The Project Gutenberg eBook of How to Make Candy

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Title: How to Make Candy

Author: Anonymous

Release date: February 16, 2017 [eBook #54173]
Most recently updated: April 20, 2017

Language: English

Credits: Produced by David Edwards, Alan and the Online Distributed
Proofreading Team at (Images courtesy
of the Digital Library@Villanova University


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Transcriber's Note:

I have never seen a health warning on a book before but I have been asked to provide one here. Some of the ingredients used in these procedures are toxic to say the least. For instance, the recipe for Ching's Brown Worm Lozenges on p40 contains the line: 'Each lozenge should contain half a grain of mercury.' Now, times and attitudes may change but mercury does not. As a record of how things were done the volume is fine but as a recipe book danger lurks in these pages. Unless you are very, very sure of what you are doing please treat this as a reference book, not a practical guide.

More mundane note at the end of the book.

Book front cover









34 and 36 North Moore Street.

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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1891, by


in the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington, D.C.

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As sugar is the basis or groundwork of the confectioner's art, it is essentially necessary that the practitioner should carefully study and observe the difference in its qualities, the changes which it undergoes or effects when combined with other articles in the process of manufacture, and also the different forms which it assumes by itself, at various stages. Without this knowledge, a man will never become a thorough and efficient workman, and it can only be acquired by practice and experience.

The first process which it undergoes, in the hands of the confectioner, is that of clarification. It is conducted on the same principle as the refining of sugar, although not carried out in every particular.

Clarification of Raw Sugar.—For every six pounds of sugar required to be clarified, take one quart of water, the white of an egg, and about half a tea-cupful of bullock's blood. Less than a pint will be sufficient for 112 pounds; but if a very fine, transparent, and colorless syrup is required, use either charcoal, finely powdered, or ivory-black, instead of the blood. Put the white of an egg in the water, and whisk it to a froth; then add either of the other articles mentioned, and the sugar; place the pan containing the ingredients on the stove-fire, and stir them well with the spatula, until the sugar is dissolved, and is nearly boiling.

When the ebullition commences, throw in a little cold water to check it; this causes the coarser parts to separate more freely, by which means the whole of the impurities attach themselves to the clarifying matter used; continue this for about five minutes, using about one pint of water to every six pounds of sugar, or more, until you consider the whole of the dross is discharged, and there remains a fine clear syrup. Then place it by the side of the stove, and carefully remove with a skimmer the scum which has formed on the top; it may also be taken off as it rises, but I find the best method is to let it remain a short time after it is clarified, before it is removed; otherwise, if you take it off as it rises, part of the syrup is also taken with it. When either charcoal or black is used, it must be passed through a filtering-bag, made of thick flannel, in the shape of a cone, having a hoop fastened[Pg 4] round the top, to keep it extended, and to which strings are sewn, that it may be tied or suspended in any convenient manner; what runs out at first will be quite black; return this again into the bag, and continue doing so until it runs fine and clear.

If a little lime, about a spoonful, or any other alkali is added to the sugar, with the water, etc., it will neutralize the acid which all raw sugars contain, and they will be found to stand much better after they have been manufactured, by not taking the damp so soon. This is not generally done by the trade, but it will be found beneficial if practiced.

To Clarify Loaf Sugar.—This is clarified by mixing the whites of eggs with water, without any other assistance, for having been previously refined, it does not require those auxiliaries again to separate the coarser parts, unless it is of an inferior quality, or an extra fine syrup, as for bonbons and other fancy articles, as required. When it is necessary to have a very fine sparkling grain, in that case break your lump into small pieces, and put it in a preserving-pan, with a sufficient quantity of water to dissolve it, in which has been mixed the white of an egg and powdered charcoal; as for raw sugar, following those instructions already given. After the sugar has been drained from the bag, pass some water through, to take off any which may be left in the charcoal, which you use for dissolving more sugar.

The scum should always be reserved when charcoal or black is not used, to mix with the articles of an inferior quality.

The best refined loaf sugar should be white, dry, fine, of a brilliant sparkling appearance, when broken, and as close in texture as possible. The best sort of brown has a bright, sparkling, and gravelly look. East India sugars appear finer, but do not contain so much saccharine matter, yet they are much used for manufacturing the best sort of common sweetmeats, when clarified, instead of loaf sugar.

Degrees of Boiling Sugar.—This is the principal point to which the confectioner has to direct his attention; for if he is not expert in this particular, all his other labor and knowledge will be useless; it is the foundation on which he must build to acquire success in his undertakings.

There are seven essential points or degrees in boiling sugar; some authors give thirteen, but many of these are useless, and serve only to show critical precision in the art, without its being required in practice; however, for exactness, we will admit of nine, viz: 1. Small thread. 2. Large thread. 3. Little Pearl. 4. Large Pearl. 5. The blow. 6. The feather. 7. Ball. 8. Crack. 9. Caramel. This last degree derives its[Pg 5] name from "a Count Albufage Caramel, who discovered this method of boiling sugar."

In describing the process, I shall proceed in a different manner to other writers on the subject, by classing it under different heads, according to the uses to which it is applied.


Under this head are comprised the degrees from the small thread to the large pearl; for at these points the sugar is kept in a divided state, and remains a fluid of an oily consistency. A bottle which holds three ounces of water will contain four ounces of syrup. The method of ascertaining those degrees, according to the usages of the trade, is as follows:

Small Thread.—Having placed the clarified syrup on the fire, let it boil a little, then dip the top of your finger in the boiling syrup, and on taking it out apply it to the top of your thumb, when, if it has attained the degree, on separating them a small ring will be drawn out a little distance, about as fine as a hair, which will break, and resolve itself into a drop on the thumb and finger.

Large Thread.—Continue the boiling a little longer, repeat the same operation as before, and a larger string will be drawn.

Little Pearl.—To ascertain this degree, separate the finger from the thumb as before, and a large string may be drawn, which will extend to nearly the distance the fingers may be opened.

Large Pearl.—The finger may now be separated from the thumb to the greatest extent, before the thread will break.


This takes the degrees of the blow and feather. The particles of the sugar being now brought together within the sphere of their activity, the attraction of cohesion commences, whereby they attach themselves together and form quadrilateral pyramids, with oblong and rectangular bases. This is generally, but improperly, termed candy, thereby confounding it with the degrees at which it grains, also termed candy. This certainly seems "confusion worse confounded;" but if things are called by their proper names, many of those seeming difficulties and technicalities may be avoided, which tend only to confuse and embarrass the young practitioner, without gaining any desired end or purpose. If it were generally classed into the degrees of crystallization, the true meaning and use would at once be explained, and understood by the greatest novice.

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The nature and principle of this operation are these. First, as in the case of syrup, (the first four degrees,) when the water has absorbed as much sugar as it is capable of containing in a cold state, by continuing the boiling a further portion of the solvent (water) is evaporated, and sugar remains in excess, which, when exposed to a less degree of heat, separates itself, and forms crystals on the surface and sides of the vessel in which it is contained, and also on anything placed or suspended in it. But if it is exposed too suddenly to the cold, or disturbed in its action by being shaken, or if the boiling has been continued too long, the crystals will form irregularly, by the particles being brought in too close contact, and run too hastily together, forming a mass or lump.

To obtain this part in perfection the boiling should be gradual, and continued no longer than till a few drops let fall on a cold surface show a crystalline appearance, or after being removed from the fire, a thin skin will form on the surface. It should then be taken from the fire, and placed in a less hot, but not cold place, and covered, or put into a stove or hot closet, to prevent the access of cold air. A few drops of spirits of wine, added when the sugar has attained the proper degree, will conduce to a more perfect crystalline form, scarcely attainable by any other means, as it has a great affinity with the water, thereby causing the sugar to separate itself more freely. It must be used with caution, as too much will cause it to grain.

To Ascertain the Degree of the Blow.—Continue the boiling of the sugar, dip a skimmer in it, and shake it over the pan, then blow through the holes, and if small bubbles or air-bladders are seen on the other side, it has acquired this degree.

The Feather.—Dip the skimmer again into the sugar, and blow through the holes as before, and the bubbles will appear larger, and stronger. Or if you give the skimmer a sudden jerk, so as to throw the sugar from you, when it has acquired the degree, it will appear hanging from the skimmer in fine long strings.


Sugar, after it has passed the degree of the feather, is of itself naturally inclined to grain; that is, to candy, and will form a powder, if agitated or stirred; for, as the boiling is continued, so is the water evaporated until there is nothing left to hold it in solution; therefore, that body being destroyed by heat, which first changed its original form to those we have already enumerated, as this no longer exists with it, it naturally returns to the same state as it was before the solvent[Pg 7] was added, which is that of minute crystals, or grains, being held together by the attraction of cohesion, unless, as before stated, they are separated by stirring, etc.

The sugar being evaporated by boiling from the last degree, leaves a thin crust of crystals round the sides of the pan, which shows it has attained the candy height; and this crust must be carefully removed (as it forms) with a damp cloth or sponge, or the whole mass will candy if suffered to remain. To prevent this is the chief desideratum, all further proceedings for which specific rules will be given in their proper places.

The remaining degrees can be ascertained after the following manner:

The Ball.—Provide a jug of clean cold water, and a piece of round stick. First dip in the water, then in the sugar, and again in the water,[A] take off the sugar which has adhered to it, and endeavor to roll it into a ball between the finger and thumb, in the water; when this can be done, it has attained the desired degree. If it forms a large, hard ball, which will bite hard, and adhere to the teeth, when eaten, it is then termed the large ball, et contra.

[A] This should be performed as speedily as possible.

The Crack.—Follow the directions given for the ball. Slip the sugar from off the stick, still holding it in the water, then press it between the finger and thumb; if it breaks short and crisp, with a slight noise, it is at the crack.

Caramel.—To obtain this degree, it requires care and attention, and also to be frequently tried, as it passes speedily from the crack to the caramel. Try it as before directed, and let the water be quite cold, or you will be deceived. If, on taking it off the stick, it snaps like glass, with a loud noise, it has attained the proper degree; it will also, when it arrives at this point, assume a beautiful yellow color; after this it will speedily burn, taking all the hues, from a brown to a black; therefore, to prevent this, dip the bottom of the pan into a pail of cold water, as soon as it comes to caramel, as the heat which is contained in the pan and sugar is sufficient to advance it one degree; also, be careful that the flame of the fire does not ascend round the sides of the pan, which will burn it.

In boiling sugar keep the top of the pan partly covered from the time it commences boiling until it has attained the ball or crack; the steam which rises being again thrown on the sides, prevents the formation of the crust or crystals.

To prevent its graining, add a little of any sort of acid, when it is at the crack—a table-spoonful of common vinegar, four or five drops of lemon-juice, or two or three drops of pyroligneous acid: any of these will have the desired effect. [Pg 8]This is termed greasing it. But remember that too much acid will also grain it; neither can it be boiled to caramel if there is too much. A little butter, added when it first commences boiling, will keep it from rising over the pan, and also prevent its graining. About as much cream of tartar as may be laid on a sixpence, and added to seven pounds of sugar, with the water, or equal quantities of cream of tartar and alum in powder, added when it boils, will also keep it from candying. If sugar is poured on a slab that is too hot, it is very apt to grain; this is frequently the case after several casts have been worked off in rotation; therefore, when you find it inclined to turn, remove it to a cooler spot, if possible, and not handle it any more than is necessary.

Sugar that has been often boiled or warmed is soon acted upon by the atmosphere, whereby it becomes clammy, and soon runs, as it is weakened by the action of the fire. Acid causes the same effect.

If it has passed the degree you intended to boil it at, add a little water, and give it another boil.


Take four ounces of sweet almonds, blanched, half an ounce of bitter almonds; pound them in a clean mortar; moisten them gradually with orange flower-water; mix this with one quart of fresh cream and one ounce of clarified isinglass; put into a saucepan, constantly stirring till it boils; then pass through a fine sieve, and form into a mold, and put on ice.

Blanc Mange may be flavored with vanilla, Mocho coffee, marischino, pistachios and strawberries; in which case the bitter almonds should be left out.


The articles that come under this head are made by the sugar being brought to the ball, when it is grained by rubbing it against the sides of the pan. From this all fancy articles are made, such as fruit-eggs, cups, vases, etc.

Burnt Almonds.—Take some fine Valencia or Jordon almonds, and sift all the dust from them; put a pint of clarified syrup into the pan for each pound of almonds, and place it with the almonds on the fire; boil to the ball, then take it off and stir the mixture well with a spatula, that the sugar may grain and become almost a powder; whilst each almond has a coating. Put them into a coarse wire or cane sieve, and sift all the loose sugar from them, and also separate those which stick together. When cold, boil some more clarified syrup to the feather, put in the almonds, give them two or three boils in it, take them from the fire, and stir them with[Pg 9] the spatula as before, until the sugar grains; sift and separate them, and keep them in glasses or boxes. A third coat may be given them in the same manner as the second, if they are required large.

Burnt Almonds—Red.—The same as the last, using prepared cochineal to color the syrup while it is boiling.

Common Burnt Almonds.—These are made with raw sugar and skimmings, if you have any. Put some water with the sugar to dissolve it; when it is near boiling, add the almonds, and let them boil in it until it comes to the small ball; or when the almonds crack, take them from the fire, and stir them with a spatula until the sugar grains and becomes nearly a powder; put them into a sieve, and separate the lumps.

Artificial Fruit, Eggs, etc.—Prepare molds with plaster of Paris from the natural objects you wish to represent; make them in two, three, or more pieces, so as to relieve freely, and have a hole at one end into which the sugar may be poured; let them be made so as each part may be fitted together exactly; and for this purpose make two or three round or square indentions on the edge of one part, so that the corresponding piece, when cast, will form the counterpart, which may at all times be fitted with precision. Let the object you would take the cast from be placed in a frame made either of wood or of stiff paper, embed a part of it in fine sand, soft pipe-clay, or modeling wax, leaving as much of the mold exposed as you wish to form at one time, and oil it with sweet oil; mix some of the prepared plaster with water, to the consistency of thick cream, and pour over it; when this is set, proceed with the other portions in the same manner until it is complete. Let them dry and harden for use.

Take a sufficient quantity of syrup (clarified with charcoal or animal black) to fill the mold, and boil to the small ball; rub some of it against the side to grain it; when it turns white, pour it into the molds; take them out when set, and put them into the stove at a moderate heat to dry. The molds must be soaked for an hour or two in cold water previously to their being used, which will be found better than oiling them, as it keeps the sugar delicately white, which oil does not. Color your articles according to nature with liquid colors (see Colors) and camel's-hair pencils or the usual pigments sold in boxes may be used. If a gloss is required, the colors should be mixed with a strong solution of gum-arabic or isinglass, to the desired tint. Eggs and fruit may be made as light and as apparently as perfect as nature, by having molds to open in two, without any orifice for filling them. Fill one half with the grained sugar, immediately close the mold, and turn it round briskly, that it may be covered all[Pg 10] over equally. To accomplish this, it is necessary to have an assistant, that it may be done as speedily as possible.

Coltsfoot or Hoarhound Candy.—Make a strong infusion of the herbs (see Infusions under the head of Syrups), and use it for dissolving the sugar, instead of taking syrup; raw sugar is mostly used for those candies. Boil it to the ball, grain it and finish as ginger candy.

Filberts and Pistachios.—These are done the same as burnt almonds, but they are usually denominated prawlings, the nuts being only put into the sugar for two or three minutes before it is taken from the fire and stirred.

Ginger Candy.—Take clarified syrup and boil it to the ball; flavor it either with the essence of ginger or the root in powder: then with a spoon or spatula rub some of it against the side of the pan until you perceive it turn white; pour it into small square tins with edges, or paper cases, which have been oiled or buttered, and put it in a warm place, or on a hot stone, that it may become dappled. The syrup should be colored yellow, while boiling, with a little saffron.

Lemon Prawlings.—Made the same as orange prawlings.

