often declared that if he knew anything more that could make them happier, he would freely grant it.

PENN'S TREATY WITH THE INDIANS possesses a romantic interest. He met them under a large elm tree near Philadelphia.

[Footnote: "We meet," said Penn, "on the broad pathway of good faith and good will; no advantage shall be taken on either side, but all shall be openness and love. The friendship between you and me I will not compare to a chain; for that the rains might rust or the falling tree might break. We are the same as if one man's body were to be divided into two parts; we are all one flesh and blood."]

The savages were touched by his gentle words and kindly bearing. "We will live in love with William Penn and his children," said they, "as long as the sun and moon shall shine."

[Footnote: This tree was carefully preserved until 1810, when it was blown down. A monument now marks the spot.]

[Footnote: The simple-minded natives kept the history of this treaty by means of strings of wampum, and they would often count over the shells on a clean piece of bark and rehearse its provisions. "It was the only treaty never sworn to, and the only one never broken." On every hand the Indians waged relentless war with the colonies, but they never shed a drop of Quaker blood.]

PENN'S RETURN.—Penn returned to England (1684) leaving the colony fairly established. His benevolent spirit shone forth in his parting words, "Dear friends, my love salutes you all."


DELAWARE.—The three lower counties on the Delaware being greatly offended by the action of the council which Penn had left to govern in his absence, set up for themselves. Penn "sorrowfully" consented to their action, appointed a deputy governor over them, and afterward granted them an assembly. Pennsylvania and Delaware, however, remained under one governor until the Revolution.

PENN'S HEIRS after his death (1718) became proprietors of the flourishing colony he had established. It was ruled by deputies whom they appointed, until (1779) the State of Pennsylvania bought out their claims by the payment of about half a million of dollars.


SETTLEMENT.—Lord Baltimore (Cecil Calvert), a Catholic, was anxious to secure for the friends of his church a refuge from the persecutions which they were then suffering in England.

[Footnote: His father, George Calvert, the first Lord Baltimore, with this same design had attempted to plant a colony in Newfoundland. But having failed on account of the severity of the climate, he visited Virginia. When he found that the Catholics were there treated with great harshness, he returned to England, took out a grant of land, and bestowed upon it, in honor of the queen, Henrietta Maria, the name Maryland. Ere the patent had received the great seal of the king, Lord Baltimore died. His son, inheriting the father's noble and benevolent views, secured the grant himself, and carried out the philanthropic scheme.]

[Footnote: It is curious to observe how largely this country was peopled in its earlier days by refugees for religious faith. The Huguenots, the Puritans, the Quakers, the Presbyterians, the Catholics, the persecuted of every sect and creed, all flocked to this "home of the free."]

He accordingly obtained from King Charles a grant of land lying north of the Potomac. The first settlement was made (1634) by his brother at an Indian village which he called St. Mary's, near the mouth of the Potomac.

THE CHARTER was very different from that granted to Virginia, since it gave to all freemen a voice in making the laws. An Assembly, called in accordance with this provision, passed (1649) the celebrated Toleration Act, which secured to all Christians liberty to worship God according to the dictates of their own conscience. Maryland, like Rhode Island, became an asylum for the persecuted.

[Footnote: Two years before, Rhode Island had passed an act protecting every kind of religious faith and worship. Maryland extended protection to all forms of Christianity alone.]


1. Clayborne's Rebellion (1635).—The Virginia colony claimed that Lord Baltimore's grant covered territory belonging to them. Clayborne, a member of the Jamestown council, was especially obstinate in the matter. He had already established two trading posts in Maryland, which he prepared to defend by force of arms. A bloody skirmish ensued, in which his party was beaten. He, himself, had fled to Virginia, on the eve of battle, but being accused of treason, was sent to England for trial. He was, however, acquitted of this charge. Ten years afterward he came back, raised a rebellion, and drove Calvert, then governor of Maryland, out of the colony. The governor returned at last with a strong force, and Clayborne fled. This ended the contest.

2. The Protestants and the Catholics.—The Protestants, having obtained a majority in the Assembly, made a most ungrateful use of their power. They refused to acknowledge the hereditary rights of the proprietor, assailed his religion, excluded Catholics from the Assembly, and even declared them outside the protection of the law. Civil war ensued. For years the victory alternated. At one time two governments, one Protestant, the other Catholic, were sustained. In 1691, Lord Baltimore was entirely deprived of his rights as proprietor, and Maryland became a royal province. The Church of England was established, and the Catholics were again disfranchised in the very province they had planted. In 1715, the fourth Lord Baltimore recovered the government, and religious toleration was again restored. Maryland remained under this administration until the Revolution.

* * * * *


SETTLEMENT.—Lord Clarendon and several other noblemen obtained (1663) from Charles II. a grant of a vast tract south of Virginia, which was termed in honor of the king, Carolina. Two permanent settlements were soon made.

[Footnote: This in Latin is Carolus II.]

[Footnote: Both colonies were named after prominent proprietors of the grant.]

1. The _Albemarle__Colony_. This was a name given to a plantation which was already settled by people who had pushed through the wilderness from Virginia. A governor from their own number was appointed over them. They were then left in quiet to enjoy their liberties and forget the world.

[Footnote: Except when rent day came. Then they were called upon to pay to the English proprietors a half-penny per acre.]

2. The Carteret Colony was established (1670) by English emigrants. They first sailed into the well-known waters where Ribaut anchored and the fort of Carolina was erected so long before. Landing, they began a settlement on the banks of the Ashley, but afterward removed to the "ancient groves covered with yellow jessamine" which marked the site of the present city of Charleston. The growth of this colony was rapid from the first. Thither came shiploads of Dutch from New York, dissatisfied with the English rule and attracted by the genial climate. The Huguenots (French Protestants), hunted from their homes, here found a southern welcome.

[Footnote: In Charleston alone there were at one time as many as 16,000 Huguenots. They added whole streets to the city. Their severe morality, marked charity, elegant manners and thrifty habits, made them a most desirable acquisition. They brought the mulberry and olive, and established magnificent plantations on the banks of the Cooper. They also introduced many choice varieties of pears, which still bear illustrious Huguenot names. Their descendants are eminently honorable, and have borne a proud part in the establishment of our Republic. Of seven presidents who were at the head of the Congress of Philadelphia during the Revolution, three were of Huguenot parentage.]

THE GRAND MODEL was a form of government for the colonies prepared by Lord Shaftesbury and the celebrated philosopher, John Locke. It was a magnificent scheme. The wilderness was to be divided into vast estates, with which hereditary titles were to be granted. But the model was aristocratic, while the people were democratic. It granted no rights of self-government, while the settlers came into the wilderness for the love of liberty. This was not the soil on which vain titles and empty pomp could flourish. To make the Grand Model a success, it would have been necessary to transform the log-cabin into a baronial castle, and the independent settlers into armed retainers. The attempt to introduce it arousing violent opposition, it was at length abandoned.

NORTH AND SOUTH CAROLINA SEPARATED.—The two colonies,—the northern, or Albemarle, and the southern, or Carteret,—being so remote from each other, had from the beginning separate governors, though they remained one province. There was constant friction between the settlers and the proprietors. The people were jealous. The proprietors were arbitrary. Rents, taxes, and rights were plentiful sources of irritation. Things kept on in this unsettled way until (1729) the discouraged proprietors ceded to the crown their right of government and seven-eighths of the soil. The two colonies were separated and they remained royal provinces until the Revolution.


SETTLEMENT.—The same year in which Washington was born (1732), this last colony of the famous thirteen which were to fight for independence under him was planned. James Oglethorpe, a warm-hearted English officer, having conceived the idea of founding a refuge for debtors burdened by the severe laws of that time, naturally turned to America, even then the home of the oppressed. George II. granted him "in trust for the poor" a tract of land which, in honor of the king, was called Georgia. Oglethorpe settled at Savannah in 1733.

[Footnote: He made peace with the Indians, conciliating them by presents and by his kindly disposition. One of the chiefs gave him in return a buffalo's skin with the head and feathers of an eagle painted on the inside of it "The eagle," said the chief, "signifies swiftness; and the buffalo strength. The English are swift as a bird to fly over the vast seas, and as strong as a beast before their enemies. The eagle's feathers are soft and signify love; the buffalo's skin is warm and means protection; therefore love and protect our families."]

A general interest was excited in England, and many charitable people gave liberally to promote the enterprise. More emigrants followed, including, as in the other colonies, many who sought religious or civil liberty.

[Footnote: The gentle Moravians and sturdy Scotch Highlanders were among the number, and proved a valuable acquisition to the colony. The former had fled hither from Austria, for "conscience' sake." Having founded a little colony among the pine forests of Georgia, they named it Ebenezer,-taking as their motto "Hitherto hath the Lord helped us." When John Wesley, the founder of Methodism, came to America as a missionary with his brother Charles, they were greatly charmed with the fervent piety of this simple people. The celebrated George Whitfield afterward founded at Savannah an orphan asylum, which he supported by contributions from the immense audiences which his wonderful eloquence attracted. On one occasion sixty thousand were gathered to hear him, and his open-air meetings were often attended by from twenty thousand to forty thousand people.]

The trustees limited the size of a man's farm, did not allow women to inherit land, and forbade the importation of rum, or of slaves. These restrictions were irksome, and great discontent prevailed. At last the trustees, wearied by the complaints of the colonists, surrendered their charter to the crown. Georgia remained a royal province till the Revolution.

[Footnote: Rum was obtained in exchange for lumber in the West Indies. Hence this law prevented that trade and cut off a valuable source of profit.]

* * * * *


I. KING WILLIAM'S WAR. (1689-1697.)

CAUSE.—War having broken out in Europe between England and France, their colonies in America took up the quarrel. The Indians of Canada and Maine aided the French, and the Iroquois (Five Nations of New York) assisted the English.

ATTACKS UPON THE COLONISTS.—War parties of the French and Indians coming down on their snow-shoes from Canada through the forest in the depth of winter, fell upon the exposed settlements of New York and New England, and committed the most horrible barbarities. Schenectady, unsuspecting and defenceless, was attacked at midnight. Men, women, and children were dragged from their beds and tomahawked. The few who escaped, half-naked, made their way through the snow of that fearful night to Albany.

[Footnote: The histories of the time abound in thrilling stories of Indian adventure. One day in March, 1697, Haverhill, Mass., was attacked. Mr. Dustin was at work in the field. Hurrying to his house, he brought out his seven children, and bidding them "run ahead," slowly retreated, keeping the Indians back with his gun. He thus brought off his little flock in safety. His wife, who was unable to escape with him, was dragged into captivity. The party who had captured Mrs. Dustin marched many days through the forest, and at length reached an island in the Merrimac. Here she resolved to escape. A white boy, who had been taken prisoner before, found out from his master, at Mrs. Dustin's request, how to strike a blow that would produce instant death, and how to take off a scalp. Having learned these facts, in the night she awoke the boy and her nurse, and arranged their parts The task was soon done Seizing each a tomahawk, they killed ten of the sleeping Indians; only one escaped She then scalped the dead bodies, in order to prove her story when she should reach home, and hastened to the bank, where, finding a canoe, they descended the river and soon rejoined her family]


ATTACKS BY THE COLONISTS.—Aroused by these scenes of savage ferocity, the colonists organized two expeditions, one under Governor Phipps of Massachusetts, against Port Royal, Acadia, and the other a combined land and naval attack on Canada. The former was successful, and secured, it is said, plunder enough to pay the expenses of the expedition. The latter was a disastrous failure.

PEACE.—The war lasted eight years. It was ended by the treaty of Ryswick (riz'-wik), according to which each party held the territory it had at the beginning of the struggle.

II. QUEEN ANNE'S WAR. (1702-1713.)

CAUSE.—England having declared war against France and Spain, hostilities broke out between their colonies. The Five Nations had made a treaty with the French, and so took no part in the contest. Their neutrality protected New York from invasion. Consequently, the brunt of the war fell on New England.

ATTACKS ON THE COLONISTS.—The New England frontier was again desolated. Remote settlements were abandoned. The people betook themselves to palisaded houses, and worked their farms with their guns always at hand.

[Footnote: On the last night of February, 1704, while the snow was four feet deep, a party of about three hundred and fifty French and Indians reached a pine forest near Deerfield, Mass. They skulked about till the unfaithful sentinels deserted the morning watch, when they rushed upon the defenceless slumberers, who awoke from their dreams to death or captivity. Leaving the blazing village with forty-seven dead bodies to be consumed amid the wreck, they then started back with their train of one hundred and twelve captives. The horrors of that march through the wilderness can never be told. The groan of helpless exhaustion, or the wail of suffering childhood, was instantly stilled by the pitiless tomahawk. Mrs. Williams, the feeble wife of the minister, had remembered her Bible in the midst of surprise, and comforted herself with its promises, till, her strength failing, she commended her five captive children to God and bent to the savage blow of the war-axe. One of her daughters grew up in captivity, embraced the Catholic faith, and became the wife of a chief. Years after she visited her friends in Deerfield. The whole village joined in a fast for her deliverance, but her heart loved best her own Mohawk children, and she went back to the fires of her Indian wigwam.]


1. At the South.—South Carolina made a fruitless expedition against her old enemies at St. Augustine (1702).

[Footnote: Four years after, the French and Spanish in Havana sent a fleet against Charleston. The people, however, valiantly defended themselves, and soon drove off their assailants.]

2. At the North.—Port Royal was again wrested from the French by a combined force of English and colonial troops. In honor of the queen, the name was changed to Annapolis. Another expedition sailed against Quebec, but many of the ships were dashed upon the rocks in the St. Lawrence, and nearly one thousand men perished. Thus ended the second attempt to conquer Canada.

PEACE.-The war lasted eleven years. It was ended by the treaty of
Utrecht (oo-trekt), according to which Acadia was ceded to England.


[Footnote: This war was immediately preceded by what is known as the "SPANISH WAR," which grew out of the difficulties then existing between England and Spain. It was marked by no important event in the colonies. Governor Oglethorpe invested (1740) St. Augustine with a force of two thousand men, but the strength of the Spanish garrison, and the loss by sickness, caused the attempt to be abandoned. The Spaniards, in their turn, sent (1742) an expedition against Georgia. By means of a letter which Governor Oglethorpe caused to fall into the hands of the Spaniards, they were made to believe that he expected large reinforcements. Being frightened, they burned the fort they had captured, and fled in haste. The colonies, also, furnished about four thousand men for an expedition against the Spanish settlements in the West Indies; but only a few hundred ever returned from this disastrous enterprise.]


CAPTURE OF LOUISBURG.—War having again broken out between England and France, the flame was soon kindled in the new world. The only event of importance was the capture of Louisburg on the island of Cape Breton, by a combined force of English and colonial troops. The latter did most of the fighting, but the former took the glory and the booty. Peace being made in 1748 by the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (akes-la-sha-pel), England gave back Louisburg to the French. The boundaries between the French and English colonies were left undecided, and so the germ of a new war remained.

[Footnote: Louisburg was called the "Gibraltar of America." Its fortifications were extensive, and cost upward of $5,000,000. The siege was conducted in the most unscientific way, the colonial troops laughing at military terms and discipline. When the place was captured, they were themselves astonished at what they had done. The achievement called forth great rejoicing over the country, especially in New England, and had an influence on the Revolutionary War, thirty years after. Colonel Gridley, who planned General Pepperell's batteries in this siege, laid out the American intrenchments on Bunker Hill. The same old drums that beat the triumphal entrance of the New Englanders into Louisburg, June 17, 1745, beat at Bunker Hill, June 17, 1775. "When General Gage was erecting intrenchments on Boston Neck, the provincials sneeringly remarked that his mud walls were nothing compared to the stone walls of old Louisburg."]


CAUSE.—The English occupied at this time a narrow strip along the coast one thousand miles in length. It was like a string to the great bow of the French territory which reached around from Quebec to New Orleans. Both nations claimed the region west of the Alleghany Mountains, along the Ohio River. The three previous inter-colonial wars had engendered bitter hatred, and occasions of quarrel were abundant. The French had over sixty military posts guarding the long line of their possessions. They seized the English surveyors along the Ohio. They broke up a British post on the Miami.

[Footnote: The claims of the real proprietors, the Indians, were overlooked by both the English and the French. The Indians, feeling this, sent to the agent of the Ohio Company the pertinent query, "Where is the Indian's land? The English claim all on one side of the river, the French all on the other. Where does our land lie?"]

[Footnote: The Indian allies of the French having captured the Miami chief who defended his English friends, killed and ate him, in true savage style.]

They built a fort at Presque Isle (pres-keel) near the present town of Erie, Penn.; another, Fort le Boeuf (le boof), at the present town of Waterford; and a third, Fort Venango, about twelve miles south, on French Creek. These encroachments awakened the liveliest solicitude on the part of the colonists.

WASHINGTON'S JOURNEY.—Din-wid'-die, lieutenant-governor of Virginia, accordingly sent a message by George Washington, then a young man of twenty-one, to the French commander of these forts, asking their removal. Washington, the very day he received his credentials, set out on his perilous journey through the wilderness from Williamsburg to Lake Erie. He found the French officer at Fort Venango loud and boastful. At Fort le Boeuf the commandant, St. Pierre (sang-pe-are), treated him with great respect; but, like a true soldier, refused to discuss theories, and declared himself under orders which he should obey. It was clear that France was determined to hold the territory explored by the heroic La Salle and Marquette. The shore in front of the fort was even then lined with canoes ready for an intended expedition down the river. Washington's return through the wilderness, a distance of four hundred miles, was full of peril. At last he reached home unharmed, and delivered St. Pierre's reply.


[Footnote: The streams were swollen. The snow was falling and freezing as it fell. The horses gave out, and he was forced to proceed on foot. With only one companion, he quitted the usual path, and, with the compass as his guide, struck boldly out through the forest. An Indian, lying in wait, fired at him only a few paces off, but missing, was captured. Attempting to cross the Alleghany on a rude raft, they were caught between large masses of ice floating down the rapid current of the mid-channel. Washington thrust out his pole to check the speed, but was jerked into the foaming water. Swimming to an island, he barely saved his life. Fortunately, in the morning the river was frozen over, and he escaped on the ice.]

WAR OPENS.—Early the next spring, the French, at the fork of the Monongahela and Alleghany, drove off a party of English traders and erected a fort, which was called Du Quesne (doo-kane). Soon, among the blackened stumps, corn and barley were growing on the present site of Pittsburg. In the meantime, a regiment of Virginia troops, under Colonel Frye, Washington being second in command, had been sent out to occupy this important point. Learning that the French had anticipated them, Washington hastened forward with a reconnoitering party. Jumonville (zhoo-mong-veel), who was hiding among the rocks with a company of French troops, waiting an opportunity to attack him, was himself surprised and defeated.

[Footnote: Washington's word of command to "fire!" upon that skulking foe, on the night of May 28, 1754, was the opening of the campaign. Washington himself, it is said, fired the first gun of that long and bloody war.]

On the death of Colonel Frye, soon after, Washington assumed command. Collecting the troops at the Great Meadows, he erected a stockade, which he aptly named Fort Necessity. Here he was attacked by a large force of French and Indians, and after a severe conflict was compelled to capitulate.


1. Fort du Quesne was the key to the region west of the Alleghanies, and as long as the French held it, Virginia and Pennsylvania were exposed to Indian attacks.

2. The possession of Louisburg and Acadia threatened New England, while it gave control over the Newfoundland fisheries. French privateers harbored there, darted out and captured English ships, and then returned where they were safe from pursuit.

3. Crown Point and Ticonderoga controlled the route to Canada by the way of Lake George and Lake Champlain, and also offered a safe starting-point for French expeditions against New York and New England.

4. Niagara lay on the portage between Lake Erie and Lake Ontario, and thus protected the great fur trade of the upper lakes and the West.

5. Quebec being the strongest fortification in Canada, gave control of the St. Lawrence, and largely decided the possession of that province.

We thus see why these points were so persistently attacked by the English, and so obstinately defended by the French. We shall speak of them in order.


The First Expedition (1755) was commanded by General Braddock, Washington acting as aide-de-camp. The general was a regular British officer, proud and conceited. Washington warned him of the dangers of savage warfare, but his suggestions were received with contempt.

[Footnote: "The Indians," said Braddock, "may frighten continental troops, but they can make no impression on the king's regulars!"]

The column came within ten miles of the fort, marching along the Monongahela in regular array, drums beating and colors flying. Suddenly, in ascending a little slope, with a deep ravine and thick underbrush on either side, they encountered the Indians lying in ambush. The terrible war-whoop resounded on every hand. The British regulars huddled together, and, frightened, fired by platoons, at random, against rocks and trees. The Virginia troops alone sprang into the forest and fought the savages in Indian style. Washington seemed everywhere present. An Indian chief with his braves especially singled him out.

[Footnote: Fifteen years after, this old Indian chief came "a long way" to see the Virginia officer at whom he fired a rifle fifteen times without hitting him, during the Monongahela fight. Washington never received a wound in battle.]

Four balls passed through his clothes. Two horses were shot under him. Braddock was mortally wounded and borne from the field. At last, when the continental troops were nearly all killed, the regulars turned and fled disgracefully, abandoning everything to the foe. Washington covered their flight and saved the wreck of the army from pursuit.

Second Expedition (1758).—General Forbes led the second expedition, Washington commanding tho Virginia troops. The general lost so much time in building roads that, in November, he was fifty miles from the fort. A council of war decided to give up the attempt. But Washington receiving news of the weakness of the French garrison, urged a forward movement. He himself led the advance guard, and by his vigilance dispelled all danger of Indian surprise. The French fired the fort, and fled at his approach. As the flag of England floated out over the ruined ramparts, this gateway of the west was named Pittsburg.

[Footnote: This was in honor of William Pitt, prime minister of England, whose true friendship for the colonies was warmly appreciated in America. He came into power in 1758, and from that time the war took on a different aspect.]


1. Acadia.—Scarcely had the war commenced, when an attack was made on Acadia. The French forts at the head of the Bay of Fundy were quickly taken, and the entire region east of the Penobscot fell into the hands of the English.

[Footnote: This victory was disgraced by an act of heartless cruelty. The Acadians were a simple-minded, rural people. They readily gave up their arms and meekly submitted to their conquerors. But the English authorities, knowing their sympathy with the French and coveting their rich farms, drove old and young on board the ships at the point of the bayonet, and distributed them among the colonies. Families were broken up, their homes burned, and, poor exiles, the broken-hearted Acadians met everywhere only insult and abuse. Longfellow, in his beautiful poem "Evangeline," has revived in the present generation a warm sympathy for these people, whose misfortunes he has so pathetically recorded.]

2. Louisburg (1757).—General Loudoun collected an army at Halifax for an attack on Louisburg. After spending all summer in drilling his troops, "he gave up the attempt on learning that the French fleet contained one more ship than his own!" The next year Generals Amherst and Wolfe captured the city after a severe bombardment, and took possession of the entire island.

[Footnote: Abandoning Louisburg, the English made Halifax, as it is to-day, their rendezvous in that region.]


1. Battle of Lake George.—About the time of Braddock's expedition, another was undertaken against Crown Point. The French under Dieskau (de-es-ko) were met near the head of Lake George.

[Footnote: The brave Dieskau was severely wounded. In the pursuit, a soldier found him leaning against a stump. As he fumbled for his watch to propitiate his enemy, the soldier thinking him to be searching for his pistol, shot him.]

[Footnote: Johnson, the English commander, received word of the approach of the enemy, and sent out Colonel Williams with twelve hundred men to stop them. In the skirmish Williams was killed. He was the real founder of Williams College, having by his will, made while on his way to battle, bequeathed a sum to found a free school for Western Massachusetts.]

Fortunately, General Johnson, being slightly wounded, early in the action retired to his tent, whereupon General Lyman, with his provincial troops, regained the battle then nearly lost. This victory following closely on the heels of Braddock's disaster, excited great joy. Johnson was voted knighthood and $25,000; Lyman, the real victor, received nothing. This battle ended the attempt to take Crown Point. Johnson loitered away the summer in building a fort near by, which he called William Henry.

[Footnote: Two years after, Montcalm, the new French general, swept down from Canada and captured this fort with its garrison, although Webb was at Fort Edward, fourteen miles below, with six thousand men lying idly in camp. The victory is noted for an illustration of savage treachery. The English had been guaranteed a safe escort to Fort Edward. But they had scarcely left the fort when the Indians fell upon them to plunder and to slaughter. In vain did the French officers peril their lives to save their captives from the lawless tomahawk. "Kill me," cried Montcalm, in desperation, "but spare the English, who are under my protection." The Indian fury, however, was implacable, and the march of the prisoners to Fort Edward became a flight for life.]

In the fall he returned to Albany and disbanded his troops.

2. Attack on Ticonderoga.—On a calm Sunday morning, about four months before the fall of Fort du Quesne, a thousand boats full of soldiers, with waving flags and strains of martial music, swept down Lake George to attack Ticonderoga. General Abercrombie ordered an assault before his artillery came up, and while the battle raged lay hid away in the rear. A disastrous repulse was the result.

[Footnote: While the main army was delaying after this failure, Colonel Bradstreet obtained permission to go against Fort Frontenac, on the present site of Kingston. Crossing the lake, he captured the fort and a large quantity of stores intended for Fort Du Quesne. The loss disheartened the garrison of the latter place, frightened off their Indian allies, and did much to cause its evacuation on the approach of the English.]

3. Capture of both Forts.—The next year (1759), at the approach of General Amherst with a large army, both Ticonderoga and Crown Point were evacuated.


1. About the time of Braddock's expedition, General Shirley marched to capture Niagara. But reaching Oswego and learning of that disastrous defeat, he was discouraged. He simply built a fort and came home.

[Footnote: The next year that indefatigable general, Montcalm, crossed the lake from Canada and captured this fort with its garrison and a large amount of public stores.]

2. Nothing further was done toward the capture of this important post for four years, when it was invested by General Prideaux (pre-do). In spite of desperate attempts made to relieve the garrison, it was at last compelled to surrender (1759). New York was thus extended to Niagara River, and the West was secured to the English.

[Footnote: Prideaux was accidentally killed during the siege, but his successor, Johnson, satisfactorily carried out his plans.]

5. QUEBEC (1759).—The same summer in which Niagara, Crown Point, and Ticonderoga were occupied by the English, General Wolfe anchored with a large fleet and eight thousand land troops in front of Quebec. Opposed to him was the vigilant French general, Montcalm, with a command equal to his own. The English cannon easily destroyed the lower city next the river, but the citadel being on higher ground, was far out of their reach. The bank of the river, for miles a high craggy wall, bristled with cannon at every landing-place. For months Wolfe lingered before the city, vainly seeking some feasible point of attack. Carefully reconnoitering the precipitous bluff above the city, his sharp eyes at length discovered a narrow path winding among the rocks to the top, and he determined to lead his army up this ascent.

[Footnote: It was expected that the two armies engaged in the capture of these forts would join Wolfe in the attack on Quebec; but for various reasons they made no attempt to do so, and Wolfe was left to perform his task alone.]


[Footnote: General Wolfe was a great admirer of the poet Gray. As he went the rounds for final inspection on the beautiful starlight evening before the attack, he remarked to those in the boat with him. "'I would rather be the author of The Elegy in a Country Churchyard' than to have the glory of beating the French to morrow," and amid the rippling of the water and the dashing of the oars he repeated

 "The boast of heraldry, the pomp of power
    And all that beauty, all that wealth e'er gave,
  Await alike the inevitable hour
    The paths of glory lead but to the grave"]

To distract the enemy's attention, he took his men several miles up the river. Thence dropping down silently by night with the ebb-tide, they landed, clambered up the steep cliff, quickly dispersed the guard, and at day-break stood arrayed in order of battle on the Plains of Abraham.

[Footnote: Although Wolfe rose from a sick-bed to lead his troops, he was the first man to land. The shore was lined with French sentinels. A captain who understood French and had been assigned this duty, answered the challenge of the sentinel near the landing, and thus warded off the first danger of alarm.]

Montcalm, astonished at the audacity of the attempt, could scarcely believe it possible. When convinced of its truth he at once made an impetuous attack. Wolfe's veterans held their fire until the French were close at hand, then poured upon them rapid, steady volleys. The enemy soon wavered. Wolfe, placing himself at the head, now ordered a bayonet charge. Already twice wounded, he still pushed forward. A third ball struck him. He was carried to the rear. "They run! They run!" exclaimed the officer on whom he leaned. "Who run?" he faintly gasped. "The French," was the reply. "Now God be praised, I die happy," murmured the expiring hero. Montcalm, too, was fatally wounded as he was vainly trying to rally the fugitives. On being told by the surgeon that he could not live more than twelve hours, he answered, "So much the better. I shall not see the surrender of Quebec."

Five days afterward (September 18, 1759,) the city and garrison capitulated.


[Footnote: The five points which were especially sought by the English were now all captured. Canada itself, worn out, impoverished, and almost in famine, because of the long war, was ready for peace.]

PEACE.—The next year an attempt was made to re-capture Quebec. But a powerful fleet arrived from England in time to raise the siege. A large army marched upon Montreal, and Canada soon submitted. The English flag now waved over the continent, from the Arctic Ocean to the Mississippi. Peace was made at Paris in 1763. Spain ceded Florida to England. France gave up to England all her territory east of the Mississippi, except two small islands south of Newfoundland, retained as fishing stations; while, to Spain she ceded New Orleans, and all her territory west of the Mississippi.

PONTIAC'S WAR.—The French traders and missionaries had won the hearts of the Indians. When the more haughty English came to take possession of the western forts, great discontent was roused. Pontiac, a chief of the Ottawas, Philip-like, formed a confederation of the tribes against the common foe. It was secretly agreed to fall at once upon all the British posts. Eight forts were thus surprised and captured.

[Footnote: Various stratagems were employed to accomplish their designs. At Maumee, a squaw lured forth the commander by imploring aid for an Indian woman dying outside the fort. Once without, he was at the mercy of the ambushed savages. At Mackinaw, hundreds of Indians had gathered. Commencing a game at ball, one party drove the other, as if by accident, toward the fort. The soldiers were attracted to watch the game. At length the ball was thrown over the pickets, and the Indians jumping after it, began the terrible butchery. The commander, Major Henry, writing in his room, heard the war-cry and the shrieks of the victims, and rushing to his window beheld the savage work of the tomahawk and the scalping-knife. Amid untold perils he himself escaped. At Detroit, the plot was betrayed by a squaw, and when the chiefs were admitted to their proposed council for "brightening the chain of friendship," they found themselves surrounded by an armed garrison. Pontiac was allowed to escape. Two days after he commenced a siege which lasted several months. In payment of the supplies for his army, he issued birch-bark notes signed with the figure of an otter. These primitive "government bonds" were promptly paid when due.]

Thousands of persons fled from their homes to avoid the scalping-knife. At last the Indians, disagreeing among themselves, deserted the alliance, and a treaty was signed. Pontiac, still revengeful, fled to the hunting-grounds of the Illinois. There he was murdered by a Peorian Indian, while endeavoring to incite another attack.

EFFECTS OF THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR.—In this war the colonists spent $16,000,000, and England repaid only $5,000,000. The Americans lost thirty thousand men, and suffered the untold horrors of Indian barbarity. The taxes sometimes equaled two-thirds the income of the tax-payer; yet they were levied by their own representatives, and they did not murmur. The men of different colonies and diverse ideas fought shoulder to shoulder, and many sectional jealousies were allayed. They learned to think and act independently of the mother country, and thus came to know their strength. Democratic ideas had taken root, legislative bodies had been called, troops raised and supplies voted, not by England, but by themselves. They had become fond of liberty. They knew their rights and dared maintain them. When they voted money they kept the purse in their own hands.

The treatment of the British officers helped also to unite the colonists. They made sport of the awkward provincial soldiers. The best American officers were often thrust aside to make place for young British subalterns. But, in spite of sneers, Washington, Gates, Montgomery, Stark, Arnold, Morgan, Putnam, all received their training, and learned how, when the time came, to fight even British regulars.

* * * * *


[Footnote: Read Dames's Popular History of the United States, Chap 4, Colonial Life.]

There were now thirteen colonies. They numbered about 2,000,000 people. The largest cities were Boston and Philadelphia, each containing about eighteen thousand inhabitants Three forms of government existed—charter, proprietary, and royal. Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut, had charter governments. Maryland and Pennsylvania (with Delaware) were proprietary—that is, their proprietors governed them. Georgia, Virginia, New Hampshire, New York, New Jersey, and the Carolinas were directly subject to the crown, the last three being at first proprietary, but afterward becoming royal. The colonies were all Protestant. The intolerant religious spirit of early days had moderated, and there had been a gradual assimilation of manners and customs. They had, in a word, become Americans. In accordance with the customs of the age, the laws were still severe. Thus in New England, at one time, twelve offences were punishable by death, while in Virginia there were seventeen capital crimes. The affairs of private life were regulated by law in a manner that would not now be endured. At Hartford, for example, the ringing of the watchman's bell in the morning was the signal for every one to rise and in Massachusetts a scold was sometimes gagged and placed near her door, while for other minor offences the stocks and pillory were used. The social prejudices brought over from England still survived in a measure. Even in New England official positions were monopolized by a few leading families, and often descended from father to son. The catalogues of Harvard and Yale were long arranged according to the rank of the students.

[Illustration: THE STOCKS.]

[Illustration: A SCOLD GAGGED.]

Nine colleges had already been established. These were Harvard, William and Mary, Yale, Princeton, Columbia (originally called King's), Brown, Rutger's (then Queen's), Dartmouth, and Hampden Sidney. Educational interests were not fostered by the English government. Only one donation was given to found a college in the colonies—that of William and Mary, an institution named in honor of these sovereigns.

[Illustration: The pillory.]

Agriculture was the main dependence of the people, though manufactures, even at this early period, received much attention at the north. Hats, paper shoes, household furniture, farming utensils, and the coarser kinds of cutlery were made to some extent. Cloth weaving had been introduced. Most thrifty people, however, dressed in homespun. It is said of Mrs. Washington that she kept running sixteen spinning-wheels. Commerce had steadily increased—principally, however, as coast trade, in consequence of the oppressive laws of Great Britain. The daring fishermen of New England already pushed their whaling crafts far into the icy regions of the north. Money was for many years very scarce. In 1635 musket-bullets were made to pass in place of farthings, the law providing that not more than twelve should be given in one payment.


The first printing press was set up at Cambridge, in 1639. Most of the books of that day were collections of sermons. The first permanent newspaper, The Boston News Letter, was published in 1704. In 1750 there were only seven newspapers. The Federal Orrery, the first daily paper, was not issued till 1792. There was a public library in New York, from which books were loaned at four and a half pence per week.

The usual mode of travel was on foot or horseback. People journeyed largely by means of coasting sloops. The trip from New York to Philadelphia occupied three days if the wind was fair. There was a wagon running bi-weekly from New York across New Jersey. Conveyances were put on in 1766, which made the unprecedented time of two days from New York to Philadelphia. They were, therefore, termed "flying machines."

The first stage route was between Providence and Boston, taking two days for the trip. A post-office system had been effected by the combination of the colonies, which united the whole country. Benjamin Franklin was one of the early postmasters-general. He made a grand tour of the country in his chaise, perfecting and maturing the plan. His daughter Sally accompanied him, riding sometimes by his side in the chaise, and sometimes on the extra horse which he had with him. It took five months to make the rounds which could now be performed in as many days. A mail was started in 1672, between New York and Boston, by way of Hartford; according to the contract the round trip being made monthly.



1. The New England people were strict in morals. Governor Winthrop prohibited cards and gaming tables. A man was whipped for shooting fowl on Sunday. No man was allowed to keep tavern who did not bear an excellent character and possess property. The names of drunkards were posted up in the ale houses, and the keepers forbidden to sell them liquor. By order of the colony of Connecticut, no person under twenty years of age could use any tobacco without a physician's order; and no one was allowed to use it oftener than once a day, and then not within ten miles of any house.

Articles of dress were also limited or regulated by law. No person whose estate did not exceed 200 pounds, could wear "gold or silver lace, or any lace above 2 shillings per yard." The "selectmen" were required to take note of the "apparel" of the people, especially their "ribbands and great boots." Only the gentility, including ministers and their wives, received the prefix Mr. and Mrs. to their names. Others, above servitude, were called Goodman and Goodwife.

Conduct was shaped by a literal interpretation of the Scriptures. Simplicity of manners and living was carefully inculcated. At first the ministers had almost entire control. A church reproof was the heaviest punishment, and knotty points in theology caused the bitterest discussion. A pillion was the grandest equipage, and a plain blue and white gown, with primly starched apron, was the common attire of the New England dames.

2. The Middle Colonies.—The manners of the New York people were essentially Dutch. Many customs then inaugurated still remain in vogue. Among these is that of New Year's Day visiting, of which General Washington said, "New York will in process of years gradually change its ancient customs and manners, but whatever changes take place, never forget the cordial observance of New Year's Day." So, also, to the Dutch we owe our Christmas visit of Santa Claus, colored eggs at Easter, doughnuts, crullers, and New Year's cookies. Laws of morality were rigidly enforced, as in New England. Furniture and equipages were extremely simple. Carpets were hardly known before 1750, and each housekeeper prided herself on the purity of her white-sanded floor.


3. The Southern Colonists differed widely from the northern in habits and style of living. In place of thickly-settled towns and villages, they had large plantations, and were surrounded by a numerous household of servants. An estate in those days was a little empire. The planter had among his slaves men of every trade. The mansion-house was large, and fitted to the free-hearted, open handed hospitality of its owner. The negro quarters formed a hamlet apart, with its gardens and poultry yards. There were large sheds for curing tobacco, and mills for grinding corn and wheat. Everything necessary for ordinary use was produced on the plantation. Their tobacco was put up by their own negroes, and consigned direct to England. The flour of the Mount Vernon estate was packed under the eye of Washington himself, and we are told that barrels of flour bearing his brand, passed in the West India market without inspection. A style of luxury and refinement already prevailed. Services of plate, elegant equipages, and liveried servants were not uncommon. Rich planters vied with one another in the possession of the finest horses.



1 The Eastern Colonies—Next to their religion, the Puritans prized education. When Boston was but six years old, $2,000 were appropriated to the seminary at Cambridge, now known as Harvard University. Some years after, each family gave a peck of corn or a shilling in cash for its support. Common schools had already been provided, and in 1647 every town was ordered to have a free school, and, if it contained over one hundred families, a grammar school. In Connecticut, any town that did not keep a school for three months in the year was liable to a fine. In 1700, ten ministers, having previously so agreed, brought together a number of books, each saying as he laid down his gift, "I give these books for founding a college in Connecticut." This was the beginning of Yale College. It was first established at Saybrook, but in 1716 was removed to New Haven. It was named from Governor Yale, who befriended it most generously.

[Illustration: A WEDDING JOURNEY.]

The "town meetings," as they were styled, were of inestimable value in cultivating democratic ideas. The young and old, rich and poor, here met on a perfect equality for the discussion of all local questions. In Hartford, every freeman who neglected to attend the town meeting was fined sixpence, unless he had a good excuse.

2. The Middle Colonies already had many schools scattered through the towns. In New York, during the Dutch period, it was customary for the schoolmaster, in order to increase his earnings, to ring the church-bell, dig graves, and act as chorister and town clerk. In the English period, some of the schools were kept by Dutch masters, who taught English as an accomplishment. As early as 1702, an act was passed for the "Encouragement of a Grammar Free School in the City of New York." In 1795, George Clinton laid the foundation of the common-school system of the State, and within three years nearly 60,000 children were receiving instruction. At Lewiston, Del, is said to have been established the first girls' school in the colonies. The first school in Pennsylvania was started about 1683, where "reading, writing, and casting accounts" were taught, for eight English shillings per annum. The Orrery invented by Dr. Rittenhouse, in 1768, is still preserved in Princeton College. No European institution had its equal.

Churches were established by the various denominations. The Swedes had a meeting house erected even before the landing of Penn. Ministers' salaries were met in different ways. In New York the Dutch dominie was paid sometimes in wampum. The dominie of Albany on one occasion received one hundred and fifty beaver skins.

3. The Southern Colonies met with great difficulties in their efforts to establish schools. Though Virginia boasts of the second oldest college, yet her English governors bitterly opposed the progress of education. Governor Berkeley, of whose haughty spirit we have already heard, said, "I thank God there are no free schools nor printing-presses here, and I hope we shall not have them these hundred years." The restrictions upon the press were so great that no newspaper was published in Virginia until 1736, and that was controlled by the government. Free schools were established in Maryland in 1696, and a free school in Charleston, S. C., in 1712. Private schools were early established by the colonists in every neighborhood.

A farm of one hundred acres was set apart by law for each clergyman, and also a portion of the "best and first gathered corn" and tobacco. Absence from church was fined. In Georgia, masters were compelled to send their slaves to church, under a penalty of 5 pounds.

Summary of the History of the Second Epoch, arranged in
Chronological Order.

1607. Jamestown founded by the London Company. First permanent English settlement in America, May 23 1609. Virginia received its second charter, June 2 1610. "Starving Time" in Virginia 1612. Virginia received its third charter, March 22 1613. Pocahontas married Rolfe, April Settlement of New York by the Dutch 1614. Smith explored the New England Coast 1615. Culture of tobacco commenced in Virginia 1619. First Colonial Assembly, June 28 Slavery introduced in the English colony at Jamestown 1620. Pilgrims landed at Plymouth. First permanent English settlement in New England, December 21 1622. Indian massacre in Virginia, March 22 New Hampshire granted to Gorges and Mason, Aug. 10 1623. New Hampshire settled at Dover and Portsmouth 1628. Charter granted to Massachusetts Bay Colony, March 4 1629. New patent for New Hampshire granted to Mason, November 7 1630. First house built in Boston, under Governor Winthrop, July 1632. Maryland granted to Lord Baltimore, June 20 1634. Maryland settled at St. Mary's; 1633-6. Connecticut settled at Windsor, Hartford, and Wethersfield, 1635. Clayborne's rebellion in Virginia and Maryland, 1636. Rhode Island settled at Providence, June, 1637. Pequod War, 1638. New Haven colony founded, April 18, Delaware settled near Wilmington by the Swedes, April 1641. New Hampshire united to Massachusetts, 1643. Union of the New England colonies, May 29, 1644. Second Indian massacre in Virginia, April 18, Charter granted to Rhode Island.—Providence and Rhode Island plantations united, March 14, 1655. Civil war in Maryland, New Sweden conquered by the Dutch, October, 1660. Navigation Act, passed in 1651, now enforced, 1662. Charter granted to Connecticut, April 20, 1663. Albemarle Colony formed, March 24, 1664. New Netherland conquered by the English and called New York, September, New Jersey settled at Elizabethtown, 1670. South Carolina settled on the Ashley River, 1675. King Philip's War, 1676. Bacon's rebellion, April 1679. New Hampshire made a royal province 1680. Charleston, S. C., founded 1682. Pennsylvania settled Delaware granted to William Penn by the Duke of York, August 31, 1683. Philadelphia founded by William Penn, February, 1686. Andros arrived in Boston as governor of New England, December 20, 1689. King William's war, Andros seized and sent to England 1690. Schenectady burned by the Indians and the French 1692. Salem witchcraft Massachusetts received a new charter, under Phipps, Gov. 1697. Peace of Ryswick terminated King William's war 1702. Queen Anne's war commenced, Delaware secured a separate legislative assembly, 1710. Port Royal, N. S., captured by the English and named Annapolis, 1713. Queen Anne's war closed by the treaty of Utrecht 1732. Washington born, February 22, 1733. Georgia settled by Oglethorpe at Savannah, February 12, 1739. The Spanish War began, 1744. King George's war began, 1745. Louisburg captured by the English, June 17, 1748. King George's war ended by the treaty of Aix la Chapelle 1753. Washington sent with a letter by Dinwiddie to St. Pierre, October 31, 1754. Battle at Gt. Meadows-Ft. Necessity captured by French, 1755. The French driven from Acadia, June, Braddock defeated in the Battle of Monongahela, July 9, The British defeated Dieskau at Lake George. September 8, 1756. War first formally declared between the English and the French, May 17, French under Montcalm captured Fort Oswego, Aug. 14, 1757. Fort William Henry surrendered to Montcalm, Aug. 9, 1758. Abercrombie repulsed at Fort Ticonderoga, July 8, Louisburg taken by Amherst and Wolfe, July 26, Fort Frontenac captured by the colonists, August 27, Fort du Quesne taken by the English, November 25, 1759. Ticonderoga and Crown Point abandoned by the French, Niagara surrendered to England, July 25, Battle of Plains of Abraham—Quebec surrendered, 1760. Montreal surrendered to the English, September 8, Pontiac's war, 1763. Peace of Paris,


Palfrey's History of New England.—Parkman's Conspiracy of Pontiac.
—Neal's History of the Puritans.—Holmes's Robinson of Leyden
(Poem).-Mrs. Hemans's Landing of the Pilgriris (Poem).—Martyn's
Pilgrim Fathers of New England.—Elliott's History of New England.
—Hopkins's Youth of the Old Dominion.—Simms's Smith and
Pocahontas.—Mrs. Sigourney's Pocahontas (Poem).—Longfellow's
Courtship of Miles Standish, and Evangeline (Poems).—Holland's Bay
Path.—Barber's New England.—Irving's Knickerbocker's History of
New York, and King Philip's War (Sketch Book).—Cooper's Last of
the Mohicans—James's Ticonderoga.—Hubbard's History of Indian
Wars in New England.—Hall's Puritans and their Principles.
—Randall's School History of New York—Barber's American
Scenes—Tracy's American Historical Reader—Paulding's Ode to
Jamestown (Poem), and his Dutchman's Fire-Side (a novel)—Street's
Frontenac (a romance)—Mrs Childs's Hobomok (a novel).—Margaret
Smith's Journal (by Whittier).—Harper's Magazine, Vol. 52, p t,
art, Up the Ashley and Cooper (Life in Colony of S. C.)—Sanborn's
History of New Hampshire—Holland's History of Western
Massachusetts.—Greene's History of Rhode Island.



From 1775—the Breaking out of the War,
To 1787—the Adoption of the Constitution.



REMOTE CAUSES.—England treated the settlers as an inferior class of people. Her intention was to make and keep the colonies dependent. The laws were framed to favor the English manufacturer and merchant at the expense of the colonist. The Navigation Acts compelled the American farmer to send his products across the ocean to England, and to buy his goods in British markets. American manufactures were prohibited.

[Footnote: Questions on The Geography of The Third Epoch.

  Locate Boston. Portsmouth. Newport. Philadelphia. Salem.
  Concord. Lexington. Whitehall. Cambridge. New London.
  Charleston. Charlestown. Brooklyn. New York. White Plains.
  North Castle. Cherry Valley. Elizabethtown. Trenton. Princeton.
  Germantown. Albany. Oriskany. Bennington. Yorktown. Monmouth C. H.
  Quebec. Danbury. Savannah. Augusta. Norfolk. Norwalk. Fairfield.
  New Haven. Elmira. Camden. Hanging Rock. Cowpeus. Guilford C. H.
  Wilmington. Eutaw Springs.

  Locate Crown Point. Fort Ticonderoga. Fort Edward. Fort Griswold.
  Fort Moultrie. Fort Washington. West Point. Fort Schuyler (Fort
  Stanwix was named after Gen. Schuyler in 1776, and so in history
  is called by either name). Stony Point. Fort Lee. Fort Mifflin.
  Fort Creek. Catawba River. Yadkin River. Dan River.
  Delaware River.

  Locate Valley Forge. Ninety Six. Dorchester Heights. Morristown.
  King's Mountain. Bemis's Heights. Wyoming.]

Iron works were denounced as "common nuisances." William Pitt, the friend of America, declared that "she had no right to manufacture even a nail for a horseshoe."

[Footnote: The exportation of hats from one colony to another was prohibited, and no hatter was allowed to have more than two apprentices at a time. The importation of sugar, rum, and molasses, was burdened with exorbitant duties; and the Carolinians were forbidden to cut down the pine-trees of their vast forests, in order to convert the wood into staves, or the juice into turpentine and tar for commercial purposes. Read Barnes's Popular History of the United States, p. 134.]

THE DIRECT CAUSE was an attempt to tax the colonies in order to raise money to defray the expenses of the recent war. As the colonists were not represented in Parliament they resisted this measure, declaring that TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION IS TYRANNY. The British government, however, was obstinate, and began first to enforce the odious laws against trade. Smuggling had become very common, and the English officers were granted

WRITS OF ASSISTANCE, as they were called, or warrants authorizing them to search for smuggled goods. Under this pretext any petty custom-house official could enter a man's house or store at his pleasure. The colonists believed that "every man's house is his castle," and resisted such power as a violation of their rights.

[Footnote: The matter was brought before a general court, held in Boston, where James Otis, advocate-general, coming out boldly on the side of the people, exclaimed, "To my dying day I will oppose, with all the powers and faculties God has given me, all such instruments of slavery on the one hand and villainy on the other." "Then and there," said John Adams, who was present, "the trumpet of the Revolution was sounded."]

THE STAMP ACT (1765), which ordered that stamps bought of the British government, should be put on all legal documents, newspapers, pamphlets, &c., thoroughly aroused the colonists.

[Footnote: The assembly of Virginia was the first to make public opposition to this odious law. Patrick Henry, a brilliant young lawyer, introduced a resolution denying the right of Parliament to tax America. He boldly asserted that the king had played the tyrant; and, alluding to the fate of other tyrants, exclaimed, "Caesar had his Brutus, Charles I. his Cromwell, and George III." —here pausing till the cry of "Treason! Treason!" from several parts of the house had ended, he deliberately added—"may profit by their examples. If this be treason, make the most of it."—John Ashe, speaker of the North Carolina Assembly, declared to Governor Tryon, "This law will be resisted to blood and to death."]

The houses of British officials were mobbed. Prominent loyalists were hung in effigy. Stamps were seized. The agents were forced to resign. People agreed not to use any article of British manufacture.

[Footnote: The newspapers of the day mention many wealthy people who conformed to this agreement. On one occasion forty or fifty young ladies, who called themselves "Daughters of Liberty," brought their spinning-wheels to the house of Rev. Mr. Morehead, in Boston, and during the day spun two hundred and thirty-two skeins of yarn, which they presented to their pastor. "Within eighteen months," wrote a gentleman at Newport, R.I., "four hundred and eighty-seven yards of cloth and thirty-six pairs of stockings have been spun and knit in the family of James Nixon of this town." In Newport and Boston the ladies, at their tea-drinkings, used, instead of imported tea, the dried leaves of the raspberry. They called this substitute Hyperion. The class of 1770, at Cambridge, took their diplomas in homespun suits.]

Associations, called the "Sons of Liberty," were formed to resist the law. Delegates from nine of the colonies met at New York and framed a Declaration of Rights, and a petition to the king and Parliament. The 1st of November, appointed for the law to go into effect, was observed as a day of mourning. Bells were tolled, flags raised at half-mast, and business was suspended,

[Footnote: The name was assumed from the celebrated speech of Barre on the Stamp Act, in which he spoke of the colonists as "sons of liberty."]

[Footnote: At Portsmouth, N. H., a coffin inscribed "LIBERTY, aged CXLV years," was borne to an open grave. With muffled drums and solemn tread, the procession moved from the State House. Minute guns were fired till the grave was reached, when a funeral oration was pronounced and the coffin lowered. Suddenly it was proclaimed that there were signs of life. The coffin was raised, and the inscription "Liberty Revived" added. Bells rang, trumpets sounded, men shouted, and a jubilee ensued.]

Samuel and John Adams, Patrick Henry, and James Otis, by their stirring and patriotic speeches, aroused the people over the whole land.

Alarmed by these demonstrations, the English government repealed the Stamp Act (1766), but still declared its right to tax the colonies. Soon, new duties were laid upon tea, glass, paper, &c., and a Board of Trade was established at Boston, to act independently of the colonial assemblies.

MUTINY ACT.—Anticipating bitter opposition, troops were sent to enforce the laws. The "Mutiny Act," as it was called, ordered that the colonies should provide these soldiers with quarters and necessary supplies. This evident attempt to enslave the Americans aroused burning indignation. To be taxed was bad enough, but to shelter and feed their oppressors was unendurable. The New York assembly, having refused to comply, was forbidden to pass any legislative acts. The Massachusetts assembly sent a circular to the other colonies urging a union for redress of grievances. Parliament, in the name of the king, ordered the assembly to rescind its action; but it almost unanimously refused. In the meantime the assemblies of nearly all the colonies had declared that Parliament had no right to tax them without their consent. Thereupon they were warned not to imitate the disobedient conduct of Massachusetts.

BOSTON MASSACRE.—Boston being considered the hot-bed of the rebellion, General Gage was sent thither with two regiments of troops. They entered on a quiet Sabbath morning, and marched as through a conquered city, with drums beating and flags flying. Quarters being refused, they took possession of the State House. The Common was soon crowded with tents. Cannon were planted, sentries posted, and citizens challenged. Frequent quarrels took place between the people and the soldiers. One day (March 5, 1770) a crowd of men and boys, maddened by its presence, insulted the city guard. A fight ensued, in which two citizens were wounded and three killed. The bells were rung; the country people rushed in to the help of the city; and it was with great difficulty that quiet was at last restored.

[Footnote: The soldiers were tried for murder. John Adams and Josiah Quincy, who stood foremost in opposition to British aggression, defended them. All were acquitted except two, who were found guilty of manslaughter.]

BOSTON TEA PARTY (Dec. 16, 1773).—The government, alarmed by the turn events had taken, rescinded the taxes, except that on tea—which was left to maintain the principle. An arrangement was made whereby tea was furnished at so low a price that with the tax included it was cheaper in America than in England. This subterfuge exasperated the patriots. They were fighting for a great principle, not a paltry tax. At Charleston the tea was stored in damp cellars where it soon spoiled. The tea-ships at New York and Philadelphia were sent home. The British authorities refused to let the tea-ships at Boston return. Upon this an immense public meeting was held at Faneuil Hall, and it was decided that the tea should never be brought ashore. A party of men, disguised as Indians, boarded the vessels and emptied three hundred and forty-two chests of tea into the water.

[Footnote: Faneuil Hall was the rendezvous of the Revolutionary spirits of that time—hence it has been called the "Cradle of Liberty."]

[Footnote: On their way home from the "Boston Tea Party," the men passed a house at which Admiral Montague was spending the evening. The officer raised the window and cried out, "Well, boys, you've had a fine night for your Indian caper. But, mind, you've got to pay the fiddler yet." "Oh, never mind," replied one of the leaders, "never mind, squire! Just come out here, if you please, and we'll settle the bill in two minutes." The admiral thought it best to let the bill stand, and quickly shut the window.]

[Illustration: FANEUIL HALL]

THE CLIMAX REACHED.—Retaliatory measures were at once adopted by the English government. General Gage was appointed governor of Massachusetts. The port of Boston being closed by act of Parliament, business was stopped and distress ensued. The Virginia assembly protested against this measure, and was dissolved by the governor. Party lines were drawn. Those opposed to royalty were termed Whigs, and those supporting it, Tories. Everywhere were repeated the thrilling words of Patrick Henry, "Give me liberty or give me death." Companies of soldiers, termed "Minute men," were formed. The idea of a continental union became popular. Gage, being alarmed, fortified Boston Neck, and seized powder wherever he could find it. A rumor having been circulated that the British ships were firing on Boston, in two days thirty thousand minute men were on their way to the city. A spark only was needed to kindle the slumbering hatred into the flames of war.

[Footnote: The public feeling in England wan generally against the colonies. "Every man," wrote Dr. Franklin, "seems to consider himself as a piece of a sovereign over America; seems to jostle himself into the throne with the king, and talks of our subjects in the colonies."]

