The Project Gutenberg eBook of History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Volume 4

This ebook is for the use of anyone anywhere in the United States and most other parts of the world at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this ebook or online at If you are not located in the United States, you will have to check the laws of the country where you are located before using this eBook.

Title: History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Volume 4

Creator: Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

Author: Jr. Joseph Smith

Editor: B. H. Roberts

Release date: November 16, 2019 [eBook #60708]

Language: English

Credits: Produced by the Mormon Texts Project (




History of Joseph Smith, the Prophet,

By Himself.

Volume IV.

An Introduction and Notes


B. H. Roberts

Published by the Church.

Salt Lake City, Utah,



Table of Contents.

Volume IV.


The Departure of the Twelve for England—Manifestation of God's Power in Healing the Sick at Commerce.

The Prophet's Literary Methods.

Farewell to the Twelve.

The L. D. S. Hymn Book.

Administration to the Sick.

Discourses by the Brothers Pratt.

Prayer Meeting for the Sick.

Letter to Isaac Russell, reproving him for issuing Pretended Revelations to the Saints.

Conference in New Jersey.

Progress of the Work in England.

The Prophet's Letter to Isaac Galland—Nauvoo Affairs.

Brigham Young Starts on his Mission.

Departure of Elders Young and Kimball from Nauvoo.

Items of Doctrine, The Prophet.

Minutes of Conference at Commerce, Illinois, October 6th, 7th and 8th, 1839.

Death of John Young, Brigham Young's Father.

Hardships of the Elders of the British Mission.


The Prophet's Journey To Washington—The Petition Of The Saints To The Congress Of The United States For Redress Of The Wrongs Inflicted Upon Them In Missouri.

Departure of the Prophet for Washington.

Progress of the Twelve towards England.

Canadian Saints En Route for Nauvoo.

Elder Taylor Anointed in the Kirtland Temple.

Excerpt from Parley P. Pratt's Letter to the Prophet.

First Issue of the Times and Seasons.

The Elements Obey.

The Prophet's Adventure En Route to Washington.

The Saints' Petition to Congress. {IV}


The Prophet's Efforts at Washington to Obtain Redress of Grievances for the Saints--Affidavits on Missouri Affairs.

The Prophet's Letter to Hyrum Smith--Reporting State of Affairs at Washington.

Letter of the Prophet and Elias Higbee to the High Council at Nauvoo--Preliminary Hearing of Grievances.

Brigham Young in New York.

Letter of Hyrum Smith to Parley P. Pratt--On Printing the Book of Mormon in New York.

The Prophet in New Jersey.

Affidavit of Simon Carter on his Sufferings in Missouri.

Letter of Hyrum Smith to the Prophet and Judge Higbee.

Affidavit of William F. Cahoon--Missouri Wrongs.

Letter of C. Adams to the Prophet--Cause of the Saints before the Illinois Legislature.

Law Suits to be Abandoned.

Extract from Elder Orson Pratt's Letter to his wife--Reporting Movements of the Brethren in the Eastern States.

Letter from John B. Weber to the Prophet--On Supplementing the Latter's Effort to Obtain Redress from Congress.

Affidavit of John M. Burke--Missouri Outrages.

Affidavit of John Lowry--Ditto.

Affidavit of Jedediah Owen--Ditto.

Affidavit of T. Alvord--Ditto.

Affidavit of William Hawk--Missouri Affairs.

Affidavit of Timothy B. Clark--Ditto.

Affidavit of Urban V. Stewart--Ditto.

Affidavit of John Smith--Ditto.

Affidavit of Samuel Smith--Ditto.

Affidavit of Daniel Avery--Ditto.

Affidavit of James Powell--Ditto.

Affidavit of John Smith--Ditto.

Affidavit of Smith Humphrey--Ditto.

Affidavit of Henry Root--Ditto.

Affidavit of Joseph Clark--Ditto.

Affidavit of Thomas D. Casper--Ditto.

Affidavit of Jesse W. Johnston--Ditto.

Affidavit of Owen Cole--Ditto.

Affidavit of Ezekiel Maginn--Ditto.

Affidavit of Addison Green--Ditto.

Affidavit of John P. Greene--Ditto.

Affidavit of Asahel A. Lathrop--Ditto.

Affidavit of Burr Riggs.

Affidavit of Simon P. Curtis.

Affidavit of Elisha H. Groves.

Affidavit of Jacob Foutz.

Affidavit of Frederick G. Williams.

Statement of James Sloan.

Affidavit of David Shumaker.

Affidavit of Levi Richards.

Affidavit of Gibson Gates.

Affidavit of David Pettigrew.{V}


Departure of the Prophet from Washington--Labors of Elias Higbee Before the Senate Judiciary Committee--Report of the Committee.

Ministry of Brigham Young and George A. Smith at Richmond, New York.

Appointments in the British Mission.

Matthew S. Davis' Description of the Prophet, and a Report of his Washington Discourse.

The Prophet's Interview with Van Buren and Calhoun.

Elias Higbee's Letter to the Prophet, Reporting Progress in the Cause of the Saints before the Senate Committee.

Second Letter of Elias Higbee to the Prophet--Cause of the Saints before the Senate Committee.

Third Letter of Elias Higbee to the Prophet--Cause of the Saints before the Senate Committee.

The Fourth Letter of Elias Higbee to the Prophet--Announces that the Senate Committee's Report will be Adverse to the Saints.

The Prophet En Route for Nauvoo.

Death of James Mulholland.

Report of the Senate Judiciary Committee on the Case of the Saints vs. Missouri.


Affairs of the Saints before United States Senate--General Conference of the Church at Nauvoo--Action of the Church with Reference to Senate Committee's Report--Mission to Palestine.

Extract from the Minutes of the Iowa High Council.

Fifth Letter of Elias Higbee to the Prophet--The Affairs of the Saints at Washington.

Extract from Elder John Taylor's Letter--Affairs in British Mission.

Judge Elias Higbee's Course at Washington Approved.

Letter R. B. Thompson to Elias Higbee, Announcing Approval of the Church Authorities of the Latter's Course at Washington.

Letter of Horace R. Hotchkiss to Sidney Rigdon and Joseph Smith, Jun.,--Inquiring Concerning the Progress made before Congress.

Sixth Letter of Elias Higbee to the Prophet--Affairs of the Saints at Washington--Papers Withdrawn.

Letter of Horace R. Hotchkiss to Joseph Smith, Jun.,--Offering Tract of Land for Sale.

Letter of Sidney Rigdon to the Prophet.

Arrival of Brigham Young and Associates in England.

Minutes of the General Conference of the Church.{VI}


Development Of The Work In England—The Palestine Mission—Postoffice Name Changed From Commerce To Nauvoo.

Letter of Hon. Richard M. Young to Elias Higbee.

Orson Hyde's Credentials as a Missionary to Palestine.

Ordination of Willard Richards to the Apostleship.

Letter of Heber C. Kimball to the Saints of the United States—Affairs of the British Mission.

Council Meeting of the Twelve in England—Hymn Book and the Millennial Star Projected.

Letter of Brigham Young to the Prophet.

Mission opened in Scotland—Orson Pratt.

Letter of Robert Johnstone to Senator Young—Postoffice Name Changed from Commerce to Nauvoo.

Letter of Senator Young to Judge Elias Higbee—Postoffice Name, etc.

Letter of Wilford Woodruff to Don Carlos Smith—Success of Woodruff's Ministry.

Letter of Elders Hyde and Page to the Prophet—Plans for the Palestine Mission.

Letter of Brigham Young to the Prophet—Affairs of the British Mission.

Release of Elder Turley from Prison.

Letter of the Prophet to Elders Hyde and Page—Palestine Mission Considered.

Letter of Willard Richards to the Editor of the Millenial Star—Reporting Labors.


First Foreign Periodical Of The Church—The "Millennial Star"—The Prophet Seeks Release From Secular Responsibilities.

The Beacon Hill Conference.

A Letter of Heber C. Kimball, et al., Recommending English Saints to the Bishop of the Church.

Death of Bishop Partridge.

First Number of the Millennial Star.

The First Company of Saints from England.

Brigham Young's Dream.

Minutes of the Conference Held at Gadfield Elm Chapel, in Worcestershire, England, June 14th, 1840.

Memorial of Joseph Smith, Jun., to the High Council of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, June 18th, 1840.

Proceedings of the High Council on the Foregoing Memorial, June 20th, 1840.

Minutes of the Conference Held at Stanley Hill, Castle Froome, Herefordshire, England, June 21st, 1840.

Carpenter's Hall.

Minutes of the High Council.

Letter of William W. Phelps—Confessing Errors Committed in Missouri.

Letter of Elders Orson Hyde and John E. Page to Presidents Joseph Smith, Hyrum Smith, Sidney Rigdon, Pleading for William W. Phelps.

{VII} Minutes of a Meeting of the Crooked Creek Branch of the Church.

Minutes of High Council at Nauvoo.

Reflections of the Prophet on the Action of Congress.


Important Conference of the Church in England—Kidnapping of Brown and Boyce by Missourians—Action of the Citizens of Nauvoo.

Conference of the Church in England.

A Council of Church Officers, Held at Manchester, England.

Extract from Elder Woodruff's Letter to the Editor of the Millennial Star—Detailing Incidents of his Ministry.

Special Instruction for High Councils.

The First Missionary for Australia.

Kidnapping of Alanson Brown and Benjamin Boyce—Affidavit of Daniel H. Wells.

Statement of James Allred.

Action of the Citizens of Nauvoo in the Matter of the Kidnapping of Brown and Boyce by the Missourians.

Report of the Committee on Resolutions.

Memorial to Governor Carlin.


The Return of a Prodigal—Conditions in Kirtland—Progress of the Work in Great Britain—The Coming of John C. Bennett—Australian Mission.

Extract of a Letter from Elder William Barratt.

The Prophet's Letter to William W. Phelps—Welcoming him back into the Church.

Credentials of Elders Samuel Bent and George W. Harris.

The Prophet's Letter to Oliver Granger—Dealing Chiefly with affairs at Kirtland.

Letter of John C. Bennett to Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon—Announcing his Intention to Join the Saints.

Letter of John C. Bennett to Messrs. Smith and Rigdon—Making Further Tender of his Services to the Church.

Letter of the Prophet to Horace R. Hotchkiss—Rock River Lands and the White Purchase.

Letter of John C. Bennett to Messrs. Smith and Rigdon—Expressing Anxiety to be with the Saints.

A Voice from the Holy City—Rebuilding the Temple of Solomon—Recall of the People of God to the Land of Judah.


Extract of a Letter from Wilford Woodruff to the Editor of the Millennial Star—Reporting Labors.

The Prophet's Letter to John C. Bennett—Bidding him Welcome to Nauvoo, to partake of—Poverty.

Letter of John C. Bennett to Messrs. Smith and Rigdon—Announcing that he will soon be in Nauvoo. {VIII}


A Missouri Kidnapping—Continued Development of the Work in Great Britain—The Death of Joseph Smith, Sen., First Patriarch of the Church.

Settlement of a Difficulty.

The Kidnapping of Benjamin Boyce, Mr. Brown, et al.

The Beginning of Open-air Meetings.

The Electric Telegraph.

An Address by the First Presidency to the Church.

Minutes of the High Council Meeting, at the Office of Joseph Smith, Jun., Nauvoo, September 5th, 1840.

The Generosity of John Benbow.

Earthquake at Mount Ararat.

The Death of Joseph Smith, Sen.

Biography of Joseph Smith, Sen., Presiding Patriarch of the Church, by the Prophet, his Son.

The Discourse of Elder Thompson at the Funeral of Joseph Smith, Sen.


Threatening Portents in the Actions of Missouri—General Conferences in Nauvoo and England—The Doctrine of Priesthood.

Letter of Samuel Bent and George W. Harris to the Presidency—Reporting Labors.

Letter of John E. Page to the Presidency, Reporting Progress of Palestine Mission.

Extracts from Orson Hyde's Letter—Signs in the Heavens.

Elder Heber C. Kimball's Dream.

Minutes of the General Conference of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, held in Nauvoo, October 3d, 1840.

Report of the Presidency.

Minutes of a General Conference in England.

Minutes of a Council of the Twelve in England.


Progress of the Work in Great Britain—The Saints at Kirtland Reproved for Their Course During the Missouri Persecutions—The Prophet's Address to the Twelve and Saints in Great Britain.

Charge against Oliver Walker.

Minutes of the High Council.

Letter of Heber C. Kimball et al. to Messrs. Ebenezer {IX} Robinson and Don Carlos Smith—Reporting Affairs in the British Mission.

"Remarkable Visions" by Orson Pratt.

Letter of Joseph and Hyrum Smith to the Saints in Kirtland—Reproving the Saints for Neglect of their Brethren and Sisters During the Missouri Persecutions.

An Epistle of the Prophet to the Twelve.


Introduction of the Gospel in the Isle of Man—The Nauvoo Charter.

Mormonism in the Isle of Man.

Opposition to the Work in England.

Excommunication of Sidney Roberts.

Letter of Brigham Young to the Presidency, Detailing Movements of the Mission in England.

Elder Taylor's Defense of the Work.

An Act to Incorporate the City of Nauvoo.

Of the Legislative Powers of the City Council.

Letter of John C. Bennett to the Times and Seasons—Announcing the Passage of the Act Incorporating Nauvoo.


Vale 1840—Enter 1841—List of Publications for and Against the Church—Whereabouts of the Twelve Apostles—"Election and Reprobation"—Proclamation to the Saints.

The Acquittal of R. D. Foster.

An Objector Put Down.

Brigham Young's Letter to the Prophet—Reporting Labors in England.

Election and Reprobation—by Brigham Young and Willard Richards.

A Proclamation of the First Presidency of the Church to the Saints Scattered Abroad, Greeting.


Reconstruction of Church Affairs at Nauvoo—Revelation—Municipal Organization of Nauvoo—Installation of Civic and Military Officers.

Reproof of John E. Page and Orson Hyde.

Revelation given to Joseph Smith at Nauvoo, January 19th, 1841.

Hyrum Smith Installed as Patriarch.

First Election of Municipal Officers in Nauvoo.

Joseph Smith made Sole Trustee of the Church.

{X} Nauvoo City Council Organized.

The Mayor's Inaugural Address.

Minutes of the Meeting which Organized the Nauvoo Legion.

Nauvoo Council Opened by Prayer.

The Echo Company.

Minutes of the London Conference.


Missouri's "White-washing."

Legion Resolutions.



An Act to Incorporate the Nauvoo House Association.

An Act to Incorporate the Nauvoo Agricultural and Manufacturing Association in the County of Hancock.

Division of Nauvoo into Municipal Wards.

Ordinance on Religious Liberty in Nauvoo.

An Ordinance in Relation to Public Meetings.

Committee Report.

Appointment of City Officers.

Letter of Brigham Young to the Editor of the Star—On Family Prayer.

Appointment of Joseph Smith Lieutenant-General of the Nauvoo Legion.

Organization of the Lesser Priesthood at Nauvoo.


The First Foreign Mission of the Church, 1837-1841.

History of the British Mission.


Celebration of the Twelfth Anniversary of the Organization of the Church—Order of Laying Corner-Stones of Temples—Council Meetings of the Twelve in England.

Staffordshire Conference.

Union of Commerce and Nauvoo Plats.

Letter of Wilford Woodruff to Don C. Smith—Relating to Affairs in England.

Minutes of a Council Meeting of the Twelve.

Council Meeting of the Twelve—Continued.

Council Meeting of the Twelve—Continued.

Twelfth Anniversary of the Organization of the Church.

Sidney Rigdon's Speech.

Conduct of the People.

Order of Laying Corner-stones of Temples.

Conference at Philadelphia.

Meeting of the Council of the Twelve in Manchester.


General Conference at Nauvoo—Epistle of the Twelve to the Saints in England—Difference Between Baptists and Latter-Day Saints.

Minutes of the General Conference of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, held in Nauvoo, Illinois, on the 7th day of April, One Thousand Eight Hundred and Forty-one.

Report of the First Presidency.

{XI} Letter of George A. Smith to the Star—Report of Labors.

Conference in New York City.

An Epistle of the Twelve Apostles to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales, and the Isle of Man, Greeting.

Difference Between the Baptists and Latter-day Saints, from the North Staffordshire Mercury.

The Difference Between the Baptists and the Former-day Saints.


Organization of the Nauvoo Legion—Notable Persons at Nauvoo—The Prophet's Sermon on Individual Responsibility for Sin and the Doctrine of Election.

The Twelve Embark for Home.

Changes in the Iowa Stake.

Organization of the Legion.

New Burying Ground for Nauvoo.

Nauvoo Legion Affairs.

Letter of the Prophet to the Times and Seasons—Visit of Notable Persons to Nauvoo.

The Prophet's Discourse.

Minutes of a Conference in London.

Arrival of Rochester at New York.

The Healing of one who was Deaf.

Rowdyism in New York Harbor.

Mob Violence in England.

Conference in Kirtland.

Letter of the Presidency to the Saints—Concentration at Nauvoo.

Legion Affairs.


Arrest of the Prophet on Demand of Missouri—Trial at Monmouth—The Acquittal.

The Prophet's Visit with Governor Carlin.

The Arrest of the Prophet.

Apostles in New Jersey.

News of the Prophet's Arrest Reaches Nauvoo.

The Prophet at Monmouth.

The Trial.

Honorable Conduct of Counsel.

Judge Douglas—Ditto.

A Letter from the Editor of the Times and Seasons to that Journal, Giving an Account of the Trial at Monmouth.

The Prophet Set Free.


The Mission to Jerusalem—Progress of Orson Hyde in His Journey.

Elder John E. Page—a Laggard.

Letter from Elder Orson Hyde to Presidency Joseph Smith—Recounting Incidents of his Journey en route for Jerusalem.

Elder Hyde's Letter to Rabbi Hirschell.

Conclusion of Elder Hyde's Letter to the Prophet. {XII}


Sundry Events at Nauvoo and Throughout the World—The Mission of the Twelve Noted by the Prophet.

Press Misrepresentations.

Imprisonment of Theodore Curtis.

Extract from a Letter in the Juliet Courier—Describing the Prophet's Trial at Monmouth, and Affairs at Nauvoo.

Revelation given to Joseph Smith, in the House of Brigham Young, in Nauvoo City, July 9th, 1841.

Liquor Selling Licensed in Nauvoo.

Manna Rain in Aleppo.

Press Falsehoods.

Letter of Elder Orson Hyde to President Smith—Detailing Events while en route to Jerusalem.

Death of Senator Little.

General Funeral Sermon.

The Prophet's Account of the Mission of the Twelve.

Letter of William Smith to President Smith—Land Transactions.


The Death of Don Carlos Smith—His Life and Labors—Special Conference at Nauvoo.

The Death of Don Carlos Smith.

The Visits of Don Carlos to Liberty Prison.

His Ministrations to the Sick.

Personal Appearance of Don Carlos Smith.

The Iowa Stake of Zion.

New Mission Movement Planned.

General Orders, Nauvoo Legion.

Depression of the Times.

Visit of the Sac and Fox Indians to Nauvoo.

Minutes of a Special Conference at Nauvoo—Important Action in Relation to the Twelve.


Hotchkiss Land Purchase Trouble—Death's Harvest, Oliver Granger, Robert B. Thompson—Important Action Relating to the Twelve—The Mission in Fox Island.

The Founding of Warren.

Letter of Horace R. Hotchkiss to Joseph Smith—Land Affairs in Nauvoo.

Letter of the Prophet to Horace R. Hotchkiss—Nauvoo Land Transactions.

Location and Character of the Hotchkiss Lands.

Death of Oliver Granger.

An Epistle of the Twelve Apostles to the Saints Scattered Abroad Among the Nations, Greeting.

Death of Robert B. Thompson.

Biography of Robert Blashel Thompson.

{XIII} Minutes of a Council Meeting of the Twelve Apostles at the House of Brigham Young, Nauvoo.

Changes of Officers in the Legion.

Changes Among the Civil Officers of Nauvoo.

The Prophet on Medicine.

A Shower of "Flesh."

British-Chinese War.

Extract from Legion Minutes.

The Coming of Edward Hunter to Nauvoo.

Bitterness of D. W. Kilbourn.

Hitch Council Resolution.

Lumber for the Temple.

The Work on Fox Island.

Sentence Rendered by Pontius Pilate, Acting Governor of Lower Galilee, Stating that Jesus of Nazareth shall Suffer Death on the Cross.


The General Conference of the Church at Nauvoo—Doctrinal Sermon by the Prophet—Baptism for the Dead—Angels and Ministering Spirits—Epistle of the Twelve Reviewing Status of the Church.

Suit against Geo. M. Hinkle.

Minutes of the General Conference of the Church held at Nauvoo.

Minutes of a Meeting of the Council of the Twelve.

Copy of a Letter to Smith Tuttle, Esq.,—The Hotchkiss.

Land Troubles.

An Epistle of the Twelve Apostles, to the Brethren Scattered Abroad on the Continent of America, Greeting.


Affairs in Kirtland and Nauvoo—Epistle of the Twelve to the Saints in the British Islands—Orson Hyde's Prayer on the Mount of Olives, Dedicating the Holy Land Preparatory to the Return of the Tribes of Israel.

Extract from Orson Hyde's Letter.

Minutes of Conference held at Lima.

Extract of a Letter from Parley P. Pratt—Emigration of Saints, and Status of the Work in England.

Copy of a Letter of Attorney from Joseph Smith, "Sole Trustee-in-Trust for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints," to Reuben McBride, of Kirtland, Ohio.

Excerpt of Hyrum Smith's Letter to the Saints in Kirtland—Disapproving of Certain Plans for Building up Kirtland.

The Nuisance.

Reproof of William O. Clark.

Dedication of the Baptismal Font.

An Ordinance Concerning Vagrants and Disorderly Persons.

An Epistle of the Twelve Apostles to the Saints Scattered Abroad in England, {XIV} Scotland, Ireland, Wales, and the Isle of Man, and the Eastern Continent, Greeting.

Minutes of a Meeting at Ramus, Illinois—Alanson Brown et al., Disfellowshiped.

Baptisms for the Dead.

Elder Orson Hyde's Letter—His Prayer of Dedication on the Mount of Olives.

Prayer of Orson Hyde on the Mount of Olives.


Official Denunciation of Thieves at Nauvoo—The Moral Law of the Church—Abandonment of Ramus as a Stake of Zion—Baptism for the Dead, an Epistle.

Affidavit of Hyrum Smith—Denouncing Theft.

The Prophet's Estimate of the Book of Mormon.

The Prophet's Denunciation of Thieves.

Conference in New York.

Warning of the Twelve Apostles against Thieves.



Conference at Ramus.

The Prophet Proof Reads Book of Mormon.

Letter of the Prophet to Esquires Browning and Bushness—Payment of Notes.

The Prophet's Letter to Mr. Hotchkiss—Commerce Lands.

The Prophet's Difficulties in Writing the Annals of the Church.

Anti-Mormonism at Warsaw.

Further Trouble at Warsaw.

Baptism for the Dead. An Epistle of the Twelve Apostles to the Saints of the Last Days.


Kirtland vs. Nauvoo—Political Attitude of the People of Nauvoo Declared—Publications Mormon and Anti-Mormon For 1841—Close of the Year.

Decision in the Case of Almon W. Babbitt and Kirtland.

Affairs at Ramus.

Expressions of Gratitude to James Gordon Bennett and the New York Herald.

Minutes of a Meeting of the Twelve in the House of the Prophet.

The Prophet on the Attitude of the Saints in Politics.

The Prophet's Letter to Edward Hunter—Business Affairs at Nauvoo.

Revelation to John Snyder and Amos B. Fuller.


Work on Proclamation to Kings of the Earth.

Emigration Agency to England.

Xmas at Nauvoo, 1841.

Conference Minutes—New York and Maine.

Purpose of the Gift of Tongues.

Instructions to the Twelve.

Warren and Warsaw Affairs.

A Prophecy Respecting Warsaw.

Mormon Literature (pro et con) 1841.


The Opening of the Year 1842—Whereabouts of the Twelve Apostles—Correspondence of Elder Hyde From Trieste—Report of High Council on Affairs in Nauvoo—Events and Conditions in the British Mission.

Sundry Labors of the Prophet.

The Prophet's Letter to Edward Hunter—Reports Opening of the New Store.

Rejoicing of the Prophet.

Tithing and Consecrations for the Temple of the Lord.

Book of Mormon Corrections.

Meeting with the Twelve.

Highly Interesting from Jerusalem.

Excerpts from Elder Hyde's Letters.

The Prophet's Letter to Isaac Galland—On Settlement of Accounts.

Isaac Galland Affair.

Seventies' Quorum Affairs.


Report of High Council Committee.

Letter of G. Walker to Elder Brigham Young et al.—Affairs in England Since Departure of the Apostles.


Emigration of the Saints From England to Nauvoo—The Book of Abraham


Death of Laura Phelps.

Debates in Nauvoo.

Vindication of Daniel Wood.

Letter of Alfred Cordon to Joseph Smith—Reporting Affairs in England.

Confidence in the Nauvoo Charter.

Announcement of the Trustee-in-Trust for the Church Respecting Work on the Temple.

An Additional Word from the Twelve.

Letter of the Prophet to an Unknown Brother on Tithing.

Note of Robert Pierce—Expressing Satisfaction at Financial Settlement.

The Book of Abraham.


The Wentworth Letter.


The Bennett-Dyer Correspondence—The Prophet's Discourse on the Subject of the Resurrection, and the Salvation of Children—Epistle of the Twelve to the Saints in England Concerning Their Emigration to America.

Tax Controversy.

Attempted Settlement with Gilbert Granger,

Book of Abraham Fac-similes.

{XVI} Letter of the Prophet to John C. Bennett—on Bennett's Correspondence Anent Slavery.

Correspondence Between Dr. C. V. Dyer and General J. C. Bennett.

Letter of John C. Bennett to Joseph Smith—Anent the Dyer-Bennett Correspondence.

Letter of the Prophet to Edward Hunter—Business Transactions.

Extract from the Legion Minutes.

Extract from High Council Minutes.

The Prophet Becomes Editor of the Times and Seasons.

Honor Among Thieves.

Origin of the Female Relief Society.

The Prophet's Sermon on Life and Death; the Resurrection and the Salvation of Children.

An Epistle of the Twelve to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in its Various Branches and Conferences in Europe, Greeting.


A Mason's Estimate of Nauvoo and the Prophet—Organization of the Female Relief Society—"Try the Spirits"—The Prophet's Editorial.

Nauvoo and the Mormons.

Extract from a Letter from Elder E. P. Maginn, Salem, Massachusetts.

Organization of the Relief Society.

Character of the Mormon Women.

Mission of John Snyder.

Synopsis of the Prophet's Sermon on Baptism for the Dead.

Letter of Lorenzo D. Barnes to Parley P. Pratt—Reporting Labors.

Synopsis of the Prophet's Remarks to the Female Relief Society.

"Try the Spirits"—The Prophet's Editorial in the Times and Seasons.


Special Conference of the Church at Nauvoo—The Prophet's Reproof of the Wicked—Epistle of the Twelve to the Saints in Kirtland—Status of the Church.

The Thirteenth Anniversary of the Organization of the Church.

Conference Minutes. Special Conference of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, City of Nauvoo, April 6th, 1842.

Remarks of the Prophet at the Funeral of Ephraim Marks.

Synopsis of Remarks of the Prophet—Reproof of all Wickedness.

A Meteor Fall.

Council Meeting with the Twelve.

Council Meeting with the Twelve.

An Epistle of the Twelve to the Saints in America, Greeting.

Military Appointments.


The General Bankrupt Law—The Doctrine of Baptism for the Dead—The Prophet's Address to the Female Relief Society—The Keys of the Priesthood and the Nauvoo Temple.

The Bankrupt Law.

The Prophet Forced into Bankruptcy.

Baptism for the Dead.

Cause of the Prophet's Insolvency.

James Arlington Bennett Honored.

Repast Militaire.

The Rights and Privileges of Women in the Church Remarks of the Prophet to the Relief Society.

The Temple.

Introduction to Volume IV.

Five subjects may be said to form the outline of the chief events detailed in this volume of the History of the Church the Founding of Nauvoo; the Appeal of the Church to the National Government for redress of wrongs suffered in Missouri; the Mission of the Twelve Apostles to the British Isles; the Mission of Orson Hyde to Palestine; and the Doctrinal Development of the Church.

Preliminary Considerations.

Preliminary to a brief consideration of these several subjects, I desire to say a word as to the reception of the Latter-day Saints by the people of Illinois, and the conditions prevailing in that state at the time of their arrival. A knowledge of these conditions is necessary to the understanding of this whole Illinois period of the History of the Church.

Much has been made of the hospitality which the people of Illinois extended to the Latter-day Saints at the time of their expulsion from Missouri. A writer in the American Historical Magazine for July, 1906, says: "To the latter state [Illinois] they [the Saints] went in 1839, and were received with such open-armed hospitality as only a very generous and liberty-loving people can extend to those whom they honestly believe to be suffering from a wrongful oppression. The conduct of the Saints in five years turned this feeling of extraordinarily deep-seated sympathy, inducing great practical charities, into a feeling of very bitter hatred, threatening to break into mob violence." Far be it from me to depreciate the kindness of those who extended a helping hand to the Saints in the hour of their distress. Stripped and sorely wounded they fled from the violence of Missouri militia-mobs, and found for a time a peaceful asylum in Illinois. Many were the acts of disinterested kindness extended to them by the people in the western part of that state; and every such act I am sure was and is remembered, both by those who were the direct recipients of such acts of kindness and by their grateful descendants. But is responding to the calls of humanity so rare a thing in a Christian state, that it must needs be regarded as so exceptional in this case? Such was the condition of the Saints as they fled from Missouri, such the injustice to which they had been subjected in that state, that their situation would have appealed to the generosity of savages, how much more, then, to a civilized and Christian community! And then, speaking of this reception of the Saints en masse, by Illinois, and leaving out of consideration {XX} for the moment—since they have already been acknowledged—the individual acts of kindness bestowed upon the exiles, was this reception of the Saints by Illinois wholly disinterested? Were there not benefits which the Saints could bestow upon the state in return for the heartiness of the reception given? Would it not have been, under all the circumstances, the gravest of blunders for Illinois to have refused asylum to these exiles? Is it to be presumed that the public men of western Illinois were so blind to their own interests as not to see in these twelve or fifteen thousand people a mighty advantage to the state? It is true they were poor in this world's goods; but they were rich in labor-power, and their reputation for habits of sobriety and of industry had preceded them. Here were thousands of husbandmen seeking lands. Illinois had thousands of acres of unoccupied lands awaiting husbandmen. How shortsighted and unstatesman-like it would have been for the men of Illinois not to have welcomed these settlers into their state? With half an eye it is easy to see that the benefits of this reception of the exiled Mormons by Illinois is not by any means a one-sided affair; and it would be doing an injustice to the intelligence of the people of that state to suppose they were blind to these advantages. This will more fully appear when other conditions are taken into account. Illinois has an area of 56,650 square miles; and at the time of the advent of the Saints in that state a white population of less than four hundred thousand,[1] as against a present population of five and a half millions.[2] It will be seen, then, that in 1839, the year of the advent of the Saints into that state, Illinois was very sparsely settled, and needed above all things for her development and prosperity, people to subdue her wilderness and cultivate her rich lands, especially people desirous of making homes, and becoming permanent citizens. Moreover, Illinois had recently launched an extensive system of internal improvements by state aid. This system included the construction of 1,300 miles of railroads in the state, besides provisions for the improvement of the navigation of the Kaskaskia, Illinois, Great and Little Wabash, and Rock rivers. Also the construction of a canal from Lake Michigan to the navigable waters of the Illinois river, a distance of more than one hundred miles (from Chicago to Peru). To carry out this system of internal improvements the state legislature of 1836-7 had appropriated the sum of $12,000,000; and to raise the money state bonds were placed on the stock markets of the eastern states and in England. It is not my province here even to note the wisdom or unwisdom of this policy of wholesale state aid for these internal improvements; let the wisdom {XXI} or unwisdom be what it may, these conditions emphasized Illinois' demand for population, and again makes it evident that it would have been the height of folly for the people of that state to do other than give hearty welcome to this body of population so rich in labor-power; so potent in wealth producing energy.

Another thing to be noted is the fact that about the time of the advent of the Saints into Illinois, political parties were just taking form in that state, and it is within the record of facts in the case, as well as of great likelihood, that a desire for obtaining political advantage was at least in the background of motives prompting the heartiness of the reception given to the Saints.

Illinois was admitted into the Union in 1818, but it is a matter of common knowledge that in the early years of her history as a state, her officers were elected not on any well defined political party principles, but chiefly on the strength of the personality of the candidates and the special things for which they individually stood. Indeed, it was not until 1830 that anything like party lines were drawn in the state, and that it became a battle ground for the two great national parties, Whigs and Democrats. It was a committee from a Democratic party organization in Quincy, Illinois, that took the initiative in welcoming the Saints into the state, and strive how one may, it is difficult to think there was not some political advantage sought through this action. On the other hand, the Whigs were not slow to urge upon the incoming exiles that it was a Democratic state and a Democratic administration in that state which had not only permitted, but had really ordered their expulsion from Missouri, and that doubtless the injustice they had suffered was owing to Democratic ideas of the administration of government. Nor were there wanting those among the Saints who were willing to believe that such was the case. Indeed, Joseph Smith, the Prophet, found it necessary to gently reprove some of his people who were rapidly making the question of their expulsion from Missouri a political party question in Illinois. This effort to win the Saints to one political party or the other, continued to be a factor in their affairs so long as they remained at Nauvoo. It was owing to this rivalry for their support that doubtless made it possible for the Saints to obtain larger grants of power for their city government, and greater political privileges and influence in the State than otherwise could have been obtained by them. It also was this rivalry for their favor, as the events in this, but more especially in the succeeding volume will prove, that made them alternately fulsomely flattered and heartily disliked; fawningly courted, and viciously betrayed.

A knowledge of these circumstances, I say, is essential to the right understanding of the Nauvoo period of the Church's history.

{XXII} The Founding of Nauvoo.

The founding of the city of Nauvoo was an event, the interest of which extends beyond the people immediately concerned in it. It was a unique movement in its way, and may yet suggest a policy in reference to the government of large cities from which great benefits may arise. Very naturally after the experiences of the Mormon people in Missouri, the Prophet was anxious to environ them with conditions that would insure protection to the community, hence for Nauvoo he secured as large concessions of political power as it was possible to obtain, and an examination of the Nauvoo charter proper with its attendant charters providing as they did for an independent educational system, from common schools to a University; an independent military organization with a lieutenant-general as its commander;[3] a large grant of commercial as well as municipal power, demonstrates how well he succeeded. Commenting upon the charter immediately after its passage by the state legislature had been formally announced, he said: "The City Charter of Nauvoo is of my own plan and device. I concocted it for the salvation of the Church, and on principles so broad, that every honest man might dwell secure under its protective influence without distinction of sect or party."[4] On another occasion when defending the right of the city to issue writs of habeas corpus, even against processes of the state, he held: "If there is not power in our charter and courts, then there is not power in the State of Illinois nor in the Congress or Constitution of the United States; for the United States gave unto Illinois her Constitution or Charter, and Illinois gave unto Nauvoo her charters conceding unto us our vested rights which she has no right or power to take from us. All the power there was in Illinois she gave to Nauvoo. * * * The municipal court has all the power to issue and determine writs of habeas corpus within the limits of this state that the {XXIII} Legislature can confer. This city has all the power that the State courts have, and was given by the same authority—the legislature. * * * The charter says that the City Council shall have power and authority to make, ordain, establish, and execute such ordinances not repugnant to the Constitution of the United States, or of this State, as they may deem necessary for the peace, benefit and safety of the inhabitants of said city.[5] And also that the Municipal Court shall have power to grant writs of habeas corpus in all cases arising under the ordinances of the City Council. The City Council have passed an ordinance 'that no citizen of this city shall be taken out of this city by any writ without the privilege of a writ of habeas corpus.' There is nothing but what we have power over, except where restricted by the Constitution of the United States. 'But,' says the mob, 'what dangerous powers!' Yes—dangerous, because they will protect the innocent and put down mobocrats. There is nothing but what we have power over, except where restricted by the Constitution of the United States. * * * If these powers are dangerous, then the Constitution of the United States, and of this State are dangerous; but they are not dangerous to good men; they are only so to bad men who are breakers of the laws. * * * The lawyers themselves acknowledge that we have all power granted us in our charters, that we could ask for—that we had more power than any other court in the State; for all other courts were restricted while ours was not."

Such views in relation to an ordinary municipal government would unquestionably be stamped as preposterous. No such powers as are here claimed are accorded to ordinary city governments in Illinois or any other of the states of the American Union. What then may be said of the Prophet's claims in respect to the municipal powers of Nauvoo? Nothing in way of defense, except that Nauvoo was not an ordinary municipality; that Joseph Smith had sought for extraordinary grants of power for the city of Nauvoo and had obtained them; that his personal experiences and the experiences of his people, both in Ohio and Missouri, had taught him the necessity of having officers charged with the duty of administering government wherein his people were concerned, who were friendly disposed and whose interests were largely identical with those of the Saints: that the things which both the Prophet and his people had suffered justified both him and them in seeking for and obtaining such power as had been conferred by charters upon the city of Nauvoo; that the Prophet was wholly within the lines of right conduct when he invoked the municipal powers in his own protection {XXIV} against the aggressions of his old enemies in Missouri and his new betrayers in Illinois. But whether the legislature of Illinois was fully aware of the extraordinary powers they were conferring upon the city of Nauvoo, or being aware of the import of their action the party in control of the legislature was willing to grant the extraordinary powers in the hope of currying political favor with the Saints, may not now be determined; but in any event these extraordinary powers were granted; and wittingly or unwittingly a "city-state" had practically been established within the state of Illinois. Nothing short of this descriptive term can adequately set forth the municipal government of Nauvoo. It seems to be an unconscious reversion. In an incipient way, to the "city-states" or "city-republics" of the old Greek confederations; or the "free-towns" of medieval times, when the cities were more potent than nations in commerce and even in politics. Whether or not the state courts of Illinois and United States courts would have sustained the Nauvoo charters if the matter of their validity had been referred to them for adjudication, may not be determined; but one can scarcely suppress the thought that the likelihood is that they would not have been sustained; on the contrary they would have been most likely declared anomalous to our system of government as it then stood, and now stands. But certainly if the experiment of such a municipal government had not been interrupted in its progress, it might have been an instructive object lesson in the government of cities; and even as it is, the founding of Nauvoo, the "city-state," suggests an important idea which may work out great practical reforms in municipal government in our country.

The founders of our Government dealt with conditions that were very simple in comparison with the complexity of the conditions which government in its various forms, municipal, state and national, is confronted with today. The Municipal problems which now vex the people had not then arisen above the horizon of their experience. The American commonwealths of the early decades of the nineteenth century were practically rural commonwealths. At the time of Washington's inauguration (1789) the population of New York was but thirty-three thousand; Philadelphia forty-two thousand; Boston but eighteen thousand; Baltimore thirteen thousand; Brooklyn one thousand six hundred, and more village than town. Now compare these cities with their present population. New York has a population of over four millions;[6] Philadelphia a population of one and a half millions;[7] Boston more than half {XXV} a million;[8] Baltimore over five hundred thousand;[9] Brooklyn is absorbed in New York, but as a borough of the larger city it has a population of nearly one and a half millions;[10] Chicago, which in 1840 had but four thousand inhabitants, much smaller than Nauvoo, has now a population of more than two millions;[11] St. Louis which in 1840 had a population of but 16,469, has now a population of three quarters of a million.[12] Nothing like the growth of urban population within the United States during the last fifty years has been known in the history of the world, and it has brought to the inhabitants of these cities problems undreamed of by the founders of our government. Every year discloses more and more distinctly the fact that between these condensed communities and the town, village, and rural population of the states in which they are located, there are very distinct interests and governmental problems of widely differing character. The differences which justify distinct local governments in the state of New York and the peninsula of Florida are not more insistent than the differences between the great commercial city of New York and the state of the same name. Without entering upon elaborate discussion of these questions (a discussion which is foreign to the character of this writing) I venture the suggestion that separate and complete state governments for our large cities, or the elevation of them into what I have called "city-states," such as Nauvoo was, in an incipient way, will be the solution to most of the problems of municipal government in our very large cities. It would greatly enlarge in them the governmental powers essential to their more perfect peace, security, and prosperity. Also it would separate them from embroilment in those questions of the state governments under which they are now located, and in which they have so little interest—often indeed, there is even sharp conflict of interests, engendering bitterness and strife which hinders progress for both city and state. Besides, granting complete statehood to our larger cities would be but a proper recognition of the right of those great aggregations of citizens with their varied industries, their immense wealth and distinct interests, to that measure of influence in our national affairs which their numbers and intelligence and interests justly demand.

{XXVI} The Appeal of the Church to the National government for Redress of Wrongs Suffered in Missouri.

The Prophet Joseph Smith, Sidney Rigdon, and Judge Elias Higbee were chosen as the committee to present to the National Congress the petition of the Saints for a redress of their grievances, suffered in Missouri. This journey to the nation's Capital was of importance quite apart from the immediate purpose for which it was undertaken; namely, it brought the Prophet in contact with the leading statesmen of the United States. While in Washington, he was brought in contact with and interviewed such men as Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun, President Martin Van Buren, different members of the Cabinet, Senators, and Representatives. Such contact enabled him to take new measurements, not only of a different class of men from those with whom he had been accustomed to associate, but new measurements of himself by comparison and contrast of himself with those leading spirits of the nation. Comparisons which could not result otherwise than in advantage to him; and I think it must be conceded by all students of the Prophet's character, especially to those who have been at all close observers of its development, that after this trip to Washington, which afforded the above noted opportunities of comparison and contrast, the Prophet's growth was immeasurably greater than at any time before that journey.

In some respects however it was unfortunate that the Prophet was not more cosmopolitan in his training and in his views of life on the occasion of this visit to the nation's capital; for lack of such training and views of life led him to the formation of rather hasty judgments as to the character of our nation's public men at that time. He undoubtedly had sticking to him as yet, some of the prejudices of his New England and New York sectional training; and at the time of his visit the spirit of the public men of the nation at Washington was largely influenced by the Southern character and spirit. Bourbon Democracy was at its height. The gentlemen of the South with their extreme notions of chivalry and polite deportment, predominated. In those days men were held to strict account for their manner of address one to another. An improper word, a slight, magnified into an insult, meant a challenge to mortal combat on "the field of honor," and this sense of personal responsibility for utterances begot, no doubt, an extreme politeness in personal deportment which seemed puerile to those reared in another atmosphere and influenced by other sentiments than those which resulted from education in the South. Joseph Smith's judgment upon manners and customs in Washington, was doubtless New England's judgment upon Southern customs with which it had no patience, much less sympathy. It is only from these considerations that the rather harsh {XXVII} judgment of the Prophet in relation to conditions in Washington can be properly understood.

Relative to the business upon which this committee visited Washington, it should be said that Sidney Rigdon failed to participate in it at all, in consequence of an illness which befell him on his journey, and hindered him from reaching Washington until the business was practically settled. A short stay in Washington convinced the Prophet that nothing was to be expected in the way of obtaining a redress of grievances for his people from the very cautious politicians then in control of the government, all of whom were anxious, apparently, to palliate the actions of Missouri with reference to the Saints, for the sake of retaining her political influence on their side; and also because of a prevailing inclination to a strict construction of the powers of the general government in its relations to the states. The Prophet therefore left Washington to preach the Gospel for a short time in New Jersey and Philadelphia, after which he returned to Nauvoo, leaving Judge Elias Higbee to urge consideration of the petition of the Saints which had been referred to the Senate committee on Judiciary, with what result is made known in detail in the body of this volume of the history. It is sufficient here to say that the net result of the Committee's deliberations was simply to recommend that the Saints appeal for a redress of their wrongs to the United States District Court having jurisdiction in Missouri, or they could, if they saw proper, "apply to the justice and magnanimity of the State of Missouri—an appeal which the committee feel justified in believing will never be made in vain by the injured or oppressed."—(Sic!)

This suggestion to take their case to the United States Courts was never acted upon by the Saints, nor does it appear in what manner it would have been practicable for them to do so. True it is expressly provided in the Constitution that "The Judicial power of the United States shall extend to all cases in law and equity, arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority; to controversies between two or more states; between a state and citizens of another state; between citizens of different states; between citizens of the same state," etc.[13] The case of the Saints would fall either under the clauses in the above quotation respecting controversies arising between a state (Missouri) and citizens of another state (the Saints, now citizens, of Illinois); or "between citizens of different states," the Saints, citizens of Illinois, and their former persecutors, citizens of Missouri. In considering the question under the first clause it must be remembered that the eleventh amendment to the Constitution (declared in force 1798) provides that {XXVIII} "The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by citizens of another state, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign state." It is held that "the power as well as the dignity of a state would be gone if it could be dragged into court by a private plaintiff."[14]

The Supreme Court in the case Chisholm vs. the State of Georgia, had decided (1793) that an action did lie against the State of Georgia at a suit of a private plaintiff. The state however refused to appear, whereupon the Supreme Court proceeded, a year later, to give judgment against her by default in case she should not appear and plead before a day; whereupon there arose such a storm of protest, not only in Georgia, but in the other states as well, that the eleventh amendment was adopted exempting a state from being sued in the courts of the United States by citizens of another state, or by citizens subjects of any foreign state. Moreover, states are not suable in any event except with their consent;[15] and if a state waive its immunity, it may attach any conditions it pleases to its consent.[16] Under these circumstances it is not surprising that the Saints never attempted to bring Missouri before the United States courts. They could only have planted suit against the state by its consent, and if she consented, then under such conditions as she might be pleased to attach to that consent. Moreover, the Saints had the best of reasons for believing that Missouri would never consent.

As to suing their persecutors as individuals before the United States courts, as citizens of one state suing citizens of another, it is only necessary to remind the reader of the insuperable difficulties attending upon that procedure to convince him of the futility of such action. The expensiveness of the undertaking, and the extreme poverty of the exiles alone would be sufficient to bar such an undertaking; for every one knows how bitterly hard it is for the poor to set the judicial machinery of organized society in motion in their favor. Then there was the evident conspiracy entered into by the mobs of Missouri to defeat the ends of justice in respect of the Saints: mobs which an unfriendly governor had converted into a state militia; to which that same governor gave an order to expel from the state or exterminate the entire people; under which order said mob-militia did expel from the state some twelve thousand citizens, depriving them of their property and liberty without due process of law; and afterwards the state through its legislature sanctioned and applauded the actions of this mob-militia for the part it had taken in causing said expulsion—though attended by acts of {XXIX} unspeakable atrocity—by appropriating 200,000 dollars to meet the expenses of the mob-militia in carrying out the governor's illegal orders. After these crimes against the Constitution and laws of the state, against American institutions and the civilization of the age—after all this, I say, it is not difficult to understand how farcical would be any procedure before either the state or the federal courts in Missouri. By acts of perjury, in order to still further defeat the ends of justice and protect each other from the penalties due to their crimes, it would have been easy for the people of Missouri to defeat the ends of justice. And after having committed the crimes of murder and robbery; after having unlawfully expelled a whole people, numbering thousands, from their homes—of which the despoilers were then possessed—it is not to be believed that such characters would hesitate to suborn witnesses, commit perjury, or hesitate to do any other thing, however criminal, in order to escape the just punishment for their crimes.

The offense of the State of Missouri against the Saints was a denial of political as well as of civil rights. She had in her treatment of the Saints abdicated republican government. Her officers, including the chief executive of the state had violated the Constitution of the state in that they had entered into a wide-spread conspiracy to deprive the Saints of their liberty and property without due process of law; and in fact had deprived them of those rights by expelling them by force of arms from the state.

These were the wrongs the Saints had endured; this the nature of the crime of the state of Missouri against them, and it seems that for these things which they suffered there could be found no remedy; for, as already explained, a state could not be made party to a suit before the courts, either state or federal, without her consent; and it is a well settled principle of American law that "a suit nominally against an officer but really against a state to enforce performance of its obligation in its political capacity, will not lie." A state, therefore, could not be directly arraigned before the courts or any kind of tribunal for failure to enforce its political obligations; nor could it be indirectly so arraigned through its officers since such an arraignment would undoubtedly have been held to be but "nominally against the officers and really against the state;" hence void.[17] The only arraignment of the state that could be made was evidently at the bar of public opinion and sentiment, and this sentiment, unfortunately viciated by misrepresentations, was against the Saints. All things considered, then, there was little wisdom behind the recommendation of the Senate Judiciary Committee for the Saints to prosecute their case before the Federal courts having jurisdiction in Missouri; and {XXX} the suggestion that they apply to the justice and magnanimity of the state of the Missouri, borders upon mockery. However, Missouri did not escape the chastisement due to her many acts of predatory injustice upon the Saints; there was measured out to her more than four fold of that sorrow and affliction which she had perpetrated upon the Saints. She sowed to the wind in her conduct towards the Mormon people, she reaped the whirl-wind in the terrible experiences of more then ten years of border warfare, banditti rule, and her enormous sacrifice of blood and treasure in the Civil War; all of which is abundantly set forth in the Introduction to Volume III of this work.

The Mission of the Twelve to England.

The mission of the Twelve to England marks an epoch in the missionary experience of the Church. They undertook this mission in fulfillment of a commandment received of the Lord on the 8th of July, 1838, at Far West, Missouri, which revelation was given in answer to the question of the Prophet: "Show us thy will, O Lord, concerning the Twelve." In answer to that question the Lord directed that the several vacancies then existing in the quorum should be filled by the appointment of John Taylor, John E. Page, Wilford Woodruff, and Willard Richards. "And next spring," said the revelation, "let them [the Twelve] depart to go over the great waters and there promulgate my gospel, the fullness thereof, and bear record of my name. Let them take leave of my Saints in the City Far West on the 26th day of April next, on the building spot of my house saith the Lord."[18]

Notwithstanding the fact that the Church had been expelled from the state of Missouri before the 26th day of April, 1839, a number of the Twelve accompanied by several of those who had been appointed to fill vacancies in the quorum, returned to Far West, held a meeting on the site of the Lord's house in the public square of that place, on the date appointed, sung some hymns, ordained those present who had been appointed to fill vacancies in the quorum, laid a corner stone of the Lord's house, took leave of a few of the brethren who were there, and thence started for foreign lands, stopping for a time en route at Nauvoo. Late in the summer of 1839 the Twelve began their departure, usually in pairs, for foreign lands. The work had already been introduced into England by the labors of Elder Heber C. Kimball and associates, Elder Orson Hyde of the quorum of the Twelve; also Elders Willard Richards, Isaac Russell, John Goodson, John Snyder; and Joseph Fielding, a priest. The mission of the Twelve to England as a quorum, however, established the work in the British Isles on a broader and more {XXXI} permanent basis, and thence forward the body religious was strengthened from this mission; and as much from the character as from the numbers of the British Saints.

The Mission of Orson Hyde to Palestine.

The mission appointed to Elders Orson Hyde and John E. Page, of the quorum of the Twelve, to Jerusalem, was second in importance only to that appointed to the rest of the Twelve to Great Britain. John E. Page utterly failed to fulfill his appointment, notwithstanding the frequent urging and reproofs of the Prophet. He never left the shores of America, and finally returned to Nauvoo to be severely censured for his lack of faith and energy. Orson Hyde, on the contrary, in the midst of many hardships, persevered in his journey to the Holy Land, until he succeeded in accomplishing that which had been appointed unto him. Elder Hyde it appears, was a descendant of the tribe of Judah;[19] and sometime after the Prophet had become acquainted with him, most probably in the year 1832, in the course of pronouncing a blessing upon him, said: "In due time thou shalt go to Jerusalem, the land of thy fathers, and be a watchman unto the house of Israel; and by thy hand shall the Most High do a great work, which shall prepare the way and greatly facilitate the gathering together of that people."[20] It was in fulfillment of this prediction upon his head that he had been called upon this mission to Jerusalem, to dedicate the land of Palestine by apostolic authority, preparatory to the return of the Jews and other of the tribes of Israel to that land of promise. This mission he fully accomplished. An account of his journey and of his beautiful and powerful prayer of dedication will be found in his letters published in this volume.[21]

The question will be asked, Has anything resulted from this mission to dedicate the land of Palestine to the return of the Jews and other tribes of Israel? The only answer is an appeal to facts, to events that have taken place since that prayer of consecration was offered up by this Apostle of the new dispensation of the Gospel, on the 24th of October, 1841.

At the time of Elder Hyde's visit and the ceremonies of dedication he performed on the Mount of Olives, there were comparatively but few Jews at Jerusalem. As late as 1876 the British Consul Reports show that there were but from fifteen to twenty thousand Jews in Judea. But twenty years later the same authority declared the number of Jews at sixty to seventy thousand; and, what was of more importance than {XXXII} the numbers announced, these reports represented that the new Jewish population was turning its attention to the cultivation of the soil, which but requires the blessings of God upon it to restore it to its ancient fruitfulness, and which will make it possible for it to sustain once more a numerous population. The St. Louis Globe-Democrat commenting on these Consular Reports of 1896, said:

"Only two decades ago there were not more than fifteen or twenty thousand Jews in Jerusalem. At that time no houses were to be found outside the walls of the city. Since then many changes have taken place and the Hebrew population—mainly on account of the increase of the Jewish immigration from Russia—now stands at between sixty and seventy thousand. Whole streets of houses have been built outside the walls on the site of the ancient suburban districts, which for hundreds of years have remained deserted. It is not, however, only in Jerusalem itself that the Jews abound, but throughout Palestine they are buying farms and establishing themselves in a surprisingly rapid manner. In Jerusalem they form at present a larger community than either the Christian or the Mohammedan."

Also in 1896 that racial movement among the Jews known as "Zionism" took definite form. This movement was really the federation of all the Jewish societies that have cherished the hope of seeing Israel restored to his promised possessions in Palestine. That year the first international conference of Zionists was held in Basel, Switzerland, and since then under the leadership of the late Dr. Herzel of Austria, and since his death under the leadership of Israel Zangwill, and by reason of its annual conferences constantly increasing in interest and attendance, "Zionism" has taken on all the aspects of one of the world's great movements. It is not so much a religious movement as a racial one; for prominent Jews of all shades of both political and religious opinions have participated in it.

After saying through so many centuries at the feast of the Passover, "May we celebrate the next Passover in Jerusalem," the thought seems to have occurred to some Jewish minds that if that hope is ever to be realized some practical steps must be taken looking to the actual achievement of the possibility—hence the "Zionite Movement." The keynotes of that movement are heard in the following utterances of some of the Jewish leaders in explanation of it: "We want to resume the broken thread of our national existence; we want to show to the world the moral strength, the intellectual power of the Jewish people. We want a place where the race can be centralized."—(Leon Zoltokoff). "It is for these Jews (of Russia, Roumania and Galicia) that the name of their country (Palestine) spells 'Hope.' I should not be a man if I did not realize that for these persecuted Jews, Jerusalem spells reason, {XXXIII} justice, manhood and liberty."—(Rabbi Emil G. Hirsch). "Jewish nationalism on a modern basis in Palestine, the old home of the people."—(Max Nordau). "Palestine needs a people, Israel needs a country. Give the country without a people to the people without a country."—(Israel Zangwill). In a word it is the purpose of "Zionism" to redeem Palestine, and give it back to Jewish control, create, in fact, a Jewish state in the land promised to their fathers.

The age has come when the promises of the Lord to Israel must be fulfilled; and hence an apostle of the new dispensation of the Gospel is sent by divine authority to dedicate the land of Palestine preparatory to the return of Israel to his promised inheritance. After which follows this strange and world-wide movement among the Jews looking to the re-establishment of "Jewish nationalism on a modern basis in Palestine." What other relationship can exist between the mission of the Apostle Orson Hyde and this world-wide movement among the Jews for the re-establishment of Israel in Palestine, but the relationship of cause to effect—under, of course, the larger fact that the set time for the restoration of Israel has come? The apostle's mission to Jerusalem for the purpose of dedicating that land, preparatory to the return of Israel, was without doubt part of the general program for the restoration of Israel to their lands and to the favor and blessing of God.

The Doctrinal Development of the Church.

The doctrinal development in this period of the dispensation of the fullness of times, namely, between July, 1839, and the month of May, 1842, about three years, was chiefly in relation to salvation for the dead, and the sacred ritual of the Temple. The foundation for this doctrinal development in relation to salvation for the dead, was laid in the very inception of the work. On the occasion of the first visit of the angel Moroni to the Prophet, on the night of the 21st of September, 1823, among other ancient prophecies quoted by him, and which he declared was soon to be fulfilled, was the prophecy in the fourth chapter of Malachi in relation to the future coming of Elijah the prophet, "before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the Lord." As quoted by the angel there was a slight variation in the language from King James' version, as follows: "Behold, I will reveal unto you the Priesthood by the hand of Elijah the prophet, before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the Lord. And he shall plant in the hearts of the children the promises made to the fathers, and the hearts of the children shall turn to their fathers; if it were not so, the whole world would be wasted at his coming."[22]

Here the promise is made, that in consequence of the restoration of a certain Priesthood, or special keys of authority held by Elijah, the promises made to the fathers shall be planted in the hearts of the children, "and the hearts of the children shall turn to their fathers." Why? For a complete answer to that question the Church waited some years. Again, and still early in the history of the work, namely, March, 1830, the Lord in a revelation to Martin Harris through the Prophet Joseph, added another line or two of knowledge to this doctrine; knowledge which pushed out of the horizon of men's conceptions the terrible and unjust doctrine respecting the eternal punishment which God is supposed to inflict upon those who fail to obey the Gospel in this life, and also those who died in ignorance of it. In explanation of the terms, "eternal punishment," and "everlasting punishment," sometimes found in Holy Writ, the Lord said to the Prophet: "Behold, I am endless, and the punishment which is given from my hand is endless, for endless is my name. Wherefore—

"Eternal punishment is God's punishment.

"Endless punishment is God's punishment."

That is to say, the punishment takes the name of Him in whose name it is inflicted; as if it were written, "Eternal's punishment," "Endless's punishment." And also, it must be understood, that the punishment itself is endless. That is, penalties always attend upon law, and follow its violation. That is an eternal principle. Law is inconceivable without accompanying penalties. But it does not follow that those who fall into the transgression of law, and therefore under sentence of Eternal's justice, will have to endure affliction of the penalty eternally. Justice can be satisfied. Mercy must be accorded her claims, and the culprit having been brought to repentance and taught obedience to law through the things which he has suffered, must go free. But only to suffer again the penalties of the law, if he again violates it; for laws and their penalties are eternal. Hence eternal punishment, hence endless punishment administered to the violator of the law, until he learns to live in harmony with law. For, on the one hand, as "that which is governed by law is also preserved by law, and perfected and sanctified by the same;"[23] so "that which breaketh a law and abideth not by the law, but seeketh to become a law unto itself, and willeth to abide in sin and altogether abideth in sin, cannot be sanctified by law, neither by mercy, justice, nor judgment. Therefore they must remain filthy still."[24] Thus obedience to law becomes a savor of life unto life; while disobedience to law equally becomes a savor of death unto death.

In February, 1832, still further light was shed upon the subject of {XXXV} the different states or degrees of glory in which men will live in the future, by the revelation known as "The Vision." This revelation is one of the sublimest ever given to man. It utterly discredits and displaces the dogmas about the future of man held by Christendom, or at least by Protestant Christendom. The orthodox, Protestant view of man's future is that there are two states in one or the other of which man will spend eternity—in heaven or in hell. If one shall gain heaven, even by ever so small a margin, he will enter immediately upon a complete possession of all its unspeakable joys, equally with the angels and the holiest of Saints. Not only in the "Shorter Catechisms," but in nearly all orthodox creeds the accepted doctrine was: "The souls of believers are at their death made perfect in holiness." On the other hand, if one shall miss heaven, even by ever so small a margin, he is doomed to everlasting torment equally with the wickedest of men and vilest of devils, and there is no deliverance for him through all the countless ages of eternity! It will be noted that I have excepted out of participating in the above view of man's future, the Catholic church, by ascribing these views only to orthodox Protestant Christendom. This is because the Catholic church doctrine slightly differs from the doctrine of the Protestants on this subject. That is Catholics do not believe that all Christians at death go immediately into heaven, but on the contrary "believe that a Christian who dies after the guilt and everlasting punishment of mortal sins have been forgiven him, but who, either from want of opportunity, or through his negligence has not discharged the debt of temporal punishment due to his sin, will have to discharge that debt to the justice of God in purgatory." "Purgatory is a state of suffering after this life, in which those souls are for a time detained, which depart this life after their deadly sins have been remitted as to the stain and guilt, and as to the everlasting pain that was due to them, but which souls have on account of those sins still some temporal punishment to pay; as also those souls which leave this world guilty only of venial (that is pardonable) sins. In purgatory these souls are purified and rendered fit to enter into heaven, where nothing defiled enters."[25] As all works of the Catholic church accessible to me have nothing on the different degrees of glory in which men shall subsist in eternity, I conclude that Catholic teaching is that they who finally attain unto heaven are all equal in glory. So that in the last analysis of the matter, Catholic doctrine falls as far below the great truth that God has revealed upon the subject of the future estate of man, as the doctrine of orthodox Protestant Christendom.

Here is not the place for an extended exposition of the doctrine in {XXXVI} relation to the future state of man as revealed to Joseph Smith in the revelation called "The Vision."[26] It must suffice here to say that its central principle is resident in the justice and the mercy of God, that requires that every man shall be judged according to his works, considered in the light of his intelligence, his consciousness of right and wrong, and the moral law under which he lived. If he lived in the earth when the Gospel of Jesus Christ was not in the world, or if he lived at places or in circumstances where he did not learn of its existence, much less come to a knowledge of its truths, then the plain dictates of justice demand that some means must exist by which its sanctifying powers may be applied to him in the future; so also as to those who have even once rejected the truth (as in the case of the antediluvians who rejected the teaching of righteous Noah, and were disobedient,[27] when once the long suffering of God waited in vain in those days for their repentance); having paid the just penalty of their disobedience, then justice would demand that some means must exist by which the saving principles of the Gospel of Jesus Christ may be applied to them; for only by the acceptance of the principles of the Gospel, and by the application of its laws and ordinances as the means by which the grace of God is applied to man, can the sons of men hope for salvation. Then as men differ in degree of intelligence; in the intensity of their faith; in the hartiness of their obedience; in the steadiness of their fidelity; and in as much as there is the stern fact of human freedom and responsibility, and the possibility of a short or long resistance to the will of God, even up to eternal resistance to that will, there is an infinitude of states of glory, of so called rewards and punishments, in which man will live in the future. There is one glory of which the sun in heaven is spoken of as being typical; another of which the inferior light of the moon is typical; and another of which the varying light of the stars is typical. And even as one star differs from another star in glory, in light, so differ those states of existence in which men will live in the future, but each assigned to a place, to an environment, that corresponds to the status of his development; which is only the modern way of saying he shall be judged according to his works. These, in brief, are the underlying principles of this remarkable revelation; a revelation which in every way is worthy the encomium that the Prophet Joseph himself bestowed upon it at the time of its inception: "Nothing could be more pleasing to the Saints upon the order of the Kingdom of the Lord, than the light which burst upon the world through the foregoing Vision. Every law, every commandment, every promise, every truth, and every point touching the destiny of man, from Genesis to Revelation, where the purity of the {XXXVII} Scriptures remains unsullied by the folly of men, go to show the perfection of the theory [of different degrees of glory in the future life] and witnesses the fact that that document is a transcript from the records of the eternal world."

In June, 1836, while attending to washings and anointings in the Kirtland Temple, previous to its dedication, the Prophet received still further knowledge as to the future state of man. This also was by means of a vision. He says: "The heavens were opened upon us, and I beheld the celestial kingdom of God, and the glory thereof, whether in the body or out, I cannot tell. I saw the transcendent beauty of the gate through which the heirs of that kingdom will enter, which was like unto circling flames of fire; also the blazing throne of God, whereon was seated the Father and the Son. I saw the beautiful streets of that kingdom, which had the appearance of being paved with gold. I saw Fathers Adam and Abraham, and my father and mother, my brother, Alvin, that has long since slept, and marveled how it was that he had obtained an inheritance in that kingdom, seeing that he had departed this life before the Lord had set His hand to gather Israel the second time, and had not been baptized for the remission of sins. Thus came the voice of the Lord unto me saying—

"All who have died without a knowledge of this Gospel, who would have received it if they had been permitted to tarry, shall be heirs of the celestial kingdom of God; also all that shall die henceforth without a knowledge of it, who would have received it with all their hearts, shall be heirs of that kingdom, for I, the Lord, will judge all men according to their works, according to the desire of their hearts."

"And I also beheld that all children who die before they arrive at the years of accountability, are saved in the celestial kingdom of heaven."

The next step in the development of this doctrine of salvation for the dead was the coming of Elijah to "turn the heart of the fathers to the children, and the heart of the children to the fathers," according to Malachi; to restore the priesthood and "plant in the hearts of the children the promises made to the fathers," by which "the hearts of the children shall be turned to the fathers," according to Moroni. And Elijah committed the keys of this dispensation of turning the hearts of the fathers and children towards each other to Joseph Smith and to Oliver Cowdery. This took place in the Kirtland Temple on the 3rd of April, 1836.[28]

It was not, however, until the Nauvoo period that the doctrine of salvation for the dead was fully developed and active steps taken looking to the actual performance of ordinances in their behalf. In the revelation that was given on the 19th of January, 1841, the Saints {XXXVIII} were commanded to build a house unto the Lord, a Holy Temple unto the Most High. "For," said this revelation, "there is not a place found on earth that He may come to and restore again that which was lost unto you, or which He hath taken away, even the fullness of the Priesthood; for a baptismal font there is not upon the earth, that they, my Saints, may be baptized for those who are dead; for this ordinance belongeth to my house, and cannot be acceptable to me, only in the days of your poverty, wherein ye are not able to build a house unto me. But I command you, all ye my Saints, to build a house unto me; and I grant unto you a sufficient time to build a house unto me, and during this time your baptisms shall be acceptable unto me." That is, the baptisms for the dead should be acceptable unto the Lord in other places than the temple, until the temple should be prepared for that ordinance, if the Saints would be diligent and build it according to the Lord's appointment. Moreover, the information is imparted in the revelation that, it is "in Zion, and in her stakes, and in Jerusalem, those places which I [the Lord] have appointed for refuge, shall be the places for your baptisms for your dead."

After this revelation was given to the Church baptism for the dead was a subject frequently expounded in Nauvoo, both by the Prophet and other leading elders. It was a theme upon which the Twelve Apostles dwelt in their Epistles to the Church both in America and in Great Britain. Baptisms for the dead were performed for some time in the Mississippi river, and later, in the latter part of November, 1841, in the baptismal font erected in the basement of the Temple, and dedicated for that sacred purpose. For a time some irregularities obtained in relation to this ordinance owing to the fact that the perfect knowledge of the order of it had not then been obtained, but was developed later in this Nauvoo period of the History of the Church, as will appear in Volume V of this work.

It was a mighty stride forward in the doctrinal development of the Church, this idea of the possibility of salvation for the dead through the administration of the ordinances of the Gospel for and in their behalf by their kindred on earth; and greatly enlarged the views of the Saints in relation to the importance and wide spread effects of their work. The ends of the earth indeed converged in the labors of the Saints henceforth, for their activities in the administrations of the holy ordinances of the Gospel would affect all past generations as well as affect all generations to come. It was a bringing into view the full half of the work which up to this time had lain hidden behind the horizon of men's conceptions of that "great and marvelous work" which God from the beginning declared was about to be brought forth among the children of men.[29]

{XXXIX} Other Doctrines of the Prophet's Teaching.

Other doctrines taught by the Prophet within the period covered by this volume, relate to the Priesthood; to the Status of Translated Persons; to Man's Personal Responsibility for his own conduct, to Election and Reprobation. A word in relation to each of these doctrines must suffice here since they do not reach their full development in the teachings of the Prophet until the last two years of his eventful life, and must therefore receive fuller treatment in the Introduction of Volume V.

Relative to the Priesthood, the most important items advanced by the Prophet in this volume, are, first, the unity of all Priesthood, and second, the place and power assigned to Adam in the order of the dispensations of the Gospel granted to our earth. Treating on the unity of the Priesthood, the Prophet said: "There are two Priesthoods spoken of in the Scriptures, viz., the Melchisedek and the Aaronic or Levitical. Although there are two Priesthoods, yet the Melchisedek Priesthood comprehends the Aaronic or Levitical Priesthood, and is the grand head, and holds the highest authority which pertains to the Priesthood, and the keys of the kingdom of God in all ages of the world to the latest posterity on the earth, and is the channel through which all knowledge, doctrine, the plan of salvation, and every important matter is revealed from heaven. Its institution was prior to 'the foundation of this earth, or the morning stars sang together, or the Sons of God shouted for joy,' and is the highest and holiest Priesthood, and is after the order of the Son of God, and all other Priesthoods are only parts, ramifications, powers and blessings belonging to the same, and are held, controlled, and directed by it. It is the channel through which the Almighty commenced revealing His glory at the beginning of the creation of this earth, and through which He has continued to reveal Himself to the children of men to the present time, and through which He will make known His purposes to the end of time."

Respecting the place of Adam in the Priesthood and his relationship to the dispensations of that Priesthood to our earth, the Prophet said: "Commencing with Adam, who was the first man, who is spoken of in Daniel as being the 'Ancient of Days,' or in other words, the first and oldest of all, the great, grand progenitor of whom it is said in another place he is Michael, because he was the first and father of all, not only by progeny, but the first to hold the spiritual blessings, to whom was made known the plan of ordinances for the salvation of his posterity unto the end, and to whom Christ was first revealed, and through whom Christ has been revealed from heaven, and will continue to be revealed from henceforth. Adam holds the keys of the dispensation of the fullness of times; i. e., the dispensation of all the times have been and will {XL} be revealed through him from the beginning to Christ, and from Christ to the end of all the dispensations that are to be revealed. 'Having made known unto us the mystery of His will, according to His good pleasure which He hath purposed in Himself: that in the dispensation of the fullness of times He might gather together in one all things in Christ, both which are in heaven, and which are on earth; even in him (Ephesians, 1st chap., 9th and 10th verses). Now the purpose in Himself in the winding up scene of the last dispensation is that all things pertaining to that dispensation should be conducted precisely in accordance with the preceding dispensations. And again. God purposed in Himself that there should not be an eternal fullness until every dispensation should be fulfilled and gathered together in one, and that all things whatsoever, that should be gathered together in one in those dispensations unto the same fullness and eternal glory, should be in Christ Jesus; therefore He set the ordinances to be the same forever and ever, and set Adam to watch over them, to reveal them from heaven to man, or to send angels to reveal them. * * * * These angels are under the direction of Michael or Adam, who acts under the direction of the Lord. * * * * There are many things which belong to the powers of the Priesthood and the keys thereof, that have been kept hid from before the foundation of the world; they are hid from the wise and prudent to be revealed in the last times."

That it was the design of the Lord in building the Temple at Nauvoo, that there should be other ordinances revealed besides "baptism for the dead," is clearly manifested in the revelation itself, for it says: "And again, verily I say unto you, how shall your washings be acceptable unto me, except ye perform them in a house which you have built to my name. * * * * Therefore, verily I say unto you, that your anointings, and your washings, and your baptisms for the dead, and your solemn assemblies, and your memorials for your sacrifices, by the sons of Levi and for your oracles in your most holy places wherein you receive conversations, and your statutes and judgments, for the beginning of the revelations and foundation of Zion, and for the glory, honor, and endowment of all her municipals, are ordained by the ordinance of my holy house which my people are always commanded to build unto my holy name. And verily I say unto you, let this house be built unto my name, that I may reveal mine ordinances therein, unto my people; for I deign to reveal unto my Church things which have been kept hid from before the foundation of the word, things that pertain to the dispensation of the fullness of times."

The ordinances here mentioned in addition to baptism for the dead are chiefly connected with the Priesthood of the Church, and were fully developed in the teachings of the Prophet before the close of his eventful career.

{XLI} As to the status of translated personages, he said: "Many have supposed that the doctrine of translation was a doctrine whereby men were taken immediately into the presence of God, and into an eternal fulness, but this is a mistaken idea. Their place of habitation is that of the terrestrial order, and a place prepared for such characters He held in reserve to be ministering angels unto many planets, and who as yet have not entered into as great a fullness as those who are resurrected from the dead."

Of man being personally responsible for his own conduct, he is reported by the Editor of the Times and Seasons as saying: "He [the Prophet] then observed that Satan was generally blamed for the evils which we did, but if he was the cause of all our wickedness, men could not be condemned. The devil could not compel mankind to do evil; all was voluntary. Those who resisted the Spirit of God, would be liable to be led into temptation, and then the association of heaven would be withdrawn from those who refused to be made partakers of such great glory. God would not exert any compulsory means, and the devil could not; and such ideas as were entertained [on these subjects] by many were absurd." What beautiful harmony between the Prophet's doctrine here and that of the Apostle James: "Let no man say when he is tempted, I am tempted of God: for God cannot be tempted with evil, neither tempteth he any man: But every man is tempted, when he is drawn away of his own lusts, and enticed. Then when lust hath conceived, it bringing forth sin: and sin when it is finished, bringeth forth death."[30]

Of election, a term used generally in connection with reprobation, when commenting on the 9th Chapter of Romans,—wherein Paul is supposed to teach the doctrine of election,—the Prophet is represented as saying: "He then spoke on the subject of election, and read the 9th chapter of Romans, from which it was evident that the election there spoken of was pertaining to the flesh, and had reference to the seed of Abraham, according to the promise God made to Abraham, saying, 'In thee, and in thy seed, all the families of the earth shall be blessed.' * * * The whole of the chapter had reference to the Priesthood and the house of Israel: and unconditional election of individuals to eternal life was not taught by the Apostles. God did elect or predestinate, that all those who would be saved, should be saved in Christ Jesus, and through obedience to the Gospel, but He passes over no man's sins, but visits them with correction, and if His children will not repent of their sins He will discard them."

These several doctrines mark rapid development in the Prophet's work as an instructor in sacred things, and clearly indicate his increasing capacity and power as Prophet, Seer and Teacher.


1. The population in 1830 was but 155,061; and in 1840, 472,254.

2. The population of Illinois in 1900 was 4,821,550—nearly five millions: the estimated population for 1908 is 5,590,000.

3. Commenting once in a half humorous way upon his "exalted" military rank, the Prophet said to Josiah Quincy, who remarks that the Prophet at the time of his visit to Nauvoo (May, 1843), was at the head of 3,000 men equipped by the state of Illinois, represents him as having said:

"I decided that the commander of my troops ought to be a lieutenant-general, and I was, of course, chosen to that position. I sent my certificate of election to Governor Ford, and received in return a commission of lieutenant-general of the Nauvoo Legion of the militia of the State of Illinois. Now, on examining the constitution of the United States, I find that an officer must be tried by a court martial composed of his equals in rank; and as I am the only lieutenant-general in the country, I think they will find it pretty hard to try me." Figures of the Past, p. 383.

4. This volume, p. 249.

5. Section 11, this volume, p. 241. The Prophet quoted from memory, and is not exact; the exact language is—"As they deem necessary for the peace, benefit, good order, regulation, convenience and cleanliness of said city."

6. The official census of 1905 give the population of New York at 4,014,304. The estimated population on January 1, 1908, is 4,285,435.

7. Official returns for 1900 give Philadelphia a population of 1,293,697. The estimated population for Jan. 1, 1908, is 1,491,161.

8. Official statistics for 1905 give Boston a population of 595,083. The estimated population for Jan. 1, 1908, is 607,340.

9. Official returns for 1900 give Baltimore a population of 508,957. The estimated population for Jan. 1, 1908, is 567,000.

10. The estimated population of Brooklyn as a borough of greater New York is given on Jan. 1, 1908, as 1,448,095.

11. Official statistics for 1900 give Chicago a population of 1,698,575. The estimated population for Jan. 1, 1908 is 2,483,641.

12. Official statistics for 1900 give St. Louis a population of 575,238. The estimated population on Jan. 1, 1908, is 50,000.

13. Art. III Const. U.S., Sec. ii.

14. Am. Commonwealth (Bryce) Vol. I p. 231.

15. Railroad Co. v. Tennessee, U.S. Reports 101, 337.

16. Clark v. Barnard U.S. 108, 436, and Green v. State 73 Cal. 29 et seq.

17. See Cooler's Constitutional Limitations, chapter ii, also Louisiana v. Jumel 107 U.S. Reports, p. 711, 2 sup. et. rep. 128.

18. History of the Church, Vol. III, p. 46.

19. See this Volume, p. 375.

20. Ibid.

21. The prayer of Dedication will be found at pp. 456-459.

22. History of the Church, Vol. I, p. 12.

23. Doctrine and Covenants, Sec. lxxxviii:34.

24. Ibid, verse 35.

25. The quotations in the above are from "Catholic Belief," by Bruno, D. D. of the Catholic church.

26. Doctrine and Covenants, Sec. lxxvi, and History of the Church Vol. I, 245 et seq.

27. 1 Peter iii, 18-22.

28. See History of the Church, Vol. II, p. 435-436. Also Doc. and Cov. Sec. cx.

29. See Doc. And Cov. the opening paragraph of Sections iv, vi, xi, xii, xiv, all given in the year 1829.

30. James 1, 13-15



The Departure of the Twelve for England—Manifestation of God's Power in Healing the Sick at Commerce.

The Prophet's Literary Methods.

Friday, July 5, 1839.—I was dictating history, I say dictating, for I seldom use the pen myself. I always dictate all my communications, but employ a scribe to write them.

Saturday, 6.—I was at home reviewing the Church records.

Farewell to the Twelve.

Sunday, 7.—I was at the meeting held in the open air, at which a large assemblage was expected to listen to the farewell address of the Twelve, who were then about to take their departure on a most important mission, namely to the nations of the earth and the islands of the sea.

Elder John E. Page being the first of the Twelve present, opened the meeting by addressing a few words of an introductory nature; after singing and prayer, Elder Page {2} delivered a very interesting discourse on the subject of the Book of Mormon, recapitulating, in short terms, the principles of a former discourse on the same subject, and afterwards proceeded to read portions from the Bible and Book of Mormon concerning the best criterions whereby to judge of the authenticity of the latter; and then went on to show in a very satisfactory manner, that no impostor would ever attempt to make such promises as are contained on pages five hundred forty-one,[1] and five hundred and thirty-four.[2] He then bore testimony.

After noon the meeting was again opened by prayer. Elder John Taylor spoke on the subject of this dispensation; the other angel which John saw, having the everlasting Gospel to preach, he then bore testimony of the truth of the Book of Mormon.

Elder Woodruff's address went chiefly to exhortation to the Saints; after which he also bore his testimony.

Elder Orson Hyde next came forward, and having alluded to his own late fall,[3] exhorted all to perseverance in the things of God, expressed himself one with his brethren, and bore testimony to his knowledge of the truth, and the misery of falling from it.

Elder Brigham Young made some very appropriate remarks, and also bore testimony to the truth of these things, and gave an invitation to come forward and be baptized, when three manifested their determination to renounce the world and take upon themselves the name of Jesus Christ. One brother was then confirmed; after which President Sidney Rigdon addressed the meeting in a very feeling manner. He showed that it must be no small matter which could induce men to leave their families and their homes to travel over all the earth amidst persecutions and trials, such as always followed the preaching of this Gospel. He then addressed himself to {3} the Twelve and gave them some counsel and consolation as far as lay in his power; after which I requested their prayers, and promised to pray for them.

The meeting was large and respectable; a great number were present who did not belong to the Church. The most perfect order prevailed throughout. The meeting was dismissed about half-past five, when we repaired to the water, and the three candidates were baptized and confirmed.

The L. D. S. Hymn Book.

Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday, 8th, 9th and 10th of July.—I was with the Twelve selecting hymns, for the purpose of compiling a hymn book.

About this time much sickness began to manifest itself among the brethren, as well as among the inhabitants of the place, so that this week and the following were generally spent in visiting the sick and administering to them; some had faith enough and were healed; others had not.

Administration to the sick.

Sunday, 21.—There was no meeting on account of much rain and much sickness; however many of the sick were this day raised up by the power of God, through the instrumentality of the Elders of Israel ministering unto them in the name of Jesus Christ.

Monday and Tuesday, 22nd and 23rd.—The sick were administered unto with great success,[4] but many remain sick, and new cases are occurring daily.

{4} Discourses by the Brothers Pratt.

Sunday 28.—Meeting was held as usual. Elder Parley P. Pratt preached on the gathering of Israel. In the afternoon Orson Pratt addressed the Church on the necessity of keeping the commandments of God. I spoke, and admonished the members of the Church individually to set their houses in order, to make clean the inside of the platter, and to {5} meet on the next Sabbath to partake of the Sacrament, in order that by our obedience to the ordinances, we might be enabled to prevail with God against the destroyer, and that the sick might be healed.

All this week chiefly spent among the sick, who in general are gaining strength, and recovering health.

Prayer Meeting for the Sick.

Sunday, August 4.—The Church came together for prayer meeting and Sacrament. I exhorted the Church at length, concerning the necessity of being righteous, and clean at heart before the Lord. Many others also spoke; especially some of the Twelve, who were present, professed their willingness to proceed on their mission to Europe, without either purse or scrip. The Sacrament was administered; a spirit of humility and harmony prevailed, and the Church passed a resolution that the Twelve proceed on their mission as soon as possible, and that the Saints provide for their families during their absence.

Letter to Isaac Russell, reproving him for issuing pretended revelations to the Saints.

Commerce, Hancock County, Illinois, 5th August, 1839.

Dear Sir:—I have been requested to write you on behalf of the Twelve, who are just on the eve of their departure for England, and {6} inform you, that "this thing" which you have thought proper to write as a revelation "to the Church in Alston and the branches round about," to which you yourself administered, has "already come to the knowledge of the Churches" both here and elsewhere, and lest you should have any doubt concerning the fact, we send you a copy of your revelation to that Church.

I am sir, with all respect,

Yours truly,

James Mulholland.

P. S.—Isaiah chap. L, 10th and 11th verses.[5] In my own behalf I wish to state that I sincerely wish that it may soon come to pass that you, sir, and all our friends at Far West may perceive that you are walking in the light of a fire, and sparks that you have yourselves kindled; and that you may turn around and fear the Lord, obey the voice of His servant, and thereby escape the sentence, "Ye shall lie down in sorrow."

J. M.

To Mr. Isaac Russell, Far West, Missouri.

Conference in New Jersey.

Friday, 9.—A Conference was held at Brother Caleb Bennett's Monmouth County, New Jersey, Elder John P. Greene presiding. The New York and Brooklyn branches were represented by the President as being in good fellowship. There were represented at this conference the following branches, by Elder Ball, Shrewsbury, New Jersey, numbering twenty members; Montage, three; Minissink, New Hampshire, two; Albany, eight; Holliston, Massachusetts, sixteen; Elder Dunham represented Hamilton, Madison County, forty-six; Samuel James, Leechburg, Pennsylvania, forty.

Sunday, 11.—I attended meeting in the forenoon and heard a sermon by Parley P. Pratt. In the afternoon there was one baptized, and four were confirmed, namely, {7} Brother Hibbard, his wife, little son, and daughter. The Sacrament was administered.

This week I spent chiefly in visiting the sick; sickness much decreased.

Sunday, 18.—Rode out in the forenoon. Orson Pratt preached upon the order and plan of creation. Three were baptized.

Afternoon: Three confirmed and one ordained an Elder.

This week I spent chiefly among the sick. The Church made a purchase of eighty acres from William White for four thousand dollars, lying directly north of the Hugh White purchase.

Sunday, 25.—I attended meeting. Sickness decreasing.

Thursday, 29.—Elders Parley P. Pratt and family, Orson Pratt and Hiram Clark, started on their mission to England, in their own two-horse carriage—their route lying through Illinois, Indiana, and to Detroit, the capital of Michigan, situated near the head of Lake Erie, about five hundred and eighty miles distant.

Progress of the Work in England.

Saturday, 31.—The work is spreading in England. Elder Richards went to the Staffordshire potteries this day, and Presidents Joseph Fielding and William Clayton were visiting and setting in order many of the branches, and ordaining many to the ministry who are diligent in preaching as they have opportunity on the Sabbath in the surrounding villages.

Sunday, September 1.—I attended meeting, and spoke concerning some errors in Parley P. Pratt's writings. This week sickness much decreased.

Monday, 9, and the greater part of the week.—I spent in visiting the sick, and attending to the settlement of our new town.[6]


The Prophet's Letter to Isaac Galland.—Nauvoo Affairs.

Commerce, Illinois, 11th September, 1839.

Dear Brother Galland:—We have had the great pleasure of receiving your favor of the 24th July; and learning thereby that you and your family had arrived at Chillicothe in safety and in health. We perceive that you have had a rather narrow escape from a serious accident; and doubtless the hand of the Lord is to be acknowledged in the matter, although unperceived by mortal eye. Time and experience will teach us more and more how easily falsehood gains credence with mankind in general, rather than the truth; but especially in taking into consideration the plan of salvation. The plain simple order of the Gospel of Jesus Christ never has been discerned or acknowledged as the truth, except by a few—among whom were "not many wise men after the flesh, not many mighty, not many noble;" whilst the majority have contented themselves with their own private opinions, or have adopted those of others, according to their address, their philosophy, their formula, their policy, or their fineness may have attracted their attention, or pleased their taste. But, sir, of all the other criterions whereby we may judge of the vanity of these things, one will be always found true, namely, that we will always find such characters glorying in their own wisdom and their own works; whilst the humble Saint gives all the glory to God the Father, and to His Son Jesus Christ, whose yoke is easy and whose burden is light, and who told His disciples that unless they became like little children they could not enter the Kingdom of Heaven.

As to the situation of the Church here, matters go with us as well as can reasonably be expected; we have had considerable sickness amongst us, but very few deaths; and as the greater part are now recovering we yet hope to have shelters provided before the winter shall set in.

Since you left here, we have purchased out all Mr. Hotchkiss' interest hereabouts. His farm we have laid out as an addition to our town, Nauvoo, and the town of Commerce we also hope to build up.

Some of the Twelve and others have already started for Europe, and the remainder of that mission we expect will go now in a few days. According to intelligence received since you left, the work of the Lord rolls on in a very pleasing manner, both in this and in the old country. In England many hundreds have of late been added to our numbers; but so, even so, it must be, for "Ephraim he hath mixed himself among the people." And the Savior He hath said, "My sheep hear my voice;" and also, "He that heareth you, heareth me;" and, "Behold I will bring them again from the north country, and gather them from the coasts of the earth." And as John heard the voice saying, "Come out of her, {9} my people," even so must all be fulfilled; that the people of the Lord may live when "Babylon the great is fallen, is fallen."

There has quite a number of families gathered up here already; and we anticipate a continuance, especially as upon inquiry we have found that we have not had more than [the usual] ratio of sickness here, notwithstanding the trials we have had, and the hardships to which we have been exposed. Calculating as we do, upon the mercy and power of God in our behalf, we hope to persevere on in every good and useful work, even unto the end, that when we come to be tried in the balance we may not be found wanting.

With all good wishes and prayers for the temporal and eternal salvation of yourself and your family, as well as of all the honest in heart over the face of the earth,

We remain, sir, with sincerity,

Your friend and brother,

Joseph Smith, Jun.

Addressed to Isaac Galland, Esq., Kirtland, Geauga, County, Ohio.

Friday, 13.—I left home for Brother William Smith's place.

Brigham Young Starts on his Mission.

Saturday, 14.—President Brigham Young started from his home at Montrose, for England. His health was very poor; he was unable to go thirty rods to the river without assistance. After he had crossed the ferry he got Brother Israel Barlow to carry him on his horse behind him to Heber C. Kimball's where he remained sick until the 18th. He left his wife sick with a babe only ten days old, and all his children sick, unable to wait upon each other. I returned home this evening.

Sunday, 15.—I was visiting the sick.

Monday and Tuesday, 16 and 17.—Was engaged in arranging the town lots.

Departure of Elders Young and Kimball from Nauvoo.

Wednesday, 18.—Went to Burlington, Iowa Territory. Elders Young and Kimball left Sister Kimball and all her children sick, except little Heber;[7] went thirteen miles on their journey towards England, and were left at Brother Osmon M. Duel's, who {10} lived in a small cabin near the railway between Commerce and Warsaw. They were so feeble as to be unable to carry their trunks into the house without the assistance of Sister Duel, who received them kindly, prepared a bed for them to lie on, and made them a cup of tea.

Thursday, 19.—I Returned this evening from Burlington.

Brother Duel carried Elders Young and Kimball in his wagon to Lima, sixteen miles, where another brother received them and carried them to Father Mikesell's near Quincy, about twenty miles; the fatigue of this day was too much for their feeble health; they were prostrated, and obliged to tarry a few days to recruit.

Friday and Saturday, 20 and 21.—At home attending to domestic and Church business.

Elders George A. Smith, Reuben Hedlock, and Theodore Turley started for England, and upset their wagon on the bank of the river, before they got out of sight of Commerce. Elders Smith and Turley were so weak they could not get up, and Brother Hedlock had to lift them in again. Soon after, some gentlemen met them and asked who had been robbing the burying ground—so miserable was their appearance through sickness.

Sunday, 22.—I presided at the meeting, and spoke concerning the "other Comforter," as I had previously taught the Twelve.[8]

{11} This week I spent in transacting various business at home, except when visiting the sick, who are in general recovering, though some of them but slowly.

Wednesday, 25.—President Young went to Charles C. Rich's; 26th, to Brother Wilber's; 27th, Brother Wilber carried Elders Young and Kimball to Pittsfield.

Items of Doctrine—the Prophet.