Orange Prawlings.—Take four or five Havana oranges, and cut off the peel in quarters, or small lengths; take off all the pith or white part of the peel, leaving only the yellow rinds, and cut in small pieces, about an inch long, and the size of pins. Have about a pint of clarified sugar boiling on the fire; when it comes to the blow, put in the pieces of peel, and let them boil until the sugar attains the small ball; take them off, and stir them with the spatula until the sugar grains and hangs about them; sift off the loose sugar; when cold, separate and keep them in a dry place.

Peppermint, Lemon and Rose Candy are made after the same manner as Ginger Candy, coloring the lemon with saffron, and the rose with cochineal.


Cacao Nuts.—The cacoa or cacoa nuts, of which chocolate is made, is the seed of the fruit of a tree common in South America and the West Indies. The seeds of the nuts, which are nearly of the shape of an almond, are found to the number of from thirty to forty in a pod. The pods are oval, resembling a cucumber in shape. The different sorts are distinguished by name, according to the places which produce them; thus, the cacao of Cayenne, Caraccas, Berbice, and the islands of St. Magdalen and Domingo. These all differ in the size of their almonds or seed, quality and taste. The most esteemed is the large Caraccas, the almond of which, though somewhat flat, resembles the shape of a large bean. The next are those of St. Magdalen and Berbice. The seeds of these[Pg 11] are less flat than those of the Caraccas kind, and the skin is covered with a fine ash-colored dust. The others are very crude and oily, and only fit to make the butter of cacao. The kernels, when fresh, are bitter, and are deprived of this by being buried in the ground for thirty or forty days. Good nuts should have a thin brittle skin, of a dark black color; and the kernel, when the skin is taken off, should appear full and shining, of a dusky color, with a reddish shade. Choose the freshest, not worm-eaten, or moldy on the inside, which it is subject to be.

Equal parts of the cacao of Caraccas, St. Magdalen and Berbice mixed together make a chocolate of first-rate quality; and these proportions give to it that rich and oily taste which it ought to have. That made from the cacao of Caraccas only is too dry, and that from the islands too fat and crude.

Roasting.—Take a sufficient quantity of nuts to cover the bottom of an iron pot two or three inches deep, place them on the fire to roast, stirring them constantly with the spatula that the heat may be imparted to them equally. A coffee-roasting machine would answer for this purpose admirably, taking care not to torrefy them too much, as the oil of the nut suffers thereby, and it becomes a dark brown or black, grows bitter and spoils the color of the chocolate. Musty or moldy nuts must be roasted more than the others, so as to deprive them of their bad taste and smell. It is only necessary to heat them until the skin will separate from the kernel on being pressed between the fingers. Remove them from the fire and separate the skins. If you have a large quantity, this may be accomplished by putting them in a sieve which has the holes rather large, but not so much as to allow the nuts to pass through; then squeeze or press them in your hands, and the skins will pass through the meshes of the sieve; or, after being separated from the nuts, they may be got rid of by winnowing or fanning them in a similar manner to corn. When they are separated put them again in the fire, as before directed, stirring them constantly until warmed through, without browning. You may know when they are heated enough by the outside appearing shiny; again winnow, to separate any burnt skin which may have escaped the first time.

The Making of Chocolate.—An iron pestle and mortar is requisite for this purpose, also a stone of the closest grain and texture which can be procured, and a rolling-pin made of the same material, or of iron. The stone must be fixed in such a manner that it may be heated from below with a pot of burning charcoal, or something similar.

Warm the mortar and pestle by placing them on a stove, or by means of charcoal, until they are so hot that you can scarce[Pg 12]ly bear your hand against them. Wipe the mortar out clean, and put any convenient quantity of your prepared nuts in it, which you pound until they are reduced to an oily paste, into which the pestle will sink by its own weight. If it is required sweet, add about one-half or two-thirds of its weight of loaf sugar in powder; again pound it so as to mix it well together, then put it in a pan, and place it in the stove to keep warm. Take a portion of it and roll or grind it well on the slab with the roller (both being previously heated like mortar) until it is reduced to a smooth impalpable paste, which will melt in the mouth like butter. When this is accomplished, put it in another pan, and keep it warm until the whole is similarly disposed of; then place it again on the stone, which must not be quite so warm as previously, work it over again, and divide it into pieces of two, four, eight, or sixteen ounces each, which you put in molds. Give it a shake, and the chocolate will become flat. When cold it will easily turn out.

The molds for chocolate may either be made of tin or copper, and of different devices, such as men, animals, fish, culinary or other utensils, etc.; also some square ones for half-pound cakes, having divisions on the bottom which are relieved. These cause the hollow impressions on the cakes.

The Bayonne or Spanish chocolate is in general the most esteemed. The reason of its superior quality is attributed by some to the hardness of the Pyrenean stone which they employ in making it, which does not absorb the oil from the nuts. They do not use any pestle and mortar, but levigate their nuts on the stone, which is fixed on a slope; and in the second pounding or rolling the paste is pressed closely on the stone, so as to extract the oil, which runs into a pan containing the quantity of sugar intended to be used, and is placed underneath to receive it; the oil of the cacao and sugar are then well mixed together with a spatula, again mixed with the paste on the stone, and finished.

Cinnamon, Mace or Clove Chocolate.—These are made in the same manner as Vanilla chocolate, using about an ounce and a half or two ounces of either sort of spice, in powder, to that quantity, or add a sufficiency of either of these essential oils to flavor.

Chocolate Drops, with Nonpareils.—Have some warm chocolate, as for pistachios; some add a little butter or oil to it to make it work more free; make it into balls about the size of a small marble, by rolling a little in the hand, or else put some of the paste on a flat piece of wood, on which you form, and take them off with a knife. Place them on sheets of white paper about an inch apart. When the sheet is covered, take it by the corners and lift it up and down, letting it touch the table each time, which will flatten them. Cover the[Pg 13] surface entirely with white nonpareils, and shake off the surplus ones. When the drops are cold they can be taken off the paper easily. The bottom of the drops should be about as broad as a sixpence. Some of them may be left quite plain.

Good chocolate should be of a clear red-brown. As the color is paler or darker, so is the article the more or less good. The surface should be smooth and shining. If this gloss comes off by touching, it indicates an inferior quality, and is probably adulterated. When broken, it ought to be compact and close, and not appear crumbly. It should melt gently in the mouth when eaten, leaving no roughness or astringency, but rather a cooling sensation on the tongue. The latter is a certain sign of its being genuine.

Chocolate Harlequin Pistachios.—Warm some sweet chocolate by pounding it in a hot mortar; when it is reduced to a malleable paste, take a little of it and wrap round a blanched pistachio nut, roll it in the hand to form it as neat as you can, throw it in some nonpareils of various colors; let it be covered all over. Dispose of the whole in the same manner; fold them in colored or fancy papers, with mottoes; the ends should be cut like fringe. Almonds may be done the same way, using vanilla chocolate, if preferred.

Stomachic Chocolate.—Four ounces of chocolate prepared without sugar; vanilla, one ounce; cinnamon in powder, one ounce; ambergris, forty-eight grains; sugar, three ounces; warm your paste by pounding in the heated mortar, or on the stone; add your aromatics in powder to the sugar, and mix it well with the paste; keep it close in tin-boxes. About a dozen grains of this is to be put into the chocolate pot when it is made, which gives it an agreeable and delightful flavor, and renders it highly stomachic. It may also be used for flavoring the chocolate tablets.

Vanilla Chocolate.—Ten pounds of prepared nuts, ten pounds of sugar, vanilla two ounces and a half, cinnamon one ounce, one drachm of mace, and two drachms of cloves, or the vanilla may be used solely.

Prepare your nuts according to the directions already given. Cut the vanilla in small bits; pound it fine with part of the sugar, and mix it with the paste; boil about one half of the sugar to the blow before you mix it to the chocolate, otherwise it will eat hard. Proceed as before, and either put in small molds or divide it in tablets, which you wrap in tinfoil. This is in general termed eatable chocolate.


Many of the colors prepared for use in this art come more properly under the denomination of dyes—alum and cream of[Pg 14] tartar being used as a mordant; and many of them are prepared in the same manner as for dyeing. One of the principal colors requisite for the confectioner's use is coccinella, or cochineal. The sorts generally sold are the black, silver, foxy, and the granille. The insect is of two species, the fine and the wild cochineal; the fine differs from the wild in size, and is also covered with a white, mealy powder. The best is of a deep mulberry color, with a white powder between the wrinkles, and a bright red within. A great deal of adulteration is practiced with this article, both at home and abroad; it is on this account that persons prefer the silver grain, because it cannot be so well sophisticated. Good cochineal should be heavy, dry, and more or less of a silvery color, and without smell.

Bistre.—This is an excellent light brown color prepared from wood-soot.

These browns are harmless, but sugar may be substituted for them to any shade required, by continuing the boiling after it has passed the degree of caramel until it is burnt, when it gives a black-brown; but water may be mixed with it so as to lessen the shades. Dissolved chocolate may also be substituted in some cases for the brown colors.

Black.—Blue-black is powdered charcoal, or ivory-black, which is obtained from the smoke of burnt ivory; but bone-black is generally substituted instead. Either of these may be used, but are only required for painting gum-paste when not intended to be eaten.

Bole Ammoniac.—There is also the French and German bole. These earths are of a pale red, and possess alexipharmic qualities. They are frequently used in confectionery for painting and gilding.

Carmine.—Reduce one ounce of cochineal to a fine powder, add to it six quarts of clear rain or filtered water, as for cochineal. Put this into a large tin saucepan, or a copper one tinned, and let boil for three minutes, then add twenty-five grains of alum, and let it boil two minutes longer; take it off the fire to cool; when it is blood warm pour off the clear liquor into shallow vessels, and put them by to settle for two days, covering them with paper to keep out the dust. In case the carmine has not separated properly, add a few drops of a solution of tin, or a solution of green vitriol, which is tin dissolved in muriatic acid, or the following may be substituted: one ounce and a half of spirit of nitre, three scruples of sal-ammoniac, three scruples of tin dissolved in a bottle, and use a few drops as required. When the carmine has settled, decant off the clear, which is liquid rouge. The first sediment is Florence lake, which remove, and dry the carmine for use. This preparation is by far superior to the first,[Pg 15] for in this the same color is obtained as before, which is the liquid rouge, the other and more expensive parts being invariably thrown away. The carmine can be obtained by the first process, as can be seen if the whole is poured into a clear bottle and allowed to settle, when the carmine will be deposited in a layer of bright red near the bottom. It produces about half an ounce of carmine.

Cochineal, to Prepare.—Pound an ounce of cochineal quite fine, and put it into a pint of river water with a little potash or soda, and let it boil; then add about a quarter of an ounce powdered alum, the same of cream of tartar, and boil for ten minutes; if it is required for keeping, add two or three ounces of powdered loaf sugar.

Prussian blue may be used instead of indigo, if preferred, but must be used sparingly.

Sap Green.—This is prepared from the fruit of the buckthorn, and is purgative.

Spinach Green.—This is perfectly harmless, and will answer most purposes. Wash and drain a sufficient quantity of spinach, pound it well in a mortar, and squeeze the pounded leaves in a coarse cloth to extract all the juice; put it in a pan and set it on a good fire, and stir it occasionally until it curdles, which will be when it is at the boiling point; then take it off and strain off the water with a fine sieve; the residue left is the green; dry it and rub it through a lawn sieve. This is only fit for opaque bodies, such as ices, creams, or syrups.

Another green is made with a mixture of saffron or gamboge and prepared indigo; the lighter the green the more yellow must be used.

Umber.—This is of a blackish brown color; it is an earth found near Cologne.

Vermilion and Cinnabar are preparations of mercury, and should never be used; they are of a lively red color, but carmine will answer most purposes instead.

Yellow.—Infuse saffron in warm water, and use it for coloring anything that is eatable. The English hay-saffron is the best; it is taken from the tops of the pistils of the crocus flower; it is frequently adulterated with the flowers of marigolds or safflower, which is known as the bastard saffron, and is pressed into thin cakes with oil. Good saffron has a strong agreeable odor, and an aromatic taste. Gum paste and other articles which are not eaten may be colored with gamboge dissolved in warm water.

Obtain any of these colors in fine powder, and mix them with some dissolved gum arabic, a little water, and a pinch of powdered sugar candy; mix them to the required consistency[Pg 16] for painting. For sugars they must be used in a liquid state, and be added before it has attained the proper degree; it may also be used in the same manner for ices, creams, etc., and for icings it can be used either way.



A copper comfit pan is requisite for this purpose. A bar, having chains at each end, with a hook and swivel in the center, is attached to it, by which it is suspended from the ceiling or a beam, so as to hang about as high as the breast over a stove or charcoal fire, that the pan may be kept at a moderate heat and at such a distance as to allow it to be swung backwards and forwards without touching the fire or stove. A preserving-pan containing clarified syrup must be placed by the side of the stove, or over another fire, that it may be kept hot, but not boiling; also a ladle for throwing the syrup into the pan, and a pearling cot.

This last somewhat resembles a funnel, without the pipe or tube, and having a small hole in the center, with a pointed piece of stick or spigot fitted into it, which, being drawn out a little, allows the syrup, when placed in it, to run out in a small stream. A piece of string tied several times across the center of the top of the cot and twisted with the spigot allows it to be drawn out and regulated at pleasure.

Almond Comfits.—Sift some Valencia almonds in a cane or wicker sieve, pick out any pieces of shell which may be amongst them, and also any of the almonds which are either very small or very large, using those which are as near of a size as possible; take about four pounds, put them in the comfit-pan, and proceed in precisely the same way as for Scotch caraways; or they may first have a coating of dissolved gum arabic; rub them well about the pan with the hand, and give them a dust of flour; then pour on a little syrup at the small thread, work and dry them well; then give them three or four more charges and a charge of gum with a dust of flour. Proceed in this way until they are one third the required size; then dry them for a day, and proceed and finish as for caraway comfits. For the cheaper or more common comfits, more gum and flour are used in making them.

[Pg 17]

Barberry Comfits.—Pick the barberries from the stalk, and dry them in a hot stove on sieves; when dry, put about two pounds into the comfit-pan, and proceed as for almond comfits, giving them first a charge of gum and flour, and finish as others. Make them of a good size and quite smooth; finish with very white loaf sugar with syrup.

Bath Caraways.—These are made in the same way as Scotch caraway comfits, but only half the size.

Caraway Comfits, Pearled.—When the comfits are about the size of Bath caraways, dry and pearl them as cinnamon.

Cardamon Comfits.—The seeds should be kept in their husks until they are required to be used, as they lose much of their flavor and virtues when deprived of them. They are often mixed with grains of paradise, but these have not the aromatic taste of the cardamon, and are more hot and spicy. Break the husks of the cardamons by rolling them with a pin; separate the skins from the seeds, put two pounds into the comfit-pan, and proceed as for Scotch caraways. Make them a good size, and quite smooth.

Celery Comfits.—Put one pound of celery seed into the pan, and proceed as for Scotch caraway comfits, working them up to the size of a large pin's head. Dry and pearl them as cinnamon.

Cherry Comfits.—These are made from preserved cherries dried. Roll them in your hand to make them quite round, dust them with powdered loaf sugar, and dry them again; then proceed as for barberry comfits. Any other preserved fruits may be made into comfits after the same manner.

Cinnamon Comfits.—Cinnamon is the bark of a tree, of which there are two sorts. The inferior quality is that usually sold for cinnamon, and is otherwise known as cassia, or cassia lignea. This breaks short, and has a slimy mucilaginous taste, is thicker, and of a darker color than the cinnamon, which is the inner bark. This breaks shivery, and has a warm aromatic taste, and is of a reddish color.

Take one pound of cinnamon bark, and steep it in water for a few hours to soften it, cut it into small pieces about half an inch long, and the size of a large needle. Dry it in the stove. Put your pieces, when dry, into the comfit-pan, and pour on them a little syrup, as for Scotch caraways, proceeding in the same way until they are one-third the required size. You must not use your hand for these as you would for caraways, as they are liable to break in two. Dry them in the stove, then suspend the pearling pot or cot from the bar of the pan or ceiling, so as to hang over the center of the pan; boil some clarified loaf sugar to the large pearl, and fill[Pg 18] the cot; put some of the prepared comfits in the pan, but not too many at a time, as it is difficult to get them to pearl alike. Keep the syrup at the boiling point; open the spigot of the cot so as to allow it to run in a very small stream, or more like a continued dropping; swing the pan backwards and forwards gently, and keep a stronger fire under the pan than otherwise.