[Footnote: Marblehead and Salem, refusing to profit by the ruin of their rival, offered the use of their wharves to the Boston merchants. Aid and sympathy were received from all sides. Schoharie, N. Y., sent five hundred and twenty-five bushels of wheat.]

THE FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS (Sept. 5, 1774) was held in Philadelphia. It consisted of men of influence, and represented every colony except Georgia. As yet few members had any idea of independence. The Congress simply voted that obedience was not due to any of the recent acts of Parliament, and sustained Massachusetts in her resistance. It issued a protest against standing armies being kept in the colonies without the consent of the people, and agreed to hold no intercourse with Great Britain.


BATTLE OF LEXINGTON (April 19).—General Gage, learning that the people were gathering military stores at Concord, sent eight hundred men under Col. Smith and Major Pitcairn to destroy them. The patriots of Boston, however, were on the alert, and hurried out messengers to alarm the country.

[Footnote: Paul Revere caused two lights to be hung up in the steeple of Christ Church. They were seen in Charlestown; messengers set out, and he soon followed on his famous midnight ride. (Read Longfellow's poem.)]

When the red-coats, as the British soldiers were called, reached Lexington, they found a company of minute men gathering on the village green. Riding up, Pitcairn shouted, "Disperse, you rebels; lay down your arms!" They hesitated. A skirmish ensued, in which seven Americans—the first martyrs of the Revolution—were killed.


The British pushed on and destroyed the stores. But alarmed by the gathering militia they hastily retreated. It was none too soon. The whole region flew to arms. Every boy old enough to use a rifle hurried to avenge the death of his countrymen, From behind trees, fences, buildings, and rocks, in front, flank and rear, so galling a fire was poured, that but for reinforcements from Boston, none of the British would have reached the city alive. As it was, they lost nearly three hundred men.

Effects of the Battle.—The news that American blood had been spilled flew like wild-fire. Patriots came pouring in from all sides. Putnam left his cattle yoked in the field, and without changing his working clothes, mounted his fastest horse, and hurried to Boston. Soon twenty thousand men were at work building intrenchments to shut up the British in the city. Congresses were formed in all the colonies. Committees of safety were appointed to call out the troops and provide for any emergency. The power of the royal governors was broken from Massachusetts to Georgia.

[Footnote: Israel Putnam, familiarly known as "Old Put," was born in Salem, Mass., 1718. Many stories are told of his great courage and presence of mind. His descent into the wolf's den, shooting the animal by the light of her own glaring eyes, showed his love of bold adventure; his noble generosity was displayed in the rescue of a comrade scout at Crown Point, at the imminent peril of his own life. He came out of one encounter with fourteen bullet-holes in his blanket. In 1756, a party of Indians took him prisoner, bound him to a stake, and made ready to torture him with fire. The flames were already scorching his limbs, and death seemed certain, when a French officer burst through the crowd and saved his life. At Fort Edward, when all others fled, he alone fought back the fire from a magazine in which were stored three hundred barrels of gunpowder, protected only by a thin partition. "His face, his hands, and almost his whole body, were blistered; and in removing the mittens from his hands, the skin was torn off with them." The British offered him money and the rank of major-general if he would desert the American cause; but he could neither be daunted by toil and danger, nor bribed by gold and honors.]

BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL (June 17).—The patriot leader, Gen. Ward, having learned that the British intended to fortify Bunker Hill, determined to anticipate them. A body of men, under Col. Prescott, were accordingly assembled at Cambridge, and, after prayer by the president of Harvard University, marched to Charlestown Neck. Breed's Hill was then chosen as a more commanding site than Bunker Hill. It was bright moonlight, and they were so near Boston that the sentinel's "All's well," was distinctly heard. Yet so quietly did they work that there was no alarm. At daylight the British officers were startled by seeing the redoubt which had been constructed. Resolved to drive the Americans from their position, Howe crossed the river with three thousand men, and formed them at the landing. The roofs and steeples of Boston were crowded with spectators, intently watching the troops as they slowly ascended the hill. The patriot ranks lay quietly behind their earthworks until the red-coats were within ten rods, when Prescott shouted "Fire!" A blaze of light shot from the redoubt, and whole platoons of the British fell. The survivors, unable to endure the terrible slaughter, broke and fled. They were rallied under cover of the smoke of Charlestown, which had been wantonly fired by Gage.


Again they were met by that deadly discharge, and again they fled. Reinforcements being received, the third time they advanced. Only one volley smote them, and then the firing ceased. The American ammunition was exhausted. The British charged over the ramparts with fixed bayonets. The patriots gallantly resisted with clubbed muskets, but were soon driven from the field.

[Footnote: General Warren was among the last to leave. As he was trying to rally the troops, a British officer, who knew him, seized a musket and shot him. Warren had just received his commission as major-general, but had crossed Charlestown Neel in the midst of flying balls, reached the redoubt, and offered himself as a volunteer. He was buried near the spot where he fell. By his death America lost one of her truest sons. Gage is reported to have said that his fall was worth that of five hundred ordinary rebels.]

The effect upon the Americans of this first regular battle was that of a victory. Their untrained farmer soldiers had put to flight the British veterans. All felt encouraged, and the determination to fight for liberty was intensified.

CAPTURE OF TICONDEROGA (May 10).—Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold led a small company of volunteers to surprise this fortress. As Allen rushed into the sally-port, a sentinel snapped his gun at him and fled. Making his way to the commander's quarters, Allen, in a voice of thunder, ordered him to surrender. "By whose authority?" exclaimed the frightened officer. "In the name of the Great Jehovah and the Continental Congress!" shouted Allen. No resistance was attempted. Large stores of cannon and ammunition, just then so much needed by the troops at Boston, fell into the hands of the Americans, without the loss of a single man. Crown Point was soon after as easily taken. (Map opp p. 120.)

[Footnote: Ethan Allen was a native of Connecticut. With several of his brothers he emigrated to what is now known as Vermont. At that time a dispute had arisen between the colony of New York, on the one hand, and the colonies of New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Connecticut, on the other, with reference to the territory. The governor of New Hampshire, regardless of the claims of New York, issued grants of land so extensively that the region became known as the New Hampshire grants. New York having obtained a favorable decision of the courts, endeavored to eject the occupants of the land. Ethan Allen became conspicuous in the resistance that ensued. The "Green Mountain Boys" made him their colonel, and he kept a watchful eye on the officers from New York, who sought by form of law to dispossess the settlers of farms which had been bought and made valuable by their own labor. The Revolutionary War caused a lull in these hostilities, and the Green Mountain Boys turned their arms upon the common enemy. Allen afterward aided Montgomery in his Canadian expedition, but, in a fool-hardy attempt upon Montreal, was taken prisoner and sent to England. After a long captivity he was released, and returned home. Generous and frank, a vigorous writer, loyal to his country and true to his friends, he exerted a powerful influence on the early history of Vermont.]

THE SECOND CONTINENTAL CONGRESS (May 10) met at Philadelphia in the midst of these stirring events. It voted to raise twenty thousand men, and appointed General Washington commander-in-chief. A petition to the king was also prepared, which he refused to receive. This destroyed all hope of reconciliation.


CONDITION OF THE ARMY—On Washington's arrival before Boston, he found the army to number but fourteen thousand men. Few of them were drilled; many were unfit for service; some had left their farms at the first impulse, and were already weary of the hardships of war; all were badly clothed and poorly armed, and there were less than nine cartridges to each soldier. Washington at once made every exertion to relieve their wants, and in the meantime kept Gage penned up in Boston.

EXPEDITION AGAINST CANADA—Late in the summer General Montgomery, leading an army by way of Lake Champlain, captured St. John's and Montreal, and then appeared before Quebec. Here he was joined by Colonel Arnold with a crowd of half-famished men, who had ascended the Kennebec and then struck across the wilderness.

Attack upon Quebec.—Their united force was less than one thousand effective men. Having besieged the city for three weeks it was at last decided to hazard an assault. In the midst of a terrible snow-storm they led their forces to the attack. Montgomery advancing along the river, lifting with his own hands at the huge blocks of ice, and struggling through the drifts, cheered on his men. As they rushed forward a rude blockhouse appeared through the blinding snow. Charging upon it, Montgomery fell at the first fire, and his followers, disheartened, fled. Arnold, mean while, approached the opposite side of the city. While bravely fighting he was severely wounded and borne to the rear. Morgan, his successor, pressed on the attack, but at last, unable either to retreat or advance against the tremendous odds, was forced to surrender. The remnant of the army, crouching behind mounds of snow and ice, maintained a blockade of the city until spring. At the approach of British reinforcements the Americans were glad to escape, leaving all Canada in the hands of England.

* * * * *


EVACUATION OF BOSTON (March 17).—Washington, in order to force the British to fight or run, sent a force to fortify Dorchester Heights by night. In the morning the English were once more astonished by seeing intrenchments which overlooked the city. A storm prevented an immediate attack; a delay which was well improved by the provincials. General Howe, who was then in command, remembering the lesson of Bunker Hill, decided to leave, and accordingly set sail for Halifax with his army, fleet, and many loyalists. The next day Washington entered Boston amid great rejoicing. For eleven months the inhabitants had endured the horrors of a siege and the insolence of the enemy. Their houses had been pillaged, their shops rifled, and their churches profaned.

[Footnote: The boys of Boston were wont to amuse themselves in winter by building snow-houses and by skating on a pond in the Common. The soldiers having disturbed them in their sports, complaints were made to the inferior officers, who only ridiculed their petition. At last a number of the largest boys waited on General Gage. "What!" said Gage, "have your fathers sent you here to exhibit the rebellion they have been teaching you?" "Nobody sent us," answered the leader, with flashing eye; "we have never injured your troops, but they have trampled down our snow-hills and broken the ice of our skating-pond. We complained, and they called us young rebels, and told us to help ourselves if we could. We told the captain, and he laughed at us. Yesterday our works were destroyed for the third time, and we will bear it no longer." The British commander could not restrain his admiration. "The very children," said he, "draw in a love of liberty with the air they breathe. Go, my brave boys, and be assured, if my troops trouble you again, they shall be punished."]

ATTACK ON FORT MOULTRIE (June 28).—Early in the summer an English fleet appeared off Charleston, and opened fire on Fort Moultrie.

[Footnote: This fort was built of palmetto logs, which are so soft that balls sink into them without splitting the wood. Here floated the first republican flag in the South. In the early part of the action the staff was struck by a ball, and the flag fell outside the fort. Sergeant Jasper leaped over the breastwork, caught up the flag, and springing back, tied it to a sponge-staff (an instrument for cleaning cannon after a discharge), and hoisted it again to its place. The next day Governor Rutledge offered him a sword and a lieutenant's commission. He refused, saying, "I am not fit for the company of officers; I am only a sergeant."]

So fearful was the response from Moultrie's guns, that at one time every man but Admiral Parker was swept from the deck of his vessel. General Clinton, who commanded the British land troops, tried to attack the fort in the rear, but the fire of the southern riflemen was too severe. The fleet was at last so badly shattered that it withdrew and sailed for New York. This victory gave the colonists great delight, as it was their first encounter with the boasted "Mistress of the Seas."

The simple-hearted Sergeant Jasper died grasping the banner presented to his regiment at Fort Moultrie. D'Estaing refused to give further aid; thus again deserting the Americans when help was most needed.

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE (July 4, 1776).—During the session of Congress this summer, Richard Henry Lee, of Virginia, moved that "The United Colonies are, and ought to be, free and independent states." This was passed by a majority of one colony. A committee was appointed to draw up a DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE. At two o'clock on the fourth of July, its report was adopted.

[Footnote: Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger
Sherman, and Robert R. Livingston, composed this committee.]

[Footnote: During the day the streets of Philadelphia were crowded with people anxious to learn the decision. In the steeple of the old State House was a bell on which, by a happy coincidence, was inscribed, "Proclaim liberty throughout all the land unto all the inhabitants thereof." In the morning, when Congress assembled, the bell-ringer went to his post, having placed his boy below to announce when the Declaration was adopted, that his bell might be the first to peal forth the glad tidings. Long he waited, while the deliberations went on. Impatiently the old man shook his head and repeated, "They will never do it! They will never do it!" Suddenly he heard his boy clapping his hands and shouting, "Ring! Ring!" Grasping the iron tongue, he swung it to and fro, proclaiming the glad news of liberty to all the land. The crowded streets caught up the sound. Every steeple re-echoed it. All that night, by shouts, and illuminations, and booming of cannon, the people declared their joy.]

CAMPAIGN NEAR NEW YORK.—General Howe, after evacuating Boston, went to Halifax, but soon set sail for New York. Thither also came Admiral Howe, his brother, with reinforcements from England, and General Clinton from the defeat at Fort Moultrie. The British army was thirty thousand strong. Washington, divining Howe's plans, now gathered all his forces at New York to protect that city. He had, however, only about seven thousand men fit for duty.

[Footnote: Parliament authorized the Howes to treat with the insurgents. By proclamation they offered pardon to all who would return to their allegiance. This document was published by direction of Congress, that the people might see what England demanded. An officer was then sent to the American camp with a letter addressed to "George Washington, Esq." Washington refused to receive it. The address was afterward changed to "George Washington, &c., &c." The messenger endeavored to show that this bore any meaning which might be desired. But Washington understood the sophistry and refused any communication which did not distinctly recognize his position as commander of the American army.]

BATTLE OF LONG ISLAND (Aug. 27).—The British army landed on the southwest shore of Long Island. General Putnam, with about nine thousand men, held a fort at Brooklyn and defences on a range of hills south of the city. The English advanced in three divisions. Two of these attacked the defences in front, while General Clinton, by a circuitous route, gained the rear. The patriots were fighting gallantly, when, to their dismay, they heard firing behind them. They attempted to escape, but it was too late. Out of five thousand Americans engaged, two thousand were lost.

[Footnote: Many of the captives were consigned to the Sugar House on Liberty Street, and the prison-ships in Wallabout Bay. Their hard lot made the fate of those who perished in battle to be envied. During the course of the war, over 11,000 American prisoners died in these loathsome hulks. Their bodies were buried in the beach, whence, for years after, they were washed out from the sand by every tide. In 1808, the remains of these martyrs were interred with suitable ceremonies near the Navy Yard, Brooklyn; and, in 1878, they were finally placed in a vault at Washington Park.]

(Map opposite p. 120.)

Had Howe attacked the fort at Brooklyn immediately, the Americans would have been destroyed. Fortunately he delayed for the fleet to arrive. For two days the patriots lay helpless, awaiting the assault. On the second night after the battle, there was a dense fog on the Brooklyn side, while in New York the weather was clear. At midnight the Americans moved silently down to the shore and crossed the river. In the morning, when the sun scattered the fog, Howe was chagrined to find his prey escaped.

[Footnote: The Americans embarked at a place near the present Fulton Ferry. A woman sent her negro servant to the British to inform them of the movements of the Americans. He was captured by the Hessians, who were Germans from Hesse Cassel, hired to fight by the British government. These, not being able to understand a word of English, detained him until the morning. His message was then too late.]

WASHINGTON'S RETREAT.—The British, crossing to New York, moved to attack Washington, who had taken post on Harlem Heights. Finding the American position too strong, Howe moved up the Sound in order to gain the rear. Washington then withdrew to White Plains. Here Howe came up and defeated a part of his army. Washington next retired into a fortified camp at North Castle. Howe, not daring to attack him, returned to New York and sent the Hessians to take Fort Washington, which they captured after a fierce resistance (Nov. 16).

[Footnote: Washington desiring to gain some knowledge of Howe's movements, sent Captain Nathan Hale to visit the English camps on Long Island. He passed the lines safely, but on his way back was recognized by a tory relative, who arrested him. He was taken to Howe's headquarters, tried, and executed as a spy. No clergyman was allowed to visit him; even a Bible was denied him, and his farewell letters to his mother and sister were destroyed. The brutality of his enemies did not, however, crush his noble spirit, for his last words were, "I regret only that I have but one life to give to my country."]

FLIGHT THROUGH NEW JERSEY.—Washington had now retired into New Jersey in order to prevent the British from marching against Philadelphia. Cornwallis, with six thousand men, hurried after him, and for three weeks pursued the flying Americans. Many of the patriots had no shoes, and left their blood-stained foot-prints on the frozen ground. Oftentimes the van of the pursuing army was in sight of the American rear-guard. At last Washington reached the Delaware, and all the boats having been secured, crossed into Pennsylvania. Howe resolved to wait until the river should freeze over, and then capture Philadelphia, meanwhile quartering his troops in the neighboring villages.

[Footnote: During this retreat, Washington repeatedly sent orders to General Lee, who was then at North Castle, to join him. Lee hesitated, and at last moved very slowly. Five days after this, while quartered in a small tavern at Baskingridge, remote from his troops, he was taken prisoner by the English cavalry. His capture was considered a great misfortune by the Americans, who thought him the best officer in the army. The British were greatly rejoiced, and declared they had taken the "American Palladium."]

CONDITION OF THE COUNTRY.—It was a time of deep despondency. The patriot army was a mere handful of ragged, disheartened fugitives. Many people of wealth and influence went over to the enemy. New York and Newport—the second city in size in New England—were already in the hands of the British, and they were likely soon to seize Philadelphia.

BATTLE OF TRENTON.—Washington thought it time to strike a daring blow. On Christmas night, in a driving storm of sleet, amid drifting ice, that threatened every moment to crush the boats, he crossed the Delaware with twenty-four hundred picked men, fell upon the Hessians at Trenton, in the midst of their festivities, captured one thousand prisoners, slew their leader, and safely escaped back to camp, with the loss of only four men—two killed and two frozen to death. (Map opposite p. 120.)


[Footnote: Hunt, a trader with friends and foes, a neutral, had invited Rall, the Hessian commander, to a Christmas supper. Card-playing and wine-drinking were kept up all night long. A messenger came in haste, at early dawn, with a note to the colonel. It was sent by a tory to give warning of the approach of the American forces. The negro servant refused admittance to the bearer. Knowing its importance, he bade the negro to take the note directly to the officer. The servant obeyed, but the colonel, excited by wine and the play, thrust it unopened into his pocket. Soon the roll of drums was heard, and before the pleasure-loving officer could reach his quarters the Americans were in pursuit of his fleeing soldiers.]

[Footnote: Before leaving Trenton, Washington and Greene visited the dying Hessian. It had been a time of splendid triumph to the American commander, but as he stood by the bedside, the soldier was lost in the Christian, and the victorious general showed himself in that hour only a sympathizing friend.]

The effect of this brilliant feat was electrical. The fires of patriotism were kindled afresh. New recruits were received, and the troops whose term of enlistment was expiring, agreed to remain. Howe was alarmed, and ordered Cornwallis, who was just setting sail for England, to return and prepare for a winter's campaign.

* * * * *


BATTLE OF PRINCETON (Jan. 3).—Washington soon crossed the Delaware again, and took post at Trenton. Just before sunset Cornwallis came up. His first onset being repulsed, he decided to wait till morning. Washington's situation was now most critical. Before him was a powerful army, and behind, a river full of floating ice. That night, leaving his camp-fires burning to deceive the enemy, he swept by country roads around the British, fell upon the troops near Princeton, routed them, took three hundred prisoners, and by rapid marches reached Morristown Heights in safety. Cornwallis heard the firing and hurried to the rescue, but he was too late. The victory was gained, and the victors were beyond pursuit.

These exploits won for Washington universal praise, and he was declared to be the saver of his country.

[Footnote: Washington had forty cannon. At night-fall the ground was so soft that he could not move them; but, while the council was in session, the wind changed, and in two hours the roads were as hard as pavement. Erskine urged Cornwallis to attack the Americans that night, but he said he could "catch the fox in the morning." On the morrow the fires were still burning, but the army was gone. None knew whither the patriots had fled. But at sunrise there was a sound of firing in the direction of Princeton. The report of the cannon through the keen frosty air could be distinctly heard, but Cornwallis believed it to be distant thunder. Erskine, however, exclaimed, "To arms, general! Washington has outgeneraled us. Let us fly to the rescue at Princeton!"]

[Footnote: Frederick the Great of Prussia is said to have declared that the achievements of Washington and his little band, during the six weeks following Christmas, were the most brilliant recorded on the pages of military history.]

CAMPAIGN IN PENNSYLVANIA—Howe, having spent the next summer at New York, where he was closely watched by Washington, finally took the field, and manoeuvred to force the patriot army to a general fight. Finding the "American Fabius" too wary for him, he suddenly embarked eighteen thousand men on his brother's fleet, and set sail. Washington hurried south to meet him. The patriot army numbered only 11,000, but when Washington learned that the British had arrived in the Chesapeake, he resolved to hazard a battle for the defence of Philadelphia.

[Illustration: MARQUIS DE LA FAYETTE.]

BATTLE OF BRANDYWINE (Sept. ll).—The Americans took position at Chad's Ford, on the Brandywine. Here they were attacked in front while Cornwallis stole around in the rear, as Clinton did in the battle of Long Island. Sullivan, Sterling, La Fayette, Wayne, and Count Pulaski, in vain performed prodigies of valor. The patriots were routed, Philadelphia was taken, and the British army went into quarters there and at Germantown.

[Footnote: La Fayette's full name was Marie Jean Paul Roch Yves Gilbert Motier, Marquis de la Fayette. At a banquet in honor of the brother of the English king, he first heard the Declaration of Independence. He was won by its arguments, and from that time joined his hopes and sympathies to the American cause. Yet, how was he to aid it? The French nobility, though disliking England, did not endorse the action of her colonies. He was not yet twenty years of age, he had just married a woman whom he tenderly loved, his prospects at home for honor and happiness were bright, to join the patriot army would take him from his native land, his wife, and all his coveted ambitions, and lead him into a struggle that seemed as hopeless as its cause was just. Yet his zeal for America overcame all these obstacles. Other difficulties now arose. His family objected, the British minister protested, the French king withheld his permission. Still undaunted, he purchased a vessel fitted it out at his own expense, and, escaping the officers sent to detain him, crossed the ocean. As soon as he landed at Charleston, he hastened to Philadelphia, and offering himself to Congress asked permission to serve as a volunteer without pay. A few days after, his acquaintance with Washington began, and it soon ripened into a tender and intimate friendship. His valor won for him a commission as major-general before he was twenty-one.]

[Footnote: The British army was sadly demoralized by the festivities of their winter quarters. Franklin wittily said, "Howe has not taken Philadelphia so much as Philadelphia has taken Howe."]

BATTLE OF GERMANTOWN (Oct. 4)—Washington would not let the enemies of his country rest in peace. A few weeks after they had settled down for the winter, he made a night march, and at sunrise fell upon their troops at Germantown. At first the attack was successful, but a few companies of British desperately defending a stone house caused delay. The co-operation of the different divisions was prevented by a dense fog, which also hid the confusion of the enemy, so that the Americans retreated just at the moment of victory.

[Footnote: One thousand of his men were barefoot at this time.]

CONCLUSION OF THE CAMPAIGN IN PENNSYLVANIA.—After these battles, Howe turned his attention to the forts on the Delaware, which prevented his bringing supplies up to Philadelphia. The gallant defenders were soon forced by a severe bombardment to evacuate. Washington now retired to Valley Forge for winter quarters.

CAMPAIGN AT THE NORTH.—While the British had been thus successful in Pennsylvania, their victories were more than counterbalanced by defeats at the North. An attempt to cut off New England from New York by an expedition along the old traveled French and Indian war route up Lake Champlain, ended in disaster.

[Footnote: Besides the capture of Burgoyne's army, of which we shall now speak, several minor events occurred during the year, which, though of little importance in themselves, served to encourage the people.—(1.) Howe sent General Tryon with two thousand men to destroy the American stores at Danbury, Conn. He accomplished his work, and then set fire to the town. The next day he began his retreat, plundering the people and devastating the country on his way. But the militiamen under Wooster, Arnold, and Silliman, handled his forces so roughly that they were glad to reach their boats. General Wooster, who was mortally wounded in the pursuit, was nearly seventy years of age, but fought with the vigor of youth. Two horses were shot under Arnold, and he received the fire of a whole platoon at a distance of thirty yards, yet escaped uninjured.—(2.) Colonel Meigs avenged the burning of Danbury. With about two hundred men he crossed in whale-boats to Long Island, destroyed a great quantity of stores, including twelve ships at Sag Harbor, took ninety prisoners, and escaped without losing a man. —(3.) The Americans were extremely anxious to offset the capture of General Lee, especially as they had no prisoner of equal rank to exchange for him. At this time, General Prescott, who held command in Rhode Island, finding himself surrounded by ships and a superior British force, became very negligent. Accordingly Colonel Barton formed a plan to capture him. Dexterously avoiding the enemy's vessels, he rowed ten miles in whale-boats and with about forty militia landed near Prescott's quarters. Seizing the astonished sentinel who guarded his door, they hurried off the half-dressed general. A soldier escaping from the house gave the alarm, but the laughing guard assured him he had seen a ghost. They soon, however, found it to be no jesting matter, and vainly pursued the exultant Barton. This capture was very annoying to Prescott, as he had just offered a price for Arnold's head, and his tyrannical conduct had made him obnoxious to the people. General Howe readily parted with Lee in exchange for Prescott. ]



BURGOYNE'S INVASION.—In June, Burgoyne marched south from Canada with an army of ten thousand British and Indians. Forts Crown Point, Ticonderoga, and Edward, and the supplies at Whitehall, successively fell into his hands. General Schuyler, with the small force at his command, could only obstruct his path through the wilderness by felling trees across the road, and breaking down bridges. The loss of so many strongholds caused general alarm. Lincoln—with the Massachusetts troops, Arnold—noted for his headlong valor, and Morgan—with his famous riflemen, were sent to check Burgoyne's advance. Militiamen gathered from the neighboring States, and an army was rapidly collected and drilled. So much dissatisfaction, however, arose with Schuyler that he was superseded by Gates just as he was ready to reap the results of his well-laid schemes. With noble-minded patriotism he made known to Gates all his plans, and generously assisted him in their execution. The army was now stationed at Bemis's Heights, where fortifications were thrown up under the direction of Kosciusko (kos-se-us'-ko).

[Footnote: This general was a Pole of noble birth. While in France he formed the acquaintance of Franklin, who recommended him to Washington. He came to America and offered himself "to fight as a volunteer for American independence." "What can you do?" asked the commander. "Try me," was Kosciusko's laconic reply. Washington was greatly pleased with him, and made him his aid. He became a colonel in the engineer corps, and superintended the construction of the works at West Point. After the war he returned home and led the Poles in their struggles for independence. At Cracow is a mound of earth, 150 feet high, raised in his memory. It is composed of earth brought from the battle-fields on which the Poles fought for liberty. In the new world, his name is perpetuated by a monument at West Point.]

[Footnote: The outrages of the Indians along the route led many to join the army. None of their bloody acts caused more general execration than the murder of Jane McCrea. This young lady was the betrothed of a Captain Jones of the British army. She lived near Fort Edward in the family of her brother, who, being a whig, started for Albany on Burgoyne's approach. But she, hoping to meet her lover, lingered at the house of a Mrs. McNeil, a staunch loyalist, and a cousin of the British general, Fraser. Early one morning the house was surprised by Indians, who dragged out the inmates and hurried them away toward Burgoyne's camp. Mrs. McNeil arrived there in safety. A short time after, another party came in with fresh scalps, among which she recognized the long glossy hair of her friend. The savages, on being charged with her murder, declared that she had been killed by a chance shot from a pursuing party; whereupon they had scalped her to secure the bounty. The precise truth has never been known. Captain Jones possessed himself of the sad memento of his betrothed, and resigned. The government refusing his resignation, he deserted, and for more than fifty years lived remote from society, a heart-broken man.]

BURGOYNE'S DIFFICULTIES.—In the meantime, before Gates took command, two events occurred which materially deranged the plans of Burgoyne.

1. St. Leger had been sent to take Fort Schuyler, thence to ravage the Mohawk Valley and join Burgoyne's army at Albany. General Arnold being dispatched to relieve that fort, accomplished it by a stratagem. A half-witted tory boy who had been taken prisoner, was promised his freedom, if he would spread the report among St. Leger's troops that a large body of Americans was close at hand. The boy, having cut holes in his clothes, ran breathless into the camp of the besiegers, showing the bullet-holes and describing his narrow escape from the enemy. When asked their number, he mysteriously pointed upward to the leaves on the trees. The Indians and British were so frightened that they fled precipitately, leaving their tents and artillery behind them.

[Footnote: Fort Stanwix, on the site of Rome, N. Y., in 1776 was named after Gen. Schuyler.]


2. Burgoyne sent a detachment under Colonel Baum to seize the supplies the Americans had collected at Bennington, Vt. General Stark with the militia met him there. As Stark saw the British lines forming for the attack, he exclaimed, "There are the red-coats; we must beat them today, or Molly Stark is a widow." His patriotism and bravery so inspired his raw troops that they defeated the British regulars and took about six hundred prisoners.

[Footnote: One old man had five sons in the patriot army at Bennington. A neighbor, just from the field, told him that one had been unfortunate. "Has he proved a coward or a traitor?" asked the father. "Worse than that," was the answer, "he has fallen, but while bravely fighting" "Ah," said the father, "then I am satisfied."]

THE TWO BATTLES OF SARATOGA (Sept. 19 and Oct. 7).—Disappointed in his expectation of supplies and reinforcements from both these directions, Burgoyne now moved southward and attacked Gates's army at Bemis's Heights near Saratoga. The armies surged to and fro through the day, like the ebbing and flowing of the tide. The strife did not cease until darkness closed over the battle-field. For two weeks afterward, both armies lay in camp fortifying their positions, and each watching for an opportunity to take the other at a disadvantage.

[Footnote: The British camp was kept in continual alarm. Officers and soldiers were constantly dressed and ready for action. One night, twenty young farmers residing near the camp, resolved to capture the enemy's advance picket-guard. Armed with fowling-pieces, they marched silently through the woods until they were within a few yards of the picket. They then rushed out from the bushes, the captain blowing an old horse-trumpet and the men yelling. There was no time for the sentinel's hail. "Ground your arms, or you are all dead men!" cried the patriot captain. Thinking that a large force had fallen upon them, the picket obeyed. The young farmers led to the American camp, with all the parade of regulars, over thirty British soldiers.]

Burgoyne, finding that his provisions were low and that he must either fight or fly, again moved out to attack the Americans. Arnold, who had been unjustly deprived of his command since the last battle, maddened by the sight of the conflict, rushed into the thickest of the fight. Gates, fearing that he might win fresh laurels, ordered Major Armstrong to recall him, but he was already out of reach. He had no authority to fight, much less to direct; but, dashing to the head of his old command, where he was received with cheers, he ordered a charge on the British line. Urging on the fight, leading every onset, delivering his orders in person where the bullets flew thickest, he forced the British to their camp. Here the Hessians, dismayed by these terrific attacks, fired one volley and fled. Arnold, having forced an entrance, was wounded in the same leg as at Quebec (p. 112), and borne from the field, but not until he had won a victory while Gates stayed in his tent. . .

[Footnote: So fierce was the battle, that a single cannon was taken and retaken five times. Finally, Colonel Cilly leaped upon it, waved his sword, and "dedicating the gun to the American cause," opened it upon the enemy with their own ammunition.]

[Footnote: General Fraser was the mind and soul of the British army. Morgan soon saw that this brave man alone stood between the Americans and victory. Calling to him some of his best men, he said, "That gallant officer is General Fraser. I admire and honor him; but he must die. Stand among those bushes and do your duty." In five minutes Fraser fell, mortally wounded.]

Effects of these Battles.—Burgoyne now fell back to Saratoga. Hemmed in on all sides, there was no hope of escape. Indians and tories were constantly deserting. Provisions were low and water was scarce, as no one, except the women, dared to go to the river for it. The American batteries commanded the British camp. While a council of war, held in Burgoyne's tent, was considering the question of surrender, an 18-lb. cannon-ball passed over the table around which the officers sat. Under these circumstances the decision was quickly made. The entire army, nearly six thousand strong, laid down their arms, and an American detachment marched into their camp to the tune of Yankee Doodle. General Burgoyne handed his sword to General Gates, who promptly returned it.

A shout of joy went up all over the land at the news of this victory. From the despair caused by the defeats of Brandywine and Germantown, the nation now rose to the highest pitch of confidence.


WINTER IN VALLEY FORGE.—The winter passed in Valley Forge was the gloomiest period of the war. The continental paper money was so depreciated in value that an officer's pay would not keep him in clothes. Many, having spent their entire fortune in the war, were now compelled to resign, in order to get a living. The men were encamped in cold, comfortless huts, with little food or clothing. Barefooted, they left on the frozen ground their tracks in blood. Few had blankets, and straw could not be obtained. Soldiers, who were enfeebled by hunger and benumbed by cold, slept on the bare earth. Sickness followed. With no change of clothing, no suitable food, and no medicines, death was the only relief. Amid this terrible suffering the fires of patriotism burned brightly. Washington felt that his cause was just, and inspired all around him with his sublime faith.

[Footnote: During this winter Washington was quartered at the house of Isaac Potts. One day, while Potts was on his way up the creek near by, he heard a voice of prayer. Softly following its direction, be soon discovered the General upon his knees, his cheeks wet with tears. Narrating the incident to his wife, he added with much emotion, "If there is any one to whom the Lord will listen, it is George Washington, and under such a commander, our independence is certain."—Besides all the perils of want and famine which he shared with his soldiers, Washington was called upon to suffer from envy and calumny. General Conway, a cunning, restless intriguer, formed a cabal of officers against Washington. Their plan was to wound his feelings so that he would resign. In that event Gates, whose reputation was very high, would succeed to the command. Pennsylvania sent to Congress a remonstrance censuring Washington. The same was done by members from Massachusetts. Fortunately, the army and the best citizens knew the inspiration of the movement to be jealousy, and their indignation was unbounded. Neither Conway nor Adams dared show himself among the soldiers, and the attack recoiled on the heads of its instigators—Soon after this, England sent commissioners with liberal proposals, which, before the war commenced, would have been accepted; but that day was now past. Next bribery was tried. Among those approached was General Reed of Pennsylvania. He was offered ten thousand guineas and distinguished honors if he would exert his influence to effect a reconciliation. "I am not worth purchasing," said the honest patriot, "but such as I am, the king of Great Britain is not rich enough to buy me."]


AID FROM FRANCE.—In the spring the hearts of all were gladdened by the news that, through the efforts of Franklin, France had acknowledged the Independence of the United States, and that a fleet was on its way to help them in their struggle for independence.

[Footnote: Benjamin Franklin was born in Boston, 1706, N S; died in Philadelphia, 1790. His father was a soap and candle maker, with small means, and Benjamin, being the youngest of seventeen children, had little opportunity to gratify his desire for knowledge. By abstaining from meat for two years, he managed to buy a few books, which he diligently studied. At seventeen years of age he landed in Philadelphia with a silver dollar and a shilling in copper. As, with his extra shirts and stockings stuffed in his pockets, he walked along the streets, eating the roll of bread which served for his breakfast, his future wife stood at her father's door and smiled at his awkward appearance, little dreaming of his brilliant future, or of its interest to her. He soon obtained employment as a printer. Being induced by false representations to go to England, he found himself almost penniless in a strange land. With his usual industry he went to work, and soon made friends and a good living. Returning to Philadelphia he established a newspaper, and in 1732 commenced to publish "Poor Richard's Almanac," which for twenty years was quite as popular in Europe as in America. Its common-sense proverbs and useful hints are household words to this day. Retiring from business with a fine fortune, he devoted himself chiefly to science. His discoveries in electricity are world-renowned. (See Steele's New Physics, pp. 228, 251.) Franklin was an unflinching patriot. While in England he defended the cause of liberty with great zeal and ability. He helped to draft the Declaration of Independence, and was one of its signers. Having been appointed ambassador to France, he first invested all his ready money, $15,000, in the continental loan, a practical proof of his patriotism, since its repayment was extremely improbable. His influence at the French court was unbounded. He was revered for his wit, his genius, his dignity, and his charming conversation. He became to the American cause in the old world what Washington was in the new. On his return he was elected president of Pennsylvania for three successive years. He gave the whole of his salary, $30,000, to benevolent objects. In his eighty-second year, he was a member of the Constitutional Convetion. At his death twenty thousand persons assembled to do honor to his memory.]


BATTLE OF MONMOUTH (June 28).—Howe having returned to England, Clinton succeeded him. The British government, alarmed by the sending of the French fleet, ordered Clinton to concentrate his forces at New York. Washington rapidly followed the English across New Jersey and overtook them at Monmouth. General Lee, who conducted the attack, ordered a retreat. The men, entangled in a swamp, were becoming demoralized as they retired from the field, when Washington, riding up, bitterly rebuked Lee, by his personal presence rallied the men, and sent them back against the enemy. The fight lasted all that long sultry day. In the darkness of night Clinton stole away with his men to New York.

[Footnote: Charles Lee, for his conduct at Monmouth, and his disrespectful letters to Washington, and afterward to Congress, was dismissed from the army. He retired to his estate in Virginia, where he lived in a rude house whose only partitions were chalk marks on the floor—an improvement upon walls on which he prided himself—surrounded by his dogs, his only intimate companions.]

[Footnote: During the day an artilleryman was shot at his post. His wife, Mary Pitcher, while bringing water to her husband from a spring, saw him fall and heard the commander order the piece to be removed from the field. Instantly dropping the pail, she hastened to the cannon, seized the rammer, and with great skill and courage performed her husband's duty. The soldiers gave her the nickname of Major Molly. Congress voted her a sergeant's commission with half-pay through life.]

CAMPAIGN IN RHODE ISLAND.—A combined attack on Newport was arranged to be made by the French fleet under D'Estaing (da-es-tang), and the American army under General Sullivan. Soon after the French entered Narraganset Bay, Howe arrived off the harbor with the English fleet. D'Estaing went out to meet him. A storm came on, which so shattered both fleets that they were compelled to put back for repairs. General Sullivan, being thus deserted, retreated just in time to escape Clinton, who came up from New York with reinforcements. The French gave no further aid during the year.

THE WYOMING MASSACRE.—In July, a band of tories and Indians under Butler, entered the beautiful valley of the Wyoming. Most of the able-bodied men had gone to the war. The old men and the boys armed for the defence. The women and children fled for refuge to a fort near the present site of Wilkesbarre. Taking counsel of their courage, and their helpless mothers, wives, and children, a handful of men sallied out to meet the invaders, but were quickly defeated. All that night the Indians tortured their prisoners in every way that savage cruelty could devise. The fort having been surrendered on promise of safety, Butler did his best to restrain his savage allies, but in vain. By night the whole valley was ablaze with burning dwellings, while the people fled for their lives through the wilderness.

* * * * *


CAMPAIGN AT THE SOUTH.—At the close of the preceding autumn the scene of conflict was transferred to Georgia. Savannah and Augusta were captured, and soon the entire State was conquered (map opp. p. 121). The British governor being restored, England could once more boast of a royal province among the colonies. Prevost now led the British against Charleston, S.C. He had scarcely summoned the city when he heard that Lincoln, his dreaded foe, was after him with the militia, and he was glad to escape back to Savannah. In September, D'Estaing joined Lincoln in an attack upon that city. After a severe bombardment an unsuccessful assault was made, in which a thousand lives were lost. Count Pulaski was mortally wounded.

[Footnote: Count Pulaski was a Polish patriot who, having lost his father and brothers in the hopeless defence of his country, and being himself outlawed, had come to fight for the freedom of America. At first he served as a volunteer. He fought valiantly at the battle of Brandywine. During the second year he commanded an independent corps of cavalry, lancers, and light infantry, called "Pulaski's Legion," with which he did effectual service. He was buried in the Savannah River. The corner-stone of a monument raised to his memory in Savannah, was laid by La Fayette while visiting that city during his triumphal progress through the United States.]

[Footnote: The British, discouraged by their failure to subdue the eastern and middle States, during the remainder of the war put forth their principal strength at the South.]

CAMPAIGN AT THE NORTH.—Clinton did little except to send out predatory parties. Norwalk, Fairfield, and New Haven, Conn., were either burned or plundered. Tryon, who commanded the Connecticut expedition, boasted of his clemency in leaving a single house standing on the New England coast.

[Footnote: General Putnam was at Horse Neck when Tryon was in the vicinity. Hastily gathering a few militia, he annoyed the British as long as possible, and then, compelled to flee before the enemy's overwhelming force, his men hid themselves in the adjacent swamp, while he, spurring his spirited horse over a precipice, descended a zigzag path, where the British dragoons did not dare to follow.]

THE CAPTURE OF STONY POINT by General Wayne, with only eight hundred men, was one of the most brilliant exploits of the war. The countersign, which, curiously enough, was "The fort is ours," was obtained from a negro who was in the habit of selling strawberries at the fort. He guided them in the darkness to the causeway leading over the flooded marsh around the foot of the hill, on which the fort was situated. The unsuspicious sentinel, having received the countersign, was chatting with the negro, when he was suddenly seized and gagged. Wayne's men passed over the causeway and reached the base of the hill undiscovered. Forming in two divisions, with unloaded muskets and fixed bayonets, they commenced the ascent of the steep and narrow path which led to the top. They had nearly reached the picket before they were discovered. Fire was at once opened upon them. Wayne was wounded, but commanded his aids to carry him that he might die at the head of the column. The rush of his men was irresistible. An instant more, and a deafening shout told that the fort was won. The British lost in killed, wounded, and prisoners, six hundred men.


GENERAL SULLIVAN'S EXPEDITION.—The atrocities of the Indians had kept the inhabitants of the Wyoming and Mohawk valleys in continued terror. In the summer, General Sullivan led an expedition into the Genesee country. Near Elmira, N. Y., he fought a fierce battle with the Indians and their tory allies. The latter being defeated, fled in dismay, while Sullivan marched to and fro through that beautiful region, laying waste their corn-fields, felling their orchards, and burning their houses.

[Footnote: The Indians, in the fertile country of the Cayugas and Senecas, had towns and villages regularly laid out, framed houses, some of them well finished, painted, and having chimneys, and broad and productive fields, with orchards of apple, pear, and peach trees.]

NAVAL EXPLOITS.—No American successes caused more annoyance to the British than those of the navy. In 1775, Washington fitted out several vessels to cruise along the New England coast as privateers. In the same year Congress established a naval department. Swift sailing vessels, manned by bold seamen, infested every avenue of commerce. Within three years they captured five hundred ships. They even cruised among the British isles, and, entering harbors, seized and burned ships lying at English wharves.

Paul Jones is the most famous of these naval heroes. While cruising with a squadron of five vessels off the northeast coast of England, he met the Serapis and the Countess of Scarborough convoying a fleet of merchantmen. At half-past seven in the evening of September 23, he laid his own vessel, the Bon Homme Richard, alongside the Serapis, and a desperate struggle ensued. In the midst of the engagement he lashed the ships together.

[Footnote: Jones had given this name (Goodman Richard) to his ship in honor of Dr. Franklin, whose sayings as "Poor Richard" he warmly admired.]

[Footnote: At this point the contest had been raging an hour, and
the ships had twice fallen foul of each other. The first time, the
Serapis hailed the Richard, asking if she had "struck her colors."
"I have not yet begun to fight," was the reply of Jones.]

The crews then fought hand to hand. The Richard was old and rotten. Water poured into the hold. Three times both vessels were on fire. At ten o'clock the Serapis surrendered. Meanwhile the Pallas, one of his companions, captured the Countess of Scarborough, but the other ships rendered him no aid. Indeed, the Alliance, Captain Landis, repeatedly fired into the Richard, hoping to force Jones to surrender, that Landis might then capture the Serapis and retake the Richard. As Jones's vessel was already in a sinking condition, he transferred his crew to the captured frigate, and sailed for the Texel.


CAMPAIGN AT THE SOUTH.—Georgia having been subdued, the war was now renewed in South Carolina. Charleston was attacked by land and sea. General Lincoln, after enduring a siege of forty days and a terrible bombardment, was forced to surrender. Marauding expeditions were sent out which soon overran the whole State. Clinton returned to New York, leaving Cornwallis in command.

[Footnote: One of these, under the command of the brutal Tarleton, at Waxhaw Creek, over took a body of four hundred Continental troops and a small party of cavalry under Colonel Buford. The British gave no quarter, and after the Americans surrendered, mercilessly maimed and butchered the larger portion of them.]

BATTLE AT CAMDEN (Aug. 16).—General Gates, "the conqueror of Burgoyne," now taking command of the troops at the South, marched to meet the enemy under Cornwallis near Camden. Singularly, both generals had appointed the same time to make a night attack. While marching for this purpose, the advance guards of the two armies unexpectedly encountered each other in the woods. After some sharp skirmishing, the armies waited for day. At dawn Cornwallis ordered a charge. The militia, demoralized by the fighting in the night, fled at the first fire, but De Kalb, with the continental regulars, stood firm. At last he fell, pierced with eleven wounds. His brave comrades for a time fought desperately over his body, but were overwhelmed by numbers. The army was so scattered that it could not be collected. A few of the officers met Gates eighty miles in the rear with no soldiers. All organized resistance to British rule now ceased in the South.

[Footnote: Lee met Gates on his way to join the southern army. His well-worded caution, "Beware your northern laurels do not turn to southern willows," seems almost prophetic of the Camden disaster.]

PARTISAN CORPS.—The Carolinas were full of tories. Many of them joined the British army; others organized companies that mercilessly robbed and murdered their whig neighbors. On the other hand there were patriot bands which rendezvoused (ren-da-vood) in swamps, and sallied out as occasion offered. These partisan corps kept the country in continual terror. Marion, Sumter, Pickens, and Lee, were noted patriot leaders. Their bands were strong enough to cut off British detachments, and even successfully attack small garrisons. The cruel treatment which the whigs received from the British drove many to this partisan warfare. The issue of the contest at the South was mainly decided by these bold citizen soldiers.

[Footnote: A British officer sent to negotiate concerning an exchange of prisoners, dined with Marion. The dinner consisted of roasted potatoes. Surprised at this meagre diet, he made some inquiries, when he found that this was their customary fare, and that the patriot general served without pay. This devotion to the cause of liberty so affected the officer that he resigned his commission, thinking it folly to fight such men.]

[Footnote: At Hanging Rock (Aug. 6) Sumter gained a victory over a strong body of British and tories. He began the action with only two rounds of ammunition, but soon supplied himself from the fleeing tories. Frequently, in these contests, a portion of the bands would go into a battle without guns, arming themselves with the muskets of their comrades as they fell. At King's Mountain (Oct. 7) a large body of independent riflemen, each company under its own leader, attacked Ferguson, who had been sent out to rally the tories of the neighborhood. Ferguson and one hundred and fifty of his men were killed, and the rest taken prisoners.]

[Footnote: An event which occurred in Charleston aroused the bitterest resentment. When that city was captured by the British, Colonel Isaac Hayne, with others, was paroled, but was afterwards ordered into the British ranks. At this time his wife and several of his children lay at the point of death with small-pox. The choice was given him to become a British subject or to be placed in close confinement. Agonized by thoughts of his dying family, he signed a pledge of allegiance to England, with the assurance that he should never be required to fight against his countrymen. Being afterward summoned by Lord Rawdon to join the British army, he considered the pledge annulled, and raised a partisan band. He was captured, and without being allowed a trial, was condemned to death. The citizens of Charleston vainly implored pardon for him. Lord Rawdon allowed him forty-eight hours in which to take leave of his orphan children, at the end of which time he was hanged.]

[Illustration: SUMTER.]

CONTINENTAL MONEY had now been issued by Congress to the amount of $200,000,000. At this time it was so much depreciated that $40 in bills were worth only $1 in specie. A pair of boots cost $600 in continental currency. A soldier's pay for a month would hardly buy him a dinner. To make the matter worse, the British had flooded the country with counterfeits, which could not be told from the genuine. Many persons refused to take continental money. The sufferings of the soldiers and the difficulty of procuring supplies may be readily imagined.

[Footnote: In this crisis, Robert Morris, of Philadelphia, sent three million rations. Soldiers' relief associations were organized by the women of that city. They made twenty-two hundred shirts, each inscribed with the name of the lady who sewed it.]

The Pennsylvania regiments in camp at Morristown, claiming that their time had expired, demanded their discharge. At last, 1,300 strong, they set out for Princeton to secure redress at the point of the bayonet, but a committee of Congress succeeded in satisfying them.

[Footnote: Clinton's agents went among the troops offering large rewards for desertion. The emissaries mistook their men, for the soldiers gave them up as spies.]

[Illustration: CONTINENTAL MONEY.]

ARNOLD'S TREASON.—The English did little at the North, and the condition of Washington's army prevented his making any movement. Meanwhile the cause of liberty suffered a terrible blow from one who had been its gallant defender. General Arnold, whose bravery at Quebec and Saratoga had awakened universal admiration, was stationed at Philadelphia while his wound was healing. He there married a tory lady and lived in great extravagance. By various acts of oppression, he rendered himself so odious that on one occasion he was publicly mobbed. Charges being preferred against him, he was convicted and sentenced to be reprimanded by the commander-in-chief. Washington performed the duty very gently and considerately; but Arnold, stung by the disgrace, and desperate in fortune, resolved to gratify both his revenge and love of money by betraying his country. He accordingly secured from Washington the command of West Point, at that time the most important post in America. He then proposed to Clinton, with whom he had previously corresponded, to surrender it to the British. The offer was accepted, and Major Andre appointed to confer with him. Andre ascended the Hudson, and, on the night of September 21, went ashore from the English ship Vulture to meet the traitor. Morning dawned before they had completed their plans. In the meantime, fire having been opened on the Vulture, she had dropped down the river. Andre, now left within the American lines, was obliged to make his way back to New York by land. He had reached Tarrytown in safety, when, at a sudden turn in the road, his horse's reins were seized, and three men sprang before him. His manner awakening suspicion, they searched him, and finding papers which seemed to prove him a spy, they carried him to the nearest American post. Arnold was at breakfast, when he received a note announcing Andre's capture. He called aside his wife and told her of his peril. Terrified by his words, she fainted. Kissing his boy, who lay asleep in the cradle, Arnold darted out of the house, mounted a horse, by an unfrequented path reached the river, jumped into his boat, and was rowed to the Vulture. He received, as the reward of his treachery, 6,315 pounds, a colonelcy in the English army, and the contempt of everybody. The very name, "Arnold the Traitor," will always declare his infamy. Andre was tried and hung as a spy. Every effort was made to save him, and his fate awakened universal sympathy.

[Footnote: The names of these men were Paulding, Van Wart, and Williams. Andre offered them his horse, watch, purse, and any sum they might name, if they would release him. The incorruptible patriots declared that they would not let him go for ten thousand guineas. Congress voted to each of them a silver medal and a pension for life.]

[Footnote: Arnold was thoroughly despised by the British officers, and often insulted. Many stories are told illustrative of English sentiment toward him. A member of Parliament, about to address the House of Commons, happening, as he rose, to see Arnold in the gallery, said, pointing to the traitor, "Mr. Speaker, I will not speak while that man is in the House." George the Third introduced Arnold to Earl Barcarras, one of Burgoyne's officers at Bemis's Heights. "Sire," said the proud old Earl as he turned from Arnold, refusing his hand, "I know General Arnold, and abominate traitors." When Talleyrand was about to come to America, he sought letters of introduction from Arnold, but received the reply, "I was born in America; I lived there to the prime of my life; but, alas! I can call no man in America my friend."]


THE WAR AT THE SOUTH.—General Greene, who was appointed to succeed General Gates, found the army to consist of only two thousand half-clothed, half-starved men. A part of his force, under Morgan, was attacked (January 17) at Cowpens by Tarleton. The militia fleeing, the continentals fell back to secure a better position. The British mistook this for a retreat and were rushing on in confusion, when the continentals suddenly faced about, poured in a deadly fire at only thirty yards distance, and drove them in utter rout. Tarleton fled to Cornwallis, who set out in hot haste, eager to punish the victors and recapture the prisoners. Morgan started for Virginia, and crossed the Catawba just before Cornwallis appeared in sight. Night came on, and with it rain, which raised the river so high as to keep the impatient Cornwallis waiting three days.

[Footnote: Colonel William A. Washington, in a personal combat in this battle, wounded Tarleton. Months afterward, the British officer while conversing with Mrs. Jones, a witty American lady, sneeringly said, "That Colonel Washington is very illiterate. I am told that he cannot write his name." "Ah, Colonel," replied she, "you bear evidence that he can make his mark." Tarleton expressing, at another time, his desire to see Colonel Washington, the lady replied, "Had you looked behind you at Cowpens, you might have had that pleasure."]

GREENE'S RETREAT.—General Greene now joined Morgan, and conducted the retreat. At the Yadkin, just as the Americans had reached the other side, it began to rain. When Cornwallis came up, the river was so swollen that he could not cross. He, however, marched up the stream, effected a passage, and was soon in full pursuit again. Now came a race, on parallel roads, thirty miles per day, for the fords of the Dan. Greene reached them first, and Cornwallis gave up the chase. This signal deliverance of Greene's exhausted army awoke every pious feeling of the American heart, and was a cause for general thanksgiving.

[Footnote: During this retreat, General Greene, after a hard day's ride in the rain, alighted at the door of Mrs. Elizabeth Steele, in Salisbury, N. C., announcing himself as, "fatigued, hungry, cold, and penniless." Quickly providing the honored guest with a warm supper before a cheerful fire, this patriotic woman brought forth two small bags of specie, her earnings for years. "Take these," she said; "you will want them, and I can do without them." "Never," says his biographer, "did relief come at a more needy moment; the hero resumed his dangerous journey that night with a lightened heart." Another story illustrative of the patriotism of the Southern women is told of Mrs. Motte. The British had taken possession of her house, fortified and garrisoned it. On Colonel Lee's advance, she furnished him a bow and arrows, by means of which fire was thrown upon the shingled roof. Her mansion was soon in flames. The occupants, to save their lives, surrendered.]

CAMPAIGN CLOSED.—Having rested his men, Greene again took the field, harassing the enemy by a fierce partisan warfare. At Guilford Court-House (March 15) he hazarded a battle. The militia fled again at the first fire, but the continental regulars fought as in the time of De Kalb. The Americans at last retired, but the British had bought their victory so dearly that Cornwallis also retreated. Greene again pursuing, Cornwallis shut himself up in Wilmington. Thereupon Greene turned his course to South Carolina, and with the aid of Marion, Sumter, Lee, and Pickens, nearly delivered this State and Georgia from the English. In the battle of Eutaw Springs (Sept. 8) the forces of the enemy were so crippled that they retired toward Charleston. Cornwallis, refusing to follow Greene into South Carolina, had already gone north into Virginia, and though a fierce partisan warfare still distracted the country, this engagement closed the long and fiercely fought contest at the South.

[Footnote: Congress voted the highest honors to General Greene, who, by his prudence, wisdom, and valor, had, with such insignificant forces and miserable equipments, achieved so much for the cause of liberty. He never gained a decided victory, yet his defeats bad all the effect of successes, and his very retreats strengthened the confidence of his men and weakened that of the enemy.]

[Footnote: At the battle of Eutaw, Manning, a noted soldier of Lee's legion, was in hot pursuit of the flying British, when he suddenly found himself surrounded by the enemy and not an American within forty rods. He did not hesitate, but seizing an officer by the collar, and wresting his sword from him by main force, kept his body as a shield while he rapidly backed off under a heavy fire from the perilous neighborhood. The frightened British officer when thus summarily captured, began immediately to enumerate his titles: "I am Sir Henry Barry, deputy adjutant-general, captain in 52d regiment," &c., &c. "Enough," interrupted his captor; "you are just the man I was looking for."]