Sunday, 29.—Held meeting at my own house. After others had spoken I spoke and explained concerning the uselessness of preaching to the world about great judgments, but rather to preach the simple Gospel. Explained concerning the coming of the Son of Man; also that it is a false idea that the Saints will escape all the judgments, whilst the wicked suffer; for all flesh is subject to suffer, and "the righteous shall hardly escape;" still many of the Saints will escape, for the just shall live by faith; yet many of the righteous shall fall a prey to disease, to pestilence, etc., by reason of the weakness of the flesh, and yet be saved in the Kingdom of God. So that it is an unhallowed principle to say that such and such have transgressed because they have been preyed upon by disease or death, for all flesh is subject to death; and the Savior has said, "Judge not, lest ye be judged."

Monday, 30.—The fore part of this week I was at home preparing for Conference. Elders Young and Kimball went to Brother Decker's and Mr. Murray's, Sister Kimball's father.

Tuesday, October 1.—Elders Young and Kimball went to Brother Lorenzo Young's.

Thursday, 3.—I was in counsel with the brethren.

Friday, 4.—Lorenzo Young carried Elders Young and Kimball to Jacksonville.

Saturday, 5.—The friends and brethren conveyed the Elders of the British Mission to Springfield, where they were kindly treated and nursed, for they were yet very feeble.

I attended a general conference of the Church of Jesus {12} Christ of Latter-day Saints at Commerce, Hancock County, Illinois, of which the following are the minutes:

Minutes of Conference at Commerce, Illinois, October 6th, 7th and 8th, 1839.

The meeting was opened by prayer by President Joseph Smith, Jun., after which he was appointed President, and James Sloan Clerk of the conference, by a unanimous voice of the meeting. The President then spoke at some length upon the situation of the Church; the difficulties they have had to contend with; and the manner in which they had been led to this place; and wanted to know the views of the brethren, whether they wished to appoint this a stake of Zion or not; stating that he believed it to be a good place, and suited for the Saints. It was then unanimously agreed upon that it should be appointed a stake and a place of gathering for the Saints.

The following officers were then appointed—namely, William Marks to be President; Bishop Whitney to be Bishop of middle ward; Bishop Partridge to be Bishop of upper ward; Bishop Knight to be Bishop of lower ward; George W. Harris, Samuel Bent, Henry G. Sherwood, David Fullmer, Alpheus Cutler, William Huntington, Thomas Grover, Newel Knight, Charles C. Rich, David Dort, Seymour Brunson, Lewis D. Wilson, to be the High Council; who being respectfully called upon accepted their appointment.

It was then voted that a stake of the Church be established on the west side of the river, in Iowa Territory; over which Elder John Smith was appointed President; Alanson Ripley, Bishop; and Asahel Smith, John M. Burk, Abraham O. Smoot, Richard Howard, Willard Snow, Erastus Snow, David Pettigrew, Elijah Fordham, Edward Fisher, Elias Smith, John Patten, Stephen Chase, were elected High Council. Don C. Smith was elected to be continued as President of the High Priesthood [High Priest's quorum]. Orson Hyde to stand in his former office, [an Apostle] and William Smith to be continued in his standing, [in the quorum of the Twelve.]

Letters were then read respecting the absence of members on account of ill health. It was voted that Harlow Redfield be suspended until he can have a trial; and in the meantime that he should not act as president of a branch, or preach.

Voted that John Daley, James Daley, and Milo Andrus retain their station in the Church. Voted that Ephraim Owen's confession for disobeying the Word of Wisdom be accepted.

Brothers Edward Johnston, Benjamin Johnston, Samuel Musick, John S. Fullmer, Jabez Lake, Benjamin Jones, Henry Our Bough, Reddin A. Allred, George W. Gee, Jesse McIntyre, James {13} Brown, Henry Miller, Artemas Johnson, Joseph G. Hovey, Robert D. Foster, Fields B. Jacaway, Zadok Bethers, William Allred, William B. Simmons, William W. Edwards, Sen., William H. Edwards, Jun., Hosea Stout, Thomas Rich, Allen J. Stout, Esaias Edwards, John Adams, Daniel Miller, Simeon J. Comfort, Graham Coltrin, William Hyde, Andrew Henry, Reddick N. Allred, Eli Lee, Hiram W. Mikesell and Thomas S. Edwards were appointed Elders of the Church, who all accepted of their appointment, with the exception of Thomas S. Edwards.

John Gaylord was admitted into the Church upon his confession. Abel Casto was confirmed by the laying on of hands.

The meeting then adjourned until Sunday morning; after which six were baptized by Joseph Smith, Jun. The assembly was very large.

The conference met on Sunday morning, the 6th, pursuant to adjournment at eight o'clock a. m., when Samuel Williams, Reuben Foot, Orlando D. Hovey, Tunis Rappleyee, Sheffield Daniels, Albert Milner, David B. Smith, Ebenezer Richardson, Pleasant Ewell, and William Helm were appointed Elders of the Church, and were ordained under the hands of Reynolds Cahoon, Seymour Brunson, Samuel Bent and Alpheus Cutler.

After some remarks from the President respecting order, and decorum during conference, Elder Lyman Wight spoke concerning the duties of Priests and Teachers. President Joseph Smith, Jun., then addressed the conference, in relation to appointing a Patriarch, and other matters connected with the well being of the Church.

Having now got through the business matters, the President proceeded to give instruction to the Elders respecting preaching the Gospel, and pressed upon them the necessity of getting the Spirit, so that they might preach with the Holy Ghost sent down from heaven; to be careful in speaking on those subjects which are not clearly pointed out in the word of God, which lead to speculation and strife.

Those persons who had been baptized, were then confirmed, and several children received blessings by Elders Cutler, Bent, and Brunson. Elder Lyman Wight then addressed the meeting on the subject of raising funds by contribution, towards paying for the lands which had been contracted for as a settlement for the Church, after which contributions were received for that purpose.

Judge Elias Higbee was appointed to accompany Presidents Joseph Smith, Jun., and Sidney Rigdon to the city of Washington.

The meeting then adjourned until Monday morning.

Conference met on Monday morning, October 7th, pursuant to adjournment.

The President spoke at some length to the Elders, and explained {14} many passages of Scripture. Elder Lyman Wight spoke on the subject of the resurrection, and other important subjects; when he offered the following resolution, which passed unanimously;

Resolved: That a new edition of Hymn Books be printed immediately, and that the one published by D. W. Rogers be utterly discarded by the Church.

Elder Ezra Hayes was then put upon trial for teaching doctrine injurious to the Church, and for falsehoods, which were proven against him; his license was taken from him, and he required to give satisfaction to those whom he had offended.

Charges having been preferred against Brother Rogers, it was agreed that the case be handed over to the High Council.

Asahel Perry made application to be received into fellowship, and was voted into his former standing.

After having referred the business not gone into, to the High Council, the President then returned thanks to the conference for their good attention and liberality, and having blessed them in the name of the Lord, the conference was dismissed.

The next conference was appointed to be held on the sixth day of April next.

Tuesday, 8.—After conference, this week I was mostly engaged in attending to the general affairs of the Church, and principally about home.

Friday, 11.—This evening, Elders Young, Kimball, George A. Smith, Hedlock, and Turley started from Springfield, traveled eight miles on their journey, and stayed with Father Draper.

Saturday, 12.—The Elders of the British Mission left Father Draper's and pursued their journey toward Terre Haute.

Death of John Young, Brigham Young's Father.

This day President Brigham Young's father, John Young, Sen., died at Quincy, Adams County, Illinois. He was in his seventy-seventh year, and a soldier of the Revolution. He was also a firm believer in the everlasting Gospel of Jesus Christ; and fell asleep under the influence of that faith that buoyed up his soul, in the pangs of death, to a glorious hope of immortality; fully testifying to all, that the religion he enjoyed in life was able to {15} support him in death. He was driven from Missouri with the Saints in the latter part of last year. He died a martyr to the religion of Jesus, for his death was caused by his sufferings in the cruel persecution.

Sunday, 13.—I attended meeting in the grove. The assembly was small on account of the cold weather.

Tuesday, 15.—In the afternoon I went to Quincy in company with Brother Hyrum Smith, John S. Fullmer, and Bishop Knight. Quite a number of families moving into Commerce.

Thursday, 17.—The brethren arrived at Terre Haute. Brothers Smith, Hedlock, and Turley stopped at Brother Nahum Milton Stow's.

Hardships of the Elders of the British Mission.

In the evening Doctor Modisett went down to see the brethren, and appeared to be very much affected to see them so sick, and having to lie upon the floor on a straw bed that had been put into the wagon at Springfield, by the brethren, for Elder Young to lie on, as he was not able to sit up when he left there. When the doctor returned home, he told Elders Young and Kimball, he could not refrain from shedding tears to see the brethren going upon such a long mission, and in such suffering circumstances. Elders Young and Kimball said they thought the doctor might have relieved them from "their suffering and indigent circumstances upon their long mission," for he told them in the course of the evening, that his taxes in that place amounted to over four hundred dollars, besides having other property to a great amount.

Elder Kimball was very sick; he stopped with Brother Young at Doctor Modisett's. In the evening Doctor Modisett gave Elder Kimball about forty drops of morphine, saying it would relieve him of his distress, and probably he would get a nap. In about fifteen minutes Brother Kimball complained of feeling very strange; he rose from his seat and would have fallen, but Brother Young caught him and gently eased him to the floor, where he {16} lay for some time; and it was by faith and the close attention of Brother Young and the family that his life was preserved through the night.

Friday, 18.—Brothers Smith, Hedlock, and Turley went on their journey.

Saturday, 19.—The High Council appointed for the Stake of the Church in Iowa, met at Asahel Smith's, Nashville, and organized; John Smith, President; Elias Smith, Clerk; Reynolds Cahoon and Lyman Wight were chosen Counselors to President John Smith, and approved by the Council. Council organized according to number.[9]

Minutes of the Nauvoo High Council, 20th October, 1839.

The members of the High Council elected at the October conference, met and organized at W. D. Huntington's, where Harlow Redfield was restored to fellowship; and voted that this High Council disfellowship any and all persons that shall hereafter carry over or ferry across the river, any people or freight to the injury of said ferry from Commerce to Montrose.

Voted that the Horse Boat be repaired from the moneys received on sale of lots in Nauvoo, and that D. C. Davis be master of said ferry boat for the ensuing year.

Voted that Joseph Smith, Jun., and his family be exempt from receiving in future such crowds of visitors as have formerly thronged his house; and that the same be published in the Times and Seasons.

Voted, that this Council disfellowship any and all persons who shall knowingly suffer and allow any animal (subject to their control) to destroy the crops, fruit, or plants of the earth belonging to any other person or persons, and to their injury, and that this resolution be published in the Times and Seasons.

Adjourned until tomorrow evening.

High Council met pursuant to adjournment, and voted that President Joseph Smith, Jun., go as a delegate to Washington; and that if he went he should have a recommend from the Council.

Voted that James Mulholland be Clerk for the land contracts, when needed by President Smith; that Joseph Smith, Jun., be treasurer of said Church, and James Mulholland sub-treasurer.

{17} Voted that Henry G. Sherwood should set the price upon, exhibit, contract and sell town lots in Nauvoo, when needed, and report his doings to Presidents Joseph Smith and Hyrum Smith, for their approval, and that five hundred dollars be the average price of lots, i. e., none less than two hundred dollars, nor more than eight hundred dollars.

Voted that the High Council meet every Sunday evening at Dimick Huntington's; that D. C. Davis have thirty dollars per month for his services as ferryman; and that these proceedings be published in the Times and Seasons.

[Signed] Henry G. Sherwood, Clerk.

Tuesday, 22.—Brother James Modisett took Elders Young and Kimball in his father's carriage and carried them twenty miles to the house of Brother Addison Pratt; from thence they were carried by Elder Almon W. Babbitt to Pleasant Garden, and put up with Brother Jonathan Crosby. Elder Almon Babbitt was preaching in that region with good success; he had baptized five.

Saturday, 26.—Brother Babbitt took Elders Young and Kimball ten miles on their way to Father Scott's.

King Follett, the last of the brethren in bonds in Missouri, had his trial and was set free some time previous to this day.

Sunday, 27.—John Scott took Elders Young and Kimball on their way fifteen miles, some part of it in the rain; they were yet very feeble, and put up at a tavern in Belville, and when the stage coach came along, took passage, and rode night and day to Willowby, near Kirtland.

The High Council of Nauvoo voted that the Clerk's fees of James Mulholland be thirty dollars per month; that the treasurer pay Vinson Knight one hundred and fifty dollars, for the Iowa side of the ferry at Montrose as per charter.

Voted, that Sister Emma Smith select and publish a hymn-book for the use of the Church, and that Brigham Young be informed of this action and he not publish the hymns taken by him from Commerce; and that the {18} Council assist in publishing a hymn-book and the Times and Seasons.

Monday, 28.—The High Council voted to build a stone house at Upper Commerce, to be used for boarding; that Elder Oliver Granger be requested to assist with funds to print the hymn-book; that Samuel Dent, Davison Hibbard, and David Dort be trustees for building the stone schoolhouse in contemplation; and that Alpheus Cutler and Jabez Durphy be the architects and building committee for said house.

Voted, to finish the office of President Joseph Smith, Jun.

Voted, that the recommends drawn by Elder Sherwood, recommending, constituting, and appointing Joseph Smith, Jun., Sidney Rigdon, and Elias Higbee, delegates for the Church, to importune the President and Congress of the United States for redress of grievances, be signed by this Council.


1. See pp. 573-4, current edition.

2. See pp. 565-567, current edition.

3. See History of the Church, Vol. III, pp. 167-8.

4. "In consequence of the persecutions of the Saints in Missouri, and the exposures to which they were subjected, many of them were taken sick soon after their arrival at Commerce, afterwards called Nauvoo; and as there was but a small number of dwellings for them to occupy, Joseph had filled his house and tent with them, and through constantly attending to their wants, he soon fell sick himself. After being confined to his house several days, and while meditating upon his situation, he had a great desire to attend to the duties of his office. On the morning of the 22nd of July, 1839, he arose from his bed and commenced to administer to the sick in his own house and door-yard, and he commanded them in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ to arise and be made whole; and the sick were healed upon every side of him.

"Many lay sick along the bank of the river; Joseph walked along up to the lower stone house, occupied by Sidney Rigdon, and he healed all the sick that lay in his path. Among the number was Henry G. Sherwood, who was nigh unto death. Joseph stood in the door of his tent and commanded him in the name of Jesus Christ to arise and come out of his tent, and he obeyed him and was healed. Brother Benjamin Brown and his family also lay sick, the former appearing to be in a dying condition. Joseph healed them in the name of the Lord. After healing all that lay sick upon the bank of the river as far as the stone house, he called upon Elder Kimball and some others to accompany him across the river to visit the sick at Montrose. Many of the saints were living at the old military barracks. Among the number were several of the Twelve. On his arrival the first house he visited was that occupied by Elder Brigham Young, the President of the Quorum of the Twelve, who lay sick. Joseph healed him, then he arose and accompanied the Prophet on his visit to others who were in the same condition. They visited Elder Wilford Woodruff, also Elders Orson Pratt, and John Taylor, all of whom were living in Montrose. They also accompanied him.

"The next place they visited was the home of Elijah Fordham, who was supposed to be about breathing his last. When the company entered the room, the Prophet of God walked up to the dying man and took hold of his right hand and spoke to him; but Brother Fordham was unable to speak, his eyes were set in his head like glass, and he seemed entirely unconscious of all around him. Joseph held his hand and looked into his eyes in silence for a length of time. A change in the countenance of Brother Fordham was soon perceptible to all present. His sight returned, and upon Joseph asking him if he knew him, he, in a low whisper, answered 'Yes.' Joseph asked him if he had faith to be healed. He answered, 'I fear it is too late; if you had come sooner I think I would have been healed.' The Prophet said 'Do you believe in Jesus Christ?' He answered in a feeble voice, 'I do.' Joseph then stood erect, still holding his hand in silence several moments; Then he spoke in a very loud voice, saying, 'Brother Fordham, I command you, in the name of Jesus Christ, to arise from this bed and be made whole.' His voice was like the voice of God, and not of man. It seemed as though the house shook to its very foundations. Brother Fordham arose from his bed, and was immediately made whole. His feet were bound in poultices which he kicked off; then putting on his clothes he ate a bowl of bread and milk and followed the Prophet into the street.

"The company next visited Brother Joseph Bates Noble, who lay very sick. He also was healed by the Prophet. By this time the wicked became alarmed and followed the company into Brother Noble's house. After Noble was healed, all kneeled down to pray. Brother Fordham was mouth, and while praying he fell to the floor. The Prophet arose, and on looking around he saw quite a number of unbelievers in the house, whom he ordered out. When the room was cleared of the wicked, Brother Fordham came to and finished his prayer.

"After healing the sick in Montrose, all the company followed Joseph to the bank of the river, where he was going to take the boat to return home. While waiting for the boat, a man from the West, who had seen that the sick and dying were healed, asked Joseph if he would not go to his house and heal two of his children who were very sick. They were twins and were three months old. Joseph told the man he could not go, but he would send some one to heal them. He told Elder Woodruff to go with the man and heal his children. At the same time he took from his pocket a silk bandanna handkerchief, and gave to Brother Woodruff, telling him to wipe the faces of the children with it, and they should be healed; and remarked at the same time: 'As long as you keep that handkerchief it shall remain a league between you and me.' Elder Woodruff did as he was commanded, and the children were healed, and he keeps the handkerchief to this day.

"There were many sick whom Joseph could not visit, so he counseled the Twelve to go and visit and heal them, and many were healed under their hands. On the day following that upon which the above-described events took place, Joseph sent Elders George A. and Don Carlos Smith up the river to heal the sick. They went up as far as Ebenezer Robinson's—one or two miles—and did as they were commanded, and the sick were healed." Leaves from my Journal, (Wilford Woodruff) Ch. XIX.

5. "Who is among you that feareth the Lord, that obeyeth the voice of His servant, that walketh in darkness, and hath no light? Let him trust in the name of the Lord, and stay upon his God.

"Behold, all ye that kindle a fire, that compass yourselves about with sparks. Walk in the light of your fire, and in the sparks that ye have kindled. This shall ye have of mine hand; ye shall lie down in sorrow."

6. This has reference to the Hotchkiss purchase which had just recently been laid out as part of the rapidly growing town of Nauvoo. It constituted the north west part of the city, extending some distance along the river front, and back on to the height of land overlooking the river bottom.

7. The departure of these two Elders upon their mission to England is worthy of a more extended notice. A brother by the name of Charles Hubbard sent a boy with a team to take them a day's journey on their way. Elder Kimball left his wife in bed shaking with ague, and all his children sick. It was only by the assistance of some of the brethren that Heber himself could climb into the wagon. "It seemed to me," he remarked afterwards in relating the circumstance, "as though my very inmost parts would melt within me at the thought of leaving my family in such a condition, as it were, almost in the arms of death. I felt as though I could scarcely endure it." "Hold up!" said he to the teamster, who had just started, "Brother Brigham, this is pretty tough, but let us rise and give them a cheer." Brigham, with much difficulty, rose to his feet, and joined Elder Kimball in swinging his hat and shouting, "Hurrah, hurrah, hurrah, for Israel!" The two sisters, hearing the cheer came to the door—sister Kimball with great difficulty—and waved a farewell; and the two apostles continued their journey, without purse, without scrip, for England.

8. See vol. III, pp. 379-381.

9. That is to say, to quote from the revelation establishing the High Council—"Whenever an High Council of the church is regularly organized, * * * it shall be the duty of the Twelve Counselors to cast lots by numbers and thereby ascertain, who of the Twelve shall speak first, commencing with number one, and so in succession to number twelve."—Doctrine and Covenants, Section cii.



The Prophet's Journey to Washington—The Petition of the Saints to the Congress of the United States for Redress of the Wrongs Inflicted upon Them in Missouri.

Departure of the Prophet for Washington.

Tuesday, 29.—I left Nauvoo accompanied by Sidney Rigdon, Elias Higbee, and Orrin P. Rockwell, in a two-horse carriage for the city of Washington, to lay before the Congress of the United States, the grievances of the Saints while in Missouri. We passed through Carthage, and stayed at Judge Higbee's over night, and the next day we arrived at Quincy.

Thursday, 31.—We tarried at Quincy to complete the necessary papers for our mission. Elder Rigdon was sick.

Friday, November 1.—We pursued our journey towards Springfield, Illinois, and put up with Brother Wilber, where we found Doctor Robert D. Foster, who administered to Elder Rigdon.

Saturday, 2.—Continued our journey, and during the day put up with a friend on the bank of the Illinois river, so that Dr. Foster, who accompanied us so far for that purpose, might administer medicine to Elder Rigdon again.

Sunday, 3.—Continued our journey and staid with a friend over night. Dr. Foster continued to accompany us.

Progress of the Twelve towards England.

Elders Young and Kimball arrived at Cleveland, Ohio, {20} about 1 o'clock in the morning; and while waiting for the stage until about noon, Elders Smith, Turley, and Hedlock, who left them at Terre Haute, drove up, having picked up Elder Taylor by the way, he having been left sick by his company in the east part of Indiana. They were in good health, compared with what they had been, and in fine spirits. George A. Smith tarried in Cleveland till the next day, to visit his relatives. Brothers Young, Kimball, Taylor, and Turley rode in the stage, and Brother Hedlock and Mr. Murray in their wagon to Willoughby, and from thence they all rode into Kirtland together.

Canadian Saints En Route for Nauvoo.

Monday, 4.—We arrived at Springfield, and put up with Brother John Snider. When within one mile of the city, we met William Law[1] and company with seven wagons from Canada, who returned with us to Springfield, and tarried while we did, until the 8th. I preached several times while here. General James Adams,[2] judge of probate, heard of me, sought me out, and took me home with him, and treated me like a father.

President Brigham Young and his brother John visited their sister, Mrs. Kent.

There was some division of sentiment among the Kirtland brethren.

{21} Thursday, 7.—The High Council of Iowa completed their organization at Elijah Fordham's, at Montrose.

Friday, 8.—We started from Springfield. Dr. Foster having concluded to continue on the journey on account of Elder Rigdon's health, which was still quite poor. We pursued our journey through Indiana towards Columbus, Ohio. The traveling was bad, and our progress slow.

Sunday, 10.—Elder Taylor preached in the forenoon, and Elder Kimball in the afternoon, in the House of the Lord at Kirtland.

Thursday, 14.—Elder Orson Hyde left Commerce, Illinois, intending to go east as far as Philadelphia. He had just begun to recover from a four months' illness of fever and ague.

Elder Taylor Anointed in the Kirtland Temple.

Sunday, 17.—President Young preached in the House of the Lord in the forenoon, and John Taylor in the afternoon. In the evening, President Brigham Young anointed Elder John Taylor in the House of the Lord, and Elder Daniel S. Miles anointed Theodore Turley, all of which was sealed with the shout of Hosanna.

Monday, 18.—President Young visited Brother R. Potter at Newbury, and returned on Tuesday to Kirtland.

About this time we had arrived near Columbus, where the roads were so bad, Elder Rigdon's health so poor, and the time so fast approaching when it was necessary for the committee to be in Washington, that I started in the stage with Judge Higbee on the most expeditious route to Washington City, leaving Brothers Rockwell, Rigdon, and Foster, to come on at their leisure in the carriage.

Elder Brigham Young and company went to Fairport, where they waited for a steamboat until Tuesday.

Elder Parley P. Pratt and company sold their horses and carriage at Detroit, and went on to New York City by steamboats, the canal and railway.

From New York, Elder Parley P. Pratt wrote me on {22} the 22nd, directed to Commerce, from which I quote the following:

Excerpt from Parley P. Pratt's Letter to the Prophet.

The churches in these parts are prospering greatly, and are firm in the faith, and increasing in numbers continually. The Church in New York and Brooklyn now numbers from one hundred and fifty to two hundred members, and additions are being made every week. A general conference was held in this city on Tuesday and Wednesday of this week. Elders present: Orson Pratt, Wilford Woodruff, Samuel James, Benjamin Winchester, Elders Foster, Layne, Jenks, Brown, Benedict, and myself. Priests present: Addison Everett, Birge, and Vanvelver. Many branches of the Church in the region round about were represented; several hundred members in all, and the numbers still increasing. Great opportunities are open for preaching, and crowded houses are the order of the day.

I have also received letters from Maine and from Michigan, with joyful accounts of the spread of the work of the Lord. You would now find churches of the Saints in Philadelphia, in Albany, in Brooklyn, in New York, in Jersey, in Pennsylvania, on Long Island, and in various other places all around us. Our New York meetings are now held three times every Sabbath in Columbia Hall, Grand Street, a few doors east of the Bowery; it is very central, and one of the best places in the city; it will hold nearly a thousand people, and is well filled with attentive hearers. Brother Winchester has a good hall well fitted up in Philadelphia, where stated meetings are held—several every week, with crowded audiences.

In short the truth is spreading more rapidly than ever before, in every direction, far and near. There is a great call for our books. I am now reprinting the Voice of Warning, The History of the Missouri Persecution, and my Poems. There is a great call for hymn-books, but none to be had. I wish Sister Smith would add to the old collection such new ones as is best, and republish them immediately. If means and facilities are lacking in the west, send it here, and it shall be nicely done for her; and at least one thousand would immediately sell in these parts wholesale and retail. The Book of Mormon is not to be had in this part of the vineyard for love or money; hundreds are wanting in various parts hereabouts, but there is truly a famine in that respect.

The conference took into consideration the pressing calls for this book, and have appointed a committee to raise means for the publication of the same, and also to publish it if we can obtain leave from you, who hold the copyright. Any hymn-book which Sister Smith or the Church will favor us with, shall also be published on similar conditions.

Parley P. Pratt.

{23} [Sidenote: First Issue of the "Times and Seasons."]

Some time this month the first number of the Times and Seasons, a monthly religious paper, in pamphlet form, was published at Commerce, Hancock County, Illinois, by my brother Don Carlos Smith and Ebenezer Robinson, under the firm name of Robinson & Smith, Publishers.

Tuesday, 26.—At one in the afternoon, Elder Brigham Young and company went on board the steamer Columbus, at Fairport, and went on towards Buffalo.

The Elements Obey.

Wednesday, 27.—About 1 o'clock this morning the wind arose, when Elder Brigham Young went on deck, prayed to the Father in the name of Jesus, when he felt to command the wind and the waves to cease, and permit them to proceed on their journey in safety. The winds abated, and he gave glory, honor, and praise to the God who rules all things. Arriving in Buffalo in the morning, they took the stage for Batavia.

The Prophet's Adventure En Route to Washington.

While on the mountains some distance from Washington, our coachman stepped into a public house to take his grog, when the horses took fright and ran down the hill at full speed. I persuaded my fellow travelers to be quiet and retain their seats, but had to hold one woman to prevent her throwing her infant out of the coach. The passengers were exceedingly agitated, but I used every persuasion to calm their feelings; and opening the door, I secured my hold on the side of the coach the best way I could, and succeeded in placing myself in the coachman's seat, and reining up the horses, after they had run some two or three miles, and neither coach, horses, or passengers received any injury. My course was spoken of in the highest terms of commendation, as being one of the most daring and heroic deeds, and no language could express the gratitude of the passengers, when they found themselves safe, and the horses quiet. There were some members of Congress with us, who proposed naming the incident to that body, believing they would reward such {24} conduct by some public act; but on inquiring my name, to mention as the author of their safety, and finding it to be Joseph Smith the "Mormon Prophet," as they called me, I heard no more of their praise, gratitude, or reward.

Thursday, 28.—I arrived in Washington City this morning, and put up at the corner of Missouri and Third streets.

This evening, Elder Brigham Young and company (except Elder Kimball, who stopped at Byron to visit his sister) rode to Rochester in the steam cars, and from thence rode all night in a horse coach, and arrived at ten in the morning on Friday, 29th, at Auburn, New York. Elders Taylor and Turley proceeded on their way to New York.

The following is a copy of our petition to Congress for redress of our Missouri grievances:

The Saint's Petition to Congress.

To the Honorable the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled:

Your petitioners, Joseph Smith, Sidney Rigdon, and Elias Higbee, would most respectfully represent, that they have been delegated, by their brethren and fellow-citizens, known as "Latter-day Saints" (commonly called Mormons), to prepare and present to you a statement of their wrongs, and a prayer for their relief, which they now have the honor to submit to the consideration of your Honorable Body.

In the summer of 1831, a portion of the society above-named commenced a settlement in the county of Jackson, in the state of Missouri. The individuals making that settlement had emigrated from almost every state in the Union to the lovely spot in the Far West, with the hope of improving their condition, of building houses for themselves and posterity, and of erecting temples, where they and theirs might worship their Creator according to the dictates of their conscience. Though they had wandered far from the homes of their childhood, still they had been taught to believe, that a citizen born in any one state in this great Republic, might remove to another and enjoy all the rights and immunities of citizens of the state of his adoption—that wherever waved the American flag, beneath its stars and stripes an American citizen might look for protection and justice, for liberty in person and in conscience.

{25} They bought farms, built houses, and erected churches. Some tilled the earth, others bought and sold merchandise, and others again toiled as mechanics. They were industrious and moral, and they prospered, and though often persecuted and vilified for their difference in religious opinion from their fellow citizens, they were happy; they saw their society increasing in numbers, their farms teemed with plenty, and they fondly looked forward to a future, big with hope. That there was prejudice against them, they knew; that slanders were propagated against them, they deplored; yet they felt that these were unjust; and hoped that time, and uprightness of life, would enable them to outlive them. While the summer of peace, happiness, and hope shone over the infant settlement of the Saints, the cloud was gathering, unseen by them, that bore in its bosom the thunderbolt of destruction.

On the 20th of July, 1833, around their peaceful village a mob gathered, to the surprise and terror of the quiet "Mormons"—why, they knew not; they had broken no law, they had harmed no man, in deed or thought. Why they were thus threatened, they knew not. Soon a committee from the mob called upon the leading "Mormons" of the place; they announced that the store, the printing office, and the shops must be closed, and that forthwith every "Mormon" must leave the county. The message was so terrible, so unexpected, that the "Mormons" asked time for deliberation and consultation, which being refused, the brethren were severally asked, "Are you willing to abandon your home?" The reply was, "We will not go;" which determination being reported to the committee of the mob, one of them replied that he was sorry, for said he, "The work of destruction must now begin." No sooner said than it was done. The printing office, a two story brick building, was assailed by the mob and torn down, and, with its valuable appurtenances, destroyed. They next proceeded to the store with a like purpose. Its owner in part, Mr. Gilbert, agreed to close it, and they delayed their purpose.

They then proceeded to the dwelling of Mr. Partridge, the beloved Bishop of the Church there, dragged him and his family to the public square, where, surrounded by hundreds, they partly stripped him of his clothing, and tarred and feathered him from head to foot. A man by the name of Allen was at the same time treated in a similar manner. The mob then dispersed with an agreement to meet again on the next Tuesday, the above outrages having been committed on Saturday.

Tuesday came, and with it came the mob, bearing a red flag, in token of blood. They proceeded to the houses of Isaac Morley, and others of the leading men, and seized them, telling them to bid their families farewell, that they would never see them again. They were then driven at the point of the bayonet to the jail, and there, amid the jeers and {26} insults of the crowd, they were thrust into prison, to be kept as hostages; in case any of the mob should be killed, they were to die to pay for it. Here some two or three of the "Mormons" offered to surrender up their lives, if that would satisfy the fury of the mob, and purchase peace and security for their unoffending brethren, their helpless wives and children. The reply of the mob was, that the "Mormons" must leave the county en masse, or that every man should be put to death.

The "Mormons," terrified and defenseless, then entered into an agreement to leave the county—one half by the first of January, the other half by the first of April next ensuing. This treaty being made and ratified, the mob dispersed. Again, for a time, the persecuted "Mormons" enjoyed a respite from their persecutions; but not long was the repose permitted them.

Some time in the month of October, a meeting was held at Independence, at which it was determined to remove the "Mormons" or die. Inflammatory speeches were made, and one of the speakers swore he would remove the "Mormons" from the county if he had to wade up to his neck in blood.

Be it remarked that up to this time, the "Mormons" had faithfully observed the treaty, and were guilty of no offense against the laws of the land, or of society, but were peaceably following the routine of their daily duties.

Shortly after the meeting above referred to, another persecution commenced; some of the "Mormons" were shot at, others were whipped, their houses were assailed with brickbats, broken open, and thrown down; their women and children were insulted; and thus for many weeks, without offense, without resistance, by night and by day, were they harassed, insulted, and oppressed.

There is a point beyond which endurance ceases to be a virtue. The worm when trampled upon will turn upon its oppressor. A company of about thirty "Mormons" fell in with twice that number of the mob engaged in the destruction of "Mormon" property, when a battle ensued, in which one "Mormon" was killed, and two or three of the mob; acting in concert with the officer who commanded the mob, was Lilburn W. Boggs, Lieutenant-Governor of the state of Missouri. When the noise of the battle was spread abroad, the public mind became much inflamed. The militia collected in arms from all quarters, and in great numbers, inflamed to fury. They demanded that the "Mormons" should surrender up all their arms, and immediately quit the county. Compelled by overpowering numbers, the "Mormons" submitted. They surrendered up fifty-one guns, which have never been returned, or paid for.

The next day, parties of the mob went from house to house, {27} threatening women and children with death, if they did not immediately leave their homes. Imagination cannot paint the terror which now pervaded the "Mormon" community. The weather was intensely cold, and women and children abandoned their homes and fled in every direction without sufficient clothing to protect them from the piercing cold. Women gave birth to children in the woods and on the prairies. One hundred and twenty women and children, for the space of ten days, with only three or four men in the company, concealed themselves in the woods in hourly expectation and fear of massacre, until they finally escaped into Clay county. The society of "Mormons" after the above disturbances, removed to the county of Clay, where they were kindly received by the inhabitants, and their wants administered to by their charity.

In the meantime the houses of the "Mormons" in the county of Jackson, amounting to about two hundred, were burned down or otherwise destroyed by the mob, as well as much of their crops, furniture, and stock.

The damage done to the property of the "Mormons" by the mob in the county of Jackson as above related, as near as they can ascertain, would amount to the sum of one hundred and seventy-five thousand dollars. The number of "Mormons" thus driven from the county of Jackson amounted to about twelve hundred souls. For the property thus destroyed they have never been paid.

After the expulsion of the "Mormons" from the county of Jackson as above related, they removed to and settled in the county of Clay. They there purchased out some of the former inhabitants, and entered at the land office wild lands offered for sale by the General Government. The most of them became freeholders, owning each an eighty or more of land.

The "Mormons" lived peaceably in the county of Clay for about three years, and all that time increased rapidly in numbers, by emigration, and also in wealth by their industry. After they had resided in that county about three years, the citizens not connected with them began to look upon them with jealousy and alarm. Reports were again put in circulation against them: public meetings were held in the counties of Clay and Jackson, at which violent resolutions were passed against the "Mormons," and rumors of mobs began again to spread alarm among the "Mormons." At this juncture the "Mormons" desirous of avoiding all conflict with their fellow-citizens, and anxious to preserve the peace and harmony of the society around them, as well as their own, deputized a committee of their leading men to make terms of peace with their fellow-citizens of Clay county. An interview took place between them and a committee of citizens, at which it was agreed that {28} the "Mormons" should leave the county of Clay, and that the citizens of Clay county should buy their lands.

These terms were complied with. The "Mormons" removed to and settled in the county of Caldwell, and the citizens never paid them value for their lands. Many received nothing at all for their land. The "Mormons," by this removal, sacrificed much both of money and feeling, but the sacrifice was made upon the altar of duty, for the peace of the community.

Your Memorialists would beg here to give what they believe a just explanation of the causes of the prejudice and persecution against the "Mormons" related above, and which will follow. That there might have been some unworthy members among them, cannot be denied; but many aver that as a community they were as moral, as upright, and as observant of the laws of the land as any body of people in the world. Why then this prejudice and persecution? An answer they trust will be found in the fact that they were a body of people distinct from their fellow-citizens, in religious opinions, in their habits, and in their associations. They were numerous enough to make the power of their numerical and moral force a matter of anxiety and dread to the political and religious parties by which they were surrounded; which arose not from what the "Mormons" had done, but from the fear of what they might do.

In addition, the "Mormons" have purchased of the settlers, or of the Government, or obtained by pre-emption, the best lands in all those regions of the state; and at the times of speculation, the cupidity of many was aroused to possess those lands by driving off the "Mormons," and taking forcible possession, or constraining them to sell, through fear and coercion, at a price merely nominal.

After the "Mormons" removed from Clay county, they settled in the county of Caldwell as aforesaid.

Your Memorialists do not deem it necessary for their purpose, to detail the history of the progress, the cares, and anxieties of the "Mormons," from the time they settled in Caldwell in the year 1836 until the fall of the year 1838. They would, however, state, that during all that time they deported themselves as good citizens, obeying the laws of the land, and the moral and religious duties enjoined by their faith. That there might have been some faithless among the faithful is possible. They would not deny that there might have been some who were a scandal to their brethren; and what society, they would ask, has not some unworthy members? Where is the sect, where the community, in which there cannot be found some who trample under foot the laws of God and man? They believe the "Mormon" community to have as few such as any other association, religious or political. Within {29} the above period the "Mormons" continued to increase in wealth and numbers, until in the fall of the year 1838 they numbered about fifteen thousand souls.

They purchased of the Government, or of the citizens, or held by pre-emption, almost all the lands in the county of Caldwell, and a portion of the lands in Daviess and Carroll. The county of Caldwell was settled almost entirely by "Mormons," and "Mormons" were rapidly filling up the counties of Daviess and Caldwell. When they first commenced settling in those counties, there were but few settlements made there; the lands were wild and uncultivated. In the fall of 1838 large farms had been made, well improved and stocked. Lands had risen in value, and sold for from ten dollars to twenty-five dollars [per acre]. The improvement and settlement had been such that it was a common remark that the county of Caldwell would soon be the wealthiest in the state.

Thus stood their affairs in the fall of 1838, when the storm of persecution again raged over the heads of the "Mormons," and the fierce demon of the mob drove them forth houseless and homeless, and penniless, upon the charities of the world, which to them, thank God! have been like angels' visits, but not few, or far between. This last persecution began at an election, which was held in Daviess county on the first Monday of August, 1838. A "Mormon" went to the polls to vote. One of the mob standing by, opposed his voting, contending that a "Mormon" had no more right to vote than a negro; one angry word brought on another, and blows followed. They are, however, happy to state that the "Mormon" was not the aggressor, but was on the defensive: others interfered, not one alone, but many assailed the "Mormon." His brethren, seeing him thus assailed by numbers, rushed to the rescue; then came others of the mob, until finally a general row commenced. The "Mormons" were victorious. The next day, a rumor reached the "Mormons" of Caldwell, that two of their brethren had been killed in this fight, and a refusal had been made to surrender their bodies for burial. Not knowing at the time that this rumor was false, they became much excited, and several of them started for Daviess county, where they arrived next morning, with a view of giving the brethren, whom they supposed to have been killed, a decent interment. Among the citizens this fight produced a great excitement. They held a public meeting and resolved to drive the "Mormons" from the county. Individuals began also to threaten the "Mormons" as a body, and swear that they should leave the county in three days. When the "Mormons" who had gone from Caldwell to Daviess, aforesaid, arrived there, they found this state of excitement to exist. They also heard that a large mob was collecting against them, headed by Adam Black one of the judges of the county court of Daviess county.

{30} Under these circumstances, and with a view to allay the excitement, they called on Mr. Black, and inquired of him whether the reports they had heard in relation to him were true. Upon his denying them to be true, they then requested him to give that denial in writing, which he freely did. This writing they published with a view of calming the public mind, and allaying the excitement. Having done this, they rested in quiet for some time after, hoping that their efforts would produce the desired effect. Their surprise can, under these circumstances, be easily imagined, when a short time after, they learned that said Black had gone before Judge King, and made oath that he was forced to sign the instrument, by armed "Mormons," and procured a warrant for the arrest of Joseph Smith, Jun., and Lyman Wight, which was placed in the hands of the sheriff. It was also reported that the said individuals had refused to surrender themselves, and that an armed force was collecting to come and take them.

Your Memoralists aver that the sheriff had never made any efforts to serve the writ, and that the said Smith and Wight, so far from making any resistance, did not know that such a writ had been issued, until they learned it first by report as above related. In the meantime the rumor had run over the whole country, that the "Mormons" were compelling individuals to sign certain instruments in writing, and that they were resisting the process of the law. The public mind became much inflamed, and the mob began to collect from all quarters and in large numbers, with pretensions of assisting the sheriff to serve the process; and here let it be observed in passing, that Adam Black had sold the improvement and pre-emption claim on which he then resided, to the "Mormons," received his pay for the same, and that through his instrumentality the "Mormons" were driven off, and he now retains both their money and the improvement.

As soon as the above reports reached the ears of the said Smith and Wight, they determined immediately upon the course they ought to pursue, which was to submit to the laws. They both surrendered themselves up to Judge King, underwent a trial, and in the absence of all sufficient testimony they were discharged. They hoped that this voluntary submission of theirs to the law, and their triumphant vindication of the charge, would allay the excitement of the community. But not so; the long-desired opportunity had arrived when the oppression and extermination of the "Mormons" might be made to assume the form of legal proceeding. The mob that had assembled for the pretended purpose of assisting the officers in the execution of process, did not disperse upon the acquittal of Smith and Wight, but continued embodied with the encampments and forms of a military force, and committing depredations upon "Mormon" property. The "Mormons" in this extremity {31} called upon the laws of the land, and the officers of the law, for protection. After much delay, the militia under Generals Atchison, Doniphan, and Parks, were sent to their relief. They arrived on the 13th of September, and encamped between the "Mormons" and the mob.

The above officers made no attempt to disperse the mob, excusing themselves by saying, "that their own men had sympathies with the mob." After remaining there for several days, those officers adopted the following expedient of settling the difficulties—they mustered the mob, and enrolled them with their own troops, and then disbanded the whole, with orders to seek their several homes. The officers went home, excepting Parks, who remained for their protection, with his men.

The "Mormons" made an agreement with the citizens of Daviess, to buy out their lands and pre-emption rights, and appointed a committee to make the purchase, and to go on buying till they had purchased to the amount of twenty-five thousand dollars. While these purchases were going on, the citizens were heard to say, that as soon as they had sold out to the "Mormons" and received their pay, they would drive the "Mormons" off, and keep both their lands and the money.

The mob, when disbanded in Daviess by the generals as aforesaid, instead of repairing to their homes as commanded, proceeded in a body to the adjoining county of Carroll, and encamped around Dewitt, a village built and inhabited by "Mormons;" while thus encamped around Dewitt, they sent to the county of Jackson, and procured a cannon. They invested the place so closely, that no person could leave the town in safety; when they did so, they were fired upon by the mob. The horses of the "Mormons" were stolen, and their cattle killed. The citizens of Dewitt, amounting to about seventy families, were in great extremity, and worn out by want and sickness. In their extremity they made application to Governor Boggs for protection and relief; but no protection, no relief was granted them. When reduced to the last extremity, no alternative was left them, but to seek protection by flight, and the abandonment of their homes. Accordingly, on the evening of the 11th of October, 1838, they retreated from Dewitt, and made their way to the counties of Daviess and Caldwell, leaving many of their effects in the possession of the mob.

Your Memorialists will not detail the horrors and sufferings of such a flight, when shared with women and children. They might detail many. One lady, who had given birth to a child just before the flight commenced, died on the road and was buried without a coffin. Many others, sick, worn out, starved, deprived of medical aid, died upon the road. The remnant of "Mormons" from Dewitt arrived in Daviess and Caldwell, and found a short relief and supply of their wants from their friends and brethren there.

{32} After the abandonment of Dewitt, and the flight of the "Mormons" from Carroll, one Sashiel Woods addressed the mob, advising them to take their cannon and march to the county of Daviess, and drive the "Mormons" from that county, and seize upon their lands and other property, saying that the "Mormons" could get no benefit of the law, as they had recently seen. They then commenced their march from Carroll to Daviess, carrying with them the cannon which they had received from Jackson. On their way they captured two "Mormons," made them ride on the cannon, and taunted them as they went along, telling them that they were going to drive the "Mormons" from Daviess to Caldwell, and from Caldwell to hell; and that they should find no quarters but at the cannon's mouth. The mob at this time was reported to number about four hundred strong.

The "Mormons" in these distresses, in pursuance of the laws of Missouri, made application to Judge King, the circuit judge of that circuit, for protection, and for the aid of the officers of the law to protect them. Judge King, as they have been informed, and believe, gave an order to Major General David R. Atchison to call out the militia to protect the "Mormons" against the fury of the mob. General Atchison thereupon gave orders to Brigadiers Parks and Doniphan. In pursuance of these orders issued as aforesaid, on the 18th of October, 1838, General Doniphan arrived at Far West, a "Mormon" village in the county of Caldwell, with a small company of militia. After he had been at Far West two days, General Doniphan disbanded his company, alleging to the "Mormons," as his reason for so doing, that his company had the same feelings as the mob, and that he could not rely upon them. In a short time General Parks arrived at Far West, and also disbanded his company. At this time the mob was marching from Carroll to Daviess. General Doniphan, while at Far West, directed the "Mormons" to raise a company to protect themselves, telling them that one Cornelius Gilliam was raising a mob to destroy their town, and also advising them to place out guards to watch the motions of the mob. He also directed them to raise a company and send them to Daviess, to aid their brethren there against the mob which was marching down upon them from Carroll. This the "Mormons" did; they mustered a company of about sixty men, who proceeded to Diahman. When General Parks arrived at Far West as aforesaid, and learned that General Doniphan had disbanded his men he expressed great dissatisfaction. The same evening on which General Parks disbanded his company as aforesaid, he proceeded to Diahman, in order to learn what the mob were doing there, and if possible to protect the "Mormons."

When General Parks had arrived in Daviess, he found that the mob had commenced its operations there, which was on the 20th of October, 1838. {33} They commenced by burning the house of a man [Don Carlos Smith] who had gone to Tennessee on business, and left his wife at home with two small children. When the house was burned down, the wife and two small children were left in the snow, and she had to walk three miles before she could find a shelter, carrying her two children all that distance, and had to wade Grand River, which was three feet deep. The mob on the same evening burned seven other houses, burning and destroying all the property that they thought proper. The next morning, Colonel Lyman Wight, an officer in the militia, inquired of General Parks, what was to be done, as he now saw the course the mob was determined to pursue. General Parks replied that he (Wight) should take a company of men and give the mob battle, and that he would be responsible for the act, saying that they could have no peace with the mob, until they had given them a scourging.

On the next morning, in obedience to this order, David W. Patten was despatched with one hundred men under his command to meet the mob as they were advancing from Carroll, with directions to protect the citizens, and collect and bring into Far West such of the "Mormons" as were scattered through the county, and unprotected, and if the mob interfered, he must fight them. The company under the command of Patten was the same, in part, that had gone from Far West by the order of General Doniphan to protect the citizens of Daviess. As Patten went in the direction of the mob, they fled before him, leaving their cannon, which Patten took possession of. The mob dispersed. Patten with his men then returned to Daviess county. Patten in a few days after returned to Far West. It was now supposed that the difficulties were at an end. But contrary to expectation, on the evening of the 23rd of October, messengers arrived at Far West and informed the citizens that a body of armed men had made their appearance in the south part of the county, and that they were burning houses, destroying property, and threatening the "Mormon" citizens with death, unless they left the county the next morning by 10 o'clock, or renounced their religion.

About midnight another messenger arrived with news of the like tenor. Patten collected about sixty men and proceeded to the scene of the disturbance, to protect if possible the lives and property of the "Mormon" citizens. On his arrival at the neighborhood where the first disturbance had commenced, he found that the mob had gone to another neighborhood to prosecute their acts of plunder and outrage. He marched a short distance and unexpectedly came upon the encampment of the mob. The guards of the mob fired upon him and killed one of his men. Patten then charged the mob, and after a few fires, the mob dispersed and fled, but Patten was killed and another of his {34} men. After the fight and dispersion of the mob, Patten's company returned to Far West. The report of the proceedings created much excitement. The community was made to believe that the "Mormons" were in rebellion against the law; whereas the above facts show they were an injured people, standing up in the defense of their persons and their property.

At this time the governor of the state issued an order to General Clark to raise several thousand men and march against the "Mormons," and drive them from the state, or "exterminate them." Major-General Lucas and Brigadier-General Wilson collected three or four thousand men; and with this formidable force, commenced their march and arrived at Far West. In their rear marched General Clark with another formidable force.

In the meantime the "Mormons" had not heard of these immense preparations, and so far from expecting an armed force under the orders of the state to war against them, were daily expecting a force from the governor to protect their lives and their property from the mob.

When this formidable array first made its appearance, intent upon peace, the "Mormons" sent a white flag several miles to meet them, to ascertain the reason why an armed force was marching against them, and what we might expect at their hands. They gave us no satisfaction, but continued marching towards Far West. Immediately on their arrival, a man came bearing a white flag from their camp. He was interrogated about his business; he answered the interrogations, saying they wanted three persons out of Far West, before they massacred the rest. Those persons refused to go, and he returned back to the camp. He was closely followed by General Doniphan and his whole brigade marching to the city of Far West in line of battle. The citizens also of Far West formed a line of battle in full front of Doniphan's army: upon this Doniphan ordered a halt, and then a retreat. Night closed upon both parties without any collision.

On the next day, towards evening, the "Mormons" were officially informed that the governor of the state had sent this immense force against them to massacre them, or drive them from the state. As soon as the "Mormons" learned that this order had the sanction of the governor of the state, they determined to make no resistance; to submit themselves to the authorities of the state, how tyrannical and unjust soever the exercise of that authority might be.

The commanders of the Missouri militia before Far West sent a messenger into the town, requesting an interview in their camp with five of the principal citizens among the "Mormons," pledging their faith for their safe return on the following morning at eight o'clock. Invited, as they {35} supposed, to propose and receive terms of peace, and under the pledge of a safe conduct, Lyman Wight, George W. Robinson, Joseph Smith, Jun., Parley P. Pratt, and Sidney Rigdon, went towards the camp of the militia. Before they arrived at the camp, they were surrounded by the whole army; and by order of General Lucas put under guard, and marched to the camp, and were told that they were prisoners of war. A court martial was held that night, and they, without being heard, and in the absence of all proof, were condemned to be shot next morning.

The execution of this bloody order, was prevented by the manly protest of General Doniphan. He denounced the act as cold blooded murder, and withdrew his brigade. This noble stand taken by General Doniphan, prevented the murder of the prisoners. It is here worthy of note, that seventeen preachers of the gospel were on this court martial, and were in favor of the sentence.

The next morning the prisoners were marched under a strong guard to Independence, in Jackson county, and after being detained there for a week, they were marched to Richmond, where General Clark then was with his troops. Here a court of inquiry was held before Judge King; this continued from the 11th until the 28th of November; while the five prisoners were kept in chains, and about fifty other "Mormons," taken at Far West, were penned up in an open, unfinished court house. In this mock court of inquiry the defendants were prevented from giving any testimony on their part, by an armed force at the court house; they were advised by their lawyers not to bring any [witnesses], as they would be in danger of their lives, or be driven out of the county; so there was no testimony examined only against them.

In this inquiry a great many questions were asked relative to religious opinions.[3] The conclusion of the court of inquiry was to send the prisoners to jail upon a charge of treason.

They do not deem it necessary to detail their sufferings while in prison, the horrors of a prison for four long months, in darkness, in want, alone, and during the cold of winter, can better be conceived than expressed. In the following April the prisoners were sent to the county of Daviess for trial: they were then indicted for treason, and a change of venue was taken to Boone county. The prisoners were sent to the county of Boone, and while on their way made their escape, and fled to the state of Illinois.

That they were suffered to escape admits of no doubt. The truth is, the state of Missouri had become ashamed of their proceedings against the "Mormons," and as the best means of getting out of the scrape, gave the prisoners an opportunity to escape. In proof of this, the prisoners have ever since been living publicly in the state of Illinois, {36} and the executive of Missouri has made no demand upon the executive of Illinois. Can it be supposed that the people of Missouri would thus tamely submit to the commission of treason by a portion of their citizens, and make no effort to punish the guilty, when they were thus publicly living in an adjoining state? Is not this passiveness evidence? They knew the "Mormons" were innocent, and the citizens of Missouri wrong?

But to return to the operations of General Lucas before Far West: We need only say that the exterminating order of Governor Boggs was carried into full effect. After the above-named individuals were taken prisoners, all the "Mormons" in Far West, about five hundred in number, surrendered up their arms to the militia without any resistance. The "Mormons" now fled in every direction—women and children, through the dead of winter, marked their footsteps with blood, as they fled from the state of Missouri.

The orders of the governor were, that they should be driven from the state or destroyed. About fifteen thousand souls, between the sacking of Far West and spring, abandoned their homes, their property, their all, hurried by the terrors of their armed pursuers, in want of every necessary of life, with bleeding hearts sought refuge in the state of Illinois, where they now reside.

We cannot trespass upon your time by the relation of cases of individual suffering; they would fill a volume. We forbear for our regard to humanity, to detail the particulars of the conduct of the Missouri militia. We could relate instances of house-burnings, destruction of property, robbings, rapes, and murder, that would shame humanity. One instance as a sample of many scenes which they enacted: Two hundred of the militia came suddenly upon some "Mormon" families emigrating to the state, and then encamped at Haun's mill in Caldwell county. The "Mormon" men and children took refuge in an old log house which had been used as a blacksmith's shop. On seeing the militia approach, the "Mormons" cried for quarters, but in vain; they were instantly fired upon; eighteen fell dead; and their murderers, putting the muzzle of their guns between the logs, fired indiscriminately upon children, upon the dead and dying. One little boy, whose father (Warren Smith) had just been shot dead, cried piteously to the militia to spare his life. The reply was, "Kill him, kill him (with an oath), he is a son of a damned Mormon." At this they shot his head all open, and left him dead by the side of his father. About the same time an old man by the name of McBride, a soldier of the Revolution, came up to them and begged his life; but they hewed him to pieces with an old corn cutter. They then loaded themselves with plunder and departed.

Your petitioners have thus given a brief outline of the history of the {37} "Mormon" persecutions in Missouri—all which they can prove to be true, if an opportunity be given them. It will be seen from this their brief statement, that neither the "Mormons" as a body, nor individuals of that body, have been guilty of any offense against the laws of Missouri, or of the United States; but their only offense has been their religious opinion.

The above statement will also show, that the "Mormons" on all occasions submitted to the law of the land, and yielded to its authority in every extremity, and at every hazard, at the risk of life and property. The above statement will illustrate another truth; that wherever the "Mormons" made any resistance to the mob, it was in self defense; and for these acts of self defense they always had the authority and sanction of the officers of the law for so doing. Yet they, to the number of about fifteen thousand souls, have been driven from their homes in Missouri. Their property, to the amount of two millions of dollars, has been taken from them, or destroyed. Some of them have been murdered, beaten, bruised, or lamed and have all been driven forth, wandering over the world without homes, without property.

But the loss of property does not comprise half their sufferings. They were human beings, possessed of human feelings and human sympathies. Their agony of soul was the bitterest drop in the cup of their sorrows.

For these wrongs, the "Mormons" ought to have some redress; yet how and where shall they seek and obtain it? Your constitution guarantees to every citizen, even the humblest, the enjoyment of life, liberty, and property. It promises to all, religious freedom, the right to all to worship God beneath their own vine and fig tree, according to the dictates of their conscience. It guarantees to all the citizens of the several states the right to become citizens of any one of the states, and to enjoy all the rights and immunities of the citizens of the state of his adoption. Yet of all these rights have the "Mormons" been deprived. They have, without a cause, without a trial, been deprived of life, liberty and property. They have been persecuted for their religious opinions. They have been driven from the state of Missouri, at the point of the bayonet, and prevented from enjoying and exercising the rights of citizens of the state of Missouri. It is the theory of our laws, that for the protection of every legal right, there is provided a legal remedy. What, then, we would respectfully ask, is the remedy of the "Mormons?" Shall they apply to the legislature of the state of Missouri for redress? They have done so. They have petitioned, and these petitions have been treated with silence and contempt. Shall they apply to the federal courts? They were, at the time of the injury, citizens of the state of Missouri. Shall they apply to the court of the state of Missouri? Whom {38} shall they sue? The order for their destruction, then extermination, was granted by the executive of the state of Missouri. Is not this a plea of justification for the loss of individuals, done in pursuance of that order? If not, before whom shall the "Mormons" institute a trial? Shall they summon a jury of the individuals who composed the mob? An appeal to them were in vain. They dare not go to Missouri to institute a suit; their lives would be in danger.

For ourselves we see no redress, unless it is awarded by the Congress of the United States. And here we make our appeal as American Citizens, as Christians, and as Men—believing that the high sense of justice which exists in your honorable body, will not allow such oppression to be practiced upon any portion of the citizens of this vast republic with impunity; but that some measures which your wisdom may dictate, may be taken, so that the great body of people who have been thus abused, may have redress for the wrongs which they have suffered. And to your decision they look with confidence; hoping it may be such as shall tend to dry up the tear of the widow and orphan, and again place in situations of peace, those who have been driven from their homes, and have had to wade through scenes of sorrow and distress.

And your Memoralists, as in duty bound, will ever pray.


1. William Law was born September 8th, 1809, and was converted to the gospel through the preaching of Elder John Taylor and Almon W. Babbitt. He lived in Canada some twenty-five miles south of Toronto, and was now leading a company of saints from Canada to Nauvoo.

2. Concerning the antecedent of James Adams nothing can be learned from our church annals. This is unfortunate, since he was truly a noble character, and remained until his death (1843) a most faithful friend of the Prophet's. In a book of Patriarchal blessings, given by Hyrum Smith, is recorded a blessing upon the head of a James Adams, who in every way would be such a man as the James Adams mentioned in the text—I mean as to age, and character indicated in the blessing. This James Adams of the blessing, and who I am personally convinced was the Prophet's friend of the text, was the son of Parmenio and Chloe Adams, born at Limsbury Township, Hartford county, Connecticut, 24th of January, 1783. He is declared by the Patriarch to be of the tribe of Judah. The blessing was given the 2nd October, 1841.

3. See Vol. III., page 212.



The Prophet's Efforts at Washington to Obtain Redress of Grievances for the Saints—Affidavits on Missouri Affairs.

Saturday, November 30, 1839.—Elders Young and George A. Smith went to Brother Isaac Haight's at Moravia.

Sunday, December 1, 1839.—The High Council at Nauvoo met at Oliver Granger's and voted that Hyrum Smith, George W. Harris, and Oliver Granger, be a committee to send a petition to the legislature to define new boundary lines of the city of Nauvoo, and also of Commerce, and do all other needful acts relative to those cities; that Hyrum Smith furnish the maps and plats for the alteration, and that Seymour Brunson circulate the petition for signatures.

Voted that Bishop Edward Partridge publish a piece in the Times and Seasons, informing the brethren in the west, that it is improper to remove from the west for the purpose of locating in Kirtland, Ohio, and that those who do thus remove, will be disfellowshiped by the council.

The Prophet's Letter to Hyrum Smith—Reporting State of Affairs at Washington.

Washington City, Corner Missouri And 3rd Sts.

December 5th, 1839.

Dear Brother Hyrum, President, and to the Honorable High Council of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints—to whom be fellowship, love, and the peace of Almighty God extended, and the prayer of faith forever and ever. Amen.

Your fellow laborers, Joseph Smith, Jun., Elias Higbee, and agents as well as the servants that are sent by you, to perform one of the most {40} arduous and responsible duties, and also to labor in the most honorable cause that ever graced the pages of human existence, respectfully show by these lines, that we have taken up our cross thus far, and that we arrived in this city on the morning of the 28th November, and spent the most of that day in looking up a boarding house, which we succeeded in finding. We found as cheap boarding as can be had in this city.

On Friday morning, 29th, we proceeded to the house of the President. We found a very large and splendid palace, surrounded with a splendid enclosure, decorated with all the fineries and elegancies of this world. We went to the door and requested to see the President, when we were immediately introduced into an upper apartment, where we met the President, and were introduced into his parlor, where we presented him with our letters of introduction. As soon as he had read one of them, he looked upon us with a half frown, and said, "What can I do? I can do nothing for you! If I do anything, I shall come in contact with the whole state of Missouri."

But we were not to be intimidated; and demanded a hearing, and constitutional rights. Before we left him he promised to reconsider what he had said, and observed that he felt to sympathize with us, on account of our sufferings.

We have spent the remainder of our time in hunting up the Representatives in order to get our case brought before the House; in giving them letters of introduction, etc., and in getting acquainted. A meeting of the delegation of the state of Illinois was appointed today, to consult for bringing our case before Congress. The gentlemen from Illinois are worthy men, and have treated us with the greatest kindness, and are ready to do all that is in their power; but you are aware, brethren, that they with us have all the prejudices, superstition, and bigotry of an ignorant generation to contend with; nevertheless we believe our case will be brought before the House, and we will leave the event with God; He is our Judge, and the Avenger of our wrongs.

For a general thing there is but little solidity and honorable deportment among those who are sent here to represent the people; but a great deal of pomposity and show.

We left President Rigdon and others on the road, and received a letter from them this day. They were, at the date of the letter, on the 20th of November, near Washington, in Pennsylvania, expecting to stop a day or two at his brother's on account of his ill health. He has occasionally a chill yet, but his illness is not dangerous. We expect him here soon.

We have already commenced forming some very honorable acquaintances, and have thus far been prospered as much as we had anticipated, if not more. We have had a pleasing interview with Judge Young, who {41} proposed to furnish us with expense money. We can draw on him for funds to publish our book, and we want you to raise some more money for us, and deposit it in the Branch Bank in Quincy, to be drawn to the order of Judge Young. Send us the amount of your deposit, taking a receipt of the same. You need not be afraid to do this. We think from the proceeds of the sale of books, we can make it all straight. Do therefore be punctual, as much depends upon it. We cannot accomplish the things for which we were sent without some funds. You very well know, brethren, we were contented to start, trusting in God, with little or nothing. We have met with but one accident since we started. The lock of our trunk was broken off, and Brother Lyman Wight's petition is missing; but we trust there is a copy of it preserved; if there is, you will please forward it immediately, with the name and affidavit to it.

For God's sake, brethren, be wide awake, and arm us with all the power possible, for now is the time or never. We want you should get all the influential men you can of that section of country, of Iowa, and of every other quarter, to write letters to the members of Congress, using their influence in our behalf, and to keep their minds constantly upon the subject.

Please to forward this to our wives.

Yours in the bonds of the Everlasting Covenant,

Joseph Smith, Jun.,

Elias Higbee.

P. S.—Congress has been in session for four days, and the House of Representatives is not yet organized, in consequence of some seats being contested in the New Jersey delegation. They have this day succeeded in electing John Q. Adams to the chair pro tem.; but whether they will get their Speaker and Clerk chosen is yet unknown, as there is a great deal of wind blown off on the occasion on each day. There is such an itching disposition to display their oratory on the most trivial occasions, and so much etiquette, bowing and scraping, twisting and turning, to make a display of their witticism, that it seems to us rather a display of folly and show, more than substance and gravity, such as becomes a great nation like ours. (However there are some exceptions).

A warm feeling has been manifested in the discussion of the House today, and it seems as much confusion as though the nation had already began to be vexed. We came with one of the Missouri members from Wheeling to this place, who was drunk but once, and that however was most of the time; there was but one day but what he could navigate, and that day he was keeled over, so he could eat no dinner. The horses ran away with the stage; they ran about three miles; {42} Brother Joseph climbed out of the stage, got the lines, and stopped the horses, and also saved the life of a lady and child. He was highly commended by the whole company for his great exertions and presence of mind through the whole affair. Elias Higbee jumped out of the stage at a favorable moment, just before they stopped, with a view to assist in stopping them, and was but slightly injured. We were not known to the state company until after our arrival.

In our interview with the President, he interrogated us wherein we differed in our religion from the other religions of the day. Brother Joseph said we differed in mode of baptism, and the gift of the Holy Ghost by the laying on of hands. We considered that all other considerations were contained in the gift of the Holy Ghost, and we deemed it unnecessary to make many words in preaching the Gospel to him. Suffice it to say he has got our testimony. We watch the post office, but have received no letters from our sections of the country. Write instantly.

Yours with respect,

J. S. Jun.,

E. H.

Affairs in Iowa.

Tuesday, 3.—High Council of Iowa met at Elijah Fordham's and voted to come up to the law of tithing, so far as circumstances would permit, for the benefit of the poor, and that Alanson Ripley remove to Iowa; and he was ordained Bishop by the Presidency of the Council.

Elder Daniel Avery was instructed to call the Elders together and organize the Elder's Quorum.

Saturday, 7.—The President of the High Council of Iowa proposed the following questions—Have the brethren a right to exact the payment of debts which were due them from others, and were consecrated to the Bishop in the state of Missouri? Six counselors spoke. The President decided that all such debts ought not to be called for, and that persons making such demands shall be disfellowshiped by the Church; which was approved by the Council. Also that all those who sold goods in Missouri, and were calling for their pay, should be considered as acting in unrighteousness, and ought to be disfellowshiped; {43} as the property of the Saints had been confiscated by Missouri.

Letter of the Prophet and Elias Higbee to the High Council at Nauvoo—Preliminary Hearing of Grievances.

Washington City, Corner Of Missouri And 3rd Sts.,

December 7th, 1839.

To Seymour Brunson and the Honorable High Council of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints:

Your humble servants, Joseph Smith, Jun., and Elias Higbee, again address you for the purpose of informing you of our proceedings here in relation to our business and prospects of success. We deem it unimportant to say anything in relation to our journey, arrival, and interview with his Excellency, the President of these United States; as they were mentioned in a letter lately addressed to President Hyrum Smith and the High Council. We mentioned in that letter the appointment of a meeting to be held by the Illinois delegation, to consult upon the best measures of getting our business brought before Congress. They met yesterday in one of the committee rooms of the Capitol. All the delegation were present except ex-Governor Reynolds—who is now one of the Representatives in Congress—and on account of whose absence, the meeting was adjourned until today at eleven o'clock; however the subject was partially introduced, and Mr. Robinson took a stand against us, so far as concerned our presenting claims to be liquidated by the United States.

We took a stand against him, asserting our constitutional rights. Brother Joseph maintained the ground in argument against him firmly and respectfully, setting forth the injuries that we have received, and the appeals that we have made to the judiciary of Missouri, and also the governor; their refusals from time to time to do us justice; also the impracticability of doing anything in the judiciary courts of Missouri—which tribunal Mr. Robinson thought was the only proper place for our claims; but he finally said it was his first impression on the subject, not having considered the matter, but would take it into further consideration.

Judge Young of the Senate made some remarks in our favor, saying he would get the opinion of some of the prominent members of the Senate, who were also lawyers, and would report to us the next meeting. We met this day according to appointment, and very friendly feelings were manifested on the occasion. Our business was taken up, and {44} Judge Young stated that he had asked the opinion of Judge White of Tennessee, of Mr. Wright, and several other members whose names we do not recollect, but were prominent members of the Senate. They all declined giving an opinion at present, as it was a matter that they had not considered sufficiently to decide upon at this time. The meeting, then, after some deliberations, decided in our favor, which decision was that a Memorial and Petition be drawn up in a concise manner, (our Representatives promising so to do), and Judge Young present them to the Senate, that they might thereby refer it to the proper committee, with all the accompanying documents, and order the same to be printed.

We want you to assist us now; and also to forward us your certificates, that you hold for your lands in Missouri: your claims to preemption rights, and affidavits to prove that soldiers were quartered on us and in our houses without our consent, or any special act of law for that purpose; contrary to the Constitution of the United States. We think Brother Ripley and others will recollect the circumstances and facts relative to this matter. You will also recollect the circumstances of Brother Joseph and others being refused the privilege of habeas corpus by the authorities of Missouri.

These facts must be authenticated by affidavits. Let any particular transaction of the outrages in Missouri that can be sworn to by the sufferers, or those who were eye-witnesses to the facts, be sent, specifying the particulars. Have the evidence bona fide to the point.

The House of Representatives is not organized. Much feeling and confusion have prevailed in the House for a few days past. The House succeeded in electing John Q. Adams chairman pro tem. on the 5th instant. They have not yet elected their Speaker or Clerk. The Senate can do nothing of consequence until the House is organized; neither can the President's message until then be received. We design taking a paper and forwarding it to you.

Your brethren in the bonds of the everlasting covenant,

Joseph Smith, Jun.,

Elias Higbee.

Brigham Young in New York.

Brother Isaac Haight took Elders Young and George A. Smith to Brother Joseph Murdock's, Hamilton, Madison county, New York, where Elder Young preached on Sunday, 8th, and spent the week in preaching, and visiting the brethren. Elder George A. Smith was confined to his room, sick.

This day, the High Council of Nauvoo issued an Epistle {45} to the Saints west of Kirtland not to return thither. (See Times and Seasons, page 29).[1]

Elders Hiram Clark, Alexander Wright, and Samuel Mulliner arrived in Preston from America. Their licenses were mislaid on their journey, and they had some difficulty in making themselves known.

{46} Some time this month, Brother Hyrum Smith wrote a long Epistle "To the Saints scattered abroad, Greeting," setting forth his sufferings, etc., in the State of Missouri, and published the same in the Times and Seasons, on page 20 and onward.[2]

Sunday, 15.—President Young preached at Brother Gifford's, in Waterville.

The High Council at Nauvoo voted that Bishop Knight provide for the families of Joseph Smith, Jun., Sidney Rigdon, and Orrin Porter Rockwell, during their absence at Washington.

Elder James Mulholland, my scribe, having died, it was voted that debts contracted for building his house be settled. Also approved of Brothers Annis, Bozier, and Edmunds building a water mill adjoining the city.

Monday 16.—President Young returned to Hamilton.

Wednesday, 18.—Elders Woodruff, John Taylor, and Theodore Turley sailed from New York for England.

Friday, 20.—President Young went to Eaton, to see his cousins Fitch, Salmon, and Phinehas Brigham.

{47} For particulars of our proceedings while at Washington, see my letters and Judge Higbee's to friends at Commerce, or Nauvoo, as the place is now frequently called.

Saturday, 21.—I arrived in Philadelphia, direct from Washington City, by the railroad, where I spent several days preaching and visiting from house to house, among the brethren and others.

Letter of Hyrum Smith to Parley P. Pratt—On Printing the Book of Mormon in New York.

Nauvoo, Hancock County, Illinois,

December 22nd, 1839.

Dear Brother Parley:—In consequence of the absence of my brother Joseph, your letter has come into my hands, to which I intend to reply, and give such instructions, and advise you respecting the matters and things of which you write, as I feel led by the Spirit of the Lord [to give].

I was truly glad to hear of the prosperity of the churches in and about the vicinity of New York. Truly these things are pleasing to the Saints, and I presume to none more so than yourself, who was the instrument in the hands of God in planting the standard of truth in those regions, around which so many are now rallying.

You express a desire to have the Book of Mormon, etc., printed in New York, etc., etc., and have taken some steps towards accomplishing that object. As respects this matter I would say, that it is one of great importance, and should be properly considered. Not only is the city of New York destitute of this book, but there is truly a famine throughout the Union, and another large edition is certainly required. But at the same time I cannot give any encouragement for the publication of the same, other than at this place, or where it can come out under the immediate inspection of Joseph and his Counselors, so that no one may be chargeable with any mistakes that may occur. I want the books we print here should be a standard to all nations in which they may be printed, and to all tongues into which the same may be translated.

Again, as this place is appointed a Stake and a place of gathering for the Saints, I think that every facility should be rendered it, in order that the Saints may be able to accomplish the great works which have to be performed in this generation. I should therefore strongly advise, yea, urge you and all the Elders of Israel, when they meet with those who have means, and a disposition to forward this work, to send them to this place, where they may receive counsel from time to time.

If when Brothers Joseph and Rigdon return, we should deem it {48} prudent to avail ourselves of the facilities offered in New York for re-printing the Book of Mormon, it is probable that a delegation will be sent to accomplish that object. In the meantime you will be at liberty to go to Europe, for thereunto are you sent.

The above observations will apply to the book of Doctrine and Covenants, Hymn Book, etc., which publications I long to see flowing through the land like a stream, imparting knowledge, intelligence, and joy to all who shall drink at the stream. As to publishing the Book of Mormon in Europe and other nations, I should entirely acquiesce to your proposition. I do not know of any more suitable persons for attending to that business than the Twelve. If it should be deemed wisdom to have the same published in England or elsewhere soon, you will be further advised on the subject, and full powers given you immediately on the return of Joseph, who is at present in the city of Washington, in company with Elder Rigdon and Judge Higbee, endeavoring to get the subject of our late persecutions brought before the councils of the nation.

The families of the Twelve are generally well, but not altogether so comfortably situated as I could wish, owing to the poverty of the Church. I think it would be well for those who have means to spare, to forward the same to their families.

My love to all the brethren. I am your affectionate brother in the bonds of the covenant,

Hyrum Smith.

Addressed to Elder P. P. Pratt, New York City.

Monday, 23.—President Young went to Waterville with Brother Gifford. About this time Brothers Rockwell and Higbee arrived at Philadelphia with my carriage from Washington, where they had been some time, leaving Elder Rigdon there sick, and Dr. Robert E. Foster to take care of him.

Wednesday, 25.—Elders Wright and Mulliner left Preston for Scotland, and soon commenced preaching and baptising in Paisley and vicinity.

President Young went six miles north of Rome [New York] to see Brother Blakesly; returned on the 27th to Waterville, and on the 28th went to Hamilton.

Saturday, 28.—Heber John, son of Willard and Jennetta Richards, died at Preston, England, aged five months and nine days. He had been sick nine days with the smallpox, and was buried in Elswick Chapel yard.

{49} Sunday, 29.—The High Council of Nauvoo voted to print ten thousand copies of the hymn-books, and an edition of the Book of Mormon, under the inspection of the First Presidency at Nauvoo, so soon as means can be obtained.

The Prophet in New Jersey.

Monday, 30.—About this time I left Philadelphia with Brother Orson Pratt, and visited a branch of the Church in Monmouth county, New Jersey, where I spent several days, and returned to Philadelphia.

The High Council of Nauvoo voted that a committee be appointed to transact the business relating to the request of the brethren at Washington as follows—Alanson Ripley, in Iowa; Seymour Brunson and Charles C. Rich, at Quincy; Zenas H. Gurley, at Macomb; and that President Hyrum Smith, and Bishops Edward Partridge and Vinson Knight give the committee their instructions.

Wednesday, January 1, 1840.—George A. Smith (who had partially recovered from his illness) and Elder Brigham Young left Hamilton. The brethren helped them on their way, and gave them considerable clothing.

Thursday, 2.—Brother James Gifford brought them to Utica.

As more positive and official testimony was wanted by the authorities at Washington, many of the brethren made affidavits concerning their sufferings in, and expulsion from, Missouri, a few of which I will insert in my history:

Affidavit of Simeon Carter on his Sufferings in Missouri.

I, Simeon Carter, certify that I have been a resident of the state of Missouri for six years and upwards, and that I have suffered many things by a lawless mob; both myself and my family have been driven from place to place, and suffered the loss of much property, and finally were expelled from the state. I further certify, that I belong to the Church of the Latter-day Saints, commonly called "Mormons." And I certify that in the year eighteen hundred and thirty-eight, both I and my people suffered much, by the people of the state of Missouri. And I further certify, that in this same year, in the month of November, between the first and sixth, we were surrounded by a soldiery of the state of {50} Missouri, in the city of Far West, in Caldwell county, both myself and many of my "Mormon" brethren, and were compelled by the soldiery—which were armed with all the implements of war to shed blood—under a public declaration for our entire extermination, to sign away our all, our property, personal and real estate, and to leave the state of Missouri immediately.

I certify that I had at that time one hundred and sixty-two acres of land, the same which I held the certificate for. I further certify that I was obliged to give up my duplicates to help me to a small sum to carry me out of the state. I further certify not.

Simeon Carter.

Territory of Iowa, Lee County.

Sworn to and subscribed before me, a justice of the peace for said county, this and day of January, 1840.

D. W. Kilbourn, J. P.

Letter of Hyrum Smith to the Prophet and Judge Higbee.

Nauvoo. Hancock County, Illinois,

January 3rd, 1840.

To President Joseph Smith, Jun., and Judge Higbee:

Dear Brethren:—It is with feelings of no ordinary kind, that I write you at this time, in answer to the letters with which we were favored. Your letters were truly interesting, and were read with great interest by the brethren here, as well as myself.

We were truly glad to hear of your safe arrival in the city of Washington, your interview with His Excellency the President, and the steps you have since taken for the furtherance of the object you have undertaken to accomplish, and for which you have left the endearments of home, and the society of your friends. The mission on which you are engaged is certainly an important one, and one which every Saint of God, as well as everyone whose breast beats high with those patriotic feelings which purchased our national freedom, must take a deep interest in. And although there may be many who do not value your labors—their sectarian prejudices being greater than their love for truth and the Constitution of our country; yet there are many who will undoubtedly appreciate your services, and will feel it a pleasure to assist you all that they possibly can. Conscious of the righteousness of your cause—having the prayer of the Saints, (amongst whom are many who have shared with you the trials, persecutions, and imprisonments which have been heaped upon the Saints in Missouri), and having the approval of heaven, I would say, go on, dear brethren, in the name of the Lord; and while you are pleading the cause of the widow and the fatherless, may {51} He who has promised to be a father to the fatherless and a husband to the widow, bless you in your undertakings, and arm you with sufficient strength for the herculean task in which you are engaged. Your exertions will be seconded by the brethren in this region, who are disposed to do all they possibly can.

I had just got ready to start for Springfield when I received your letter. I no sooner read it than I abandoned the idea of going there. I then made exertion to obtain funds for you in this place; but not being able to get any, and hearing that there were brethren in Quincy lately from New York, I started off the following day and succeeded in obtaining from Brother Herringshaw three hundred dollars, which I deposited with Messrs. Holmes & Co., merchants in Quincy, subject to the order of Judge Young. The reason why I deposited it with them was in consequence of the banks not doing any business and refusing to take deposits, etc. I hope that we shall be able to raise you some more soon. Brother William Law has promised to let us have one hundred dollars as soon as he gets a remittance from the east, which he expects daily.

We have not been able to get much on the city lots since you left; not more than enough to pay some wages for surveying, and a few debts. Brother Lyman Wight returned the subscription paper a few days ago, stating that he had not collected anything since you left. In consequence of my health, which has been poor, and the coldness of the weather, I have not been able to attend to it myself. I hardly think we shall be able to raise the one thousand dollars for Mr. William White by the time he will expect it. Elder Granger is yet in Commerce, not being able to move in consequence of the low stage of water in the Ohio river.

I received a letter lately from Parley P. Pratt, stating that he was in the City of New York, and had published another edition of his book, and wanted permission to print an edition of the Book of Mormon and Doctrine and Covenants, with a periodical similar to the Times and Seasons, stating that there were men who had means, that would assist in these things. He likewise wanted to get the privilege for the Twelve to print the Book of Mormon in Europe. I wrote in reply, that if there were any of the brethren disposed to aid, and had means to spare for such purposes, to send them to this place, so that not only this place might be benefitted, but that the books might come out under your immediate inspection. I am afraid some have been induced to tarry and assist Parley in these undertakings; and had made arrangements with Elder Granger to assist in liquidating the New York debts.

I want a letter from you, Brother Joseph, as soon as possible, giving me all the instructions you think necessary. I feel the burden in your absence is great. Father expresses a great desire to go to Kirtland, {52} along with Brother Granger, who has promised to pay his and mother's expenses; would you think it advisable for them to go or not?

The High Council met a few days ago, and took your second letter into consideration, and passed some resolutions on the subject; appointed committees to get certificates for land, and to get all other information they could. Some have gone to Quincy, and others to different places. We shall forward from time to time the information you desire.

You will receive enclosed in this a number of duplicates for land from Bishop Partridge and others. The Mississippi is frozen up. The weather is very cold, and a great quantity of snow is on the ground, and has been for some time. Your family is in tolerable good health, excepting one or two having the chills occasionally.

Bishop Knight desires me to inform you, that Brothers Granger and Haws have driven into Commerce a large number of hogs. They are now engaged in slaughtering them. I think there will be a good deal of trade carried on in this line another year.

You may expect to hear from us soon again. I sent you a copy of the deposit I made in Holmes & Co., which I hope you will receive safe.

I am very affectionately,

Hyrum Smith.

P. S.—We have concluded not to send any duplicates in this letter. The packages of duplicates will be directed to Judge Higbee, thinking they will come more safe to his address.

Friday, 3.—Elders Brigham Young and George A. Smith went from Utica to Albany, on the railway, and put up at the Railroad House.

Affidavit of William F. Cahoon—Missouri Wrongs.

I hereby certify that in the year 1838 I was residing in Daviess county, Missouri, and while from home I was taken prisoner in Far West by the militia, and kept under guard for six or eight days, in which time I was forced to sign a deed of trust, after which I was permitted to return home to my family in Daviess county, and found them surrounded by an armed force, with the rest of my neighbors, who were much frightened. The order from the militia was to leave the county within ten days, in which time my house was broken open, and many goods taken out by the militia. We were not permitted to go from place to place without a pass from the general, and on leaving the county, I received a pass as follows:

"I permit William F. Cahoon to pass from Daviess to Caldwell county, {53} and there remain during the winter, and thence to pass out of the state of Missouri.

"Signed November 10th, 1838.

"Reeves, a Brigadier-General."

During this time both myself and my family suffered much on account of cold and hunger because we were not permitted to go outside of the guard to obtain wood and provision; and according to orders of the militia, in the spring following, I took my family and left the state with the loss of much property.

William F. Cahoon.

Territory of Iowa, Lee county, subscribed and sworn before

D. W. Kilbourn, J. P.

Letter of C. Adams to the Prophet—Cause of the Saints before the Illinois Legislature.

Springfield, 4th January, 1840.

Respected Sir.—I had the gratification of the receipt of yours of the 16th of December, which gave me pleasure to learn that your prospects were, at that early period, in a measure flattering. I also saw yours of the 19th December to Mr. Weber. We are now consulting and feeling the pulsations relative to your case being brought before the legislature, now in session, by a series of resolutions, instructing our senators, and requesting our representatives to urge relief in your case.

What will be done, remains yet uncertain; still it is my strongest impression, it will be found prudent to get the matter before our legislature, for their action thereon. I am happy to learn that all our delegation are friendly to your intended application for relief in some shape; and it strikes me that the views of the President at this period may be the best, and perhaps the only way that relief could at this time be obtained; and in that event, be no injury to a future application to be restored to all your rights, when prejudice shall in a measure have subsided and the true state of the matter be more readily received, even by those whose prejudices may have closed the avenues to reason and justice in a matter identified with the odium so commonly attached to the sound of "Mormons." This odium will naturally wear off when they have time to learn that "Mormons" are neither anthropophagi or cannibals.

Your friends are generally well.

I am, etc.,

C. Adams.

To Joseph Smith, Jun.

Law Suits to be Abandoned

{54} Saturday, 4.—The High Council at Montrose voted to utterly discard the practice of suing brethren at the law, and that such as do it, shall be disfellowshiped by this branch of the Church; that Abraham O. Smoot ordain Daniel Avery President of the Elders' Quorum; and that the sixth instant be devoted to taking affidavits concerning Missouri.

Elder Young found the brethren in Albany; went to Troy, and Lansingburg, where he heard Elder Phinehas Richards preach.

Sunday, 5.—Elder Young preached at Lansingburg, and returned to Troy and held a meeting with the brethren.

Monday, 6.—Elder Young returned to Albany.

Extract from Elder Orson Pratt's Letter to his wife—Reporting Movements of the Brethren in the Eastern States.

January 6th, 1840.

I am well and hearty. After mailing the last letter to you in Pennsylvania, I went to Philadelphia on Saturday, the 21st of December; there I found President Joseph Smith, Jun.; he had just arrived from Washington City, where he had been about three weeks. Four or five days after, Judge Higbee, with Porter Rockwell, came to Philadelphia; they are well. I wrote to Parley P. Pratt to come and see President Smith; he did so, and probably will go to Washington with him in a few days. I stayed with Brother Smith, in Philadelphia, about eight days; we then took the railroad and went some 35 or 40 miles, to a large branch of the Church in Monmouth county, New Jersey, which numbers ninety members; there I left him [President Smith] on New Year's day, and came to New York, where I am at present.

Elder Benjamin Winchester had, when I left Philadelphia, baptized forty-five in that city, and several more had given in their names for baptism, and scores believing. I preached in Chester county, Pennsylvania, about two weeks, and I think I may safely say there are hundreds believing. The work is prospering throughout all this region.

Elders Taylor, Woodruff, and Turley sailed for Liverpool, December 18th, while I was in Pennsylvania. None of the rest of the Twelve have yet arrived. Parley P. Pratt has another book printed, larger than the Voice of Warning, entitled "The Millennium and other Poems," and a piece on the "Eternal Duration of Matter."[3]

{55} Letter from John B. Weber to the Prophet—On Supplementing the Latter's Effort to Obtain Redreses from Congress.

Springfield, January 6, 1840.

Gentlemen:—Your letter of the 19th ult. came to hand ten days after date, immediately after which I called upon many of the prominent members of the Democratic party, with a view to unite them in their influence in your behalf; all of whom expressed a willingness to aid in bringing about justice. But I regret to inform you that but few have exhibited that energy in the matter which might reasonably be expected from all lovers of liberty and advocates of equal rights.

Your energetic friends were first of the opinion that an effort ought to be made by our legislature to memorialize our representatives in {56} Congress, to use all honorable means to accomplish your desires; but after holding a consultation it was believed that such a course would create a party strife here, and consequently operate against you in Congress. Therefore it was agreed that as many as had friends in Congress should write to them immediately, desiring their aid in your behalf.

If convenient you will please write again. Any information respecting your mission will be thankfully received, and made known to your people here.

Very respectfully yours,

John B. Weber.

To the Rev. Joseph Smith and his Associates.

Affidavit of John M. Burk—Missouri Outrages.

I hereby certify that General John Clark and his Aid, on their arrival at Far West in Caldwell county, Missouri, came to my tavern stand, and without my leave, pitched their marquees in my yard and did take my wood and hay to furnish the same, and did bring their horses in also, and without my leave, took hay for them, and did take possession of my house, and used it for a council house, and did place a strong guard around it, so as to hinder any person from going in or out, and I myself was not permitted to go in and out; for all this I have received no remuneration, and was not even permitted to pass out of town to water travelers' horses without a permit. The above took place in the first part of November, 1838.

I also certify that Caleb Baldwin, Lyman Wight, Hyrum Smith, Joseph Smith, Jun., and Mr. Alexander McRae, in Clay county, Missouri, did apply for a writ of habeas corpus and did not get it.

John M. Burk.

Sworn before D. W. Kilbourn, J. P.

Affidavit of John Lowry—Ditto.

I certify that I saw General John Clark and his Aid, on their arrival at Far West, Caldwell county, Missouri, in the yard of John M. Burk, and gave orders to their waiters to pitch their marquees in his yard, and to take of his wood for fire.

I also saw Captain Samuel Bogart, with his men, come near my dwelling, and did pitch their camp, and took my house logs without my leave, and did burn them. I also saw him with the horse of Joseph Smith, Jun., in his possession.

John Lowry.

Sworn before D. W. Kilbourn, J. P.

Affidavit of Jedediah Owen—Ditto.

To whom it may concern—This is to certify, that on the day following {57} on which the troops arrived at Far West, that two men of said troops came to my house, broke open my trunk, and took therefrom both money and clothing, and also a number of papers, among which were deeds and notes, and also a number of cooking utensils, and in consequence of the cruel and inhuman treatment which I and others have received from those troops, we are reduced to a state of almost absolute starvation; and Daniel Avery and myself were appointed as a committee to go out and beg corn and meal, or anything we might obtain, that would render assistance or relieve us in our suffering condition.

Jedediah Owen.

Sworn before D. W. Kilbourn, J. P.

Affidavit of T. Alvord—Ditto.

I removed my family from the state of Michigan to Clay county, Missouri, in the year 1835, where I lived in peace with the people, on my own land, eighteen months or more, when the people began to be excited in consequence of the emigration of our people to that county. The excitement became so great that I was obliged to sell my place at half price, and removed to the county of Caldwell, where I purchased me a farm, and settled my family, and made a good improvement, and was in a good situation to support my family, and there lived in peace with the people until the summer and fall of 1838, when the mob began to rise, and we were obliged to fly to arms in self defense; but notwithstanding our exertion, they murdered and massacred many of our people. We applied to the governor for assistance, and his reply to us was, "If you have got into a scrape with the mob, you must fight it out yourselves, for I cannot help you." The mob still increased, until I was obliged to remove my family to Far West, and there remained, surrounded with mobs of murderers, until General Clark arrived with his army, with the governor's exterminating order. Then we were all taken prisoners; our arms taken away; they then treated with all the cruelty they were masters of, and took possession of whatever they pleased, burnt timber, and laid waste town and country.

I heard General Clark say that he would execute the Governor's order; "but [said he] notwithstanding, I will vary so much as to give some lenity for the removal of this people, and you must leave the state immediately, for you need not expect to raise another crop here." Those who were not taken to prison, were permitted to return to their homes to make preparations to leave the state. Finding I had no safety for myself and family in Missouri, I fled to Illinois for safety.

T. Alvord.

Sworn to before D. W. Kilbourn, J. P.

{58} Tuesday, January 7.—Elder Young took stage for Richmond, Massachusetts.

Affidavit of William Hawk—Missouri Affairs.

Montrose, Lee County, Iowa, January 7, 1840.

