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Title: Library Cataloguing

Author: John Henry Quinn

Release date: April 5, 2015 [eBook #48645]

Language: English

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Library Cataloguing



Librarian, Metropolitan Borough of Chelsea; Library Association Examiner in Cataloguing and Lecturer in Librarianship, London School of Economics (Univ. of London.)




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Some years ago I prepared a Manual of Library Cataloguing, which met with more acceptance than was expected, and has been out of print for some time. Upon considering requests for a new edition, I concluded that a book upon somewhat different lines would be more likely to meet the present requirements of librarians and library assistants—this volume is the result.

No pretence is made that the work is exhaustive or complete, but it is hoped that it will serve as a practical and useful introduction to the several codes of cataloguing rules. The statements made in it are not meant to be dogmatic, but they indicate the lines upon which good and accurate work is to be accomplished. As the illustrative examples were chosen from every-day books, and are worked out as simply as possible, they should be found useful by beginners; especially in preparing for the examinations of the Library Association in this subject.

I am indebted to my friend Mr. Frank Pacy, City Librarian of Westminster, for reading my proofs and suggesting many improvements, although I am sure he would not care to accept responsibility for all the views expressed or the mode of expressing them.

J. H. Q.
London, S.W.
July, 1913.

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The Difficulties of Cataloguing a Library—The Qualities Desirable in a Cataloguer—The Necessity for Systematic Cataloguing 1
Short History of Modern Cataloguing.
The British Museum Rules—Jewett's Rules—Crestadoro's Catalogues—Huggins' Liverpool Catalogue—Cutter's Rules—The Anglo-American Code—Dziatzko's Instruction—Dewey's Classification—The British Museum and other Catalogues 7
Dictionary versus Classified Catalogues.
Form to be fixed—The users of Catalogues—Questions Catalogues are expected to answer—The Dictionary Catalogue—The Classified Catalogue—The Alphabetico-Classed Catalogue—Definitions 19
Single Author Principal-Entry.
Stationery—The Author-Entry—Full Names—Imprint and Collation—Order of Information Tabulated—Subject-Entry—Headings—Class-Entry 32
Joint-Authors—Collations—Synonymous Subject-Headings—Participants in a Correspondence—References—Man and Wife as Joint Authors 48 [Pg vii]
Books by more than Two Authors. Composite Books.
Books by Three Authors—Choice of Subject-Headings—Cross-References—Books by a Number of Authors—Ecclesiastical and other Titles of Honour—The use of Capitals—Editors—Dates of Publication—Title-Entries—Punctuation—"Indexing" Contents of Composite Books—Separate Works printed together—Volumes of Essays by Single Authors 58
Illustrated Books. Music.
Authors and Illustrators—Translations of Foreign Titles of Books of Illustrations and of Music—The Cataloguing of Music—Librettists—"Indexing" Miscellaneous Music—Dates of Publication 80
Publications of Governments, Societies, and Corporate Bodies.
Co-operative Indexes—Publications of Societies—Publishing Societies—Government Publications—Statutes—Colonial and Foreign Government Publications—Local Government Publications—Associations and Institutions—Congresses 95
Compound Names. Names with Prefixes. Greek and Roman Names.
Rendering of the Names of Foreign Authors—Compound Names—Changed Names—Foreign Compound Names—Names with Prefixes—Short Entries—Title-Entries—Foreign Names with Prefixes—Greek and Latin Authors 110
First Name Entry.
Monarchs—Queens—Order of Arrangement—Princes—Popes—Series Entries—Saints—Friars—Mediæval Names—Artists, &c. 132 [Pg viii]
Noblemen. Oriental Names.
Noblemen—Title v. Family Name—Double Subject-Entry—Oriental Names—Indian Names—Japanese and Chinese Names—Hebrew Names—Maori Names 148
Pseudonyms. Married Women.
Pseudonyms v. Real Names—The Better-known Name—Methods of Marking Pseudonyms—Writers who use Two Names—Phrase-Pseudonyms—Specific Entry—Repetition Dashes—Use of Capitals for Emphasis—Women's Names Changed by Marriage—Anonymous Books—The Discovery of Authors of Anonymous Books—"By the Author of ——"—Names consisting of Initials only 161
The Bible and other Sacred Books. Newspapers, &c.
"Anonyma" continued—The Bible and other Sacred Books—Commentaries and Concordances—Newspapers and Periodicals—Directories and Annuals 185
Title-Entries—Classics—Specific Subject—Concentration of Subject—Definite Headings—Popular Terms—Historical Fiction—Novels in Series—Sequels—Fiction Known by Special Titles—Books with Changed Titles—Annotations—Form Entries—Summary Hints 199
The Printing of Catalogues.
The Preparation of "Copy"—Markings for Type—Styles of Printing in Various Catalogues—Table of Types—Tenders for Printing—Model Specification—Reading and Correction of Proofs—Type "Kept Standing" 217
Appendix A.—The Correction of Printer's Proof 236
"         B.—A List of Contractions 239
"         C.—A List of Pseudonyms with the Real Names 242
Index 250
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Library Cataloguing.


The difficulties of Cataloguing a Library. The qualities desirable in a Cataloguer. The necessity for Systematic Cataloguing.

Among the varied duties of a librarian that of cataloguing his books is generally supposed by the uninitiated to be one of the easiest. The popular idea is that books are sent to libraries—public libraries at any rate—by grateful publishers, when all the librarian has to do is "to catalogue them," put them up in rows on shelves, and hand them out to the first person who asks for them. The cataloguing of a library is ranked with that of any other inventory, and a catalogue popularly regarded as a mere list, calling for no particular knowledge, effort, or care in its production. The late Prof. John Fiske opens an interesting essay on "A Librarian's Work" in his Darwinism and other Essays (Macmillan, 1879) in these words, which are equally applicable to any library of any pretension:—

I am very frequently asked what in the world a librarian can find to do with his time, or am perhaps congratulated on my connection with Harvard College Library, on the ground that[Pg 2] "being virtually a sinecure office (!) it must leave so much leisure for private study and work of a literary sort." Those who put such questions, or offer such congratulations, are naturally astonished when told that the library affords enough work to employ all my own time, as well as that of twenty assistants; and astonishment is apt to rise to bewilderment when it is added that seventeen of these assistants are occupied chiefly with "cataloguing;" for, generally, I find, a library catalogue is assumed to be a thing that is somehow "made" at a single stroke, as Aladdin's palace was built, at intervals of ten or a dozen years, or whenever a "new catalogue" is thought to be needed. "How often do you make a catalogue?" or "When will your catalogue be completed?" are questions revealing such transcendent misapprehension of the case that little but further mystification can be got from the mere answer, "We are always making a catalogue, and it will never be finished."

Prof. Fiske then proceeds to describe the difficulties of cataloguing a library: "just cataloguing a book" not being by any means so simple a task; and he goes on to demonstrate that the work requires "considerable judgment and discrimination" besides "a great deal of slow, plodding research." Perhaps there is no literary labour of the kind, mere "hewing of wood and drawing of water" though it be, that so quickly takes the conceit out of those essaying it, they finding it both "arduous and perplexing." "The peculiarities of titles are, like the idiosyncrasies of authors, innumerable. Books are in all languages and treat of subjects as multitudinous as the topics of human thought." A good[Pg 3] cataloguer should be learned in the history of all literary, scientific, religious, philosophical, economic, and political movements of all ages and all countries, and especially must he be abreast of the times in a knowledge of men and things, literary, scientific, and otherwise. He needs be something of a linguist, should be exact, orderly, methodical, with fixed ideas and yet an open mind, painstaking, and persevering. Even with the exercise of all these attainments and qualities, his work will not be found to be beyond criticism. No pretence is made to assert that cataloguers as a body do conform to this ideal; if they did it is probable they would find more profitable employment. The next best thing to possessing these qualifications, however, is to have as many as can be attained, and make up for the rest by knowing where to find information as needed. If the cataloguer be not "a walking encyclopædia" in himself, he at least should know how to utilise the printed ones, and all other literature at his command.

There are many kinds of library catalogues ranging from the mere lists made by private persons of their own books to the great "Catalogue of Printed Books in the British Museum," which is so extensive by reason of the number of books contained in it, that its entries are virtually limited to a single item for each book. Whether small or great, the principles governing their compilation are much the same, the following chapters being principally intended as a guide to the cataloguing of a public library of average size.

No matter how good a library may be, its collections are practically lost and useless without an[Pg 4] adequate, properly-compiled catalogue. As Carlyle puts it "A big collection of books without a good catalogue is a Polyphemus with no eye in his head." Even an indifferent library can be made to render comparatively good service with a good catalogue. In order to compile such a catalogue it is essential that certain particulars be given descriptive of the books, and in so systematic a way that, while the entries will afford all reasonable information to the person well-versed in books, they shall, at the same time, be so clear and simple in character as to be understood without much effort by anyone of average intelligence. These particulars should be comprehensive enough to afford some general idea of the nature and scope of the book described without actually examining it, though in this respect much depends upon the character and resources of the library. The full descriptions usual in special bibliographies meant for experts are not to be expected or required in the catalogue of a popular general library.

The value of a good catalogue does not depend upon its extent or size any more than does that of a good book, but rather upon the exactness of the method by which the information given is digested and concentrated. There are library catalogues so elaborately compiled and imposing in appearance that they might be, and often are, considered to be most excellent productions, whereas those who use them find them little more than a medley of book-titles—pedantic without being learned. On the other hand, "infinite riches in a little room" would often be an appropriate motto for some insignificant-looking catalogue. Sometimes it happens that quite[Pg 5] a small library has a large catalogue. This does not always arise from a desire to make the most of the library, but may, likely enough, be owing to the fact that the compilation was undertaken by some over-zealous committeeman or other amateur, who, being "fond of books," considered this a sufficient qualification for cataloguing them without knowing that it is far easier to over-catalogue a library than to do the work judiciously—the result being both wasteful and disastrous. The first catalogues of the smaller public libraries are sometimes of this character, not always for the reason just stated; probably owing to the desire to save the salary of the librarian by postponing his appointment to the last moment. He is then expected to select and purchase the books as well as produce a printed catalogue of them within a few weeks: the conception being that a library can be selected, arranged, and listed in bulk as goods are bought, displayed, and ticketed in a shop, and in as short a time. The cataloguing, then, has perforce to be delegated to an assistant, who possibly has no training whatever. For this reason and others the catalogue of a new public library can seldom be taken as representing the knowledge or ability of the librarian as a cataloguer.

With the spread and rise in the standard of education, more exact and better work is now demanded in libraries than was the case during the early years after the passing of the first Public Libraries Act. The slipshod, unsystematic cataloguing at one time in vogue is not acceptable now, and the public demands something more than bald lists compiled upon no principle in particular, which[Pg 6] are often more bewildering than helpful to an inquiring reader. The student and that interesting person "the general reader" have a better understanding than formerly of the uses and peculiarities of books, and look for precise information concerning them. No better evidence of the general interest taken in books is needed than that afforded by the large place occupied by the reviewing of literature of all kinds in the daily press and popular journals, even in minor periodicals. There must be a public for such reviews, otherwise editors would not provide them; and, no doubt, the spread of libraries has something to do with it. The old dictum that it was not the business of a cataloguer to go behind, or add to, the information deemed sufficient by an author for the title-page of his book does not now find acceptance.

Those who are possessed of even a little experience will know that it is impossible to compile a library catalogue in a haphazard fashion, and that clear and definite rules for guidance must be laid down before any part of the work is attempted, otherwise confusion and want of proportion will result, to say nothing of the likelihood of the loss of work already done. Happily for a number of years now the rules governing the proper compilation of catalogues have been codified, and the following chapters, while based upon no particular code, are meant to serve as a practical introduction to the best-known of them with some little modifications that have been found to be convenient in practice.

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Short History of Modern Cataloguing.

The British Museum Rules. Jewett's Rules. Crestadoro's Catalogues. Huggins' Liverpool Catalogue. Cutter's Rules. The Anglo-American Code. Dziatzko's Instruction. Dewey's Classification. The British Museum and other Catalogues.

Before proceeding to consider the practical side of the subject, we may take a brief glance at the history of modern cataloguing of public libraries in this country. The earlier catalogues were limited either to author-entries or were classified according to the whims of the compiler, sometimes according to the rooms or shelves in which the books were placed.

The subject of cataloguing received the most serious attention in the year 1850, and, roundly, we may date its history from then. "The Rules for the Compilation of the Catalogue of Printed Books in the Library of the British Museum" had been adopted in 1839, and were printed in 1841. In a great measure they may be regarded as the basis of all cataloguing rules since that time, at any rate for author-entry or its equivalent. In 1850 a Royal Commission on the management of the British Museum had sat and issued its report, and rate-supported public libraries were coming into existence. There had been much discussion on the need for an adequate and promptly-produced catalogue of the books in the Museum, and many views upon[Pg 8] the subject were set forth, especially by literary experts. Their criticism was in the main directed against the existing rules known as Panizzi's. Anthony Panizzi, then Principal Librarian, with others of the Museum staff, including Thomas Watts, Winter Jones, and Edward Edwards, had each separately prepared a set of rules according to his own ideas for the compilation of the projected catalogue, and these were afterwards discussed by the compilers collectively, and differences of opinion decided by vote.

The Secretary of this Royal Commission was J. Payne Collier, and he was one of the opposers of Panizzi's rules, especially taking exception to the fulness of entry because of the delay it entailed. To show practically how he would catalogue he tried his hand on twenty-five books in his own library and submitted the results. Mr. Winter Jones reported upon it, and said it contained almost every possible error which can be committed in cataloguing books. Payne Collier's attempt and his justification of it appear in the first part of the Gentleman's Magazine for 1850, where it will be seen that a German edition of Shakespeare is entered under the editor alone, and a play of Aristophanes is also so treated, besides other mistakes of a very amateurish nature.

In this same year (1850) attention was being directed in America to library cataloguing. The Smithsonian Institution sent out a circular to the effect that, being desirous of facilitating research in literature and science, and of thus aiding in the increase and diffusion of knowledge, it had resolved to form a general catalogue of the various libraries[Pg 9] in the United States. The librarian of the institution, Prof. Charles C. Jewett, had prepared plans for the accomplishment of this object. The first part related to the stereotyping of catalogues by separate titles in a uniform style. This stereotyping was proposed to save time, labour, and expense in the preparation of new editions of such a general catalogue. Only as many copies as were needed for present use were to be struck off, and then new editions were to be printed from time to time with later additions also in stereotype. This idea, though it crops up from time to time, has now no novelty about it, though recent inventions in type-setting machines have certainly given cause for its reconsideration. No plan of this kind, particularly if it were to be co-operative among the libraries, could be of the least value unless there were uniformity of compilation according to fixed rules, and so the second part consists of a set of general rules to be recommended for adoption by the different libraries of the United States in the preparation of their catalogues. Jewett's code was based upon Panizzi's "Rules for the British Museum," with modifications and additions to suit them to general use, and more especially in connection with his proposed co-operative catalogue. Upon this point he says, "The rules for cataloguing must be stringent, and should meet as far as possible all difficulties of detail. Nothing, so far as can be avoided, should be left to the individual taste or judgment of the cataloguer. He should be a man of sufficient learning, accuracy, and fidelity, to apply the rules." In order to emphasise further the need for uniformity, he[Pg 10] proceeds to say that "if the one adopted were that of the worst of our catalogues, if it were strictly followed in all alike, their uniformity would render catalogues thus made far more useful than the present chaos of irregularities." From his point of view of a national catalogue, he was perfectly right, though for general cataloguing the argument is not convincing. Probably there is room for a greater degree of uniformity in the catalogues of public libraries than exists at present, and a better understanding upon this point might be of some advantage to readers and workers generally. The fact that catalogue rules of a standard kind exist does not seem to have exercised any great influence in this respect.

The full title of Jewett's work is "On the Construction of Catalogues of Libraries and their Publication by means of separate Stereotyped Titles, with Rules and Examples, by Chas. C. Jewett, Librarian of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington." The first edition was issued in 1852, and another in the following year. The number of rules is thirty-nine, and they are furnished with a series of examples and a specimen subject-index. This may be regarded as the first code of rules which contains subject-entries as well as author-entries.

In 1856, some two years before Jewett put his rules into practice in a catalogue of the Boston Public Library, Mr. A. Crestadoro published a pamphlet on "The Art of Making Catalogues of Libraries." The system he recommended was to compile the catalogue with the titles of the books given fully, leading off with the author's names, but[Pg 11] arranged in no particular order. These entries were to be consecutively numbered. To this list of books there was to be an index of authors and subjects in a brief form with the number referring to the entry in the main catalogue. The subject-words were to be taken from the titles of the books themselves and accordingly books with synonymous titles were entered under those titles with such cross-references as were needed. This method was put into force by Crestadoro when librarian of the Manchester Public Library, and the catalogue still remains in use for the older books in the Reference Library there. The first volume was published in 1864, the entries being numbered from 1 to 26,534, though they are arranged more or less alphabetically under authors' names, or the principal subject-words if anonymous. To this volume is attached a brief subject-matter index. Two later volumes were published in 1879, and in these the books are apparently entered very much as they were received into the Library. A separate volume, however, serves as an index, both of authors and subjects, to all three volumes, and this volume is still the real finding catalogue, the volumes with the full particulars being little used in comparison.

This index-form of brief entries of authors and subjects in one alphabet was utilised for catalogues of lending libraries in Manchester; the following example of later date being taken from one of these:—

Glacial Period, Man and the. By Wright
Glaciers of the Alps: a Lecture. By Molloy
Gladiators. By Melville
[Pg 12]Gladman (F. J.) School Method
Gladstone (Catherine) Life of. By Pratt
Gladstone (J. H.) Michael Faraday.
Gladstone (W. E.) Biography of. By Russell
— Biography of. By Smith
— Character of.
— England under. By McCarthy
— Essay on. By Brown
— Gladstone's House of Commons. By O'Connor
— Gleanings of Past Years
— Government. By Kent
— Homer
— Impregnable Rock of Holy Scripture

A similar arrangement was also adopted for the Birmingham Public Library by the late J. D. Mullins in 1869.

At this time, or a little earlier, Samuel Huggins, a retired architect, was engaged by the Liverpool Corporation to compile a catalogue of the Public Reference Library there. He took Jewett's Catalogue of the Boston Public Library as his model, but with certain modifications. He says "in the shaping out of all its chief features—Poetry, Painting, Music, Architecture, the Drama, Novels, and the Bible group, it has been so treated as to constitute it an original and unique catalogue, which in regard both to form and detail of these great departments of the field of knowledge is superior, so far as I know, to any other work of the kind. The subjects generally are more concentrated, brought into fewer and larger groups than in the excellent catalogue just named"—that is Jewett's Boston one. One of the principles that he lays down is that a book of science or art with a geographical limitation will be found not under the scientific subject of which it treats, but under the name of[Pg 13] the country or place to which the scientific research is confined, and so a book on the conchology of France does not appear under Conchology but under France—subject division "Natural History." Mr. Huggins apparently was not satisfied that this idea met all needs as he printed an appendix to his volume "wherein for the greater convenience of the student, those works in the catalogue which, by the geographical principle of distribution, are classed under the places to which their subjects respectively are confined, and so, wide scattered, are brought together, and grouped according to their subject." The work was published in 1872, its main principles being more distinctly those we now understand by the form "a dictionary catalogue" and it was probably the first of the kind in this country. Under the older index catalogues a book upon Palestine might be under such headings as Palestine, Holy Land, Land of Promise, Lands of the Bible, Bible Lands, or any other title adopted by the authors on their title-pages, whereas these were all concentrated under a single heading with such reasonable references and cross-references as were needed to bind the whole together or "syndetic" as Cutter terms it. This catalogue is still in use in the Liverpool Reference Library, but has been improved in detail in the later supplementary volumes, including the elimination of the form-headings, of which Mr. Huggins made so much.

