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Title: Birds of the National Parks in Hawaii

Author: William W. Dunmire

Illustrator: Ronald L. Walker

Release date: May 1, 2019 [eBook #59398]

Language: English

Credits: Produced by Stephen Hutcheson and the Online Distributed
Proofreading Team at


Birds of the National Parks in Hawaii





copyright 1961

cover by Ronald L. Walker

(see center plate for identification)

of the

William W. Dunmire
Park Naturalist, Hawaii National Park

Illustrated by Ronald L. Walker
District Biologist, State Division of Fish & Game



Trail Through Kipuka Puaulu (Bird Park)


Table of Contents

Introduction 2
How the Birds Came 3
The Decline of Native Birds 4
Where to See the Birds 5
The National Parks 8
About This Booklet 8
The Birds
Petrels: Family Procellariidae 11
Tropic-birds: Family Phaëthontidae 11
Geese: Family Anatidae 13
Hawks: Family Accipitridae 15
Quails, Partridges, Pheasants: Family Phasianidae 15
Plovers, Turnstones: Family Charadriidae 19
Sandpipers: Family Scolopacidae 20
Terns: Family Laridae 20
Doves: Family Columbidae 21
Owls: Family Strigidae 22
Larks: Family Alaudidae 22
Babbling Thrushes: Family Timeliidae 23
Mockingbirds: Family Mimidae 24
Thrushes: Family Turdidae 25
Old World Flycatchers: Family Sylviidae 26
Starlings: Family Sturnidae 27
White-eyes: Family Zosteropidae 27
Hawaiian Honeycreepers: Family Drepaniidae 28
Weaver Finches: Family Ploceidae 32
Finches, etc.: Family Fringillidae 33
Other Birds 34
Index 35


When the Hawaiian Islands were first studied by ornithologists in the nineteenth century, they were a bird paradise. The forests abounded with many of the most unusual birds known to the world—some with enormous sickle-shaped bills, some resembling parrots, a goose that spent most of its life on barren lava flows, a tiny flightless rail, and a sea bird that nested within the vents of the active volcanoes. Most of these island birds were found nowhere else in the world.

Today many of the original island species are extinct, while others are barely managing to hold their own. With more and more land being cleared for agriculture and homesites, virgin forests here are becoming scarce. Thus, protected areas like Hawaii Volcanoes and Haleakala National Parks take on great significance as reserves where the native birds will continue to survive. If you wish to learn about Hawaiian birdlife, you will certainly want to spend some time in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park and visit Haleakala National Park on the island of Maui. This booklet is meant to be an aid to your trips in the field.

Fern jungle—Thurston Lava Tube trail



Geologically the Hawaiian Islands are considered to be fairly young, probably no more than 20 million years old. The islands are also extremely isolated from any other land masses; it is more than 2,000 miles to the nearest continent. Before any resident birdlife could exist here, plants had to become established. Seeds arrived by various means from distant lands, and one by one new kinds of plants began to grow on the volcanoes—at first only a few primitive types could get a foothold on the barren lava, but in time those early plants decayed and combined with the basalt rock to produce a soil that could support a complex vegetation.


We have no way of knowing what kind of land bird was the first to take up residence here, for that early species has certainly been greatly altered through the workings of evolution. In fact today nearly all the resident native birds are types that are now found nowhere else in the world. Birds such as these are called endemic; they have undergone gradual change over the millennia to become completely new forms, different from any birds found elsewhere.

Many of Hawaii’s endemic species belong to the Hawaiian honeycreeper family (Drepaniidae) and are thought to have evolved from a single bird prototype that possibly arrived here from Central or South America. Explosive bursts of evolutionary change followed, and the resulting new forms did not much resemble each other. Present day park representatives of the Hawaiian honeycreepers include the apapane, iiwi, and amakihi.

Besides the Hawaiian honeycreeper stock several other early migrants made their residence in Hawaii and evolved into endemic forms. In the park they include a Hawaiian race of the (North American) short-eared owl, the io (a hawk), the nene (a goose), the omao (a thrush), and the elepaio (an Old World flycatcher).

Migrants and Sea Birds

While the endemic species have acquired full residence on the islands, other birds live here for only part of the year, usually returning to the north during summer to breed. In the park the best known 4 of these migrants is the American golden plover which spends almost 10 months of the year in Hawaii and only 2 months on its travels to the Aleutian Islands.

Migration patterns for certain of the sea birds are virtually unknown. Some, like the white-tailed tropic-bird, may remain near the islands throughout the year, while others, such as the dark-rumped petrel, migrate inland only during their breeding season.


The most recent additions to Hawaii’s avifauna are birds brought in since 1855 by man. There are various reasons for the introductions; the mynah, for example, was brought here from India in 1865 to combat the army worm and other insect pests. Perhaps most of the exotics were introduced because people wanted to see birds that reminded them of their former homes. Birds like the cardinal from the eastern United States and the white-eye from Japan are in this category. For years the Hui Manu, a local bird club, was active in releasing new birds on the islands. Game birds constitute another type of introduction. The first to arrive was the California quail more than a hundred years ago. Pheasants and chukars among others have also become established in the park from importations.


In no area in the world have native birds fared more poorly than in Hawaii during the past century. The causes of the decimation of numbers and species are probably multiple; certainly no single factor alone can be cited. Possibly some of the most specialized forms had already begun a decline in numbers before the arrival of Western man. It is unlikely that feather gathering for leis as practiced by the ancient Hawaiians had much to do with the decline. On the other hand, the clearing of land, which began early in the 1800’s, must have had a devastating effect on those birds that had become so specialized—they simply were forced into new environments and were unable to adapt. The introduction of new plants, especially grasses, and the establishment of feral mammals (goats, sheep, and pigs), and insects played a subtle but possibly even more destructive role in altering the over-all environment.


Introduction of exotic birds must have been the final blow to many of the native species. Unfortunately until recently there was no adequate control over importing and releasing new birds in Hawaii. The delicate balance of nature was rudely upset when some of the more aggressive exotic birds were released indiscriminately on the islands. Exotic birds such as the white-eye became so plentiful that direct competition for food with the natives must have occurred. Furthermore, bird diseases new to Hawaii, such as avian malaria (probably brought to the islands with some introduced bird from the Orient), would have been a great killer. With a few exceptions, however, it does seem that the remaining Hawaiian native birds are now holding their own.


You will probably be amazed at the extremes of climate in Hawaii, especially on Kilauea Volcano. This is one of the rare places in the world where you can walk a few hundred yards from an area of heavy rainfall to one of striking dryness. The change is due to prevailing trade winds which force moisture laden clouds up over the mountain masses from the northeast, then allow the clouds to dissipate on the leeward side of the mountains. By taking the Crater Rim drive at Kilauea, you will pass through lush fern jungle on one side of the crater and barren desert on the other.