THE WAR AT THE NORTH.—The traitor Arnold, burning with hatred, led an expedition into Virginia. He conducted the war with great brutality, burning private as well as public property. La Fayette was sent to check him, but with his small force could accomplish little. Cornwallis, arriving from the South, now took Arnold's place, and continued this marauding tour through the country. Clinton, however, fearing Washington, who seemed to threaten New York, directed Cornwallis to keep near the sea-coast so as to be ready to help him. Cornwallis, accordingly, after having destroyed ten million dollars worth of property, fortified himself at Yorktown.

[Footnote: Many of La Fayette's men having deserted, he set forth the baseness of such conduct, and then offered to all who desired it, a permit to go home. Not a man accepted, nor was there after this a single case of desertion. One soldier, not being able to walk, hired a cart that he might keep up with his comrades. Shoes, linen, and many other necessaries were provided at La Fayette's expense. The generosity of this general and the devotion of his soldiery seemed to vie with each other.]

SIEGE OF YORKTOWN.—It was arranged to attack Cornwallis at this place by the combined American and French forces. Washington, by a feint on New York, kept Clinton in the dark regarding his plans until he was far on his way south with the continental army.

[Footnote: During the preceding winter Robert Morris sent to the starving army several thousand barrels of flour. He now furnished nearly everything required for this expedition, issuing his own notes to the amount of $1,400,000. It is sad to know that this patriot, so often the resource of Washington, lost his fortune in his old age, and was confined in prison for debt.]

[Footnote: Washington, at this time, visited Mount Vernon which he had not seen since he left it to attend the Continental Congress in 1775. Six years and a half had nearly elapsed, yet he remained only long enough to fulfill a military engagement.]

[Footnote: Clinton sent Arnold on a pillaging tour into Connecticut in order to force Washington to return. He, however, was not to be diverted from his great enterprise, and left New England to take care of herself. New London was pillaged and burned, Arnold watching the fire from a church steeple. At Fort Griswold, the commander and half the garrison were butchered. After this fort had been taken, a British officer entering asked, "Who commands here?" "I did," said Colonel Ledyard, as he advanced to surrender his sword, "but you do now." With fiendish malignity, the officer seized the weapon and thrust it into the bosom of the brave colonel.]

On the 28th of September, the joint forces, twelve thousand strong, took up their position before Yorktown. Batteries were opened upon the city, and the vessels in the harbor fired by red-hot shells. Two redoubts were carried; one by the Americans, the other by the French. The most hearty good-will prevailed. The patriots slept in the open air that their allies might use their tents. Breaches having been made in the walls, Cornwallis saw no hope of escape and capitulated (Oct. 19).

[Footnote: Governor Nelson commanded the battery that fired first upon the British. Cornwallis and his staff were at that time occupying the governor's fine stone mansion. The patriot pointed one of his heaviest guns directly toward his house, and ordered the gunner to fire upon it with vigor. The British could not make even the home of the noble Nelson a shield against his patriotic efforts. The house still bears the scars of the bombardment.]

THE SCENE OF THE SURRENDER was most imposing. The army was drawn up in two lines, extending over a mile—the Americans on one side with General Washington at the head, and the French on the other with Count Rochambeau (ro-shong-bo). The captive army, about seven thousand in number, with slow step, shouldered arms, and cased colors, marched between them. A prodigious crowd, anxious to see Cornwallis, had assembled, but the haughty general, vexed and mortified at his defeat, feigned illness, and sent his sword by General O'Hara.

[Footnote: With a fine delicacy of feeling, Washington directed the sword to be delivered to General Lincoln, who, eighteen months before, had surrendered at Charleston.]


The Effect.—Both parties felt that this surrender virtually ended the war. Joy pervaded every patriot heart. All the hardships of the past were forgotten in the thought that America was free. The news reached Philadelphia at two o'clock A.M. The people were awakened by the watchman's cry, "Past two o'clock and Cornwallis is taken." Lights flashed through the houses, and soon the streets were thronged with crowds eager to learn the glad news. Some were speechless with delight. Many wept, and the old door-keeper of Congress died of joy. Congress met at an early hour, and that afternoon marched in solemn procession to the Lutheran church to return thanks to Almighty God.

All hope of subduing America was now abandoned by the people of England, and they loudly demanded the removal of the ministers who still counselled war. The House of Commons voted that whoever advised the king to continue hostilities should be considered a public enemy.

[Footnote: On Sunday noon, November 25, 1781, the British Cabinet received intelligence of the defeat. When Lord North, the prime minister of Great Britain, heard the disastrous news, he was greatly excited. With looks and actions indicating the deepest distress, he again and again exclaimed, "O God! it is all over."]

DIFFICULTIES OF THE COUNTRY AND ARMY.—The situation of the United States at this time was perilous. Commerce had been destroyed by the war. The currency was worthless. War had been the main business of the country for eight years, and trade, manufactures, and agriculture, had been neglected. Villages had been burned, ships destroyed, and crops laid waste. The British held Charleston over a year, and Savannah and New York about two years after the surrender at Yorktown. George III was obstinate, and war might be resumed. Yet the American army was in almost open rebellion. The soldiers, afraid they should be disbanded and sent home without pay, petitioned Congress, but received no satisfaction. The treasury was empty. At this crisis Washington was invited to become king. The noble patriot was shocked at the proposal, and indignantly spurned it. A paper having been circulated advising violent measures, Washington addressed a meeting of the officers, and besought them not to mar their fair record of patriotic service by any rash proceedings. His influence prevailed, both with the army and with Congress, and the difficulties were amicably settled.

[Footnote: As he rose he took off his spectacles to wipe them, saying, "My eyes have grown dim in the service of my country, but I have never doubted her justice."]

PEACE DECLARED.—A treaty was signed at Paris (September 3, 1783) acknowledging the independence of the United States. Soon after, the army was disbanded. Washington bade his officers an affecting farewell, and retired to Mount Vernon, followed by the thanksgiving of a grateful people.

WEAKNESS OF THE GOVERNMENT.—During the war the thirteen States had agreed upon Articles of Confederation, but they conferred little power on Congress. It could recommend, but not enforce; it could only advise action, leaving the States to do as they pleased. Bitter jealousy existed among the several States, both with regard to one another and to a general government. The popular desire was to let each State remain independent, and haye no national authority. A heavy debt had been incurred by the war. Congress had no money and could not levy taxes. It advised the States to pay, but they were too jealous of Congress to heed its requests. "We are," said Washington, "one nation to-day, and thirteen to-morrow." In New England, large bodies of men assembled, refusing to pay their taxes and openly threatening to overturn the government. This insurrection, known as Shays's Rebellion, from the name of its leader, was put down by the militia under General Lincoln.

CONSTITUTION ADOPTED.—Under these circumstances, many of the best men of the land felt the need of a stronger national government. A convention was called in Philadelphia to revise the Articles of Confederation. Washington was chosen president. After much deliberation.

[Footnote: The new constitution met with the most violent opposition. The people were divided into two parties—the Federalists and the anti-Federalists. The former favored the constitution and sought to increase the powers of the national government, and thus strengthen the Union at home and abroad. The latter wished the authority to rest with the States, opposed the constitution, were jealous of Congress, and feared too much national power lest a monarchy might be established. The nation was agitated by the most earnest and thoughtful as well as the most virulent speeches on both sides. Within the year (1788) nine States had ratified the constitution. This was the number necessary to make it binding. Rhode Inland was not represented in the convention, and did not accept the constitution until 1790.]

During the next Epoch we shall notice the growth of the country under the wise provisions of this constitution.

Summary of the History of the Third Epoch, arranged in Chronological Order.

1765. The Stamp Act passed, March 8,
1766. The Stamp Act repealed by Parliament, March 18,
1767. A tax imposed on tea, &c., June 29,
1768. The British troops arrived at Boston, September 27,
1770. Boston Massacre, March 5,
      All duties except on tea repealed, April 12,
1773. The tea thrown overboard in Boston Harbor, Dec. 16,
1774. "Boston Port Bill" passed, March 31,
      First Continental Congress met at Philadelphia, Sept. 5,
1775. Battle of Lexington, April 19,
      Ticonderoga taken by Allen and Arnold, May 10,
      Crown Point taken, May 12,
      Washington elected commander-in-chief, June 15,
      Battle of Bunker Hill, June 17,
      Washington took command of the troops before Boston,
        July 2,
      Montreal surrendered to Montgomery, November 13,
      Battle of Quebec—Montgomery killed, December 31,
1776. Boston evacuated by the British troops under Lord Howe,
        March 17,
      Attack on Fort Moultrie, June 28,
      Declaration of Independence, July 4,
      Battle of Long Island, August 27,
      Battle of White Plains, October 28,
      Fort Washington taken, November 16,
      Washington's retreat through New Jersey, November
        and December,
      Battle of Trenton, December 26,
1777. Battle of Princeton, January 3,
      Murder of Miss McCrea, July 27,
      Battle of Bennington, August 16,
      Battle of Brandywine, September 11,
      First battle of Saratoga, September 19,
      Philadelphia captured by the British, September 25,
      Battle of Germantown, October 4,
      Second battle of Saratoga, October 7,
      Surrender of Burgoyne, October 17,
1778. American Independence acknowledged by France, Feb. 6
      Battle of Monmouth, June 28
      Massacre of Wyoming, July 3
      French fleet arrived in Narraganset Bay, July 29
      British captured Savannah, Ga., December 29
1779. Stony Point captured by General Wayne, July 15
      Sullivan defeated the tories and Indians near Elmira,
        N. Y., August 29
      Paul Jones's victory, September 23
      Savannah besieged by the Americans and the French,
        September and October
      D'Estaing and Lincoln repulsed at Savannah, October 9
1780. Charleston surrendered to the British, May 12
      Battle of Hanging Rock, S. C., August 6
      Battle of Camden, August 16
      Andre executed, October 2
      Battle of King's Mountain, October 7
1781. Richmond burned by Arnold, January 5
      Battle of the Cowpens, January 17
      Greene's celebrated retreat, January and February
      Battle of Guilford Court House, March 15
      Battle of Eutaw Springs, September 8
      Surrender of Cornwallis, October 19
1783. Savannah evacuated by the British, July 11
      Treaty of Peace signed at Paris, September 3
      New York evacuated by the British, November 25
      Washington resigned his commission, December 23
1787. Shays's Rebellion in Massachusetts
      Constitution of the United States adopted in Convention,
        September 17
1788. Constitution adopted by nine States

* * * * *


Lossing's Field Book of the Revolution.—Spencer's History of
the United States—Garden's Anecdotes of the Revolution.—Grace
Greenwood's Forest Tragedy.—Campbell's Gertrude of Wyoming (Poem).
—Halleck's Wyoming (Poem).—Simms's Life of Marion; also his
Series of Historical Tales.—Bryant's Song of Marion's Men and
Seventy-Six (Poems).—Magoon's Orators of American Revolution.
—Headley's Washington and his Generals.—Wirt's Life of Patrick
Henry.—G. W. Greene's Historical View of American Revolution and
Life of General Greene.—Parton's Life of Benjamin
Franklin—Longfellow's Paul Revere's Ride and Pulaski's
Banner (Poems).—Headley's Life of La Fayette—Hawthorne's
Ticonderoga (Twice Told Tales)—Mrs Ellet's Women of the American
Revolution—Watson's Camp Fires of the Revolution—Raymonds Women
of the South—Sabine's Loyalists of the American Revolution—Lee's
War in the Southern Department—Drake's American Flag
(Poem)—Streets Concord, Bennington, and American Independence
(Poems)—Dwight's Columbia (Poem)—Washington's Farewell
Address—The Declaration of Independence (see Appendix)—Sears's
History of the American Revolution—Freneau's Poems—Life of
General Joseph Reed, by Wm. B. Reed—Cooper's novels (The Spy, The
Pilot and Lionel Lincoln)—Motley's Horton's Hope and Paulding's
Old Continental (novel)—Winthrop Sargent's Life of Andre and
Loyalist Poetry of the Revolution—Moore's Songs and Ballads and
Diary of the Revolution—Whittier's Rangers (Poem)—Hawthorne's
Septimius Felton (Fiction)—Winthrop's Edwin Brothertoft
(fiction)—Barnes's Brief History of France—Barnes's Popular
History of United States—Harper's Magazine, vol 50, p 777, Art The
Concord Fight, vol 51, p 230, Art, Echoes of Bunker Hill vol 53 p
1, Art, Virginia in the Revolution vol 55, 511 Art, Battle of
Benmngton—Atlantic Monthly, vol 37, p. 466, Art, The Siege of
Boston—Martin's Civil Government

TERRITORIAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE UNITED STATES (see Map of VIth Epoch)—The Treaty with Great Britain (Sept 3, 1783) fixed the boundaries of the United States as the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico the Mississippi River, and the Great Lakes From this however, was to be excluded Florida, which belonged to Spain and the part of Louisiana east of the Mississippi. The Thirteen Colonies occupied only a narrow strip along the Atlantic sea-board. Pennsylvania was a frontier State, with Pittsburg as an advanced military post. The interior of the continent as far as the Mississippi was called the Wilderness. These broad lands belonged to the States individually, since the original English grants extended from the Atlantic to the Pacific (See second note, p 40) They were finally generously given up to the general government of the young confederacy (See second note, p 194, and article on Public Lands, Harper's Magazine vol 42, p 219) In 1787, the great legion north of the Ohio was organized into the Northwestern Territory (See notes, p 201) This was slowly settled. As late as 1819 even the Terntory of Michigan was thought to be a "worthless waste" The Province of Louisiana was purchased of France in 1803 (p 156) Little was known of the country thus acquired, and that same year it was said "The Missouri has been navigated for 2500 miles, there appears a probability of a communication by this channel with the Western Ocean" The famous expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clarke (see Barnes's Popular History of United States, p 360) in 1804-5 gave the first accurate information concerning this vast territory. Florida was purchased of Spain (p 173) by a treaty proposed Feb 22, 1819 though not signed by the King of Spam until Oct 20,1820, while the United States did not obtain full possession before July 17,1821. (These facts account for the different dates assigned to this purchase in the various histories.) The treaty with Spain which secured Florida, also relinquished all Spanish authority over the region west of the Rocky Mountain, claimed by the United States as belonging to the Louisiana purchase, but not previously acknowledged by Spain. This is of special importance since many maps giving the Spanish version, extend Louisiana only to the Rocky Mountains (the map of the VIth Epoch is based on the one in the United States Census of 1870). In the beginning of the war of 1812, a strip of coast about fifty miles wide lying between Florida and Louisiana, considered by Spain as a part of Florida had been taken by the United States under the claim that it also belonged to the Louisiana purchase. Texas was annexed in 1845 (p 205, and also Scribner's Magazine, vol 16 p 868). The Mexican cession of 1848 gave the United States California and several other States (p 206-8). Alaska, the latest acquisition, was purchased in 1867.



* * * * *

From 1787—the Adoption of the Constitution,
To 1861—the Breaking Out of the Civil War.

* * * * *


WASHINGTON'S INAUGURATION (April 30, 1789).—In the choice of the first President of the United States, all hearts turned instinctively to Washington. With deep regret, he left his quiet home at Mount Vernon for the tumults of political life. His journey to New York was a continual ovation. Crowds of gayly-dressed people bearing baskets and garlands of flowers, and hailing his appearance with shouts of joy, met him at every village. On the balcony of old Federal Hall, New York City, he took the oath to support the Constitution of the United States. Difficulties beset the new government on every hand. The treasury was empty, and the United States had no credit. The Indians were hostile. Pirates from the Barbary States attacked our ships, and American citizens were languishing in Algerine dungeons. Spain refused us the navigation of the Mississippi. England had not yet condescended to send a minister to our government, and had made no treaty of commerce with us. We shall see how wisely Washington and his cabinet met these difficulties.

[Footnote: New York was only temporarily the capital. At the second session of Congress the seat of government was transferred to Philadelphia, where it was to remain for ten years, and then (1800) be removed to the District of Columbia, a tract of land ten miles square ceded for this purpose by Maryland and Virginia. Here a city was laid out in the midst of a wilderness, containing only here and there a small cottage. In 1800 it had eight thousand inhahitants. The "Father of his country" laid the cornerstone of the capitol (1793). The part of this District on the Virginia side of the Potomac was (1846) ceded hack to that State.]

[Footnote: George Washington was born February 22, 1732; died December 14, 1799. Left fatherless at eleven years of age, his education was directed by his mother, a woman of strong character, who kindly, but firmly, exacted the most implicit obedience. Of her, Washington learned his first lessons in self-command. Although bashful and hesitating in his speech, his language was clear and manly. Having compiled a code of morals and good manners for his own use, he rigidly observed all its quaint and formal rules. Before his thirteenth year he had copied forms for all kinds of legal and mercantile papers. His manuscript school-books, which still exist, are models of neatness and accuracy. His favorite amusements were of a military character; he made soldiers of his playmates, and officered all the mock parades. Grave, diffident, thoughtful, methodical, and strictly honorable, such was Washington in his youth. He inherited great wealth, and the antiquity of his family gave him high social rank. On his Potomac farms he had hundreds of slaves, and at his Mount Vernon home he was like the prince of a wide domain, free from dependence or restraint. He was fond of equipage and the appurtenances of high life, and although he always rode on horseback, his family had a "chariot and four," with "black postilions in scarlet and white livery." This generous style of living, added perhaps to his native reserve, exposed him to the charge of aristocratic feeling. While at his home, he spent much of his time in riding and hunting. He rose early, ate his breakfast of corn-cake, honey, and tea, and then rode about his estates; his evenings he passed with his family around the blazing hearth, retiring between nine and ten. He loved to linger at the table, cracking nuts and relating his adventures. In personal appearance, Washington was over six feet in height, robust, graceful, and perfectly erect. His manner was formal and dignified. He was more solid than brilliant, and had more judgment than genius. He had great dread of public life, cared little for books, and possessed no library. A consistent Christian, he was a regular attendant and communicant of the Episcopal Church. A firm advocate of free institutions, he still believed in a strong government and strictly enforced laws. As President, he carefully weighed his decisions, but, his policy once settled, pursued it with steadiness and dignity, however great the opposition. As an officer, he was brave, enterprising, and cautious. His campaigns were rarely startling, but always judicious. He was capable of great endurance. Calm in defeat, sober in victory, commanding at all times, and irresistible when aroused, he exercised equal authority over himself and his army. His last illness was brief, and his closing hours were marked by his usual calmness and dignity. "I die hard," said he, "but I am not afraid to go." Europe and America vied in tributes to his memory. Said Lord Brougham, "Until time shall be no more, a test of the progress which our race has made in wisdom and virtue will be derived from the veneration paid to the immortal name of Washington." Washington left no children. It has been beautifully said, "Providence left him childless that his country might call him Father."]


[Footnote: Three executive departments were now established—the
Department of Foreign Affairs (now the Department of State), the
Department of War, and the Department of the Treasury. The heads of
these departments were called Secretaries, and, with the
Attorney-General, formed the President's cabinet.]

[Footnote: Questions on the Geography of the Fourth Epoch—Names of
places in italic letter may be found on map, Epoch VI. Locate New York
Philadelphia Baltimore Boston Washington Detroit York St Johns
Montreal Plattsburg Fort Schlosser Sackett's Harbor Frenchtown
Chappewa Stonington New Orleans Charleston Sacramento San
Francisco Palmyra Santa Fe Nauvoo Mount Vernon Queenstown
Heights Chrysler's Field Horseshoe Bend Lundy's Lane

Locate Fort Malden Fort Erie Fort Meigs Fort Stephenson Fort Mimms
(Mims) Fort McHenry Fort King Fort Brown

Describe the Maumee River Hudson River Tippecanoe River Niagara
River St Lawrence River Raisin River Thames River Columbia
Rio Grande River Nueces River Locate Sandusky Bay Lake
Champlain Tampa Bay

Locate Palo Alto Point Isabel Resaca de la Palma Matamoras Monterey
Buena Vista Vera Cruz Puebla Cerro Gordo The Cordilleias Contieras
Mexico Cuba Havana]

DOMESTIC AFFAIRS.—Finances.-By the advice of Alexander Hamilton, secretary of the treasury, Congress agreed to assume the debts contracted by the States during the Revolution, and to pay the national debt in full. To provide funds, taxes were levied on imported goods and the distillation of spirits. A mint and a national bank were established at Philadelphia. By these measures the credit of the United States was put upon a firm basis.

[Footnote: The credit of these plans belongs to Hamilton. Daniel Webster has eloquently said of him, "He smote the rock of the national resources, and abundant streams of revenue burst forth. He touched the dead corpse of public credit, and it sprang upon its feet."]

Whisky Rebellion (1794).—Great opposition was made to raising money by taxation. In western Pennsylvania it was agreed that no tax should be paid on whisky. The rioters were so numerous and so thoroughly organized that fifteen thousand of the militia were ordered out to subdue them. Finding the government in earnest, the malcontents laid down their arms.


Indian Wars.—Two armies sent against the Indians of the northwest were defeated. At last General Wayne—"Mad Anthony"—was put in command. Little Turtle, the Indian chief, now advised peace, declaring that the Americans had "a leader who never slept." But his counsel was rejected, and a desperate battle was fought on the Maumee (Aug. 20, 1794). Wayne routed the Indians, chased them a great distance, laid waste their towns for fifty miles, and at last compelled them to make a treaty whereby they gave up all of what is now Ohio and part of Indiana.

[Footnote: He told them, it is said, that if they ever violated this agreement he would rise from his grave to fight them. He was long remembered by the western Indians.]

FOREIGN AFFAIRS.—England.—Hardly had the war closed when complaints were made in England that debts could not be collected in America. On the other hand the Americans charged that the British armies had carried off their negroes, that posts were still held on the frontier, and that our seamen were impressed. Chief Justice Jay was sent as envoy extraordinary to England. He negotiated a treaty, which was ratified by the Senate (1795), after violent opposition.

[Footnote: This treaty enforced the payment of the English debts, but did not in turn forbid the impressment of American seamen. Its advocates were threatened with personal violence by angry mobs. Hamilton was stoned at a public meeting. Insults were offered to the British minister, and Jay was burned in effigy. The more quiet people expressed their indignation by passing resolutions condemning the action of the Senate.]

Spain and Algiers.—The same year a treaty was made with Spain, securing to the United States the free navigation of the Mississippi, and fixing the boundary of Florida, still held by that nation. Just before this, a treaty had been concluded with Algiers, by which our captives were released and the Mediterranean commerce was opened to American vessels.

France.—The Americans warmly sympathized with France, and when war broke out between that country and England, Washington had great difficulty in preserving neutrality. He saw that the true American policy was to keep free from all European alliances. Genet (je-nay), the French minister, relying on the popular feeling, went so far as to fit out, in the ports of the United States, privateers to prey on British commerce. He also tried to arouse the people against the government. At length, at Washington's request, Genet was recalled. But, as we shall see, the difficulty did not end.

POLITICAL PARTIES.—During the discussion of these various questions two parties had arisen. Jefferson, Madison, and Randolph became leaders of the republican party, which opposed the United States Bank, the English treaty, and the assumption of the State debts. Hamilton and Adams were the leaders of the federalist party, which supported the administration.

[Footnote: John Randolph of Roanoke was not prominent in the republican party until a later administration, being elected representative in 1799. He was a descendant of Pocahontas, of which fact he often boasted, and was noted for his keen retorts, reckless wit, and skill in debate. His tall, slender, and cadaverous form, his shrill and piping voice, and his long, skinny fingers—pointing toward the object of his invective—made him a conspicuous speaker. For thirty years, says Benton, he was the "political meteor" of Congress.]

[Footnote: The federalists favored the granting of power to the general government, which they thought should be made strong. The republicans, fearing lest the republic should become a monarchy and the President a king, opposed this idea and advocated State rights. In this election the republicans were accused of being friends of France, and the federalists of being attached to Great Britain and its institutions. The republicans declared themselves to be the only true friends of the people, and stigmatized all others as aristocrats and monarchists.]

Washington having declined to serve a third term, now issued his famous farewell address. So close was the contest between the rival parties that Adams, the federalist candidate, was elected President by a majority of only two electoral votes over Jefferson, the republican nominee.

* * * * *


[Footnote: John Adams was born 1735; died 1826. He was a member of the first and the second Congress, and nominated Washington as commander-in-chief. Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence, but Adams secured its adoption in a three-days debate. He was a tireless worker, and had the reputation of having the clearest head and firmest heart of any man in Congress. In his position as President he lost the reputation he had gained as Congressman. His enemies accused him of being a bad judge of men, of clinging to old unpopular notions, and of having little control over his temper. They also ridiculed his egotism, which they declared to be inordinate. He lived, however, to see the prejudice against his administration give place to a juster estimate of his great worth and exalted integrity. As a delegate to the Constitutional Convention he was honored as one of the fathers of the republic. Adams and Jefferson were firm friends during the Revolution, but political strife alienated them. On their return to private life they became reconciled. They died on the same day—the fiftieth anniversary of American independence. Adams's last words were, "Thomas Jefferson still survives." Jefferson was, however, already lying dead in his Virginia home. Thus, by the passing away of these two remarkable men, was made memorable the 4th of July, 1826.]


Domestic Affairs.—Alien and Sedition Laws.—Owing to the violent denunciations of the government by the friends and emissaries of France, the alien and sedition laws were passed. Under the former, the President could expel from the country any foreigner whom he deemed injurious to the United States; under the latter, any one libelling Congress, the President, or the government, could be fined or imprisoned. This was a most unpopular measure, and excited the bitterest feeling.

FOREIGN AFFAIRS.—France.—French affairs early assumed a serious aspect. Our flag was insulted, our vessels were captured, and our envoys were refused audience by the French Directory unless a bribe should be paid. The news of this insult aroused the nation, and the friends of France were silenced. Orders were issued to raise an army, of which Washington was appointed commander-in-chief. Hostilities had commenced on the sea, when Napoleon became the First Consul of France and the war was happily arrested.

[Footnote: Charles C. Pinckney—our envoy to France—is reported to have indignantly replied, "Millions for defence, but not one cent for tribute."]

POLITICAL PARTIES.—An intense party feeling prevailed during the entire administration. The unpopularity of the alien and sedition laws, especially, reduced the vote for Adams, the federal candidate for re-election, and the republican nominee, Jefferson, became the next President.

* * * * *


[Footnote: Thomas Jefferson was born 1743; died 1826. "Of all the public men who have figured in the United States," says Parton, "he was incomparably the best scholar and the most variously accomplished man." He was a bold horseman, a skilful hunter, an elegant penman, a fine violinist, a brilliant talker, a superior classical scholar, and a proficient in the modern languages. On account of his talents he was styled "The Sage of Monticello." That immortal document, the Declaration of Independence, was, with the exception of a few words, entirely his work. He was an ardent supporter of the doctrine of State rights, and led the opposition to the federalists. After he became President, however, he found the difficulty of administering the government upon that theory. "The executive authority had to be stretched until it cracked, to cover the purchase of Louisiana;" and he became convinced on other occasions that the federal government, to use his own expression, must "show its teeth." Like Washington, he was of aristocratic birth, but his principles were intensely democratic. He hated ceremonies and titles; even "Mr" was distasteful to him. These traits were the more remarkable in one of his superior birth and education, and peculiarly endeared him to the common people. Coming into power on a wave of popularity, he studiously sought to retain this favor. There were no more brilliant levees or courtly ceremonies as in the days of Washington and Adams. On his inauguration day he dressed in plain clothes, rode unattended down to Congress, dismounted, hitched his horse, and went into the chamber to read his fifteen-minutes inaugural. Some of the sentences of that short but memorable address have passed into proverbs. The unostentatious example thus set by the nation's President was wise in its effects. Soon the public debt was diminished, the treasury was replenished, and the army and navy were reduced. A man of such marked character necessarily made bitter enemies, but Jefferson commanded the respect of even his opponents, while the admiration of his friends was unbounded. The last seventeen years of his life were passed at Monticello, near the place of his birth. By his profuse hospitality, he had, long before his death, spent his vast estates. He died poor in money, but rich in honor. His last words were, "This is the fourth day of July."]


DOMESTIC AFFAIRS.—Purchase of Louisiana (1803).—The most important event of Jefferson's administration was the purchase of Louisiana from Napoleon. Over one million square miles of land and the full possession of the Mississippi were obtained for $15,000, 000 (see map, VIth Epoch).

[Footnote: This territory (p. 90) was ceded back to France in 1800. From it we have since carved five States, four Territories, and parts of three States and three Territories.]

Aaron Burr, the Vice-President, was Alexander Hamilton's bitter rival, both in law and in politics, and at last challenged him to a duel. Hamilton accepted. The affair took place at Weehawken (July 11, 1804). Hamilton fell at the first fire, on the very spot where his eldest son had been killed shortly before, in the same manner. His death produced the most profound sensation. Burr afterward went west and organized an expedition with the avowed object of forming a settlement in northern Mexico. Being suspected, however, of a design to break up the Union and found a separate confederacy beyond the Alleghanies, he was arrested and tried (1807) on a charge of treason. Although acquitted for want of proof, he yet remained an outcast.

[Footnote: While awaiting his trial, Burr was committed to the common jail. There, among its wretched inmates, stripped of all his honors, lay the man who once lacked but a single vote to make him President of the United States.]

[Footnote: Closely connected with Burr's conspiracy is the romantic story of Blennerhassett. He and his beautiful wife. Having settled on an island in the Ohio Kiver, they had transformed the wilderness into a garden of beauty, and every luxury and refinement which wealth or culture could procure clustered about their homes. Into this paradise came Burr, winning their confidence, and engaging them in his plans. On his downfall, Biennerhassett as arrested. When finally acquitted everything had been sold, the grounds turned into a hemp field, and the mansion into a store-house.]

Fulton's Steamboat.—The year 1807 was made memorable by the voyage from New York to Albany of Robert Fulton's steamboat, the Clermont. For years the Hudson could boast of having the only steamboat in the world.



War with Tripoli.—The Barbary States, of which Tripoli is one, for many years sent out cruisers which captured vessels of all Christian nations, and held their crews as slaves until ransomed. The United States, like the European nations, was accustomed to pay annual tribute to these pirates to secure exemption from their attacks. The Bashaw of Tripoli became so haughty that he declared war (1801) against the United States. Jefferson sent a fleet which blockaded the port and repeatedly bombarded the city of Tripoli. The frightened Bashaw was at last glad to make peace.

[Footnote: During this blockade a valiant exploit was performed by Lieutenant Decatur. The frigate Philadelphia had unfortunately grounded and fallen into the enemy's hands. Concealing his men below he entered the harbor with a small vessel which he warped alongside the Philadelphia, in the character of a ship in distress. As the two vessels struck, the pirates first suspected his design. Instantly he leaped aboard with his men, swept the affrighted crew into the sea, set the ship on fire, and amid a tremendous cannonade from the shore escaped without losing a man.]

England and France.—During this time England and France were engaged in a desperate struggle. England tried to prevent trade with France, and, in turn, Napoleon forbade all commerce with England. As the United States were neutral, they did most of the carrying trade of Europe. Our vessels thus became the prey of both the hostile nations. Besides, England claimed the right of stopping American vessels on the high seas, to search for seamen of English birth, and press them into the British navy. The feeling, already deep, was intensified when the British frigate Leopard fired into the American frigate Chesapeake, off the coast of Virginia.

The American vessel, being wholly unprepared for battle, soon struck her colors. Four of the crew, three being Americans by birth, were taken, on the pretence that they were deserters. Jefferson immediately ordered all British vessels of war to quit the waters of the United States. Though England disavowed the act, no reparation was made. An embargo was then laid by Congress on American vessels, forbidding them to leave port. This was so injurious to our commerce that it was removed, but all intercourse either with England or France was forbidden.

[Footnote: The American doctrine was that a foreigner naturalized became an American citizen; the British, Once an Englishman always an Englishman]


POLITICAL PARTIES.—While the country was in this feverish state, Jefferson's second term expired. James Madison, the republican candidate, who was closely in sympathy with his views, was elected as his successor by a large majority. The republicans were generally in favor of a war with England. The federalists, however, were a strong minority, and throughout this administration bitterly opposed the war policy of the republicans.

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[Footnote: James Madison was born in Virginia in 1751; died 1836. Entering Congress in 1789, he became one of the strongest advocates of the Constitution, and did much to secure its adoption. From his political principles he was obliged, though reluctantly, to oppose Washington's administration, which he did in a courteous and temperate manner. He led his party in Congress, where he remained till 1797. The next year he drafted the famous "1798-99 Resolutions," enunciating the doctrine of State rights, which, with the accompanying "Report" in their defence, have been the great text-book of the democratic party. He was Secretary of State to Jefferson. After his Presidential services, he retired from public station. Madison's success was not so much the result of a great national ability as of intense application and severe accuracy. His mind was strong, clear, and well-balanced, and his memory was wonderful. Like John Quincy Adams, he had laid up a great store of learning, which he used in the most skilful manner. He always exhausted the subject upon which he spoke. "When he had finished, nothing remained to be said." His private character was spotless. His manner was simple, modest, and uniformly courteous to his opponents. He enjoyed wit and humor, and told a story admirably. His sunny temper remained with him to the last. Some friends coming to visit him during his final illness, he sank smilingly back on his couch, saying: "I always talk better when I lie." It has been said of him: "It was his rare good fortune to have a whole nation for his friends."]


DOMESTIC AFFAIRS.—Battle of Tippecanoe (November 7, 1811). —British emissaries had been busy arousing the Indians to war. Tecumseh, a famous chief, seized the opportunity to form a confederacy of the northwestern tribes. General Harrison having been sent against them with a strong force, was treacherously attacked by night near the Tippecanoe. The Indians, however, were routed with great slaughter.

FOREIGN AFFAIRS.—England.—This war greatly aroused the people of the West against England. The impressment of our seamen and the capture of our ships continued. The British government went so far as to send war vessels into our waters to seize our ships as prizes. The American frigate President having hailed the British sloop-of-war Little Belt, received a cannon-shot in reply. The fire was returned, and the sloop soon disabled; a civil answer was then returned. The British government refusing to relinquish its offensive course, all hope of peace was abandoned. Finally (June 19th, 1812), war was formally declared against Great Britain.

[Footnote: Madison, whose disposition was very pacific, hesitated so long, that one of the federalists declared in Congress that "he could not be kicked into a fight." This expression passed into a proverb.]


SURRENDER OF DETROIT (August 16).—As in the previous wars, it was determined to invade Canada. General William Hull accordingly crossed over from Detroit and encamped on Canadian soil. While preparing to attack Fort Malden (mahl-den), he learned that the enemy were gathering in great force, and had already captured Fort Mackinaw. He, therefore, retreated to Detroit. The British under General Brock and the Indians under Tecumseh followed thither, and landing, advanced at once to assault the fort at that place. The garrison was in line, and the gunners were standing with lighted matches awaiting the order to fire, when Hull, apparently unnerved by the fear of bloodshed, ordered the white flag—a table-cloth—to be raised. Amid the tears of his men, it is said, and without even stipulating for the honors of war, he surrendered not only Detroit, with its garrison and stores, but the whole of Michigan.



BATTLE OF QUEENSTOWN HEIGHTS (October 13).—Late in summer, another attempt was made to invade Canada. General Van Rensselaer (ren'-se-ler) finding that his men were eager for a fight, sent a small body across the Niagara River to attack the British at Queenstown Heights. The English were driven from their position, and General Brock was killed. General Van Rensselaer now returned to the American shore to bring over the rest of the army; but the militia denying the constitutional right of their commander to take them out of the State, refused to embark. Meantime their comrades on the Canadian shore, thus basely abandoned, after a desperate struggle, were compelled to surrender.

NAVAL VICTORIES.—These signal disgraces by land were in striking contrast to the successes on the sea.

Constitution and Guerriere (August 19).—The fight off the coast of Massachusetts, between the American frigate Constitution (popularly called Old Ironsides) and the Guerriere (gayre-e-ayre) is memorable. The latter vessel opened fire first. Captain Isaac Hull refused to answer until he had brought his ship into the exact position he desired, when he poured broadside after broadside into his antagonist, sweeping her deck, shattering her hull, and cutting her masts and rigging to pieces. The Guerriere soon became unmanageable, and was forced to surrender. She was so badly injured that she could not be brought into port; while the Old Ironsides, in a few hours, was ready for another fight.

[Footnote: "Captain Hull sent an officer to take possession of the Guerriere. When he arrived alongside, he demanded of the commander of the English frigate if he had struck. Dacres was extremely reluctant to make this concession in plain terms, but, with a shrewdness which would have done honor to a Yankee, endeavored to evade the question. 'I do not know that it would be prudent to continue the engagement any longer,' said he. 'Do I understand you to say that you have struck?' inquired the American lieutenant. 'Not precisely,' returned Dacres; 'but I don't know that it will be worth while to fight any longer.' 'If you cannot decide, I will return aboard,' replied the Yankee, 'and we will resume the engagement.' 'Why, I am pretty much hors de combat already,' said Dacres; 'I have hardly men enough left to work a gun, and my ship is in a sinking condition.' 'I wish to know, sir,' peremptorily demanded the American officer, 'whether I am to consider you as a prisoner of war or an enemy. I have no time for further parley.' 'I believe there is now no alternative. If I could fight longer, I would with pleasure; but I—must surrender—myself—a prisoner of war!'"]

[Footnote: Nephew of General Hull. His bravery retrieved the name from its disgrace.]

Frolic and Wasp (October 13).—The next noted achievement was the defeat of the English brig Frolic by the sloop-of-war Wasp, off the coast of North Carolina. When the former was boarded by her captors, her colors were still flying, there being no one to haul them down. The man at the helm was the only sailor left on deck unharmed.

Other victories followed. Privateers scoured every sea, inflicting untold injury on the British commerce. During the year over three hundred prizes were captured.

[Illustration: Capture of the Frolic.]

The Effect of these Naval Victories was to arouse enthusiasm and inspire confidence. Volunteer corps were rapidly formed. Madison was re-elected, thus stamping his war policy with the popular approval.


PLAN OF THE CAMPAIGN.—Three armies were raised: (I) the Army of the Centre, under General Dearborn, on the Niagara River; (2) the Army of the North, under General Hampton, along Lake Champlain; and (3) the Army of the West, under General Harrison, of Tippecanoe fame. All three were ultimately to invade Canada. Proctor was the British general, and Tecumseh had command of his Indian allies.

[Footnote: When the British heard that Dearborn had sailed away from Sackett's Harbor with the fleet, they immediately made an attack on that place. They were bravely repulsed by General Brown and a few regulars.]

THE ARMIES OF THE CENTRE AND NORTH did but little. General Dearborn attacked York, General Pike gallantly leading the assault. Unfortunately, in the moment of success the magazine blew up, killing Pike and making sad havoc among his men. Dearborn did nothing, and soon after resigned. General Wilkinson, his successor, was directed to descend the St. Lawrence in boats, and join General Hampton in an attack on Montreal. At Chrysler's Field he repulsed the British, but owing to a disagreement with General Hampton he returned. (Map opp. p. 160.) General Hampton went north as far as St. John's, where he was defeated by the British. He then made the best of his way back to Plattsburg, where, in the winter, he was joined by General Winchester's men. Thus ingloriously ended the campaign of these two armies.

ARMY OF THE WEST.—A detachment of General Harrison's men was captured at Frenchtown, on the River Raisin, by Proctor, who then besieged Harrison himself at Fort Meigs (megz). Repulsed here, Proctor stormed Fort Stephenson, garrisoned by only one hundred and fifty men under Major Croghan, a young man of twenty-one. Beaten again, he returned to Malden. As yet, however, the British held Michigan and threatened Ohio, and the Americans had been as unsuccessful this year as they were the preceding, when a glorious triumph on Lake Erie gave a new aspect to the campaign.

[Footnote: This party was stationed on the Maumee, under General Winchester. Having learned that the people of Frenchtown feared an attack from the Indians, he allowed his military judgment to yield to his humanity, and marched to their relief. He defeated the enemy, but was soon attacked by a body of fifteen hundred British and Indians under Proctor. Winchester, being captured in the course of the battle, agreed to the surrender of his men under the solemn promise that their lives and property should be safe. Proctor, however, immediately returned to Maiden with the British, leaving no guard over the American wounded. Thereupon the Indians, maddened by liquor and the desire for revenge, mercilessly tomahawked many, set fire to the houses in which others lay, and carried the survivors to Detroit, where they were dragged through the streets and offered for sale at the doors of the inhabitants. Many of the women of that place gave for their ransom every article of value which they possessed. The troops were Kentuckians, and the war-cry of their sons was henceforth "Remember the Raisin."—The great object of the Indians in battle was to get scalps, Proctor paying a regular bounty for every one. They were therefore loth to take prisoners. Proctor, brutal and haughty, was a fit leader under a government that would employ savages in a civilized warfare.]

PERRY'S VICTORY (September 10).—When Captain Perry, then only twenty-seven years old, was assigned the command of the flotilla on Lake Erie, the British were undisputed masters of the lake, while his fleet was to be, in part, made out of the trees in the forest. By indefatigable exertion he got nine vessels, carrying fifty-four guns, ready for action, when the British fleet of six vessels and sixty-three guns bore down upon his little squadron.

[Footnote: Perry had never seen a naval battle, while Captain Barclay, the British commander, was one of Nelson's veterans, and had lost an arm in the service.]

Perry's flag-ship, the Lawrence, engaged two of the heaviest vessels of the enemy, and fought them till but eight of his men were left. He helped these to fire the last gun, and then leaping into a boat bore his flag to the Niagara. He had to pass within pistol-shot of the British, who turned their guns directly upon him; and though he was a fair mark for every shot, he escaped without injury. Breaking through the enemy's line, and firing right and left, within fifteen minutes after he mounted the deck of the Niagara the victory was won. Perry at once wrote to General Harrison, "We have met the enemy, and they are ours." This laconic despatch produced intense excitement throughout the country. Upon the result of this battle depended, as we shall see, important issues.

[Footnote: From its mast-head floated a blue pennant, bearing the words of the dying Lawrence, "Don't give up the ship." (See p. 166)]

BATTLE OF THE THAMES.—Proctor and Tecumseh were at Maiden with their motley array of British and Indians, two thousand strong, waiting to lay waste the frontier. Harrison, at Sandusky Bay, was nearly ready to invade Canada, and at the news of this victory pushed across the lake. Landing at Maiden, which he found deserted, Harrison hotly pursued the flying enemy and overtook them on the River Thames (temz). Having drawn up his troops, he ordered Colonel Johnson, with his Kentucky horsemen, to charge the English in front. Dashing through the forest, they broke the enemy's line, and forming in their rear, prepared to pour in a deadly fire. The British surrendered, but Proctor escaped by the swiftness of his horse. Johnson then pushed forward to attack the Indians. In the heat of the action, a bullet, said to have been fired by Johnson himself, struck Tecumseh. With his death the savages lost all hope, and fled in confusion.

Effect.—This victory, with Perry's, relieved Michigan, gave control of Lake Erie, and virtually decided the war. General Harrison returned amid the plaudits of the nation.

NAVAL BATTLES.—The American navy achieved some brilliant successes during the year, but was not uniformly victorious.

Chesapeake and Shannon.—Captain Lawrence, of the Hornet, having captured the British brig Peacock, on his return was placed in command of the Chesapeake, the ill-starred frigate which struck her flag to the Leopard off the coast of Virginia. While refitting his vessel at Boston, a challenge was sent him to fight the Shannon, then lying off the harbor. Lawrence, although part of his crew were discharged, and the unpaid remainder were almost mutinous, consulted only his own heroic spirit, and at once put to sea. The action was brief. A hand-grenade bursting in the Chesapeake's arm-chest, the enemy took advantage of the confusion, and boarded the vessel. A scene of carnage ensued. Lawrence, mortally wounded, was carried below. As he left the deck he exclaimed, "Don't give up the ship." But the feeble crew were soon overpowered, and the colors hauled down.

WAR WITH THE CREEKS.—Tecumseh had been (1811) among the Alabama Indians, and had aroused them to take up arms against the Americans. They accordingly formed a league (1813), and fell upon Fort Mimms, massacring the garrison and the defenceless women and children. (Map opp. p. 160.) Volunteers flocked in from all sides to avenge this horrid deed. Under General Jackson they drove the Indians from one place to another, until they took refuge on the Horseshoe Bend, where they fortified themselves for the last battle (March 27, 1814). The soldiers, with fixed bayonets, scaled their breastwork. The Creeks fought with the energy of despair, but six hundred of their number were killed, and those who escaped were glad to make peace on any terms.

[Footnote: An event occurred on Jackson's march which illustrates his iron will. For a long time his soldiers suffered extremely from famine, and at last they mutinied. General Jackson rode before the ranks. His left arm, shattered by a ball, was disabled, but in his right he held a musket. Sternly ordering the men back to their places, he declared he would shoot the first who advanced. No one stirred, and soon all returned to their duty.]

RAVAGES ON THE ATLANTIC COAST.—Early in the spring the British commenced devastating the southern coast. Admiral Cockburn, especially, disgraced the British navy by conduct worse than that of Cornwallis in the Revolution. Along the Virginia and Carolina coast he burned bridges, farm-houses, and villages; robbed the inhabitants of their crops, stock, and slaves; plundered churches of their communion services, and murdered the sick in their beds.

[Footnote: New England was spared because of a belief that the northern States were unfriendly to the war and would yet return to their allegiance to Great Britain.]

[Illustration: MILLER AT LUNDY'S LANE]


Battle of Lundy's Lane (July 25).—The American army, under General Brown, crossed the Niagara River once more, and for the last time invaded Canada. Fort Erie having been taken, General Winfield Scott, leading the advance, attacked the British at Chippewa (July 5), and gained a brilliant victory. A second engagement was fought at Lundy's Lane, opposite Niagara Falls. (Map opp. p. 160.) Here, within sound of that mighty cataract, occurred one of the bloodiest battles of the war. General Scott had only one thousand men, but he maintained the unequal contest until dark. A battery, located on a height, was the key to the British position. Calling Colonel Miller to his side, General Brown asked him if he could take it. "I'll try, sir," was the fearless reply. Heading his regiment, he steadily marched up the height and secured the coveted position. Three times the British rallied for its re-capture, but as many times were hurled back. At midnight they retired from the field. This victory, though glorious to the American army, was barren of direct results.

BATTLE OF LAKE CHAMPLAIN (September ll).—All but fifteen hundred of the troops at Plattsburg had gone to reinforce General Brown. Prevost, the commander of the British army in Canada, learning this fact, took twelve thousand veteran soldiers, who had served under Wellington, and marched against that place. As he advanced to the attack, the British fleet on Lake Champlain assailed the American squadron under Commodore McDonough.

[Footnote: One of his vessels he had built in twenty days, from trees growing on the bank of the lake.]

The attacking squadron was nearly annihilated. The little army in Plattsburg, by their vigorous defence, prevented Prevost from crossing the Saranac River. When he found that his ships were lost, he fled precipitately, leaving his sick and wounded, and large quantities of military stores.

RAVAGES ON THE ATLANTIC COAST.—The British blockade extended this year to the north. Commerce was so completely destroyed that the lamps in the light-houses were extinguished as being of use only to the English. Several towns in Maine were captured. Stonington, Conn., was bombarded. Cockburn continued his depredations along the Chesapeake. General Ross marched to Washington (Aug. 24) and burned the capitol, the Congressional library, and other public buildings and records, with private dwellings and storehouses. He then sailed around by sea to attack Baltimore. The army having disembarked below the city (Sept. 12), moved against it by land, while the fleet bombarded Fort McHenry from the river. The troops, however, met with a determined resistance, and, as the fleet had made no impression on the fort, soon retired to their ships.

[Footnote: While the British troops were marching toward Baltimore, General Ross rode forward with a part of his staff, to reconnoitre. Two mechanics, who were in a tree watching their advance, fired upon them, and Ross fell mortally wounded. The two patriots were instantly shot.]

[Footnote: During the bombardment of Fort McHenry, Francis S. Key. an American detained on board of an English vessel, wrote the national song, "The Star Spangled Banner."]

The greatest excitement was produced by these events. Every seaport was fortified; the militia were organized, and citizens of all ranks labored with their own hands in throwing up defences. Bitter reproaches were cast upon the administration because of its mode of conducting the war. Delegates from New England States met at Hartford (December 15) to discuss this subject. The meeting was branded with odium by the friends of the administration, and to be called a "Hartford Convention Federalist" was long a term of reproach.

PEACE, as afterward appeared, was made even before the convention adjourned. The treaty was signed at Ghent, December 24. Before, however, the news had reached this country, a terrible, and, as it proved, unnecessary battle had been fought in the South.

BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS (January 8, 1815).—A powerful fleet and a force of twelve thousand men, under General Pakenham, undertook the capture of New Orleans. General Jackson, anticipating this attempt, had thrown up intrenchments several miles below the city. The British advanced steadily, in solid columns, heedless of the artillery fire which swept their ranks, until they came within range of the Kentucky and Tennessee riflemen, when they wavered. Their officers rallied them again and again. General Pakenham fell in the arms of the same officer who had caught General Ross as he fell at Baltimore.

[Footnote: Jackson at first made his intrenchments in part of cotton-bales, but a red-hot cannon-ball having fired the cotton and scattered the burning fragments among the barrels of gunpowder, it was found necessary to remove the cotton entirely. The only defence of the Americans in this battle was a bank of earth, five feet high, and a ditch in front.]

[Footnote: The British were tried and disciplined troops, while very few of the Americans had ever seen fighting. Besides, the British were nearly double their number. But our men were accustomed to the use of the rifle, and were the best marksmen in the world.]

Neither discipline nor bravery could prevail. General Lambert, who succeeded to the command, drew off his men in the night, hopelessly defeated, after a loss of over two thousand; while the American loss was but seven killed and six wounded.


RESULTS OF THE WAR.—The treaty left the question of impressment unsettled, yet it was tacitly understood, and was never revived. The national debt was $127,000,000, but within twenty years it was paid from the ordinary revenue. The United States had secured the respect of European nations, since our navy had dared to meet, and often successfully, the greatest maritime power in the world. The impossibility of any foreign ruler gaining a permanent foothold on our territory was shown. The fruitless invasion of Canada by the militia, compared with the brave defence of their own territory by the same men, proved that the strength of the United States consisted in defensive warfare. Extensive manufactories were established to supply the place of the English goods cut off by the blockade. This branch of industry continued to thrive after peace, though for a time depressed by the quantity of English goods thrown on the market. The immediate evils of the war were apparent: trade ruined, commerce gone, no specie to be seen, and a general depression. Yet the wonderful resources of the country were shown by the rapidity with which it entered upon a new career of prosperity.

[Footnote: The Algerines had taken advantage of the war with England to renew their depredations on American commerce. Decatur, in May, 1815, was sent with a squadron to right matters in that quarter. Proceeding to Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli, he obtained the liberation of American prisoners, and full indemnity for all losses, with pledges for the future. The United States was the first nation effectually to resist the demands of the Barbary pirates for tribute.]

POLITICAL PARTIES.—When Madison's term of office expired, the federalist party had been broken up by its opposition to the war. James Monroe, the Presidential candidate of the republican party, was almost unanimously elected. He was generally beloved, and all parties united in his support.


Monroe's administration was one of general prosperity. After the ravages of war, the attention of all was turned to the development of the internal resources of the country and to the building up of its industries.

[Footnote: James Monroe was born 1758; died 1831. As a soldier under General Washington, he bore a brave record, and especially distinguished himself in the battles of Brandywine, Germantown, and Monmouth. Afterward, he studied law, and entered political life. Having been sent by Washington as Minister to France, he showed such marked sympathy with that country as to displease the President and his cabinet, who were just concluding a treaty with England, and wished to preserve a strictly neutral policy; he was therefore recalled. Under Jefferson, who was his warm friend, he was again sent to France (1803), when he secured the purchase of Louisiana. He is said to have always taken particular pride in this transaction, regarding his part in it as among the most important of his public services. Soon after his inauguration as President, he visited all the military posts in the north and east, with a view to a thorough acquaintance with the capabilities of the country in the event of future hostilities. This tour was a great success. He wore a blue military coat of homespun, light—colored breeches, and a cocked hat, being the undress uniform of a Revolutionary officer. The nation was thus reminded of his former military services. This, with his plain and unassuming manners, completely won the hearts of the people, and brought an overwhelming majority to the support of the administration. Monroe was a man more prudent than brilliant, who acted with a single eye to the welfare of his country. Jefferson said of him: "If his soul were turned inside out, not a spot would be found on it." Like that loved friend, he died "poor in money, but rich in honor;" and like him also, he passed away on the anniversary of the independence of the country he had served so faithfully.]


DOMESTIC AFFAIRS. The Missouri Compromise.—When the admission of Missouri as a State was proposed, a violent discussion arose as to whether it should be free or slave. Through the efforts of Henry Clay, it was admitted as a slave state (1821), under the compromise that slavery should be prohibited in all other territories west of the Mississippi and north of parallel 36 degrees 30 minutes—the southern boundary of Missouri.

[Footnote: The question of slavery was already one of vast importance. At first slaves were owned in the northern as well as the southern States. But at the North, slave labor was unprofitable, and it had gradually died out; while at the South it was a success, and hence had steadily increased. In 1793, Eli Whitney, of Connecticut, invented the cotton-gin, a machine for cleaning cotton from the seed, an operation before performed by hand, and very expensive. (Read Barnes's Pop. Hist, of the U. S., p 346.) This gave a new impulse to cotton-raising. Sugar and tobacco, also great staples of the South, were cultivated exclusively by slave labor.]

La Fayette's Visit to this country (1824) as "the nation's guest" was a joyous event. He traveled through each of the twenty-four States, and was everywhere welcomed with delight. His visit to the tomb of Washington was full of affectionate remembrance. He was carried home in a national vessel, the Brandywine, named in honor of the battle in which La Fayette first drew his sword in behalf of the colonies.

FOREIGN AFFAIRS.—Florida.—By a treaty (1819), Spain now ceded
Florida to the United States. (See p. 146.)

Monroe Doctrine.—In one of President Monroe's messages he advocated a principle since famous as the Monroe Doctrine. He declared that any attempt by a European nation to gain dominion in America would be considered by the United States as an unfriendly act.

POLITICAL PARTIES.—Divisions now became apparent in the great party which had twice so triumphantly elected Monroe as President. The whig party, as it came to be called in Jackson's time, was forming in opposition to the republican—thenceforth known as the democratic party. The whigs were in favor of a protective tariff, and a general system of internal improvements; the democrats opposed these. No one of the four candidates obtaining a majority of votes, the election went to the House of Representatives, where John Quincy Adams, son of John Adams, was chosen.

[Footnote: John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay were the champions of the whigs; Andrew Jackson and John C. Calhoun, of the democrats. In 1834, the democrats began to be called "Locofocos," because, at a meeting in Tammany Hall, the lights having been put out, were relighted with locofoco matches, which several, expecting such an event, had carried in their pockets.]

[Footnote: A protective tariff is a duty imposed on imported goods for the purpose of encouraging their manufacture at home. By internal improvements are meant the improving of the navigation of rivers, the building of bridges and railroads, the dredging of harbors, etc.]