Other developments in library cataloguing about this period lay more in the direction of attempts to combine the hitherto almost general classified catalogues with subject and author catalogues in the unsatisfactory alphabetico-classed form.

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Up to this time, however, there was no adequate code of rules suited to all requirements. As we have seen, the British Museum rules were for author-entry, and Jewett's were by no means complete enough for the purpose. In 1876, Mr. C. A. Cutter published his "Rules for a Printed Dictionary Catalogue," this work forming the second volume or part of the "Special Report of the U.S. Bureau of Education on the History, Condition, and Management of Public Libraries in the United States of America." These rules numbered 205 as compared with Jewett's 39, and Mr. Cutter put them into use in, if they were not actually based upon, his large Catalogue of the Library of the Boston Athenæum. A second edition of these rules, with corrections and additions, was issued as a separate work in 1889, a third in 1891, and a fourth in 1904. This last edition contained Mr. Cutter's latest corrections and additions (he died in September, 1903), the number of rules being increased thereby to 369. It is at present the standard and most exhaustive work of the kind, and is unlikely to be soon superseded, though it will be improved upon from time to time as library practice requires and its essential principles become embodied in other codes. Librarians of all ranks are indebted to the American Government for the generosity with which they distributed it freely to applicants.

Both the American and British Library Associations formulated rules—the former in 1878 and the latter in 1883—though neither can be said to have been of much service, the American being a condensation of Cutter with some unimportant variations,[Pg 15] and the British getting no further than author and title entries. The two Associations have now combined in a series of rules known as the "Anglo-American code" and entitled "Cataloguing Rules, Author and Title Entries, compiled by Committees of the American Library Association and of the Library Association." This was published in 1908, and the history of its production forms a preface to the work. A fuller history and description of it by the Secretary of the British Committee, Mr. John Minto, is contained in the Library Association Record, volume 11, 1909. A noteworthy statement he makes is "I do not think that it was supposed to be the business of the Committee to provide for the needs of very small libraries, which, on account of the inadequacy of their funds, are unable to provide full catalogues, and are obliged to be content with mere title-a-line lists. The requirements of such libraries are already well served with existing codes—for example Cutter's Rules which provide alternative forms, short, medium, and full, for various grades of libraries." For this very reason the Anglo-American code will never find much favour for practical use in this country, though it is at present the basis for the Library Association examinations in this subject.

In 1886 Prof. Dziatzko published his "Instruction für die Ordnung der Titel im alphabetischen Zettelkatalog der Königlichen und Universitäts-Bibliothek zu Breslau" which Mr. K. A. Linderfelt of Milwaukee translated and adapted in 1890, with the other standard rules, under the title "Eclectic Card Catalog Rules, Author and Title Entries, based on Dziatzko's 'Instruction' compared with[Pg 16] the Rules of the British Museum, Cutter, Dewey, Perkins, and other Authorities." It is so ample in its details that it covers all possible forms of authors' names and is therefore most valuable for reference or for compiling any catalogues, though it may contain a great deal that is rarely required in average library practice. The appendix, containing a list of oriental titles and occupations with their significance, is a useful feature of the work.

So many classified catalogues have appeared of late years arranged according to the Dewey Decimal System that no notes upon the history of cataloguing would be complete without some reference to that system. There is no doubt that it is mainly responsible for the revival of this form of catalogue. The system was planned or invented by Mr. Melvil Dewey, when librarian of Amherst College, U.S.A., and was in the first instance intended for cataloguing and indexing purposes, though it is now more commonly used for classifying and numbering the books upon the shelves. It was the result of a good deal of careful study of library needs and, on the face of it, is simple and practical. As to this Dewey says "in all the work philosophical theory and accuracy have been made to yield to practical usefulness. The impossibility of making a satisfactory classification of all knowledge, as preserved in books, has been appreciated from the first, and nothing of the kind attempted. Theoretical harmony and exactness have been repeatedly sacrificed to the practical requirements of the library."

In spite of this statement it is astonishing how few defects it has as a system of classification,[Pg 17] especially when it is remembered that every class and every subject is divided into ten heads. This limitation has the tendency to congest some subjects while others do not admit of the use of so many as ten numbers. Withal it is very elastic and useful, though, as may be expected, things American get preferential and fuller treatment. The first edition was published from Amherst College Library in 1876, the second from Columbia College Library in 1885, the third in 1888, the fourth from the New York State Library in 1891; the last ("edition 7") being that of 1911, each being a revision and enlargement of the earlier edition. The very full index attached to the scheme makes it comparatively easy to use, but, in the process of using, it is astonishing how many books have to be specially considered as to their correct place, a comparison of catalogues compiled under the system showing that different minds have interpreted the scheme quite differently.

There are other schemes of classification applicable to cataloguing, as for instance that known as the "Expansive," the compilation of the late C. A. Cutter, and the "Adjustable" of Mr. J. D. Brown. This last is used in several public libraries worked upon what is termed the "open access" system. The earlier history of classified cataloguing is treated fully enough for most purposes in Mr. J. D. Brown's books on library classification.

Even this mere sketch in outline of cataloguing history would be incomplete without some allusion to the printing of the "British Museum Catalogue of Printed Books." The printing of the first portion, containing the books to the end of 1881, was the[Pg 18] work of twenty years, and consists of 393 parts, which superseded more than 2,000 folio volumes of the manuscript catalogue. The supplement containing the books added to the Museum during the years 1882-1899 was completed in 1905, and those who have the opportunity of constant reference to the pages of the complete work know how valuable—even indispensable—it is, and look forward to the appearance of the next supplement. Decennial supplements would be none too frequent.

When to-day so many excellent catalogues of libraries are produced it would be invidious to single out any for special praise, but no excuse is needed for naming that of the London Library published in 1903 with its subject volume of 1909, both volumes being remarkable for condensation and accuracy. At this time (1913) a new revised and enlarged edition is announced for publication.

Mr. H. B. Wheatley's interesting little book, "How to Catalogue a Library," must not be overlooked in connection with the history of modern library cataloguing, particularly the chapter on "The Battle of the Rules."

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Dictionary versus Classified Catalogues.

Form to be fixed. The users of Catalogues. Questions Catalogues are expected to answer. The Dictionary Catalogue. The Classified Catalogue. The Alphabetico-Classed Catalogue. Definitions.

We now proceed to consider the needs of those for whom our catalogues are prepared.

It may be presumed that most of those who use this book are engaged in municipal or similar libraries, where the requirements of the many must be taken into account rather than the special needs of the few. For those who have yet to acquire experience it is as well to state that in cataloguing, as in most other departments of library work, a definite decision as to the form and methods to be adopted must be made at the outset, as it is impossible to start upon one form and then change to another without confusion or the sacrifice of work already done. Then, again, readers as a rule are extremely conservative, and not only dislike a change but are quick to resent it even when the advantages are sufficiently obvious to warrant it. Librarians and their assistants, too, get accustomed to a particular method, and after several years of working find it difficult to make a change to another without it affecting their work, often unconsciously.

The spread of education and reading nowadays would lead us to suppose that most people possess[Pg 20] a sufficient amount of general knowledge to enable them to make an intelligent use of a catalogue, provided it is compiled upon well-defined and logical principles. Should the compiler happen to have all the accomplishments named in Chapter I., and yield to the temptation to air them by the production of a highly scientific catalogue, he will find that his labours are unappreciated, and that he must adapt his work to the needs of the average "man in the street." Mr. H. B. Wheatley says as to this "that some persons seem to think that everything is to be brought down to the comprehension of the fool; but if by doing this we make it more difficult for the intelligent person, the action is surely not politic. The consulter of a catalogue might at least take the trouble to understand the plan upon which it is compiled before using it." Mr. Wheatley's experience is not that of public librarians generally, as not one person in a thousand does take this trouble.

However this may be, there is no difficulty in attaining the happy medium whereby the ignorant (speaking, of course, comparatively) finds his wants met as readily as the most learned, and with simplicity and thoroughness. It has been put in other words thus: "The right doctrine for a public library catalogue is that it should be made not from the scientific cataloguer's point of view, with a minimum of indulgence for ignoramuses, but from the ignoramus's point of view with a minimum, of indulgence for the scientific cataloguer. That the person who not only does not know but does not even know how to search should be primarily provided for." Therefore this idea of suiting the needs[Pg 21] of the particular public using the library must never be overlooked by the cataloguer.

Besides considering what are likely to be the needs of the majority of the readers who will use the library to be catalogued, we must decide what is the maximum amount of information that the catalogue should afford them, also which form will give the most of this information with the least trouble and delay to the inquirer.

What are the questions likely to be asked that a catalogue can be reasonably expected to answer? These do not exceed a dozen, and are as follows:—

1.—Have you a particular book by a given author?

2.—What books have you by a given author?

3.—What books in the library has a particular person edited, translated, or illustrated?

4.—What books have you upon a specific subject? say roses.

5.—What books are there relating to a general subject? say all kinds of flowers.

6.—What books have you in a particular class of literature? say biography or theology.

7.—What books have you in a particular language?

8.—What books have you in a particular literature? say French. (This is a somewhat remote but not unreasonable question.)

9.—Have you a book (author unnamed) bearing a particular title? and, on the same footing with this inquiry, Have you any of the series called so and so?

[Pg 22]

10.—What books have you in a particular form of literature? as poetry.

11.—Have you a novel or other work by a particular author dealing with a particular period? or any similar question relating to the inner nature of a book.

12.—In what volume of an author's works is a particular essay contained? (This last question is really the same as the first in another form.)

The first and second questions will be answered by a catalogue consisting of author-entries, that is a dictionary of authors, or if compiled under the British Museum rules it will answer these and the third also to a large extent. In addition it should answer No. 12. Questions 4, 5, 6, and 10 can be answered by means of the catalogue known as classified—the entries being arranged in general classes and sub-divided as necessary, but logically, according to the scientific relations of the subjects of the books. If an author-index is added other questions also would be answered with a little trouble. The same questions will be answered by the form known as alphabetico-classed—that is a catalogue of subject, class, and form entries arranged alphabetically.

No one style of catalogue, however, will answer all of these questions, but the one that will answer most of them with the least trouble and loss of time to the user is that known as the dictionary catalogue. It consists of an arrangement of author, subject, and (to a limited extent) title entries in a single alphabetical sequence, and is by far the most popular form. It is neither economical nor the most logical, but its[Pg 23] convenience for ready reference compensates for these defects. It ordinarily answers questions 1, 2, 4, 5, 9, and can be made to answer questions 3, 7, 11, and 12—that is nine questions out of the twelve.

The two most common forms of catalogues are the dictionary and the classified. For many years much controversy has arisen respecting their comparative usefulness, and there is much to be said in favour of both, each having merits, as already shown, not possessed by the other. The late C. A. Cutter points out the advantages of the classified catalogue, thus: "One who is pursuing any general course of study finds brought together in one part of the catalogue most of the books he needs. He sees not merely books on the particular topic in which he is interested, but in immediate neighbourhood works on related topics, suggesting to him courses of investigation which he might otherwise overlook. He finds it an assistance to have all these works spread out before him, so that he can take a general survey of the ground before he chooses his route; and as he goes back, day after day, to his particular part of the catalogue he becomes familiar with it, turns to it at once, and uses it with ease. The same is true of the numerous class who are not making any investigation or pursuing any definite course of study, but are merely desultory readers. Their choice of books is usually made from certain kinds of literature or classes of subjects. Some like poetry or essays or plays [curiously he omits novels]; others like religious works, or philosophical works, or scientific works, not caring about the particular subject of the book[Pg 24] so much as whether it be well-written or interesting. To these persons it is a convenience that their favourite kind of reading should all be contained in one or two parts of the catalogue, and freed from the confusing admixture of titles of a different sort. An alphabetical list of specific subjects is to them little more suggestive than an alphabetical list of authors. It is true that by following up all the references of a dictionary catalogue under Theology, for example, a man may construct for himself a list of the theological literature in the library; but to do this requires time and a mental effort, and it is the characteristic of the desultory reader that he is averse to mental effort. What is wanted by him and by the busy man when now and then he has the same object, is to find the titles from which he would select brought together within the compass of a few pages; few, that is, in comparison with the whole catalogue. It may be 500 pages, but 500 pages are better than 10,000. The classed catalogue is better suited also than any other to exhibit the richness of the library in particular departments."

Cutter, at the same time, proceeds to name some of the disadvantages of this style of catalogue. "A large part of the public are not pursuing general investigations. They want to find a particular book or a particular subject quickly; and the necessity of mastering a complex system before using the catalogue is an unwelcome delay or an absolute bar to its use." Then, again, there is the difficulty of want of agreement as to classifications. The simple remedy for such difficulty is an alphabetical index of all the subjects appearing in the catalogue, whereby an inquirer is directed[Pg 25] to the particular part of the catalogue in which he will find books upon the subject or topic he wants. There are very few, if any, catalogues of the kind without indexes now, though in the early days they were seldom provided.

As said already, early catalogues of libraries were mostly either classified or simply author catalogues. The classification was, often enough, very poor, the sub-division not being carried very far, and this led to the invention or evolution of the dictionary catalogue and brought the classified, such as it was, into disrepute.

The cataloguing of a library is one of the most troublesome and expensive departments of its administration. The cost of printing is greater than ordinary printing, and the expense to a library with its limited income is always serious, because people will not buy a catalogue even at half the cost price of printing but prefer to make use of the copies provided at the desks. Moreover, at the end of six or even fewer months after publication the public usually regard it as out of date and decides to wait for the next edition. In this respect the classified catalogue has the advantage, as it costs less to print, and for this reason, as well as owing to the custom of admitting readers to the shelves of public libraries, there has been a revival of this style of catalogue in late years, especially as it serves as a key or guide to the arrangement of the books upon the shelves of "open access" libraries. It can moreover be printed and issued in sections without affecting its completeness in the end.

The dictionary form, as distinguished from a mere alphabetical list of authors, consists[Pg 26] of entries of books under their specific subjects, instead of their classes. To quote Cutter again: "Thus if a book treats of Natural History it is put under that heading; if it treats of Zoology alone that word is the rubric; if it is on Mammals it will be found under mammals; and, finally, if one is looking for a treatise on the elephant, he need not know if that animal is a mammal; he need not even be sure that it is an animal; he has merely to be sufficiently acquainted with his alphabet to find the word Elephant, under which will appear all the separate works that the library contains on that subject. Nothing, one would think, can be more simple, easy to explain, easy and expeditious to use than this. No matter what he wants he will find it at once provided that the library has a book on just that subject and that it has been entered under the very word which he is thinking of. If these conditions are not fulfilled, however, there is more trouble. If the library has no book or article sufficiently important to be catalogued on that topic he must look in some more comprehensive work in which he will find it treated (as the history of Assyrian art is related in the histories of Art), in which case he will get no help whatever from any dictionary catalogue yet made, in finding the general work, he must trust to his own knowledge of the subject and of ordinary classification to guide him to the including class, or there may be something to his purpose in less general works (as books on Iron bridges or Suspension bridges might be better than nothing to a man who was studying the larger subject Bridges), but in this case also[Pg 27] he will very seldom get any assistance from dictionary catalogues, and must rely entirely upon his previous knowledge of the possible branches of his subject. Even in those catalogues which relieve him of this trouble by giving cross-references, he must look twice, first for his own word and then for the word to which he is referred from that."

A judicial statement of the merits of both these styles of catalogue is contained in a paper by Mr. F. T. Barrett, of Glasgow, entitled "The Alphabetical and Classified Forms of Catalogues compared," printed in the Transactions of the Second International Library Conference, 1897. In the Library Association Record, 1901 (pt. 1), pp. 514-531, there is a verbal and friendly duel between Mr. W. E. Doubleday and the author upon the matter, mainly from the practical point of view.

The Alphabetico-Classed catalogue, as its name denotes, is an attempt at a classified catalogue in alphabetical order of subjects or classes, and is a mixture of the two systems already spoken of, and about as satisfactory as hybrids usually are. The late Prof. Justin Winsor characterised it as "the mongrel alphabetico-classed system, a primarily classed system with an alphabetical graft upon it is a case of confusion worse confounded." The great difficulty both to compiler and user is to know where the subjects leave off and the classes begin—in other words, whether a subject or a class entry is likely to be the one wanted. One of the best examples of this kind of catalogue is the late Mr. Fortescue's "Subject Index to the British Museum Catalogue," and he apparently experienced[Pg 28] the difficulty of deciding, as for instance a book on the elephant appears under Elephant, but a work upon the Elk must be looked for under "Deer." The usefulness of this particular catalogue cannot be gainsaid as its value is too well known, mainly because there is no other form of subject-catalogue for the library of the British Museum. Besides it has such a comprehensive series of cross-references that difficulty is largely obviated, and then again it is only meant as a subject supplement to the principal catalogue. Admirable as it is, we may see how it works out in practice. Suppose we are interested in Law. Under the heading "Law" we find a large number of entries divided into particular kinds of law as "Commercial," "Criminal," "Ecclesiastical," &c., and these are further sub-divided under the names of countries. One would suppose that the subject would be here treated in a most exhaustive manner. But that is not so, as if we require books on the Laws of England we must turn to the word "England." Thus we have books on English criminal law under "Law"; a book upon English general law under "England"; and a book say upon English election law under "Elections, Law of." If it is right to put books on the law of elections under Elections it might be assumed that books on criminal law would go under "Criminal law," but there is not even a reference to say where they are to be found. Admittedly "Law" is a large and complex subject, and would fill many pages if the books upon it were brought together. As it is the searcher must take a long time to ascertain in any exhaustive manner what books upon the subject[Pg 29] are contained in Mr. Fortescue's Indexes. Even if the inquiry is narrowed down to say Italian law, searches must be made in many places without touching special Italian law at all. However there is no system but has its drawbacks, though probably the alphabetico-classed has the most.

There is such a thing as a dictionary system that combines an unseen but systematically classified system. Its root method would be to adopt some thorough scheme of classification permitting of the finest possible detail in topic and adjust thereto any necessary cross-references to cover synonymous names and double subjects. The cataloguer would keep the complete scheme in all its details before him and, by means of an alphabetical index to every adopted name, he would have a list of the subject-headings in dictionary order and to these he would adhere. There would still be specific entry. This is the method that should be pursued in the compilation of dictionary catalogues. The classification may exist only in the mind of the cataloguer and be formulated in no other way unless he relies upon headings already fixed in his catalogue. By trying to adjust headings in such catalogues to any logical classification one can soon ascertain whether they are systematic or haphazard.

The following definitions should be noted before proceeding to the next chapter:—

Author-Catalogue is one in which the entries are arranged alphabetically according to the names of the authors (a dictionary of authors).

Title-Catalogue is one in which the entries are arranged alphabetically according to some word of[Pg 30] the title, especially the first (a dictionary of titles).

Subject-Catalogue is one in which the entries are arranged according to the subjects of the books, alphabetically by the words selected to denote those subjects (dictionary arrangement). If these subject entries are not arranged alphabetically, but are formed into classes philosophically according to the scientific relations of the subjects, then it is a classed or classified catalogue.

Form-Catalogue is one in which the entries are arranged according to the forms of literature and the languages in which the books are written, either alphabetically or according to the relations of the forms to one another.

Apart from these there is a style of catalogue in which the entries are selected to suit the kind of person for whom the books are designed. A catalogue of books for children would be of this order. While it would include books in all classes of literature written to suit juvenile capacity, yet it may reasonably be regarded as a class in itself, and a place is usually assigned to it in a classified catalogue.

When a catalogue of a particular class of literature is separately published it is called a Class-List. A catalogue of novels, or of poetry, or of music would be so termed.

By the term Dictionary Catalogue we understand a combination of the first three, viz., Author, Title, and Subject catalogues in a single alphabet.

The last two forms when thrown together, not in alphabetical but in logical arrangement, make the Classified Catalogue.