Be careful that the syrup does not run too fast and wet them too much, but so that it dries as soon as dropped, which causes them to appear rough. If one cot full of sugar is not enough, put in more until they are the required size. When one lot is finished put in sieves to dry, and proceed to another; but do not let them lie in the pan after you have finished shaking them. They will be whiter and better if partly pearled one day and finished the next. Use the best clarified sugar to finish them.

Clove Comfits.—Flavor sugar gum paste with the oil of cloves, and mold it in the form of cloves. Dry and finish as others.

Any flavor may be given to this sort of comfits, and they are molded to form the article of which it bears the name, or cut into any device with small cutters. Dried and finished as other comfits.

Comfits Flavored with Liqueurs.—Blanch some bitter almonds, or the kernels of apricots or peaches; let them soak in hot water for an hour, then drain them, and put them into any sort of liquor or spirit you may desire. Lower the strength of the spirit water, that the kernels may imbibe the better, cork the jug or bottle close, and let them infuse in it until the spirit has fully penetrated them, which will be about fourteen or fifteen days; then take them out, drain and dry them in a moderate heat; when dry, proceed as for almond comfits.

Common Caraways.—Sift the seeds, and warm them in the pan, as for Scotch caraways. Have some gum arabic dissolved, throw in a ladleful, and rub them well about the pan with the hand until dry, dusting them with flour. Give them three or four coatings in this manner, and then a charge of sugar, until they are about one-half the required size. Dry them for a day, give them two or three coatings of gum and flour, finish them by giving them three or four charges of sugar, and dry them. These are made about the size of Bath caraways. Color parts of them different colors, leaving the greatest portion white.

Ginger Comfits.—Flavor gum paste with powdered ginger, make it into small balls about the size of coriander seeds, or peas; dry, and proceed as for Scotch caraways. Color them yellow when finished.

[Pg 19]

Coriander Comfits.—Proceed with these as for Scotch caraways, working them up to about the same size. The next day pearl them to a good size, as for cinnamon.

Lemon Peel or Angelica may be made into comfits after the same manner as orange comfits! Let the strips of peel be about the size of the pieces of cinnamon, and thoroughly dried before working them in the pan.

Nonpareils.—Pound some loaf sugar, and sift it through a fine wire sieve; sift what has passed through again in a lawn sieve, to take out the finest particles, so that you have only the fine grain of sugar left without dust. Put about two pounds of this into the comfit-pan, and proceed as for Scotch caraways, working them well with the hand until they are about the size of pins' heads.

Orange Comfits.—Take some preserved orange-peel, and cut it into small thin strips, dry them in the stove, and make as cinnamon comfits.

Raspberry Comfits.—Prepare some gum paste made with sugar, or the scrapings of the comfit-pan pounded and sifted through a lawn sieve. It may be flavored with raspberry jam, by mixing some with the paste. Color it with prepared cochineal; mold it into the form of raspberries, and dry them in the stove; when they are perfectly dry and hard, pearl them as for cinnamon comfits, working them until the size of natural raspberries. Color them when dry with cochineal, as comfits.

To Color Loaf-Sugar Dust.—Pound some sugar, and sift it through a coarse hair sieve; sift this again through a lawn sieve, to take out the finer portions. Put the coarse grains into a preserving pan, and warm them over the stove fire, stirring it continually with the hand; pour in some liquid color to give the desired tint, and continue to work it about the pan until it is dry.

To Color Nonpareils or Comfits.—Put some of your comfits or nonpareils into the comfit-pan, shake or rub them about until warm, then add a sufficient quantity of prepared liquid color (see Colors) to give the desired tint; be careful not to make them too wet, nor of too dark a color, but rather light than otherwise; shake or rub them well about, that they may be colored equally; dry them a little over the fire, then put them in sieves, and finish drying them in the stove. Clean the pan for every separate color.


These comprehend all articles in sugar-boiling which eat short and crisp. They are used for all sorts of ornamental[Pg 20] sugar-work. The rules and observations laid down under this head must be particularly noted, especially those for greasing the sugar so as to prevent its graining.

Acid Drops and Sticks.—Boil clarified sugar to the crack, and pour it on an oiled marble-stone; pound some tartaric or citric-acid to a fine powder, and strew over it about half or three-quarters of an ounce of the former, according to its quality, and less of the latter, to seven pounds of sugar; turn the edges over into the middle, and mix the acid by folding it over, or by working it in a similar manner as dough is molded, but do not pull it; put it in a tin rubbed over with oil or butter, and place it under the stove to keep warm; then cut off a small piece at a time, and roll it into a round pipe; cut them off in small pieces the size of drops, with shears, and let your assistant roll them round under his hand, and flatten them. Mix them with powdered sugar, sift them from it, and keep them in boxes or glasses.

When flavored with lemon, they are called lemon-acid drops; with otto of roses, rose-acid drops. The sticks are made in the same manner as the drops, without being cut into small pieces.

Almond Hardbake.—Oil a square or round tin with low edges; split some almonds in half, put them in rows over the bottom, with the split side downward, until the surface is covered; boil some raw sugar to the crack, and pour it over them so as to cover the whole with a thin sheet of sugar. Cocoanut (cut in thin slices), currant, and other similar candies, are made as the hardbake, except that the sugar is grained before it is poured over.

Almond Rock.—This is a similar production to nogat, and is made with raw sugar, which is boiled to the crack. Pour it on an oiled stone, and fill it with sweet almonds, either blanched or not; the almonds are mixed with the sugar by working them into it with the hands, in a similar manner as you would mix anything into a piece of dough. If they were stirred into the sugar in the pan it would grain, which is the reason why it is melted for nogat. Form the rock into a ball or roll, and make it into a sheet about two inches thick, by rolling it with a rolling-pin. The top may be divided into diamonds or squares by means of a long knife or piece of iron; when it is nearly cold cut it into long narrow pieces with a strong knife and hammer.

Barley Sugar.—Boil some clarified loaf sugar to the crack or caramel degree, using a little acid to prevent its graining; pour it out on a marble slab, which has been previously oiled or buttered. Four pieces of iron, or small square bars, are[Pg 21] usually employed to form a sort of bay to prevent the sugar running off the stone, which is necessary in large casts. When the edges get set a little, remove the bars, and turn them over into the center. This is occasionally flavored with lemons. When it is required, pour a few drops of the essential oil of lemons in the center, before the edges are folded over, then cut it into narrow strips with a large pair of scissors or sheep shears. When nearly cold, twist them, put them into glasses or tin boxes, and keep them closed to prevent the access of air. It is seldom boiled higher than the crack, and saffron is used to make it the color of caramel.

This derives the name of barley sugar from its being originally made with a decoction of barley, as a demulcent in coughs, for which it is now most generally used.

Barley Sugar Drops.—Boil some sugar as for the preceding. Spread some finely powdered and sifted loaf sugar on a table or tea-tray, with a piece of stick, round at the end similar to the half of a ball; make several holes, into which you run the sugar from a lipped pan, or it may be dropped on an oiled marble slab with a funnel, letting only one drop fall at a time; or from the lip pan, separating each drop with a small knife, or a straight piece of small wire; take them off the stone with a knife, mix them with powdered loaf sugar, sift them from it, and keep in glasses or tin boxes.

Barley Sugar Tablets or Kisses.—Spread some sugar, as for the last. Have a piece of wood about an inch and a half thick, with the surface divided into small squares, each being about an inch in breadth and half an inch in depth; with this form the impressions in the sugar, and fill them with sugar boiled as for drops, flavoring it with essence of lemon; or instead of this, it may be poured out in a sheet on an oiled marble slab, as for barley sugar, and when nearly cold divide it into pieces with a tin frame, having small square divisions, when the whole sheet may be divided at once by pressing hard on it so as to cut it nearly through. When cold, separate them and mix them with powdered sugar, take them out and fold them separately in fancy or colored papers, with a motto on each.

They are also occasionally made into balls, thus: First cast the sugar in a sheet on an oiled marble slab; when the edges are set, fold them in the middle, then oil a small square tin with edges to it, put the sugar in this, and place it under the fire-place of the stove so as to keep warm; cut off a piece and roll it into a pipe, then cut it into small pieces with a pair of shears, and let your assistant roll it into small balls under his hand on a sandstone; marble is too smooth for this purpose. Many lads who are used to it can turn eight or ten[Pg 22] under each hand at one time. When they are finished, pat them into powdered sugar, wrap them in fancy papers, fringed at the ends, put a motto in each, and fasten them with small bands of gold paper. Sometimes a cracker is folded up in each, which is made with two narrow strips of stiff paper, a small piece of sand or glass paper is pasted on the end of each, and these are placed over each other with a little fulminating powder between, a piece of thin paper is bound round it, and pasted to keep them together; when these are pulled asunder, the two rough surfaces meeting cause the powder to explode, and out flies the ball of sugar with the motto. This innocent amusement often causes much mirth in a company.

Brandy Balls, etc.—These are made from loaf sugar boiled to the crack, and colored either with cochineal or saffron, and finished in the same way as acidulated drops, without being flattened.

Clove, Ginger, or Peppermint Candy.—These are all made in the same way as raspberry, using the essential oil of each for flavor. For clove, the mixture, whilst boiling, is colored with cochineal; ginger with saffron; but the peppermint must be kept perfectly white, except the stripes, which is done by cutting off as many pieces from the bulk as you have colors, which should be in powder; put a sufficiency in each piece to give the desired tint, and keep them warm. When the remaining portion of the sugar is pulled, lay them over the surface in narrow stripes, double the roll together, and the face each way will be alike. Pull them out into long sticks and twist them; make them round by rolling them under the hand, or they may be cut into small pieces with a pair of shears or scissors.

Nogat.—Two pounds of sweet almonds, one pound of sugar, one pound of water. Blanch the almonds, and cut them in slices, dry them at the mouth of a cool oven, and if slightly browned, the better; powder the sugar, and put it into a stew-pan, with the water; place it on the fire to melt, stirring it with a spatula until it becomes a fine brown, then mix in the almonds, and let them be well covered with the sugar; pour it out on an oiled marble-stone. It may be made into a thick or thin sheet, and cut with a knife into small pieces, such as dice, diamonds, etc. The surface may be strewed with currants, fillets of pistachios or coarse sugar, and cut into different forms with tin cutters.

It may also be formed into baskets, vases, etc. Oil the interior of a mold, and spread the nogat over it, whilst warm, as thin and even as possible. To save the fingers from being burned, it may be spread with a lemon. Detach it from the mold when warm, and let it remain until cold, that it may[Pg 23] retain its shape perfectly, then fasten the different parts together with caramel sugar. For baskets, a handle of spun sugar may be placed over it, or ornamented with it according to fancy. These may be filled with whipped or other creams when required to be served.

Raspberry Candy.—This may either be made from raw or refined sugar. Boil it to the crack, and color it with cochineal; pour it on a stone rubbed over with a little oil or butter, cut off a small piece, and keep it warm to stripe or case the other part, when finished; to the remainder add a little tartaric acid (not so much as for drops), and some raspberry paste, sufficient to flavor it. The residue of raspberries used for making vinegar, and preserved with an equal quantity of sugar, or even less, as for raspberry cakes, does very well for this purpose. Fold the edges over into the center, and attach it to a hook fixed against the wall; pull it towards you, throwing it on the hook each time after having pulled it out; continue doing this until it gets rather white and shining, then make it into a compact long roll, and either stripe it with the piece you cut off, or roll it out in a sheet with a rolling-pin, and wrap it round it so as to form a sort of case; then pull it into long narrow sticks, and cut them the required length.

To Extract the Acid from Candied Drops, Etc.—All the articles which have acid mixed with them are extremely liable to grain, when they are useless except to sell for broken pieces, as they cannot be boiled again unless the acid is extracted. The method of doing this is at present not generally known in the trade, and it is kept by many that are in possession of it as a great secret. Five dollars is often paid for this recipe alone. However great the secret may be considered, it is only returning to the first principles in the manufacture of sugar. When the juice is expressed from the canes, it contains a considerable quantity of oxalic acid, which must be destroyed before it will granulate into sugar; for this purpose lime is employed, which has the desired effect; so will it also in this case, but chalk or whitening is most generally used. First dissolve your acid sugar in water; when this is thoroughly accomplished, mix in a sufficient quantity of either of these alkalies in powder to cause a strong effervescence; after it has subsided, pass it through a flannel bag, according to the directions for clarifying sugar. The filtered syrup will be fit to use for any purpose, and may be boiled again to the crack or caramel degree as well as if no acid had ever been mixed with it. Let the pan it is dissolved in be capable of containing as much again as there is in it, or the effervescence will flow over.

[Pg 24]


Crystallized or Candied Sugar.—Provide a round mold, smaller at the bottom than the top, of any size you may think proper, made either of tin or copper, with holes pierced round the sides about three inches asunder, so as to fasten strings across in regular rows from the top to the bottom, leaving sufficient room for the sugar to crystallize on each string without touching, or it will form a complete mass; paste paper round the outside to prevent the syrup from running through the holes. Have the mold prepared, and let it be clean and dry; take sufficient clarified syrup to fill the mold, and boil it to the degree of crystallization or the feather, and add a little spirit of wine; remove it from the fire, and let it rest until a thin skin is formed on the surface, which you must carefully remove with a skimmer; then pour it into the mold, and place it in the hot closet, where you let it remain undisturbed for eight or nine days, at 90 degrees of heat, or half that time at 100; then make a hole, and drain off the superfluous sugar into a pan placed below to receive it; let it drain quite dry, which will take about twelve hours; then wash off the paper from the mold with warm water, place it near the fire, and keep turning it to warm it equally all round; then turn it up and strike the mold rather hard upon the table, when the sugar will relieve itself and come out; put it on a stand or sieve in the closet, raise the heat to 120 degrees, and let it remain until perfectly dry.

Particular attention should be paid to the heat of the closet, which must be kept regular and constant, and this can easily be accomplished at a small expense with many of the patent stoves which are now in general use, and also without causing any dust. A Fahrenheit's or Reaumur's thermometer should be so placed that the heat may at all times be ascertained.

This may be colored with prepared cochineal, or other liquid color, or by grinding any particular color with the spirits of wine, and adding it to the syrup before it comes to the feather.

Crystallized Chocolate.—Prepare some sugar, as in the preceding articles, and pour it into the box. When a thin crust is formed on the top, make a hole on one side, and put the articles previously shaped with chocolate, as for drops, gently under, with your finger; put them in the stove to crystallize, as other articles. After the syrup is drained off, and the articles dried, they must remain until quite cold before being turned out, as the chocolate continues soft for some time.

[Pg 25]

Fruits, to Crystallize.—Have a square or round tin box, smaller at the bottom than at the top, with wire gratings made to fit at convenient distances, and having a hole with a tube or pipe to admit a cork, and drain off the syrup. Take any preserved fruits wet, drain them from the syrup, and dip them in lukewarm water to take off any syrup which may adhere to them; dry them in the closet; when dried, place them in layers on the gratings, side by side, so as not to touch each other; continue in this manner with any sort of fruit until the box is full; then fix the whole with a weight to keep it steady. Boil a sufficiency of clarified sugar to fill the box to the degree of crystallization or the blow, add a little spirit of wine, and remove it from the fire. When a thin skin has formed on the top, remove it carefully with a skimmer, and pour the sugar into the mold; place it in the closet at 90 degrees of heat, and let it remain for twelve hours, then drain off the syrup into a pan from the tube at bottom, and let it remain in the closet until quite dry; then turn them out by striking the box hard upon the table, separate them carefully, and put them in boxes with paper between each layer. When different fruits, paste, knots, etc., are mixed together indiscriminately, it is termed mile-fruit candy. Any sort of fruit or gum pastes, when thoroughly dried, may be crystallized in the same manner. When the syrup is drained off, if you find the size of the crystals is not large enough, another lot of syrup maybe prepared and poured over it; let it remain in the closet for seven or eight hours, then drain and finish as before.