I hereby certify, that some time in the month of October, 1838, an armed force collected in the county of Carroll, near De Witt, and in open daylight, drove a man by the name of Humphrey out of his house, and set fire to it, and burnt it to ashes, and then sent an express ordering all the "Mormons" to leave the place as soon as the next day. The next day they sent another express ordering them to leave in six hours, or they would be massacred upon the ground. They also fired their guns at different persons traveling the road near the town. The "Mormons" were at length compelled to leave their possessions, and all removed to Caldwell, consisting of seventy and perhaps one hundred families, many of whom were in want of the sustenance of life, sick, and some died upon the way.

About two weeks after this, another armed force invaded Far West, took my gun, and compelled me to sign away my property, both real and personal, and leave the state forthwith.

William Hawk.

Sworn to before D. W. Kilbourn. J. P.

Affidavit of Timothy B. Clark—Ditto.

Montrose, Lee County, Iowa Territory, January 7, 1840.

This is to certify that I was at work on my farm on the last of October, 1838, when an armed company under General Lucas, came and took myself and my three sons prisoners, and threw down my fences, and opened my gates, and left them open, and left my crops to be destroyed, and while I was a prisoner, they declared that they had made clean work in destroying the crops as they passed through the country, and they took from me two yoke of oxen, and three horses and two wagons, and compelled me and my sons to drive them loaded with produce of my own farm, to supply their army.

I had in possession at the time, four hundred and eighty acres of land, and rising of a hundred acres improved, with a small orchard and nursery, the necessary buildings of a farm, etc.; and in consequence of my imprisonment my fences remained down, and most of my crops were destroyed; and further this deponent saith not.

Timothy B. Clark.

Sworn to before D. W. Kilbourn, J. P.

Affidavit of Urban V. Stewart—Ditto.

Montrose, Lee County, Iowa Territory, January 7, 1840.

This is to certify that about the middle of October, I was driven, by {59} the threats of the Daviess county armed force, to leave my possessions, consisting of preemption right to a quarter section of land with thirty acres under improvement, and a good house. I went to Di-Ahman and remained until about the 1st of November, when I was driven from there by an armed force under General Wilson. I then went to Far West. While at Ondi-Ahman the armed force took from me one cow and calf, and a yoke of oxen, one horse and five sheep; they also took from me fifteen hogs. While at Far West, they took two cows belonging to me, and I saw the soldiery killing the live stock of the inhabitants without leave or remuneration, and burning building timbers, fences, etc.

Urban V. Stewart.

Sworn to before D. W. Kilbourn, J. P.

Affidavit of John Smith—Ditto.

Lee County, Iowa Territory.

This day personally appeared before me, D. W. Kilbourn, an acting Justice of the Peace in and for said county, John Smith, and after having been duly sworn, desposeth and saith, "That in the months of October and November, 1838, I resided in the town of Adam-ondi-Ahman. Daviess county, Missouri, and whilst being peaceably engaged in the ordinary vocations of life, that in the early part of November my house was entered by a body of armed men painted after the manner or customs of the Indians of North America, and proceeded to search my house for fire arms, stating that they understood the Mormons knew how to hide their guns, and in their search of a bed in which lay an aged, sick female, they threw [her] to and fro in a very rough manner, without regard to humanity or decency. Finding no arms, they went off without further violence.

"Shortly after this above described outrage, there was a number of armed men, say about twenty, rode into my yard and inquired for horses which they said they had lost, and stated, under confirmation of an oath, that they would have the heads of twenty 'Mormons,' if they did not find their horses. These last were painted in like manner as the first. These transactions took place when the citizens of the village and its vicinity were engaged in a peaceable manner in the ordinary pursuits of life."

This deponent further saith, "That the mob took possession of a store of dry goods belonging to the Church of Latter-day Saints, over which they placed a guard. I went into the store to get some articles to distribute to the suffering poor, and the officer who had the charge of the store ordered me out peremptorily, stating it was too cold to wait on me, that I must come the next morning; and returning the next morning, I found the store almost entirely stripped of its contents. {60} Thereupon we as a Church were ordered to depart the county and state, under the pains and penalty of death or a total extermination of our society. Having no alternative, (having my wagon stolen), I was compelled to abandon my property, except a few movables which I got off with in the best way that I could, and on receiving a permit or pass which is hereto appended. I then proceeded to depart the state.

"'I permit John Smith to remove from Daviess to Caldwell county, there remain during the winter, or remove out of the state unmolested.

"'Daviess county, November 9th, 1838.

"R. Wilson, Brigadier-General. By F. G. Cochnu.'

"I accordingly left the state in the month of February following in a destitute condition."

John Smith.

Sworn to before D. W. Kilbourn, J. P.

Affidavit of Samuel Smith—Ditto.

Montrose, Lee County, Iowa, January 7, 1840.

I do hereby certify, that I, Samuel Smith, made an improvement and obtained a preemption right upon one hundred and sixty acres of land in Daviess county, Missouri, in 1837. On the first of November, 1838, I was compelled to leave the county, by order of General Wilson, in ten days. They took without my consent, two horses, which have never been returned, nor remunerated for; also destroyed my crop of corn, drove off four head of cattle.

Samuel Smith.

Sworn to before D. W. Kilbourn, J. P.

Affidavit of Daniel Avery—Ditto.

Lee County, Iowa Territory, March 5th, 1840.[4]

I, Daniel Avery, do hereby certify that the following scenes transpired in the state of Missouri to my personal knowledge—First, in the year 1838, some time in the fall, I was called on by the martial law of the state of Missouri, to aid and assist to rescue women and children from the hands of a mob, from the waters of Grand river, whose husbands and fathers had been driven off. We found the house invested by the mob, some of whom were in the house threatening the lives of the women and children, if they did not leave their property and effects immediately and follow their husbands and fathers. One family lost a {61} child while in this situation, for the want of care; the women being compelled, by these monsters, to provide and cook them food. This company of the mob was commanded by James Weldin.

I also saw about seventy families driven from De Witt by a mob commanded by Sashiel Wood. I helped to bury one woman the first night, who had been confined in childbed a night or two before, and could not endure the sufferings.

The next scene I saw I was peaceably traveling the road; a man by the name of Patrick O'Banion was shot dead at my feet. We advanced a little further, when two men were killed and several wounded. I afterwards learned that this gang of mobbers was commanded by Samuel Bogart.

In consequence of being pursued out of the state, by this lawless mob, I was not an eye witness to the many thousand wicked acts committed by the Governor's exterminating militia.

Daniel Avery.

Sworn to before D. W. Kilbourn, J. P.

Wednesday, March 11.

Affidavit of James Powell—Ditto.

Illinois, Adams County, March 11, 1840.

I, James Powell, do certify, that I was a citizen of the state of Missouri in 1838. I solemnly declare that while I was peaceably traveling to one of my nearest neighbors, I was assaulted by a company of men, to the number of five—Autherston Wrathey, John Gardner, Philomen Ellis, Jesse Clark, and Ariel Sanders. First they threw a stone and hit me between the shoulders, which very much disabled me; they then shot at me, but did not hit me. One of them then struck me with his gun, and broke my skull about six inches—a part of my brain ran out. I have had fourteen pieces of bone taken out of my skull. My system is so reduced that I have not done a day's work since.

I know no reason why they should have done [this act], as I did not belong to the Mormon Church, neither had I ever heard one preach. In this situation I was forced to leave the state forthwith. I was carried three days without having my head dressed. When I arrived at Huntsville, Doctor Head offered me assistance. I refer to him for further testimony.

James Powell.

Attest, John Smith.

We certify that the foregoing affidavit of James Powell's is true and correct, as we stood by and saw it with our eyes. We also heard them {62} say they would kill the Mormons, if they did not clear out. We carried the wounded man in our wagon, till he was out of reach of the mob.

Peter Wimmer,

Susan Wimmer,

Ellen Wimmer.

Sworn to before William Oglesby, J. P.

Affidavit of John Smith—Ditto.

Illinois, Columbus, Adams County, March 11, 1840.

I, John Smith, certify that I was a resident in the state of Missouri in 1838, when I was driven from my house, and a pre-emption right, and forbid to stay in the state, [the mob] threatening me if I did not go forthwith. I took my family and pursued my journey one hundred miles. In consequence of cold, snow, water and ice at the inclement season in which I was driven, I fell sick, and for four weeks I was unable to travel; during which time I was threatened daily; yet I was so sick it was considered by many that I could not live, and was compelled to start when I was not able to sit up through the day. I landed in Illinois; the long and fatiguing journey, lying out in the cold, open air, proved too much for my companion; it threw her into a violent fever, with which she died. Many others in the company took sick and died with the same hard fare.

John Smith.

Sworn to before William Oglesby, J. P.

Affidavit of Smith Humphrey—Ditto.

Illinois, Adams County, March 16, 1840.

I, Smith Humphrey, certify that I was a citizen of Missouri in eighteen hundred and thirty-eight; and some time in the month of October, of the same year, I was fallen upon by a mob commanded by Hyrum Standley. He took my goods out of my house; and said Standley set fire to my house, and burnt it before my eyes, and ordered me to leave the place forthwith. I removed from De Witt to Caldwell county, where I was again assailed by Governor Bogg's exterminating militia. They took me prisoner, and robbed my wagon of four hundred dollars in cash, and one thousand dollars' worth of goods, and drove me out of the state.

Smith Humphrey.

Sworn to before C. M. Woods, Clerk of Circuit Court.

Affidavit of Henry Root—Ditto.

Quincy, Illinois, 16th March, 1840.

This is to certify that I, Henry Root, am, and was a citizen of {63} De Witt, Carroll county, Missouri, at the time of the persecutions (known by the name of the "Mormon War") commenced and terminated between the citizens of said state of Missouri and the Mormons; that in the fall of 1838, in the month of September, a mob (under no regular authority) headed by William W. Austin, Sen., consisting of from one hundred to one hundred and fifty men, came into De Witt and ordered the Mormons to leave that place within ten days from that time; that if they did not leave, they would be driven from there by force.

The Mormons did not leave; the appointed time came, and the mob came, armed and equipped for war. The Mormon citizens petitioned to the governor of the state, but no relief came. They sent to the general of the brigade [in that locality], who ordered the militia to repair to De Witt to disperse the mob. On the arrival of the militia, Brigadier-General Parks told me the Mormons had better leave their property and go off, as his men were prejudiced against them, and he could do them no good, nor relieve them. With that the Mormons left.

Henry Root.

Sworn to before C. M. Woods, Clerk of Circuit Court, Adams county, Illinois.

Affidavit of Joseph Clark—Ditto.

Quincy, Illinois, March 16, 1840.

I, Joseph Clark, certify that I was a citizen of the state of Missouri in 1838; and when peaceably traveling the highway, I was shot at twice by Governor Boggs' exterminating militia, commanded by Major-General John B. Clark.

Joseph Clark.

Sworn to before C. M. Woods, Clerk of Circuit Court, Adams County Illinois.

Affidavit of Thomas D. Casper—Ditto.

Quincy, Illinois, March 16th, 1840.

This is to certify that I, Thomas D. Casper, was a resident of the state of Missouri in the year 1838. I was not a member of the Church of Mormons or Latter-day Saints; but witnessed the following acts of distress: As I was on business, I inquired for Perry Moppin, and learned that he, with Samuel Snowden, Esq., had gone after Mr. Wilson, a Mormon, and had threatened and sworn to take his life if he did not tell his name; and they swore they had the tool to take his life if he had not told them his name.

Further they agreed that the Mormons should leave the country of Missouri except they would deny the faith, or their religion. And I {64} heard Anthony McCustian say that he would head a mob in any case, to prevent the lawyers from attending to any case of their (the Mormons') grievances; and he was a postmaster. And I saw two men that said they had been at Haun's mill at the murder; and one by the name of White, and the other Moppin stated that he had slain three Mormons. And I, Thomas D. Casper, witnessed other things too tedious to mention; and solemnly swear, before God and men, that what is here written is a true statement of facts relative to the suffering of the Mormons in the state of Missouri.

Thomas D. Casper.

Affidavit of Jesse W. Johnston—Ditto.

Quincy, Illinois, March 16, 1840.

I, Jesse W. Johnston, certify that the following circumstances took place in the State of Missouri, while I was a resident of that state, viz.: I was taken prisoner by Governor Boggs' exterminating militia. I saw one man killed belonging to the Mormon Church, and was forced by them to take corn out of the fields of the Mormon Church without leave. This was in the fall of 1838.

Jesse W. Johnston.

Sworn to before C. M. Woods, Clerk of the Circuit Court, Adams County, Illinois.

Affidavit of Owen Cole—Ditto.

Quincy, Illinois, March 17, 1840.

This is to certify that I, Owen Cole, was a resident of Caldwell county, state of Missouri, and while residing at my dwelling house, the militia under Governor Boggs, and by his orders, plundered my house, and shot me through my thigh. My damage sustained by the militia, by being driven from the state, besides my wound, was five hundred dollars. The militia men were quartered on the lands of the people called Mormons, contrary to the laws and Constitution of the state. I hereby certify this to be a true statement.

Owen Cole.

Sworn to before C. M. Woods, Clerk Circuit Court.

Affidavit of Ezekiel Maginn—Ditto.

Quincy, Illinois, March 17, 1840.

I, Ezekiel Maginn, certify that I was a citizen of the state of Missouri in the year 1838, and was an eye witness to the following facts—First, I saw the militia, called for by Governor Boggs' exterminating order, enter the house of Lyman Wight, and take from it a bed and bedding, {65} pillows, and dishes, personally known to me to be his property.

Ezekiel Maginn.

Sworn to before C. M. Woods, Clerk Circuit Court, Adams County.

Affidavit of Addison Green—Ditto.

Quincy, March 17, 1840.

I, Addison Green, do certify that in the month of October, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-eight, when I was peaceably walking the highroad in Ray county, state of Missouri, I was molested and taken prisoner by ten armed men, who took from me one double-barrel fowling piece and equipage, threatening to blow out my brains and swore that if I was a Mormon they would hang me without further ceremony. They had previously been to my lodging and taken my horse, saddle, and bridle. All was then taken into the woods about one mile to Bogart's camp.

I was kept a prisoner until the next morning, when I was let go; but have not obtained any part of my property, which was worth about one hundred and fifty dollars.

A. Green.

Sworn to before John H. Holton, notary public.

Affidavit of John P. Greene—Ditto.

I, John P. Greene, was in company with several of my neighbors walking the road in peace, when one of our company, a young man, by name of O'Banion, was shot down at my side, being shot by a company of mobbers; and soon after this we were fired upon again, and two more were killed and several others wounded. This was about the 25th day of October, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-eight, in the state of Missouri, and I do hereby certify the above to be true according to the best of my knowledge.

John P. Greene

Sworn to before John H. Holton, notary public.

Affidavit of Asahel A. Lathrop—Ditto.

This is to certify that I, Asahel A. Lathrop, was a citizen of the state of Missouri, at the time the difficulty originated between the people called Mormons and the [other] inhabitants of the aforesaid state, and herein give a statement of the transactions that came under my observation, according to the best of my recollection.

I settled in Missouri in the summer of 1838, in Caldwell county, where I purchased land and erected buildings. The said land I now have a deed of; and in the fall I purchased a claim on what is called the East Fork of Grand River, together with a large stock of cattle and {66} horses, sheep and hogs; it being some sixty miles from the aforesaid county where I first located; and moved on to the latter place, supposing that I was at peace with all men; but I found by sad experience that I was surrounded by enemies; for in the fall of 1838, whilst at home with my family, I was notified by a man by the name of James Welden, that the people of Livingston county, had met at the house of one Doctor William P. Thompson, then living in the attached part of said county, for the purpose of entering into measures respecting the people called Mormons; and the same Welden was a member of the same, and also the aforesaid William P. Thompson was a justice of the peace; and they all jointly agreed to drive every Mormon from the state; and notified me that I must leave immediately, or I would be in danger of losing my life.

All this time some of my family were sick; but after listening to the entreaties of my wife to flee for safety, I committed them into the hands of God and left them, it being on Monday morning; and in a short time after I left, there came some ten or fifteen men to my house, and took possession of the same, and compelled my wife to cook for them, and also made free to take such things as they saw fit; and whilst in this situation, my child died, which I have no reason to doubt was for the want of care; which, owing to the abuse she received, and being deprived of rendering that care she would, had she been otherwise situated. My boy was buried by the mob, my wife not being able to pay the last respects to her child.

I went from my home into Daviess county and applied to Austin A. King and General Atchison for advice, as they were acting officers in the state of Missouri. There were men called out to go and liberate my family, which I had been absent from some ten or fifteen days; and on my return I found the remainder of my family confined to their beds, not being able the one to assist the other, and my house guarded by an armed force.

I was compelled to remove my family in this situation, on a bed to a place of safety. This, together with all the trouble, and for the want of care, was the cause of the death of the residue of my family, as I have no doubt; which consisted of a wife and two more children; as they died a few days after their arrival at my friend's. Such was my situation, that I was obliged to assist in making their coffins.

I will give the names of some of the men that have driven me from my house and abused my family; those that I found at my house on my return were Samuel Law, Calvin Hatfield, Stanley Hatfield, Andy Hatfield; and those that were leading men were James Welden, Doctor William P. Thompson, a justice of the peace, and William Cochran, and many others, the names I do not recollect.

{67} I have also seen men abused in various ways; and that whilst they were considered prisoners; such as the mob cocking their guns and swearing that they would shoot, with their guns to their face, and the officers of the militia, so called, standing by without uttering a word; and in these councils they have said if a Missourian should kill a Mormon he should draw a pension, same as a soldier of the Revolution.

I was also compelled to give up my gun, and the terms were, I was to leave the aforesaid state of Missouri, or be exterminated. My property is yet remaining in said state, whilst I am deprived of the control of the same.

Written this 17th day of March, 1840.

Asahel A. Lathrop.

Sworn to before D. W. Kilburn, J. P., Lee county, Iowa Territory.

Affidavit of Burr Riggs.

I, Burr Riggs, of the town of Quincy, and state of Illinois, do hereby certify that in the year 1836, when moving to the state of Missouri, with my family and others, we were met in Ray county, in said state, by a mob of one hundred and fourteen armed men, who commanded us not to proceed any further, but to return, or they would take our lives; and the leader stepped forward at the same time, and cocked his piece. We turned round with our team; and the mob followed us about six miles and left us.

Some time after this I moved to Caldwell county, in said state, and purchased about two hundred acres of land, and a village lot, on which I erected a dwelling house, staked, and commenced improving my land, and had, at the time I was driven away, about forty acres of corn, vegetables, etc.; and in the year 1838, in the month of November, was compelled to leave my house and possessions in consequence of Governor Boggs' exterminating order, without means sufficient to bear my expense out of the state.

Given under my hand at Quincy, Illinois, 17th March, 1840.

Burr Riggs.

Sworn to before C. M. Woods, Clerk of the Circuit Court, Adams county, Illinois.

Affidavit of Simons P. Curtis.

I, Simons P. Curtis, a resident of Quincy, Adams county, Illinois, certify that in the year 1838, I was a citizen of Caldwell county, Missouri, residing in the city of Far West. Also that I went in search of {68} a lost steer; and passing by Captain Bogart's camp, while he was guarding the city, I saw the hide and feet of said steer, which I knew to be mine; the flesh of which I suppose they applied to their own use.

I also certify that Wiley E. Williams, one of the Governor's aids, who was gunkeeper, caused me to pay thirty-seven and a half cents to him. I also paid twenty-five cents to a justice of the peace to qualify me to testify that the gun was mine. The said Wiley E. Williams is said to be the one that carried the story to Governor Boggs, which story was the cause of the exterminating order being issued, as stated by the Governor in said order.

Simons P. Curtis.

Sworn to before C. M. Woods, Clerk Circuit Court, Adams County, Illinois.

Affidavit of Elisha H. Groves.

I, Elisha H. Groves, of the town of Quincy, and state of Illinois, upon oath say, that I was a resident of Daviess county, in the state of Missouri, and that on the 16th day of November, in the year of our Lord, 1838, Judge Vinson Smith and others came to my house and ordered myself and family, Levi Taylor, David Osborn and others, to leave our possessions which we had bought of Government and paid our money for the same, saying we must within three days leave the county or they would take our lives, for there was no law to save us after that time. In consequence of those proceedings, together with Governor Boggs' exterminating order, we were compelled to leave the state of Missouri. Furthermore this deponent saith not.

Given under my hand at Quincy, the 17th day of March, A. D. 1840.

Elisha H. Groves.

Sworn to before C. M. Woods, Clerk Circuit Court.

Affidavit of Jacob Foutz.

Quincy, Illinois, March 17, A. D. 1840.

This is to certify that I was a citizen, resident of Caldwell county, Missouri, at the time Governor Boggs' exterminating order was issued; and that I was quartered on by the mob militia, without my leave or consent at different times, and at one time by William Mann, Hiram Cumstock, and brother, who professed to be the captain; also Robert White; and that I was at the murder at Haun's mill, and was wounded; and that I was driven from the state, to my inconvenience, and {69} deprived of my freedom, as well as to my loss of at least four hundred dollars.

Jacob Foutz.

Sworn to before C. M. Woods, Clerk Circuit Court.

Affidavit of Frederick G. Williams.

I do certify that I was a resident of Caldwell county, in the State of Missouri, in the year of our Lord 1838, and owned land to a considerable amount, building lots, etc., in the village of Far West; and in consequence of mobocracy, together with Governor Boggs' exterminating order, was compelled to leave the state under great sacrifice of real and personal property, which has reduced and left myself and family in a state of poverty, with a delicate state of health, in an advanced stage of life. Furthermore this deponent saith not.

Given under my hand at Quincy, Illinois, March 17, 1840.

Frederick G. Williams.

Sworn to before C. M. Woods, Clerk Adams county, Illinois.

Statement of James Sloan.

James Sloan made affidavit at Quincy, that the officers of the militia under the exterminating order of Governor Boggs in Missouri in 1838, took possession, carried off and destroyed a store of goods, of several hundred dollars' value, belonging to the people called "Mormons," in Daviess county; that his life was threatened, his property taken, and he was obliged to flee the state with his family, greatly to his disadvantage.

Affidavit of David Shumaker.

Quincy, Illinois, Adams County, March 18, 1840.

I, Jacob Shumaker, do certify that I went back to the state of Missouri about the first of October last, with the calculation to live with my family, but finding it impossible, as the mob, say to the amount of twenty or thirty of them, surrounded my house, and whilst they were quarreling about me, what they should do, and in what way they should dispose of me, I crept out of the back window and made my escape; and leaving my family to their most scandalous abuses; my wife and oldest daughter barely escaping from their unholy designs.

I was thus a second time obliged to leave the state, or remain at the risk of my life. The former alternative I chose. My loss sustained by the above-mentioned abuses was not less than three hundred dollars. A lot of land containing forty acres, for which I paid four dollars per acre, situated in Caldwell county, was unjustly and unlawfully taken {70} from me, and is still retained by some person or persons to me unknown. I hereby certify that the above is a true statement.

Jacob Shumaker.

Sworn to before C. M. Woods.

Affidavit of Levi Richards.

I, Levi Richards, a resident of Quincy, Adams county Illinois, practitioner of medicine, certify that in the year one thousand eight hundred and thirty-eight, I was a citizen of Far West, Caldwell county, Missouri, and that in the fall of said year, I saw the city invaded by a numerous armed soldiery, who compelled its inhabitants to surrender, give up their firearms, and submit to their dictation. They then set a strong guard around the city, thereby preventing egress or ingress, without special permission. Then they collected the citizens together upon the public square, formed around them a strong guard of soldiers, and then at the mouths of their rifles, compelled them to sign what was termed a deed of trust, thereby depriving them of all their property and civil rights.

This occupied several days of most inclement weather, when they were brought to the same order by General Clark, and I judge some forty or fifty were made special prisoners by him. At this time he delivered his speech to the "Mormons," which has been published, and which is substantially correct. I was compelled by a company of men armed with rifles, to leave my house, and go to captain Bogart's camp, (he commanded, as I understood, a part of the guard which surrounded the city,) upon an indirect charge or insinuation; was detained a prisoner two days, examined, and liberated. I then asked the clerk of the company, who had been my keeper, the following questions, which he readily answered:

Were those men who massacred the "Mormons" at Haun's mill, out under the Governor's order, or were they mobbers?

A. Mobbers.

Are Captain Cornelius Gilliam and his company out by legal authority, or are they mobbers?

A. Mobbers.

Where are those mobbers now?

A. They have joined the army.

This company [Gilliam's] at the surrender of Far West were painted like Indians. The army wore a badge of red (blood). I saw a large amount of lumber and timber destroyed, and used for fuel by the soldiers. The destruction of cattle, hogs, etc., seemed to be their sport, as their camp and the fields testified when they withdrew. An excellent gun was taken from me, which I have never seen or heard of since. A {71} gun that was left in my care was taken at the same time, which I afterwards found with Wiley E. Williams of Richmond, (reputed one of the Governor's aids,) to obtain which I had to prove property, affirm before a magistrate and pay said Williams fifty cents.

I was called to extract lead, dress the wounds, etc., for several persons (Saints) who were shot in the above siege, two of whom died. Immediately previous to the above transactions, and for a long time before, the citizens of Caldwell, and particularly Far West, were called upon to watch for mobs by day and guard against them by night, till it became a burden almost intolerable.

Levi Richards.

Sworn to before C. M. Woods. Clerk Circuit Court, Adams county, Illinois

Affidavit of Gibson Gates.

I, Gibson Gates, do hereby certify that I was residing in Jackson county, Missouri, in the fall of the year, 1833, and had been for the space of about one year. I was at a meeting one day for worship, when a man by the name of Masters came to us, stating that he was sent by the mob to inform us that if we would forsake our religion, they were willing to be our brethren and fight for us; "but if not," said he, "our young men are ready, and we can scarce constrain them from falling upon you and cutting you to pieces."

Soon after this there came a large company of men, armed, to my place, and with much threatening and profane words, ordered me to be gone by the next day, or they would kill me and my family; in consequence of which threatening, we quit our house in the month of November, leaving most of our effects; suffering very much with cold, fatigue and hunger, we took [set out] on the prairie, and went southward twenty miles or more, where we stayed a few weeks. But still being threatened by the mob, we removed to Clay county, where we lived in peace until the fall of 1838, when a mob arose against the people of the Church of Latter-day Saints, when we were again obliged to leave our home, and seek safety in another place for a few weeks. When we returned our house had been broken open, and the lock of a trunk broken open, and the most valuable contents thereof taken away; the most of our bedding and furniture was either stolen or destroyed; and we were then ordered to leave the state.

Gibson Gates.

Sworn to before David W. Kilbourn, J P.

Affidavit of David Pettigrew.

This is to certify, that I, David Pettigrew, was a citizen of Jackson county, Missouri, and owned a good farm, lying on the Blue river, six miles west of Independence, and lived in peace with the inhabitants until the summer and fall of 1833, when the inhabitants began to {72} threaten us with destruction. I was at work in my field, and a man by the name of Allen, and others with him, came along and cried out, "Mr. Pettigrew, you are at work as though you were determined to stay here, but we are determined that you shall leave the county immediately." I replied that I was a free born citizen of the United States, and had done harm to no man. "I therefore claim protection by the law of the land," and that the law and the Constitution of the land would not suffer them to commit so horrid a crime. They then replied that "the old law and Constitution is worn out, and we are about to make a new one."

I was at a meeting where we had met for prayer, and a man by the name of Masters came and desired an interview with us; he then stated that he was sent by the mob to inform us, that if we would forsake our "Mormon" and Prophet religion, and become of their religion, they, the mob, would be our brothers, and would fight for us; "but if you will not, we are ready and will drive you from the county."

A few days after this, a large mob came to my house, commanded by General Moses Wilson, Hugh Braziel and Lewis Franklin, and broke down my door, and burst into my house, armed with guns, clubs and knives; some of them were painted red and black. This was in the night, and my family was much frightened. They threatened me with immediate death if I did not leave the place. After much abuse they left us for the night, but in a few days they returned and drove me and my family into the street, not suffering us to take anything with us. I saw that we must go or die; we went south to Van Buren county, in company with eighty or ninety others. In a short time after, I returned to my farm and found my house plundered, my grain and crop, stock, and all my farm and farming tools laid waste and destroyed; and shortly after my house was burned to ashes.

I called on Esquire Western, of Independence, and inquired of him if he could inform me what all this mobbing and riot meant, informing him of the destruction and plundering of my house; to which he gave me no satisfaction, but insulted me and treated me roughly. Governor Boggs lived in the county, and I have seen him passing through among us in our great distress, and gave no attention to our distresses. He was then Lieutenant-Governor of the state. On my return to my family in Van Buren county, I was much abused by a man by the name of Brady; he said he would kill me if I ever attempted to go to my farm, or if he saw me passing that way again. I returned to my family, and in a few days after, a company of men came where we lived and said they would spill my blood if I did not leave the place immediately. The leaders of this company were John Cornet, Thomas Langley, and Hezekiah Warden; they lived in Jackson county.

{73} This was in the cold winter, and our sufferings were great. I fled across the Missouri river to Clay county, where I lived three years; in which time I often heard Judge Cameron and others say, that "you Mormons cannot get your rights in any of the courts of the upper country;" and I had not the privilege of voting as a free citizen.

I moved to Caldwell county, bought land and opened a good farm, and lived in peace until the summer and fall of 1838, when mobs arose in the counties round about, and I with the rest was obliged to take up arms in self defense; for the cry was, that mob law should prevail, if we stood against them, until the army came and took us all prisoners of war. I with the rest was obliged to sign a deed of trust at the point of the sword, I with sixty others was selected out and marched to Richmond, in Ray county, by the command of General Clark, where they kept us a number of weeks, pretending to try us as treasoners and murderers. At length I obtained my liberty, and returned to my family in Caldwell county: and I found that there was no safety there, for there was no law, but all a scene of robbing, and plundering, and stealing. They were about to take me again, and I was obliged to leave my family and flee to Illinois. In about two months my family arrived, having suffered much abuse and loss of health and property. Soon after the arrival of my family my son, a young man, died; and I attribute his death to the cruel barbarity of the mob of Missouri, he being a prisoner among them, and having suffered much because of them.

My father was a soldier, and served in the Revolutionary War, under the great Washington, but I have not had protection on my own lands; and I have not been permitted to see my farm in Jackson county, Missouri, in seven years. Soldiers were stationed or quartered in different parts of Far West; and they treated us roughly, threatening to shoot us, and making use of anything they pleased, such as burning house, timber, and rails, and garden fences, and stealing and plundering what they pleased.

When I was at Richmond, a prisoner before Judge King, we sent for many witnesses; and when they came, they were taken and cast into Prison with us, and we were not permitted to have any witnesses. The day I came out of prison, they compelled me to sign a writing which was not true or remain in prison.

David Pettigrew.

Sworn to before D. W. Kilbourn, J. P.

Comment of the Prophet on the Foregoing Affidavits.

Thus I have given a few of the multitude of affidavits which might be given to substantiate the facts of our persecutions and deaths in Missouri. When the brethren left Missouri, {74} they were poor, having been plundered of everything valued by mobs. Much of the plundering was done under the eye of the government officers, according to the foregoing affidavits; and all by the sanction of the state of Missouri, as the acts of her legislature testify.[5] The Saints, being so numerous, were obliged to scatter over the state of Illinois and different states to get bread and clothing—so that but few accounts against Missouri could be collected without unreasonable exertions. About 491 individuals gave in their claims against Missouri, which I presented to Congress—amounting to about $1,381,044.00; leaving a multitude more of similar bills hereafter to be presented, which, if not settled immediately, will ere long amount to a handsome sum, increasing by compound interest.


1. This epistle is of interest as showing the spirit of the Church government at that time, (1839) and the recognition of the rights of individuals. For these reasons it is quoted here:

To the Saints scattered abroad, in the region westward from Kirtland, Ohio:

Beloved Brethren:—Feeling that it is our duty, as the servants of God, to instruct the Saints from time to time, in those things which to us appear to be wise and proper—therefore we freely give you a few words of advice at this time.

We have hear it rumored abroad, that some at least, and probably many, are making their calculations to remove back to Kirtland next season.

Now brethren, this being the case, we advise you to abandon such an idea; yea, we warn you, in the name of the Lord, not to remove back there, unless you are counseled to do so by the First Presidency, and the High Council of Nauvoo. We do not wish by this to take your agency from you; but we feel to be plain, and pointed in our advice for we wish to do our duty, that your sins may not be found in our skirts. All persons are entitled to their agency, for God has so ordained it. He has constituted mankind moral agents, and given them power to choose good or evil; to seek after that which is good, by pursuing the pathway of holiness in this life, which brings peace of mind, and joy in the Holy Ghost here, and a fulness of joy and happiness at His right hand hereafter; or to pursue an evil course, going on in sin and rebellion against God, thereby bringing condemnation to their souls in this world, and an eternal loss in the world to come. Since the God of heaven has left these things optional with every individual, we do not wish to deprive them of it. We only wish to act the part of a faithful watchman, agreeably to the word of the Lord to Ezekiel the prophet, (Ezekiel 33 chap. 2, 3, 4, 5, verses,) and leave it for others to do as seemeth them good.

Now for persons to do things, merely because they are advised to do them, and yet murmur all the time they are doing them, is of no use at all; they might as well not do them. There are those who profess to be Saints who are too apt to murmur, and find fault, when any advice is given, which comes in opposition to their feelings, even when they, themselves, ask for counsel; much more so when counsel is given unasked for, which does not agree with their notion of things; but brethren, we hope for better things from the most of you; we trust that you desire counsel, from time to time, and that you will cheerfully conform to it, whenever your receive it from a proper source.

It is very probable, that it may be considered wisdom for some of us, [i. e. at Nauvoo], and perhaps others, to move back to Kirtland, to attend to important business there: but notwithstanding that, after what we have written, should any be so unwise to move back there, without being first counseled so to do, their conduct will be highly disapprobated.

Done by order and vote of the First Presidency and High Council for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, at Nauvoo, December 8, 1839.

H.G. Sherwood, Clerk

Times and Seasons, Vol. 1, p. 29.

2. This communication of Hyrum Smith's adds nothing to his very elaborate statement of the wrongs suffered by himself and the Saints in Missouri already published in Volume III, pp. 403-424, except his testimony to the truth of the Book of Mormon; and as he was one of the Eight Witnesses to the fact of the existence of the Nephite plates from which the record was translated, the paragraphs relating to that testimony are give here:

"Having given my testimony to the world of the truth of the Book of Mormon, the renewal of the everlasting covenant, and the establishment of the kingdom of heaven, in the last days; and having been brought into great afflictions and distresses for the same, I thought that it might be strengthening to my beloved brethren, to give them a short account of my sufferings, for the truth's sake, and the state of my mind and feelings, while under circumstances of the most trying and afflicting nature. * * * * I had been abused and thrust into a dungeon, and confined for months on account of my faith, and the testimony of Jesus Christ. However I thank God that I felt a determination to die, rather than deny then things which my eyes have seen, which my hands had handled, and which I had borne testimony to, [all in plain allusion to his testimony to the existence of the plates from which the Book of Mormon was translated] wherever my lot had been cast; and I can assure my beloved brethren that I was enabled to bear as strong a testimony, when nothing but death presented itself, as I ever did I my life. My confidence in God, was likewise unshaken. I knew that He who suffered me, along with my brethren, to be thus tried, that He could and that He would deliver us out of the hands of our enemies; and in His own due time He did so, for which I desire to bless and praise His holy name."—Times and Seasons, Vol. 1, pp. 20 and 23.

3. This treatise on the "Regeneration and Eternal Duration of Matter," was written by Elder Pratt while in Columbia prison, Missouri. He explains that it "was more calculated to comfort and console myself and friends when death stared me in the face, than as an argumentative or philosophical production." This article has for some time been out of print, yet it has much that is instructive in it. The author states as a basic principle in his treatise the following: "Matter and spirit are the two great principles of all existence. Everything animate and inanimate is composed of one or the other, or both of these eternal principles. I say eternal, because the elements are as durable as the quickening power which exists in them. Matter and spirit are of equal duration; both are self-existent,—they never began to exist, and they never can be annihilated. * * * * Matter as well as spirit is eternal, uncreated, self existing. However infinite the variety of its changes, forms and shapes;—however vast and varying the parts it has to act in the great theater of the universe;—whatever sphere its several parts may be destined to fill in the boundless organization of infinite wisdom, yet it is there, durable at the throne of Jehovah. And eternity is inscribed in indelible characters on every particle. Revolution may succeed revolution;—vegetation may bloom and flourish, generation upon generation may pass away and others still succeed—empires may fall to ruin, and moulder to the dust and be forgotten—the marble monuments of antiquity may crumble to atoms and mingle in the common ruin—the mightiest works of art, with all their glory, may sink in oblivion and be remembered no more—worlds may startle from their orbits, and hurling from their spheres, run lawless on each other in conceivable confusion—element may war with element in awful majesty, while thunders roll from sky to sky, and arrows of lightning break the mountains asunder—scatter the rocks like hailstones—set worlds on fire, and melt the elements with fervent heat, and yet not one grain can be lost—not one particle can be annihilated. All these revolutions and convulsions of nature will only serve to refine, purify, and finally restore and renew the elements upon which they act. And like the sunshine after a storm, or like gold seven times tried in the fire, they will shine forth with additional luster as they roll in their eternal spheres, in their glory, in the midst of the power of God." On this theory of the indestructibility of matter the author proceeds to consider the reality of the resurrection from the dead and the future life of man in a sentient, tangible existence. "The resurrection of the body is a complete restoration and reorganization of the physical system of man; * * * * the elements of which his body is composed are eternal in their duration; * * * * they form the tabernacle—the everlasting habitation of that spirit which animated them in this life; * * * * the spirits and bodies of men are of equal importance and destined to form an eternal and inseparable union with each other."

4. This affidavit, it will be observed, was given some time after the others of this group, and appears in the Ms. of the Prophet's History under date of March the 5th, but it is brought forward here, with all those that follow in this chapter, that it may appear in connection with the others of its kind.

5. That is to say, the legislature had appropriated two hundred thousand dollars to meet the expenses of the mob-militia in unlawfully dispossessing the Saints of their lands and other property, and then expelling them from the state. While on the other hand, it refused to give any consideration worthy of the name to the petition of the Saints for redress of their grievances; and so far was the legislature from giving the Saints any assurance of re-instatement in the rightful possession of their lands and other property and maintaining them in peaceful possession of them, that it finally refused even to investigate the justice of their claims. Under these circumstances the Prophet is undoubtedly justified in using the language of the text. (See Vol. III, chaps. xv, xvi.)



Departure of the Prophet from Washington—Labors of Elias Higbee Before the Senate Judiciary Committee—Report of the Committee.

Wednesday, 8.—The High Council at Nauvoo voted to loan all the moneys possible for the relief of the poor Saints.

Ministry of Brigham Young and Geo. A. Smith at Richmond, New York.

This evening President Young preached at a school house in the south west part of Richmond,[1] when the people present commenced making a noise and disturbing the meeting, and when President Young was reproving them for their disgraceful conduct, some of those present fired lucifer matches. President Young rebuked them severely, and taught them better manners, and proposed to send them some Indians from the West to civilize them.

Thursday, 9.—About this time I returned to Philadelphia, where I continued to preach and visit for a little season.

George A. Smith preached at Richmond this evening. His health is still very poor, and he is almost blind. President Young also was very feeble. While they were opening the meeting, some one threw a quantity of brimstone in the fire, which nearly suffocated them. As soon as the fumes of brimstone would permit, Brother Smith told them he thought he should be in no danger of catching the itch in Massachusetts, for the smell of brimstone indicated that it was thoroughly cured.

Sunday, 12.—Elders Young and Smith held a meeting {76} at William Pierson's, Richmond. After preaching, Elder Smith had a severe shake of the ague, which lasted some hours. The weather was extremely cold, but by the kind attention of Mr. Pierson's family, and William Richards, he was in some measure relieved of his ague before he left Richmond. President Young wore a cradle bed quilt from Far West to Richmond, where Rhoda Richards lined Doctor Richard's old worn out plaid cloak with President Young's quilt, with flannel between, which made him very comfortable.

Monday, 13.—Elders Wilford Woodruff, John Taylor, and Theodore Turley arrived at Preston, England.

Tuesday, 14.—About this time Elder Rigdon and Doctor Foster arrived at Philadelphia.

Appointments in the British Mission.

Friday, 17.—A special council was held at the house of Elder Willard Richards, in Preston, Joseph Fielding, president, Theodore Turley, scribe. Present, Wilford Woodruff, John Taylor, Hiram Clark, and Willard Richards. Council decided that Elders Woodruff and Turley should go to the Staffordshire potteries; Elders Taylor and Fielding, to Liverpool; Elder Clark, to Manchester, with Elder William Clayton; and Elder Willard Richards to go where the Spirit directs; that the Elders of the council communicate with the presidency at Preston once a month; and Elder Richards write to Brothers Alexander Wright and Samuel Mulliner in Scotland, and hold no general conference until more of the Twelve arrive.

Elders Brigham Young and George A. Smith went to Canaan, Connecticut, with Edwin D. Pierson, Elder Smith shaking very severely with the ague in the evening.

Saturday, 18.—Elders Woodruff and Turley started for the Potteries.

Sunday 19.—The High Council at Nauvoo voted to donate a city lot to Brother James Hendrix, who was shot in Missouri; also voted to build him a house; also donated a house and lot to Father Joseph Knight.

{77} Elder Brigham Young preached at Sheffield mills, where he stayed till the twenty-sixth.

Wednesday, 22.—Elders Fielding and Taylor went to Liverpool and commenced their mission.

Saturday, 25.—About this time I visited the Saints at Brandywine, where I spent some days, and returned to Philadelphia.

Monday, 27.—Brothers Gibson Smith and Peter French conveyed Elders Brigham Young and George A. Smith to New Haven, where they tarried until the 31st.

About the last of this month, I left Philadelphia for Washington, in company with Brothers Rockwell, Higbee, and Doctor Foster, traveling by railroad, having sold my carriage, and having left Elder Rigdon sick in Philadelphia.

Friday, 31.—Elders Brigham Young and George A. Smith took steamboat from New Haven for New York City. When within eighteen miles of the city, they took the stage, and arrived at their destination about ten o'clock at night. When they alighted from the carriage they had no funds to pay their fare, and Elder Young asked Captain Stone to pay their bill, fifty cents, which he very readily did; and they found Elder Parley P. Pratt's house in about five minutes, where they stayed Saturday, February 1st.

Sunday, February 2.—Elders Brigham Young and George A. Smith preached in the Columbia Hall. Elder Young preached every evening during the week, till Saturday, three times in the Columbia Hall; by which he injured himself so much, that he was not able to dress himself for four or five days.

On Monday George A. Smith went to Philadelphia.

Thursday, 6.—I had previously preached in Washington, and one of my sermons I find reported in synopsis, by a member of Congress; which I will insert entire.

{78} Mathew S. Davis' Description of the Prophet, and a Report of his Washington Discourse.

Washington, 6th February, 1840.

My Dear Mary:—I went last evening to hear "Joe Smith," the celebrated Mormon, expound his doctrine. I, with several others, had a desire to understand his tenets as explained by himself. He is not an educated man: but he is a plain, sensible, strong minded man. Everything he says, is said in a manner to leave an impression that he is sincere. There is no levity, no fanaticism, no want of dignity in his deportment. He is apparently from forty to forty-five years of age, rather above the middle stature, and what you ladies would call a very good looking man. In his garb there are no peculiarities; his dress being that of a plain, unpretending citizen. He is by profession a farmer, but is evidently well read.

He commenced by saying, that he knew the prejudices which were abroad in the world against him, but requested us to pay no respect to the rumors which were in circulation respecting him or his doctrines. He was accompanied by three or four of his followers. He said, "I state to you our belief, so far as time will permit." "I believe," said he, "that there is a God, possessing all the attributes ascribed to Him by all Christians of all denominations; that He reigns over all things in heaven and on earth, and that all are subject to His power." He then spoke rationally of the attributes of Divinity, such as foreknowledge, mercy &c., &c. He then took up the Bible. "I believe," said he, "in this sacred volume. In it the 'Mormon' faith is to be found. We teach nothing but what the Bible teaches. We believe nothing, but what is to be found in this book. I believe in the fall of man, as recorded in the Bible; I believe that God foreknew everything, but did not foreordain everything; I deny that foreordain and foreknow is the same thing. He foreordained the fall of man; but all merciful as He is, He foreordained at the same time, a plan of redemption for all mankind. I believe in the Divinity of Jesus Christ, and that He died for the sins of all men, who in Adam had fallen." He then entered into some details, the result of which tended to show his total unbelief of what is termed original sin. He believes that it is washed away by the blood of Christ, and that it no longer exists. As a necessary consequence, he believes that we are all born pure and undefiled. That all children dying at an early age (say eight years) not knowing good from evil, were incapable of sinning; and that all such assuredly go to heaven. "I believe," said he, "that a man is a moral, responsible, free agent; that although it was foreordained he should fall, and be redeemed, yet after the redemption it was not foreordained that he should again sin. In the Bible a rule of conduct is laid down for him; in the Old and {79} Testaments the law by which he is to be governed, may be found. If he violates that law, he is to be punished for the deeds done in the body."

I believe that God is eternal. That He had no beginning, and can have no end. Eternity means that which is without beginning or end. I believe that the soul is eternal; and had no beginning; it can have no end. Here he entered into some explanations, which were so brief that I could not perfectly comprehend him. But the idea seemed to be that the soul of man, the spirit, had existed from eternity in the bosom of Divinity; and so far as he was intelligible to me, must ultimately return from whence it came. He said very little of rewards and punishments; but one conclusion, from what he did say, was irresistible—he contended throughout, that everything which had a beginning must have an ending; and consequently if the punishment of man commenced in the next world, it must, according to his logic and belief have an end.

During the whole of his address, and it occupied more than two hours, there was no opinion or belief that he expressed, that was calculated, in the slightest degree, to impair the morals of society, or in any manner to degrade and brutalize the human species. There was much in his precepts, if they were followed, that would soften the asperities of man towards man, and that would tend to make him a more rational being than he is generally found to be. There was no violence, no fury, no denunciation. His religion appears to be the religion of meekness, lowliness, and mild persuasion.

Towards the close of his address, he remarked that he had been represented as pretending to be a Savior, a worker of miracles, etc. All this was false. He made no such pretensions. He was but a man, he said; a plain, untutored man; seeking what he should do to be saved. He performed no miracles. He did not pretend to possess any such power. He closed by referring to the Mormon Bible, which he said, contained nothing inconsistent or conflicting with the Christian Bible, and he again repeated that all who would follow the precepts of the Bible, whether Mormon or not, would assuredly be saved.

Throughout his whole address, he displayed strongly a spirit of charity and forbearance. The Mormon Bible, he said, was communicated to him, direct from heaven. If there was such a thing on earth, as the author of it, then he (Smith) was the author; but the idea that he wished to impress was, that he had penned it as dictated by God.

I have taken some pains to explain this man's belief, as he himself explained it. I have done so because it might satisfy your curiosity, and might be interesting to you, and some of your friends. I have changed my opinion of the Mormons. They are an injured and much-abused people. Of matters of faith, you know I express no opinion. I have {80} only room to add—let William, if you cannot do it, acknowledge the receipt of this, with the enclosure.

Remember me to Sarah and the boys. Kiss the dear baby for me.

Affectionately your husband,

M. L. Davis.

P. S.—I omitted to say, he does not believe in infant baptism, sprinkling, but in immersion, after eight years of age.

To Mrs. Mathew L. Davis, 107 Henry Street, New York.

The Prophet's Interview with Van Buren and Calhoun.

During my stay I had an interview with Martin Van Buren, the President, who treated me very insolently, and it was with great reluctance he listened to our message, which, when he had heard, he said: "Gentlemen, your cause is just, but I can do nothing for you;" and "If I take up for you I shall lose the vote of Missouri." His whole course went to show that he was an office-seeker, that self-aggrandizement was his ruling passion, and that justice and righteousness were no part of his composition. I found him such a man as I could not conscientiously support at the head of our noble Republic. I also had an interview with Mr. John C. Calhoun, whose conduct towards me very ill became his station. I became satisfied there was little use for me to tarry, to press the just claims of the Saints on the consideration of the President or Congress, and stayed but a few days, taking passage in company with Porter Rockwell and Dr. Foster on the railroad and stages back to Dayton, Ohio.

Friday, 7.—High Council at Montrose voted to disfellowship all brethren who should persist in keeping tippling shops in that branch of the Church.

Sunday, 16.—Elder Brigham Young tarried at Elder Parley P. Pratt's, 58 Mott Street, N. Y., and Elder Heber C. Kimball arrived there this morning.

Thursday, 20.—Judge Higbee I left at Washington, and he wrote me as follows:

{81} Elias Higbee's Letter to the Prophet, Reporting Progress of the Cause of the Saints Before the Senate Committee.

Washington City, Feb. 20th, 1840.

Dear Brother:—I have just returned from the Committee Room, wherein I spoke about one hour and a half. There were but three of the committee present, for which I am very sorry. I think they will be obliged to acknowledge the justice of our cause. They paid good attention; and I think my remarks were well received. It was a special meeting appointed to hear me by my request. The Missouri Senators and Representatives were invited to attend. Dr. Linn, and Mr. Jamieson attended, and God gave me courage, so that I was not intimidated by them. Dr. Linn, I thought, felt a little uneasy at times; but manifested a much better spirit afterwards than Mr. Jamieson.

I told them first, that I represented a suffering people, who had been deprived, together with myself, of their rights in Missouri; who numbered something like fifteen thousand souls; and not only they, but many others were deprived of the rights guaranteed to them by the Constitution of the United States. At least the amount of one hundred and fifty thousand free-born citizens are deprived the enjoyment of citizenship in each and every state; that we had no ingress in the state of Missouri; nor could any of us have, only at the expense of our lives; and this by the order of the executive.

I then took their own declaration of the cause of our expulsion; referred them to Parley P. Pratt's pamphlet, which I held in my hand; then showed that the first accusation therein contained, was on account of our religious tenets; furthermore, that the others were utterly groundless. I went on to prove that the whole persecution, from beginning to end, was grounded on our religious faith. For evidence of this, I referred them to Porter Rockwell's testimony, and P. Powell's. I stated that there was abundant testimony to prove this to be a fact, among the documents.

I then gave a brief history of the persecutions, from the first settlement in the state to our final expulsion. I also stated that the society were industrious, inoffensive, and innocent of crime; had the Times and Seasons, from which I read Governor Lucas's letter to Alanson Ripley. I also referred to Judge Young's letter from Pike county, the clerk's and others, respecting our character in their section of the country. I gave them some hints of the Haun's mill massacre, and the murder of the two little boys, but referred them more particularly to the documents for information concerning those things; and furthermore that I had not come here to instruct them in what they were to do in the case, but to present them with the facts—having all confidence in this honorable body (the Congress), believing them to be honorable men.

{82} I demanded from them a restitution of all our rights and privileges as citizens of the United States, and damages for all the losses we had sustained in consequence of our persecutions and expulsion from the state; and told them we could have recourse no where else on earth that I knew of; that we could not sue an army of soldiers, neither could we go into the state to sue anyone else. I told them that I knew not how far Congress had jurisdiction in this case, or how far they had not; but as far as they had, we claimed the exercise of it for our relief; for we were an injured people.

These and some others were the principal subjects of my speech; after which Mr. Jamieson said he was once in the "Mormons'" favor; but afterwards learned that it was impossible to live among them, for they stole their neighbors' hogs; and there being so much testimony, he believed it, etc., etc. I replied something like this: making statements was one thing, and proving them was another. Mr. Linn then said he wished me to answer one thing, viz.: If the legislature of Missouri did not refuse to investigate the subject of our difficulties solely on account of the trials then pending. In reply I assured him that I knew they had refused us an investigation; but as to that being the cause, I did not know, but told him they might have done it when those trials were discharged. He seemed to think it an injustice for Congress to take it up before the legislature had acted on it.

I occupied all but a few minutes of the time when the Senate was to go into session, so they adjourned until tomorrow at ten o'clock, when the Missourians are to reply. Mr. Linn observed, that there was a gentleman whom he would have before the committee on the morrow, who lived in the upper part of Missouri, that knew everything relative to the affair. I presume he is to put in his gab. I suppose I must attend the committee, as I am solicited by the chairman; but I would rather take a flogging; because I must sit still, and hear a volubility of lies concerning myself and brethren. Lies I say, for they have nothing but lies to tell, that will in the least degree justify their conduct in Missouri. Mr. Linn said he had written to Missouri, to get all the evidence taken before Judge King; so that if the thing must come up, he would be prepared to have a full investigation of the matter, and that the committee should have power to send for persons, papers, &c,. &c.

In my remarks I stated that an article of the Constitution was violated in not granting compulsory process for witnesses in behalf of the prisoners; and that the main evidence adduced, upon which they were committed, (as I understood), was from Dr. Avard, who once belonged to our society, and was compelled to swear as suited them best, in order to save his life; that I knew him to be a man whose character was the {83} worst I ever knew in all my associations or intercourse with mankind; and that I had evidence by affidavits before them, of five or six respectable men, to prove that all he swore to was false.

Brethren and sisters, I want your especial prayers, that God may give me wisdom to manage this case according to His will, and that He will protect me from our foes, both publicly and privately.

Yours in the bonds of love,

Elias Higbee.

Second letter of Elias Higbee to the Prophet—Cause of the Saints before the Senate Committee.

Washington City, February 21st, 1840.

Dear Brother.—I have just returned again from the Committee Room. Mr. Linn and Mr. Jamieson made some remarks, to which I replied. Mr. Linn is much more mild and reasonable (mostly perhaps from policy) than Mr. Jamieson, who related a long lingo of stuff, which he said was proven before the legislature in Missouri, which amounted to about this: that Joseph Smith gave the "Mormons" liberty to trespass on their neighbors' property; also told them, that it all belonged to them; as they were Israelites. Upon the strength of this they became the aggressors. I replied that the Jackson county people in their declaration of causes that induced them to unite in order to drive the "Mormons," the crime of stealing, or trespassing, was not mentioned; and there was no docket, either clerk's or justice's, that could show it, in Jackson, Clay, Caldwell, or in Daviess counties; and that no man ever heard such teaching or doctrine from Joseph Smith, or any other "Mormon;" that we held to no such doctrine, neither believed in any such thing.

I mentioned some things contained in our Book of Doctrine and Covenants; Government and Laws in general. I told them we had published long ago our belief on that subject. Some things I recollected, which were that all persons should obey the laws of the government under which they lived, and that ecclesiastical power should not be exercised to control our civil rights in any way; particularly that ecclesiastical power should only be used in the Church; and then no further than fellowship was concerned. I think they injured their cause to-day. There is another appointment for them on the morrow, at 10 o'clock. Their friend they said was sick, consequently could not attend to-day. Mr. Linn said he thought it would be time enough to take it up in Congress when they [the Saints] could not get justice from the State; and that he was confident there was a disposition in the state of Missouri to do us justice, should we apply; that the reason of their refusing to investigate before was, the trials of the prisoners were pending; and further said, (when speaking of the trials before Judge King,) that he understood from {84} gentlemen that the prisoners commended the Judge for his clemency and fair dealing towards them; and acknowledged they were guilty in part of the charge preferred against them. Mr. Linn said he presumed I was not present, when said men were tried. I replied in the negative, that I was not there, neither any body else that could be a witness in their favor. The lawyers advised them to keep away if they desired the salvation of their lives. I observed that I had read the proceedings of the legislature, but did not now recollect them; but since yesterday I have been reflecting on the subject, and recollect a conversation I had with Mr. Harvey Redfield, who was the bearer of the petition to Jefferson City, and he informed me that the reasons why they refused an investigation, was on account of the Upper Missouri members being so violently opposed to it, that they used their utmost exertions, and finally succeeded in getting a majority against it; and the reason of their taking this course was, in consequence of one of their members being in the massacre at Haun's mill, viz., Mr. Ashley; and Cornelius Gilliam was a leader of the first mob in Daviess county, which the militia were called out to suppress.

Mr. Linn said if it must come out in Congress, it should be fully investigated, and they, the Committee, should have power to send for persons and papers; for if we have a right to claim damages of the United States, so had they, if all were true concerning the acts alleged against the "Mormons;" that they had a right to ask the Government to pay the war against the "Mormons;" but finally seemed to disapprove of the exterminating order, which was admitted to have existed by Mr. Jamieson, or was issued by their legislature, but that no one ever thought of carrying it into effect. He said that General Clark merely advised the "Mormons" to leave the State. To which I replied, General Clark's speech was before them; that I had stated some of its contents yesterday; and if it were necessary, I could prove it by four or five hundred affidavits.

Then Mr. Jamieson stated something about the prisoners making their escape, and that he had no doubt but that they could have a fair trial in Missouri, for the legislature, to his certain knowledge, passed a law whereby they had a right to choose any county in the State to be tried in. To which I replied, that I understood such a law was passed; but notwithstanding, they could not get their trials in the county wherein they desired; for they were forced to go to Boone, whereas they desired to have their trials in Palmyra, where they could get their witnesses, as that was only sixteen miles from the river, and the other was a great distance. He said that Judge King certainly would not go contrary to law. I told him there were some affidavits in those documents that would tell him some things very strange concerning Judge {85} King. Mr. Linn then wished to know if the affidavits were from anybody else save "Mormons." I replied that there were some others; but how many I knew not. He then wanted to know how they were certified; whether any clerk's name was attached in the business. I told him they were well authenticated by the Courts of Record, with the Clerk's name attached thereto.

After these things and some others were said, the committee refused to consult on the subject. Only the same three attended that were in yesterday. The Chairman observed that they had not expressed any opinion relative to the subject; but observed his mind was made up in relation to the matter. I think, from all I have discovered, Mr. Smith of Indiana will be on the side of justice; but how the thing will terminate I cannot tell. Mr. Crittenden and Mr. Strange are the two absent members of the Committee.

Yours in the bond of love,

Elias Higbee.

Third Letter of Elias Higbee to the Prophet—Cause of the Saints before the Senate Committee.

Washington, February 22nd, 1840.

Dear Brother.—I have just returned from the Committee Room. The Committee being present to-day, a Mr. Corwin of St. Louis, formerly a democratic editor, emptied his budget; which was as great a bundle of nonsense and stuff as could be thought of; I suppose not what he knew, but what gentlemen had told him; for instance, the religious General Clark and others. I confess I had hard work to restrain my feeling some of the time, but I did succeed in keeping silence tolerably well. Himself, Mr. Jamieson, and Mr. Linn summoned all the energies of their minds to impress upon the assembly that "Joe Smith," as he called him, led the people altogether by Revelation, in their temporal, civil, and political matters, and by this means caused all the "Mormons" to vote the "whole-hog" ticket on one side, except two persons. But when I got an opportunity of speaking, I observed that Joseph Smith never led any of the Church in these matters; as we considered him to have no authority, neither did he presume to exercise any of that nature; that Revelations were only concerning spiritual things in the Church; and the Bible being our standard, we received no Revelations contrary to it. I also observed that we were not such ignoramuses, perhaps, as he fain would have people believe us to be; and some other things on this subject. I then told him that every man exercised the right of suffrage according to his better judgment, and without any ecclesiastical restraint being put upon him; that it was all false about a Revelation on voting; and the reason of our voting that ticket was in consequence of {86} the Democratic principles having been taught us from our infancy, and that they ever extended equal rights to all; and further we had been much persecuted previous to that time—many threatenings being made from the counties round about, as well as among us, by those who took the lead in political affairs. It was true we advised our brethren to vote this ticket, telling them we thought that party would protect our rights, and not suffer us to be driven from our lands, as we had hitherto been; believing it to be by far the most liberal party; but in that we were mistaken, because when it came to the test, there were as many Democrats turned against us as Whigs; and indeed less liberality and political freedom were manifested by them; for one Whig paper came out decidedly in our favor.

I made these remarks partly from motives which I may at another time explain to you. He laid great stress on the trials at Richmond, and a constitution, that he said Avard and others (who were in good standing in the "Mormon" Church at this time) swore to; then went on to relate what it contained, and that it was written by Sidney Rigdon.

I flatly denied it, and I could bring all the "Mormons," both men, women, and children, besides myself, that would swear before all the world, that no such thing ever existed, nor was thought of among the "Mormons."

He then related some things which he said John Corril had told him at the legislature, in Missouri; which were to the effect that the "Mormons" had burnt a number of houses in Daviess county, and that for himself, if he could not get to heaven by being an honest man, he would never go there. Then, I, speaking of some of the dissenters, told him Corril was anxious to get into the Church again, and that it was the fact in regard to damages having been done, after we had been driven from Jackson and Clay—relating the De Witt scrape, and calling of the militia, and the mob's marching to Daviess and saying they would drive the "Mormons" from there to Caldwell, and then to hell; their burning our houses: that small parties on both sides were on the alert, and probably did some damages; though I was not personally knowing to [it], as I was not there. I told him Joseph Smith held no office in the country, neither was he a military man, and did not take gun in hand in the affair to my knowledge. I then stated that John Corril's affidavit, which contained some important facts, was before them,—which facts I forgot to mention yesterday,—importing that he (John Corril) was convinced we would get no redress in Missouri (he being a member of the legislature, ought to know). I saw the Chairman of the Committee not long since, who informed me that the Committee had not come to a final conclusion on this matter as yet.

I saw Mr. Jamieson on the walk, who said the first thing the {87} Committee would do was to decide whether they would take it up and consider it or not; and if they do take it up according to request, the Senate will grant the Committee power to send for persons and papers. The Committee made some inquiries respecting our religion, and I answered there, as a matter of course, as well as I was able.

They inquired very particularly concerning how much land we had entered there, and how much of it yet remained unsold; when Mr. Corwin observed that we had never entered much land there, but were squatters. I then described the size of Caldwell and Daviess counties, giving an explanation on these matters.

I suppose perhaps on Monday or Tuesday, we shall know something relative to this matter. Whether power be given them to send for persons and papers, [or not] you may see where they depend to rally their forces, viz., by endeavoring to make us treasonable characters, by the constitution, said to govern us, and that everything both civil and political among us is done by revelation. These points I desire to blow to the four winds, and that you will select a number of firm brethren, possessing good understanding, who will tell the truth, and willingly send me their names when they know they are wanted. Send plenty of them. They will get two dollars per day, and ten cents a mile to and from, [as] expense money. Do not send them until their subpoenas get there, for they will not draw expense money only for going home.

I will suggest a few names—Alanson Ripley, King Follett, Amasa Lyman, Francis M. Higbee, as they know concerning the De Witt scrape; also send Charles C. Rich, Seymour Brunson, and others. You will know whom to send better than myself.

If the Missourians should send for you, I would say consult God about going.

Elias Higbee.

P. S.—Mr. Jamieson stated to me this evening, if the "Mormons" could make it appear that they had been wronged, they would use their influence in having them redressed, so the shame should not fall on the whole state, but on those which had been guilty. I then observed that there was a minority in the legislature, much in our favor, which seemed to please him, as they alluded several times to it. The cause of my being so particular, is to show you the whole ground I have taken in this matter, that there may be no inconsistency. If I have erred in this matter, it is my head and not my heart.

Elias Higbee.

Sunday, 23.—Elder Brigham Young had so far recovered as to be able to attend preaching by Parley P. Pratt, at Columbia Hall, New York.

{88} The High Council of Nauvoo voted, that the notes given into the hands of Bishop Partridge, by certain individuals, as consecrations for building the Lord's House in Far West, be returned to the same by him.

Tuesday, 25.—Elders Brigham Young and Reuben Hedlock went to Hampstead, on Long Island, and preached at Rockaway and the neighborhood till the fourth of March, and baptized nine.

The Fourth Letter of Elias Higbee to the Prophet—Announces that the Senate Committee's Report will be Adverse to the Saints.

Washington, February 26th, 1840.

Dear Brother.—I am just informed, by General Wall (the Chairman of the Committee), before whom, or to whom, our business is referred, that the decision is against us, or in other words unfavorable, that they believe redress can only be had in Missouri, the courts and legislature. He says, they will report this week. I desire to get a copy of it, and also the papers. I feel a conscience void of offense towards God and man in this matter; that I have discharged my duty here; and as I wish not to be on expense, as soon as I can write to President Rigdon, get my papers, and draw some money to bear my expenses, I shall bid adieu to this city, to return to my family and friends.

I feel now that we have made our last appeal to all earthly tribunals; that we should now put our whole trust in the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. We have a right now which we could not heretofore so fully claim—that is, of asking God for redress and redemption, as they have been refused us by man.

Elias Higbee.

To Joseph Smith, Junior.

The Prophet en route for Nauvoo.

When I had returned as far as Dayton, Ohio, I found the horses which we left on our journey out, and from thence I pursued my journey through Indiana on horseback, in company with Dr. Foster, leaving Brother Porter Rockwell at Dayton; the traveling being exceedingly bad, my progress was slow and wearisome.

Death of James Mulholland.

My clerk, James Mulholland, while I was absent, died {89} on November 3rd, 1839, aged thirty-five years. He was a man of fine education, and a faithful scribe and Elder in the Church.[2]

Wednesday, March 4, 1840. I arrived safely at Nauvoo, after a wearisome journey, through alternate snow and mud, having witnessed many vexatious movements in government officers, whose sole object should be the peace and prosperity and happiness of the whole people; but instead of this, I discovered that popular clamor and personal aggrandizement were the ruling principles of those in authority; and my heart faints within me when I see, by the visions of the Almighty, the end of this nation, if she continues to disregard the cries and petitions of her virtuous citizens, as she has done, and is now doing.

I have also enjoyed many precious moments with the Saints during my journey.

On my way home I did not fail to proclaim the iniquity and insolence of Martin Van Buren, toward myself and an injured people, which will have its effect upon the public mind; and may he never be elected again to any office of trust or power,[3] by which he may abuse the innocent and let the guilty go free.

I depended on Dr. Foster to keep my daily journal during this journey, but he has failed me.

Elders Brigham Young and Reuben Hedlock returned to New York, and held a conference, when many Elders were ordained.

{90} Report of the Senate Judiciary Committee on the Case of the Saints vs. Missouri.

Twenty-sixth Congress—First Session.—In the Senate of the United States, March 4th, 1840. Submitted, laid on the table, and ordered to be printed, the following Report, made by Mr. Wall—

The Committee on the Judiciary to whom was referred the Memorial of a Delegation of the Latter-day Saints, report—

The Petition of the Memoralists sets forth, in substance, that a portion of their sect commenced a settlement in the county of Jackson, in the state of Missouri, in the summer of 1831; that they bought lands, built houses, erected churches, and established their homes, and engaged in all the various occupations of life; that they were expelled from that county in 1833 by a mob, under circumstances of great outrage, cruelty, and oppression, and against all law, and without any offense committed on their part, and to the destruction of property to the amount of 120,000 dollars; that the society thus expelled amounted to about 1,200 souls; that no compensation was ever made for the destruction of their property in Jackson; that after their expulsion from Jackson county, they settled in Clay county, on the opposite side of the Missouri river, where they purchased lands, and entered others at the land office; where they resided peaceably for three years, engaged in cultivation, and other useful and active employments, when the mob again threatened their peace, lives, and property; and they became alarmed, and finally made a treaty with the citizens of Clay county, that they should purchase their lands, and the Saints should remove; which was complied with on their part, and the Saints removed to the county of Caldwell, where they took up their abode and re-established their settlement, not without heavy pecuniary losses and other inconveniences; that the citizens of Clay county never paid them for their lands, except for a small part; they remained in Caldwell from 1836 until the fall of 1838, and during that time had acquired, by purchase from the Government, the settlers, and pre-emptioners, almost all the lands in the county of Caldwell, and a portion of the lands in Daviess and Carroll counties—the former county being almost entirely settled by the Saints, and they were rapidly filling up the two latter counties.

Those counties, when the Saints first commenced their settlement, were for the most part wild and uncultivated, and they had converted them into large and well improved farms, well stocked. Land had risen in value to ten or even twenty-five dollars per acre, and these counties were rapidly advancing in cultivation and wealth.

That in August, 1838, a riot commenced, growing out of an attempt of a Saint to vote, which resulted in creating great excitement, and the {91} perpetration of many scenes of lawless outrage, which are set forth in the Petition. That they were finally compelled to fly from those counties, and on the 11th October, 1838, they sought safety by that means, with their families, leaving many of their effects behind. That they had previously applied to the constituted authorities of Missouri for protection, but in vain. They allege, that they were pursued by the mob; that conflicts ensued; deaths occurred on each side; and finally a force was organized under the authority of the Governor of the state of Missouri, with orders to drive the Saints from the state, or exterminate them. The Saints thereupon determined to make no further resistance, but to submit themselves to the authorities of the state.

Several of the Saints were arrested and imprisoned on a charge of treason against the state, and the rest, amounting to about 15,000 souls, fled into other states, principally into Illinois, where they now reside.

The petition is drawn up at great length, and sets forth, with feeling and eloquence, the wrongs of which they complain; justifies their own conduct, and aggravates that of those whom they call their persecutors, and concludes by saying they see no redress, unless it be obtained of the Congress of the United States, to whom they make their solemn, last appeal, as American citizens, as Christians, and as men; to which decision they say they will submit.

The committee have examined the case presented by the petition, and heard the views urged by their agent, with care and attention; and after full examination and consideration, unanimously concur in the opinion—

That the case presented for their investigation is not such a one as will justify or authorize any interposition by this government.

The wrongs complained of are not alleged to be committed by any of the officers of the United States, or under the authority of its government in any manner whatever. The allegations in the petition relate to the acts of its citizens, and inhabitants and authorities of the state of Missouri, of which state the petitioners were at the time citizens, or inhabitants.

The grievances complained of in the petition are alleged to have been done within the territory of the state of Missouri. The committee, under these circumstances, have not considered themselves justified in inquiring into the truth or falsehood of the facts charged in the petition. If they are true, the petitioners must seek relief in the courts of judicature of the state of Missouri, or of the United States, which has the appropriate jurisdiction to administer full and adequate redress for the wrongs complained of, and doubless will do so fairly and impartially;[4] {92} or the petitioners may, if they see proper, apply to the justice and magnanimity of the state of Missouri—an appeal which the committee feel justified in believing will never be made in vain by the injured or oppressed.

It can never be presumed that a state either wants the power or lacks the disposition to redress the wrongs of its own citizens, committed within her own territory, whether they proceed from the lawless acts of her officers or any other persons. The committee therefore report that they recommend the passage of the following resolution:

Resolved, That the committee on the judiciary be discharged from the further consideration of the memorial in this case; and that the memorialists have leave to withdraw the papers which accompany their memorial.


1. Richmond is in Schoharie county, about seventy miles west of Albany, N. Y.

2. Mulholland street in Nauvoo was named in honor of this worthy man. It ran east and west on the south side of the Temple block, and became the principal business street of the city. It was to him that the Prophet dictated a considerable part of his history. See History of the Church, Vol. III, p. 375.

3. He never was. In the Presidential election of 1840, Van Buren was renominated by the Democratic Party, but was defeated by William Henry Harrison, the Whig candidate. Harrison received two hundred and thirty-four electoral votes to sixty for Van Buren. In 1848 Van Buren was again a candidate for President being the nominee of the Free Soil Party. Lewis Cass was the nominee of the Democrats, and Zachary Taylor of the Whigs. Taylor was elected, and Van Buren did not receive a single electoral vote.

4. The Saints never acted upon the suggestion of the judiciary committee of the Senate, that they take their case before the Federal courts. The reasons why are considered at length in the introduction of this volume which see.



Affairs of the Saints before United States Senate—General Conference of the Church at Nauvoo—Action of the Church with Reference to Senate Committee's Report—Mission to Palestine.

Friday, 6.—Attended the meeting of the High Council of Iowa, at Brother Elijah Fordham's, Montrose.

Extract from the Minutes of the Iowa High Council.

President Joseph Smith, Jun., addressed the Council on various subjects, and in particular the consecration law; stating that the affairs now before Congress was the only thing that ought to interest the Saints at present; and till it was ascertained how it would terminate, no person ought to be brought to account before the constituted authorities of the Church for any offense whatever; and [he] was determined that no man should be brought before the Council in Nauvoo till that time, etc., etc. The law of consecration could not be kept here, and that it was the will of the Lord that we should desist from trying to keep it; and if persisted in, it would produce a perfect defeat of its object, and that he assumed the whole responsibility of not keeping it until proposed by himself.[1]

{94} He requested every exertion to be made to forward affidavits to Washington, and also letters to members of Congress. The following votes were then passed:

First—That this Council will coincide with President Joseph Smith, Jun.'s decision concerning the consecration law, on the principle of its being the will of the Lord, and of President Smith's taking the responsibility on himself.

Second—That a committee of three be appointed, consisting of Wheeler Baldwin, Lyman Wight, and Abraham O. Smoot, to obtain affidavits and other documents to be forwarded to the city of Washington.

Third—That the clerk of this Council be directed to inform Judge Higbee, that it is the wish of this Council that he should not, upon any consideration, consent to accept of anything of Congress short of our just rights and demands for our losses and damages in Missouri.

Sunday, 8.—I attended the Council of Nauvoo, at Brother Granger's.

President Brigham Young preached in Columbia Hall, New York.

Monday, 9.—Elders Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, Parley P. Pratt, Orson Pratt, George A. Smith, and Reuben Hedlock, sailed from New York on the Patrick Henry for Liverpool.

Fifth Letter of Elias Higbee to the Prophet—the Affairs of the Saints at Washington.

Washington, March 9th, 1840.

Dear Brother:—I expected, by this time, that we would be through with our business, but the chairman of the committee gave notice last week, he should call it [the committee's Report] up today in the Senate; through Mr. Young's having gone to Philadelphia, it will not be called up until his return, which will be on next Thursday, according to the information that I have obtained relative to this matter. If the resolution is passed, as annexed to the Report, I shall get my papers and leave the city.

I have written some letters to Brother Rigdon, which it seems he did not get. Brother Samuel Bennett writes that Brother Rigdon left Philadelphia for the Jerseys on the 5th instant. He [Rigdon] stated that he expects me to come there to go with him home, and that he would write me soon on the subject. I shall write for him to make the necessary arrangements. He says Dr. Ell's family left about a week ago for Commerce. Also that the Church there numbers about one hundred; and Parley P. Pratt, Orson Pratt, Brother Kimball, Brother Brigham {95} Young, George A. Smith, and Brother Hedlock were to sail from New York to England on the 7th instant.

As I have lately written several letters to you, I shall bid adieu, not to write again until after the Senate acts upon our business. Mr. Robinson says he has sent you a report; notwithstanding, I shall enclose another for you.

I have changed my place of boarding in consequence of Mrs. Richey's breaking up house-keeping, and going to Baltimore. I am busy here at chimney corner preaching.

Yours as ever in the bonds of everlasting love,

Elias Higbee.

To President Joseph Smith, Jun., Commerce, Illinois.

P. S.—Lest my previous letters should not come to hand, I merely say that I have been before the committee three days, and done all in my power to effect the object of our mission; have spoken my mind freely on the subject; and feel to have a conscience void of offense towards God in this matter. The subscription of which the report makes mention, was on condition that they could not lawfully do anything for us; after examination we were to submit and wait until the Great Disposer of human events shall adjust these things, in that place where the wicked cease from troubling and the weary are at rest (this I think is nearly the sentiment though perhaps not the very words); and I for one hope and pray the time will soon come when they will not trouble us in the west, as they have hitherto done.

There is a man here on whom I occasionally call, who owns two printing presses and much type, reading our books, I will with the assistance of God, get him to come to the west as soon as possible with his press, that you may set him to printing the truth. He told me, if we had any printing to do, he would do it cheap, and even go to the west if necessary.

Give my respects to Porter Rockwell, Dr. Foster, and also all the household of faith.

E. H.

Friday, 13.—Jacob K. Potts and Levi Stilley made affidavit before William Oglesby, J. P., that they witnessed the massacre at Haun's mill on the 30th of October, 1838, confirming the statements already written in this History. Potts had two balls shot into his right leg.

Sunday, 15.—The High Council of the Church at Nauvoo voted that the First Presidency superintend the affairs of the ferry between Nauvoo and Montrose.

{96} Monday, 16.—Elder John Taylor wrote from Liverpool:

Extract from Elder John Taylor's Letter—Affairs in British Mission.

I told you about our coming to Liverpool. The first time I preached ten came forward [for baptism]. We have been baptizing since: last week we baptized nine, we are to baptize tomorrow, but how many I know not. The little stone is rolling forth. One of the brethren dreamed he saw two men come to Liverpool; they cast a net into the sea and pulled it out full of fishes: he was surprised to see them pick the small fish out first and then the large. Well, if we get all the fish I shall be satisfied.

Brother Woodruff has lately left the Potteries and has gone to another neighborhood, and is making Methodist preachers scarce. He baptized 32 persons in one week—13 of them were Methodist preachers. Elder Clark is preaching and baptizing in and about Manchester. The latest account from Elder Turley, he was well, preaching and baptizing in the Potteries. Elder Willard Richards is very busy at this period, in visiting and setting in order the branches of the Church in Preston, Clithero, and all the regions round about, and holding correspondence with the Elders abroad.

Judge Elias Higbee's Course at Washington Approved.

The High Council met at my house in Nauvoo, and resolved that Robert B. Thompson write a letter to Judge Higbee at Washington, approving his course and giving him certain names (for which see Thompson's letter), that he may order subpoenas for them as witnesses in the suit now before Congress, namely, the Latter-day Saints versus the State of Missouri, for redress of grievances.

Letter of R. B. Thompson to Elias Higbee, Announcing the Approval of the Church Authorities of the Latter's Course at Washington.

Nauvoo, Hancock County, Illinois,

March 17th, 1840.

Elias Higbee, Esq.

Dear And Honored Sir:—It is with the greatest pleasure I sit down to write to you at this time, to inform you of the situation and state of the Church as regards the object of your mission.

Since President Joseph Smith returned we have been favored with several communications from you, giving a statement of the proceedings before the committee, etc. On Monday evening last, your letters were read to a large concourse of our brethren, and other persons who were assembled to hear the same; and I must say that the greatest satisfaction was manifested by the assembled multitude, with the {97} noble stand and straightforward and honorable course which you had pursued; and before the assembly separated, a vote of thanks to you was unanimously agreed upon. I can assure you that, from the feelings there, as well as upon other occasions, [expressed] there is not only a disposition, but a fixed determination, to uphold you in your righteous cause and sustain you in your efforts to obtain redress for the injuries which the Saints have borne from their unfeeling oppressors, and in bringing their case before the authorities of the nation.

In the evening the High Council assembled at the house of President Joseph Smith, Jun., and took your letters into consideration, when it was unanimously resolved that a letter should be written to you approving the measures which you were taking. The High Council likewise send you a list of the names of such persons as they think will testify to such facts as you want to substantiate. The names are as follows:

Alanson Ripley,

Francis Higbee,

Lyman Wight,

Tarlton Lewis,

Edward Partridge,

Parley P. Pratt,

Thorit Parsons,

King Follett,

Isaac Laney,

Harvey Redfield,

Ellis Eames,

Chapman Duncan,

Smith Humphrey,

Erastus Snow,

John M. Burk,

Rebecca Judd,

Heber C. Kimball,

William Seyley,

Dr. Isaac Galland,

William Chapplin,

Ira Mills,

Oliver Olney,

Hyrum Smith,

Seymour Brunson,

Samuel Bent,

Porter Rockwell,

George A. Smith,

Stephen Markham,

Thomas Grover,

Amanda Smith,

Lyman Leonard,

Alma Smith,

Zebediah Robinson,

Orson Hyde,

Charles C. Rich,

Henry G. Sherwood,

Elias Smith,

Sidney Rigdon.

There probably may be others, who may occur to your mind, whom you can send for if you think necessary. We should feel glad if you had the assistance of Presidents Smith and Rigdon at this critical time, while you have to contend with Jamieson, Linn [and others]. However I hope you will go forth in the strength of the Lord, and that truth will prevail. And I would say, "Twice is he armed who hath his quarrel just." The principles, sir, for which you contend are true; they are principles of justice, of humanity, of the Constitution, and the eternal principles of righteousness.

Although mankind may depart from those principles and be swayed {98} by popular prejudices, and undue influences; yet at the same time, that man who contends for the same, although he cannot always carry his point, or convince at all times partial and interested judges—the gem or light of truth may be darkened, and its brilliancy for a while hid—yet when the Son of Righteousness shall arise, and disperse the darkness and mist of superstition and bigotry; when the true light shines, then shall it shine with all its glorious splendor and shed forth its luster with a brilliancy upon its advocates as shall altogether surpass the equipage and glories of those who are now in power.

Robert B. Thompson.

Letter of Horace R. Hotchkiss to Sidney Rigdon and Joseph Smith, Jun.—Inquiring Concerning the Progress Made Before Congress.

Fair Haven, March 17th, 1840.

Reverends Sidney Rigdon and Joseph Smith, Jun.:

Gentlemen:—I some time since addressed a letter to Mr. [Joseph] Smith at Philadelphia, to which I have received no reply; and was in that city two or three weeks ago, but not being able to hear anything of Mr. Smith, I suppose he must of course have left; and with the hope of still reaching you, I now send to Washington. I should have written you long before, and indeed very often this winter, but my health has been miserable; and since my return from Philadelphia, I have been confined to my house.

I beg you to inform me how you are progressing with your petition before Congress, and its probable result; whether you have any friends in the House or in the Senate, who will bring forward your case, and advocate it in sincerity, and persevere in your behalf with skill and ability until something is accomplished. Milk and water friends in Congress are good for nothing. They must be true, have talents, be zealous, or else they will be detrimental rather than advantageous to you.

Should you, gentlemen, and Judge Higbee, come as far east as this, it will afford [me] much gratification to have you take up your quarters at my house. I did intend to see you at Washington, but my health will not now permit.

With much respect, yours,

Horace R. Hotchkiss.

Sixth Letter of Elias Higbee to the Prophet—Affairs of the Saints at Washington—Papers Withdrawn.

Washington City, March 24th, 1840.

Dear Brother:—Our business is at last ended here. Yesterday a resolution passed the Senate, that the committee should be discharged; and that we might withdraw the accompanying papers, which I have {99} done. I have also taken a copy of the memorial, and want to be off for the west immediately. I have not gotten a letter from President Rigdon, although I have frequently written to him. I have received a letter from Brother Bennett, stating that he was in the Jerseys, and that he was calculating to have me come that way and go home with him; and also that he had business which he wanted me to attend to at the office here. When he last wrote, he stated that as yet he had no money to get home with, and I hardly know what course to take in regard to the matter. If I do not receive a letter in two or three days, I design leaving for Philadelphia or the west.

There is one honest Quaker-looking sort of a man here, by the name of William Green, (instead of John Green, as I stated in a letter to Brother Robinson), who has two iron printing presses, with other things necessary, that would come to Commerce, provided you could find work for him, and inform him of the same. How much work there is to do I know not; therefore merely write that if such a man and establishment are wanted, you could easily obtain them, or would know where they could be obtained. He believes as much in our religion as any other, but not much in any.

Yours in the Lord,

Elias Higbee.

P.S.—I would just observe, that information has reached this place, through some of the newspapers, that you have come out for Harrison. It is said that the information came by some gentlemen who obtained it from you, whilst in your company in passing through the state of Indiana. Another paper states that 1,000 houses are to be built in Commerce this season, which I hope is the truth.

I would just observe (on the subject of our business) I am sorry Judge Young had not insisted on the motion to print our papers, as it would have been opposed; then a speech from Clay and Mr. Preston would have been brought forth, as I have since learned: but I think it was a trick of the Missouri Senators to slide it along without making a noise, by its going to the committee as it did. Judge Young says he was anxious to have it brought before the committee, but seemed disposed to let it slide along easily, rather than run the risk of its being refused.

If he had let those speeches been made, almost every one would have read them; which would have shamed Missouri, (if there is any shame in her), and waked up the whole country, so that by another year Congress would do something for us. But there is no need of crying for spilt milk. I have done all I could in this matter, depending on the good judgment of Judge Young to legislate for us to the best advantage. I am inclined, however, to think if it was an error, it was one of the head, and not of the heart.

{100} Mr. Hotchkiss, of Fair Haven, Connecticut, has addressed a letter to yourself, Brother Rigdon and myself, which seems to be written with much good feeling. He desires to know concerning our business here, inviting us to make his house our home, should we travel in that region. He writes that his health is very bad. I have been talking with Mr. Steward concerning a memorial, requesting him to bring it before the House; he has promised to do so if he can. He says he will talk with some of the members respecting it. I have answered Mr. Hotchkiss' letter this day, and sent him the report of the committee.

E. H.

At this time the work of the Lord is spreading rapidly in the United States and England—Elders are traveling in almost every direction, and multitudes are being baptized.

Letter of Horace R. Hotchkiss to Joseph Smith, Jun.—Offering Tract of Land for Sale.

Fair Haven, 1st April, 1840.

Reverend Joseph Smith, Jun.:

My Dear Sir:—After writing you at, and then going to, Philadelphia, and not finding you, I addressed a letter to Washington City, and received a reply from Judge Higbee, by which I first learned of your return to Illinois; and at the same time I got the committee's report upon your application to Congress for redress of the outrages perpetrated upon your people by the Missourians. I am not, I must confess, much disappointed in the result; as I know the vacillating, fawning character of many in both houses of Congress; and these are not their worst traits either, for they not only lack the moral courage to do right, but will do what they know to be positively wrong, if they can make political capital by it; and will abandon you, me, or any one else, with perfect indifference, and heartless treachery, if by doing it they can obtain governmental favor, or political preferment. If we should not put our faith in princes, it appears most emphatically true that we should repose no confidence in politicians. The idea conveyed in the report, that exact justice will be meted to you by the judicial tribunals of Missouri, is too preposterous to require comment. It is indeed a new doctrine, that we should apply to robbers, or their supporters, to condemn themselves, to restore the valuables they have stolen, and to betray each other for the murders they have committed.

I do not believe (though I am sorry to say it) that you will ever receive a just or honorable remuneration for your losses of property, or {101} any reparation for the personal indignities, privations and sufferings which your people have sustained in Missouri. The greatest reliance you have for regaining your wealth is in the honorable conduct of your people—their pure morals—their correct habits—their indefatigable industry—their untiring perseverance—and their well-directed enterprise. These constitute a capital which can never be shaken by man, and form the basis of all that is great in commercial influence, or in the attainment of pecuniary power.

Judge Higbee informs me that Mr. Rigdon is probably in New Jersey. It would have afforded me much pleasure to have seen you all at my house, and it was my intention to spend some time at Washington while you were there; but my health has been so very infirm, that it has prevented me from executing nearly all the arrangements I had proposed for myself for the last eight months.

Knowing the additions constantly joining your society, it has occurred to me that some of them may be unprovided with farming lands, and I mention at this time, that I am interested in a tract of about 12,000 acres of very choice lands, consisting of timber and prairie, fifteen or twenty miles from Springfield, upon which Mr. Gillett and several other families are settled and cultivating most excellent farms. It is one of the best neighborhoods in the state.

I do not know what my co-partners in this tract would say about disposing of what remains unsold of the tract, (say eight to nine thousand acres,) but I should be disposed to sell upon reasonable terms, provided from twenty to forty families, valuable for their prudence, industry, and good habits, from your society, can be found to form a small colony of practical farmers. I am also interested with the same gentlemen in lands near Rock River, in Henry and Mercer counties, and believe this would, on many accounts, be another extremely desirable place or location for a colony of your people. I have said nothing to those owning with me relative to this subject, but suppose they would be governed materially by two considerations; namely, the characters of the purchasers, and the fact of their being actual settlers or not.

If you think two small colonies of the right sort can be formed from your society, you will oblige by informing me at your earliest opportunity. The price of the balance in the tract near Springfield, including an average proportion of timber, and an average proportion of prairie, I should think $4.50 per acre. None of the prairie alone has been sold for less than three dollars, and some at three and a half; and I am confident that four and a half dollars for timber and prairie is very low, and especially as a credit, except for a small amount, would be extended to purchasers. The other tract is nearly all prairie, but the finest selection of that region. It is probably worth three and a half dollars per acre.

{102} As my paper is out, I have only room to request my respects presented to all friends at Commerce. I beg you to tell the editor of the Times and Seasons, that as soon as my health allows me to go to the bank, I shall send him $10.

Your obedient servant,

Horace R. Hotchkiss.

Letter of Sidney Rigdon to the Prophet.

At James Ivans', New Jersey,

April 3rd, 1840.

Brother Joseph Smith, Jun.

Dear Sir:—I thought I would occupy a portion of this morning in writing to you. By a letter received from Brother Higbee yesterday, I have learned that the Senate has decided that they have no constitutional right to interfere in the case between us and the people of Missouri; and refer us to the courts for redress; either those of Missouri or the United States. Now I am confident, that there is but one person in Missouri that we can sue with safety, and that is Boggs, and he is known to be a bankrupt, and unable to pay his debts; that if we should sue him, we will have the cost to pay, as he has nothing to pay it with. We are therefore left to bear the loss without redress, at present.

Judge Higbee is on the way home, and has been for ten days. He obtained money from Judge Young, to what amount I cannot say, but he will be able to tell you when he gets home. The Judge continues his friendship, and is ready to accommodate with money, whenever called for. Surely he is a friend indeed, and ought never to be forgotten.

I am up to this time without means to get home, but I have no uneasiness about it. I shall doubtless get means as soon as my health will admit of my going. My health is slowly improving, and I think if I have no relapse, I will be able to leave for home some time in the month of May, &c.

Sidney Rigdon.

Arrival of Brigham Young and Associates in England.

Monday, April 6.—Elders Young, Kimball, Pratt, Smith, and Hedlock landed in Liverpool, on the first day of the eleventh year of the Church, after a tedious passage of twenty-eight days, during sixteen of which they encountered head winds, and one severe storm of three or four days; and a great portion of the time the decks were covered {103} with water—all of which tended to increase sea-sickness and suffering.