[Pg 31]

The same two if arranged alphabetically and not logically form the Alphabetico-Classed Catalogue. With this last form the author-catalogue could be combined without any disturbance of its arrangement. It can only be added to the classified as an index or appendix.

[Pg 32]

Single Author Principal-Entry.

Stationery. The Author-Entry. Full Names. Imprint and Collation. Order of Information Tabulated. Subject-Entry. Headings. Class-Entry.

To study systematically the various codes of cataloguing rules is of great value to the beginner in the work of cataloguing a library, though the apparent variations and contradictions in the codes are at first somewhat confusing. Their practical application to work in hand serves better to prove the usefulness and necessity of adopting some code or a modification of it before much progress is made. Once a choice is made, it is better to adhere to it uniformly throughout.

The purpose of the catalogue has a bearing upon the nature of the stationery required. A catalogue cannot be written into a book like an inventory; each item—even books by the same author or upon the same subject—must be upon a separate paper slip or card cut uniformly to any size fixed upon. Paper slips serve quite well for manuscript, or "copy" as it is termed, for the printer, but tough cards of good quality are needed for a catalogue on cards to be handled by many persons. It is a good plan in any case first to prepare the catalogue upon slips or cards for office use; then, when checked and revised, to copy from these for public use, either upon the good quality cards as suggested, or into the book-form of catalogues with separate[Pg 33] leaves, known as "sheaf-catalogues." This last-named form is preferable for public use, and takes up less room. Any size of slips or cards may be adopted provided they are exactly cut to a fixed size, 5 inches by 3 inches being convenient; or the size usually provided with the index filing outfits, now so generally in commercial use, which were first used in the cataloguing of libraries, and then applied to other purposes. If the slips or cards are for handwriting, they should be ruled "feint" across, and whether so written or typed, are better with red lines marking margins of about half an inch at each side. If written by hand, the writing should be round, clear, of fair size, and above all, free from flourishes, whether written for public use or for the printer.

Two of the first questions a catalogue will be expected to answer are

Have you a particular book by a given author?
What books have you by a named author?

These two questions are not precisely identical, though they are both answered by the same form of catalogue entry, namely, that under the surname of the writer of the book, known as the "author-entry." This, or some substitute therefor, is invariably regarded as the main, or principal, entry. Though the placing or position of such an entry is not the same in both the dictionary and classified forms of catalogue, one falling under the author's name according to its place in the alphabet, and the other into its position in a class, the form of the entry itself is the same in both. The particulars for this entry must always be taken from the full title-page of the book, never from[Pg 34] the binding or from the preliminary or half-title, though at times this half or "bastard-title" will furnish the name of the series or some other detail not given elsewhere but wanted for full-entry.

The title-page of the first book we deal with reads:—

Oh quem fôra a Portugal
Terra que Deus bemdizia!
(O to go to Portugal, land heaven-blest)
LONDON: John Lane, The Bodley Head.

NEW YORK: John Lane Company. MCMXII.

The surname of the author then is Bell, and we either enclose his further names in parentheses, as

Bell (Aubrey F. G.)

or with a comma and full stop, as

Bell, Aubrey F. G.

There is no reason for advocating the adoption of one of these styles more than the other, especially in these days of type-setting machines. Where[Pg 35] hand composition is still in use, and particularly in small printing offices, the use of a large number of parentheses ( ) causes "a run on sorts," that is, the supply wanted is greater than is ordinarily found with a fount of jobbing type. Nowadays, it being merely a question of taste, and not one of expediency, it matters less, and as my personal preference is for the use of the comma and point, that style is used in the examples given throughout this book. The form decided upon must be adhered to if only to ensure uniform appearance—certainly both forms should not be found in one catalogue. Attention to details of this kind is the essence of good work, and after a time cataloguers, becoming accustomed to a particular style, fall, as a matter of course, into its use quite readily.

The surname is followed, as shown, by the Christian or forenames, but we are often confronted with the necessity for deciding how much of these forenames shall go in—shall they be given as on the title-page, or shall we find out the full names covered by the initials, or will initials alone suffice? In some catalogues the full names are given, in others only the initials, and in a few rare instances of "index-entry" catalogues the surname alone. For an average catalogue to give the name in its fullest possible form is more than is required, and is wasteful of space, while the bare initials do not enable us to discern whether the author is a man or a woman. It is more helpful to give the first or other important forename, and to do so does not lengthen the catalogue to any appreciable extent. The danger of this omission is exemplified at the end of this chapter.

[Pg 36]

In the catalogues of large libraries it is often necessary to take the trouble to get all names as fully and correctly as possible, otherwise, owing to the likelihood of numerous entries under persons with the same surnames, errors may result if the authors are not distinguished from one another in this way. This does not imply that the cataloguer of a collection of books up to 100,000 volumes need go to the trouble of giving every name in full as if he were compiling a biographical dictionary; nor need he add the dates of the author's birth and death to the name, as is sometimes done, because the labour will be unappreciated, and be wasted. Such dates, however, have at times to be given to distinguish between authors whose names are alike.

It is a wise plan, in any case, to limit the forenames or initials to those used by an author on his books at any time during his career. For all reasonable purposes, or any purpose, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, for example, is sufficient, though his name was properly Gabriel Charles Dante Rossetti, Charles Dickens, instead of Charles John Huffam Dickens, will not be mistaken for any other of the name, and Joaquin Miller will serve better than Cincinnatus Heine Miller.

A few instances taken from recent books by well-known authors will show how difficulties may arise in this connection. George Bernard Shaw's "Man and Superman" according to the title-page is "by Bernard Shaw," whereas his "The quintessence of Ibsenism" is "by G. Bernard Shaw." Martin Hume's work on "The love affairs of Mary, Queen of Scots" is given as "by Martin Hume," but his "Spain: its greatness and decay" is "by Martin[Pg 37] A. S. Hume." There is the "Life of Gladstone" "by Herbert Woodfield Paul," a book "Men and letters" "by Herbert Paul," and "Matthew Arnold" (in the "English Men of Letters" series), "by Herbert W. Paul." Then we have the case of the well-known writer on animal life who changed his name recently on his books from Ernest Seton Thompson to Ernest Thompson Seton. This leads the unwary cataloguer into the mistake of getting books by the same author under different names. It must be confessed that the risk is not great where such well-known writers are concerned, but if they should be unknown authors of a past age or another country, the cataloguer would probably not be so well-informed, and fall into error. To cite an instance of this, the French author, Louis Jacques Napoleon Bertrand, we are told, took the name of Ludovic Bertrand, and later substituted Aloysius for Ludovic, the wonder being that he did not change the Bertrand also. There is need to be constantly on the alert for those who have no fixity of name. The only little satisfaction the cataloguer has if he finds he has tripped is that few will have sufficient knowledge to discover his fault.

Besides the catalogues of important libraries, the following may be named as among the more useful works of reference for working out the names of authors and other personages:—

Phillips, Lawrence B. The dictionary of biographical
reference. 1871 and later reprints.
Stephen, Sir Leslie, and Sir Sidney Lee (Eds.)
The dictionary of national biography; with
[Pg 38]the supplements. 1885-1912.
Allibone, S. A. Critical dictionary of English
literature and British and American authors;
with supplement of J. F. Kirk. 1885-91.
Smith, B. E. (Ed.) The Century cyclopedia of
names. 1894.
Auge, Claude (Ed.) Nouveau Larousse illustré;
avec supplement.
Biographie universelle, ancienne et moderne. 1811-28.
Nouvelle biographie générale. 1852-66.
Allgemeine deutsche Biographie. 1875-1908.
Appleton's Cyclopædia of American biography.

The New York State University Library Bulletin, Bibliography, No. 5, issued in 1898 at the price of 3d., consists of "A selection of Reference Books for the use of Cataloguers in finding Full Names."

To revert to the book we are dealing with. As the author gives his first Christian name in full and two initials for the others we may regard it as quite full enough for any style of catalogue, and adding the title of the book, the entry becomes

Bell, Aubrey F. G.
In Portugal.

The quotation on the title-page, with its translation, is ignored altogether, as would be anything of a similar nature, such as a motto; these are merely adornments of the title-page, and have no bearing whatever upon the book from the cataloguer's standpoint. If it were intended to be very exact the omission could be indicated by three dots (...) but the need for doing this only applies in the case of rare or special editions.

We have now got the first two parts of our catalogue entry, and in the order from which there[Pg 39] can be no deviation. Our next step is to decide how much further information is to be given. A catalogue of a library has been defined as a list of the titles of books which it contains, and that it (the catalogue) must not be expected to give any further description of a book than the author gives, or ought to give, on the title-page, and the publisher in the imprint, or colophon.

The catalogue can be made to give, besides the titles of books, such descriptions, more or less extended, drawn from all available sources of information, as may be necessary to furnish means of identifying each work, of distinguishing its different editions, of ascertaining the requisites of a perfect copy, of learning all facts of interest respecting its authorship, publication, typography, subsequent causalities, alterations, etc., its market value, and the estimation in which it is held.

For our entry we shall adopt the happy mean between these two and add to this entry, because it is the principal one, the information contained in the "imprint" at the foot of the title-page, giving the place of publication, the publisher's (or printer's) name, and the date of publication. In the early days of printing this information was given at the end of a book, and termed the "colophon." We shall also give the information spoken of as "the collation," consisting of a statement of the number of pages in the book, whether it is illustrated, and how, by maps, portraits, or otherwise, and even if the illustrations are in colour.

The first-named place of publication on the title-page of the book is London. In the catalogues of British libraries it is a recognised custom to omit[Pg 40] naming the place of publication when a book is unmistakably published in London, this being taken as understood, all other places being given. Except in booksellers' lists and similar catalogues, the name of the publisher may also be left out, though it is often given in the full form of library catalogues. In the case of this book, the name of the second place, New York, is merely supplemental, the book being printed as well as published in this country. The date of publication must always be given, and in every entry (with the single exception of works of fiction, referred to later), not in Roman numerals, however, but in Arabic.

When books are in a number of volumes, the earliest and latest dates are given. These dates are not necessarily those of the first and last volumes, as the volumes may not have appeared in regular sequence, or a set may be made up from editions of varying dates.

For "the collation" we carefully examine the book and find that it has eight pages of prefatory matter marked with Roman numerals (i.—viii.), and the body of the work contains 227, paged in Arabic. This is shown as pp. viii. + 227, or as pp. viii., 227. The book has no map or illustrations. The enumeration of the pages in this way, it may be said, conveys no very exact idea of the extent of the work, as, of course, large type requires many more pages than small. Even the thickness of the book is not indicated by stating the number of pages, as an India-paper edition will contain just the same number of pages as one on thick paper. For these and other reasons, such information can be omitted if economy of space is of any conse[Pg 41]quence. If a book is in more than one volume it is unusual to give the number of pages, though it is sometimes done in publishers' lists. A "book" is invariably understood to mean a complete work, whether in one or many volumes.

The size of the book may also be given, and will occasionally prove useful, while completing the entry. The book we are dealing with is octavo in size, coming between the sizes known as "crown" and "demy," but as these terms convey no special idea to the uninformed in book sizes, and, indeed, no very definite idea to those who are, it will suffice for most purposes to call the book 8o (octavo) unless the height is given instead in inches or in centimetres, as 8¼in. or 21cm. For most catalogues it will be found sufficient to give the sizes when they exceed octavo, it being understood that all books are of that size, or less, unless the contrary is indicated by the signs 4o(quarto) or fo (folio).

The entry completed upon these lines becomes

Bell, Aubrey F. G.
In Portugal. London and New York, John
Lane, 1912. pp. viii., 227. 8o

The information to be given, when tabulated, falls into this order

  1. —Author's surname.
  2. —The author's forenames.
  3. —The title of the book.
  4. —The name of editor or translator.
  5. —The edition if stated.
  6. —The name of series or publication society (if any).
  7. —Place of publication. [Pg 42]
  8. —Publisher's (or printer's) name.
  9. —The date of publication.
  10. —The collation (or the number of volumes if more than one).
  11. —The size.
  12. —The shelf, press, or other finding mark.
  13. —Any descriptive note or contents.

Numbers 4, 5, 6, 12, and 13 are not required or given in the above entry, but are here inserted to make the table complete. With the exception of numbers 1 to 4, this order may be varied at will, but only at the outset, as whatever order is decided upon must afterwards be adhered to. The following statement of the order given in some of the rules is of interest in this connection, and will be helpful:—

British Museum order under its Rules (3, 16-22):

1, Author. 2, Title. 3, Edition. 4, Number of parts or volumes or numbered pages if a single volume. 5, Place of printing or publication and printer's name (if necessary). 6, Date. 7, Size. 8, Press mark. 9, Note, if required.

Cutter's Rules:

1, Author. 2, Title. 3, Edition. 4, Place of publication. 5, Publisher's name. 6, Date. 7, Number of volumes or number of pages, illustrations, etc. 8, Size. 9, Notes of contents.

Library Association and American Library Association Rules:

1, Author. 2, Title. 3, Additions to title, if any. 4, Edition. 5, Place of publication. 6, Publisher's name. 7, Place of printing, if given. 8, Date. 9, Volumes or pages, illustrations, etc. 10, Size. 11, Series. 12, Contents and notes.

[Pg 43]

For most libraries the information can be satisfactorily curtailed and limited to the following:—

1, Author. 2, Title. 3, Edition. 4, Date. 5, Press mark. 6, Contents or annotations. To these may be added, between 3 and 4, an abbreviation telling if the book is illustrated, as "illus.", instead of giving the collation in full.

The reduced entry for our book accordingly becomes

Bell, Aubrey F. G.
In Portugal. 1912

Having the author or principal entry complete, we now proceed to examine the book for subject-entry, and find that it consists of descriptions of journeys to places off the beaten track in Portugal. Even with the title of the book so obvious and the subject so clearly named in it, it is wise not to take it for granted, and examine the book as it may contain something of value belonging to another subject—for example, there is a book of travel in the Near East bearing the title "Pen and pencil in Asia Minor" which contains no less than thirteen chapters upon silkworms and the silk industry, not only in the Levant, but in France and elsewhere—quite a respectable book within a book, but this the title-page fails to reveal. The subject of our book, however, is open to no doubt, and for the dictionary catalogue the subject-entry is

Bell, A. F. G. In Portugal. 1912

No further entries are called for than these two (author and subject).

[Pg 44]

In all entries subordinate to the main entry, where the fullest particulars concerning the book are given, the information is condensed sufficiently to identify the book upon the supposition that those who require more details will turn to the main entry for them. The omissions from the subordinate entries are the full Christian names of authors (initials alone being given), the names of editors, translators, or illustrators, the names of series, the collations, sizes, and places of publication. The entries used throughout this work demonstrate this. The dates of publications are invariably given in all entries except where shown.

It has been contended that all details are as much wanted under the subject as under the author. There is much to be said in favour of this, but it is impossible to make every entry a main-entry when expense and the size of the catalogue have to be considered.

When the time comes for preparing the manuscript of the catalogue for the press, should it happen that there was no other book upon the subject, then the form of entry can be changed to what may be called a subject-title-entry, thus

Portugal, In. Bell, A. F. G. 1912

upon the principle that a "heading" is not required unless there are two or more books to go under it. By the reverse process, if there should be two or more title-entries of books unquestionably upon the same subject then these are converted into entries under a single subject-heading. If the two entries were

Portugal, In. Bell, A. F. G. 1912
Portugal, Sunshine and storm in. Watson, G. 1904

[Pg 45]

they are changed to

Bell, A. F. G. In Portugal. 1912
Watson, G. Sunshine and storm in Portugal. 1904

It is possible further to economise these entries:

Bell, A. F. G. In P. 1912
Watson, G. Sunshine, etc. in P. 1904

This style was adopted in quite good catalogues, and there is no particular loss of information through it, though the gain of space hardly compensates for the want of clearness, to say nothing of the somewhat bald appearance of the entries.

In all the subject-entries above it will be observed that the author's surname leads, the reason for this being that it serves to guide to the name under which the main-entry is to be found. The books are also arranged in alphabetical order by these surnames under the subject-heading.

If the catalogue we are compiling is not dictionary but classified in its arrangement, then, as already stated, there is but one entry (other than the brief index entries), and that the main-entry. Upon this is marked the numerical symbols of the classification adopted, which we shall presume throughout is the best-known and most used, Dewey's Decimal Classification. For convenience in sorting, the numbers are better written on the top right-hand of the slip or card. Our entry is marked accordingly

Bell, Aubrey F. G. In Portugal. London and
New York, John Lane, 1912. pp. viii., 227. 8o

[Pg 46]

This entry can be curtailed if considered desirable, as shown above for the dictionary catalogue.

As some persons may not have used the Dewey Classification, it may be explained that these numerical symbols signify

900 History (the General Class).
910 Geography and Travels.
914 Europe.
914.6 Spain (the Iberian Peninsula).
914.69 Portugal.

Brief entries are needed for the author and subject-index or indexes, which appear at either the end or beginning of the catalogue when printed, thus

Bell, A. F. G. In Portugal. 914.69
Portugal (Travels). 914.69

In the following pages all the examples given to illustrate the various points which arise in the cataloguing of books are worked out in full for both the dictionary and classified catalogues, in order to show the whole method of treatment, as well as to prevent the misunderstanding which arose upon explanations given only by way of suggestion, and not as completed examples, in my former book upon this subject.

To show how difficult it is for experienced cataloguers to avoid error and the pitfalls in their way, it may be mentioned that several otherwise good catalogues have these two books

Here and there in Italy and over the border, by
Linda Villari. 1893
Italian life in town and country, by L. Villari. 1902

entered as

Villari, Linda. Here and there in Italy. 1893
— Italian life in town and country. 1902

[Pg 47]

though the latter book is by Luigi Villari. With nothing in either book to show this, the presumption that both books are by the same author is excusable, the initials of the authors' names and the subject being alike, yet it proves that it does not do to jump to conclusions. Correctly catalogued, the entries are

Villari, Linda. Here and there in Italy and over
the border. pp. viii., 269. 1893
Villari, Luigi. Italian life in town and country.
(Our neighbours.) pp. xii., 261, illus. 1902

and the subject-entries are

Villari, L. Here and there in Italy. 1893
Villari, L. Italian life in town and country. 1902

Both entries will be marked 914.5 for the classified catalogue (History—Geography and Travels—Europe—Italy), and the index entries will be

Villari, Linda. Here and there in Italy. 914.5
Villari, Luigi. Italian life. 914.5
Italy (Travel). 914.5

[Pg 48]


Joint-Authors. Collations. Synonymous Subject-Headings. Participants in a Correspondence. References. Man and Wife as Joint-Authors.

When a book is written by two authors, the entry is given under the first-named on the title-page. The following is an illustration of the method of treatment in such a case, and in order to make the matter clear, the title-page is set out in full as before. The whole title is printed in capital letters, and has no other punctuation than that shown.

[Pg 49]

Upon the lines already laid down, the main-entry becomes

Ely, Richard T., and George Ray Wicker.
Elementary principles of economics; together
with a short sketch of economic history. New
York, Macmillan Co., 1910. pp. xii., 388

Frequently the names of the authors are seen rendered in this fashion

Ely, Richard T., and Wicker, George Ray

While it is essential and unavoidable that the name of the first author should be turned about to get his surname as the leading word, yet there is no object in twisting about the second author's name in like manner, as it is not so required, therefore the ordinary reading of the name is better and simpler, as given in the first entry.

Unless needed to distinguish between different authors of the same name, the academical degrees are omitted, as well as any statement concerning the professorships held by these authors, although the fact that they hold such offices goes to prove their qualifications for dealing with this subject. If it were desired to direct attention to this, it could be done by means of a note or annotation to the entry, after this manner

The first author is Prof. of Pol. Econ., Wisconsin Univ., and the second Asst. Prof. of Economics, Dartmouth Coll.

The share of the second author in the book needs to be recognised, and this is accomplished by means of a reference, as

Wicker, George Ray (Joint-Author.) See Ely,
Richard T.