If small pieces of stick are pushed down at each corner, or in any other vacancy, when you fill the mold, one of these may be withdrawn at any time you may wish to ascertain the size of the crystals, which will save the trouble of giving a second charge of sugar.

Liqueur Rings, Drops and other Devices.—These are all made after the same manner. A square box is necessary, which you fill with very dry starch powder. Sugar, powdered very fine and dried, will answer the same purpose. The depth of the box should be suited to the articles intended to be made. Shake the box, or pass a knife repeatedly through the powder, that it may be solid; smooth the surface with a straight piece of wood; have a thin piece of flat board, on which is fastened a number of little devices, about an inch asunder, and to suit the width of the box; these may be made either of lead, plaster, or wood, in the form of rings, diamonds, stars, bottles, scissors, harps, shoes, or any other form your fancy may suggest; make the impression in the powder in regular rows, until the box is full; then prepare some sugar as for the preceding articles, boiling it to the blow, and flavoring it with any sort of spirit or liqueur, such as brandy, rum, noyau, mar[Pg 26]aschino, cinnamon, rosolis, etc., coloring the syrup accordingly. It should be prepared in a pan with a lip to it.

When a thin skin has formed on the top, place a cork in the lip of the pan, but not to close it, allowing a space for the sugar to run out, the cork being merely to keep back the skin; then fill the impressions you made in the powder, and place them in the stove at 90 degrees; let them remain a day, then take them out, and their surfaces will be found quite hard and solid; brush the powder from them with a light brush, when they may either be painted, crystallized, or piped. Many of these bonbons are beautifully piped and colored to represent dogs, horses, costumer, and theatrical characters; the fur on the robes is imitated with white or colored sugar in coarse grains, and lace work is done by means of a pin.

Liqueur drops are made with the impression of half a ball to any required size, or other forms. If the flat parts of two are moistened, put together, and dried in the stove, they will form drops perfectly round.

To Form a Chain with Liqueur Rings.—Have some molds to form the impressions in powder, as in the preceding, in the shape of the links of a chain; fill them with syrup at the blow, as before, and put them in the stove for a day; when they are hard and fit to be taken out, place them on their ends in the powder; have another mold of a link in two halves, and with this form the impression between each of the others so as to make it complete; then fill them, and finish as before.


The essences or essential oils sold for general use are, or ought to be, obtained by distillation; but for many purposes they may be obtained equally as good, and in some cases superior, without. As these are often adulterated with olive or nut oils, or with spirits of wine, the fixed oils may be detected by pouring some of the suspected essence on a piece of clean writing-paper, and holding it before the fire; the quantity of fixed oil it contains will remain, leaving a greasy mark, whereas the pure essential oil will evaporate without leaving any appearance; if spirits of wine be added, pour a little water or oil of turpentine into the adulterated sample, and it will turn milky, as the two will not unite without producing this effect. It is often sophisticated with the oil of turpentine, which is the lightest of all essential oils; in this case, rub a drop over the hand and hold it by the fire, when it may be recognized by the smell; or, if burnt, it will give out a dense black smoke.

[Pg 27]

Rectified spirits of wine dissolve the volatile oil and resin of vegetables (their taste and smell most frequently reside in these), whilst water acts on the saline and mucilaginous parts. Proof spirit, which is a mixture of both these, extracts all their virtues, and through this we are enabled to obtain the essence or tincture of any vegetable, of superior quality to that generally sold, and at considerably less expense. The essential oil of lemons or oranges is obtained by rubbing off the yellow rind on the rough surface of a piece of loaf sugar, which is much superior for flavor to that produced by any other means. Scrape off the sugar after it has imbibed the oil, and dry it in a gentle heat, put it into small glazed pots, and tie them over with bladder; it will keep any length of time unimpaired. The same observation holds good as regards all fruit whose flavor or essential oil resides in its peel.

Allspice, Cloves, Cinnamon, or Nutmegs, Etc.—Two ounces of spice, one pint of proof spirit. Bruise the spice, put it into a bottle, stop it close, let it remain fourteen days, and filter for use.

The oil from nutmegs is often extracted from them by decoction, before they are brought to the market, and their orifices closed again with powdered sassafras; this may be ascertained by the lightness of the nut; if it is punctured with a pin, the oil will be pressed from it when good. These oils may be obtained by expression of distillation; they hold resin in solution, and consequently sink in water. The essences usually sold are made by adding half an ounce of pure oil to one pint of spirits of wine.

Bergamot, Essence of.—From the peel of the bergamot lemon.

Bitter Almonds, Essence of.—This is obtained by distilling the cake or residue of the almonds after the oil has been expressed from them. It is a deadly poison, containing prussic acid, like all other nuts or leaves which possess the bitter principle. Flies drop dead when passing over the still when it is in operation. The essence usually sold is one ounce of oil to seven ounces of rectified spirit.

Cedrat, Essence de.—From the yellow part of the fresh citron peel; it may also be obtained by pressing the yellow part of the peel between two glass plates, and by the distillation of the flowers of the citron-tree.

Ginger, Essence of.—The best Jamaica or China ginger two ounces, proof spirit one pint. Powder the ginger, mix with the spirit, stop close, and let it steep for twelve or fourteen days.

[Pg 28]

This is the same as is sold for "Oxley's concentrated essence of Jamaica ginger,"—a mere solution of ginger in rectified spirit—Paris's Pharmacologia.

Lemon, Essence of.—Eight ounces of lemon peel, ten ounces of rectified spirits of wine. Pare or grate off the yellow rind of the lemon very thin and weigh it, put it into a bottle and pour the spirit on it, stop it close, and let it steep for fourteen days, when it is fit for use. Proof gin or white rum will serve equally well, but not such as is generally sold at the gin-shops; this is excellent for ices, creams, lemonade, etc. In many establishments, where quantities of peel are thrown away, the cost of this would be comparatively trifling, compared with the price of the inferior oil generally sold.

Orange, Essence of.—Make as lemon, using only four ounces of the yellow rind.

Peppermint, Essence of.—"A spirituous solution of the essential oil, colored green by spinach leaves." This essential oil is obtained by distillation. Four pounds of dried leaves yield one ounce.

Vanilla, Essence of.—Vanilla two ounces, water ten ounces, rectified spirit three quarters of an ounce. Cut the vanilla in small pieces, and pound it fine in a marble mortar, with loaf sugar (about a pound), adding the white of an egg and the spirit. Put it into a glazed pot, tie a piece of writing paper over it, and make a hole in it with a pin; stand the pot in warm water, keeping it at that heat for twenty-four hours, then strain for use.

One drachm of this is equal to an ounce of vanilla, and is excellent for flavoring ices, creams, liqueurs, etc.


Fruit Pastes and Cakes.—These are the pulp of fruits, reduced by heat to a kind of marmalade, with the addition of from half a pound to a pound, and in some cases, double the weight of sugar to each pound of pulp, which is evaporated to the required consistence. They can be formed into rings, knots, etc., and either crystallized or candied.

Almond Paste—Orgeat Paste.—One pound of sweet almonds, a quarter of a pound of bitter almonds, two pounds of sugar. Blanch the almonds, and throw them into clear cold water as they are done, to preserve their whiteness; let them soak for a day, then dry them in a cloth, and pound them quite fine in a mortar, sprinkling them with orange-flower water or lemon juice to prevent their oiling; then with[Pg 29] a spatula rub them through a fine wire sieve; what will not pass through, pound again until they are quite fine; clarify the sugar and boil it to the ball; mix the almonds with it, and stir it well over the fire with the spatula until it comes together; then take it from the fire, and put it into an earthen pan to cool; when cool, pound it again, and make it into sticks or tablets, dusting the board or stone with powdered sugar; or put into pots, and tie bladder over it, to be used as wanted.

Apple Cheese.—Pare, quarter, and core your apples as for paste; put them into a jar, and cover the top with the parings: tie paper over the top, and bake them in a moderate oven until they are quite done; take off the parings, and pass the apples through a hair-sieve into a preserving-pan. To each pound of pulp add half a pound of loaf sugar clarified and boiled to the blow; place it over a slow fire, stirring it constantly from the bottom until reduced to a stiff paste, which will not stick to the hand; put it into small molds, hoops, or glasses. Dry in a moderately warm stove for a few days; take them out of the molds, turn them and place them again in the stove to finish drying. Keep in boxes as paste knots, or cover the glasses with brandy papers.

Apple or Pippin Paste.—Take any quantity of good dressing apples, pare, core, and put them into a preserving pan with a little water, or just sufficient to cover them. Boil until they are reduced to a marmalade, stirring them to prevent burning. To every pound of reduced pulp add half or three quarters of a pound of loaf sugar, clarified and boiled to the blow; pass the pulp through a hair-sieve before you mix the sugar with it: put it on the fire and let it boil for three or four minutes, keeping it constantly stirred from the bottom, when it will be sufficiently evaporated. If it be required colored, add liquid color sufficient to give the desired tint when you mix the sugar.

Spread the paste on small tin or pewter sheets (these should be about a foot wide, by a foot and a half long, and perfectly level) with a thin knife, about the eight of an inch in thickness; put them in the stove for a day; take them out, and cut the paste into long narrow strips, about a quarter of an inch in width; if the paste is dry enough, the strips can be easily pulled off; form them into rings or knots, or cut into diamonds to form leaves, or any other device your fancy may suggest. Put them in boxes with a sheet of paper between each layer. This paste is occasionally flavored with lemon, and is principally used for ornamenting the tops of twelfth cakes.

Apricot Paste.—Take ripe apricots, put them in a preserving pan with as much water as will cover them; let them[Pg 30] simmer on the fire for two or three minutes, or scald until they are tender; drain the water from them, and pass the pulp through a hair sieve; to each pound of pulp take three quarters of a pound of sugar, which you clarify and boil to the blow; put the apricots on the fire, and let them simmer, stirring them constantly until reduced to a thick marmalade; then add the sugar; mix it well with the paste, and let it boil a minute or two longer: take it from the fire, and put it into molds, pots, or crimped paper cases; or it may be spread on small plates, as for apple paste, and formed into rings or knots. Place in the stove until dry. If put in paper cases, the paper must be wetted to get out the paste. Take it out of the molds, turn it and put it again into the stove to finish drying.

Black Currant Paste is made the same as the last. These currants, not being so juicy as the others, may be put into a jar, tied over, and baked in a moderate oven, or put into a kettle of boiling water for a few hours, to extract the juice from them.

Cherry Paste.—Take ripe cherries, deprive them of their stalks and stones, put them in a preserving pan, and boil them a little; then pass them through a hair sieve, reduce the pulp, and weigh it. To each pound add a pound of loaf sugar; add it to the paste, and finish as apricot.

Clear Cakes, or Jelly Cakes.—Take the filtered juice of fruits, as for jelly (see Jellies); to each pint of juice add one pound of loaf sugar, dissolve it in the juice thoroughly, place it on the fire and heat it, but it must not boil; put it into small pots, molds, or glasses, so as to form cakes about half an inch thick; place them on the stove, which must not be too hot, or they will melt instead of forming a jelly; about seventy-five or eighty degrees Fahrenheit is quite hot enough. When a crust has formed on the top, take out the cakes by carefully turning the knife round the sides of the pot, place them on small plates of tin or pewter, and dry on the other side. When dry they can be cut into diamonds, squares, or any shape you please. These are certainly some of the most delicate and beautiful of this class which were ever invented, fit even to gratify the palate of the most fastidious. The fruit from which they are made should be gathered as fresh as it possibly can, except apples, as the mucilage is injured by keeping, and if the fruit has fermented it is entirely destroyed.

Currant Paste.—Put any quantity of ripe currants, either red or white, or a part of each mixed, into a hair sieve, press out their juice into a preserving pan; put it on the fire, and keep it constantly stirred until evaporated to a thick consistence. To each pound of reduced pulp add three quarters[Pg 31] of a pound or a pound of loaf sugar clarified and boiled to the blow. Let it boil a minute or two, and finish as others.

Damson Cheese.—Pick the stalks from the damsons, put them in a jar, tie it over, and bake in a cool oven; when done, pass them through a sieve into a preserving pan; put it on the fire to reduce. For each pound of pulp take half a pound of sugar, boiled to the blow; mix with the paste, and finish as for apple cheese. This, as well as all the pastes, may be evaporated to the required consistence by means of a water bath, which is done by placing the pan in which it is contained in another with water, which is kept boiling; this prevents the possibility of its being burnt, but it occupies more time. The kernels of the fruit may be blanched, and added to it just before it is taken from the fire. Put it into molds or hoops; dry them in the stove, first on one side and then on the other. All plums are done in the same manner.

Green Apricot Paste.—Take apricots before they are ripe, scald as the last, and green them. Pass the pulp through a sieve, and reduce it; to each pound of reduced pulp add one pound of loaf sugar clarified and boiled to the blow. Finish as ripe apricot paste.

Gomme des Dattes.—One pound of dates, two pounds of very white picked gum arabic, sugar two ounces. Make as jujubes.

Gomme des Jujubes—Jujube-Gum.—Jujubes one pound, very white and picked gum-arabic two pounds; powdered sugar two ounces. Pound the jujubes in a marble mortar with five pints of water; put the whole into a pan, and boil until reduced to three; strain the decoction through a cloth; beat up the white of an egg with a glass of water, and mix part of it with the decoction as it boils; throw in a little at a time of the remaining part, to check the ebullition. When it is all used, take off the scum; put it again on the fire to evaporate the water, adding at the same time the gum and sugar, powdered and passed through a horse-hair sieve. Stir it with the spatula until dissolved. When it is of the consistence of honey, place it in the bain-marie, and neither stir nor touch it, that it may be clear. When it has acquired body enough, so as not to stick to the back of the hand when applied to it, pour it into molds previously oiled with good olive oil, as for jujubes; place in the stove to finish drying; when dry, take it out and cut in small pieces.

Pate de jujube and white liquorice may be done in the same manner, using only half the quantity of sugar.

[Pg 32]

Lemon Paste.—Make as orange paste, using part of the juice and double the weight of sugar; or it may be made by using only the pounded peel with the same weight of sugar.

Orange Paste.—Squeeze the juice from Seville or sweet oranges, and boil the peels in three or four waters to take off part of their bitterness. In the first put a little salt. When they are quite tender remove the white pith or pulp, and pound them quite fine in a mortar, with part of the juice, using sufficient to make them into a paste, then pass it and the remaining portion of the juice through a sieve into a preserving-pan; put it on the fire, and reduce it to a marmalade, weigh it, and for each pound take three-quarters of a pound of loaf sugar; clarify and boil to the blow; mix it with the paste, evaporate over a gentle fire to a good consistence, and finish as apple. The rinds of the oranges may be pared off before they are squeezed, which, if boiled in one water, will be sufficient, as the pith of the peel is extremely bitter and indigestible, and the flavor or essential oil is contained only in the yellow porous part.

Pastes Formed with Gum—Pate de Guimauve—Marsh Mallow Paste.—Gum arabic three pounds, roots of fresh marsh-mallows eight ounces, one dozen of rennet apples, loaf sugar three pounds. Peel, core, and cut the apples in pieces. Cleanse the roots, and slice them lengthways in an oblique direction; add this to seven pints of water; soft or river water is the best when filtered; put it on the fire and boil for a quarter of an hour, or until reduced to six pints; pound and sift the gum through a hair sieve; strain the decoction into a pan with the gum; put it on a moderate fire, or into a bain-marie, stirring it until the gum is perfectly dissolved; then strain it through a coarse towel or tamis cloth, the ends being twisted by two persons; add it to the sugar, which has been previously clarified and boiled to the feather; dry it well over the fire, keeping it constantly stirred from the bottom. When it has acquired a thick consistence, take the whites of eighteen eggs, and whip them to a strong froth; add them to the paste, and dry until it does not stick to the hand when it is applied to it; add a little essence of neroli, or a large glassful of double orange-flower water, and evaporate again to the same consistence. Pour it on a marble slab well dusted with starch powder, flatten it with the hand; the next day cut it into strips, powder each strip, and put them in boxes. Powder the bottom, that they may not stick.