[Footnote: John Quincy Adams was born in Massachusetts, 1767; died 1848. He was a man of learning, of blameless reputation and unquestioned patriotism, yet as a President he was hardly more successful than his father. This was, doubtless, owing greatly to the fierce opposition which assailed him from the friends of disappointed candidates, who at once combined to weaken his measures and prevent his re-election. Their candidate was Andrew Jackson, a man whose dashing boldness, energy, and decision attracted the popular masses, and hid the more quiet virtues of Adams. To add to his perplexities, a majority of the House, and nearly one-half of the Senate, favored the new party, his own Vice-President, John C. Calhoun, being the candidate of the opposition, and of course committed to it. To stem such a tide was a hopeless effort. In two years Adams was returned to Congress, where he remained until his death, over sixteen years afterward. Ten years of public service were thus rendered after he had passed his "threescore years and ten," and so great was his ability in debate at this extreme age, that he was called "the old man eloquent." Like his father, he was a wonderful worker, and his mind was a complete storehouse of facts. He lived economically, and left a large estate. He was the congressional advocate of anti-slavery, and a bitter opponent of secret societies. His fame increased with his age, and he died a trusted and revered champion of popular rights. He was seized with paralysis while occupying his seat in Congress, after which he lingered two days in partial unconsciousness. His last words were—"This is the last of earth; I am content."]

(SIXTH PRESIDENT: 1825-1829)


This was a period of great national prosperity. During this term the first railroad in the United States was completed, and the Erie Canal opened. The debt was fast diminishing, and there was a surplus of $5,000,000 in the treasury. A protective tariff, known as the "American System," reached its height. It was popular at the east, but distasteful to the south.

[Footnote: The southern States, devoted to agricultural pursuits, desired to have foreign goods brought to them as cheaply as possible; while the eastern States, engaged in manufactures, wished to have foreign competition shut off by heavy duties.]

Adams was a candidate for re-election, but Andrew Jackson, the hero of New Orleans, and the democratic nominee, was chosen. The principle of a protective tariff was thus rejected by the people.


[Footnote: Andrew Jackson was born 1767; died 1845. He was of Scotch-Irish descent. His father died before he was born, leaving his mother very poor. As a boy, Andrew was brave and impetuous, passionately fond of athletic sports, but not at all addicted to books. His life was crowded with excitement and adventure. At fourteen, being captured by the British, he was ordered to clean the commander's boots. Showing the true American spirit in his refusal, he was sent to prison with a wound on head and arm. Here he contracted the smallpox, which kept him ill for several months. Soon after his mother had effected his exchange, she died of ship-fever while caring for the imprisoned Americans at Charleston. Left destitute, young Jackson tried various employments, but finally settled down to the law, and in 1796 was elected to Congress. His imperious temper and inflexible will supplied him with frequent quarrels. He first distinguished himself as a military officer in the war against the Creek Indians. His dashing successes in the war of 1812 completed his reputation, and ultimately won him the Presidency. His nomination was at first received in many States with ridicule, as, whatever might be his military prowess, neither his temper nor his ability recommended him as a statesman. His re-election, however, proved his popular success as President. His chief intellectual gifts were energy and intuitive judgment. He was thoroughly honest, intensely warm-hearted, and had an instinctive horror of debt. His moral courage was as great as his physical, and his patriotism was undoubted. He died at the "Hermitage," his home near Nashville, Tennessee.—Jackson and Adams were born the same year, yet how different was their childhood. One born to luxury and travel, a student from his earliest years, and brilliantly educated; the other born in poverty, of limited education, and forced to provide for himself. Yet they were destined twice to compete with each other for the highest place in the nation. Adams, the first time barely successful, was unfortunate in his administration; Jackson, triumphing the second, was brilliant in his Presidential career.]


President Jackson commenced his administration with an inflexible honesty that delighted all, but with a sturdiness of purpose that amazed both friends and foes. He surrounded himself at once by his political friends, thus establishing the now popular principle of "rotation in office."

[Footnote: "During the first year of his administration, there were nearly seven hundred removals from office, not including subordinate clerks. During the forty years preceding, there had been but sixty-four."]

DOMESTIC AFFAIRS.—Nullification.—South Carolina (1832) passed a Nullification ordinance declaring the tariff law "null and void," and that the State would secede from the Union if force should be employed to collect any revenue at Charleston. President Jackson acted with his accustomed promptness. He issued a proclamation announcing his determination to execute the laws, and ordered troops, under General Scott, to Charleston.

[Footnote: John C. Calhoun and Robert Y. Hayne were the prominent advocates of the doctrine of "State rights," which declared that a State could set aside an act of Congress. During this struggle occurred the memorable debate between Webster and Hayne, in which the former, opposing secession, pronounced those words familiar to every school-boy, "Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable." Calhoun's public life extended over forty years. He was one of the most celebrated statesmen of his time. As a speaker he was noted for forcible logic, clear demonstration, and earnest manner. He rejected ornament, and rarely used illustration. Webster, his political antagonist, said of him, "He had the indisputable basis of all high character, unspotted integrity, and honor unimpeached. Nothing grovelling, low, or meanly selfish came near his head or his heart."]

In the mean time Henry Clay's celebrated "Compromise Bill" was adopted by the Senate. This measure offering a gradual reduction of the tariff, was accepted by both sides and quiet restored.

[Footnote: Alexander H. Stephens says: "To do this, Clay had to break from his old political friends, while he was offering up the darling system of his heart on the altar of his country. No one can deny that he was a patriot—every inch of him. When he was importuned not to take the course he did, and assured that it would lessen his chances for the Presidency, he nobly replied, 'I would rather be right than President'—a sentiment worthy to be the motto of every young patriot in our land."]

[Illustration: BANK OF THE UNITED STATES (now the Custom House).]

Bank of the United States.—During his first term, Jackson vetoed a bill renewing the charter of the United States Bank. After his re-election by an overwhelming majority, considering his policy sustained by the people, he ordered (1833) the public money to be removed from its vaults. The bank thereupon contracted its loans, money became scarce, and people being unable to pay their debts, commercial distress ensued. Jackson's measure excited violent clamor, but he was sustained by the democratic majority in the House of Representatives.

Speculations.—When the public money, which had been withdrawn from the Bank of the United States, was deposited in the local banks, it became easy to borrow money. Speculation extended to every branch of trade but especially to western lands. New cities were laid out in the wilderness. Fabulous prices were charged for building lots, which existed only on paper. Scarcely a man could be found who had not his pet project for realizing a fortune. The bitter fruits of these hot- house schemes were gathered in Van Buren's time.

[Illustration: Andrew Jackson]

Indian Troubles. 1. broke out in the Northwest Territory (1832). The Sacs and Foxes had some time before sold their lands to the United States, but when the settlers came to take possession, the Indians refused to leave. After some skirmishes they were driven off, and their leader, the famous Black Hawk, was captured. 2. THE FLORIDA WAR (1835) with the Seminoles grew out of an attempt to remove them, in accordance with a treaty, to lands west of the Mississippi. Osceola, the chief of the Seminoles, was so defiant, that General Thompson, the government agent, put him in irons. Dissembling his wrath, Osceola consented to the treaty. But no sooner was he released than, burning with indignation, he plotted a general massacre of the whites. General Thompson was shot and scalped while sitting at dinner, under the very guns ol Fort King. The same day Major Dade, with over one hundred men, was waylaid near the Wahoo Swamp. All but four were killed, and these afterward died of their wounds.

[Footnote: Osceola, in October, 1837, visited the camp of General
Jessup, under a flag of truce. He was there seized and sent to Fort
Moultrie, where he died the following year.]

After several battles the Indians retreated to the everglades of southern Florida, in whose tangled swamps they hoped to find a safe retreat. They were, however, pursued into their hiding-places by Colonel Taylor, and beaten in a hard-fought battle (Okechobee, Dec. 25, 1837), but were not fully subdued until 1842.

FOREIGN AFFAIRS.—France.—The French government had promised to pay $5,000,000 for damages to our commerce during Napoleon's wars. This agreement not being kept, Jackson urged Congress to make reprisals on French ships. The mediation of England secured the payment of the debt by France, and thus averted the threatened war.

POLITICAL PARTIES.—The democratic candidate, Martin Van Buren, was
chosen President. The people thus supported the policy of
Jackson—no United States Bank and no Protective Tariff. General
Harrison was the whig candidate.

[Footnote: No Vice-President being chosen by the people, Colonel R.
M. Johnson was selected by the Senate. ]


[Footnote: Martin Van Buren was born 1782; died 1862. He early took an interest in politics, and in 1818 started a new organization of the democratic party of New York, his native State, which had the power for over twenty years. In 1831 he was appointed minister to England, whither he went in September, but when the nomination came before the Senate in December, it was rejected, on the ground that he had sided with England against the United States, on certain matters, and had carried party contests and their results into foreign negotiations. His party regarded this as extreme political persecution, and the next year elected him to the Vice-Presidency. He thus became the head of the Senate which a few months before condemned him, and where he now performed his duties with "dignity, courtesy, and impartiality." ]

(EIGHTH PRESIDENT: 1837-1841.)

DOMESTIC AFFAIRS.—Crisis of 1837.—The financial storm which had been gathering through the preceding administration, now burst with terrible fury. The banks contracted their circulation. Business men could not pay their debts. Failures were every-day occurrences, and the losses in New York city alone, during March and April, exceeded $100,000,000. Property of all kinds declined in value. Eight of the States failed, wholly or in part. Even the United States government could not pay its debts. Consternation seized upon all classes. Confidence was destroyed, and trade stood still.

[Footnote: As a President, Van Buren was the subject of much partisan censure. The country was passing through a peculiar crisis, and his was a difficult position to fill with satisfaction to all. That he pleased his own party is proved from the fact of his re-nomination in 1840 against Harrison. In 1848 he became the candidate of the "free democracy," a new party advocating anti-slavery principles. After this he retired to his estate in Kinderhook, N. Y, where he died.]

[Footnote: The direct causes of this were (1) the specie circular, which was issued by Jackson in 1836, just at the close of his last term, directing that payments for public lands should be made in gold and silver. The gold and silver was soon gathered into the United States treasury. (2) The surplus public money, amounting to about $28,000,000, which was ordered by Congress to be withdrawn from the local banks and distributed among the States. The banks could not meet the demand. (3) During the season of high prices and speculation, when fortunes were easily made, there had been heavy importations of European goods, which had to be paid for in gold and silver. Thus the country was drained of its specie. (4) A terrible fire in the city of New York on the night of Dec. 16, 1835, which had burned 600 valuable stores, and property to the amount of $18,000,000.]

[Footnote: At the present time the public money is kept in the United States treasury at Washington, and in sub-treasuries. This was Van Buren's favorite idea, and only adopted by Congress at the close of his term. It was called the Sub-Treasury Bill, and was used as a great argument againbt Van Buren's re-election. It was repealed during Tyler's administration, but re-enacted under Polk.]


Foreign Affairs.-The "Patriot War" (1837-8).—The Canadian rebellion against England, at this time, stirred the sympathies of the American people. Meetings were held, volunteers offered, and arms contributed. The President issued a proclamation refusing the protection of the United States government to any who should aid the Canadians, and sent General Scott to the frontier to preserve the peace.

[Footnote: A body of American sympathizers having taken possession of Navy Island in Niagara River, had hired a steamer, called the Caroline, to convey their provisions and war materials. On the night of December 29, 1837, a party of British troops attempted to seize this vessel at Schlosser. A desperate fight ensued; but the ship was, at last, set on fire and left to drift over the Falls. This event caused great excitement at the time.]

The Northeast Boundary between Maine and New Bruns—wick had never been settled. The people of that region threatened to take up arms to support their respective claims. For some time there was great peril of a war with England. During Tyler's administration the difficulty was adjusted by what is known as the Ashburton treaty (1842), which was negotiated between the United States and Great Britain; Daniel Webster and Lord Ashburton acting as commissioners.

POLITICAL PARTIES.—The financial difficulties caused a change in political feeling, and for the time weakened the confidence of the people in the wisdom of the democratic policy. Van Buren failed of a re-election, and General Harrison, the hero of Tippecanoe, the whig nominee, was chosen President by an immense majority.

* * * * *


[Footnote: William Henry Harrison was born in 1773; died 1841 He distinguished himself during the war of 1812, especially in the battle of the Thames. His military reputation made him available as a Presidential candidate. His character was unimpeachable, and the chief slur cast upon him by his opponent was that he had lived in a "log cabin" with nothing to drink but "hard cider." His friends turned this to good account. The campaign was noted for immense mass-meetings, long processions, song-singing, and great enthusiasm. "Hard cider" became a party watch-word, and "log cabins" a regular feature in the popular parades. Harrison was elected by a large majority, and great hopes were entertained of his administration. Though advanced in years, he gave promise of endurance. But "he was beset by office-seekers; he was anxious to gratify the numerous friends and supporters who flocked about him; he gave himself incessantly to public business; and at the close of the month he was on a sick-bed." His illness was of eight-days duration. His last words were, "The principles of the government; I wish them carried out. I ask nothing more."

John Tyler was born 1790; died 1862. He was in early life a great admirer of Henry Clay, and is said to have wept with sorrow when the whigs in convention rejected his favorite candidate for the Presidency, and selected Harrison. He was nominated Vice-President by a unanimous vote, and was a great favorite with his party. In the popular refrain, "Tippecanoe and Tyler too," the people sung praises to him as heartily as to Harrison himself. The death of Harrison and the succession of Tyler, was the first instance of the kind in our history.

Tyler's administration was not successful. He opposed the measures of his party, and made free use of the veto power. His former political friends denounced him as a renegade, to which he replied that he had never professed to endorse the measures which he opposed. The feeling increased in bitterness, and all his cabinet finally resigned. He was, however, nominated for the next Presidency by a convention composed chiefly of office-holders; he accepted, but finding no popular support, soon withdrew. In 1861 he became the presiding officer of the peace convention in Washington. All efforts at reconciliation proving futile, he renounced his allegiance to the United States and followed the Confederate fortunes. He died in Richmond where he was in attendance as a member of the Confederate Congress.]


General Harrison had scarcely entered upon the duties of his office and selected his cabinet, when he died. John Tyler, the Vice-President, in accordance with the Constitution of the United States, became President. He was elected as a whig, but did not carry out the favorite measures of his party.

DOMESTIC AFFAIRS.—United States Bank.—The whigs, immediately upon coming into power, passed a bill to establish a United States Bank, but it was vetoed by Tyler, to the great disgust of the men who had elected him.

The Suffrage Difficulties, commonly known as "Dorr's Rebellion," grew out of efforts to secure a more liberal constitution in the State of Rhode Island. The charter granted by Charles II was still in force. It limited the right of suffrage to those holding a certain amount of property, and fixed very unequally the number of deputies in the Assembly from the different towns. In 1841, a new constitution was adopted, the vote being taken in mass conventions, and not by the legal voters, according to the charter. Under this constitution, T. W. Dorr was elected governor. The old government still went on, treating his election as illegal. He attempted to seize the State arsenal, but, finding it held by the militia, gave up the attempt. Dorr was afterward arrested, convicted of treason, and sentenced to imprisonment for life; but was finally pardoned. Meanwhile, a liberal constitution having been legally adopted, went into operation (1843).

Anti-Rent Difficulties (1844).—The tenants on some of the old "patroon" estates in New York refused to pay the rent. It was very light, but was considered illegal. The anti-renters, as they were called, assumed the disguise of Indians, tarred and feathered those tenants who paid their rents, and even killed officers who served warrants upon them. The disturbances were suppressed only by a military force (1846).

[Footnote: The rent consisted of only "a few bushels of wheat, three or four fat fowls, and a day's work with horses and wagon, per year,"]

[Illustration: VIEW OF NAUVOO.]

The Mormons.—A religious sect called Mormons had settled at Nauvoo, Ill. (1840). Here they had built a city of several thousand inhabitants, and laid the foundation of a costly temple. Having incurred the enmity of the people about them, their leader, Joseph Smith, was taken from the custody of the authorities, to whom he had entrusted himself, and killed. A mob bombarded the city for three days, and finally (September, 1845) drove out the inhabitants, who fled to Iowa.

[Footnote: Joseph Smith, while living at Palmyra, N. Y., claimed to have had a supernatural revelation, by which he was directed to a spot where he found buried a series of golden plates covered with inscriptions, which he translated by means of two transparent stones (Urim and Thummim) found with them. The result was the Book of Mormon, said to be the history of a race favored by God, who occupied this continent at a remote period of antiquity. The Mormons accept the Holy Bible as received by all Christian people, but believe the Book of Mormon to be an additional revelation, and also that their chief or prophet receives direct inspiration from God. They practice plural marriage, or polygamy, claiming that the Scriptures justify, while one of their revelations directly commands it. After the death of Smith and their expulsion from Nauvoo, a company under the leadership of Brigham Young crossed the Rocky Mountains, and settled near Great Salt Lake, in Utah. They were followed by others of their sect, and, after great sufferings, succeeded in subduing the barren soil, and establishing a prosperous colony. They founded Salt Lake City, where they erected a large temple for worship. Their prophet, Brigham Young, who died August 19, 1877, is still remembered by his followers with the greatest reverence.]

Foreign Affairs.-Annexation of Texas.-The Texans, under General Sam. Houston, having won their independence from Mexico, applied (April, 1844) for admission into the Union. Their petition was at first rejected by Congress, but being endorsed by the people in the fall elections, it was accepted before the close of Tyler's administration.

[Footnote: There were two reasons why this measure was warmly discussed—(1). Mexico claimed Texas, although that country had maintained its independence for nine years, and had been recognized by several European nations as well as by the United States. Besides, Texas claimed the Rio Grande (reo-granday), while Mexico insisted upon the Nueces (nway-ses) River as the boundary line between Texas and Mexico. The section of country between these rivers was therefore disputed territory. Thus the annexation of Texas would bring on a war with Mexico. (2). Texas held slaves. Thus, while the South urged its admission, the North as strongly opposed it.]

Northwest Boundary.-The northeast boundary question had scarcely been settled, when the northwest boundary came into dispute. It was settled during Polk's administration, by compromise, fixing the boundary line at 49 degrees instead of 54 degrees 40 minutes as claimed by the United States.

POLITICAL PARTIES.—The question of the annexation of Texas went before the people for their decision. The democrats, who favored its admission, nominated James K. Polk, who, after a close contest, was elected President. The whigs, who opposed its admission, had nominated Henry Clay.

[Footnote: The announcement of Polk's nomination was the first news ever sent by magnetic telegraph. It was transmitted from Baltimore to Washington, May 29 1844 over a line built with $30,000 appropriated by Congress to test Professor Morse's invention This was the grandest event of this administration and it had largely influenced the civilization and prosperity of the country. Thus the steamboat and the magnetic telegraph were the first fruits of American liberty and industry (Read Barnes's Popular History of the United States pp. 360 and 442)]


[Footnote: Henry Clay was a man whom the nation loved, but signally failed to honor. Yet his fame and reputation remain far above any distinction which mere office can give, and unite with them an affection which stands the test of time. Respected by his opponents he was almost idolized by his friends. In this he somewhat resembled Jefferson, but, unlike him, he had not in his early years the advantages of a liberal education. His father, a Baptist minister of very limited means, died when Henry was five years old and at fifteen he was left to support himself. Meantime he had received what little tuition he had, in a log-cabin school house from very indifferent teachers. With a rare tact for making friends, ready talent waiting to be instructed, and a strong determination seeking opportunities, he soon began to show the dawnings of the power which afterward distinguished him. He said, "I owe my success in life to one single fact, namely that at an early age I commenced, and continued for some years, the practice of daily reading and speaking the contents of some historical or scientific book. These off-hand efforts were sometimes made in a corn field, at others, in the forest, and not unfrequently in some distant barn, with the horse and ox for my only auditors. It is to this that I am indebted for the impulses that have shaped and molded my entire destiny." Rising rapidly by the force of his genius, he soon made himself felt in his State and in the nation. He was peculiarly winning in his manners. An eminent and stern political antagonist once refused an introduction to him expressly on the ground of a determination not to be magnetized by personal contact as he "had known other good haters" of Clay to be "United with this suavity was a wonderful will and an inflexible honor." His political adversary but personal admirer John C. Breckenridge, in an oration pronounced at his death, uttered these words—"If I were to write his epitaph I would inscribe as the highest eulogy on the stone which shall mark his resting place 'Here lies a man who was in the public service for fifty years, and never attempted to deceive his countrymen.'"]


[Footnote: James K. Polk was born 1795; died 1849. He was one of the most conspicuous opposers of the administration of J. Q. Adams, and a warm supporter of Jackson. In 1839, having served fourteen years in Congress, he declined a re-election and was chosen governor of Tennessee. His Presidential nomination, in connection with that of George M. Dallas of Pennsylvania, as Vice-President, had the effect of uniting the democratic party, which had been disturbed by dissensions between the friends and opponents of Martin Van Buren. The Mexican war, which was strongly opposed in many States, the enactment of a tariff based on a revenue principle instead of a protective one, and the agitation caused by the "Wilmot proviso" (see p. 190), all conspired to affect his popularity before the end of his term. He had, however, previously pledged himself not to be a candidate for re-election. He died about three months after his retirement from office.]




CAMPAIGN ON THE RIO GRANDE.—General Taylor having been ordered with his troops into the disputed territory, advanced to the Rio Grande and built Fort Brown. Returning from Point Isabel, whither he had gone for supplies, on the plains of Palo Alto (pah-lo ahl'-to) he met six thousand Mexicans, under General Arista (ah-rees-tah), drawn up across the road. (Map opp. p. 161.) Though they outnumbered his little army three to one, he routed them with a loss of but nine men killed. The next afternoon he met them again at Resaca de la Palma (ray-sah-kah day lah pahl'-mah), posted in a deep ravine through which the road ran, flanked by thickets. Their artillery held Taylor's men in check for a time, when Captain May, charging with his cavalry in the face of a murderous fire, captured the guns, and with them their commander, General La Vega (lah-vay-gah), just in the act of firing a gun. The infantry now rushed forward and drove the enemy, who fled across the Rio Grande in utter rout.


Capture of Monterey (Sept 24).—General Taylor, with about six thousand men, advanced upon Monterey (mon-tay-ray). This city, surrounded by mountains and almost impassable ravines, was strongly fortified, and its streets were barricaded and defended by a garrison of ten thousand men. A grand assault was made on the city. To avoid the deadly fire from the windows, roofs, and barricades, the troops entered the buildings and dug their way through the stone walls from house to house, or passed from roof to roof. They came at last within one square of the Grand Plaza, when the city was surrendered. The garrison was allowed to march out with the honors of war.


Battle of Buena Vista (bway'-nah vees'-tah) (February 23, 1847).—Santa Anna, the Mexican general, learning that the flower of Taylor's command had been withdrawn to aid General Scott, determined to crush the remainder. The little American army took post at Buena Vista, a narrow mountain pass with hills on one side and a ravine on the other.

Here they were attacked by Santa Anna with twenty thousand of the best troops of Mexico. The battle lasted from early morning till dark. In the final desperate encounter, our infantry being overwhelmed by numbers, Bragg's artillery was ordered to the rescue. Without any infantry support he dashed up to within a few yards of the crowded masses of the enemy. A single discharge made them waver. "A little more grape, Captain Bragg," shouted Taylor. A second and a third discharge followed, when the Mexicans broke and fled in disorder. During the night, Santa Anna drew off his defeated army.

General Taylor's work was now done. His army was intended only to hold the country already gained, while General Scott penetrated to the capital from Vera Cruz (va-rah krooss).

[Footnote: Several anecdotes are told of General Taylor in connection with this battle. The day before the principal attack, the Mexicans fired heavily on our line. A Mexican officer, coming with a message from Santa Anna, found Taylor sitting on his white horse with one leg over the pommel of his saddle. The officer asked him "what he was waiting for?" He answered, "For Santa Anna to surrender." After the officer's return a battery opened on Taylor's position, but he remained coolly surveying the enemy with his spy-glass. Some one suggesting that "Whitey" was too conspicuous a horse for the battle, he replied that "the old fellow had missed the fun at Monterey, and he should have his share this time." Mr. Crittenden having gone to Santa Anna's headquarters was told if General Taylor would surrender, he should be protected. Mr. Crittenden replied, "General Taylor never surrenders." This became a favorite motto during the election of 1848. The anecdote told concerning Capt. Bragg is disputed, but has become historical (Barnes's Pop. His. U. S., p. 454).]


CONQUEST OF NEW MEXICO AND CALIFORNIA.—General Kearney (keer-ne) was directed to take the Spanish provinces of New Mexico and California. Starting from Fort Leaven worth (June, 1846), a journey of about a thousand miles brought him to Santa Fe. Unfurling here the United States flag he continued his march toward California (map opp. p. 161). On his way, however, he learned from Kit Carson, the noted hunter, that he was too late. The winter before, Captain John C. Fremont, with a company of sixty men, had been engaged in surveying a new route to Oregon. Hearing that the Mexican commandant intended to expel the American settlers, he went to their rescue, although he was not aware that war had broken out between the United States and Mexico. With greatly inferior numbers, he was victor over the Mexicans in every conflict. By the help of Commodores Sloat and Stockton, and also General Kearney, who came in time to aid in the last battle, the entire country was conquered.

[Footnote: Colonel Doniphan, with one thousand men, the main body of General Kearney's command, marched over a thousand miles through a hostile country, from Santa Fe to Saltillo, having on the way fought two battles and conquered the province and city of Chihuahua (che-wah-wah). At the end of their term of service he marched his men back to New Orleans and discharged them. They had been enlisted, taken three thousand miles, and disbanded, all in a year.]


CAPTURE OF VERA CRUZ (March 29, 1847).—General Winfield Scott landed an army, twelve thousand strong, without opposition, and forthwith drew his siege-lines among the shifting sand-hills and chaparral thickets about Vera Cruz (map opp. p. 161). After a fierce bombardment of four days, the city and the strong castle of San Juan de Ulloa (sahn hoo-ahn' da ool-yo'-ah) were surrendered.

MARCH TO MEXICO.—Battle of Cerro Gordo (April 18).—A week afterward the army took up its march for the capital. At the mountain pass of Cerro Gordo, the enemy were strongly fortified. A road was cut around the base of the mountain through the forest, and cannon were dragged up the precipice by ropes, to the rear of the position. Thence a plunging fire was opened simultaneously with an assault in front. The Mexicans fled in such haste that Santa Anna only escaped on his wheel-mule, leaving behind him his wooden leg.

The city of Puebla (pweb-lah), next to Mexico in importance, surrendered without resistance. Here Scott waited three months for reinforcements.

Battles before Mexico.—With eleven thousand men the march was resumed (August 7), and in three days the army reached the crest of the Cordilleras, where the magnificent valley of Mexico lay stretched before them. In the midst was the city, surrounded by fertile plains and cloud-capped mountains. But the way thither was guarded by thirty thousand men and strong fortifications. Turning to the south to avoid the strongest points, by a route considered impassable, the army came before the intrenched camp of Contreras, within fourteen miles of Mexico (Aug. 19). The next morning this was taken, the troops having moved to their positions in darkness so intense that, to avoid being separated, they had to touch each other as they marched. The same day the height of Churubusco was stormed, numerous batteries were captured, and the defences laid bare to the causeways leading to the very gates of the city. An armistice and fruitless negotiations for peace delayed the advance until General Scott found that the Mexicans were only improving the time in strengthening their works. Once more (September 8) our army moved to the assault. The attack was irresistible. The formidable outworks were taken one by one. At last the castle of Chapultepec (cha-pool-te-pek), situated on a high rock commanding the city, was stormed. The next day (September 14) the army entered the city, and the stars and stripes waved in triumph over the palace of the Montezumas.

PEACE.—The fall of the capital virtually closed the war. A treaty was concluded February 2, 1848. The United States gained the vast territory reaching south to the Gila (ghee-lah), and west to the Pacific (maps of IVth and VIth Epochs).

DOMESTIC AFFAIRS.—The Wilmot Proviso.—Texas, the prize of the war, became at once the bone of contention. David Wilmot offered in Congress (August, 1846) a bill forbidding slavery in any territory which should be acquired. This measure, though lost, excited violent debate in and out of Congress, and became the great feature of the fall election.

Discovery of Gold in California.—A workman in digging a mill-race in the Sacramento valley (February, 1848) discovered shining particles of gold. A further search proved that the soil for miles around was full of the precious metal. The news flew in every direction. Emigration began from all parts of America, and even from Europe and Asia. In eighteen months one hundred thousand persons had gone from the United States to this El Dorado, where a fortune was to be picked up in a few days. Thousands made their way across the desert, amid privations which strewed the route with skeletons. The bay of San Francisco was soon surrounded by an extemporized city of shanties and booths. All ordinary employments were laid aside. Ships were deserted by their crews, who ran to the mines, sometimes, it is said, headed by their officers. Soon streets were laid out, houses erected, and from this Babel, as if by magic, grew up a beautiful city. For a time, lawlessness reigned supreme. But, driven by the necessity of events, the most respectable citizens took the law into their own hands, organized vigilance committees, and administered a rude but prompt justice which soon restored order.

POLITICAL PARTIES.—Three parties now divided the suffrages of the people. The whigs nominated General Taylor for President; the democrats, Lewis Cass; and the free-soilers, who were opposed to the extension of slavery, Martin Van Buren. The personal popularity of General Taylor, on account of his many sterling qualities and his brilliant victories in the Mexican war, made him the favorite candidate, and he was elected.


* * * * *


[Footnote: Zachary Taylor was born in Virginia in 1784 Soon after his birth his parents removed to Kentucky. His means of education were extremely scanty, and until he was twenty-four years of age he worked on his father's plantation. Madison, who was a relative and at that time Secretary of State, then secured for him an appointment in the army as lieutenant. From this he rose by regular and rapid degrees to a major-generalship. Palo Alto, Resaca de la Palma, Monterey, and Buena Vista, won him great applause. He was the hero of a successful war, and the soldiers admiringly called him "Old Rough and Ready." Many whig leaders violently opposed his nomination. Daniel Webster called him "an ignorant frontier colonel." The fact that he was a slaveholder was warmly urged against him. He knew nothing of civil affairs, and had taken so little interest in politics that he had not voted in forty years. His nomination caused a secession from the whigs, resulting in the formation of the free-soil party; yet he maintained his popularity as President, and was one of the most esteemed who have filled that office. He died July 9, 1850, at the Presidential mansion, after an illness of five days.]


General Taylor, like General Harrison, died soon after his elevation to the Presidency. Millard Fillmore, Vice-President, succeeded him.

DOMESTIC AFFAIRS.—Slavery questions were the great political topic of this administration. When California applied for admission to the Union as a free State, all these subjects were brought to a focus. A hot debate ensued, and for awhile it seemed as if the Union would be rent asunder. At this terrible crisis Henry Clay, the "Great Pacificator," came forward, and, with his wonderful eloquence, urged the necessity of mutual compromise and forbearance. Daniel Webster warmly seconded this effort at conciliation.


[Footnote: When Daniel Webster, the great American statesman and jurist, was fourteen years old, he first enjoyed the privilege of a few months' schooling at an academy. The man whose eloquence was afterward to stir the nation, was then so shy that he could not muster courage to speak before the school. He says, "Many a piece did I commit and rehearse in my own room, over and over again; yet when the day came, when my name was called, and I saw all eyes turned toward me, I could not raise myself from my seat." In other respects, however, he gave decided promise of his future eminence. One year after, his father resolved to send him to college—a dream he had never dared to cherish. "I remember the very hill we were ascending through deep snow, in a New England sleigh, when my father made known this purpose to me. I could not speak. How could he, I thought, with so large a family, and in such narrow circumstances, think of incurring so great an expense for me? A warm glow ran all over me, and I laid my head on my father's shoulder and wept."—Having finished his collegiate education and entered his profession, he at once rose to eminence. Elected to Congress, in his maiden speech he "took the House and country by surprise." By rapid strides he placed himself at the head of American orators. His speeches are masterpieces, and may well be the study of every aspirant for distinction. It was a disappointment to many of Webster's friends, as it was, perhaps, to himself, that he was never called to the Presidential chair. But, like Clay, although he might have honored that position, he needed it not to enhance his renown. His death, which occurred in 1852, called out, it is said, more orations, discourses, and sermons, than had any other except that of Washington.]

The Compromise of 1850.—The Omnibus Bill, Clay's measure, was adopted as the best solution of the problem. It proposed (1) that California should come in as a free State; (2) that the Territories of Utah and New Mexico should be formed without any provision concerning slavery; (3) that Texas should be paid $10, 000,000 to give up its claim on the Territory of New Mexico; (4) that the slave trade should be prohibited in the District of Columbia, and (5) that a Fugitive Slave Law should be enacted providing for the return to their owners of slaves escaping to a free State.

FOREIGN AFFAIRS.—Invasion of Cuba.—About six hundred adventurers, "fillibusters," undertook to effect the annexation of Cuba to the United States. The attempt ended in utter defeat, and in the execution, at Havana, of Lopez, the leader.

POLITICAL PARTIES.—The democratic and whig parties both declared that they stood by the provisions of the Omnibus Bill. The free-soil party was outspoken against it. Franklin Pierce, the Presidential nominee of the democratic party, was elected by a large majority of votes over General Scott, the whig candidate.

* * * * *


[Footnote: Franklin Pierce was born 1804; died 1869. He had barely attained the requisite legal age when he was elected to the Senate. He there found such men as Clay, Webster, Calhoun, Thomas H. Benton, and Silas Wright. Nathaniel Hawthorne says in his biography of Mr. Pierce: "With his usual tact and exquisite sense of propriety, he saw that it was not the time for him to step forward prominently on this highest theatre in the land. He beheld these great combatants doing battle before the eyes of the nation, and engrossing its whole regards. There was hardly an avenue to reputation save what was occupied by one or another of those gigantic figures." During Mr. Tyler's administration, he resigned. When the Mexican war broke out, he enlisted as a volunteer, but soon rose to the office of brigadier-general. He distinguished himself under General Scott, against whom he afterward successfully ran for the Presidency, and upon whom, during his administration, he conferred the title of lieutenant-general. Pierce opposed anti-slavery measures in every shape. He, however, espoused the national cause at the opening of the Civil War.]


DOMESTIC AFFAIRS.—Kansas-Nebraska Bill.—The Compromise Bill of 1850 produced only a lull in the slavery excitement. It burst out anew when Stephen A. Douglas brought forward (1853) his famous bill organizing the Territories of Kansas and Nebraska, and advocating the doctrine of "squatter sovereignty;" i. e., the right of the inhabitants of each Territory to decide for themselves whether the State should come into the Union free or slave. This bill being a virtual repudiation of the Missouri Compromise, excited the most intense feeling. It, however, became a law (May, 1854).

[Footnote: During the discussion, which was exciting almost beyond precedent, Mr. Sumner, of Massachusetts, made some severe reflections upon Senator Butler, of South Carolina. For this he was assailed by Preston S. Brooks, a nephew of Senator Butler and a South Carolina representative, and so severely injured that for three years he could not resume his seat. Mr. Brooks was censured for this act, but, having resigned his seat, was immediately returned without opposition.]

[Footnote: The public lands have often threatened the peace of the nation. (1.) The question of their ownership was one of the greatest obstacles to the Union of the States. In 1781, New York was the first to present her western territory to the general government. Virginia followed her example in 1784, donating tho great Northwestern Territory—a princely domain, which, if retained, would have made her the richest of the States; she reserved only 3,700,000 acres in Ohio, which she subsequently sold in small tracts to settlers. Massachusetts, in 1785, relinquished her claim, retaining a proprietary right over large tracts in New York. Connecticut, in 1786, did the same, and from the sale of her lands in Ohio laid the foundation of her school fund of $2,000,000. Georgia and the Carolinas gave up their right to territory from which have since been carved the States of Tennessee, Mississippi, and Alabama. (2.) Since these lands became the property of the general government, a most perplexing question has been, Shall they be free? Upon it has hinged largely the politics of the country. The admission of Missouri, Texas, California, and Kansas has each been the signal for the reopening of this vexed question.—Though the public lands have been the cause of intestine strife, they have been a great source of national wealth. Their sale has brought large sums into the treasury. They have been given to settlers as a stimulus to emigration. They have been granted to endow colleges and schools, to build railroads, to reward the soldiers and support their widows and orphans. In every township to be incorporated hereafter in the great west, a portion of the land must be reserved for school purposes. By the Homestead Act of 1862, any citizen may secure one hundred and sixty acres.]

"Border Warfare." —The struggle was now taken from Congress to Kansas. A bitter contest arose between the pro-slavery and anti-slavery men—the former anxious to secure the State for slavery; the latter, for freedom. Each party sent bodies of armed emigrants to the Territory and civil war ensued. Bands of "armed men" crossed over from Missouri, took possession of the polls, and controlled the elections. Houses were attacked and pillaged, and men murdered in cold blood. For several years Kansas was a scene of lawless violence.

FOREIGN AFFAIRS.—Mexico.—Owing to the inaccuracy of the map used in the treaty between the United States and Mexico, a dispute arose with regard to the boundary line. General Gadsden negotiated a settlement whereby Mexico was paid $10,000,000, and the United States secured the region (map, Epoch VI) known as the "Gadsden purchase."

Japan.—Commodore Perry's expedition to Japan (1854) excited great attention. He negotiated a treaty which gave to the merchants of the United States two ports of entry in that exclusive country.

POLITICAL PARTIES.—The compromises of 1820 and 1850 being now abolished, the slave question became the turning-point of the election. New party lines were drawn to meet this issue. The whig party ceased to exist. The republican party, absorbing all who opposed the extension of slavery, nominated John C. Fremont, who received the vote of eleven States. The democratic party, retaining its organization, nominated James Buchanan, who was elected President.

[Footnote: A third party, called the Know-Nothing or American party, was organized to resist the influence of foreigners. It carried the vote of only one State, Maryland. Its motto was "America for Americans." The party aroused bitter feelings, but had a transient existence. (Read list of Political Parties, Barnes's Pop. Hist., p. 654.)]


[Footnote: James Buchanan was born 1791; died 1868. The "bachelor-President" was sixty-six years old when he was called to the executive chair. He had just returned to his native country, after an absence of four years as minister to England. Previously to that he had been well known in public life, having been Representative, Senator, and Secretary of State. As Senator in Jackson's time, he heartily supported his administration. With Van Buren, he warmly advocated the idea of an independent treasury (see p. 179), against the opposition of Clay, Webster, and others. Under Tyler, he was urgently in favor of the annexation of Texas, thus again coming into conflict with Clay and Webster. He cordially agreed with them, however, in the compromise of 1850 (see p. 193), and urged the people to adopt it. Much was hoped from his election, as he avowed the object of his administration to be "to destroy any sectional party, whether North or South, and to restore, if possible, that national fraternal feeling between the different States that had existed during the early days of the Republic." But popular passion and sectional jealousy were too strong to yield to pleasant persuasion. We shall see in the text how the heated nation was drawn into the horrors of civil war. When Mr. Buchanan's administration closed, the fearful conflict was close at hand. He retired to his estate in Pennsylvania, where he died.]



Dred Scott

[Footnote: Scott and his wife were slaves belonging to a surgeon in the United States army. They were taken into and resided in Illinois and at Fort Snelling, in territory from which, by the ordinance of 1787, slavery was forever excluded. Afterward they were carried into Missouri, where they and their children were held as slaves. They claimed freedom on the ground that, by the act of their master, they had been taken into free territory. The decision of the court against their claims created an intense excitement throughout the country.]

Decision.—The Supreme Court of the United States (1857), through Chief-Justice Taney, declared that slave-owners might take their slaves into any State in the Union without forfeiting authority over them. At the North, this was considered as removing the last barrier to the extension of slavery, and as changing it from a local to a national institution; at the South, only as a right guaranteed them by the Constitution, whereby they should be protected in the possession of their property in every State.

The Fugitive Slave Law had intensified the already heated controversy, and the subject of slavery now absorbed all others. The provision which commanded every good citizen to aid in the arrest of fugitives was especially obnoxious to the North. Disturbances arose whenever attempts were made to restore runaways to their masters. Several of the northern States passed "Personal Liberty" bills, securing to fugitive slaves, when arrested, the right of trial by jury.

John Brown, a man who had brooded over the exciting scenes through which he had passed in Kansas until he thought himself called upon to take the law into his own hands, seized upon the United States Arsenal at Harper's Ferry (1859), and proclaimed freedom to the slaves in the vicinity. His feeble band was soon overpowered by United States troops, and Brown himself hanged as a traitor. Though it was soon known that in his wild design he had asked counsel of no one, yet at the time the Southern feeling was aroused to frenzy, his act being looked upon as significant of the sentiments of the North.

POLITICAL PARTIES.—The fall elections again turned on the question of slavery. The democratic party divided, and made two nominations for President: Stephen A. Douglas, who favored squatter sovereignty, and John C. Breckinridge, who claimed that slavery could be carried into any territory. The republican party nominated Abraham Lincoln, who held that while slavery must be protected where it was, it ought not to be carried into free territory. Lincoln was elected.

[Footnote: The "Union" party put up John Bell, of Tennessee. Their motto was, "The Union, the Constitution, and the Enforcement of the Laws."]

[Illustration: ABRAHAM LINCOLN.]

THE SOUTH SECEDES.—Throughout the fall campaign the Southern leaders had threatened to secede if Mr. Lincoln were elected.

[Footnote: This was not a sudden movement on their part. The sectional difference between the North and the South had its source in the difference of climate, which greatly modified the character and habits of the people; also, while the agricultural pursuits and staple products of the South made slave labor profitable, the mechanical pursuits and the more varied products of the North made it unprofitable. These antagonisms, settled first by the Missouri Compromise of 1820, reopened by the tariff of 1828, bursting forth in the nullification of 1832, pacified by Clay's compromise tariff, increased through the annexation of Texas and the consequent war with Mexico, irritated by the Wilmot Proviso, lulled for a time by the compromise of 1850, awakened anew by the "squatter sovereignty" policy of 1853, roused to fury by the agitation in Kansas, spread broadcast by the Dred Scott decision, the attempted execution of the Fugitive Slave Law and the John Brown raid, had now reached a point where war was the only remedy. The election of Lincoln was the pivot on which the result turned. The cause ran back through thirty years of controversy to the difference in climate, in occupation, and in the habit of life and thought. Strange to say, each section misunderstood the other. The Southern people believed the North to be so engrossed in money-making and so enfeebled by luxury that it could send to the field only mercenary soldiers, who would easily be beaten by the patriotic Southerners. They said, "Cotton is King;" and believed that England and France were so dependent upon them for that staple, that their republic would be recognized and defended by those European powers. On the other hand, the Northern people did not believe that the South would dare to fight for slavery when it had 4,000,000 slaves exposed to the chances of war. They thought it to be all bluster, and hence paid little heed to the threat of secession or of war. Both sides sadly learned their mistake, only too late.]

They now declared that it was time to leave a government which had fallen into the hands of their avowed enemies. Since the time of Calhoun they had been firm believers in the doctrine of State rights, which taught that a State could leave the Union whenever it pleased. In December (1860) South Carolina led off, and soon after Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas passed ordinances of secession. In February (1861) delegates from these States met at Montgomery, Ala, and formed a government called the "Confederate States of America". Jefferson Davis, of Mississippi, was chosen President, and Alexander H. Stephens, of Georgia, Vice-President. United States forts, arsenals, customhouses, and ships were seized by the States in which they were situated. Buchanan did nothing to prevent the catastrophe. General Scott urged action, but the regular army was small, and the troops were widely scattered. The navy had been sent to distant ports. The Cabinet largely sympathized with the secessionists. Numerous unsuccessful efforts were made to effect a compromise.

[Illustration: JEFFERSON DAVIS]

It was the general expectation that there would be no war, and the cry, "No coercion," was general. Yet affairs steadily drifted on toward war.

[Footnote: Even the New York Tribune declared—"Whenever any considerable section of our Union shall deliberately resolve to go out, we shall resist all coercive measures to keep them in."]

[Illustration: FORT SUMTER]

FORT SUMTER—All eyes were now turned on Fort Sumter. Here Major Anderson kept the United States flag flying in Charleston harbor. He had been stationed in Fort Moultrie (map, p. 280), but fearing an attack, had crossed over (December 26) to Fort Sumter, a stronger position. The South Carolinians, looking upon this as a hostile act, took possession of the remaining forts, commenced erecting batteries, and prepared to reduce Fort Sumter. Major Anderson was compelled by his instructions to remain a quiet spectator of these preparations. The Star of the West, an unarmed steamer, bearing troops and supplies to the fort, was fired upon and driven back. The Southern leaders declared that any attempt to relieve Fort Sumter would be a declaration of war. The government seemed paralyzed with fear. All now waited for the new President.


The number of States increased during this epoch from thirteen to thirty-four. The following is the order in which they were received:

VERMONT, the fourteenth State, and the first under the Constitution, was admitted to the Union March 4, 1791. It was so called from its principal range of mountains (verd, green, and mont, mountain). Champlain discovered and explored much of it in 1609. The first settlement was made in 1724, in the present town of Brattleborough, where Fort Dummer was erected. The region was claimed by both New Hampshire and New York (see p. 110). In 1777, the inhabitants declared the "New Hampshire grants" an independent State, under the title "New Connecticut, alias Vermont." In 1791, however, New York consented to relinquish her claim on the payment of $30,000, and Vermont was accordingly admitted into the Union.

KENTUCKY, the fifteenth State, was admitted to the Union June 1, 1792. The name, "dark and bloody ground," had its origin in the fierce conflicts which took place between the whites and the Indians. Daniel Boone, a famous hunter, for two years rambled through the forests of this region, delighted with its scenery and the abundance of game. After many thrilling adventures and narrow escapes from the Indians, he established a fort at Boonesborough, and removed his family thither in June, 1775. This was the first permanent settlement in the State, then a part of Virginia, from which it was not separated till 1790.

TENNESSEE, the sixteenth State, was admitted to the Union June 1, 1796. It was named from the river Tennessee, the "river with the great bend." It is thought that DeSoto, in his wanderings, visited the spot where Memphis now stands. The first permanent settlement in the State was at Fort Loudon, thirty miles from the present site of Knoxville, in 1756. In 1780, James Robertson crossed the mountains with a party, and located where Nashville now stands, but which was then a wilderness. In 1789, North Carolina gave up her claim on the region, and the next year it was joined with Kentucky to form an independent territory. It received a distinct territorial government two years before it became a State.

[Footnote: This was the first permanent English settlement south of Pennsylvania and west of the Alleghanies.] was at Fort Loudon, thirty miles from the present site of Knoxville, in 1756. In 1780, James Robertson crossed the mountains with a party, and located where Nashville now stands, but which was then a wilderness. In 1789, North Carolina gave up her claim on the region, and the next year it was joined with Kentucky to form an independent territory. It received a distinct territorial government two years before it became a State.

OHIO, the seventeenth State, was admitted to the Union November 29, 1802. It was so called from the river of that name, signifying the "beautiful river." The first explorations were made by the French, under LaSalle, about 1680. The first permanent settlement was at Marietta, in 1788. It was the first State carved out of the great Northwestern Territory.

[Footnote: This territory was created in 1787, and included all the public land north of the Ohio. It embraced the present States of Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, and part of Minnesota. It was a part of New France before the French authority ceased in 1763. The British held possession for twenty years, when the country was ceded to the United States (see Map of VIth Epoch, and p. 146)]

LOUISIANA, the eighteenth State, was admitted to the Union April 8, 1812. The territory was named in honor of Louis XIV, king of France. The French explored the river Mississippi to the sea in 1682 (see p. 34), but their first settlement was made by Iberville at Biloxi, near its mouth, in 1699. New Orleans was founded in 1718.

[Footnote: The colony was granted to the great Mississippi Company, organized by John Law, at Paris, for the purpose of settling and deriving profit from the French possessions in North America. When this bubble burst, the French crown resumed the country. (See Brief History of France, p. 176.)]

The territory was ceded to Spain in 1762, but in 1800 was receded to France. When the United States purchased it (see p. 155), Louisiana included all the region north and west between the Mississippi and the Pacific (except those portions then occupied by Spain: see California) and north to the British possessions. In 1804, this region was divided into two parts—the territory of Orleans, which included the present State of Louisiana, and the district of Louisiana, which comprised the remainder. The former was admitted to the Union as Louisiana, and the name of the latter changed to Missouri.

INDIANA, the nineteenth State, was admitted to the Union December 11, 1816. The name is derived from the word Indian. The exact date of the first settlement is undetermined. When Ohio was taken from the Northwestern Territory, the remainder was called Indiana. It was reduced to its present limits in 1809, and was the second State admitted from the Northwestern Territory. After the Indian difficulties which hindered its early development had subsided, its growth was very rapid. Between 1810 and 1820, its population increased five hundred per cent.

MISSISSIPPI, the twentieth State, was admitted to the Union December 10, 1817. It is named from the Mississippi River, the "Great Father of Waters." De Soto was the first European who traversed this region. In 1700, Chevalier de Tonty, with a party of Canadian French, ascended the river to the Natchez country, where they selected a site for a fort and called it Rosalie. A settlement called St. Peters was made in 1703, on the Yazoo. In 1728, the Indians swept every vestige of civilization from the present limits of the State. Under the French governors who followed, fierce and bloody wars were waged with the Natchez, Chickasaw, and Choctaw Indians. In 1763, Louisiana east of the Mississippi, including a part of what is now Mississippi and Alabama, was ceded to the British, and became a part of Georgia. The Mississippi Territory was created in 1798, and lands were afterward added until it embraced the present States of Mississippi and Alabama. The latter became a separate Territory in March, 1817.

ILLINOIS, the twenty-first State, was admitted to the Union
December 3, 1818. Its name is derived from its principal river,
signifying "River of men." Its first settlements were made by La

[Footnote: That enterprising traveler, after exploring the Illinois River, built a small fort which he called Crevecoeur (krave-kur), and left it in command of the Chevalier de Tonty. Three years afterward he returned with some Canadians and founded Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and other towns, which early became flourishing, though the settlers, in manners and habits, were assimilated to the Indians.]

After the States of Ohio and Indiana, and the Territory of Michigan had been taken from the Northwestern Territory, the remainder was styled the Illinois Territory, and comprised the present States of Illinois, Wisconsin, and a part of Minnesota. The settlement of this Territory was greatly impeded by Indian hostilities. The massacre at Fort Chicago, August 15, 1812, and the Black Hawk war, are instances of the dangers and trials which beset the pioneer. The great prosperity of the State dates from the year 1850, when munificent grants of land were made to the Central Railroad. The prairie wilderness was rapidly settled, and towns and cities sprang up as by magic.

ALABAMA, the twenty-second State, was admitted to the Union December 14, 1819. Its name is of Indian origin, and signifies "Here we rest." It was originally a part of Georgia. (See Mississippi.) The fierce contests with the Creek Indians, ended by Jackson, gave to the State a vast and fertile region. The first settlement was made by Bienville on Mobile Bay, in 1702. Nine years afterward, the present site of Mobile was occupied. Mobile was the original seat of the French colonization in Louisiana, and for many years the capital. Having been ceded to Great Britain and then to Spain, in 1813 it was surrendered to General Wilkinson, and has since remained in the possession of the United States (p. 146).

MAINE, the twenty-third State, was admitted to the Union March 15, 1820. (See p. 60.)

MISSOURI, the twenty-fourth State, was admitted to the Union August 10, 1821. Its name is derived from its principal river, and means "Muddy water." Its oldest town, St. Genevieve, was founded in 1755. St. Louis was settled nine years after, but was not incorporated as a town until 1809; its first newspaper was published in 1808, and the first steamboat arrived at its wharf in 1817. The District of Louisiana was organized as Louisiana Territory in 1805, with St. Louis as its capital. When Louisiana became a State, the name of the Territory was changed to Missouri.

ARKANSAS, the twenty-fifth State, was admitted to the Union June 15, 1836. It took its name from a now extinct tribe of Indians. It was discovered and settled by the French under Chevalier de Tonty, as early as 1685. It followed the fate of the other portions of Louisiana. On the admission of the State of Missouri, Arkansas was organized as a Territory, including the present State and a part of Indian Territory.

MICHIGAN, the twenty-sixth State, was admitted to the Union January 26, 1837. The name is of Indian origin, signifying "Great Lake." It was early visited by missionaries (see p. 33) and fur traders. Detroit was founded in 1701 by Cadillac. This region, first a part of the Northwestern Territory, then of Indiana Territory, was organized as a separate Territory in 1805. The country north of the present States of Indiana and Illinois was annexed to Michigan in 1818. The act of admission gave the State its present boundaries.

FLORIDA, the twenty-seventh State, was admitted to the Union March 3, 1845. The Spanish word florida, means "blooming" (see p. 27). Its early visitors, Ponce de Leon, De Narvaez, and De Soto, its first settlement at St. Augustine, its history under the Spaniards, and the Seminole war, have been incidentally described. It was organized as a Territory March 3, 1819.

TEXAS, the twenty-eighth State, was admitted to the Union December 27, 1845. It was explored by De Leon and La Salle. The latter, intending to found a French settlement at the mouth of the Mississippi, sailed by it unawares, and, landing at Matagorda Bay, built Fort St. Louis on the Lavaca. The Spaniards afterward explored and partially settled the country, establishing missions at various points. These did not prosper, however, and the region was populated mainly by roving bands of Indians. Civil war had impoverished the few settlers who were unable to flee from the country, and Galveston was nearly deserted, when, in 1820, Moses Austin, a native of Connecticut, obtained from the Spanish authorities in Mexico a grant of land. Emigration from the United States was encouraged, and in 1830 there were twenty thousand Americans in Texas. The jealousy of Mexico being excited, acts of oppression followed, and in 1835 the Texans were driven to declare their independence. After a year of severe fighting and alternating victories, Santa Anna was conquered.

[Footnote: Santa Anna, with four thousand men, having attacked the Alamo, a fort garrisoned by only one hundred and seventy-two men, every one of that gallant few died at his post except seven, who were killed while asking for quarter. Here David Crockett, the famous hunter, who had volunteered to fight with the Texans for their liberty, fell, pierced with wounds, but surrounded by the corpses of those whom he had cut down ere he was overpowered. In the battle of San Jacinto, Santa Anna, with fifteen hundred men, was defeated by eight hundred, under General Sam. Houston (See Barnes's Popular History of the United States, p. 445.)]

The next year (1837) Texas sought admission into the Union. In 1844 the question was revived. The last act of Tyler's administration was to sign a bill for its admission. This bill was ratified by a convention of the State, July 5th of the same year.

IOWA, the twenty-ninth State, was admitted to the Union December 28, 1846. Its name is of Indian origin, signifying "Drowsy ones." Julien Dubuque, a Canadian Frenchman, obtained, in 1788, a large tract of land, including the present site of Dubuque. He there built a fort and traded with the Indians till 1810. The first permanent settlement was made at Burlington in 1833, by emigrants from Illinois. The same year, Dubuque was founded. This Territory belonged to the Louisiana tract and partook of its fortunes. It was successively a part of Missouri, Michigan, and Wisconsin Territories, but was organized separately in 1838. It then included all of Minnesota west of the Mississippi River, but when admitted as a State was reduced to its present limits.

WISCONSIN, the thirtieth State, was admitted to the Union May 29, 1848. Its name is derived from its principal river, and signifies "The gathering of the waters." It was explored by French missionaries and traders as early as 1639. Green Bay was founded in 1745. This region was also a part of the Northwestern Territory. It was comprised in the Territory of Illinois, then of Michigan, and in 1836 became a separate Territory.

CALIFORNIA, the thirty-first State, was admitted to the Union September 9, 1850 (see p. 190). Sir Francis Drake, in 1579, sailed along its coast, naming it New Albion, and visited San Francisco harbor (see p. 35). In 1769, the Spaniards established the mission of San Diego (de-a'-go), and in 1776 (the year of the Declaration of Independence), one at San Francisco.