[Pg 50]

If this writer happens to be the sole author of another work, then the form of reference is made to read

Wicker, George Ray.
— (Joint-Author). See also Ely, Richard T.

To give the reference in this form may seem to be a contradiction of the previous statement that the second author's name need not be turned about, but in this case it is necessary to point directly to the name Ely under which the entry is found.

An alternative style for both the above references so far as the use of capitals and punctuation is concerned is

Wicker, Geo. Ray (joint-author) see Ely,
Richard T.

Wicker, Geo. Ray.
— (joint-author) see also Ely, Richard T.

It must be borne in mind that whatever style is adopted should be strictly followed throughout.

An explanation concerning the collation (number of pages) is required. The book has six prefatory leaves, paged in Roman numerals, i. to xi., made up of the half-title and the title (both unpaged), three pages of preface (the second and third being marked vi., vii.), a blank page, three pages with a list of contents (the second and third are marked x., xi.), and a blank page, making twelve pages in all. Doubt will arise in a case of this kind as to whether the title leaves and the blank pages should be taken into account, but as the printer has seen fit to include them all in his pagination, the statement of these prefatory pages is better given as[Pg 51] xii. The rest of the book is straightforward, being paged from 1 to 388.

A briefer form of author-entry is

Ely, R. T., and G. R. Wicker. Elementary
principles of economics; with a short sketch
of economic history. N.Y., 1910

The places of publication may be shortened in this way where the abbreviation used can be readily recognised—N.Y. for New York. Examples of other places will readily occur to the cataloguer, especially if they are in common use, as Edin. for Edinburgh, Dub. for Dublin, Oxf. for Oxford, Camb. for Cambridge, Manc. for Manchester, L'pool for Liverpool, and so on. The London Library Catalogue goes much further than this, and gives A. for Amsterdam, C. for Cambridge, D. for Dublin, L. for Leipzig, and other bare initials in the same way, though they are not consistently used. It not only omits London as the place of publication from English books, as already recommended herein, but carries out the idea to the exclusion of all capital cities in the cases of native published books, leaving Paris, Berlin, Madrid, to be taken as understood when these cities are the places of publication of French, German, and Spanish books respectively. In many ways the economies effected in the London Library Catalogue are notable, though so numerous that a considerable explanatory list has to be given in the preface. The book we are dealing with would appear in this style in the Author Catalogue

Ely (Richard Theodore) & G. R. Wicker.
Elem. princ. of economics, w. a short sketch of econ.
hist. s8o N.Y. 1910

[Pg 52]

and in the Subject Index would be further condensed. The shortest form allowable in the catalogue of a popular library, without abbreviating the words, is

Ely, R. T., and G. R. Wicker.
Elementary principles of economics. 1910

In considering the subject-heading for this book, we have the choice of synonymous terms, viz., Economics and Political Economy. The first is the more modern term which is gradually supplanting the other in use, and for that reason it is the better to adopt. Having made the choice definitely, we at once proceed to write a cross-reference, which will prevent the placing of any other book upon the same subject under the discarded heading whatever be the terms on the title-page. The reader will be thus guided to the heading which has been chosen for the subject. It is a fundamental principle of the dictionary catalogue, which cannot be too often impressed upon the cataloguer, that a book is entered under its specific subject quite irrespective of the terms used upon the title-page, and that two books upon the same subject ought not to be in two places. Accordingly the reference to this end will be

Political Economy. See Economics.

which prevents the placing of any book under Political Economy.

The subject-entry is

Ely, R. T., &c. Elementary principles of
economics. 1910

[Pg 53]

Besides the economies in subordinate entries already referred to, it will be seen that the second author's name has "etc." substituted for it; as a well-recognised further economy that may be adopted without hesitation.

No other entries of any kind are needed for the dictionary catalogue, as the book is adequately catalogued as shown.

For the classified catalogue, the author-entry is marked 330.2 (300 Sociology, 330 Political Economy, 330.2 Compends), and the entries for the indexes are

Economics 330
Political Economy 330
Ely, R. T., &c. Elem. economics 330.2

The writers of a published correspondence are regarded as joint-authors in the same way, except that a book like

The correspondence of Thomas Carlyle and Ralph
Waldo Emerson, 1834-1872. 2 v. ports. 1883

cannot be covered very satisfactorily by an entry under the first-named and a reference under the second, as in the Ely-Wicker above, such a book needing two entries. An examination of it shows that the letters were edited by Charles Eliot Norton, and, though this is not stated on the title-page, it goes into the principal entry, but between brackets (not parentheses), which, as Cutter says in his Rules, are important, "both as a check on indiscriminate addition and as an aid to identification." The main-entry is

Carlyle, Thomas, and Ralph Waldo Emerson.
Correspondence, 1834-72; [ed. by Charles
Eliot Norton.] 2 v. ports. 1883

[Pg 54]

and the second entry under

Emerson, Ralph Waldo, and Thomas Carlyle.
Correspondence, 1834-72. 2 v. 1883

A reference is required under the editor's name, thus

Norton, Charles E. (Ed.) See Carlyle, Thomas.

Most catalogues will have a goodly number of entries under Carlyle. To enlarge the reference sufficiently to describe the particular book involves a reference as long as an entry. In such case give the entry

Norton, Charles E. (Ed.) Correspondence of
Thomas Carlyle and Ralph W. Emerson. 2 v.

or, shorter still,

Norton, Chas. E. (Ed.) Correspondence of Carlyle
and Emerson. 2 v. 1883

This is better than a reference, as it takes up no more room and saves the searcher the trouble of turning to another part of the catalogue. A book of this kind, obviously, has no subject-entry.

In the classified catalogue a dual book like this needs two entries—one in 816.3 (American Letters) for Emerson, and another in 826.8 (English Letters) for Carlyle, with the index entries

Carlyle, Thos. Correspondence with Emerson, 826.8
Emerson, R. W. Correspondence with Carlyle, 816.3

The book itself cannot go under both these numbers on the shelves; choice of one must be made, preferably the Carlyle number, though this does not affect the entries in the catalogue except[Pg 55] so far as the necessary clue to the position of the book for finding is concerned.

A somewhat exceptional example of joint-authors, fortunately for the cataloguer, is that of a man and wife whose names appear on their books sometimes with the one leading, sometimes the other. This is to be found in the books by the mountaineers and explorers Mr. and Mrs. Workman, two of whose books may be taken to illustrate the matter, and catalogued as they would be under ordinary circumstances, viz.,

Workman, William Hunter and Fanny Bullock.
Through town and jungle: fourteen thousand
miles awheel among the temples and people
of the Indian Plain. 1904. pp. xxiv., 380,
map, illus.
Workman, Fanny Bullock and William Hunter.
In the ice world of Himálaya: among the
peaks and passes of Ladakh, Nubra, Suru,
and Baltistan. 1900. pp. xvi., 204, maps,

Owing to the names being reversed, these entries would not come together in the catalogue, so the cataloguer is quite justified in stretching the meaning of the rules in order to avoid their separation. The name that appears first in the majority of the books by the two authors is adopted for the entry, which in this case is the lady. Accordingly the first book will be brought under the second form of the names, and other books they have written conjointly will be so entered, that all of them may come together. In order to prevent misunderstanding, and lest the second name be read as Hunter, the names can be shortened, as

[Pg 56]

Workman, Fanny B. and Wm. H. In the ice
world of Himálaya: among the peaks and
passes of Ladakh, Nubra, Suru, and Baltistan.
1900. pp. xvi., 204, maps, illus.
— Through town and jungle: 14,000 miles awheel
among the temples and people of the Indian
Plain. 1904. pp. xxiv., 380, map, illus.

It is allowable to interpret "fourteen thousand" as 14,000, in the middle of a title, as above; if the title commenced with it, the words are better.

Although the separate names of these authors may come together in the catalogue, it is better not to anticipate that they will, so it is safer to give the necessary reference—

Workman, William H. (joint-author.) See Workman,
Fanny B.

At the time of printing this reference may be omitted if it is found that no other name comes between, though the reference stands if the rules are literally followed.

For the first of these two books the subject-entry is

Himalayas, The:
Workman, F. B., &c. In the ice world of
Himálaya. 1900

and two references will be desirable and necessary,

See also Himalayas.

See also Himalayas.

The first of these will insure that a person requiring books upon India in all parts will not overlook[Pg 57] those upon the Himalayas, and the second will show that books upon mountain climbing in particular regions are entered under the names of those regions.

As the journey chronicled in the second of these books covered the length and breadth of India, it is entered under the name of the country accordingly, and placed in that sub-division of the subject allotted to books of travel.

Travels and Description.
Workman, F. B., &c. Through town and
jungle. 1904

Any subject-heading comprising a comparatively large number of books is better sub-divided, as it not only facilitates reference, but in a way indicates the character of the books.

Here again title-entries under "In" or "Through" would be useless and wasteful.

For the classified catalogue the first of these books is marked 915.42 (History, Geography and Travels, Asia, India, North-west Provinces, etc.), and the second 915.4 (Travels in India generally). The index-entries are

Workman, F. B., &c. Ice world of Himálaya. 915.42.
— Through town and jungle. 915.4
Himalayas, The 915.42
India (Travels), 915.4

[Pg 58]

Books by more than Two Authors. Composite Books.

Books by Three Authors. Choice of Subject-Headings. Cross-References. Books by a number of Authors. Ecclesiastical and other Titles of Honour. The use of Capitals. Editors. Dates of Publication. Title-Entries. Punctuation. "Indexing" Contents of Composite Books. Separate Works printed together. Volumes of Essays by Single Authors.

A book written by more than two authors or of a composite character needs careful consideration as to the best method of entry. If the number of authors does not exceed three, the book can be dealt with on the lines indicated in the preceding chapter. The principal entry of a book of this nature is

Cadbury, Edward, M. Cécile Matheson, and
George Shann. Women's work and wages:
a phase of life in an industrial city. 1906

The method of giving the imprint and collation having already been shown, they are omitted as far as they can be from this and all subsequent entries taken in illustration, upon the understanding that those who desire to give them in full know how to do so, and others—the majority—who look upon them as burdening the entry, can see how far they may be judiciously left out.

[Pg 59]

The second and third authors of the above book require references from their names

Matheson, M. Cécile (joint-author.) See Cadbury,
Shann, George (joint-author.) See Cadbury,

Where strict economy of entry is of importance, these two references could be dispensed with, though it is undesirable to omit them if space can be spared. The economy can, of course, be carried much further by laying down a rule to the effect that, when a book has more than two authors, only the first shall be taken into account, in this way

Cadbury, Edward, and others. Women's work
and wages. 1906

in which case the references cannot be given, as there is nothing to refer to, the names of the other authors not appearing in the entry. Some catalogues economise by leaving out all references from the names of joint-authors without any serious difficulty arising, though it is not in accordance with good cataloguing principles.

An alternative method of entry, and one recognised by the rules, though it is cumbersome, is to take the name of the first-mentioned author as the "heading," followed by "and others," and bring the names of all into the entry, after this fashion

Cadbury, Edward, and others. Women's work
and wages: a phase of life in an industrial
city, by Edward Cadbury, M. Cécile Matheson,
and George Shann. 1906

[Pg 60]

the references ("added entries") from the two last-named authors being given as recommended above.

This book requires two subject-entries and a reference, it being upon women's work and the payment therefor among the poorer class of workers in Birmingham, and is a contribution to the literature of the labour question as regards women. Therefore it is entered under the heading "Labour," with a sub-heading "Women's work."

Women's work.
Cadbury, E., &c. Women's work and wages.

We have the choice of another heading, viz., "Women"; and as there will certainly be other books in a reasonably sized library upon the labour and wages aspects of the question, it would be a waste of space to give double entries (under both headings), therefore we proceed to put the matter right by a reference—

See also Labour (Women's work).

If we consider that the book has some bearing, as this has, upon the social question in general, sweating, and poverty, we add See also references under any headings adopted for these subjects.

Social Question, The:
See also Labour.

See also Labour.

See also Labour.

[Pg 61]

When the time for printing arrives, if the completed catalogue has no books entered under any of these headings, the See also reference must either be withdrawn altogether or converted into a See reference. For example, the reference from "Sweating" might be given as

Sweating. See Labour.

upon the supposition that books solely upon this aspect of the labour question might be better placed under the more general heading, though this is somewhat against the rule for specific entry. The difference between these two forms of reference may again be emphasised. The See reference is intended to prevent books being entered under the subject-heading referred from in order that they be placed under the heading referred to; the See also reference is an appendix to a subject-heading, under which books relating to the subject in general are entered, and is meant to direct to lesser or related divisions of the same subject.

The scope of the inquiry of the book is local and has an important bearing upon social conditions in Birmingham, which must be taken into account, therefore an entry is given

Social, &c. Conditions.
Cadbury, E., &c. Women's work and wages.

The fact that the book is so entered signifies in itself that it applies particularly to Birmingham, without any further necessity for showing the connection.

[Pg 62]

In the classified catalogue the book is placed at 331.4 (Sociology. Capital. Labour and Wages. Labour of Women), and the index entries are

Cadbury, E., &c. Women's work. 331.4
Labour, 331.4
Women's work, 331.4
Birmingham, Women's work, 331.4

The next book we take in hand has the names of no less than twenty-three contributors on its title-page, and is entitled

The Church and life of to-day, by the Bishop of
Bristol, the Dean of Manchester, the Bishop
of Durham [and twenty other names following.]

Clearly all the names cannot be reckoned with in this case, and so we take the first, the Bishop of Bristol. Under no circumstances would the book be entered by the name of the See or Deanery of any of the writers, and, if not given in the book, the name of the Bishop or Dean must be ascertained from a Clergy List or any other available source, taking care that the name is that of the right person. Accordingly the entry under the surname of the first-named author becomes

Browne, G. F., Bp. of Bristol, and others. The
Church and life of to-day. 1910

The Bp. of Bristol may be curtailed to simple Bp., as bishops change their sees at times, and it must be a rare occurrence to have two bishops of the same surname at the same date. It is the rule to give the highest position attained at the time the catalogue is prepared, irrespective of the date of publication of the book, even though it may appear to be an anachronism. This, by the way,[Pg 63] applies not only to ecclesiastical preferment, but to changes in the peerage or any other accessions in rank. The second essay in this volume illustrates this point, though not so far as this book is concerned. It is by "the Rt. Rev. J. E. Welldon, Dean of Manchester, late Bishop of Calcutta." The cataloguer does not trouble to notice both offices, but takes the highest which has been held, and enters as

Welldon, J. E. C., Bp.

While the rules recommend reference from the name of the See, it serves no very useful purpose, and would multiply entries largely if always given. The form when used would be

Bristol, Bishop of. See Browne, G. F.

It has already been shown that the offices held by a writer and his academical or other honours are ignored by the cataloguer unless for the special purpose of distinguishing between authors of the same name. If the title is so used, it is given as

Smith, Rev. John.

if the degree, as

Smith, John, M.A.

and not in the form occasionally seen, of

Smith, M.A., John.

Anything required to distinguish between authors may be used, even the name of the place with which a man is identified. A good example of four authors, sometimes mixed for want of this, is

Taylor, Isaac, Baptist minister, Calne.
Taylor, Isaac, Canon of York.
Taylor, Isaac, Indep. minister, Ongar.
Taylor, Isaac, of Stanford Stevens.

[Pg 64]

As three of these are "Rev.," no purpose is served by affixing that title to their names, and in cataloguing would generally be no more useful than to attach "Mr." to others. It is considered to be quite in order to ignore all ecclesiastical titles below that of a dean, and, in the democracy of cataloguing, military and civil distinctions share the same fate. It is a matter of no moment to the cataloguer that the compiler say of a dictionary of quotations holds the rank of colonel. Civil distinctions below that of a knight may safely be disregarded, even "Hon." omitted from the names of younger sons and daughters of the nobility, though it is customary and better to give the higher courtesy titles of Lord and Lady. The custom here outlined works quite satisfactorily in practice, and is economical of space, but any who wish to be particularly exact and deferential in this respect cannot do better than follow the British Museum rule (No. 15) in its entirety and after the manner of the examples attached thereto.

The honours lists of each New Year and King's Birthday must be closely examined, and the changes in titles noted for alteration in the catalogue.

Something must be said here as to the use of capital letters in cataloguing. Until comparatively recent years it was the recognised custom to give a capital initial to every word that would admit of it, but this fashion is not now so generally observed. Perhaps our American cousins are to be blamed (or praised) for this. As has been truly said

"The reasons for writing and printing all catalogue titles in small letters and with only such capitals as cannot be avoided is two-fold. First,[Pg 65] there can be no standard prescribing what words should or should not be capitalised [that is, a rule saying what words should have a capital letter under the older fashion], and so the cataloguer will be constantly at a loss, or will use capitals in the most unprincipled way. He will write one day, The Dangers of great Cities, and the next, The dangers of Great Cities; with no particular reason for either form. Secondly, the appearance—the symmetry—of a title or a sentence, whether written or printed, is best attained by the exclusion of capitals. Nothing can be more unsightly than the constant breaking up of the harmony of a line by the capricious use of capitals."

The use of capitals is now mostly limited to proper names and to adjectives derived from them, besides those customary in ordinary usage. In foreign names the custom of the language is followed, and, therefore, speaking generally, there would be more capital letters in the Teutonic languages, and fewer in the Romance languages. In the entry of the book under notice it is seen that the word Church has an initial capital because the Church of England is meant and not the Christian church in general. There is a recommendation to the effect that a capital initial should be used to the second word in the title of a book if the first word is an article, and this, though not commonly adopted in practice, has the advantage of emphasising the word whereby the entry is usually alphabetised (as shown later), as the articles "a," "an," and "the," are invariably ignored for this purpose when beginning a title, though they are taken into account in the middle of a title. The use made of capital letters[Pg 66] throughout the illustrative entries in this book is that becoming general, and can be noted in passing. It is not intended to dogmatise on the use of capitals, as it resolves itself into a question of taste rather than one of utility—the rule is, however, "in all doubtful cases avoid the use of capitals."

The twenty-three essays or articles in the book before us range over as many topics, opening with one on novels and novelists, and closing with one on training in patriotism. As there is a more or less single purpose or idea running through them all, viz., the influence or bearing of the Church of England on the ethical and social questions of the day, the whole book is entered under the name of that Church for subject.

Church of England:
Browne, G. F., &c. The Church and life of
to-day. 1910

As already stated, when the number of entries under such a subject-heading warrant it, they should be sub-divided to facilitate reference and indicate as far as possible the nature of the books. As a rule such divisions suggest themselves by the quantity and nature of the material in hand when arranging it under the heading, the entries falling into sections like History, Customs, Ritual, Polity, etc., this being marked and placed with the sub-division most appropriate.

The book also has a large bearing upon the ethics of these days, and seems to need an additional entry under "Morals" or "Ethics." If any doubt exists as to the value of the book as a[Pg 67] contribution to the subject, let the mistake be made on the right side, and give the entry

Browne, G. F., &c. The Church and life of
to-day. 1910

and the reference from the synonym

Morals. See Ethics.

For the classified catalogue the entry is marked 261.4 (Religion. The Church. Church and Morals.), and the index entries

Ethics, Church and, 261.4
Church of England and Morals, 261.4
Morals, Church and, 261.4
Browne, G. F., &c. The Church and life of to-day. 261.4

A book somewhat similar to the last but varying in the method of treatment is

The citizen of to-morrow: a handbook on social
questions edited by Samuel E. Keeble for the
Wesleyan Methodist Union for Social Service.
London, Charles H. Kelly

Examining the book we find that there are three series, each consisting of five essays, classified as "Historical and General," "Labour and Poverty," and "Citizenship and Service." The book, having a general editor, the main-entry is given under his name, and because of this is not entered under that of the writer of the first essay, as in the previous example.

Keeble, Samuel E. (Ed.) The citizen of to-morrow:
a handbook on social questions.
(Wesleyan Methodist Union for Social Service.)