Birds are very sensitive to these differences in climate. Most of the species you find at Thurston Lava Tube will never be seen at Halemaumau, less than 3 miles away. The same thing is true at Haleakala, although less dramatically so. To help you locate the most rewarding sites for bird study in the park, here are a few suggestions:

Kilauea-Mauna Loa

Thurston Lava Tube. This is the heart of Hawaii’s tree-fern jungle and an excellent habitat for several native species, such as the apapane, iiwi, and amakihi. Spend a few moments looking for these at the exhibit overlook, then take the quarter-mile loop path that leads through the lava tube. On the other side of the lava tube 6 parking area a trail descends into Kilauea Iki, the site of the 1959 eruption. This delightful walk also passes through fern jungle. Be on the lookout for the io (Hawaiian hawk) in Kilauea Iki.

Grass slopes on the Mauna Loa Strip

Halemaumau. A most unlikely place for birds; however, there are almost always a few white-tailed tropic-birds soaring within the pit.

Kipuka Puaulu. A popular name for this area is “Bird Park” and for good reason, for this kipuka, a hundred acre island of well developed vegetation surrounded by a recent lava flow, harbors 11 or more species. The commonest here are the white-eye, red-billed leiothrix, and house finch—all exotics. When the ohia trees are in bloom, and usually there are at least a few, large numbers of iiwis and apapanes are attracted to the kipuka. Other interesting birds often seen here are the elepaio, Japanese blue pheasant, and cardinal.

Mauna Loa Strip. More kinds of birds (18) have been recorded from the koa parkland along the Mauna Loa Strip road than from any other locality in the park, but you are not likely to see large numbers in any one place along the strip. The road ascends the lower slopes of Mauna Loa from 4,000 feet at Kipuka Puaulu to 7 6,663 feet. Several introduced game birds—Japanese blue pheasant, California quail, and chukar—may be flushed as you drive up the road. Skylarks and house finches are fairly common along the grassy flats, and you are almost sure to see an amakihi in the koa grove at the end of the road. If you are lucky you might be rewarded with a glimpse of a nene somewhere on these upper slopes.


Hosmer Grove and Paliku. These two localities are about the only densely wooded areas in Haleakala National Park and both attract a variety of birdlife. The apapane, iiwi, and amakihi as well as several exotic birds can be seen at either place. A delightful self-guiding nature trail that identifies many of the plants and trees winds through the Hosmer Grove.

Road to Haleakala Summit. As you drive up to the Observatory from Park Headquarters you will probably be surprised at the number of ring-necked pheasants and chukars that flush along the road. Golden plovers and skylarks are also plentiful, and mockingbirds may be seen occasionally.

Visitor cabin at Paliku, Haleakala



Hawaii Volcanoes National Park and Haleakala National Park are two of more than 180 different areas administered by the National Park Service for your enjoyment. The two areas, Haleakala on Maui and Kilauea-Mauna Loa on Hawaii, were set aside, as one park, by Congress in 1916 mainly because of the three great volcanoes. In July 1961 Haleakala became a separate national park. In recent years the unique flora and fauna found in the parks have become an increasingly important part of the park story. Thus you will find several interesting exhibits at the Kilauea headquarters museum dealing with the ecology of the park with emphasis on the birdlife.

One of the guiding principles for any national park is that all native species of plants and animals are rigidly protected. In places like Hawaii, where so much of the land has been altered through clearing and planting, the park becomes a particularly important sanctuary for birds and other animals. Please help do your share in protecting this area by observing park regulations.


The purpose of this booklet is to help anyone who cares to learn about the birdlife of the national parks in Hawaii. Many of you, here in Hawaii for the first time, will not recognize most of our birds; however, the species are so few (32 described here) that it will not be too hard to narrow your identification to the correct one. The little perching birds are likely to give the most trouble, and the commonest of these are shown on the color plate. You will probably want to refer to the plate first when identifying a small bird. Descriptions in the text refer to similar species also, so if you see a bird that appears somewhat, but not exactly, like one of the illustrations, look up the illustrated species in the text for clues.

Hawaiian names, when known, are used as the common name for each bird, except for species that range elsewhere (e.g., all the sea birds and introduced birds). The A.O.U. Checklist of North American Birds has been used as the authority of nomenclature wherever applicable, otherwise the Checklist and Summary of Hawaiian Birds by E. H. Bryan, Jr., has been followed. For every 9 description, length from the tip of the bill to the end of the tail is given in inches. The stated distributions are for the park only and they emphasize accessible places that you are most likely to visit.

The serious bird student will want to have books that include Hawaiian birds outside the park. The latest edition of Peterson’s A Field Guide to Western Birds includes a section on Hawaii and will prove invaluable.

In preparing the text for this booklet frequent reference was made to George C. Munro, 1944, Birds of Hawaii and Hawaii Audubon Society, 1959, Hawaiian Birds. The most important current references for the Hawaiian honeycreeper group are Dean Amadon’s (1950) monograph, The Hawaiian Honeycreepers and Annual Cycle, Environment and Evolution in the Hawaiian Honeycreepers by Paul H. Baldwin (1953). Baldwin, a former Assistant to the Superintendent of Hawaii National Park, has authored several other important papers on birdlife here. The Game Birds in Hawaii by Charles W. and Elizabeth R. Schwartz is an invaluable reference on gamebirds.

The author wishes to acknowledge helpful suggestions made by E. H. Bryan, Jr., of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum; Robert L. Barrel, Robert W. Carpenter, and Robert T. Haugen of Hawaii National Park; and Ronald L. Walker and David H. Woodside of the State Division of Fish and Game. The Bishop Museum generously loaned study specimens for the drawings.

The black and white and color drawings are by Ronald L. Walker, and all photographs are by the author except where noted.


Haleakala Crater, breeding grounds for the dark-rumped petrel


Dark-rumped petrel


DARK-RUMPED PETREL Pterodroma phaeopygia
(Hawaiian name—uau)

DESCRIPTION: 15″. Underparts, forehead, and cheeks, white; back, upper wings, and upper tail, dark. The crown is black.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: This petrel is a sea bird that nests in the mountains of the Hawaiian group; it is the nesting birds that may be seen or heard within the park between May and November. Kilauea—Status unknown; the cliffs of Kilauea Crater may be used for nesting. Haleakala—Many birds nest in the walls of the crater. The cliffs behind Kapalaoa and Holua Cabins are the best places to hear them at night.

VOICE: As the birds fly overhead seeking their burrows after dusk, the air is filled with their strange calls, some of which sound like the barking of a small dog. A common pattern of notes is oooo-wéh, ooo-wéh, oo-wéh, oo-wéh, etc., with the first notes drawn out and the last run together in rapid succession.