Pate de Blanche Reglisse—White Licorice Paste.—This is made the same as marsh-mallow paste, using licorice-root instead of mallow. It may be made without the eggs, and finished as jujubes.

[Pg 33]

Pate de Gomme Arabique—Arabic Paste.—Very white gum arabic two pounds, sugar two pounds, orange-flower water four ounces, the whites of twelve eggs. Pound and sift the gum, add it to the water, dissolve and evaporate it over a slow fire, stirring it constantly until it is reduced to the consistence of honey with the sugar in syrup. Whip the whites to a strong snow; add it to the paste with the orange-flower water, gradually; stir and finish as marsh-mallow paste, for which this is mostly substituted, and much used for coughs. It should be very white, light, and spongy.

Pate de Gomme Senegal—Senegal Paste.—Gum Senegal two pounds, sugar one pound. Dissolve the gum in orange-flower water and common water; or dissolve it in common water, and flavor with essence of neroli; add the sugar, when clarified and boiled to the blow; evaporate, and finish as pate de jujube. This is usually sold for jujube paste, or else picked gum arabic made into a paste as Senegal, and colored with prepared cochineal or saffron.

Pate de Reglisse Noir—Black Licorice Paste.—The best refined licorice one pound, gum arabic four pounds, loaf sugar two pounds, Florence orris-root one ounce. Dissolve the gum and licorice in seven pints of water, keeping it stirred over a slow fire; add the sugar in syrup with the orris-root, evaporated to a paste, and finish as jujubes.

Peach Paste.—Choose some very fine and ripe peaches, take off the skin, and cut them in small pieces into a preserving pan; put them on the fire, and reduce to a thick consistence, stirring it continually. For each pound of reduced pulp take half or three-quarters of a pound of sugar; clarify and boil it to the blow; add it to the pulp; put it again on the fire, and let it boil a few minutes. Finish as other pastes.

Plum Paste.—Plums of any kind are preserved in the same manner, whether green gages, magnum bonums, Orleans, damsons, etc. Take out their stones, and boil the fruit in a little water, as for apricot paste; pass them through a sieve, and for each pound of reduced pulp take a pound of sugar; clarify and boil it to the blow; mix it with the paste, and evaporate to the required consistence.

Quince Paste.—Proceed as for apple paste.

Raspberry Cakes.—Take ripe raspberries, press the juice from half of them, and put the pulp back with the others; reduce them on the fire. To each pound of pulp add two pounds of loaf sugar in powder; put it again on the fire, stirring it constantly until it is evaporated to a very thick paste. Have a tin ring, with a handle by the side, about the size of[Pg 34] an old penny piece, and twice the thickness; wet the ring, and place it on your small pewter or tin plates, fill it with the paste, smoothing over the top with a knife; then remove the ring, and the cake will remain. Lay them off in rows, and make three or four marks on the top with the handle of a table-spoon; put them in the stove to dry, turn them with a thin knife, and put them again in the stove to dry perfectly. Place them in boxes, with paper between each layer.

The residue from the making of raspberry vinegar may be employed for this purpose, or they may be made by adding a pound of fine powdered sugar to a pound of jam. Any of the fruit pastes may be formed into cakes like these, or into drops, by forcing them out on paper with a small pipe and bladder attached to it.

Raspberry Paste.—As currant paste.

Violets, Gum of.—Violet flowers one pound, picked gum two pounds, sugar four ounces in syrup. Pour three pints of water at the boiling point on the flowers in an earthen jar; stop it perfectly close, and keep it in a warm place for ten or twelve hours; strain the infusion by expression into a flat pan or dish, place it on an inclination, and let it rest for an hour, that the fæces may subside; pour off the clear gently from the bottom or settling, and add to it six grains of turnsole bruised, and six grains of carmine, as this clear infusion is not sufficiently colored to give it the beautiful tint of the violet. Mix in the powdered gum and sugar, stir it over a moderate fire until dissolved, pass it through a sieve, and finish in the bain-marie as jujubes.

Any of these gums, when dry, may be crystallized.


In making Ice Cream always use rich, sweet cream, sweetened with powdered sugar, and flavor with the extract of lemon.

Vanilla, Etc., Etc.—In warm weather be particular that the cream is not set anywhere near the fire, as there is danger of the least heat turning it sour. It should be left in the refrigerator, or some cool place, until time to prepare it for freezing.

When cream cannot be had, an excellent substitute may be made as follows: To a quart of new milk add two beaten eggs; set it on the fire in a saucepan, but be careful not to stir it after it is hot, as that would be apt to make it burn. While it is heating mix smoothly with a teacup of new milk a table-spoonful of flour, and be ready to stir it into the milk on the fire as soon as it comes to the boiling point. Remove it immediately, and pour it into another vessel to cool. This is known to cooks as boiled custard; and although some[Pg 35] take more than two eggs, that number, used as directed, will be found sufficient to make a delicious substitute for cream, and for this purpose all the more desirable because not taking so much of the egg; the color also being that of a very rich cream. The custard thus prepared should now be sweetened well, and treated just as in making with cream, with the exception that this requires the addition of a small pinch of salt; and when the whole is frozen very few can distinguish it from genuine ice-cream; indeed, half that sold in confectionaries is prepared in this manner. Some confectioners use arrow-root instead of flour for thickening; but either flour or corn-starch is better for the purpose, as they have no taste of their own.

Freezing.—When the cream or custard is prepared it is put into the freezer, which is a cylindrical tin vessel which is provided with a rotary scraper or dasher, moving by a crank, with a handle through the lid. The freezer is then firmly imbedded in a bucket of pounded ice, mixed with coarse salt. This bucket should be provided with a hole or spigot near the bottom, so as to drain off the superfluous water caused by the melting ice. The lid of the freezer must be tight-fitting and secure, so as to avoid all danger of the salt getting into it. As soon as the freezer is firmly fixed and entirely surrounded with the salt and the ice, commence turning the handle, and continue to turn until it is well frozen, which is soon indicated by the increased difficulty of moving the crank. As soon as it becomes stiff the lid may be raised and the dasher removed, using a spoon to scrape off the cream that adheres to it. If it is to be molded the tin form may now be filled. If a pyramid is used, put a spoonful of the softest frozen cream into the extreme point, being careful that it fills up well; then go on filling it up, being careful to press into every part. Some force is required to pack it tightly, in order to give firmness and body to the form when removed from the mold. When entirely full, put the lid on the mold, and plunge it into a bed of salted ice, there to remain until time for serving.

When about to serve, have a plate ready, a little larger than the base of the pyramid, also a pan of hot water; roll the tin form, for an instant only, then wipe quickly, and, holding it top downwards, remove the lid, place the plate over it, and quickly turn it right side up, setting the plate on the table; remove the tin mold carefully, and the pyramid will remain standing on the plate. Another plan is to wipe the outside of the mold, on taking it from the ice bed; then take off the lid, and set the pyramid base downwards on the plate; wring cloths out of scalding water, and wrap them around the tin mold for a few minutes, until the cream is sufficiently melted to allow the tin to be lifted off.

[Pg 36]

All ices made with red fruit require the addition of a little cochineal to heighten the color.

The quantity of fruit required for fruit ices will depend in a great measure on the quality of the fruit and the season in which it is produced; a pint and a half will be found sufficient when it is good in fine seasons; the quantity stated in each weight is the greatest required.

Apple-Water Ice.—Pare and core some fine apples, cut them in pieces into a preserving pan with sufficient water for them to float, boil until they are reduced to a marmalade, then strain; to a pint of apple water add half a pint of syrup, the juice of a lemon, and a little water; when cold, freeze.

Apricot—Fresh Fruit.—Twenty-four fine ripe apricots, one quart of cream, twelve ounces of sugar, the juice of two lemons, with a few of the kernels blanched; mash the apricots, rub them through a sieve, mix, and freeze.

Apricot, from Jam.—Twelve ounces of jam, one quart of cream, the juice of two lemons, eight ounces of sugar, a few kernels or bitter almonds blanched and pounded fine; rub the whole through a sieve, and freeze.

Chocolate Ice.—One quart of cream, six ounces of chocolate, and ten ounces of sugar; dissolve the chocolate in a little water, or make the sugar into a syrup, and dissolve it by putting it on the side of the stove, or over the fire; add the cream and eggs, and make it into a custard as before; when cold, freeze.

Coffee Ice Cream.—One quart of cream, five ounces of Mocha coffee, and twelve ounces of sugar; roast the coffee in a coarse iron or other stew-pan, keeping it constantly stirred until it is a good brown color; throw it into the custard cream whilst it is quite hot, and cover it closely; let it infuse for an hour or two, then strain and freeze.

The cream may be made with an infusion of coffee, thus: take the quantity of coffee, fresh roasted and ground to a fine powder; put this into a common glass bottle or decanter, and pour on it sufficient cold river water to moisten the powder and make an infusion: stop the bottle close, and let it remain all night; the next day filter the infusion by passing it through some fine lawn or blotting paper placed in a glass funnel: by this process a very strong superior infusion is obtained, which contains the whole of the aroma of the coffee. Dr. Ratier observes, "I have tried this process with boiling and with cold water; and I have assured myself, by comparison, that the powder drained by the cold water, and treated then with boiling water, gave nothing but a water slightly tinted with yellow, and devoid of odor and flavor. It is, besides, proper to pass an equal quantity of water to the first,[Pg 37] over the grounds, in order that the second water may serve for new powder." Use this for flavoring the custard, and freeze.

Currant Ice from Fresh Fruit.—One pint and a half of ripe currants, half a pint of raspberries, one quart of cream, the juice of two lemons, and twelve ounces of sugar. Mix as raspberry.

Currant Ice.—Preserved Fruit.—The same proportions as raspberry, using either jam or jelly.

Custard Ices.—These are similarly composed to the cream Ices, with the addition of six eggs to each quart of cream. All kinds of nuts, liquors, essences, infusions, or biscuits are principally mixed with it.

Ginger Ice.—Six ounces of preserved ginger, one quart of cream, half a pint of the syrup from the ginger, sugar sufficient to sweeten it with, and the juice of two lemons; pound the ginger in a mortar, add the cream, etc., and freeze.

Harlequin Ice.—This is formed by putting a small quantity of each kind of ice into the same mold, taking care to have as great a variety of colors placed so as to produce a contrast; cover the mold with salt and ice as before directed, and let it remain half an hour, when it will be fit to turn out. When the colors are tastily disposed of it produces a good effect for the table, but is not much admired on account of the jumble of flavors.

Lemon Ice Cream.—Six large lemons, one quart of cream and twelve ounces of sugar or half pint of syrup; grate off the peels of three of the lemons into a basin, squeeze the juice to it, let it stand for two or three hours, strain, add the cream and syrup, and freeze or mix as Seville orange ice.

Maraschino Cream Ice.—Make as noyau, flavoring it with Maraschino de Zarah. All liquor ices are made the same way, using the different liquors with which each is named, or they may be made in this way: Take a quart of cream, put it into the ice-pot with six ounces of sugar, which you place in the ice; work or whisk it well about the sides with a whisk for five minutes; add a glassful of liquor, work this well together, then whisk the whites of two eggs to a strong froth; add two ounces of sugar to them, mix this well with the cream, and freeze to the required consistence. This produces a very beautiful, soft, and mellow cream.

Noyau Cream Ice.—Make a custard cream, and flavor it with noyau; finish as almond ice.

Orange Ice Cream.—Six oranges, three lemons, one quart of cream, and twelve ounces of sugar or of syrup, to palate; rub off the yellow rind of two or three of the oranges on part of the sugar, scrape it off with a knife, squeeze out the juice[Pg 38] of the oranges and lemons, and strain it; mix it with the cream and the sugar, on which the rind was rubbed, add the other part of the sugar, dissolve and freeze.

Peach Ice.—The same proportions as apricot.

Pineapple—Fresh Fruit.—One pound of fresh pineapple, half a pint of syrup in which a pine has been preserved, two or three slices of pineapple cut in small dice, and the juice of three lemons; pound or grate the apple, pass it through a sieve, mix and freeze.

Pineapple—Preserved Fruit.—Eight ounces of preserved pine, four slices cut in small dice, one quart of cream, the juice of three lemons, and sufficient syrup from the pine to sweeten it; pound the preserved pine, mix lemons with the cream, etc., and freeze.

Punch a la Romaine—Roman Punch Ice.—Make a quart of lemon ice, and flavor it with a glass or two of each of rum, brandy, champagne, and Maraschino; when it is frozen, to each quart take the whites of five eggs and whip them to a very strong froth; boil half a pound of sugar to the ball, and rub it with a spoon or spatula against the sides to grain it: when it turns white, mix it quickly with the whites of eggs, stir it lightly together, and add it to the ice; when cold, mix it well together, and serve it in glasses. Less sugar must be used in the ice, so as to allow for that which is used in making the meringue.

Punch-Water Ice.—Make either a good lemon ice, or use some orange juice with the lemons, in the proportion of one orange to two lemons: either rub off the yellow rind of the lemons on sugar, or pare it very thin, and soak it in spirit for a few hours; when the ice is beginning to set, work in the whites of three eggs to each quart, beaten to a strong froth, and mixed with sugar as for meringue, or add the whites without whisking them; when it is nearly frozen, take out the pot from the ice, and mix well with it a glass each of rum and brandy, or sufficient to make it a good flavor; some like the taste of rum to predominate, but in this case of course you will be guided by the wish of your employer. In general the prevailing flavor distinguishes it by name, as rum-punch or brandy-punch ice; after the spirit is well mixed, replace the pot and finish freezing. Champagne, arrack, or tea is added; it is then termed champagne-punch ice, arrack-punch ice, etc.

Raspberry or Fresh Fruit.—One quart of raspberries, one quart of cream, three quarters of a pound or a pound of sugar, a few ripe currants and gooseberries, or currants and ripe cherries may be added, instead of all raspberries, which is much approved by some, and the juice of two lemons; mash the fruit, and pass it through a sieve to take out the[Pg 39] skins and seeds; mix it with the other articles; add a little prepared cochineal to heighten the color; put it in the pot and freeze.

Raspberry from Jam.—One pound of jam, one quart of cream, about six ounces of sugar or syrup, to palate, and the juice of two lemons. Mix as before.

Strawberry.—Same as raspberry.

Vanilla Ice.—One quart of cream, half an ounce of vanilla, twelve ounces of sugar; cut the vanilla into small pieces, and pound it with the sugar until it is quite fine, add it to the cream and eggs, make it into a custard, strain, and when cold, freeze, or it may be flavored with the essence of vanilla. (See Essences.)

Water Ices.—These are the pulp or juice of fruits, mixed with syrup, lemon juice, and a little water, so as to bring them to a good flavor and consistence when frozen.


These are composed of loaf sugar in fine powder, and other substances, either liquid or in powder, which are mixed together and made into a paste with dissolved gum, rolled out into thin sheets, and formed with tin cutters into little cakes, either oval, square, or round, and dried.

One ounce of gum tragacanth, and one pint of water. Let it soak in a warm place twenty-four hours; put it in a coarse towel or cloth, and let two persons continue twisting it until the whole of the gum is squeezed through the interstices of the cloth. One ounce of this dissolved gum is sufficient for four or five pounds of sugar; one ounce of dissolved gum arabic to twelve ounces of sugar.

Either of these gums may be used separately, or in the proportion of one ounce of gum dragon to three ounces of gum arabic mixed together. These are generally used for medicated lozenges; but gum arabic alone is considered to make the best peppermint.