[Pg 68]

The abbreviation Ed. may be used either for editor or edited, the position marking the meaning. The year of publication is not on the title-page, but is taken from the end of the preface, which is dated "June 30, 1906"; being, therefore, an addition to the title-page it is enclosed in brackets. The value of giving the year of publication wherever possible is unquestionable. When there is no clue to it in the book itself, all available sources of reference should be searched, more particularly the English Catalogue of Books and library catalogues. In the event of the search proving fruitless, the letters "n.d.", signifying no date, are put in place of the date.

As was the case with the previous book, each essay in the book deals with a separate subject, yet the whole forms a single subject, and may be fitly placed under a heading entitled, say,

Social Question, The:
Keeble, S. E. (Ed.) The citizen of to-morrow.

Such a heading would be specially reserved for books dealing with the whole social problem, and no book should find a place under it if upon a particular phase, such as housing, the land, unemployment, etc., as the position for these is under the name of the special subject they deal with. As recommended already, See also references should be given from it as books upon the separate subjects come up for cataloguing.

The book is unlike that upon the Church of England, inasmuch as it lays no particular stress upon the efforts of the Wesleyan Methodists towards[Pg 69] social reform. At the same time, the work has been prepared under the auspices of the Wesleyan Methodist Union for Social Service, and this must be recognised, in full catalogues at any rate, by the entry

Wesleyan Methodist Union for Social Service.
The citizen of to-morrow; ed. by S. E. Keeble.

A book of this varied nature is a little puzzling in regard to its right place in the classified catalogue, as some parts of it bear on topics in the class Sociology, though in the aggregate it may be regarded as belonging to Social Ethics, and so is marked 177.

In the books hitherto taken as examples, no entries have been given under the first words of the titles, as it is not considered that they are required. There is the remote possibility in this instance of the book being remembered by its title, but that does not justify the entry, as any person interested would remember one of the three entries already given. When it is thought essential or desirable to give a title-entry, it will be shown as we proceed. The older catalogues of popular libraries were largely based upon the principle of a title-entry for every item; the first or some other striking word of the title-page being taken; it being considered rank heresy to go behind the words of the title, as already mentioned. The result was often confusing, if not actually misleading. A case in point is that of the first book we took in illustration (page 34). Under the old system this would have appeared as

Portugal, In. By A. F. G. Bell.

[Pg 70]

while Lady Jackson's "Fair Lusitania," though identical in subject, would be in another part of the catalogue, as

Lusitania, Fair. By Lady Jackson.

It may be noted in passing that every book taken so far in illustration is virtually without a punctuation mark of any kind on the title-page. If the title-pages had been punctuated by the printer, it is probable that no two of them would have been alike in principle, therefore the cataloguer must provide the punctuation as he proceeds, certainly it cannot be left to the printer. The entry above under "Keeble" lends itself to an explanation of the punctuation used in it. The parentheses enclosing the (Ed.) serve to isolate it from the initials of the author's name, and so prevent misunderstanding in that respect. Occasionally the form used is

Keeble (Samuel E.) ed.

A colon is used between the title of the book ("The citizen of to-morrow") and its explanatory sub-title ("a handbook on social questions") which makes the distinction clear. If the second title were an alternative one preceded by "or," the first title is followed by a semi-colon and the second preceded by a comma, as

The citizen of to-morrow; or, a handbook on social

The printing of the name of the Union of Social Service in italics enclosed in parentheses emphasises in some measure the fact that it is published for that body, and indicates the point of view[Pg 71] taken. In the entry under "Wesleyan Methodist Union" the semi-colon before the "ed. by S. E. Keeble" is a good form, separating the name from the title of the book without cutting it off altogether as a full stop would do. On the other hand, if he were the sole author of the book, the "ed.," being omitted, the "by" would be preceded by a comma, as

Wesleyan Methodist Union for Social Service.
The citizen of to-morrow, by S. E. Keeble.

The next is apparently of the same kind as the two preceding books, yet it calls for quite different treatment. The title-page reads

Essays and studies by members of the English
Association. Collected by A. C. Bradley.
Oxford, at the Clarendon Press, 1910

Here the English Association in its corporate capacity is regarded as the author of its own publications, the editor or collector occupying a subsidiary place, more particularly in this case, as each of the three volumes of these Essays and studies so far published has a different editor. Accordingly our entry becomes

English Association, The. Essays and studies;
collected by A. C. Bradley. Oxf., 1910

with a reference

Bradley, A. C. (Ed.) See English Association.

The volume contains seven essays, each by a different author upon a separate subject, and, unlike the other two books, without a general idea running through the whole. For full, and, indeed, for average catalogues, each of these essays must be[Pg 72] reckoned with, both for authors and subjects. Where space is not of much consequence, and it is desired to catalogue the book fully, then the contents are set out under the principal entry, and each of the essays dealt with as if it were a distinct work. This is for the dictionary catalogue. To carry it out adequately fifteen entries are necessary, and are here fully worked out.

English Association, The. Essays and studies;
ed. by A. C. Bradley. Oxf., 1910
English place-names, by H. Bradley. On the
present state of English pronunciation, by R. Bridges.
Browning, by W. P. Ker. Blind Harry's Wallace, by
G. Neilson. Shakespeare and the grand style, by G.
Saintsbury. Some suggestions about bad poetry, by
E. Sichel. Carlyle and his German masters, by C. E.

This is the principal entry for the dictionary catalogue, and the only one for the classified catalogue, where it is marked 820.6 (English Literature. Societies.) The extent to which the contents of such a book would be noticed in the indexes to a classified catalogue is a matter of discretion, and presumably they would be ignored. Not so, however, in the good dictionary catalogue; as it is a matter of every-day experience with librarians to find that essays of the kind often give the gist of a subject in such a way as to be sufficient for the needs of most of those interested in it, and, moreover, such an article or essay may prove to be the only contribution to the subject appearing in the catalogue, or the only one the library contains. The further entries then for the dictionary catalogue are these:

Bradley, Henry. English place-names. (English
Assoc, essays.) 1910
[Pg 73]
Bradley, H. English place-names. (English
Assoc, essays.) 1910
Names, Place. See Place-names.

It is essential that the "(English Assoc, essays)" be in every entry as a guide to the book containing the essay. More correctly it should be given with more detail, as

Bridges, Robert. On the present state of English
pronunciation. (English Assoc. Essays and
studies.) 1910

but the shorter form serves its purpose.

For the subject-entry of this last item we can choose between "Pronunciation, English," "English Pronunciation," and "Phonetics." An examination of the essay proves that for several reasons the first is the best to select, and it becomes

Pronunciation, English:
Bridges, R. The present state of English
pronunciation. (English Assoc, essays.)

The matter can be easily put right, as before, by the serviceable references

English pronunciation. See Pronunciation, English.
Phonetics. See also Pronunciation.

The apparent frequency of such references seems to suggest that the catalogue would be chiefly composed of references, but as a matter of actual practice this is not so, as often a single reference serves for many books.

Ker, W. P. Browning. (English Assoc, essays.)
[Pg 74]Browning, Robert.
Ker, W. P. Browning. (English Assoc.
essays.) 1910
Neilson, Geo. On Blind Harry's Wallace.
(English Assoc. essays.) 1910
Harry, Blind. See Henry the Minstrel.
Henry the Minstrel. Blind Harry's Wallace.
Neilson, G. (English Assoc. essays.) 1910
Saintsbury, Geo. Shakespeare and the grand
style. (English Assoc. essays.) 1910

Shakespeare, Wm.
Saintsbury, G. Shakespeare and the grand
style. (English Assoc. essays.) 1910

This heading is likely to be so large in quantity of material that it will need some sub-division of the works on Shakespeare (which will follow those by him.)

Sichel, Edith. Some suggestions about bad
poetry. (English Assoc. essays.) 1910

Sichel, E. Some suggestions about bad
poetry. (English Assoc. essays.) 1910

A heading of this kind, of course, only includes books upon poetry as a subject, and not works because they are written in poetical form.

Vaughan, C. E. Carlyle and his German masters.
(English Assoc. essays.) 1910

Carlyle, Thomas.
Vaughan, C. E. Carlyle and his German
masters. (English Assoc. essays.) 1910

The suggestion made in the Shakespeare entry above also applies to this Carlyle entry. There is no occasion to repeat the heading of Carlyle as[Pg 75] subject when printing, as this style of type seems to imply, though it is sometimes done, and there is nothing against it. Books by and on an author can be distinguished by the use of the dash and indent, as below, or by printing the books on in smaller type.

Carlyle, Thomas. The French Revolution. 3 v.

— The life of Friedrich Schiller. 1873

— Sartor resartus. 1891
Arnold, A. S. The story of Carlyle. 1888
Vaughan, C. E. Carlyle and his German
masters. (English Assoc. essays.) 1910

If the exigencies of space necessitate making choice between setting out the contents of a volume of this miscellaneous character, as in the principal entry above, or index-entries for author and subject in this way, there can be no question that indexing is the better, because each of the articles is a contribution to the subject, and if not so indexed is lost. This loss must perforce be risked when the collections are so voluminous that they require an enormous number of entries to complete. Unless space and expense are of no consequence, there is no alternative but to dispense with the index entries. Sainte Beuve's Causeries du lundi is a case in point, and the opposite course of setting out the contents of these volumes under the principal entry must suffice for most catalogues.

Whatever doubt may arise as to the policy of indexing such a work, none whatever exists as to the necessity for dealing separately with the contents of a volume which consists in reality of[Pg 76] several works brought together by an editor or publisher. A good example of this is

Ideal commonwealths: Plutarch's Lycurgus,
More's Utopia, Bacon's New Atlantis, Campanella's
City of the Sun, and a fragment of
Hall's Mundus alter et idem; with an introduction
by Henry Morley. 10th edition.
London: Routledge.

Each of the individual works must be catalogued separately and completely precisely as if each were a separate publication. The main-entry may appear under the name of Morley as editor (though his share in the production seems to consist merely of a preface of four pages) in this form

Morley, Henry (Ed.) Ideal commonwealths. n.d.

Plutarch's Lycurgus. More's Utopia. Bacon's
New Atlantis. Campanella's City of the Sun. Hall's
Mundus alter et idem (fragment).

The subordinate or added entries in this case being given under each author.

Plutarch. Life of Lycurgus. (Morley. Ideal
commonwealths.) n.d.
More, Sir Thomas. Utopia. (Morley. Ideal
commonwealths.) n.d.
Bacon, Francis, Lord. New Atlantis. (Morley.
Ideal commonwealths.) n.d.
Campanella, Tommaso. The City of the Sun.
(Morley. Ideal commonwealths.) n.d.
Hall, Joseph. Mundus alter et idem; transl. by
Wm. King. (Morley. Ideal commonwealths.)

In the Campanella item above the Christian name is kept in the vernacular, as it is a customary rule[Pg 77] to so enter all names instead of anglicizing them, even when the books are translations.

In addition to the foregoing entries, all the works contained in the book, the Plutarch excepted, will need title-entries in the dictionary catalogue.

Utopia. More, Sir T. (Morley. Ideal commonwealths.)

The "(Morley. Ideal commonwealths)" must be inserted in every entry as a guide to the book containing the works. The form more correctly is "(Morley, H. (Ed.) Ideal commonwealths.)", though the shorter form is sufficiently distinctive. Even this could be left out if it happened that the entry covered the only edition of any of the books contained in a library, when the usual shelf-mark attached to the entry might be regarded as a sufficient guide, and the entry reduced to the simplest form of

Utopia. More, Sir T. n.d. 320.1

though this is not recommended.

On the other hand, if a library had a collection of editions of the Utopia, it would be a good and reasonable economy to cover the whole by a reference to the author's name, where they would be found set out in detail, as

Utopia. More, Sir T. See under More, Sir

The remaining entries, continued on the same lines, are

New Atlantis. Bacon, Lord. (Morley. Ideal
commonwealths.) n.d.
[Pg 78]City of the Sun, The. Campanella, T. (Morley.
Ideal commonwealths.) n.d.
Mundus alter et idem. Hall, J. (Morley. Ideal
commonwealths.) n.d.

For the classified catalogue the full entry, as shown under Morley above, is numbered 320.1 (Political Science. Theory of the State), and each author must appear in the index.

The foregoing rules and suggestions are also applicable to works of a varied character when the work of a single author—volumes of essays usually meriting and receiving separate entries under the subjects. Fletcher's A. L. A. Index to General Literature, Boston, 1905, is a useful work of reference in this connection, though it does not compensate for the want of the indexing referred to in this chapter.

A volume may consist of a number of essays or articles by an individual author upon topics so closely related that they are a contribution to a single subject. Such, for example, is

Pelham, Henry F. Essays; collected and ed. by
F. Haverfield. pp. xxiv., 328, map. la.8o
Oxf., 1911 937

This is lettered on the publisher's cover "Essays on Roman History." The contents of the volume, which should be set out under the above entry, are

Biographical note. The Roman curiæ. Chronology of the Jugurthine War. The early Roman emperors (Cæsar-Nero). Problems in the constitution of the Principate. The domestic policy of Augustus. Notes on the reign of Claudius. Hadrian. The Roman frontier system. The Roman frontier system in Southern Germany. Arrian as legate of Cappadocia. Discoveries at Rome, 1870-89. The imperial domains and the colonate. Pascua. Pagus.

[Pg 79]

Although so miscellaneous in character, this book requires but one subject-entry, as it would be a work of supererogation to index each essay separately.

Pelham, H. F. Essays. 1911 937

For the classified catalogue the book is not placed under English Essays (824), but under Ancient History—Rome (937), the index entries being

Pelham, Henry F. Essays. 937
Rome, Ancient (History). 937

[Pg 80]

Illustrated Books. Music.

Authors and Illustrators. Translations of Foreign Titles of Books of Illustrations and of Music. The Cataloguing of Music. Librettists. "Indexing" Miscellaneous Music. Dates of Publication.

In these days of cheap processes of reproduction of illustrations, particularly in colour, the cataloguer is called upon to decide whether the author (that is, the writer of the text) or the illustrator is the more important person in connection with a book.

The real occasion of a book's existence may be that an artist has produced a series of pictures considered to be worth reproduction, and the author has been engaged to write appropriate text for them. To put it another way, the former custom was for the artist to illustrate an author's text, whereas nowadays an author may write text for illustrations. This does not by any means imply that the text in itself is not valuable apart from the illustrations, and therefore most of such books need double entry, or at least references, as in the case of joint-authors. The following three books are of this class:

Hampshire, painted by Wilfrid Ball, R.E., described
by Rev. Telford Varley, M.A., B.SC. 1909
Kent, by W. Teignmouth Shore, painted by W.
Biscombe Gardner. 1907
The Channel Islands, painted by Henry B. Wimbush,
described by Edith F. Carey. 1904

[Pg 81]

In each of these examples the first-named, whether artist or author, should be taken for the main-entry, but the mode of entry does not follow that for joint-authors; the share of each in the book must be shown, as

Ball, Wilfrid (Illus.) Hampshire; described by
Telford Varley. pp. xii., 316, 75 col. illus.,
map. 1909
Varley, Telford. Hampshire described; [illus.]
by W. Ball. 1909

Ball, W., &c. Hampshire painted and described.

For short-entry catalogues, or as an economy, the "added entry" for the second of the persons named may be reduced to the reference, as

Varley, Telford. See Ball, Wilfrid.

Where the artist's name appears in the secondary place, as in the second book, a reference like this meets all reasonable requirements, though the same cannot be said when the writer of the text occupies that place, as in the first instance, and an entry is preferable to the reference if the trifling additional space can be afforded. In reality it does not resolve itself into a question of sparing space for the entry of a particular book, but of finding room for many similar cases.

The second book is

Shore, W. Teignmouth. Kent; [illus.] by W.
Biscombe Gardner. pp. x., 240, 73 col.
illus., map. 1907
Gardner, W. Biscombe (Illus.) Kent; [described]
by W. T. Shore. 1907

[Pg 82]

or alternatively

Gardner, W. Biscombe (Illus.) See Shore, W.

Shore, W. T., &c. Kent. 1907

The abbreviation "illus." is used equally to mean illustrator, illustrated, and, in the collation, illustrations, without any likelihood of confusion of idea by a person of ordinary intelligence, the position and context denoting the meaning. Sometimes this abbreviation is curtailed to "il.", or "ill.", with a loss of clearness, and as no real saving of space results, it cannot be recommended.

The third book is

Wimbush, Henry B. (Illus.) The Channel
Islands; described by Edith F. Carey. pp.
xiv., 294, 76 col. illus., map. 1904
Carey, Edith F. The Channel Islands; [illus.]
by H. B. Wimbush. 1904

Channel Islands, The:
Wimbush, H. B., &c. The Channel Islands
painted and described. 1904

As a rule there is no occasion for the cataloguer to notice the illustrator, except for books of this special character. Where the artist is famous and his illustrations lend value to a book, or where books are likely to be required because illustrated by a notable artist, it is well to mark the fact either by entry or reference. Such illustrators as Bewick, Beardsley, Blake, Brangwyn, Crane, Cruikshank, Dulac, "Phiz," Rackham, Rowlandson, Hugh Thomson, Turner, to name a dozen among the best known, should be noticed, either by entry under[Pg 83] their names, or after the manner shown in the following entries. Suppose the first book received is

Tales from Shakespeare, by Charles and Mary
Lamb, illustrated by Arthur Rackham. 1909

we proceed to write our main-entry, taking care to note that the book is illustrated by this particular artist,

Lamb, Charles and Mary. Tales from Shakespeare;
illus. by Arthur Rackham. 1909.

We then give the reference from the artist

Rackham, Arthur (Illus.) See Lamb, Charles and

Later we get a book, the title-page of which reads

The Rhinegold and the Valkyrie, by Richard
Wagner, with illustrations by Arthur Rackham,
translated by Margaret Armour. 1910

and on the half-title we find

The Ring of the Niblung a trilogy with a prelude
by Richard Wagner translated into English
by Margaret Armour. I.

so we combine and adapt the two titles, as

Wagner, Richard. The Ring of the Niblung;
transl. by Margt. Armour; illus. by Arthur
Rackham. I. 1910

I, The Rhinegold. The Valkyrie.

and give the usual references

Armour, Margaret (Transl.) See Wagner,
Rackham, Arthur (Illus.) See Wagner, Richard.

[Pg 84]

"Transl." is a perfectly clear abbreviation for either translated or translator—the shorter form, "tr.", may mean anything, and is to be avoided.

Later still we get another book, the principal entry for which is

Barrie, Jas. M. Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens;
illus. by Arthur Rackham. 1910

when we make another reference

Rackham, Arthur (Illus.) See Barrie, Jas. M.

Last of all we receive the second part of "The Ring of the Niblung," which we embody in the former entry, converting it into

Wagner, Richard. The Ring of the Niblung;
transl. by Margt. Armour; illus. by Arthur
Rackham. 2 v. 1910-11

v. 1. The Rhinegold. The Valkyrie.
v. 2. Siegfried. The twilight of the gods.

If we have forgotten that the former reference was made, which is unlikely, we make another, as before

Rackham, Arthur (Illus.) See Wagner, Richard.

When the time comes for printing the catalogue, if it has not already been done, these references are all amalgamated into:

Rackham, Arthur (Illus.) See Barrie, Jas. M.;
Lamb, Chas. and Mary; Wagner, Richard.

A certain amount of knowledge and discretion is required in cataloguing the illustrators of books; cheap modern reprints of standard books with illustrations by Cruikshank or "Phiz" hardly call for notice by the cataloguer.