Dark-rumped Petrels spend most of their life at sea, but in April and May they begin their nightly flights inland to burrows they have established high on the cliffs of Hawaiian volcanoes. A single egg is laid near the end of the horizontal cavity that may be more than 6 feet deep in the rocks. For the next 6 months the adults will fly in from the ocean each night to tend the nest, arriving about an hour after sundown. It is while they are circling in search of the burrows that you can hear their mysterious barking sounds. The calling may continue for 2 hours or more. Imagine the problems that each petrel must face trying to find its own burrow 20 miles from the ocean on a foggy, moonless night—perhaps the continuous calling back and forth helps orient it. The adults return to the ocean before sunrise.

In the early days nesting birds were common on all the main Hawaiian Islands; however, for a time it was feared that they were becoming extinct. Hawaiians used to dig out the downy young petrels for food, and introduced mongooses and cats also took a heavy toll, especially where nests were at lower elevations. Now, with known breeding colonies high on Haleakala and Mauna Kea and probably on Mauna Loa and Kilauea, the future of this interesting species seems assured.

(Hawaiian name—koae)

DESCRIPTION: 30″-32″. Unmistakable as a large white bird with two 12 fantastically long tail plumes, soaring around rocky cliffs such as in Halemaumau. There is some black on the upper wings and around the face.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Kilauea—Uncommon, except locally. There are nearly always a few birds soaring in Halemaumau, around the pit craters in the Kau Desert, and near Hilina Pali. They are occasionally seen along the coast. Haleakala—Some can usually be seen in the crater, especially around the ruggedest cliffs such as behind Holua and Paliku Cabins.

VOICE: High pitched rasping cries.

Halemaumau—What a strange place for a sea bird! Yet these fish-eating birds have nested in the Kilauea area for as long as we have records. In recent years Halemaumau has been their favorite haunt, except when volcano fumes drive them away, such as during the time when heavy sulphur gasses filled the pit in June 1960. When Halemaumau erupts the birds may become trapped by rapidly rising hot gas; in 1952 several of them perished, falling into the molten lava below. For a meal the Halemaumau birds must make at least a 10-mile flight to the ocean.


White-tailed tropic-bird


Nene—the native Hawaiian goose

NENE Branta sandvicensis
(also Hawaiian goose)

DESCRIPTION: 23″-28″. The only ducklike bird apt to be seen in the park. A medium sized goose with striking head and neck markings. The face, crown, and top of the neck are black, the throat and neck sides are cream colored, and the remainder of the body is mottled and dark.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Formerly abundant in Hawaii and probably Maui. Now extinct on Maui, while a few wild birds remain on Hawaii. Kilauea—Occasionally seen on the slopes of Mauna Loa usually between 6,000 and 7,500 feet.

VOICE: Various thin, creaky notes. Often gives a high-pitched honking in flight.

Because of recent studies, the habits of the nene are probably better understood than those of any other native Hawaiian bird. The most amazing 14 thing about their life is the way they have forsaken water in favor of rough, clinkery lava. All other ducks and geese rear their young partly in water, but today the breeding grounds for the nene, high on the barren slopes of Mauna Loa, are far from the nearest open water. Here during the winter months the geese raise their broods of two to five young. Berries, herbs, and grass growing in kipukas (islands of vegetation surrounded by more recent lava flows) comprise the diet. At present the nene is one of the rarest birds in the world and has been near extinction in recent years.

The story of the nene’s decline is a sad one but it may yet have a happy ending. Early visitors to the islands described the large flocks of nene geese in the interior of Hawaii, but by 1900 a great decline in numbers had occurred and in 1940 the entire population was estimated at 30 to 50 wild birds. Clearing of the land, introduction of such exotic mammals as rats, pigs, dogs, and mongooses, and man himself through hunting—all must share the blame for the nene decimation. Happily, the State of Hawaii has taken vigorous recognition of this situation and a restoration program was begun in 1949. The plan is to study the remaining wild birds to learn how the decimating factors may be controlled. Also nene raised in captivity have been released on Mauna Loa to intermix with the wild flocks, and it is hoped that some day visitors to Hawaii will again be assured of seeing these wonderful geese.


Nene Nest


IO Buteo solitarius
(also Hawaiian hawk)

DESCRIPTION: 16″-18″. The only hawklike bird to be seen on the islands, except for accidental migrants. This small Buteo has both light and dark color phases. Can be distinguished from the Pueo, Hawaii’s diurnal owl, by a smaller head and more soaring flight.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Found only on the island of Hawaii. Kilauea—Occasional throughout the park. Individuals are often seen soaring around the forested craters such as Kilauea Iki and Makaopuhi, or in the more open areas such as along the Mauna Loa Strip road.

VOICE: A medium-pitched, but fairly soft, scream.

The io is certainly one of the rarest hawks in the world, as its range is limited to the island of Hawaii, and even here it is not common. It feeds on rats, mice, and large insects and spiders, and occasionally will catch birds, but today birds comprise a minor part of the diet. It tends to be tamer than mainland hawks, perhaps because it has not been harassed as much in recent years, and sometimes you can approach a perched io quite closely. Because of its rodent diet, the io is a very beneficial bird to Hawaii.

California quail (male and female)

CALIFORNIA QUAIL Lophortyx californicus

DESCRIPTION: 9½″-10½″. The distinctive curved head plume identifies this plump quail. Males have a black and white face pattern beneath the 16 brown crown, while females are duller and lack the striking facial pattern. The bill is short and black.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Introduced from California before 1855 to all major islands. Kilauea—Moderately common along the Mauna Loa Strip and south and west of Kilauea Crater, for example Kipuka Nene. Haleakala—Fairly common on slopes outside the crater up to about 8,000 feet.

VOICE: Both sexes issue a three noted ka-kér-ko, also clucking notes tek-tek, etc.

Although the California quail has been in the islands for a long time, it has not spread much in the park, probably because there is no available open water. In this situation the birds must rely on dewfall, berries, or succulent vegetation for their moisture requirements. They shun heavy forests and do best where small grassy openings are interspersed with dense brush thickets.

CHUKAR Alectoris graeca

DESCRIPTION: 15″. A heavy ground dwelling partridge, brownish with buffy, black, and rusty markings. A black band extends through each eye and joins the lower throat. Distinguished from the quail by lighter color, lack of a head plume, and a red-orange bill.


PARK DISTRIBUTION: Introduced on Hawaii in 1949, on Maui in 1953. Kilauea—Occasional on the slopes of Mauna Loa, descending as far as the 17 rim of Kilauea Crater. Haleakala—Common in open lava slopes inside and out of the crater but especially along the drive to the summit.

VOICE: Chickenlike cackles and clucks, sometimes quite loud.

They are well camouflaged to blend with Hawaii’s gray lava and are not usually seen until one or more flushes from an open or even bare slope. Then they will fly downslope, sometimes for hundreds of yards, land, and again merge invisibly with the somber background.

During the breeding season in late spring and summer the birds pair up; at other times of the year you may encounter coveys of a dozen or more.