In mixing these, as well as all other medicated lozenges, the different powders should be well mixed with the sugar, in order that each lozenge may have its due portion. If this is not attended to, the perfect distribution of the component parts cannot be depended on, and one lozenge may contain double or treble the quantity of medicated matter it ought to have, whilst others contain comparatively none; therefore, those that have the greatest portion may often prove injurious by acting contrary to what was intended.

Brilliants.—Take either of the pastes for peppermint lozenges from Nos. 1 to 4, and cut into small fancy devices, such as hearts, diamonds, spades, triangles, squares, etc.

[Pg 40]

Catechu Lozenges.—Sugar four pounds, catechu twelve ounces. Make into a paste with dissolved gum.

Catechu a l'Ambergris.—To the paste for catechu lozenges add sixteen grains of musk.

Catechu with Orange-Flowers.—As before, adding twelve drops of essence of neroli.

Catechu with Violets.—As before, adding Florence orris root, in powder, three drachms. These are all used to fasten the teeth, and disguise an offensive breath.

Ching's Brown Worm Lozenges.—Calomel washed in spirits of wine (termed white panacea of mercury) seven ounces, resin of jalap three pounds eight ounces, fine sugar nine pounds, dissolved gum sufficient quantity to make a paste. Each lozenge should contain half a grain of mercury.

Panacea one ounce, resin of jalap two ounces, sugar two pounds. Dissolve a sufficient quantity of gum in rose-water to make a paste. Make 2,520 lozenges, weighing eight grains each, and containing a quarter of a grain of calomel and half a grain of jalap.

These lozenges should be kept very dry after they are finished, as the damp, acting on the sugar and mercury, generates an acid in them.

Ching's Yellow Worm Lozenges.—Fine sugar twenty-eight pounds, calomel washed in spirits of wine one pound, saffron four drachms, dissolved gum tragacanth sufficient to make a paste. Make a decoction of the saffron in one pint of water, strain, and mix with it. Each lozenge should contain one grain of mercury.

Cinnamon Lozenges.—Gum tragacanth, dissolved, two ounces, lawned sugar eight pounds, cinnamon in powder one ounce, essential oil ten drops.

Mix into a paste and color with bole ammoniac. A stomachic.

Clove Lozenges.—Sugar eight pounds, cloves three ounces, gum tragacanth two ounces.

Each lozenge should contain two grains of cloves. A restorative and stomachic.

Ginger Lozenges.—Eight pounds of sugar and eight ounces of the best ground ginger. Mix into a paste with dissolved gum. Essence may be used instead of the powder, coloring it with saffron. A stimulant and stomachic.

Ipecacuanha Lozenges.—Sugar four pounds, ipecacuanha one ounce, apothecaries' weight; dissolved gum sufficient to make a paste. Make 960 lozenges, each containing half a grain of ipecacuanha. An expectorant and stomachic, used in coughs.

[Pg 41]

Lavender Lozenges.—Make as rose lozenges, using the oil of lavender instead of rose.

Lozenges for the Heartburn.—Prepared chalk four ounces, crab's eyes, prepared, two ounces, bole ammoniac one ounce, nutmeg one scruple, or cinnamon half an ounce. Mix into a paste with dissolved gum arabic.

Magnesia Lozenges.—Calcined magnesia eight ounces, sugar four ounces, ginger in powder two scruples, dissolved gum arabic sufficient to form a paste.

Magnesia two ounces, sugar eight ounces, sufficient gum arabic to make a paste, dissolved in orange flower water.

Marshmallow Lozenges.—Marshmallow roots in powder one pound, or slice the root and make a strong decoction, in which you dissolve the gum, fine sugar four pounds. Mix into a paste. If six drops of laudanum be added, with two ounces of licorice, the pectoral quality of these lozenges will be improved. Good for obstinate coughs.

Nitre Lozenges.—Sugar four pounds, sal-nitre one pound, dissolved gum tragacanth sufficient to make a paste. A diuretic internally; held in the mouth, it removes incipient sore throats.

Nutmeg Lozenges.—Sugar eight pounds, oil of nutmegs one ounce, dissolved gum sufficient to mix into a paste. A stimulant and stomachic.

Peppermint Lozenges, No. 1.—Take double refined loaf-sugar, pound and sift it through a lawn sieve; make a bay with the sugar on a marble slab, into which pour some dissolved gum, and mix it into a paste as you would dough, flavoring the mass with oil of peppermint. One ounce of this is sufficient for forty pounds of lozenges. Some persons prefer mixing their gum and sugar together at first in a mortar; but as it is indifferent which way is pursued, that may be followed which is most convenient. Roll out the paste on a marble slab until it is about the eighth of an inch in thickness, using starch-powder to dust it with, to prevent its sticking to the slab and pin. Before cutting them out, strew or dust over the surface with powder, mixed with lawned sugar, and rub it over with the heel of your hand, which gives it a smooth face. This operation is termed "facing up." Brush this off, and again dust the surface with starch-powder, cut them out, and place in wooden trays. Put them in the hot-closet to dry. All lozenges are finished in the same manner.

Peppermint Lozenges, No. 2.—These are made as No. 1, adding a little starch-powder or prepared plaster, as for gum paste, to the paste, instead of using all sugar.

Peppermint Lozenges, Nos. 3 and 4.—Proceed in the same manner as for No. 2, using for each more starch-powder[Pg 42] in proportion. Use smaller cutters, and let the paste be rolled thicker.

Peppermint Lozenges, No. 5.—These are made from loaf sugar in coarse powder, the finest having been taken out by sifting it through a lawn sieve. Mix it into a paste with dissolved gum arabic and a little lemon juice. Flavor with oil of peppermint.

Peppermint Lozenges, Superfine Transparent.—The sugar for these must be in coarser grains. Pass the sugar through a coarse hair-sieve. Separate the finest by sifting it through a moderately fine hair-sieve. Mix and flavor as the others.

The coarser the grains of sugar, the more transparent the lozenges. The finer particles of sugar being mixed with it destroy their transparency. The solution of gum should be thicker in proportion as the sugar is coarse.

Refined Licorice.—Four pounds of the best Spanish juice, and two pounds of gum arabic. Dissolve the gum in warm water, as for Bath pipe. Strain and dissolve the gum in the solution of licorice. Place it over a gentle fire, in a broad pan, and let it boil gradually, stirring it continually (or it will burn) until it is reduced to a paste. Roll into pipes or cylinders of convenient lengths, and polish by putting them in a box and rolling them together, or by rubbing them with the hand, or a cloth. This is often adultered by using glue instead of gum, and by dipping the pipes in a thin solution, which gives them a beautiful gloss when dry. In establishments where this is manufactured on a large scale, the licorice is dissolved in a large bain-marie, and stirred with spatulas which are worked by a steam-engine.

Rhubarb Lozenges.—Sugar four pounds, best Turkey rhubarb, in powder, ten ounces.

Rose Lozenges—Make your paste as No. 1, using the essential oil or otto of roses to flavor them; or the gum may be dissolved in rose water, and a little essential oil may be added to give additional flavor, if required. Color the paste with carmine or rose pink.

Saffron Lozenges.—Saffron, dried and powdered, four ounces, sugar four pounds, dissolved gum sufficient. An anodyne, pectoral, emmenagogue.

Steel Lozenges.—Pure iron filings or rust of iron one ounce, cinnamon, in powder, four ounces, fine sugar seven pounds, dissolved gum, a sufficient quantity to make a paste. A stomachic and tonic.

Sulphur Lozenges.—Four pounds of sugar, eight ounces of sublimed sulphur, gum sufficient to make a paste. For asthma and the piles.

[Pg 43]

Tolu Lozenges.—Sugar four pounds, balsam of tolu three drachms, or the tincture of the balsam one fluid ounce, cream of tartar six ounces, or tartaric acid one drachm, dissolved gum sufficient to make a paste. These may also be flavored by adding a quarter of an ounce of vanilla and sixty drops of the essence of amber. The articles must be reduced to a fine powder with the sugar. A pectoral and balsamic.

Vanilla Lozenges.—Sugar four pounds, vanilla in powder six ounces, or sufficient to give a strong flavor. Make into a paste with dissolved gum.

Yellow Pectoral Lozenges.—Sugar one pound, Florence orris-root powder twelve drachms, licorice-root six drachms, almonds one ounce, saffron in powder four scruples, dissolved gum sufficient to make a paste. Make a decoction of the licorice to moisten the gum with.

Bath Pipe.—Eight pounds of sugar, twelve ounces of licorice. Warm the licorice, and cut it in thin slices, dissolve it in one quart of boiling water, stir it well to assist the solution; let it settle, when dissolved, to allow any impurities or bits of copper which are often found in it to fall down; pour it off free from the sediment; dissolve the gum in the clear part, and mix it into a paste as for lozenges. Roll out a piece with your hand in a round form; finish rolling it with a long flat piece of wood, until it is about the size of the largest end of the stem of a tobacco-pipe. Dry them in the stove as lozenges. These may be also flavored with anise-seed by adding a few drops of the oil, or with catechu or violets by adding the powders of orris-root or catechu.

Peppermint or other Pipes.—Any of the pastes for lozenges may be formed into pipes by rolling it out as directed for Bath pipes. They are occasionally striped with blue, green, and yellow, by making strips with liquid color on the paste and twisting before you roll it out with the board.


Dry Meringues in the form of Eggs.—Ten whites of eggs, twelve ounces of sugar.

Obtain the newest laid eggs, and separate the white from the yolk very carefully; put the whites into a pan, which must be quite free from grease; whisk them to a very strong froth, so as it will support an egg, or even a greater weight; have the sugar pounded and sifted through a lawn sieve, and mix it as lightly as possible; spread some pieces of board about an inch thick, then with a table or dessert spoon drop them on the paper about two inches asunder, dust them with fine powdered loaf sugar, blow off all that does not adhere, and put them[Pg 44] into a cool oven to bake until they are a nice light brown; if the oven should be too warm, when the surface gets dry or hardened cover them with paper; as soon as they are done take them off with a knife; press the inside or soft part down with the top or the back of a spoon, place them on sieves, and put them into the stove to dry; when they are required to be served, fill them with any kind of preserved fruit or cream, if it is rather acid the better, and put two together.

The quality of the meringues will depend on the eggs being well whipped to a very strong froth, and also on the quantity of sugar, for if there is not enough they will eat tough.

Icing for Wedding or Twelfth Cakes, Etc.—Pound and sift some treble-refined sugar through a lawn sieve, and put it into an earthen pan, which must be quite free from grease; to each pound of sifted sugar add the whites of three eggs, or sufficient to make it into a paste of a moderate consistence, then with a wooden spoon or spatula beat it well, using a little lemon-juice occasionally, and more white of egg if you find that it will bear it without making it too thin, until you have a nice light icing, which will hang to the sides of the pan and spoon; or, if it is dropped from the spoon, it should remain on the top without speedily losing the form it assumed. A pan of icing, when well beat and finished, should contain as much again in bulk as it was at the commencement; use sufficient lemon-juice to give the icing a slight acid, or it will scale off the cake in large pieces when it is cut. Many prefer the pyroligneous acid to the lemon-juice, but the flavor is not so delicate, and it always retains a smell of the acid; neither did I ever find, as some assert, that it improves the quality and appearance of the icing; the only advantage derived from it is that of economy.

Italian Meringues.—One pound of sugar, the whites of six eggs. Clarify the sugar and boil it to the blow; in the meantime whip up the whites as for the last, take the sugar from the fire and rub it a little against the sides of the pan to grain it; as soon as it begins to turn white mix in the whipped eggs, stirring the sugar well from the pan with the whisk or spatula; lay them off, and bake as dry meringues: these may be colored by adding the liquid color to the syrup so as to give the desired tint; and either of them maybe flavored by rubbing off the peel of oranges, lemons, or cedrats on sugar, and scraping it off as it imbibes the oil; or it may be flavored with vanilla, by cutting it in small pieces and pounding it with some sugar, or with any liquor by adding a spoonful or two when you mix the eggs or sugar. They may also be varied in form, and baked on tin or iron plates instead of wood, that the bottoms may be quite firm. The tops may[Pg 45] be covered with almonds or pistachios, blanched and cut small or in fillets, or with currants, or colored sugars; the whole depending on the taste and ingenuity of the artist.

Kisses.—Twelve ounces of sugar powdered very fine and passed through a silk sieve, the whites of six eggs beaten to a strong froth; mix and lay out on paper, as for dry meringues; when baked, place two together. The size should be about that of pigeons' eggs.

Mushrooms.—To make these, take either of the pastes for meringues or light icing, as for cakes; put some into a bag in the shape of a cone, with a tin pipe at the end, the same as used for Savoy biscuits; lay them off in drops the size you wish them to be, on iron plates rubbed quite clean and dry; bake them as you would meringues, make also a smaller drop to form the stalk; when they are baked, take them off the tin and scoop out a little with your finger from the bottom near the edge, to form the hollow rough surface underneath; then dry them in the stove; scrape some chocolate and dissolve it in a little warm water, and rub a little over the rough part underneath; then place the stalk in the center, fixing it with a little icing, and let the flat part which was on the tin be placed outermost, to represent where it was cut.

Piping Cakes, Bonbons, Etc.—This is a method of ornamenting wedding, twelfth-cakes, and other articles with icing, by means of small pipes or tubes; these are most generally made with writing-paper folded in the form of a cone, in the same manner as a grocer makes up his papers for small lots of sugar, tea, etc. The tube is filled with icing, made as for cakes, the base of the cone, or the place where it was filled, is turned down to prevent the sides opening, and the escape of the icing; the point is then cut off with a sharp knife or scissors, so as to make a hole sufficiently large to form the icing, when squeezed or pressed out, in a thread of the required size, and which will either be fine or coarse, according to the length of the point which is cut off. If the hole at the point of the cone is not perfectly straight when the icing is pressed out, it will form a spiral thread, which is very inconvenient to work with. Stars, borders, flowers, and different devices are formed on cakes after they are iced, the execution of which depends on the ability and ingenuity of the artist. Baskets, Chinese and other temples, etc., are formed on molds by these means, first giving them a coating of white wax, which is brushed over them after it is melted, and when cold, the icing is formed on it like trellis-work; when finished, the mold is warmed, and the icing easily comes off.

Some of the pipes which are used cannot be formed with paper, as the tape and star-pipes, which are made of tin,[Pg 46] having a bag fastened to them in a similar manner to that generally used for dropping out Savoy biscuits, macaroons, etc., only much smaller, the point of the tin tube of the one being fluted to form a star, and in the other it is flat, so that when the icing is forced or squeezed through, it comes out in a broad thin sheet, like a piece of tape. I employ a set of pipes made of tin, with small bags fastened to them; these are of different dimensions; the orifice of the round ones commences at the size of a common pin, and the tape-pipes from a quarter to half an inch in width. I find these much better than paper ones, as the trouble and time which is lost in constantly making new ones is amply repaid by the others, as they are not very expensive and are always ready for use. These pipes should be in the hands of the confectioner what the pencil or brush is to the painter—capable of performing wonders with men of genius. Some of the bonbons which may be seen in the shops are proofs of what I assert; and many things are so cleverly done, that many persons would believe that they were either formed in a mold or modeled. I have not space to enlarge further on this subject, but much more might be given in explanation; therefore the artist must be guided by his own genius and fancy.


Choose the best treble-refined sugar with a good grain, pound it, and pass it through a coarse hair sieve; sift again in a lawn-sieve to take out the finest part, as the sugar, when it is too fine, makes the drops heavy and compact, and destroys their brilliancy and shining appearance.

Put some of the coarse grains of sugar into a small drop-pan (these are made with a lip on the right side, so that when it is held in the left hand the drops can be detached with the right), moisten it with any aromatic spirit you intend to use, and a sufficient quantity of water to make it of a consistence just to drop off the spoon or spatula without sticking to it. Color with prepared cochineal, or any other color, ground fine and moistened with a little water. Let the tint which you give be as light and delicate as possible. Place the pan on the stove fire, on a ring of the same size. Stir it occasionally until it makes a noise, when it is near boiling, but do not let it boil; then take it from the fire and stir it well with the spatula until it is of the consistence that, when dropped, it will not spread too much, but retain a round form on the surface. If it should be too thin, add a little coarse sugar, which should be reserved for the purpose, and make it of the thickness required.