[Footnote: In 1835, a shanty owned by one Richardson was the only human habitation and the vast bay was a solitude The first survey of streets and town lots was in 1839 The principal trade was in exporting hides and that was small. In 1846 an American man of war entered the harbor and took possession in the name of the United States. The town was known as Yerba Buena (good herb) until 1847 when it was changed to its present name. About that time it had a population of four hundred and fifty nine. The discovery of gold in 1848 gave the city its first start toward its present distinction. Within eighteen months following December 1849, the city lost by fire $16,000,000 of property though its population did not exceed thirty thousand. Such however, was the enterprise of its citizens that these tremendous losses scarcely interrupted its growth or prosperity. Its magnificent harbor and its railroad communications give it an extensive commerce on the Pacific Coast.]

[Illustration: SAN FRANCISCO BAY

In 1803, they had eighteen missions with over fifteen thousand converts, and the entire government of the country was in the hands of the Franciscan monks. The Mexican revolution, in 1822, overthrew the Spanish power in California, and in a few years the Franciscans were stripped of their wealth and influence. In 1831, the white population did not exceed five thousand. From 1843 to 1846, many emigrants from the United States settled in California, and, under the leadership of Fremont and others, wrested the country from Mexico (see p. 188). By the treaty at the close of the Mexican war, Upper California was ceded to the United States. It embraced about 450,000 square miles, comprising what is now known as California, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, and parts of Colorado and New Mexico. (Maps of IVth and VIth Epochs.)

MINNESOTA, the thirty-second State, was admitted to the Union May 11, 1858. It is so called from the river of that name, and signifies "Cloudy water." In 1680, La Salle and Hennepin penetrated this region. Other travelers followed, and within the present century the whole country has been thoroughly explored. Fort Snelling was established in 1819. St. Paul was settled in 1846 by emigrants from the East. The Territory of Minnesota was organized in 1849, with the Missouri and White rivers for its western boundary, thus embracing nearly twice the area of the present State. At this time its population was less than five thousand, consisting of whites and half-breeds settled about the various missions and trading-posts. In 1851, the Sioux ceded a large tract of land to the United States. After this, the population increased so rapidly that in six years Minnesota applied for admission into the Union.

OREGON, the thirty-third State, was admitted to the Union February 14, 1859. It is said to derive its name from the Spanish oregano, wild marjoram, abundant on its coast. It constituted a part of the Louisiana purchase, though for a long time little was known of this portion of that vast territory. In 1792, Captain Gray, of Boston, entered the river to which he gave the name of his ship, the Columbia. On his return, he made such a flattering report that there was a general desire to know more of the country. In 1804, the year after the Louisiana purchase, Jefferson sent an exploring party, under the command of Captain Lewis and Lieutenant Clark, which followed the Missouri to its source and descended the Columbia to the Pacific. The history of their adventures is one of the most romantic of the century. An extensive fur-trade soon began. Fort Astoria was built in 1811 by the American Fur Company, of which John Jacob Astor was a prominent member. Hunters and trappers in the employ of American and British companies roamed over the whole region. Fort Vancouver was occupied by the Hudson Bay Company, a British organization, till 1860. In 1839, the first American emigration set toward this region. The danger of war which had seriously threatened its dawning prosperity was averted when the northwest boundary was settled by the treaty of 1846. In 1848, it was organized as a Territory, and included all the possessions of the United States west of the Rocky Mountains. In 1850, Congress granted three hundred and sixty acres to every man, and the same to his wife, on condition of residence on the land for four years. Eight thousand claims were made for farms. In 1853, Washington Territory was organized north of Columbia River. When Oregon was admitted as a State, it was reduced to its present limits.

KANSAS, the thirty-fourth State, was admitted to the Union January 29, 1861. The name is of Indian origin, and is said to mean "Smoky water." This region was also a part of the Louisiana purchase. After the States of Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, and Minnesota had been carved from it, there was left a vast, unoccupied tract at the west, which was organized by the Kansas and Nebraska Act of 1854. The history of the strife which decided whether it should be slave or free has been narrated.

Summary of the History of the Fourth Epoch, arranged in Chronological Order.

1789. Washington inaugurated, April 30 1791. Vermont admitted to the Union, March 4 1792. Kentucky admitted to the Union, June 1 Discovery of Columbia River by Captain Gray, May 11 1793. Difficulties with Genet 1794. The Indians defeated by Wayne, August 20 Whisky insurrection 1795. Jay's treaty ratified, June 24 1796. Tennessee admitted to the Union, June 1 1797. John Adams inaugurated, March 4 1799. Washington died at Mount Vernon, December 14 1800. Capitol removed to Washington Treaty with France, September 30 1801. Thomas Jefferson inaugurated, March 4 War declared by United States against Tripoli, June 10 1802. Ohio admitted to the Union, November 29 1803. Louisiana purchased from France, April 30 Fleet sent against Tripoli 1804. Lieut. Decatur destroyed frigate Philadelphia, Feb. 15 Hamilton killed by Burr, July 11 1805. Treaty of peace with Tripoli, June 3 1807. The Chesapeake fired into by the Leopard, June 22 Embargo on American ships, December 22 Fulton first ascended the Hudson, September 14 1809. James Madison inaugurated, March 4 1811. Action between the President and the Little Belt, May 16 Battle of Tippecanoe, November 7 1812. Louisiana admitted to the Union, April 8 War declared against England, June 19 Hull invaded Canada, July 12 Mackinaw surrendered, July 17 Detroit surrendered, August 16 The Constitution captured the Guerriere, August 19 Battle of Queenstown, October 13 The Wasp captured the Frolic, October 13 1813. Battle of Frenchtown, January 22 Capture of York, April 27 Siege of Fort Meigs, May 1 Sackett's Harbor attacked, May 29 American frigate Chesapeake captured by the Shannon, June 1 1813. Battle of Fort Stephenson, Ohio, August 2, Massacre of Fort Mimms, August 30, Perry's victory on Lake Erie, September 10, Battle of the Thames, October 5, Battle of Chrysler's Field, November 11, 1814. Battle of Horse-shoe Bend (Tohopeka), March 27, Battle of Chippewa, July 5, Battle of Lundy's Lane, July 25, Washington captured by the British, August 24, Battle of Plattsburg and Lake Champlain, September 11, Bombardment of Fort McHenry, September 13, Hartford Convention, December 15, Treaty of Peace, December 24, 1815. Battle of New Orleans, January 8, War with Algiers, 1816. Indiana admitted to the Union, December 11, 1817. James Monroe inaugurated, March 4, Mississippi admitted to the Union, December 10, 1818. Illinois admitted to the Union, December 3, 1819. Alabama admitted to the Union, December 14, Florida purchased of Spain, February 22, 1820. Missouri Compromise passed, March 3, Maine admitted to the Union, March 15, 1821. Missouri admitted to the Union, August 10, 1824. Visit of La Fayette, August 15, 1825. John Quincy Adams inaugurated, March 4, 1826. Adams and Jefferson died, July 4, 1829. Jackson inaugurated, March 4, 1832. Black Hawk War, Nullification in South Carolina, 1835. Dade's massacre by the Seminoles, December 28, 1836. Arkansas admitted to the Union, June 15, 1837. Michigan admitted to the Union, January 26, Martin Van Buren inaugurated, March 4, Battle of Okechobee, Seminoles routed by Taylor, Dec. 25, 1837-8. The "Patriot War"—Canada, 1841. Wm. H. Harrison inaugurated, March 4, President Harrison died, April 4, John Tyler inaugurated, April 6, 1842. Dorr's Rebellion, 1845. Florida admitted to the Union, March 3, James K. Polk inaugurated, March 4 Texas admitted to the Union, December 27, 1846. Battle of Palo Alto, May 8, Battle of Resaca de la Palma, May 9, Congress declared war against Mexico, May 11, Monterey captured, September 24, Iowa admitted to the Union, December 28, 1847. Battle of Buena Vista, February 23, Vera Cruz captured, March 29, Battle of Cerro Gordo, April 18, Battle of Contreras, August 20, Capture of Chapultepec, September 13, Mexico surrendered, September 14, 1848. Treaty of peace with Mexico, February 2, Gold discovered in California, February, Wisconsin admitted to the Union, May 29, 1849. General Taylor inaugurated, March 5, 1850. General Taylor died, July 9, Millard Fillmore inaugurated, July 16, California admitted to the Union, September 9, 1853. Franklin Pierce inaugurated, March 4, 1854. Commodore Perry's treaty with Japan, March, Kansas-Nebraska Bill passed, May, 1857. James Buchanan inaugurated, March 4, 1858. Minnesota admitted to the Union, May 11, 1859. Oregon admitted to the Union, February 14, 1860. South Carolina seceded from the Union, December 20, 1861. Steamer Star of the West fired upon, January 9, Kansas admitted into the Union as a State, January 29, Southern Confederacy formed at Montgomery, Feb. 4,

* * * * *


Lossing's Field Book of the War of 1812.—Lewis and Clarke's Journal.—Mackenzie's Life of Paul Jones. —Parton's Life of Jackson; also of Aaron Burr.—Cooper's History of the American Navy.—Irving's Astoria. —Powell's Life of Taylor.—Fremont's Explorations. —Benton's 30 Years View of Public Affairs. —Street and Reid's Osceola (Poem).—Ripley's War with Mexico.—Hull's Military and Civil Life. —Parker's Historic Americans.—Lossing's Eminent Americans.—McPherson's Political History of the United States.—Tome's Battles of America by Sea and Land. —Lowell's Bigelow Papers.—The Exiles of Florida, by Giddings.—Jay's Mexican War and Dawson's American Battle-fields.—"The Mississippi Scheme" in Mackay's Popular Delusions.—Mrs. John Adams's Correspondence. —Headley's Second War with England.—Whittier's Angel of Buena Vista (Poetry).—Randall's and Tucker's Lives of Jefferson.—Griswold's Court of Washington. —Clarke's Campaign of 1812.—Ingersoll's Second War with Great BritainWilson's Sketches of Illustrious Soldiers.—Martin's Civil Government (Constitution of U. S.).



From 1861—Inauguration of Lincoln,
To 1865—Surrender of Lee's Army.


[Footnote: Abraham Lincoln was born in Kentucky, February 12, 1809; died in Washington, April 15, 1865. His father was unable to read or write, and his own education consisted of one-year's schooling. When he was eight years old his father moved to Indiana, the family floating down the Ohio on a raft. When nineteen years of age, the future President hired out as a hand on a flat-boat at $10 per month, and made a trip to New Orleans. On his return he accompanied the family to Illinois, driving the cattle on the journey. Having reached their destination he helped them to build a cabin, and to split rails to enclose the farm. He was now in succession a flat-boat hand, clerk, captain of a company of volunteers in the Black Hawk War, country store-keeper, postmaster, and surveyor, yet he managed to get a knowledge of law by borrowing books at an office before it closed at night, returning them at its opening in the morning. On being admitted to the bar, he rapidly rose to distinction. At twenty-five he was sent to the Legislature, and was thrice re-elected. Turning his attention to politics, he soon became a leader. He was sent to Congress; he canvassed the State, haranguing the people daily on great national questions; and, in 1858, he was candidate for Senator, a second time, against Stephen A. Douglas. The two rivals stumped the State together. The debate, unrivalled for its statesmanship, logic, and wit, won for Lincoln a national reputation, but he lost the election in the Legislature, his party being in the minority. After his accession to the Presidency, his history, like Washington's, is identified with that of his country. He was a tall, ungainly man, little versed in the refinements of society, but gifted by nature with great common sense, and everywhere known as "Honest Abe." Kind, earnest, sympathetic, faithful, democratic, he was anxious only to serve his country. His wan, fatigued face, and his bent form, told of the cares he bore, and the grief he felt. His only relief was when, tossing aside for a moment the heavy load of responsibility, his face would light up with a humorsome smile, while he narrated some incident whose irresistible wit and aptness to the subject at hand, convulsed his hearers, and rendered "Lincoln's stories" household words throughout the nation.]



[Footnote: Questions on the Geography of the Fifth Epoch. —Locate
the following places noted as battle-fields. Names of places in italic
letters, as well as the Battles before Richmond, may be found on
pages—and—. Philippi. Big Bethel. Boonville (Booneville). Carthage.
Rich Mountain. Bull Run. Wilson's Creek. Hatteras Inlet. Lexington,
Mo. Ball's Bluff. Belmont. Port Royal. Mill Spring. Fort Henry.
Roanoke Island. Fort Donelson. Pea Ridge. New Berne (Newberne).
Winchester. Pittsburg Landing. Island No. 10. Fort Pulaski. Fort
Jackson. Fort Macon. Beaufort. Yorktown. Williamsburg. Corinth. Fair
Mechanicsville. Gaines's Mill. Malvern Hill. Cedar
Mountain. South Mountain. Antietam. Fredericksburg. Holly Springs.
Murfreesboro. Galveston. Fort Sumter (see map, p—). Chancellorsville.
Vicksburg. Gettysburg. Port Hudson. Chickamauga. Chattanooga.
Knoxville. Fort de Russy. Sabine Cross Roads. Fort Pillow. Wilderness.
Bermuda Hundred. Spottsylvania Court House. Resaca. Dallas. Cold
. Lost Mountain. Petersburg. Atlanta. Mobile. Fort Gaines. Fort
Morgan. Cedar Creek. Fort McAlister (or McAllister). Nashville.
Savannah. Fort Fisher. Columbia. Goldsboro. Fort Steadman. Five Forks.
Appomattox Court House. (The battles above are named in chronological

INAUGURATION.—Rumor of a plan to assassinate Lincoln impelled him to come to Washington in disguise. He was inaugurated March 4, 1861, surrounded by troops under the command of General Scott.

CONDITION OF THE COUNTRY—All was now uncertainty. The southern officers in the army and navy of the United States were daily resigning, and linking their fortunes with the Confederate cause.

There was still, however, a strong Union sentiment at the South. Many prominent men in both sections hoped that war might be averted. The Federal authorities feared to act, lest they should precipitate civil strife. In striking contrast to this indecision was the marked energy of the new Confederate government. It was gathering troops, voting money and supplies, and rapidly preparing for the issue.

CAPTURE OF FORT SUMTER (April 14).—Finding that supplies were to be sent to Fort Sumter, General Peter G. T. Beauregard (bo-re-gard), who had command of the Confederate troops at Charleston, called upon Major Anderson to surrender. Upon his refusal, fire was opened from all the Confederate forts and batteries.

[Footnote: The first gun of the war was fired at half-past four o'clock Friday morning, April 12, 1861.]

This "strange contest between seventy men and seven thousand," lasted for thirty-four hours, no one being hurt on either side. The barracks having been set on fire by the shells, the garrison worn out, suffocated, and half-blinded, were forced to capitulate. They were allowed to retire with the honors of war, saluting their flag before hauling it down.

The Effect of this event was electrical. It unified the North and also the South. The war spirit swept over the country like wild-fire. Party lines vanished. The Union men at the South were borne into secession, while the republicans and democrats at the North combined for the support of the government, Lincoln issued a requisition for seventy-five thousand troops. It was responded to by three hundred thousand volunteers, the American flag, the symbol of Revolutionary glory and of national unity, being unfurled throughout the North. The military enthusiasm at the South was equally ardent. Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee, which had before hesitated, joined the Confederacy. Virginia troops seized the United States armory at Harper's Ferry, and the Navy Yard at Norfolk.

[Footnote: Here were foundries, ship-yards, machine shops, two thousand cannon, two hundred and fifty thousand pounds of gunpowder, great quantities of shot and shell, and twelve ships of war. The ships were scuttled or fired, but vast stores, which were of inestimable value at the beginning of the war, fell into the Confederate hands.]

Richmond, Va., was made the Confederate capital. Troops from the extreme South were rapidly pushed into Virginia, and threatened Washington. A regiment of Massachusetts militia hurrying to the defence of the national capital, was attacked in the streets of Baltimore, and several men were killed. Thus the first blood shed in the civil war was on April 19, the anniversary of Lexington and Concord.

[Footnote: A Union soldier who was shot in this affray, turned about, saluted the flag, and exclaiming, "All hail the stars and stripes!" fell lifeless.]



Were seized (May 24) by the national troops. This protected
Washington from any immediate danger of attack.

[Footnote: Alexandria is on the southern side of the Potomac, eight miles below Washington. Arlington Heights are directly opposite the capital.]

[Footnote: Alexandria was occupied by Colonel Elmer E. Ellsworth and his Zouaves. After the capture, seeing the Confederate flag still flying from the roof of a hotel, he went up and took it down. As he descended, he was shot at the foot of the stairs, by the landlord, Jackson, who in turn fell at the hands of private Brownell.]

FORTRESS MONROE Was now garrisoned by a heavy force under General
B. F. Butler.

[Footnote: This is located at the entrance of the Chesapeake, and is the most formidable fortification in the United States. It covers over sixty acres of ground, and is nearly a mile in circuit. Its walls are of granite, thirty-five feet high. Its garrison, at this time, consisted of a small body of artillerists, under General Dimick.]

[Footnote: At Hampton, which had been occupied by the Confederates, some negroes were captured who had been employed in building fortifications. Butler declared them "contraband of war," and this gave rise to the popular term, "Contrabands."]

An expedition made soon after against Big Bethel was singularly mismanaged. On the route the troops fired into each other by mistake, and when they came to attack the Confederate defences, they were repulsed with loss.

[Footnote: In this attack, Major Theodore Winthrop, who had achieved some literary reputation, was killed; as was, also, Lieutenant Greble, who gave great promise as an officer.]

WESTERN VIRGINIA adhered to the Union, and was ultimately formed into a separate State. The Confederates, however, occupied it in force. The Federals, under General George B. McClellan, afterward commander of the Potomac army, defeated them at Philippi, Rich Mountain, and Carrick's Ford, thus wresting the entire State from their control. Shortly afterward, Governor Wise and General Floyd (President Buchanan's Secretary of War) led a Confederate force into that region; but Floyd was suddenly attacked by General Rosecrans at Carnifex Ferry, and, Wise failing to support him, was compelled to retreat. General Robert E. Lee, McClellan's future antagonist on the Potomac, having been repulsed at Cheat Mountain (September 14), now came to the rescue. Nothing decisive being effected, the Confederate government recalled their forces. The only Union victories of this year were achieved in this region (map opp. p.223).

BATTLE OF BULL RUN (July 21).—The Northern people, seeing so many regiments pushed forward to Washington, were impatient for an advance. The cry, "On to Richmond!" became too strong to be resisted. General Irvin McDowell, in command of the Army of the Potomac, moved to attack the main body of the Confederates, who were strongly posted under Beauregard at Bull Run.

[Footnote: This is near Manassas Junction about twenty-seven miles from Alexandria]

After a sharp conflict the Confederates were driven from the field. They were rallied, however, by General T. J. Jackson and others, on a plateau in the rear. While the Federal troops were struggling to drive them from this new position, at the crisis of the battle, seventeen hundred men, under Kirby Smith, rushing across the fields from Manassas Station, struck the Union flank and poured in a cross fire. The effect was irresistible. McDowell's men fled. As the fugitives converged toward the bridge in the rear, a shell burst among the teamsters' wagons, a caisson was overturned, and the passage choked. The retreat now became a panic-stricken rout. Traces were cut, cannon abandoned, mounted men went plunging through the struggling mass, and soldiers threw away their guns and ran streaming over the country, many never stopping till they were safe across the Long Bridge at Washington.

[Footnote: General Bee, as he rallied his men shouted 'There's Jackson standing like a stone wall' "From that time" says Draper "the name he had received in a baptism of fire displaced that he had received in a baptism of water and he was known as Stonewall Jackson."]


[Footnote: These troops composed a part of General Johnston's command at Winchester. General Patterson, with twenty thousand men, had been left to watch him, and prevent his joining Beauregard. Johnston was too shrewd for his antagonist, and, slipping out of his hands, reached Bull Run in time to decide the battle.]

The Effect of this defeat was momentous. At first the Northern people were chagrined and disheartened. Then came a renewed determination. They saw the real character of the war, and no longer dreamed that the South could be subdued by a mere display of military force. They were to fight a brave people—Americans—who were to be conquered only by a desperate struggle. Congress voted $500,000,000 and five hundred thousand men. General McClellan, upon whom all eyes were turned, on account of his brilliant campaign in Western Virginia, was appointed to the command of the Army of the Potomac.

[Footnote: Soon after, General Scott, weighed down by age, retired from active service, and General McClellan became General-in-Chief of all the armies of the United States.]

BALL'S BLUFF (October 21).—About two thousand Federals, who had crossed the Potomac at Ball's Bluff on a reconnoitering expedition, were attacked by the Confederates, and forced down the slippery, clayey bluff, fifty to one hundred and fifty feet high, to the river below. The two old scows in which they came were soon sunk, and, in trying to escape, many were drowned, some were shot, and scarcely half their number reached the other bank Colonel Baker, United States Senator from Oregon, was among the killed.

[Footnote: December 20, General E. O. C. Ord, having gone out on a foraging excursion to Dranesville, in a severe skirmish routed the Confederates. This little victory greatly encouraged the people at the North, who had been disheartened by the disastrous affair of Ball's Bluff.]


This State was largely Union. The Convention had declined to pass an ordinance of secession; yet there was a strong effort made by Governor Jackson to preserve, at least, an armed neutrality. Captain Lyon foiled this attempt. He broke up Camp Jackson, saved the United States arsenal at St. Louis, and defeated Colonel Marmaduke at Booneville (June 17). General Sigel (se-gel), however, having been defeated by the Confederates in an engagement at Carthage (July 5), Lyon, now General, found that he must either fight the superior forces of Generals McCulloch and Price, or else abandon that part of the State. He chose the former course. At the head of about five thousand he attacked more than twice that number at Wilson's Creek (August 10). He fell, gallantly leading a bayonet charge. His men were defeated. Colonel Mulligan was forced to surrender Lexington after a brave defence. General John C. Fremont now assumed charge, and drove Price as far south as Springfield. Just as he was preparing for battle, he was replaced by General Hunter, who took the Union army back to St. Louis. Hunter was soon superseded by General Halleck, who crowded Price south to Arkansas. Later in the fall, General Grant made an unsuccessful attack upon a Confederate force which had crossed over from Kentucky and taken post at Belmont (map opp. p. 222).

[Footnote: The Confederates, in their final assault, fought behind a movable breastwork, composed of hemp-bales, which they rolled toward the fort as they advanced.]

[Footnote: Kentucky, like Missouri, had tried to remain neutral, but was unsuccessful. Soon both Confederate and Union troops were encamped on her soil, and the State was ravaged by hostile armies. In all the border States affairs were in a most lamentable condition. The people were divided in opinion, and enlisted in both armies. As the tide of war surged to and fro, armed bands swept through the country, plundering and murdering those who favored the opposite party.]

Early in the war, Davis issued a proclamation offering to commission privateers. In reply, Lincoln declared a blockade of the Southern ports. At that time there was but one efficient vessel on the Northern coast, and only forty-two ships in the United States navy; but at the close of the year there were two hundred and sixty-four.

[Footnote: The Savannah was the first privateer which got to sea, but this vessel was captured after having taken only a single prize. The Petrel, also from Charleston, bore down upon the United States frigate St. Lawrence, which the captain mistook for a merchant ship; his vessel was sunk by the first broadside of his formidable antagonist. The Sumter, under Captain Semmes, captured and burned a large number of Federal ships, but, at last, it was blockaded in the Bay of Gibraltar by a Union gunboat, and, being unable to escape, was sold.]

Two joint naval and military expeditions were made during the year. The first captured the forts at Hatteras Inlet, N. C. The second, under Commodore Dupont and General Thomas W. Sherman, took the forts at Port Royal Entrance, S. C., and Tybee island, at the mouth of the Savannah. Port Royal became the great depot for the Union fleet.

[Footnote: During this engagement the ships described a circle between the forts, each vessel delivering its fire as it slowly sailed by, then passing on, and another taking its place. The line of this circle was constantly changed to prevent the Confederates from getting the range of the vessels.]

THE TRENT AFFAIR.—England and France had acknowledged the Confederate States as belligerents, thus placing them on the same footing with the United States. The Southern people having, therefore, great hopes of foreign aid, appointed Messrs. Mason and Slidell commissioners to those countries. Escaping through the blockading squadron, they took passage at Havana on the British steamer Trent. Captain Wilkes, of the United States steamer San Jacinto, followed the Trent, took off the Confederate envoys, and brought them back to the United States. This produced intense excitement in England. The United States government, however, promptly disavowed the act and returned the prisoners.



GENERAL REVIEW OF THE FIRST YEAR OF THE WAR.—The Confederates had captured the large arsenals at Harper's Ferry and Norfolk. They had been successful in the two great battles of the year—Bull Run and Wilson's Creek; also in the minor engagements at Big Bethel, Carthage, Lexington, Belmont, and Ball's Bluff. The Federals had saved Fort Pickens* and Fortress Monroe, and had captured the forts at Hatteras Inlet and Port Royal. They had gained the victories of Philippi, Rich Mountain, Booneville, Carrick's Ford, Cheat Mountain, Carnifex Ferry, and Dranesville. They had saved to the Union Missouri, Maryland, and West Virginia. Principally, however, they had thrown the whole South into a state of siege—the armies on the north and west by land, and the navy in the east by sea, maintaining a vigilant blockade.

[Footnote: This fort was situated near Pensacola. Lieutenant Slemmer, seeing that an attack was about to be made upon him, transferred his men from Fort McRae, an untenable position, to Fort Pickens, an almost impregnable fortification, which he held until reinforcements arrived.]


THE SITUATION.—The national army now numbered 500,000; the Confederate, about 350,000. During the first year there had been random fighting; the war henceforth assumed a general plan. The year's campaign on the part of the North had three main objects: (1) the opening of the Mississippi; (2) the blockade of the Southern ports; and (3) the capture of Richmond.

[Illustration: VIEW OF RICHMOND, VA.]


The Confederates here held a line of defence with strongly fortified posts at Columbus, Fort Henry, Fort Donelson, Bowling Green, Mill Spring, and Cumberland Gap. It was determined to pierce this line near the centre, along the Tennessee River. This would compel the evacuation of Columbus, which was deemed impregnable, and open the way to Nashville (map opp p 222).

CAPTURE OF FORTS HENRY AND DONELSON.—Accordingly, General Giant with his army, and Commodore Foote with his gunboats, moved from Cairo (kay'-ro) upon Fort Henry.

[Footnote: As a part of the general movement, in January General
Thomas had advanced against Mill Spring and on the 19th
driven out the Confederate force at that place, with the loss of
General Zolhcoffer (tsol'le ko-fer) a favorite Southern leader]

A bombardment (Feb. 6) from the gunboats reduced the place in about an hour. The land troops were to cut off the retreat; but as they did not arrive in time, the garrison escaped to Fort Donelson. The fleet now went back to the Ohio, and ascended the Cumberland, while Grant crossed to co-operate in an attack on Fort Donelson. The fight lasted three days.

[Footnote: For four nights of inclement winter weather, amid snow and sleet, with no tents, shelter, fire, and many with no blankets, these hardy western troops maintained their position. The wounded suffered intensely, and numbers of them froze to death as they lay on the icy ground.]

The fleet was repulsed by the fire from the fort, and Commodore Foote seriously wounded. Grant, having been reinforced till he had nearly thirty thousand men, defeated the Confederates in an attempt to cut their way out, and captured a part of their intrenchments. As he was about to make the final assault, the fort was surrendered (Feb. 16), with about fifteen thousand men.

[Footnote: When General Buckner, commander of the fort, wrote to General Grant, offering capitulation, Grant replied that no terms would be received except an "unconditional surrender," and that he "proposed to move immediately upon their works." These expressions have been much quoted, and U. S. Grant has been often said to signify "Unconditional Surrender Grant."]

Effect of these Victories.—As was expected, Columbus and Bowling Green were evacuated, while General Buell at once occupied Nashville. The Confederates fell back to Corinth, the great railroad centre for Mississippi and Tennessee, where their forces were gradually collected under the command of Generals Albert Sidney Johnston and Beauregard. The Union army ascended the Tennessee to Pittsburg Landing. Grant was placed in command, and General Buell ordered to reinforce him.

The next movement was to capture the Memphis and Charleston railroad, thus cutting off Memphis and securing another section of the Mississippi Eiver.

BATTLE OF SHILOH (April 6, 7).—The Confederates determined to rout Grant's army before the arrival of Buell. On Sunday morning, at daylight, moving out of the woods in line of battle, they suddenly fell on the Union camps.

[Footnote: On the very heels of the pickets, who rushed in to give the alarm, came the shells, and then, pouring at double-quick from the woods, the regular lines of battle. Whether or not this attack was a surprise, has been one of the mooted questions of the war. Le Comte de Paris said, "The surprise was complete and unquestionable; the Union commanders sought in vain to excuse themselves;" and it was currently stated at the time that so unexpected was the attack that many of the "men were bayoneted in their beds." On the other hand, General Sherman asserts that his "troops were in line of battle and ready" before the engagement began, and he personally assures the writer that after the battle he offered in vain a reward for the body of any person killed by a bayonet-wound. General Grant, also, denies that the attack was a surprise to him, and declares that so well satisfied was he with the result of the first day's struggle, that at night he gave orders for a forward movement early in the morning.]

On the one side were the Southern dash, daring, and vigor; on the other, the Northern firmness and determination. The Federals slowly yielded, but for twelve hours obstinately disputed every inch of the way. At last, pushed to the very brink of the river, Grant massed his artillery, and gathered about it the fragments of regiments for the final stand. The Confederates, to meet them, had to cross a deep ravine, where, struggling through the mud and water, they melted away under the fire of cannon and musketry from above, and the shells from the gunboats below. Pew reached the slippery bank beyond. At the same time, Buell's advance came shouting on the field. The tide of battle was stayed. The Confederates fell back. They possessed, however, all the substantial fruits of victory. They had taken the Union camps, three thousand prisoners, thirty flags, and immense stores; but they had lost their commander, General Albert Sidney Johnston, who fell in the heat of the action (map opp. p. 222).

The next morning the tide turned. Buell's army had come, and fresh troops were poured on the wearied Confederates. Beauregard, obstinately resisting, was driven from the field. He retreated, however, in good order, and, unmolested, returned to Corinth.

General Halleck now assumed command, and by slow stages followed the Confederates. Beanregard, finding himself outnumbered, evacuated Corinth, and Halleck took possession (May 30).

ISLAND NO. 10.—The Confederates, on retreating from Columbus, fell back to Island No. 10. There they were bombarded by Commodore Foote for three weeks, with little effect. General Pope, crossing the Mississippi in the midst of a fearful rain-storm, took the batteries on the opposite bank, and prepared to attack the fortifications in the rear. The garrison, seven thousand strong, surrendered (April 7) the very day of the conflict at Shiloh.

[Footnote: The islands in the Mississippi are numbered in order from the mouth of the Ohio to New Orleans.]

[Footnote: Pope, with his army, was on the Missouri side of the river. He could not cross, as the Confederate batteries were planted on the opposite shore. A canal was therefore dug through Donaldson's Point. It was twelve miles long and fifty feet wide. Part of the distance was among heavy timber, where the trees had to be cut off four feet below the surface of the water. Yet the work was accomplished in nineteen days. Through this canal steamboats and barges were safely transferred below the newly-made island, while the two largest gunboats ran the batteries. Under their protection Pope crossed the river.]


The Effects of the desperate battle at Shiloh were now fully apparent. The Union gunboats moved down the river and (May 10) defeated the Confederate iron-clad fleet. On the evacuation of Corinth, Fort Pillow was abandoned. The gunboats, proceeding, destroyed the Confederate flotilla in front of Memphis, took possession of that city, and secured the Memphis and Charleston railroad. The great State of Kentucky and all Western Tennessee had been wrenched from the Confederacy.

[Footnote: Besides the results here named, the concentration of troops at Corinth had absorbed the troops from the South. Thus New Orleans, as we shall see hereafter, fell an easy prey to Farragut.]

[Footnote: Gen. Halleck having been called to Washington as General-in-Chief of the armies of the United States, General Grant was appointed to the command of this army.]

The Union army now held a line running from Memphis, through Corinth, nearly to Chattanooga, toward which point General Buell was steadily pushing his troops. We shall next consider the efforts made by the Confederates to break through this line of investment. At this time they were concentrated under Bragg at Chattanooga, Price at Iuka, and Van Dorn at Holly Springs.

BRAGG'S EXPEDITION.—The first movement was made by General Bragg, who with rapid marches, hastened toward Louisville. General Buell fell back to Nashville, where he found out his enemy's plan. Now commenced a race between them of three hundred miles. Buell came out one day ahead. He was heavily reinforced to the number of one hundred thousand men. Bragg then fell back, Buell slowly following.

[Footnote: At Frankfort, Bragg was joined by the part of his army under Kirby Smith, who had marched from Knoxville, routed a Union force under General Manson at Richmond, Ky., inflicting a loss of six thousand, and had then moved north as far as Cynthiana. There he threatened to attack Cincinnati, but was repelled by the extensive preparation made by General Lew Wallace]

At Perryville (October 8), Bragg fiercely turned upon Buell, and a desperate battle was fought. In the darkness, however, Bragg retreated, and finally escaped, though his wagon train extended a distance of forty miles. At this juncture (October 31), General Buell was superseded by General Rosecrans.

BATTLES OF IUKA AND CORINTH (September 19, October 4).—Every one of Grant's veterans who could possibly be spared had been sent north to help Buell. Price and Van Dorn, taking advantage of the opportunity, were manoeuvring to get possession of Corinth. Grant, thinking that he could capture Price and then get back to Corinth before Van Dorn could reach it from Holly Springs, ordered Rosecrans to move upon Iuka. Through some mistake, Rosecrans failed to occupy Price's line of retreat, and after a severe conflict (Sept. 19), the latter escaped. Thereupon the two Confederate generals joined their forces, and attacked Rosecrans in his intrenchments at Corinth. The Confederates exhibited brilliant courage, but were defeated, and pursued forty miles with heavy loss.

[Footnote: The Texas and Missouri troops made a heroic charge upon Fort Robinette. They advanced to within fifty yards of the intrenchments, received a shower of grape and canister without flinching, and were driven back only when the Ohio brigade poured a full volley of musketry into their ranks. They were then rallied by Colonel Rogers, of the Second Texas, who, at their head, led them to a fresh charge up through the abattis, when, with the colors in his hand, he sprang upon the embankment and cheered on his men. An instant more and he fell, with five brave fellows who had dared to leap to his side in this desperate assault. The Union troops admiringly buried his remains, and neatly rounded off the little mound where they laid the hero to rest.]

BATTLE OF MURFREESBORO (December 31, January 2).—Rosecrans, on assuming command of Buell's army, concentrated his forces at Nashville. Thence he marched to meet Bragg, who, with a heavy column moving north on a second grand expedition, had already reached Murfreesboro (map opp. p. 222). Both generals had formed the same plan for the approaching contest.

[Footnote: This coincidence reminds one of the battle of Camden (see p. 133). The plan was to mass the strength on the left, and with that to fall upon and crush the enemy's right. The advantage clearly lay with the army which struck first. Bragg secured the initiative, and Rosecrans's only course was to give up all thought of an attack and to save his right and centre from a rout.]

As the Union left was crossing Stone River to attack the Confederate right, the strong Confederate left fell heavily on the weak Union right. At first the onset was irresistible. But Gen. Sheridan was there, and by his consummate valor held his ground until Rosecrans could recall the left, replant his batteries, and establish a new line. Upon this fresh front the Confederates charged four times, but were driven back with very great loss. Two days after, Bragg renewed the attack, but being unsuccessful, retreated. This was one of the bloodiest contests of the war, the loss being one-fourth of the number engaged.

The Effect of this Battle.—The attempt of the Confederates to recover Kentucky was now abandoned. The way was open for another Union advance on Chattanooga. Bragg's force was reduced from an offensive to a defensive attitude.

FIRST VICKSBURG EXPEDITION.—While Rosecrans was repelling this advance of Bragg, an expedition against Vicksburg had been planned by Grant. He was to move along the Mississippi Central Railroad, while Sherman was to descend the river from Memphis with the gunboats under Porter. In the meantime, however, by a brilliant cavalry dash, Van Dorn destroyed Grant's depot of supplies at Holly Springs. This spoiled the whole plan. Sherman, ignorant of what had happened, pushed on, landed up the Yazoo River, and made an attack at Chickasaw Bayou (bi-yoo), north of Vicksburg. After suffering a bloody repulse, and learning of Grant's misfortune, he fell back. The capture of Arkansas Post (Jan. 11, 1863) by a combined army and naval force, closed the campaign of 1862 on the Mississippi Eiver.

THE WAR IN MISSOURI.—In February, General Curtis pushed General Price out of Missouri into Arkansas. The Confederates, by great exertion, increased their army to twenty thousand—General Van Dorn now taking command. General Curtis, in a desperate battle, totally defeated him at Pea Ridge (March 7, 8). During the rest of the war no important battles were fought in this State.

[Footnote: Some four or five thousand Indians had joined the Confederate army, and took part in this battle. They were difficult to manage, says Pollard, in the deafening roar of the artillery, which drowned their loudest war-whoops. They were amazed at the sight of guns which ran around on wheels; annoyed by the falling of the trees behind which they took shelter; and, in a word, their main service was in consuming rations.]

[Footnote: The next year, Quantrell, a noted guerrilla, with three hundred men, entered Lawrence, Kansas, plundered the bank, burned houses, and murdered one hundred and forty persons. Before a sufficient force could be gathered, he escaped.]


CAPTURE OF NEW ORLEANS (April 25).—The effort to open the Mississippi was not confined to the north. Early in the spring, Captain Farragut, with a fleet of forty-four vessels, carrying eight thousand troops under General Butler, attempted the capture of New Orleans, which commands the mouth of the river. The mortar-boats, anchored along the bank under the shelter of the woods, threw thirteen-inch shells into Forts Jackson and St. Philip for six days and nights, with little effect.

[Footnote: To conceal the vessels, they were dressed out with leafy branches, which, except by close observation, rendered them undistinguishable from the green woods. The direction had been accurately calculated, so that the gunners did not need to see the points towards which they were to aim. So severe was the bombardment that "windows at the Balize, thirty miles distant, were broken. Fish, stunned by the explosion, lay floating on the surface of the water."]

Farragut then boldly resolved to carry the fleet past the defences to New Orleans. A chain supported on hulks and stretched across the river closed the channel. An opening broad enough to admit the passage of the gunboats having been cut through this obstruction, at three o'clock in the morning (April 24) they advanced, and poured grape and canister into the forts at short range, receiving in return heavy volleys from the forts and batteries on shore.

[Footnote: The vessels were made partly iron-clad by looping two layers of chain cables over their sides, and their engines were protected by bags of sand, coal, etc.]

After running a fearful gauntlet of shot, shell, and the flames of fire-rafts, they next encountered the Confederate fleet of thirteen armed steamers, including the steam-battery Louisiana and the iron-plated ram Manassas. After a desperate struggle twelve of the Confederate flotilla were destroyed. The fleet then steamed up to New Orleans, which lay helpless under the Union guns. The forts being now threatened in the rear by the army, soon surrendered. Captain Farragut afterward ascended the river, took possession of Baton Rouge and Natchez, and, running the batteries at Vicksburg, joined the Union fleet above.

[Footnote: Steamers, ships, vast quantities of cotton, etc., were burned by the order of the governor of Louisiana, and the military commander of the Confederate States, to prevent their falling into Federal hands. Pollard says: "No sooner had the Federal fleet turned the point and come within sight of the city, than the work of destruction commenced. Vast columns of smoke darkened the face of heaven and obscured the noonday sun; for five miles along the levee fierce flames darted through the lurid atmosphere. Great ships and steamers wrapped in fire floated down the river, threatening the Federal vessels with destruction. Fifteen thousand bales of cotton, worth one million and a half of dollars, were consumed. About a dozen large river steamboats, twelve or fifteen ships, a great floating battery, several unfinished gunboats, the immense ram Mississippi, and the docks on the other side of the river, were all embraced in the fiery sacrifice."]

[Illustration: VIEW OF NEW ORLEANS.]


Was an important step toward the enforcement of the blockade. The Confederate forts were captured, and the ships destroyed. Newbern—an excellent seaport—Elizabeth City, and, finally, Fort Macon, at the entrance to Beaufort harbor, were taken. Thus all the coast of North Carolina, with its intricate network of water communication, fell into the Union hands.

[Footnote: Roanoke Island, the scene of Raleigh's colonization scheme, was the key to the rear defences of Norfolk "It unlocked two sounds, eight rivers, four canals, and two railroads" It controlled largely the transmission of supplies to that region afforded an excellent harbor and a convenient rendezvous for ships, and exposed a country to attack]

FLORIDA AND GEORGIA EXPEDITIONS.—After its capture in the autumn of 1861, Port Royal became the base of operations against Florida and Georgia. Fernandina, Fort Clinch, Jacksonville, Darien, and St. Augustine, were taken. Fort Pulaski, also, was reduced after a severe bombardment, and thus the port of Savannah was closed. At the end of the year every city of the Atlantic sea-coast, except Savannah and Charleston, was held by the Federal armies.

THE MERRIMAC AND THE MONITOR.—About noon, March 8, the long-looked-for iron-clad Merrimac, convoyed by a fleet of small vessels, steamed into Hampton Roads. Steering directly for the sloop-of-war Cumberland, whose terrific broadsides glanced harmlessly "like so many peas" from the Merrimac's iron roof, she struck her squarely with her iron beak, making a hole large enough for a man to enter. The Cumberland, with all on board, went down.

[Footnote: As the Cumberland sank, the crew continued to work their guns until the vessel plunged beneath the sea. Her flag was never struck, but floated above the water from the mast-head after she had gone down. ]

[Footnote: When the United States navy-yard at Norfolk was given up, the steam-frigate Merrimac, the finest in the service, was scuttled. The Confederates afterward raised this vessel, razed the deck, and added an iron prow and a sloping roof made of railroad iron. The ship thus prepared looked not unlike a great house sunk in the water to the eaves. The Federals knew that the Merrimac was fitting for battle, and her coming was eagerly expected. ]

Warned by the fate of the Cumberland, the captain of the frigate Congress ran his vessel ashore, but the Merrimac, taking a position astern, fired shells into the frigate till the helpless crew were forced to surrender. At sunset, the Merrimac returned to Norfolk, awaiting, the next day, an easy victory over the rest of the Union fleet. All was delight and anticipation among the Confederates; all was dismay and dismal foreboding among the Federals. That night the Monitor arrived in harbor.

[Footnote: This "Yankee cheese-box," as it was nicknamed at the time, was the invention of Captain Ericsson. It was a hull, with the deck a few inches above the water, and in the centre a curious round tower made to revolve slowly by steam power, thus turning in any direction the two guns it contained The upper part of the hull, which was exposed to the enemy's fire, projected several feet beyond the lower part, and was made of thick white oak, covered with iron plating six inches thick on the sides and two inches on deck]

Though of but nine hundred tons burden, she prepared to meet her adversary of five thousand. Early in the morning the Merrimac appeared, moving toward the steam-frigate Minnesota. Suddenly, from under her lee, the Monitor darted out, and hurled at the monster two one hundred and sixty-eight pound balls. Startled by the appearance of this unexpected and queer-looking antagonist, the Merrimac poured in a broadside, such as the night before had destroyed the Congress, but the balls rattled harmlessly off the Monitor's turret, or broke and fell in pieces on the deck.


Then began the battle of the iron ships. It was the first of the kind in the world. Close against each other, iron rasping on iron, they exchanged their heaviest volleys. Five times the Merrimac tried to run down the Monitor, but her huge beak only grated over the iron deck, while the Monitor glided out unharmed. Despairing of doing anything with her doughty little antagonist, the Merrimac now steamed back to Norfolk.

[Footnote: As the Merrimac drew off she hurled a last shot, which, striking the Monitor's pilot-house, broke a bar of iron nine by twelve inches, seriously injuring the eyes of the gallant commander, Lieutenant Worden, who was at that moment looking out through a narrow slit and directing the fire of his guns]

The Effect of this contest can hardly be overestimated. Had the Merrimac triumphed, aided by other iron vessels then preparing by the Confederacy, she might have destroyed the rest of the Union fleet in Hampton Roads, reduced Fortress Monroe, prevented the Peninsular campaign (see below), steamed up the Potomac and terrified the capital, sailed along the coast and broken up the blockade, swept through the shipping at New York, opened the way for foreign supplies, made an egress for cotton, and perhaps secured the acknowledgment of the Confederacy by European nations. On this battle hinged the fate of the war.


THE PENINSULAR CAMPAIGN.-Kichmond was here the objective point. It having been decided to make the advance by way of the Peninsula, the Army of the Potomac was carried in transports down the river from Washington. Landing at Fortress Monroe about one hundred thousand strong (April 4), they marched toward Yorktown.

[Footnote: Previous to this (March 10), McClellan made an advance toward Manassas, where the Confederates had remained intrenched since McDowell's defeat. The fortifications, which were evacuated on his approach, were found to be quite insignificant, and to be mounted partly with "Quaker guns," i. e., logs shaped and painted to imitate artillery. This incident excited much ridicule through the country.]

Siege of Yorktown.—At this place, General Magruder, with only about five thousand men, by his masterly skill maintained so bold a front along a line thirteen miles in length, that McClellan was brought to a stop. Heavy guns were ordered from Washington, and a regular siege was begun. As McClellan was ready to open fire, Magruder, having delayed the Union army a month, quietly retired. When the movement was discovered, a vigorous pursuit was commenced.

[Footnote: On the evacuation of Yorktown—the Confederate forces being concentrated for the defence of Richmond-Norfolk was abandoned, the Navy Yard burned, and the Merrimac, the pride of the South, blown up. United States troops from Fortress Monroe took possession of the city, and gunboats sailed up James River as far as Fort Darling. Here a plunging fire from the bluff forbade further advance.]

[Illustration: MAP OF THE PENINSULA]

Battle of Williamsburg (May 5).—The Confederate rearguard, now reinforced from Johnston's army at Richmond, stopped in the forts at Williamsburg to gain time for the baggage train and a fierce battle at once ensued.

[Footnote: This was General Joseph E. Johnston, who so unexpectedly brought his men to take part in the battle of Bull Run (p. 220). He was wounded in the battle of Seven Pines, but appeared again in two campaigns against Sherman (pp. 257, 272). General Albert Sidney Johnston was killed in the battle of Shiloh (p. 226).]

General Hooker, "Fighting Joe," with his division, maintained the contest for nine hours. Other troops at last arrived on the bloody field, and, Williamsburg having been evacuated in the night, the pursuit was continued to within seven miles of Richmond.

Richmond Threatened.—There was a great panic in that city, and the Confederate Congress hastily adjourned. Everything looked like an immediate attack, when McClellan discovered that a Confederate force was at Hanover Court House. This threatened his communications by rail with White House Landing, and also with General McDowell, who, with thirty thousand men, was marching from Fredericksburg to join him. General Fitz John Porter, after a sharp skirmish, captured Hanover Court House. The army looked now hourly for McDowell's aid in the approaching great contest. "McClellan's last orders at night were that McDowell's signals were to be watched for and without delay reported to him" But General Johnston was too shrewd to permit this junction. He accordingly ordered General Jackson to move up the Shenandoah Valley and threaten Washington.

Jackson in the Shenandoah.—Stonewall Jackson having been reinforced by General Ewell's division of ten thousand men, hurried down the valley after Banks at Strasburg. The Union troops fell back, and by tremendous exertion—"marching thirty-five miles in a single day"—succeeded in escaping across the Potomac. Great was the consternation in Washington. The President took military possession of all the railroads. The governors of the Northern States were called upon to send militia for the defence of the capital. Fremont at Franklin, Banks at Harper's Ferry, and McDowell at Fredericksburg, were ordered to capture Jackson. It was high time for this dashing leader to be alarmed. He rapidly retreated, burning the bridges as he passed. Fremont brought him to bay at Cross Keys (June 8), but was hurled off. Shields struck at him at Port Republic, the next day, but was driven back five miles, while Jackson made good his escape from the Shenandoah Valley, having burned the bridges behind him.

[Footnote: When the Federal forces took possession of the bridge over the Shenandoah, Jackson and his staff were on the south side, his army being on the north side. It is said that "he rode toward the bridge, and rising in his stirrups, called sternly to the Federal officer commanding the artillery placed to sweep it: 'Who ordered you to post that gun there, sir? Bring it over here!'" The bewildered officer bowed, limbered up his piece, and prepared to move. Jackson and his staff seized the lucky moment and dashed across the bridge before the gun could be brought to bear upon them.]

The Effect of this adroit movement was evident. With fifteen thousand men, Jackson had occupied the attention of three major-generals and sixty thousand men, prevented McDowell's junction, alarmed Washington, and saved Richmond.

Battle of Fair Oaks (May 31, June l).—While these stirring events had been going on in the Shenandoah Valley, McClellan had pushed his left wing across the Chickahominy. A terrible storm had flooded the swamps, turned the roads to mud, and converted the Chickahominy Creek into a broad river. Johnston seized the opportunity to fall with tremendous force upon the exposed wing. At first, the Confederates swept all before them, but General Sumner throwing his men across the tottering bridges over the Chickahominy, checked the column which was trying to seize the bridges and thus separate the two portions of the army. General Johnston was severely wounded. Night put an end to the contest. In the morning, the Confederates renewed the attack, but the loss of their general was fatal, and they were repulsed in great disorder.

The Union Army Checked.—General Lee, who now took command of the Confederate army, was anxious to assume the offensive.

[Footnote: Robert Edward Lee was born in Stratford, Virginia, Jan. 19, 1807; died in Lexington, Oct. 12, 1870. His father, Henry Lee, was the celebrated "Light-horse Harry" of Revolutionary fame. Robert early evinced a love for a military life, and during his West Point course became noted for his devotion to his studies. In the Mexican war he was Scott's chief engineer, and was thrice brevetted for his services. When Virginia seceded, he threw in his fortunes with his native State, although Scott had already intimated his intention of nominating him as his successor. Lee was immediately appointed major-general of the Virginia forces, and was soon after designated to fortify Richmond. The wonderful success he achieved in the Seven-Days fight made "Uncle Robert," as he was familiarly called, the most trusted of the Confederate leaders. For three years he baffled every attempt to take Richmond, which fell only with the government of which it was the capital, and the army and general which were its defence. General Lee was handsome in face and figure, a graceful rider, grave and silent in deportment—just the bearing to captivate a soldier; while his deep piety, truth, sincerity, and honesty won the hearts of all.]

General Stuart led off (June 12) with a bold cavalry raid, in which he seized and burned supplies along the railroad leading to White House, made the entire circuit of the Union army, and returned to Richmond in safety. McClellan also meditated an advance, and Hooker had pushed his pickets within sight of the Richmond steeples.

At this moment, there came news of the "same apparition which had frightened Banks" in the Shenandoah. Stonewall Jackson had appeared near Hanover Court House, and threatened the Union communications with White House. There was no longer any thought of moving on Richmond. Hooker was recalled. McClellan resolved to "change his base" of supply from the York River to the James.

[Illustration: GENERAL ROBERT E. LEE.]

The Seven-Days Battles.—The very morning McClellan came to this decision, and ere the flank movement had commenced, Lee, massing his strength on his left, fell upon the Union right at Mechanicsville (June 26). Having repulsed this attack, at dawn the troops retired to Gaines's Mill, where by the most desperate exertions Porter held the bridges across the Chickahominy until night, and then, burning them, withdrew to the south bank. That night (June 28) Lee detected McClellan's movement, and instantly started columns along the roads that intersected the line of retreat. Magruder struck the Federal flank (June 29) at Savage's Station. The Union troops maintained their position till night, and then continued the movement. Longstreet and Hill encountered the line of march as it was passing Frazier's Farm (June 30), but could not break it. During the darkness, the Union troops, worn out by the constant marching or fighting and the terrible heat and dust, collected at Malvern. On an elevated plateau rising in the form of an amphitheatre, on whose sloping sides were arranged tier upon tier of batteries, with gunboats protecting the left, the broken fragments of the splendid Army of the Potomac made their last stand (July 1). Here Lee received so bloody a check that he pressed the pursuit no further. The Union troops retired undisturbed to Harrison's Landing.

The Effect of this campaign was a triumph for the Confederates. The Union retreat had been conducted with skill, the troops had shown great bravery and steadiness, the repulse at Malvern was decided, and Lee had lost probably twenty thousand men; yet the siege of Richmond had been raised, ten thousand prisoners captured, immense stores taken or destroyed, and the Union army was now cooped up on James Kiver, under the protection of the gunboats. The discouragement at the North was as great as after the battle of Bull Run. Lincoln called for a levy of three hundred thousand troops.

CAMPAIGN AGAINST POPE.—Richmond being relieved from present peril, Lee threatened to march his victorious army against Washington. General Pope, who commanded the troops for the defence of that city, was stationed at the Rapidan. General McClellan was directed to transfer his army to Acquia Creek (see map), and put it under the command of General Pope. Lee, now relieved from all fear for Richmond, immediately massed his troops against Pope to crush him before the Army of the Potomac could arrive.

[Footnote: In the meantime Jackson attacked Banks at Cedar Mountain (August 9) and defeated him after a bloody battle, but, unable to maintain his position, fell back on Lee's advancing army. Pope, seeing the fearful odds against which he was to contend, took post behind the Rappahannock.]

Pope being held in check by the main army in front, General Jackson was sent around Pope's right wing to flank him. Passing through Thoroughfare Gap he reached the railroad at Bristoe's Station, in the rear of Pope's army (August 26). General Pope, seeing an opportunity while Lee's army was thus divided to cut it up in detail, turned upon Jackson. But the Army of the Potomac not promptly reinforcing him, his plans failed, and instead of "bagging " Jackson's division, he was compelled, with only forty thousand men, to fight the entire Confederate army on the old battlefield of Bull Run. Exhausted, cut off from supplies, and overwhelmed by numbers, the shattered remains of the Union forces were glad to take refuge within the fortifications of Washington.

[Footnote: During the pursuit by Lee's forces, an engagement took place at Chantilly (September 1). It cost the Union army two able officers—Generals Stevens and Kearney. The latter, especially, was devotedly loved by his soldiers. On the battlefield, brandishing his sword in his only hand, and taking the reins in his teeth, he had often led them in the most desperate and irresistible charges.]

The Effect.—In this brief campaign the Union army lost thirty thousand men and vast supplies, while the way to Washington was opened to the Confederates. The Capital had not been in such peril since the war began. Without, was a victorious army; within, were broken battalions and no general.

INVASION OF MARYLAND.—Flushed with success, Lee now crossed the Potomac and entered Maryland, hoping to secure volunteers and incite an insurrection.

[Footnote: This was Sept. 5, the very day that Bragg entered
Kentucky on his great raid.]

McClellan, who had been restored to the command of the Army of the Potomac, reorganized the shapeless mass and set out in pursuit. On the way he found a copy of Lee's order of march. Learning from this that Lee had divided his forces, and that but a portion remained in his front, he hastened in pursuit.

[Footnote: Lee had sent Jackson with twenty-five thousand men against Harper's Ferry. That redoubtable leader quickly carried the heights which overlook the village, forced Colonel Miles, with eleven thousand men, to surrender, and then hastened back to take part in the approaching contest.]

Overtaking the Confederate rear at South Mountain, and forcing the passes, the Union army poured into the valley beyond (map opp. p. 223).

Battle of Antietam (September 17).—Lee, perceiving his mistake, fell back across Antietam (An-te'-tam) Creek and hurried off couriers to hasten the return of his scattered corps. Fortunately for him, McClellan delayed his attack a day, and in the meantime Jackson had returned. At early dawn, Hooker fell upon the Confederate left, while Burnside, as soon as affairs looked favorable there, was to carry the bridge and attack their right. The Union army was over eighty thousand strong, and the Confederate but half that number. The Union advance was impetuous, but the Confederate defence was no less obstinate. Hooker was wounded, and his corps swept from the field. Both sides were reinforced. Burnside advanced, but too late to relieve the pressure on the Union right. Night ended this bloody fight. The morning found neither commander ready to assail his opponent. That night, Lee retired unmolested across the Potomac.