RING-NECKED PHEASANT Phasianus colchicus torquatus
(also Chinese pheasant)

DESCRIPTION: Male 33″-36″; female 20″. Male: A rich chestnut-brown bird with a conspicuous white collar at the base of a dark green neck, and an extremely long pointed tail. Hybridizes freely with the Japanese blue pheasant, producing various combinations of ring-necked and blue plumage. Female: Dull brown with a shorter tail than the male, similar to the Japanese blue hen.

Ring-necked pheasant cock


PARK DISTRIBUTION: Introduced from China about 1865, now widely distributed on all main islands. Kilauea—Pure ring-necks are quite rare but Japanese blue hybrids are not uncommon in grassy openings, especially along the Mauna Loa Strip road. Haleakala—One of the most common birds of the park, both inside and out of the crater.

VOICE: The cocks crow throughout the breeding season (January-July) with a violent staccato koor-káck.

Optimum pheasant habitat is large open grassy areas interspersed with brush cover, and since this condition prevails on the slopes of Haleakala and along the Mauna Loa Strip road, these birds are found in both sections of the park. Your first view of one will likely be when it flushes out with a great flurry of wingbeats alongside a road or trail in these grasslands. Family broods with as many as 10 chicks may be seen from April through August.

JAPANESE BLUE PHEASANT Phasianus colchicus versicolor
(also versicolor or green pheasant)

DESCRIPTION: Male about 27″, female 20″. Male: Has a blue-green back, iridescent green or purple breast, and long tail feathers. Appears darker than the ring-necked pheasant and lacks the white collar. Female: Brownish birds with long tails, indistinguishable from the ring-necked hen.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Introduced from Japan prior to 1900. Has lost its identity on most islands due to hybridization with the ring-neck. Kilauea—The park includes perhaps the best habitat in the islands for this species. Pure Japanese blue males are common along the Mauna Loa Strip road and occasional on the Chain of Craters road or the Crater Rim drive and to the west. Hybrids will also be seen. Haleakala—Nearly all are ring-necked pheasants here.

VOICE: The cock-crow is similar to that of the ring-neck, but somewhat higher in pitch.

This species has adapted to the moist open-forest and grassland, while the ring-neck prefers drier areas. Blues seem to have established a niche on the southern slopes of Mauna Loa between 4,000 and 7,000 feet elevation where mists are frequent, sometimes for days at a time.

(immature and adult)
(female and male)
(female and male)

American golden plover in winter plumage

(Hawaiian name—kolea)

DESCRIPTION: 10″-11″. A medium sized shore bird with a straight, inch-long bill. Winter plumage—mottled brown spotted with gold; buffy breast. Summer plumage—striking pattern; back spotted with gold, black undersides, and a white band over the forehead and down the sides of the neck and breast. Plovers don their summer colors in April or May before migration and may still retain them when they return in early August. The only shore bird likely to be seen in the interior of either park.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Winter migrant to the islands. Kilauea—Fairly common locally from August to June. To be seen around Park Headquarters and on the west side of Kilauea Crater or along the Mauna Loa Strip. Haleakala—Common from August to June in open areas both inside and out of the crater.

VOICE: A clear whistle queep, or quee-leép, etc., usually uttered as the bird is flushed.

Like other migrants to Hawaii, golden plovers make a 2,000-mile (one way) flight to and from their breeding grounds in Alaska or Siberia each year. The trip requires about 48 hours, spent mostly over the open ocean. When they arrive in Hawaii in the fall, individuals seem to establish remarkably small territories—one bird may live during its entire stay here in an area not much bigger than a large lawn. Here they will feed on insects and berries until it is time for the annual migration to the north.


RUDDY TURNSTONE Arenaria interpres
(Hawaiian name—akekeke)

DESCRIPTION: 9″. A chunky, medium sized shore bird with flashy black, white, and russet-red markings and short orange legs. The contrasty black and white pattern shows best in flight.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Winter migrant to islands. Kilauea—Except for summer, when they have migrated to Alaska, flocks are often found at rocky beach areas around Halape, but they are uncommon elsewhere along the rugged coast within park boundaries. Large flocks were formerly recorded inland as far as Kilauea Crater. Haleakala—Absent from the park.

VOICE: A rapidly repeated chut-a-chut.

A flock of 8 or 10 turnstones will behave almost as though it was controlled by one mind: in flight they dip and turn precisely together; when they land it is a simultaneous action. The name turnstone comes from their habit of flipping over small rocks with their bills to get at the insects and other lower forms of life beneath.

WANDERING TATTLER Heteroscelus incanum
(Hawaiian name—ulili)

DESCRIPTION: 11″. A large sandpiper with uniformly dark gray upper parts and a long (1½ inches) straight bill. The belly is lighter, and there is an indistinct white line over the eye. The long legs and the feet are yellow.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Winter migrant to islands. Kilauea—Uncommon along the southern rocky shoreline. Absent in summer when it migrates to Alaska. Haleakala—Absent from the park.

VOICE: A high clear whee-we-we-we usually uttered as the bird takes flight.

Individuals feed on crabs and other marine life among the rocks. They never appear inland in the park.

WHITE-CAPPED NODDY Anoüs tenuirostris
(Hawaiian name—noio)

DESCRIPTION: 14″. A dark gray tern restricted to the rocky coastline. The forehead and crown are lighter gray than the rest of the body.


PARK DISTRIBUTION: The only common bird to be seen flying just off shore. In the park, restricted to the coastline of the Kilauea Section.

Look for these along the ocean at the Kalapana end of the park. They flutter over the water picking up small fish, but usually they stay close to shore. The noddies nest in sea cliffs and caves in this area.

SPOTTED DOVE Streptopelia chinensis
(also laceneck or Chinese dove)

DESCRIPTION: 12″. A gray-brown dove with a long rounded tail showing white in the corners, and a broad collar of black with white spots on the neck.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Introduced before 1900; now common below 4,000 feet on all islands. Kilauea—Fairly common around the crater and at lower elevations such as on the Chain of Craters and Hilina Pali roads. Haleakala—Absent from the park.

VOICE: Typical dove-like coos; often coo-coó-coo.

Like the barred dove, this species does not much penetrate the native rain forest, but rather seems restricted to areas where man has altered the vegetation. Both species feed on seeds and some fruit.

Spotted dove—Barred dove


BARRED DOVE Geopelia striata

DESCRIPTION: 8″-9″. Much smaller than the spotted dove and lacks the lacy white neck. Has white outer tail feathers.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Introduced to the islands in 1922; still spreading on the island of Hawaii since its arrival here in 1935 from Asia. Kilauea—Rare—at elevations below 3,000 feet. Haleakala—Absent from the park.

VOICE: A rapid ringing phrase, higher pitched and faster than for the spotted dove, often wheeédle-de-wer.