Have some very smooth and even plates, made either of tin[Pg 47] or copper, let them be quite clean, and drop them on these, separating the sugar from the lip of the pan with a piece of straight wire, as regularly as possible. About two hours afterwards they may be taken off with a thin knife. If you have not the convenience of tin or copper plates, they may be dropped on smooth cartridge paper. Wet the back of the paper when you want to take them off. Cover the bottom of a sieve with paper, lay them on it, and put them in the stove for a few hours. If they remain too long, it will destroy their fragrancy.

Catechu Drops.—One pound of sugar, three ounces of catechu. Make as violet. These may also have the addition of a little musk or ambergris—about fifteen grains.

Chocolate Drops.—One pound of sugar, one ounce of chocolate. Scrape the chocolate to a powder, and mix it with the sugar in coarse grains, moisten it with clean water, and proceed according to the instructions already given, but do not mix more than can be dropped out whilst warm at one time. If any remains in the pot, it will grease the next which you mix, and will not attain the consistence required.

Cinnamon Drops.—One ounce of cinnamon, one pound of sugar. Pulverize the cinnamon, and sift it through a lawn sieve. Mix it with the sugar, and add two or three drops of the essential oil. If the flavor is not strong enough, moisten it with the water and proceed as before. The flavor may be given with the essential oil only, coloring them with bole ammoniac.

Clove Drops.—Make same as cinnamon drops.

Coffee Drops.—One ounce of coffee, one pound of sugar. Make a strong and clear infusion of coffee, as directed for coffee ice, and use it to moisten the sugar. Make the drops same as chocolate.

Ginger Drops.—Mix a sufficient quantity of the best powdered ginger to give it the desired taste, or flavor it with the essence of ginger, and color it with saffron. Moisten with water, and make as others.

Lemon Drops.—Rub off the yellow rind of some lemons on a piece of rough sugar, scrape it off, and mix it with the coarse sugar. Use sufficient to give a good flavor, and color with saffron a light yellow; moisten with water, as others.

Orange-Flower Drops.—Use orange-flower water to moisten the sugar, or flavor it with the essence of neroli and moisten with water.

Orgeat Drops.—Make milk of almonds, as directed under[Pg 48] the head of Orgeat Syrup, using a little orange-flower water; moisten the sugar with it.

Peppermint Drops.—Moisten the sugar with peppermint water, or flavor it with the essence of peppermint, and moisten it with water.

Raspberry Drops.—Press out the juice of some ripe raspberries through a piece of flannel or cloth, and moisten the sugar with it. All fruit drops are made in the same way, that is, with the expressed juice, except pineapple. When you first rub off the rind of the fruit on sugar, pound the pulp of the fruit, and pass through a hair sieve. Scrape off the sugar on which the rind was rubbed, and mix it with a sufficient quantity of the pulp to give the desired flavor to the coarse grains, and moisten it with water. The whole of these grease the sugar, and require the same precautions as chocolate drops.

Rose Drops.—Moisten the sugar with rose water, and color it with cochineal.

Vanilla Drops.—Make as cinnamon, using a little sugar to pound the vanilla. Use sufficient to give a good flavor; or it may be moistened with the essence of vanilla; but this greases it as chocolate.

Violet Drops.—One pound of sugar, one ounce of orris-powder. Moisten with water, and color violet.


These are either the juices of fruits, or a decoction or infusion of the leaves, flowers or roots of vegetables, impregnated with a sufficient quantity of sugar for their preservation, and retaining them in a liquid state.

A great portion of this class comes more under the notice of the apothecary than the confectioner; but it may now be considered, with lozenges, as a branch of pharmacy in the hands of the latter, the most agreeable of which are now manufactured by him to supply the place of fresh fruits, etc., when out of season, for the making of cooling drinks, ices, etc., for balls and routs.

General Rules and Observations.—Two things are essentially necessary to be observed, which are:—the proper methods of making decoctions and infusions. These require some knowledge of the nature and properties of vegetable matter.

The virtues of most plants are extracted by infusion, and this is generally the case with aromatic plants, and those whose properties depend on an essential oil; for, in boiling[Pg 49] the whole of the aroma of the plant is dispersed, and the syrup loses that delicate flavor for which it is prized.

Aromatic herbs, and the leaves of plants in general, yield their virtues most perfectly when moderately dried. Cold water extracts from these in a few hours the lighter, more fragrant and agreeable parts, and then begins to take up the more ungrateful and grosser. By pouring the same liquor on fresh parcels of the herb, it becomes stronger, richer, thicker, and balsamic.

Those only should be decocted whose principles consist of mucilage, gum, or resin, and require boiling to extract them.

The compact resinous woods, roots and barks yield their virtues most freely while fresh. Dry, they yield little to cold or moderately warm water, and require it to be boiling. By this process the grosser, more fixed saline and mucilaginous parts are dissolved, the resinous melted out, and the volatile dissipated.

Infusions.—These are watery solutions of vegetable matter obtained by maceration, either in hot or cold water, with the assistance of ebullition. In selecting and conducting the operation, the following general rules should be observed:

"1st. Infusion should always be preferred before decoction, where the virtues of the vegetable substance reside in volatile oil, or in principles which are easily soluble, whereas, if they depend upon resino-mucilaginous particles, decoction is an indispensable operation.

"2d. The temperature employed must be varied according to the circumstances of each case, and infusion made with cold is in general more grateful but less active than one made with heat.

"3d. The duration of the process must likewise be regulated by the nature of the substances; for the infusion will differ according to the time in which the water has been digested on the materials; thus the aroma of the plant is first taken up, then in succession the coloring, astringent, and gummy parts.

Decoctions.—"These are solutions of the active principles of vegetables, obtained by boiling them in water.

"1st. Those principles only should be decocted whose virtues reside in principles which are soluble in water.

"2d. If the active principle be volatile, decoction must be an injurious process; and if it consists of extractive matter, long boiling, by favoring its oxidizement, will render it insipid, insoluble, and inert.

"3d. The substances to be decocted should be previously[Pg 50] bruised or sliced, so as to expose an extended surface to the action of the water.

"4th. The substances should be completely covered with water, and the vessel slightly closed, in order to prevent as much as possible the access of air; the boiling should be continued without interruption, and gently.

"5th. In compound decoctions, it is sometimes convenient not to put in all the ingredients from the beginning, but in succession, according to their hardness, and the difficulty with which their virtues are extracted; and if any aromatic, or other substances containing volatile principles, or oxidizable matter, enter into the composition, the boiling decoction should be simply poured upon them, and covered up until cold.

"6th. The relative proportions of different vegetable substances to the water must be regulated by their nature. The following general rule may be admitted: Of roots, barks, or dried woods, from two drachms to six to every pint of water; of herbs or flowers, half that quantity will suffice.

"7th. The decoction ought to be filtered through linen while hot, as important portions of the dissolved matter are frequently deposited on cooling; care must also be taken that the filter is not too fine, for it frequently happens that the virtues of a decoction depend upon the presence of particles in a minutely divided state."—Paris's Pharmacologia.

All acid syrups ought to have their full quantity of sugar, so as to bring them to a consistence without boiling, because the very action of much heat destroys their acidity, and makes them liable to candy, and this more particularly holds good where the infusion or juice, etc., has any fragrancy in flavor, because the volatile oil is dissipated by boiling. The same observation is also applicable to those infusions of flowers which give out their color, and which is necessary to be retained, such as violets, pinks, etc., as boiling injures them.

Those syrups which are made from decoctions, and do not take a sufficient quantity of sugar to bring them to a due consistence without boiling, require to be clarified so as to render them transparent; but this is often an injury, as the whites of eggs take off some of their chief properties with the scum; therefore, the decoction should first be rendered clear by settling or filtering, and the sugar should be clarified and boiled to the height of the feather or ball before the decoction is added, when it may be reduced to the proper degree.

The best and most general method of making syrups is to add a sufficient quantity of the finest loaf sugar, in powder, with the juice or infusion, etc., stirring it well until a small portion settles at the bottom, then place the pan in a larger one containing water; this is termed the bain-marie; put it on[Pg 51] the fire, and the heat of the water as it boils will dissolve the sugar; when this has been thoroughly effected, take it off and let it cool; if more sugar is added than the quantity above named, it will separate in crystals, and not leave sufficient remaining in the syrup for its preservation. (See observations on Sugar-boiling.) When cold, put it into small bottles, fill them, cork closely, and keep in a dry cool place. Be particularly careful that no tinned articles are used in the making of syrups from the juice of red fruits, as it will act on the tin and change the color to a dead blue.

Syrup of Almonds—Sirop de Orgeat.—One pound of sweet almonds, four ounces of bitter ones, one pint and a half of water, sugar three pounds, orange-flower water two ounces.

Blanch the almonds, and as they are blanched throw them into cold water; when they are finished, take them out and pound them in a marble mortar, sprinkling them with a little orange-flower water, to prevent their oiling, or use water with the juice of a lemon; add sufficient in the pounding to reduce them to a paste, and when quite fine add half a pint more water; mix, and strain through a tamis cloth twisted tight by two persons; receive the milk which comes from the almonds into a basin; what is left in the cloth must be pounded again with some of the water, and strained. Continue this until the whole of the milk is obtained, and the water is consumed; then clarify, and boil the sugar to the crack; add the milk of almonds, and reduce it to the pearl; then strain it again, add the orange-flower water, and stir it well until nearly cold; when cold, bottle; shake the bottles well for several succeeding days, if you see it at all inclined to separate, which will prevent it.

Brandy and Wine Syrups may be made in the same manner as Syrup of Rum Punch.

Coffee, Syrup of.—Fresh roasted Mocha coffee two pounds, water one quart, sugar three pounds eight ounces. Grind the coffee in a mill, and make a cold infusion with the water in a close vessel; let it stand for a day, then filter it through blotting paper, add the sugar, and finish in the bain-marie.

Coltsfoot, Syrup of.—Fresh Coltsfoot flowers, one pound eight ounces; water, one quart; sugar, three pounds. Pick the flowers about February, and make an infusion of them with hot water; strain, and finish as wormwood syrup. Two or three handfuls of the leaves may be pounded and infused instead of the flowers.

Currant Syrup.—One pint of juice, two pounds of sugar. Mix together three pounds of currants, half white and half red, one pound of raspberries and one pound of cherries, without the stones; mash the fruit, and let it stand in a warm[Pg 52] place for three or four days, keeping it covered with a coarse cloth, or a piece of paper with holes pricked in it, to keep out any dust or dirt. Filter the juice, add the sugar in powder, finish in the bain-marie, and skim it. When cold, put it into bottles, fill them, and cork well.

Ginger, Syrup of.—Ginger, two ounces; water, one pint; sugar, two pounds.

Slice the root if fresh, or bruise it if dried; pour the water on it boiling, and let it macerate in a warm place for a day; then strain, and boil to the pearl.

Another.—A better flavored and a richer ginger syrup is made in the following manner: Take any quantity of scraped white Jamaica ginger and infuse for several days in good spirits of wine; decant the clear liquor when sufficiently saturated with the ginger, and add to the hot sugar, previously boiled to the ball or feather, a sufficient quantity of the liquor to impart to the syrup the agreeable aroma of the ginger root.

The spirit will be rapidly driven off when it is poured into the boiling syrup, and a bland and beautiful syrup will be the result; let it cool, and bottle immediately.

Gooseberry Syrup.—One pint of juice, one pound twelve ounces of sugar. To twelve pounds of ripe gooseberries add two pounds of cherries without stones, squeeze out the juice, and finish as others.

Lemon Syrup.—One pint and a quarter of juice, two pounds of sugar. Let the juice stand in a cool place to settle. When a thin skin is formed on the top, pour it off and filter, add the sugar, and finish in the bain-marie. If the flavor of the peel is preferred with it, grate off the yellow rind of the lemons and mix it with the juice to infuse, or rub it off on part of the sugar and add it with the remainder when you finish it.

Licorice, Syrup of.—Licorice-root two ounces, white maidenhair one ounce, hyssop half an ounce, boiling water three pints; slice the root and cut the herbs small, infuse in the water for twenty-four hours, strain and add sufficient sugar, or part sugar and honey, to make a syrup; boil to the large pearl. An excellent pectoral.

Marshmallows, Syrup of—Sirop de Guimauve.—Fresh mallow roots eight ounces, water one quart, sugar three pounds. Cleanse the roots, and slice them; make a decoction (see Decoctions), boiling it a quarter of an hour, so as to obtain the mucilage of the root; strain, and finish as wormwood. One ounce of licorice-root and one ounce of white maidenhair, with a few stoned raisins, may be added.

Morello Cherry Syrup.—Take the stones out of the[Pg 53] cherries, mash them, and press out the juice in an earthen pan; let it stand in a cool place for two days, then filter; add two pounds of sugar to one pint of juice, finish in the bain-marie, or stir it well on the fire, and give it one or two boils.

Mulberry Syrup.—One pint of juice, one pound twelve ounces of sugar. Press out the juice and finish as cherry syrup.

Orange-Flower Syrup.—Picked orange-flowers one pound, sugar three pounds. Take one half of the sugar and make a syrup, which boil to the large pearl, put the flowers in a basin or jar, and pour the syrup on them boiling hot, cover the jar or basin quite close and let them infuse in it for five or six hours, then drain off the syrup, boil the remaining portion of sugar, and pour over them as before; when cold, strain and bottle.

Orange Syrup.—Same as lemon syrup.

Pineapple Syrup.—Take one and a half pints of syrup boiled to the ball; add to this, one pint of the juice of the best Havana pineapples, let it then come to a boil, remove the scum, and bottle when cool.

Pinks, Syrups of.—Clove pinks one pound eight ounces, water two pints and a half, sugar three pounds. Let the flowers be fresh-gathered, cut off the white points of the petals and weigh them. Finish as syrup of violets. This syrup may be made with a cold infusion of the flowers, first pounding them with a little water in a marble mortar. Finish as before. If the flowers of the clove pink cannot be obtained, use other pinks, adding a few cloves to infuse with them, so as to give the flavor.

Raspberry Syrup.—One pint of juice, two pounds of sugar. Choose the fruit either red or white, mash it in a pan, and put it in a warm place for two or three days, or until the fermentation has commenced. All mucilaginous fruits require this, or else it would jelly after it is bottled. Filter the juice through a flannel bag, add the sugar in powder, place in the bain-marie, and stir it until dissolved; take it off, let it get cold, take off the scum, and bottle it.

Raspberry Vinegar Syrup.—One pint of juice, two pints of apple vinegar, four pounds and a half of sugar. Prepare the juice as before, adding the vinegar with it, using white raspberries; strain the juice, and boil to the pearl.

Three pounds of raspberries, two pints of vinegar, three pounds of sugar. Put the raspberries into the vinegar without mashing them, cover the pan close, and let it remain in a cellar for seven or eight days: then filter the infusion, add the sugar in powder, and finish in the bain-marie. This is[Pg 54] superior to the first, as the beautiful aroma of the fruit is lost in the boiling, as may be well known by its scenting the place where it is done, or even the whole house; the fruit may also be afterwards used with more, for raspberry cakes.

Roses, Syrup of.—The dried leaves of Provence roses eight ounces, double rose leaves six ounces, water one quart, sugar four pounds. Pour the water on the leaves when nearly boiling into a glazed earthen vessel, cover it quite close, and let it remain in a warm place for a day; then strain and finish as violets. The leaves of the damask rose are purgative.

Rum Punch, Syrup of.—Jamaica rum one quart, the juice of twelve or fourteen lemons, sugar four pounds. Rub off the yellow rind of half of the lemons on a piece of the sugar, and scrape it off with a knife into a basin as it imbibes the oil; clarify and boil the remaining portion to the crack; strain the juice into the rum and add to it the sugar with that on which the peels were rubbed; mix together, and give it one boil. The yellow rind of the peels may be cut off very thin, and infused in the spirit for some days before the syrup is made.