[Pg 85]

Although it is the duty of the cataloguer to adhere to the language of the title-page in transcribing a title, it is conceivable that the usefulness of books in foreign languages, when they consist altogether or mainly of illustrations, may be extended in popular libraries, if a free explanatory translation of the title or a note is attached to the entry, after the manner shown in the following three entries:—

Séguy, E. Les fleurs et leurs applications décoratives
[Flowers and their application in ornament].
pl. 30. fo Paris, [1903]
Rémon, Georges. Soixante planches de peintre
décorative. fo Dourdan, n.d.
Sixty plates in colour for house decoration.
Lehner, Jos., und Ed. Mader. Neue Dekorations-Malereien
im modernen Stil. pl. 60.
fo Wien, [1904]
Original ornamental designs in colour.

So far as the orthodox rules for cataloguing are concerned, it is something of a heresy to suggest that, as these books contain no text, the original titles might be ignored, and a translation alone be given if space is a consideration, but if so catalogued, they would make a larger appeal in many libraries, and, after all, books are catalogued for the purpose of ensuring that they shall be used. The entries might be

Séguy, E. Flowers and their application in ornament,
pi. 30. fo [1903]

It must be understood that this translation is not a recommendation, but is only by way of suggestion, as there are not many books similar in[Pg 86] character. If the suggestion is adopted, it must be carried out uniformly through all entries.

Rémon, Georges. Sixty plates of decorative
painting [house]. fo n.d.
Lehner, J., and E. Mader. New painted decorations
in the modern style, pl. 60. fo [1904]

The subject entries and references required for these books are

Séguy, E. Les fleurs et leurs applications
décoratives. 1903
Decoration. See Ornament.
Design, Ornamental. See Ornament.
Flowers in ornament. See Ornament.

The first two references are for synonymous terms for the subject. The last is required for two reasons. Firstly, there are sure to be other books in the catalogue in which floral design will form the principal feature without any reference to flowers on the title-page; secondly, a book of the kind is better placed under the subject-word "Ornament" or whatever term is taken for the decorative arts, rather than "Flowers", to prevent it being mistaken for a work on botany or gardening.

The next book is on ornament as applied to house decoration only, and the designs are not meant for other purposes, certainly not for ornament generally, therefore the entry is

House Decoration:
Rémon, G. Soixante planches de peintre
décorative. n.d.

[Pg 87]

and the supplementary references are

Decoration, House. See House Decoration.
Ornament. See also House Decoration.

If the title of this book were printed "60 planches de peintre décorative", and the title had to be transcribed in full, the language of the original must be followed, and not a hybrid title given, as "Sixty planches de peintre décorative".

The third book, being upon ornament in general, receives an entry accordingly

Lehner, J., &c. Neue Dekorations-Malereien
im modernen Stil. [1904]

No further references are needed beyond those already given to the first of these three books. It would be literally correct but none the less pedantic to convert the "&c." of the above entry to "u.s.w." (und so weiter), as

Lehner, J., u.s.w.

and such a procedure is not recommended.

The entries of the first and third of these books would be marked for the classified catalogue 745 (Art. Ornamental Design), and the second 729.4 (Art. Architectural Design and Decoration. Painted Decoration), the index-entries being

Séguy, E. Les fleurs décoratives, 745
Ornament, 745
Floral Ornament, 745
Decoration, Ornamental, 745
Rémon, G. Peintre décorative, 729.4
House Decoration, 729.4
Decoration, House, 729.4
Lehner u. Mader. Dekorations-Malereien, 745

[Pg 88]

The foregoing suggestion for the translation of title-pages, where the text of the book is nonexistent or immaterial, is also applicable in the case of music, more especially instrumental music, as many persons understand music without understanding continental languages, and therefore to give a translation of the title-pages of musical works (not works upon music, which is a different matter) in a catalogue may serve a most useful purpose. Take these as examples:—

Beethoven, Ludwig van.
Sämmtliche Sinfonien für das Pianoforte zu
zwei und vier Händen; arrangirt von F. W.
Markull. No. 8-9, vierhandig. 4o Wolfenbüttel,
Jadassohn, S.
Sechs Clavierstücke. 4o Leipzig, n.d.
Leclair, Jean M.
Le tombeau: sonate à violon avec la basse
continue; arrangée pour le violon avec accompagnement
de piano par Gustav Jensen. 4o

There is no great reason why these and similar works should not be usefully adapted for the catalogues of popular libraries at any rate, as

Beethoven, Ludwig van.
Collected pianoforte symphonies; arranged by
F. W. Markull. Nos. 8-9, Piano duet. 4o
Wolfenbüttel, n.d.
Jadassohn, S.
Six pianoforte pieces. 4o Leipzig, n.d.
Leclair, Jean M.
Le tombeau: sonata, with continued thorough-bass;
arranged for the violin, with piano
accompaniment by Gustav Jensen. 4o n.d.

[Pg 89]

As "Le tombeau" is the distinctive title of this particular piece, it is as well to give it in the original form, or, if in translation, as "Le tombeau (The tomb)." It should be unnecessary to add that, where space is of no consideration, the above titles can be given in the original with the translation following enclosed within brackets; to do this would conform with literal accuracy.

As music is introduced here in connection with translated titles, we may also at this place consider the whole question of cataloguing it. Usually the catalogue of music is printed apart from the general catalogue of a library, in the form of a class-list, the entries being sub-divided into sections and divisions, according to the amount of material.

Whether in a separate publication or in the general catalogue, the composer occupies the place held by the authors of other works, and his surname is taken for the main-entry, as shown in the following examples of operas. The title-pages read:—

Maritana. Opera in three acts, the music composed by W. Vincent Wallace. The words by Edward Fitzball. Edited by Myles B. Foster. Boosey & Co.

The Bohemians (founded upon "La vie de Bohème" by Henry Murger.) An opera in four acts by Giuseppe Giacosa and Luigi Illica. Music by Giacomo Puccini. English version of Acts I. and II. by William Grist, Acts III. and IV. by Percy Pinkerton. Arranged by Carlo Carignani. G. Ricordi & Co. Copyright 1897. (Printed in Italy.)

[Pg 90]

and these we proceed to condense and adapt after this manner:—

Wallace, W. Vincent. Maritana: opera; words
by Edward Fitzball; ed. by Myles B. Foster.
(Royal ed.) pp. ii., 284. n.d.
Puccini, Giacomo. The Bohemians: an opera by
Giuseppe Giacosa and Luigi Illica; English
version by Wm. Grist and Percy Pinkerton;
arranged by Carlo Carignani. pp. viii., 204.
4o 1897

In the first entry the added words denoting the edition are taken from the printed cover of the book.

The above represent the full form for the dictionary catalogue. Any additional entries would be in the way of references from the names of the writers of the libretti, the translators, editors, or arrangers, as

Fitzball, Edward. See Wallace, W. Vincent.
Foster, Myles B. See Wallace, W. Vincent.

It may be considered that the writer of the libretto is of equal importance with the composer in such work, both often being named together in connection therewith, as "the Gilbert-Sullivan operas." It must be remembered, however, that in musical works like these the libretto as given seldom represents the complete work of the author, the spoken words being omitted; therefore, not only is his place secondary, but his share in the work is incomplete. For this reason even the reference can be dispensed with, except in full catalogues, where every name is taken into account. In the contrary case, where the words of an opera are[Pg 91] published without the music, the reverse method would be followed, and the name of the composer ignored for cataloguing, because his work is not included.

Besides references as above, there is the possible usefulness of title-entries (in the dictionary catalogue only), as

Maritana: opera. Wallace, W. V. n.d.
Bohemians, The: opera. Puccini, G. 1897

If the collection of music in a library is not sufficient to warrant the publication of a separate catalogue, it is desirable to embody in the dictionary catalogue a class-list of music under the heading "Music", treated as subject, although this is not strictly in accordance with the principles governing the compilation of such a catalogue. The entries under the heading would be sub-divided as required, in this way

(Vocal scores, with pianof. accom.)
Puccini, G. The Bohemians. 1897
Wallace, W. V. Maritana. n.d.

Music and musical works fall logically into place as part of a classified catalogue, and are as readily dealt with there as in a separately published Catalogue of music. The two principal entries of the above operas are marked 782.1 (Music—Dramatic Music—Opera.)

When a library contains an extensive or comparatively large selection of music, there are sure to be included volumes of "albums," "gems,"[Pg 92] "selections," and other miscellaneous collections, which in the ordinary way are catalogued after this manner:—

Pianof. solos.
Klassiker-Perlen: Gems from the classics.
(Conservatoire ed.) Bk. 1. 4o n.d.
Bk. 1. Prelude, C major, by Bach. Largo, by
Handel. Gavotte, by Gluck. Träumerei, Warum?
and Summerlied, by Schumann. Nocturne, by Field.
The song of the lark, Chant sans paroles, and
Bacarolle, by Tschaikowsky. Moment musical and
Menuett, by Schubert. Melody in F, by Rubinstein.

Unless the contents of such volumes are at least set out as above they cannot be regarded as properly catalogued. If the library had any one of these pieces as a separate publication, it would, no doubt, receive individual treatment, and be dealt with in this way (to take the last item in the above book):—

Pianof. solos.
Rubinstein, Anton. Melody in F. (Op. 3,
no. 1.) n.d.

For this reason, when the number of books is large, and the separate catalogue, therefore, of considerable size, such miscellaneous collections should be dealt with ("indexed") as if each item were a separate work. If it is essential to index the contents of other books of a miscellaneous character, it is doubly necessary for miscellaneous music, more especially as it brings all the works of a composer together according to the nature of the compositions. If this course is pursued, then, as a counter-balancing economy, the contents need not[Pg 93] be set forth under the principal entry, the separate "indexing" being sufficient, as

Pianof. solos.
Bach, J. Sebastian. Prelude. (Gems from
the classics, Bk. 1.) n.d.

This recommendation of separate entry is for a class-list of music (that is, a separately-published catalogue of music), and only applies to volumes containing works by several composers. Separate entries are not required in the case of a collection of pieces by a single composer. One entry only is needed, as

Pianof. solos.
Menynski, M. Esquisses russes pour piano.
pp. 48. 4o n.d.

This contains six pieces, each with a distinctive title, and these titles can be set out, if thought well, as contents under the above entry. No further entries should be given, even in the dictionary catalogue, as title-entries for the items in works of this kind are superfluous.

There are, also, many collections of miscellaneous music much too comprehensive to allow of the separate cataloguing of each item, and these must, of necessity, be simply catalogued, even without the contents being set out. Examples of collections of this type are:—

Hatton, J. L. (Ed.) The songs of England: a
collection of 200 English melodies, including
the most popular traditional ditties, &c., of
[Pg 94]the last three centuries. (Royal ed.) 2 v. n.d.
Pauer, E. (Ed.) March-album: a collection of
the most celebrated Italian, French, and German
marches. pp. 114. n.d.

In either the music or the classified catalogue, these would be respectively allotted to the divisions Music—Vocal Music—Ballad and Song (Dewey 784.3) and Music—Pianoforte Solos—Marches (Dewey 786.44).

In a short-entry catalogue, they can be condensed to

Hatton, J. L. (Ed.) The songs of England. 2 v.
Pauer, E. (Ed.) March-album: Italian, French,
and German marches. n.d.

Experience proves that no useful purpose is served by giving the dates of publication of modern music in an ordinary catalogue; in fact, it can only be given in exceptional cases, the majority being "n.d.", as the above examples testify. The works of the classic masters appear in so many forms and editions that the dates, when ascertained, are of no particular help.

[Pg 95]

Publications of Governments, Societies, and Corporate Bodies.

Co-operative Indexes. Publications of Societies. Publishing Societies. Government Publications. Statutes. Colonial and Foreign Government Publications. Local Government Publications. Associations and Institutions. Congresses.

The extent to which the work of dissecting and "indexing" the contents of books of a miscellaneous nature is to be carried out in a library catalogue depends largely on the nature and purpose of the library, though a limit must be set to it in any case. It would be unusual to index the proceedings or transactions of a society, or the contents of reviews, or other periodical publications, however valuable they might be. For this most libraries must depend upon the co-operative indexes, such as the Royal Society's Catalogue of Scientific Papers, the International Catalogue of Scientific Literature, the International Institute of Technical Bibliography, Poole's Index to Periodical Literature, the Engineering Index, the Index to Archæological Papers (unfortunately of little value because it is only an index of authors instead of subjects), and other works of the kind. The Library Association publishes a Class-Catalogue of Current Serial Digests and Indexes of the Literature of Pure and Applied Science.

The form of entry for the publications of societies will vary according to their nature. As[Pg 96] already stated, societies or other bodies in their corporate capacity are regarded as the authors of their memoirs, transactions, proceedings, journals, etc., and entry is made under their names accordingly. The question arises, under what part of the name? and it may be laid down in general terms that if a society be national or general in its scope and character, and its headquarters are in London, then the first word of the official name of the society, other than an article, is the correct entry-word. The following are illustrative examples of this:—

Royal Society of London. Catalogue of scientific
papers, 1800-1900. Subject-index, v. 3,
Physics, pt. 1. Camb., 1913
Society of Antiquaries of London. Archæologia;
or, miscellaneous tracts relating to antiquity.
v. 1-59, with indexes. 4o 1770-1905
Chemical Society. Abstract of papers. 17 v.
Linnean Society. Proceedings, 1838-55. 2 v.
British Association for the Advancement of
Science. Reports. 20 v. 1891-1910
Institution of Civil Engineers. Minutes of proceedings.
v. 56-142. 1879-1900

On the other hand, if the society be national for Scotland, Wales, or Ireland, or provincial, colonial, or foreign, the entry-word depends upon the nature of the society. The publications of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, for instance, might be better placed under "Edinburgh, Royal Society" than under "Scotland. Royal Society of Edinburgh," notwithstanding that it is a national and not a local body. Against this, the publications of[Pg 97] the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland are better entered under "Scotland, Society of Antiquaries of," although there is much to be said in favour of treating such important bodies after the manner shown in the previous entries, as

Royal Society of Edinburgh.
Society of Antiquaries of Scotland.

in which case these references are necessary:—

Scotland, Society of Antiquaries of. See Society
of Antiquaries of Scotland.
Edinburgh, Royal Society of. See Royal Society
of Edinburgh.

The British Museum practice is inconvenient and affords no help in cataloguing the publications of societies, because all of them are brought together, irrespective of character, country, or locality, under the general heading of "Academies," and arranged according to the names of the places of publication in one general alphabet (not in national or geographical order), as Abbeville, Aberdeen, Abo, Acireale, Adelaide, etc. If it is desired to find say the "Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers," it is necessary to turn first to "Academies," and then to "Birmingham," provided one knows or remembers that the Institution has its centre there. Publications like those of the Early English Text Society or the Hakluyt Society must be sought first under "Academies" and afterwards under "London." This method of general, then local entry, is not a simple and ready one. Even local entry is not always satisfactory, as often enough the place of[Pg 98] publication or of the meetings of a society are merely incidental, and, therefore, the proceedings of a county antiquarian society should be entered under the name of the county or society, and not the place—the Kent Archæological Society under Kent and not Maidstone, the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire under Lancashire ("Lancashire and Cheshire, Historic Society of"), not under Liverpool, and the Chetham Society under that distinctive name, not under Manchester. These societies cause little or no trouble, as their names usually suggest the best entry-word, even in the case of foreign societies.

It must clearly be understood that when a society is established for the publication of separate works upon subjects coming within the scope of the society's purpose, and not for the reading and discussion of papers, its publications require full cataloguing, as if each work had been issued independently, in addition to whatever entry is given under the name of the society. A case in point would be this:—

Chetham Society. Remains, historical and literary,
connected with the palatine counties of Lancaster
and Chester, v. 61, new ser. M'chester,
v. 6. Materials for the history of Lancaster, by
Wm. Oliver Roper. Pt. 1.

This is the main-entry in full catalogues. The essential sub-entries are

Roper, Wm. O. Materials for the history of
Lancaster. Pt. 1. (Chetham Soc., v. 61, new
ser.) 1907
[Pg 99]
Roper, W. O. Materials for the history of
Lancaster. Pt. 1. (Chetham Soc., v. 61,
new ser.) 1907

Whatever economy may be exercised, neither of these two last entries can be dispensed with, rather let the list of contents and the volumes under the main-entry be omitted, especially if the list is a long one, involving a hunt through many items to find a particular book. Under ordinary circumstances a summary entry for a whole set can be made to suffice in this fashion:—

Chetham Society. Remains, historical and literary,
connected with the palatine counties of Lancaster
and Chester. 116 v. M'chester,
Includes indexes to v. 1-30 and v. 31-114.

Similar entries for the whole set would be made under "Lancashire" and "Cheshire." By this arrangement a person requiring a particular work in the series could find it by reference to the entry under the author's name, or under the definite subject, if the book does not deal with either of these counties in general, and one or the other is certain to be remembered. It may be explained that the summary entry for the whole series, when given under the names of the two counties, obviates any necessity for separately entering any particular book under these counties. For example, the late Chancellor Christie's volume (No. 7 of the new series) on the old church and school libraries of Lancashire requires no separate entry under "Lancashire," as it is covered by the general[Pg 100] entry under the name of this county—the separate entries are given under "Christie" and "Libraries."

The book by Roper, taken in illustration above, which is given as "Pt. 1," does not require a second entry for Pt. 2 when it is received later. All that is necessary is to adapt the entries in this way

Chetham Society. Remains (and the rest of the
entry as before).
v. 61-62. Materials for the history of Lancaster, by
Wm. Oliver Roper. 2 v.
Roper, Wm. O. Materials for the history of
Lancaster. (Chetham Soc., v. 61-62, new
ser.) 2 v. 1907

Roper, W. O. Materials for the history of
Lancaster. (Chetham Soc., v. 61-62,
new ser.) 2 v. 1907

There are other societies which publish separate and independent books, lending themselves to this separate treatment, when each work must be dealt with individually. Among them may be named the Camden, Early English Text, Folk-Lore, Hakluyt, Harleian, Malone, Navy Records, and Surtees Societies.

These publications present the same problem for the classified catalogue as they do for shelf-classification, viz., shall they be kept together under the name of the Society, or be distributed throughout the catalogue according to the nature of their contents? If the volumes of the Camden Society or the Hakluyt Society are so scattered, they appear in many parts of the catalogue, whereas they are not usefully entered if grouped together. Some of the other societies do not raise this difficulty,[Pg 101] and the correct solution appears to be, as in the case of the dictionary catalogue, to give a general entry for the whole set in its place, and a separate entry for each volume in its own particular place. It is true there is usually a special place in the Dewey Classification for such collections (the Hakluyt Society is 910.6), but whether the volumes are all kept together on the shelves or not, they are virtually lost for usefulness unless, as already suggested, the entries are distributed according to countries or other subjects in the catalogue.

The publications of the state, of local government authorities, and other official bodies are regarded in much the same light for the main entry as societies. In a British catalogue the publications of the home government or its departments cannot be usefully or conveniently grouped together under a general heading of "England" or "Great Britain," but are better placed under the names of the respective departments. On the other hand, the publications of any other government and its departments are brought together under the name of the state, and those of the governing body of any specified area, local, home, or colonial, under the name of that area. These points can be made plainer by examples. To take the home government reports first:

Local Government Board. Annual report, 1908-9. 2 v. 1909 352.042
Board of Trade, Labour Department. Abstract of labour statistics of the United Kingdom, 1908-9. 1911 331.8
Board of Education. Special reports on educational subjects, v. 21. 1907 372.942
v. 21. School excursions and vacation schools.[Pg 102]
Imperial Education Conference, 1911. Report. 1911 370.6
Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis. Report, 1911. 1912 352.2

While these official titles of the respective departments are the correct form of entry, there is no particular objection to reversing the titles, when they admit of it, thus bringing them under the name of the public service concerned, as

Trade, Board of, Labour Department.
Education, Board of.
Education Conference, Imperial.
Police, Commissioner of, of the Metropolis.

Any necessary guiding references must be furnished if required, as

Board of Trade. See Trade, Board of.
Board of Education. See Education, Board of.
Imperial Education Conference. See Education Conference.