[Footnote: During this invasion the Confederate soldiers had endured every privation; one-half were in rags, and thousands barefooted had marked their path with crimson. Yet shoeless, hatless, and ragged, they had marched and fought with a heroism like that of the Revolutionary times. But they met their equals at Antietam. Jackson's and Hooker's men fought until both sides were nearly exterminated, and when the broken fragments fell back, the windrows of dead showed where their ranks had stood.]

Six weeks after, the Union army crossed into Virginia.

The Effect of this indecisive battle was that of a Union victory. The North was saved from invasion, and Washington from any danger of attack. Lincoln now determined to issue the Emancipation Proclamation, declaring freedom to all the slaves in the seceded States.

[Footnote: Lincoln prepared the original draft in the July preceding, when the Union forces were in the midst of reverses. Carpenter repeats President Lincoln's words thus: "I put the draft of the proclamation aside, waiting for a victory. Well, the next news we had was of Pope's disaster at Bull Run. Things looked darker than ever. Finally came the week of the battle of Antietam. I determined to wait no longer. The news came, I think, on Wednesday, that the advantage was on our side. I was then staying at the Soldier's Home. Here I finished writing the second draft of the proclamation; came up on Saturday; called the Cabinet together to hear it, and it was published the following Monday. I made a solemn vow before God, that if General Lee was driven back from Maryland I would crown the result by the declaration of freedom to the slaves."]

BATTLE OF FREDERICKSBURG.—General dissatisfaction being expressed at the slowness with which McClellan pursued the retreating army, General Burnside was appointed his successor. Crossing the Rappahannock on pontoon bridges at Fredericksburg, he attempted (December 13) to storm the works in the rear of the town. The Confederates, intrenched behind a long stone wall, and on heights crowned with artillery, easily repulsed the repeated assaults of the Union troops. Night mercifully put an end to the fruitless massacre. The Federal loss was over twelve thousand, nearly half of whom fell before the fatal stone wall.

[Footnote: This solid stone wall, four feet high, completely sheltered the troops, while they poured a murderous fire upon the attacking party. In the assault, Meagher's Irish troops especially distinguished themselves, leaving two-thirds of their number on the field of their heroic action. The London Times's correspondent, who watched the battle from the heights, speaking of their desperate valor, says: "Never at Fontenoy, Albuera, nor at Waterloo, was more undoubted courage displayed by the sons of Erin than during those six frantic dashes which they directed against the almost impregnable position of their foe. That any mortal man could have carried the position, defended as it was, it seems idle for a moment to believe. But the bodies which lie in dense masses within forty-eight yards of the muzzles of Colonel Walton's guns are the best evidence what manner of men they were who pressed on to death with the dauntlessness of a race which has gained glory on a thousand battle-fields, and never more richly deserved it than at the foot of Marye's Heights, on the 18th day of December, 1862."]

The survivors drew back into the city, and the next night passed quietly across the bridges to their old camping-ground.

gained the victories of Jackson in the Shenandoah; of Lee in the
Peninsular campaign and those against Pope; Bragg's great raid in
Kentucky; and the battles of Cedar Mountain, Chickasaw Bluff, and

The Federals had taken Forts Henry, Donelson, Pulaski, Macon, Jackson, St. Philip, and Island No. 10; had opened the Mississippi to Vicksburg, occupied New Orleans, Roanoke Island, Newberne, Yorktown, Norfolk, and Memphis; had gained the battles of Pea Ridge, Williamsburg, Fair Oaks, South Mountain, Antietam, Iuka, Corinth, and Murfreesboro, and had checked the career of the Merrimac. The marked successes were mainly at the West and along the coast; while in Virginia, as yet, defeats had followed victories so soon as to hide their memory.


In the midst of this civil strife, the Sioux (soo) Indians became dissatisfied with the Indian traders, and the nonpayment of the money due them. Bands of warriors under Little Crow and other chiefs perpetrated horrible massacres in Minnesota, Iowa, and Dakota. Over seven hundred whites were slain, and many thousands driven from their homes. Col. Sibley, after a month's pursuit of the savages, routed them, and took five hundred prisoners. Thirty-nine were hung on one scaffold, at Mankato, Minn.


THE SITUATION.—The plan of the war was the same as in the
preceding year, but included also the occupation of Tennessee. The
Federal army was about seven hundred thousand strong; the
Confederate, not more than half that number. The Emancipation
Proclamation was issued at the opening of the year.


THE SECOND EXPEDITION AGAINST VICKSBURG.—Grant continued his great task of opening the Mississippi. After several weeks of fruitless effort against Vicksburg upon the north, he marched down the west side of the river, while the gunboats, running the batteries, passed below the city and ferried the army across. Hastening forward, he defeated the Confederate advance under Pemberton, at Port Gibson (May 1).

[Footnote: The running of the batteries with transports was considered so hazardous that the officers would not order their crews to take the risk, but called for volunteers. So many privates offered, that they were compelled to draw lots. One boy, drawing a lucky number, was offered $100 for his chance, but refused it, and lived to tell the story. The gauntlet of batteries extended eight miles. The first gunboat crept silently down in the shadow of the trees which lined the bank. The Confederates at Vicksburg discovering the movement, kindled a bonfire which lighted up the whole scene, and made the other vessels a fair target for their gunners.]


Learning that Gen. Jos. E. Johnston was coming to Pemberton's assistance, he rapidly pushed between them to Jackson, that, while holding back Johnston with his right hand, with his left he might drive Pemberton into Vicksburg, and thus capture his whole army. Pursuing this design, he defeated Johnston at Jackson (May 14), and then, turning to the west, drove Pemberton from his position at Champion Hills (May 16); next at Big Black River (May 17); and in seventeen days after crossing the Mississippi, shut up Pemberton's army within the works at Vicksburg. Two desperate assaults upon these having failed, the Union troops began to throw up intrenchments. Mines and countermines were now dug. Not one of the garrison could show his head above the works without being picked off by the watchful riflemen. A hat, held above a port-hole, in two minutes was pierced with fifteen balls. Shells reached all parts of the city, and the inhabitants burrowed in caves to escape the iron storm. The garrison, worn out by forty-seven days of toil in the trenches, surrendered on the 4th of July.

The Effect.—This campaign cost the Confederates five battles, the cities of Vicksburg and Jackson, thirty-seven thousand prisoners, ten thousand killed and wounded, and immense stores. On the fall of Vicksburg, Port Hudson, which had been besieged by General Banks for many weeks, surrendered.

[Footnote: To escape the fiery tempest which constantly swept over Port Hudson, and to provide for the safety of their magazines, the garrison dug deep recesses in the bluffs, approached by steps cut out of the earth. An eye-witness says: "As we rode along the earthworks inside, after the siege, it was curious to mark the ingenious ways in which they had burrowed holes to shelter themselves from shell and from the intolerable rays of the sun; while at work, they must have looked like so many rabbits popping in and out of their warrens."]

The Mississippi was now open to the Gulf, and the Confederacy cut in twain. One great object of the North was accomplished.


Rosecrans, after the battle of Murfreesboro, made no formal movement until June, With sixty thousand men, he then marched against Bragg. By threatening his communications, he compelled Bragg to evacuate Chattanooga (Sept. 8).

[Footnote: One objection which Rosecrans opposed to a forward movement was his inferiority in cavalry. This was removed in July, when General John H. Morgan, with about four thousand Confederate cavalry, crossed the Ohio at Brandenburg, swept around Cincinnati, and struck the river again near Parkersburg. During his entire route, he was harassed by militia. At this point he was overtaken by his pursuers, while gunboats in the river prevented his crossing. Nearly the entire force was captured. Morgan escaped, but was finally taken and confined in the penitentiary at Columbus. Four months afterward, he broke jail and reached Richmond in safety.]

[Footnote: General Bragg had here an opportunity to be shut up in Chattanooga, as Pemberton had been in Vicksburg; but, a more acute strategist, he knew the value of an army in the field to be greater than that of any fortified city.]

Rosecrans pushed on in pursuit of Bragg, whom he supposed to be in full retreat. Bragg, however, having received powerful reinforcements, turned upon his pursuers so suddenly that they narrowly escaped being cut up in detail, while scattered along a line forty miles in length. The Union forces rapidly concentrated, and the two armies met on the Chickamauga.

[Footnote: In the Indian language, the "River of Death"—an ominous name!]

BATTLE OF CHICKAMAUGA (Sept. 19, 20).—The first-day's fight was indecisive. About noon of the second day, the Federal line became broken from the movement of troops to help the left wing, then hard pressed. Longstreet seized the opportunity, pushed a brigade into the gap, and swept the Federal right and centre from the field. The rushing crowd of fugitives bore Rosecrans himself away. In this crisis of the battle all depended on the left, under Thomas. If that yielded, the army would be utterly routed. All through the long afternoon the entire Confederate army surged against it. But Thomas held fast.

[Footnote: Thomas was thenceforth styled the "Rock of Chickamauga."
He was in command of men as brave as himself. Col. George, of the
Second Minnesota, being asked, "How long can you hold this pass?"
replied, "Until the regiment is mustered out of service."]

At night he deliberately withdrew to Chattanooga, picking up five hundred prisoners on the way. The Union army, however, defeated in the field, was now shut up in its intrenchments. Bragg occupied the hills commanding the city, and cut off its communications. The garrison was threatened with starvation.

[Footnote: "Starvation had so destroyed the animals that there were not artillery horses enough to take a battery into action. The number of mules that perished was graphically indicated by one of the soldiers of the army of the Tennessee: 'The mud was so deep that we could not travel by the road, but we got along pretty well by stepping from mule to mule as they lay dead by the way.'" —Draper.]



[Footnote: In the Cherokee language, "The Hawk's Nest."]

(Nov. 24, 25).—Grant having been appointed successor to Rosecrans, immediately hastened to Chattanooga. Affairs soon wore a different look. Hooker came with two corps from the Army of the Potomac; and Sherman hastened by forced marches from Iuka, two hundred miles away.

[Footnote: Thomas held command after Rosecrans left, and Grant was afraid he might surrender before reinforcements could reach him, and therefore telegraphed him to hold fast. The characteristic reply was, "I will stay till I starve."]

[Footnote: Twenty-three thousand strong, they were carried by rail from the Rapidan, in Virginia, to Stevenson, in Alabama, eleven hundred and ninety-two miles, in seven days. The Confederates did not know of the change of base until Hooker appeared in front.]

Communications were re-established. Thomas made a dash and seized Orchard Knob (Nov. 23). The following day Hooker charged the fortifications on Lookout Mountain, His troops had been ordered to stop on the high ground, but, carried away by the ardor of the attack, they swept over the crest, driving the enemy before them.

[Footnote: It was a beautiful day. The men had on their best uniforms, and the bands discoursed the liveliest music. The hills were crowded with spectators. The Confederates on Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge could see every movement. Bragg's pickets stood leaning on their muskets watching Thomas's columns drawn up as if on parade. Suddenly the Union line broke into a double-quick, and the review was turned into a battle.]

[Footnote: The first day the Confederate left rested on Lookout Mountain, there two thousand four hundred feet high; the right, along Missionary Ridge-so called because, many years ago, Catholic missionaries had Indian schools upon it; and the centre, in the valley between. The second day their army simply occupied Missionary Ridge, in the centre of their former line, in front of Grant at Orchard Knob.—On Lookout Mountain, Hooker met with so feeble a resistance, that Grant is reported to have declared the so-called "battle above the clouds" to be "all poetry, there having been no action there worthy the name of battle."]

Through the mist that filled the valley, the anxious watchers below caught only glimpses of this far-famed "battle above the clouds." The next morning Hooker advanced on the south of Missionary Ridge. Sherman during the whole time had been heavily pounding away on the northern flank. Grant, from his position on Orchard Knob, perceiving that the Confederate line in front of him was being weakened to repel these attacks on the flanks, saw that the critical moment had come, and launched Thomas's corps on its centre.

[Footnote: The signals for the attack had been arranged: six cannon-shots, fired at intervals of two seconds. The moment arrived. "Strong and steady the order rang out: 'Number one, fire! Number two, fire! Number three, fire!'" "It seemed to me," says Taylor, "like the tolling of the clock of destiny. And when at 'Number six, fire!' the roar throbbed out with the flash, you should have seen the dead line, that had been lying behind the works all day, come to resurrection in the twinkling of an eye, and leap like a blade from its scabbard."]

The orders were to take the rifle-pits at the foot of Missionary Ridge, then halt and re-form; but the men forgot them all, carried the works at the base, and then swept on up the ascent. Grant caught the inspiration, and ordered a grand charge along the whole front. Up they went, over rocks and chasms, all lines broken, the flags far ahead, each surrounded by a group of the bravest. Without firing a shot, and heedless of the tempest hurled upon them, they surmounted the crest, captured the guns, and turned them on the retreating foe.


That night the Union camp-fires, glistening along the heights about
Chattanooga, proclaimed the success of this, the most brilliant of
Grant's achievements and the most picturesque of all the battles of
the war.

The Effects of this campaign were the utter rout of Bragg's army, the resignation of that general, and the possession of Chattanooga by the Union forces. This post gave control of East Tennessee, and opened the way to the heart of the Confederacy. It became the doorway by which the Union army gained easy access to Virginia, North and South Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama.


While Rosecrans was moving on Chattanooga, Burnside, being relieved of the command of the Army of the Potomac, was sent into East Tennessee, where he met with great success. In the meantime the Confederate President Davis visited Bragg, and thinking Chattanooga was sure to be captured, sent Longstreet with his corps to the defence of Tennessee. His men were in a deplorable state—hungry, ragged, and tentless; but under this indefatigable leader, they shut up Burnside's force in the works at Knoxville. Meanwhile, Grant, in the moment of his splendid triumph at Chattanooga, ordered Sherman's torn, bleeding, barefoot troops over terrible roads one hundred miles to Burnside's relief. Longstreet, in order to anticipate the arrival of these reinforcements, made a desperate assault upon Burnside (November 29), but it was as heroically repulsed. As Sherman's advance guard reached Knoxville (December 4), Longstreet's troops filed out of their works in retreat.


BATTLE OF CHANCELLORSVILLE (May 2, 3).—Burnside, after the defeat at Fredericksburg, was succeeded by General Hooker (January 26). The departure of Longstreet from his force, leaving Lee only sixty thousand to oppose to the Potomac army of over one hundred thousand, offered a favorable opportunity for an attack. Accordingly, Sedgwick was left to carry the intrenchments at Fredericksburg, while the main body crossed the Rappahannock some miles above, and took position in the wilderness near Chancellorsville (map 4, opp. p. 223). Lee, relying on the dense woods to conceal his movements, risked the perilous chance of dividing his army in the presence of a superior enemy. While he kept up a show of fight in front, Jackson, by a detour of fifteen miles, got to the rear with twenty thousand men, and, suddenly bursting out of the dense woods, routed the Union right. That night, Hooker took a new position; but by constant attacks through the next day, Lee gradually forced the Union line from the field of battle, and captured Chancellor House.

[Footnote: A pillar on the veranda of this house, against which Hooker was leaning, being struck by a cannon-ball, that general was stunned, and for an hour, in the heat of the fight, the Union army was deprived of its commander.]

As he was preparing for a final grand charge, word was received that Sedgwick had crossed the Rappahannock, taken Fredericksburg, and had fallen on his rear. Drawing back, he turned against this new antagonist, and by severe fighting that night and the following day, compelled him to recross the river. Lee then went to seek Hooker, but he was already gone. The Army of the Potomac was soon back on its old camping ground opposite Fredericksburg.

[Footnote: In this battle the South was called to mourn the death of Stonewall Jackson, whose magical name was worth to their cause more than an army. In the evening after his successful onslaught upon the flank of the Union line, while riding back to camp from a reconnoissance at the front, he was fired upon by his own men, who mistook his escort for federal cavalry.]

LEE'S SECOND INVASION OF THE NORTH.—Lee; encouraged by his success, now determined to carry the war into the Northern States, and dictate terms of peace in Philadelphia or New York.

[Footnote: The Union disasters which had happened since the beginning of the year encouraged this hope. Galveston, Texas, had been retaken by General Magruder, whereby not only valuable stores had been acquired, but a sea-port had been opened, and the Union cause in that State depressed. Burnside had been checked in his victorious career in Tennessee (p. 250). The naval attack on Charleston had proved a failure (p. 254). An attempt to capture Fort McAlister had met with no success. Rosecrans had made no progress against Bragg. Banks had not then taken Port Hudson. Vicksburg still kept Grant at bay. The Army of the Potomac had been checked at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, and at one time two hundred soldiers per day were deserting its ranks. The term of service of forty thousand men had expired, and the total Union strength was now only eighty thousand. The cost of the war was enormous, and a strong peace party had arisen at the North. The draft was very unpopular. Indeed, during Lee's invasion, a riot broke out in New York to resist it; houses were burned, negroes were pursued in the streets, and, when captured, were beaten, and even hung, for three days the city was a scene of outrage and violence.]

With the finest army the South had ever sent forth, the flower of her troops, carefully equipped and confident of success, he rapidly moved down the Shenandoah, crossed the Potomac, and advanced to Chambersburg. The Union army followed along the east side of the Blue Ridge and South Mountains. Lee, fearing that Meade, who now commanded the Federals, would strike through some of the passes and cut off his communications with Richmond, turned east to threaten Baltimore, and thus draw off Meade for its defence.


BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG (July l-3).—First Day.—The Confederate advance unexpectedly met the Union cavalry just westward from Gettysburg, on the Chambersburg road.

[Footnote: Neither general had planned to have the fight at this place; Lee had intended not to fight at all, except a defensive battle, and Meade proposed to make the contest at Pipe Creek, about fifteen miles southeast from Gettysburg. The movement of cavalry which brought on this great battle, was only a screen to conceal the Union army marching towards Meade's desired battle-field—Draper.]

Reinforcements came up on both sides, but the Federal troops were finally forced back, and, becoming entangled in the streets of the village, lost many prisoners. All that night the troops kept arriving and taking their positions by moonlight, to be ready for the contest which they saw was now close at hand.

[Footnote: The Union line was upon a fish-hook-shaped ridge about six miles long, with Culp's Hill at the barb, Cemetery Ridge along the side, and Little Round Top and Round Top, two eminences, at the eye. The Confederate line was on Seminary Ridge, at a distance of about a mile and a half. The Union troops lay behind rock ledges and stone walls, while the Confederates were largely hidden in the woods. In the valley between, were fields of grain and pastures where cattle were feeding all unconscious of the gathering storm.]

Second Day.—In the afternoon, Longstreet led the first grand charge against the Union left, in order to secure Little Round Top. General Sickles, by mistake, had here taken a position in front of Meade's intended line of battle. The Confederates, far out-flanking, swung around him, but as they reached the top of the hill they met a brigade which Warren had sent just in time to defeat this attempt. Sickles was, however, driven back to Cemetery Ridge, where he stood firm. Ewell, in an attack on the Federal right, succeeded in getting a position on Culp's Hill.

[Footnote: Lee, encouraged by these successes, resolved to continue the fight. The Confederate victories, however, were only apparent. Sickles had been forced into a better position than at first, and the one which Meade had intended he should occupy; while Ewell was driven out of the Union works early the next morning.]

Third Day.—At one o'clock P. M., Lee suddenly opened on Cemetery Ridge with one hundred and fifty guns. For two hours the air was alive with shells.

[Footnote: It is customary in battle to demoralize the enemy before a grand infantry charge, by concentrating upon the desired point a tremendous artillery fire.]

Then the cannonade lulled, and out of the woods swept the Confederate double battle-line, over a mile long, and preceded by a cloud of skirmishers. A thrill of admiration ran along the Union ranks, as, silently and with disciplined steadiness, that magnificent column of eighteen thousand men moved up the slope of Cemetery Ridge. A hundred guns tore great gaps in their front. Infantry volleys smote their ranks. The line was broken, yet they pushed forward. They planted their battle-flags on the breastworks. They bayoneted the cannoneers at their guns. They fought, hand to hand, so close that the exploding powder scorched their clothes. Upon this struggling mass the Federals converged from every side. No human endurance could stand the storm. Out of that terrible fire whole companies rushed as prisoners into the Union lines, while the rest fled panic-stricken from the field.

[Footnote: At the very moment when the last charge was being repulsed, Pemberton was negotiating for the surrender of Vicksburg to Grant. This was the turning point of the war. From that time the Confederacy began to wane.]

The Federal loss in the three-days fight was twenty-three thousand; the Confederate was not officially reported, but probably much exceeded that number. Meade slowly followed Lee, who re-crossed the Potomac, and took position back of the Rapidan.

The Effect of this battle was to put an end to the idea of a Northern invasion. Lee's veterans who went down in the awful charges of Gettysburg could never be replaced.


ATTACK ON CHARLESTON (April 7).—Such was the confidence felt in the ability of the iron-clads to resist cannonballs, that Admiral Dupont determined to run the fortifications at the entrance to Charleston, and force his way up to the city. The attempt was a disastrous failure.

[Footnote: The Keokuk was sunk and nearly all the vessels were seriously injured. The officers declared that the strokes of the shots against the iron sides of their ships were as rapid as the ticks of a watch.]

General Gillmore now took charge of the Union troops, and, landing on Morris Island, by regular siege approaches and a terrible bombardment captured Fort Wagner and reduced Fort Sumter to a shapeless mass of rubbish (map, p. 280). A short time after, a party of sailors from the Union fleet essayed to capture it by night, but its garrison, upstarting from the ruins, drove them back with great loss.

[Footnote: In a marsh west of Morris Island, piles were driven in the mud twenty feet deep, and a platform made on which was placed an eight-inch rifled Parrot gun, which was nicknamed the "Swamp Angel." It threw shells five miles into Charleston, but burst on the thirty-sixth round. The bombardment of the city was afterward continued from the other batteries.]

[Footnote: Two unsuccessful charges were made on this fort. In one, the 54th regiment, Colonel Shaw, bore a prominent part. It was the first colored regiment organized in the free States. In order to be in season for the assault it had marched two days through heavy sands and drenching storms. With only five minutes rest it took its place at the front of the attacking column. The men fought with unflinching gallantry, and planted their flag on the works; but their colonel, and so many of the officers were shot, that what was left of the regiment was led off by a boy—Lt. Higginson. No measure of the war was more bitterly opposed than the project of arming the slaves. It was denounced at the North, and the Confederate Congress passed a law which threatened with death any white officer captured while in command of negro troops, leaving the men to be dealt with according to the laws of the State in which they were taken. Yet, so willing were the negroes to enlist, and so faithful did they prove themselves in service, that in December, 1863, over fifty thousand had been enrolled, and before the close of the war that number was quadrupled.]

GENERAL REVIEW OF THE THIRD YEAR OF THE WAR—The Confederates had gained the great battles of Chickamauga and Chancellorsville, seized Galveston, and successfully resisted every attack on Charleston.

The Federals had gained the battles before Vicksburg, and at Chattanooga and Gettysburg. They had captured the garrisons of Vicksburg and Port Hudson. The Mississippi was patrolled by gunboats, and the supplies from the West were entirely cut off from the Confederate army. Arkansas, East Tennessee, and large portions of Louisiana, Mississippi and Texas, had been won for the Union.


THE SITUATION.—In March, General Grant was made Lieutenant-General in command of all the forces of the United States. Heretofore the different armies had acted independently. They were now to move in concert, and thus prevent the Confederate forces from aiding each other. The strength of the South lay in the armies of Lee in Virginia, and Jos. E. Johnston in Georgia. Grant was to attack the former, Sherman the latter, and both were to keep at work, regardless of season or weather. While the army of the Potomac was crossing the Rapidan (May 4), Grant, seated on a log by the road-side, penciled a telegram to Sherman to start.



ADVANCE UPON ATLANTA.—Sherman, with one hundred thousand men, now moved upon Johnston, who, with nearly fifty thousand, was stationed at Dalton, Ga. (map opp. p. 222). The Confederate commander, foreseeing this advance, had selected a series of almost impregnable positions, one behind the other, all the way to Atlanta. For one hundred miles there was continued skirmishing among mountains and woods, which presented every opportunity for such a warfare. Both armies were led by profound strategists. Sherman would drive Johnston into a stronghold, and then with consummate skill outflank him, when Johnston with equal skill would retreat to a new post and prepare to meet his opponent again.

[Footnote: When either party stopped for a day or two, it fortified its front with an abattis of felled trees and a ditch with a head-log placed on the embankment The head-log was a tree twelve or fifteen inches in diameter resting on small cross-sticks, thus leaving a space of four or five inches between the log and the dirt, through which the guns could be pointed.]


At Dalton, Resaca, Dallas, and Lost and Kenesaw Mountains bloody battles were fought. Finally, Johnston retired to the intrenchments of Atlanta (July 10).

CAPTURE OF ALANTA.—Davis, dissatisfied with this Fabian policy, now put Hood in command. He attacked the Union army three times with tremendous energy, but was repulsed with great slaughter. Sherman, thereupon re-enacting his favorite flank movement, filled his wagons with fifteen-days rations, dexterously shifted his whole army on Hood's line of supplies, and thus compelled the evacuation of the city.

[Footnote: During this campaign, Sherman's supplies were brought up by a single line of railroad from Nashville, a distance of three hundred miles, and exposed throughout to the attacks of the enemy. Yet so carefully was it garrisoned and so rapidly were bridges built and breaks repaired, that the damages were often mended before the news of the accident had reached camp. Sherman said that the whistle of the locomotive was quite frequently heard on the camp-ground before the echoes of the skirmish-fire had died away.]

The Effect.—This campaign during four months of fighting and marching, day and night, in its ten pitched battles and scores of lesser engagements, cost the Union army thirty thousand men, and the Confederate, thirty-five thousand. Georgia was the workshop, storehouse, granary and arsenal of the Confederacy. At Atlanta, Rome, and the neighboring towns were manufactories, foundries, and mills, where clothing, wagons, harnesses, powder, balls, and cannon were furnished to all its armies. The South was henceforth cut off from these supplies.

HOOD'S INVASION OF TENNESSEE.—Sherman now longed to sweep through the Atlantic States. But this was impossible as long as Hood, with an army of forty thousand, was in front, while the cavalry under Forrest was raiding along his railroad communications toward Chattanooga and Nashville. With unconcealed joy, therefore, Sherman learned that Hood was to invade Tennessee.

[Footnote: Hood's expectation was that Sherman would follow him into Tennessee, and thus Georgia be saved from invasion. Sherman had no such idea. "If Hood will go there," said he, "I will give him rations to go with." Now was presented the singular spectacle of these two armies, which had been so lately engaged in deadly combat, marching from each other as fast as they could go.]

Relieved of this anxiety, he at once prepared his army for its celebrated "March to the Sea."

Battle of Nashville (December 15, 16)—Hood crossed the Tennessee, and after severe fighting, driving Schofield's army before him, shut up General Thomas within the fortifications at Nashville. For two weeks little was done.

[Footnote: Great disappointment was felt at the North over the retreat to Nashville, and still more at Thomas's delay in that city. Grant ordered him to move, and had actually started to take charge of his troops in person, when he learned of the splendid victory his slow but sure general had achieved.]

When Thomas was fully ready, he suddenly sallied out on Hood, and in a terrible two-days battle drove the Confederate forces out of their intrenchments into headlong flight. The Union cavalry thundered upon their heels with remorseless energy. The infantry followed closely behind. The entire Confederate army, except the rear-guard, which fought bravely to the last, was dissolved into a rabble of demoralized fugitives, who at last escaped across the Tennessee.

The Effect.—For the first time in the war an army was destroyed. The object which Sherman hoped to obtain when he moved on Atlanta was accomplished by Thomas, three hundred miles away. Sherman could now go where he pleased with little danger of meeting a foe. The war at the West, so far as any great movements were concerned, was finished.

SHERMAN'S MARCH TO THE SEA.—Breaking loose from his communications with Nashville, and burning the city of Atlanta, Sherman started (Nov. 16), with sixty thousand men, for the Atlantic coast (map opp. p. 222). The army moved in four columns, with a cloud of cavalry under Kilpatrick, and skirmishers in front to disguise its route, stormed Fort McAlister, and captured Savannah.

[Footnote: The ubiquity of the cavalry movements of the war is remarkable. In February preceding, Kilpatrick, who now opened up the way for Sherman's march through Georgia, made a dash with the cavalry of the Army of the Potomac to rescue the Union prisoners at Richmond. He got within the defences of the city, but not fully appreciating his success, withdrew, while Colonel Ulric Dahlgren, who headed a cooperating force, through the ignorance or treachery of his guide, lost his route, was surrounded by the enemy, and fell in an attempt to cut his way out. Great damage was done to railroads and canals near Richmond. These various raids had little effect, however, upon the issue of the contest, though they served to provoke the bitter enmity of both sides.]

[Footnote: A feint which Sherman made toward Augusta led to a concentration at that city of all the cavalry and militia called out to dispute his progress. The real direction of his march was not discovered until he had entered the peninsula between the Savannah and Ogeechee rivers.]

[Footnote: The first news received at the North from Sherman was brought by three scouts, who left the Union army just as it was closing in on Savannah. They hid in the rice swamps by day and paddled down the river by night. Creeping past Fort McAlister undiscovered, they were picked up by the Federal gunboats.]

[Footnote: Sherman sent the news of its capture with twenty-five thousand bales of cotton and one hundred and fifty cannon, to President Lincoln, as a Christmas present to the nation.]

The Effect of this march can hardly be over-estimated. A fertile region, sixty miles wide and three hundred long, was desolated; three hundred miles of railroad were destroyed; the eastern portion of the already-sundered Confederacy was cut in twain; immense supplies of provisions were captured, and the hardships of war brought home to those who had hitherto been exempt from its actual contact.


BATTLE OF THE WILDERNESS (May 5, 6).—After crossing the Rapidan, the Union army plunged into the Wilderness. While the columns were toiling along the narrow roads, they were suddenly attacked by the Confederate army.

[Footnote: This was near the old battle-ground of Chancellorsville, and just a year and two days after that fierce fight.]

The dense forest forbade all strategy. There was none of the pomp or glory of war, only its horrible butchery. The ranks simply dashed into the woods. Soon came the patter of shots, the heavy rattle of musketry, and then there streamed back the wreck of the battle—bleeding, mangled forms, borne on stretchers. In those gloomy shades, dense with smoke, this strangest of battles, which no eye could follow, marked only by the shouts and volleys, now advancing, now receding, as either side gained or lost, surged to and fro. The third day, both armies, worn out by this desperate struggle, remained in their intrenchments. Neither side had been conquered. Grant had lost twenty thousand men, and Lee ten thousand. It was generally supposed that the Federals would retire back of the Rapidan. Grant thought differently. He quietly gathered up his army and pushed it by the Confederate right flank toward Spottsylvania Court House.

BATTLE OF SPOTTSYLVANIA (May 8-12).—Lee detected the movement, and hurried a division to head off the Union advance. When Grant reached the spot, he found the Confederate army planted right across the road, barring his progress. Five days of continuous manoeuvring and fighting, having given little advantage, Grant concluded to try the favorite movement of the year, and turn Lee's right flank again.

[Footnote: During this time the sharpshooters on both sides, hidden in the trees, were busy picking off officers. On the 9th, General Sedgwick was superintending the placing of a battery in the front. Seeing a man dodging a ball, he rebuked him, saying, "Pooh! they can't hit an elephant at this distance." At that moment he was himself struck, and fell dead.]

[Footnote: On the morning of the 12th, Hancock's corps, hidden by a dense fog, charged upon the Confederate line, broke the abattis, surrounded a division, and took three thousand prisoners, including two generals. So complete was the surprise, that the officers were captured at breakfast. Lee, however, rallied, and the fighting was so fierce to regain this lost position, that "a tree eighteen inches in diameter was cut in two by the bullets which struck it. Ten thousand men fell on each side. Men in hundreds, killed and wounded together, were piled in hideous heaps, some bodies, which had lain for hours under the concentric fire of the battle, being perforated with wounds. The writhing of the wounded beneath the dead moved these masses at times; while often a lifted arm or a quivering limb told of an agony not quenched by the Lethe of death around."]

[Footnote: It was during this terrible battle that Grant sent his famous despatch, "I propose to fight it out on this line if it takes all summer."]

BATTLE OF COLD HARBOR (June 3).—Lee, however, moving on the inner and shorter line, reached the North Anna first. Here some severe fighting occurred, when, Grant moving to flank again, Lee slipped into the intrenchments of Cold Harbor. At daybreak a general assault was made. "Twenty minutes after the first shot was fired, ten thousand Union men were stretched writhing on the sod or still and calm in death, while the enemy's loss was little over one thousand." The army, weary of this useless slaughter, refused to continue the attack.

[Footnote: Grant had arranged, in the general plan of the campaign, for three co-operative movements to attract the attention and divide the strength of the Confederate army before Richmond: 1. General Sigel, with ten thousand men, was to advance up the Shenandoah Valley and threaten the railroad communication with Richmond. He was, however, totally routed at New Market (May 15). General Hunter, who superseded him, defeated the Confederates at Piedmont (June 5), but pushing on to Lynchburg with about twenty thousand men, he found it too strong, and prudently retired into West Virginia. 2. On the night that the Army of the Potomac crossed the Rapidan, General Butler, with thirty thousand men, ascended the James River, under the protection of gunboats, and landed at Bermuda Hundred. After some trifling successes, he was surprised in a dense fog by Beauregard, and driven back into his defences with considerable loss. Beauregard then threw intrenchments across the narrow strip which connects Bermuda Hundred with the main land, and, as Grant tersely said, "hermetically sealed up" the Union force from any further advance. 3. General Sheridan, while the army was at Spottsylvania, passed in the rear of the Confederate position, destroyed miles of railroad, recaptured four hundred prisoners en route, and defeated a cavalry force with the loss of their leader, General J. E. B. Stuart, the best cavalry officer in the South.]


ATTACK ON PETERSBURG.—Grant now rapidly pushed his army over the James, and fell upon Petersburg; but here again Lee was ahead, and the works could not be forced. Grant was therefore compelled to throw up intrenchments and sit down in front of the Confederate lines. The campaign now resolved itself into a siege of Richmond, with Petersburg as its advanced post.

The Effect.—The campaign had cost the Union army at least seventy thousand men, and the Confederates about forty thousand.

[Footnote: The above statement of losses is founded upon the generally-accepted authorities; but Grant has lately asserted that his total loss was only about 39,000, while Southern writers place Lee's at 18,000.]

The weakened capabilities of the South were now fairly pitted against the almost exhaustless resources of the North. Grant's plan was to keep constantly hammering Lee's army, conscious that it was the last hope of the Confederacy. The idea of thus annihilating an army was terrible, yet it seemed the only way of closing the awful struggle.

THE SIEGE OF RICHMOND continued until the spring campaign of 1865.
It was marked by two important events:

1. Mine Explosion (July 30).—From a hidden ravine in front of Petersburg, a mine had been dug underneath a strong Confederate fort. Just at dawn, the blast of eight thousand pounds of powder was fired. Several cannon, the garrison of three hundred men, and huge masses of earth, were thrown high in air. The Federal guns opened fire at once along the entire line. An assaulting column rushed forward, but stopped in the crater produced by the explosion. The Confederates, rallying from their confusion, concentrated from every side and poured shot and shell upon the struggling mass of men huddled within the demolished fort. To retreat was only less dangerous than to stay, yet many of the soldiers jumped out of this slaughter-pen and ran headlong back to the Union lines. The Federals lost about four thousand men in this ill-starred affair.

2. Attack upon the Weldon Railroad (August 18).—By threatening Richmond upon the north, Grant induced Lee to move troops to that city from Petersburg. The opportunity was at once seized, and the Weldon Railroad captured. Lee, aware of the great importance of that means of communication with the South, for several days made most desperate attempts for its recovery. They were, however, unsuccessful, and the Union lines were permanently advanced to this point.

[Footnote: An attempt was made by Grant to take this road when he first swung south of Richmond, but he was repulsed with a loss of nearly four thousand men. That this event was not mentioned in the military report, and has not received a specific name, shows the enormous proportions the war had assumed, and how changed it was from the time when Big Bethel and Ball's Bluff were esteemed important battles.]

EARLY'S RAID.—Hunter's retreat (p. 262) having laid open the Shenandoah Valley, Lee took advantage of it to threaten Washington, hoping thus to draw off Grant from the siege of Richmond. General Early, with twenty thousand men, accordingly hurried along this oft-traveled route. Defeating General Wallace at Monocacy River, he appeared before Fort Stevens, one of the defences of Washington (July 10). Had he rushed by forced marches, he might have captured the city; but he stopped a day. Reinforcements having now arrived, he was compelled to retreat, and, laden with booty, he rapidly recrossed the Potomac. Not being pursued, he returned, and sent a party of cavalry into Pennsylvania. They entered Chambersburg, and, on failing to obtain a ransom of $500,000, set fire to the village, and escaped safely back into the Shenandoah.

   IN THE RED RIVER (Note, p 265)]

SHERIDAN'S CAMPAIGN—Sheridan was now put in command of all the troops in this region. He defeated Early at Winchester and Fisher's Hill, and in a week destroyed half his army, and sent the rest "whirling up the valley of the Shenandoah."

[Footnote: In order to prevent any further raids upon Washington from this direction, Sheridan devastated the valley so thoroughly that it was said that "if a crow wants to fly down the Shenandoah, he must carry his provisions with him."]

Early was quickly reinforced, and returning during Sheridan's absence, surprised his army at Cedar Creek (October 19), and drove it in confusion. Sheridan arrived at this critical moment, ordered an immediate advance, and attacking the Confederates, now busy plundering the captured camp, routed them with great slaughter.

[Footnote: Early's attack was made under cover of a dense fog and the darkness of the early morning. The Union troops were driven four miles. General Wright, their commander, though wounded, still remained on the field, and managed to get his troops into a new position in the rear. Sheridan heard the cannonading thirteen miles away, at Winchester. Knowing the importance of his presence, he put spurs to his coal-black steed, and never drew rein until, his horse covered with foam, he dashed upon the battle-field. Riding down the lines, he shouted, "Turn, boys, turn; we're going back." Under the magnetism of his presence, the fugitives followed him back to the fight and victory.]

The Effect.—This campaign of only a month was one of the most brilliant of the war. Sheridan lost seventeen thousand men, but he virtually destroyed Early's army. This was the last attempt to threaten Washington.


[Footnote: Troops having been sent from Vicksburg to join the Red River expedition, West Tennessee and Kentucky were left exposed to attack from the Confederates. Forrest, with five thousand men, captured Union City, Tenn., with its garrison of about five hundred troops, occupied Hickman, and advanced rapidly upon Paducah, Ky. This, protected by the gunboats, maintained so stout a defence, that Forrest retired. Moving south, he next fell upon Fort Pillow (April 12). His men crept along under shelter of a ravine until very near, and then charged upon the intrenchments. Rushing into the fort, they raised the cry "No quarter!" "The Confederate officers," says Pollard, "lost control of their men, who were maddened by the sight of negro troops opposing them," and an indiscriminate slaughter followed.]

A joint naval and land expedition, under the command of General Banks, was sent up the Red River in the hope of destroying the Confederate authority in that region and in Texas (map opp. p. 222). Fort de Russy was taken (March 14), whence Banks moved on toward Shreveport. The line of march became extended a distance of nearly thirty miles along a single road. At Sabine Cross Roads (April 8) the Confederate forces, under General Dick Taylor, attacked the advance, and a miniature Bull Run retreat ensued. The Union troops, however, rallied at Pleasant Hill, and the next day, reinforcements coming up from the rear, they were able to repulse the Confederates. The army thereupon returned to New Orleans, and Banks was relieved of the command.

[Footnote: Porter, who commanded the gunboats in the Red River, hearing of Banks's retreat, attempted to return with his fleet, but the river fell so rapidly that this became impossible. It was feared that it would be necessary to blow up the vessels to prevent their falling into the enemy's hands, when, by the happy suggestion of Colonel Bailey, formerly a Wisconsin lumberman, they were saved. He constructed a series of wing-dams below the rapids, and when the water rose, the boats were safely floated over. This skilful expedient was almost the only relieving feature of the campaign, which was believed by some to have been undertaken simply as a gigantic cotton speculation in behalf of certain parties, who seemed to be more intent on gathering that staple than on conserving the interests of the Union cause. The failure was, therefore, at the North a source of great mortification and reproach.]

The Effect.—This campaign was a great Confederate triumph. Banks lost five thousand men, eighteen guns, and large supplies.

[Footnote: General Steele, who commanded in Arkansas, had moved from Little Rock to cooperate in this advance, but on nearing Shreveport, learned of Banks's retreat. He immediately turned around, and with great difficulty and severe fighting, managed to escape back to Little Rock. This disaster enabled ihe Confederates to recover half of the State.]


THE EXPEDITION AGAINST MOBILE (August 5) was under the command of Admiral Farragut. That he might oversee the battle more distinctly, he took his position in the maintop of his flag-ship—the Hartford. The vessels, lashed together in pairs for mutual assistance, in an hour fought their way past the Confederate forts, and engaged the iron-clad fleet beyond (map, p. 280). After a desperate resistance, the great iron ram Tennessee was taken, and the other vessels were captured or put to flight. The forts were soon after reduced, and the harbor was closed to blockade runners.

[Footnote: The city of Mobile was not captured until the next year, when Generals Granger's, Steele's, and A. J. Smith's commands, making a force of about forty-five thousand men, were collected for this purpose by Gen. Canby. The forts were gallantly defended by General Maury, but were taken within less than two weeks. The city itself was evacuated April 11. The Union troops entered the next day, ignorant that Lee had surrendered three days before, and that the Confederacy was dead.]

THE EXPEDITION AGAINST FORT FISHER, which defended the harbor of Wilmington, N. C., was commanded by Commodore Porter. It consisted of seventy vessels and a land force under General Butler. After a fierce bombardment (December 24, 25) Butler decided that the fort could not be taken by assault, and the army returned to Fortress Monroe. Commodore Porter, dissatisfied with the result, lay off the place, and asked for a second trial. The same troops, with fifteen hundred additional men, were sent back under General Terry. Protected by a terrible fire from the fleet, a column of sailors and one of soldiers worked their way, by a series of trenches, within two hundred yards of the fort. At the word, the former leaped forward on one side and the latter on another. The sailors were repulsed, but the soldiers burst into the fort. The hand-to-hand fight within lasted for hours. Late at night the garrison, hemmed in on all sides, surrendered (January 15, 1865). One knows not which to admire the more, the gallantry of the attack or the heroism of the defence. In such a victory is glory, and in such a defeat, no disgrace.

THE BLOCKADE was now so effectual that the prices of all imported goods in the Confederate States were fabulous.

[Footnote: Flour brought, in Confederate currency, $40 per barrel; calico, $30 per yard; coffee, $50 per pound; French gloves, $150 per pair; and black pepper, $300 per pound. Dried sage, raspberry, and other leaves were substituted for the costly tea. Woolen clothing was scarce and the army depended largely on captures of the ample Federal stores. "Pins were so rare that they were picked up with avidity in the streets." Paper was so expensive that matches could no longer be put in boxes. Sugar, butter, and white bread became luxuries even for the wealthy. Salt being a necessity, was economized to the last degree, old pork and fish barrels being soaked and the water evaporated so that not a grain of salt might be wasted. Women appeared in garments that were made of cloth carded, woven, spun, and dyed by their own hands. Large thorns were fitted with wax heads and made to serve as hair-pins. Shoes were manufactured with wooden soles to which the uppers were attached by means of small tacks. As a substitute for the expensive gas, the "Confederate candle" was used. This consisted of a long wick coated with wax and resin, and wound on a little wooden frame, at the top of which was nailed a bit of tin. The end of the wick being passed through a hole in the tin, was lighted and uncoiled as needed.]

Led by the enormous profits of a successful voyage, foreign merchants were constantly seeking to run the gauntlet. Their swift steamers, making no smoke, long, narrow, low, and of a mud color, occasionally escaped the vigilance of the Federal squadron. During the war, it is said, over fifteen hundred blockade runners were taken or destroyed. With the capture of Fort Fisher, the last Confederate port of entry was sealed.

[Illustration: THE ALABAMA]

CONFEDERATE CRUISERS had now practically driven the American commerce from the ocean. They were not privateers, like those named on p. 222, for they were built in England and manned by British sailors, and were only officered and commissioned by the Confederate government. They sailed to and fro upon the track of American ships, plundering and burning, or else bonding them for heavy sums. The Alabama was the most noted of these British steamers. Against the urgent remonstrances of the United States Minister at the Court of England, she was allowed to sail although her mission was well known. An English captain took her to the Azores, where other English vessels brought her arms, ammunition, and the Confederate Captain Semmes with additional men. Putting out to sea, he read his commission and announced his purpose. After capturing over sixty vessels, he sailed to Cherbourg, France. While there, he sent out a challenge to the national ship-of-war Kearsarge (keer'-sarj). This was accepted, and a battle took place off that harbor. Captain Winslow, of the Kearsarge, so manoeuvred that the Alabama was compelled to move round in a circular track, while he trained his guns upon her with fearful effect. On the seventh rotation, the Confederate vessel ran up the white flag and soon after sank. Captain Winslow rescued a part of the sinking crew, and others were picked up, at his request, by the Deerhound, an English yacht; but this vessel steamed off to the British coast with those she had saved, among whom was Captain Semmes.

THE SANITARY AND CHRISTIAN COMMISSIONS were "splendid examples of organized mercy," furnished by the people of the North. They devised and provided every possible comfort for the sick and wounded, besides distributing religious reading to every soldier in the field. Ambulances, stretchers, hot coffee, postage-stamps, paper and envelopes, prayer-meetings, medicines, Christian burial—no want of body or soul was overlooked. "Homes" and "Lodges " for men on sick leave; for those not yet under or just out of the care of the government, or who had been left by their regiments, were instituted. "Feeding Stations" for the tired and hungry were established, and even "Homes for the Wives, Mothers, and Children of Soldiers" who had come to visit their sick or wounded. On every flag-of-truce boat were placed clothing, medicines, and cordials for the prisoners who had been exchanged. With boundless mercy, they cared for all while living, and gave Christian burial and marked graves to the dead. Over seventeen millions of dollars in money and supplies were expended by these two Commissions.

POLITICAL AFFAIRS.—At the North, there was much dissatisfaction with the conduct of the war. The debt had become about $2,000,000, 000. In July of this year, paper money reached its greatest depreciation, and it required two dollars and ninety cents in greenbacks to buy one dollar in gold. It was at the time of Grant's repulse from Cold Harbor and of Early's raid. Yet, in the midst of these discouragements, Abraham Lincoln was renominated by the republican party. George B. McClellan was the democratic candidate; he stood firmly for the prosecution of the war, and the maintenance of the Union, but was not in full sympathy with the policy of the administration. He carried only three States. Lincoln had a popular majority of over four hundred thousand.


The Confederates had gained the battles of Olustee,

[Footnote: This battle ended an expedition fitted out by General Gilmore, at Hilton Head, S. C, to recover Florida. After some success his troops, under General Seymour, advanced to Olustee, where (February 20) they met a disastrous defeat and were forced to relinquish much they had gained. The men were afterwards taken to Virginia to engage in more important work.]

Sabine Cross Roads, the Wilderness, Bermuda Hundred, Spottsylvania, New Market, Cold Harbor, and Monocacy; had defeated the expeditions into Florida and the Red River country, the two attacks upon Petersburg, and one against Fort Fisher, and yet held Grant at bay before Richmond. They had, however, lost ground on every side. Of the States east of the Mississippi, only North and South Carolina were fully retained. Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee, Virginia, Georgia and Florida were overrun by the Union armies. The Federals had gained the battles of Pleasant Hill, Resaca, Dallas, Kenesaw, Atlanta, Winchester, Fisher's Hill, Cedar Creek and Nashville. They had captured Fort de Russy, the forts in Mobile harbor, and Fort McAlister, and had taken Atlanta and Savannah. Sherman had swept across Georgia; Sheridan had devastated the Shenandoah, driving its defenders before him; Thomas had annihilated Hood's army; Grant held Lee firmly grasped at Richmond, and the navy swept the entire coast.


THE SITUATION.—The plan of the campaign was very simple. The end of the war was clearly at hand. Sherman was to move north from Savannah against Johnston, and then join Grant in the final attack upon Lee. Sheridan, with ten thousand troopers, had swept down from the Shenandoah, cut the railroads north of Richmond, and taken his place in the Union lines before Petersburg. Wilson, with thirteen thousand horsemen, rode at large through Alabama and Georgia, and at Macon held a line of retreat from Virginia westward. Stoneman, with five thousand cavalry from Tennessee, poured through the passes of the Alleghanies and waited in North Carolina for the issue in Virginia.

[Illustration: SHERMAN'S MARCH.]

SHERMAN'S MARCH THROUGH THE CAROLINAS.—In the meantime Sherman had given his troops only a month's rest in Savannah. Early in February, they were put in motion northward. There was no waiting for roads to dry nor for bridges to be built, but the troops swept on like a tornado. Rivers were waded, and one battle was fought while the water was up to the shoulders of the men. The army, sixty thousand strong, moved in four columns, with a front of more than fifty miles. Cavalry and foragers swarmed on the flanks. Before them was terror; behind them were ashes.

COLUMBIA was captured (February 17), and Charleston, thus threatened in the rear, was evacuated the next day.

[Footnote: The cotton stored in the city was scattered through the streets and destroyed by fire. The flames quickly spread to the houses adjoining. All efforts to subdue the conflagration were unsuccessful, and a large portion of the city was destroyed.]

[Footnote: General Hardee, on leaving, inflicted a terrible injury. He set fire to every shed and warehouse in which cotton was stored. The flames spread to a quantity of powder in the depot, which exploded with fearful destruction. Two hundred lives were lost. In spite of the efforts of the Union troops, a vast amount of private property was involved in the general devastation. The ravages which the war had made were well illustrated by the appearance of this city after its evacuation. An eye-witness says: "No pen, no pencil, no tongue can do justice to the scene; no imagination can conceive the utter wreck, the universal ruin, the stupendous desolation. Ruin, ruin, ruin, above and below, on the right hand and on the left-ruin, ruin, ruin, everywhere and always, staring at us from every paneless window, looking out at us from every shell-torn wall, glaring at us from every battered door, pillar, and veranda, crouching beneath our feet on every sidewalk. Not Pompeii, nor Herculaneum, nor Tadmor, nor the Nile, has ruins so saddening, so plaintively eloquent."]

In this emergency, Johnston was again called to the command of the Confederate forces. He gathered their scattered armies and vigorously opposed Sherman's advance. After fierce engagements at Averysboro and Bentonville (March 15, 18), he was driven back, and Raleigh was captured (April 13).

SIEGE OF RICHMOND.—Lee's position was fast becoming desperate. His only hope lay in getting out of Richmond and joining with Johnston. Their united armies might prolong the struggle. Grant was determined to prevent this, and compel Lee to surrender, as he had forced Pemberton to do.

ATTACK ON FORT STEADMAN (March 25).—Lee determined to attack Grant's right, in order to hide his plan of retreat, and especially in the hope that Grant would send troops from the left to succor the threatened point. In that case, he would slip out, with the main body of his army, by the nearest road southward, which ran close by the Union left. The assault was made on Fort Steadman, but it was a signal failure. Three thousand out of five thousand engaged in the attempt were lost. To make matters worse, a Union assault followed directly afterward, and a portion of the Confederate outer defences was captured. Thus Grant's grip was only tightened. He had made no change in the position of his troops, and this sortie neither hastened nor delayed the grand, final attack.

BATTLE OF FIVE FORKS (April l).—This movement began Wednesday morning, March 29. Sheridan with his cavalry—nine thousand sabres—and heavy columns of infantry, pushed out from Grant's left wing to get around in Lee's rear. Cloaking his plan by a thick screen of cavalry, to conceal the movements of his infantry, he threw a heavy force behind the Confederate position at Five Forks. Assailed in front and rear, the garrison was overwhelmed, and five thousand men were taken prisoners.

[Footnote: Five Forks is situated twelve miles southwest from
Petersburg. (See map opposite p. 223, and of VIth Epoch.)]

The Effect of this brilliant affair was at once to render Lee's position untenable. His right was turned, and his rear threatened.

CAPTURE OF PETERSBURG AND RICHMOND (April 2, 3).—The next morning, at four o'clock, the Union army advanced in an overwhelming assault along the whole front. By noon, the Confederate line of intrenchments before which the Army of the Potomac had lain so long, was broken, and thousands of prisoners were captured.

[Footnote: Generals Lee and A. P. Hill were at the former's headquarters, within the city, discussing the prospects of the day. Suddenly General Lee, listening, said to Hill: "General, your men are giving way." Instantly Hill was mounted and dashing down the road. As he was spurring his steed, he caught a glimpse of two or three blue coats with rifles leveled at him. "Throw down your arms!" he authoritatively cried. For an instant the men hesitated, but the next moment they fired, and General Hill fell dead.]

That night Petersburg and Richmond were evacuated. The next morning the Union troops took possession of the Confederate capital, the coveted goal of the Army of the Potomac for four long bloody years.

[Footnote: Sunday, the day before, the Confederate President, Davis, was at church, when a note was handed him by a messenger. It was from Leo, informing him that the Confederate army was about to leave Richmond. His pallid face and unsteady footsteps, as he passed out, betrayed the news. Pollard says: "Men, women, and children rushed from the churches, passing from lip to lip news of the impending fall of Richmond. . . . It was late in the afternoon when the signs of evacuation became apparent to the incredulous. Suddenly, as if by magic, the streets became filled with men, walking as though for a wager, and behind them excited negroes with trunks, bundles, and luggage of every description. All over the city, it was the same—wagons, trunks, bandboxes, and their owners, a mass of hurrying fugitives filling the streets. Night came, and with it confusion worse confounded. There was no sleep for human eyes in Richmond that night. About the hour of midnight, hundreds of barrels of liquor were rolled into the street, and the heads knocked in, by order of the City Council, to prevent a worse disorder. As the work progressed, some straggling soldiers managed to get hold of a quantity of the liquor. From that moment law and order ceased to exist." By order of General Ewell, the four principal tobacco warehouses, in different parts of the city, were fired, and soon the flames became unmanageable. "Morning broke upon a scene such as those who witnessed it can never forget. The roar of an immense conflagration sounded in their ears; tongues of flame leaped from street to street; and in this baleful glare were to be seen, as of demons, the figures of busy plunderers, moving, pushing, rioting through the black smoke, bearing away every conceivable sort of plunder."]

LEE'S SURRENDER.—Meanwhile, Lee, having only the wreck of that proud array with which he had dealt the Union army so many crushing blows, hurried west, seeking some avenue of escape. Grant urged the pursuit with untiring energy. Sheridan, "with a terrible daring which knew no pause, no rest," hung on his flanks. Food now failed the Confederates and they could get only the young shoots of trees to eat. If they sought a moment's repose, they were awakened by the clatter of pursuing cavalry. Lee, like a hunted fox, turned hither and thither; but at last Sheridan planted himself squarely across the front. Lee ordered a charge. His half-starved troops, with a rallying of their old courage, obeyed. But the cavalry moving aside, as a curtain is drawn, revealed dense bodies of infantry in battle line. The Civil War was about to end in one of its bloodiest tragedies, when the Confederate advance was stopped. General Grant had already sent in a note demanding the surrender of the army. Lee accepted the terms; and, April 9th, eight thousand men—the remains of the Army of Virginia—laid down their arms near Appomattox Court House, and then turned homeward, no longer Confederate soldiers, but American citizens.