At the time of sailing President Young's and Elder Kimball's health was very poor. George A. Smith had the ague for six days in succession. When the ship left her moorings the shore resounded with the songs of the Saints, who had come down to bid them farewell; they unitedly sang "The gallant ship is under weigh,"[2] until {104} out of hearing. The brethren occupied three berths in the forecastle, taking what was called a steerage passage. With the exception of Elder Kimball, not one of them had ever been to sea, and the sailors called them "land lubbers." The ship being loaded with flour and cotton, they were packed in a small compartment with about 100 or 120 passengers, being a motley mixture of English, Welsh, Irish, and Scotch, who were returning home from America to visit their friends, or had got sick of "Yankeedom" and were leaving for "sweet home."

They had scarcely been at sea twelve hours before the whole of them were prostrated by sea-sickness. George A. Smith vomited up his ague.[3] Brother Brigham Young, although confined to his berth by sea-sickness during the entire journey, was unable to vomit.

On coming into the Mersey the ship cast anchor in order to wait for the tide, when a small boat put off from the shore. Brothers Young, Kimball, and Parley P. Pratt went in it to the landing. On reaching the quay, Brother Young shouted hosannah three times, which he had promised to do whenever he should land on the shores of Old England. The brethren then went to No. 8 Union Street, Liverpool, where they procured bread and wine in order to partake of the Sacrament.

Elders Orson Pratt and George A. Smith, and Reuben Hedlock stayed on board to look after the baggage. About {105} three p. m., Brother Young sent a small boat for them, and the boatmen piloted them to the same place, where they all met together, partook of the Sacrament, and returned thanks for their safe deliverance.

When they landed they were almost penniless. Two or three of them had sufficient to buy hats for those who needed them the worst.

Minutes of the General Conference of the Church.

At a General Conference of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, held in Nauvoo, Hancock County, Illinois, on the sixth day of April, A.D. 1840, agreeable to previous appointment, Joseph Smith, Jun., was called upon to preside over the meeting, and Robert B. Thompson was chosen clerk.

The Conference was then opened by prayer by Elder John E. Page.

The President rose, made some observations on the business of the Conference, exhorted the brethren who had charges to make against individuals, and made some very appropriate remarks respecting the pulling the beam out of their own eye, that they may see more clearly the mote which was in their brother's eye.

A letter was read from presidents of the Seventies, wishing for an explanation of the steps, which the High Council had taken, in removing Elder F. G. Bishop from the quorum of the Seventies to that of the High Priests, without any other ordination than he had when in the Seventies, and wished to know whether those ordained into the Seventies at the same time F. G. Bishop was, had a right to the High Priesthood,[4] or not. After observations on the case by different individuals, the president gave a statement of the authority of the Seventies, and stated that they were Elders and not High Priests, and consequently Brother F. G. Bishop had no claim to that office. It was then unanimously resolved that Elder F. G. Bishop be placed back again into the quorum of the Seventies.

On motion, resolved that the Conference adjourn until two o'clock.

Conference met pursuant to adjournment. Prayer by Elder Joseph Young.

Elder Thomas Grover presented charges against Brother D. W. Rogers for compiling a hymn-book, and selling it as the one compiled and published by Sister Emma Smith; secondly, for writing a private letter to New York City, casting reflections on the character of Elder John P. Greene; and thirdly, for administering medicine unskilfully, which had a bad effect.

{106} On motion, resolved, that, as Brother Rogers is not present, his case be laid over until tomorrow.

Elder John Lawson then came forward and stated, that in consequence of some difficulty existing in the branch of the Church where he resided, respecting the Word of Wisdom, fellowship had been withdrawn from him, and also from Brother Thomas S. Edwards. After hearing the particulars, on motion, resolved, that John Lawson and Thomas S. Edwards be restored to fellowship.

Elder Orson Hyde addressed the Conference at some length, and stated that it had been prophesied, some years ago, that he had a great work to perform among the Jews; and that he had recently been moved upon by the Spirit of the Lord to visit that people, and gather up all the information he could respecting their movements, expectations, &c., and communicate the same to this Church, and to the nation at large; stating that he intended to visit the Jews in New York, London, and Amsterdam, and then visit Constantinople and the Holy Land.

On motion, resolved, that Elder Orson Hyde proceed on his mission to the Jews, and that letters of recommendation be given him, signed by the President and Clerk of the Conference.

Elder John E. Page then arose, and spoke with much force on the subject of Elder Hyde's mission, the gathering of the Jews, and the restoration of the house of Israel; proving, in a brief but convincing manner, from the Bible, Book of Mormon, and the Book of Doctrine and Covenants, that these things must take place, and that the time had nearly arrived for their accomplishment.

Adjourned until tomorrow morning, nine o'clock.

Tuesday morning, April 7.

Conference met pursuant to adjournment. A hymn was sung by the choir, and the throne of grace was addressed by Elder Caleb Baldwin.

Brother D. W. Rogers' case was then called up, and after many observations and explanations, it was on motion resolved, that D. W. Rogers be forgiven, and the hand of fellowship be continued towards him.

Conference adjourned for one hour, and met pursuant to adjournment. A hymn was sung by the choir, followed by prayer by Elder Reynolds Cahoon.

The President called upon the Clerk to read the report of the First Presidency and High Council, with regard to their proceedings in purchasing lands, and securing a place of gathering for the Saints. The report having been read, the President made some observations respecting the pecuniary affairs of the Church, and requested the brethren to step forward, and assist in liquidating the debts on the town plot, so that the poor might have an inheritance.

{107} The President then gave an account of their mission to Washington City, the treatment they received, and the action of the Senate on the Memorial which was presented before them. The meeting then called for the reading of the Memorial, and the report of the Committee on Judiciary, to whom the same was referred, which were read.

On motion, resolved that a committee of five be appointed to draft resolutions expressive of the sentiments of this Conference in reference to the report. On motion it was resolved, that Robert D. Foster, Orson Hyde, John E. Page, Joseph Wood, and Robert B. Thompson compose said committee, and report to this Conference.

Resolved, that this meeting adjourn until tomorrow morning.

Wednesday morning, April 8.

Conference met pursuant to adjournment. A number were confirmed who had been baptized the previous evening. Prayer by Elder Marks.

The Committee appointed to draft resolutions on the report of the Senate Committee of the Judiciary were then called upon to make their report. Robert B. Thompson of the Committee then read the


Whereas, we learn, with deep sorrow, regret, and disappointment, that the Committee on the Judiciary to whom was referred the Memorial of the members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (commonly called "Mormons"), complaining of the grievances suffered by them in the state of Missouri, have reported unfavorably to our cause, to justice, and humanity;

Therefore Resolved 1st: That we consider the report of the Committee on Judiciary, unconstitutional, and subversive to the rights of a free people, and justly calls for the disapprobation of all the supporters and lovers of good government and republican principles.

Resolved, 2ndly: That the Committee state, in their report, that our Memorial aggravates the case of our oppressors, and at the same time say, that they have not examined into the truth or falsehood of the facts mentioned in said Memorial.

Resolved, 3rdly: That the Memorial does not aggravate the conduct of our oppressors, as every statement set forth in said Memorial was substantiated by indubitable testimony; therefore we consider the statements of the Committee, in regard to that part, as false and ungenerous.

Resolved, 4thly: That that part of the report referring us to the justice and magnanimity of the state of Missouri for redress, we deem it a great insult to our good sense, better judgment, and intelligence, when numerous affidavits, which were laid before the Committee, prove that we could only go into the state of Missouri contrary to the exterminating order of the Governor, and consequently at the risk of our lives.

{108} Resolved, 5thly: That after repeated appeals to the constituted authorities of the state of Missouri for redress, which were in vain, we fondly hoped that in the Congress of the United States, ample justice would have been rendered us; and upon that consideration alone, we pledged ourselves to abide their decision.

Resolved, 6thly: That the exterminating order of Governor Boggs is a direct infraction of the Constitution of the United States, and of the state of Missouri; and the committee in refusing to investigate the proceedings of the Executive and others of the state of Missouri, and turning a deaf ear to the cries of widows, orphans, and innocent blood, we deem no less than seconding the proceeding of that murderous clan, whose deeds are recorded in heaven, and justly call down upon their heads the righteous judgments of an offended God.

Resolved, 7thly: That the thanks of this meeting be tendered to the citizens of the state of Illinois, for their kind, liberal, and generous conduct towards us; and that we call upon them, as well as every patriot in this vast Republic, to aid us in all lawful endeavors to obtain redress for the injuries we have sustained.

Resolved, 8thly: That the thanks of this meeting be tendered to the delegation of Illinois, for the bold, manly, noble, and independent course they have taken in presenting our case before the nation, amid misrepresentation, contumely, and abuse, which were heaped upon us in our suffering condition.

Resolved, 9thly: That the thanks of this meeting be tendered to Governor Carlin of Illinois, Governor Lucas of Iowa Territory, for their sympathy, aid, and protection; and to all other honorable gentlemen who have assisted us in our endeavors to obtain redress.

Resolved, 10thly: That Joseph Smith, Jun., Sidney Rigdon, and Elias Higbee, the Delegates appointed by this Church to visit the City of Washington, to present our sufferings before the authorities of the nation, be tendered the thanks of this meeting for the prompt and efficient manner in which they have discharged their duty; and that they be requested, in behalf of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints throughout the world, to continue to use their endeavors to obtain redress for a suffering people. And if all hopes of obtaining satisfaction for the injuries done us be entirely blasted, that they then appeal our case to the Court of Heaven, believing that the Great Jehovah, who rules over the destiny of nations, and who notices the falling sparrows, will undoubtedly redress our wrongs, and ere long avenge us of our adversaries.[5]

On motion, Resolved, That the report of the committee on the Judiciary, {109} as well as the foregoing Preamble and Resolutions, be published in the Quincy papers.

On motion, Resolved, That a committee of three be appointed to investigate the recommendations of those persons who wish to obtain an ordination to the ministry, and ordain such as are thought worthy; and that Elders Bent, Wood, and Hyde compose said committee.

Resolved, That this meeting feel satisfied with the proceeding of the Presidency with regard to the sales of town property, &c., and that they are requested to continue in their agency.

Resolved, That this meeting adjourn for one hour.

Conference met pursuant to adjournment.

After singing the President arose and read the 3rd chapter of John's Gospel, after which, prayer was offered by Elder Erastus Snow.

The President commenced making observations on the different subjects embraced in the chapter [previously read] particularly the 3rd, 4th, and 5th verses, illustrating them with a very beautiful and striking figure, and throwing a flood of light on the subjects brought up to review. He then spoke to the Elders respecting their mission, and advised those who went into the world to preach the Gospel, to leave their families provided with the necessaries of life; and to teach the gathering as set forth in the Holy Scripture. That it had been wisdom for the most of the Church to keep on this side of the river, that a foundation might be established in this place; but that now it was the privilege of the Saints to occupy the lands in Iowa, or wherever the Spirit might lead them. That he did not wish to have any political influence, but wished the Saints to use their political franchise to the best of their knowledge.

He then stated that since Elder Hyde had been appointed to visit the Jews, he had felt an impression that it would be well for Elder John E. Page to accompany him on his mission. It was resolved that Elder John E. Page be appointed to accompany Elder Orson Hyde on his mission, and that he have proper credentials given him.

It was then resolved, that as a great part of the time of the Conference had been taken up with charges against individuals, which might have been settled by the different authorities of the Church, that in future no such cases be brought before the Conferences.

The Committee on ordinations reported that they had ordained thirty-one persons to be Elders in the Church, who were ordained under the hands of Alpheus Gifford[6] and Stephen Perry, which report was accepted.

{110} Fredrick G. Williams presented himself on the stand, and humbly asked forgiveness for his conduct, [while in Missouri], and expressed his determination to do the will of God in the future. His case was presented to the Conference by President Hyrum Smith, when it was unanimously


That Fredrick G. Williams be forgiven, and be received into the fellowship of the Church.

It was reported that seventy-five persons had been baptized during the Conference, and that upwards of fifty had been received into the quorum of Seventies.

President Hyrum Smith dismissed the assembly. After he had made a few observations, the Conference was closed, under the blessings of the Presidency, until the first Friday in October next.

Joseph Smith, Jun.,



1. This is the record of a very important action. The law of consecration and stewardship, with which the action deals, was given to the church by revelation (Doc. and Cov. sec. xlii). Its fundamental principle is the recognition of God as the possessor of all things, the earth and the fullness thereof. It is His by right of proprietorship. He created it and sustains it by His power. This recognized, it follows that whatsoever man possesses in it, he holds as a stewardship merely. These principles the Saints were called upon to recognize and act under in the establishment of Zion in Missouri; and apparently the Saints in Iowa were disposed to undertake the same order of things in the settlement they were then making, until stopped by the Prophet. The action of the Prophet in this instance demonstrates the elasticity in church government, and law. The Lord, who commanded to move forward, may also command a halt. He who said take neither purse nor scrip when going to preach the Gospel (Matt. x:10) may later say, under other circumstances, "He that hath a purse let him take it, and likewise his scrip" (Luke xxii:35, 36). So, too, in other matters. The Lord commanded the colony of Lehi that there should no man among them "have save it be but one wife, and concubines ye shall have none;" yet reserved the right to command His people otherwise should the accomplishment of His purposes require it. (Book of Mormon, Jacob ii:24-30.)

2. The hymn was composed by W. W. Phelps, and is worthy of reproduction in extenso.

  The gallant ship is under weigh
  To bear me off to sea,
  And yonder floats the streamer gay
  That says she waits for me.
  The seamen dip the ready oar,
  As rippled waves oft tell,
  They bear me swiftly from the shore:
  My native land, farewell!

  I go, not to plough the main,
  To ease a restless mind,
  Nor yet to toil on battle's plain,
  The victor's wreath to find.
  'Tis not for treasures that are hid
  In mountain or in dell,
  'Tis not for joys like these I bid
  My native land, farewell!

  I go to break the fowler's snare,
  To gather Israel home;
  I go the name of Christ to bear
  In lands and isles unknown.
  And soon my pilgrim feet shall tread
  On land where errors dwell,
  Whence light and truth have long since fled,
  My native land, farewell!

  I go, an erring child of dust,
  Ten thousand foes among,
  Yet on His mighty arm I trust.
  Who makes the feeble strong.
  My sun, my shield, forever nigh.
  He will my fears dispel,
  This hope supports me when I sigh,
  My native land, farewell!

  I go devoted to His cause,
  And to His will resigned;
  His presence will supply the loss
  Of all I leave behind.
  His promise cheers the sinking heart
  And lights the darkest cell,
  To exiled pilgrims grace imparts;
  My native land, farewell!

  I go, it is my Master's call,
  He's made my duty plain,
  No danger can the heart appall
  When Jesus stoops to reign.
  And now the vessel's side we've made,
  The sails their bosoms swell.
  Thy beauties in the distance fade,
  My native land, farewell!

3. It is said that he never had the ague afterwards.

4. To the office of High Priest is what is meant; Seventies, of course, hold the Melchisedek or High Priesthood.

5. See Introduction to Volume III History of the Church, where retribution on Missouri is considered at length.

6. Alpheus Gifford was born in Adams township, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, August 28, 1793. At the age of eighteen, having scarcely sufficient learning to enable him to read the Bible, he commenced preaching the Gospel, not for hire, but for the salvation of souls. In 1817, he married Anna Nash, who bore him seven sons and three daughters. In the spring of 1831, hearing of the doctrines taught by Joseph Smith he made diligent inquiry and found they were scriptural and was baptized and ordained a priest; he brought home five books of Mormon which he distributed among his friends; he was then living in Tioga County, Pennsylvania. Soon after he went to Kirtland, Ohio, to see the Prophet Joseph Smith and the brethren, when he was ordained an elder; he was accompanied by his brother Levi, Elial Strong, Eleazer Miller, Enos Curtis, and Abraham Brown, who were baptized. On returning to Pennsylvania he preached and baptized many, among whom was Heber C. Kimball. The gifts of the Gospel were enjoyed by many, signs followed those who believed; devils were cast out; the sick were healed; many prophesied; some spake with new tongues; while others interpreted the same. Mr. Calvin Gilmour, with whom Brother Gifford had previously been associated in preaching, heard him speak in tongues and interpret. Gilmour declared he understood the languages and that they were interpreted correctly, and that he knew Gifford had no classical learning; but that he would rather be damned than believe in Mormonism.

In June 1832, Brother Gifford started for Missouri; traveled to Cincinnati and wintered there with a few saints who bad been baptized by Lyman Wight. He arrived in Jackson county, Missouri, in March, 1833, where he preached extensively; he was driven with the Saints from that county in the fall of that year. He removed to Clay county, enduring the persecution incident upon settling in, and final expulsion from, the same. He went to Kirtland, Ohio, and attended the dedication of the Temple and received the ordinances there administered. He returned to Missouri and was driven with the Saints to Far West, Caldwell county. In the winter of 1839, he was driven from Missouri. He located in the Morley settlement near Lima, Illinois, and subsequently five miles above Nauvoo, where he died December 25, 1841. (Addenda, Ms. Church History, Book "C" 2. Also page 404.)



Development of the Work in England—The Palestine Mission—Post-Office Name Changed from Commerce to Nauvoo.

April 7.—The brethren [President Brigham Young, et al.] found Elder John Taylor, who, in company with Joseph Fielding, had recently built up a branch of twenty-eight members in Liverpool.

April 8.—President Brigham Young and company went to Elder Richards', at Preston, by railway; when they arrived there, they had not a single sixpence left. So emaciated was President Young at this time from his long sickness, and journey, that when Elder Richards returned home this day from a mission to Clitheroe, and found him in his room, he did not know him.

Letter of Hon. Richard M. Young to Elias Higbee.

Washington City, April 9, 1840.

Judge Elias Higbee:

Dear Sir:—Having a private opportunity, by Judge Snow, of Quincy, I have sent you two receipts, one for $50, and the other for $90, making together $140, to Mr. E. I. Philips, cashier of the branch of the State Bank of Illinois, at Quincy. When it is convenient for you to make payment, will you have the goodness to send the money to Mr. Philips, who is instructed to receive it, and apply it towards the payment of a note of mine in that bank.

I received a letter from Mr. Rigdon a few days ago. It was mailed in Philadelphia, but was dated on the inside in New Jersey. His health is gradually but slowly improving, and he thinks he will set out for home some time in May. He wished a small sum of money, $40, deposited in one of the banks here, for a gentleman in Buffalo, New York, which I have attended to according to his direction and request. I also informed him, if he stood in need of more, to call on me and it would give me pleasure to accommodate him; so you need not be uneasy on that score.

{112} Nothing new has transpired since you left us, with the exception of the death of one of the Connecticut Senators, Mr. Thadeus Betts, who died yesterday. His funeral took place today, hence no business was transacted in the Senate. We have also lost the Cumberland Road Bill by a final vote in the Senate, 20 voting for and 22 against it; one single vote from the majority would have saved it, by making a tie. The Vice-President was exceedingly anxious for the opportunity of getting the casting vote in its favor. Mr. Clay, of Kentucky, made a speech against and voted throughout against it. Grundy, of Tennessee, Wright of New York, and Buchanan of Pennsylvania, three of the leading Democrats in the Senate voted for it. There were but seven Whigs who voted for it, and thirteen Democrats. I think we will adjourn about the first or second Monday in June.

I received from Mr. Rigdon the Petition and papers in relation to a change of postmaster at Commerce, with an affidavit from Doctor Galland, all of which have been laid before the proper department. As soon as I get an answer, it shall be communicated to you. Don't forget to have the Times and Seasons sent to me. Give my respects to Rev. Joseph Smith, and accept for yourself my best wishes for your happiness.

Yours, etc.,

Richard M. Young.

The News.

In the Times and Seasons of this month is a prospectus for publishing at Nauvoo, a weekly paper, to be called The News.[1]

Orson Hyde's Credentials as a Missionary to Palestine.

To all people unto whom these presents shall come, Greeting

Be it known that we, the constituted authorities of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, assembled in Conference at Nauvoo, Hancock county, and state of Illinois, on the sixth day of April, in the year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and forty, considering an important event at hand, an event involving the interest and fate of the Gentile nations throughout the world—from the signs of the times and from declarations contained in the oracles of God, we are forced to come to this conclusion. The Jewish nations have been scattered abroad among the Gentiles for a long period; and in our estimation, the {113} time of the commencement of their return to the Holy Land has already arrived. As this scattered and persecuted people are set among the Gentiles as a sign unto them of the second coming of the Messiah, and also of the overthrow of the present kingdoms and governments of the earth, by the potency of His Almighty arm in scattering famine and pestilence like the frosts and snows of winter, and sending the sword with nation against nation to bathe it in each other's blood; it is highly important, in our opinion, that the present views and movements of the Jewish people be sought after and laid before the American people, for their consideration, their profit and their learning.

And feeling it to be our duty to employ the most efficient means in our power to save the children of men from "the abomination that maketh desolate," we have, by the counsel of the Holy Spirit, appointed Elder Orson Hyde, the bearer of these presents, a faithful and worthy minister of Jesus Christ, to be our Agent and Representative in foreign lands, to visit the cities of London, Amsterdam, Constantinople, and Jerusalem; and also other places that he may deem expedient; and converse with the priests, rulers, and elders of the Jews, and obtain from them all the information possible, and communicate the same to some principal paper for publication, that it may have a general circulation throughout the United States.

As Mr. Hyde has willingly and cheerfully accepted the appointment to become our servant and the servant of the public in distant and foreign countries, for Christ's sake, we do confidently recommend him to all religious and Christian people, and to gentlemen and ladies making no profession, as a worthy member of society, possessing much zeal to promote the happiness of mankind, fully believing that they will be forward to render him all the pecuniary aid he needs to accomplish this laborious and hazardous mission for the general good of the human family.

Ministers of every denomination upon whom Mr. Hyde shall call, are requested to hold up his hands, and aid him by their influence, with an assurance that such as do this shall have the prayers and blessings of a poor and afflicted people, whose blood has flowed to test the depths of their sincerity and to crimson the face of freedom's soil with martyr's blood.

Mr. Hyde is instructed by this Conference to transmit to this country nothing but simple facts for publication, entirely disconnected with any peculiar views of theology, leaving each class to make their own comments and draw their own inferences.

Given under our hands at the time and place before mentioned.

Joseph Smith, Jun., Chairman.

Robert B. Thompson, Clerk.

{114} Sunday, 12.—Several of the Twelve bore their public testimony to the Gospel in the Cock Pit, Preston.

The High Council of Nauvoo met at my house, when I proposed that Brother Hyrum Smith go east with Oliver Granger to settle some business transactions of the Church which the Council sanctioned; and voted, "that President Joseph Smith, Jun., make the necessary credentials for Oliver Granger and Hyrum Smith."


Monday, 13.—From the second of October, 1839, to this date, there have been one hundred and forty-five shocks of earthquake in Scotland, reported by Mr. Milne to the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Some of these shocks were sufficient to alter the natural levels of the ground more than two degrees, and some witnesses thought four degrees, and caused houses to rock like boats on the sea.

Ordination of Willard Richards to the Apostleship.

Tuesday, 14.—A council of the Twelve, namely, Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, Parley P. Pratt, Orson Pratt, Wilford Woodruff, George A. Smith and John Taylor, was held at the house of Elder Willard Richards, in Preston, England, when the latter was ordained to the Apostleship,—agreeably to the revelation,—by President Young, under the hands of the quorum present. Other business was transacted, as also on the following days, all of which may be seen by reference to President Young's letter of the 17th instant.

Wednesday, 15.—Elder Orson Hyde left Commerce for Jerusalem.

Thursday, 16.—Elder Orson Hyde met with John E. Page at Lima.

Letter of Brigham Young to the Saints of the United States—Affairs of the British Mission.

Preston, England, April 17, 1840.

To the Saints in the United States of America: For the comfort of the Church in general, in that country, I attempt to address a few lines {115} to you, to let you know where we are, and what we are doing in this country.

The work of the Lord is progressing here, and has been ever since Elders Orson Hyde and H. C. Kimball left this country. According to the account that the Elders give of their labors, there have been about eight or nine hundred persons baptized since they left. The Gospel is spreading, the devils are roaring. As nigh as I can learn, the priests are howling, the tares are binding up, the wheat is gathering, nations are trembling, and kingdoms tottering; "men's hearts failing them for fear, and for looking for those things that are coming on the earth." The poor among men are rejoicing in the Lord, and the meek do increase their joy. The hearts of the wicked do wax worse and worse, deceiving and being deceived.

But I rejoice that I am counted worthy to be one of the number to carry salvation to the poor and meek of the earth. Brethren, I want to say many things, but I shall not have room on this paper, as I design giving the minutes of our conference below.

After a long and tedious voyage of 28 days on the water, we landed in Liverpool, Elders Heber C. Kimball, Parley P. Pratt, Orson Pratt, George A. Smith, Reuben Hedlock, were in the company. We rejoiced in the Lord, and when we cast our minds upon the Saints in that country, [the United States] we could, by faith participate in their joys, realizing they were met in conference, it being the 6th day of April. We soon found a room that we could have to ourselves, which made our solemn assembly glorious. We blest each other and prepared for our labor. The next day we found Elder Taylor in the city. There had been about thirty baptized. On Wednesday went to Preston; met with the church on Sunday, and bore testimony to the things the Lord is doing in these last day's. President Joseph Fielding gave out an appointment for a conference for the church on Wednesday, the 15th.

At a council of the Twelve, held in Preston, England, on the 14th of April, 1840, it being the 9th day of the 1st month of the 11th year of the rise of the Church of Jesus Christ, Elders Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, Parley P. Pratt, Orson Pratt, Wilford Woodruff, John Taylor and George A. Smith, being present, Elder Brigham Young was called to preside, and Elder John Taylor chosen secretary.

The council was opened by prayer by Elder Brigham Young. Elder Willard Richards was ordained to the office of an Apostle, and received into the quorum of the Twelve by unanimous vote, according to previous revelation. Elder Brigham Young was unanimously chosen as the President of the Twelve.[2]

{116} Resolved, that he who acts as the secretary of the quorum, shall prepare the minutes of the conference of the quorum, and deposit them in the hands of the president for keeping.

Moved by Elder Kimball, and seconded by Elder Richards, that twenty of the Seventies be sent for, and that it be left discretionary with the President of the Twelve to send for more if he think proper. Conference adjourned. Benediction by Elder Kimball.

At a general conference of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, held in the Temperance Hall, Preston, Lancashire, England, on the 15th of April, 1840, President Joseph Fielding called upon Elder Kimball to preside, and Elder William Clayton was chosen clerk, it being the 10th day of the 1st month of the 11th year of the rise of the Church.

The meeting was opened by singing, and prayer by Elder Kimball. Elder Kimball then called upon the Elders to represent the different branches of the Church. Elder Joseph Fielding represented the church in Preston, consisting of about three hundred members, seven Elders, eight Priests, six Teachers, and two Deacons. Elder Peter Melling represented the church in Penworthan, consisting of seventy-three members, three Elders, one Priest, two Teachers. John Jackson represented the church at Southport, consisting of twenty members, one Priest, and one Teacher. Elder John Moon represented the church at Danbers Lane, and neighborhood—members generally in good standing, consisting of fifty-four members, one Elder, two Priests, three Teachers. Richard Benson, represented the church at Hunter's Hill and neighborhood, consisting of seventeen members, one Elder, one Priest, one Teacher.

Elder Amos Fielding, represented the church at Bolton, consisting of sixty members, one Elder, two Priests, two Teachers. Elder Amos Fielding represented the church at Heskin, consisting of three members, one Elder. Elder Amos Fielding represented the Church at Radcliff, consisting of ten members. Elder Withnal represented the {117} church at Whittle, consisting of eighteen members, one Elder, four Priests. Elder Francis Clark represented the church at Ribchester, consisting of twenty-five members, two Elders, one Priest. Elder Thomas Richardson represented the church at Burnley, consisting of twenty four members, generally in good standing, one Priest, one Teacher. Elder Francis Moon represented the church at Blackburn, consisting of fifteen members, one Priest. Elder James Smithies represented the church at Chardgley and Thornley, consisting of twenty-nine members, two Elders, one Priest, one Teacher, one Deacon.

Priest John Ellison represented the church at Waddington, consisting of fifty members, two Priests, two Teachers, one Deacon. Elder Thomas Smith represented the church at Clitheroe, consisting of twenty-seven members, one Elder, three Priests. Elder Thomas Smith represented the church at Catburn, consisting of eighty-four members, one Elder, two Priests, two Teachers, one Deacon. Elder Thomas Smith represented the church at Downham, consisting of twenty members, one Teacher, one Deacon.

Elder Thomas Smith represented the church at Gridleton, consisting of five members. Elder William Clayton represented the church at Manchester, consisting of two hundred and forty members, three Elders, five Priests, four Teachers, one Deacon. Elder William Clayton represented the church at Stockport, consisting of forty members, one Priest, two Teachers, one Deacon. Elder William Clayton represented the church at Peover and Macclesfield, consisting of thirty members, three Priests. Elder William Clayton represented the church at Duckinfield, consisting of thirty members, one Priest. Elder William Clayton represented the church at Altrincham, consisting of eight members, one Priest, one Teacher. Elder William Clayton represented the church at Middlewich, consisting of six members.

Elder David Wilding represented the church at Bury and Elton, consisting of twelve members. Elder Wilford Woodruff represented the church in the Potteries, consisting of one hundred and one members, one Elder, two Priests, four Teachers, one Deacon. Elder Wilford Woodruff represented the church at Herefordshire, consisting of one hundred and sixty members, one Elder, two Priests; about forty of them were Methodist preachers of the United Brethren.

Elder John Taylor represented the church at Liverpool, consisting of twenty-eight members. Elder Joseph Fielding represented the church at Alston, Cumberland, consisting of forty members, two Elders, two Priests, two Teachers. Elder Willard Richards represented the church at Brampton, consisting of thirty members, one Elder, one Priest. Elder Willard Richards represented the church at Bedford, consisting of forty members, one Elder, one Priest. Elder Willard Richards {118} represented the church at Scotland, consisting of twenty-one members, three Elders.

The meeting was then adjourned for one hour. The conference again assembled at half-past one o'clock. Meeting opened by prayer, and business commenced.

Elder John Moon represented the church at Layland Moss, consisting of six members, one Priest.

Elder Willard Richards having been previously ordained into the quorum of the Twelve, according to previous revelation, it was moved by Elder Young, and seconded by Elder Taylor, that Elder Hyrum Clark be appointed as a counselor to Elder Fielding, in the place of Elder Richards; carried unanimously.

Moved by Elder Fielding, seconded by Elder Young, that a hymnbook should be published; carried. Moved and seconded, that the publishing of the hymn-book shall be done by the direction of the Twelve; carried.

Moved and seconded that a monthly periodical shall be published under the direction and superintendence of the Twelve, for the benefit and information of the Church, as soon as a sufficient number of subscribers shall be obtained; carried.

Moved and seconded that Brother John Blazard, of Samsbury, be ordained to the office of a Priest; carried.

Moved and seconded that Brother James Cobridge, of Thornley, be ordained to the office of Priest; carried.

Elder Kimball then laid before the conference the importance and propriety of ordaining a Patriarch to bestow patriarchal blessings on the fatherless, &c.; referred to the Twelve, whose business it is to select one, and ordain him according to the directions of the Spirit.

After various remarks and addresses given by the Elders, President Fielding and his counselors proceeded to ordain Brothers Blazard and Cobridge to their offices, as stated above.

Elder Kimball then called upon the clerk to read over the minutes of the conference, which being done, they were received by the unanimous voice of the conference.

Moved by Elder Young, and seconded by Elder Parley P. Pratt, that this conference be adjourned until the 6th of July next, to be held in Preston, at 10 o'clock a. m.; carried. Meeting then adjourned.

H. C. Kimball, President.

Wm. Clayton, Clerk.

Council Meeting of the Twelve in England—Hymn-Book and the "Millennial Star" Projected.

The Council met pursuant to adjournment, April 16th, 1840. The number of the quorum the same as on the 14th.

{119} Moved by Elder Young, seconded by Elder Taylor, that Elder Parley P. Pratt be chosen as the editor of the monthly periodical for the Church.

Moved by Elder Kimball, seconded by Parley P. Pratt, that a committee of three be appointed to make a selection of hymns.

Moved by Elder Orson Pratt, and seconded by Elder Wilford Woodruff, that Elders Brigham Young, Parley P. Pratt, and John Taylor form the committee for that purpose.

Moved by Elder Willard Richards, seconded by Elder George A. Smith, that the name of the paper or periodical be the Latter-day Saints Millennial Star.

Moved by Elder Brigham Young, seconded by Elder Orson Pratt, that the size of the paper, its plan, and price be left at the disposal of the editor.

Moved by Elder Brigham Young, seconded by Elder Heber C. Kimball, that the Saints receive a recommend to the Church in America to move in small or large bodies, inasmuch as they desire to emigrate to that new country.

Moved by Elder Brigham Young, seconded by Parley P. Pratt, that we recommend no one to go to America that has money, without assisting the poor according to our counsel from time to time.

Moved by Elder John Taylor, seconded by Elder Parley P. Pratt, that the copyright of the Book of Doctrine and Covenants and the Book of Mormon be secured as quick as possible.

Moved by Elder Woodruff, seconded by Elder Willard Richards, that Elders Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, and Parley P. Pratt be the committee to secure the copyright.

Moved by Elder Heber C. Kimball, and seconded by Elder Willard Richards, that Elder Peter Melling be ordained an evangelical minister [Patriarch] in Preston.

Moved by Elder Heber C. Kimball, that the Twelve meet here on the 6th of July next, seconded by Elder Wilford Woodruff; and carried.

Moved by Elder Willard Richards, and seconded by Elder Wilford Woodruff, that the editor of the periodical keep an account of all the receipts and expenditures connected with the printing, general expense, &c., and the books at all times be open for the inspection of the Council.

The above resolutions were unanimously adopted. The conference closed by prayer.

John Taylor, Clerk.

Letter of Brigham Young to the Prophet.

To President Joseph Smith and Counselors:

Dear Brethren:—You no doubt will have the perusal of this letter, and minutes of our conference; this will give you an idea of what we {120} are doing in this country. If you see anything in or about the whole affair, that is not right, I ask, in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ, that you would make known unto us the mind of the Lord, and His will concerning us. I believe that I am as willing to do the will of the Lord, and take counsel of my brethren, and be a servant of the Church, as ever I was in my life; but I can tell you, I would like to be with my old friends; I like new friends, but I cannot part with my old ones for them.

Concerning the hymn-book—when we arrived here, we found the brethren had laid by their old hymn-books, and they wanted new ones; for the Bible, religion, and all is new to them. When I came to learn more about carrying books into the states, or bringing them here, I found the duties were so high that we never should want to bring books from the states.

I request one favor of you, that is, a letter from you, that I may hear from my friends. I trust that I will remain your friend through life and in eternity. As ever.

Brigham Young.

April 17.—This day the Twelve blessed and drank a bottle of wine at Penworthan, made by Mother Moon forty years before. Held a Council at her house in the evening, and ordained Peter Melling, Patriarch.[3]

The following is the aggregate number of churches, official and private members represented at the above Conferences, held in Preston, England: Elders, 36; Priests, 54; Teachers, 36; Deacons, 11; members, 1,686; all contained in 34 branches.

Saturday, 18.—Elders Young, Woodruff, and George A. Smith went to Burslem, and Elders Kimball and Richards to Chaidgley.

Sunday, 19.—The High Council voted to meet at my office every Saturday at two in the afternoon.

Mission Opened in Scotland—Orson Pratt.

Monday, 20.—Elders Young and Woodruff went to Wolverhampton. About this time Elder Orson Pratt went to Edinburgh, Scotland. Elder Taylor returned to Liverpool.

{121} Letter of Robert Johnstone to Senator Young—Postoffice Name Changed from Commerce to Nauvoo.

Postoffice Department, Appointment Office,

21st April, 1830.

Sir:—I have the honor to inform you, that the Postmaster General has this day changed the name of the postoffice at Commerce, Hancock county, Illinois, to "Nauvoo," and appointed George W. Robinson postmaster thereof.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

Robert Johnstone,

Second Assistant Postmaster General.

To the Hon. Richard M. Young, U.S. Senate.

Elders Young and Woodruff visited the old cathedral at Worcester on their way to Ledbury, where they arrived this night.

Letter of Senator Young to Judge Elias Higbee—Postoffice Name, etc.

Washington City, April 22, 1840.

Dear Sir:—After your departure from this city, I received, under cover from the Reverend Sidney Rigdon, the petition mentioned by you, for the appointment of George W. Robinson as postmaster at Commerce. This petition I laid before the Honorable Robert Johnstone, second assistant postmaster general, who has appointed Mr. Robinson as requested.

We found, on examination of the papers, and a letter from Dr. Gallad, that there was a request that the name of the postoffice should be changed to that of Nauvoo, a Hebrew term, signifying a beautiful place. Mr. Johnstone, at my instance, has changed the name accordingly, in the supposition that it would be agreeable to the citizens concerned. Will you please advise with the Rev. Joseph Smith and others most immediately interested, and if the change of the name to Nauvoo should not be acceptable, it can on application be restored to that of Commerce.

I received a letter from Malcolm McGregor, Esq., postmaster at Carthage, a few days ago, in which he urges the necessity of having the mail carried twice a week, between Carthage and Nauvoo, and expresses the opinion that the additional expenses would not exceed one hundred and fifty dollars, as the mail is carried on horseback. I have brought the subject before the proper department as requested by Mr. McGregor, and hope to be able to succeed; although the Postoffice Department, owing to pecuniary embarrassment, is not in a situation to extend facilities at the present time.

{122} Please present my respects to Mr. Smith, and accept for yourself my kindest regards.

Very respectfully, &c.,

Richard M. Young.

To Judge Elias Higbee.

Wednesday, 22.—Elders Young and Woodruff organized a branch of the Church at Frooms Hill, Herefordshire.

Thursday, 23.—Elders Kimball and Richards returned to Preston. Elder Young visited at Moor Ends Cross, and 24th preached at Malvern Hill. Elder Kimball went to Eccleston and continued some days visiting the churches around Preston.

Saturday, 25.—Elder Richards went to Manchester, found the Prospectus for the Millennial Star ready. Elder Young returned to Frooms Hill, and stayed at Brother John Benbow's till the 30th, preaching, and writing letters to his friends in America.

Wednesday, 29.—Elders Hyde and Page were at Quincy, Illinois.

Elder Woodruff wrote as follows:

Letter of Wilford Woodruff to Don Carlos Smith—Success of Woodruff's Ministry.

Ledbury, Herefordshire, England,

April 29, 1840.

Elders Ebenezer Robinson and Don Carlos Smith:

Brethren:—As Elder Young is writing, I am privileged with a space of a few lines: knowing that our friends are desirous to hear of the work of the Lord in this land, I make the following remarks concerning the mercy of God and my labors.

Since I last wrote you, (I wrote you a lengthy letter, dated February 27th, in which I gave you an account of my travels, voyage, and labors from the time I left Montrose unto the date of my letter, which I trust you have received,) I continued laboring in Staffordshire until the first of March, when I felt it to be the will of the Lord that I should go more to the south part of England. I left the care of the Staffordshire church in the hands of Elder Turley, and traveled eighty miles south, in a region where the word had not been preached. I commenced preaching near Ledbury, Herefordshire; this is about forty miles from Bristol, {123} forty from Birmingham, fourteen from Worcester, one hundred and twenty from London. As soon as I began to teach, many received my testimony. I there preached one month and five days, and baptized the superintendent of the church of the United Brethren, a branch of the Methodist church, and with him 45 preachers, mostly of the same order; and about 114 members, making 160 in all. This put into my hands, or under my care, more than forty established places of preaching, licensed according to law, including one or two chapels. This opened a large field for the spread of the work in this country.

Among the number baptized are some of most all churches and classes as well as preachers. There is one constable, and one clerk of the Church of England, with numbers of their members. But in the midst of my labors I received a letter stating that the Twelve had just arrived and wished me to come to Preston, and meet with them in conference. Consequently I traveled 160 miles to Preston and was once more permitted to strike hands with my brethren from America, and sit in conference with them, the minutes of which you have.

After conference I returned to Herefordshire in company with Elder Brigham Young. We have again commenced our labors here, and there will be many baptized in this region. I have now more than 200 on my list, and scores are now waiting for an opportunity to receive the ordinance of baptism; and the work is progressing in all parts of this country where it is faithfully proclaimed. I understand that Elders Wright and Mulliner are opening some permanent doors in Scotland; and we have many calls through many parts of this country, even more than we are able to fill.

I desire the prayers of the Saints; that I may have wisdom and grace according to my day, and do the work of God in meekness and humility.

Wilford Woodruff.

Thursday, 30.—Elders Young, Woodruff, and Richards met at Elder Kington's, at Dymock.

Letter of Elders Hyde and Page to the Prophet—Plans for the Palestine Mission.

Columbus, May 1, 1840.

President Smith:

Sir:—The mission upon which we are sent swells greater and greater. As there is a great work to be done in Germany, as manifested to us by the Spirit, the following plan has been suggested to us; viz., to write a set of lectures upon the faith and doctrine of our Church, giving a brief {124} history of the coming forth of the Book of Mormon, and an account of its contents in as clear and plain a style as possible; together with the outlines and organization and government of the Church of Latter-day Saints, drawn from the Doctrine and Covenants with all the wisdom and care possible; and get the same translated into German, and publish it when we arrive in Germany, and scatter it through the German empire. Is this correct? Should we consider it necessary to translate the entire Book of Mormon into German, and Doctrine and Covenants too, are we or are we not at liberty to do so? Should we deem it necessary to publish an edition of hymn-books in any country, are we at liberty to do it? The fact is, we need such works, and we cannot get them from the church here; and if we could, we could not well carry them with us, at least in any quantity.

We feel that we are acting under the direction of the Presidency of the Church; and the reason that we make these inquiries, is, that we do not wish to step beyond our limits, or bring ourselves into a snare and dishonor by taking liberties that are not ours. We feel that all our exertions and interests shall become subservient to building up the Kingdom of God. We wish to be co-workers with you and with the Spirit of the Lord. We did not converse so much upon these literary works as we should have done before we left. The fact is, we did not begin to see the greatness of our mission before we left home; our minds were in a nutshell.

It seems to us that we should spread this work among all people, languages and tongues, so far as possible; and gather up all jewels among the Jews besides. Who is sufficient for these things?

As agents for the Church abroad, and as co-workers with yourself, in spreading this kingdom to the remotest corners of the earth, are we at liberty to translate and publish any works that we may think necessary, or that the circumstances in which we are placed seem to require whether original, or works published by the Church? If we are not at liberty to take this wide range, please tell us how far we may go.

We are setting this great work before the people as an inducement to them to help us. If we are setting our standard too high, a word from you will bring it down. We have held a two days' meeting in this place; but in consequence of continual rains, which swelled the creeks so high, the people could not get to us. The meeting was four miles from Columbus; one only baptized.

We have now an opportunity to ride as far east as Indiana, beyond the metropolis, and have the privilege to stop and preach by the way. Will you write to us at Cincinnati, and much oblige.

Your brethren in the Kingdom of God,

Orson Hyde,

John E. Page.

{125} P. S.—Will you please send word to Marinda, that I want her to write to me at Cincinnati, Ohio. Please bear it in mind and oblige thy friend.

O. H.

Commotions in the World.

Friday, May 1.—The town of Baji, in the county of Baes, on the river Danube, was almost totally destroyed by fire; about two thousand houses were burnt, with the palace, several churches, and all the great corn magazines; leaving about sixteen thousand inhabitants destitute. The plague is raging in the East—at Silistria, Broussa, Alexandria, Aleppo, &c.; and wars and rumors of wars in Spain, Mexico and South American governments; French and Arabs in Africa, Russia and Circassia, Egypt, England and the East Indies, and the Canada Revolution; all betoken the fulfillment of prophecy.

Thursday, 7.—The city of Natchez was this day to a great extent destroyed, almost in a moment, by a whirlwind, storm and tempest. It is reported that sixty boats sunk, houses and churches blown to atoms, more than three hundred persons killed, and $5,000,000 of property destroyed; nearly the whole country on the Mississippi for 1,100 miles from its mouth is under water.

Letter of Brigham Young to the Prophet—Affairs of the British Mission.

Lugwardine, Herefordshire, England,

May 7, 1840.

Brother Joseph Smith:—Through the mercy of our heavenly Father, I am alive and in pretty good health; better than I should have been, had I remained in America. I trust that you and family are well, and I ask my heavenly Father that we may live forever; but not to be chased about by mobs, but live to enjoy each other's society in peace. I long to see the faces of my friends again in that country once more, It is better for me to be here, because the Lord has called me to this great work, but it is hard for me to be parted from my old friends whom I have proved to be willing to lay down their lives for each other. I feel as though the Lord would grant me the privilege of sometime seeing my old friends in America. Give my best wishes to your wife. I remember her in my prayers, and also Father and Mother Smith. I remember {126} the time when I first saw Mother Smith, and the trials she had when the work of the Lord first commenced in her family. I beg to be remembered to Brother Rigdon and family, also to Brother Hyrum and family, and to all the faithful in Christ.

The brethren that have come from America are all well and doing well. I want to ask some questions. Shall we print the Book of Mormon in this country immediately? They are calling for it from every quarter. The duties are so high on books, we need not think of bringing them from America. Another question, is the Book of Doctrine and Covenants to be printed just as it is now, to go to the nations of the earth; and shall we give it to them as quickly as we can? Or what shall we do? Will the Twelve have to be together to do business as a quorum? Or shall they do business in the name of the Church? Why I ask this is for my own satisfaction; if the Lord has a word for us, for one I am willing to receive it.

I wish you to write as soon as you receive this, and let me know about the Book of Mormon, whether we shall proceed to publish it immediately or not, or whether we shall do according to our feelings. If I should act according to my feelings, I should hand the Book of Mormon to this people as quickly as I could. The people are very different in this country from what the Americans are. They say it cannot be possible that men should leave their homes and come so far, unless they were truly the servants of the Lord; they do not seem to understand argument; simple testimony is enough for them; they beg and plead for the Book of Mormon, and were it not for the priests, the people would follow after the servants of the Lord and inquire what they should do to be saved. The priests feel just as they did in the days of the Savior. If they let "this sect alone, all men will believe on them, and the Romans will come and take away our place and nation."

I wish you would tell me how Cousin Lemuel gets along with his business, and all the boys on the half-breed track, and the whole breed. I think a great deal about our friends, families, and possessions. I look for the time when the Lord will speak so that the hearts of the rebellious will be pierced. You will remember the words of the Savior to His disciples; He says, to you is given to know the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven, but to them that are without, all things are in parables.

The brethren here are very anxious to emigrate to that country; some want to come this fall: where shall they go? Their customs are different from ours, and it would be more pleasant for them to settle by themselves. Almost without exception it is the poor that receive the Gospel. I think there will be some [who will go] over this fall. My counsel to such as intend to go is, that they go to the western states, where they {127} can live among the farmers and wait for orders from the authorities of the Church, and all will be well.

You must excuse my bad writing. I have only caught at ideas. I want to know about the brethren's coming over this fall. I think some of us will come. We shall send our papers to you, and to a number of the rest of the brethren. I wish you would have the goodness to give me a pretty general knowledge of the Church, for I feel for them, and pray for them continually. We need help very much in this country. One American can do more here than a number of Elders who are raised up here by the preaching of the Gospel. We have sent for some to come. I wish you would encourage them to come as quickly as they can.

If we could go four ways at a time, we could not fill all the calls we have for preaching. I shall expect such counsel from you about the Elders coming as you shall think necessary for us and them to have. I wish to know what the prospect is about the government's doing anything for us. When we left New York I thought there was but a poor chance for us.

Concerning calling Seventies and sending them to other countries, I should like to know whether it would be proper to ordain them to that office or not while here. Had any of us better come back this fall? I suppose that some that come over with us will return; Brothers Clark and Hedlock, and Brother Turley if the latter gets at liberty. I suppose you have heard that he is in prison. He has been there ever since my arrival in England, and how long he will remain the Lord only knows. He was put there through the influence of a priest, as nigh as I can learn, for some old pretended claim, but no one can find out what that claim is.

I have just met with Brother Woodruff; he tells me that the Church in this region of country numbers between three and four hundred; it is only about three months since Brother Woodruff commenced to labor here. I have just received a letter from Brother Turley, which states he expects to leave his place the next day. Brother Woodruff sends his respects.

I am as ever,

Brigham Young.

Release of Elder Turley from prison.

Saturday, 9.—Elder Theodore Turley was released from Stafford jail, where he had been confined since his arrest on the 16th of March last, at the instigation of John Jones, a Methodist preacher, on the pretense of a claim arising under a partnership with another man fifteen years ago, before he left {128} England; but the real object was to stop his preaching. He was without provisions for several days, but the poor Saints in the Potteries, on learning his condition, supplied his wants, some of the sisters actually walking upwards of twenty miles to relieve him. He preached several times to the debtors, was visited by Elders Woodruff, Richards, George A. Smith, A. Cordon, and others, and was dismissed from prison on his persecutors ascertaining their conduct was about to be exposed. This rather encouraged than disheartened the Elders, as I had told them on their leaving Nauvoo, to be of good courage, for some of them would have to look through grates before their return.

Thursday, 14.—The papers of this date report that the island of Ternate[4] was nearly ruined by earthquakes on the 14th and 15th February, 1840.

Letter of the Prophet to Elders Hyde and Page—Palestine Mission Considered.

Nauvoo, Hancock County, Illinois, May 14th, 1840.

To Orson Hyde and John E. Page:

Dear Brethren:—I am happy in being informed by your letter that your mission swells "larger and larger." It is a great and important mission, and one that is worthy those intelligences who surround the throne of Jehovah to be engaged in. Although it appears great at present, yet you have but just begun to realize the greatness, the extent and glory of the same. If there is anything calculated to interest the mind of the Saints, to awaken in them the finest sensibilities, and arouse them to enterprise and exertion, surely it is the great and precious promises made by our heavenly Father to the children of Abraham; and those engaged in seeking the outcasts of Israel, and the dispersed of Judah, cannot fail to enjoy the Spirit of the Lord and have the choicest blessings of Heaven rest upon them in copious effusions.

Brethren, you are in the pathway to eternal fame, and immortal glory: and inasmuch as you feel interested for the covenant people of the Lord, the God of their fathers shall bless you. Do not be discouraged on {129} account of the greatness of the work; only be humble and faithful, and then you can say, "What art thou, O great mountain! before Zerubbabel shalt thou be brought down." He who scattered Israel has promised to gather them; therefore inasmuch as you are to be instrumental in this great work, He will endow you with power, wisdom, might, and intelligence, and every qualification necessary; while your minds will expand wider and wider, until you can circumscribe the earth and the heavens, reach forth into eternity, and contemplate the mighty acts of Jehovah in all their variety and glory.

In answer to your inquiries respecting the translation and publication of the Book of Mormon, hymn-book, history of the Church, &c., &c., I would say that I entirely approve of the same, and give my consent, with the exception of the hymn book, as a new edition, containing a greater variety of hymns, will be shortly published or printed in this place, which I think will be a standard work. As soon as it is printed, you shall have some sent to you, which you may get translated, and printed into any language you please.

Should we not be able to send some to you, and there should be a great call for hymn books where you may be, then I should have no objection to your publishing the present one. Were you to publish the Book of Mormon, Doctrine and Covenants, or hymn-book, I desire the copyrights of the same to be secured in my name.

With respect to publishing any other work, either original, or those which have been published before, you will be governed by circumstances; if you think necessary to do so, I shall have no objection whatever. It will be well to study plainness and simplicity in whatever you publish, "for my soul delighteth in plainness."

I feel much pleased with the spirit of your letter—and be assured, dear brethren, of my hearty co-operation, and my prayers for your welfare and success. In answer to your inquiry in a former letter, relative to the duty of the Seventies in regulating churches, &c., I say that the duties of the Seventies are more particularly to preach the Gospel, and build up churches, rather than regulate them, that a High Priest may take charge of them. If a High Priest should be remiss in his duty, and should lead, or suffer the church to be led astray, depart from the ordinances of the Lord, then it is the duty of one of the Seventies, acting under the special direction of the Twelve, being duly commissioned by them with their delegated authority, to go to the church, and if agreeable to a majority of the members of said church, to proceed to regulate and put in order the same; otherwise, he can have no authority to act.

Joseph Smith, Jun.

{130} Friday, 15.

Letter of Willard Richards to the Editor of the Millennial Star—Reporting Labors.

Ledbury, Herefordshire, May 15th, 1840.

To the Editor of the Millennial Star:

Beloved Brother:—Two weeks ago this day, I parted with Brothers Young and Woodruff in this place, taking different locations in this part of the vineyard, originally opened by Brother Woodruff, and after visiting various places in Herefordshire, Worcestershire, and Gloucestershire, preaching daily, talking night and day, and administering the ordinances of the Gospel as directed by the Spirit, we have again this day found ourselves together, and Elder Kington in our midst (he is devoted wholly to the ministry). By comparing minutes we find there have been in these two weeks about 112 baptized; 200 confirmed; 2 Elders, about 20 Priests, and 1 Teacher ordained; and the Church in these regions now numbers about 320. The branches are small, the brethren much scattered; consequently the field is so large that the reapers cannot call to each other from side to side, neither can they often see each other without a telescope.

There are many doors open which we cannot fill; calls for preaching on almost every hand, which we cannot answer. Oh! that the Saints would pray to the Lord of the harvest to send forth laborers!

I have this day received a letter from my sister in Massachusetts, giving me the intelligence of the death of my aged father. The work of the Lord is rolling forth in that part of the land, such intelligence as this from our native land makes our hearts rejoice, even in affliction.

Your brother in the everlasting covenant,

Willard Richards.


1. It was announced in the Prospectus that the News would "take perfectly neutral ground, in regard to politics, and it is the fixed determination of the publishers to studiously avoid all party strife, and political wranglings which are so prevalent at the present time." The News, however, never materialized.

2. President Young was also President of the Twelve by virtue of seniority of ordination into the quorum. When the quorum of the Twelve was first organized the members took their place according to age. This arrangement brought Thomas B. Marsh to the head of the quorum, and made him President. After this first arrangement, however, the members of the quorum took their place in it according to seniority of ordination, not of age. (See Volume II this work, pp. 219, 220, and notes). Brigham Young was the second man ordained into the quorum, Lyman E. Johnson being the first. As Lyman E. Johnson was excommunicated from the church at Far West in 1838, Brigham Young was President of the Twelve by virtue of his seniority of ordination as well as by the choice of his brethren. Indeed the choice of the brethren mentioned in the text can only be regarded as an act recognizing the fact of his presidency by virtue of his seniority of ordination. It may be of interest to remark also, that at the time there was but one man in the quorum President Young's senior by age, namely, John E. Page, born in 1799, and ordained an Apostle in 1838.

3. Peter Melling was the first patriarch ordained in a foreign land, that is, a foreign land from America where the latter-day dispensation of the Gospel was opened. He was the son of Peter Melling, born in Preston, England, on the 14th day of February, 1787. He was, therefore, in his 64th year. He was evidently a man of great force of character, for he proceeded at once with great diligence and ability to fulfill the duties of his high office, all of which is evidenced by the record of the Patriarchal blessings given under his hands, and now in the Historian's office.

4. Ternate is a small island in the Moluccas, west of Jilolo, in the Dutch East Indies.



First Foreign Periodical of the Church, "The Millennial Star"—The Prophet Seeks Release from Secular Responsibilities.

Sunday, May 17.—Elders Young, Woodruff, and Richards held conference with the Saints at Gadfield Elm Chapel.

The Beacon Hill Conference.

Monday, 18.—The above Elders met the brethren at Elder Kington's, where they had a tea party, praying, singing, confirming, ordaining, and about twenty were baptized; thus they continued their labors from place to place, until Wednesday 20th, when they found themselves with one accord on the top of "the Herefordshire Beacon,"[1] and within the old fortification, when after prayer they expressed their feelings concerning the business of the Church, which were (as they had obtained money from Brother John Benbow, and other brethren for printing the hymnbook, and in part sufficient for the Book of Mormon) that Elder Young repair immediately to Manchester, and join his brethren previously appointed with him on a committee, for the printing of the hymn-book, and cause 3,000 copies to be issued without delay. Also that the same committee cause 3,000 copies of the Book of Mormon to be printed and completed with as little delay as possible, with an index affixed to the same, the form of the book to be determined by the committee. Their views were written and signed by Elder Willard Richards and Wilford Woodruff, when President Young left direct for Manchester. He saw George A. Smith, at the Potteries, who approved the "Beacon Conference."

{132} Sunday, 24.—President Young met with the Church, and on Monday, 25th, visited the printers to inquire their prices, etc.

A Letter of Heber C. Kimball, et al., Recommending English Saints to the Bishop of the Church.

Preston, May 25, 1840.

To the Presidency, High Council and Bishop of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints at Commerce. We commend to your notice the brethren and sisters that have commendatory letters from us of this date, that you will do all that you consistently can for them, for I verily believe they have utmost confidence in you, and will receive with gratitude your advice and instruction, and cheerfully submit to the rules and regulations of the Church. They have our blessings, and we trust their subsequent conduct will entitle them to your blessings also, and the Church generally. We rejoice that we can say the work of God here is in a prosperous way. Yea, we rejoice greatly at the aspect of the times, expecting the time to be not far distant when the standard of truth will be conspicuously raised throughout this land. We have witnessed the flowing of the Saints towards Zion; the stream has begun, and we expect to see it continue running until it shall have drained the salt, or the light, from Babylon, when we hope to shout hosanna home.

Dear brethren, accept our love, and present it to the Church.

Your brethren in the new and everlasting covenant,

Heber C. Kimball,

Joseph Fielding,

William Clayton.

Tuesday, 26.—Elder John Taylor arrived at Manchester, and on the 27th, Elder Kimball arrived. The committee on the hymn-book commenced and continued selecting hymns until the 30th, when Elders Young, Kimball and Taylor went to Liverpool, and preached on Sunday the 31st.

Death of Bishop Partridge.

Wednesday, 27.—Bishop Edward Partridge[2] died at Nauvoo, aged forty-six years. He lost his life in consequence of the Missouri persecutions, and he is one of that number whose blood will be required at their hands. His daughter, Harriet Pamela, died on the 16th of May, aged nineteen years.

{133} [Sidenote: First Number of the Millenial Star.]

The first number of The Latter-day Saints' Millennial Star[3] was issued at Manchester, in pamphlet form of twenty-four pages. Edited by Parley P. Pratt. Price sixpence. Office 149 Oldham Road.

Monday, June 1, 1840.—The Saints have already erected about two hundred and fifty-houses at Nauvoo, mostly block houses, a few framed, and many more are in course of construction.

The Gospel is spreading through the States, Canada, England, Scotland, and other places, with great rapidity.

{134} Elders Young and Kimball were engaged in blessing the brethren who were about to sail for America.

Wednesday, 3.—Elders Young and Taylor visited the printers in Liverpool and Elder Young preached on the Sunday following.

The First Company of Saints from England.

Saturday, 6.—Elder John Moon and a company of forty Saints, to wit., Hugh Moon, his mother and seven others of her family, Henry Moon (uncle of John Moon), Henry Moon, Francis Moon, William Sutton, William Sitgraves, Richard Eaves, Thomas Moss, Henry Moore, Nancy Ashworth, Richard Ainscough, and families, sailed in the ship Britannia from Liverpool for New York, being the first Saints that have sailed from England for Zion.

Monday, 8.—Elders Young and Taylor visited Cheshire, and on Tuesday, Manchester, and continued to select hymns.

Brigham Young's Dreams.

Elder Young dreamed of his family in health and want, also of the Church and people, and of a contention between two small companies in the west, one north, the other south—the north prevailing from time to time.

Minutes of the Conference Held at Gadfield Elm Chapel, in Worcestershire, England, June 14th, 1840.

The preachers and members of the Bran Green and Gadfield Elm Branch of the Froomes Hill Circuit, of the United Brethren met at the Gadfield Elm Chapel, Worcestershire, June 14th, 1840, pursuant to previous notice, when the meeting was called to order by Elder Thomas Kington. Elder Willard Richards was chosen president, and Elder Daniel Browett clerk for the meeting. The meeting was opened by prayer by Elder Wilford Woodruff. Remarks were then made by the president respecting the business of the day, and the necessary changes which must take place.

It was then moved by Elder Thomas Kington, seconded by Elder Daniel Browett that this meeting be hereafter known by the name of the "Bran Green and Gadfield Elm Conference of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints," organized and established by the will and commandment of God in the United States of America, on the 6th day of April, {135} A. D. 1830, this being the eighth day of the third month of the eleventh year of the rise of the Church. Carried unanimously.

[This motion was permitted to accommodate the feelings of the conference, who had all recently been baptized, but there is no such principle in existence, as to transform a church or conference of the world into a church or conference of Christ's fold by vote.] [4]

Moved by Elder Wilford Woodruff, seconded by Elder T. Kington, that William Jenkins be ordained an Elder; and William Coleman, Joseph Firkins, William Pitt and Robert Harris be ordained to the office of Priest; and that George Burton, James Palmer, and William Loveridge, be ordained Teachers; carried unanimously. Ordained under the hands of Elders Richards and Woodruff.

Moved by Elder Kington, seconded by Elder Woodruff, that Robert Clift, Priest, have the care of the church at Dymock; James Palmer, Priest, have the care of the church at Kilcott; John Hill, Priest, have the care of the church at Twigworth; William Coleman, Priest, have the care of the church at Bran Green; Thomas Brooks, Priest, have the care of the church at Ryton; John Smith, Priest, have the care of the church at Lime Street; Charles Hayes, Priest have the care of the church at Deerhurst; Thomas Smith, Priest, Assistant, have the care of the church at Deerhurst; John Vernon, Priest, have the care of the church at Apperley; William Bayliss, Priest, Assistant, have the care of the church at Apperley; John Arlick, Priest, have the care of the church at Norton; John Spires, Priest, have the care of the church at Leigh; John Davis, Priest, assistant, have the care of the church at Leigh; Thomas Oakley, Priest, have the care of the church at Gadfield Elm.

And that Elder Daniel Browett take charge of the churches on the south, and Elder William Jenkins on the north side, of the river Severn. Carried unanimously.

Moved by Elder Woodruff, and seconded by Elder Richards, that Elder Thomas Kington be the Presiding Elder over the Conference; carried. Meeting adjourned until two o'clock.

Conference met at two o'clock according to adjournment, and administered the sacrament to a large congregation of Saints, accompanied by many observations on many subjects by the President. Ten members were confirmed under the hands of Elders Woodruff and Kington. Remarks were made by the President respecting the "blessing of children." Seven children were then blessed under the hands of Elders Woodruff and Kington.

{136} Moved by Elder Kington, seconded by Elder Woodruff, that Elder Daniel Browett represent this Conference to the general conference, at Manchester, on the 6th day of July next; carried. Moved and carried that the Clerk present to the Presiding Elder, T. Kington, also to the general conference, for safe keeping, a copy of the minutes of this conference.

The above minutes were then read and adopted, article by article, when it was moved by the President, and seconded by Elder Woodruff, that this conference be adjourned to the 13th day of September next at this place; carried unanimously.

Conference closed by prayer; after which the Elders and officers present met in council, and voted unanimously to establish a weekly council of the officers of said conference to be held alternately on the south and north sides of the river Severn, to commence at Leigh on the 25th inst.; and organized the same by appointing Elder Daniel Browett, president and John Hill, Priest, clerk, on the south side of the river; and also on the north side, by appointing Elder William Jenkins, president and John Smith, Priest, clerk; to assemble on the 3rd of July next, at Turkey Hall.

After passing many other votes of minor importance, accompanied by much instruction from Elders Richards and Woodruff, touching the duties of the several officers in their relations to each other, and the Church, the council adjourned. And it is worthy of remark, that no dissenting vote or voice was seen or heard during the day, either in conference or council.

Willard Richards, President.

Daniel Browett, Clerk.

Memorial of Joseph Smith, Jun., to the High Council of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, June 18th, 1840.

The Memorial of Joseph Smith, Jun., respectfully represents—That after the members of the Church of Jesus Christ had been inhumanly as well as unconstitutionally expelled from their homes which they had secured to themselves in the state of Missouri, and although very much scattered and at considerable distance from each other, they found a resting place in the state of Illinois:—That after the escape of your Memorialist from his enemies, he (under the direction of the authorities of the Church) took such steps as has secured to the Church the present locations, viz., the town plot of Nauvoo and lands in the Iowa territory:—That in order to secure said locations, your Memorialist had to become responsible for the payment of the same, and had to use considerable exertion in order to commence a settlement, and a place of gathering for the Saints; and knowing from the genius of the {137} constitution of the Church, and for the well-being of the Saints, that it was necessary that the constituted authorities of the Church might assemble together to act or to legislate for the good of the whole society and that the Saints might enjoy those privileges which they could not enjoy by being scattered so widely apart—your Memorialist was induced to exert himself to the utmost in order to bring about objects so necessary and so desirable to the Saints at large:—Under the then existing circumstances, your Memorialist had necessarily to engage in the temporalities of the Church, which he has had to attend to until the present time:—That your Memorialist feels it a duty which he owes to God, as well as to the Church, to give his attention more particularly to those things connected with the spiritual welfare of the Saints, (which have now become a great people,) so that they may be built up in their most holy faith, and go on to perfection:—That the Church have erected an office where he can attend to the affairs of the Church without distraction, he thinks, and verily believes, that the time has now come, when he should devote himself exclusively to those things which relate to the spiritualities of the Church, and commence the work of translating the Egyptian records, the Bible, and wait upon the Lord for such revelations as may be suited to the conditions and circumstances of the Church. And in order that he may be enabled to attend to those things, he prays your honorable body will relieve him from the anxiety and trouble necessarily attendant on business transactions, by appointing some one to take charge of the city plot, and attend to the business transactions which have heretofore rested upon your Memorialist: That should your Honors deem it proper to do so, your Memorialist would respectfully suggest that he would have no means of support whatever, and therefore would request that some one might be appointed to see that all his necessary wants may be provided for, as well as sufficient means or appropriations for a clerk or clerks, which he may require to aid him in his important work.

Your Memorialist would further represent, that as Elder H. G. Sherwood is conversant with the affairs of the city plot, he would be a suitable person to act as clerk in that business, and attend to the disposing of the remaining lots, &c.

Your Memorialist would take this opportunity of congratulating your honorable body on the peace and harmony which exist in the Church, and for the good feelings which seem to be manifested by all the Saints, and hopes that inasmuch as we devote ourselves for the good of the Church, and the spread of the kingdom, that the choicest blessings of heaven will be poured upon us, and that the glory of the Lord will overshadow the inheritances of the Saints.

Joseph Smith, Jun.

{138} Proceedings of the High Council on the Foregoing Memorial, June 20th, 1840.

The Council relieved President Joseph Smith, Jun., according to his request in the memorial, and appointed H. G. Sherwood to take charge of the city plot and to act as clerk in that business, and also to attend to the disposing of the remaining lots, and the business transactions which have rested upon him [Joseph Smith]. Alanson Ripley was appointed steward to see that all the necessary wants of the First Presidency be supplied, as well as to provide sufficient means or appropriations for a clerk or clerks to aid President Joseph Smith, Jun., in his important work.

Hosea Stout, Clerk.

Minutes of the Conference held at Stanley Hill, Castle Froome, Herefordshire, England, June 21st, 1840.

The preachers and members of the Froome's Hill Circuit of the United Brethren met at the house of Elder John Cheese, on Stanley Hill, Herefordshire, England, June 21, A. D. 1840, at ten a. m., according to previous notice; the meeting was called to order by Elder Thomas Kington; Elder Wilford Woodruff was chosen president, and Elder John Benbow, clerk of the meeting.

After prayer by Elder Richards, and remarks by the president concerning the business of the day, it was moved by Elder Thomas Kington, and seconded by Elder John Benbow, that [the several districts represented at] this meeting be hereafter known by the name of the "Froome's Hill Conference of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints," organized and established by the will and commandment of God, in the United States of America, on the 6th day of April, 1830, this being the 15th day of the third month of the eleventh year of the rise of the Church. Carried unanimously.

Moved by Elder Richards, seconded by Elder Kington, that Thomas Clark, Charles Price, James Hill, and Samuel Jones be ordained Elders; also that John James, Joseph Skinn, Henry Jones, James Baldwin, John Morgan, Samuel Badham, and John Dyer, be ordained Priests; also that Robert Hill, George Brooks, James Skinn, and James Watkins be ordained Teachers; carried unanimously; and they were ordained under the hands of Elders Woodruff and Richards.

Moved by Elder Kington, and seconded by Elders Woodruff and Richards, that John James, Priest, have the care of the church at Froome's Hill; John Parry, Priest, have the care of the church at Stanley Hill; James Burns, Priest, have the care of the church at Ridgway Cross; William Possons, Priest, have the care of the church at Moor-end Cross; Jonathan Lucy, Priest, have the care of the church at Caldwell; Thomas Jones, Priest, have the care of the church at Pale House; John Preece, {139} Priest, have the care of the church at Ledbury; Samuel Warren, Priest, have the care of the church at Keysend Street; James Baldwin, Priest, have the care of the church at Wind Point; George Allen, Priest, have the care of the church at Woferwood Common.

Rough Leasow, Birchwood, Tunbridge, and Dunsclose will all be united in one branch, called Dunsclose.

Samuel Badham, Priest, to have the care of the church at Dunsclose; Edward Phillips, Priest, to have care of the church at Ashfield and Crowcut; John Meeks, Priest, to have care of the church at Old Starridge; John Galley, Priest, to have care of the church at Hope Rough; Benj. Williams, Priest, to have care of the church at Shucknell Hill; John Powell, Priest, to have care of the church at Lugwardine; John Dyer, Priest, to have care of the church at Marden; William Evans, Priest, to have care of the church at Stokes Lane; John Fidoe, Priest, to have care of the church at Bishop Froome. Carried unanimously.

Moved by Elder Richards, and seconded by Elder Kington, that Elder Thomas Clark have charge of the churches at Dunsclose, Old Starridge, Ashfield, and Crowcut; that Elder Samuel Jones have charge of the churches at Keys-end Street, Wind Point, Colwell, Pale House, and Malvern Hill; that Elder Philip Green have charge of the churches at Shucknall Hill, Lugwardine, and Marden; that Elder John Cheese have charge of the churches at Stokes Lane, Woferwood Common, and Bishop Froome; that Elder Charles Price have charge of the churches at Ledbury, Moor-end Cross, and Ridgway Cross; that Elder James Hill have charge of the churches at Hope Rough and Stanley Hill; that Elder John Benbow have charge of the church at Froome's Hill. Carried unanimously.

Moved by the president, seconded by Elder Richards, that Elder Thomas Kington be the Presiding Elder over this conference.

After remarks by the president, the meeting adjourned till 2 o'clock p. m. During the recess ten persons were baptized.

Assembled at 2 o'clock according to adjournment, and administered the sacrament to several hundred Saints; after which twenty were confirmed, and twenty children blessed under the hands of Elders Woodruff and Richards, accompanied with instructions by the president, explanatory of the ordinance.

Moved by Elder Richards, seconded by the president, that Elder Thomas Kington represent this Conference to the general conference at Manchester on the 6th of July; carried. Moved and carried that the clerk of the conference present to the Presiding Elder, T. Lington, a copy of the minutes of this conference for safe keeping; also a copy to present to the general conference at Manchester. The minutes were then read and accepted. The president, followed by Elder Richards, then {140} proceeded to give such instruction to the Saints concerning the order of the Church, and the several duties of the members, as the Spirit directed; and bore testimony to the multitude of the truth of the work; followed by Elder Kington; when it was moved by Elder Richards, seconded by the president, that this conference adjourn to the 21st September next, 10 o'clock a. m., at this place; carried.

After prayer and singing, the assembly dispersed, the Elders and officers went into council, when it was moved by Elder Richards, and seconded by Elder Kington, that we proceed to establish and organize monthly councils of the officers of the Froome's Hill Conference, to commence on Friday, the 3rd of July next, at half-past seven o'clock p. m., in the several divisions, respectively assigned to the different Elders, viz.—

Elder Thomas Clark, president, and James Meeks, clerk, Dunsclose; Elder Charles Price, president, Thomas Jenkins, clerk, Moor-end Cross; Samuel Jones, president, William Williams, clerk, Wind Point; James Hill, president, Joseph Pullen, clerk, Stanley Hill; Philip Green, president, Francis Burnett, clerk, Lugwardine; John Benbow, president, John Morgan, clerk, Froome's Hill; John Cheese, president, George Allen, clerk, Stoke's Lane. Carried.

Moved by Elder Richards, and seconded by Elder Kington, that a monthly general council of the officers of this conference be held at Stanley Hill, to commence on Friday, the 17th of July next, at half-past seven o'clock, p. m. Elder Thomas Kington, president, and Elder John Benbow, clerk. Carried unanimously.

The president then proceeded to explain the nature of the Priesthood, and the duties and privileges of the several officers, and gave such instruction as their situation required, followed by Elder Richards, who explained many important principles connected with the building up of the Kingdom.

The minutes of the council were then read and accepted when the council adjourned; and after singing "The Spirit of God," &c., the brethren separated, with feelings of gratitude and thanksgiving, that God had been with His people, and that the spirit of union and love had prevailed in all the deliberations of the day.

Wilford Woodruff, President.

John Benbow, Clerk.

Remarks—The different branches in this region are so scattered, that it has not been possible to ascertain the number of members connected with each individual church; but connected with the Bran Green and Gadfield Elm, and the Froome's Hill conferences, together with a small branch of Little Garway of twelve members, one Priest, and one Teacher, are thirty-three churches, five hundred and {141} thirty-four members, seventy-five officers, viz., ten Elders, fifty-two priests, and thirteen teachers. And for the comforting of the Saints, and with heart-felt gratitude to our heavenly Father, we would say that it is less than four months since the fulness of the Gospel was first preached in this region; which is a proof that God is beginning to make a short work in these last days.

Wilford Woodruff.

Carpenter's Hall.

June 21.—The Saints hired the Carpenters' Hall in Manchester, which is large enough to accommodate ten or fifteen hundred hearers, for five hundred dollars a year, payable by contribution, and Elders Young and Pratt preached therein this day for the first time.

Monday, 22.—Elder Young went to Liverpool to see about printing the Book of Mormon, and returned to Manchester on the 26th; and on Sunday, 28th, preached in Carpenters' Hall.

June 27.—High Council met at my office.

Minutes of the High Council.

Alanson Ripley states to the council that he was authorized to inform them that President Joseph Smith, Jun., had vetoed[5] the proceedings of the Council of the 20th June, in relation to his Memorial. Laid over for hearing until Friday next.

Hosea Stout, Clerk.

Letter of William W. Phelps—Confessing Errors committed in Missouri.

Dayton, Ohio, June 29, 1840.

Brother Joseph—I am alive, and with the help of God I mean to live still. I am as the prodigal son, though I never doubt or disbelieve the fulness of the Gospel. I have been greatly abused and humbled, and I blessed the God of Israel when I lately read your prophetic blessing on my head, as follows:

"The Lord will chasten him because he taketh honor to himself, and when his soul is greatly humbled he will forsake the evil. Then shall {142} the light of the Lord break upon him as at noonday and in him shall be no darkness," &c.

I have seen the folly of my way, and I tremble at the gulf I have passed. So it is, and why I know not. I prayed and God answered, but what could I do? Says I, "I will repent and live, and ask my old brethren to forgive me, and though they chasten me to death, yet I will die with them, for their God is my God. The least place with them is enough for me, yea, it is bigger and better than all Babylon." Then I dreamed that I was in a large house with many mansions, with you and Hyrum and Sidney, and when it was said, "Supper must be made ready," by one of the cooks, I saw no meat, but you said there was pleanty, and you showed me much, and as good as I ever saw; and while cutting to cook, your heart and mine beat within us, and we took each other's hand and cried for joy, and I awoke and took courage.

I know my situation, you know it, and God knows it, and I want to be saved if my friends will help me. Like the captain that was cast away on a desert island; when he got off he went to sea again, and made his fortune the next time, so let my lot be. I have done wrong and I am sorry. The beam is in my own eye. I have not walked along with my friends according to my holy anointing. I ask forgiveness in the name of Jesus Christ of all the Saints, for I will do right, God helping me. I want your fellowship; if you cannot grant that, grant me your peace and friendship, for we are brethren, and our communion used to be sweet, and whenever the Lord brings us together again, I will make ail the satisfaction on every point that Saints or God can require. Amen.[6]

W. W. Phelps.

Letter of Elders Orson Hyde and John E. Page to Presidents Joseph Smith, Hyrum Smith, Sidney Rigdon, Pleading for William W. Phelps.

Dear Brother:—We have been in this place a few days, and have preached faithfully, a very great prospect of some able and influential men embracing the faith in this place. We have moved along slowly, but have left a sealing testimony. Baptized a considerable number. We shall write again more particularly as soon as we learn the result of our labors here. We are well and in good spirits through the favor of the Lord.

Brother Phelps requests us to write a few lines in his letter, and we cheerfully embrace the opportunity. Brother Phelps says he wants to {143} live, but we do not feel ourselves authorized to act upon his case, but have recommended him to you; but he says his poverty will not allow him to visit you in person, at this time, and we think he tells the truth. We therefore advise him to write, which he has done.

He tells us verbally that he is willing to make any sacrifice to procure your fellowship, life not excepted, yet reposing that confidence in your magnanimity that you will take no advantage of this open and frank confession. If he can obtain your fellowship he wants to come to Commerce as soon as he can. But if he cannot be received into the fellowship of the Church, he must do the best he can in banishment and exile.

Brethren, with you are the keys of the Kingdom; to you is power given to "exert your clemency, or display your vengeance." By the former you will save a soul from death, and hide a multitude of sins; by the latter, you will forever discourage a returning prodigal cause sorrow without benefit, pain without pleasure, [and the] ending [of Brother Phelps] in wretchedness and despair. But former experience teaches [us] that you are workmen in the art of saving souls; therefore with greater confidence do we recommend to your clemency and favorable consideration, the author [of the foregoing] and subject of this communication. "Whosoever will, let him take of the waters of life freely." Brother Phelps says he will, and so far as we are concerned we say he may.

In the bonds of the covenant,

Orson Hyde,

John E. Page.

The Committee of the Twelve in England finished the collection of hymns and prepared the index for the press; and on the 30th Elders Kimball and Richards arrived at Manchester.

Wednesday, July 1, 1840.—Elders Wilford Woodruff and George A. Smith arrived at Manchester from the Potteries.

July 2.

Minutes of a meeting of the Crooked Creek Branch of the Church.

At a meeting of the Saints of Crooked Creek Branch, on the 2nd of July, 1840, to take into consideration the propriety of having a Stake of Zion appointed or located somewhere in the bounds of this branch, Brother John Hicks was called to the chair. Meeting was opened by prayer, after which several remarks were made, and the following resolutions were passed:

{144} Resolved: That it be our wishes that a Stake of Zion be appointed or located within the bounds of this Branch, provided it should meet the minds of the First Presidency of this Church.

Resolved: That a committee of three be appointed to ascertain the mind of the First Presidency and report to the Branch.

Resolved: That Joseph Holebrook, Nathaniel Frampton, and John Hicks compose said committee.

It was ascertained that there were about 2,525 acres of land owned by the brethren, and wherever the Stake should be appointed the lands should be donated or purchased for a very small compensation, and that there are one hundred and twelve members belonging to this Branch.

Resolved: That we meet on Thursday next, at one o'clock, p. m., to receive the report of the committee,

Resolved: That the proceedings of this meeting be signed by the president and clerk.

John A. Hicks, President.

William Whiteman, Clerk.

Friday, 3.—High Council met at my office.

Minutes of High Council at Nauvoo.

The subject of the Memorial of President Joseph Smith, Jun., was brought up for a rehearing, according to the decision of the last Council (June 27) when the following resolutions were entered into:

1st. Resolved: That we feel perfectly satisfied with the course taken by Joseph Smith, Jun., and feel a disposition, as far as it is in our power, to assist him, so as to relieve him from the temporalities of the Church, in order that he may devote his time more particularly to the spiritualities of the same, believing by so doing we shall promote the good of the whole Church. But as he (Joseph Smith, Jun.) is held responsible for the payment of the city plot, and knowing no way to relieve him from the responsibility at present, we would request of him to act as treasurer for the city plot and to whom [i. e., President Smith] those persons whom we may appoint to make sales of lots and attend to the business affairs of the Church may at all times be responsible, and make true and correct returns of all their proceedings, as well as to account for all monies, properties, etc., which may come into their hands. Therefore

Resolved: That Elder Henry G. Sherwood act as Clerk for the same. That Bishop Alanson Ripley be appointed to provide for the wants of the Presidency, and make such appropriations to them, and to their clerk or clerks, which they may require.

Resolved: That the funds of the city plot shall not be taken to provide for the Presidency or clerks, but that the Bishops be instructed to {145} raise funds from other sources to meet calls made on them; and monies received for lots shall be deposited in the hands of the Treasurer to liquidate the debts of the city plot.

The resolutions of the Crooked Creek Branch of the 2nd inst., were taken into consideration by President Joseph Smith, Jun., and it was thought proper to establish a Stake on Crooked Creek, agreeably to the request of said Branch, and a letter was written to the brethren to that effect.

Robert B. Thompson, Scribe.

Reflections of the Prophet on the Action of Congress.

Since Congress has decided against us, the Lord has begun to vex this nation, and He will continue to do so except they repent; for they now stand guilty of murder, robbery and plunder, as a nation, because they have refused to protect their citizens, and to execute justice according to their own Constitution. A hailstorm has visited South Carolina; some of the stones are said to have measured nine inches in circumference, which swept the crops, killing some cattle. Insects are devouring crops on the high lands, where the floods of the country have not reached, and great commercial distress prevails everywhere.


1. One of the noted heights of the Black Mountains, running through the west part of Herefordshire.

2. See Biographical Note, Vol. I, pp. 128-9.

3. The Millennial Star was the first foreign publication of the Church. It was issued as a monthly, but afterwards more frequently, semi-monthly, and finally, and now for many years, a weekly. Its publication has been continuous from the time it was started until the present—1907. Also the Star has retained the general character imparted to it by its first publishers. "The Millennial Star," said its Prospectus, "will stand aloof from the common political and commercial news of the day. Its columns will be devoted to the spread of the fulness of the Gospel—the restoration of the ancient principles of Christianity—the gathering of Israel—the rolling forth of the kingdom of God among the nations—the signs of the times—the fulfillment of prophecy—recording the judgments of God as they befall the nations whether signs in the heavens or in the earth, blood fire or vapor of smoke—in short, whatever is shown forth indicative of the coming of the 'Son of Man' and ushering in of his universal reign upon the earth. It will also contain letters from our numerous Elders who are abroad, preaching the word both in America and Europe containing news of their success in ministering the blessings of the glorious Gospel."

As an explanation of its title and mission, the editor in its first number also said:

"The word Millennium signifies a thousand years, and in this sense of the word, may be applied to any [period of a] thousand years, whether under the reign of wickedness or righteousness. But the term the Millennium, is generally understood to apply to the particular thousand years which is mentioned in the Scriptures as the reign of peace—the great sabbath of creation, of which all the other sabbaths or jubilees seem to be but types. It is written that a 'thousand years is as one day, and one day as a thousand years with the Lord.' This being the case, then seven thousand years are seven days with the Lord, and the seventh, or last thousand years would, of course, be a sabbath or jubilee; a rest, a grand release from servitude and woe. * * * The curse will be taken from off the earth, and it will cease to bring forth thorns and thistles, and become fertile as it were a paradise, while sickness, premature death, and all their attendant train of pains and sorrows will scarce be known upon its face; thus peace, and joy, and truth, and love, and knowledge, and plenty, and glory, will cover the face of the earth as the waters do the sea. The tabernacle of God and his sanctuary will be with man, in the midst of the holy cities; and joy and gladness will all the measure of their cup. Such then, is the Great Millennium of which our little 'Star' would fain announce the dawn."

4. The matter in brackets occurs in the Ms. History as also in the History as published in the Millennial Star, but it is evidently the comment of the Church Historians.

5. By reference to the minutes of the High Council which took into consideration the Prophet's "Memorial" it is evident that they failed to grasp the importance of the subjects presented to them, and made such disposition of them as was neither in keeping with the dignity of the Prophet or the weight of the matters on which they acted—hence the "veto," or dissatisfaction with the council's action—See p. 144 for the conclusion of the matter.

6. For William W. Phelps' troubles in the church, which brought him to this great sorrow and repentance, see Vol. III, pp. 3, 7, 56, 358, 359, 360 and notes.



Important Conference of the Church in England—Kidnapping of Brown and Boyce by Missourians—Action of the Citizens of Nauvoo.

Monday, July 6, 1840.

Conference of the Church in England.

A General Conference of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was held in the Carpenter's Hall, Manchester, on the 6th day of July, 1840, it being the 1st day of the 4th month of the eleventh year of the Church, when the following officers of the traveling High Council were present, viz.: Elders Brigham Young, Parley P. Pratt, Wilford Woodruff, John Taylor, Willard Richards, Heber C. Kimball, and George A. Smith; other officers, viz.: High Priests 5, Elders 19, Priests 15, Teachers 11, and Deacons 3.

The meeting being called to order, a little after ten o'clock, by Elder William Clayton, it was moved by Elder Brigham Young, seconded by Elder Wilford Woodruff, that Elder Parley P. Pratt be chosen President of the conference,[1] which was carried unanimously. Elder William {147} Clayton was chosen clerk. The meeting was opened by singing, and prayer by the President.

Elder Brigham Young then proceeded to prefer charges against Elder T. Green, viz., first, for giving way to a false spirit; second, for abusing a young female, by accusing her, in a public meeting, of things which he could not prove; and third, for abuse to the house and congregation at Duckinfield, June 28th, 1840. The president then proceeded to ask Elder Green whether he was guilty of these charges, or not. He immediately pleaded guilty. After Elder Young had made extended remarks to the meeting, touching the conduct of Elder Green, he proposed that Elder Green go to those characters where he had abused and insulted, and make confession to them as far as the offense extended, and then to be suspended from office for a season. The President then made remarks to the same effect, and put it to the vote of the meeting, viz., that Elder Green shall make confession, as stated above, and be suspended from office for a season. Carried.

The President then asked Elder Green if he was willing to make confession, he immediately agreed to do it the first opportunity. The meeting adjourned a little after twelve o'clock.

At two o'clock business commenced by singing and prayer, when the President called upon the officers to represent the different branches of the Church, which was done in the following order, viz.—


Branches Represented, &c. Members.Elders.Priests.Teachers.Deacons.
The Branch at Manchester Represented by Elder William Clayton283551
The Branch at Preston represented by Elder Joseph Fielding3546842
Elders Kington and Browett presented the minutes of the conference held in Herefordshire, which were read by Elder Wilford Woodruff, representing 33 branches of the Church534105213
Elder Alfred Cordon read the minutes of the conference held at Hanley, Staffordshire, representing 7 branches of the Church16841362
The branch at Liverpool, represented by Elder John Taylor78132
Elder Joseph Fielding read the minutes of the Thornley, represented by Elder William Kay303211
The Branch at Ribchester, represented by Elder Francis Clark2221
The Branch at Waddington, represented by John Ellison58221
The Branch at Clitheroe, represented by Brother Lofthouse35131
The Branch at Chatburn, represented by Elder John Bond91222
The Branch at Downham, represented by John Spencer251
The Branch at Grindleton, represented by Elder Joseph Fielding51
The Branch at Whitmore, represented by J. Spencer3
The Branch at Burnley, represented by Elder H. C. Kimball27111
The Branch at Blackburn, represented by Elder H. C. Kimball171
Elder Reuben Hedlock read the minutes of the conference held at Paisley, Scotland, representing 5 branches of the Church1066532
The Branch at Alston, represented by Elder John Sanders36222
The Branch at Brampton, represented by Elder John Sanders3611
The Branch at Longton, represented by Elder Bradshaw54242
The Branch at Penworthan, represented by Elder P. Melling774111
The Branch at Whittle, represented by Elder Richard Withnall1614
The Branch at Southport, represented by R. McBride1912
The Branch at Daubers Lane & Eccleston, Represented by Elder Richard Withnall4213
The Branch at Hunter's Hill, represented by Richard Benson26111
The Branch at Bolton, represented by Elder David Wilding61122
The Branch at Bury and Elton, represented by Elder David Wilding12
The Branch at Ratcliff, represented by Elder Amos Fielding11
The Branch at Benford, &c. represented by Elder Willard Richards4011
The Branch at Stockport, represented by Elder M. Littlewood852121
The Branch at Duckinfield, represented by Elder Henry Royle4111
The Branch at Macclesfield, represented by Samuel Heath142
The Branch at Middlewich, represented by Samuel Heath20111
The Brach at Plover, represented by Samuel Heath24111
The Branch at Northwich, represented by William Berry141
The Branch at Altrincham, represented by William Berry41
The Branch at Whitfield, represented by Walker Johnson141
The Branch at Pendlebury, represented by Elder William Clayton1311
The Branch at Eccles, represented by Elder William Clayton5
The Branch at West Bromwich, represented by Elder Theodore Turley1611

After the officers had got through the representations, the President introduced the new hymn-book; and after suitable remarks had been made by him and Elders Young and Thomas Kington, the President asked the conference if they were satisfied with the labors of those who had made the selection, and if they received the book. The unanimous approbation of the meeting was immediately manifested.

By unanimous vote, Thomas Kington, Alfred Cordon, and Thomas Smith were ordained High Priests; John Albison, John Blezzard, William Berry, John Sanders, John Parkinson, James Worsley, and John Allen were ordained Elders; and Joseph Slinger, George Walker, John Smith, Robert Williams, William Black, John Melling, and John Swindlehurst were ordained Priests.