The range for this dove on Hawaii is continuing to increase. It is now abundant along the Kona coast and has spread in both directions around the island. Look for it within the park on the Hilina Pali road or on the Kalapana road.

PUEO Asio flammeus
(also Hawaiian short-eared owl)

DESCRIPTION: 14″-15″. A medium-sized owl of buffy brown color and with small ear tufts. In flight it appears big-headed and neckless compared to the io.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Kilauea—Occasional around the crater and in grassy areas on the Mauna Loa Strip. Haleakala—Occasional near meadows inside the crater such as at Paliku; also on the lower slopes, especially just below Park Headquarters. They are frequently seen on the drive up to the park.

VOICE: Rarely heard muffled barking sounds.

You may be surprised to see an owl soaring hawklike over grassy openings in full daylight. However, this Hawaiian race of the mainland short-eared owl is often diurnal. It will hover over one spot until a mouse or rat ventures out into the open, then with a swoop the pueo captures its meal.

SKYLARK Alauda arvensis


DESCRIPTION: 7″. A nondescript buffy, streaked bird with white outer tail feathers found only in open country. The head may appear crested.


PARK DISTRIBUTION: Introduced early to most of the islands. Kilauea—Fairly common in open grassy places, for example on the floor of Kilauea Crater or along the Mauna Loa Strip. Haleakala—Fairly common both inside and out of the crater.

VOICE: Look to the sky when you hear an exceedingly long, high-pitched rolling song. The skylark sings while on the wing and its beautiful music may last for a minute or longer.

Certainly the most remarkable thing about this bird is its song—which it delivers while hovering sometimes hundreds of feet in the air. Just when you think that the lofty music must end, a skylark will change to a new series of phrases and keep this up for another minute or so. Skylarks feed and nest on the ground. Nests attributed to skylarks made entirely of “Pele’s hair” have been found in the Kilauea area. “Pele’s hair” is spun volcanic glass formed during an eruption—a strange material indeed for the construction of a bird’s nest.

CHINESE THRUSH Trochalopterum canorum
(also spectacled thrush)

DESCRIPTION: 9″. In the dense wet forests a large, reddish-brown bird with broad white “eye spectacles” can only be this species. The white band around each eye extends backward to the ear. You will probably hear this bird before seeing it.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Introduced at the turn of the century. Now on all major islands. Kilauea—Occasional in the wet ohia forest such as around Park Headquarters. Haleakala—Absent from the park.

VOICE: A mockingbird-like series of sustained musical and harsh notes that carries for a great distance. The rich phrases may be repeated several times before a new pattern is given.

These secretive birds seem to make a vertical migration to Kilauea from the east each summer. They are rarely observed in the park during winter months, but that may be due to their lack of song in the non-breeding season. In summer you will probably hear several before seeing even one, as they are wary and keep to the underbrush, moving about very little.


(also Japanese hill robin or Peking nightingale)


DESCRIPTION: 5½″. One of the easiest to identify: An olive-green bird with contrasting red and yellow markings and a bright red-orange bill. The back is olive-green, throat lemon-yellow shading to red-orange in the breast, and the wing varied with yellow, orange, crimson, and black. Immatures are not as bright, but have the same general markings.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Introduced to the islands from Asia mainly in the twenties. Kilauea—Very common throughout vegetated areas. Haleakala—Fairly common in areas of dense vegetation such as Paliku.

VOICE: No wonder these birds are sometimes called “robins”, for their robinlike warbled song fills the air in spring and summer. If you approach they will often begin their excited noisy call notes, a rapid bzzt-bzzt-bzzt, etc., which will usually continue for some time as the birds nervously flit about the underbrush. Another common note, usually heard from a distance, is a sharp wheek-wheek-wheek made up of 3-8 notes.

The leiothrix is strictly a bird of the undergrowth and you are likely to find it wherever there is plenty of bush cover in moist forested areas. Mamake, a Hawaiian nettle, is one of its favorite haunts. If one bird is seen, there are probably several others nearby, and flocks of a dozen or more are common in fall and winter. Fruit, seeds, and insects comprise the food.

These birds have strange migration habits. In the fall and early winter large flocks may suddenly appear at the summit of Haleakala where they stay a short time and then return to lower areas. On Hawaii flocks have been recorded at above 13,000 feet on Mauna Loa during this season, but they are reduced by deaths caused by exposure and starvation on the barren slopes if they do not descend soon.

Although today the leiothrix is one of the best loved birds on the islands, its introduction here may have been unfortunate. It is known to be a carrier of bird malaria, a disease that has probably contributed to the continuing decline of native Hawaiian honeycreepers.

MOCKINGBIRD Mimus polyglottos

DESCRIPTION: 10″-11″. A slender, gray and white bird with large white wing patches and white outer tail feathers.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Introduced since 1928 on Oahu and Maui. Kilauea—Birds, apparently migrants from Maui, were seen in the northern part of 25 the island in 1959; however, none have yet reached the park (1961). Haleakala—Occasional on slopes below the summit; rare inside Haleakala Crater. Probably still increasing its range within the park.

VOICE: The song is a brilliant series of phrases often repeated like the Chinese thrush but more varied. One note is an emphatic thack.

You are most likely to see mockingbirds along the lower slopes of Haleakala during your drive up to the crater. Park Headquarters is about the upper limit for these birds on Maui. The food consists of insects, fruit, and occasionally greens.

OMAO Phaeornis obscura
(also Hawaiian thrush)


DESCRIPTION: 7″. Usually heard first, then seen if you are patient, for it often remains motionless. A medium sized gray-brown thrush with no distinct markings. Only similar species is the Chinese thrush which is larger, more reddish brown, and has white markings around the eye.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Kilauea—Moderately common in the wet ohia forest, especially along the Crater Rim Trail between Park Headquarters and Thurston Lava Tube. Uncommon on lava flows between 7,000 and 9,200 feet elevation—to be seen along the Mauna Loa trail. Haleakala—Absent from Maui.

VOICE: Any one of several buzzing notes, a medium pitched eéau, or prueeé, or a low throaty whuaaá are likely to be heard before the song. These notes may be interspersed and are often repeated many times with a few seconds interval. The song is a rapid, erratic whistled phrase, having the loud fluty quality of other thrushes.

This strange thrush lives in two contrasting habitats within Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. In the dense forest you will usually find it singing from its perch part way up an ohia or other tree. But there may be no trees in sight at its other locality which is among the barren lava flows on Mauna Loa. However, there will always be berry bushes nearby—ohelo, pukeawe, or kukaenene; and insects also comprise a part of the diet. The lava flow birds establish day-time roosts on the higher rocks and remain at these sites for long periods, judging from the accumulation of droppings. Old perch sites stand out clearly on a flow, for a yellow-green lichen colors the top of whatever rocks have been plastered with omao droppings.