[Footnote: The officers and men were allowed to go home on their paroles not to take up arms against the United States until exchanged, and the former to retain their private baggage and horses. After the surrender had been concluded, General Lee said that he had forgotten to mention that many of his soldiers rode their own horses. Grant at once replied that such should keep their horses to aid them in their future work at home—That the two armies so fiercely opposed for four years could have parted with no words but those of sympathy and respect was an assured presage of a day when all the wounds of the restored Union should be fully healed.]

The Effect.—This closed the war. The other Confederate armies—Johnston's, Dick Taylor's, and Kirby Smith's—promptly surrendered. Jefferson Davis fled southward, hoping to escape, but was overtaken near Irwinsville, Georgia (May 11), and sent a prisoner to Fortress Monroe.

[Footnote: The last fight of the war happened near Brazos Santiago,
Texas, May 13. A small expedition sent out to surprise a
Confederate camp was overtaken, on its return, by a larger force
and defeated with a loss of eighty men.]

COST OF THE WAR.—In the Union armies probably three hundred thousand men were killed in battle or died of wounds or disease, while doubtless two hundred thousand more were crippled for life. If the Confederate armies suffered as heavily, the country thus lost one million able-bodied men. The Union debt, Jan. 1, 1866, was nearly $2,750,000,000. At one time, the daily expenses reached the sum of $3,500,000. During the last year of the war, the expenses were greater than the entire expenditures of the government from Washington to Buchanan. The Confederate war debts were never paid, as that government was overthrown.

ASSASSINATION OF LINCOLN.—In the midst of the universal rejoicings over the advent of peace, on the evening of April 14 the intelligence was flashed over the country that Lincoln had been assassinated. While seated with his wife and friends in his box at Ford's Theatre, he was shot by John Wilkes Booth who insanely imagined he was ridding his country of a tyrant.

[Footnote: Booth stealthily entered the box, fastened the door, that he might not be followed, shot the President, then—waving his pistol shouted "Sic Semper Tyrannis" (so be it always to tyrants), and leaped to the stage in front As he jumped, the American flag draped before the box—mute avenger of the nation's chief—caught his spur and, throwing him heavily, broke his leg The assassin, however escaped from the house in the confusion, mounted a horse which was waiting for him, and fled into Maryland He was at length overtaken in a barn, here he stood at bay The building was fired to drive him out, but, being determined to defend himself against arrest, he was shot by one of the soldiers The accomplices of Booth were arrested, tried and convicted. Herold, Payne, Atzerott and Mrs Surratt were hanged, Arnold, Mudd and McLaughlin imprisoned for life and Spangler was sentenced for six years]

[Footnote: A nearly fatal attempt was also made at the same time upon William H Seward, Secretary of State, who was lying sick in his bed at home]

   (The Official Residence of the President)]

About the unconscious body of the President gathered the most prominent men of the nation, who mourned and watched, waiting in vain for some sign of recognition until the next morning, when he died. The funeral was held on the 19th. It was a day of mourning throughout the land. In most of the cities and towns funeral orations were pronounced. The body was borne to Springfield over the same route along which Lincoln had come as President elect to Washington. The procession may be said to have extended the entire distance. The churches, principal buildings, and even the engines and cars were draped in black. Almost every citizen wore the badge of mourning.

STATES ADDED DURING THIS EPOCH.—West Virginia, the thirty-fifth State, was admitted to the Union June 20, 1863. During the Civil War, this portion of Virginia remaining loyal, it was incorporated as a separate State.

Nevada, the thirty-sixth State, was admitted to the Union October 31, 1864. Its name was derived from the range of mountains on the west, the Sierra Nevada, a Spanish title, signifying "Snow-covered mountains." It was the third State carved out of the territory acquired by the Mexican war, Texas being the first, and California the second. Its first settlement was at Carson City. It is one of the richest mineral States in the Union.

Summary of the History of the Fifth Epoch, arranged in Chronological Order.

1861. Abraham Lincoln inaugurated President of United States,
        March 4,
      Fort Sumter fired upon, April 12,
      Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers, April 15,
      Confederates seized Harper's Ferry, April 18,
      Massachusetts troops fired upon in Baltimore, April 19,
      Confederates seized Norfolk Navy Yard, April 20,
      Battle of Philippi, Va., June 3,
           " Big Bethel, Va., June 10,
           " Booneville, Mo., June 17,
           " Carthage, Mo., July 5,
1861. Battle of Rich Mountain, Va., July 11,
          " Carrick's Ford, Va., July 14,
       Confederate Congress assembled at Richmond, Va., July 20,
       Battle of Bull Run, Va., July 21,
          " Wilson's Creek, Mo., August 10,
       Forts at Hatteras Inlet, N. C., captured, August 29,
       Battle of Carnifex Ferry, Va., September 10,
          " Lexington, Mo., September 20,
          " Ball's Bluff, Va., October 21,
       Port Royal, S. C., taken, November 7,
       Battle of Belmont, Mo, November 7,
       Seizure of Mason and Slidell, November 8,
       Skirmish of Dranesville, Va., December 20,
1862. Battle of Mill Spring, Ky., January 19,
       Fort Henry, Tenn., taken, February 6,
       Roanoke Island, N. C., taken, February 8,
       Fort Donelson, Tenn., taken, February 16,
       Battle of Pea Ridge, Ark., March 7,8,
           " of the Monitor and the Merrimac, March 9,
       Newberne, N. C., taken, March 14,
       Battle of Shiloh (Pittsburg Landing), Tenn., April 6,7,
       Island No. 10 captured, April 7,
       Fort Pulaski, Ga., captured, April 11,
       New Orleans captured, April 25,
       Beaufort, S. C, captured, April 25,
       Yorktown, Va., taken, May 4,
       Battle of Williamsburg, Va., May 5,
       Norfolk, Va., surrendered, May 10,
       Corinth, Miss., taken, May 30,
       Battle of Fair Oaks or Seven Pines, Va., May 31, June 1,
       Lee assumed command of the Confederate armies, June 3,
       Memphis, Tenn., surrendered, June 6,
       Seven-Days battles, June 25-July 1,
       Battle of Cedar Mountain, Va., August 9,
       Second Battle of Bull Run, Va., August 29,
       Battle of Richmond, Ky., August 30,
          " Chantilly, Va., September 1,
          " South Mountain, Md., September 14,
       Harper's Ferry surrendered, September 15,
       Battle of Antietam, Md., September 17,
          " Iuka, Miss., September 19,
          " Corinth, Miss., October 4,
          " Perryville, Ky., October 8,
1862. Battle of Fredericksburg, Va., December 13,
      First attack on Vicksburg, Miss., December 29,
      Battle of Murfreesboro, Tenn., December 31 and January
        2, 1863,
1863. Emancipation Proclamation, January 1,
      Arkansas Post taken, January 11,
      Fort Sumter, S. C., bombarded by fleet, April 7,
      Grant's campaign before Vicksburg, May 1-17,
      Battle of Chancellorsville, Va., May 2, 3,
      West Virginia admitted to the Union, June 20,
      Battle of Gettysburg, Penn., July 1-3,
      Vicksburg, Miss., surrendered, July 4,
      Port Hudson surrendered, July 8,
      Draft Riot in New York City, July 13-16,
      Fort Wagner, S. C., taken, September 7,
      Battle of Chickamauga, Ga., September 19, 20,
        " Chattanooga, Tenn., November 24, 25,
      Siege of Knoxville, Tenn., raised, December 4,
1864. Battle of Olustee, Fla, February 20,
      Grant made Lieutenant-General, March 3,
      Fort de Russy captured, March 14,
      Fort Pillow, Tenn., captured, April 12,
      Butler landed at Bermuda Hundred, May 5,
      Battle of Wilderness, Va., May 5, 6,
        " Spottsylvania, Va., May 8-12,
        " Resaca, Ga., May 14, 15,
        " New Market, Va., May 15,
        " Dallas, May 25-28,
        " Cold Harbor, Va., June 3,
        " Lost Mountain, Ga., June 15-17,
      Battle between the Kearsarge and the Alabama, June 19,
      Battle of Kenesaw Mt., Ga., June 27,
        " Monocacy, Md., July 9,
      Battles before Atlanta, Ga., July 20, 22, 28,
      Chambersburg, Pa., burned, July 30,
      Mine explosion, Petersburg, Va., July 30,
      Farragut entered Mobile Bay, Ala., August 5,
      Weldon Railroad seized, August 18,
      Atlanta, Ga., taken, September 2,
      Battle of Winchester, Va., September 19,
        " Fisher's Hill, Va., September 22,
        " Cedar Creek, Va., October 19,
      Nevada admitted to the Union, October 31,
      Fort McAlister, Ga, taken, December 13,
1864. Battle of Nashville, Tenn., December 15, 16,
1865. Fort Fisher, N. C., taken, January 15,
      Columbia, S. C., taken, February 17,
      Charleston, S. C., taken, February 18,
      Battles of Averysboro and Bentonsville, N. C., Mar 15, 18,
      Attack on Fort Steadman, Va., March 25,
      Battle of Five Forks, Va., April 1,
      Petersburg and Richmond taken, April 2, 3,
      Lee's army surrendered, April 9,
      President Lincoln assassinated, April 14,
      Johnston's army surrendered, April 26,
      Jefferson Davis captured May 11,

* * * * *


Draper, Greeley, Stephens, Abbott, Pollard, Lossing and Headley on the Civil War—Nichol's Story of the Great March and The Sanctuary (a novel)—Swinton's Army of the Potomac and Twelve Decisive Battles—Dabney's Life of Stonewall Jackson—Badeau's Military History of General Grant—Headley's Farragut and Our Naval Commanders—Coffin's Days and Nights on the Battle Field—Boynton's American Navy—Still's History of the Sanitary Commission—Johnston's Narrative of Military Operations—Moore's Rebellion Record and Ballads and Grant White's Poetry of the Civil War—Harper's Pictorial History of the War—Duyckinck's History and Lives of Eminent Americans—Mrs Childs's Romance of the Republic—Esten Cook's Surrey of Eagle's Nest and Mohun (novels)—Harrington's Inside—Gilmore's Among the Guerrillas and Down in Tennessee—W. G. Simms's War Poetry of the South—Laura Redden's Idyls of Battle and Richardson's Field, Dungeon, and Escape—Hotchkiss & Allan's Battle Fields of Virginia—Early's Army of Northern Virginia—Whittier's In War Time (Poem)—Cooke's Life of General Robert E. Lee—Memoirs of Gen W. T. Sherman—Barnes's Popular Hist of United States




From 1865—Close of the Civil War,
To—The Present Date.


[Footnote: Andrew Johnson was born in Raleigh, N. C., December 29, 1808. When only ten years of age, he was bound apprentice to a tailor of that city. Never having been at school a day in his life, he yet determined to secure an education. From a fellow-workman he learned the alphabet, and from a friend something of spelling. Thenceforth, after working ten to twelve hours per day at his trade, he spent two or three every night in study. In 1826, he went West to seek his fortune, with true filial affection carrying with him his mother, who was dependent on his labor for support. After his marriage at Greenville, Tenn., he continued his studies under the instruction of his wife, pursuing his trade as before by day. His political life commenced with his election as alderman. He was successively chosen mayor, member of legislature, Presidential elector, State senator, twice governor, and thrice U.S. senator.]

[Footnote: Questions on the Geography of the Sixth Epoch. -Locate Raleigh. Heart's Content, and St. John's, Newfoundland (see map, Epoch II). Alaska St. Albans, Vt. Buffalo, Mt. Pleasant, O, (map. Epoch V). West Point. Chicago. Boston. Duluth. Puget's Sound. San Francisco. Klamath Lava Beds, Oregon.]


THE death of Lincoln produced no disorder, and within three hours thereafter the Vice-President, Andrew Johnson, quietly assumed the duties of the Presidency.

DISBANDING OF THE ARMY.—At the close of the war the two armies numbered a million and a half of soldiers. Within six months they had nearly all returned home. Thus the mightiest hosts ever called to the field by a republic went back without disturbance to the tranquil pursuits of civil life. In a few months there was nothing to distinguish the soldier from the citizen, except the recollection of his bravery. Other nations prophesied that such a vast army could not be disbanded peaceably. The republic, by this final triumph of law and order, proved itself the most stable government in the world.

[Footnote: A grand review of the armies of Grant and Sherman, two hundred thousand strong, took place in the presence of the President and his Cabinet. For twelve hours this triumphal procession, thirty miles long, massed in solid column twenty men deep, rolled through the broad avenues of the Capital.]

DOMESTIC AFFAIRS.—Reconstruction Policy of the President. —Johnson recognized the State governments that had been formed in Virginia, Tennessee, Arkansas, and Louisiana during the war, under the protection of the Union army. In the other States, he appointed provisional governors, and authorized the calling of conventions to form loyal governments. These conventions accordingly met, repealed the ordinances of secession, repudiated the Confederate war debt, and ratified the amendment which Congress had offered abolishing slavery. On these conditions, Johnson claimed that the States, having never been legally out of the Union, should be restored to all their rights in the Union. All restrictions on commerce with the South had been previously removed (April 29, 1865). A month later, Johnson issued a proclamation of amnesty and pardon to all engaged in secession, except certain classes, on condition of taking the oath of allegiance to the United States. In 1868 (July 4) full pardon was granted to all not under indictment for treason, and afterward this was extended to all without exception.

[Footnote: Many of the persons thus excluded obtained pardons from the President by personal application. One complaint against him was the readiness with which he granted such pardons.]

The Thirteenth Amendment, abolishing slavery, having been ratified by the States, was declared (December 18, 1865) duly adopted as a part of the Constitution of the United States.

Public Debt.—The annual interest on the war debt was now over one hundred and thirty millions of dollars. The revenue from duties on imported goods, taxes on manufactures, incomes, etc., and from the sale of revenue stamps, was over three hundred millions of dollars. This provided not only for the current expenses of the government and the payment of interest, but also for the gradual extinguishment of the debt. It is a striking evidence of the abundant resources of the country that, in 1866, "before all the extra troops called out by the war had been discharged, the debt had been diminished more than thirty-one millions of dollars."

Reconstruction Policy of Congress.—On the assembling of Congress, decided grounds were taken against the policy of the President. It was claimed that Congress alone had power to prescribe the conditions for the re-admission of the seceded States. His proclamation and orders were treated as of no value. The Freedmen's Bureau, the Civil Rights, and the Tenure-of-Office bills were passed over the President's veto.

[Footnote: The first provided for the establishment of a department of the national government for the care and protection of the freedmen, i. e., the emancipated slaves, and also of the destitute whites at the South. The second bill guaranteed to the negroes the rights of citizenship. The third made the consent of the Senate necessary to the removal by the President of any person from a civil office.]

The Seceded States Admitted.—Tennessee promptly ratified the Fourteenth Amendment and was restored to her former position in the Union. The other provisional governments having refused to do so, a bill was passed (March 2, 1867) placing those States under military rule. The generals in command caused a registry of voters to be made, and elections to be held for conventions to remodel the State constitutions. After a bitter and protracted struggle, governments were established in Arkansas, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, North and South Carolina, and their representatives admitted (June 24, 1868) over the President's veto, to Congress, after an unrepresented period of seven years.

[Footnote: As a requisite demanded by Congress for holding office, every candidate was obliged to swear that he had not participated in the secession movement Since few Southerners could take this "iron-clad oath," as it was termed, most of the representatives were Northern men who had gone South after the war, and were, therefore, called "carpet-baggers."]

Impeachment of the President.—The constantly-increasing hostility between the President and Congress came to an issue when the former attempted to remove Edwin M. Stanton, Secretary of War. This being considered a violation of the Tenure-of-Office bill, the impeachment of the President was at last ordered (February 24, 1868). After a long and tedious trial he was acquitted, the two-thirds majority necessary for conviction lacking one vote.

The Fourteenth Amendment proposed by Congress, guaranteeing equal civil rights to all, regardless of race or color, and basing representation in each State on the number of voters, was adopted July 28, 1868.

The Indian War along the Southwest having, in 1865-6, increased so as to demand active measures for its suppression, General Sheridan was ordered thither. Black Kettle and a large body of his warriors being surprised and slain by a charge of Custer's cavalry (1868) in the battle of the Wacheta (wah-che'-tah), hostilities ceased.

The French in Mexico.—While the United States were absorbed in the civil war, Napoleon III., emperor of France, took advantage of the opportunity to secure a foothold in America. By the assistance of the French army, the imperialists of Mexico defeated the liberals, and Maximilian, archduke of Austria, was chosen emperor. The United States government protested against the measure, but was unable to enforce the "Monroe doctrine." When the American people were relieved from the pressure of civil strife, they turned their attention to the Mexicans hopelessly struggling for liberty, and the United States government demanded of Napoleon the recall of the French troops. Maximilian, deprived of foreign aid, was defeated, and, falling into the hands of the Mexican liberals, was shot June 19, 1867. This ended the dream of French dominion on this continent.

Laying of the Atlantic Cable.—While these great political events were happening, science had achieved a peaceful triumph whose importance far transcended the victories of diplomatic or military skill. A telegraphic cable eighteen hundred and sixty-four miles in length had been laid from Valentia Bay, Ireland, to Heart's Content, Newfoundland.

[Footnote: The success of this enterprise was due to the energy of Cyrus W. Field. In 1856, the line was finished from New York to St. John's, Newfoundland, a distance of over one thousand miles. A company was then formed with a capital of about $1,750,000. A cable was made, but in an attempt to lay it (August, 1857), the cable parted. A second attempt, in June, 1858, failed after repeated trials. A third effort, in July was successful. A message was sent from the Queen of England to the President, and a reply transmitted. A celebration was held in New York in honor of the event, but on that very day (September 1) the cable ceased to work. The time and money spent seemed a total loss. Mr. Field alone was undismayed. The company was revived, $3,000,000 were subscribed, and a new cable was manufactured. In July, 1865, the Great Eastern commenced laying this cable, but in mid-ocean it parted and sank to the bottom. Again Mr. Field went to work, raised a new company with a capital of $3,000,000, and made a third cable. The Great Eastern sailed with this in June, 1866, and successfully accomplished the feat. To make the triumph more complete, the vessel sailed back to the very spot where the cable of 1865 had parted, and, dropping grappling-irons, caught the lost cable, brought it to the surface, and, splicing it, laid the remaining portion. The two cables were found to work admirably. A despatch has been sent across the ocean by a battery made in a gun-cap.]


The two continents were thus brought into almost instant communication.

FOREIGN AFFAIRS.—Purchase of Alaska (October, 1867).—Through the diplomacy of William H. Seward, Secretary of State, Alaska was purchased of Russia for $7,200,000 in gold. It contains about 500,000 square miles, but is principally valuable for its harbors, furs, and fisheries.

Fenian Excitement.—The Fenians, a secret society organized for the purpose of delivering Ireland from British rule, crossed the Canadian frontier at Buffalo, N. Y., and St. Albans, Vt., in large numbers. President Johnson issued a proclamation declaring the movement a violation of our neutrality, and sent thither General Meade to execute the laws. After some skirmishing with British troops, the expedition returned.

Treaty with China (1868).—An embassy from the Chinese Empire, under charge of Anson Burlingame, visited the United States.

[Footnote: Burlingame had been the United States minister to the Chinese government for six years. During this time he had rendered himself so popular, that, at the end of his term of service, Prince Kung, the Chinese Regent, requested him to go on this special mission to foreign courts. After visiting the United States, he went to England, France, and Russia. He died at St. Petersburg within a month after his arrival there.]

It was an event of much importance, and the first of its kind in the history of that exclusive nation. A treaty was perfected guaranteeing liberty of conscience to Americans in China, and certain commercial privileges of great value.

POLITICAL PARTIES.—The republican party nominated General Ulysses S. Grant, of Illinois, for President, and Schuyler Colfax, of Indiana, for Vice-President. The democratic party nominated Horatio Seymour, of New York, and General Frank P. Blair, of Missouri. Virginia, Mississippi, and Texas were not allowed to vote. As the other Southern States had been "reconstructed," had granted negro suffrage, and enforced a strict registry law, they were permitted to participate in the election. Grant and Colfax were elected.


[Footnote: Hiram Ulysses Grant was born at Mount Pleasant, Ohio, April 27,1822. He was unwilling to follow his father's trade, which was that of a tanner, and, at seventeen, an appointment to West Point was secured for him. His name having been wrongly registered, Grant vainly attempted to set the matter right, but finally accepted his "manifest destiny," assumed the change thus forced upon him, and thenceforth signed himself "Ulysses Simpson," the latter being his mother's family name. Two years after completing his four-years course as cadet, the Mexican War broke out, in which Grant conducted himself with great gallantry, receiving especial mention and promotion. After this, he retired to civil life, where he remained until the opening of the war in 1861. He was then appointed to command a company of volunteers. Having taken it to Springfield, he became aid to Gov. Yates, and was finally commissioned as colonel of the 21st Illinois regiment. His military and political career was henceforth a part of the country's history. After the close of his presidential terms, he made the tour of the world. During this extended journey, he was everywhere received with marked enthusiasm and honor, and his dignified and consistent conduct shed lustre upon the country he represented.]


DOMESTIC AFFAIRS.—Pacific Railroad.—The year 1869 was made memorable by the opening of this road, which completed the union between the Atlantic and the Pacific. The traveler can now pass from New York to San Francisco, a distance of about 3,400 miles, in less than a week. This great highway has linked the West to the East by iron bands, has carried thousands of pioneers into the hitherto wild country along its route, developed fresh sources of industry and mines of wealth, and opened the United States to the silks, teas, and spices of Asia. American ingenuity has solved the problem which foiled Columbus and the olden navigators. It has made for itself a route to India.

[Footnote: Already other roads across the continent are constructing. The Northern Pacific has its eastern terminus on Lake Superior, and its western will be on Puget Sound. Though far to the north, yet in Oregon there is no winter weather, but only a rainy season, as in California. In portions of Dakota, Idaho, and Montana, cattle range the natural-grass pastures during the whole winter; while, in Washington Territory, roses blossom the year around. For the construction of this road public lands have been given by Congress, to the amount of over 80,000,000 acres, which is considerably in excess of the total area of the six New England States. The length of this road will be 1,800 miles, with a branch of 200 miles to Portland, Oregon. The Southern Pacific is to extend from Shreveport, La., to San Diego, Cal., a distance of 1,514 miles. This will run through a country so mild as to avoid the necessity of the "snow-sheds" which form so singular a feature of the Central Pacific.]

[Illustration: ULYSSES S GRANT]

The Fifteenth Amendment, which guarantees to all the right of suffrage, irrespective of "race, color, or previous condition of servitude," having been ratified by the requisite number of States, was formally announced as a part of the Constitution, by Hamilton Fish, Secretary of State, March 30, 1870.

Prosperity of the Country.—The nation rapidly recovered from the effects of war. The price of gold fell to 110, and the national debt was reduced $204,000,000 during the first two years of this administration. A general amnesty to all connected with the Civil War was proclaimed, and the bitter feelings engendered by fraternal strife fast melted away. The South, devastated and scourged by the march of contending armies, accustomed herself to the novel conditions of free labor, rebuilt her railroads, cultivated her fields, and repaired the ravages of war. The census of 1870 showed that the population of the United States was over thirty-eight millions, an increase of about seven millions, while the manufacturing establishments of the country had nearly, if not quite, doubled in number and value during the preceding decade.

Fires.—l. A great fire broke out in Chicago, Sunday night, October 8, 1871. For two days it raged with tremendous violence, devastating 3,000 acres. 25,000 buildings were burned, $200,000,000 worth of property was destroyed, and 100,000 persons were rendered homeless. Contributions for the sufferers were taken in nearly all parts of the world, and over $7,500,000 were raised. 2. During the same fall, wide-spread conflagrations raged in the forests of Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan. Entire villages were consumed. 1,500 people perished in Wisconsin alone. 3. An extensive fire occurred in Boston November 9, 1872. It swept over sixty acres in the center of the wholesale trade of that city, and destroyed $70, 000,000 worth of property.

FOREIGN AFFAIRS.—Treaty of Washington.—The refusal of the English government to pay the damages to American commerce caused by the Alabama and other Confederate cruisers (p. 268) produced bitter feeling, and even threatened war. A high commission, composed of distinguished statesmen and jurists from both countries, accordingly met in Washington, and arranged the basis of a treaty between the United States and Great Britain, settling this and other causes of dispute. According to its provisions, the claim for losses was submitted to a board of arbitrators, who, having convened at Geneva, Switzerland, awarded the United States $15,500, 000 in gold.


The difficulty with regard to the Northwestern boundary between the United States and British America was submitted to the Emperor of Germany, and was decided in favor of the United States. Thus happily all danger of war was averted, and the great principle of the settlement of disputes by peaceful arbitration rather than by the sword was finally established.

Proposed Annexation of Santo Domingo.

[Footnote: The island of Santo Domingo is the "New World's classic land." Here Columbus founded the first white colony on this side of the Atlantic, and transporting hither animals, trees, shrubs, vines, and grains, so to speak, grafted the old world upon the new. Hither, also, flocked the bold, adventurous, ambitious Spanish multitude (see p. 26). Great cities sprung up, rivaling the majestic proportions of Moorish capitals. Magnificent enterprises were set on foot and prospered. Here Ponce de Leon renewed his ambition, and set forth afresh on an expedition to Porto Rico, and thence to Florida, in search of the Fountain of Youth (see p. 26). "A century before Henry Hudson sailed up the noble river that perpetuates his name—more than a century before the Puritans landed at Plymouth Rock—the city of Santo Domingo was a rich and populous center of industry and trade. Some of its palaces and churches still remain, massive and splendid; among them, the great cathedral begun in 1514 and finished in 1540." But the Spanish policy of greed and oppression gradually undermined itself. In 1795, when Santo Domingo was ceded to France, it was "abandoned to such a degree that it was a mere wilderness, devoted to the grazing of cattle." Yet, in spite of past tyranny, of neglect, and the knowledge that they had been "sold like a herd of cattle" to a foreign master, the Dominicans were loyal to Spain, and when Napoleon I. took possession of Madrid in 1808, they indignantly rose in arms, overpowered the French garrisons, and made themselves masters of their own country. They then rehoisted the Spanish flag, and in 1814, by the treaty of Paris, Santo Domingo was formally restored to that country. Meanwhile, the few years of interval had taught them some of the pleasures of liberty, and the seed then implanted grew rapidly. In 1821, they severed their connection with the mother country, but only to be absorbed by the more thriving and populous Hayti. In 1844, the Dominican Republic declared itself free and independent. Great Britain, France, Spain, Denmark, Holland, and Sardinia formally recognized it, and sent representatives to its capital. After seventeen years of struggle against European intrigue and Haytien aggression, it again lapsed into a Spanish dependency. Its story for the next four years is successively one of oppression, of revolt, of bloody wars, and of ultimate success. The Spanish fleet took final leave in 1865, and left the brave Dominicans to their well-earned freedom.]

This republic, comprising a large part of the island of Hayti, applied for admission to the United States. A commission of eminent men, appointed by the President to visit the island and examine its condition, reported favorably. The measure, however, was rejected by Congress.

"The Virginius." —In 1868, Cuba attempted to throw off the Spanish yoke. Great sympathy was felt in the United States for the patriots, and repeated efforts were made to send them aid. In spite of the vigilance of the authorities, the Virginius, loaded with men and supplies, escaped from port in the fall of this year. While still on the high seas, and flying the American flag, she was captured by the Spanish war steamer Tornado and carried into Santiago. Many of her crew and passengers were summarily shot. The United States consul at that port protested in vain. President Grant interfered with a strong hand. The Virginius was thereupon released, and suitable apologies were made for the insult offered to the United States flag.

POLITICAL PARTIES.—The liberal republican party, consisting of republicans opposed to the administration, nominated Horace Greeley of New York for the presidential term commencing 1873 The democratic party endorsed this nomination. The republicans renomimated President Grant, who was elected

[Footnote: Horace Greeley was born at Amherst, N. H., February 3, 1811. At two years of age, he began to study the newspapers given him for amusement; and at four, could read anything placed before him, At six, he was able to spell any word in the English language was somewhat versed in geography and arithmetic and had read the entire Bible. His passion for books increased with his years, and at an early age he determined to be a printer. At fifteen he entered the office of the Northern Spectator at East Poultney, Vt. His wages were forty dollars a year, the greater part of which was saved and sent to his father, then struggling in poverty upon a farm in Pennsylvania. The Spectator having failed in 1831 Greeley went to New York. He landed with ten dollars and a scanty outfit tied in a handkerchief. Franklin like, he traversed the streets in search of work—a long stooping, stockingless figure in linen roundabout short trousers and drooping hat, with his out grown cotton wristbands made to meet with twine. Diligence, integrity and ability won him a ready rise when employment was at last secured. Ten years later he founded the New York Tribune. He served in Congress in 1848-49 where he was known for his opposition to the abuses of the mileage system. When civil war seemed imminent, he advocated a peaceable division of the country but after it opened he urged a vigorous prosecution of hostilities. At the close of the war, he pleaded for immediate conciliation and was a signer of the bail bond which restored Jefferson Davis to liberty after two years imprisonment in Fortress Monroe.

Horace Greeley was pure, simple and conscientious in character He had a peculiar disregard for dress and neglected many of the courtesies of society, but he was a true gentleman at heart and possessed rare gifts in conversation. He was fond of agriculture and spent his leisure days on his farm at Chappaqua. Just before the close of the presidential canvass his wife died and this together with the desertion of friends and the excitement of the contest unsettled his mimd. He was carried to a private asylum where he died November 39,1872.]


GRANT'S SECOND TERM—DOMESTIC AFFAIRS.—The Modoc Indians having refused to stay upon their reservation in Oregon, troops were sent against them The savages thereupon retreated to their fastnesses in the Lava Beds. The peace commissioners, hoping to arrange the difficulty, held a conference with the chiefs. In the midst of the council, the Indians treacherously slew General Canby and Rev. Dr. Thomas and wounded Mr. Meachem. The Modocs were then bombarded in their stronghold, and finally forced to surrender. Captain Jack and several of the leaders of the band were executed at Fort Klamath, October 3, 1873.

The Credit Mobilier was a company organized for the purpose of building the Pacific Railroad. The undertaking proved a profitable one, and enormous dividends were paid. An investigation developed the startling fact that various high officers of the government had accepted presents of stock, the value of which necessarily depended largely upon their official action.

Railroad Panic.—In the autumn of 1873, Jay Cooke & Co., bankers of Philadelphia, having engaged too extensively in railroad schemes, failed. A financial crisis ensued, and hundreds of prominent firms all over the Union were involved in ruin. A settled stringency of the money market and a stagnation of business followed.

Centennial Anniversaries.—The year 1875, being the hundredth anniversary of the first year of the Revolutionary War, was marked by various centennial observances. April 19, the battles of Lexington and Concord were celebrated with patriotic pride. May 20, the citizens of Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, honored the memory of those who, at Charlotte, signed a Declaration of Independence only ten days after the capture of Ticonderoga. June 17 witnessed, at Bunker Hill, an unprecedented gathering from all parts of the country, Northern and Southern soldiers vying in devotion to the flag of the Union.

The Centennial Exhibition.—To commemorate the signing of the Declaration of Independence, an exhibition of the arts and industries of all nations was held at Philadelphia, during the summer of 1876. The beautiful grounds of Fairmount Park were the scene of this imposing display. The principal edifices were the Main Exhibition Building, the Memorial Hall, the Machinery Hall, the Horticultural and Agricultural Buildings, and the Woman's Pavilion. The first named covered an area of over twenty-six acres In addition to these structures, there were more than two hundred smaller buildings scattered over the extensive grounds. The exhibition opened May 10, and lasted six months. The average daily attendance was about 61,000 persons.


[Footnote: See Barnes's Hundred Years of American Independence, a supplement to which is entirely devoted to the Centennial Exhibition.]

War with the Sioux (1877)

[Footnote: The Black Hills which are in Dakota and Wyoming belonged to the Sioux Reservation But gold having been found there bands of miners began to prospect on the Indian domain, a bill was introduced into Congress to extinguish the Indian title to a portion of the Black Hill region and finally a new treaty as negotiated But the unwillingness of the Indians to leave the encroachments of the whites and the advent of surveyors and troops all combined to provoke hostilities]

The Sioux Indians having refused to go upon the reservation assigned them by treaty and committed many atrocities, a force of regular troops was sent against them. General Custer led the advance with the Seventh Cavalry, while General Terry moved up the Big Horn to attack them in the rear. On the 25th of June, General Custer suddenly came upon the enemy. Without waiting for support, he detached Colonel Reno with four companies to fall upon the back of the Indian village, while he immediately charged the savages in front with the remainder of his command. A desperate conflict ensued. General Custer, his two brothers, his nephew, and every one of his men were killed. Colonel Keno was surrounded, but held his ground on the bluffs until reinforcements arrived. The Indians were soon beaten on every hand, and by the following spring were so scattered as to be comparatively harmless.


POLITICAL PARTIES.—The republican party nominated General Rutherford B. Hayes, of Ohio, for President, and Wm. A. Wheeler, of New York, for Vice-President. The democratic party chose Samuel J. Tilden, of New York, and Thomas A. Hendricks, of Indiana. The independent greenback party selected Peter Cooper, of New York, and Samuel F. Cary, of Ohio. This presidential campaign was so hotly contested between the republicans and the democrats, and such irregularities were charged against the elections in Oregon, South Carolina, Florida, and Louisiana, that both these parties claimed the victory. In order to settle the dispute, Congress agreed to refer the contested election returns to a Joint Electoral Commission, composed of five senators, five representatives, and five judges of the Supreme Court.

[Illustration: RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.]

[Footnote: The Senators chosen were Messrs. Bayard, Edmunds,
Frelinghuysen, Morton, and Thurman. The Representatives were
Messrs. Abbott, Garfield, Hoar, Hunton, and Payne. The Associate
Justices of the Supreme Court selected were Messrs. Bradley,
Clifford, Field, Miller, and Strong.]

This body decided that 185 electoral votes had been cast for Hayes and Wheeler, and 184 for Tilden and Hendricks. The republican candidates were therefore declared to be elected.

[Footnote: The principal political questions which agitated the country during this campaign were, (1) the Southern policy of the government, and (2) the civil service reform. It was held on one side that negroes and republicans at the South were intimidated by force and prevented from voting, and that the presence of the United States troops was necessary to the preservation of the rights of the citizens, free discussion, a free ballot, and an enforcement of the laws. It was asserted, on the other side, that the use of the troops for such purposes was unconstitutional; that the intimidation was only imaginary, or could be readily controlled by the local authorities; and that the presence of the military provoked violence and was a constant insult and menace to the States. President Jackson, as we have seen (p. 175), introduced into our politics the principle of "rotation in office." This policy steadily gained favor until Marcy's maxim, "To the victors belong the spoils," became the commonly-accepted view; and after every important election, the successful party was accustomed to fill even the menial offices of government with its favorites. Under such a system, the qualification of the applicant was of much less importance than the service he had done the party. Hayes promised to make "no dismissal except for cause, and no promotion except for merit."]



DOMESTIC AFFAIRS.—U. S. Troops at the South Withdrawn. —President Hayes's Southern policy was one of conciliation. The troops which had hitherto sustained the republican State governments in South Carolina and Louisiana were withdrawn, and democratic officials at once took control of the local affairs.

A Railroad Strike was inaugurated by workmen on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in the summer of 1877. The cause was a reduction of wages by the managers of the different roads in the country. Seventy trains were stopped near Martinsburg, W. Va., and the blockade was raised only by the arrival of regular troops. The strike, however, rapidly extended to nearly all the principal railroads in the Northern States. Travel was suspended, and business came to a standstill. A tumult occurred in Baltimore, which was suppressed with some bloodshed. There was a terrible riot at Pittsburg, Pa., and cars, buildings, and an immense amount of property were destroyed, the loss of the Pennsylvania Railroad being estimated at $3,000,000. The troops at last quelled the disturbance, but at the cost of about one hundred lives. There were alarming riots also at Hornellsville, N. Y., at Chicago, Ill., at Louisville, Ky., and at Reading, Pa. These were suppressed, in part, by regular troops, but the militia generally proved reliable, and the citizen soldiery in this perilous crisis merited the gratitude of the republic. Quiet was finally restored, but the coal regions of Pennsylvania remained for a long time in disorder.

[Illustration: THE SILVER DOLLAR (1878)]

"Bland Silver Bill" —In 1873, Congress demonetized silver, and made gold the sole standard of our currency. Opposition to this measure gradually arose, and in December, 1877, a bill was introduced into Congress making silver a legal tender in payment of debts. This measure, after having been amended, was passed (Feb. 21, 1878).

Fishery Award (1878).—Difficulties having arisen between the United States and Great Britain concerning the fisheries of the Northeastern coast, the matter was referred, by the Treaty of Washington (p. 289), to a commission for adjudication. This body sat at Halifax, Nova Scotia, and awarded Great Britain the sum of $5,500,000.

The Yellow Fever broke out in New Orleans during the summer of 1878, and spread northward along the Mississippi into Missouri and Tennessee. Over 20,000 cases, with 7,000 deaths, were reported.

The Resumption of specie payments (Jan. 1, 1879) through the entire country, brought gold and silver once more into general circulation.

Indian Difficulty (1879).—The Ute Indians at the White River agency, dissatisfied by the encroachments of the miners and the non-payment of money promised by the government, took up arms, massacred the white men at the agent's station, and also Major Thornburgh, who, with a small force, was marching to subdue the revolt. The U. S. troops were hurried thither, and peace was once more restored. The women and children were found to have been saved by a friendly chief.

STATES ADMITTED DURING THIS EPOCH.—Nebraska, the thirty-seventh State, was admitted to the Union March 1, 1867. The name signifies "water valley." Colorado, the thirty-eighth State, was received March 3, 1875. Its constitution, however, was not ratified by the people until July 1, 1876; whence it is known as the "Centennial State." This region was explored by Coronado in 1540, while De Soto was rambling over the site of the future Gulf States.



These questions are placed at the close of the work rather than at the foot of each page, in order to compel a more independent use of the book. As far as possible, topical recitations should be encouraged. On naming the subject of a paragraph, the pupil should be expected to tell all he knows about it. A little patience and practice in this method will achieve wonderful results. The following pages often present topical questions in the hope of gradually leading the pupil to this system of study. The figures refer to the pages of the book.


9. From what continent did the first inhabitants of America probably come? How did they get here? (At that time it is probable that Behring Strait was not cut through, and the two continents were connected.) What remains of these people are found? Where do they occur?

10. What proof is there of their antiquity? Describe the ruins at
Newark, Ohio. The mound at St. Louis. The embankment in Adams
County, Ohio. Are earth-works permanent? Describe the ruins in
South America. Who were the mound-builders?

11. What became of them? Who succeeded them? How did the Indians compare with them? What do you say of the number of the Indians? Where most numerous? Were there any blacksmiths, carpenters, etc., among them?

12-13. Were they a progressive people? In what were they skilled? How did they regard labor? 12. Describe the life of their women.

14-16. The Indian disposition. His power of endurance. His religion. Did he have any idea of God? What policy should be pursued toward the Indian? Who were the Northmen? What traditions about their having discovered and settled America? Are these stories credible? Are there any remains of this people now existing? Were their discoveries of any value? At what date does the history of this country begin? Name the subjects and limits of the six epochs into which this history is divided.


19. What was the state of geographical knowledge in Europe in the fifteenth century? Why could not sailors have crossed the ocean before as well as then? Why were books of travel more abundant then? Why so eagerly read?

20. By what route were the goods from the East obtained? What was the problem of that day? Columbus's idea? What facts strengthened his view? (See p. 21.) Tell something of his life.

21. Why did he seek assistance? Before whom did he lay his plan? How was it received? Did the king treat him fairly? To whom did Columbus apply next? How was he regarded? What reply was made him?

22. What did Columbus's friends do for him? What offer did Queen Isabella make? Were her jewels sold? What new trouble assailed Columbus? What vessels composed his fleet? Give some of the incidents of the voyage.

23 Did Columbus waver? (There seems to be no truth in the common statement that he promised to turn back, if he did not discover land in three days.) Describe the discovery of land. The landing. When and where was this? What region did Columbus think he had reached? What was the result? For what did he search? What other islands did he discover?

24. Describe his reception on his return. How many subsequent voyages did Columbus make? What settlement did he make? (p. 289.) Did he discover the main-land? Did he know that he had found a new continent? Where is Columbus's tomb? How was the continent named?

25. What was the plan of John Cabot? What discoveries did he make? Did his discoveries antedate those of Columbus? Where and when is it probable the American continent was discovered? What discoveries did Sebastian Cabot make? Did England improve them? Of what value were they?

26. What four nations explored the territory of the future United States? What portion of the continent did each explore? What was the feeling in Spain? What effect was produced? Why did Ponce de Leon come to the new world?

27. What land did he discover? Why did he so name it? What success did he meet? What discovery did Balboa make? Describe the expedition of De Narvaez. Its fate. Of De Soto. Of De Ayllon.

28. What region did De Soto traverse? Did he make any valuable discoveries? What river was his burial place? When? What became of his companions?

29. When, where, and by whom was the first town in the United States founded? Meaning of the word California in the sixteenth century? Why did Cortez explore that region? Who made the first voyage along the Pacific coast? Which is the second oldest town in the United States? When and by whom founded? What was the great wish of maritime nations?

30. What was the extent of the Spanish possessions in the new world? Who was the first French navigator to reach the continent? When? What name did he give it? Who discovered the River St. Lawrence? Why did he so name it? Ans. From the name of the day on which it was discovered. Why was Montreal so named? Describe the attempt to plant a colony of convicts. Why did this fail?

31. Who were the Huguenots? What was Coligny's plan? Who led the first expedition? Fate of the colony? The second expedition? Amusing story of the longevity of the Indians?

32. Fate of the colony? What French navigator was the next to ascend the St. Lawrence? How did he find things at Hochelaga? When, where, and by whom was the first permanent French settlement made in America? How much land was granted?

33. When, where, and by whom was the first permanent French settlement made in Canada? What journey did Champlain make? What discoveries? The consequence of his trip? Who explored the Mississippi valley? What relics of them remain? Tell something of their heroism. Of Father Marquette. Of his death.

34. Of La Salle. What were the results of French enterprise? How did it compare with English enterprise? When did the English awake to the importance of American discovery? Who made the first attempt to carry out Cabot's plan?

35. What success did he have? Was the discovery of gold profitable? What discovery did Sir Francis Drake make?

36. What was the view of Sir Humphrey Gilbert? His fate? Who adopted his plan? Give some account of Sir Walter Raleigh. Why was Virginia so named? Where did Raleigh plant his first colony? Give its history.

37. What did the colonists introduce into England on their return? Story told of Raleigh's smoking? Give the history of the second colony. What kept the interest in America alive? How did Gosnold shorten the voyage across the Atlantic?

38. What discoveries did Gosnold make? Captain Pring? Results of these explorations? What was South Virginia? North Virginia? Where, when, and by whom was the first English settlement made in the United States? What became of the colony sent out the same year by the Plymouth company? Tell some of the provisions of the charter granted to these companies. What is a charter? Ans. A document which confers the title to certain land, and, not unlike a constitution, defines the form of government, and secures to the people certain rights and privileges.

39. Who entered New York harbor next after Verrazani? Was Hudson a Dutchman? (His given name was Henry, not Heindrich, as often stated.) What river did he discover? What claim did the Dutch found on this discovery? What name did they give to the region? State the claims of these four nations, and the settlements they had made.

40. Why were these claims conflicting? Had these nations any idea of the extent of the country? Which nation ultimately secured the whole region? Which centuries were characterized by explorations, and which century by settlements? Name the permanent settlements which were made at the beginning of the seventeenth century.


45. Name the thirteen colonies. Were they united during this epoch?

46. What was the character of the Virginia colonists? What was their success? Describe the services of John Smith. Give some of the incidents of his life.

47. What was his theory of founding a colony? Tell the story of his capture by the Indians.

48. What change in the government of the colony was made by the second charter? Was it based on the principle of self-government? Why did Smith leave? What was its effect on the colony? Tell something of the "Starving Time."

49. How did relief come? What change was made by the third charter? Describe the marriage of Pocahontas. Her visit to England. Where was the first legislative body held?

50. When was the first constitution given? Of what value were these charters? Give some particulars of the prosperity of the colony. Of the culture of tobacco. Of the purchase of wives. When and how was slavery introduced? Why?

61. Why did the Indians now become hostile? Give some account of the massacre. Its result. What new change was made in the government? Cause? What was the Navigation Act? Why was it oppressive? What was the conduct of the assembly?

52. What division arose among the people? Give the history of Bacon's rebellion. Was Bacon a patriot or a rebel? What was the conduct of Berkeley? What curious fact illustrates the ruling sentiment of Massachusetts and of Virginia at that time? What coincidence between this event and the Revolution?

53. Describe John Smith's explorations at the north. What authority was granted to the Council of New England? What became of the Plymouth Company? Give some account of the landing of the Pilgrims. Who were the Puritans? What was the difference between the Puritans and the Pilgrims? Why did the Pilgrims come to this country? When?

54. What was their character? What story is told to illustrate their piety? Describe their sufferings. What is "Plymouth Rock"? What do you mean by Dec. 11, O.S. and Dec. 21, N.S.? Why did not the Indians disturb them?

55. What Indians visited them in the spring? How did Governor Bradford reply to Canonicus's threat? Tell about the scarcity of food. How did the plan of working in common succeed?

56. Did they have any more privileges than the Jamestown colonists?
Who settled about Massachusetts Bay? Why was this colony popular?
Who founded Salem? Boston? Did the Puritans tolerate other
Churches? Why not? Give an account of the difficulty with Roger

67. Where did he go? What settlement did he found? Why did Mrs. Hutchinson become obnoxious? State the treatment of the Quakers. What union of the colonies was now formed? What was its object? What Indian chiefs befriended Massachusetts and Virginia in their early history? (The grandson of Massasoit was sold as a slave in the West Indies.)

58. Give an account of King Philip's war. Of the "swamp fight." Of the attack on Hadley. How did the colonists protect themselves?

59. How was the war finally ended? How did the Navigation Act affect Massachusetts? Did the Puritans obey it? What change now took place in the government? Give some account of Andros's rule. What action did the colonists take? What form of government was finally imposed upon them?

60. Give an account of the Salem witchcraft. What is a "witch"? Was this delusion common at that time? What two colonies were intimately united to Massachusetts? What was Laconia?

61. Give an account of the early settlement of New Hampshire. Of Maine. What is said of the claims made upon the land by the heirs of these proprietors? Why are these States so named? Who obtained a grant of the territory now embraced in Connecticut? Who claimed this region?

62. Give an account of the early settlement at Windsor. Hartford. Saybrook. How were the Narraganset Indians kept from joining the Pequods against the whites? Describe the attack upon the Pequod fort.

63. What three colonies were formed in Connecticut? What peculiarities in the government of each? How were they combined into one colony? Why was the charter so highly prized? What story is told of Andros's visit?

64. What colony was established the same year that Hooker went to Hartford? What exiles settled Rhode Island? Why was the island so called? What fact illustrates Williams's generosity?

65. What was his favorite idea? Why was not the colony allowed to join the New England Union? How was a charter secured? What was its character? Give an account of the settlement of New York by the Dutch. Who were the "patroons"?

60. What was the character of the history of New York under its four Dutch governors? Who was the ablest of them? How much territory did he claim? How did he settle the boundary lines? Tell something of the growth of liberty among the people.

67. Describe old Peter's reluctance to surrender to the English. Why was the colony named New York? Were the people pleased with the English rule? Was the English occupation permanent? Was civil liberty secured under Andros? Dongan? What course did the Duke of York take when he became King of England? Tell how Captain Leisler came to assume the government. Of his trial and execution.

68. In what colony was New Jersey formerly embraced? Who first settled it? When, to whom, and by whom was the land granted? Where and by whom was the first English settlement made? Why so called? How divided? Who settled the different parts?

69. How did New Jersey come to be united to New York? To be made a separate royal province? Where and by whom was the first settlement in Delaware made? In Pennsylvania? Who was the founder of Pennsylvania? Give some account of William Penn. Of the Quakers.

70. How did Penn come to obtain a grant of this region? Why was it so named? What was Delaware styled? How did Penn settle the territory? What city did he found? Meaning of the name? Rapidity of its growth? What was the "Great Code"? Was religious toleration granted?

71. Give an account of Penn's treaty with the Indians. In what spirit did Penn treat the colony?

72. How came Delaware to be separated from Pennsylvania? Was this separation total? How did Pennsylvania secure the title to its soil? With what intent did Lord Baltimore secure a grant of land in America? When was the first settlement made? Why was Maryland so named? What class of people generally settled this country?

73. What advantage did the Maryland charter confer? What was the "Toleration Act"? How did religious toleration vary in the colonies? Give an account of Claiborne's rebellion. Of the difficulties between the Catholics and the Protestants.

74. What territory was granted to Lord Clarendon? By whom was the Albemarle colony settled? What course did the proprietors take? By whom was the Carteret colony settled? What location did they select? What do you say of the rapidity of its growth?

75. Who were the Huguenots? What beneficial influence did they have on the colony? What was the "Grand Model"? How was it unfitted for a new country? How was it received? What were the relations between the proprietors and settlers? How were the difficulties ended? How came Carolina to be divided?

76. By what coincidence is Georgia linked with Washington? With what intention was this colony planned? Character of the settlers? Restrictions of the trustees? Result?

77. How many inter-colonial wars were there? If you include the Spanish war? Duration of King William's war? Cause? Describe the Indian attacks upon the colonists. Tell the story of Mrs. Dustin.

78. What attacks were made by the colonists in return? Were they successful? What was the result of the war?

79. Length of Queen Anne's war? Cause? Where was the war mainly fought? Effect upon New England? What attack by the colonists at the south? At the north? Tell the story of Mrs. Williams.

80. Result of the war? Length of King George's war? Cause? Principal event? Give an account of the capture of Louisburg. Of the Spanish war.

81. Result of the war? Length of the French and Indian war? Cause? Occasions of quarrel?

82. Give an account of Washington's journey to Lake Erie. His return. Result of his journey.

83. What did the French do in the spring? The Virginia troops under
Washington? Fate of Jumonville? Give an account of the capture of
Fort Necessity by the French. Who fired the first gun of this war?
Name the five objective points of this war.

84. Why were they so obstinately attacked and defended? Give an account of the defeat of General Braddock. Character of Braddock. Conduct of Washington.

85. Give an account of the second expedition. Who finally captured the fort? What city now occupies its site? What was the principal cause of the easy capture of the fort? What success did the English meet in Acadia? What cruel act disgraced their victory? What attempt was made on Louisburg? Who finally captured it?

86. Describe the battle of Lake George. Who earned the glory of this victory and who got it? Tell the story of Dieskau's death. The fate of Fort William Henry. Describe the attack on Fort Ticonderoga by Abercrombie.

87. When were both forts captured? Describe the two attempts to capture Niagara. Who forced it to surrender? In what year did these successes occur? Describe the difficulties which General Wolfe met in his attack on Quebec.

88, 89. How did he overcome them? Describe the battle on the Plains of Abraham. What was the result of the battle? The conditions of peace?

90. Cause of Pontiac's war? Result? Fate of Pontiac? What stratagems did the Indians use? Effects of the French and Indian war?

91. How did the British officers treat the colonial officers? Condition of the colonies? How many kinds of government? Name and define each.

92. How many colleges? Did the English government support educational interests? Condition of agriculture? Manufactures?

93 Commerce? Was money plenty? Were there many books or papers? How did the people travel?

94. Tell something about the first public conveyance. Condition of morals in New England. Name some peculiar customs. Some rigid laws. Who was entitled to the prefix Mr.? What were common people called? Laws with regard to drinking? Using tobacco?

95. Tell something of the habits of the people in New York. What customs familiar to us are of Dutch origin? How did the style of living at the south differ from that at the north?

96. Describe a southern plantation. What is said of Mount Vernon flour? Of the luxurious living? State of education in New England? Tell something of the support given to schools.

97. Of the founding of Yale College. Of their town meetings. Of the state of education in the middle colonies. How were the ministers' salaries met?

98. What was the state of education in the southern colonies? Provision made for public worship? Give some idea of the early Virginia laws concerning worship.


101. How did England treat the colonies? Give some illustrations.

102. What was the tendency of this course of conduct? What was the direct cause of war? What were Writs of Assistance? The Stamp Act? Tell the story of Patrick Henry.

103 What efforts were made to resist the law? What effect did they have on the English government? Was this permanent? What was the Mutiny Act? Why was it passed?

104. How was it received by the colonists? Tell about the Boston Massacre. When? The Boston Tea Party. Why was the tea thrown overboard? For what is Faneuil Hall noted? What did the English now do?

106, 107. What parties were formed? What action did the colonists take? When and where was the "First Continental Congress" held? What action did it take? When and where was the first blood spilled? Describe how the battle of Lexington occurred.

108,109. Effects of this battle. Tell how the battle of Bunker Hill occurred. Describe it. Tell something of "Old Put."

110. Effect of the battle. Describe the death of General Warren. Give some account of Ethan Alien. Why were the New Hampshire Grants so called? Describe the capture of Ticonderoga.

111. Meeting of Second Continental Congress. Its action. What was the condition of the army? What expedition was undertaken against Canada?

112. Describe the attack upon Quebec. Its end. How were the British forced to leave Boston?

113. How had they treated the Boston people? The Boston boys? Describe the attack on Fort Moultrie. Its effect. Tell the story of Sergeant Jasper.

114. When was the Declaration of Independence adopted? How many colonies voted for it? Tell the story of the old "liberty bell," How did the campaign near New York occur? Describe the battle of Long Island.

115. What decided it in favor of the English? By what providential circumstance did the Americans escape? What were the prison ships? Who were the Hessians? Tell the story of Nathan Hale.

116, 117. What battles occurred while Washington was falling back? Describe his retreat through New Jersey. How did he escape? What general was captured by the enemy? What was the condition of the country? Describe the battle of Trenton. Tell the story of Rall.

118. The effect of this battle. Name the battles of 1776 in order. Describe the battle of Princeton. What providential circumstance favored the attack?

119. How did the battle of Brandywine occur? Describe it. What decided it in favor of the English? What previous battle did it resemble? Give some account of La Fayette.

120, 121. Describe the battle of Germantown. Why did the Americans fail? How did the campaign in Pennsylvania close? What disastrous attempt was made by the British at the north? Describe the burning of Danbury, the capture of General Prescott, and the murder of Jane McCrea. What events attended General Burgoyne's march south? What measures were taken to check his advance?

122. Who succeeded General Schuyler? What was Schuyler's conduct? What events deranged Burgoyne's plans? How was the siege of Fort Schuyler (Stanwix) raised? Tell something of Kosciusko.

123. Of the battle of Bennington. For what incident is it noted?

124 Describe the first battle of Saratoga. The second battle. Who was the hero of the fight? How did General Fraser die? Tell some incidents of the campaign.

125. Effect of these fights? Name the battles of 1777 in order. Describe the sufferings at Valley Forge.

126. How could the soldiers endure such misery? What news came in the spring? Story told of Washington by Mr. Potts? Tell something of the Conway cabal. What story is told of General Reed?

127. What caused the battle of Monmouth to happen? Describe its prominent incident. Tell the history of Benjamin Franklin.

128. Tell the story of Mary Pitcher. What became of General Lee? What campaign was now planned by the aid of the French? How did it turn out? Describe the Wyoming massacre. What poem has been written upon this event? Ans. Campbell's Gertrude of Wyoming. Name the battles of 1778 in order.