Elder Brigham Young then called upon those officers, whose circumstances would permit them to devote themselves entirely to the work of the ministry, and would volunteer so to do, to stand up—when the following names were taken, viz., of the traveling High Council, Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, John Taylor, Wilford Woodruff, Willard Richards, and George A. Smith; other officers, namely, William Clayton, Reuben Hedlock, Hiram Clark, Theodore Turley, Joseph Fielding, Thomas Richardson, Amos Fielding, John Parkinson, John Wych, John Needham, Henry Royle, John Blezzard, D. Wilding, Charles Price, Joseph Knowles, Wm. Kay, Samuel Heath, Wm. Parr, R. McBride, and James Morgan.

{149} Moved by Elder Richards, seconded by Elder Kimball, that Elder Peter Melling be appointed to preside over the following branches of the Church, namely—Preston, Longton, Penwortham, North Meols, and Southport; carried.

Moved by Elder Kimball, seconded by Elder Young, that Elder Richard Withnall be appointed to preside over the branches of the Church at Whittle, Daubers Lane, Chorley, Hunter's Hill, and Euxtonburgh; carried.

Moved by Elder Kimball, seconded by Elder Young, that Elder Thomas Smith be appointed to preside over the branches of the Church at Clitheroe, Chatburn, Downham, Chaighley, Grindleton, Whitmore, Burnley, Blackburn, Ribchester, and Thornley: carried.

Moved and seconded, that President Fielding and his counselors be set at liberty from the charge which they have sustained as a presidency, that they may have the privilege of more fully entering into the field of labor; and that their labors be accepted; carried.

Elders Young and Richards then proceeded to ordain those who had been nominated to their respective offices, after which the minutes were read and accepted.

The conference adjourned to the sixth of October next, to be held in the Carpenter's Hall, Manchester, at 10 o'clock, a. m.

Tuesday, 7.

A council of Church Officers, held at Manchester, England.

Pursuant to previous notice, a general council of the Church officers was held in the council room at the Star office, Manchester, on the 7th day of July, 1840. The meeting being opened by prayer by Elder Kimball, Elder Young began to speak concerning those officers who had volunteered to devote themselves wholly to the ministry; when it was moved and seconded that Brothers William Kay and Thomas Richardson go to Herefordshire, to labor in that region with Elder Kington; carried.

Moved by Elder Kimball, seconded by Elder Young, that Brothers Hiram Clark and Joseph Knowles go with Elder Hedlock to Scotland: carried.

Moved by Elder Kimball, seconded by Elder Young, that Brother Joseph Fielding go to Bedford: carried.

Moved by Elder Richards, seconded by Elder Kimball, that Brothers Amos Fielding and John Wych go to Newcastle-upon-Tyne: carried.

Moved by Elder Kimball, seconded by Elder Woodruff, that Brother David Wilding go to Garway, Herefordshire: carried.

Moved by Elder Young, seconded by Elder Woodruff, that Brothers William Clayton and John Needham go to Birmingham: carried.

{150} Moved by Elder Richards, seconded by Elder Young, that Brother Henry Royle go to Sheffield: carried.

Moved by Elder Clayton, seconded by Elder Young, that Brother John Albiston take charge of the following Branches of the Church, namely—Duckinfield, Hyde, Woolley Hill, Ashton, and Staley Bridge: carried.

Moved by Elder Pratt, seconded by Elder Woodruff, that Brother William Parr go to Sandbach and Congleton: carried.

Moved by Elder Richards, seconded by Elder Pratt, that Brother Heath continue his labors in Macclesfield: carried.

Moved by Elder Richards, seconded by Elder Woodruff, that Brother John Blezzard go to Cornshaw: carried.

Moved by Elder Kimball, seconded by Elder Richards, that Brother Robert McBride go to Lancaster: carried.

Moved by Elder Richards, seconded by Elder Woodruff, that Brother James Morgan abide in his own neighborhood to labor with Elder David Wilding: carried.

Moved by Elder Pratt, seconded by Elder Woodruff, that Brother Price give up his business, and labor under the advice of Elder Kington as the way opens: carried.

Moved by Elder Richards, seconded by Elder Kimball, that Brother William Black go to Lisburn, Ireland, as the way opens: carried.

Moved by Elder Richards, seconded by Elder Smith, that Brother John Parkinson have a roving commission, so long as he keeps busy, and doing good: carried.

After Elder Young had addressed the meeting upon several important items, the meeting dismissed by blessing from Elder Young.

Parley P. Pratt, President.

William Clayton, Clerk.

At this time Elders Orson Hyde and John E. Page were laboring in Ohio.

Thursday, 9.

Extract from Elder Woodruff's Letter to the Editor of the Millennial Star—Detailing Incidents of his Ministry.

I arrived at Froome's Hill, Castle Froome, Herefordshire, on the 4th of March, and was kindly entertained for the night by Mr. John Benbow, who received my testimony, and opened his door for meeting; and on the evening following, the 5th of March, for the first time I preached the fullness of the Gospel in that place to a small congregation, who manifested much interest in what they heard, and desired to inquire further into those things; and on the evening following I met a large {151} number at Mr. Benbow's, and preached unto them the principles of the Gospel, namely, faith in Christ, repentance, and baptism for the remission of sins and the gift of the Holy Ghost by the laying on of hands; after which I administered the ordinance of baptism unto six persons, Mr. and Mrs. Benbow among the number. I also preached on Sunday the 8th and baptized seven, confirmed thirteen, and broke bread unto them. Several of those who were baptized were preachers of the order called the United Brethren.

The United Brethren formerly belonged to the Primitive Methodists, but had separated themselves from the body, and chose the name of the United Brethren. They had from forty to fifty preachers and about the same number of established places of meeting, including two chapels.

Mr. Thomas Kington was the superintendent of the church of the United Brethren, whose members numbered about four hundred in all, divided into small branches and scattered over an extent of country from fifteen to twenty miles. This people almost universally appeared willing to give heed to the exhortation of Solomon, to hear a matter before they judged or condemned. They opened their doors for me to preach, and searched the Scriptures daily to see if the things which I taught were true; and on finding that the word and spirit agreed and bore record of the truth of the fullness of the Everlasting Gospel, they embraced it with all their hearts, which has brought great joy and satisfaction to many souls in that region.

I continued preaching and baptizing daily; the congregations were large and generally attentive. I was soon privileged with an interview with Mr. Thomas Kington, the superintendent of the United Brethren, before whom I gave an account of the rise and progress of the Church of the Latter-day Saints, and bore testimony of the truth of the great work which God had set His hand to accomplish in these last days.

Mr. Kington received my testimony and sayings with candor; and carried the case before the Lord, made it a subject of prayer, and asked the Father in the name of Jesus Christ, if these things were true; and the Lord manifested the truth of it unto him, and he went forth and was baptized, he and all his household. I ordained him an Elder, and he went forth and began to preach the fullness of the Gospel.

I also baptized about forty preachers of the same order, and several others belonging unto other churches, and about one hundred and twenty members of the United Brethren, which opened about forty doors or preaching places, where the fullness of the Gospel would meet a welcome reception, and all this during the term of one month and five days.

On the 10th of April I took my departure from the Saints in Herefordshire and adjoining country, numbering about one hundred and sixty; {152} whom I left rejoicing in the fullness of the Gospel, and hundreds of others who were ready to be baptized as soon as a proper time and opportunity arrived. I arrived in Preston on the 13th, by way of Worcester, Wolverhampton, Burslem, and Manchester, a distance of about one hundred and seventy miles, visiting the churches by the way.

On my arrival in Preston, I was blessed with the happy privilege of once more greeting my brethren of the Traveling High Council and other Elders, and of sitting with them on the 14th, 15th, and 16th of April in the first council and general conference which they had ever held, as a quorum, in a foreign nation. After spending several days together, (during which time much business of importance was transacted for the Church,) it became necessary for us again to separate in order to labor in different parts of the vineyard which were now open before us. I left Preston on the 17th, accompanied by Elder Brigham Young, and visited the churches by the way, until we arrived among the Saints in Herefordshire, who were anxiously looking for my return. In a few days we were joined in our labors by Elder Willard Richards. We took locations in different parts of this new field of labor, which extended through various places in Herefordshire, Worcestershire, and Gloucestershire.

We continued preaching, and baptizing, and administering in the ordinances of the Gospel daily, unto such as would receive our testimony, and obey the Gospel of Jesus Christ. Truth was mighty and prevailed; the work prospered, and multiplied on every hand, until several hundreds, including more than fifty preachers of various sects, were rejoicing in the fullness of the everlasting Gospel, and felt to praise God that they had lived to behold the day when the Lord had set His hand to prune His vineyard once more with a mighty pruning, and to establish the Gospel in its ancient purity again upon the face of the earth; and in many instances signs followed the believer, according to the promise of the Savior. The Spirit of God accompanied the preaching of the word to the hearts of men. Whole households, on hearing the word, have received it into good and honest hearts, and gone forth and received the ordinances of the Gospel; and frequently we have baptized from eight to twelve the first time of meeting with the people in new places, and preaching the word of God to them.

Elder Young labored with us about one month, during which time many were baptized, confirmed, and numbers ordained to preach the Gospel—and while the Saints were much edified, and their hearts made glad with the teaching and instruction by Elder Young, I also obtained much benefit myself by enjoying his society, sitting under his instruction, and sharing in his counsel.

As it became necessary for Elder Young to return to Manchester, to {153} assist in preparing a collection of hymns, and other matters, he took the parting hand with us on the 20th of May; and Elders Richards and myself continued our labors in the vineyard, in connection with Elder Kington, who had given himself wholly to the work of the ministry.

The Lord still continued to bless our labors, and added daily unto the Church. New doors were opening on every hand; and multiplicity of calls constantly reached our ears, many of which we could not answer for the want of laborers. Notwithstanding there were about fifty ordained Elders and Priests in this part of the vineyard, yet there were equally as many places for preaching to be attended to upon the Sabbath day. Thus we continued our labors in this region until the time drew near for the general conference in Manchester on the 6th of July.

But before leaving the Saints, we considered it wisdom to set in order the church, and organize them into branches and conferences, that they might be properly represented before the general conference. Therefore we held two conferences with the Saints before we took our departure from them. The first was held at the Gadfield Elm Chapel, Worcestershire, on the 14th of June, at which time we organized twelve branches, and transacted such business as the occasion required. The Second conference was held at Stanley Hill, Herefordshire, on the 21st of June, twenty branches of the Church were organized. The minutes of the above-named conferences I present you for publication, if you think proper.

On the day following, Elder Richards and myself took our leave of the Saints at Froome's Hill, Herefordshire; but before leaving we repaired to a pool three times to baptize and confirm numbers that came to us and requested these ordinances at our hands.

Elder Richards labored in this part of the vineyard about two months, during which time he traveled extensively, preached night and day, gave much instruction to the Saints generally, and had many souls as seals to his ministry. I received much benefit from the counsel which he gave in the organization of the churches, and it was manifest that he had passed through a profitable school of experience during the three years of his travels in England; and the interesting seasons we have enjoyed together during these two months, will not be easily erased from my memory.

It was with no ordinary fellings that we took our departure from the Saints in Herefordshire on this occasion; for, less than four months since, I proclaimed the fullness of the Gospel in this region for the first time; but now, we were leaving between five and six hundred Saints, who were rejoicing in the new and everlasting covenant, and hundreds of others who were wishing to hear and obey. I parted from Elder Richards at Birmingham, who went direct to Manchester, while I visited {154} West Bromwich, and preached several times to a small branch of the Church which had been raised up in that place by Elder Turley, who baptized several while I was there. I also attended a conference on the 29th June, at Hanley, in the Staffordshire Potteries, in company with Elder George A. Smith and others, after which I arrived in Manchester.

Wilford Woodruff.

Manchester, July 9, 1840.

Special Instructions for the High Councils.

Saturday, 11.—The High Council met at my office, when I taught them principles relating to their duty as a Council, and that they might be guided by the same in future, I ordered it to be recorded as follows: "That the Council should try no case without both parties being present, or having had an opportunity to be present; neither should they hear one person's complaint before his case is brought up for trial; neither should they suffer the character of any one to be exposed before the High Council without the person being present and ready to defend him or herself; that the minds of the councilors be not prejudiced for or against any one whose case they may possibly have to act upon."

The First Missionary for Australia.

William Barrett, aged 17, was ordained an Elder in Hanley, Staffordshire, England, by Elders George A. Smith and Alfred Cordon, and took leave for South Australia, being the first Elder who went on a mission to that country.

Sunday, 12—Elias Smith was appointed Bishop by the High Council of Iowa, in place of Alanson Ripley, removed to Nauvoo.

Monday, 13.

Kidnapping of Alanson Brown and Benjamin Boyce—Affidavit of Daniel H. Wells.[2]

State Of Illinois, Hancock County.

This day personally appeared before the undersigned, an acting justice of the peace, in the aforesaid county, Alanson Brown, who, first {155} being duly sworn according to law, deposes and says, that on the 7th day of July, A. D. 1840, and in the county of Hancock, in said state, William Allensworth, H. M. Woodyard, William Martin, John H. Owsley, John Bain, Light T. Tait, and Halsay White, in company with several other persons, to this affiant unknown, forcibly arrested this affiant, and one Benjamin Boyce, whilst affiant and said Boyce, were quietly pursuing their own lawful business; and that immediately after said arrest, the said Allensworth, Woodyard, Martin, Owsley, Bain, Tait, and White, did illegally and forcibly take, kidnap, and carry this affiant and said Boyce, bound with cords, from the said county of Hancock, in said state, on the day and year above set forth, in the county of Lewis, in the state of Missouri, without having established a claim for such a procedure, according to the laws of the United States.

Affiant states that in a short time after he was taken into the state of Missouri, he was put into a room with said Boyce, and there kept until about eleven o'clock the following night; when they were taken out of the room where they had been confined, into the woods, near at hand, by said Tait, a man by the name of Huner, and another by the name of Monday, and some others, whose name affiant did not learn; they previously placed a rope about the neck of the affiant; Huner and Monday then proceeded to hang the affiant, and did hang him for some time upon a tree, until affiant was nearly strangled, after which they let him down and loosened the rope. Shortly after this, affiant heard repeated blows, which others—belonging to the same gang of Huner—were inflicting upon Boyce, and he could hear also the cries of Boyce, under the pain arising from the blows; after which affiant and Boyce were taken back to the room where they had been confined, in which they found a man by the name of Rogers, and another by the name of Allred.

Affiant further states that he was kept in imprisonment by the {156} persons heretofore named, and others to him unknown, until Friday evening next ensuing the Tuesday on which Boyce and himself were kidnapped, when he escaped out of their hands and returned into the state of Illinois. Affiant had learned that the name of the place in said county of Lewis, state of Missouri, to which he was taken from the state of Illinois, is called Tully, to which the said Allensworth, Woodyard, Martin, Owsley, Bain, Tait and White, have fled as fugitives from justice, and at which they are now to be found.

I hereby certify that the foregoing affidavit was this day subscribed and duly sworn to before me, by said Alanson Brown.

Daniel H. Wells.

Justice of the Peace, July 13, 1840.

Statement of James Allred.

State Of Illinois, Hancock County.

This day personally appeared before the undersigned, an acting Justice of the Peace, in and for said county, James Allred, a credible witness, who first being duly sworn according to law, deposes and says that William Allensworth, John H. Owsley, and William Martin, on the 7th day of July, 1840, within the limits of said county of Hancock, aided by several other persons, to this affiant unknown, forcibly arrested this affiant and one Noah Rogers, whilst the affiant and said Rogers were peaceably pursuing their own lawful business; and that the said Allensworth, Owsley and Martin, after said arrest, aided by sundry persons, to affiant unknown, did forcibly take, kidnap and carry this affiant and said Rogers from the said county of Hancock in the state of Illinois, on the day and year above mentioned into the state of Missouri, without having established a claim for such procedure according to the laws of the United States.

Affiant further states, that in a short time after he had been so taken into the state of Missouri, he was put into a room with said Rogers, and there kept until some time during the following night, when they were taken out of the room where they were confined, into the woods near by, and this affiant was bound by the persons conducting him, to a tree, he having been first forcibly stripped by them of every particle of clothing. Those having him in charge then told affiant that they would whip him; one of them, by the name of Monday, saying to this affiant, "G—d—n you, I'll cut you to the hollow." They, however, at last unbound the affiant without whipping him.

Affiant states that said Rogers was taken just beyond the place where affiant was bound with a rope around his neck, and he heard a great number of blows, which he then supposed, and has since learned were inflicted upon said Rogers, and heard him cry out several times as if in great agony; after which affiant, together with Rogers, was taken {157} back and placed in the room from which they were taken, together with one Boyce and Brown, and detained until Monday next succeeding the day on which he was kidnapped; at which time he received from one of the company, who had imprisoned him, a passport, of which the following is a copy—

"Tully, Missouri, July 12, 1840. The people of Tully, having taken up Mr. Allred, with some others, and having examined into the offenses committed, find nothing to justify his detention any longer, and have released him. By order of the committee.

"H. M. Woodward."

And then this affiant was permitted to return home into the state of Illinois. This place in Missouri, to which affiant and said Rogers were taken, he has learned is called Tully, and is situated in the county of Lewis, and at which place the said Allensworth, Owsley and Martin are now living.

I hereby certify that the forgoing affidavit was this day subscribed, and duly sworn to before me, by the said James Allred.

Daniel H. Wells,

Justice of the Peace.

Action of the Citizens of Nauvoo in the Matter of the Kidnapping of Brown and Boyce by the Missourians.

At a meeting of the citizens of Nauvoo, Hancock county, Illinois, 13th July, 1840, Judge Elias Higbee was called to the chair, and Robert B. Thompson was appointed Secretary.

On motion a committee was appointed to report resolutions, expressive of the sense of this meeting, consisting of the following persons, to wit.—Isaac Galland, Robert B. Thompson, Sidney Rigdon, and Daniel H. Wells, who retired, and after a short absence, reported the following preamble and resolutions, which were unanimously adopted—

Report of the Committee on Resolutions.

Preamble—The committee appointed to express the sense of this meeting, in relation to the recent acts of abduction, and other deeds of cruelty and inhumanity committed upon our citizens by [some of] the citizens of the state of Missouri, beg leave respectfully to report:

That having under consideration the principal matters involve in the discharge of their duty, they have been forced to arrive at the following conclusions:

First—That the people of Missouri, not having sufficiently slacked their thirst for blood and plunder, are now disposed to pursue us with a repetition of the scenes of brutality which marked their whole course of conduct towards us during our unhappy residence among them.

{158} Second—That notwithstanding they have already robbed us of our homes, murdered our families, stolen and carried away our property; and to complete the measure of their infamy as a state, their executive caused unoffending thousands to be banished from the state, without even the form of a trial, or the slightest evidence of crime; they are now sending their gangs of murdering banditti, and thieving brigands, to wreak further vengeance, and satisfy their insatiable cupidity in the state of Illinois, and that too before we have even had time to erect shelters for our families.

Third—That for the purpose of giving a semblance of justification to their most unhallowed conduct, the people of Missouri have again commenced concealing goods within the limits of our settlements, as they had done before in the state of Missouri, in order to raise a charge of stealing against our citizens, and under this guise they have within a few days kidnapped, and carried away, several honest and worthy citizens of this county.

Fourth—Under these circumstances the first duty and the only redress which seems to offer itself to our consideration is an appeal to the executive of the state of Illinois, for redress, and protection from further injuries, with a confident assurance that he, unlike the governor of Missouri, will extend the executive arm to protect from lawless outrage, unoffending citizens. Therefore,

Resolved 1st: That we view, with no ordinary feelings, the approaching danger as a necessary consequence following the lawless and outrageous conduct of the citizens of Missouri, in setting at defiance the laws of this, as well as of all other states in this Union, by forcing from their homes, and from the state, civil citizens of Illinois, and taking them into the state of Missouri, without any legal process whatever, and there inflicting upon them base cruelties in order to extort false confessions from them, to give a coloring to their (the Missourians') iniquities, and screen themselves from the just indignation of an incensed public.

Resolved 2ndly: That while we deeply deplore the cause which has brought us together on this occasion, we cannot refrain from expressing our most unqualified disapprobation at the infringement of the laws of this state, as set forth in the above Preamble, and strongest indignation at the manner in which the people of Missouri treated those whom they had thus inhumanly taken from among us.

Resolved 3rdly: That inasmuch as we are conscious of our honest and upright intentions, and are at all times ready and willing to submit to the just requirements of the laws, we claim of the citizens and authorities of this state, protection from such unjust and, before, unheard of oppressions.

{159} Resolved 4thly: That the forcible abduction of our citizens by the citizens of Missouri, is a violation of the laws regulating the federal compact, subversive to the rights of freemen, and contrary to our free institutions, and republican principles.

Resolved, 5thly: That the cruelties practiced upon our citizens, since their abduction, is disgraceful to humanity; the height of injustice and oppression, and would disgrace the annals of the most barbarous nations, in either ancient or modern times; and can only find its parallel in the "Auto da Fe"—the inquisitions in Spain.

Resolved, 6thly: That such unconstitutional and unhallowed proceedings on the part of the citizens of Missouri, ought to arouse every patriot to exertion and diligence to put a stop to such procedure, and use all constitutional means to bring the offenders to justice.

Resolved, 7thly: That we memorialize the Executive of this state, of the gross outrage which has been committed on our citizens; and pledge ourselves to aid him in such measures as may be deemed necessary to restore our citizens to freedom, and have satisfaction for the wrongs we have suffered.

Elias Higbee, Chairman,

R. B. Thompson, Secretary.

Memorial to Governor Carlin.

To his Excellency Governor Carlin:—The undersigned being a committee to draft a Memorial to your Excellency relative to the recent outrages, would respectfully represent; that after being driven from our homes, and pleasant places of abode, in the state of Missouri, by the authorities of said state, Illinois seemed to be the first shelter or asylum which presented itself to our view; that having left the state of Missouri, your memorialists found an asylum in the state of Illinois; and notwithstanding the false reports which were circulated to our prejudice, we were received with kindness by the noble hearted citizens of Illinois; who relieved our necessities, and bade us welcome; for which kindness we feel thankful.

That under your Excellency's administration, we have had every encouragement given us, and have every reason, from the kindness and sympathy which you have ever manifested towards us in our sufferings, to feel confident that your aid will ever be offered to us in common with the rest of the citizens of the state. That feeling ourselves so happy and secure, and beginning again to enjoy the comforts of life, we are sorry to say that our quiet has been disturbed, our fears alarmed, and our families annoyed by the citizens of Missouri; who, with malice and hatred, which is characteristic of them, have unconstitutionally sent an armed force and abducted some of our friends, namely, James Allred, {160} Noah Rogers, Alanson Brown, and one Boyce, and carried them into the state of Missouri, and treated them with the greatest barbarity and cruelty; even now their wives and children, as well as their friends, are alarmed for the safety of their lives.

Therefore we have felt it our duty to place the circumstances of this unheard-of outrage before you, and appeal to your Excellency for protection from such marauders, and take such measures as you may deem proper, that our friends may be again restored to the bosom of their families, and the offenders punished for their crimes.

We have the greatest confidence in your Excellency, that every constitutional means will be resorted to, to restore our friends to the society of their families, &c., that we, in common with other citizens of the state of Illinois, may enjoy all the rights and privileges of freemen.

Your memorialists have under all circumstances paid the greatest respect to the laws of the country, and if any should break the same, they have never felt a disposition to screen such from justice, but when under false pretenses, to gratify and satiate a revengeful disposition—for the citizens of another state, regardless of both the laws of God and man, to come and kidnap our friends, to carry off our citizens to cruelly treat our brethren; such offenders, we think, should be brought to an account, to be dealt with according to their merit or demerit; that we may enjoy the privileges guaranteed to us by the Constitution of the United States.

We therefore humbly pray that your Excellency will satisfy yourself of the gross outrage which has been committed on the citizens of the state, and with that energy which is so characteristic of your Excellency's administration, take such steps as you may deem best calculated to repair the injuries which your memorialists have sustained; that you will vindicate the injured laws of the state.

In conclusion, we beg leave to assure your Excellency, that in the discharge of this, as well as every other constitutional movement, you may rely upon the hearty co-operation of your memorialists, who respectfully submit to your Excellency the accompanying Resolutions, which were passed at a large meeting held in this place on this day, and also the affidavit of one of those persons who was kidnapped, but fortunately has made his escape.


1. At the present time the above arrangement by which Elder Parley P. Pratt was chosen president of the conference, while Elder Brigham Young was his senior in the quorum of the Twelve Apostles, will seem somewhat out of order. Such procedure is recorded a number of times in the minutes of conferences and other gatherings in the early years of the Church's history; it is therefore proper to say that in those days the right to presidency by reason of seniority of standing in quorums and councils was not as well settled as it is now. Presidency throughout the councils and quorums of the church is determined by well settled principles of seniority of ordination, and as soon as any of these organizations are called to order for business the president of the council or conference is determined by the seniority of standing in said organization without any formal action. In the above case the brethren may have been influenced by the fact that Elder Pratt was an older member of the church than President Young. Also, it appears in a subsequent paragraph that some charges were preferred by President Young against one of the Elders in the conference. This course may have been decided upon by the Apostles, who probably thought that it would not be best for the presiding officer over the conference to make such charges, hence Elder Pratt was chosen to preside and Elder Young left free to make the charges aforesaid.

2. Daniel Hanmer Wells was the son of Daniel Wells by his second wife Catherine Chapin. He was born at Trenton, Oneida county, New York, October 27, 1814. His father was a descendant of Thomas Wells, the fourth governor of Connecticut, while his mother was descended from David Chapin, a veteran of the Revolution, who served under Washington, and was a descendant of one of the oldest and most distinguished families of New England. The father of Daniel H. Wells died when the son was but 12 years old, which threw upon him, at this early age, the care of his mother and younger sister. At the age of 16 he migrated with his mother and sister to Marietta, Ohio, where Daniel H. taught school during the winter, and in the spring moved to Illinois, settling at Commerce, where he made extensive purchases of land. One farm of eighty acres was in the very heart of what became the city of Nauvoo, in fact he platted his farm into city lots which he sold at very reasonable prices to the Saints. The Temple site was selected from the western range of blocks in this addition. In 1885 he married Eliza Robison, and a son was born to them a year later. Mr. Wells served a term as constable in the district in which Commerce was situated, and was now a justice of the peace and familiarly called "Squire Wells." He was a stalwart Whig in politics; a man of high character and great courage.



The Return of a Prodigal—Conditions in Kirtland—Progress of the Work in Great Britain—The Coming of John C. Bennett.

Australian Mission.

Extract of a Letter from Elder William Barratt.

Deptford,[1] July 15, 1840.

Dear Brother In Christ:—I write to inform you of my arrival in the metropolis this morning, after a tedious journey in the midst of much profaneness and swearing, such as I never heard in my life before. I feel, as the Apostle expresses it, like a lamb among wolves, going into a land of strangers to preach the Gospel; therefore I desire your prayers in my behalf. I have witnessed much of the spirit of revelation since Sunday; in fact, I only thought it a mere thought, when the Elders testified that they were called by revelation; but now I know the truth of the assertion, which proves to me who ought to preach, and that none ought, without they are called by revelation.

Give my love to all the Saints, and tell them that as many as remain faithful I will meet in Zion, bringing my sheaves with me. Tell them my faith is fixed, and my resolution is strong to meet you all there, whom I love in the Lord. Pray that a door may be opened, and that a gift of utterance may be given unto me in a foreign land to preach the Gospel. Brethren, sorrow not for me, as those that have no hope, for we have a hope of living and eating together in the kingdom of our God.

Friday, 17.—By my suggestion, High Council voted that Samuel Bent and George W. Harris go on a mission to procure money for printing certain books.

Saturday, 18.—Elias Smith was ordained a Bishop.

Sunday, 19.—An answer to Brigham Young's letter of the 17th of May was sent by Lorenzo Snow,[2] which gave {162} the Twelve permission to publish the Book of Mormon, Doctrine and Covenants, and hymn-book, but not to ordain any into the quorum of the Seventies; and likewise some general instructions.

Monday, 20.—Elder John Moon and company arrived in New York being the first arrival of Saints in America.

Wednesday, 22.

The Prophet's Letter to William W. Phelps—Welcoming him back into the Church.[3]

Nauvoo, Hancock County, Illinois, July 22, 1840.

Dear Brother Phelps:—I must say that it is with no ordinary feelings I endeavor to write a few lines to you in answer to yours of the 29th ultimo; at the same time I am rejoiced at the privilege granted me.

{163} You may in some measure realize what my feelings, as well as Elder Rigdon's and Brother Hyrum's were, when we read your letter—truly our hearts were melted into tenderness and compassion when we ascertained your resolves, &c. I can assure you I feel a disposition to act on your case in a manner that will meet the approbation of Jehovah' (whose servant I am), and agreeable to the principles of truth and righteousness which have been revealed; and inasmuch as long-suffering, patience, and mercy have ever characterized the dealings of our heavenly Father towards the humble and penitent, I feel disposed to copy the example, cherish the same principles, and by so doing be a savior of my fellow men.

It is true, that we have suffered much in consequence of your behavior—the cup of gall, already full enough for mortals to drink, was indeed filled to overflowing when you turned against us. One with whom we had oft taken sweet counsel together, and enjoyed many refreshing seasons from the Lord—"had it been an enemy, we could have borne it." "In the day that thou stoodest on the other side, in the day when strangers carried away captive his forces, and foreigners entered into his gates, and cast lots upon [Far West], even thou wast as one of them; that thou shouldest not have looked on the day of thy brother, in the day that he became a stranger, neither shouldst thou have spoken proudly in the day of distress."

However, the cup has been drunk, the will of our Father has been done, and we are yet alive, for which we thank the Lord. And having been delivered from the hands of wicked men by the mercy of our God, we say it is your privilege to be delivered from the powers of the adversary, be brought into the liberty of God's dear children, and again take your stand among the Saints of the Most High, and by diligence, humility, and love unfeigned, commend yourself to our God, and your God, and to the Church of Jesus Christ.

Believing your confession to be real, and your repentance genuine, I shall be happy once again to give you the right hand of fellowship, and rejoice over the returning prodigal.

Your letter was read to the Saints last Sunday, and an expression of their feeling was taken, when it was unanimously

{164} Resolved, That W. W. Phelps should be received into fellowship.

  "Come on, dear brother, since the war is past,
  For friends at first, are friends again at last."

Yours as ever, Joseph Smith, Jun.

Credentials of Elders Samuel Bent and George W. Harris.

To all whom it may concern:—This is to certify that Elders Samuel Bent and George W. Harris are authorized agents of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, being appointed by the First Presidency and High Council of said Church to visit the branches of the Church in the east, or wherever they may be led in the providence of God, to obtain donations and subscriptions for the purpose of printing the Book of Mormon, Doctrine and Covenants, hymn-books, the new translation of the Scriptures. They are likewise instructed and authorized to procure loans in behalf of the Church, for carrying into operation the above and other important works necessary to the well being of said Church.

From our long acquaintance with these our beloved brethren, their long, tried friendship under circumstances the most trying and painful, their zeal for the cause of truth, and their strict morality and honesty we most cheerfully recommend them to the Saints of the Most High. Any statements they may make relative to their mission may be implicitly relied upon, and any loans which they may obtain, will be considered binding on the Church. And we do hope the Saints will do all in their power to effect the object proposed, and lift up the hands of our beloved brethren who have cheerfully come forward to engage in a work so great and important.

Joseph Smith, Jun., President,

William Marks,

Elias Higbee,

David Dort,

Charles C. Rich,

Seymour Brunson,

William Huntington,

Hyrum Smith,

Newel Knight,

Alpheus Cutler,

Henry G. Sherwood,

David Fullmer,

Thomas Grover,

Lewis D. Wilson.

The Prophet's Letter to Oliver Granger—Dealing Chiefly with Affairs at Kirtland.

Brother Granger:

Dear Sir:—It was with great pleasure I received your and Brother Richards' letter, dated New York, June 23, 1840, and was very happy {165} to be informed of your safe arrival in that place, and your probability of success; and I do hope that your anticipations will be realized, and that you will be enabled to free the Lord's House from all incumbrances, and be prospered in all your undertakings for the benefit of the Church; and pray that while you are exerting your influence to bring about an object so desirable, that the choicest blessings of heaven may rest down upon you, while you are endeavoring to do so, and attending to the duties laid upon you by the authorities of the Church in this place.

I am sorry to be informed not only in your letter, but from other respectable sources, of the strange conduct pursued in Kirtland by Elder Almon W. Babbitt. I am indeed surprised that a man having the experience which Brother Babbitt has had, should take any steps whatever, calculated to destroy the confidence of the brethren in the Presidency or any of the authorities of the Church.

In order to conduct the affairs of the Kingdom in righteousness, it is all important that the most perfect harmony, kind feeling, good understanding, and confidence should exist in the hearts of all the brethren; and that true charity, love one towards another, should characterize all their proceedings. If there are any uncharitable feelings, any lack of confidence, then pride, arrogance and envy will soon be manifested; confusion must inevitably prevail, and the authorities of the Church set at naught; and under such circumstances, Kirtland cannot rise and free herself from the captivity in which she is held, and become a place of safety for the Saints, nor can the blessings of Jehovah rest upon her.

If the Saints in Kirtland deem me unworthy of their prayers when they assemble together, and neglect to bear me up at the throne of heavenly grace, it is a strong and convincing proof to me that they have not the Spirit of God. If the revelations we have received are true, who is to lead the people? If the keys of the Kingdom have been committed to my hands, who shall open out the mysteries thereof?

As long as my brethren stand by me and encourage me, I can combat the prejudices of the world, and can bear the contumely and abuse with joy; but when my brethren stand aloof, when they begin to faint, and endeavor to retard my progress and enterprise, then I feel to mourn, but am no less determined to prosecute my task, being confident that although my earthly friends may fail, and even turn against me, yet my Heavenly Father will bear me off triumphant.

However, I hope that even in Kirtland there are some who do not make a man an offender for a word, but are disposed to stand forth in defense of righteousness and truth, and attend to every duty {166} enjoined upon them; and who will have wisdom to direct them against any movement or influence calculated to bring confusion and discord into the camp of Israel, and to discern between the spirit of truth and the spirit of error.

It would be gratifying to my mind to see the Saints in Kirtland flourish, but think the time is not yet come; and I assure you it never will until a different order of things be established and a different spirit manifested. When confidence is restored, when pride shall fall, and every aspiring mind be clothed with humility as with a garment, and selfishness give place to benevolence and charity, and a united determination to live by every word which proceedeth out of the mouth of the Lord is observable, then, and not till then, can peace, order and love prevail.

It is in consequence of aspiring men that Kirtland has been forsaken. How frequently has your humble servant been envied in his office by such characters, who endeavored to raise themselves to power at his expense, and seeing it impossible to do so, resorted to foul slander and abuse, and other means to effect his overthrow. Such characters have ever been the first to cry out against the Presidency, and publish their faults and foibles to the four winds of heaven.

I cannot forget the treatment I received in the house of my friends. These things continually roll across my mind, and cause me much sorrow of heart; and when I think that others who have lately come into the Church should be led to Kirtland instead of to this place, by Elder Babbitt; and having their confidence in the authorities lessened by such observations as he (Elder Babbitt) has thought proper to make, as well as hearing all the false reports and exaggerated accounts of our enemies—I must say that I feel grieved in spirit, and cannot tolerate such proceedings—neither will I; but will endeavor to disabuse the minds of the Saints, and break down all such unallowed proceedings.

It was something new to me when I heard there had been secret meetings held in the Lord's House, and that some of my friends—faithful brethren—men enjoying the confidence of the Church, should be locked out. Such proceedings are not calculated to promote union, or peace, but to engender strife; and will be a curse instead of a blessing. To those who are young in the work, I know they are calculated to be, and must be, injurious. Those who have had experience, and who should know better than to reflect on their brethren—there is no excuse for them.

If Brother Babbitt and the other brethren wish to reform the Church, and come out and make a stand against sin and speculation, &c., they must use other weapons than lies, or their object can never be effected; {167} and their labors will be given to the house of the stranger, rather than to the House of the Lord.

The proceedings of Brother Babbitt were taken into consideration at a meeting of the Church at this place, when it was unanimously resolved, that fellowship should be withdrawn from him until he make satisfaction for the course he has pursued: of which circumstance I wish you to apprise him without delay, and demand his license.

Dear sir, I wish you to stand in your lot, and keep the station which was given you by revelation and the authorities of the Church. Attend to the affairs of the Church with diligence, and then rest assured of the blessings of heaven. It is binding on you to act as president of the Church in Kirtland, until you are removed by the same authority which put you in; and I do hope there will be no cause for opposition, but that good feeling will be manifested in future by all the brethren.

Brother Burdick's letter to Brother Hyrum was duly received, for which he has our best thanks; it was indeed an admirable letter, and worthy of its author. The sentiments expressed were in accordance with the spirit of the Gospel, and the principles are correct.

I am glad that Brother Richards has continued with you, and hope he has been of some service to you. Give my love to him.

Our prospects in this place continue good. Considerable numbers have come in this spring. There were some bickerings respecting your conduct soon after your departure, but they have all blown over, and I hope there will never be any occasion for any more; but that you will commend yourself to God and to the Saints by a virtuous walk and holy conversation.

I had a letter from William W. Phelps a few days ago, informing me of his desire to come back to the Church, if we would accept of him. He appears very humble, and is willing to make every satisfaction that Saints or God may require.

We expect to have an edition of the Book of Mormon printed by the first of September; it is now being stereotyped in Cincinnati.

I am, &c., &c.,

Joseph Smith, Jun.

A Jew's Memorial.

An interesting memorial concerning the Jews, "To the Protestant Powers of Europe and America," signed and sealed in London the 8th of January, 1839, may be found in the Millennial Star, Vol. I, No. 6.[4]

{168} Sunday, 24.—Elder William Donaldson, member of the British army bound for the East Indies, writes from Chatham, 24th of July, "We go on board tomorrow. I have had a glorious vision about going into the land of Egypt."

Saturday, 25.

Letter of John C. Bennett to Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon—Announcing His Intention to Join the Saints.

Fairfield, Illinois, July 25, 1840.

Reverend and Dear Friends:—The last time I wrote you was during the pendency of your difficulties with the Missourians. You are aware that at that time I held the office of "Brigadier-General of the Invincible Dragoons" of this state, and proffered you my entire energies for your deliverance from a ruthless and savage, though cowardly foe; but the Lord came to your rescue, and saved you with a powerful arm. I am happy to find that you are now in a civilized land, and in the enjoyment of peace and happiness.

Some months ago I resigned my office with an intention of removing to your town, and joining your people; but hitherto I have been prevented. I hope, however, to remove to Commerce, and unite with your Church next spring. I believe I should be much happier with you. I have many things to communicate which I would prefer doing orally; and I propose to meet you in Springfield on the first Monday in December next, as I shall be there at the time on state and United States business.

If I remove to Commerce, I expect to follow my profession, and to that end I enclose you a slip from the Louisville Journal, to give you an idea of my professional standing.

On the first of this month I was appointed to the office of {169} "Quartermaster-General of the State of Illinois," which office I expect to hold some years.

I hope you are all quite well. In haste. Write me immediately.

Yours respectfully,

John C. Bennett.[5]

To Messrs. Smith and Rigdon.

Monday, 27.

Letter of John C. Bennett to Messrs. Smith and Rigdon—Making Further Tender of his Services to the Church.

Quartermaster-General's Office,

Fairfield, Illinois, July 27, 1840.

To the Reverends Sidney Rigdon and Joseph Smith, Jun.:

Respected Friends:—I wrote you a few days ago from this place, but my great desire to be with you and your people prompts me to write again at this time; and I hope it will not be considered obtrusive by friends whom I have always so highly esteemed as yourselves.

At the last District and Circuit Court of the United States, holden at Springfield, in June last, I had the honor of being on the grand inquest of the United States for the District of Illinois, and hoped to have seen you there; but was quite disappointed. I attended the meeting of your people opposite Mr. Lowry's hotel, but did not make myself known, as I had no personal acquaintance in the congregation.

It would be my deliberate advice to you to concentrate all of your Church at one point. If Hancock county, with Commerce for its commercial emporium, is to be that point, well; fix upon it, and let us cooperate with a general concerted action. You can rely upon me in any event. I am with you in spirit, and will be in person as soon as circumstances permit, and immediately if it is your desire. Wealth is no material object with me. I desire to be happy, and am fully satisfied that can enjoy myself better with your people, with my present views and feelings, than with any other. I hope that time will soon come when your people will become my people, and your God my God.

At the time of your peril and bitter persecution in Missouri, you are {170} aware I proffered you my utmost energies, and had not the conflict terminated so speedily, I should have been with you then. God be thanked for your rescue from the hand of a savage, but cowardly foe!

I do not expect to resign my office of "Quartermaster-General of the State of Illinois" in the event of my removal to Commerce, unless you advise otherwise. I shall likewise expect to practice my profession; but at the same time your people shall have all the benefit of my speaking powers, and my untiring energies in behalf of the good and holy faith. Un necessariis unitas, in non necessariis libertas, in omnibus charitas,[6] shall be my motto with—Suaviter in modo, fortiter in re.[7]

Be so good as to inform me substantially of the population of Commerce and Hancock county, the face of the country, climate, soil, health, &c., &c. How many of your people are concentrated there? Please to write me in full immediately. Louisville paper will accompany this; please inquire for it.

With sentiments of profound respect and esteem, suffer me to subscribe myself,

Yours respectfully,

John C. Bennett.

Elder John Taylor sailed for Ireland from Liverpool.[8]

Tuesday, 28.

Letter of the Prophet to Horace R. Hotchkiss—Rock River Lands and the White Purchase.

Nauvoo, July 28, 1840.

Horace R. Hotchkiss, Esq.:

Dear Sir:—I acknowledge the receipt of yours of last month, giving me the numbers of the land on Rock River, which you felt disposed to sell. In reply to which I have to say, that we have not yet examined the land, and consequently have not arrived at any conclusion {171} respecting it; but it is probable that some of my friends will visit it this fall, and if we should think it wisdom to locate there, or on the other tract, you will be informed of the same, and arrangements entered into.

I am sorry that your health has been so poor, but hope, ere this, you are perfectly recovered. It would afford me great pleasure indeed, could I hold out any prospect of the two notes due next month being met at maturity, or even this fall. Having had considerable difficulty (necessarily consequent on a new settlement) to contend with, as well as poverty and considerable sickness, our first payment will be probably somewhat delayed, until we again get a good start in the world; and I am happy to say, the prospect is indeed favorable. Under these circumstances we shall have to claim your indulgence, which I have no doubt will be extended. However, every exertion on our part shall be made to meet the demands against us, so that if we cannot accomplish all we wish to, it will be our misfortune, and not our fault. Notwithstanding the impoverished condition of our people, and the adverse circumstances under which we have had to labor, I hope we shall eventually rise above them, and again enjoy the blessings of health, peace, and plenty.

You were informed in a former letter that we had paid Mr. William White the one thousand dollars specified in your bond; a few days ago he called at this place and agreed to give us a deed for the ninety acres, (less one-half acre), providing I would give him an identifying bond, and pay the interest due from you to him on the one thousand dollars, which I agreed to do. I have therefore got the deed for the land, and paid him the interest. My reasons for so doing were these: there are some who wish to purchase lots, providing they can get a good title deed for the same, and who would be induced to make purchases and make an effort to raise money, for the sake of getting a deed; which effort they would not be so likely to make if we could only give them a bond. This I think will work both to your advantage and ours, and hope that we shall be able by and by to make some cash sales.

I hope this arrangement with Mr. White will meet your approbation, although it is a departure from the common rules of business; but was induced to do so from the advantages which will result from it, which I hope will be mutual. The amount of interest paid to Mr. White, after deducting $61.50, which was coming from him to you for rents, was eighty-four dollars and forty cents. Mr. White told us that you agreed to pay him as much interest for the money as he could get elsewhere. We accordingly (in good faith) allowed him at the rate of ten per cent. Hoping the course pursued will meet your approbation.

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant,

Joseph Smith, Jun.

{172} P. S.—You will recollect the verbal agreement entered into by us, that the notes for the interest would not be exacted for at least five years. Notwithstanding which, we use our endeavors to meet them as fast as possible, and think that when I have the pleasure of seeing you again, you will be fully satisfied with the course we have taken, and our endeavors to meet all our engagements.

J. S., Jun.

Thursday, 30.

Letter of John C. Bennett to Messrs. Smith and Rigdon—Expressing Anxiety to be with the Saints.

Fairfield, Wayne County, Illinois, July 30th, 1840.

To Reverends Sidney Rigdon, and Joseph Smith, Jun.

Respected Friends:—It is with difficulty that I can forego the felicity of an immediate immersion into the true faith of your beloved people. I have written you several letters, and forwarded you several newspapers to Commerce, which I hope will be duly received, as they contain some matters of importance.

Is Nauvoo, or Commerce, to be the general point of concentration for the Mormon people? For at that point I desire to locate, and ever remain. My anxiety to be with you is daily increasing, and I shall wind up my professional business immediately, and proceed to your blissful abode, if you think it best.

Look at all my letters and papers and write me forthwith. You are aware that at the time of your most bitter persecutions, I was with you in feeling, and proffered you my military knowledge and prowess. My faith is still strong. I believe the God of the whole earth will avenge your wrong in time as well as in eternity.

O my friends, go on and prosper; and may the God of all grace save you with an everlasting salvation.

Yours respectfully,

J. C. Bennett.

Saturday, August 1.—In the Times and Seasons of this month I find the following:

A voice from the holy city—rebuilding of the temple of Solomon—Recall of the people of God to the land of Judah.

We have received by the last packet from England, a copy of a very extraordinary "Circular" issued by the Jews, now residing at Jerusalem, and addressed to all the descendants of Abraham to the uttermost {173} ends of the earth. It is written in the pure Hebrew character, and accompanied with an English translation, which we annex as matter of the deepest curiosity to the people of this country. Next week, if we possibly can, we shall publish the original Hebrew in a double sheet, but at present we must content ourselves with the translation.—Morning Herald.


"To our Brethren the Israelites of Europe and America:

"The liberal and benevolent contributors towards every holy and pious purpose—ready to stand in the breach and evince their love for the Land of Promise: to the well-wishers of Jerusalem, and friends of Zion (dearer to us than life) who extend their bounteous aid to this Holy City, and devote their best means, in love and affection, 'to take pity on her stones, and show mercy to her dust.' To the illustrious and excellent Rabbies—to their worthy and distinguished Assessors—to the noble Chiefs and faithful Leaders of Israel; to all congregations devoted to the Lord, and to every member thereof—health, life, and prosperity. May the Lord vouchsafe His protection unto them; may they rejoice and be exceedingly glad; and with their own eyes may they behold when the Lord restoreth Zion. Such be His gracious will. Amen.

"It is a fact well known throughout Judah and Israel, that 'the glory altogether departed from the daughter of Zion,' since upwards of one hundred years ago, the congregation of German Jews in this Holy City were forcibly deprived of their homes and inheritance. Dreadful and grievous was the yoke under which the despots of this land oppressed them. Tyranny and cruel usage ground them to the dust, and forced them to forsake their habitations, to abandon their houses and all their property, and to seek safety in flight. Thus the large court they inherited from their ancestors remained deserted and uninhabited, until it was seized upon and possessed by aliens. The sacred edifices it contained, namely, the Synagogue and Medrash, were by them demolished, the whole of the property utterly ruined, and possessions, lawfully ours, devastated before our eyes. Then did our souls refuse all consolation! For how could we bear to witness the evil which befell our people!

"As the light gleams forth from a spark, so did our congregation take heart and return again to form their establishments, and to take root on the Holy Mount. But we could find no rest for our wearied feet—no place consecrated and appointed for our prayer and instruction. Our aching eyes beheld how every nation and tongue, even from the most distant isles of the ocean, is here possessed of structures defended by walls, gates, and portcullis, whilst the people of the Lord, forcibly {174} expelled from their inheritances by rapacious barbarians, were covered with obloquy, scorn, and disgrace.

"The cries of the people ascended unto the Lord who dwelleth in Zion. He looked down, and in pity beheld their sufferings and oppression. And ever since the ruler of Egypt first assumed the government of the Holy Land—a ruler who maintains justice throughout his dominions—an edict was issued permitting Jews to do whatsoever they deemed right and expedient, with respect to the rebuilding of their demolished synagogues and colleges. Us, likewise, the Lord in His mercy vouchsafed to remember, and caused us to be reinstated into the heritage of our fathers, even to the aforementioned court, which is called the Ruin of R. Jehudah the Pious (of blessed memory).

"Blessed be the Lord our God, the God of our fathers, who inspired the heart of the ruler of Egypt to restore unto us the possessions of our ancestors. Nor did we delay or lose time in the matter, but exerted ourselves to rebuild Jerusalem.

"'We fenced it, and gathered up the stones thereof,' and the sacred undertaking prospered in our hands, so that we have completed the Medrash, and 'great is the glory of the house;' and also houses for the teachers of the law, and for the hospitable reception and entertainment of strangers, which were indispensably necessary to accommodate the many pious Israelites who visit the Holy City during the festivals. And on Rosh Hodesh Shebath last we joyfully placed a Sepher Torah in the Medrash, which we consecrated by the name of 'Menahem Zion,' for the Lord has vouchsafed to comfort His people.

"But although we have thus, under the blessings of Providence, retrieved from devastation a part of the possessions bequeathed unto us by our pious ancestors, yet our hearts are afflicted and our eyes are dimmed when we behold the sanctuary of our Lord, the Synagogue, which still lies in ruins; nor is it in the power of all of us (the German Congregation) to rebuild it; for alas! great is the number of our poor who stand in need of bread, and the debts we contracted in building the Medrash are large, and weigh heavily upon us.

"The cause of our grief is thus ever present to our eyes—the ruins of the Synagogue are heaped in the middle of the court, and rank weeds spread over the consecrated pile. We therefore deem it our bounden duty to dispatch a messenger unto our brethren, the children of Israel, who are dispersed and in exile, in order to acquaint them with 'the salvation of the Lord in the land,' so that they may arise and take pity on Zion, for it is time to show mercy unto her.

"To undertake this laborious duty was the voluntary offer of our dearly beloved friend, that profound and renowned Rabbi, the zealous and honorable Aaron Selig Ashkenazi. He is a man confirmed in the {175} fear of the Lord, of a faithful stock; and him we depute as our messenger, worthy of all trust, to make proclamation unto the communities of Israel 'according to the sight which he has seen in the Holy Mount,' and to him we have given letters of authorization, containing full particulars as to his pious mission, and every necessary information relating thereto.

"Now, therefore, let the righteous behold and rejoice. Let the pious exult and triumph in gladness. The day ye have so long hoped for is come, and ye see it. The crown of holiness will again adorn its former abode. Therefore, arise, and take upon yourselves, according to the words of this letter, to devote a portion of your wealth as a sacred tribute towards erecting 'the Temple of the Most Holy King on the mountain of the Lord'—that ye may have a portion and a righteous record in Jerusalem.

"Let no one among you refuse his aid, but let the poor man contribute his mite for himself and his household freely, as the rich dispenses the bounty wherewith the Lord hath blessed him. Let fathers and their offspring, the aged and the youthful, alike arise in mercy to Zion at this propitious season.

"Let each man encourage his neighbor and say, 'We will be zealous and persevering for our people and the City of our God. And for the love of Zion, and the sake of Jerusalem, we will not rest nor be easy until Jerusalem is praised throughout the earth, and foremost in our joys, even as we have vowed:—If I forget thee, Jerusalem, let my right hand forget her cunning; if I prefer not Jerusalem above my chief joy.'

"Such are the words of your brethren who address you for the glory of God, and for the honor of His land, His people and His inheritance—continually praying for our exiled brethren, and offering up our orisons on holy ground and particularly near the Western Wall, that it may be well with you everlastingly as you yourself desire, and we most sincerely wish.

"Signed at Jerusalem, the 18th day of year 5597 a. m., by the Wardens of the Medrash, and members of the Building Committee, on behalf of the Congregation of German Jews in this Holy City.

["Signed] Hirsh Joseph,

"David Reuben,

"Nathan Saddis,

"Abraham S. Salmons,

"Mordecai Avigdor,

"Uriah S. Hyam."

The undersigned Assessors of the Bethdin, by the direction of the {176} Rev. Chief Rabbi, hereby certify that Rev. Aaron Selig Ashkenazi is actually deputed for the purpose mentioned in the above circular.

"London, the 7th Tebath,

"24 Dec. 5599.

"Israel Levy,

"Aaron Levy,

"A. L. Barnett."

Monday, August 3.—Elders Wilford Woodruff and George A. Smith are at Ledbury, Herefordshire.

Tuesday, 4.—Elder Heber C. Kimball left Manchester for Herefordshire, and Joseph Fielding is at Bedford.

Wednesday, 5.

Extract of a Letter from Wilford Woodruff to the Editor of the Millennial Star—Reporting Labors.

Beloved Brethren:—Since Elder George A. Smith and myself left Manchester for the purpose of going to the south of England, we have visited the churches which lay in our route, and found them universally prospering and receiving additions.

We preached in Leek on Sunday, July 10th, and Elder Smith baptized six persons after meeting: and numbers were also baptized in the churches at the Staffordshire Potteries while we were there. We passed through West Bromwich and Birmingham, and found numbers who were anxiously wishing for some of the Elders to visit that region and labor among them. We arrived in Ludbury, Herefordshire, July 22nd, and here spent about two weeks in visiting the churches through this region, and I am happy to inform you, that we have found the Saints universally rejoicing in the truth, and the work progressing upon every hand.

Elder Thomas Richardson has baptized about forty since he came, and Elder William Kay about twenty; they are both much blessed in their labors. Elder Kington is laboring constantly in this wide field, which is under his care; and he with the Elders and Priests generally throughout this region are blessed with many souls as seals of their ministry. We baptized forty on Sunday last in this region, making 250 since the conference. The churches here now number about 800 members and appear [to be] in a very prosperous state. We are expecting Elder Kimball every hour, and soon after his arrival we shall leave the Saints in this region, for the purpose of visiting the city of London and warning the inhabitants thereof.

Wilford Woodruff.

{177} Saturday, 8.—Soon after the July conference at Manchester, Elder Parley P. Pratt started for America for the purpose of getting his family and taking them to England, meantime leaving the Star in charge of President Brigham Young, assisted by Elder Willard Richards.

The Prophet's Letter to John C. Bennett—Bidding Him Welcome to Nauvoo, to partake of—its Poverty.

Nauvoo, Hancock County, Illinois,

August 8th, 1840.

Dear Sir:—Yours of the 25th ultimo, addressed to Elder Rigdon and myself, is received, for which you have our thanks, and to which I shall feel great pleasure in replying.

Although I have not the pleasure of your acquaintance, yet from the kindness manifested towards our people when in bondage and oppression, and from the frank and noble mindedness breathed in your letter, I am brought to the conclusion that you are a friend to suffering humanity and truth.

To those who have suffered so much abuse, and borne the cruelties and insults of wicked men so long, on account of those principles which we have been instructed to teach to the world, a feeling of sympathy and kindness is something like the refreshing breeze and cooling stream at the present season of the year, and are, I assure you, duly appreciated by us.

It would afford me much pleasure to see you at this place, and from the desire you express in your letter to move to this place, I hope I shall soon have that satisfaction.

I have no doubt you would be of great service to this community in practicing your profession, as well as those other abilities of which you are in possession. Since to devote your time and abilities in the cause of truth and a suffering people may not be the means of exalting you in the eyes of this generation, or securing you the riches of the world, yet by so doing you may rely on the approval of Jehovah, "that blessing which maketh rich and addeth no sorrow." Through the tender mercies of our God we have escaped the hands of those who sought our overthrow, and have secure locations in this state, and in the territory of Iowa. Our principal location is at this place, Nauvoo, (formerly Commerce), which is beautifully situated on the banks of the Mississippi, immediately above the lower rapids, and is probably the best and most beautiful site for a city on the river. It has a gradual ascent from the river nearly a mile, then a fine, level, and fertile prairie—a situation in {178} every respect adapted to commercial and agricultural pursuits, but like all other places on the river, is sickly in summer.

The number of inhabitants is nearly three thousand, and is fast increasing. If we are suffered to remain,[9] there is every prospect of its becoming one of the largest cities on the river, if not in the western world. Numbers have moved in from the seaboard, and a few from the islands of the sea (Great Britain).

It is our intention to commence the erection of some public buildings next spring. We have purchased twenty thousand acres in the Iowa Territory opposite this place, which is fast filling up with our people. I desire all the Saints, as well as all lovers of truth and correct principles, to come to this place as fast as possible, or [as rapidly as] their circumstances will permit, and endeavor, by energy of action and concentration of talent, &c., &c., to effect those objects, that are so dear to us. Therefore my general invitation is, Let all that will, come, and partake of the poverty of Nauvoo freely.

I should be disposed to give you a special invitation to come as early as possible, believing you will be of great service to us; however, you must make arrangements according to your circumstances. Were it possible for you to come here this season to suffer affliction with the people of God, no one will be more pleased to give you a more cordial welcome than myself.

A charter has been obtained from the legislature for a railroad from Warsaw, being immediately below the rapids of the Mississippi, to this place—a distance of about twenty miles, which if carried into operation will be of incalculable advantage to this place, as steamboats can only ascend the rapids at a high stage of water. The soil is good, and I think not inferior to any in the state. Crops are abundant in this section of country—and I think provisions will be reasonable.

I should be very happy could I make arrangements to meet you in Springfield at the time you mention—but cannot promise myself that pleasure. If I should not, probably you can make it convenient to come and pay us a visit here, prior to your removal.

Elder Rigdon is very sick, and has been for nearly twelve months with the fever and ague, which disease is very prevalent here at this time. At present he is not able to leave his room.

Yours, &c.,

Joseph Smith, Jun.

To J. C. Bennett, M. D.

P. S.—Yours of the 30th is just received, in which I am glad to learn that your increasing desire to unite yourself with a people "that are {179} everywhere spoken against," and the anxiety you feel for our welfare—for which you have my best feelings; and I pray that my heavenly Father will pour out His choicest blessings in this world, and enable you by His grace to overcome the evils which are in the world, that you may secure a blissful immortality in the world that is to come.

J. S., Jun.

August 10.—Colonel Seymour Brunson, aged forty years, ten months and twenty-three days, died at Nauvoo. Colonel Brunson was among the first settlers of this place. He has always been a lively stone in the building of God and was much respected by his friends and acquaintances. He died in the triumph of faith, and in his dying moments bore testimony to the Gospel that he had embraced.

Saturday, 15.

Letter of John C. Bennett to Messrs. Smith and Rigdon—Announcing that he will soon be in Nauvoo.

Wayne County Illinois, August 15, 1840.

Reverends Joseph Smith, Jun., and Sidney Rigdon.

Respected Friends:—I have written you several communications to Commerce and Nauvoo, supposing they were different places, but a brother to a lady in your community, now in this place, informs me that they are one and the same.

I have received no reply to my letters, and attribute the delay to a press of business or professional absence. I have come to the conclusion to join your people immediately, and take up my abode with you. Let us adopt as our motto—Licut partribus sit Deus nobius—(as God was with our fathers, so may He be with us), and adapt the means to the end, and the victory is ours. The winged warrior of the air will not cease to be our proud emblem of liberty, and the dogs of war will be forever chained.

I shall be with you in about two weeks, and shall devote my time and energies to the advancement of the cause of truth and virtue, and the advocacy of the holy religion which you have so nobly defended, and so honorably sustained.

My love to all the brethren.

With sentiments of fraternal regard.

Yours respectfully,

J. C. Bennett.


1. Formerly a town in Kent and Surrey, England, on the Thames, noted for its dock yards, now part of London.

2. Lorenzo Snow was born April 30, 1814, in Mantua, Portage county, Ohio. He was the eldest son of Oliver Snow and Rosetta L. Pettibone. The early years of his life were spent upon his father's farm. Later he entered Oberlin College, a Presbyterian institution, in the town of Oberlin, in Lorain county, Ohio, about sixty miles southwest of Kirtland. In June, 1836, he visited Kirtland and attended the Hebrew classes, then being taught in the Temple. While in Kirtland he became a convert to the faith of the Latter-day Saints and was baptized by Elder John Boynton, one of the Twelve Apostles. The following year he did some missionary work among his relatives and friends in Ohio, and in 1836, with his parents, who in the meantime joined the Church, he moved to Missouri, and shortly afterwards went upon a preaching mission through the states of Kentucky and Illinois. A few days before starting upon this mission mentioned in the text, namely, 17th of July, 1840, he was ordained a seventy by President Joseph Young, and the day following was made a High Priest under the hands of Don Carlos Smith. The testimony which this man received of the truth of the Gospel is very interesting, and seems to have remained with him throughout his long life, in all the freshness of its first impression upon him. Having received the usual promise of a testimony of the truth of the work if he obeyed the Gospel, he sought that testimony most earnestly in prayer with the following result as stated by himself:

"I had no sooner opened my lips in an effort to pray than I heard a sound just above my head like the rushing of silken robes; and immediately the Spirit of God descended upon me, completely enveloping my whole person, filling me from the crown of my head to the soles of my feet, and oh, the joyful happiness I felt! No language can describe the almost instantaneous transition from a dense cloud of spiritual darkness into a refulgence of light and knowledge, as it was at that time imparted to my understanding. I received a perfect knowledge that God lives, that Jesus Christ is the son of God, and of the restoration of the Holy Priesthood, and the fullness of the Gospel. It was a complete baptism—a tangible immersion in the heavenly principle or element, the Holy Ghost; and even more physical in its effects upon every part of my system than the immersion by water."

3. When the great offense of Elder William W. Phelps is taken into account—amounting as it did to a betrayal of the Prophet and the Church in Missouri, during the troubles of the Saints in that state—this letter is remarkable. The Prophet's frank forgiveness of his erring brother, gently chiding his wrong-doing, but at the same time remembering in a large way that brother's former devotion and labors; the Prophet's willingness to have the prodigal return and occupy his former high standing among the Saints—all this exhibits a broad-mindedness and generosity that can come only from a great soul, influenced by the spirit of charity enjoined upon his disciples by the teachings of the Son of God. One of the surest evidences of Joseph Smith's greatness of mind and of the inspiration of God upon him is to be seen in his treatment of those who had fallen but were willing to and did repent of their sins. His capacity to forgive under these circumstances seemed boundless.

4. The article which appeared first in a periodical, entitled "Memorial Concerning God's Ancient People of Israel," and then in the London Times, seems to have been written by a Christian Jew. It deals largely with the promises of God to ancient Israel, especially as to their return as a people to Palestine. The closing paragraph is an appeal to the Protestant powers of the north of Europe and America to assist in this restoration: "As the spirit of Cyrus, king of Persia, was stirred up to build the Lord a temple, which was in Jerusalem (2 Chron., xxxvi:22, 23), who is there among you, high and mighty ones of all the nations, to find the good pleasure of the holy will of the Lord of heaven, saying to Jerusalem, 'Thou shalt be built,' and to the temple, 'Thy foundation shall be laid?' (Isa. xliv:28). The Lord God of Israel be with such. Great grace, mercy and peace shall descend upon the people who offer themselves willingly; and the free offerings of their hearts and hands shall be those of a sweet smelling savor unto him who hath said, 'I will bless thee (Gen. xii:3), and contend with him that contendeth with thee.'" (Isa. xlix:25).

5. "This was a Dr. John C. Bennett, a man who seems to have been without any moral character, but who had filled positions of importance. Born in Massachusetts in 1804, he practiced as a physician in Ohio, and later in Illinois, holding a professorship in Willoughby University, Ohio, and taking with him to Illinois testimonials as to his professional skill. In the latter state he showed a taste for military affairs, and after being elected brigadier-general of the Invincible Dragoons, he was appointed quartermaster-general of the state in 1840, and held that position at the state capital when the Mormons applied to the legislature for a charter for Nauvoo." ("The Story of the Mormons," Linn, 1901).

6. Translation: In essentials, unity; in non-essentials, liberty; in all things, charity.

7. Gently in the manner, firmly in the act.

8. Elder John Taylor was accompanied on this mission by Brothers McGuffie and William Black. Elder Taylor had baptized Brother McGuffie while laboring in Liverpool; and as the new convert had some acquaintances in Newry, county Down, Ireland, he thought it advisable to take him along. A large company of saints went with them to see them off. The day after sailing, Elder Taylor and companions arrived in Newry, a beautiful Irish village nestling among rolling hills, characteristic of that part of Ireland. Brother McGuffie obtained the court house to hold a meeting in, and sent around the bell-man to give notice of it. A congregation of six or seven hundred gathered in at seven o'clock in the evening, and Elder Taylor preached to them. This was the introduction of the Gospel into Ireland.

9. "If we are suffered to remain" sounds somewhat prophetic and ominous.


Chapter X.

A Missouri Kidnapping—Continued Development of the Work in Great Britain—The Death of Joseph Smith, Sen., First Patriarch of the Church.

Settlement of a Difficulty.

Monday, 17.—Met with the High Council of Nauvoo at my office, also the High Council of Iowa. John Batten preferred many charges against Elijah Fordham. After the testimony, and the councillors had spoken, I addressed the Council at some length, showing the situation of the contending parties, that there was in reality no cause of difference; that they had better be reconciled without an action, or vote of the Council, and henceforth live as brethren, and never more mention their former difficulties. They settled accordingly.

Tuesday, 18.—Elders Kimball, Woodruff, and George A. Smith left Cheltenham for London, one hundred and ten miles, where they arrived in seven and a half hours, at William Allgood's, No. 19 King Street, Borough, and were kindly received by Mrs. Allgood, who took them to the King's Arms Inn.

Great distress is prevailing in Ireland; no work, and provisions very scarce.

The truth is spreading rapidly in England and Scotland.

Friday, 21—Testimony of Benjamin Boyce:

The Kidnapping of Benjamin Boyce, Mr. Brown, et al.

I left my home in Nauvoo to go to Adams county, where I had lived the summer before, for the purpose of meeting some debts. I fell in company with a Mr. Brown, who stated to me that he was in search of some horses that had strayed from him. We had not proceeded far {181} together, before we were hailed by twelve armed men, who demanded of us where we were going. I stated to them where I was going, and likewise Mr. Brown stated his business. They then asked if we were "Mormons;" we said we were; they then said that we could go no further; they said they were sworn to kill all the damned "Mormons" that they could find, and took us prisoners, tied us with ropes, and took us to a boat, and four of the company (one by the name of Martin, the others not known) took us to Missouri, to a little town called Tully, where we were put under guard, and kept till 11 o'clock in the evening, when three men came to us with a long rope, and tied it round each of our necks. I asked them what they were going to do with us; one said they were going to take us to the river, kill us, and make catfish bait of us, his name was Uno. They then led us to the woods, I should think about three-quarters of a mile distant; they then parted us, took and stripped me naked, and tied me fast to a tree; one of the company cocked a pistol and placed it close to my ear, and swore, if I attempted to get away, that he would blow out my brains. They then commenced to whip me with large gads which they had for the purpose, and literally mangled me from my shoulders to my knees.

There were in the company, as near as I could recollect, twelve or fourteen: they were stripped of their hats and coats, with their sleeves rolled up, and collars open, which made them look like murderers and robbers. The names, as far as I can recollect, Monday, Uno, and Martin; the others I do not recollect. After keeping me tied in this condition I should think an hour and a half, they then brought Mr. Brown to me, and after some consultation, loosed me from the tree where I was tied, and led us back to the town, put us in a room where I saw Noah Rogers and James Allred. They then tied them about the neck, and led them out, and in the course of the night, they brought them back to the room where we were.

Brother Rogers said they stripped him, and whipped him very badly. This was on the seventh of July. The next day Rogers and myself were taken before a magistrate; nothing proven against us, only that we were "Mormons:" and we were ordered to prison. Brown and Allred, by some means, were liberated, but we (Rogers and myself) were put in jail and put in irons until the 21st of August, when through the kindness of God we made our escape and returned to Nauvoo.

Benjamin Boyce.

Sunday, 23.—Ten persons who had been baptized were confirmed at Carpenter's Hall, Manchester.[1]

{182} Saturday, 29—Elder Kimball writes: "The brethren are beginning to excite attention in some of the public grounds in London." Out-door preaching is common in England.

Sunday, 30.—Twenty were confirmed at the hall in Manchester.[2]

The Beginning of Open Air Meetings.

Elders Kimball, Woodruff, and George A. Smith, after having spent ten days visiting the clergymen and preachers and others of the several denominations, asking the privilege of preaching in their chapels, and being continually refused by them in a contemptuous manner, they determined to preach in the open air, Jonah-like; and accordingly went to Smithfield Market[3] (to the spot where John Rogers[4] was burnt at the stake), for the purpose of preaching at 10 a. m., {183} where they were notified by the police, that the Lord Mayor had issued orders prohibiting street preaching in the city. A Mr. Connor stepped up and said, "I will show you a place outside of his jurisdiction," and guided them to "Tabernacle Square," where they found an assembly of about 400 people listening to a preacher who was standing on a chair. When he got through another preacher arose to speak. Elder Kimball stated to the first clergyman, "There is a man present from America who would like to preach;" which was granted; when Elder George A. Smith delivered a discourse of about twenty minutes, on the first principles of the Gospel, taking for his text, Mark xvi: 16; after which Elder Kimball asked the preacher to give out another appointment at the same place for the American Elder to preach; when he jumped up and said, "I have just learned that the gentleman who has addressed you is a Latter-day Saint; I know them—they are a very bad people; they have split up many churches, and have done a great deal of hurt." He spoke all manner of evil, and gave the Latter-day Saints a very bad character, and commanded the people not to hear the Elders, "as we have got the Gospel, and can save the people, without infidelity, socialism, or Latter-day Saints."

Elder Kimball asked the privilege of standing on the chair to give out an appointment himself. The preacher said, "You shall not do it; you have no right to preach here;" jerked the chair away from him, and ran away with it. Several of the crowd said, "You have as much right to preach here as he has, and give out your appointment;" whereupon Elder Kimball gave out an {184} appointment for 3 o'clock p. m.; at which time a large congregation was gathered.

After opening the meeting by singing and prayer, Elder Woodruff spoke about thirty minutes, from Gal. i: 8, 9, upon the first principles of the Gospel. Elder Kimball followed upon the same subjects. The people gave good attention, and seemed much interested in what they had heard. The inhabitants who lived around the square opened their windows to four stories high; the most of them were crowded with anxious listeners, which is an uncommon occurrence. The meeting was dismissed in the midst of good feeling.

Mr. Henry Connor invited the Elders to his house. Soon after they arrived here, Elder Kimball felt impressed to return to the place of preaching. When he got there he found a large company talking about the things which they had heard in the afternoon, and they wished him to speak to them again. He did so, when several persons invited him home with them. While Elder Kimball was preaching, several persons came to Brothers Woodruff and Smith to converse on doctrine, when Mr. Connor offered himself for baptism.

Monday, 31.—Elder Kimball baptized Henry Connor, watchmaker, 52 Ironmonger's Row, London, in Peerless Pool, being the first baptized in that place, and confirmed him the same evening.

The Electric Telegraph.

The electric telegraph is beginning to be used on the Great Western Railroad in England, between Drayton and Paddington, by which intelligence is communicated at the rate of two hundred thousand miles per second.

An Address by the First Presidency to the Church.

To the Saints Scattered Abroad:

Beloved Brethren:—We address a few lines to the members of the Church of Jesus Christ, who have obeyed from the heart that form of doctrine which has been delivered to them by the servants of the Lord, {185} and who are desirous to go forward in the ways of truth and righteousness, and by obedience to the heavenly command, escape the things which are coming on the earth, and secure to themselves an inheritance among the sanctified in the world to come.

Having been placed in a very responsible station in the Church, we at all times feel interested in the welfare of the Saints, and make mention of them continually in our prayers to our heavenly Father, that they may be kept from the evils which are in the world, and ever be found walking in the path of truth.

The work of the Lord in these last days, is one of vast magnitude and almost beyond the comprehension of mortals. Its glories are past description, and its grandeur unsurpassable. It is the theme which has animated the bosom of prophets and righteous men from the creation of the world down through every succeeding generation to the present time; and it is truly the dispensation of the fullness of times, when all things which are in Christ Jesus, whether in heaven or on the earth, shall be gathered together in Him, and when all things shall be restored, as spoken of by all the holy prophets since the world began; for in it will take place the glorious fulfilment of the promises made to the fathers, while the manifestations of the power of the Most High will be great, glorious, and sublime.

The purposes of our God are great, His love unfathomable, His wisdom infinite, and His power unlimited; therefore, the Saints have cause to rejoice and be glad, knowing that "this God is our God forever and ever, and He will be our Guide until death." Having confidence in the power, wisdom, and love of God, the Saints have been enabled to go forward through the most adverse circumstances, and frequently, when to all human appearances, nothing but death presented itself, and destruction inevitable, has the power of God been manifest, His glory revealed, and deliverance effected; and the Saints, like the children of Israel, who came out of the land of Egypt, and through the Red Sea, have sung an anthem of praise to his holy name. This has not only been the case in former days, but in our days, and within a few months, have we seen this fully verified.

Having through the kindness of our God been delivered from destruction, and having secured a location upon which we have again commenced operations for the good of His people, we feel disposed to go forward and unite our energies for the upbuilding of the Kingdom, and establishing the Priesthood in their fullness and glory. The work which has to be accomplished in the last days is one of vast importance, and will call into action the energy, skill, talent, and ability of the Saints, so that it may roll forth with that glory and majesty described by the prophet; and will consequently require the {186} concentration of the Saints, to accomplish works of such magnitude and grandeur.

The work of the gathering spoken of in the Scriptures will be necessary to bring about the glories of the last dispensation. It is probably unnecessary to press this subject on the Saints, as we believe the spirit of it is manifest, and its necessity obvious to every considerate mind; and everyone zealous for the promotion of truth and righteousness, is equally so for the gathering of the Saints.

Dear brethren, feeling desirous to carry out the purposes of God to which work we have been called; and to be co-workers with Him in this last dispensation; we feel the necessity of having the hearty cooperation of the Saints throughout this land, and upon the islands of the sea. It will be necessary for the Saints to hearken to counsel and turn their attention to the Church, the establishment of the Kingdom, and lay aside every selfish principle, everything low and groveling; and stand forward in the cause of truth, and assist to the utmost of their power, those to whom has been given the pattern and design. Like those who held up the hands of Moses, so let us hold up the hands of those who are appointed to direct the affairs of the Kingdom, so that they may be strengthened, and be enabled to prosecute their great designs, and be instrumental in effecting the great work of the last days.

Believing the time has now come, when it is necessary to erect a house of prayer, a house of order, a house for the worship of our God, where the ordinances can be attended to agreeably to His divine will, in this region of country—to accomplish which, considerable exertion must be made, and means will be required—and as the work must be hastened in righteousness, it behooves the Saints to weigh the importance of these things, in their minds, in all their bearings, and then take such steps as are necessary to carry them into operation; and arming themselves with courage, resolve to do all they can, and feel themselves as much interested as though the whole labor depended on themselves alone. By so doing they will emulate the glorious deeds of the fathers, and secure the blessings of heaven upon themselves and their posterity to the latest generation.

To those who feel thus interested, and can assist in this great work, we say, let them come to this place; by so doing they will not only assist in the rolling on of the Kingdom, but be in a situation where they can have the advantages of instruction from the Presidency and other authorities of the Church, and rise higher and higher in the scale of intelligence until they can "comprehend with all Saints what is the breadth and length, and depth and height; and to know the love of Christ which passeth knowledge."

{187} Connected with the building up of the Kingdom, is the printing and circulation of the Book of Mormon, Doctrine and Covenants, hymnbook, and the new translation of the Scriptures. It is unnecessary to say anything respecting these works; those who have read them, and who have drunk of the stream of knowledge which they convey, know how to appreciate them; and although fools may have them in derision, yet they are calculated to make men wise unto salvation, and sweep away the cobwebs of superstition of ages, throw a light on the proceedings of Jehovah which have already been accomplished, and mark out the future in all its dreadful and glorious realities. Those who have tasted the benefit derived from a study of these works, will undoubtedly vie with each other in their zeal for sending them abroad throughout the world, that every son of Adam may enjoy the same privileges, and rejoice in the same truths.

Here, then, beloved brethren, is a work to engage in worthy of archangels—a work which will cast into the shade the things which have been heretofore accomplished; a work which kings and prophets and righteous men in former ages have sought, expected, and earnestly desired to see, but died without the sight; and well will it be for those who shall aid in carrying into effect the mighty operations of Jehovah.

By order of the First Presidency,

Robert B. Thompson, Scribe.

Saturday, September 5.—Elders Young and Richards went from Manchester to Liverpool, and in the evening organized a company of Saints bound for New York, by choosing Elder Theodore Turley to preside, with six counselors.

Minutes of the High Council Meeting, at the Office of Joseph Smith, Jun., Nauvoo, September 5th, 1840.

Joseph Smith, Jun., preferred charges against Elder Almon W. Babbitt, predicated on the authority of two letters, one from Thomas Burdick, the other from Oliver Granger and Levi Richards, accusing Elder Babbitt as follows:

First. For stating that Joseph Smith, Jun., had extravagantly purchased three suits of clothes while he was at Washington City, and that Sidney Rigdon had purchased four suits while at the same place besides dresses in profusion for their families.

Second. For having stated that Joseph Smith, Jun., Sidney Rigdon and Elias Higbee had said that they were worth one hundred thousand dollars each, while they were at Washington, and that Joseph Smith, {188} Jun., had repeated the same statement while in Philadelphia, and for saying that Oliver Granger had stated that he also was worth as much as they (that is, one hundred thousand dollars).

Third. For holding secret councils in the Lord's House, in Kirtland, and for locking the doors of the house, for the purpose of prohibiting certain brethren in good standing in the Church, from being in the Council, thereby depriving them of the use of the house.

Two were appointed to speak on the case, namely, Thomas Grover, Austin Cowles.

Council adjourned till the 6th September, at 2 o'clock, when Council met according to adjournment, the evidences were all heard on the case pending, and the councilors closed on both sides. The parties spoke at length, after which, Joseph Smith withdrew the charge, and both parties were reconciled to each other, things being adjusted to their satisfaction.

Sunday 6.—Elder Young preached.

Monday 7.—This evening, Elders Kimball, Woodruff and George A. Smith, preached in the south Temperance Hall, London.

On Monday night, Elders Brigham Young and Willard Richards, stayed on board the North America with the Saints, and on Tuesday morning, about nine o'clock, the vessel went out with a steamer. The Elders accompanied them fifteen or twenty miles, and left them in good spirits. Elder Richards returned to Manchester the same evening and Elder Young on the 10th.

The Generosity of John Benbow.

Elder John Benbow, who had previously furnished two hundred and fifty pounds towards printing the hymn book, Book of Mormon, etc., relinquished all claim to said money, except such assistance as his friends, who might wish to emigrate to America the next season, might need, leaving the remainder to the disposal of Brigham Young, Willard Richards, and Wilford Woodruff, who borrowed said moneys for the benefit of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, forever, also the avails of the Gadfield Elm Chapel, when sold.

Wednesday, 9.—There was a terrific storm on the North of Scotland.

{189} [Sidenote: Earthquake at Mount Ararat.]

Friday, 11.—There was a terrible earthquake at Mount Ararat, which destroyed the town of Makitchevan, damaged all the buildings at Erivan, and devastated the two districts of Sharour and Sourmate in Armenia. A considerable mass was loosened from Mount Ararat and destroyed everything in its way for nearly five miles. The village of Akhouli was buried, with one thousand inhabitants.

Sunday, 13.—Elder Kimball baptized four in London.

The Death of Joseph, Sen.

Monday, 14.—My father, Joseph Smith, Sen., Patriarch of the whole Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, died at Nauvoo.

Biography of Joseph Smith, Sen., Presiding Patriarch of the Church, by the Prophet Joseph, his Son.

Joseph Smith, Sen., was born on the 12th day of July, 1771, in Topsfield, Essex county, Massachusetts; he was the second of the seven sons of Asahel and Mary Smith. Asahel was born in Topsfield, March 7th, 1744. He was the youngest son of Samuel and Priscilla Smith. Samuel was born January 26th, 1714, in Topsfield; he was the eldest son of Samuel and Rebecca Smith. Samuel was born in Topsfield, January 20, 1666, and was the son of Robert and Mary Smith, who emigrated from Old England.

My father removed with his father to Tunbridge, Orange county, Vermont, in 1791, and assisted in clearing a large farm of a heavy growth of timber. He married Lucy, daughter of Solomon and Lydia Mack on the 14th of January, 1796, by whom he had

Alvin Smith, born February 11th, 1798, died November 19th, 1824.

Hyrum, born February 9th, 1800.

Sophronia, born May 16th, 1803.

Joseph, born December 23rd, 1805.

Samuel Harrison, born March 13th, 1808.

Ephraim, born March 13th, 1810, died March 24th, 1810.

William, born March 13th, 1811.

Catherine, born July 28th, 1812.

Don Carlos, born March 25th, 1816.

Lucy, born July 18th, 1824.

At his marriage he owned a handsome farm in Tunbridge. In 1802, {190} he rented it and engaged in mercantile business, and soon after embarked in a venture of [raising] ginseng[5] to send to China, and was swindled out of the entire proceeds by the shipmaster and agent, he was consequently obliged to sell his farm and all of his effects to pay his debts.

About the year 1816 he removed to Palmyra, Wayne county, New York, bought a farm and cleared two hundred acres, which he lost in consequence of not being able to pay the last installment of the purchase money at the time it was due. This was the case with a great number of farmers in New York, who had cleared land under similar contracts. He afterwards moved to Manchester, Ontario county, New York, procured a comfortable home with sixteen acres of land, where he lived until he removed to Kirtland, Ohio.

He was the first person who received my testimony after I had seen the angel, and exhorted me to be faithful and diligent to the message I had received.[6] He was baptized April 6th, 1830.

In August, 1830, in company with my brother Don Carlos, he took a mission to St. Lawrence county, New York, touching on his route at several of the Canadian ports, where he distributed a few copies of the Book of Mormon. He also visited his father, brothers and sister residing in St. Lawrence county, bore testimony to the truth which resulted eventually in all the family coming into the Church, excepting his brother Jesse and sister Susan.

He removed with his family to Kirtland in 1831; was ordained Patriarch and President of the High Priesthood [in Kirtland][7] under the hands of Oliver Cowdery, Sidney Rigdon, Frederick G. Williams and myself, on the 18th of December, 1833; was a member of the First High Council, organized on the 17th of February, 1834, (when he conferred on me and my brother Samuel H., a father's blessing).

{191} In 1836 he traveled in company with his brother John two thousand four hundred miles in Ohio, New York, Pennsylvania, Vermont, and New Hampshire, visiting the branches of the Church in those states and bestowing patriarchal blessings on several hundred persons, preaching the Gospel to all who would hear, and baptizing many. They returned to Kirtland on the 2nd of October, 1836.

During the persecutions in Kirtland in 1837, he was made a prisoner, but fortunately obtained his liberty, and after a very tedious journey in the spring and summer of 1838, he arrived at Far West, Missouri. After I and my brother Hyrum were thrown into the Missouri jails by the mob, he fled from under the exterminating order of Governor Lilburn W. Boggs, and made his escape in midwinter to Quincy, Illinois, from whence he removed to Commerce in the spring of 1839.

The exposures he suffered brought on consumption, of which he died on this 14th day of September, 1840, aged sixty-nine years, two months, and two days. He was six feet, two inches high, was very straight, and remarkably well proportioned. His ordinary weight was about two hundred pounds, and he was very strong and active. In his younger days he was famed as a wrestler, and, Jacob like, he never wrestled with but one man whom he could not throw. He was one of the most benevolent of men; opening his house to all who were destitute. While at Quincy, Illinois, he fed hundreds of the poor Saints who were flying from the Missouri persecutions, although he had arrived there penniless himself.

Tuesday, 15.—The funeral of Joseph Smith, Sen., took place this day, when the following address was delivered by Elder Robert B. Thompson:

The Discourse of Elder Thompson at the Funeral of Joseph Smith, Sen.

The occasion which has brought us together this day, is one of no {192} ordinary importance: for not only has a single family to mourn and sorrow on account of the death of the individual, whose funeral obsequies we this day celebrate; but a whole society; yes, thousands will this day have to say, a Father in Israel is gone.

The man whom we have been accustomed to look up to as a Patriarch, a Father, and a Counselor is no more an inhabitant of mortality: he has dropped his clay tenement, bid adieu to terrestrial scenes, and his spirit now free and unencumbered, roams and expatiates in that world where the spirits of just men made perfect dwell, and where pain and sickness, tribulation and death cannot come.

The friends we have lost prior to our late venerable and lamented Father, were such as rendered life sweet, and in whose society we took great pleasure, and who shed a lustre in the several walks of life in which they moved, and to whom we feel endeared by friendship's sacred ties. Their virtues and kindnesses will long be remembered by the sorrowing widow, the disconsolate husband, the weeping children, the almost distracted and heart-broken parent, and by a large circle of acquaintances and friends. These, like the stars in yonder firmament, shone in their several spheres, and filled that station to which they had been called by the providence of God, with honor to themselves and to the Church; and we feel to mingle our tears with their surviving relatives.

But on this occasion we realize that we have suffered more than an ordinary bereavement, and consequently we feel the more interested. If ever there was a man who had claims on the affections of the community, it was our beloved but now deceased Patriarch. If ever there was an event calculated to raise the feelings of sorrow in the human breast, and cause us to drop the sympathetic tear, it certainly is the present; for truly we can say with the king of Israel, "A prince and a great man has fallen in Israel." A man endeared to us by every feeling calculated to entwine around and adhere to the human heart, by almost indissoluble bonds. A man faithful to his God and to the Church in every situation and under all circumstances through which he was called to pass.

Whether in prosperity, surrounded by the comforts of life, a smiling progeny, and all the enjoyments of a domestic circle; or when called upon, like the Patriarchs of old, to leave the land of his nativity, to journey in strange lands, and become subject to all the trials and persecutions that have been heaped upon the Saints with a liberal hand, by characters destitute of every principle of morality or religion, alike regardless of the tender offspring and the aged sire, whose silvery locks and furrowed cheeks ought to have been a sufficient shield from their cruelty; still, like the Apostle Paul he could exclaim, (and his life {193} and conduct have fully borne out the sentiment) "None of these things move me; neither count I my life dear, so that I may finish my course with joy."

The principles of the Gospel were too well established in that breast, and had got too sure a footing there, ever to be torn down, or prostrated by the fierce winds of persecution, the blasts of poverty, or the swollen waves of distress and tribulation. No; thank God, his house was built upon a rock—consequently it stood amid the contending elements, firm and unshaken.

The life of our departed father has indeed been an eventful one, having to take a conspicuous part in the great work of the last days; being designated by the ancient prophets who once dwelt on this continent, as the father of him whom the Lord had promised to raise up in the last days, to lead His people Israel; and by a uniform consistent, and a virtuous course, for a long series of years, he has proved himself worthy of such a son, and such a family by whom he had the happiness of being surrounded in his dying moments; most of whom had the satisfaction of receiving his dying benediction.

He was already in the wane of life, when the light of truth broke in upon the world, and with pleasure he hailed its benign and enlightening rays, and was chosen by the Almighty to be one of the witnesses to the Book of Mormon. From that time, his only aim was the promotion of truth—his soul was taken up with the things of the Kingdom; his bowels yearned over the children of men; and it was more than his meat and his drink to do the will of his Father, who is in heaven.

By unceasing industry of himself and family, he had secured a home in the state of New York, where he no doubt expected, with every honest industrious citizen, to enjoy the blessings of peace and liberty. But when the principles of truth were introduced and the Gospel of Jesus Christ was promulgated by himself and family, friends forsook, enemies raged, and persecution was resorted to by wicked and ungodly men, insomuch that he was obliged to flee from that place, and seek a home in a more hospitable land.

In Ohio he met with many kind and generous friends, and was kindly welcomed by the Saints; many of whom continue to this day, and can call to mind the various scenes which there transpired; many of which were of such a nature as not to be easily obliterated.

While the House of the Lord was building he took great interest in its erection, and daily watched its progress, and had the pleasure of taking a part at the opening, and seeing it crowded by hundreds of pious worshipers. As the King of Israel longed for and desired to see the completion of the House of the Lord, so did he; and with him he could exclaim, "O Lord, I love the habitation of thine house, and the {194} place where thine honor dwelleth." To dwell in the house of the Lord, and to inquire in his temple, was his daily delight; and in it he enjoyed many blessings, and spent many hours in sweet communion with his heavenly Father. He has trod its sacred aisles, solitary and alone from mankind, long before the king of day has gilded the eastern horizon; and he has uttered his aspirations within its walls, when nature has been asleep. In its holy enclosures have the visions of heaven been opened to his mind, and his soul has feasted on the riches of eternity; and there under his teachings have the meek and humble been instructed, while the widow and the orphan have received his patriarchal blessings.

There he saw the work spreading far and wide; saw the Elders of Israel go forth under his blessing—bore them up by the prayer of faith, and hailed them welcome when they again returned bringing their sheaves with them. There with his aged partner, he spent many happy days in the bosom of his family, whom he loved with all the tenderness of parental affection.

Here I might enlarge, and expatiate on the "scenes of joy and scenes of gladness" which were enjoyed by our beloved Patriarch, but I shall pass on to an event which was truly painful and trying.

The delightful scene soon vanished; the calm was soon succeeded by a storm and the frail bark was driven by the tempest and foaming ocean, for many who had once been proud to acknowledge him a father and a friend, and who sought counsel at his hands, joined with the enemies of truth, and sought his destruction; and would have rejoiced to see his aged and venerable form immured in a dungeon; but, thank God, this they were not suffered to do; he providentially made his escape, and after evading his enemies for some time, he undertook and accomplished a journey of a thousand miles, and bore up under the fatigue and suffering necessarily attendant on such a journey with patient resignation. After a journey of several weeks, he arrived in safety at Far West, in the bosom of the Church, and was cordially welcomed by the Saints, who had found an asylum in the rich and fertile county of Caldwell.