Ohelo—favorite food of the omao

The nesting sites for these birds have remained an enigma until recently. Now it is known that birds living on the flows will build their nests on ledges within deep horizontal lava cracks, especially in collapsed lava tubes, while the forest birds are said to nest in trees.

ELEPAIO Chasiempsis sandwichensis


DESCRIPTION: 5½″. A brownish flycatcher with variegated black, white, and gray markings. The dark bill is short (½ inch) and nearly straight. The female has less black on the breast and throat, while immatures, generally more brown, have a reddish instead of a white ruff around the vent. Its friendly wrenlike actions combined with the above make it unmistakable.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Kilauea—Common in the more heavily vegetated areas around Kilauea Crater and to the east. Look for it at Kipuka Puaulu. Haleakala—Absent from Maui.

VOICE: A variety of short songs or calls. One is like a “wolf whistle”, a clear wheé-oo (or elepaí-o). Another is a nasal yeékik. A single wheek as well as short nasal chirps are also common.

The elepaio is probably the friendliest of our native birds. It is easily overlooked, since it usually remains fairly quiet when you first approach, but 27 if you pause for a few moments in the wet fern jungle, one or more of these birds are likely to appear. They seem very inquisitive as they hop about in the low underbrush, often within a few feet of an observer, and they cock their tails high whenever they alight. Like the omao these birds often push their wings forward with a rapid shivering motion when confronted by people, probably a type of aggressive action.

Being a member of the Old World flycatcher family, the elepaio is adapted to an insect diet which it gleans from the tree tops to the ground, but mostly in the understory. It often feeds like a creeper, carefully working up or down the trunk of an ohia in search of insect life. There seem to be no seasonal movements; individuals or family groups of two to four birds apparently remain in the same general area throughout the year.

MYNAH Acridotheres tristis


DESCRIPTION: 9″. No other bird like it. Black, brown, and white with yellow bill, feet, and skin around the eye; above all noisy. Large white wing patches are conspicuous in flight.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Introduced from India in 1865. Kilauea—Common at Park Headquarters, around other human habitations, and to the south especially around Hilina Pali. Occasional in the Kau Desert. Haleakala—A few live around the Park Headquarters area in the summer months but they descend to lower elevations in winter.

VOICE: A raucous mixture of squawks, mews, and chirrs not likely to be mistaken for any other bird.

For a bird that prefers to live around human habitations, the mynah is extremely wary of people—probably with good reason, for among the imported birds the mynah has never been particularly well loved. Yet it is at least partly beneficial since it often feeds on agricultural insect pests. “Mynah bird” has become a favorite Hawaiian expression for anyone who chatters endlessly.

WHITE-EYE Zosterops palpibrosus
(also mejiro)


DESCRIPTION: 4½″. A tiny yellow-green bird with a distinct white eye-ring. Its back and wings are green, the throat yellow, and under parts gray; the bill is thin and straight. Only other common small green bird is the amakihi, which has no white around the eyes. Immatures are duller, and the eye-ring, although present, is less distinct.


PARK DISTRIBUTION: Introduced from Japan in 1929. Now widely established on all islands. Kilauea—Common almost everywhere in the park. Haleakala—Fairly common throughout the park, except at the highest elevations or in the barren portions of the crater.

VOICE: A thin, high-pitched song a bit like that of the house finch, but much higher and not as loud. Note: a high tsee or chee given repeatedly.

You will hear a rapid chittering of high notes as a flock of three or four white-eyes fly into the nearby shrubbery. Notice how quickly they work over the foliage and limbs gleaning tiny insects. They continue to utter their notes as they feed, but soon one by one they are off again to new vegetation.

The pattern of population increase for the white-eye has paralleled that of many exotic species. Following their introduction in 1929 the birds were at first slow to increase their range, but in more recent years a population explosion has taken place ... on the Island of Hawaii, at least. It is presently the commonest bird on the island and it seems to have adapted to nearly every habitat. There is every indication that the white-eye, competing for insects with native Hawaiian birds such as the Hawaiian creeper, has virtually eliminated some of the natives from their former habitat.

AMAKIHI Loxops virens


DESCRIPTION: 4½″. Yellow-green with no outstanding markings, and a dark slightly downcurved bill. The male is bright green above with a yellowish breast, while the female and immatures are duller, tending toward gray-green. It is a real problem to distinguish between a female or young amakihi and the very rare Hawaiian creeper (next bird).

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Kilauea—Very common on the slopes of Mauna Loa around tree-line (for example along the Mauna Loa trail); less common in the wet ohia forests around Kilauea Crater and along the Chain of Craters road. Haleakala—Common in the open forests such as Hosmer Grove and Paliku.

VOICE: The usual song, a slow tinkling trill, tink-tink-tink-tink-tink-tink-tink or wheedle-wheedle-wheedle, etc., is uttered by the male. Commonest foraging note (both sexes) is a high djeee; another note is wheee with a rising inflection.

You will see a little green bird flit into a mamani or other nearby tree and begin to seek insects among the foliage, visiting the blossoms for nectar if the tree happens to be in bloom. You hear a buzzy djeee and you have made acquaintance with the amakihi. This Hawaiian honeycreeper prefers more 29 open forest than do the other two common members of the family, the apapane and iiwi. But often all three are found together, with the amakihis working through the entire foliage and not just in the tree tops.

Seasonal movements are much less obvious than for either apapanes or iiwis, probably because amakihis are less dependent on flowering periods. However, some migration does occur, especially in and out of their lower range below 3,000 feet elevation. Nesting is in late spring and early summer.

HAWAIIAN CREEPER Loxops maculata

DESCRIPTION: 4½″. Very similar to the female or immature amakihi, but the bill is straighter and tends to be lighter in color. Creepers search for insects on the trunks and heavier branches, while amakihis usually work more in the foliage.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Kilauea—Now very rare in the upper rain forest or koa parkland on Mauna Loa. Haleakala—Has not been definitely recorded within the park for many years.

Twenty years ago creepers were often seen in the Mauna Loa Strip area of the Kilauea Section, but from 1958-1960 the author saw only one. On the other hand, introduced white-eyes have greatly increased their numbers in recent years, and now they are by far the commonest bird along the Mauna Loa Strip. White-eyes feed in much the same manner as creepers—they carefully glean tiny insects from limbs of ohia, mamani, and other trees. It seems likely that direct competition for insects by the white-eyes is an important factor in the recent decline of Hawaiian creepers.

OU Psittirostra psittacea


DESCRIPTION: 6½″. A greenish bird with a heavy parrotlike bill. Male: Varying shades of green above, lighter below, with a bright yellow head that give it the appearance of being unusually large headed. Female and Immature: Lack the yellow head.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Kilauea—Rare; in the wet tree-fern jungle. Thurston Lava Tube is within its range. Haleakala—Absent from Maui.

VOICE: A beautiful singer, according to Munro. Note: a medium high-pitched teweé.