Sarsaparilla, Syrup of.—Half a pound of bruised sarsaparilla root, two ounces of ground orange peel, one ounce liquorice root, sassafras bark bruised two ounces, one gallon of water; boil to half a gallon; strain; to each pint of liquor add one pound of sugar; put on the fire till it boils, and take off the scum which may arise.

Sirop de Capillaire—Syrup of Maidenhair.—There are several sorts of Maidenhair, but the best is that of Canada, which has a pleasant smell joined to its pectoral qualities. The true Maidenhair—Capillus Veneris—is a native of Italy and of the southern parts of France. It has an agreeable but very weak smell. Common or English Maidenhair—Trichomanes—is usually substituted for the true, and occasionally for the Canadian. Its leaves consist of small round divisions, growing as it were in pairs. It grows on rocks, old walls, and shady banks, and should be gathered in September. Black Maidenhair—Adianthum Nigrum—has smooth and shining leaves, the middle rib being black, and the seeds are all spread on the back of the leaf. It grows on shady banks, and on the roots of trees. White Maidenhair—Wall Rue—Tent Wort—Ruta Murana Salvia Vitæ. The leaves of this are shaped something like rue, and covered all over the back with a small seed-like dust. Golden Maidenhair—Muscus Capillaris—grows in moist places, and the pedicle arises from the top of the stalk. I have given these particulars, because I find they are often substituted one for the other by persons who are not aware that there is any difference. Although all[Pg 55] of them have nearly the same qualities, only two have a volatile oil, but they are all mucilaginous.

Canada capillaire two ounces, sugar two pounds. Chop the capillaire into small bits, and make as orange-flower syrup. By this method the oil is not allowed to escape, which, being exceedingly odoriferous and volatile, is soon dissipated if boiled; or make a cold infusion (See Infusions) of the plant by putting one quart of water to four ounces of capillaire, add four pounds of sugar, and finish in the bain-marie, adding one ounce of orange-flower water. [This is a fashionable and delicate syrup, but is rarely obtained genuine.]

Simple syrup, flavored with orange-flower water, is usually substituted for it.

Sirop de Pistache is made in the same manner as Syrup of Almonds, coloring it green with a little spinach.

Strawberry Syrup.—Make as pineapple, taking care to strain carefully at least twice, through a fine flannel bag, so as to remove entirely all sediment and the small seed of the fruit.

Violets, Syrup of.—One pound of violet flowers, one quart of water, four pounds of sugar. Put the flowers cleared from their stalks and calyx, into a glazed earthen pan; pour on the water boiling hot, and stop the pan quite close; let it remain in a warm place for a day, then strain off the infusion through a thin cloth; add the sugar, and place in a bain-marie; stir it well and heat it until you can scarcely bear your finger in it; then take it off, and when cold, bottle. A laxative. This syrup is often adulterated by being made with the flowers of heartsease, or columbine scented with orris-root, and colored.

Wormwood, Syrup of.—There are three sorts of wormwood most generally known—the common, sea, and Roman. The first may be distinguished by its broad leaves, which are divided into roundish segments of a dull green color above, and whitish underneath; its taste is an intense and disagreeable bitter. The sea wormwood has smaller leaves, and hoary both above and underneath; it grows in salt marshes, and about the sea-coasts; the smell and taste are not so strong and disagreeable as the common.

The Roman differs from the others by the plant being smaller in all its parts; the leaves are divided into fine filaments and hoary all over, the stalk being either entirely, or in part of a purple color. Its smell is pleasant, and the bitterness not disagreeable; it is cultivated in gardens. The sea wormwood is generally substituted for it.

The tops of Roman wormwood, two ounces; water, one pint; sugar, two pounds. Make an infusion of the leaves in[Pg 56] warm water; strain; add the sugar to the infusion, and boil to the pearl. If the common wormwood only can be obtained, put the tops into three times the above quantity of water, and boil it over a strong fire until reduced to a pint. This will deprive it of part of its bitterness and disagreeable smell.


This is a useful and indispensable appendage in confectionary; it is generally constructed like a cupboard in the recess of a wall. The walls or sides should be composed of bricks, or wood lined with tin or sheet iron, to retain the heat, with pieces of wood nailed or fastened in the sides, about four inches asunder, to form a groove for trays or boards to rest on, which is necessary for the drying of lozenges, comfits, bonbons, &c.; there should also be a few strong shifting shelves made either of small bars of round iron or wood, like a grating, on which candy pots or sieves may be placed; the grooves for these should be so constructed as to be capable of inclination so as to drain off the syrup from the candy pots without taking them from the shelves; the door should be made to shut close, with a small door at the top to let out any excess of heat. I have before remarked that it may be heated by means of the modern stoves. At places where the oven is heated with wood, furze, etc., a common iron pot or crock with three legs is filled with the live embers, or it may be filled with burning charcoal and covered with wood ashes, which is replenished night and morning, which gives the heat required.


To attain proficiency in this part, it requires much practice, and also a good taste for design, and to be expert in the boiling of sugar, taking particular care to avoid its graining. Baskets, temples, vases, fountains, etc., are made by these means. It may almost be termed the climax of the art. The molds for this purpose may be made either of copper or tin, so as to deliver well. Let them be slightly rubbed all over, on the part you intend to spin the sugar, with butter or oil.

Boil clarified syrup to the degree of caramel, taking care to keep the sides of the pan free from sugar. The moment it is at the crack, add a little acid to grease it (see Sugar Boiling). When it has attained the required degree, dip the bottom of the pan in cold water, take it out, and let it cool a little; then take a common table-spoon, dip it in the sugar, holding the mold in your left hand, and from the spoon run[Pg 57] the sugar over the mold, either inside or out, with the threads which flow from it, which may be either fine or coarse, according to the state of the sugar; if they are required very coarse, pass the hand over them two or three times; for when it is hot it flows in finer strings than it will when cooler; form it on the mold into a sort of trellis-work; loosen it from the mold carefully, and let it remain until quite cold before it is taken off, that it may retain its shape. When the sugar gets too cold to flow from the spoon, place it by the side of the stove or fire to melt. Young beginners had better draw their designs for handles of baskets, etc., on a stone with a pencil before it is oiled, and then spin the sugar over them.

Almond Baskets.—Blanch some fine Jordan almonds, and cut them into thin slices, and color them in a small copper pan, over the fire, with prepared liquid color (see Colors). Put them into the pan, and pour in color sufficient to give the desired tint; rub them about in the pan with your hand until they are quite dry; form them as for a Chantilly basket, or else form them on an oiled marble slab, and spin sugar over them on each side. Afterwards arrange them in a mold, or build them to any design, first having a pattern cut out in paper, and form them on the stone from it.

Chantilly Baskets.—Prepare some ratafias, let them be rather small, and as near of a size as possible; boil some sugar to the caramel degree, rub over the inside of a mold slightly with oil, dip the edge of the ratafias in sugar and stick them together, the face of the ratafias being towards the mold, except the last two rows on the top, which should be reversed, remembering always to place their faces to meet the eye when the sugar is cold; take it out and join the bottom and top together with the same sugar; make a handle of spun sugar and place over it. Some sugar may be spun over the inside of the basket to strengthen it, as directed for webs. Line the inside with pieces of Savoy or sponge cakes, and fill it with custard or whipped cream, or the slices of cake may be spread with raspberry jam. Half fill it with boiled custard, then put in a few Savoy or almond cakes, soaked in wine, and cover the top with whipped cream; or it may be filled with fancy pastry or meringues. All sorts of fancy cakes may be made into baskets or ratafias.

Gold Web, to make a.—Boil syrup to caramel height, coloring it with saffron, and form it as directed in making Silver Web. It can be folded up to form bands or rings, etc. Fasten it to the other decorations with caramel.

If any of the strings or threads of sugar should pass over those parts where they are not required, so as to spoil the other decorations in the making of baskets or other orna[Pg 58]ments, it may be removed with a hot knife without breaking or injuring the piece.

Grape, Orange, or Cherry Baskets.—These are made similar to the Chantilly Baskets; the oranges are carefully peeled and divided into small pieces, taking off the pith. Insert a small piece of stick or whisk in the end of each, dip them in caramel, and form them on the inside of an oiled mold. Cherries and grapes may be used either fresh, or preserved wet, and dried. Dip them in caramel, and form them as oranges. Each of these, or any other fruit, after being dipped in caramel, may be laid on an oiled marble slab separately, and served on plates in a pyramid, with fancy papers, flowers, etc. The baskets are finished as Chantilly, with spun sugar.

Silver Web, to make a.—Boil clarified syrup to the crack, using the same precautions as before observed, giving it a few boils after the acid is added; dip the bottom of the pan in water, and let the sugar cool a little; then take the handle of a spoon, or two forks tied together, dip it into the sugar, and form it either on the inside or outside of a mold, with very fine strings, by passing the hand quickly backwards and forwards, taking care that it does not fall in drops, which would spoil the appearance of the work. With this may be represented the hair of a helmet, the water of a fountain, etc. Take a fork, or an iron skewer, and hold it in your left hand as high as you can, dip the spoon in the sugar, and with the right hand throw it over the skewer, when it will hang from it in very fine threads of considerable length.

Spanish Candy.—Boil a quart of clarified syrup to the crack. Have some icing previously prepared as for cakes, or mix some fine powdered loaf sugar with the white of an egg to a thick consistency as for icing; take the sugar from the fire, and as soon as the boiling has gone down stir in a spoonful of this or the icing, which must be done very quickly, without stopping. Let it rise once and fall; the second time it rises, pour it out in a mold or paper case, and cover it with the pan to prevent its falling. Some persons pour it out the first time it rises, and immediately cover it as before. It may be made good both ways. If it is required colored, add the coloring to the syrup while it is boiling, or with the icing, adding more sugar to give it the same stiffness as before.


Apple Jelly.—Take either russet pippins, or any good baking apples; pare and core them, cut them in slices into a preserving-pan containing sufficient water to cover them;[Pg 59] then put them on the fire, and boil them until they are reduced to a mash. Put it into a hair-sieve, that the water may drain off, which you receive in a basin or pan; then filter it through a flannel bag. To every pint of filtered juice add one pound of loaf sugar, clarify and boil it to the ball. Mix the juice with it and boil until it jellies; stir it with a spatula or wooden-spoon, from the bottom, to prevent burning. When it is boiled enough, if you try it with your finger and thumb, as directed in sugar-boiling, a string may be drawn similar to the small pearl; it may also be known by its adhering to the spatula or spoon, or a little may be dropped on a cold plate; if it soon sets, it is done. Take off the scum which rises on the top. This is in general used for pouring over preserved wet fruits. This jelly may be colored red with prepared cochineal.

Barberry Jelly.—Take some very ripe barberries, pick them from their stalks, and weigh them. To every pound of fruit take three-quarters of a pound of loaf sugar; add sufficient water to make it into a syrup, put in the barberries, and boil them until the syrup comes to the pearl, taking off any scum which may rise. Then throw them into a fine hair or lawn sieve, and press the berries with a spoon to extract as much juice as possible from them. Receive the syrup and juice in a pan, put it again on the fire, and finish as apple jelly.

Blackberry Jelly.—Make as currant jelly—using half a gallon of raspberries to one gallon of black currants; finish as usual.

Cherry Jelly.—Pick off the stalks and take out the stones of some fine ripe Morello cherries, and to every four pounds of cherries add one pound of red currants; proceed as for currant jelly.

Gooseberry Jelly.—Make as currant jelly; or it may be made of green gooseberries, as apple jelly.

Quince Jelly.—This is made as apple jelly. The seed of the quince is very mucilaginous. An ounce of bruised seed will make pints of water as thick as the white of an egg.

Cherry Marmalade or Jam.—Take out the stones and stalks from some fine cherries and pulp them through a cane sieve; to every three pounds of pulp add half a pint of currant juice, and three-quarters of a pound of sugar to each pound of fruit; mix together and boil until it will jelly. Put it into pots or glasses.

Currants, raspberries, plums and gooseberries are all made in the same manner. Pulp the fruit through a cane sieve,[Pg 60] the meshes of which are not large enough to admit a currant to pass through whole. To each pound of pulp add one pound of loaf sugar, broken small, and boil to the consistence of a jelly.

Apple Marmalade.—Take a peck of apples, full grown, but not the least ripe, of all or any sort; quarter them and take out the cores, but do not pare them; put them into a preserving-pan with one gallon of water, and let them boil moderately until you think the pulp will run, or suffer itself to be squeezed through a cheese-cloth, only leaving the peels behind. Then to each quart of pulp add one pound, good weight, of loaf sugar, either broken in small pieces or pounded, and boil it all together for half an hour and ten minutes, keeping it stirred; then put it into pots, the larger the better, as it keeps longer in a large body.

Gooseberry Jam.—Three pounds of loaf sugar, six pounds of rough red gooseberries. Pick off the stalks and buds from the gooseberries, and boil them carefully but quickly for rather more than half an hour, stirring continually; then add the sugar, pounded fine, and boil the jam quickly for half an hour, stirring it all the time to prevent its sticking to the preserving-pan. When done put it into pots, cover it with brandy paper, and secure it closely down with paper moistened with the white of an egg.

HOW TO DO TRICKS.—The great book of magic and card tricks, containing full instructions of all the leading card tricks of the day, also the most popular magical illusions as performed by our leading magicians; every boy should obtain a copy, as it will both amuse and instruct. For sale by all newsdealers, or will be sent, postage free, on receipt of price. Address Frank Tousey, publisher, 34 and 36 North Moore street, New York. Box 2730.

HOW TO TELL FORTUNES.—Every one is desirous of knowing what their future life will bring forth, whether happiness or misery, wealth or poverty. You can tell by a glance at this little book. Buy one and be convinced. Tell your own fortune. Tell the fortunes of your friends. Price 10 cents. Frank Tousey, publisher, 34 and 36 North Moore street, New York. Box 2730.

HOW TO BECOME BEAUTIFUL.—One of the brightest and most valuable little books ever given to the world. Everybody wishes to know how to become beautiful, both male and female. The secret is simple, and almost costless. Read this book and be convinced. "How to Become Beautiful." Price 10 cents. For sale by book and newsdealers, or send 10 cents to Frank Tousey, 34 and 36 North Moore street, New York, and it will be mailed to your address post-paid.

[Pg 61]

The James Boys.

Tales of these NOTED BANDITS




Price 10 Cents Per Copy, - - - - 32 Pages.

Read the following list of a few of the latest stories about these
well-known characters:

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and
Canada, or sent to your address, postage free, on receipt of
price. Address

FRANK TOUSEY, Publisher,

P. O. Box 2730.      34 & 36 North Moore St., N. Y.

[Pg 62]





For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and
Canada, or sent to your address, postage free, on receipt of
price. Address

FRANK TOUSEY, Publisher,

Box 2730.    34 & 36 North Moore St., N. Y.

[Pg 63]




Price 10 Cents Per Copy.

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and
Canada, or sent to your address, postage free, on receipt of
price. Address

FRANK TOUSEY, Publisher,

Box 2730.    34 & 36 North Moore Street, N. Y.

[Pg 64]


Wonderful Inventions and
Thrilling Adventures

—Ever Written Are—

The Jack Wright Stories






For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and
Canada, or sent to your address, postage free, on receipt of
price. Address

FRANK TOUSEY, Publisher,

Box 2730.    34 & 36 North Moore Street, N. Y.

[Pg 65]
[Pg 66]



Containing valuable information on almost every subject, such as
Writing, Speaking, Dancing, Flirting, Cooking; also, Rules of
, The Art of Ventriloquism, Gymnastic Exercises, and
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No. Price.
10.HOW TO BOX,10c
30.HOW TO COOK,10c

All the above books are for sale by newsdealers throughout the
United States and Canada, or they will be sent, postage paid, to your
address, on receipt of 10 cents each.

FRANK TOUSEY, Publisher.

Box 2730.    34 & 36 NORTH MOORE ST., N. Y.

Transcriber's Note:

Obvious typographical errors have been corrected.