There he, in common with the rest of the Saints, hoped to enjoy the privileges and blessings of peace. There, from the fertile soil and flowery meads, which well repaid the labor of the husbandman, and poured forth abundance for the support of the numerous herds which decked those lovely and wide-spread prairies, he hoped to enjoy uninterrupted, the comforts of domestic life.

But he had not long indulged these pleasing anticipations before the delightful prospect again vanished: the cup of blessing which he began again to enjoy, was dashed from his aged lips; and the cup of sorrow filled to overflowing, was given him instead; and surely he drank it to the {195} very dregs; for not only did he see the Saints in bondage, treated with cruelty, and some of them murdered; but the kind and affectionate parent saw—and ah! how painful was the sight—two of his sons to whom he looked for protection, torn away from their domestic circles, from their weeping and distracted families, by monsters in the shape of men, who swore and threatened to kill them, and who had every disposition to imbrue their hands in their blood. This circumstance was too much for his agitated and now sinking frame to bear up under; and although his confidence in his God was great, and his conduct was that of a Christian and a Saint, yet he felt like a man and a parent. At that time his constitution received a shock from which it never recovered. Ah! yes there were feelings agitated in the bosom of our deceased friend at that time of no ordinary kind; feelings of painful anxiety, and emotion too great for his earthly tabernacle to contain without suffering a great and a sensible injury; and which from that time began to manifest itself.

It would be unnecessary to trace him and his aged partner (who shared in all his sorrows and afflictions) from such a scene, as many of the Saints are knowing to the privations and sufferings which they, in common with the Church, endured while moving from that land of oppression; suffice it to say, he arrived in safety in Illinois, broken down in constitution and in health, and since then he has labored under severe afflictions and pain, while disease has been slowly but surely undermining his system.

Whenever he had a short respite from pain, he felt a pleasure in attending to his patriarchal duties, and with cheerfullness he performed them; and frequently his labors have been more than his strength would admit of; but having great zeal for the cause of truth, he felt willing to be spent in the service of his God.

For some time past he has been confined to his bed, and the time of is departure was near at hand. On Saturday evening last, a rupture of a blood vessel took place, when he vomited a large quantity of blood. His family were summoned to his bedside, it being now evident that he could not long survive.

On Sunday he called his children and grandchildren around him, and like the ancient patriarchs gave them his final benediction. Although his strength was far gone, and he was obliged to rest at intervals, yet his mind was clear, perfectly collected, and calm as the gentle zephyrs. The love of God was in his heart, the peace of God rested upon him, and his soul was full of compassion and blessing.

All the circumstances connected with his death, were calculated to lead the mind back to the time when an Abraham, an Isaac and a Jacob bid adieu to mortality, and entered into rest.

{196} His death, like theirs, was sweet, and it certainly was a privilege indeed to witness such a scene; and I was forcibly reminded of the sentiment of the poet:

  The chamber where the good man meets his fate,
  Is privileged beyond the common walk of virtuous life.

There were no reflections of a misspent life—no fearful forebodings of a gloomy nature in relation to the future; the realities of eternity were dawning, the shades of time were lowering; but there was nothing to terrify, to alarm or disturb his mind; no, the principles of the Gospel, which, "bring life and immortality to light," nobly triumphed in nature's final hour. These principles so long taught and cherished by our lamented friend, were honorably maintained to the last; which is not only a consolation to the immediate relatives, but to the Church at large.

The instructions imparted by him will long be remembered by his numerous progeny, who will undoubtedly profit by the same, and strive to render themselves worthy of such a sire; and the whole Church will copy his examples, walk in his footsteps, and emulate his faith and virtuous actions, and commend themselves to his God and to their God.

Notwithstanding his enemies frequently "shot at him, yet his bow abode in strength, and the arms of his hands were made strong by the hands of the mighty God of Jacob," and his courage and resolution never forsook him.

His anxiety for the spread of truth was great, and he lived to see great and important things accomplished. He saw the commencement of the work, small as a mustard seed, and with attention and deep interest he watched its progress; and he had the satisfaction of beholding thousands on this Continent, rejoicing in its truth, and heard the glorious tidings, that other lands were becoming heirs to the richest blessings.

Under these circumstances, he could exclaim, like pious Simeon of old, "Lord, now lettest thou thy servant depart in peace, for mine eyes have seen thy salvation."

Although his spirit has taken its flight and his remains will soon mingle with their mother earth, yet his memory will long be cherished by all who had the pleasure of his acquaintance, and will be fresh and blooming when those of his enemies shall be blotted out from under heaven.

May we, beloved friends, who survive our venerable Patriarch, study to prosecute those things which were so dear to his aged heart, and pray that a double portion of his spirit may be bestowed on us, {197} that we may be the humble instruments in aiding the consummation of the great work which he saw so happily begun; that when we have to stand before the bar of Christ, we may with our departed friend hear the welcome plaudit, "Come up hither, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world." Amen.


1. The entry of the text is the only one made in the Prophet's manuscript history for the 23rd of August, but "Uncle" John Smith, brother of the Prophet's father, and formerly president of Adam-ondi-Ahman stake of Zion, in Missouri, makes the following entry in his journal:

"Attended meeting at Nashville. Joseph and Hyrum Smith present and a large assembly of saints, who voted to commence building a city at Nashville and a place of worship." Nashville, by the way, was situated in Lee county, Iowa, on the Mississippi river, at the head of the Des Moines Rapids, about three miles southeast of Montrose, eight miles north of Keokuk. The Church had purchased twenty thousand acres of land in this vicinity and surveyed out of it a townsite on which a number of saints located.

2. Again from the journal of "Uncle" John Smith we learn that on the 30th day of August, the Prophet Joseph was in Nashville and preached on "Eternal Judgment and the Eternal Duration of Matter."

3. Smithfield is noted for other historical incidents than being the scene of John Rogers' martyrdom. It is an open space of nearly six acres in London, England. It was formerly used as a market place, but is now partially laid out in gardens. It was the scene of Bartholomew Fair; William Wallace was executed there; it was the place of the meeting of Wat Tyler and King Richard II, in 1380, when the former was stabbed by the Mayor of London, and then dispatched by the King's attendants. It was the scene of many martyrdoms.

4. John Rogers suffered martyrdom by being burnt at the stake in Smithfield, on the 4th of February, 1555. He was the first victim of what is known in history as the "Marian Persecution;" and which conferred on England's Catholic queen the title of "Bloody Mary." Archbishop Gardiner, however, is usually credited with being the prime instigator of that persecution, though he died before it reached its height, and not before he had shown symptoms of relenting. Cardinal Pole though "naturally humane and gentle," shares the guilt of sanctioning it; "but the chief agent was Bonner, bishop of London, in whose diocese the majority of all the executions took place. * * * * The total number of men, women and children who were burnt—for even children were thrown into the flames and some at the very moment of their birth"—is computed as follows: 1555, from February—72; 1556—94; 1557—79; 1558, from February to September—(when the persecution closed), 39; making a total of 284. It was during this persecution that Ridley and Latimer suffered. On the way to the execution the latter, it is said, "with a keen quaintness which adorns his sermons," uttered the words which fortunately became prophetic—addressing himself to his companion—"Be of good comfort, Master Ridley; play the man; we shall this day light such a candle, by God's grace, in England, as I trust shall never be put out." (History of England, by William Smith, p. 156).

5. Ginseng is a plant, the roots of which are highly esteemed as medicine, being quite generally regarded as possessing the most extraordinary virtues, and as a remedy for almost all diseases, but particularly for exhaustion of body or mind. In China ginseng is sometimes sold for its weight in gold. It was once introduced in Europe, but was soon forgotten. It is a native plant of Chinese Tartary, and grows from one to two feet in height. Its leaves are five fingered and almost smooth. It is doubted by many botanists if this species is really distinct from phanx quinquefolium, a common North American plant, doubtless the species referred to in the text, the root of which is now an article of export from North America to China, and is used to some extent as a domestic medicine in the states west of the Alleghanies, but which European and American medical practitioners generally regard as almost worthless.

6. From that time on the Prophet of the Dispensation of the Fullness of Times had no truer or more constant or faithful friend than his father.

7. This term, "High Priesthood," is often used in these annals—as it is above—for High Priest. The intent of the above statement is to say that "Father Smith,"—for so he was affectionately called by the Saints—was ordained Patriarch and the President of the High Priests in Kirtland. That he was not made President of the High Priesthood is evident from the fact that the Prophet Joseph himself at that time was President of the High Priesthood of the Church, a position to which he was ordained at a Conference of High Priests in Amherst, Loraine county, Ohio, in 1832 (see Church History, Vol. I, p. 243 and note.) The Presidency of the High Priesthood carries with it the office of President of the Church: "And again, the duty of the President of the office of the High Priesthood is to preside over the whole Church, and to be like unto Moses. Behold, here is wisdom, yea, to be a seer, a revelator, a translator, and a Prophet, having all the gifts of God which He bestows upon the head of the Church." (Doc. and Cov. sec. 107, verses 91-9.)


Chapter XI.

Threatening Portents in the Actions of Missouri—General Conferences in Nauvoo and England—The Doctrine of Priesthood.

Tuesday, September 15, 1840.

"The governor of Missouri, after a silence of about two years, has at last made a demand on Governor Carlin of Illinois, for Joseph Smith, Jun., Sidney Rigdon, Lyman Wight, Parley P. Pratt, Caleb Baldwin, and Alanson Brown, as fugitives from justice.

"The demand it seems has been complied with by Governor Carlin, and an order issued for their apprehension; accordingly our place has recently received a visit from the sheriff for these men; but through the tender mercies of a kind Providence, who by His power has sustained, and once delivered them from the hands of the blood-thirsty and savage race of beings in the shape of men that tread Missouri's delightful soil; they were not to be found—as the Lord would have it, they were gone from home, and the sheriff returned, of course without them.

"These men do not feel disposed to again try the solemn realities of mob law in that state; and a free and enlightened republic should respond against it, for Missouri has no claim on them, but they have claim on Missouri.

"What right have they to demand of Governor Carlin, as fugitives from justice, men against whom no process had ever been found in that state—no, not so much as the form of a process? They were taken by a mob militia, and dragged from everything that was dear and sacred, and tried (without their knowledge) by a court martial, condemned to be shot, but this failing, they were forced into confinement, galled with chains, deprived of the comforts of life, and even that which was necessary to save life, then brought to a pretended trial, without even having a legal process served, and then deprived of the privilege of defense. They were taken by a mob, tried, condemned and imprisoned by the same, and this Missouri cannot deny.

"What a beautiful picture Governor Boggs has presented to the {199} world, after driving twelve or fifteen thousand inhabitants from their homes, forcing them to leave the state under the pain of extermination, and confiscating their property, and murdering innocent men, women and children; then, because that a few made their escape from his murdering hand, and have found protection in a land of equal rights, so that his plans and designs have all been unfruitful, to that extent that he has caused 'Mormonism' to spread with double vigor; he now has the presumption to demand them back, in order that his thirst for innocent blood may yet be satiated.

"He has no business with them; they have not escaped from justice, but from the hands of a cursed, infuriated, inhuman set, or race of beings who are enemies to their country, to their God, to themselves, and to every principle of righteousness and humanity. They loathe Christianity, and despise the people of God; they war against truth, and inherit lies; virtue they tread under their feet; while vice (with her ten thousand offspring) is their welcome associate; therefore, men on whom Missouri has no claim, she cannot, no, she never shall have."[1]

Sunday, 20.—Elder Willard Richards went to Preston, held a conference, ordained five Elders, eleven Priests, eight Teachers, one Deacon, and returned to Manchester same day.

Letter of Samuel Bent and George W. Harris to the Presidency—Reporting Labors.

Cincinnati, Sept. 23, 1840.

To the First Presidency and High Council of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints:

We gladly embrace this opportunity of conveying a few lines to you by Ebenezer Robinson, who we expect will leave this place for Nauvoo in a few days.

Brother George W. Harris and myself have visited the several branches of the Church in Adams county, Pike county, Jacksonville, and Springfield. On our way we stopped at Terre Haute, and Pleasant Garden, Indiana. We found the brethren generally very willing and anxious to do all in their power to assist the Church in the great and glorious cause that we have engaged in respecting the printing of the several books in contemplation, but I am sorry to say I found them destitute of the means to relieve our present necessity.

However, we have succeeded in obtaining several notes of hand from {200} different brethren in the state of Illinois, to the amount of about eighty-three dollars, which will come due on the first day of October next, and we have handed them over to Ebenezer Robinson, to be delivered to Joseph Smith, Jun., for collection. We expect Brother Robinson will arrive with them at the time they become due.

We have obtained some money, which we have paid over to Brother Ebenezer Robinson. We have also given our obligations as agents for the Church, to Shepherd and Stearns to the amount of three hundred dollars, two hundred of which becomes due on the twenty-sixth day of November next, and the other one hundred on the twenty sixth day of December next, being the amount due Shepherd and Stearns for the stereotype plates.

We have taken up the bond that Brother Brown gave for the wagon or carriage which he let Joseph Smith, Jun., have, and we have succeeded in procuring a horse and harness to put alongside of the other horse to make it easier for him. We got said horse and harness by contributions from the brethren at Dayton and West Milton, Ohio.

Brother Ebenezer Robinson (we think) has been very economical, diligent, and persevering, and successful in the business whereupon he was sent. He has gained the confidence of the gentlemen with whom he has been transacting business in the city, and has done honor to the cause of Christ and His Church of Latter-day Saints. We can further say to you brethren, we think the course he has taken, and our united exertions with him, have established the credit of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in this place (I mean as to business transactions), to that extent that we can obtain any amount of paper, type, and other materials requisite to carry on the printing business to a large extent, and upon terms that will warrant our success.

We therefore shall go on with renewed courage and zeal, trusting in the Lord to prepare the way before us, and we feel to ask your prayers that God may peradventure expand the minds of the Saints abroad, that they may be able to comprehend the magnitude of the work we so much desire to accomplish, which in all probability will induce them to donate with alacrity.

Brother John E. Page is preaching with the manifestations of the Spirit and power in this place, and with considerable success. We think when Brother Page leaves the city of Cincinnati, the inhabitants thereof will be left without excuse for not receiving the Gospel of Jesus Christ, and his garments clear from their blood in the day of judgment.

Accept our love and best wishes.

Yours in the bonds of the New and Everlasting Covenant,

Samuel Bent,

George W. Harris.

{201} Letter of John E. Page to the Presidency—Reporting Progress of Palestine Mission.

Cincinnati, September 23, 1840.

To the President and Council of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and also to all the Saints Assembled in General Conference:

Your humble servant embraces with pleasure this opportunity to pen for your edification a few lines. I congratulate you upon the steady march and advancement of the cause of Christ, as [it] has fallen under my observation. Elder Hyde and myself have been treated with respect, and had the greatest attention paid us by the brethren and sisters; and by gentlemen and ladies of the first class in society, we have been made welcome very heartily to their dwellings and comforts of life. When we separate from them they grip our hands with tears standing full in their eyes, bidding farewell, and often leave something noble with us to help us on our mission; and a firm promise that they will duly reflect on the great things which we have told them. They ardently request us to send them some competent Elder to preach to them.

Yes, dear brethren, the cause of truth is marching onward with unparalleled rapidity, and victory! Victory! will soon be the shout of all the faithful in Christ; and thank the Lord, thank the Lord, is the language of unworthy me, that I have lived to see 1840, with all its attendant evidences of the truth of the Book of Mormon, and the Book of Doctrine and Covenants.

I must save a place in this communication to make some remarks concerning Brother Ebenezer Robinson. I can say, in truth and soberness, that he merits the esteem and confidence of the Saints and all good men for his diligence and economy while getting the Book of Mormon stereotyped, &c., here. The honest and frank course he has pursued towards the gentlemen with whom he has been concerned in business (viz., Messrs. Shepherd, Stearns, and others), has won their everlasting respect and esteem, judging from their own manifestations to me.

Dear brethren and sisters, your humble servants, Orson Hyde and myself, sincerely solicit your special prayers, sealed with a hearty amen.

Elder Hyde is truly a humble servant of the Lord, and a very agreeable companion in the ministry. Our hearts are one, our faith is one, and the strongholds of Satan quake before us. We desire to have grace to perform our mission, that we may return to our families and brethren with triumph and joy.

I anticipate that Elder Hyde is in New York City. I am waiting to obtain a few copies of the third edition of the Book of Mormon. To {202} raise means is hard, yet we trust in the Lord. I shall go to Philadelphia as soon as possible.

I have baptized thirteen in this city; many are believing, and some halting between two opinions; and have baptized in all since I started, eighty-four.

I have had a vision from the Lord, which manifested the present state of the world respecting the Jews, Jerusalem, the remnant of Israel, and also the Gentile world. As hasty summer fruit, so is this nation; as a vineyard of grapes fully ripe, ready to be gathered for the press, so are all the nations of the earth.

I want the conference to send some faithful and competent Elder to this place, to nurse the seed or word that has been sown here, and shall leave this matter with Ebenezer Robinson to lay before the conference.

Elders Bent and Harris are here, and are using all their energies, both of mind and body, to fill their calling. I deem them amply qualified to discharge the function of their office, provided they keep humble.

Dear brethren, remember me to my family, and pray for them; remember me to Sister Hyde, and also all of the wives of the Elders in particular, whose husbands are in the field. Tell them to pray for us. I hope the authorities of the Church will see that they are provided with food and raiment, that they may enjoy life with you.

Yours in the bonds of the Covenant,

John E. Page.

Monday, 28.

Extracts from Orson Hyde's Letter—Signs in the Heavens.

Burlington County, New Jersey.

I left Elder Page at Cincinnati the latter part of August, and came on up the Ohio river as far as Wellsburgh, Virginia. I stopped with Father James. Here I preached twice, and baptized three persons; came on by stage and steamboats to Pittsburg; from thence took the canal to Leechburgh, where I stopped and preached to a small number of Saints, raised up by the instrumentality of Father Nickerson—in good spirits.

As I left this place about nine o'clock in the morning, the most remarkable phenomenon occurred in the heavens that I ever witnessed. There appeared two bright and luminous bodies, one on the north and the other on the south of the sun; in length about ten yards, inclining to a circle resembling a rainbow, about fifty yards distant from the sun; apparently east about twenty-five yards, was a body of light as brilliant almost as the sun itself; and on the west, a great distance from the sun, {203} appeared a white semi-circle passing half way round the horizon, and another crossing it at right angles, exhibiting a scene of the sublimest kind. It was a great wonder to the passengers on board the boat. Put this with the fact that the Jews are gathering home, and that all Europe is in commotion and on the eve of breaking out in open hostilities; and also that the tree of liberty, which has long flourished in the republican soil of America, has been girdled, and her green foliage, which has shielded and protected the sons of oppression from the scorching rays of despotic power, already begins to wither like the accursed fig tree—and what language do these speak to the Saints! "Lift up your heads, for your redemption draweth near!" * * * * * *

I came on, and met with the Saints in Chester county, Pennsylvania, laboring there about one week with Brother Barnes, where we added six to their number. I preached about one week in Philadelphia, and baptized twelve; came on to this place with Brothers Snow and Barnes, and held a two-days' meeting, at which sixteen were baptized. I shall return to Philadelphia in a few days, where I expect to meet Brother Page, and then, if the Lord will, after holding a few meetings in this country, we shall proceed on to New York, there to take ship and sail over the seas.

Orson Hyde.

On the night of the 28th, Elder Heber C. Kimball had the following dream, as related by himself:

Elder Heber C. Kimball's Dream.

Having great anxiety for the welfare of the small branch which we had raised in London, I retired to rest and had the following dream. I thought that we dug a well on high ground in order to obtain water, and after digging some considerable time, we came to an excellent spring; we then commenced to back it up, but before it was finished, we had occasion to leave for a short time and when we returned to complete it, we found it carefully filled up with sand, and all attempts to remove it proved unavailing, we thought it better to choose another spot on lower ground, where we were successful. When we returned to London, we experienced a perfect fulfillment of my dream—having to open a new preaching place at Barrett's Academy, King Square, Goswell Road, our former place being closed against us.

Tuesday, 29.—Elders Heber C. Kimball and George A. Smith left London for the Manchester conference.

Saturday, October 3.

{204} Minutes of the General Conference of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, held in Nauvoo, Hancock County, Illinois, Beginning October 3, 1840.

The conference was opened with prayer by President William Marks. President Joseph Smith was then unanimously called to the chair, and Robert B. Thompson appointed clerk.

A letter from Elders Bent and Harris, and one from Elder John E. Page were then read by the clerk, which gave very satisfactory accounts of their mission.

On motion, Resolved: That a committee be appointed to ordain such as have recommends to this conference for ordination, and that Jonathan H. Hale, Elisha H. Groves, Charles C. Rich, John Murdock, and Simeon Carter, compose said committee, and report their proceedings before the conference closes.

The President arose and stated that there had been several depredations committed on the citizens of Nauvoo, and thought it expedient that a committee be appointed to search out the offenders, and bring them to justice.

Whereupon it was Resolved: That Joseph Smith, Elias Higbee, William Marks, Vinson Knight, William Law, Charles C. Rich, and Dimick B. Huntington, compose said committee.

On motion, Resolved: That Robert B. Thompson be appointed the General Church Clerk, in the room of George W. Robinson, who intends to remove to Iowa.

It having been requested by Elder Page, that the conference would appoint an Elder to take charge of the church which he and Elder Hyde had raised up in Cincinnati, on motion, Resolved: That Elder Samuel Bennett be appointed to preside there.

The president then arose and stated that it was necessary that something should be done with regard to Kirtland, so that it might be built up; and gave it as his opinion, that the brethren from the east might gather there, and also that it was necessary that some one should be appointed from this conference to preside over that stake. On motion, Resolved: That Elder Almon W. Babbitt be appointed to preside over the Church in Kirtland, and that he choose his own counselors.

Conference adjourned for one hour.

One o'clock p. m. Conference met pursuant to adjournment. An opportunity was given to the brethren who had any remarks to make on suitable locations for stakes of Zion. Elder H. W. Miller stated that it was the desire of a number of the brethren residing in Adams county, to have a stake appointed at Mount Ephrain in that county, and stated the advantages of the place for agricultural purposes.

{205} On motion, Resolved: That a stake be appointed at Mount Ephraim, in Adams county.

There being several applications for the appointment of stakes, it was Resolved: That a committee be appointed to organize stakes between this place and Kirtland, and that Hyrum Smith, Lyman Wight, and Almon W. Babbitt, compose said committee.

The President then spoke of the necessity of building a "House of the Lord" in this place. Whereupon it was Resolved: That the Saints build a house for the worship of God, and that Reynolds Cahoon, Elias Higbee, and Alpheus Cutler be appointed a committee to build the same.

On motion, Resolved: That a commencement be made ten days from this date, and that every tenth day be appropriated for the building of the house.

President Hyrum Smith arose and stated that there were several individuals who, on moving to this place, had not settled with their creditors, and had no recommend from the branches of the churches where they had resided. On motion, Resolved: That those persons moving to this place, who do not bring a recommend, be disfellowshiped.

John C. Bennett, M. D., then spoke at some length, on the oppression to which the Church had been subjected, and remarked that it was necessary for the brethren to stand by each other, and resist every unlawful attempt at persecution.

Elder Lyman Wight then addressed the meeting. Adjourned till tomorrow morning.

Sunday morning, October 4.

Conference met pursuant to adjournment, and was opened with prayer by Elder Almon W. Babbitt.

The clerk was then called upon to read the report of the Presidency in relation to the city plat, after which the President made some observations on the status of the debts on the city plat, which will appear at the close of these conference minutes, and advised that a committee be appointed to raise funds to liquidated the same. On motion, Resolved: That William Marks and Hyrum Smith compose said committee.

On motion, Resolved: That a committee be appointed to draft a bill for the incorporation of the town of Nauvoo, and other purposes.

Resolved: That Joseph Smith, John C. Bennett, and Robert B. Thompson be said committee.

Resolved: That John C. Bennett be appointed delegate, to urge the passage of said bill through the legislature.

President Hyrum Smith then rose and gave some general instructions to the Church. Conference adjourned for one hour.

{206} One o'clock p. m. Conference met pursuant to adjournment, and was opened with prayer by Elder John P. Greene.

President Joseph Smith then rose and delivered a discourse on the subject of baptism for the dead, which was listened to with considerable interest, by the vast multitude assembled.

Dr. John C. Bennett from the committee to draft a charter for the city, and for other purposes, reported the outlines thereof. On motion, Resolved: That the same be adopted.

Elder Ebenezer Robinson then rose and gave an account of the printing of another edition of the Book of Mormon, and stated that it was now nearly completed, and that arrangements had been made for the printing of the hymn-book, Book of Doctrine and Covenants, &c.

Conference adjourned to Monday morning.

Monday morning, October 5.

Conference met pursuant to adjournment, and was opened with prayer by Elder Lyman Wight.

Elder Robert B. Thompson, after a few preliminary remarks, read an article on the Priesthood, composed by President Joseph Smith, which will appear at the close of the conference minutes; after which Elder Babbitt delivered an excellent discourse on the same subject, at considerable length.

Conference adjourned for one hour. During the intermission a large number was baptized.

Two o'clock p. m. Conference met pursuant to adjournment. Elder Lyman Wight addressed the congregation on the subject of baptism for the dead, and other subjects of interest to the Church.

The President then made some observations and pronounced his benediction on the assembly.

Dr. John C. Bennett said that many persons had been accused of crime, and been looked upon as guilty, when on investigation it has been ascertained that nothing could be proved against them. Whereupon, on motion, it was Resolved: That no person be considered guilty of crime, unless proved so by the testimony of two or three witnesses.

He next brought before the conference the treatment the Saints had experienced in Missouri, and wished to know whether the conference would take any further steps in relation to obtaining redress. On motion, resolved: That Elias Higbee and Robert B. Thompson be appointed a committee to obtain redress for the wrongs sustained in Missouri.

The committee on ordinations reported that they had ordained thirty-nine to the ministry.

{207} On motion, Resolved: That this conference be dismissed, and that the next conference be held on the 6th day of April next.

Joseph Smith, President.

Robert B. Thompson, Clerk.

The following is the article on Priesthood referred to in the conference minutes:


In order to investigated the subject of the Priesthood, so important to this, as well as every succeeding generation, I shall proceed to trace the subject as far as I possibly can from the Old and New Testaments.

There are two Priesthoods spoken of in the Scriptures, viz., the Melchisedek and the Aaronic or Levitical. Although there are two Priesthoods, yet the Melchisedek Priesthood comprehends the Aaronic or Levitical Priesthood, and is the grand head, and holds the highest authority which pertains to the Priesthood, and the keys of the Kingdom of God in all ages of the world to the latest posterity on the earth, and is the channel through which all knowledge, doctrine, the plan of salvation, and every important matter is revealed from heaven.

Its institution was prior to "the foundation of this earth, or the morning stars sang together, or the Sons of God shouted for joy," and is the highest and holiest Priesthood, and is after the order of the Son of God, and all other Priesthoods are only parts, ramifications, powers and blessings belonging to the same, and are held, controlled, and directed by it. It is the channel through which the Almighty commenced revealing His glory at the beginning of the creation of this earth, and through which He has continued to reveal Himself to the children of men to the present time, and through which He will make known His purposes to the end of time.

Commencing with Adam, who was the first man, who is spoken of in Daniel as being the "Ancient of Days," or in other words, the first and oldest of all, the great, grand progenitor of whom it is said in another place he is Michael, because he was the first and father of all, not only by progeny, but the first to hold the spiritual blessings, to whom was made known the plan of ordinances for the salvation of his posterity unto the end, and to whom Christ was first revealed, and through whom Christ has been revealed from heaven, and will continue to be revealed from henceforth. Adam holds the keys of the dispensation of the fullness of times; i. e., the dispensation of all the times have been and will be revealed through him from the beginning to Christ, and from Christ to the end of all the dispensations that are to be {208} revealed. "Having made known unto us the mystery of His will, according to His good pleasure which He hath purposed in Himself: that in the dispensation of the fullness of times He might gather together in one all things in Christ, both which are in heaven, and which are on earth; even in him." (Ephesians, 1st chap., 9th and 10 verses).

Now the purpose in Himself in the winding up scene of the last dispensation is that all things pertaining to that dispensation should be conducted precisely in accordance with the preceding dispensations.

And again, God purposed in Himself that there should not be an eternal fullness until every dispensation should be fulfilled and gathered together in one, and that all things whatsoever, that should be gathered together in one in those dispensations unto the same fullness and eternal glory, should be in Christ Jesus; therefore He set the ordinances to be the same forever and ever, and set Adam to watch over them, to reveal them from heaven to man, or to send angels to reveal them. "Are they not all ministering spirits, sent forth to minister for them who shall be heirs of salvation?" (Hebrews, i, 14).

These angels are under the direction of Michael or Adam, who acts under the direction of the Lord. From the above quotation we learn that Paul perfectly understood the purposes of God in relation to His connection with man, and that glorious and perfect order which He established in Himself, whereby he sent forth power, revelations, and glory.

God will not acknowledge that which He has not called, ordained, and chosen. In the beginning God called Adam by His own voice. "And the Lord called unto Adam and said unto him, Where art thou? And he said, I heard thy voice in the garden, and I was afraid because I was naked, and hid myself." (See Genesis 3rd chap., 9, 10.) Adam received commandments and instructions from God: this was the order from the beginning.

That he received revelations, commandments and ordinances at the beginning is beyond the power of controversy; else how did they begin to offer sacrifices to God in an acceptable manner? And if they offered sacrifices they must be authorized by ordination. We read in (Genesis, 4th chap., 4th), that Abel brought of the firstlings of the flock and the fat thereof, and the Lord had respect to Abel and to his offering. And, again, "By faith Abel offered unto God a more excellent sacrifice than Cain, by which he obtained witness that he was righteous, God testifying of his gifts; and by it he being dead, yet speaketh." (Hebrews xi:4). How doth he yet speak? Why he magnified the Priesthood which was conferred upon him, and died a righteous man, and therefore has become an angel of God by receiving his body from the dead, holding still the keys of his dispensation; and was sent down from heaven unto {209} Paul to minister consoling words, and to commit unto him a knowledge of the mysteries of godliness.

And if this was not the case, I would ask, how did Paul know so much about Abel, and why should he talk about his speaking after he was dead? Hence, that he spoke after he was dead must be by being sent down out of heaven to administer.

This, then, is the nature of the Priesthood; every man holding the Presidency of his dispensation, and one man holding the Presidency of them all, even Adam: and Adam receiving his Presidency and authority from the Lord, but cannot receive a fullness until Christ shall present the Kingdom to the Father, which shall be at the end of the last dispensation.

The power, glory and blessings of the Priesthood could not continue with those who received ordination only as their righteousness continued; for Cain also being authorized to offer sacrifice, but not offering it in righteousness, was cursed. It signifies, then, that the ordinances must be kept in the very way God has appointed; otherwise their Priesthood will prove a cursing instead of a blessing.

If Cain had fulfilled the law of righteousness as did Enoch, he could have walked with God all the days of his life, and never failed of a blessing. "And Enoch walked with God after he begat Methuselah 300 years, and begat sons and daughters, and all the days of Enoch were 365 years; and Enoch walked with God, and he was not, for God took him." (Gen. 5th chap., 22nd ver.) Now this Enoch God reserved unto Himself, that he should not die at that time, and appointed unto him a ministry unto terrestrial bodies, of whom there has been but little revealed. He is reserved also unto the Presidency of a dispensation, and more shall be said of him and terrestrial bodies in another treatise. He is a ministering angel, to minister to those who shall be heirs of salvation and appeared unto Jude as Abel did unto Paul; therefore Jude spoke of him (14, 15 verses). And Enoch, the seventh from Adam, revealed these sayings: "Behold, the Lord cometh with ten thousand of His Saints."

Paul was also acquainted with this character, and received instructions from him. "By faith Enoch was translated, that he should not see death, and was not found, because God had translated him; for before his translation he had this testimony, that he pleased God; but without faith, it is impossible to please Him, for he that cometh to God must believe that He is, and that he is a revealer to those who diligently seek him." (Heb. 11, 5).

Now the doctrine of translation is a power which belongs to this Priesthood. There are many things which belong to the powers of the Priesthood and the keys thereof, that have been kept hid from {210} before the foundation of the world; they are hid from the wise and prudent to be revealed in the last times.

Many have supposed that the doctrine of translation was a doctrine whereby men were taken immediately into the presence of God, and into an eternal fullness, but this is a mistaken idea. Their place of habitation is that of the terrestrial order, and a place prepared for such characters He held in reserve to be ministering angels unto many planets, and who as yet have not entered into so great a fullness as those who are resurrected from the dead. "Others were tortured, not accepting deliverance, that they might obtain a better resurrection." (See Heb. 11th chap., part of the 35th verse.)

Now it was evident that there was a better resurrection, or else God would not have revealed it unto Paul. Wherein then, can it be said a better resurrection. This distinction is made between the doctrine of the actual resurrection and translation: translation obtains deliverance from the tortures and sufferings of the body, but their existence will prolong as to the labors and toils of the ministry, before they can enter into so great a rest and glory.

On the other hand, those who were tortured, not accepting deliverance, received an immediate rest from their labors. "And I heard a voice from heaven, saying, Blessed are the dead who die in the Lord, for from henceforth they do rest from their labors and their works do follow them." (See Revelation, 14th chap., 13th verse).

They rest from their labors for a long time, and yet their work is held in reserve for them, that they are permitted to do the same work, after they receive a resurrection for their bodies. But we shall leave this subject and the subject of the terrestrial bodies for another time, in order to treat upon them more fully.

The next great, grand Patriarch [after Enoch] who held the keys of the Priesthood was Lamech. "And Lamech lived one hundred and eighty-two years and begat a son, and he called his name Noah, saying, this same shall comfort us concerning our work and the toil of our hands because of the ground which the Lord has cursed." (See Gen. 5th chap., 28th and 29th verses.) The Priesthood continued from Lamech to Noah: "And God said unto Noah, The end of all flesh is before me, for the earth is filled with violence through them, and behold I will destroy them with the earth." (Gen. 6: 13.)

Thus we behold the keys of this Priesthood consisted in obtaining the voice of Jehovah that He talked with him [Noah] in a familiar and friendly manner, that He continued to him the keys, the covenants, the power and the glory, with which he blessed Adam at the beginning; and the offering of sacrifice, which also shall be continued at the last time; for all the ordinances and duties that ever have been required by {211} the Priesthood, under the directions and commandments of the Almighty in any of the dispensations, shall all be had in the last dispensation, therefore all things had under the authority of the Priesthood at any former period, shall be had again, bringing to pass the restoration spoken of by the mouth of all the Holy Prophets; then shall the sons of Levi offer an acceptable offering to the Lord. "And he shall sit as a refiner and purifier of silver: and he shall purify the sons of Levi, and purge them as gold and silver, that they may offer unto the Lord." (See Malachi 3:3).

It will be necessary here to make a few observations on the doctrine set forth in the above quotation, and it is generally supposed that sacrifice was entirely done away when the Great Sacrifice [i. e., the sacrifice of the Lord Jesus] was offered up, and that there will be no necessity for the ordinance of sacrifice in future; but those who assert this are certainly not acquainted with the duties, privileges and authority of the priesthood, or with the Prophets.

The offering of sacrifice has ever been connected and forms a part of the duties of the Priesthood. It began with the Priesthood, and will be continued until after the coming of Christ, from generation to generation. We frequently have mention made of the offering of sacrifice by the servants of the Most High in ancient days, prior to the law of Moses; which ordinances will be continued when the Priesthood is restored with all its authority, power and blessings.

Elijah was the last Prophet that held the keys of the Priesthood, and who will, before the last dispensation, restore the authority and deliver the keys of the Priesthood, in order that all the ordinances may be attended to in righteousness. It is true that the Savior had authority and power to bestow this blessing; but the sons of Levi were too prejudiced. "And I will send Elijah the Prophet before the great and terrible day of the Lord," etc., etc. Why send Elijah? Because he holds the keys of the authority to administer in all the ordinances of the Priesthood; and without the authority is given, the ordinances could not be administered in righteousness.

It is a very prevalent opinion that the sacrifices which were offered were entirely consumed. This was not the case; if you read Leviticus, second chap., second and third verses, you will observe that the priests took a part as a memorial and offered it up before the Lord, while the remainder was kept for the maintenance of the priests; so that the offerings and sacrifices are not all consumed upon the altar—but the blood is sprinkled, and the fat and certain other portions are consumed.

These sacrifices, as well as every ordinance belonging to the Priesthood, will, when the Temple of the Lord shall be built, and the sons of Levi be purified, be fully restored and attended to in all their powers, ramifications, and blessings. This ever did and ever will exist when the {212} powers of the Melchisedic Priesthood are sufficiently manifest; else how can the restitution of all things spoken of by the holy Prophets be brought to pass? It is not to be understood that the law of Moses will be established again with all its rites and variety of ceremonies; this has never been spoken of by the Prophets; but those things which existed prior to Moses' day, namely, sacrifice, will be continued.

It may be asked by some, what necessity for sacrifice, since the Great Sacrifice was offered? In answer to which, if repentance, baptism, and faith existed prior to the days of Christ, what necessity for them since that time? The Priesthood has descended in a regular line from father to son, through their succeeding generations. (See Book of Doctrine and Covenants).[2]

Report Of The Presidency.[3]

The First Presidency of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints would respectfully report—

That they feel rejoiced to meet the Saints at another General Conference, and under circumstances as favorable as the present. Since our settlement in Illinois we have for the most part been treated with courtesy and respect, and a feeling of kindness and of sympathy has generally been manifested by all classes of the community, who, with us, deprecate the conduct of those men whose dark and blackening deeds are stamped with everlasting infamy and disgrace. The contrast between our past and present situation is great. Two years ago mobs were threatening, plundering, driving and murdering the Saints. Our burning houses lighted up the canopy of heaven. Our women and children, houseless and destitute, had to wander from place to place to seek a shelter from the rage of persecuting foes. Now we enjoy peace, and can worship the God of heaven and earth without molestation, and expect to be able to go forward and accomplish the great and glorious work to which we have been called.

Under these circumstances we feel to congratulate the Saints of the Most High, on the happy and pleasing change in their circumstances, condition and prospects, and which those who shared in the perils and distress, undoubtedly appreciate; while prayers and thanksgivings daily ascend to that God who looked upon our distresses and delivered us from danger and death, and whose hand is over us for good.

From the unpropitious nature of the weather, we hardly expected to behold so many of our friends on this occasion; in this, however, we are agreeably disappointed, which gives us strong assurance that the Saints are as zealous, untiring, and energetic as ever, in the great work of the last days; and gives us joy and consolation, and greatly {213} encourages us, while contending with the difficulties which necessarily lie in our way. Let the brethren ever manifest such a spirit, and hold up our hands, and we must, we will go forward; the work of the Lord shall roll forth, the Temple of the Lord be reared, the Elders of Israel be encouraged, Zion be built up, and become the praise, the joy, and the glory of the whole earth, and the song of praise, glory, honor, and majesty to Him that sitteth upon the throne, and to the Lamb for ever and ever, shall reverberate from hill to hill, from mountain to mountain, from island to island, and from continent to continent, and the kingdoms of this world become the kingdom of our God and His Christ.

We are glad indeed to know that there is such a spirit of union existing throughout the churches, at home and abroad, on this continent, as well as on the islands of the sea; for by this principle, and by a concentration of action, shall we be able to carry into effect the purposes of our God.

From the Elders abroad we receive the most cheering accounts. Wherever the faithful laborer has gone forth weeping, sowing the seed of truth, he has returned with joy, bringing his sheaves with him; and the information we receive from all quarters is that the laborers are few and that the harvest is great. Many wealthy and influential people have embraced the Gospel, so that not only will the poor rejoice in that they are exalted, but the rich in that they are made low. The calls to the Southern States are indeed great; many places which a short time ago would think it a disgrace to give shelter to a "Mormon," on account of the many misrepresentations which were abroad, now desire to hear an Elder of the Church of the Latter-day Saints.

On the islands of the sea, namely, Great Britain, there continues to be a steady flow of souls into the Church. Branches have been organized in many large and populous cities, and the whole land appears to be thirsting for the pure streams of knowledge and salvation.

The Twelve have already printed a new edition of the hymn-book, and they issue a monthly periodical in that land. Several families have already arrived here from England, and a number more are on their way to this place, and are expected this fall.

If the work rolls forth with the same rapidity it has heretofore done, we may soon expect to see flocking to this place, people from every land and from every nation; the polished European, the degraded Hottentot, and the shivering Laplander; persons of all languages, and of every tongue, and of every color; who shall with us worship the Lord of Hosts in His holy temple and offer up their orisons in His sanctuary.

It was in consideration of these things, and that a home might be provided for the Saints, that induced us to purchase the present city for a place of gathering for the Saints, and the extensive tract of land on {214} the opposite side of the Mississippi. Although the purchase at the time, and under the peculiar circumstances of the Church, appeared to many to be large and uncalled for; yet from what we now see, it is apparent to all that we shall soon have to say, "This place is too straight, give us room that we may dwell." We therefore hope that the brethren who feel interested in the cause of truth, and desire to see the work of the gathering of Israel roll forth with power, will aid us in liquidating the debts which are now owing, so that the inheritances may be secured to the Church, and which eventually will be of great value.

The good spirit which is manifested on this occasion, the desire to do good, and the zeal for the honor of the Church, inspires us with confidence that we shall not appeal in vain, but that funds will be forthcoming on this occasion, sufficient to meet the necessities of the case.

It is with great pleasure that we have to inform the Church that another edition of the Book of Mormon has been printed, and which is expected on from Cincinnati in a short time; and that arrangements are making for printing the Book of Doctrine and Covenants, hymn-book, &c.; so that the demand which may exist for these works will soon be supplied.

In conclusion we would say, brethren and sisters, be faithful, be diligent, contend earnestly for the faith once delivered to the Saints; let every man, woman and child realize the importance of the work, and act as if success depended on his individual exertion alone; let all feel an interest in it, and then consider they live in a day, the contemplation of which animated the bosoms of kings, Prophets, and righteous men thousands of years ago—the prospect of which inspired their sweetest notes, and most exalted lays, and caused them to break out in such rapturous strains as are recorded in the Scriptures; and by and by we will have to exclaim, in the language of inspiration—

  The Lord has brought again Zion,
  The Lord hath redeemed His people Israel.

Tuesday, October 6.

Minutes of a General Conference in England.

Minutes of a general conference of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, held at Carpenter's Hall, Manchester, Tuesday, the 6th day of October, 1840, it being the first day of the seventh month of the eleventh year of the Church; when the following officers of the Traveling High Council were present, viz.: Elders Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, Orson Pratt, Willard Richards, Wilford Woodruff, and George A. Smith; other officers: High Priests 5, Elders 19, Priests 28, Teachers 4, and Deacons 2.

The meeting being called to order at 10 o'clock by Elder Brigham Young, {215} it was moved by Elder Young, seconded by Elder Woodruff, that Elder Orson Pratt be president off the conference, which was carried unanimously. Elder George Walker was chosen clerk.

After singing, and prayer by the president, the following statistical report was read:

Conferences and Branches.Members.Elders.Priests.Teachers.Deacons.
Preston Conference (including all the branches in the care of Elders Melling and Withnall) as represented by Elder Melling6651823112
Potteries were represented by Elder Alfred Cordon24893299
Birmingham Branch, represented by Elder Alfred Cordon4
West Bromwich, represented by Elder Alfred Cordon2131
Clitheroe Conference, represented by Thomas Smith295101193
Herefordshire, &c., represented by Thoedore Curtis10071978151
Glasgow, and regions round about, represented by Samuel Mulliner4928753
Hilsboro Branch, Ireland, represented by Theodore Curtis5
Isle of Man Branch, represented by Hiram Clark6
Liverpool Conference, represented by Priest William Mitchell1003421
London Branch, represented by Elder Heber C. Kimball112
Macclesfield, represented by Priest I. Brown71622
Altrincham Conference, (including Middlewich, Nortwich, and Peover,) represented by Elder William Berry821333
Bedford Branch, represented by Elder Brigham Young3611
Stockport, represented by Elder Martin Littlewood1402521
Bolton, represented by Priest Barroes6121
Duckinfield, represented by Elder Albiston76131
Edinburg Conference, represented by Orson Pratt432
Pendlebury Branch, represented by Henry Royle362
Eccles, represented by Brother E. Leather133
Whitefield, represented by Elder Walker Johnson39123
Ratcliffe, represented by John Allen1612
Brampton, represented by Thomas Tweddle40111
Alston, represented by John Sanders39212
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, represented by Amos Fielding621
Manchester, represented by Brigham Young36442761
Ancrum, represented by Orson Pratt9

The president brought before the conference the subject of ordinations, and after various observations thereon, it was proposed by Elder George A. Smith, that for the future, ordinations be not attended to, except by the Traveling High Council or under such restrictions as they may adopt in reference thereto. Elder Young spoke on the subject of conferences, and also with respect of restricting ordination; and after taking into consideration the great expense attendant upon holding general conferences, and the inconvenience experienced by members attending them, suggested, that for the future, general conferences should in a great measure be done away with, or restricted to the Traveling High Council to hold conferences at such places and times as they may think proper.

{216} The meeting adjourned at 12 o'clock.

At 2 o'clock the meeting opened with prayer, after which Elder Kimball spoke on the subject of Elders taking upon themselves the responsibility of ordaining officers in this Church; after pointing out the evils that might result therefrom, he proceeded to treat upon the duty of members towards those who preside over them in the Lord, and respecting the members administering to the temporal necessities of those whose calling it is to labor amongst them in spiritual things.

Moved by Elder Willard Richards, seconded by Elder Thomas Smith, and carried unanimously, that all ordinations be confined to or under the regulations of the Traveling High Council.

Elder Young called the attention of the conference to the case of Emma Bolton, a sister from the Potteries, who had conducted herself disorderly. Elder Johnson and others spoke of several cases of improper conduct on her part; after which it was moved by Elder Young, seconded by Elder Kimball, and carried unanimously, that Emma Bolton be cut off from the Church.

The president [of the conference, Elder Orson Pratt], then called the attention of the conference to a letter from Isaac Brown and other officers of the Church at Macclesfield, concerning Elder Heath, and also to some half a dozen charges preferred by the said Isaac Brown, James Galley, Edward Horrocks, and John Horrocks, against the said Samuel Heath, for several items of misconduct, and neglecting the duties of his office; to all of which charges Elder Heath pleaded not guilty. The complainants then entered into proof of the several items, to which Elder Heath replied by stating that the charges against him were in consequence of a misunderstanding, &c. The proceedings opened a wide field for instruction from Elder Young, followed by the president, who recommended the parties to become reconciled to each other, stating that he did not consider the charges preferred against Elder Heath sufficiently substantiated to withdraw fellowship from him; when it was moved and seconded, that no further proceeding be taken on this subject; carried unanimously.

The conference then adjourned till 7 o'clock. p. m.

At 7 o'clock the meeting was opened with prayer.

The president having made such preliminary remarks as the importance of the subject called forth, proceeded to call upon those who were willing to volunteer their services to labor in the vineyard of the Lord, when the officers gave their names as follows:

High Priests—Hiram Clark, Thomas Smith, Alfred Cordon, Thomas Kington, Orson Pratt, Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, Willard Richards, Wilford Woodruff, George A. Smith.

Elders—George D. Watt, John Parkinson, David Moss, Martin {217} Littlewood, William Parr, Samuel Heath, John Sanders, Theodore Curtis, Henry Royle, Thomas Tweddle, John Leigh, Amos Fielding, Thomas Richardson.

Priests—William Snailam, William Speakman, John Needham, James Mahon, Frederick Cook, Robert Crooks, William Mitchell, William Black, Robert Williams, William Jones, Thomas Pollitt, Richard Steele, John Burns, Joseph Knowles, Richard Benson, John Wyche, William Roylance, Joseph Street, Joseph White.

Moved, seconded, and carried, that Elder George D. Watt go to Edinburgh; Elder Alfred Cordon to Birmingham, and also take charge of the Staffordshire Potteries Conference, and that John Burns, Priest, go with him.

Elder Thomas Kington to take charge of the Herefordshire Conferences as heretofore, also Garway; and William Snailam and Joseph Knowles, Priests, to accompany him.

Robert Crooks, Priest, to go to Bolton; Thomas Richardson, Elder, and John Needham, Priest, to go to Herefordshire; Elder Hiram Clark to go to the Isle of Man; Elder Thomas Tweddle to Glasgow; Elder John Sanders to labor at Alston, and go to Carlisle as soon as practicable.

Elder Amos Fielding to go to Newcastle-upon-Tyne; Elder John Parkinson to Greenock; Elder Henry Royle and Frederick Cook, Priest, to Cly in Flintshire; William Mitchell, Priest, to Leeds; Elder Thomas Smith to remain at Clitheroe; Elder John Leigh, and James Mahon, Priest, to go to Arden, Cheshire, and Joseph White and Richard Steele, Priests, to labor under the direction of Elder Cordon.

Elder John Smith to be ordained High Priest, to take charge of the church in Manchester and the regions round about: Elder Peter Melling to take charge of the church as heretofore, in connection with Elder H. Withnall; and John Wyche, Priest, to go into Staffordshire, and labor under the direction of Alfred Cordon.

Moved and seconded, that the remainder of the officers who have volunteered, be left to the Traveling High Council to dispose of, and appoint to such places as they may judge expedient; carried.

Moved and seconded, that in consequence of there not being time to transact all the business of this conference, the ordination of officers be left to the Traveling High Council to ordain from time to time such members as they may consider requisite; carried.

Elder Young then addressed the meeting on the propriety of establishing a fund for the support and clothing of such members as may from time to time be called out to labor in the vineyard, and whose circumstances may require that their necessities may be administered unto. The president then addressed the meeting on the same subject, {218} and pointed out the difference between preaching for money and the Elders having their necessities ministered unto, while they are called to labor "without taking thought for the morrow." Elder Richards followed upon the same subject; also Elder Kimball; after which Elder Young moved, that wherever a branch of the Church is established, two members be appointed to receive the weekly voluntary contributions of the members, for promoting the spread of the Gospel, and the same to be disposed of by the vote of the church in council with the Twelve Apostles; seconded by Elder George A. Smith, and carried.

The minutes were then read and accepted, and the conference adjourned sine die.

Orson Pratt, President,

George Walker, Secretary.

Thursday, 8.

Minutes of Council of the Twelve in England.

Minutes of a Council of the Twelve, viz., Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, Orson Pratt, Wilford Woodruff, George A. Smith, and Willard Richards; also Hiram Clark, and Reuben Hedlock, High Priests, at the house of Willard Richards, No. 1, Chapman Street, Manchester; Brigham Young presiding.

Moved by Elder Kimball, that Elder Willard Richards take charge of the Millennial Star, seconded and carried. Voted that our publishing office be removed to London as soon as circumstances will permit; and that Elders Hedlock and Curtis go where they please to labor.

Willard Richards, Clerk.


1. The foregoing is an editorial in the Times and Seasons for September, 1840.

2. A discourse on the same subject to the Twelve will be found in vol. iii, p. 385, et seq.

3. This is the report referred to in the conference minutes.



Progress of the Work in Great Britain—The Saints at Kirtland Reproved for Their Course During the Missouri Persecutions—The Prophet's Address to the Twelve and Saints in Great Britain.

Saturday, October 10.—Elder George A. Smith returned to London, and was soon followed by Elder Woodruff.

Charges against Oliver Walker.

David Fulmer preferred a charge against Oliver Walker "for reporting certain slanderous stories of a fallacious and calumniating nature, calculated to stigmatize, and raise a persecution against the Church and individuals in it, in this place, [Nauvoo], and for other acts of unchristianlike conduct," before the High Council at Nauvoo. The defendant pleaded that "he was not prepared to meet the charge, it being too indefinite." Council adjourned till next day.

Sunday, 11.—High Council met according to adjournment. The charge against Oliver Walker was taken up, and the following substituted for the first charge:

Minutes of the High Council.

To the High Council of the Church of Jesus Christ at Nauvoo:

For and in behalf of said Church, I prefer a charge against Elder Oliver Walker, for several different offenses hereinafter set forth, as said to be by him done, performed, said, and committed, as well as various duties omitted, all of which was done at different times, periods, places, and seasons, subsequent to September 1st, A. D. 1838, to-wit.:

For a general course of procedure, of acts, doings, and words, and suggestions by him, the said Elder Oliver Walker, done, performed, said, spoken, hinted at, and suggested, both directly and indirectly, and {220} as calculated to be derogatory to the character of the heads and leaders of the Church, and extremely injurious and hurtful to the upbuilding, welfare, being, and advancement of the same, namely, for fleeing from, quitting, and deserting the society, ranks, and needs of his brethren, in times of difficulty with, and danger from their enemies, "the mob;" restraining from the use of his brethren, his influence, efforts, and needful assistance, at such times of need; as also for joining with, and strengthening the hands, will, evil pursuits, and designs of the mob, and Gentile enemies of the Church, by expressions, hints, and suggestions of wavering and dubious nature, respecting the faith and order of the Church, and of the professed calling, qualifications, proceedings, &c., of Joseph Smith, Jun., as a Seer, Prophet, and one called to bring to light the fullness of the Gospel, &c., in these last days.

Likewise for advancing ideas, notions, or opinions, that the different orders or sects, namely, Methodists and others, could by a pursuit in their faith, order, and pursuits, as readily obtain every celestial attainment and Gospel advantage, as they could by embracing and pursuing the system brought forth by Joseph Smith, Jun., in these last days.

And moreover for suggesting within the last six months, at Alton, Nauvoo, intermediate and adjacent places, that in the Church at Nauvoo there did exist a set of pilferers, who were actually thieving, robbing, plundering, taking and unlawfully carrying away from Missouri, certain goods and chattels, wares and property; and that the act and acts of such supposed thieving, &c., was fostered and conducted by the knowledge and approbation of the heads and leaders of the Church, viz., by the Presidency and High Council; all of which items set forth as aforesaid, together with any and all corroborating acts, doings, hints, expressions, and suggestions in any way belonging to, or connected with, any or all of the aforesaid accusations, he, the said Oliver Walker, is hereby notified to prepare to defend in said trial.

Dated October 11, 1840, Nauvoo.

David Fulmer.

Walker pleaded that he was not prepared to defend himself, and the trial was deferred at his request till April conference.

Letter of Heber C. Kimball et al. to Messrs. Ebenezer Robinson and Don Carlos Smith—Reporting Affairs in the British Mission.

Manchester, England, October 12, 1840.

Messrs. Ebenezer Robinson, and Don Carlos Smith:

Dear Brethren:—We left Manchester immediately after the July {221} conference, for the purpose of visiting the city of London. We visited the churches which lay on our route through Staffordshire, Herefordshire, Worcestershire, and Gloucestershire; and we had many interesting meetings, baptizing and confirming daily, as we passed along. We baptized forty in one day; many new doors were opening, and all things indicated a short work in England.

The last meeting we held among the Saints while on this journey, was in a field in Leigh, Gloucestershire, on the 16th of August. We had an interesting time; we baptized fifteen, and ordained one Elder and two Priests. Two Methodist priests came twelve miles to hear; we baptized them after the first sermon, and confirmed and ordained them at the same time, and sent them to preach the Gospel. We parted with the Saints there on the 17th, went to Cheltenham, (five miles), and spent the night. There were several Saints in that place.

On the 18th we took coach and rode forty miles, through a level farming country, something like Illinois prairie; we passed through Oxfordshire, leaving the Oxford University a little upon our left. This university consists of twenty colleges endowed, and five halls not endowed; and is considered the largest and most noted university in the world. We then took the railroad and traveled seventy miles, had a splendid view of Windsor Castle as we passed along. We landed at the London terminus of the Great Western Railway at 4 o'clock in the evening. From thence we took coach and rode a few miles into the city; we walked over London Bridge, and called upon Mr. Allgood, 19 King Street, Borough. Mrs. Allgood is sister to Elder Theodore Turley's wife; she treated us kindly, gave us such refreshments as we needed, and directed us to lodgings in the neighborhood, where we spent the night.

After which we immediately commenced our researches through this great metropolis, for the honest in heart and the meek of the earth. We first commenced by visiting the ministers and preachers of the various orders, and requested the privilege of delivering our message unto the people in their churches and chapels; but of course you will not be astonished when we inform you that they denied us this privilege, and rejected our testimony.

We went to and fro through the city of London, from day to day, endeavoring to get some door open whereby we could warn the people and search out the honest in heart; when on diligent search we found the whole city given to covetousness, (which is idolatry), priestcraft, tradition, superstition, and all manner of abominations, wickedness and uncleanness; and all doors closed against us.

We did not hesitate to stand in the midst of the streets, and, Jonah like, cry repentance unto the inhabitants of that mighty city—the {222} metropolis of England—the pride and glory of Britain—the boast of the Gentiles, and the largest commercial city in the world—containing over one million five hundred thousand souls, who are ripening in iniquity and preparing for the wrath of God; and like the ox going to the slaughter, know not the day of their visitation.

We shall long remember standing together in the midst of that people, and bearing a message which will prove a savor of life unto life, or of death unto death, not only unto them, but unto all those unto whom the sound of the everlasting Gospel shall come; even unto the whole world; and the judgment of the great day shall manifest the truth of it unto all nations. And it will ever sweeten the memory of that eventful period of our lives, to know that our labors, on that occasion, were not in vain; but we were enabled through toil, labor, diligent search, perseverance, and the great mercy of God, to find some of the blood of Ephraim—a few honest souls who were willing to receive and obey the Gospel; and that we were enabled to lay the foundation of a work in the city of London, which will not be removed until the city is warned, so that they will be left without excuse; and the Saints gathered out to stand in holy places, while judgment works. Until that time, the seed which we have sown there, will bring forth fruit, and the fruit will redound to the honor and glory of God.

We have baptized eleven only, in the city of London, but through the faith and the mercy of God, we ere long expect a harvest of souls in that place; but we are willing to acknowledge, that in our travels, either in America or Europe, we have never before found a people, from whose minds we have had to remove a greater multiplicity of objections, or combination of obstacles, in order to excite an interest in the subject and prepare the heart for the reception of the word of God, than in the city of London.

While conversing with the common people concerning the Gospel, we found their highest attainments to be, "Why, I go to church or chapel and get my children christened, what more is necessary?" When we conversed with the learned, we found them too wise to be taught, and too much established in the traditions of their fathers to expect any change in the last days. While conversing with the ministers of the various orders of the day, upon the principles of the Gospel, they would inform us that the ancient order of things was done away, and no longer needed; and some of them had preached forty years the good old religion, and God was with them, and they needed no more revelation, or healing the sick, or anything as manifest in the days of the Apostles, for we can get along without them in this day of refinement, light and knowledge.

When we arose to preach unto the people repentance, and baptism {223} for the remission of sins, the cry of "Baptist, Baptist," would be rung in our ears. If we spoke of the Church and body of Christ being composed of Prophets, and Apostles; as well as other members, "Irvingites, Irvingites," would immediately dash into the mind. If in the midst of our remarks, we even for once suffered the saying to drop from our lips, "The testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy," "O, you belong to Johanna Southcote," would be heard from several places at once. If we spoke of the second coming of Christ, the cry would be, "Aitkenites." If we made mention of the Priesthood, they would call us "Catholics." If we testified of the ministering of angels, the people would reply, "The Irvingites have their angels, and even the Duke of Normandy is ready to swear that he has the administering of angels every night."

These salutations, in connection with a multitude of others, of a similar nature, continued to salute our ears from day to day, until we were about ready to conclude that London had been such a perfect depot of the systems of the nineteenth century, that it contained six hundred three score and six different gods, gospels, redeemers, plans of salvation, religions, churches, commandments, (essential and non-essential), orders of preaching, roads to heaven and to hell; and that this order of things had so affected the minds of the people, that it almost required a horn to be blown from the highest heavens, in order to awaken the attention of the people, and prepare their minds to candidly hear and receive the doctrine of one Gospel, one faith, one baptism, one Holy Ghost, one God, and one plan of salvation, and that, such as Christ and the Apostles preached.

But notwithstanding this, we do not feel discouraged concerning a work being perfected in London, but firmly believe that many souls will embrace the fullness of the Gospel there, though it will be through faith, diligence, perseverance, and prayer.

Having spent twenty-three days together in this first mission in the metropolis, and the time drawing near for our October conference, Elder Woodruff left the city on the 10th of September for the purpose of attending several conferences. He attended the Bran Green and Gadfield Elm conference, held in Worcester on the 14th of September, and also the Froomes Hill conference, held in Herefordshire on the 21st of September. At these two conferences, he heard represented, 40 branches of the Church, containing 1,007 members, and 113 officers, viz., 19 Elders, 78 Priests, 15 Teachers, and 1 Deacon; the whole of whom had received the fullness of the Everlasting Gospel, and been baptized in less than seven months in that part of the vineyard which he first opened in the month of March; and the work is still progressing very rapidly throughout that region; and among the number baptized {224} there have not been much less than one hundred preachers of various sects.

He also attended the conference in the Staffordshire Potteries, which met at Hanley on the 28th of September; where were represented 231 members, 9 Elders, 32 Priests, 9 Teachers, and 9 Deacons; most of whom received the work since our arrival there last winter and spring. While he was attending these conferences, Elders Kimball and George A. Smith continued their labors in London until the first of October, at which time we met together again in Staffordshire, and enjoyed each other's company while journeying together to Manchester, where the quorum of the Traveling High Council, with many Elders and Saints had the privilege of once more sitting in a general conference together, on the 6th of October in the Carpenter's Hall, where we heard represented 3,636 Saints, and 383 official members.

At the July conference there were 2,513 Saints, and 256 official members, making an increase in three months of 1,113 Saints and 127 official members, besides over 200 Saints, including many Elders, Priests, Teachers and Deacons, who have emigrated to America; which would make over 1,300 additions to the Church in Europe during the last three months, and over two thousand since our conference in Preston on the 15th of April; which representation at that time was 1,671 Saints, and 132 official members.

Thus you see the Lord hath given us an increase, and blessed the labors of the servants of God universally in this land, for which we feel thankful; and our constant prayer to God is that His kingdom may roll forth, that the messengers bearing the everlasting Gospel may be diligent, meek, and humble, not weary in well doing, but waiting with patience for their reward, which lies at the end of the race, that their joy may be full.

Heber C. Kimball,

Wilford Woodruff,

George A. Smith.

Saturday, 17.—A conference was held in Philadelphia, Elder Orson Hyde presiding; 896 members were represented, including 24 Elders, 11 Priests, 6 Teachers, 5 Deacons, in Pennsylvania, New York City, New Jersey, and vicinity.

Remarkable Visions by Orson Pratt.

Parley P. Pratt and family arrived in Manchester, and resumed the editorial labors of the Star. Brother Orson Pratt has recently published a pamphlet, entitled "An interesting account of several Remarkable Visions, and of the late Discovery {225} of Ancient American Records," comprising 31 pages giving a brief sketch of the rise of the Church.

Monday, 19.

Letter of Joseph and Hyrum Smith to the Saints in Kirtland—Reproving the Saints for Neglect of their Brethren and Sisters During the Missouri Persecutions.

Nauvoo, Hancock County, Illinois,

October 19th, 1840.

To the Saints in Kirtland, Ohio:

Dear beloved brethren in the kingdom and patience of Jesus Christ:—We take this opportunity of informing you that we yet remember the Saints scattered abroad in the regions of Kirtland, and feel interested in their welfare as well as in that of the Saints at large. We have beheld with feelings peculiar to ourselves the situation of things in Kirtland and the numerous difficulties to which the Saints have been subjected, by false friends as well as open enemies.

All these circumstances have more or less engaged our attention from time to time. We likewise must complain of the brethren who are in office and authority in the stake of Kirtland, for not writing to us, and making known their difficulties and their affairs from time to time, so that they might be advised in matters of importance to the well being of said stake; but above all, for not sending one word of consolation to us while we were in the hands of our enemies, and thrust into dungeons. Some of our friends from various sections sent us letters which breathed a kind and sympathetic spirit, and which made our afflictions and sufferings endurable. All was silent as the grave [from Kirtland]; no feelings of sorrow, sympathy, or affection [was expressed] to cheer the heart under the gloomy shades of affliction and trouble through which we had to pass.

Dear brethren, could you realize that your brethren were thus circumstanced, and were to bear up under the weight of affliction and woe which was heaped upon them by their enemies, and you stand unmoved and unconcerned! Where were the bowels of compassion? Where was the love which ought to characterize the Saints of the Most High? Did those high born and noble feelings lie dormant, or were you insensible to the treatment we received? However, we are disposed to leave these things to God, and to futurity, and feel disposed to forget this coldness on the part of the Saints in Kirtland, and to look to the future with more pleasure than while we contemplated the past; and shall by the assistance of our heavenly Father, take such steps as we think best {226} calculated to promote the interests of the Saints, and for the promotion of truth and righteousness, and the building up of the kingdom is these last days.

The situation of Kirtland was brought before the general conference, held at this place on the 3rd instant, when it was resolved that Elder Almon W. Babbitt should be appointed to preside over the stake of Kirtland, and that he be privileged to choose his own counselors. We therefore hope that the Saints will hold up the hands of our beloved brother, and unite with him in endeavoring to promote the interests of the kingdom.

It has been deemed prudent to advise the eastern brethren who desire to locate in Kirtland, to do so; consequently you may expect an increase of members in your stake, who probably will be but young in the faith, and who will require kind treatment. We therefore hope the brethren will feel interested in the welfare of the Saints, and will use all their endeavors to promote the welfare of the brethren who may think proper to take up their residence in that place.

If you will put away from your midst all evil speaking, backbiting, and ungenerous thoughts and feelings: humble yourselves, and cultivate every principle of virtue and love, then will the blessings of Jehovah rest upon you, and you will yet see good and glorious days; peace will be within your gates, and prosperity in your borders; which may our heavenly Father grant in the name of Jesus Christ, is the prayer of yours in the bonds of the covenant,

Joseph Smith,

Hyrum Smith.

An Epistle of the Prophet to the Twelve.

To the Traveling High Council and Elders of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Great Britain:

Beloved Brethren:—May grace, mercy, and peace rest upon you from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. Having several communications lying before me from my brethren the Twelve, some of which ere this have merited a reply, but from the multiplicity of business which necessarily engages my attention, I have delayed communicating with you to the present time.

Be assured, beloved brethren, that I am no disinterested observer of the things which are transpiring on the face of the whole earth; and amidst the general movements which are in progress, none is of more importance than the glorious work in which you are now engaged; consequently I feel some anxiety on your account, that you may by your virtue, faith, diligence and charity commend yourselves to one another, {227} to the Church of Christ, and to your Father who is in heaven; by whose grace you have been called to so holy a calling; and be enabled to perform the great and responsible duties which rest upon you. And I can assure you, that from the information I have received, I feel satisfied that you have not been remiss in your duty; but that your diligence and faithfulness have been such as must secure you the smiles of that God whose servant you are, and also the good will of the Saints throughout the world.

The spread of the Gospel throughout England is certainly pleasing; the contemplation of which cannot but afford feelings of no ordinary kind, in the bosom of those who have borne the heat and burden of the day; and who were its firm supporters and strenuous advocates in infancy, while surrounded with circumstances the most unpropitious, and its destruction threatened on all hands; like the gallant bark that has braved the storm unhurt, spreads her canvas to the breeze, and nobly cuts her way through the yielding wave, more conscious than ever of the strength of her timbers, and the experience and capability of her captain, pilot, and crew.

It is likewise very satisfactory to my mind, that there has been such a good understanding between you, and that the Saints have so cheerfully hearkened to council, and vied with each other in this labor of love, and in the promotion of truth and righteousness. This is as it should be in the Church of Jesus Christ; unity is strength. "How pleasing it is for brethren to dwell together in unity!" Let the Saints of the Most High ever cultivate this principle, and the most glorious blessings must result, not only to them individually, but to the whole Church—the order of the kingdom will be maintained, its officers respected, and its requirements readily and cheerfully obeyed.

Love is one of the chief characteristics of Deity, and ought to be manifested by those who aspire to be the sons of God. A man filled with the love of God, is not content with blessing his family alone, but ranges through the whole world, anxious to bless the whole human race. This has been your feeling, and caused you to forego the pleasures of home, that you might be a blessing to others, who are candidates for immortality, but strangers to truth, and for so doing, I pray that heaven's choicest blessings may rest upon you.

Being requested to give my advice respecting the propriety of your returning in the spring, I will do so willingly. I have reflected on the subject some time, and am of the opinion that it would be wisdom in you to make preparations to leave the scene of your labors in the spring. Having carried the testimony to that land, and numbers having received it, the leaven can now spread without your being obliged to stay.

Another thing—there have been whisperings of the Spirit that {228} there will be some agitations, excitements, and trouble in the land in which you are now laboring. I would therefore say, in the meantime be diligent: organize the churches, and let everyone stand in his proper place, so that those who cannot come with you in the spring, may not be left as sheep without a shepherd.

I would likewise observe, that inasmuch as this place has been appointed for the gathering of the Saints, it is necessary that it should be attended to in the order that the Lord intends it should. To this end I would say, that as there are great numbers of the Saints in England who are extremely poor, and not accustomed to the farming business, who must have certain preparations made for them before they can support themselves in this country, therefore to prevent confusion and disappointment when they arrive here, let those men who are accustomed to make machinery, and those who can command capital, though it be small, come here as soon as convenient, and put up machinery, and make such other preparations as may be necessary, so that when the poor come on, they may have employment to come to. This place has advantages for manufacturing and commercial purposes, which but very few can boast of; and the establishing of cotton factories, foundries, potteries, &c., would be the means of bringing in wealth, and raising it to a very important elevation.

I need not occupy more space on this subject, as its reasonableness must be obvious to every mind.

In my former epistle I told you my mind respecting the printing of the Book of Mormon, hymn-book, &c. I have been favored by receiving a hymn-book from you, and as far as I have examined it, I highly approve of it, and think it to be a very valuable collection. I am informed that the Book of Mormon is likewise printed, which I am glad to hear, and should be pleased to hear that it was printed in all the different languages of the earth. You can use your own pleasure respecting the printing of the Doctrine and Covenants. If there is a great demand for it, I have no objections, but would rather encourage it.

I can say, that as far as I have been made acquainted with your movements, I am perfectly satisfied that they have been in wisdom; and I have no doubt, but that the Spirit of the Lord has directed you; and this proves to my mind that you have been humble, and your desires have been for the salvation of your fellow man, and not for your own aggrandizement, and selfish interests. As long as the Saints manifest such a disposition, their counsels will be approved of, and their exertions crowned with success.

There are many things of much importance, on which you ask counsel, but which I think you will be perfectly able to decide upon, as you are more conversant with the peculiar circumstances than I am; and I {229} feel great confidence in your united wisdom; therefore you will excuse me for not entering into detail. If I should see anything that is wrong, I would take the privilege of making known my mind to you, and pointing out the evil.

If Elder Parley P. Pratt should wish to remain in England some time longer than the rest of the Twelve, he will feel himself at liberty to do so, as his family are with him, consequently his circumstances are somewhat different from the rest; and likewise it is necessary that someone should remain who is conversant with the rules and regulations of the Church, and continue the paper which is published. Consequently, taking all these things into consideration, I would not press it upon Brother Pratt to return in the spring.

I am happy to inform you that we are prospering in this place, and that the Saints are more healthy than formerly; and from the decrease of sickness this season, when compared with the last, I am led to the conclusion that this must eventually become a healthy place. There are at present about 3,000 inhabitants in Nauvoo, and numbers are flocking in daily. Several stakes have been set off in different parts of the country, which are in prosperous circumstances.

Provisions are much lower than when you left. Flour is about $4 per barrel. Corn and potatoes about 25 cents per bushel; and other things in proportion. There has been a very plentiful harvest throughout the Union.

You will observe, by the Times and Seasons, that we are about building a temple for the worship of our God in this place. Preparations are now making; every tenth day is devoted by the brethren for quarrying rock, &c. We have secured one of the most lovely situations for it in this region of country. It is expected to be considerably larger than the one in Kirtland, and on a more magnificent scale, and which will undoubtedly attract the attention of the great men of the earth.

We have a bill before the legislature for the incorporation of the city of Nauvoo, and for the establishment of a seminary of learning, and other purposes—which I expect will pass in a short time.

You will also receive intelligence of the death of my father; which event, although painful to the family and to the Church generally, yet the sealing testimony of the truth of the work of the Lord was indeed satisfactory. Brother Hyrum succeeds him as Patriarch of the Church, according to his last directions and benedictions.[1]

{230} Several persons of eminence and distinction in society have joined the Church and become obedient to the faith; and I am happy to inform you that the work is spreading very fast upon this continent. Some of the brethren are now in New Orleans, and we expect a large gathering from the south. I have had the pleasure of welcoming about one hundred brethren who came with Brother Turley; the remainder I am informed stayed in Kirtland, not having means to get any further. I think that those who came here this fall, did not take the best possible route, or the least expensive. Most of the brethren have obtained employment of one kind or another, and appear tolerably well contented, and seem disposed to hearken to counsel.

Brothers Robinson and Smith lately had a letter from Elders Kimball, Smith and Woodruff, which gave us information of the commencement of the work of the Lord in the city of London, which I was glad to hear. I am likewise informed that Elders have gone to Australia and to the East Indies. I feel desirous that every providential opening of the kind should be filled, and that you should, prior to your leaving England, send the Gospel into as many parts as you possibly can.

Beloved brethren, you must be aware in some measure of my feelings, when I contemplate the great work which is now rolling on, and the relationship which I sustain to it, while it is extending to distant lands, and thousands are embracing it. I realize in some measure my responsibility, and the need I have of support from above, and wisdom from on high, that I may be able to teach this people, which have now become a great people, the principles of righteousness, and lead them agreeably to the will of Heaven; so that they may be perfected, and prepared to meet the Lord Jesus Christ when He shall appear in great glory. Can I rely on your prayers to our heavenly Father on my behalf, and on all the prayers of all my brethren and sisters in England, (whom having not seen, yet I love), that I may be enabled to escape every stratagem of Satan, surmount every difficulty, and bring this people to the enjoyment of those blessings which are reserved for the righteous? I ask this at your hands in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ.

Let the Saints remember that great things depend on their individual exertion, and that they are called to be co-workers with us and the Holy Spirit in accomplishing the great work of the last days; and in consideration of the extent, the blessings and glories of the same, let {231} every selfish feeling be not only buried, but annihilated; and let love to God and man predominate, and reign triumphant in every mind, that their hearts may become like unto Enoch's of old, and comprehend all things, present, past and future, and come behind in no gift, waiting for the coming of the Lord Jesus Christ.

The work in which we are unitedly engaged is one of no ordinary kind. The enemies we have to contend against are subtle and well skilled in maneuvering; it behooves us to be on the alert to concentrate our energies, and that the best feelings should exist in our midst; and then, by the help of the Almighty, we shall go on from victory to victory, and from conquest to conquest; our evil passions will be subdued, our prejudices depart; we shall find no room in our bosoms for hatred; vice will hide its deformed head, and we shall stand approved in the sight of heaven, and be acknowledged the sons of God.

Let us realize that we are not to live to ourselves, but to God; by so doing the greatest blessings will rest upon us both in time and in eternity.

I presume the doctrine of "baptism for the dead" has ere this reached your ears, and may have raised some inquiries in your minds respecting the same. I cannot in this letter give you all the information you may desire on the subject; but aside from knowledge independent of the Bible, I would say that it was certainly practiced by the ancient churches; and St. Paul endeavors to prove the doctrine of the resurrection from the same, and says, "Else what shall they do which are baptized for the dead, if the dead rise not at all? Why are they then baptized for the dead?"

I first mentioned the doctrine in public when preaching the funeral sermon of Brother Seymour Brunson; and have since then given general instructions in the Church on the subject. The Saints have the privilege of being baptized for those of their relatives who are dead, whom they believe would have embraced the Gospel, if they had been privileged with hearing it, and who have received the Gospel in the spirit, through the instrumentality of those who have been commissioned to preach to them while in prison.

Without enlarging on the subject, you will undoubtedly see its consistency and reasonableness; and it presents the Gospel of Christ in probably a more enlarged scale than some have imagined it. But as the performance of this rite is more particularly confined to this place, it will not be necessary to enter into particulars; at the same time I always feel glad to give all the information in my power, but my space will not allow me to do it.

We had a letter from Elder Hyde, a few days ago, who is in New Jersey, and is expecting to leave for England as soon as Elder Page {232} reaches him. He requested to know if converted Jews are to go to Jerusalem or to come to Zion. I therefore wish you to inform him that converted Jews must come here.

Give my kind love to all the brethren and sisters, and tell them I should have been pleased to come over to England to see them, but I am afraid that I shall be under the necessity of remaining here for some time; therefore I give them a pressing invitation to come and see me.

I remain, dear brethren, yours affectionately,

Joseph Smith.


1. The last "directions and benedictions" of the Patriarch Joseph Smith, Sen., here referred to, are stated by "Mother Lucy Smith" in her book, "History of the Prophet Joseph" as follows:

"My son Hyrum, I seal upon your head your patriarchal blessing, which I placed upon your head before, for that shall be verified. In addition to this, I now give you my dying blessing. You shall have a season of peace, so that you shall have sufficient rest to accomplish the work which God has given you to do. You shall be as firm as the pillars of heaven unto the end of your days. I now seal upon your head the patriarchal power, and you shall bless the people. This is my dying blessing upon your head in the name of Jesus. Amen."—History of the Prophet Joseph Smith, p. 266.


Chapter XIII.

Introduction of the Gospel in the Isle of Man—The Nauvoo Charter.

Wednesday, October 21, 1840.—Elder Lorenzo Snow arrived in Manchester, England, from Nauvoo.

Thursday, 22.—The committee appointed by the general conference of the Church at Nauvoo on the 3rd inst., (my brother Hyrum presiding) organized a Stake at Lima this evening, by appointing Isaac Morley, president; John Murdock and Walter Cox, his counselors; also a Bishop's Court composed of Gardner Snow, Clark Hulet and Henry Dean, with James C. Snow, clerk.

Friday, 23.—Gardner Snow was ordained Bishop under the hands of Hyrum Smith.

Sunday, 25.—The committee organized a Stake at Quincy. The presidency were Daniel Stanton, Stephen Jones and Ezra T. Benson; the latter was ordained a High Priest; also bishop and counselors, George W. Crouse, Azariah Dustin, and Sylvester B. Stoddard.

Tuesday, 27.—The committee organized a Stake called Mount Hope, at the steam mills, Columbus, Adams county. President and counselors were Abel Lamb, Sherman Gilbert and John Smith. Bishop and counselors, were Daniel A. Miller, Isaac Clark, and John Allen; Simeon J. Comfort, clerk.

At Freedom Stake, near Payson, Adams county, Henry W. Miller, Duncan McArthur, and William Tenney were appointed to preside. Bishop and counselors, Matthew Leach, Horra Kimball, and Jacob Foutz.

Wednesday 28.—[On this date a long communication {234} was sent to the editors of the Times and Seasons signed by Heber C. Kimball, Wilford Woodruff and George A. Smith, detailing their visit to various places in London, but as the communication does not in any way bear upon the incidents of the history of the Church, it is thought unnecessary to publish the letter in extenso. The following paragraph from the letter, however, it is thought should be preserved, because it refers to the liberty the Elders of the Church incidentally enjoyed while engaged in the ministry; and also because it breathes that spirit of liberty in the pursuit of knowledge characteristic of the work of God in the last days.—Editors.]

We consider it perfectly consistent with our calling, with reason and revelation that we should form a knowledge of kingdoms and countries whether at home or abroad, whether ancient or modern, whether of things past or present or to come; whether it be in heaven, earth or hell, air or seas; or whether we obtain this knowledge by being local or traveling, by study or by faith, by dreams or by visions, by revelation or by prophecy, it mattereth not unto us; if we can but obtain a correct [view of] principles, and knowledge of things as they are, in their true light, past, present and to come. It is under such a view of things that we are endeavoring to avail ourselves of every opportunity in our travels among the nations of the earth, to record an account of things as they pass under our observation.

Thursday, 29.—Elder Woodruff preached twice in London, and baptized three.

Friday, 30.—Elder Lorenzo Snow had a discussion with Mr. Barker, a Methodist minister, at Hill Top, near Birmingham, and baptized two.

Sunday, 31.—I copy the following from the Manx Liberal of this date:

Mormonism in the Isle of Man.

To the Editor of the Manx Liberal:

Sir—I feel rather surprised and chagrined that the modern delusion, viz., "Mormonism," should have made such rapid strides in this town, hitherto considered exempt from the many systems of irreligious creeds which abound in England, America, and elsewhere. I had thought that {235} the powerful and argumentative addresses of the dissenting ministers would have checked such a gross piece of imposition in its infancy, and thus prevented the great mass of our town's people from becoming dupes of designing knaves, "and being led away by every wind of doctrine." Above all, I imagined the two pamphlets issued by that holy, religious and devout man of God, Mr. Hays, Wesleyan minister, (to which connection I have the happiness and honor to belong) would have been quite sufficient to prove the fallacy of such a system, and prevent its further spread. But, sir, alas! alas! the case is quite the reverse; numbers continually flock to the Wellington room, and listen with eagerness to the principles there advocated. The members of our society (Methodists) seem to be most conspicuous in sanctioning and promoting this vile and abominable doctrine.

Oh, sir, the result to our connection will be dreadful! the havoc tremendous; just think of the majority of our leading and intelligent men aiding and abetting a cause of this description! Oh, sir, lamentable and heart-rending to witness the beaming countenances, and smiles of approbation displayed recently at Taylor's meeting! I could enumerate a host of our members who regularly attend those anti-Christian meetings; but I will just mention, with your permission, the names of a few who attended one of the last meetings. (Here followed a list of names.)

O! Mr. Editor! I quake for the consequence; such a wholesale conversion to Mormonism was never before witnessed in any town or country. What will become of our society? What will become of our class meetings? What will become of our brethren in the faith? And above all, what will become of poor Mr. Hays[1] that nice and humble man, who so nobly stood forward to expose the errors of the Mormon system; God bless him and preserve him from want! But, Mr. Editor, what makes the case worse is, that a rumor is prevalent that all these pious men are to be baptized! That is duly immersed in the salt water of Douglas Bay, by that abominable creature, Taylor! Surely, there must be something enchanting about the vile man. Immersion! (my hand shakes while I write) and in winter, too! Oh, sir! the thought chills my very soul; surely this American dipper intends to drown them; he can have no other object in view, therefore, brethren of the Methodist society, beware! Drowning is not to be envied, and that too in your sins. Besides, what would the venerable John Wesley, (if he {236} were alive) say to such conduct? What will the conference say? And what will the world say? I leave these questions to yourselves to answer. In conclusion, brethren, I recommend you to read, mark, learn and inwardly digest the things which belong to your eternal peace, and listen no longer to the follies of men.

A Staunch Wesleyan.

Duke Street, Douglas, 29th Oct.

Sunday, November 1, 1840.—The committee organized a Stake, Geneva, Morgan county, Illinois, and called it Geneva Stake; presidents—William Bosley, Howard S. Smith, and Samuel Fowler. Bishop's Court—Gardner Clark, Moses Clare, and David Orton.

Elder Levi Richards arrived in Manchester.

Tuesday, 3.—The English bombarded St. Jean D'Acre, during which a powder magazine exploded, killing over two thousand men.

Thursday, 5.—The committee organized a Stake of the Church at Springfield; presidents—Edwin P. Merriam, Isaac H. Bishop, and Arnold Stephens. Bishop's Court—Abraham Palmer, Henry Stephens, and Jonathan Palmer.

Monday, 9.—Elder George A. Smith received counsel to leave London and go to Staffordshire for his health, as he had injured his lungs by preaching in the streets, so that he discharged considerable blood from them.

Tuesday, 10.—Elder Smith took leave of Elder Woodruff and traveled to Birmingham, met Elder Alfred Cordon, preached and baptized five in the evening.

Opposition to the Work in England.

Thursday, 12.—The Weekly Dispatch, England, having published a sarcastic article against the Saints in that country, and blaming the Bishop of Gloucester, and his tithe-fattened clergy for allowing the "Mormons" to delude and baptize five hundred in his Diocese, Elder Wilford Woodruff replied to this, but the Dispatch refused to publish his reply.

Saturday, 21.—Elders Young, Kimball and Richards, visited the Church at Bolton.

{237} Thursday, 26.—Elders Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, and George A. Smith preached to the Saints in Hanley this day, and on the 27th at Stoke-upon-Trent.

Saturday, 28.—Elders Young and Kimball left for London.

Elders Elias Higbee and Robert B. Thompson, the committee appointed at the October Conference, wrote a petition to Congress for the redress of the grievances of the Latter-day Saints in Missouri, setting forth their wrongs and sufferings, in substance the same as my petition in connection with Elias Higbee and Sidney Rigdon, of the 28th day of November, 1839.

Thursday, December 3.—Elders Young, Kimball and Woodruff visited the tower of London, the Horse Armory, Jewel Room and the Thames Tunnel.

Friday, 4.—Elders Young and Woodruff visited Buckingham Palace and Westminster Abbey.

Excommunication of Sidney Roberts.

There was a conference in New York City, Elder Orson Hyde presiding. The revelations of Elder Sidney Roberts were objected to, which were that a certain brother must give him a suit of clothes, and a gold watch, the best that could be had, also his saluting the sisters with holy kiss. Elder Roberts justified himself in these things. Much good counsel was given him, but he said he knew the revelations he had received were from God, and would make no confession; consequently the conference cut him off, and demanded his license, which he refused to give up.

Elder John Taylor has been preaching and baptizing for some time in the Isle of Man, where the work is now progressing.

Saturday, 5.—Elder Brigham Young writes as follows:

Letter of Brigham Young to the Presidency, Detailing Movements of the Mission in England.

No. 40, Ironmonger Row, St. Luke's, December 5th, 1840.

Beloved Brethren—I have just returned from a walk with Brothers Kimball and Woodruff. We have only been as far as St. Paul's and {238} returned by Smithfield Market about three miles. Brother Kimball and myself had fine weather for our journey here; it was a beautiful day that we left Macclesfield for Burslem. We found the brethren in Macclesfield in good spirits, and in a good state as to appearance. They appear to be well suited with Brother James Galley; I think he will be a useful man in this kingdom. We found Brother George A. Smith in Burslem, not in the best of health. He is like the rest of us, the climate does not agree with him; he is affected with a bleeding at the lungs. We stayed with him at the Potteries. I preached two evenings. The Church is in a good state; some of the members have a pretty hard time of it. Brother Smith will stay there for the present.

Saturday, 28th, left for the next stopping place in Grets Green, where we spent the Sabbath. On Saturday evening we called to see Sister Roden, Father Patrick's daughter; she was very glad to see us, and wanted we should stay all night. Her husband was very kind to us, and bid us or other Elders welcome to his house at any time. We could not stay; took tea with them, and agreed to send Elder Lorenzo Snow there if he could come; blessed them, and left them. I preached in the morning to the Saints in Grets Green, stayed afternoon meeting, and then walked to Birmingham; was very tired; heard Elder Snow preach; he is a nice young man, I think. Brother Kimball also spoke to the people after Brother Snow had got through. We found Brother Robert Williams here; he opened the meeting; he seems to be full of the Spirit.

On Monday at 12 o'clock, Brother Kimball and myself took the railway. Brother Williams started on foot for London. We arrived here on Monday evening about six o'clock; found Brother Woodruff well and in good spirits. We have been pretty busy since we have been here.

Brigham Young.

A great part of the city of Messina, Sicily, was this day destroyed by an earthquake. Such was the force of the first shock that the inhabitants of the town were buried in an instant beneath the ruins.

Sunday, 6.—Elders Young and Kimball preached in Barratt's Academy, London, and administered the sacrament in the evening.

Elder Taylor's Defense of the Work.

Monday, 7.—Elder John Taylor issued his third pamphlet in defense of the truth, against the attacks of the Rev. Robert Hays, Wesleyan Minister, Douglas, Isle of Man; the three containing thirty-five pages of closely printed matter, {239} which are a complete expose of the corruptions of the Wesleyan priesthood, and a clear illustration of the truth of the Latter-day work.

Elders Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, and Wilford Woodruff, visited the Anatomical Department of the College of Surgeons, London.

Wednesday, 9.—Elders Young and Kimball visited St. Paul's Cathedral, the Monument, London and Southwark Bridges and also the British Museum.

Thursday, 10.—Elder Levi Richards left Manchester for Herefordshire.

Sunday, 13.—I attended the High Council at my office. Robert D. Foster was on trial for lying, slandering the authorities of the Church, profane swearing, etc. Witness was examined in part and trial adjourned to the 20th.

Monday, 14.—Ebenezer Robinson and Don Carlos Smith dissolved co-partnership. The Times and Seasons is to be continued by Don Carlos Smith.

Wednesday, 16.—This day the act chartering the "City of Nauvoo," the "Nauvoo Legion," and the "University of the City of Nauvoo," was signed by the Governor, having previously passed the House and Senate. Following is the act in extenso.

An Act to Incorporate the City of Nauvoo.

Section 1. Be it enacted by the people of the State of Illinois, represented in the General Assembly, that all that district of country embraced within the following boundaries, to wit: beginning at the north east corner of section thirty-one in Township seven, north of range eight, west of the fourth principal meridian, in the county of Hancock, and running thence west to the northwest corner of said section, thence north to the Mississippi river, thence west to the middle of the main channel of the said river; thence down the middle of said channel to a point due west of the southeast corner of fractional section number twelve in township six, north of range nine, west of the fourth principal meridian, thence east to the southeast corner of said section twelve, thence north on the range line between township six north, and range eight and nine west, to the southwest corner of section six in township six north of range eight west, thence east to the southeast corner of {240} said section, thence north to the place of beginning, including the town plats of Commerce and Nauvoo, shall hereafter be called and known by the name of the "City of Nauvoo," and the inhabitants thereof are hereby constituted a body corporate and politic by the name aforesaid, and shall have perpetual succession, and may have and use a common seal which they may change and alter at pleasure.