Ous are fairly inactive birds, often spending long periods quietly on the branch of an ohia or other tree, and would be difficult to locate in the dense 30 forest except for the bright male plumage. They frequently travel in pairs and apparently have a small individual range, for the same pair may be seen day after day in one locality. Their food consists of fruit.

APAPANE Himatione sanguinea

(immature and adult)

DESCRIPTION: 5½″. Crimson red with black wings and tail, white abdomen, and slightly down-curved black bill. Only similar species, the iiwi, has a red abdomen and a long orange bill. Immatures are confusing, as the red is mostly lacking. However, grayish birds having a touch of rusty red on the sides and white under the tail, and feeding in ohia tops, are surely this species. The throat and face of young apapanes may appear yellow-orange.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Kilauea—Common to abundant throughout the wet ohia forest; much less common in the drier forests. Haleakala—Common locally in forested areas such as Hosmer Grove or Paliku.

VOICE: You will hear a constant chorus of short songs and notes from the highest ohia tops whenever apapanes are about. The quality varies from sweet whistled notes to harsh chips and buzzes, usually intermixed. Probably the most varied songster in the park.

The apapane is likely to be your first introduction to the endemic Hawaiian honeycreepers. While most of Hawaii’s native birds have either become extinct or are greatly reduced in numbers, this species seems to have held its own wherever there are ohia trees to provide a supply of lehua nectar. Examine a cluster of red ohia blossoms. You will find that each tiny cup which bears long bright stamens is filled with honey. A single ohia in full bloom with countless thousands of these nectar-cups must produce many pounds of honey. No wonder one blossoming tree will attract so many honeycreepers.

You will see the birds high in the trees, flitting about from flower to flower, often stopping to pick up insects along the way. Although a few trees are in bloom throughout the year in any given area, there are definite “flowering periods” for the ohia when more than half of the trees may be in full blossom. The season for these flowering periods will vary among localities, and tremendous flocks of apapanes and other honeycreepers follow the bloom from one area to another. They can often be seen flying high overhead in small groups, all going in the same direction. But even during times when the ohias are out of bloom a few apapanes will remain in the forest.

The breeding season is an extended one, and you may see immature apapanes with almost no sign of red plumage from February to October.


Ohia blossom nectar is the staple food for the apapane and iiwi

IIWI Vestiaria coccinea


DESCRIPTION: 5¾″. A brilliant scarlet body and long, orange, sickle-shaped bill distinguishes this honeycreeper. Lacks the white abdomen of the apapane. Immatures appear greenish-yellow with patches of red developing with age, but the long orange bill is always diagnostic.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Kilauea—Common in the wet ohia forest, especially when the trees are in bloom. Kipuka Puaulu and the vicinity of Thurston Lava Tube are likely places. Haleakala—Fairly common in Hosmer Grove and the forest behind Paliku.

VOICE: The creaking of a rusty gate, ker-eeék is the best description for its commonest note. Other calls include a sharp whistle and a short warble, all rather harsh.

Look for this bright Hawaiian honeycreeper among flocks of apapanes in the forest. On a calm day you will hear the heavy flutter of their wings as they fly from tree to tree. Apapanes also have a similar feather structure which produces such noisy flight.

Iiwis tend to feed more in the upper-middle branches rather than the 32 high tops, and they seem to remain in a single tree for a longer time than the apapanes. Their food is made up of nectar (ohia, mamane, and other flowers) which they suck up through tubular tongues that extend the length of their sickle bills, and the larger insects. Old koa trees often attract iiwis, presumably because of the insects.

You will see birds in green juvenile plumage any time from February until autumn. These young birds seem to be especially affected by bird lice, for they spend much time scratching and preening.

RICEBIRD Munia nisoria


DESCRIPTION: 4″. A tiny, dark-faced bird with a heavy blackish bill. Differs from house sparrow and house finch females in its smaller size, the dark face and throat, and under parts that look speckled. The flanks may appear barred. Nearly always in flocks.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Introduced to the islands about 1865. Now established on all main islands. Kilauea—Occasional to common along most park roads except in the Kau Desert and the upper Mauna Loa Strip. Haleakala—Absent from the park.

VOICE: A short wheek or whireép, softer than the chip of the house finch, and usually repeated.

Ricebirds used to be great pests among the rice fields of lower elevations, but their numbers have diminished now that little rice is grown on the islands. Notice the flocks of half-a-dozen or so that fly out with short wing beats along park roads, trails, or other places where weeds thrive. They are primarily ground feeders and even in flight they seldom rise much above the ground surface.

HOUSE SPARROW Passer domesticus
(also English sparrow)

DESCRIPTION: 6″. Almost everyone knows this chunky, grayish-brown bird with a heavy bill, restricted to areas of human habitation. Males have black throats; females gray.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Introduced before 1870. Kilauea—Restricted to areas of human habitations. Haleakala—A few around Park Headquarters, mainly during the summer months.

VOICE: Dull chirps.


CARDINAL Richmondena cardinalis

(female and male)

DESCRIPTION: 4″-10″. Male—the only all red bird with a crest. Female—yellowish-brown with some red, also crested. Both sexes have a heavy red bill: however, immatures, which resembles females, have dark beaks.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Introduced on several islands since 1929. Kilauea—Fairly common locally in the drier vegetated areas such as Kipuka Puaulu. Haleakala—Absent from the park.

VOICE: The song, which may be varied, is made up of a liquid whistled phrase usually repeated. Note: a sharp tik.

Visitors from the eastern states will recognize familiar birdcalls when a cardinal is nearby. They are usually rather shy birds here, so you will probably hear them first. Seeds, insects, and fruit make up the diet of these birds. They are often found in company with the red-billed leiothrix.

HOUSE FINCH Carpodacus mexicanus
(also linnet or papaya bird)

(female and male)

DESCRIPTION: 5½″. Male—Grayish-brown with rosy red breast, forehead, stripe over eye, and rump. At Haleakala the color is more yellow than red. Female and Immature—Sparrowlike with a gray-brown back and dusky-white streaked breast. House finches have thick seed-eating bills.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Introduced before 1870. Kilauea—very common in the drier sections of the park, especially along the Hilina Pali road and at Kipuka Puaulu. Haleakala—One of the commonest birds in the park both inside and out of the crater.

VOICE: A rapid, disjointed warbling song, usually lasting several seconds. Note: one or a series of chirps, more musical than that of the house sparrow.

This is strictly a social species living in flocks ranging in size from a few birds to 20 or more. On the Island of Hawaii the introduced house finch has adapted well to a habitat that is presently unoccupied by any native resident—the dry grassy regions of the Kau Desert and along Hilina Pali.

On the mainland house finches are reddish; the same is true for most Kilauea birds. However, at Haleakala the usual color of the male is yellow or orange. It seems likely that diet, which is known to affect pigmentation in bird plumage, rather than heredity, is the cause of this difference.