129. Why was the war now transferred to the south? How did the campaign open? Describe the attack on Savannah. Who were killed? Tell something of Count Pulaski. Was the French aid of great value?

130. What characterized the campaign at the north? Tell the story of General Putnam. Describe the capture of Stony Point.

131. General Sullivan's expedition. What do you say of the naval successes?

132. Describe the contest between the Bon Homme Richard and the Serapis. What colony was conquered by the British during this year? Name the principal battles of 1779 in order.

133. What city was now captured? What followed? How did the battle of Camden occur? Describe it. What was its result? Tell something of the famous partisan warfare of those times.

134. Name some leaders. Story of Marion. Some partisan victories. Death of Colonel Hayne. Effect of this independent warfare. Tell something of the depreciation of the continental money.

135. What mutiny occurred? Tell the story of Arnold's treason.

136. Of Andre's capture and fate. Of Arnold's escape and reward. In what estimation was he held? Name the principal events of 1780.

137. Condition of the army at the south? Who now took command? Describe the battle of the Cowpens. Describe Greene's celebrated retreat. How many times did the rain save him?

138. By what two battles was the contest at the south closed? Were the English or Americans victorious? Give anecdotes illustrative of the patriotism of the women. Character of General Greene.

139. Where did Cornwallis go after the failure of his southern campaign? What kind of war did he wage in Virginia? Why did he retire to Yorktown? What plan did Washington now adopt?

140. Describe the siege. Its result. The surrender. The effect. On what plundering tours did Arnold go? Story told of Governor Nelson? Name the principal battles of 1781 in order.

141. How was the news of Cornwallis's surrender received?

142. Was all peril to our liberties over? What was the condition of the country? What base offer was made to Washington? How did he pacify the army? When was peace signed? What was the result? What course did Washington take?

143. Tell something of the weakness of the government. What held the colonies together? Cause of Shays's rebellion? What need was felt? How was it met? When was the Constitution adopted? What parties arose? How soon was the Constitution ratified? How many States were necessary? When did the new government go into operation?


147, 148. Limits of this epoch? Its characteristic idea? Who was the first President of the United States? When and where was he inaugurated? Where was the capital? Name its changes. What was the popular feeling toward Washington? Give some account of Washington's life and character.

151. What difficulties beset the government? What departments were established? Name the members of the first Cabinet. What financial measures were adopted? By whose advice?

152. What did Webster say of Hamilton? Give an account of the whisky rebellion. Of the Indian war at the northwest. What difficulty arose with England?

153. How was it settled? How was the treaty received in this country? What treaty was made with Spain? Algiers? What was the popular feeling toward France? Why was Genet recalled? What parties now arose? Who were the leaders of each? Their views? Tell something of Randolph.

154. Who was elected second President? Tell something of Adams's life. What were the alien and sedition laws? Why were they passed?

155. How were they received? How did the French difficulty look during this administration? How was it terminated? What reply did Pinckney make to the base offer of the French Directory? State of party feeling? Who was elected third President? Why was not Adams re-elected? What was the important event of Jefferson's administration? Why?

156. Tell something of Jefferson's life and character. Tell how Hamilton was killed. What became of Burr?

157. Tell something of Fulton's invention. Of the war with Tripoli, Of Lieutenant Decatur's exploit.

158. What difficulty now arose with England and France? What is the American doctrine? Was the impressment of seamen general?

159. What was the issue of the next political campaign? Who was elected fourth President? Views of the federalists? Give an account of Madison's life and character. Of the battle of Tippecanoe. Effect of this Indian war. State how the breach with England widened.

160. Difficulty between the President and Little Belt. When was war declared? How long did the war last? What was the opening event of the war of 1812? Describe the surrender of Detroit.

161. The battle of Queenstown Heights. How did the naval and the land warfare compare? Describe the fight between the Constitution and Guerriere.

162. Between the Frolic and Wasp. How many prizes were captured by privateers? What are privateers?

163. Effect of these victories? Name the battles of 1812 in order. Plan of the campaign of 1813. What did the armies of the centre and north do? What did the British do? What reverse happened to a part of General Harrison's command? Describe this rout. Tell something of Proctor's brutality.

164. Describe the three attacks made by Proctor. In which was he successful? Describe Perry's victory on Lake Erie.

165. What gallant exploit was performed by Perry? What issues depended on this fight? Describe the battle of the Thames. What celebrated Indian was killed? Effect of these victories? Who gained great credit?

166. Describe the battle between the Chesapeake and the Shannon. What were Lawrence's dying words? Who used them in battle? What Indian difficulties occurred? How did General Jackson avenge the massacre of Fort Minims? Story told of Jackson?

167. What ravages were committed by Admiral Cockburn? Why was New England spared? Name the principal battles of 1813 in order. What movement was made by General Brown? What general led the advance?

168. What battles ensued? Describe the battle of Lundy's Lane. What story is told of Colonel Miller? What battle took place in New York State? How did that happen? Describe it.

169. Describe the ravages made by the British on the Atlantic coast. Attack on Washington. On Baltimore. Result of these events. The Hartford Convention. What put an end to these fears? Why was the battle of New Orleans unnecessary?

170. Describe this battle. How did it happen that raw militia defeated English veterans?

171. Results of this war? Effect upon the federalist party? Who was elected fifth President?

172. Was Monroe a popular man? Give some account of his life and character. What was the characteristic of his administration? What was the Missouri Compromise? Cause of it?

173. Give an account of La Fayette's visit. What territory was gained by treaty? What famous doctrine advanced by Monroe? What political changes now took place? What party was arising? Its principles? Principles of the democratic party? Champions of each party? Which party absorbed most of the old federalists? Why? Who was elected sixth President? How?

174. Give some account of the life and character of John Quincy Adams. Of his administration. Was it popular? How was the protective tariff received? Who was elected seventh President?

175. Account of the life and character of Jackson. Contrast him with John Quincy Adams. What principle did he introduce? What was the nullification ordinance? How did Jackson act?

176. How did Clay pacify? What celebrated debate took place? What is said of Calhoun? Of Clay's patriotism? What action did Jackson take concerning the United States bank? Its effect?

177. How did speculation become rife? Give an account of the Black Hawk war. The Seminole war. What is said of Osceola? His fate?

178. Difficulty with France? How was it settled? Who were the Presidential candidates? What were their principles? Who was elected eighth President? Give an account of the life and character of Van Buren. Of the crisis of 1837.

179. Its effect on trade. Of the patriot war. Of Van Buren's Sub-Treasury Bill, Story of the steamer Caroline.

180. What was the northeast boundary question? How was it settled? What was the Ashburton treaty? Who was elected ninth President? Who was his opponent? Give an account of the life and character of Harrison. What was the cause of his sudden death? Who succeeded him?

181. Was Tyler's administration successful? Did he remain true to his party? What course did he take with regard to the United States Bank? Give an account of Dorr's rebellion.

182,183. Of the anti rent difficulties. Of the Mormons. Of the origin and early history of this sect. Of the annexation of Texas. Why was this measure warmly opposed? How was the northwestern boundary question settled?

184. Who were the Presidential candidates? Give an account of Clay. Who was elected eleventh President?

185. Give an account of the life of Polk, What war now broke out? Give an account of Taylor's campaign on the Rio Grande.

186. Describe the capture of Monterey. The battle of Buena Vista.

187. What battles had Taylor fought? By what incident or peculiarity can you recollect each one? Stories told of Taylor? Account of Kearney's expedition.

188. Describe the conquest of California. Who was the hero of this exploit? Give an account of Colonel Doniphan's expedition. Capture of Vera Cruz. Battle of Cerro Gordo.

189. What city now surrendered? Describe the battles before Mexico. The result.

190. When was peace concluded? What did the United States gain by the war? What was the Wilmot proviso? Give an account of the discovery of gold in California.

191. Of the vigilance committees. Of the political parties. Who was elected twelfth President? Give an account of the life and character of Taylor. How long was he President? Who succeeded him? What questions agitated the people?

192. Why were these now awakened? Effect? What course did Clay take? Webster? Give some account of Webster.

193. What was the Compromise of 1850? What did it propose? By what name is it commonly known? Give an account of the fillibusters. Of the political parties. Who was elected fourteenth President?

194. Give an account of the life of Pierce. Of the Kansas-Nebraska bill. What is squatter sovereignty? Tell how the public lands have threatened the peace of the country. How they have enhanced its prosperity.

195. How did the contest arise in Kansas? Its result? Cause of Brook's assault on Sumner? What was the Gadsden purchase? Give an account of the treaty with Japan. What political parties now arose?

196. Who was elected fifteenth President? Give some account of Buchanan's life. Of the Know-Nothing party. Of the Dred Scott decision.

197. How was this regarded at the North and at the South? Why was the Fugitive Slave law obnoxious? What were Personal Liberty bills? Give an account of the John Brown affair. What was the question of the elections? Who were nominated for the Presidency? Who was elected sixteenth President?

198. Give an account of the secession of the South on the election of Lincoln. Give a history of the gradual growth of this movement.

199. When and where was the Confederate government formed? Who were elected President and Vice-President? What action was taken? Condition of the country? Give an account of the condition of affairs at Fort Sumter.

200. Was any attempt made by the United States authorities to relieve it? For what did the nation wait?

No questions are given upon the new States admitted to the Union during this epoch, as each class will naturally commit only that which concerns its own State, and will wish to add to the facts given here those obtained from other sources.


215. Give an account of Lincoln's inauguration. Of his early history. Of the condition of the country.

216. Was war a necessity? What precipitated this issue? When was the first gun of the Civil War fired? Give an account of the capture of Fort Sumter.

217. Effect of this event? What action did the North take? The South? When and where was the first blood shed? What valuable stores were seized? How did the war in Virginia open?

218. How was Fortress Monroe protected from capture? Give an account of the Big Bethel affair. Of the war in Western Virginia. Origin of the term "Contrabands."

219. How did the battle of Bull Run take place? Describe it. By what peculiarity can you recollect it? Its date? How did Jackson receive the name of "Stonewall"?

220. Give an account of the retreat. Its effect. Of the battle at Ball's Bluff. Who now took command of the Union troops?

221. Give an account of the war in Missouri. What battles were fought? What leaders on each side? What Union general who afterward became celebrated? Condition of affairs in the border States?

222. What step did Davis take? Number of vessels in the Union navy? What naval expeditions were made? What places captured? What was the peculiarity of the attack on the Port Royal forts? Describe the Trent affair.

223. Give a general review of the first year of the war. Describe the preservation of Fort Pickens. Situation at the opening of 1862. What was the plan of the campaign?

224. What was the Confederate line of defence at the West? Union plan of attack? Where was the first attack? Describe the capture of Fort Henry.

225. Fort Donelson. Story told of General Grant. Effect of these victories. What was the next movement? Describe the battle of Shiloh or Pittsburg Landing.

226. By what peculiarity can you recollect it? How did the battle turn on the second day?

227. How was Corinth captured? Describe the taking of Island No. 10. What were the effects of the Shiloh battle?

228. What line was now held by the Union army? Where were the Confederates located? What movements did they make to break through the Union lines? Describe Bragg's expedition. Was it successful? Cause of the battles of Iuka and Corinth? Result?

229. How was Bragg's second expedition stopped? Describe the battle of Murfreesboro. What was its effect? What coincidence?

230. What was Grant's plan for an expedition against Vicksburg? Was it successful? What event closed the Mississippi campaign? What battle was fought in Missouri? Condition of the State? What massacre occurred in Kansas?

231,232. Describe the capture of New Orleans by Farragut. Burnside's expedition against Roanoke Island. What was the importance of Roanoke Island?

233,234. What places in Florida were captured? Describe the battle between the Monitor and the Merrimac. Its results.

235. Object of the war in the East? What campaign was undertaken? Who was the commanding general? Describe the siege of Yorktown.

236. The battle of Williamsburg. What checked McClellan's advance? What battle ensued? Its result? What was now the expectation of the Union army?

237. How did General Joseph E. Johnston thwart General McClellan's plan? Give an account of Jackson in the Shenandoah. Effect of this movement. Story told of Jackson.

238. Describe the battle of Fair Oaks. How was the Union advance on Richmond checked? Who now took command of the Confederate army? What plan did McClellan form?

239. Describe the seven-days battles. In what way was the retreat conducted? With what battle did it close?

240. Effect of this campaign? Feeling at the North? Why did Lee now march North? Who took command of the Union army before Washington? Describe Lee's campaign against Pope.

241. Its effect. What plan did Lee now adopt? Who assumed command of the army of the Potomac? Describe McClellan's movements in pursuit. On what expedition was Jackson sent?

242. Describe the battle of Antietam. Its effect.

243. The battle of Fredericksburg. Give a review of the second year of the war.

244. What Indian conflict at the West? What was the situation at the beginning of the year 1863? What movement did Grant make against Vicksburg?

245. Describe this campaign. Its result. The effect.

246. The movements of Rosecrans in Tennessee and Georgia. General Morgan's raid.

247-249. The battle of Chickamauga. By what event can you recollect it? Describe the situation at Chattanooga. The battle of Lookout Mountain. Attack on Missionary Ridge. Its effect.

250. The siege of Knoxville. The battle of Chancellorsville.

251. Lee's second invasion of the North.

252-254. The battle of Gettysburg—first day, second day, third day. Its effect. The attack on Charleston. What two contemporaneous events? What was the "swamp angel"? What do you say of the negro troops? Of their charge on Fort Wagner?

255. Give a general review of the third year of the war. State the situation at the beginning of the year 1864. Grant's plan.

256, 257. Describe Johnston's plan of defence. How did Sherman drive him from these positions? Name the battles. Who succeeded Johnston in command? What followed? How did Sherman capture Atlanta? The effect?

258. What prevented Sherman's advance into Georgia? How was he relieved of this difficulty? Where did Hood go? What befell him. in Tennessee? Describe the battle of Nashville. Its effect.

259. Describe Shennan's march to the sea. Its effect. Kilpatrick's raid to Richmond.

260. Describe the battle of the Wilderness. By what peculiarity was it distinguished? Its result? Describe the battle of Spottsylvania Court House.

261. Its result. Describe the battle of Cold Harbor. What famous despatch did Grant send?

262. Describe the attack on Petersburg. The effect of this campaign. The three co-operative expeditions. The mine explosion.

263. The attack on the Weldon Railroad. Why did Lee send Early into the Shenandoah Valley? Describe Early's raid.

264. What Union general was now sent to this region? Describe Sheridan's campaign. His ride from Winchester. His devastation of the country.

265 The effect of his campaign. Describe the Red River expedition. The rescue of Porter's fleet. The massacre at Fort Pillow.

266. The attack on Mobile by Farragut. First expedition against Fort Fisher.

267. The second expedition. Capture of the fort. Effectiveness of the blockade. Blockade runners.

268. Give an account of the Confederate cruisers. Of the battle between the Alabama and the Kearsarge.

269. Of the Sanitary and Christian Commissions. Of political affairs.

270. Who was elected President? Give a general review of the fourth year of the war.

271. Describe the situation at the opening of the year 1865. Sherman's march through the Carolinas.

272. Its result. What was the situation at Richmond? Describe the attack on Fort Steadman. Why was it made?

273. Its effect? Describe the battle of Five Forks. Its effect. The capture of Petersburg and Richmond.

274. The pursuit of Lee. His surrender.

275, 276. The terms. Its effect. Fate of Davis. The cost of the war. The assassination of Lincoln.

277. What State was added during this epoch?


281. Who became President on the death of Lincoln? Give an account of the life of Johnson. What was the size of the two armies at the close of the war? What did their peaceful discharge prove?

282. What do you mean by "reconstruction"? What was the reconstruction policy of Johnson? What is the Thirteenth Amendment?

283. What was the condition of the public finances? What was the reconstruction policy of Congress? Result of this clashing between Congress and the President? On what conditions were the seceded States finally readmitted to their former position in the Union?

284. Why was Johnson impeached? Its result? What is the Fourteenth Amendment? What Indian war now arose? How was it terminated? Give an account of the French interference in Mexico. How did it end?

285. Give an account of the laying of the Atlantic cable.

286. What territory was added to the United States? Of what value? Give an account of the Fenian excitement in 1866.

287. Of the treaty with China. What State was admitted soon after the close of the Civil War? Who were the Presidential candidates? Who was elected eighteenth President?

288. Give an account of the Pacific Railroad, and its value to the country. What new railroad is building? What is the climate in the far north along the Mississippi Valley and the Pacific coast? Extent of the public lands granted? What is the Fifteenth Amendment?

289-292. What was the population of the United States in 1870? Was the country recovering from the effects of the war? What great fires happened in '71 and '72? What difficulty arose with England? What was the High Commission? Give some account of Santo Domingo, and its application to be annexed to the United States. What difficulty occurred with Cuba? What candidates for the presidency were nominated in 1873? Who was chosen? Give some account of Horace Greeley.

293-295. Describe the contest with the Modoc Indians. What was the Credit Mobilier? What was the cause of the "Panic of '73"? Name the Centennial observances of '75. Describe the Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia. Give an account of the "Custer Massacre." Who were nominated for the presidency in '77?

296. What was the Joint Electoral Commission? What questions agitated the country at that time?

297,298. Name and describe the principal events of President Hayes's administration.


1. In what battle was Molly Stark the watchword?

2. What battle occurred when both armies were marching
   to make a night attack upon each other?

3. What battles have resulted in the destruction or
   surrender of an entire army?

4. What general rushed into battle without orders and won it?

5. What trees are celebrated in our history?

6. In what battle did Washington bitterly rebuke the commanding-general, and himself rally the troops to battle?

7. What three ex-Presidents died on the 4th of July?

8. What cities have undergone a siege?

9. Contrast the characters of Washington and Jefferson.

10. By whom and on what occasion were the words used,
    "Millions for defence, but not one cent for tribute"?

11. Give the coincidences in the lives of the three
    great statesmen—Webster, Clay, and Calhoun.

12. After whom ought this continent to have been named?

13. What celebrated philosopher, when a boy, went without meat to buy books?

14. How did a half-witted boy once save a fort from capture?

15. Name the retreats famous in our history.

16. When did a fog save our army?
    A rain?

17. When did a stone house largely decide a battle?
    A stone wall?

18. What general was captured through his carelessness,
    and exchanged for another taken in a similar way?

19. What battles have been decided by an attack in the rear?

20. Who said, "I would rather be right than be President"?

21. When has an unnecessary delay cost a general a victory?

22. Name the events in our history which seem to you providential.

23. What general died at the moment of victory?

24. Name some defeats which had all the effect of victories.

25. Of what general was this said to be always true?

26. When was the Mississippi River the western boundary of the
    United States? The Rocky Mountains?

27. What territory has the United States acquired by purchase?
    By conquest? By annexation?

28. What Vice-Presidents were afterward elected Presidents?

29. What navigator shortened the voyage across the Atlantic?

30. What tea party is celebrated in our history?

31. Who was President from 1787 (the adoption of the Constitution) to 1789?

32. How many attacks have been made on Quebec?

33. Who said, "I am not worth purchasing, but such as I am the king
    of England is not rich enough to buy me"?

34. Which is the longer, the Atlantic Cable or the Pacific

35. Why were the River St. Lawrence, Florida, St. Augustine, etc.,
    so named?

36. What naval commander captured his antagonist as his own vessel
    was sinking?

37. How many expeditions have been made into Canada?

38. What battle was preceded by prayer?

39. What do the French names in the Mississippi valley indicate?

40. What do the names New York, New England, New Hampshire, Georgia, Carolina, etc., indicate?

41. When has the question of the public lands threatened the Union?

42. Who, in a frail canoe, on a stormy night, visited an Indian
    wigwam to save the lives of his enemies?

43. In what battle did the Continentals gain the victory by falling
    back and then suddenly facing about upon the enemy?

44. How many times has Fort Ticonderoga been captured?

45. Why were Davis's Strait, Baffin's Bay, Hudson River,
    Frobisher's Strait, etc., so named?

46. What do the names San Salvador, Santa Cruz, Vera Cruz,
    La Trinidad, etc., indicate?

47. In what battles had the opposing generals formed the same plan?

48. What Presidents died in office?

49. What father and son were Presidents?

50. What administrations have been most popular?

51. Who fired the first gun in the French and Indian war?

52. What battle was fought and gained without a commanding officer?

53. How many rebellions have occurred in our history?

54. Who was called the "Great Pacificator"? Why?

55. What was the "Nullification Act"?

56. How many of our Presidents have been military men?

57. Why did not Webster and Clay become Presidents?

58. Who was "Rough and Ready"?

59. Who was the "Sage of Monticello"?

60. What noted events occurred on April 19th?

61. In whose administration was the largest number of States admitted to the Union?

62. In which administrations were none?

63. By whom and under what circumstances was the expression used,
    "Give me liberty or give me death"?

64. What general arose from a sick-bed to lead his troops into a
    battle in which he was killed?

65. What five ex-Presidents died in the decade between
    1860 and 1870?

66. Where is the "Cradle of Liberty"?

67. What historical memories cluster around Santo Domingo?

68. How long did each of our five great wars last— (1) the French and Indian war; (2) the Revolutionary war; (3) the war of 1812; (4) the Mexican war; and (5) the Civil war?

69. State the cause of each of these wars.

70. Name the prominent generals who acquired celebrity in each.

71. Name the principal battles of each.

72. Name the results of each.

73. What fort was carried by a midnight assault?

74. What general escaped by riding down a steep precipice?

75. Who drafted the Declaration of Independence?

76. Who secured its adoption in the Convention?

77. Name the Presidents in chronological order.

78. How many of our Presidents were Virginians?

79. Who was the "bachelor President"?

80. State to what party each President belonged.

81. How many of our Presidents were poor boys?

82. What were the principles of the whigs? The democrats?

83. What party adopted the views of the old federalists on the United States Bank, etc.?

84. How many Presidents have served two terms?

85. What battle was fought after peace was declared?

86. On what issue was Polk elected President?

87. Contrast John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson.

88. On what mountains have battles been fought?

89. Who used the expression, "We have met the enemy, and they are ours"?

90. Whose dying words were, "Don't give up the ship"?

91. When was a general blown up by a magazine, in the moment of victory?

92. What Indian chiefs formed leagues against the whites?

93. What celebrated statesman was killed in a duel?

94. What States were named from mountain ranges?

95. What important contemporaneous events can you name? 96. Was Washington ever wounded in battle?

97. What was meant by saying that "Clay was in the succession"?

98. In what battle did Washington show the most brilliant generalship?

99. What officer lost his life because he neglected to open a note?

100. What army retreated at the moment of victory because the fog was so dense that it did not see how successful it was?

101. How many States were named from their principal rivers?

102. Name some celebrated foreigners who have fought for us.

103. What rendered Valley Forge memorable?

104. How did Harrison gain his popularity? Taylor?

105. Give some account of the United States Bank.

106. In what war was Lincoln a captain and Davis a lieutenant?

107. What colonel, when asked if he could take a battery, replied,
     "I'll try, sir"?

108. Of what President was it said that "if his soul were turned
     inside out, not a spot could be found upon it"?

109. What town and army were surrendered without firing a shot?

110. For how many years was the Revolutionary War carried on mainly at the North? At the South?

111. Who was "Poor Richard"?

112. Who were the "Green Mountain Boys"?

113. What colony was founded as a home for the poor?

114. What persecuted people settled the different colonies?

115. What colonies are named after a king or a queen?

116. What religious toleration was granted in the different colonies?

117. Which colonies early enjoyed the greatest liberty?

118. Which colony took the Bible as its guide?

119. In what battle was the left wing, when separated from the main body by a river, attacked by an overwhelming force of the enemy? The right wing?

120. In what battle did both generals mass their strength on the left wing, expecting to crush the enemy's right?

121. How many invasions of the North did Lee make?

122. What victories induced him to attempt each of these invasions?

123. By what battle was each invasion checked?

124. How many invasions of Kentucky did Bragg make?

125. How was each stopped?

126. For how many years have the United States been involved in

127. What object did Penn, Lord Baltimore, and Oglethorpe each have
     in founding a colony in the new world?

128. What President was impeached?

129. What ex-Vice-President was tried for treason?

130. Name the four prominent battles fought by General Taylor.

131. What noted expressions of General Taylor became favorite
     mottoes? Of General Grant?

132. What President vetoed the measures of the party which elected
     him to office?

133. Of what statesman was it said that "he was in the public service fifty years, and never attempted to deceive his countrymen"?

134. Who is said to have used the words, "A little more grape, Captain Bragg"?

135. From what States have Presidents been elected?

136. Give the number and names from each State.

137. What battle did General Gates win? What battle did he lose?

138. What battles did Washington win? What battles did he lose?

139. What President elect came to Washington in disguise?

140. Give a brief history of the slavery question.

141. When were slaves introduced into this country?

142. Name the generals who commanded the army of the Potomac.

143. Name the principal battles fought by

111. Describe the "March to the Sea."

145. What two battles were fought in the "Wilderness"?

146. What was the "Missouri Compromise"? The "Compromise of 1850"?

147. What is "squatter sovereignty"? Who was its author?

148. Of whom was it said that "he touched the dead corpse of public credit, and it sprang upon its feet"?

149. What were the "alien and sedition laws"?

150. Who was the "old man eloquent"?

151. When was the first railroad constructed? The first steamboat? The first magnetic telegraph?

152. When was the Erie Canal opened? The Pacific Railroad?

153. What President introduced "rotation in office"?

154. Why, in the Missouri Compromise, was 36 degrees 30 minutes taken as the boundary between the slave and the free States?

155. What "is the Monroe Doctrine"?

156. Who was the inventor of the cotton-gin?

157. What is a "protective tariff"?

158. What is meant by "Reconstruction"?

159. What Presidents were not elected to that office by the people?

160. To what party did Henry Clay belong? J. Q. Adams? Thomas
     Jefferson? John C. Calhoun? Andrew Jackson? Daniel Webster?
     A. Douglas? Alexander Hamilton? George Washington?

161. What President had not voted for forty years?

162. What two distinguished generals of the same name served in the Confederate army? Name the battles fought by each.

163. What was the "Dred Scott decision"?

164. What was the "Kansas-Nebraska Bill"?

165. Give an account of the principal parties which have arisen since the Constitutional Convention of 1787?

166. Who were the "Silver Greys"? The "Hunkers"? The "Barnburners"? The "Woolly-Heads"? The "Free Soilers"? The "Know-Nothings"? The "Anti-Renters"? The "Unionists"?

167. Give an account of the different attempts to lay the Atlantic

168. Give a history of the difficulty between President Johnson and

169. What nations settled the different States?

170. How many amendments have been made to the Constitution?

171. What was the "Hartford Convention"?

172. What are "State rights"?

173. What was the Secretary of State formerly called?

174. Tell some stories illustrating the patriotism of the women of the Revolution.

175. Give an account of the Public Lands.

176. What State was admitted to the Union first after the original thirteen?

177. Who are the "Mormons"?

178. For what is Ethan Allen noted?

179. What battles have been fought in Virginia? South Carolina? Louisiana? New York? Massachusetts? New Jersey? Maryland? Pennsylvania? Georgia? Michigan?

180. What was the "Fugitive Slave Law"?

181. Name some unsuccessful candidates for the Presidency.

182. For what is John Brown noted?

183. Who were the "Filibusters"?

184. Give an account of Farragut's most celebrated exploits.

185. Why was "Stonewall" Jackson so called?

186. Give an account of Butler's military career.

187. What was the most prominent event of Jefferson's administration? Jackson's? Monroe's?

188. What treaties are celebrated in our history?

189. What President was once a tailor's apprentice?

190. What was the object of the "American party"?

191. What was the "Gadsden purchase"?

192. Name the various difficulties which have arisen with England.

193. What was the "Wilmot Proviso"?

194. What President followed Washington—Taylor—Jefferson— Lincoln—J. Q. Adams—Pierce?

195. Who was President in 1812—1832—1846—1850—1861?

196. Describe the operations of the Confederate cruisers during the
     Civil War. Of the "blockade runners."

197. What distinguished generals have been unsuccessful candidates
     for the Presidency? Successful candidates?

198. Why did the French in Canada extend their explorations
     westward to the Mississippi rather than southward into New York?

199. What was the "Trent affair"?

200. Name and describe some important naval engagements.

201. In what battle did the defeated general leave his wooden leg?

202. What was the "O grab me Act"?


* * * * *

THE following preamble and specifications, known as the Declaration of Independence, accompanied the resolution of Richard Henry Lee, which was adopted by Congress on the 2d day of July, 1776. This declaration was agreed to on the 4th, and the transaction is thus recorded in the Journal for that day:

"Agreeably to the order of the day, the Congress resolved itself into a committee of the whole, to take into their further consideration the Declaration; and, after some time, the president resumed the chair, and Mr. Harrison reported that the committee have agreed to a Declaration, which they desired him to report. The Declaration being read, was agreed to as follows:"


When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume, among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the laws of nature and of nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident—that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. That, to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; that, whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or abolish it, and to institute a new government, laying its foundations on such principles, and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and, accordingly, all experience hath shown that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same object, evinces a design to reduce them under absolute despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such government, and to provide new guards for their future security. Such has been the patient sufferance of these colonies, and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former systems of government. The history of the present king of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny over these States. To prove this, let facts be submitted to a candid world.

1. He has refused his assent to laws the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.

2. He has forbidden his governors to pass laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operations till his assent should be obtained; and, when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.

3. He has refused to pass other laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of representation in the Legislature—a right inestimable to them, and formidable to tyrants only.

4. He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the repository of their public records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.

5. He has dissolved representative houses repeatedly, for opposing, with manly firmness, his invasions on the rights of the people.

6. He has refused, for a long time after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected, whereby the legislative powers, incapable of annihilation, have returned to the people at large for their exercise; the State remaining, in the meantime, exposed to all the dangers of invasions from without, and convulsions within.

7. He has endeavored to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the laws for the naturalization of foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migration hither, and raising the conditions of new appropriations of lands.

8. He has obstructed the administration of justice, by refusing his assent to laws for establishing judiciary powers.

9. He has made judges dependent on his will alone for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

10. He has erected a multitude of new offices, and sent hither swarms of officers to harass our people and eat out their substance.

11. He has kept among us in times of peace, standing armies, without the consent of our Legislatures.

12. He has affected to render the military independent of, and superior to, the civil power.

13. He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitutions, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his assent to their acts of pretended legislation:

14. For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us;

15. For protecting them, by a mock trial, from punishment for any murders which they should commit on the inhabitants of these States;

16. For cutting off our trade with all parts of the world;

17. For imposing taxes on us without our consent;

18. For depriving us, in many cases, of the benefits of trial by jury;

19. For transporting us beyond seas, to be tried for pretended offences;

20. For abolishing the free system of English laws in a neighboring province, establishing therein an arbitrary government, and enlarging its boundaries, so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these colonies;

21. For taking away our charters, abolishing our most valuable laws, and altering, fundamentally, the forms of our governments;

22. For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

23. He has abdicated government here, by declaring us out of his protection, and waging war against us.

24. He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burned our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.

25. He is at this time transporting large armies of foreign mercenaries to complete the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of cruelty and perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the head of a civilized nation.

26. He has constrained our fellow-citizens, taken captive on the high seas, to bear arms against their country, to become the executioners of their friends and brethren, or to fall themselves by their hands.

27. He has excited domestic insurrection among us, and has endeavored to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers the merciless Indian savages, whose known rule of warfare is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes, and conditions.

In every stage of these oppressions we have petitioned for redress in the most humble terms; our repeated petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

Nor have we been wanting in our attentions to our British brethren. We have warned them, from time to time, of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They, too, have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity which denounces our separation, and hold them as we hold the rest of mankind—enemies in war; in peace, friends.

We, therefore, the representatives of the United States of America, in general Congress assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the name and by the authority of the good people of these colonies, solemnly publish and declare that these united colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States; that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British crown, and that all political connection between them and the state of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved, and that, as free and independent States, they have full power to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, establish commerce, and do all other acts and things which independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor.

The foregoing declaration was, by order of Congress, engrossed, and signed by the following members:


   CHARLES CARROLL, of Carrollton.



WE, the People of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this CONSTITUTION for the United States of America.

ARTICLE I.—Legislative Department.

SECTION I. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

CLAUSE 1. The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every second year by the people of the several States, and the electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State Legislature.

CLAUSE 2. No person shall be a representative who shall not have attained to the age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

CLAUSE 3. Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons. The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each State shall have at least one representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to choose three; Massachusetts, eight; Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, one; Connecticut, five; New York, six; New Jersey, four; Pennsylvania, eight; Delaware, one; Maryland, six; Virginia, ten; North Carolina, five; South Carolina, five; and Georgia, three.

[Footnote: PREAMBLE.—Name the six objects of the Constitution. Who "ordained and established" this Constitution? Is the "union" one of states or of people? What branches of government are established under the first three articles of the Constitution?

ARTICLE I.—Section 1. What body has the "power of legislation"? (Note.—The "power of legislation" is that of making laws.) Of what does Congress consist?

Section 2. Who compose the House of Representatives? Who choose the representatives? What are the necessary qualifications of an elector (or voter) for a representative? How long is the term of a representative? Name the three qualifications necessary for a representative. Is a foreign-born person eligible to the office of representative? How are representatives and direct taxes to be apportioned among the states? How was the representative population of the different states to be determined? What limit is there to the number of representatives? Is every state entitled to representation? How many members were there in the first House of Representatives? How often must the Census be taken? How are vacancies in the House to be filled? Who elect the officers of the House? What body has the sole power of impeachment?]

[Footnote: (Notes.—The first census was taken in 1790; the "ratio of representation" being one representative for 33,000 persons. The census of 1870 gave 1:3,533 persona as the "ratio of representation," The number of representatives is fixed by Congress each decade: at present it is 292. In March of the odd year there is a new House of Representatives. Each organized territory has a delegate who can sit in the House, but not vote. The states are each divided, by its own laws, into congressional districts, as many as Ihe number of representatives to which it is entitled; and the electors in each one of these vote for their representative. The phrase "all other persons" meant "slaves": but this has been amended by the XIVth Amendment. The speaker is always a member of the House; the clerk, sergeant-at-arms, chaplain, etc., are not members. To impeach an officer is to accuse him of official misconduct.)]

CLAUSE 4. When vacancies happen in the representation from any State, the executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.

CLAUSE 5. The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other officers; and shall have the sole power of impeachment.

[Footnote: Section 3. Of how many members does the Senate of the United States consist? Who elect the senators? What is a senator's term of office? Explain the classification originally made. What was the object? How are vacancies filled? State the three qualifications necessary for a senator. Who is the president of the Senate? When only can he vote? Who chooses the other officers of the Senate? When can the Senate choose a president pro tempore (for the time being)? What "sole power" does the Senate possess? Who presides when the President of the United States is impeached? What number is needed to convict? What penalties can be inflicted in case of conviction? Is a person so convicted liable to a trial-at-law for the same offence?]


CLAUSE 1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six years; and each senator shall have one vote.

CLAUSE 2. Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year; of the second class, at the expiration of the fourth year; and of the third class, at the expiration of the sixth year, so that one-third may be, chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen by resignation, or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.

CLAUSE 3. No person shall be a senator who shall not have attained to the age of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

CLAUSE 4. The Vice-President of the United States shall be president of the Senate, but shall have no vote, unless they be equally divided.

CLAUSE 5. The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a president pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice-President, or when he shall exercise the office of President of the United States.

CLAUSE 6. The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments: when sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief-Justice shall preside; and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present.

CLAUSE 7. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust, or profit under the United States; but the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment, and punishment, according to law.

[Footnote: Section 4. Who prescribes the "time, place and manner" of electing representatives and senators? What power has Congress over the state regulations? How often, and when, must Congress meet? (Note—Congress has prescribed that senators shall be chosen in the following manner. The Legislature elected last before the end of the senatorial term, on the second Tuesday after its first session, shall choose the next senator. The two branches of the Legislature shall meet separately and vote viva voce. They shall then assemble together, and if they agree on any person, he shall be considered duly elected; if they disagree, the joint meeting shall vote viva voce from day to day, at 12 M., until a choice is made.)]


CLAUSE 1. The times, places, and manner of holding elections for senators and representatives shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time, by law, make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choosing senators.

CLAUSE 2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

[Footnote: Section 5. Who decides upon the "elections, returns and qualifications" of the representatives and of the senators? What number of the members is necessary for a quorum (needed to do business)? What business can a minority transact? What power is given each House of Congress of making and enforcing rules? What is the law with regard to keeping and publishing a journal of the proceedings? When must the yeas and nays be entered on the journal? What restriction is there upon the time and place of adjournment?]


CLAUSE 1. Each house shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties, as each house may provide.

CLAUSE 2. Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member.

CLAUSE 3. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgment require secrecy, and the yeas and nays of the members of either house on any question shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.

CLAUSE 4. Neither house, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting.

[Footnote: Section 6. Who fixes and pays the salaries of members of Congress? What special privileges are granted to members of Congress? To what offices are members of Congress ineligible? Can a Congressman hold another office at the same time?]


CLAUSE 1. The senators and representatives shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the treasury of the United States. They shall in all cases, except treason, felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either house, they shall not be questioned in any other place.

CLAUSE 2. No senator or representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased, during such time; and no person holding any office under the United States shall be a member of either house during his continuance in office.

[Footnote: Section 7. What bills must originate in the House of Representatives? What authority is given the Senate with regard to such bills? Describe the three ways in which a bill may become a law—(1) With the President's concurrence, (2) over his veto (I forbid); and (3) by non-return within ten dayss? What "orders, resolutions and votes" must be submitted to the President? What is the object of this provision? (Notes.—In case a vacancy occurs in the senatorial representation of any state, the governor of the state can appoint a senator to fill the place, who can hold office only until the next session of the Legislature. The method of representation in the Senate gives in that body perfect equality to all the states, Rhode Island having the same power as Virginia. A senator is chosen by the Legislature, a representative by the people; a senator serves for six years, a representative for two. The Senate tries an officer for misconduct, but he must be impeached by the House of Representatives. The salary of a Congressman is now $5,000 per year, and mileage (20 cents per mile for every mile of travel by the usual route in coming and going). The speaker of the House has double a member's salary, and the president of the Senate has a salary of $8,000. One-third of the Senate retire from office every two years. By the term "a Congress" is meant the body of senators and representatives holding office during any one representative term of two years; the Congress which began its term March 4, 1879, is the 46th. Each Congress "ends at noon of the 4th of March next succeeding the beginning of its second regular session." The committees in the House are appointed by the Speaker; those in the Senate by itself. The classification of the Senate makes it a more efficient and conservative body than the House, since in the former there are always two thirds of the number old members, while the House is all new every two years. If the president of the Senate were a senator, it would give extra power to one state, which would be contrary to the plan of that body.)]


CLAUSE 1. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments, as on other bills.

CLAUSE 2. Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a law, be presented to the President of the United States; if he approve, he shall sign it, but if not, he shall return it, with his objections, to that house in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such reconsideration, two-thirds of that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of that house, it shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each house respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten days (Sunday excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their adjournment prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law.

CLAUSE 3. Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two-thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.

[Footnote: Section 8. Eighteen clauses now follow which enumerate the powers granted to Congress. What power has Congress with regard to taxes? Duties (taxes on imported or exported articles)? Imports (taxes on imported articles)? Excises (taxes on articles produced in the country)? Borrowing money? Regulating commerce? Naturalization? Bankruptcies? Coining money? Counterfeiting? Post-offices and post-roads? Authors and inventors? Inferior courts? Piracies? Declaring war? Raising and supporting armies? A navy? Government of the land and naval forces? Calling forth the militia? Organizing the militia? Over what places has Congress exclusive legislation? What power is finally given to Congress to enable it to enforce its authority? What four restrictions upon the Congressional powers are made in this section? (See clauses 1, 2,16 and 17.) (Notes. —Taxes may be either direct or indirect; the former are laid directly upon the person; the latter upon articles exported, imported or consumed. Naturalization is the process by which a foreign-born person becomes a citizen. The process of naturalization is as follows (1.) The person declares, on oath before the proper authority, his intention of becoming a citizen of the United States. (2.) Two years, at least, having elapsed, the person takes the oath of allegiance, when he must prove by witness that he has resided in the United States five years and in the state where he seeks to be naturalized one year; that he has borne a good moral character, and has been well-disposed toward the government. The copyright, or exclusive right of publishing a book, is given to an author for 28 years, with the privilege of extension 14 years longer. It is issued only to a citizen or resident of the United States. A patent is now granted to an inventor for 17 years, without the privilege of extension. Any crime punishable with death is a felony. "Letters of marque and reprisal" are commissions given to persons authorizing them to seize the property of another nation By the term "high seas" is meant the open sea, the highway of nations.)]


CLAUSE 1. The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defence and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts, and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;

CLAUSE 2. To borrow money on the credit of the United States;

CLAUSE 3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian tribes;

CLAUSE 4. To establish an uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States;

CLAUSE 5. To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures;

CLAUSE 6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the United States;

CLAUSE 7. To establish post-offices and post-roads;

CLAUSE 8. To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing, for limited times, to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries;

CLAUSE 9. To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court;

CLAUSE 10. To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offences against the law of nations;

CLAUSE 11. To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water;

CLAUSE 12. To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years;

CLAUSE 13. To provide and maintain a navy;

CLAUSE 14. To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces;

CLAUSE 15. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the Union, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions;

CLAUSE 16. To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

CLAUSE 17. To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever over such district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular States, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the Legislature of the State in which the same shall be, for the erection efforts, magazines, arsenals, dockyards, and other needful buildings;—And

CLAUSE 18. To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof.

[Footnote: Section 9. Eight clauses now follow, enumerating the powers denied to Congress. What prohibition was made concerning the slave trade? Writ of habeas corpus? Bill of attainder? Ex-post-facto law? Direct tax? Exports from any state? Trade between the United States? Payments from the Treasury? Titles of nobility? United States office-holder receiving presents from a foreign power? (Notes.—The object of the first clause was to destroy the foreign slave trade or the importation of negroes from Africa for the purpose of enslaving them. In 1808, a law was passed prohibiting the trade, and in 1820 it was declared to be piracy. A writ of habeas corpus is a written order from a magistrate directing that a certain person shall be brought before him; its object is to guard against false imprisonment or trial in a prejudiced court. A bill of attainder is an English term, meaning an act which without trial inflicts death for treason: attainder of treason cannot in the United States work "corruption of blood" so as to prevent a person from transmitting lands to his descendants. An ex-post-facto law makes an act criminal or penal which was not so at the time it was committed. A United States office-holder, wishing to accept a present or distinction offered him by any foreign power, must ask permission of Congress before he can receive it.)]


CLAUSE 1. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each person.

CLAUSE 2. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it.

CLAUSE 3. No bill of attainder or ex-post-facto law shall be passed.

CLAUSE 4. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration hereinbefore directed to be taken.

CLAUSE 5. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any State.

CLAUSE 6. No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the ports of one State over those of another; nor shall vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another.

CLAUSE 7. No money shall be drawn from the treasury but in consequence of appropriations made by law: and a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to time.

CLAUSE 8. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no person holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state.

SECTION X.—CLAUSE 1. No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainder, ex-post-facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility.

CLAUSE 2. No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any impost or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws; and the net produce of all duties and impost, laid by any State on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the treasury of the United States; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the Congress.

CLAUSE 3. No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops, or ships-of-war, in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another State, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay.

ARTICLE II.—Executive Department.


CLAUSE 1. The executive power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term of four years, and, together with the Vice-President, chosen for the same term, be elected, as follows:

CLAUSE 2. Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole number of senators and representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress; but no senator or representative, or person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States, shall be appointed an elector.

CLAUSE 3. The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors, and the day on which they shall give their votes; which day shall be the same throughout the United States.

CLAUSE 4. No person except a natural-born citizen, or a citizen of the United States at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age of thirty-five years, and been fourteen years resident within the United States.

CLAUSE 5. In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on the Vice-President, and the Congress may by law provide for the case of removal, death, resignation, or inability, both of the President and Vice-President, declaring what officer shall then act as President; and such officer shall act accordingly until the disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.

[Footnote: Section 10. Three clauses now follow enumerating the powers denied to the several States. What prohibition was made with regard to treaties? Letters of marque and reprisal? Coinage of money? Issuing bills of credit (bills to circulate as money)? Making any other legal tender than gold or silver? A bill of attainder? An ex-post-facto law? The impairing of contracts? Titles of nobility? Imposts? Keeping troops? Making peace or war?

ARTICLE II.-SECTION 1. In whom is the executive power vested? (Note—The executive power is that of executing the laws.) How long is the President's term of office? The Vice President's? Who are the presidential electors? How many are there from each state? Who are ineligible to the office? Describe the method of electing a President, as originally directed by the Constitution. (Note.—This has been superseded by the XIIth Amendment.) What power has Congress over the electors? What are the necessary qualifications for the office of President? In case of a vacancy, who would become President? (Note.—In case of a vacancy in the office of both President and Vice-President, the president pro tempore of the Senate, and in case of a vacancy in that office, then the speaker of the House would act as President. The electors are now chosen on "the Tuesday next after the first Monday in the last November" of each presidential term of office. The electors meet to cast their ballots, generally at the capital of each state, on "the first Wednesday in the last December" of each presidential term of office. When the plan of choosing electors was originally adopted it was intended to choose good men who should themselves select the President, but it soon came about that the electors were pledged to their respective candidates before their own election. The President's salary is $50,000 per year, together with the use of the White House.) Can the salary of a President be changed during his term of office? Can he receive any other emolument from the national or any state government? Repeat the President's oath of office.]

CLAUSE 6. The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services a compensation which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that period any other emolument from the United States, or any of them.

CLAUSE 7. Before he enter on the execution of his office, he shall take the following oath or affirmation:—"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States, and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States."


CLAUSE 1. The President shall be commander-in-chief of the army and navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several States, when called into the actual service of the United States; he may require the opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices; and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offences against the United States, except in cases of impeachment.

CLAUSE 2. He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the Senate shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United States, whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law; but the Congress may by law vest the appointment of such inferior officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of departments.

CLAUSE 3. The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen during the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions which shall expire at the end of their next session.

[Footnote: Section 2. Three clauses now follow enumerating the powers granted to the President. What authority has the President over the United States army and navy? State militia? The chief officers of the different executive departments? (See note, p. 151.) Reprieves and pardons? The making of treaties? Appointment of ambassadors? Judges of the Supreme Court, etc.? Filling vacancies?]

SECTION III.—He shall from time to time give to the Congress information of the state of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both houses, or either of them, and in case of disagreement between them with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper; he shall receive ambassadors and other public ministers; he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed, and shall commission all the officers of the United States.

[Footnote: Section 3. Defines the duties of the President, Name these duties with regard (1) to Congress, (2) to ambassadors, and (3) to United States officers? (Note.—Washington and Adams in person read their messages to Congress; the present plan of sending the message by a private secretary was commenced by Jefferson.)]

SECTION IV.—The President, Vice-President, and all civil officers of the United States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.

[Footnote: Section 4. For what crimes and in what way may any United States officer be removed from office?]


SECTION I.—The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The judges, both of the Supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behavior, and shall, at stated times, receive for their services a compensation which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.

[Footnote: ARTICLE III.—Section 1. In what is the judicial power of the United States vested? (Note.—The judicial power is that of interpreting and applying the laws.) How long do the judges hold office? Can their salary be changed during their term of office?]

[Footnote: Section 2 defines the jurisdiction of the United States Courts. Name the cases to which the judicial power of the United States extends. In what cases does the Supreme Court have original jurisdiction? Appellate jurisdiction? What is the law with regard to trial by jury? Where must such a trial be held? Where may a crime be committed "not within a state"? (Notes. —The Supreme Court consists of a chief justice and eight associate justices. The salary of the chief-justice is $10,500 and that of an associate $10,000 per annum. This court meets at Washington annually on the first Wednesday in December. A citizen of the District of Columbia, within the meaning of the Constitution as above, is not a citizen of a state. By original jurisdiction is meant the court in which the case begins; by appellate, is indicated a trial after an appeal from a lower court.)]


CLAUSE 1. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority;—to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls;—to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction;—to controversies to which the United States shall be a party;—to controversies between two or more States;—between a State and citizens of another State;—between citizens of different States;—between citizens of the same State claiming lands under grants of different States, and between a State, or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens, or subjects.

CLAUSE 2. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and those in which a State shall be party, the Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before mentioned, the Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions and under such regulations as the Congress shall make.

CLAUSE 3. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury; and such trial shall be held in the State where the said crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by law have directed.


CLAUSE 1. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort.

[Footnote: Section 3. In what does treason consist? What proof is required? Who fixes the punishment? What limit is assigned?]

CLAUSE 2. No person shall be convicted of treason, unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court.

CLAUSE 3. The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason, but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture, except during the life of the person attainted.

ARTICLE IV.—General Provisions.

SECTION I.—Full faith and credit shall be given in each State to the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general laws prescribe the manner in which such acts, records, and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof.

[Footnote: ARTICLE IV.—Section 1. What is the law with regard to state records, judicial proceedings, etc.?]


CLAUSE 1. The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens in the several States.

CLAUSE 2. A person charged in any State with treason, felony, or other crime, who shall flee from justice, and be found in another State, shall, on demand of the executive authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having jurisdiction of the crime.

CLAUSE 3. No person held to service or labor in one State, under the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due.

[Footnote: Section 2. What privileges has the citizen of one state in all the others? Can a criminal or an apprentice escape by fleeing into another state? (Note.-Clause 3 originally included fugitive slaves, but that application was annulled by the XIIIth Amendment.)]


CLAUSE 1. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the junction of two or more States, or parts of States, without the consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.

[Footnote: State the law with regard to the formation and admission of new states. What power has Congress over the territory and propeity of the United States?]

CLAUSE 2. The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any particular State.

SECTION IV.-The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion, and on application of the Legislature, or of the executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic violence.

[Footnote: What must Congress guarantee to every state? When must
Congress protect the states?]

ARTICLE V.—Power of Amendment.

The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the application of the Legislatures of two-thirds of the several States, shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three-fourths of the several States, or by conventions in three-fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress; provided that no amendment which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first article; and that no State, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate.

[Footnote: State the two ways in which amendments to the Constitution may be proposed. The two ways in which they may be ratified. What restriction in this article has now lost all force? What provision for the benefit of the smaller states is attached to this article?]

ARTICLE VI.-Miscellaneous Provisions.

CLAUSE 1. All debts contracted, and engagements entered into, before the adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the confederation.

[Footnote: What debts did the United States assume when the
Constitution was adopted?]

CLAUSE 2. This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every State shall be bound thereby, anything in the Constitution or laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding.

[Footnote: What is the supreme law of the land? Who are required to take an oath or affirmation to support the Constitution of the United States? Can a religious test be exacted?]

CLAUSE 3. The senators and representatives before mentioned, and the members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by oath or affirmation to support this Constitution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States.

ARTICLE VII.—Ratification of the Constitution.

The ratification of the conventions of nine States shall be sufficient for the establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the same.

[Footnote: ARTICLE VII. What was necessary for the adoption of this
Constitution? (Note, p. 143.) In what year was it adopted?]

Done in convention, by the unanimous consent of the States present, the seventeenth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, and of the independence of the United States of America the twelfth.

In witness whereof, we have hereunto subscribed our names.

GEORGE WASHINGTON, President, and Deputy from Virginia.






[Footnote: AMENDMENTS. (Notes.—The first ten amendments were proposed in 1789 at the first session of the First Congress, and in 1791 were declared adopted. They are of the nature of a Bill of Rights, and were passed in order to satisfy those who complained that the Constitution did not sufficiently guard the rights of the people.)]



Attest: WILLIAM JACKSON, Secretary.

* * * * *


To the Constitution of the United States, Ratified according to the
Provisions of the Fifth Article of the Foregoing Constitution.

ARTICLE I.—Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for redress of grievances.

ARTICLE II.—A well-regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.

ARTICLE III.—No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

ARTICLE IV.—The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

ARTICLE V.—No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war and public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor to be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

* * * * *

[Footnote: ARTICLE I. What guarantees are provided concerning religious freedom? Freedom of speech and the press? Peaceable assembly and petition?

ARTICLE II. What guarantee is given with regard to the right of bearing arms?

ARTICLE III. What is provided with regard to quartering soldiers upon citizens?

ARTICLE IV. What is provided with regard to unreasonable searches and warrants?

ARTICLE V. What provisions are made with regard to a trial for capital offences? Can a person be tried twice for the same crime? Can a criminal be forced to witness against himself? When can private property be taken for the public use?]

ARTICLE VI.—In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defence.

[Footnote: ARTICLE VI. What important rights are secured to the accused in case of a criminal prosecution?]

ARTICLE VII.—In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United States than according to the rules of common law.

[Footnote: ARTICLE VII. When is the right of jury trial guaranteed?
How must a fact tried by a jury be re-examined?]

ARTICLE VIII.—Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

[Footnote: ARTICLE VIII. What guarantee is given with regard to excessive bail or fine and unusual punishment?]

ARTICLE IX.—The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

[Footnote: ARTICLE IX. Does the enumeration of certain rights in the Constitution have any effect upon those not enumerated?]

ARTICLE X.—The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

[Footnote: ARTICLE X. What declaration is made concerning the powers neither delegated to Congress nor forbidden the states?]

ARTICLE XI.—The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by citizens of another State, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign state.

[Footnote: ARTICLE XI. (Note.—This amendment was proposed at the first session of the Third Congress, 1794, and declared adopted in 1798) What restriction is placed on the judicial power of the United States? Can the citizens of one state bring a suit against another state?]

ARTICLE XII.—The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President; and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the president of the Senate;—the president of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted;—the person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-president; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.

[Footnote: ARTICLE XII. (Note—This amendment was proposed at the first session of the Eighth Congress, 1803, and declared adopted in 1804. It grew up out of the contest In the House of Representatives at the time of Jefferson's election; he was not chosen until the 36th ballot.) Describe in full the mode of choosing the President by the electors. The Vice-President. State the essential qualifications of Vice-President. (See Art II, Sec. I, Clause 4.) In case there is no choice by the electors, how is the President elected? Describe the mode of election in the House. If a President should not be chosen by March 4, who would act as President?]


[Footnote: ARTICLE XIII. (Note.-This amendment was proposed at the second session of the Thirty-eighth Congress, 1865, and declared adopted in 1865. It grew out of the Civil War. See p. 282. ) Repeat the amendment abolishing slavery and involuntary servitude in the United States.]

SECTION 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime, whereof the person shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.
SECTION 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

[Footnote: ARTICLE XIV. (Note.-This amendment was adopted in 1868. See p. 284.) Section 1. Who are citizens of the United States? What restrictions are laid upon the states with regard to abridging the rights of citizens?]

All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.


[Footnote: Section 2. How are representatives apportioned among the several states? How does this amend Art. I, Sec 2, Clause 3?]

Representatives shall be appointed among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, representatives in Congress, the executive or judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.


No person shall be a senator or representative in Congress, or elector of President or Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State Legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each house, remove such disability.

[Footnote: Section 3. What persons are prohibited from holding any office under the United States? How may this disability be removed?]

SECTION 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pension and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave, but all such debts, obligations, and claims shall be held illegal and void.

[Footnote: Section 4. Repeat the provision with regard to the validity of the public debt. With regard to any debt incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion.]

SECTION 5. Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.
SECTION 1. The rights of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States, or by any State, on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
SECTION 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

ARTICLE XV (Note—This amendment was adopted in 1870. See p. 288) Repeat the amendment granting universal suffrage.