Sec. 2. Whenever any tract of land adjoining the "City of Nauvoo" shall have been laid out into town lots, and duly recorded according to law, the same shall form a part of the "City of Nauvoo."

Sec. 3. The inhabitants of said city, by the name and style aforesaid, shall have power to sue and be sued, to plead and be impleaded, defend and be defended, in all courts of law and equity, and all actions whatsoever; to purchase, receive and hold property, real and personal, in said city, to purchase, receive, and hold real property beyond the city, for burying grounds, or for other public purposes, for the use of the inhabitants of said city, to sell, lease, convey or dispose of property, real or personal, for the benefit of the city, to improve and protect such property, and to do all other things in relation thereto as natural persons.

Sec. 4. There shall be a City Council, to consist of a Mayor, four Aldermen, and nine Councilors, who shall have the qualifications of electors of said city, and shall be chosen by the qualified voters thereof, and shall hold their offices for two years, and until their successors shall be elected and qualified. The City Council shall judge of the qualifications, elections and returns of their own members, and a majority of them shall form a quorum to do business, but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and compel the attendance of absent members, under such penalties as may be prescribed by ordinance.

Sec. 5. The Mayor, Aldermen and Councilors, before entering upon the duties of their office, shall take and subscribe an oath or affirmation that they will support the Constitution of the United States, and of this State and that they will well and truly perform the duties of their offices to the best of their skill and abilities.

Sec. 6. On the first Monday of February next, and every two years thereafter, an election shall be held for the election of one Mayor, four Aldermen, and nine Councillors; and at the first election under the Act, three Judges shall be chosen viva voce by the electors present. The said Judges shall choose two Clerks, and the Judges and Clerks, before entering upon their duties, shall take and subscribe an oath or affirmation such as is now required by law to be taken by Judges or Clerks of other elections and at all subsequent elections, the necessary number of Judges and Clerks shall be appointed by the City Council. At the first election thus held, the polls shall be opened at 9 o'clock a. m. and closed at 6 o'clock p. m.; at the close of the polls the votes shall be counted {241} and a statement thereof proclaimed at the front door of the house at which said election shall be held; and the Clerks shall leave with each person elected, or at his place of residence, within five days after the election, a written notice of his election; and each person so notified shall within ten days after the election take the oath or affirmation hereinbefore mentioned, a certificate of which oath shall be deposited with the Recorder, whose appointment is hereafter provided for, and be by him preserved; and subsequent elections shall be held, conducted and returns thereof made as may be provided for by ordinance of the City Council.

Sec. 7. All free white male inhabitants, who are of the age of twenty one years, who are entitled to vote for State Officers, and who shall have been actual residents of the city sixty days next preceding said election, shall be entitled to vote for City Officers.

Sec. 8. The City Council shall have authority to levy and collect taxes, for city purposes, upon all property, real and personal, within the limits of the city, one-half per cent per annum, upon the assessed value thereof, and may enforce payment of the same in any manner, to be provided by ordinance, not repugnant to the Constitution of the United States or of this State.

Sec. 9. The City Council shall have power to appoint a Recorder, Treasurer, Assessor, Marshal, Supervisor of streets, and all such other officers as may be necessary, and to prescribe their duties and remove them from office at pleasure.

Sec. 10. The City Council shall have power to require, of all officers appointed in pursuance of this Act, bonds, with penalty and security, for the faithful performance of their respective duties, such as may be deemed expedient; and also to require all officers appointed as aforesaid, to take an oath for the faithful performance of the duties of their respective offices.

Sec. 11. The City Council shall have power and authority to make, ordain, establish and execute all such ordinances, not repugnant to the Constitution of the United States or of this State, as they may deem necessary for the peace, benefit, good order, regulation, convenience, and cleanliness of said city: for the protection of property therein from destruction by fire, or otherwise, and for the health and happiness thereof: they shall have power to fill all vacancies that may happen by death, resignation, or removal, in any of the offices herein made elective; to fix and establish all the fees of the office of said corporation not herein established; to impose such fines, not exceeding one hundred dollars, for each offense, as they may deem just, for refusing to accept any office under the corporation, or for misconduct therein; to divide the city into wards; to add to the number of Aldermen and Councillors, {242} and apportion them among the several wards as may be most just and conducive to the interests of the city.

Sec. 12. To license, tax, and regulate auctions, merchants, retailers, grocers, hawkers, peddlers, butchers, pawnbrokers, and money-changers.

Sec. 13. The City Council shall have exclusive power within the city, by ordinance, to license, regulate, and restrain the keeping of ferries; to regulate the police of the city; to impose fines, forfeitures, and penalties for the breach of any ordinance, and provide for the recovery of such fines and forfeitures, and the enforcement of such penalties; and to pass such ordinances, as may be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the powers specified in this Act; provided such ordinances are not repugnant to the Constitution of the United States or of this State, and in fine to exercise such other legislative powers as are conferred on the City Council of the City of Springfield, by an Act entitled an Act to Incorporate the City of Springfield, approved February 3rd, 1840.

Sec. 14. All ordinances passed by the City Council shall, within one month after they shall have been passed, be published in some newspaper printed in the city, or certified copies thereof be posted up in three of the most public places in the city.

Sec. 15. All ordinances of the city may be proven by the seal of the corporation, and when printed or published in book or pamphlet form purporting to be printed or published by authority of the corporation, the same shall be received in evidence in all courts or places without further proof.

Sec. 16. The Mayor and Aldermen shall be conservators of the peace within the limits of said city, and shall have all the powers of Justices of the Peace therein, both in civil and criminal cases, arising under the laws of the State; they shall, as Justices of the Peace, within the limits of said city, perform the same duties, be governed by the same laws, give the same bonds and security, as other Justices of the Peace, and be commissioned as Justices of the Peace in and for said city by the Governor.

Sec. 17. The Mayor shall have exclusive jurisdiction in all cases arising under the ordinances of the corporation, and shall issue such process as may be necessary to carry such ordinances into execution and effect; appeals may be had from any decision or judgment of said Mayor or Aldermen, arising under the city ordinances, to the Municipal Court, under such regulations as may be presented by ordinance; which court shall be composed of the Mayor as Chief Justice, and the Aldermen as Associate Justices, and from the final judgment of the Municipal Court to the Circuit Court of Hancock county, in the same manner of appeals {243} are taken from judgments of the Justices of the Peace; provided that the parties litigant shall have a right to a trial by a jury of twelve men in all cases before the Municipal Court. The Municipal Court shall have power to grant writs of habeas corpus in all cases arising under the ordinances of the City Council.

Sec. 18. The Municipal Court shall sit on the first Monday of every month, and the City Council at such times and place as may be prescribed by city ordinance; special meetings of which may at any time be called by the Mayor or any two Aldermen.

Sec. 19. All process issued by the Mayor, Aldermen, or Municipal Court, shall be directed to the Marshal, and, in the execution thereof, he shall be governed by the same laws as are or may be prescribed for the direction and compensation of constables in similar cases. The Marshal shall also perform such other duties as may be required of him under the ordinances of said city, and shall be the principal ministerial officer.

Sec. 20. It shall be the duty of the Recorder to make and keep accurate records of all ordinances made by the City Council, and of all their proceedings in their corporate capacity, which record shall at all times be open to the inspection of the electors of said city, and shall perform such other duties as may be required of him by the ordinances of the City Council, and shall serve as Clerk of the Municipal Court.

Sec. 21. When it shall be necessary to take private property for the opening, widening, or altering any public street, lane, avenue, or alley, the corporation shall make a just compensation therefor to the person whose property is to be taken, and if the amount of such compensation cannot be agreed upon, the Mayor shall cause the same to be ascertained by a jury of six disinterested freeholders of the city.

Sec. 22. All jurors compelled to inquire into the amount of benefits or damages that shall happen to the owners of property so proposed to be taken, shall first be sworn to that effect, and shall return to the Mayor their inquest in writing, signed by each juror.

Sec. 23. In case the Mayor shall at any time be guilty of a palpable omission of duty, or shall wilfully, and corruptly be guilty of oppression, mal conduct, or partiality, in the discharge of the duties of his office, he shall be liable to be indicted in the Circuit Court of Hancock county, and on conviction he shall be fined not more than two hundred dollars, and the Court shall have power on the recommendation of the jury to add to the judgment of the Court that he be removed from office.

Sec. 24. The City Council may establish and organize an institution of learning within the limits of the city, for the teaching of the Arts, Sciences, and Learned Professions, to be called the "University of the City of Nauvoo," which institution shall be under the control and {244} management of a Board of Trustees, consisting of a Chancellor, Registrar, and twenty-three Regents, which Board shall thereafter be a body corporate and politic, with perpetual succession by the name of the "Chancellor and Regents of the University of the City of Nauvoo," and shall have full power to pass, ordain, establish, and execute, all such laws and ordinances as they may consider necessary for the welfare and prosperity of said University, its officers and students; provided that the said laws and ordinances shall not be repugnant to the Constitution of the United States, or of this State; and provided also, that the Trustees shall at all times be appointed by the City Council, and shall have all the powers and privileges for the advancement of the cause of education which appertain to the Trustees of any other College or University of this State.

Sec. 25. The City Council may organize the inhabitants of said city, subject to military duty, into a body of independent military men, to be called the "Nauvoo Legion," the Court Martial of which shall be composed of the commissioned officers of said Legion, and constitute the law-making department, with full power and authority to make, ordain, establish, and execute all such laws and ordinances as may be considered necessary for the benefit, government, and regulation of said Legion; provided said Court Martial shall pass no law or act, repugnant to, or inconsistent with, the Constitution of the United States, or of this State; and provided also that the officers of the Legion shall be commissioned by the Governor of the State. The said Legion shall perform the same amount of military duty as is now or may be hereafter required of the regular militia of the State, and shall be at the disposal of the Mayor in executing the laws and ordinances of the city corporation, and the laws of the State, and at the disposal of the Governor for the public defense, and the execution of the laws of the State or of the United States, and shall be entitled to their proportion of the public arms; and provided also, that said Legion shall be exempt from all other military duty.

Sec. 26. The inhabitants of the city of Nauvoo are hereby exempted from working on any road beyond the limits of the city, and for the purpose of keeping the streets, lanes, avenues, and alleys in repair, to require of the male inhabitants of said city, over the age of twenty-one, and under fifty years, to labor on said streets, lanes, avenues, and alleys, not exceeding three days in each year; any person failing to perform such labor, when duly notified by the Supervisor, shall forfeit and pay the sum of one dollar per day for each day so neglected or refused.

Sec. 27. The City Council shall have power to provide for the punishment of offenders by imprisonment in the county or city jail, in all cases when such offenders shall fail or refuse to pay the fines and forfeitures, which may be recovered against them.

{245} Sec. 28. This Act is hereby declared to be a public Act, and shall take effect on the first Monday of February next.

Wm. L. D. Ewing,

Speaker of the House of Representatives.

S. H. Anderson,

Speaker of the Senate.

Approved Dec. 16, 1840.

Thos. Carlin.

State of Illinois, Office of Secretary of State.

I, Stephen A. Douglas, Secretary of State, do hereby certify that the foregoing is a true and perfect copy of the enrolled law now on file in my office.

Witness my hand, and Seal of State, at Springfield, this 18th day of December, 1840.

[L. S.]

S. A. Douglas.

Secretary of State.

The following are the Legislative powers alluded to in the 13th section of the foregoing Act, as pertaining to the City Council of the City of Springfield, and which consequently became a part of the Charter of the City of Nauvoo, to wit:

Of the Legislative Powers of the City Council.

Sec. 1. The City Council shall have powers and authority to levy and collect taxes upon all property, real and personal, within the city, not exceeding one-half per cent., per annum, upon the assessed valuation thereof, and may enforce the payment of the same in any manner prescribed by ordinance, not repugnant to the Constitution of the United States and of this State.

Sec. 2. The City Council shall have power to require of all officers appointed in pursuance of the Charters, bonds with penalty and security for the faithful performance of their respective duties as may be deemed expedient, and also to require all officers appointed as aforesaid, to take an oath for the faithful performance of the duties of their respective offices upon entering upon the discharge of the same.

Sec. 3. To establish, support, and regulate common schools, to borrow money on the credit of the city; provided, that no sum or sums of money shall be borrowed at a greater interest than six per cent per annum, nor shall the interest on the aggregate of all the sums borrowed and outstanding ever exceed one half of the city revenue, arising for taxes assessed on real property within the corporation.

{246} Sec. 4. To make regulations to prevent the introduction of contagious diseases into the city, to make Quarantine Laws for that purpose, and enforce the same.

Sec. 5. To appropriate and provide for the payment of the debt and expenses of the city.

Sec. 6. To establish hospitals, and make regulations for the government of the same.

Sec. 7. To make regulations to secure the general health of the inhabitants, to declare what shall be a nuisance, and to prevent and remove the same.

Sec. 8. To provide the city with water, to dig wells and erect pumps in the streets for the extinguishment of fires, and convenience of the inhabitants.

Sec. 9. To open, alter, widen, extend, establish, grade, pave, or otherwise improve and keep in repair streets, avenues, lanes, and alleys.

Sec. 10. To establish, erect, and keep in repair bridges.

Sec. 11. To divide the city into wards, and specify the boundaries thereof, and create additional wards, as the occasion may require.

Sec. 12. To provide for lighting the streets and erecting lamp posts.

Sec. 13. To establish, support, and regulate night watches.

Sec. 14. To erect market houses, establish markets, and market places, and provide for the government and regulation thereof.

Sec. 15. To provide for erecting all needful buildings for the use of the city.

Sec. 16. To provide for enclosing, improving, and regulating all public grounds belonging to the city.

Sec. 17. To license, tax, and regulate auctioneers, merchants, and retailers, grocers, taverns ordinaries, hawkers, peddlers, brokers, pawnbrokers, and money changers.

Sec. 18. To license, tax, and regulate hackney carriages, wagons, carts and drays, and fix the rates to be charged for the carriage of persons, and for the wagonage, cartage and drayage of property.

Sec. 19. To license and regulate porters and fix the rates of porterage.

Sec. 20. To license and regulate theatrical and other exhibitions, shows and amusements.

Sec. 21. To tax, restrain, prohibit, and suppress, tippling houses, dram shops, gaming houses, bawdy and other disorderly houses.

Sec. 22. To provide for the prevention and extinguishment of fires, and to organize and establish fire companies.

Sec. 23. To regulate the fixing of chimneys, and the flues thereof, and stove pipes.

{247} Sec. 24. To regulate the storage of gunpowder, tar, pitch, rosin, and other combustible materials.

Sec. 25. To regulate and order parapet walls, and partition fences.

Sec. 26. To establish standard weights and measures, and regulate the weights and measures to be used in the city in all other cases not provided for by law.

Sec. 27. To provide for the inspection and measuring of lumber and other building materials, and for the measurement of all kinds of mechanical work.

Sec. 28. To provide for the inspection and weighing of hay, lime, and stone coal, the measuring of charcoal, firewood, and other fuel, to be sold or used within the city.

Sec. 29. To provide for and regulate the inspection of tobacco, and of beef, pork, flour, meal, and whiskey in barrels.

Sec. 30. To regulate the weight, quality, and price of bread, sold, and used in the city.

Sec. 31. To provide for taking the enumeration of the inhabitants of the city.

Sec. 32. To regulate the election of city officers, and provide for removing from office any person holding an office created by ordinance.

Sec. 33. To fix the compensation of all city officers, and regulate the fees of jurors, witnesses, and others, for services rendered under this Act or any ordinance.

Sec. 34. To regulate the police of the city, to impose fines, and forfeitures, and penalties, for the breach of any ordinance, and provide for the recovery and appropriation of such fines and forfeitures, and the enforcement of such penalties.

Sec. 35. The City Council shall have exclusive power within the city by ordinance, to license, regulate, and suppress, and restrain, billiard tables, and from one to twenty pin alleys, and every other description of gaming or gambling.

Sec. 36. The City Council shall have power to make all ordinances which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the powers specified in this Act, so that such ordinances be not repugnant to nor inconsistent with, the constitution of the United States or of this state.

Sec. 37. The style of the ordinances of the city shall be—"Be it ordained by the city council of the city of Springfield—[Nauvoo]."

Sec. 38. All ordinances passed by the city council shall, within one month after they shall have been passed, be published in some newspaper published in the city, and shall not be in force until they shall have been published as aforesaid.

Sec. 39. All ordinances of the city may be proven by the seal of the {248} corporation, and when printed and published by authority of the corporation, the same shall be received in evidence in all courts and places without further proof.

John C. Bennett who had been delegated to Springfield to carry our petition for a City Charter, announced the passage of the bill, as follows—

Letter of John C. Bennett to the "Times and Seasons"—Announcing the passage of the act incorporating Nauvoo.

City Of Springfield, December 16, 1840.

Editors of the Times and Seasons:

The act incorporating the city of Nauvoo has just passed the council of revision, and is now a law of the land, to take effect and be in force from and after the first Monday in February next. The aforesaid act contains two additional charters—one incorporating the "Nauvoo Legion," the other the "University of the city of Nauvoo."

All these charters are very broad and liberal, conferring the most plenary powers on the corporators. Illinois has acquitted herself with honor, and her state legislators shall never be forgotten. Every power we asked has been granted, every request gratified, every desire fulfilled. In the senate Mr. Little cancelled every obligation to our people, and faithfully, and honestly, and with untiring diligence, discharged every obligation devolving upon him as our immediate representative in the Upper House. Mark well that man, and do him honor. Snyder, and Ralston, and Moore, and Ross, and Stapp, and numerous others, likewise in that branch of our state government, rendered as very essential services; and the act passed that body without a dissenting voice.

In the House of Representatives, Charles, our immediate Representative in the Lower House, was at his post and discharged his duty as a faithful representative; he is an acting, and not a talking man, and has fulfilled all his obligations to us. Many members in this house, likewise, were warmly in our favor; and with only one or two dissenting voices, every representative appeared inclined to extend to us all such powers as they considered us justly entitled to, and voted for the law; and here I should not forget to mention, that Lincoln,[2] whose name we erased from the electoral ticket in November (not however on account of any dislike to him as a man, but simply because his was the last name on the ticket, and we desired to show our friendship to the Democratic {249} party by substituting the name of Ralston for some one of the Whigs) had the magnanimity to vote for our act, and came forward, after the final vote to the bar of the house, and cordially congratulated me on its passage.

Our worthy governor is certainly disposed to do us ample justice in every respect, and to extend to us every facility for our future happiness and prosperity.

Illinois has certainly done her duty, and her whole duty; and now it becomes us to show ourselves upright, honest, just, worthy of the favors bestowed by noble, generous, and magnanimous statesmen, I have said that we are a law-abiding people, and we must now show it. The state has washed her hands in granting all our petitions, and if we do not now show ourselves approved, the curse must fall upon our own heads. Justice, equal justice, should be our fixed object and purpose, and the Great God will prosper us; length of days will be in our right hand, and in our left, glory and honor.

Yours, &c.,

John C. Bennett.

The City Charter of Nauvoo is of my own plan and device. I concocted it for the salvation of the Church, and on principles so broad, that every honest man might dwell secure under its protective influence without distinction of sect or party.


1. Elder Taylor was also opposed by Rev. Thomas Hamilton, whom he met in a public debate and easily vanquished. "No great honor, however," says Elder Taylor in his account of the affair, "as he was a very ignorant man." Elder Taylor secured for his meeting place the Wellington rooms, and from the platform he answered all who opposed him, and succeeded, despite all opposition, in organizing a branch of the Church in Douglas.

2. This doubtless refers to Abraham Lincoln who was then a member of the legislature. See Nicolay and Hay's Abraham Lincoln, Vol. I, p. 42 et seq.



Vale 1840—Enter 1841—List of Publications for and against the Church—Whereabouts of the Twelve Apostles—"Election and Reprobation"—Proclamation to the Saints.

The acquittal of R.D. Foster.

Sunday, December 20, 1840.—I was called upon by the High Council to decide the adjourned case of Robert D. Foster. Having heard the witnesses, I decided that he be acquitted of the charges against him, which decision the Council approved.[1]

An Objector Put Down.

This is a fair specimen of the wisdom of the nineteenth century that opposes itself to the work of the Most High God.

"Your preacher preaches false doctrine," exclaimed a sectarian in Manchester to one of the Saints. "Ah!" inquired the other, "wherein does he teach false doctrine?" "Why, in telling the people to go to America, to be sure," said the sectarian; "and" continued he, "there is nothing in the Bible that commands people to go to America." "Ah!" replied the other, "and there is nothing in the Bible that commands people to stop in Manchester; so I wonder how you dare stay in so unscriptural a place another night; for certainly no one ought to live in England unless they can find scripture for it, any more than in America."

Monday, 21.—The petition of Elias Higbee, and Robert B. Thompson, under date of 28th November, 1840, was presented to the House of Representatives of the United {251} States, referred to the Committee on the Judiciary, and ordered to be printed.

Friday, 25.—Elders Brigham Young and George A. Smith attended a conference at Hanley, Staffordshire Potteries, at which was represented an increase of six Elders, twenty-six Priests, ten Teachers, nine deacons, and three hundred and fifty-six members, since last July Conference; and also ordained six Elders, six Priests, four Teachers, and three Deacons.

Sunday, 27.—Elders Kimball and Woodruff occupied a chapel belonging to the Independents in London. Elder Woodruff preached.

Monday, 28.—There are ninety-five Saints in Edinburgh, Scotland, raised up by Elder Orson Pratt. Elder George D. Watt is now laboring in that place.

Wednesday, 30.—Elder Brigham Young writes from Liverpool:

Brigham Young's Letter to the Prophet Reporting Labors in England.

Beloved Brother:—I write to inform you of a few particulars of my journey to London. I left Manchester November 25th, in company with Elder Kimball; we visited the following places, viz., Macclesfield, Burslem, Hanley, Lane End, West Bromwich, and Birmingham. We traveled by coach and railway, and arrived in London on Monday 30th: found Elder Woodruff in good health. He had baptized three or four persons the day before we arrived. I stayed in London till the 11th December, when I left for Herefordshire. Brothers Woodruff and Williams came with me to the railway station. Elder Kimball stayed in London.

The prospect for the spread of the Gospel brightened up while we were there. Our feelings were very clear and decisive that Elder Kimball had better stay with Elder Woodruff. I was much interested while there with my brethren. I pray the Lord to roll on His work in that great city. I feel much for the people in that place! yea my feelings are exquisite, for why, God knows; but I believe it is for the glory of God, and the good of souls. May His name be glorified.

I arrived in Cheltenham the same day I left London—only about seven and a half hours going one hundred and one miles, thirty-eight of it by coach. I stayed over the Sabbath there; preached twice to a very attentive congregation. In the afternoon the house was full to {252} overflowing. Elder Henry Glover is preaching in this place, and in the region around with much success. I think he is a humble, good man, and will do much good. I attended the Gadfield Elm conference. The minutes of the Garway conference were read, which had been held on the 8th. After this I visited the brethren till the Stanley Hill conference, which was held on the 21st. The church in Garway numbers ninety-five members, one Elder, seven Priests, three Teachers and one Deacon. At Gadfield Elm conference there were seventeen branches represented, three hundred and twenty-seven members, thirteen Elders, thirty-one Priests, nine Teachers. The Stanley Hill conference contains twenty-five branches, which represented eight hundred and thirty-nine members, seventeen Elders, fifty-seven Priests, sixteen Teachers and one Deacon. Including officers there are in these three conferences twelve hundred and sixty-one members, thirty-one Elders, ninety-five Priests, twenty-eight Teachers and two Deacons; making two hundred and fifty-five added since the October conference.

I attended the conference in the Staffordshire Potteries on the 25th; we had a good meeting; but I have not the minutes before me, so I cannot give a particular statement of the church there, yet I can say they are prospering.

In my travels and at the conferences, there were some baptized and many ordained. We can say truly, that the Lord is doing a great work in the land. The Gospel is preached to the poor, and signs follow them that believe. I arrived in Liverpool last evening and expect to tarry here till the Book of Mormon is completed.

I am as ever, your brother in the Kingdom of Patience,

Brigham Young.

About this time, immense quantities of rain fell which produced a flood in the east and south of France, doing immense damage, carrying with it buildings, bridges and everything in its way. Earthquakes have been felt in divers places the past year; and fearful sights and bloody signs have been witnessed in the heavens, fulfilling the words of the ancient Prophets concerning the last days.

I copy the following from a printed sheet:

Signs in the Sky.

A most wonderful phenomenon was observed last week by the inhabitants of Hull and the neighborhood. A perfectly blood red flag was seen flying in the heavens, which illuminated the horizon for many miles around. At intervals it changed its form, assuming that of a {253} cross, sword and many other shapes. At one o'clock on Friday morning, the town was nearly as light as noon-day; the inhabitant were parading the streets; fear and dismay pictured in their countenances. This wonder continued until near three o'clock, when it gradually went to the westward, illuminating the Humber as it seemed to sink in her waters. Then for a few seconds all became total darkness, when from the northwest by north, arose the most beautiful light, which shot away towards the western hemisphere, leaving in its train the most beautiful and varigated colors, and which the eye might readily form into armies drawn up in the order of battle, charging and retreating alternately, and then again all was wrapped in the sable curtain of night. It appears that many signs were seen on the same night in different parts of the kingdom.

List of Books.

The following is a list of books, pamphlets, and letters published for and against the Latter-day Saints during the past year, so far as such have come under my observation:

Fourteen numbers of the Times and Seasons have been issued from the office in Nauvoo, containing two hundred and twenty-four pages, edited by Ebenezer Robinson and Don Carlos Smith, three numbers having been issued during 1839.

Eight numbers of the Millennial Star have been published at 149 Oldham Road, Manchester, England, containing two hundred and sixteen pages, edited by Elder Parley P. Pratt.

A selection of hymns was published about the first of July, in England, by Brigham Young, John Taylor, and Parley P. Pratt, for the use of the Saints in Europe.

The Rev. Robert Hays, Wesleyan minister, Douglas, Isle of Man, published three addresses in pamphlet form, against the Latter-day Saints, which were replied to in the following order:

"An Answer to Some False Statements and Misrepresentations," published by the Rev. Robert Hays, Wesleyan minister, in an address to his society in Douglas, and its vicinity on the subject of Mormonism, by John Taylor, October 7th, 1840.

{254} "Calumny Refuted, and the Truth Defended," being a reply to the second address of the Rev. Robert Hays, by John Taylor, Douglas, October 29, 1840.

"Truth Defended and Methodism Weighed in the Balances and Found Wanting," being a reply to the third address of the Rev. Robert Hays against the Latter-day Saints and also an "Exposure of the Principles of Methodism," by John Taylor, Liverpool, December 7, 1840.

"The Latter-day Saints and the Book of Mormon;" being a few words of warning against the Latter-day Saints, from a minister to his flock. W. J. Morrish, Ledbury, Herefordshire, September.

A second warning by the same W. J. Morrish, October 15th.

"A Few More Facts Relating to the Self-styled "Latter-day Saints," by John Simmons, Church of England minister, Dymock, Herefordshire, September 14th."

Several letters written by Mr. Curran, and published in the Manx Liberal, Isle of Man, in October, were replied to by John Taylor.

"Mormonism Weighed in the Balances of the Sanctuary and Found Wanting;" the substance of four lectures by Samuel Haining, published in Douglas, Isle of Man; a tract of sixty-six pages.

Interesting account of several remarkable visions, and of the late discovery of ancient American Records giving an account of the commencement of the work of the Lord in this generation, by Elder Orson Pratt, Edinburgh, September.

The Word of the Lord to the Citizens of London, of every sect and denomination; and to every individual into whose hands it may fall; showing forth the plan of salvation as laid down in the New Testament; namely, faith in our Lord Jesus Christ—Repentance—Baptism for the remission of sins—and the Gift of the Holy Ghost, by the laying on of hands, presented by Heber C. Kimball {255} and Wilford Woodruff, Elders of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

An exposure of the errors and fallacies of the self-named "Latter-day Saints." By William Hewitt, of Lane End, Staffordshire, Potteries.

An answer to Mr. William Hewitt's tract against the Latter-day Saints. By Elder Parley P. Pratt.

Plain Facts; showing the falsehood and folly of the Rev. C. Bush (the Church of England minister, of the parish of Peover, Cheshire); being a reply to his tract against the Latter-day Saints by Parley P. Pratt.

A few remarks by way of reply to an anonymous scribbler, calling himself "a Philanthropist," disabusing the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, of the slanders and falsehoods which he has attempted to fasten upon it. By Samuel Bennett, Philadelphia.

Mormonism unmasked, and Mr. Bennett's reply answered and refuted. By a Philanthropist of Chester county. Published in Philadelphia.

An Appeal to the American People; being an account of the persecutions of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and the barbarities inflicted on them by the inhabitants of the State of Missouri, sixty closely printed pages second edition revised by authority of said Church, Joseph Smith, Jun., Sidney Rigdon, Hyrum Smith, Presidency.

A Reply to Mr. Thomas Taylor's Pamphlet, entitled "Complete Failure," etc., and also to Mr. Richard Livesey's tract, "Mormonism Exposed" by Parley P. Pratt.

The editor of the London Dispatch, published an article on November 8th, against the Latter-day Saints, containing some of the false statements of Captain D. L. St. Clair, in his tract against them, which was replied to by Elder Parley P. Pratt, in the November number of the Millennial Star.

"The Millennium, and other Poems:" to which is annexed, "A Treatise on the Regeneration and Eternal {256} Duration of Matter," by Parley P. Pratt, New York.

January 1, 1841.—Elders Brigham Young, Parley P. Pratt, and John Taylor attended a conference in Liverpool.

Elders Heber C. Kimball, and Wilford Woodruff are in London.

Elder Orson Pratt in Edinburgh.

Elder George A. Smith in Burslem.

Elder Willard Richards in Preston.

Elders Orson Hyde and J. E. Page are en route for Jerusalem.

Elder William Smith, at Plymouth, Hancock county, Illinois.

The Millennial Star [No. 9, Vol. I] contains the following communication, which I have read several times. It is one of the sweetest pieces that has been written in these last days. I therefore insert it entire.

Election and Reprobation—by Brigham Young and Willard Richards.

Do you believe in election and reprobation? To prevent the necessity of repeating a thousand times what may be said at once, we purpose to answer this oft-asked question in writing, so that the Saints may learn doctrine, and all who will may understand that such election and reprobation as is taught in the Old and New Testaments, and other revelations from God, we fully believe, in connection with every other principle of righteousness; and we ask this favor of all into whose hands our answer may come, that they will not condemn until they have read it through, in the spirit of meekness and prayer.

The Lord (Jehovah) hath spoken through Isaiah (xiii:1), saying, "Behold my servant whom I uphold—mine elect in whom my soul delighteth;" evidently referring to the Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, chosen, or elected by the Father. (I Peter i:20). "Who verily was foreordained before the foundation of the world, but was manifest in these last times for you, who by Him do believe in God to serve Him in the redemption of the world, to be a covenant of the people (Isaiah xlii:6), for a light to the Gentiles, and the glory of His people Israel, having ordained Him to be the judge of the quick until dead (Acts x:42), that through Him forgiveness of sins might be preached (Acts xiii:38), unto all who would be obedient unto His Gospel." (Mark xvi:16, 17).

{257} Every High Priest must be ordained (Heb. v:1), and if Christ had not received ordination, He would not have had power to ordain others, as he did when He ordained the Twelve (Mark iii:14), to take part in the ministry which He had received of His Father; also, (John xv:16): "Ye have not chosen me, but I have chosen you, and ordained you, that ye should go and bring forth fruit; (Heb. v:4), for no man taketh this honor unto himself, but he that is called of God, as was Aaron (v:5), so also Christ glorified not Himself to be made an High Priest; but He that said unto Him, Thou art my Son, today have I begotten Thee." No being can give that which he does not possess; consequently, no man can confer the Priesthood on another, if he has not himself first received it; and the Priesthood is of such a nature that it is impossible to investigate the principles of election, reprobation, &c., without touching upon the Priesthood also; and although some may say that Christ, as God, needed no ordination, having possessed it eternally, yet Christ says, (Matt. xxviii:18), "All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth;" which could not have been if He was in eternal possession; and in the previously quoted verse we discover that He that said unto Him [i. e. His Father] glorified Him to be made an High Priest, or ordained Him to the work of creating the world and all things upon it, (Col. i:16), "For by Him were all things created that are in heaven, and that are in earth," &c., and of redeeming the same from the fall, and to the judging of the quick and dead, for the right of judging rests in the Priesthood, and it is through this medium that the Father hath committed all judgment unto the Son (John v:22), referring to His administration on earth. It was necessary that Christ should receive the Priesthood to qualify Him to minister before His Father, unto the children of men, so as to redeem and save them. Does it seem reasonable that any man should take it upon him to do a part of the same work, or to assist in the same Priesthood, who has not been called by the spirit of prophecy or revelation as was Aaron, and ordained accordingly? And can it be expected that a man will be called by revelation who does not believe in revelation? Or will any man submit to ordination for the fulfillment of a revelation or call, in which he hath no faith? We think not.

That we may learn still further that God calls or elects particular men to perform particular works, or on whom to confer special blessings, we read, (Isaiah xlv:4), "For Jacob my servant's sake, and Israel mine elect, I have even called thee [Cyrus] by thy name," to be a deliverer to my people Israel, and help to plant them on my holy mountain, (Isaiah lxv:9, see connection) "for mine elect shall inherit it, and my servants shall dwell there," even on the mountains of Palestine, the {258} land of Canaan which God had before promised to Abraham and his seed; (Gen. xvii:8), and the particular reason why Abraham was chosen or elected to be the father of this blessed nation, is clearly told by the Lord, (Gen. xviii:19), "For I know him, that he will command his children and his household after him, and they shall keep the way of the Lord, to do justice and judgment; that the Lord may bring upon Abraham that which he hath spoken of him;" and this includes the general principle of election, i. e. that God chose, elected, or ordained Jesus Christ, His Son, to be the creator, governor, savior, and judge of the world; and Abraham to be the father of the faithful, on account of His foreknowledge of their obedience to His will and commandments, which agrees with the saying in II Tim. ii:21, "If a man therefore purge himself from these [i. e. iniquities], he shall be a vessel unto honor, sanctified, and meet for the master's use, and prepared unto every good work."

Thus it appears that God has chosen or elected certain individuals to certain blessings, or to the performance of certain works; and that we may more fully understand the movements of the Supreme Governor of the universe, in the order of election, we proceed to quote the sacred writers, (Rom. viii:29, 30), "For whom He did foreknow, He also did predestinate to be conformed to the image of His Son, that He might be the firstborn among many brethren. Moreover, whom He did predestinate, them He also called: and whom He called, them He also justified: and whom He justified, them He also glorified." And whom did He foreknow? Those that loved Him, as we find in the 28th verse of the same chapter—"And we know that all things work together for good to them that love God, to them who are the called according to His purpose." And "who are the called according to His purpose?" Those whom He foreknew, for He foreknew that those who loved Him would do His will and work righteousness; and it is vain for men to say they love God, if they do not keep His commandments. Cain found it so when he presented an unrighteous offering, for God said unto him, (Gen. iv:7), "If thou dost well, shalt thou not be accepted?" And yet he was not accepted. "But whoso keepeth his word, in him verily is the love of God perfected; and hereby know we that we are in Him," (I John ii:5), or, that we "are the called according to his purpose."

The principles of God's kingdom are perfect and harmonious, and the Scriptures of truth must also agree in all their parts, so that one sentiment thereof shall not destroy another, and when we read that, "whom He did foreknow, He also did predestinate;" and that "known unto God are all His works;" so that it might appear from an abstract {259} view thereof, that God foreknew all, and consequently predestinated all "to be conformed to the image of His Son;" we ought also to read, (Mark xvi:16), "He that believeth not shall be damned;" and (John viii:14), "If ye believe not that I am he, ye shall die in your sins;" also (Matt. xxv:41), "Depart from me, ye cursed, * * * for I was an hungered, and ye gave me no meat," &c.

Paul, referring to the Saints, (Rom. 1:7), calls them beloved of God, called to be Saints; and says, (Rom. viii:1), "There is no condemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit," and goes on to show in his epistle to the Romans, that the law (the law of carnal commandments given to the children of Israel, the covenant people), could not make the comers thereunto perfect (see also Heb. x:1), but was given for a schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ (Gal. iii:24); so that when He had come and offered Himself without spot unto God (Heb. ix:14), the sacrifice of the law should be done away in him, that the honest in heart all might come unto the perfect law of liberty (James i:25); or the Gospel of Christ, walking no longer after the flesh but after the spirit, and be of that number who love God and keep His commandments, that they might be called according to His purpose (Rom. viii:28); and these were the individuals referred to, whom God foreknew; such as Abel, Seth, Enoch, Noah, Melchisedek, Abraham, Lot, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Moses, Caleb, Joshua, the harlot Rahab, who wrought righteousness by hiding the servants of God, when their lives were sought by their enemies, Gideon, Barak, Sampson, Jeptha, David, Samuel, and the Prophets; (Heb. xi), "Who through faith, subdued kingdoms, wrought righteousness, obtained promises, stopped the mouths of lions, quenched the violence of fire, escaped the edge of the sword, out of weakness were made strong, waxed valiant in fight, and turned to flight the armies of the aliens." These all died in faith, having kept the commandments of the Most High, having obtained the promise of a glorious inheritance, and are waiting the fulfillment of the promise which they obtained; (Heb. xi:40), "God having provided some better things for us, that they without us should not be made perfect."

The Prophet Alma bears a similar testimony to the other Prophets concerning election, in his 9th chapter [Book of Mormon] saying, "This is the manner after which they were ordained: being called and prepared from the foundation of the world, according to the foreknowledge of God, on account of their exceeding faith and good works; in the first place being left to choose good or evil; therefore they have chosen good, and exercising exceeding great faith, are called with a holy calling, yea, with that holy calling which was prepared with, and according to, a {260} preparatory redemption for such; and thus they have been called to this holy calling on account of their faith, while others would reject the Spirit of God on account of the hardness of their hearts and blindness of their minds, while, if it had not been for this, they might have had as great privilege as their brethren. Or in fine, in the first place, they were on the same standing with their brethren; thus, this holy calling being prepared from the foundation of the world for such as would not harden their hearts, being in and through the atonement of the only begotten Son, who was prepared; and thus being called by this holy calling, and ordained unto the high priesthood of the holy order of God, to teach His commandments unto the children of men, that they also might enter into His rest: this high priesthood being after the order of His Son, which order was from the foundation of the world: or, in other words, being without beginning of days or end of years, being prepared from eternity to all eternity, according to his foreknowledge of all things." (Rom. ix:11, 12), "For the children being not yet born, neither having done any good or evil, that the purpose of God according to election might stand, not of works, but of Him that calleth; it was said unto her, The elder shall serve the younger." As we have before shown why God chose Abraham to be the father of the faithful, viz., because He knew Abraham would command his children and his household after him; so now we see, by this, why the purposes of God, according to election, should stand, and that for His oath's sake." (Gen. xxii:16, 17, 18), "By myself have I sworn, saith the Lord, for because thou hast done this thing, and hast not withheld thy son, thine only son, that in blessing I will bless thee, and in multiplying I will multiply thy seed as the stars of heaven, and as the sand which is upon the sea shore; and thy seed shall possess the gate of his enemies, and in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed because thou hast obeyed my voice." Here the Lord Jesus, coming through the seed of Abraham, is again referred to, through whose sufferings and death, or in whom all the nations of the earth were to be blessed, or made alive, as they had died in Adam. (1 Cor. xv:22). In this, election is made manifest, for God elected or chose the children of Israel to be His peculiar people, and to them belong the covenants and promises, and the blessings received by the Gentiles come through the covenants to Abraham and his seed; for through the unbelief of the Jews (Rom. xi: 17) they were broken off, and the Gentiles were grafted in; but they stand by faith (Rom. xi: 20), and not by the oath of election; therefore it becometh them to fear lest they cease quickly to bear fruit and be broken off (verse 21) that the Jews may be grafted in again; for they shall be grafted in again (verse 23), if they abide not in unbelief.

{261} The Gentiles became partakers of the blessings of election and promises, through faith and obedience, as Peter says, writing to the strangers scattered abroad (1 Peter, 1st chap.), who were the Gentiles, the "elect according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, through sanctification of the spirit unto obedience;" (1 Peter, ii: 9) for "ye are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an holy nation, a peculiar people; that ye should show forth the praises of Him who hath called you out of darkness into His marvelous light, (verse 10) which in time past were not a people, but now are the people of God: which had not obtained mercy, but now have obtained mercy."

Why were they a peculiar people? Because God had chosen that generation of Gentiles, and conferred on them the blessings which descended through the Priesthood, and the covenants unto the house of Israel, or grafted them into the good olive tree (Rom. xi: 17); and thus the house of Israel became the ministers of salvation to the Gentiles; and this is what the house of Israel was elected unto, not only their own salvation, but through them salvation unto all others; (John iv: 22) "For salvation is of the Jews," (Rom. xi: 11) and "through their fall salvation is come unto the Gentiles."

Among the promised seed we find Jesus Christ neither last nor least, but the Great High Priest and head of all, who was chosen to lay down His life for the redemption of the world, for without the shedding of blood there could be no remission of sins (Heb. ix: 22). (Deut. vii: 6, 7, 8, 9,) Moses bears a similar testimony with Peter and Paul to the principles of election—"For thou art an holy people unto the Lord thy God: the Lord thy God hath chosen thee to be a special people unto Himself, above all people that are upon the face of the earth. The Lord did not set His love upon you, nor choose you, because ye were more in number than any people; for ye were the fewest of all people: but because the Lord loved you, and because He would keep the oath which He had sworn unto your fathers, hath the Lord brought you out with a mighty hand, and redeemed you out of the house of bondmen, from the hand of Pharaoh, king of Egypt. Know therefore that the Lord thy God, He is God, the faithful God, which keepeth covenant and mercy with them that love Him and keep his commandments to a thousand generations;" which proves the long continuance of the blessings of this highly favored people.

And the Lord said unto her, (Rebecca, Gen. xxv: 23) "The elder shall serve the younger." And why? Because that Isaac, the father of Esau and Jacob, the husband of Rebecca, and the son of promise to Abraham, was the heir; and as Esau was the elder son of his father Isaac, he had a legal claim to the heirship; but through unbelief, {262} hardness of heart, and hunger, he sold his birthright to his younger brother Jacob (Gen. xxv: 33); and God knowing beforehand that he would do this of his own free will and choice, or acting upon that agency which God has delegated to all men, said to his mother, "The elder shall serve the younger;" for as the elder son Esau, has sold his birthright, and by that means lost all claim to the blessings promised to Abraham; those blessings and promises must have failed, if they had not descended with the purchased birthright unto the younger son, Jacob, for there was no other heir in Abraham's family; and if those blessings had failed, the purposes of God according to election must have failed in relation to the posterity of Israel, and the oath of Jehovah would have been broken, which could not be though heaven and earth were to pass away. (Rom. ix: 13) "As it is written, Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I hated." Where is it written? (Mal. i: 1, 2). When was it written? About 397 years before Christ, (according to the computation of time in Scripture margin), and Esau and Jacob were born about 1,773 years before Christ, (according to the computation of time in Scripture margin), so Esau and Jacob lived about 1,376 years before the Lord spoke by Malachi, saying, "Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I hated," as quoted by Paul. This text is often brought forward to prove that God loved Jacob and hated Esau before they were born, or before they had done good or evil; but if God did love one and hate the other before they had done good or evil, He has not seen fit to tell us of it, either in the Old or New Testament, or any other revelation: but this only we learn that 1,376 years after Esau and Jacob were born, God said by Malachi—"Jacob have I loved, and Esau have I hated;" and surely that was time sufficient to prove their works, and ascertain whether they were worthy to be loved or hated.

And why did He love the one and hate the other? For the same reason that He accepted the offering of Abel and rejected Cain's offering. Because Jacob's works had been righteous, and Esau's wicked, and where is there a righteous father who would not do the same thing? Who would not love an affectionate and obedient son more than one who was disobedient, and sought to injure Him and overthrow the order of His house? (Objection). But God seeth not as man seeth, and He is no respecter of persons. (Acts x: 34). True, but what saith the next verse, "He that feareth God and worketh righteousness is accepted of Him;" but it does not say that he that worketh wickedness is accepted, and this is a proof that God has respect to the actions of persons; and if He did not, why should He commend obedience to His law? For if he had no respect to the actions of men, He would be just as well pleased with a wicked man for breaking His law as a righteous man for keeping it; and if Cain had done well, he would have been accepted as well as Abel (Gen. iv: 7), and Esau as well as Jacob, which {263} proves that God does not respect persons, only in relation to their acts, (see Matt. xxv: 34 to the end) "Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world: for I was an hungered, and ye gave me meat," &c.; and because that God blessed Abel and Jacob, this would not have hindered His blessing Cain and Esau, if their works had been righteous like unto their brethren; so God's choosing one nation to blessing does not doom another to cursing or make them reprobate, according to the reprobation of God, as some suppose; "But by resisting the truth they became reprobate concerning the faith" (II Tim. iii: 8); and are "abominable, and disobedient, and unto every good work reprobate" (Titus i: 16); consequently, are not fit subjects for the blessings of election.

Rom. ix: 15, "For He saith to Moses, I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I will have compassion." (See Exod. xxx: 13 to the 19) "My presence shall go with thee, and I will give thee rest, * * * for thou hast found grace in my sight, and I know thee by name, and I will make all my goodness to pass before thee, * * * and I will proclaim the name of the Lord before thee; and I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious, and will show mercy on whom I will show mercy." (Rom. ix: 16) "So then it is not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that showeth mercy;" having His eye at the same time directed towards His covenant people in Egyptian bondage. For the Scripture saith unto Pharoah (Exod. ix: 16, 17), "And in very deed for this cause have I raised thee up, for to show in thee my power; and that my name may be declared throughout all the earth. As yet exaltest thou thyself, against my people, that thou wilt not let them go?"

God has promised to bring the house of Israel up out of the land of Egypt at his own appointed time; and with a mighty hand and an outstretched arm, and great terribleness (Deut. xxvi, 8.) He chose to do this thing that His power might be known and his name declared throughout all the earth, so that all nations might have the God of heaven in remembrance, and reverence his holy name; and to accomplish this it was needful that He should meet with opposition to give Him an opportunity to manifest His power; therefore He raised up a man, even Pharaoh, who, He foreknew, would harden his heart against God of his own free will and choice, and would withstand the Almighty in His attempt to deliver His chosen people, and that to the utmost of his ability; and he proved himself worthy of the choice, for he left no means unimproved which his wicked heart could devise to vex the sons of Abraham, and defeat the purposes of the Most High, which gave the God of Abraham an opportunity to magnify his name in the ears {264} of the nations, and in sight of this wicked king, by many mighty signs and wonders, sometimes even to the convincing of the wicked king of his wickedness, and of the power of God, (Exod. viii: 28, etc.) and yet he would continue to rebel and hold the Israelites in bondage; and this is what it meant by God's hardening Pharaoh's heart. He manifested Himself in so many glorious and mighty ways, that Pharaoh could not resist the truth without becoming harder; so that at last, in his madness, to stay the people of God, he rushed his hosts into the Red Sea and they were covered with the floods.

Had not the power of God been exerted in a remarkable manner, it would seem as though the house of Israel must have become extinct, for Pharaoh commanded the midwives to destroy the sons of the Israelitish women as soon as they were born (Exod. i: 15, 16), and called them to account for saving the men children alive (verse 18), and charged all his people saying, "Every son that is born, ye shall cast into the river" (verse 22), and yet God would have mercy on whom He would have mercy (Rom. ix: 18); for he would have mercy on the goodly child, Moses, when he was hid and laid in the flags (Exod. xi: 3) by his mother to save him from Pharaoh's cruel order, and caused that he should be preserved as a Prophet and deliverer to lead His people up to their own country; and whom He would He hardened, for He hardened Pharaoh by passing before him in mighty power and withdrawing His Spirit, and leaving him to his own inclination, for he had set task-masters over the Israelites to afflict them with their burdens, and caused them to build treasure cities for Pharaoh, and made them to serve with rigor; and made their lives bitter with hard bondage, in mortar and brick and all manner of service in the field (Exod. 1st chap.); besides destroying the men children, thus proving to the God of heaven and all men that he had hardened his own hard heart, until he became a vessel of wrath fitted for destruction (Rom, ix: 22); all this long before God said unto Moses, "I will harden his (Pharaoh's) heart" (Exod. iv: 21).

Are men, then, to be saved by works? Nay, verily, "By grace are ye saved through faith, and that not of yourselves, it is the gift of God" (Eph. ii: 8); "Not of works, lest any man should boast" (v. 9); "Not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to His mercy He saved us" (Titus iii: 5): and yet faith without works is dead, being alone (James ii: 17). Was not Abraham, our father, justified by works (v. 21)? Shall we then be saved by faith? Nay, neither by faith nor works, but by works is faith made perfect (v. 22); but "by grace are ye saved" (Eph. ii: 8); "And if by grace, then it is no more of works, otherwise grace is no more grace; and if it be of works, then it is no more grace; otherwise works is no works" (Rom. xi: 6); "Ye {265} see then how that a man is justified by works, and not by faith only" (James ii: 24).

Rom. x: 3,4, "For they (Israel) being ignorant of God's righteousness and going about to establish their own righteousness, have not submitted themselves unto the righteousness of God; for Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to every one that believeth." Thus the righteousness of God is made manifest in the plan of salvation by His crucified son; for there is none other name under heaven given among men whereby we must be saved, but the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth (Acts iv: 10, 12); but of this the Jews were ignorant, although they themselves crucified Him; and they have been going about wandering among all the nations of the earth ever since, for the space of eighteen hundred years, trying to establish their own righteousness, which is of the law of Moses, which law can never make the comers thereto perfect (Heb. x: i.); yet notwithstanding their darkness and long dispersion, there is a remnant, according to the election of grace (Rom. xi: 5); whom God will gather from among all people whither they are scattered and will be sanctified in them in the sight of the heathen; then shall they dwell in their land which God gave to His servant Jacob, and they shall dwell safely therein, and shall build houses and plant vineyards; "Yea, they shall dwell with confidence when I have executed judgments upon all those that despise them round about; and they shall know that I am the Lord their God" (Ezek. xxviii: 25, 26; Is. xi: 11 to 16); and when this gathering shall be completed, "It shall no more be said, The Lord liveth, that brought up the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt, but the Lord liveth that brought up the children of Israel from the land of the north, and from all the lands whither he had driven them: and I will bring them again into their land that I gave unto their fathers" (Jer. xvi: 14 to the end).

Rom. xi: 7. "What then? Israel hath not obtained that which he seeketh for; but the election hath obtained it." And why have they not obtained it? Because they sought it not by faith, but as it were by the works of the law, for they stumbled at the stumbling stone; as it is written, "Behold, I lay in Zion a stumbling stone and rock of offense" (Rom. ix: 32, 33); "to both the houses of Israel, for a gin and for a snare to the inhabitants of Jerusalem. And many among them shall stumble" (Isaiah viii: 14, 15); but "have they stumbled that they should fall? God forbid; but rather through their fall, salvation is come unto the Gentiles" (Rom. xi: 11). "And Jerusalem shall be trodden down by the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled (Luke xxi: 24); and when the house of Israel shall be restored to their possessions in Canaan, it may truly be said, the election hath {266} obtained it; for the fulfillment of God's oath of election to Abraham as the father of the faithful, and the promises to His children will obtain that for Israel, which he has sought for in vain by the law of Moses."

This is the election that we believe in, viz., such as we find in the Prophets and Apostles, and the word of the Lord Himself, and as we have not room to give all the quotations in full, in relation to election in this epistle, we would invite the Saints to examine the Scriptures, in connection with these quoted; and whenever they find election, or any other principle or blessing, given or applied to the house of Israel, let those principles continue with the house of Israel, and not apply that to Esau which belongs to Jacob; or to the churches of modern times which belong to the ancient covenant people; and always ascertain how the Lord, the Apostles and Prophets have applied their words, and ever continue the same application, and knowledge and wisdom will be added unto you; and in the words of the beloved Peter and Paul, we would exhort you to "work out your own salvation with fear and trembling, for it is God which worketh in you both to will and to do of His good pleasure" (Phil. ii: 12, 13); "Giving all diligence to make your calling and election sure" (2 Peter i: 10); for this is that sealing power spoken of in Ephesians (i: 13, 14)—"in whom ye also trusted, after that ye heard the word of truth; the gospel of your salvation, in whom also, after that ye believed ye were sealed with that Holy Spirit of promise, which is the earnest of our inheritance, until the redemption of the purchased possession, until the praise of His glory" (2 Peter i: 11); "For so an entrance shall be ministered unto you abundantly into the everlasting kingdom of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ." Amen.

Friday, January 8.—Elder Parley P. Pratt wrote President Sidney Rigdon, from Manchester, England, in part as follows:

* * * * *

As to the progress of the work of God in this county, it is increasing at every step. It is now prospering in Ireland and in Wales, as well as in Scotland and England. It is spreading into various new places in England. We have several hundred faithful preachers, and the spirit of inquiry seems to be more generally awakened. The clergy of the Church of England, the Methodist priests, the Baptist ministers, and Unitarians, are all in arms, as it were, against the Saints.

The country is flooded with pamphlets, tracts, papers, &c., published against us. * * * * * I must now inform you of the {267} fact that we have reaped the first fruits of Campbellism in England, at a place called Nottingham.

A Proclamation of the First Presidency of the Church to the Saints Scattered Abroad, Greeting:

Beloved Brethren:—The relationship which we sustain to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, renders it necessary that we should make known from time to time, the circumstances, situation, and prospects of the Church, and give such instructions as may be necessary for the well being of the Saints, and for the promotion of those objects calculated to farther their present and everlasting happiness.

We have to congratulate the Saints on the progress of the great work of the "last days," for not only has it spread through the length and breadth of this vast continent, but on the continent of Europe, and on the islands of the sea, it is spreading in a manner entirely unprecedented in the annals of time. This appears the more pleasing when we consider, that but a short time has elapsed since we were unmercifully driven from the state of Missouri, after suffering cruelties and persecutions in various and horrid forms. Then our overthrow, to many, seemed inevitable, while the enemies of truth triumphed over us, and by their cruel reproaches endeavored to aggravate our sufferings. But the Lord of Hosts was with us, the God of Jacob was our refuge, and we were delivered from the hands of bloody and deceitful men; and in the state of Illinois we found an asylum, and were kindly welcomed by persons worthy the character of freemen.

It would be impossible to enumerate all those who, in our time of deep distress, nobly came forward to our relief, and, like the good Samaritan, poured oil into our wounds, and contributed liberally to our necessities, and the citizens of Quincy en masse, and the people of Illinois, generally, seemed to emulate each other in this labor of love. We would, however, make honorable mention of Governor Carlin, Judge Young, General Leech, Judge Ralston, Rev. Mr. Young, Col. Henry, N. Bushnell, John Wood, J. N. Morris, S. M. Bartlett, Samuel Holmes, and J. T. Holmes, Esquires, who will long be remembered, by a grateful community, for their philanthropy to a suffering people, and whose kindness, on that occasion, is indelibly engraved on the tablets of our hearts in golden letters of love.

We would likewise make mention of the legislators of this state, who, without respect to parties, without reluctance, freely, openly, boldly, and nobly, have come forth to our assistance, owned us as citizens and friends, and took us by the hand, and extended to us all the blessings {268} of civil, political, and religious liberty, by granting us, under date of December 16, 1840, one of the most liberal charters, with the most plenary powers ever conferred by a legislative assembly on free citizens, "The City of Nauvoo," the "Nauvoo Legion," and the "University of the City of Nauvoo."

The first of these charters (that for the "City of Nauvoo") secures to us, in all time to come, irrevocably, all those great blessings of civil liberty which of right appertain to all the free citizens of a great civilized republic; it is all we ever claimed. What a contrast does the proceedings of the legislators of this state present when compared with those of Missouri, whose bigotry, jealousy, and superstition, prevailed to such an extent as to deny us our liberty and our sacred rights. Illinois has set a glorious example to the whole United States, and to the world at large, and has nobly carried out the principles of her Constitution, and the Constitution of these United States, and while she requires of us implicit obedience to the laws, (which we hope ever to see observed) she affords us the protection of law, the security of life, liberty, and the peaceable pursuit of happiness.

The name of our city (Nauvoo) is of Hebrew origin, and signifies a beautiful situation, or place, carrying with it, also, the idea of rest; and is truly descriptive of the most delightful location. It is situated on the east bank of the Mississippi river, at the head of the Des Moines Rapids, in Hancock county, bounded on the east by an extensive prairie of surpassing beauty, and on the north, west, and south, by the Mississippi. This place has been objected to by some on account of the sickness which has prevailed in the summer months, but it is the opinion of Doctor Bennett, that Hancock county, and all the eastern and southern portions of the City of Nauvoo, are as healthful as any other portions of the western country, to acclimatized citizens; whilst the northwestern portion of the city has experienced much affliction from fever and ague, which, however, Doctor Bennett thinks can be easily remedied by draining the sloughs on the adjacent islands in the Mississippi.

The population of our city is increasing with unparalleled rapidity, numbering more than 3,000 inhabitants. Every facility is afforded, in the city and adjacent country, in Hancock county, for the successful prosecution of the mechanical arts and the pleasing pursuits of agriculture. The waters of the Mississippi can be successfully used for manufacturing purposes to almost an unlimited extent.

Having been instrumental, in the hands of our heavenly Father, in laying a foundation for the gathering of Zion, we would say, let all those who appreciate the blessings of the Gospel, and realize the importance of obeying the commandments of heaven, who have been blessed of heaven with the possession of this world's goods, first {269} prepare for the general gathering; let them dispose of their effects as fast as circumstances will possibly admit, without making too great sacrifices, and remove to our city and county; establish and build up manufactures in the city, purchase and cultivate farms in the county. This will secure our permanent inheritance, and prepare the way for the gathering of the poor. This is agreeable to the order of heaven, and the only principle on which the gathering can be effected. Let the rich, then, and all who can assist in establishing this place, make every preparation to come on without delay, and strengthen our hands, and assist in promoting the happiness of the Saints. This cannot be too forcibly impressed on the minds of all, and the Elders are hereby instructed to proclaim this word in all places where the Saints reside, in their public administrations, for this is according to the instructions we have received from the Lord.

The Temple of the Lord is in process of erection here, where the Saints will come to worship the God of their fathers, according to the order of His house and the powers of the Holy Priesthood, and will be so constructed as to enable all the functions of the Priesthood to be duly exercised, and where instructions from the Most High will be received, and from this place go forth to distant lands. Let us then concentrate all our powers, under the provisions of our magna charta granted by the Illinois legislature, at the "City of Nauvoo" and surrounding country, and strive to emulate the action of the ancient covenant fathers and patriarchs, in those things which are of such vast importance to this and every succeeding generation.

The "Nauvoo Legion" embraces all our military power, and will enable us to perform our military duty by ourselves, and thus afford us the power and privilege of avoiding one of the most fruitful sources of strife, oppression, and collision with the world. It will enable us to show our attachment to the state and nation, as a people, whenever the public service requires our aid, thus proving ourselves obedient to the paramount laws of the land, and ready at all times to sustain and execute them.

The "University of the City of Nauvoo" will enable us to teach our children wisdom, to instruct them in all the knowledge and learning, in the arts, sciences, and learned professions. We hope to make this institution one of the great lights of the world, and by and through it to diffuse that kind of knowledge which will be of practicable utility, and for the public good, and also for private and individual happiness. The Regents of the University will take the general supervision of all matters appertaining to education, from common schools up to the highest branches of a most liberal collegiate course. They will establish a regular system of education, and hand over the pupil from teacher to {270} professor, until the regular gradation is consummated and the education finished.

This corporation contains all the powers and prerogatives of any other college or university in this state. The charters for the University and Legion are addenda to the city charter, making the whole perfect and complete.

Not only has the Lord given us favor in the eyes of the community, who are happy to see us in the enjoyment of all the rights and privileges of freemen, but we are happy to state that several of the principal men in Illinois, who have listened to the doctrines we promulgate, have become obedient to the faith, and are rejoicing in the same; among whom is John C. Bennett, M. D., Quartermaster-General of Illinois. We mention this gentleman first, because, that during our persecutions in Missouri, he became acquainted with the violence we were suffering while in that state, on account of our religion; his sympathy for us was aroused, and his indignation kindled against our persecutors, for the cruelties practiced upon us, and their flagrant violation of both the law and the Constitution. Amidst their heated zeal to put down the truth, he addressed us a letter, tendering to us his assistance in delivering us out of the hands of our enemies, and restoring us again to our privileges, and only required at our hands to point out the way and he would be forthcoming, with all the forces he could raise for the purpose. He has been one of the instruments in effecting or safety and deliverance, from the unjust persecutions and demands of the authorities of Missouri, and also in procuring the city charter. He is a man of enterprise, extensive acquirements, and of independent mind, and is calculated to be a great blessing to our community.

Dr. Isaac Galland also, who is one of our benefactors, having under his control a large quantity of land, in the immediate vicinity of our city, and a considerable portion of the city plat, opened both his heart and his hands, and "when we were strangers, took us in," and bade us welcome to share with him in his abundance, leaving his dwelling house, the most splendid edifice in the vicinity, for our accommodation, and partook himself to a small, uncomfortable dwelling. He sold us his large estates on very reasonable terms, and on long credit, so that we might have an opportunity of paying for them without being distressed, and has since taken our lands in Missouri in payment for the whole amount, and has given us a clear and indisputable title for the same. And in addition to the first purchase, we have exchanged lands with him in Missouri to the amount of eighty thousand dollars. He is the honored instrument the Lord used to prepare a home for us, when we were driven from our inheritances, having given him control of vast bodies of land, and prepared his heart to make the use of it the Lord {271} intended he should. Being a man of extensive information, great talents, and high literary fame, he devoted all his powers and influence to give us a standing.

After having thus exerted himself for our salvation and comfort, and formed an intimate acquaintance with many of our people, his mind became wrought up to the greatest feelings, being convinced that our persecutions were like those of the ancient Saints, and, after investigating the doctrines we proclaimed, he became convinced of the truth and of the necessity of obedience thereto, and, to the great joy and satisfaction of the Church, he yielded himself to the waters of baptism, and became a partaker with us in our sufferings, "Choosing rather to suffer afflictions with the people of God than enjoy the pleasures of sin for a season."

In connection with these, we would mention the names of General James Adams, judge of probate, of Sangamon county; Dr. Green of Shelby county, R. D. Foster, and Sidney Knowlton, of Hancock county; Dr. Knight, of Putnam county, Indiana; many others of respectability and high standing in society, and nearly all the old settlers in our immediate neighborhood. We make mention of this that the Saints may be encouraged, and also that they may see that the persecutions we suffered in Missouri were but the prelude to a far more glorious display of the power of truth, and of the religion we have espoused.

From the kind, uniform, and consistent course pursued by the citizens of Illinois, and the great success which has attended us while here, the natural advantages of this place for every purpose we require, and the necessity of the gathering of the Saints of the Most High, we would say—let the brethren who love the prosperity of Zion, who are anxious that her stakes should be strengthened and her cords lengthened, and who prefer her prosperity to their chief joy, come and cast in their lots with us, and cheerfully engage in a work so glorious and sublime, and say with Nehemiah, "We, His servants, will arise and build." It probably would hardly be necessary to enforce this important subject on the attention of the Saints, as its necessity is obvious, and is a subject of paramount importance; but as watchmen to the house of Israel—as shepherds over the flock which is now scattered over a vast extent of country, and the anxiety we feel for their prosperity and everlasting welfare, and for the carrying out the great and glorious purposes of our God, to which we have been called, we feel to urge its necessity, and say—Let the Saints come here; this is the word of the Lord, and in accordance with the great work of the last days. It is true, the idea of a general gathering has heretofore been associated with the most cruel and oppressing scenes, owing to our unrelenting persecutions at the hands of wicked and unjust men; but we hope that {272} those days of darkness and gloom have gone by, and, from the liberal policy of our state government, we may expect a scene of peace and prosperity we have never before witnessed since the rise of our Church, and the happiness and prosperity which now await us, is, in all human probability, incalculably great. By a concentration of action, and a unity of effort, we can only accomplish the great work of the last days which we could not do in our remote and scattered condition, while our interests, both temporal and spiritual, will be greatly enhanced, and the blessings of heaven must flow unto us in an uninterrupted stream; of this, we think there can be no question.

The greatest temporal and spiritual blessings which always flow from faithfulness and concerted effort, never attended individual exertion or enterprise. The history of all past ages abundantly attests this fact. In addition to all temporal blessings, there is no other way for the Saints to be saved in these last days, [than by the gathering] as the concurrent testimony of all the holy Prophets clearly proves, for it is written—"They shall come from the east, and be gathered from the west; the north shall give up, and the south shall keep not back." "The sons of God shall be gathered from far, and His daughters from the ends of the earth."

It is also the concurrent testimony of all the Prophets, that this gathering together of all the Saints, must take place before the Lord comes to "take vengeance upon the ungodly," and "to be glorified and admired by all those who obey the Gospel." The fiftieth Psalm, from the first to the fifth verse inclusive, describes the glory and majesty of that event.

"The mighty God, and even the Lord hath spoken, and called the earth from the rising of the sun unto the going down thereof. Out of Zion, the perfection of beauty, God hath shined. Our God shall come, and shall not keep silence; a fire shall devour before Him, and it shall be very tempestuous round about Him. He shall call to the heavens from above, and to the earth (that He may judge the people). Gather my Saints together unto me; those that have made covenant with me by sacrifice."

We might offer many other quotations from the Scriptures, but believing them to be familiar to the Saints, we forbear.

We would wish the Saints to understand that, when they come here, they must not expect perfection, or that all will be harmony, peace, and love; if they indulge these ideas, they will undoubtedly be deceived, for here there are persons, not only from different states, but from different nations, who, although they feel a great attachment to the cause of truth, have their prejudices of education, and, consequently, it requires some time before these things can be overcome. Again, there {273} are many that creep in unawares, and endeavor to sow discord, strife, and animosity in our midst, and by so doing, bring evil upon the Saints. These things we have to bear with, and these things will prevail either to a greater or less extent until "the floor be thoroughly purged," and "the chaff be burnt up." Therefore, let those who come up to this place be determined to keep the commandments of God, and not be discouraged by those things we have enumerated, and then they will be prospered—the intelligence of heaven will be communicated to them, and they will, eventually, see eye to eye, and rejoice in the full fruition of that glory which is reserved for the righteous.

In order to erect the Temple of the Lord, great exertions will be required on the part of the Saints, so that they may build a house which shall be accepted by the Almighty, and in which His power and glory shall be manifested. Therefore let those who can freely make a sacrifice of their time, their talents, and their property, for the prosperity of the kingdom, and for the love they have to the cause of truth, bid adieu to their homes and pleasant places of abode, and unite with us in the great work of the last days, and share in the tribulation, that they may ultimately share in the glory and triumph.

We wish it likewise to be distinctly understood, that we claim no privilege but what we feel cheerfully disposed to share with our fellow citizens of every denomination, and every sentiment of religion; and therefore say, that so far from being restricted to our own faith, let all those who desire to locate themselves in this place, or the vicinity, come, and we will hail them as citizens and friends, and shall feel it not only a duty, but a privilege, to reciprocate the kindness we have received from the benevolent and kind-hearted citizens of the state of Illinois.

Joseph Smith,

Sidney Rigdon,

Hyrum Smith,

Presidents of the Church.

Nauvoo, January 15th, 1841.


1. For the nature of the charges see ch. xiii.



Reconstruction of Church Affairs at Nauvoo—Revelation—Municipal Organization of Nauvoo—Installation of Civic and Military Officers.

Friday, January 15, 1841.—I published the following in the Times and Seasons

Reproof of John E. Page and Orson Hyde.

Elders Orson Hyde and John E. Page are informed that the Lord is not well pleased with them, in consequence of delaying their mission, (John E. Page in particular) and they are requested, by the First Presidency, to hasten their journey towards their destination.

Sunday, 17.—Elder Brigham Young preached twice in the Music Hall, Liverpool.

Monday, 18.—Elders Brigham Young and Willard Richards commenced reading the Book of Mormon, and writing an index to the English edition.

Tuesday, 19.—Elder Amos Fielding has baptized twenty-nine at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England.

I received the following revelation:[1]

Revelation Given to Joseph Smith at Nauvoo, January 19th, 1841.

Verily, thus saith the Lord unto you, my servant Joseph Smith, I am well pleased with your offering and acknowledgments, which you have made, for unto this end have I raised you up, that I might show forth my wisdom through the weak things of the earth.

Your prayers are acceptable before me, and in answer to them I say unto you, that you are now called immediately to make a solemn proclamation of my Gospel, and of this Stake which I have planted to be a {275} corner-stone of Zion, which shall be polished with the refinement which is after the similitude of a palace.

This proclamation shall be made to all the kings of the world, to the four corners thereof; to the honorable President elect, and the high-minded Governors of the nation in which you live, and to all the nations of the earth, scattered abroad.

Let it be written in the spirit of meekness and by the power of the Holy Ghost, which shall be in you at the time of the writing of the same;

For it shall be given you by the Holy Ghost to know my will concerning those kings and authorities, even what shall befall them in a time to come.

For, behold! I am about to call upon them to give heed to the light and glory of Zion, for the set time has come to favor her.

Call ye, therefore, upon them with loud proclamation, and with your testimony, fearing them not, for they are as grass, and all their glory as the flower thereof which soon falleth, that they may be left also without excuse,

And that I may visit them in the day of visitation, when I shall unveil the face of my covering, to appoint the portion of the oppressor among hypocrites, where there is gnashing of teeth, if they reject my servants and my testimony which I have revealed unto them.

And again, I will visit and soften their hearts, many of them for your good, that ye may find grace in their eyes, that they may come to the light of truth, and the Gentiles to the exaltation or lifting up of Zion.

For the day of my visitation cometh speedily, in an hour when ye think not of, and where shall be the safety of my people, and refuge for those who shall be left of them?

Awake, O kings of the earth! Come ye, O, come ye, with your gold and your silver, to the help of my people, to the house of the daughters of Zion.

And again, verily I say unto you, let my servant Robert B. Thompson help you to write this proclamation, for I am well pleased with him, and that he should be with you;

Let him, therefore, hearken to your counsel, and I will bless him with a multiplicity of blessings; let him be faithful and true in all things from henceforth, and he shall be great in mine eyes;

But let him remember that his stewardship will I require at his hands.

And again, verily I say unto you, blessed is my servant Hyrum Smith, for I, the Lord, love him because of the integrity of his heart, and because he loveth that which is right before me, saith the Lord.

Again, let my servant John C. Bennett, help you in your labor in sending my word to the kings and people of the earth, and stand by {276} you, even you my servant Joseph Smith, in the hour of affliction, and his reward shall not fail, if he receive counsel;

And for his love he shall be great, for he shall be mine if he do this, saith the Lord. I have seen the work which he hath done, which I accept, if he continue, and will crown him with blessings and great glory.

And again, I say unto you, that it is my will that my servant Lyman Wight should continue in preaching for Zion, in the spirit of meekness confessing me before the world, and I will bear him up as on eagle's wings, and he shall beget glory and honor to himself, and unto my name.

That when he shall finish his work, that I may receive him unto myself, even as I did my servant David Patten, who is with me at this time, and also my servant Edward Partridge, and also my aged servant Joseph Smith, Sen., who sitteth with Abraham at his right hand, and blessed and holy is he, for he is mine.

And again, verily I say unto you, my servant George Miller is without guile: he may be trusted because of the integrity of his heart; and for the love which he has to my testimony I, the Lord, love him;

I therefore say unto you, I seal upon his head the office of a bishopric, like unto my servant Edward Partridge, that he may receive the consecrations of mine house, that he may administer blessing upon the heads of the poor of my people, saith the Lord. Let no man despise my servant George, for he shall honor me.

Let my servant George, and my servant Lyman, and my servant John Snider, and others, build a house unto my name, such an one as my servant Joseph shall show unto them; upon the place which he shall show unto them also.

And it shall be for a house for boarding, a house that strangers may come from afar to lodge therein; therefore let it be a good house, worthy of all acceptation, that the weary traveler may find health and safety while he shall contemplate the word of the Lord; and the cornerstone I have appointed for Zion.

This house shall be a healthy habitation if it be built unto my name, and if the governor which shall be appointed unto it shall not suffer any pollution to come upon it. It shall be holy, or the Lord your God will not dwell therein.

And again, verily I say unto you, let all my Saints come from afar;

And send ye swift messengers, yea, chosen messengers, and say unto them: Come ye, with all your gold, and your silver, and your precious stones, and with all your antiquities; and with all who have knowledge of antiquities, that will come, may come, and bring the box-tree, and the fir-tree, and the pine-tree, together with all the precious trees of the earth;

{277} And with iron, with copper, and with brass, and with zinc, and with all your precious things of the earth, and build a house to my name for the Most High to dwell therein;

For there is not a place found on earth that He may come and restore again that which was lost unto you, or which He hath taken away, even the fullness of the Priesthood;

For a baptismal font there is not upon the earth, that they, my Saints, may be baptized for those who are dead;

For this ordinance belongeth to my house, and cannot be acceptable to me, only in the days of your poverty, wherein ye are not able to build a house unto me.

But I command you, all ye my Saints, to build a house unto me; and I grant unto you a sufficient time to build a house unto me, and during this time your baptisms shall be acceptable unto me.

But behold, at the end of this appointment, your baptisms for your dead shall not be acceptable unto me; and if you do not these things at the end of the appointment, ye shall be rejected as a church, with your dead, saith the Lord your God.

For verily I say unto you, that after you have had sufficient time to build a house to me, wherein the ordinance of baptizing for the dead belongeth, and for which the same was instituted from before the foundation of the world, your baptisms for your dead cannot be acceptable unto me.

For therein are the keys of the holy Priesthood, ordained that you may receive honor and glory.

And after this time, your baptisms for the dead, by those who are scattered abroad, are not acceptable unto me, saith the Lord;

For it is ordained that in Zion, and in her stakes, and in Jerusalem, those places which I have appointed for refuge, shall be the places for your baptisms for your dead.

And again, verily I say unto you, how shall your washings be acceptable unto me, except ye perform them in a house which you have built to my name? For, for this cause I commanded Moses that he should build a tabernacle, that they should bear it with them in the wilderness, and to build a house in the land of promise, that those ordinances might be revealed which had been hid from before the world was;

Therefore, verily I say unto you, that your anointings, and your washings, and your baptisms for the dead, and your solemn assemblies, and your memorials for your sacrifices, by the sons of Levi, and for your oracles in your most holy places, wherein you receive conversations, and your statutes and judgments, for the beginning of the revelations and foundation of Zion, and for the glory, honor, and endowment of all her municipals, are ordained by the ordinance of my holy house which my people are always commanded to build unto my holy name.

{278} And verily I say unto you, let this house be built unto my name, that I may reveal mine ordinances therein, unto my people;

For I deign to reveal unto my Church things which have been kept hid from before the foundation of the world, things that pertain to the dispensation of the fullness of times;

And I will show unto my servant Joseph all things pertaining to this house, and the Priesthood thereof; and the place whereon it shall be built;

And ye shall build it on the place where you have contemplated building it, for that is the spot which I have chosen for you to build it;

If ye labor with all your might, I will consecrate that spot that it shall be made holy;

And if my people will hearken unto my voice, and unto the voice of my servants whom I have appointed to lead my people, behold, verily I say unto you, they shall not be moved out of their place.

But if they will not hearken to my voice, nor unto the voice of these men whom I have appointed, they shall not be blest, because they pollute mine holy grounds, and mine holy ordinances, and charters, and my holy words which I give unto them.

And it shall come to pass, that if you build a house unto my name, and do not do the things that I say, I will not perform the oath which I make unto you, neither fulfill the promises which ye expect at my hands, saith the Lord;

For instead of blessings, ye, by your own works, bring cursings, wrath, indignation, and judgments upon your own heads, by your follies, and by all your abominations, which you practice before me, saith the Lord.

Verily, verily I say unto you, that when I give a commandment to any of the sons of men, to do a work unto my name, and those sons of men go with all their might, and with all they have, to perform that work, and cease not their diligence, and their enemies come upon them, and hinder them from performing that work; behold, it behooveth me to require that work no more at the hands of those sons of men, but to accept of their offerings;

And the iniquity and transgression of my holy laws and commandments, I will visit upon the heads of those who hindered my work, unto the third and fourth generation, so long as they repent not, and hate me, saith the Lord God.

Therefore for this cause have I accepted the offerings of those whom I commanded to build up a city and a house unto my name, in Jackson county, Missouri, and were hindered by their enemies, saith the Lord your God.

And I will answer judgment, wrath, and indignation, wailing, and {279} anguish, and gnashing of teeth upon their heads, unto the third and fourth generation, so long as they repent not and hate me, saith the Lord your God.

And this I make an example unto you, for your consolation concerning all those who have been commanded to do a work, and have been hindered by the hands of their enemies, and by oppression, saith the Lord your God;

For I am the Lord your God, and will save all those of your brethren who have been pure in heart, and have been slain in the land of Missouri, saith the Lord.

And again, verily I say unto you, I command you again to build a house to my name, even in this place that you may prove yourselves unto me that ye are faithful in all things whatsoever I command you, that I may bless you, and crown you with honor, immortality, and eternal life.

And now I say unto you, as pertaining to my boarding house which I have commanded you to build for the boarding of strangers, let it be built unto my name, and let my name be named upon it, and let my servant Joseph, and his house have place therein, from generation to generation;

For this anointing have I put upon his head, that his blessing shall also be put upon the head of his posterity after him,

And as I said unto Abraham concerning the kindreds of the earth, even so I say unto my servant Joseph, in thee and in thy seed, shall the kindred of the earth be blessed.

Therefore, let my servant Joseph and his seed after him have place in that house, from generation to generation, for ever and ever, saith the Lord.

And let the name of that house be called Nauvoo House, and let it be a delightful habitation for man, and a resting place for the weary traveler, that he may contemplate the glory of Zion, and the glory of this, the corner-stone thereof;

That he may receive also the counsel from those whom I have set to be as plants of renown, and as watchmen upon her walls.

Behold, verily I say unto you, let my servant George Miller, and my servant Lyman Wight, and my servant John Snider, and my servant Peter Haws, organize themselves, and appoint one of them to be a president over their quorum for the purpose of building that house.

And they shall form a constitution whereby they may receive stock for the building of that house.

And they shall not receive less than fifty dollars for a share of stock in that house, and they shall be permitted to receive fifteen thousand dollars from any one man for stock in that house;

{280} But they shall not be permitted to receive over fifteen thousand dollars stock from any one man;

And they shall not be permitted to receive under fifty dollars for a share of stock from any one man in that house;

And they shall not be permitted to receive any man as a stockholder in this house, except the same shall pay his stock into their hands at the time he receives stock;

And in proportion to the amount of stock he pays into their hands, he shall receive stock in that house; but if he pays nothing into their hands, he shall not receive any stock in that house.

And if any pay stock into their hands, it shall be for stock in that house, for himself, and for his generation after him, from generation to generation, so long as he and his heirs shall hold that stock, and do not sell or convey the stock away out of their hands by their own free will and act, if you will do my will, saith the Lord your God.

And again, verily I say unto you, if my servant George Miller, and my servant Lyman Wight, and my servant John Snider, and my servant Peter Haws, receive any stock into their hands, in moneys or in properties, wherein they receive the real value of moneys, they shall not appropriate any portion of that stock to any other purpose, only in that house;

And if they do appropriate any portion of that stock anywhere else, only in that house, without the consent of the stockholder, and do not repay fourfold for the stock which they appropriate anywhere else, only in that house, they shall be accursed, and shall be moved out of their place, saith the Lord God, for I, the Lord, am God, and cannot be mocked in any of these things.

Verily I say unto you, let my servant Joseph pay stock into their hands for the building of that house, as seemeth him good; but my servant Joseph cannot pay over fifteen thousand dollars stock in that house, nor under fifty dollars; neither can any other man, saith the Lord.

And there are others also who wish to know my will concerning them, for they have asked it at my hands.

Therefore I say unto you concerning my servant Vinson Knight, if he will do my will, let him put stock into that house for himself, and for his generation after him, from generation to generation,

And let him lift up his voice long and loud, in the midst of the people, to plead the cause of the poor and the needy, and let him not fail, neither let his heart faint, and I will accept of his offerings, for they shall not be unto me as the offerings of Cain, for he shall be mine, saith the Lord.

{281} Let his family rejoice, and turn away their hearts from affliction, for I have chosen him and anointed him, and he shall be honored in the midst of his house, for I will forgive all his sins, saith the Lord. Amen.

Verily I say unto you, let my servant Hyrum put stock into that house as seemeth him good, for himself and his generation after him, from generation to generation.

Let my servant Isaac Galland put stock into that house, for I, the Lord, love him for the work he hath done, and will forgive all his sins; therefore, let him be remembered for an interest in that house from generation to generation.

Let my servant Isaac Galland be appointed among you, and be ordained by my servant William Marks, and be blessed of him, to go with my servant Hyrum, to accomplish the work that my servant Joseph shall point out to them, and they shall be greatly blessed.

Let my servant William Marks pay stock into that house, as seemeth him good, for himself and his generation, from generation to generation.

Let my servant Henry G. Sherwood pay stock into that house, as seemeth him good, for himself and his seed after him from generation to generation.

Let my servant William Law pay stock into that house, for himself and his seed after him, from generation to generation.

If he will do my will, let him not take his family unto the eastern lands, even unto Kirtland; nevertheless, I, the Lord, will build up Kirtland, but I, the Lord, have a scourge prepared for the inhabitants thereof.

And with my servant Almon Babbitt, there are many things with which I am not pleased; behold, he aspireth to establish his council instead of the council which I have ordained, even the Presidency of my Church, and he setteth up a golden calf for the worship of my people.

Let no man go from this place who has come here essaying to keep my commandments.

If they live here let them live unto me; and if they die, let them die unto me; for they shall rest from all their labors here, and shall continue their works.

Therefore let my servant William put his trust in me, and cease to fear concerning his family, because of the sickness of the land. If ye love me, keep my commandments, and the sickness of the land shall redound to your glory.

Let my servant William go and proclaim my everlasting Gospel with a loud voice, and with great joy, as he shall be moved upon by {282} my Spirit, unto the inhabitants of Warsaw, and also unto the inhabitants of Carthage, and also unto the inhabitants of Burlington, and also unto the inhabitants of Madison, and await patiently and diligently for further instructions at my general conference, saith the Lord.

If he will do my will, let him from henceforth hearken to the counsel of my servant Joseph, and with his interest support the cause of the poor, and publish the new translation of my holy word unto the inhabitants of the earth;

And if he will do this, I will bless him with a multiplicity of blessings, that he shall not be forsaken, nor his seed be found begging bread.

And again, verily I say unto you, let my servant William be appointed, ordained, and anointed as a counselor unto my servant Joseph, in the room of my servant Hyrum; that my servant Hyrum may take the office of Priesthood and Patriarch which was appointed unto him by his father, by blessing and also by right.

That from henceforth he shall hold the keys of the Patriarchal blessings upon the heads of all my people,

That whomsoever he blesses shall be blessed, and whomsoever he curses shall be cursed; that whatsoever he shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven; and whatsoever he shall loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven;

And from this time forth I appoint unto him that he may be a prophet, and a seer and a revelator unto my Church, as well as my servant Joseph.

That he may act in concert also with my servant Joseph, and that he shall receive counsel from my servant Joseph, who shall show unto him the keys whereby he may ask and receive, and be crowned with the same blessing, and glory, and honor, and Priesthood, and gifts of the Priesthood, that once were put upon him that was my servant Oliver Cowdery;

That my servant Hyrum may bear record of the things which I shall show unto him, that his name may be had in honorable remembrance from generation to generation forever and ever.

Let my servant William Law also receive the keys by which he may ask and receive blessings; let him be humble before me, and be without guile, and he shall receive of my Spirit, even the Comforter, which shall manifest unto him the truth of all things, and shall give him in the very hour what he shall say.

And these signs shall follow him; he shall heal the sick, he shall cast out devils, and shall be delivered from those who would administer unto him deadly poison;

And he shall be led in paths where the poisonous serpent cannot lay {283} hold upon his heel, and he shall mount up in the imagination of his thoughts as upon eagle's wings;

And what if I will that he should raise the dead, let him not withhold his voice.

Therefore, let my servant William cry aloud and spare not, with joy and rejoicing, and with hosannas to Him that sitteth upon the throne forever and ever, saith the Lord your God.

Behold I say unto you, I have a mission in store for my servant William and my servant Hyrum, and for them alone; and let my servant Joseph tarry at home, for he is needed; the remainder I will show unto you hereafter. Even so. Amen.

And again, verily I say unto you, if my servant Sidney will serve me and be counselor unto my servant Joseph, let him arise and come up and stand in the office of his calling, and humble himself before me;

And if he will offer unto me an acceptable offering, and acknowledgments, and remain with my people, behold, I, the Lord your God, will heal him that he shall be healed; and he shall lift up his voice again on the mountains, and be a spokesman before my face.

Let him come and locate his family in the neighborhood in which my servant Joseph resides,

And in all his journeyings let him lift up his voice as with the sound of a trump, and warn the inhabitants of the earth to flee the wrath to come;

Let him assist my servant Joseph; and also let my servant William Law assist my servant Joseph, in making a solemn proclamation unto the kings of the earth, even as I have before said unto you;

If my servant Sidney will do my will, let him not remove his family unto the eastern lands, but let him change their habitation even as I have said.

Behold, it is not my will that he shall seek to find safety and refuge out of the city which I have appointed unto you, even the city of Nauvoo.

Verily I say unto you, even now, if he will hearken unto my voice, it shall be well with him. Even so. Amen.

And again, verily I say unto you, let my servant Amos Davis pay stock into the hands of those whom I have appointed to build a house for boarding, even the Nauvoo House;

This let him do if he will have an interest, and let him hearken unto the counsel of my servant Joseph, and labor with his own hands that he may obtain the confidence of men;

And when he shall prove himself faithful in all things that shall be entrusted unto his care, yea, even a few things, he shall be made ruler over many;

{284} Let him therefore abase himself that he may be exalted. Even so. Amen.

And again, verily I say unto you, if my servant Robert D. Foster will obey my voice, let him build a house for my servant Joseph, according to the contract which he has made with him, as the door shall be open to him from time to time.

And let him repent of all his folly, and clothe himself with charity, and cease to do evil, and lay aside all his hard speeches,

And pay stock also into the hands of the quorum of the Nauvoo House for himself and for his generation after him, from generation to generation,

And hearken unto the counsel of my servants Joseph and Hyrum and William Law, and unto the authorities which I have called to lay the foundation of Zion, and it shall be well with him for ever and ever, Even so. Amen.

And again, verily I say unto you, let no man pay stock to the quorum of the Nauvoo House, unless he shall be a believer in the Book of Mormon, and the revelations I have given unto you, saith the Lord your God;

For that which is more or less than this cometh of evil, and shall be attended with cursings and not blessings, saith the Lord your God. Even so. Amen.

And again, verily I say unto you, let the quorum of the Nauvoo House have a just recompense of wages for all their labors which they do in building the Nauvoo House, and let their wages be as shall be agreed among themselves, as pertaining to the price thereof;

And let every man who pays stock bear his proportion of their wages, if it must needs be, for their support, saith the Lord; otherwise, their labors shall be accounted unto them for stock in that house. Even so. Amen.

Verily I say unto you, I now give unto you the officers belonging to my Priesthood, that ye may hold the keys thereof, even the Priesthood which is after the order of Melchisedek, which is after the order of my Only Begotten Son.

First, I give unto you Hyrum Smith, to be a Patriarch unto you, to hold the sealing blessings of my church, even the Holy Spirit of promise, whereby ye are sealed up unto the day of redemption, that ye may not fall, notwithstanding the hour of temptation that may come upon you.

I give unto you my servant Joseph, to be a presiding elder over all my church, to be a translator, a revelator, a seer, and prophet.

I give unto him for counselors my servant Sidney Rigdon, and my servant William Law, that these may constitute a quorum and First Presidency, to receive the oracles for the whole church.

{285} I give unto you my servant Brigham Young, to be a President over Twelve traveling Council;

Which Twelve hold the keys to open up the authority of my kingdom upon the four corners of the earth, and after that to send my word to every creature.

They are Heber C. Kimball, Parley P. Pratt, Orson Pratt, Orson Hyde, William Smith, John Taylor, John E. Page, Wilford Woodruff, Willard Richards, George A. Smith;

David Patten I have taken unto myself; behold, his Priesthood no man taketh from him; but verily I say unto you, another may be appointed unto the same calling.

And again, I say unto you, I give unto you a High Council, for the corner stone of Zion;

Viz., Samuel Bent, Henry G. Sherwood, George W. Harris, Charles C. Rich, Thomas Grover, Newel Knight, David Dort, Dunbar Wilson; (Seymour Brunson I have taken unto myself, no man taketh his Priesthood, but another may be appointed unto the same Priesthood in his stead; and verily I say unto you, let my servant Aaron Johnson be ordained unto this calling in his stead); David Fullmer, Alpheus Cutler, William Huntington.

And again, I give unto you Don C. Smith, to be a president over a quorum of High Priests;

Which ordinance is instituted for the purpose of qualifying those who shall be appointed standing presidents or servants over different Stakes scattered abroad,

And they may travel also if they choose, but rather be ordained for standing presidents, this is the office of their calling, saith the Lord your God.

I give unto him Amasa Lyman, and Noah Packard, for Counselors, that they may preside over the quorum of High Priests of my Church, saith the Lord.