From time to time various sea and other birds passing over the island or blown inland during a storm may be observed in either park. In recent years such accidentals have included:

Red-footed booby (Sula sula): one record, Kilauea (1959).
Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus): seen at Kilauea during 1961.
Red phalarope (Phalaropus fulicarius): one record, Kilauea (1949).
Gray-backed tern (Sterna lunata): one record, Kilauea (1959).

Formerly Recorded

Several native birds that were formerly found within the park have not been recorded in recent years. They include:

Hawaiian crow (Corvus tropicus): This, the only crow here and endemic to the Island of Hawaii, formerly occurred within the park. One recent Kilauea record (1940).

Akepa (Loxops coccinea): A tiny (4½″) bird. Male: Red-orange with no white markings. Female: Green above and yellow below. Still occurs in the koa forests northeast of the Mauna Loa Strip. Last park record was over 20 years ago.

Akiapolaau (Hemignathus wilsoni): 5½″. Like the amakihi but with a long, curved upper mandible overlapping the short straight lower bill. Used to be a permanent resident of the koa kipukas along the Mauna Loa Strip, but has not been observed within the park for several years.

Parrot-billed koa finch (Pseudonestor xanthophrys): 5½″. A yellowish parrotlike bird with a heavy hooked beak that formerly occurred in Kaupo Gap at Haleakala. Last record, a few miles outside the park, was in 1950.

Status Uncertain

Game birds are sometimes released by the State Division of Fish and Game near the park, but they do not always become established. A recent release (June 1960) just outside the park boundary near Headquarters at Haleakala was the Erckel’s Francolin (Francolinus erckelii). This large chickenlike partridge can be recognized by its rusty-red crown. It is not yet known whether the birds will reproduce and become established.




Acknowledgements 9
Acridotheres tristis 27
Akepa 34
Akekeke 20
Akiapolaau 34
Alauda arvensis 22
Alectoris graeca 16
Amakihi 3, 5, 7, 28, Plate
Anoüs tenuirostris 20
Apapane 3, 5, 6, 7, 29, 30, 31, 32, Plate
Arenaria interpres 20
Asia flammeus 22
Bird Park 6
Booby, red-footed 34
Branta sandvicensis 13
Buteo solitarius 15
Cardinal 4, 6, 33, Plate
Carpodacus mexicanus 33
Chain of Craters Road 18, 21, 28
Chasiempsis sandwichensis 26
Chukar 7, 16
Corvus tropicus 34
Crater Rim Drive 5, 18
Creeper, Hawaiian 29
Crow, Hawaiian 34
barred 21, 22
Chinese 21
laceneck 21
spotted 21
Drepaniidae 3
Elepaio 3, 6, 26, Plate
Endemics 3
Exotics 4
Fern jungle 2, 5, 6
house 6, 7, 33, Plate
parrot-billed koa 34
Francolin, Erckel’s 34
Francolinus erckelii 34
Geopelia striata 22
Goose, Hawaiian 13
Haleakala National Park 7, 8
Halemaumau 6, 12
Halape 20
Hawaiian Islands 3
Hawaiian Honeycreepers 3
Hawaii Volcanoes National Park 8
Hawk, Hawaiian 6, 15
Hemignathus wilsoni 34
Heteroscelus incanum 20
Hilina Pali 12, 21, 22, 27, 33
Hill robin, Japanese 24
Himatione sanguinea 30
Holua Cabin 11, 12
Hosmer Grove 7, 28, 30
Hui Manu 4
Iiwi 3, 5, 6, 7, 29, 31, Plate
Io 3, 6, 15
Kalapana—Kalapana Road 21, 22
Kapalaoa Cabin 11
Kau Desert 12, 27, 32, 33
Kaupo Gap 34
Kilauea Crater 11, 16, 17, 19, 20, 23, 26, 28
Kilauea Iki 6, 15
Kilauea Volcano 5
Kipuka Nene 16
Kipuka Puaulu 1, 6, 26, 33
Koae 11
Kolea 19
Kona Coast 22
Leiothrix lutea 24
Leiothrix, red-billed 6, 24, 33, Plate
Linnet 33
Lophortyx californicus 15
coccinea 34
maculata 29
virens 28
Malaria, avian 5, 24
Makaopuhi Crater 15
Mauna Kea 11
Mauna Loa—Mauna Loa Strip 6, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 22, 23, 28, 29, 32
Mejiro 27
Mimus polyglottus 24
Mockingbird 7, 24
Munia nisoria 32
Mynah 4, 27, Plate
Nene 3, 7, 13, back cover
Nightingale, Peking 24
Noddy, white-capped 20
Noio 20
Old World flycatcher 3, 27
Owl, Hawaiian short-eared 3, 22
Omao 3, 25, 27, Plate
Ou 29, Plate
Paliku 7, 12, 22, 24, 28, 30
Papaya bird 33
Passer domesticus 32
Petrel, dark-rumped 4, 10, 11
Phaeornis obscura 25
Phaëthon lepturus 11
Phalarope, red 34
Phalaropus fulicarius 34
Phasianus colchicus torquatus 17
colchicus versicolor 18
Chinese 17
green 18
Japanese blue 6, 7, 18
ring-necked 7, 17
versicolor 18
Plover, American golden 4, 7, 19
Pluvialis dominica 19
Pseudonestor xanthophrys 34
Psittirostra psittacea 29
Pueo 22
Pterodroma phaeopygia 11
Quail, California 4, 7, 15
Ricebird 32, Plate
Richmondena cardinalis 33
Skylark 7, 22, Plate
English 32
house 32
Streptopelia chinensis 21
Sterna lunata 34
Sula sula 34
Tattler, wandering 20
Tern, gray-backed 34
Chinese 23
Hawaiian 25
spectacled 23
Thurston Lava Tube 2, 5, 25, 29
Trochalopterum canorum 23
Tropic-bird, white-tailed 4, 6, 11, 12
Turnstone, ruddy 20
Uau 11
Ulili 20
Vestiaria coccinea 31
White-eye 4, 5, 6, 27, 29, Plate
Zosterops palpibrosus 27

Boldfaced type: refers to illustrations


The Hawaii Natural History Association, a nonprofit organization devoted to aiding the park interpretive program, has produced several other booklets to help you enjoy the parks in Hawaii. These may be obtained at headquarters in either park or by writing directly to the association, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii.

Haleakala Guide, by George C. Ruhle, $1.00
Ferns of Hawaii National Park, by Douglass H. Hubbard, 50¢
Trailside Plants of Hawaii National Park, by Douglass H. Hubbard and Vernon R. Bender, Jr., 50¢
Volcanoes of the National Parks in Hawaii, by Gordon A. MacDonald and Douglass H. Hubbard, 50¢




Transcriber’s Notes