If the entries are so reversed, this does not convert them into a combined form of corporate-author and subject-entries; they will still need entries under whatever subject to which they appertain, unless a reference is substituted to meet the case under the subject. Should a library contain, say, many of the volumes of the special reports of the Board of Education, or a collection of the various reports on Labour issued by the Board of Trade, the setting of them out in detail twice over can be avoided by these two references

See also Education, Board of.

See also Trade, Board of (Labour Dept.)

[Pg 103]

The police report can be entered under "London," though by "Metropolis" is meant a much larger district than that usually understood as London, as it includes several outside county and other boroughs while excluding the City itself. Nominally the report is that of the chief officer, but there is no occasion to enter it under his name.

Upon the principle already outlined, editions of the statutes would, in the ordinary course, be entered under "Parliament," but it is better to take a separate heading, as "Acts of Parliament" or "Statutes, British," referring from "Parliament." Illustrative examples are

Acts of Parliament:
Statutes, The. A.D. 1235-1900. 2nd revised
ed. 20 v. 1888-1909 346.2
Chitty's Statutes of practical utility. 6th
ed., by W. H. Aggs. v. 1-14. 1911-13 346.2
Statutes, British. See Acts of Parliament.
Parliament. See also Acts of Parliament.
Law. See also Acts of Parliament.

References should be given from the names of any editors, compilers, digesters, or annotators, as Chitty and Aggs. A volume of Acts relating to a specified subject, say, Copyright, Theatres, or Workmen, is not entered under the general heading, but under the name of the subject and the compiler. Such works ordinarily contain the law as well as the statutes, and therefore any references required from the general to the particular would be given under "Law." Legislative publications of other countries corresponding to our Acts of Parliament are entered under the names of those countries.

[Pg 104]

The manner of stating the number of volumes in the second (Chitty) of the above examples indicates that the work is still in course of publication; if it were complete the number of volumes would be given as in the first entry. This first entry also takes precedence of the Chitty for order because it is the official "By authority" edition.

As said above, the publications of colonial and foreign governments are first entered under the names of places, then by departments, as

United States. Bureau of Education. Circular
of information No. 1, 1902. Contributions
to American educational history; ed. by
Herbert B. Adams. No. 30, History of
education in West Virginia, by A. R. Whitehill.
Washington, 1902 572.973
Canada. Department of Mines. Summary report
of the Geological Survey Branch, 1911.
Ottawa, 1912 557.1

An item like that of the U.S. Bureau of Education needs entries for subject and for the author of the particular section. Presuming that the whole series is covered under the heading "Education" by a reference to "United States. Bureau of Education," the other entries are

Virginia, West:
Whitehill, A. R. History of education in
West Virginia. (U.S. Bureau of Education,
Circulars of information, No. 1,
1902.) 1902 572.973
Whitehill, A. R. History of education in West
Virginia. (U.S. Bureau of Education, Circulars
of information, No. 1, 1902.) 1902

[Pg 105]

The first of these entries raises a question in connection with double place-names, i.e., should the entry be given as above or under "West"? Following the recommendation of the Joint-Code rule (No. 130), three standard gazetteers were consulted; two gave the name under "Virginia" (as in our entry), and one under "West." Accumulation of headings in one place is prevented when place-names qualified by the points of the compass, or in some similar way, are entered under the name following the prefix. All the same, each name must be considered independently. To enter New York or New Zealand under "York" and "Zealand" is incorrect, though the Isle of Man or the Isle of Wight are better under "Man" and "Wight" respectively. If there is the least doubt give the reference, which in this case is

West Virginia. See Virginia, West.

Examples of local government publications would be

London County Council. Statistical abstract for
London, 1911-12. v. 14. 1912 314.21
— Education Committee. Report on vacation
schools and organised vacation play. 1912
f 371.74

The "f" attached to the classification numbers is meant to mark the book as a folio, and, while indicating the size, serves also as a guide to its probable position on the shelves, because folios are not usually placed with octavos. If the book were a quarto, it would be marked "q", as "q 371.74".

[Pg 106]

Another local government publication is

Hammersmith Borough Council. 12th annual
report, 1911-12. 1913 352.042.1

The libraries of various localities usually make a point of obtaining all reports and documents bearing upon their particular areas, and, therefore, need special methods both for classification and cataloguing, according to the extent of their collections, so we may consider how the above items may be treated in a typical London public library. Presuming that all the publications of the London County Council are received, they would be so numerous that it is not worth while entering them again under "London" as subject. The entries under "London County Council" and under "London" would not only be many in number, but would come together in the catalogue. A better plan is carefully to enter all under "London County Council", subdividing the entries according to their nature. Though the Hammersmith report needs a reference under "London", an entry thereunder could not be justified, as in the case of the publications of the larger body. The references would be in this manner

Local Government.
London County Council. Publications. See
London County Council.

This is placed in order exactly as if it were an entry, whereas the Hammersmith reference comes at the end of the entries in the usual way, as

See also the names of the Metropolitan boroughs, as
Hammersmith, Shoreditch, Stepney.

[Pg 107]

Perhaps the first form of what may be termed an "entry-reference" is better exemplified by supposing it to be the most suitable style when under a general heading like "Education", and the entry references are

Board of Education. Reports, &c. See
Board of Education.
London County Council. Education reports.
See London County Council.
United States. Board of Education. Publications.
See United States.

These fall into place under the heading as "Board", "London", "United States", and not as references at the end. This style is only recommended where there are many entries under both the heading and the name referred to, the ordinary method being

See also Board of Education, London County
Council, United States (Bureau of Education).

The foregoing principles for the entry of government documents also apply to the publications of associations and institutions. The officers making reports in an official capacity are usually disregarded so far as their personal names are concerned, though at times a special report or other publication may justify and require an entry under the name of the writer, but this depends upon its nature. International and local exhibitions are entered under the names of the places where held, unless the organisations arranging[Pg 108] such exhibitions are, more or less, permanent bodies having exhibitions at intervals in different places, when the entries are given, not under the names of places, but under the official name of the organising body, as Royal Agricultural Society, National Rose Society, International Horticultural Exhibition.

The same applies more particularly to congresses and conferences of all kinds regularly held, the places of meeting being merely incidental. The following is an example of such a congress, which is held at intervals in different parts of the world, and with a certain continuity:—

National Council of Peace Societies. Official report
of the 17th Universal Congress of Peace,
held at Caxton Hall, Westminster, London,
July 27th to August 1st, 1908. 1909 172.4

The National Council is, apparently, a central body representing British peace societies, and is responsible for this report only. When the congress is held in another country, presumably some body in that country makes itself responsible for the publication of the report, in which case it is probable the title would be in German or in French, whichever country issues the report, and this must be remembered. The title "Universal Congress of Peace", not being the name of a body, but the purpose of the congress, is met by a subject-entry, the above serving as a main-entry for this particular report.

Peace Question, The:
National Council of Peace Societies. Report
of the Universal Congress of Peace,
London, 1908. 1909 172.4

[Pg 109]

This is a subject-heading that permits of a concentration of books, both for and against international peace, and may be made to include those upon international arbitration, the Hague Conferences, reducing of armaments, and other phases of the subject, even with the opposite term of "war" in their titles, provided the books bear upon the question in the ethical, social, or economic aspect, and are not purely military in character. The references then would be of this nature:—

War versus Peace. See Peace Question.
Arbitration, International. See Peace Question.
Armaments, Reduction of. See Peace Question.
Militarism. See Peace Question.

The heading is better sub-divided, the books in favour of international peace and arbitration leading, and those opposed to it following, under some suitable sub-headings. Amalgamation of subjects under a single heading is further referred to in Chapter XIV.

[Pg 110]

Compound Names. Names with Prefixes. Greek and Roman Names.

Rendering of the Names of Foreign Authors. Compound Names. Changed Names. Foreign Compound Names. Names with Prefixes. Short Entries. Title-Entries. Foreign Names with Prefixes. Greek and Latin Authors.

We shall not have proceeded very far with the work of cataloguing before problems in connection with the varying forms of personal names will arise. Translations of works by foreign authors will, at times, have varieties of renderings of their names, making it necessary to hunt out and decide which is the vernacular form or transcription of the name, and, therefore, the right one to adopt. An instance of a troublesome name of the kind is that of the Russian novelist, rendered upon title-pages as Turgenev, Turgénieff, Tourguéneff, Turgueniev, and Tourgénief.

Another source of worry is that of compound names, or their equivalent hyphenated-surnames, that is to say, names compounded without the authority of a deed-poll, or even without obligations as beneficiaries under a will. It is a growing affectation, to which many persons are partial, especially if their surnames happen to be among those most common. A person is born, say, Smith, and having the maternal surname as a second Christian name, he compounds with it, and Thomas Jackson Smith in time becomes T. Jackson-Smith. Generally speaking, the simplest[Pg 111] and most convenient plan is to enter all such names, if English, under the last name. When authors have undoubtedly changed or added to their names, and have written under both forms, this may be a good reason for entering under the first part of a double name, though the necessity for it can be obviated by the ever-useful reference.

Whatever method of entry may be adopted, the latest form of the name must be given, particularly in the case of those who have written under both forms. The Dean of Gloucester, for example, who has written some historical works under his name of H. D. M. Spence, has now published a guide to Gloucester Cathedral, under the name of H. D. M. Spence-Jones. If the entries are retained under the first form of name, the "Jones" must be added to all entries—subject as well as author; if the new name is taken, it should be dealt with after the manner shown in the next paragraph.

To enter under the last name will not be strictly in accordance with the orthodox rules, but it will prove by far the most convenient method for all concerned. Accordingly the undermentioned books are so entered, and not under the double names of Eardley Wilmot, Betham Edwards, and Collison Morley, although these writers may at times be spoken of by their double names.

Wilmot, Sir S. Eardley. Forest life and sport in
India, pp. viii., 324, illus. 1910
Edwards, Matilda Betham. Unfrequented France
by river, and mead, and town. pp. x., 204,
illus. 1910
Morley, L. Collison-. Modern Italian literature.
pp. viii., 356. 1911

[Pg 112]

The hyphen may be put in, as shown in the last entry, but this is not essential, at any rate in short-entry catalogues. Full catalogues give the references

Eardley-Wilmot, Sir S. See Wilmot.
Betham-Edwards, Matilda. See Edwards.
Collison-Morley, L. See Morley.

The cataloguer sometimes comes across a name which he may remember as a decidedly changed name from his point of view, when there is no alternative but to adopt the newer form. A writer, for example, who at one time was known as F. H. Perry Coste, has now become Perrycoste, and, unless the cataloguer's memory serves him well, this author's books will be entered under Coste and Perrycoste.

The subject-entries of the foregoing books are as follows:—

Travel and Description.
Wilmot, Sir S. E. Forest life and sport in
India. 1910

As this book is for the most part concerned with state forestry in India, it is likely to be serviceable in connection with forestry as a subject, though not specifically upon it, the meaning of the rules may be liberally interpreted to include the entry

Wilmot, Sir S. E. Forest life, &c., in India.

[Pg 113]

At the time of publication the author was a C.I.E., but later, becoming a K.C.I.E., the "Sir" is added to his name.

Travel and Description.
Edwards, M. B. Unfrequented France. 1910

Italian Literature:
Morley, C. L. Modern Italian literature.

The last book, not being upon literature in the universal sense or in the abstract, is entered under its definite subject of Italian literature as shown. Here the serviceable covering reference again removes all possible doubt.

See also the names of national literatures as
English, Italian, Spanish.

To enter compound names under the last name, as recommended, does not by any means imply that the first part of the hyphenated name should be reduced to initials in the principal entry of even a short-form catalogue, and, therefore, the briefest style for these names is Wilmot, Sir S. Eardley; Edwards, M. Betham; Morley, L. Collison.

If the codes of rules which stipulate for entry under the first part of a compound name are followed, the names are given after this fashion, to take one of the above books in illustration,

Betham-Edwards, Matilda. Unfrequented France
by river, and mead, and town. pp. x., 204,
illus. 1910

Betham-Edwards, M. Unfrequented France.

[Pg 114]

The reverse form of reference then becomes necessary, as

Edwards, Matilda Betham. See Betham-Edwards.

The Dewey numbers for the classified catalogue of these three books are respectively 915.4 (Geography and Travels—India), 914.4 (Geography and Travels—France), and 850.9 (Literature—Italian Literature—History). The index entries are

Wilmot, Sir S. E. Forest life in India, 915.4
India (Travels) 915-4
Edwards, M. B. Unfrequented France, 914.4
France (Travels) 914.4
Italian Literature (History), 850.9
Morley, L. C. Mod. Italian literature, 850.9

Compound names are a greater source of worry where foreign authors are concerned, and, irrespective of the rules, it is an excellent plan to use a native biographical dictionary to ensure correctness of entry. A rule of a general character may be laid down to the effect that foreign names are subject to the opposite method of treatment to that for English names, and the first part of the name is taken. It is said, though the statement is not vouched for, that in France, and, no doubt, elsewhere, such names are obtained in an odd way. A person say of the name of Saluste lives in a small town and on the left bank of the river running through it. In order that he may not be confused with another person of the same name living in another part, he is spoken of as Saluste of the Left Bank, and in course of time this distinguishing name is absorbed by his family, its patronymic eventually becoming Saluste de la Rive Gauche.

[Pg 115]

However this may be, the following represent the correct forms for such names:—

Barbey d'Aurevilly, Jules. Ce qui ne meurt pas.
2 v. Paris, n.d.
Leroy-Beaulieu, Pierre. La rénovation de l'Asie:
Sibérie, Chine, Japon. pp. xx., 482. Paris,
Cantacuzène-Altieri, Princesse Olga. Responsable.
2me éd. pp. 349. Paris, 1897

Foreign names of this kind rarely require references from the latter or other part of the name, but they may be given in very doubtful cases.

The first and third of these books being works of fiction, require no subject-entries. Works of this class receive instead an entry under the first word of the title, other than an article (a "title-entry"), because people often remember and ask for such works by their titles without knowing the author's names. These will be

Ce qui ne meurt pas. Barbey d'Aurevilly, J.
2 v. n.d.
Responsable. Cantacuzène-Altieri, Princesse.

While it is altogether against the principle of the dictionary catalogue to gather novels together under a heading "Fiction" or "Novels" in any part of it, yet there can be no objection to furnishing a guide to the authors of fiction in a particular foreign language contained in the catalogue after this style

French Fiction. See the names of the following
authors: Barbey d'Aurevilly, Cantacuzène-Altieri.

[Pg 116]

The second of the above books needs not only a subject-entry under Asia, but also one under the names of the three countries dealt with in it, as

Asia, Eastern:
Leroy-Beaulieu, P. La rénovation de l'Asie.

Leroy-Beaulieu, P. La rénovation de l'Asie.

with similar entries under "China" and "Japan," and references, binding the whole together, in this way

East, The Far. See Asia, Eastern.

Asia, Eastern.
See also China. Japan. Siberia.

It is hardly necessary to say that the translation of works by a foreign author in no way alters the form of name. Because M. Leroy-Beaulieu's name is attached to a book in English, it does not bring him under the rules for English compound names, any more than it makes an Englishman of him. This last book in translation, therefore, appears as

Leroy-Beaulieu, Pierre. The awakening of the
East: Siberia, Japan, China; transl. by
Richard Davey, with a preface by [Sir] Henry
Norman. pp. xxviii., 299. 1900

The fullest form of catalogue will have references under the translator and the writer of the preface, thus

Davey, Richard (Transl.) See Leroy-Beaulieu,
Norman, Sir Henry. See also Leroy-Beaulieu,

[Pg 117]

The average catalogue will not only dispense with these references, but may make them impossible by omitting to mention the names in the main-entry.

It may be said in passing that it is customary to give works in the original precedence over translations in the order of arrangement and altogether irrespective of the alphabetical order of the titles. The subject-entries for this work, being the same as before, need not be repeated except to give both books under one of them to show this order

Asia, Eastern:
Leroy-Beaulieu, P. La rénovation de l'Asie.
— The awakening of the East. 1900

The classified catalogue entry for the book will be marked 950 (History—Asia), although each of the countries named has a separate number. The novels will fall into 843.89 (Literature—French Fiction—Later 19th Century). Though this sub-division may be of service on the shelves, it is more convenient in the catalogue to arrange French fiction, or any other fiction, under a general number (in this case 843), and place the entries in one alphabetical sequence by authors' names without regard to their period. As a rule, however, both on the shelves and in the catalogues fiction receives special treatment.

Names with prefixes are also troublesome, and call for variation in treatment according to nationality. In all British names the entry is made under the prefix and not under the name following. Accordingly the Fitzes, the Macs, the Aps, and the O's attached to names are regarded as being[Pg 118] embodied in them, as FitzHerbert, McColl, Ap John, O'Brien, and all with similar prefixes are brought together. This statement also applies to those surnames preceded by "St." The following are examples of all these:—

Fitz-Gerald, S. J. Adair. Stories of famous
songs. pp. xviii., 426. 1898

The style in which the author prints his name in the book should be adhered to by the cataloguer, though whether printed as Fitz-Gerald, Fitz Gerald, or Fitzgerald, all are regarded as alike, and arranged together for alphabetical position in the catalogue.

McCabe, Joseph. The Iron Cardinal: the
romance of Richelieu. pp. xii., 389, ports.

Here also the alphabetical order remains the same whether the prefix is spelled Mac, Mc, or M', this name being arranged as if Maccabe. As the illustrations to the book consist exclusively of portraits, this is stated by "ports." instead of "illus." given with the collation. If the illustrations consist of portraits, pictures, and maps, they are separately named, as shown in the "St. John" entry below.

Ap John, Lewis. William Ewart Gladstone: his
life and times. pp. 329, port. 1887

The preliminary pages in this book are marked i. to xvi., and the succeeding pages 17 to 329, and these are given as above instead of as pp. xvi., 313.

O'Grady, Standish. The story of Ireland.
pp. viii., 214. 1894
[Pg 119]St. John, Charles. Short sketches of the wild
sports and natural history of the Highlands.
New ed., with ... memoir by M. G.
Watkins. pp. xxiv., 319, port., illus., map.

The author's name in this entry is according to the title-page, but a full catalogue will either give it in full—Charles William George St. John—or with initials, as Charles W. G. St. John.

In the sorting of this and similar entries for alphabetical order, the procedure of taking the prefix as part of, and one with, the name following does not apply. The others were regarded as Fitzg, Macc, Apj, and Obr respectively, but in this case the "St.," besides being taken as "Saint" in full, stands isolated from the rest of the name, when it falls into place among all names with a similar prefix and then in the alphabetical order of the main name. Accordingly St. John, or Saint-Simon, or Saint-Yves come before Sainta or Sainte-Beuve.

Before proceeding further, these books may be completed for the dictionary catalogue and assigned their places in the classified.

Fitz-Gerald, S. J. A. Stories of famous
songs. 1898

If but a single book appears on the subject a title-entry suffices

Songs, Famous, Stories of. Fitz-Gerald, S. J. A.

This is better and less clumsy than

Songs, Stories of famous. Fitz-Gerald, S. J. A.
[Pg 120]Richelieu, Cardinal:
McCabe, J. The Iron Cardinal. 1909

In full form catalogues the heading can be given at length

Richelieu, Armand-Jean Du Plessis, Cardinal

The title "The Iron Cardinal" must be so given, and not as "The iron cardinal," although it may be a fanciful title made use of by this author alone.

Gladstone, William Ewart:
Ap John, L. Gladstone: his life and times.

In arranging the order it is the correct and better plan to put the books by a person before those upon him, and it is an advantage to print the latter in smaller type. The books in the extract from the Manchester catalogue given on pages 11 and 12 would be better arranged in this order:—

Gladstone (W. E.) Gleanings of past years.
— Homer.
— Impregnable Rock of Holy Scripture.

Biography of, by Russell.
Biography of, by Smith.
Character of.
Essay on, by Brown.