And again, I say unto you, I give unto you John A. Hicks, Samuel Williams, and Jesse Baker, which Priesthood is to preside over the quorum of elders, which quorum is instituted for standing ministers, nevertheless they may travel, yet they are ordained to be standing ministers to my Church, saith the Lord.

And again, I give unto you, Joseph Young, Josiah Butterfield, Daniel Miles, Henry Harriman, Zera Pulsipher, Levi Hancock, James Foster, to preside over the quorum of seventies,

Which quorum is instituted for traveling elders to bear record of my name in all the world, wherever the traveling High Council, my apostles, shall send them to prepare a way before my face.

The difference between this quorum and the quorum of elders, is {286} that one is to travel continually, and the other is to preside over the churches from time to time; the one has the responsibility of presiding from time to time, and the other has no responsibility of presiding, saith the Lord your God.

And again, I say unto you, I give unto you Vinson Knight, Samuel H. Smith and Shadrach Roundy, if he will receive it, to preside over the bishopric; a knowledge of said bishopric is given unto you in the book of Doctrine and Covenants.

And again, I say unto you, Samuel Rolfe and his counselors for priests, and the president of the teachers and his counselors, and also the president of the deacons and his counselors, and also the president of the stake and his counselors;

The above offices I have given unto you, and the keys thereof, for helps and for governments, for the work of the ministry, and the perfecting of my Saints;

And a commandment I give unto you that you should fill all these offices and approve of those names which I have mentioned, or else disapprove of them at my general conference;

And that ye should prepare rooms for all these offices in my house when you build it unto my name, saith the Lord your God. Even so. Amen.

Thursday, 21.—Elders Brigham Young and Willard Richards completed the index to the Book of Mormon, and it was immediately put in type, which closed the printing of the first English edition.

Sunday, 24.—Elder Brigham Young preached twice at Liverpool on election and reprobation.

Hyrum Smith Installed as Patriarch.

Hyrum Smith, who received the office of Patriarch in the Church, in place of Joseph Smith, Sen., deceased, has by revelation been appointed a Prophet and Revelator. William Law has by revelation been appointed one of the First Presidency, in place of Hyrum Smith, appointed Patriarch. George Miller has been appointed, by revelation, Bishop in place of Edward Partridge, deceased.

Saturday, 30.—At a special conference of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, held at Nauvoo pursuant to public notice, I was unanimously elected sole Trustee-in-Trust for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

{287} Also Saturday the 30th and Sunday 31st, a Conference was held at Walnut Grove, Knox county, Illinois; Elder William Smith presiding; 113 members, 14 Elders were present; several branches were represented, and several persons baptized.

First Election of Municipal Officers in Nauvoo.

Monday, 1.—The first election in Nauvoo, for members of the City Council took place, and the following persons were elected by majorities varying from 330 to 337 votes; to wit, for Mayor, John C. Bennett; Aldermen, William Marks, Samuel H. Smith, Daniel H. Wells, Newel K. Whitney; Councilors, Joseph Smith, Hyrum Smith, Sidney Rigdon, Charles C. Rich, John T. Barnett, Wilson Law, Don Carlos Smith, John P. Greene, Vinson Knight.

City Of Nauvoo, Hancock County, Illinois, Feb. 1, A. D. 1841.

To the County Recorder of the County of Hancock:

Dear Sir:—At a meeting of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, at this place on Saturday, the 30th day of January, A. D. 1841, I was elected sole Trustee for said Church, to hold my office during life (my successors to be the First Presidency of said Church) and vested with plenary powers, as sole Trustee in Trust for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, to receive, acquire, manage or convey property, real, personal, or mixed, for the sole use and benefit of said Church, agreeably to the provisions of an act entitled, "An Act Concerning Religious Societies," approved February 6, 1835.

Joseph Smith, (L. S.)

State Of Illinois Hancock Co., ss.

This day personally appeared before me, Daniel H. Wells, a justice of the peace, within and for the county of Hancock, County aforesaid, Isaac Galland, Robert B. Thompson, and John C. Bennett, who being duly sworn, depose and say that the foregoing certificate of Joseph Smith is true.

Isaac Galland,

Robert B. Thompson

John C. Bennett.

Sworn to and subscribed this third day of February in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty-one before me,

Daniel H. Wells,

Justice of the Peace.

{288} The above is recorded in the county records at Carthage, in book No. 1, of Bonds and Mortgages, page 95, No. 87.

Wednesday 3.—Elder Taylor reports 160 baptized in Liverpool, England; in Ireland about 25; in the Isle of Man, 70; Hawarden, 30. Elder Lorenzo Snow is laboring in London.

Nauvoo City Council Organized.

The City Council of Nauvoo was organized; the opening prayer was offered by myself, after which the Mayor-elect delivered his inaugural address as published in the Times and Seasons, page 316, as follows:

Inaugural Address.

City Of Nauvoo, Illinois, Feb. 3rd, 1841.

Gentlemen of the City Council, Aldermen and Councillors:

Having been elected to the Mayoralty of this city by the unanimous suffrage of all parties and interests, I now enter upon the duties devolving upon me as your Chief Magistrate under a deep sense of the responsibilities of the station. I trust that the confidence reposed in me, by my fellow citizens, has not been misplaced, and for the honor conferred they will accept my warmest sentiments of gratitude. By the munificence and wise legislation of noble, high-minded, and patriotic statesmen, and the grace of God, we have been blessed with one of the most liberal corporate acts ever granted by a legislative assembly. As the presiding officer of the law-making department of the municipal government, it will be expected that I communicate to you, from time to time, by oral or written messages, for your deliberative consideration and action, such matters as may suggest themselves to me in relation to the public weal; and upon this occasion I beg leave to present the following as matters of paramount importance:

The 21st section of the addenda to the 13th section of the City Charter, concedes to you plenary power "to tax, restrain, prohibit and suppress, tippling houses, dram shops," etc., etc., and I now recommend, in the strongest possible terms, that you take prompt, strong, and decisive measures to "prohibit and suppress" all such establishments. It is true you have the power "to tax," or license and tolerate, them, and thus add to the city finances; but I consider it much better to raise revenue by an advalorem tax on the property of sober men, than by licensing dram shops, or taxing the signs of the inebriated worshipers at the shrine of Bacchus. The revels of bacchanalians in the {289} houses of blasphemy and noise will always prove a disgrace to a moral people. Public sentiment will do much to suppress the vice of intemperance, and its concomitant evil results; but ample experience has incontrovertibly proven that it cannot do all—the law must be brought to the rescue, and an effective prohibitory ordinance enacted. This cannot be done at a better time than at the present. Let us commence correctly, and the great work of reform, at least so far as our peaceful city is concerned, can be summarily consummated. It would be difficult to calculate the vast amount of evil and crime that would be prevented, and the great good that would accrue to the public at large by fostering the cause of temperance; but suffice it to say that the one would be commensurate to the other. No sales of spirituous liquors whatever, in a less quantity than a quart, except in cases of sickness on the recommendation of a physician or surgeon duly accredited by the Chancellor and Regents of the University, should be tolerated. The liberty of selling the intoxicating cup is a false liberty—it enslaves, degrades, destroys; and wretchedness and want are attendant on every step,—its touch, like that of the poison upas, is death. Liberty to do good should be cheerfully and freely accorded to every man; but liberty to do evil, which is licentiousness, should be peremptorily prohibited. The public good imperiously demands it—and the cause of humanity pleads for help. The protecting aegis of the corporation should be thrown around every moral and religious institution of the day, which is in any way calculated to ennoble, or ameliorate the condition of the human family.

The immediate organization of the University, as contemplated in the 24th section of the act incorporating our city, cannot be too forcibly impressed upon you at this time. As all matters in relation to mental culture, and public instruction, from common schools up to the highest branches of a full collegiate course in the arts, sciences, and learned professions, will devolve upon the Chancellor and Regents of the University, they should be speedily elected, and instructed to perfect their plan, and enter upon its execution with as little delay as possible. The wheels of education should never be clogged, or retrograde, but roll progressively from the Alpha to the Omega of a most perfect, liberal, and thorough course of university attainments. The following observations in relation to false education, from Alexander's Messenger, so perfectly accords with my feelings and views on this highly important subject, that I cannot do better than incorporate them in this message.

"Among the changes for the worse, which the world has witnessed within the last century, we include that specious, superficial, incomplete way of doing certain things, which were formerly thought to be deserving of care, labor and attention. It would seem that appearance is now considered of more moment than reality. The modern mode of {290} education is an example in point. Children are so instructed as to acquire a smattering of everything, and as a matter of consequence, they know nothing properly. Seminaries and academies deal out their moral and natural philosophy, their geometry, trigonometry, and astronomy, their chemistry, botany, and mineralogy, until the mind of the pupil becomes a chaos; and, like the stomach when it is overloaded with a variety of food, it digests nothing, but converts the superabundant nutriment to poison. This mode of education answers one purpose—it enables people to seem learned; and seemingly, by a great many, is thought all sufficient. Thus we are schooled in quackery, and are early taught to regard showy and superficial attainments as most desirable. Every boarding school Miss is a Plato in petticoats, without an ounce of that genuine knowledge, that true philosophy, which would enable her to be useful in the world, and to escape those perils with which she must necessarily be encompassed. Young people are taught to use a variety of hard terms, which they understand but imperfectly—to repeat lessons which they are unable to apply—to astonish their grandmothers with a display of their parrot-like acquisitions; but their mental energies are clogged and torpified with a variety of learned lumber, most of which is discarded from the brain long before its possessor knows how to use it. This is the quackery of education.

"The effects of the erring system are not easily obliterated. The habit of using words without thought, sticks to the unfortunate student through life, and should he ever learn to think, he cannot express his ideas without the most tedious and perplexing verbosity. This is, more or less, the fault of every writer in the nineteenth century. The sense is encumbered with sound. The scribbler appears to imagine that if he puts a sufficient number of words together he has done his part; and, alas! how many books are written on this principle. Thus literature, and even science itself, is overloaded with froth and flummery. Verbalizing has become fashionable and indispensable, and one line from an ancient author will furnish the materials for a modern treatise."

Our University should be a "utilitarian" institution—and competent, industrious teachers and professors should be immediately elected for the several departments. "Knowledge is power,"—foster education and we are forever free! Nothing can be done which is more certainly calculated to perpetuate the free institutions of our common country, for which our progenitors "fought and bled, and died," than the general diffusion of useful knowledge amongst the people. Education should always be of a purely practical character, for such, and such alone, is calculated to perfect the happiness and prosperity of our fellow-citizens—ignorance, impudence, and false knowledge, are equally detestible,—shame and confusion follow in their train. As you now {291} possess the power, afford the most ample facilities to the Regents to make their plans complete; and thus enable them to set a glorious example to the world at large. The most liberal policy should attend the organization of the University, and equal honors and privileges should be extended to all classes of the community.

In order to carry out the provisions of the 25th section of the act incorporating our city, I would recommend the immediate organization of the Legion. Comprising, as it does, the entire military power of our city, with a provision allowing any citizen of Hancock county to unite by voluntary enrollment, early facilities should be afforded the court martial for perfecting their plans of drill, rules, and regulations. Nothing is more necessary to the preservation of order and the supremacy of the laws, than the perfect organization of our military forces, under a uniform and rigid discipline and approved judicious drill; and to this end I desire to see all the departments and cohorts of the Legion put in immediate requisition. The Legion should be all powerful, panoplied with justice and equity, to consummate the designs of its projectors—at all times ready, as minute men, to serve the state in such way and manner as may, from time to time, be pointed out by the Governor. You have long sought an opportunity of showing your attachment to the state government of Illinois—it is now afforded; the Legion should maintain the constitution and the laws, and be ready at all times for the public defense. The winged warrior of the air perches upon the pole of American liberty, and the beast that has the temerity to ruffle her feathers should be made to feel the power of her talons; and until she ceases to be our proud national emblem we should not cease to show our attachment to Illinois. Should the tocsin of alarm ever be sounded, and the Legion called to the tented field by our Executive, I hope to see it able, under one of the proudest mottoes that ever blazed upon a warrior's shield—Sicut patribus sit Deus nobis; "as God was with our fathers, so may He be with us"—to fight the battles of our country, as victors, and as freemen; the juice of the uva, or the spirit of insubordination should never enter our camp,—but we should stand, ever stand, as a united people—one and indivisible.

I would earnestly recommend the construction of a wing-dam in the Mississippi, at the mouth of the ravine at or near the head of Main street, and the excavation of a ship canal from that point to a point terminating in a grand reservoir on the bank of said river, east of the foot of said street, a distance of about two miles. This would afford, at the various outlets, the most ample water power for propelling any amount of machinery for mill and manufacturing purposes, so essentially necessary to the building up of a great commercial city in the heart of one of the most productive and delightful countries on earth. I {292} would advise that an agent be immediately appointed on behalf of the city corporation, to negotiate with eastern capitalists for the completion of this great work, on the most advantageous terms, even to the conveyance of the privilege for a term of years. This work finished, and the future greatness of this city is placed upon an imperishable basis. In addition to the great advantages that will otherwise accrue to the city and country by the construction of this noble work, it would afford the best harbor for steamboats, for winter quarters, on this magnificent stream.

The public health requires that the low lands, bordering on the Mississippi, should be immediately drained, and the entire timber removed. This can and will be one of the most healthful cities in the west, provided you take prompt and decisive action in the premises. A board of health should be appointed and vested with the usual powers and prerogatives.

The Governor, council of revision, and legislature of Illinois, should be held in everlasting remembrance by our people—they burst the chains of slavery and proclaimed us forever free! A vote of thanks, couched in the strongest language possible, should be tendered them in our corporate capacity; and, when this is done, Quincy, our first noble city of refuge, when we came from the slaughter in Missouri with our garments stained with blood, should not be forgotten.

As the Chief Magistrate of your city I am determined to execute all state laws and city ordinances passed in pursuance to law, to the very letter, should it require the strong arm of military power to enable me to do so. As an officer I know no man; the peaceful, unoffending in the full exercise of all his civil, political, and religious rights, and the guilty violator of law shall be punished, without respect to persons.

All of which is respectfully submitted.[2]

John C. Bennett.

The following persons were elected by the council to their offices, to-wit—Henry G. Sherwood, marshal; James Sloan, recorder; Robert B. Thompson, treasurer; James Robinson, assessor; Austin Cowles, supervisor of streets. I presented to the city council the following resolution, which was unanimously adopted:

{293} Resolved by the City Council of the City of Nauvoo, that the unfeigned thanks of this community be respectfully tendered to the Governor, Council of Revision, and Legislature of the state of Illinois, as a feeble testimonial of their respect and esteem for noble, high-minded, and patriotic statesmen; and as an evidence of gratitude for the signal powers recently conferred; also that the citizens of Quincy be held in everlasting remembrance, for their unparalleled liberality and marked kindness to our people, when in their greatest state of suffering and want.

I presented a bill for an ordinance concerning the University of Nauvoo, which passed as follows:

Sec.1. Be it ordained by the City Council of the City of Nauvoo, that the "University of the City of Nauvoo," be, and the same is hereby organized by the appointment of the following Board of Trustees, to-wit—John C. Bennett, chancellor; William Law, registrar; and Joseph Smith, Sidney Rigdon, Hyrum Smith, William Marks, Samuel H. Smith, Daniel H. Wells, Newel K. Whitney, Charles C. Rich, John T. Barnett, Wilson Law, Don Carlos Smith, John P. Greene, Vinson Knight, Isaac Galland, Elias Higbee, Robert D. Foster, James Adams, Robert B. Thompson, Samuel Bennett, Ebenezer Robinson, John Snider, George Miller, and Lenos M. Knight, Regents of the "University of the City of Nauvoo;" as contemplated in the 24th section of "An Act to incorporate the City of Nauvoo," approved December 16, 1840.

Sec. 2. The board named in the first section of this ordinance, shall hold its first meeting at the office of Joseph Smith, on Tuesday, the 9th day of February, 1841, at 2 o'clock p. m.

Passed February 3, 1841.

John C. Bennett, Mayor.

James Sloan, Recorder.

I also presented a bill for an ordinance organizing the Nauvoo Legion, which passed the same day, as follows:

Sec. 1. Be it ordained by the City Council of the City of Nauvoo, that the inhabitants of the City of Nauvoo, and such citizens of Hancock county as may unite by voluntary enrollment, be, and they are hereby organized into a body of independent military men, to be called the "Nauvoo Legion," as contemplated in the 25th section of "An Act to incorporate the City of Nauvoo," approved December 16, 1840.

Sec. 2. The Legion shall be, and is hereby divided into two cohorts; the horse troops to constitute the first cohort, and the foot troops to constitute the second cohort.

{294} Sec. 3. The general officers of the Legion shall consist of a lieutenant-general, as the chief commanding and reviewing officer, and president of the court martial and Legion; a major-general, as the second in command in the Legion, the secretary of the court martial and Legion, and adjutant and inspector-general; a brigadier-general, as the commander of the first cohort; and brigadier-general, as commander of the second cohort.

Sec. 4. The staff of the lieutenant-general shall consist of two principal aids-de-camp, with the rank of colonels of cavalry; and a guard of twelve aids-de-camp, with the rank of captain of infantry; and a drill officer, with the rank of colonel of dragoons, who shall likewise be the chief officer of the guard.

Sec. 5. The staff of the major-general shall consist of an adjutant, a surgeon-in-chief, a cornet, a quarter-master, a paymaster, a commissary, and a chaplain, with the rank of colonels of infantry; a surgeon for each cohort, a quarter-master-sergeant, sergeant-major, and chief musician, with the rank of captains of light infantry, and two musicians, with the rank of captains of infantry.

Sec. 6. The staff of each brigadier-general shall consist of one aid-de-camp, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel of infantry, provided that the said brigadiers shall have access to the staff of the major-general, when not otherwise in service.

Sec. 7. No officer shall hereafter be elected by the various companies of the Legion, except upon the nomination of the court-martial; and it is hereby made the duty of the court-martial to nominate at least two candidates for each vacant office, whenever such vacancies occur.

Sec. 8. The court-martial shall fill and supply all offices ranking between captains and brigadier-generals by granting brevet commissions to the most worthy company officers of the line, who shall thereafter take rank, and command according to the date of their brevets, provided that their original place in the line shall not thereby be vacated.

Sec. 9. The court-martial, consisting of all the military officers, commissioned or entitled to commissions, within the limits of the city corporation, shall meet at the office of Joseph Smith, on Thursday, the 4th day of February, 1841, at 10 o'clock a. m.; and then and there proceed to elect the general officers of the Legion, as contemplated in the 3rd section of this ordinance.

Sec. 10. The court-martial shall adopt for the Legion, as nearly as may be, and so far as applicable, the discipline, drill, uniform, rule, and regulations of the United States army.

Passed February 8, 1841.

John C. Bennett, Mayor.

James Sloan, Recorder.

{295} Joseph Smith, Hyrum Smith, Don C. Smith, and Charles C. Rich were duly sworn as members of the City Council.[3]

The following addition has been made to the Charter of the Nauvoo Legion by the legislature—

Any citizen of Hancock county may, by voluntary enrollment, attach himself to the Nauvoo Legion, with all the privileges, which appertain to that independent military body.

I gave a general invitation to my friends to enroll themselves, so as to have a perfect organization by the fourth of July. I was appointed chairman of several committees, viz.: "On the Canal," "For Vacating the Town of Commerce," "Vending Spirituous Liquors," "Code of City Ordinances", "Board of Health," &c. Council adjourned to the 8th.

Thursday, 4.

Minutes of the Meeting which Organized the Nauvoo Legion.

Pursuant to an ordinance of the City Council of the City of Nauvoo, entitled, "An ordinance organizing the Nauvoo Legion," passed February 3, 1841, a court-martial, composed of the commissioned officers of the militia of the state of Illinois, within the city of Nauvoo, assembled at the office of Joseph Smith, on Thursday at 10 o'clock a. m., the 4th day of February, 1841: present—John C. Bennett, quarter-master general of the state of Illinois; Lieutenant-Colonel Don Carlos Smith; Captains Charles C. Rich, Wilson Law, Albert P. Rockwood, William Law, Titus Billings, Stephen Markham; first lieutenants, Francis M. Higbee, John T. Barnett, John D. Parker, Benjamin S. Wilber, Amos Davis; second lieutenants, Chancy L. Higbee, Nelson Higgins, David H. Redfield, Hosea Stout, Stephen Winchester, Thomas Rich; third lieutenants, John C. Annis, and Alexander Badlam. The court was {296} called to order by General Bennett. On motion, Joseph Smith and Hugh McFall were requested to sit in the court. The court-martial then proceeded to the election of the general officers of the Legion; whereupon Joseph Smith was duly elected lieutenant-general of the Nauvoo Legion, and John C. Bennett, major-general. Colonel Wilson Law was elected brigadier-general of the first cohort, and Lieutenant-Colonel Don Carlos Smith brigadier-general of the second cohort, by unanimous vote of the court-martial. Lieutenant-general Joseph Smith, after being duly sworn into office, appointed the following named persons for his staff, to-wit—Captain A. P. Rockwood to be drill officer; Captains William Law and Robert B. Thompson, aids-de-camp; and James Allred, Thomas Grover, C. M. Kreymeyer, John L. Butler, John Snider, Alpheus Cutler, Reynolds Cahoon, Elias Higbee, Henry G. Sherwood, Shadrack Roundy, Samuel H. Smith, and Vinson Knight, guards, and assistant aids-de-camp. The Legion, at its organization, was composed of six companies.

Friday, 5.—Elder Reuben Hedlock is laboring in Glasgow, Scotland. The Church in that place numbers 55, and the spirit of enquiry increases.

Saturday, 6.

Minutes of a Council at Brother Richard Harrison's, 72 Burlington Street, Liverpool, for organizing a company of Saints going to New Orleans on the ship "Sheffield," Captain Porter.

Elders Brigham Young, Willard Richards, John Taylor, and other officers, present. Elder Hyrum Clark was chosen president, and Thomas Walmsley, Miles Romney, Edward Martin, John Taylor, Francis Clark, and John Riley, counselors to President Clark. Edward Martin, clerk and historian. Peter Maughan and John Taylor were ordained Elders. President Clark and his counselors were blessed and set apart for their mission.

Sunday, 7.—Ship Sheffield sailed from Liverpool with 235 Saints.

Monday, 8.—Levi Richards writes from Lugwardine—

To the Editor of the Star:

Since Stanley Hill conference, I have attended about thirty council meetings of Church officers, in eleven different places in Herefordshire, Gloucestershire, and Worcestershire, making a circuit of nearly one hundred miles. Union and harmony prevail among them, and a {297} disposition to add to their faith. New places are frequently opened for preaching, which is generally supplied. Many are baptized every week, although the ice has to yield its natural claims, and be put aside. The gift of healing is manifested to quite an extent in this region. The gift of tongues is received in most of the branches where I am acquainted. The spirit of persecution is not yet wholly cast out of the world: for recently preaching was held for the first time in Pendock parish, eight miles from Ledbury, when a congregation, respectable in numbers and appearance, were compelled to retire prematurely, in consequence of the quantity of gravel thrown upon the roof and against the windows. The mob were numerous, and pelted the Saints on their way home with mud. The meeting was held at the shop of a tradesman, who had been clerk of the parish, but was so fortunate as to obey the Gospel, and be turned out of his stewardship; and his wife was dismissed from her school, for the same reason, by the parson of the parish. More or less of the Saints are turned out of employ, and out of their houses, for obeying the Gospel.

Nauvoo Council Opened by Prayer.

City Council met according to adjournment and opened by prayer, which was made a standing rule of the council. I reported a bill for the survey of a canal through the city, which was accepted; and I was appointed to contract for its survey. I also reported a bill for an ordinance on temperance, which was read and laid over.

Wednesday, 10.—Elder James Burnham writes from Overton, Flintshire, North Wales—

I have organized two branches, with about 150 members; and we are continually baptizing, whether it be cold or hot. There is great opposition.

The Echo Company.

Thursday, 11.—Elders Young, Richards, and Taylor, in council at 72 Burlington Street, Liverpool, set apart, by the laying on of hands, Elder Daniel Browett, to take charge of a company of Saints, about to sail for New Orleans on ship Echo, Captain Wood; and John Cheese, David Wilding, James Lavender, William Jenkins, Robert Harris, and John Ellison, to be his counselors. Robert Harris was ordained an Elder, and Elder Browett was appointed clerk and historian of the company.

{298} Saturday, 13.—Elder Orson Hyde sailed from New York for Liverpool, on his way to Jerusalem, accompanied by Elder George J. Adams.

Sunday, 14.

Minutes of the London Conference.

A conference of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was held at Barrett's Academy, 57 King Square, Goswell Road, London, on Sunday, the 14th of February, 1841, there being present—Elders Heber C. Kimball, Wilford Woodruff, Lorenzo Snow, William Pitt, and four Priests. The meeting was called to order by Elder Kimball at 2 o'clock p. m. Moved by Elder Kimball, seconded by Elder Pitt, that Elder Woodruff be president of this conference; carried unanimously. Moved by Elder Kimball, seconded by Elder Woodruff, that Dr. W. Copeland be clerk; carried unanimously. The meeting opened by Elder Kimball with prayer and singing. The president then called upon the official members to represent their respective branches. The church at Ipswich was represented by Elder Pitt, as consisting of twelve members, one Elder, one Priest, and one Teacher. The church at Bedford was represented by Robert Williams, Priest, as consisting of forty-two members, one Priest, seven moved, two died. The church at Woolwich was represented by John Griffith, Priest, as consisting of six members, one Priest. The church in London was represented by Elder Kimball as consisting of forty-six members, one Elder, two Priests: excellent prospects of a continued increase. James Allen was ordained an Elder, and Thomas Barnes a Priest. Robert Williams was ordained an Elder, to preside over the branch at Bedford; and William Smith and John Sheffield were ordained Priests. Richard Bates was ordained a Priest, in the branch of Woolwich, and A. Painter a Teacher—all under the hands of Elders Kimball, Woodruff and Snow. It was then moved by Elder Kimball, seconded by Elder Woodruff, that Elder Snow be appointed president of this [the Woolwich] conference, also to take the superintendency of the branch in London. Much valuable instruction was given by Elders Kimball and Woodruff in relation to the duties of the official members. It was then moved by Elder Kimball, and seconded by Elder Snow, that this conference be adjourned to Sunday, 16th of May, 1841. The conference was then closed at half-past five, by singing and prayer.

Dr. W. Copeland, Clerk.

Monday, 15.—As chairman of the committee [on the vending of spirituous liquors] I reported a bill to the City {299} Council, which, after a long discussion, passed into "An ordinance in relation to temperance."


Sec. 1. Be it ordained by the City Council of the City of Nauvoo, that all persons and establishments whatever, in this city, are prohibited from vending whisky in a less quantity than a gallon, or other spirituous liquors in a less quantity than a quart, to any person whatever, excepting on the recommendation of a physician, duly accredited in writing, by the Chancellor and Regents of the University of the City of Nauvoo; and any person guilty of any act contrary to the prohibition contained in this ordinance, shall, on conviction thereof before the Mayor or municipal court, be fined in any sum not exceeding twenty-five dollars, at the discretion of said Mayor or municipal court; and any person or persons who shall attempt to evade this ordinance by giving away liquor, or by any other means, shall be considered alike amenable, and fined as aforesaid.

Passed February 15, 1841.

John C. Bennett, Mayor.

James Sloan, Recorder.

In the discussion of the foregoing bill, I spoke at great length on the use of liquors, and showed that they were unnecessary, and operate as a poison in the stomach, and that roots and herbs can be found to effect all necessary purposes.

Tuesday, 16.

Missouri's "White-washing."

Resolved by the Senate [of the state of Missouri], the House of Representatives concurring, that two thousand copies of the evidence taken before the examining court in relation to "Mormon" difficulties, and such of the letters, orders, and correspondence on that subject, on file in the office of the secretary of state, as may be selected by a joint committee of the two houses, shall be published in pamphlet form, under the direction of the secretary of state; that one copy, in lieu of the manuscript copies, heretofore ordered, be sent to our delegation in Congress, to be laid before the House to which they respectively belong, one to each member of Congress, and the residue be distributed among the Mormons of the general assembly.

Approved February 16, 1841.[4]

{300} Is this Missouri's last struggle to retrieve her lost character to publish to the world a one-sided statement of her robberies, murders, and extermination which she had committed without provocation, at a time when not one Saint was left in Missouri to tell the truth about them?

The ship Echo sailed from Liverpool for New Orleans, with 109 Saints, led by Daniel Browett.

Saturday, 20.—Elder Brigham Young went to Harwarden and preached twice on Sunday.

Elders William Kay and Thomas Richardson introduced the Gospel into the City of Hereford.

The court-martial of the Nauvoo Legion, by a unanimous vote, adopted the following resolutions, to-wit—

Legion Resolutions.

That no person whatever, residing within the limits of the City of Nauvoo, between the ages of 18 and 45 years, excepting such as are exempted by the laws of the United States, shall be exempt from military duty, unless exempted by a special act of this court; and the fines for neglecting or refusing to appear on the days of general parade were fixed at the following rates: for generals, $25; colonels, $20; captains, $15; lieutenants, $10; and musicians and privates, $5; and for company parade at the following rates—for commissioned officers, $5; non-commissioned officers, $3; musicians and privates, $2. The 1st and 6th of April, and the 3rd of July, were fixed upon as days for general parade for this year.

Ordered that Edward P. Duzette enlist and organize a band of music, not exceeding twenty men. It was also reported that John Scott had been elected captain in the place of William Law, and Lieutenant Hosea Stout in the place of Albert P. Rockwood, who has been promoted.

Monday, 22.—I laid before the City Council the following—


Resolved by the City Council of the City of Nauvoo, that the freedom of the city be, and the same hereby is, conferred on the present Governor, lieutenant-governor, council of revision, and members of both houses of the general assembly, of the state of Illinois, as an evidence {301} of our gratitude for their great liberality and kindness to this community, during the present winter, which was adopted unanimously.

I also presented the following bill for "An ordinance in relation to the University."


Sec. 1. Be it ordained by the City Council of the City of Nauvoo, that all matters and powers whatever in relation to common schools, and all other institutions of learning within the City of Nauvoo be, and the same hereby are transferred from the City Council of the City of Nauvoo, to the chancellor and regents of the University of the City of Nauvoo.

Passed February 22, 1841.

John C. Bennett, Mayor.

James Sloan, Recorder.

Tuesday, 23.—Elder Kington writes from Bristol, England, that eight have been baptized in that place.

An Act to Incorporate the Nauvoo House Association.

Sec. 1. Be it enacted by the people of the state of Illinois, represented in the general assembly, that George Miller, Lyman Wight, John Snider, and Peter Haws, and their associates, are hereby declared a body corporate, under the name and style of the "Nauvoo House Association;" and they are hereby authorized to erect and furnish a public house of entertainment, to be called the "Nauvoo House."

Sec. 2. The above-named George Miller, Lyman Wight, John Snider, and Peter Haws, and their associates, are hereby declared to be the trustees of the association, with full power and authority to hold in joint tenancy, by themselves and their successors in office, a certain lot in the City of Nauvoo, in the county of Hancock, and state of Illinois, known and designated on the plat of said city, as the south half of lot numbered fifty-six, for the purpose of erecting thereon the house contemplated in the first section of this act.

Sec. 3. The said trustees are further authorized and empowered to obtain by stock subscription, by themselves or their duly authorized agents, the sum of one hundred and fifty thousand dollars, which shall be divided into shares of fifty dollars each.

Sec. 4. No individual shall be permitted to hold more than three hundred, nor less than one share of stock, and certificates of stock shall {302} be delivered to subscribers, so soon as their subscriptions are paid in and not before.

Sec. 5. As soon as the contemplated house shall have been completed and furnished, the stockholders shall appoint such agents as the trustees may deem necessary in the management of the affairs of said association.

Sec. 6. The trustees shall have power to sue and be sued, plead and be impleaded in any court in this state, in the name and style of the "Trustees of the Nauvoo House Association."

Sec. 7. They shall also take the general care and supervision in procuring materials for said house, and constructing and erecting the same, and further to superintend its general management, and to do and perform all matters and things which may be necessary to be done, in order to secure the interest and promote the objects of this association.

Sec. 8. This association shall continue twenty years from the passage of this act, and the house herein provided for shall be kept for the accommodation of strangers, travelers, and all other persons who may resort therein for rest and refreshment.

Sec. 9. It is moreover established as a perpetual rule of said house, to be observed by all persons who may keep or occupy the same that spirituous liquors of every description are prohibited, and that such liquor shall never be vended as a beverage, or introduced into common use, in said house.

Sec. 10. And whereas Joseph Smith has furnished the said association with the ground whereon to erect said house, it is further declared that the said Smith and his heirs shall hold, by perpetual succession, a suite of rooms in the said house, to be set apart and conveyed in due form of law to him and his heirs by the said trustees, as soon as the same are completed.

Sec. 11. The Board of Trustees shall appoint one of their number as president thereof.

Approved February 23, 1841.

Thomas Carlin,


W. L. D. Ewing,

Speaker of the House of Representatives.

S.H. Anderson,

Speaker of the Senate.

State of Illinois,

Office of Secretary of State, s. s.

I, Stephen A. Douglas, Secretary of State, do hereby certify the {303} foregoing to be a true and perfect copy of the enrolled law on file in my office.

Witness my hand and the seal of State.

Springfield, February 24, A. D. 1841.


S. A. Douglas,

Secretary of State.

An Act to Incorporate the Nauvoo Agricultural and Manufacturing Association in the County of Hancock.

Sec. 1. Be it enacted by the people of the state of Illinois, represented in the general assembly, that Sidney Rigdon, George W. Robinson, Samuel James, Wilson Law, Daniel H. Wells, Hyrum Smith, George Miller, William Marks, Peter Haws, Vinson Knight, John Scott, Don Carlos Smith, William Huntington, Sen., Ebenezer Robinson, Robert B. Thompson, William Law, James Allred, John T. Barnett, Theodore Turley, John C. Bennett, Elias Higbee, Isaac Higbee, Joseph Smith, Alpheus Cutler, Israel Barlow, R. D. Foster, John F. Olney, John Snider, Leonard Soby, Orson Pratt, James Kelley, Sidney A. Knowlton, John P. Greene, John F. Weld, and their associates and successors, are hereby constituted a body corporate and politic, by the name of "The Nauvoo Agricultural and Manufacturing Association," and by that name shall be capable of suing and being sued, pleading and being impleaded, answering and being answered, in all courts and places, and may have a common seal, and may alter the same at pleasure.

Sec. 2. The sole object and purpose of said association shall be for the promotion of agriculture and husbandry in all its branches, and for the manufacture of flour, lumber, and such other useful articles as are necessary for the ordinary purposes of life.

Sec. 3. The capital stock of said association shall be one hundred thousand dollars, with the privilege of increasing it to the sum of three hundred thousand dollars, to be divided into shares of fifty dollars, which shall be considered personal property, and be assignable in such manner as the said corporation may, by its by-laws, provide; which capital stock shall be exclusively devoted to the object and purposes set forth in the second section of this act, and to no other object and purposes, and to the same end the said corporation shall have power to purchase, hold, and convey real estate, and other property, to the amount of its capital.

Sec. 4. Said corporation shall have power, by the trustees, or a majority of them present at any regularly called meeting, to make by-laws for its own government, for the purpose of carrying out the objects {304} of this association, provided the same are not repugnant to the laws and constitution of this state, or of the United States.

Sec. 5. Joseph Smith, Sidney Rigdon, and William Law shall be commissioners to receive subscriptions for, and distribute said capital stock for said corporation; said commissioners, or a majority of them, shall, within six months after the passage of this act, either by themselves or their duly appointed agents, open a subscription book for said stock at such times and places as they shall appoint, and at the time of subscription for such stock, at least ten per cent upon each share subscribed for, shall be paid to said commissioners, or their duly appointed agents; and the remainder of said stock, so subscribed for, shall be paid in such sums, and at such times, as shall be provided for by the by-laws of said corporation.

Sec. 6. In case the stock of said corporation shall not all be taken up within one year from the passage of this act, the duties of said commissioners shall cease, and the trustees of said corporation, or a quorum thereof, may thereafter receive subscriptions to said stock, from time to time, until the whole shall be subscribed.

Sec. 7. The stock, property, and concerns of said corporation shall be managed by twenty trustees, who shall be stockholders of said corporation, any five of whom, to be designated by a majority of the trustees, shall form a quorum for the transaction of all ordinary business of said corporation, the election of which trustees shall be annual. The first mentioned twenty persons, whose names are recited in the first section of this act, shall be the first trustees of said corporation, and shall hold their offices until the first Monday in September, A. D. 1841, and until others shall be elected in their places.

Sec. 8. The trustees of said corporation for every subsequent year shall be elected on the first Monday in September, in each and every year, at such place as the trustees for the time being shall appoint, and of which election they shall give at least fifteen days previous notice by advertisement in some newspaper, in or near the City of Nauvoo. At every election of trustees, each stockholder shall be entitled to one vote on each share of stock owned by him: provided that no stockholder shall be entitled to more than twenty votes, and said stockholders, may vote either in person or by proxy. The election for trustees shall be conducted in such manner as shall be pointed out by the by-laws of said corporation, and whenever a vacancy shall happen by death, resignation, or otherwise, among the trustees, the remaining trustees shall have power to fill such vacancy, until the next general election for trustees.

Sec. 9. The trustees of said corporation, as soon as may be, after their appointment or election under this act, shall proceed to elect, {305} out of their number, a president, treasurer, and secretary, who shall respectively hold their offices during one year, and until others shall be elected to fill their places, and whose duties shall be defined and prescribed by the by-laws of the corporation; and said trustees shall also appoint such agents and other persons as may be necessary to conduct the proper business, and accomplish the declared objects of said corporation, and shall likewise have power to fill any vacancy occasioned by the death, resignation, or removal of any officer of said corporation.

Sec. 10. This act shall be construed as a public act, and continue in force for the period of twenty years. And the trustees appointed under the provisions of this act, shall hold their first meeting at the City of Nauvoo, on the first Monday of April, A. D. 1841.

Approved February 27, 1841.

Thomas Carlin,


W. L. D. Ewing,

Speaker of the House of Representatives.

S. H. Anderson.

Speaker of the Senate.

State of Illinois, Office of Secretary of State.

I, Lyman Trumbull, Secretary of State, do hereby certify the foregoing to be a true and perfect copy of the enrolled law on the file in my office.

Given Under My Hand And Seal Of State, Springfield, March 10, 1841.

Lyman Trumbull,

Secretary of State.

Wednesday, 24.—Elder Brigham Young returned to Liverpool, and on the 25th attended a patriarchal blessing meeting at Brother Dumville's. Father Melling officiated; Elder James Whitehead, scribe.

Saturday, 27.—President Brigham Young went to Manchester, and preached in Lombard Street room on Sunday, the 28th.

Division of Nauvoo into Municipal Wards.

Monday, March 1.—The City Council divided the city into four wards, at my suggestion, to-wit: all the district of country within the city limits, north of the center of Knight street, and west of the center of Wells street, shall constitute the first ward. North of the center of Knight street and east of the center of Wells street, the second ward. South {306} of the center of Knight street, and east of the center of Wells street, the third ward. South of the center of Knight street, and west of the center of Wells street, the fourth ward.

I attended the City Council, and presented a bill for "An ordinance in relation to Religious Societies."

Ordinance on Religious Liberty in Nauvoo.

Sec. 1. Be it ordained by the City Council of the City of Nauvoo, that the Catholics, Presbyterians, Methodists, Baptists, Latter-day Saints, Quakers, Episcopals, Universalists, Unitarians, Mohammedans, and all other religious sects and denominations whatever, shall have free toleration, and equal privileges, in this city; and should any person be guilty of ridiculing, and abusing or otherwise depreciating another in consequence of his religion, or of disturbing or interrupting any religious meeting within the limits of this city, he shall, on conviction thereof before the Mayor or Municipal Court, be considered a disturber of the public peace, and fined in any sum not exceeding five hundred dollars, or imprisoned not exceeding six months, or both, at the discretion of said Mayor or Court.

Sec. 2. It is hereby made the duty of all Municipal officers to notice and report to the Mayor any breach or violation of this, or any other ordinance of this city, that may come within their knowledge, or of which they may be advised; and any officer aforesaid, is hereby fully authorized to arrest all such violators of rule, law and order, either with or without process.

Passed March 1, 1841.

John C. Bennett, Mayor.

James Sloan, Recorder.

I also presented a bill as follows:

An Ordinance in Relation to Public Meetings.

Sec. 1. Be it ordained by the City Council of the City of Nauvoo, that in order to guarantee the constitutional right of free discussion upon all subjects, the citizens of this city, may from time to time peaceably assemble themselves together for all peaceable or lawful purposes whatever; and should any person be guilty of disturbing or interrupting any such meeting or assemblage, he shall on conviction thereof before the Mayor or Municipal Court, be considered a disturber of the public peace, and fined in any sum not exceeding five hundred {307} dollars, or imprisoned not exceeding six months, or both, at the discretion of said mayor or court.

Sec. 2. Should any person be guilty of exciting the people to riot or rebellion, or of participating in a mob, or any other unlawful riotous or tumultuous assemblage of the people, or of refusing to obey any civil officer, executing the ordinances of the city, or the general laws of the state or United States, or of neglecting or refusing to obey promptly, any military order for the due execution of said law or ordinances, he shall, on conviction thereof as aforesaid, be fined or imprisoned, or both, as aforesaid.

Passed March 1, 1841.

John C. Bennett, Mayor.

James Sloan, Recorder.

I also offered a bill for "An ordinance, creating certain additional City Officers."


Sec. 1. Be it ordained by the City Council of the City of Nauvoo, that in addition to the city officers heretofore elected, there shall be elected by the City Council, one high constable for each ward; one surveyor and engineer, one market master, one weigher and sealer, and one collector for the city, whose duties shall hereafter be defined by ordinance.

Passed March 1, 1841.

John C. Bennett, Mayor.

James Sloan, Recorder.

I presented the following report:

Committee's Report.

Your committee, to whom was referred that portion of the address of his honor, the Mayor, which recommended the propriety of vacating the town plats, Commerce, and the City of Commerce, and incorporating them with the city plat of Nauvoo, would respectfully report—That they consider the recommendation contained in the address as one of great importance to the future welfare and prosperity of this city, and if carried into effect would make the streets regular and uniform, and materially tend to beautify this city. We would therefore respectfully recommend that the survey of the City of Nauvoo be carried through the town plats of Commerce and the City of Commerce, as soon as it may be practicable.

We would therefore recommend to the council the passage of the following resolution—That the town plats of Commerce, and Commerce City be vacated, and that the same stand vacated from this time forth, {308} and forever; and that the same be incorporated with the City of Nauvoo, from this time henceforth and forever.

All of which is respectfully submitted.

Joseph Smith, Chairman.

The report was received and adopted, and an ordinance passed accordingly.

A vote of thanks, and the freedom of the city were conferred on the Honorable Richard M. Young, United States Senator for Illinois.

Tuesday, 2.—Elder Brigham Young visited Oldham, and returned on Wednesday, 3rd, to Manchester. Elders Orson Hyde and George J. Adams arrived in Liverpool.

Thursday, 4.—Elder Willard Richards left Liverpool for Preston, and was followed by Elders Hyde, Adams, and Fielding on the 5th.

General William Henry Harrison was inaugurated President of the United States.

Friday, 5.—Elder Parley P. Pratt removed the Star office to 47 Oxford Road, Manchester.

Sunday, 7.—Elders Young and Kimball preached at the Carpenter's Hall, Manchester.

Appointment of City Officers.

Monday, 8.—I attended the City Council. The following appointments were made, viz: Alanson Ripley, city surveyor; Theodore Turley, weigher and sealer; James Robinson, assessor; Stephen Markham, market master; James Allred was sworn supervisor of streets, and James Allred, Dimick B. Huntington, and George Morey, high constables.

I gave my views on several local measures proposed by the council.

Wednesday, 10.

Letter of Brigham Young to the Editor of the Star—On Family Prayer.

Liverpool, March 10, 1841.

To the Editor of the Star:

Dear Brother:—I feel anxious to address a few lines to you, on the subject of family prayer (and shall feel obliged by your inserting the {309} same in your next Star), for the purpose of imparting instruction to the brethren in general. Having traveled through many branches of the Church in England, I have found it to be a general custom among the brethren I visited, that when any of the Traveling Elders are present, they wait for the Elder to go forward in family prayer, instead of attending to that duty themselves. That is not right; and I would say to them that it would be better for them to understand their duty on this subject. My dear brethren, remember that the Lord holds all of us responsible for our conduct here. He held our father Adam responsible for his conduct, but no more than He does us, in proportion to the station we hold. The kings of the earth will have to give an account to God, for their conduct in a kingly capacity. Kings are heads of nations, governors are heads of provinces; so are fathers or husbands governors of their own houses, and should act accordingly. Heads of families should always take the charge of family worship, and call their family together at a seasonable hour, and not wait for every person to get through with all they may have to say or do. If it were my prerogative to adopt a plan for family prayer, it would be the following: Call your family or household together every morning and evening, previous to coming to the table, and bow before the Lord to offer up your thanksgiving for His mercies and providential care of you. Let the head of the family dictate; I mean the man, not the woman. If an Elder should happen to be present, the head of the house can call upon him, if he chooses so to do, and not wait for a stranger to take the lead at such times; by so doing we shall obtain the favor of our Heavenly Father, and it will have a tendency to teach our children to walk in the way they should go, which may God grant for Christ's sake. Amen.

Brigham Young.

Governor Carlin issued the following Commission—

Appointment of Joseph Smith Lieutenant-General of the Nauvoo Legion.

Thomas Carlin, Governor of the State of Illinois, to all to whom these presents shall come: Greeting

Know ye that Joseph Smith, having been duly elected to the office of lieutenant-general, Nauvoo Legion, of the militia of the State of Illinois, I, Thomas Carlin, governor of said state, do commission him lieutenant-general of the Nauvoo Legion, to take rank from the fifth day of February, 1841. He is, therefore, carefully and diligently to discharge the duties of said office, by doing and performing all manner of things thereunto belonging; and I do strictly require all officers and soldiers {310} under his command to be obedient to his orders: and he is to obey such orders and directions as he shall receive, from time to time, from the commander-in-chief or his superior officer.

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand, and caused the great seal of state to be hereunto affixed. Done at Springfield, this tenth day of March, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty-one, and of the independence of the United States the sixty-fifth.

By the Governor,


Thomas Carlin.

Lyman Trumball,

Secretary of State.

The commission was endorsed on the back as follows—

Headquarters, Nauvoo Legion, City of Nauvoo, Illinois, March 15, 1841—Oath of office administered by me, the day and year above written.

John C. Bennett,

Major-General of the Nauvoo Legion.

Thursday, 11.—Elders Young, Kimball, Richards, and Taylor met in Liverpool.

Monday, 15.—I attended the City Council, and took part in the discussion concerning Mr. Annis' mill, in the southwest part of the city.

Elder Wilford Woodruff attended a conference at Gadfield Elm; 408 members in eighteen branches represented.

Thursday, 16.—Elder George A. Smith attended a conference at Macclesfield, which branch contains ninety one members, one Elder, six Priests, five Teachers, and three Deacons. In consequence of incessant preaching, his lungs are much affected.

Wednesday, 17.—Ship Alesto sailed from Liverpool for New Orleans, with 54 Saints, led by Elders Thomas Smith and William Moss.

Elders Heber C. Kimball, Willard Richards, and Father Melling went to Preston; Elders Young and Hedlock to Hawarden, and George A. Smith to Leek.

Thursday, 18.—Elder George A. Smith attended a {311} council of the officers and members of the Church at Leek, numbering sixty-three members, one Elder, six Priests, two Teachers, and two Deacons. Stephen Nixon was ordained an Elder; and John Hudson, Jacob Gibson, and Joseph Knight Priests; and Frederick Rushton and Edwin Rushton, Teachers.

Saturday, 20.

An Inquiry.

City Of Nauvoo, March 20, 1841.

Brother William Allred, Bishop of the stake at Pleasant Vale, and also Brother Henry W. Miller, president of the stake at Freedom, desire President Joseph Smith to inquire of the Lord His will concerning them.

I inquired of the Lord concerning the foregoing question, and received the following answer—


Let my servants, William Allred and Henry W. Miller, have an agency for the selling of stock for the Nauvoo House, and assist my servants Lyman Wight, Peter Haws, George Miller, and John Snider, in building said house; and let my servants William Allred and Henry W. Miller take stock in the house, that the poor of my people may have employment, and that accommodations may be made for the strangers who shall come to visit this place, and for this purpose let them devote all their properties, saith the Lord.

About this time I received a revelation, given in the City of Nauvoo, in answer to the following interrogatory—"What is the will of the Lord, concerning the Saints in the Territory of Iowa?"[5]


"Verily, thus saith the Lord, I say unto you, if those who call themselves by my name, and are essaying to be my Saints, if they will do my will and keep my commandments concerning them; let them gather themselves together, unto the place which I shall appoint unto them by my servant Joseph, and build up cities unto my name, that they may be prepared for that which is in store for a time to come. Let them build up a city unto my name upon the land opposite to the City of {312} Nauvoo, and let the name of Zarahemla be named upon it. And let all those who come from the east, and the west, and the north, and the south, that have desires to dwell therein, take up their inheritances in the same, as well as in the City of Nashville, or in the City of Nauvoo, and in all the stakes which I have appointed, saith the Lord."

Sunday, 21.—Elder George A. Smith preached at Leek, and confirmed one.

Organization of the Lesser Priesthood at Nauvoo.

The Lesser Priesthood was organized in the City of Nauvoo, March 21, 1841, by Bishops Whitney, Miller, Higbee, and Knight. Samuel Rolf was chosen president of the Priests' quorum, and Stephen Markham and Hezekiah Peck, his counselors. Elisha Everett was chosen president of Teachers, and James W. Huntsman and James Hendricks, counselors. Phinehas R. Bird was chosen president of Deacons, and David Wood and William W. Lane counselors.


1. See Doctrine and Covenants, section cxxiv.

2. The foregoing speech is not printed in the "History of Joseph Smith" as published in the Deseret News and Millennial Star, but such is the prominence of John C. Bennett in the period of the history now reached, and such the despicable part he later plays, that, as affording an insight into his character, the speech becomes important, hence given here in extenso, as it was published in the Times and Seasons, Vol. II, No. 8.

3. Following is the form of oath taken:

We, Joseph Smith, Hyrum Smith, Don C. Smith, and Charles C. Rich, do solemnly swear in the presence of Almighty God that we will support the Constitution of the United States, and of the State of Illinois, and that we will well and truly perform the duties of councilors of the City of Nauvoo, according to law, and the best of our abilities.

Joseph Smith,

Hyrum Smith,

Don C. Smith,

Charles C. Rich.

December 3, 1841.

4. For a proper characterization of this document see Vol. III, this History, p. 256.

5. See Doctrine and Covenants, section cxxv.


Chapter XVI.

The First Foreign Mission of the Church 1837-1841.

Tuesday, March 23, 1841.—Elder Young returned to Liverpool, and Elder Richards wrote the following history of the "Mission to England, or the first foreign mission of the Latter-day Saints."

History of the British Mission.

About the first of June, 1837, Elder Heber C. Kimball was called by the Spirit of Revelation, and set apart by the First Presidency of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, then at Kirtland, Ohio, North America, to preside over a mission to England, accompanied by Elder Orson Hyde, who was set apart for the same work at the same time. In a few days Brother Joseph Fielding, Priest, was set apart; and on the eve of the 12th, Elder Willard Richards, (having been absent several months on a long journey, and having returned the day previous) was called and set apart for the same mission.

The following morning, Tuesday, 13th, these brethren gave the parting hand, bid farewell to home, and, without purse or scrip, started for England. They were accompanied twelve miles to Fairport on Lake Erie by Elders Brigham Young, John P. Greene and Brother Levi Richards, and Sisters Kimball, Greene and Fielding (Brother R. B. Thompson and wife accompanied the mission to Buffalo, and Brother Fitch Brigham to Utica) and others with whom they parted in the afternoon, and went on board a steamer for Buffalo; where they arrived next day.

At this place the brethren expected to receive some means from Canada, to assist them on their journey, but they were disappointed. In the evening they took passage on a canal boat, and arrived in Albany on the 19th (Elder Hyde having gone forward to New York from Rochester.) Brother Fielding proceeded to New York, and on the 20th Elder Kimball accompanied Elder Richards to his father's house in Richmond, Massachusetts, thirty miles east, where they spent one day, and having received some assistance from his friends, bade them {314} farewell for the last time (his father and mother having since died, also a sister whom he had left in Kirtland) and on the 21st returned to Albany, and arrived in New York on the 22nd, where they found Brothers Orson Hyde and Fielding, also Elders John Goodson and Isaac Russell, John Snider, Priest,(who had come from Canada to join the mission) anxiously awaiting their arrival, so that they might take passage on the United States, which was to sail next day, but they arrived too late.

In New York Elder Richards received some further means, quite providentially, and on the 23rd the brethren engaged passage to Liverpool, on board the Garrick, which was to sail on the 1st of July.

In the meantime the brethren received every possible assistance from Elder Elijah Fordham. At that time he was the only member of the Church residing in the city [New York], and having no house of his own, he procured his father's storehouse for the use of the brethren, where they lodged on the floor, amid straw and blankets, one week, eating their cold morsel, and conversing with the people as they had opportunity; for no place could be procured to preach in, and there was no one to receive them into their houses.

Sunday, the 25th, the brethren held a council at their lodgings (Mr. Fordham's store), and organized ready for taking their departure.

On the 29th the brethren sealed, superscribed, and forwarded one hundred and eighty of Elder Orson Hyde's "Timely Warnings" to the ministers of the different denominations in the city, and went on board the Garrick, which hauled out into the river and cast anchor.

July 1st, the ship weighed anchor and was towed to Sandy Hook by a steamer, where she spread sail, and in four hours and a half was out of sight of land. With the exception of a strong wind on the 12th, there was generally a gentle breeze from the northwest during the voyage. On the 16th, Elder Orson Hyde preached on the aft quarter deck. On the 18th Cape Clear was visible (eighteen days out of sight of land;) and on the morning of the 20th, the brethren landed in Liverpool twenty days from New York. Here Elders Kimball, Hyde, and Richards found themselves on a foreign shore, surrounded by strangers, without the first farthing in their possession; but the brethren unitedly took lodgings in a private house in Union Street, till after the inspection of the ship; and on Saturday, the 22nd, took coach for Preston. When they had alighted from the coach, and were standing by their trunks in front of the hotel in Preston, a large flag was unfurled over their heads on which was printed in golden letters, "Truth will prevail;" at the sight of which their hearts rejoiced, and they cried aloud, "Amen, thanks be unto God, Truth Will Prevail."

{315} Brother Joseph Fielding lodged with his brother, Rev. James Fielding, then a preacher in Vauxhall-road Chapel, and the remainder of the brethren took lodgings in St. Wilford Street, Fox Street. The same evening the Elders visited the Rev. Mr. Fielding, by his request at his lodgings. He had previously been apprized of the coming forth of this work in America, through the medium of letters from his relatives and others and had requested his church to pray that God would send them His servants, and exhorted his people to receive their message when they should come.

Sunday the 28th. As they had no place in which to preach, the seven brethren went to Vauxhall Chapel to hear the Rev. Mr. Fielding; and at the close of the morning service, Mr. Fielding gave public notice that an Elder of the Latter-day Saints would preach in the afternoon in his pulpit. This was voluntary with Mr. Fielding as no one had requested the privilege; and in the afternoon, according to the notice, Elder Kimball gave a brief history of the rise of the Church and the first principles of the Gospel, and Elder Hyde bore testimony; after which the Rev. Mr. Fielding requested the brethren to give out an appointment for the evening, when Elder Goodson preached, and Elder Joseph Fielding bore testimony.

At the close Mr. Fielding again gave leave for preaching at the same place on Wednesday evening, when Elder Hyde preached and Elder Richards bore testimony; and from that time the Rev. Mr. Fielding closed his doors against the Elders and began to oppose the work, and stated that the Elders promised to say nothing about baptism in their preaching before he ever consented to let them preach in his pulpit; whereas the subject of the Elders preaching in his chapel had not been named between the parties, before Mr. Fielding gave out the public appointment before referred to: much less (if possible) that they would "say nothing about baptism."

Nine of Mr. Fielding's members offered themselves for baptism; and Mr. Fielding presented himself before the Elders, and forbade their baptizing them, but he received for answer, that "they were of age and could act for themselves." On Sunday, the 30th, they were baptized under the hands of Elder Kimball; Brother George D. Watt being the first who offered himself for baptism in England, and is now an Elder laboring in Edinburgh, Scotland.

Elder Russell preached in the market place in the afternoon, and from that day the doors of private houses were opened on almost every hand for the Elders.

July 31st, a council of the Elders decided that Elders Goodson and Richards should go on a mission to Bedford, and Elder Russell and Priest Snider on a mission to Alston, Cumberland; and after a night {316} of prayer, praise and thanksgiving, the brethren took their departure on the morning of the first of August for their several stations.

The Rev. Mr. Fielding continued to oppose the doctrine of baptism for a season; but finding that he was likely to lose all his "best members," he offered to baptize them himself; but they being aware that he had no authority, declined his friendly offer, whereupon he engaged the Rev. Mr. Giles, a Baptist minister in Preston, of as little authority as himself, to do the baptizing for his flock; but this iniquitous scheme succeeded little better than the other—only one coming forward to his baptism, so far as we have heard. Mr. Fielding's people also stated that he acted the part of a hypocrite and deceived them, when he read the letters to them in public, which he received from America, by keeping back that part which treated on baptism, which, since the foregoing failure he has opposed.

Elders Kimball and Hyde, and Priest Fielding continued to preach daily in different parts of Preston, and on Wednesday and Thursday (August 2nd and 3rd), the meetings were attended by Miss Jeanetta Richards who was visiting her friends in Preston, and on Friday she requested baptism, which was attended to by Elder Kimball, after which she was confirmed at the water side by Elders Kimball and Hyde, it being the first confirmation in a foreign land in these last days.

The day following Sister Richards returned home to her friends, and informed her father, the Rev. Joseph Richards, an Independent minister at Walker-fold, Chaidgely, whom she had found at Preston, what she had done, and requested him to send for Elder Kimball to preach in his chapel. Mr. Richards complied with his daughter's request. Elder Kimball arrived at Walker-fold Saturday eve, August 12, and the day following preached three times in Mr. Richards' pulpit, to crowded assemblies; also twice during the week, and twice the Sunday following, being most kindly and cordially entertained by Mr. and Mrs. Richard's for nine days, during which time Elder Kimball baptized several in the neighborhood.

After a short visit to Preston, where Elder Hyde continued to preach and baptize, Elder Kimball returned to Walker-fold, and continued to receive the hospitality of Mr. Richards' house for some days, while the work spread in the neighborhood; and from thence the work went forth to Clitheroe, Waddington, Downham, Cathburn, Thornley, and Ribchester, through the labors of Brothers Kimball and Fielding.

Elders Goodson and Richards arrived in Bedford on the 2nd of August, and having letters of introduction to the Rev. Timothy R. Matthews from Brother Joseph Fielding (Mrs. Matthew's brother), they immediately waited on Mr. Matthews, who expressed great joy at their arrival, and manifested his sincerity by walking arm in arm with the {317} Elders through the streets of Bedford, calling on the members of his church, and inviting them to attend the lectures of the Elders at his chapel vestry that evening. Mr. Matthews had previously been apprized of the Saints in America through the medium of the Rev. James Fielding of Preston and the letters from America, before referred to. In the evening, his church assembled in the vestry, and Elders Goodson and Richards continued to lecture and testify of the work of God, on that and the three following evenings in the same place, with the entire approbation of Mr. Matthews, who, at the close of the lectures, publicly bore testimony to the truths advanced, and called upon his people to know why they did not come forward for baptism; while they in return wished to know why he did not set them the example.

After this Mr. Matthews engaged another house in the neighborhood for the Elders to preach in, under the pretense that some of the proprietors of the chapel might not be pleased with the Elders occupying the vestry, and Mr. Matthews continued to attend the preaching of the Elders, and also spent a great share of his time, from day to day, in conversation with them.

Mr. Matthews told the Elders that he had received two ordinations, one from Bishop West, whom he had proved to be an impostor, and another from the Church of England, which he acknowledged to be descended from the Church of Rome, and he further acknowledged that he had no authority from God for administering in the ordinances of God's house.

On the 10th Mrs. Braddock and four others were baptized by Elder Goodson. Soon after this, Mr. Joseph Saville, member of Mr. Matthews' church, being very desirous of receiving baptism at the same time with Mr. Matthews, waited on him at his house, in company with Elders Goodson and Richards and Mr. Matthews, and Mr. Saville mutually agreed to meet the Elders on the bank of the river Ouse at a specified hour in the afternoon, and attend to the ordinance of baptism. At the hour appointed Mr. Saville met the Elders at the place previously designated by Mr. Matthews; but as he (the latter) did not make his appearance according to promise, after waiting for him an hour, Mr. Saville was baptized, when the Elders repaired to Mr. Matthews' to learn the cause of his not fulfilling his engagement, and were informed by Mr. Matthews' family that he had gone out into the country to preach.

In a day or two it was currently rumored that Mr. Matthews had baptized himself, and this rumor was afterwards confirmed by Mrs. Matthews, who stated to Elder Kimball at Preston, that Mr. Matthews had baptized himself, reasoning upon this principle within himself: "If I {318} have authority to administer the sacrament to my people, why not have authority to baptize myself," &c.—and all this after Mr. Matthews had acknowledged to Elders Goodson and Richards that he had no authority to administer in the ordinances of God's house; and altogether regardless of the words of the Apostles (Heb. v: 4), "No man taketh this honor unto himself but he that is called of God as was Aaron."

By the foregoing it is plainly to be seen, that Mr. Matthews has attempted to take that upon himself which was never conferred upon him by the spirit of revelation, either by God, His angels, or His servants; viz., the holy Priesthood; and from that period, Mr. Matthews began to preach baptism, and baptized those who felt it their duty to be baptized, and then invited them to the penitent form to get remission of their sins; but finding that would not answer all the design which he intended, he afterwards began to baptize for the remission of sins.

Mr. Matthews appears to have well understood that counterfeit coin is more current the nearer it approximates to the true, and governed himself accordingly; for he continued to preach faith, repentance, baptism for the remission of sins, the second coming of Christ, &c., &c., adding one thing to another in imitation of truth, as fast as it answered his purpose, from those doctrines which he had heard from the Latter-day Saints; but it was some time before he arrived at that heaven-daring conscience-seared hardihood, to lay hands on those whom he had baptized for the reception of the Holy Ghost, and at the same time he acknowledged that he had not got the Holy Ghost himself, by praying that he might receive it—(Query. How can a man communicate that which he is not in possession of?) and he now calls his church "The Church of Latter-day Saints."

Thus has Mr. Matthews been running about from Bedford to Liverpool, from Liverpool to Northampton, from Northampton to Bedford, and other places, crying aloud in public and private, that the Latter-day Saints and their doctrines came from hell; at the same time he has been preaching the same doctrines, calls his church by the same name, is administering in the same ordinances, just as though he fully believed that the doctrines and sacraments of hell would be sanctified and made holy and heavenly, when administered by the tongue and hands of an impostor.

About the time that Mr. Matthews rejected the truth in Bedford, his son (as Mr. Matthews called him), the Rev. Robert Aitkin, commenced his attack on the principles of righteousness in Preston; and while furiously pounding his pulpit with the Book of Mormon, and warning his people to beware of the Latter-day Saints and their doctrines, saying, that they and their record came from hell; called upon his people to use all their efforts to put down the work of God, or stop the progress of the {319} Latter-day Saints; and, if it could not be put down without, prayed that God would smite the leaders; and from that time to the present, his prayer has been answered on his own head.

After Mr. Aitkin had preached against the corruptions of the Church of England for years, and established many flourishing chapels in Liverpool, Preston, Manchester, Burslem, London, &c.; after he had been visited by the Elders of the Church of Latter-day Saints, and acknowledged to them at one time that baptism was right, but he could find no man who had authority to baptize; and at another time, that he was afraid of them, and rejected their testimony; and last of all would not receive the Elders into his house; after all this, and deserted by a part of his flock, he has fled from the remainder because he was an hireling, and cared not for the sheep; yes, he has deserted his "Christian Society"—ceased to be an Aitkenite, and dissolved his co-partnership with Father Matthews, as may well be supposed, returned, and, taken "holy order" in "Mother Church," against the corruptions of which he testified so diligently from year to year, and is now about to enter on his parochial duties in St. John the Evangelist's Church, Hope street, Liverpool, for no other reason, that the writer knows of, only that he could find no one who had authority to baptize for the remission of sins, and not possessing the faith of his father, Matthews, to believe that the doctrines of the pit would become holy and gospel doctrines when taught by the tongue of wickedness and imposture, he has concluded thus publicly to acknowledge himself a servant of those very errors he has so long contended against, for the sake of filthy lucre.

About the 12th of September, Elder Goodson and Priest Snider returned to Preston, and soon after sailed for America.

Some years previously, the principles of the Temperance Society (originally established in America), were introduced into England, and Preston was the first town to receive them. Among the many interesting and valuable items held forth by the Temperance people, it was often remarked by them that Temperance was the fore-runner of the Gospel, which prophecy proved true; for when the fullness of the Gospel came from America to England, it was first preached in Preston, and through the influence of the Temperance Society, the Latter-day Saint, procured the use of the Temperance Hall in Preston (a commodious building, originally erected for cock fighting) for their chapel, and commenced meeting therein on the 3rd of September, 1837, and continued until they were ejected through the influence of others, the Temperance Society not having it entirely at their control. Similar favors have been received from several other Temperance Societies in England, for which the Lord reward them.

Elder Richards continued to labor against much opposition in {320} Bedford, and the region round about, until the 7th of March, 1838, when he returned to Preston, leaving about forty members in charge of Elder James Lavender. Elder Russell continued to labor in Alston, Brampton, &c, and returned to Preston near the same time, leaving about sixty member in the care of Elder Jacob Peart.

At Christmas, 1837, Priest Joseph Fielding was ordained Elder, and several were ordained Teachers, &c., at Preston; and in March, 1838, the Church had extended from Preston to Penwortham, Longton, Southport, Eccleston Whittle, Hunter's Hill, Chorley, and the intermediate region, through the labors of Elders Hyde, Kimball, and Fielding, and the members amounted to several hundreds in the regions of Preston and Clitheroe. During this month, Elders Kimball and Hyde were diligently engaged in organizing the different branches; and on the first of April a general conference was called at Preston, when the organization of the churches was completed, and many were ordained, among whom were Elders Joseph Fielding, Willard Richards, and William Clayton to the High Priesthood, [i. e. they were ordained High Priests], and set apart by Elders Kimball and Hyde to preside over all the churches in England.

On the 9th, Elders Kimball, Hyde and Russell took leave of the Saints in Preston, and went to Liverpool, where they were visited by Elders Fielding, Richards, Clayton, and others, and on the 20th of April, sailed for New York, on board the Garrick, the same ship they came out on to England.

When Elders Fielding and Richards had returned to Longton, they found a pamphlet, purporting to be written by the Rev. Richard Livesey, a Methodist minister, who had spent some time on a mission to the United States, as he says, and having nothing more important to attend to during his mission, it appears that he spent his time in gathering up a heap of lies and filth from the American papers, and imported them to England on his return; and finding that the work of God had commenced in his native land, and was likely to destroy his craft, set himself at work to condense his heterogeneous mass of trans-Atlantic lies, and form the wonderful production of the Rev. Richard Livesey's tract against the Latter-day Saints; it being the first thing of the kind that the enemy of all righteousness had found means to export from America, and circulate in England; but since which he has found servants in abundance, to assist in this nefarious merchandise of his heart's delight.

The Church at this time was in its infancy, and needed much instruction, which necessarily occupied the attention of the presiding Elders to a great extent; and as there were few laborers in the field, the spread of the work was not very rapid for some time.

{321} Sister Alice Hodgin died at Preston on the 2nd of September, 1838; and it was such a wonderful thing for a Latter-day Saint to die in England, that Elder Richards was arraigned before the Mayor's Court at Preston, on the 3rd of October, charged with "killing and slaying" the said Alice with a "black stick," &c., but was discharged without being permitted to make his defense, as soon as it was discovered that the iniquity of his accusers was about to be made manifest.

October 19, 1838, Elder Clayton gave himself wholly to the work, and soon after commenced preaching and baptizing in Manchester, and from thence the work spread into Stockport, and other places in the neighborhood, through the labors of Elders Clayton, Fielding, John Moon, and David Wilding. A small church had previously sprung up in Bolton, through the labors of Elder David Wilding, and was continued by Elder Amos Fielding.

In the summer of 1839 Elders Clayton Richards, and John Moon, labored in Burslem, with some success, and a small church was planted in Burnley by Elder Thomas Richardson, besides many who were added in the older branches, through the instrumentality of the local Elders and Priests, who were generally very faithful.

December 8, 1839, Elders Hiram Clark, Alexander Wright, and Samuel Mulliner arrived in Preston from America; and on the 25th, Brothers Wright and Mulliner started for Scotland and soon commenced preaching and baptizing in Paisley and vicinity.

January 13, 1840, Elders Wilford Woodruff, John Taylor, and Theodore Turley arrived in Preston, from America; and on the 18th Brothers Woodruff and Turley started for the Potteries in Staffordshire, passing through Manchester; and on the 22nd, Elder Taylor left for Liverpool.

April 6, 1840, just ten years from the organization of the Church, Elders Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, Parley P. Pratt, Orson Pratt, George A. Smith, and Reuben Hedlock, landed in Liverpool from New York; and on the 9th Elder Kimball arrived in Preston, just two years from the day he left for America.

The arrival of the Elders caused the Saints to rejoice exceedingly, for it had been prophesied by many (not of the Church), that they would never come, and that Elders Kimball and Hyde would never return, but they are both now in England, Elder Orson Hyde having arrived in Liverpool on the 3rd instant from New York.

Heber C. Kimball,

Orson Hyde,

Willard Richards.

Preston, March 24, 1841.


Chapter XVII.

Celebration of the Twelfth Anniversary of the Organization of the Church—Order of Laying Corner-Stones of Temples—Council Meetings of the Twelve in England.

March, 25, 26 and 27, 1841.—Elders Young and Richards were detained at the Liverpool post office, as witnesses in the case of "The Queen vs. Joseph Holloway," for detaining letters.

Saturday, 27.—Elders Wilford Woodruff, and Geo. A. Smith attended a council of the official members of the Staffordshire Conference, at Hanley.

Staffordshire Conference.

Sunday, 28.—Elders Wilford Woodruff and George A. Smith attended a general meeting of the Staffordshire Conference at Hanley, when 13 branches were represented, containing 1 High Priest, 17 Elders, 55 Priests, 25 Teachers, 14 Deacons, and 663 members. Thomas J. Filcher, J. Taylor, Osmond Shaw, W. Ridge, and H. Ridge were ordained Elders, also 8 Priests, 7 Teachers, and 2 Deacons, under the hands of Wilford Woodruff, Geo. A. Smith, and Alfred Cordon. There have been 141 baptized during the past three months.

Union of Commerce and Nauvoo Plats.

Monday, 29.—I attended city council, and moved that the city surveyor be ordered to survey Commerce, and plat the same so as to correspond with the city plat of Nauvoo, and make out a map to be recorded, which was carried by the Council. Much was said in council about fining the owners of dogs, and I contended that it was right to fine individuals {323} who would keep unruly dogs, to worry cattle, sheep, or the citizens, and an ordinance was passed to that effect.

William Marks, president of the stake at Nauvoo, made choice of Charles C. Rich and Austin Cowles as his counselors.

Elders Young and Richards were at Liverpool packing Books of Mormon, to pay off those who had loaned them money in order to carry forward the printing and binding.

The following are extracts from Elder Woodruff's letter.

Letter of Wilford Woodruff to Don C. Smith—Relating to Affairs in England.

Burslem, March 29, 1841.

Brother Don Carlos Smith:—The following is a brief sketch of my journey from London to this place. Elder Kimball left London on the 19th February. I left on the 26th, and arrived at Bristol on the same day, where I found Elder Kington, who was busily engaged in the work of the Lord in that city, and had established a small branch of fourteen members. I tarried there a short time and preached three times in a theatre, had large congregations, good attention, and baptized one, and there appears a good prospect of a work being done in that city. Population of Bristol, 200,000. While there I visited the suspension bridge, now erecting across the river Avon, at St. Vincent's Rocks, Clifton; which bridge is one hundred feet in height above the river, and seven hundred in length. I spent one evening in Monmouth, on the borders of Wales; preached to a large congregation; several applied for baptism after meeting. On the 8th of March I attended a conference in Garway; Elder Levi Richards was chosen president, and James Morgan, clerk; heard four branches represented, containing one hundred and thirty-four members; three were ordained to the ministry. I also preached at Lugwardine, Shucknall Hill, Ledbury, Dymock, and Turkey Hall to large congregations, and find the work of the Lord still progressing throughout that region. The excitement upon the subject in the city of Hereford has been so great, that it has assembled together in the market place three thousand persons at a time to hear something upon the cause of the Latter-day Saints. On the 15th of March I attended the Gadfield Elm conference, which met at the Gadfield Elm Chapel. Elder Wilford Woodruff was chosen president; John Hill, clerk; 18 branches represented, containing 408 members, 8 Elders, 32 Priests, 11 Teachers {324} and 1 Deacon; when such business was transacted as was deemed necessary. I also met large congregations at Keysend Street, Coldville, Browcut; Dunclose, Froom's Hill, and Stanley Hill, and left many churches on the right and left, which time would not permit me to visit. I also met with the Froom's Hill conference, on the 22nd March, at Stanley Hill, Herefordshire, there being present one of the traveling High Council, 2 High Priests, 20 Elders, 30 Priests, 9 Teachers, two Deacons. Elder Levi Richards was chosen president, and Elder Woodruff, clerk. On this occasion I heard represented 30 branches, containing 997 members, 24 Elders, 66 Priests, 27 Teachers, 7 Deacons, and 6 were ordained to the ministry. The sum total represented at these conferences was 1,539 members, 36 Elders, 103 Priests, 41 Teachers, 7 Deacons; all of whom have embraced the work in that part of the vineyard in one year, besides many members and officers who have emigrated to America; and I am happy to say that the officers and members, have universally been ready to hearken to counsel, and give heed to our instructions, and it was with no ordinary feelings that I took my farewell of those churches who have been so ready to receive and embrace the truth. I called upon the Saints in Birmingham and Gret's Green, but had not time to hold any meetings among them. I arrived in Hanley on the 25th, where I had the privilege of again meeting with Elder Geo. A. Smith, and was rejoiced to find the churches universally prospering in Staffordshire. I spent one evening with the church at Longton, and baptized seven.

Tuesday, 30.—Elders Woodruff and Geo. A. Smith arrived in Manchester, after a ride of forty miles.

Wednesday, 31.—Elders Young and Richards attended conference in Liverpool.

Thursday, April 1, 1841.—Elders Young and Richards went to Manchester, where they found Elders Kimball, Hyde, Woodruff and Smith, and had a happy meeting.

Friday, 2.—Elders Orson Pratt and John Taylor arrived at Manchester and went into council.

Minutes of a Council Meeting of the Twelve.

Manchester, England, April 2, 1841.

This day Elders Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, Orson Hyde, Parley P. Pratt, Orson Pratt, Willard Richards, Wilford Woodruff, John Taylor and Geo. A. Smith, of the quorum of the Twelve, met together at the house of Brother James Bushaw, coachman No. 4, Gray Street, near Oxford road, in this city, in council, after having been {325} separated and sent into various counties. To meet once more in council after a long separation, and having passed through many sore and grievous trials, exposing our lives and our characters to the slanders and violence of wicked and murderous men, caused our hearts to swell with gratitude to God for His providential care over us. Elder Young opened the council by prayer. Elders Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, and Parley P. Pratt, the committee appointed about a year ago to secure a copyright for the Book of Mormon, in the name of Joseph Smith, Jun., presented the following certificate:

"Feb. 8, 1841. Then entered for his copy—the property of Joseph Smith, Jun.,—'The Book of Mormon; an account written by the hand of Mormon, upon plates taken from the plates of Nephi; translated by Joseph Smith, Jun. First European, from the second American edition. Received five copies.

"George Greenhill."

"The above is a true copy of an entry in the register book of the Company of Stationers kept, at the hall of the said company. Witness my hand, this 17th day of February, 1841.

"George Greenhill,

Warehouse-keeper of the Company of Stationers."

The quorum voted that they accepted the labors of said Committee.

Resolved: That as the quorum of the Twelve have had nothing to do with the printing of the Book of Mormon, they will not now interfere with it, but that the said Committee settle the financial or business matters thereof with Joseph Smith, Jun., to whom the profits rightly belong.

Resolved: That Elder Amos Fielding be appointed to superintend fitting out the Saints from Liverpool to America, under the instruction of Parley P. Pratt.

Resolved: That Brother Geo. J. Adams go to Bedford and Northampton and labor in that region.

Adjourned till tomorrow at 10 o'clock, a. m.; Elder Kimball closed by prayer.

Orson Hyde, Clerk.

Council Meeting of the Twelve—Continued.

Manchester, April 3, 1841.

This day the quorum of the Twelve met pursuant to adjournment. The president called upon Elder Hyde to open by prayer. The quorum then signed a letter of commendation to the churches in England for Elder Hyde.

The business of publishing the Star and hymn-book was then taken into consideration. Brother John Taylor moved that those who have had the care and superintendence of publishing the Star and hymn-book, {326} should dispose of them according to their own wishes, and dispose of the proceeds in the same way; seconded by Elder Orson Pratt, and carried by unanimous vote. Moved by Elder Young, and seconded by Elder Kimball, that Elder Parley P. Pratt conduct the publication of the Millennial Star as editor of the same, after the close of the present volume. Resolved, that Elder Parley P. Pratt reprint the hymn-book if he deem it expedient. The hymn-book is not to be altered, except the typographical errors. The above resolution was moved by Elder Geo. A. Smith, and seconded by Elder Wilford Woodruff; carried unanimously. Conference adjourned.

Orson Hyde, Clerk.

Sunday, 4.—The President of the United States, William Henry Harrison died at Washington of the pleurisy.

Nine of the Twelve at Manchester attended meeting at Carpenter's hall, and individually bore testimony of the fulness of the everlasting Gospel.

Council Meeting of the Twelve—Continued.

Manchester, April 5, 1841.

Met pursuant to adjournment. Elder Orson Pratt opened the council by prayer. It was resolved that the 17th day of April be the day appointed for the Twelve who are going to America, to set sail from Liverpool. Moved by Elder Kimball and seconded by Elder Woodruff that the Twelve do business at the conference as a quorum, and call upon the Church or conference to sanction it. Adjourned till the 6th instant, to meet in general conference at Carpenter's Hall, at 10 o'clock a. m.

O. Hyde, Clerk.

Twelfth Anniversary of the Organization of the Church.

April 6, 1841.—The first day of the twelfth year of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints! At an early hour the several companies comprising the "Nauvoo Legion," with two volunteer companies from Iowa Territory, making sixteen companies in all, assembled at their several places of rendezvous, and were conducted in due order to the ground assigned for general review. The appearance, order and movements of the Legion, were chaste, grand and imposing, and reflected great credit upon the taste, skill and tact of the men comprising said Legion. We doubt whether the like can be presented in {327} any other city in the western country. At half-past seven o'clock a. m., the fire of artillery announced the arrival of Brigadier-Generals Law and Don Carlos Smith, at the front of their respective cohorts; and at 8 o'clock Major-General Bennett was conducted to his post, under the discharge of cannon, and took command of the Legion.

At half-past nine o'clock a. m., Lieutenant-General Smith, with his guard, staff and field officers arrived at the ground, and were presented with a beautiful silk national flag by the ladies of Nauvoo, which was respectfully received and hailed by the firing of cannon, and borne off by Colonel Robinson, the cornet, to the appropriate position in the line; after which the Lieutenant-General with his suite passed the lines in review.

At twelve m., the procession arrived upon the Temple ground, enclosing the same in a hollow square, with Lieutenant-General Smith, Major-General Bennett, Brigadier-Generals Wilson Law and Don Carlos Smith, their respective staffs, guard, field officers, distinguished visitors, choir, band, &c., in the centre, and the ladies and gentlemen, citizens, surrounding in the interior. The superior officers, together with the banner, architects, principal speaker, &c., were duly conducted to the stand at the principal corner stone, and the religious services were commenced by singing from page 65 of the new hymn book.

Sidney Rigdon's Speech.

President Sidney Rigdon then addressed the assembly, and remarked the circumstances under which he addressed the people were of no ordinary character, but of peculiar and indescribable interest, that it was the third occasion of a similar nature, wherein he had been called upon to address the people, and to assist in laying the corner stones of houses to be erected in honor of the God of the Saints. Various scenes had transpired since the first was laid—he with some who were with him on that occasion, had waded through scenes that no other people had ever seen—not cursed, but blessed {328} with. They had seen the blood of the innocent flow, and heard the groans of those dying for the witness of Jesus; in all those scenes of tribulation, his confidence, his courage and his joy had been increasing instead of diminishing. Now the scene had changed; persecution had in a measure subsided; peace and safety, friendship and joy crowned their assembling; and their endeavors to serve God were respected and viewed with interest. The Saints had assembled, not to violate law and trample upon equity and good social order; not to devastate and destroy; but to lift up the standard of liberty and law, to stand in defense of civil and religious, rights, to protect the innocent, to save mankind, and to obey the will and mandate of the Lord of glory; to call up to remembrance the once crucified, but now exalted and glorified Savior; to say that He is again revealed, that He speaks from the heavens, that He reigns; in honor of Him to tell the world that He lives, and speaks, and reigns and dictates—that not every people can build a house to Him, but that people whom He Himself directs—that the present military display is not to usurp authority, but to obey as they are commanded and directed; to honor, not the world, but Him that is alive and reigns, the all in all, the invisible, but beholding, and guiding and directing—that the Saints boast of their King; of His wisdom, His understanding, His power and His goodness—that they honor a God of unbounded power and glory—that He is the chief corner stone in Zion, also the top stone—that He cannot be conquered—that He is working in the world to guide, to conquer, and to subdue—that as formerly, so now He works by revelation—that this is the reason why we are here, and why we are thus—that the Saints have sacrificed all things for the testimony of Jesus Christ—that some from different parts of Europe and from Canada, as well as the different parts of the United States, are present, and among all, a unanimity of purpose and feeling prevails—and why? Because the same God over all had spoken {329} from the heavens and again revealed Himself. He remarked that he defied the devil to collect such an assembly; none but Jesus would or could accomplish such things as we are about to behold; the devil will not build up, but tear down and destroy; the work of Jesus is like Himself in all ages—that as light shines from the east, and spreads itself to the west, so is the progress of spiritual light and truth—that Jesus is a God of order, regularity and uniformity—that he works now by revelation and by messengers as anciently—shows Himself—lifts the veil; that such things are marvelous, but nevertheless true—that the order of laying the corner stones was expressive of the order of the kingdom—that the minutia were subject matter of revelation, and all the scenery, acts of obedience are understood by the Saints—that the ancient Prophets beheld and rejoiced at this scene, and are near to witness the fulfillment of their predictions—that we are highly favored of God, and brought near to the spirits of just men made perfect. He then closed by exhortation, first to the multitude, and lastly to the Church. The speaker then gave out a hymn, page 205, and closed by prayer.

The architects then, by the direction of the First Presidency, lowered the first (the south-east corner) stone to its place, and President Joseph Smith pronounced the benediction as follows:

This principal corner stone in representation of the First Presidency, is now duly laid in honor of the Great God; and may it there remain until the whole fabric is completed; and may the same be accomplished speedily; that the Saints may have a place to worship God, and the Son of Man have where to lay His head.

President Sidney Rigdon then pronounced the following:

May the persons employed in the erection of this house be preserved from all harm while engaged in its construction, till the whole is completed, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Even so. Amen.

Adjourned for one hour.

{330} Assembled according to adjournment, and proceeded to lay the remaining corner stones, according to previous order.

The second (south-west corner) stone, by the direction of the president of the High Priesthood, with his council and President Marks, was lowered to its place, when the president of the High Priesthood pronounced the following:

The second corner stone of the Temple now building by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, in honor of the Great God, is duly laid, and may the same unanimity, that has been manifested on this occasion continue till the whole is completed; that peace may rest upon it to the laying of the top stone thereof, and the turning of the key thereof; that the Saints may participate in the blessings of Israel's God, within its walls, and the glory of God rest upon the same. Amen.

The third (the north-west corner) stone, superintended by the High Council, was then lowered to its place, with the benediction of Elias Higbee, as follows:

The third corner stone is now duly laid; may this stone be a firm support to the building that the whole may be completed as before proposed.

The fourth (the north-east corner) stone, superintended by the Bishops, was then lowered to its place, and Bishop Whitney pronounced the following:

The fourth and last corner stone, expressive of the Lesser Priesthood, is now duly laid, and may the blessings before pronounced, with all others desirable, rest upon the same forever. Amen.

The services were then declared closed, and the military retired to the parade ground and were dismissed with the approbation and thanks of the commanding officer. The military band, under the command of Captain Duzette, made a conspicuous and dignified appearance, and performed their part honorably. Their soul-stirring strains met harmoniously the rising emotions that swelled each bosom, and stimulated us onward to the arduous but pleasing and honorable duties of the day. The choir also, under the direction of B. S. Wilber, deserve commendation.

Conduct of the People.

What added greatly to the happiness we experienced on this interesting occasion, is the fact that we heard no {331} obscene or profane language; neither saw we any one intoxicated. Can the same be said of a similar assemblage in any other city in the Union? Thank God that the intoxicating beverage, the bane of humanity in these last days, is becoming a stranger in Nauvoo.

In conclusion, we will say we never witnessed a more imposing spectacle than was presented on this occasion, and during the sessions of the conference. Such a multitude of people moving in harmony, in friendship, in dignity, told in a voice not easily misunderstood, that they were a people of intelligence, and virtue and order; in short, that they were Saints; and that the God of love, purity and light, was their God, their Examplar, and Director; and that they were blessed and happy.

Order of Laying Corner Stones of Temples.

If the strict order of the Priesthood were carried out in the building of Temples, the first stone would be laid at the south-east corner, by the First Presidency of the Church. The south-west corner should be laid next. The third, or north-west corner next; and the fourth, or north-east corner last. The first Presidency should lay the south-east corner stone and dictate who are the proper persons to lay the other corner stones.

If a Temple is built at a distance, and the First Presidency are not present, then the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles are the persons to dictate the order for that Temple; and in the absence of the Twelve Apostles, then the Presidency of the Stake will lay the south-east corner stone; the Melchisedec Priesthood laying the corner stones on the east side of the Temple, and the Lesser Priesthood those on the west side.

Conference at Philadelphia.

A Conference was held at Philadelphia; President Hyrum Smith presiding; many branches were represented and the branch at Philadelphia was organized by electing Benjamin Winchester, President, and Edson Whipple, and William Wharnot, his Counselors. Jacob Syphret was elected Bishop, and Jesse Prince and James Nicholson his Counselors.

{332} Meeting of the Council of the Twelve in Manchester.

The Council of the Twelve assembled at Manchester, in Carpenter's Hall, on the 7th day of April, 1841, for the first time to transact business as a quorum in the presence of the Church, in a foreign land; being the first day of the 12th year of the rise of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Nine of the quorum were present; viz., Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, Orson Hyde, Parley P. Pratt, Orson Pratt, Wilford Woodruff, Willard Richards, John Taylor and Geo. A. Smith, President Young having called the meeting to order, and organized, the conference then opened by prayer. Elder Thomas Ward was chosen Clerk. The President then made some introductory remarks relative to the organization of the Church in the House of the Lord in America, in reference to the different quorums in their respective orders and authorities in the Church.

The representation of the churches and conferences throughout the kingdom was then called for.

Location.By Whom RepresentedMembers.Elders.Priests.Teachers.Deacons.
ManchesterParley P. Pratt44371590
Clitheroe ConferenceHeber C. Kimball318612133
Presten ConferencePeter Melling6751115133
LiverpoolJohn Taylor1909843
Isle of ManJohn Taylor902420
London ConferenceLorenzo Snow1373842
Birmingham ConferenceAlfred Cordon11041341
Staffordshire ConferenceAlfred Cordon57419492816
Garway ConferenceWilford Woodruff1345641
Gadfield Elm ConferenceWilford Woodruff408833111
Froom's Hill ConferenceWilford Woodruff10082767278
EdingburghOrson Pratt2036962
Glasgow, Paisley, Johnstone, Bridge of Weir, and Thorney BankReuben Hedlock36812151311
IrelandTheodore Curtis352010
WalesJames Burnham1702533
Newcastle-upon-TyneAmos Fielding231310
AlstonJohn Sanders261010
BramptonJohn Sanders460100
CarlisleJohn Sanders431000
BoltonRobert Crooks18911181
DukinfieldJohn Albertson1202432
Northwich, Middlewich, &cSamuel Heath1122666
OldhamWilliam Black861412
StockportElder Magan1611522
EcclesElder Magan241310
PendleburyElder Magan620211
WhitefieldElder Magan411230
Radcliffe BridgeElder Magan181300

Nearly eight hundred Saints have emigrated to America during the past season. These are not included in this representation.

{333} Conference adjourned till 2 p. m.

Conference met pursuant to adjournment; opened by prayer.

Scattering members were then represented, consisting of nearly fifty, not included in any of the above branches.

President Young then proceeded to make some remarks on the office of Patriarch, and concluded by moving that Elder John Albertson[1] be ordained to that office. Seconded by Elder Kimball, and carried unanimously.

Resolved: That Ge