This meagre, telegraphese style of catalogue can never be satisfactory, so it is not surprising to learn that Mr. C. W. Sutton, the Manchester Librarian, has superseded it by the classified form.

O'Grady, S. The story of Ireland. 1894
[Pg 121]
Natural History, &c.
St. John, C. Wild sports and natural history
of the Highlands. 1893

Highlands, Scottish. See Scotland.

There is no occasion to give a title-entry for any of these books as they are adequately catalogued as shown. It may be assumed that any person who wants them will remember either the authors' names or the subjects. To give entries under "Stories," "Iron Cardinal," "Story of Ireland," "Short sketches," would be both futile and wasteful.

In the classified catalogue the main-entries given above would be numbered and arranged, the book on songs, 821.04 (English Literature—Poetry—Lyric, Ballads), Richelieu as 923.2 (Biography of Sociology—Statesmen)—rather than 922.2 (Biography of Religion—Cardinals)—and the Gladstone would be the same number, 923.2. It is a convenience in the case of biographies in a classified catalogue to lead off with, and arrange by, the name of the subject of the biography, in which case the entries are changed to this form:—

923.2 Biography of Sociology—Statesmen.
Gladstone, William Ewart: his life and times,
by Lewis Ap John. pp. 329, port. 1887
Richelieu, Cardinal. The Iron Cardinal, by
Joseph McCabe. pp. xii., 389, ports.

It is still more convenient to throw all the works of biography into a single alphabet of the names of the subjects without any sub-division. This enables the consulter of the catalogue to find[Pg 122] a biography without having to stop and consider whether the person was a cardinal or a statesman.

The story of Ireland is 941.5 (History—Ireland), it being a general history, and not one upon a particular period. The book on the Highlands deals with the fish, birds, and animals, and is therefore allocated to 591.941 (Science—Zoology—Geographical Distribution—Scotland).

The index entries are

Fitz-Gerald, S. J. A. Famous songs. 821.04
Songs and Ballads (Literature) 821.04
McCabe, J. Iron Cardinal (Richelieu) 923.2
Richelieu, Cardinal, 923.2
Ap John, L. Gladstone, 923.2
Gladstone, William E. (biographies) 923.2
O'Grady, S. Story of Ireland, 941.5
Ireland (History), 941.5
St. John, C. Wild sports of the Highlands, 591.941
Scotland (Zoology), 591.941
Highlands, Scottish (Zoology), 591.941

Other prefixes, mostly of foreign origin, as De, De la, Le, Van, become the entry-word when attached to British surnames, as in the following examples:—

De Morgan, William. Alice-for-Short.
De la Warr, Constance, Countess. A twice
crowned queen: Anne of Brittany. 1906
Le Feuvre, Amy. A bit of rough road.
Van Dyke, Henry. The blue flower.

All these are alphabetized as if the prefixes were part of the names following, as Demor, Delawa, Lefeu, Vandyke.

The illustrative entries worked out from this point onwards will be curtailed to the limits of an average or short-entry catalogue, upon the supposi[Pg 123]tion that most of those who use this book will require compressed entries, the style for full-entry catalogues having been already sufficiently indicated. It is easier to give entries in full than to condense them without the loss of any information of moment. In the following pages an endeavour will be made to show reasonable condensation of entries or other economies that may be effected and adopted. Putting this into practice, it will be observed that the collation has been left out of these entries, and that the dates of publication are not given in three of them. This latter omission is because they are works of fiction, and books in this class of literature are frequently worn out in popular libraries. The editions replacing them are seldom of the same date, therefore it serves no particular purpose to give the dates; the great majority of persons wanting such books are not in the least concerned as to when the book was published, unless it be that it is the "latest out."

The title-entries for these same three books are

Alice-for-Short. De Morgan, W.
Bit of rough road, A. Le Feuvre, A.
Blue flower, The. Van Dyke, W.

It is often a puzzle where properly to introduce the articles a, an, and the, in titles turned about to bring the word following into place; under no circumstances should entries be given under the articles. Generally they fall into place to read easily and correctly if brought in before the possessive or at the end. Guidance must be largely a matter of sight or sound, as no definite rule can be laid down. It is incorrect to omit them[Pg 124] altogether, because the sense of the title is often changed or spoiled. Under the author-entry the articles should be left in their place, as shown, and not twisted about, as is occasionally seen, after this fashion.

Deeping, Warwick. Bertrand of Brittany.
— Lame Englishman, The.
— Red Saint, The.
— Woman's war, A.

Under the author-entry the books are placed in alphabetical order by the word following the article. Some rules recommend that this be emphasised by the use of a capital initial to it, in this way

Deeping, Warwick. Bertrand of Brittany.
— The Lame Englishman.
— The Red saint.
— A Woman's war.

This point is further referred to and illustrated in Chapter XII.

Every article when part of a title (apart from the initial one) is taken into account for alphabetising purposes, as

Story of a play.
Story of Aline.
Story of an African farm.
Story of Leah.
Story of the Gadsbys.

The historical biography yet remains for attention and requires a title-as-subject entry.

Anne of Brittany. A twice crowned queen. De
la Warr, Countess. 1906

[Pg 125]

A title-entry may be given if desired, but it cannot be said to be of much use.

Twice crowned queen, A: Anne of Brittany. De
la Warr, Countess. 1906

For the classified catalogue the works of fiction, in a "free library" at any rate, will hardly be marked 823 (Literature—English Fiction), but will be treated as a class apart; all the entries being arranged alphabetically by author's names, not by the periods in which the books were written, or the nationalities of the authors. It is true there are other possibilities in arranging works of fiction in the classified catalogue, though they introduce an element of obscurity and hinder ready reference. Historical fiction can be kept apart and arranged under the countries and periods, or the idea can be carried further and the books sub-divided under such headings as Human Careers, Adventures Abroad, America, English Life, Irish Life, Scottish Life, Short Stories and Sketches, Detectives and Crime. It is conceivable that there are people who would appreciate a division of this kind, though it would not suit the general convenience. To bring all the works of fiction together under a heading "Novels" in the dictionary catalogue, as said previously, is foreign to its nature, and should not be attempted.

The foregoing illustrations were examples of Anglicized foreign prefixes. When the prefixes are to genuine foreign names they require careful consideration and varying treatment according to their character. If "De" is part of a name undoubtedly French, it is not the entry word, but the[Pg 126] name which follows or precedes it. If a prefix embodies the definite article in it, as "Du," then that is the entry-word, whether the name be English or French, so also is the definite article of "de la", as shown in the de la Brète item below. The above points are all illustrated in the following examples:—

Harcourt, Louis d'. Le sabre du notaire.
Maupassant, Guy de. Fort comme la mort.
Du Boisgobey, Fortuné. La loge sanglante.
La Brète, Jean de. Mon oncle et mon curé.
Le Roux, Hugues. Le fils à papa.

When the prefix is embodied as part of the surname, then the whole name is regarded as a single one, and comes under the ordinary rule. It is as well to give examples of these also.

Decourcelle, A. Un homme d'argent.
Delaborde, Vicomte Henri. La gravure: précis
élémentaire. [1882]

All the above are works of fiction, the last excepted, and therefore receive the usual first-word title-entries in the dictionary catalogue, the rules governing the use of the article remaining the same for foreign fiction. To prevent misunderstanding, the correct form for such entries is here shown

Sabre, Le, du notaire. Harcourt, L. d'.
Fort comme la mort. Maupassant, G. de.
Loge sanglante, La. Du Boisgobey, F.
Mon oncle et mon curé. La Brète, J. de.
Fils à papa, Le. Le Roux, H.
Homme d'argent, Un. Decourcelle, A.

Whatever economy may be effected by leaving out the articles in English titles, it is better and more[Pg 127] correct not to attempt it in French. The last of the books is on engraving, which word becomes the subject-heading, as under no circumstances should the name of any subject be given in any form but English in the catalogue unless, as happens in remote cases, there is no equivalent in English for the subject. Accordingly the entry is

Delaborde, Vicomte H. La gravure. [1882]

The instruction that when the definite article is a prefix, or part of a prefix, to a name it becomes the entry word must not be blindly followed in all cases, as there are exceptions. If it were the middle part (conjunction) of a double name, for example, it is not the entry-word. To name some instances of this Viollet-le-Duc is so entered, and not as Le Duc; Verdy du Vernois, and not Du Vernois; Leconte de Lisle, and not Lisle or De Lisle; and Puvis de Chavannes, not Chavannes or De Chavannes. Such names require to be treated with knowledge and discretion.

The inexperienced and the young cataloguer, they are not necessarily the same, need to exercise due care lest they blunder stupidly if unwittingly. Perhaps they have a book by, say, J.-H. Rosny le Jeune one day, and on another one by J.-H. Rosny Ainé, when it need hardly be said the entry-names are not Le Jeune or Ainé, or even Rosny le Jeune or Rosny Ainé, but

Rosny, J.-H., ainé.
Rosny, J.-H., le jeune.

and in this order. This note of warning is not unnecessary, as might be supposed.

[Pg 128]

Much the same principles govern Italian and Spanish names with prefixes. In German and Dutch "von" and "van" are not the entry-words, except in Anglicized names as already shown, or if clearly embodied in the surname. This latter remark applies to "van," as "von" is seldom, if ever, so found.

It is customary in entering books by the Greek and Latin classical authors to adopt the name contained in some modern standard dictionary, such as Smith's "Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography." This is usually the Latin form, as Virgilius, Homerus, and while it is wise in the case of a college or other library to follow this, it is better for a public library to adopt the English style, as Homer, Horace, Ovid, Pliny, Virgil; at the same time taking care to adhere to the English forms throughout and to see that all the books are entered under that adopted, no matter what may be the languages of the various editions. The author's name as the entry-word must, of course, be turned into the nominative, and not left in the case in which it appears on the title-page, though this difficulty does not arise when the English renderings of the names are chosen.

The following examples are given to elucidate the matter as well as emphasise it. The title-pages of the four books selected for the purpose read:—

Q. Horati Flacci Opera Edited by T. E. Page,
M.A. London Macmillan & Co. 1895
Sophoclis Tragoediae Edited by Robert Yelverton
Tyrell. London Macmillan & Co. 1897
P. Vergili Maronis Bucolica Georgica Aeneis
Edited by T. E. Page, M.A. London Macmillan
[Pg 129]& Co. 1895
M. Tullii Ciceronis De Finibus Bonorum et
Malorum Libri Quinque With Introduction
and Commentary by W. M. L. Hutchinson.
London Edward Arnold 1909

The first three books have on the preliminary title-pages "The Parnassus Library of Greek and Latin Texts." To revert to the style of the full form of entry, these would appear as

Horatius Flaccus, Quintus. Opera; ed. by T. E.
Page. (Parnassus lib. of Greek and Latin
texts.) pp. xxii., 252. 1895

Sophocles. Tragoediae; ed. by Robert Y. Tyrrell.
(Parnassus lib. of Greek and Latin texts.)
pp. xxvi., 272. 1897

Virgilus Maro, Publius. Bucolica, Georgica,
Aeneis; ed. by T. E. Page. (Parnassus lib. of
Greek and Latin texts.) pp. xxii., 376. 1895

Cicero, Marcus Tullius. De finibus bonorum et
malorum; with intro. and commentary by
W. M. L. Hutchinson, pp. xxxii., 238. 1909

It should be noted that the form of words of the titles of the books is not altered or amended, the dipthongs in "Tragœdiæ" and "Æneis" being taken from the books, as it is the rule to follow the wording of a title-page literally, even to the extent of copying obvious mistakes.

References are required from the names of the various editors

Page, T. E. (Ed.) See Horatius. Virgilius.
Tyrrell, Robert Y. (Ed.) See Sophocles.
Hutchinson, W. M. L. (Ed.) See Cicero.

[Pg 130]

For "an average catalogue"—by which is meant one that is intended for the use of all classes, learned or unlearned—the popular form of names is not only more suitable but is more convenient The entries, then, would be

Horace. Opera; ed. by T. E. Page. (Parnassus
lib.) 1895

Sophocles. Tragoediae; ed. by R. Y. Tyrrell.
(Parnassus lib.) 1887

Virgil. Bucolica, Georgica, Aeneis; ed. by T. E.
Page. (Parnassus lib.) 1895

Cicero. De finibus bonorum et malorum; ed. by
W. M. L. Hutchinson. 1909

The fact that the titles of the books are given in Latin would in itself be a sufficient indication to the observant that the works are in the original and not translations.

Apart from the references from editor's names, the above would be the sole entries in any style of catalogue, as most classical authors, certainly the Greek and Latin, do not have subject-entries, or anything corresponding thereto, probably upon the supposition that the contents of their works are so well known by those who read them that further entries are uncalled for.

In the classified catalogue most of the classic authors have a specific place, those above being respectively 874.5 (Literature—Latin Lyric Poetry—Horace), 882.2 (Literature—Greek Dramatic Poetry—Sophocles), 873.1 (Literature—Latin Epic Poetry—Virgil), and 875.4 (Literature—Latin Oratory—Cicero—Philosophical Works.)

[Pg 131]

In all subsequent illustrations the position in the Dewey Classification will be shown by the number attached to each principal entry, as if it were the shelf ("finding" or "location") number in the dictionary catalogue, and this will obviate the necessity for any separate statement relating to the classified catalogue unless it seems to be required.

[Pg 132]

First Name Entry.

Monarchs. Queens. Order of Arrangement. Princes. Popes. Series Entries. Saints. Friars. Mediæval Names. Artists, &c.

Among other names rather puzzling to the cataloguer are those of persons who have no surnames in the ordinary accepted sense, and who are known and entered by their Christian or forenames, such as potentates, popes, saints, and mediæval writers. Their names will arise more frequently for subject-entry than as authors, but the style of entry remains the same in either case.

To take the names of royal personages first, the book chosen is catalogued as

Victoria, Queen. Letters: a selection, 1837-61;
ed. by Arthur C. Benson and Viscount Esher.
3 v. ports. 1907 942.081

This would be a sufficiently full entry for most catalogues, yet the title-page of the first volume reads

The Letters of / Queen Victoria / a Selection from Her Majesty's / Correspondence between the / Years 1837 and 1861 / Published by Authority of / His Majesty the King / Edited by Arthur Christopher Benson, M.A. / and Viscount Esher, G.C.V.O., K.C.B. / In three volumes / Vol. I / 1837-1843 / London / John Murray, Albemarle Street, W. / 1907

[Pg 133]

The markings in this title denote the division into lines of the title-page, and are introduced merely to illustrate and explain such markings when seen in catalogues. They are only used in the case of rare editions and bibliographical curiosities, or where a very exact description is wanted.

This book is not allotted to the biography of sociology in the classified catalogue, but to English History—Queen Victoria, where it rightly belongs. The biographies of monarchs are rarely separable from the histories of their reigns, and these letters are regarded accordingly.

The usual references are required from the names of the editors individually, as

Benson, Arthur C. (Ed.) See Victoria, Queen.
Esher, Viscount (Ed.) See Victoria, Queen.

The next work is one of a purely literary character by the queen of a reigning monarch, viz.,

Elisabeth, Queen of Roumania ("Carmen
Sylva.") Pilgrim sorrow: a cycle of tales;
transl. by Helen Zimmern. 1884 833.89

A title-entry is required for the book

Pilgrim sorrow: tales. Elisabeth, Queen of
Roumania. 1884 833.89

This book is not placed with Roumanian literature in the classified catalogue, but with German fiction of the later 19th century, as the Queen writes in her native German.

In the remaining illustrations the royal personages come as subjects, not as authors. The principal entries are—

Baird, Henry M. The Huguenots and Henry of[Pg 134]
Navarre. 2 v. 1886 272.4
Beazley, C. Raymond. Prince Henry the Navigator,
the hero of Portugal and of modern
discovery, 1394-1460. (Heroes of the
nations.) illus. 1895 923.9
Bigelow, Poultney. The German Emperor and
his Eastern neighbours, port. 1892 943.084
Capefigue, J. B. Gabrielle d'Estrées et la politique
de Henri IV. 1859 944.031
Younghusband, Lady Helen A. Marie-Antoinette:
her early youth, 1770-74. ports., illus.
1912 923.1

The first and fourth of these books come together under the same heading—

Henry IV., of France:
Baird, H. M. The Huguenots and Henry of
Navarre. 2 v. 1886 272.4
Capefigue, J. B. Gabrielle d'Estrées et la
politique de Henri IV. 1859 944.031

A reference is desirable

Henry of Navarre. See Henry IV., of France.

These books need further entries for subject, the first under the heading "Huguenots, The," and the other a title-entry

Estrées, Gabrielle d', et la politique de Henri IV.
Capefigue, J. B. 1859 944.031

Presuming that the catalogue will contain no other book than that above on Prince Henry, we write a title-entry

Henry, Prince, the Navigator. Beazley, C. R.
1895 923.9

The next book becomes

William II., Emperor of Germany:
Bigelow, P. The German Emperor and his
Eastern neighbours. 1892 943.084

[Pg 135]

Whenever a number is used in the titles of monarchs either in the heading or in transcribing the title of a book, it is given in Roman numerals, as shown above, and not as "Henry 4th," or even as "William the Second." The last book requires a further entry under "Russia," the "Eastern neighbours" of the title, as the book bears upon German relations with Russia. It does not need an entry under "Germany," as all books dealing with a particular monarch or his reign are entered under his name, as in this instance, and covered by a reference from the name of the country, as

See also William II.

or more comprehensively

For the lives of monarchs and the histories of
their reigns see their names as William II.

This example affords an opportunity for explaining that in the catalogues of popular libraries the names of foreign monarchs are Anglicized, where they admit of it, as shown (William instead of Wilhelm); that all English monarchs of the same name take precedence in the order of arrangement; and that the sovereigns with the same name of a particular country are kept together, and then arranged in chronological order. The following list demonstrates this point—

William I., the Conqueror.
William II. (1087-1100).
William III.
William IV.
William I., Emperor of Germany (1861-88).
William II., Emperor of Germany.

[Pg 136]

If considered desirable, the dates of the reigns can be added, as shown in the second and fifth of these names. This adds a certain clearness to the entry, though the catalogue is not meant to serve as an historical dictionary.

The last of the above selection of books is entered

Marie-Antoinette, Queen:
Younghusband, Lady. Marie-Antoinette:
her early youth. 1912

In assigning a place in the classified catalogue for this and similar books we are faced with the necessity for deciding whether they shall go in 923.1 (Biography of Sociology—Chief Rulers, Kings, Queens, etc.). By the Queen Victoria book it was shown that her letters were inseparable from the history of her reign, and the same view is taken of the biographical and other books above, as indicated by the numbers attached to the entries. If this is considered to be the better and more useful placing for a book dealing with a monarch, it is a moot point whether the lives of their consorts are not also to a large extent contributions to the histories of their periods, and warrant similar treatment, when this book would be numbered with others on the reign of Louis XVI. (944.035). A confirmation of this view is found in the Subject-Index of the London Library, where no references whatever to books on Marie-Antoinette are to be found under her name, as they are under Louis XVI., though this is no criterion for so dealing with books catalogued according to the principles laid down in these pages. In the classified cata[Pg 137]logue the books can be entered at 944.035, and a reference given to it at 923.1.

Following out the contrary idea, the book upon Prince Henry the Navigator is not put with the Biography of Princes, but with the Biography of Travellers, Discovery.

We may take two books upon Popes at this point, though the method of treatment is virtually the same,

McCarthy, Justin. Pope Leo XIII. (Public men
of to-day.) 1896 922.21
Stephens, W. R. W., Dean. Hildebrand and his
times. (Epochs of church hist.) map. 1888 922.21

Contrary also to the views expressed above, but with as good reason, these two books are not classified with Religion—History of the Roman Catholic Church, but with the Biography of Religion—Popes. The subject-entries for the dictionary catalogue are

Leo XIII., Pope:
McCarthy, J. Pope Leo XIII. 1896 922.21

Gregory VII., Pope:
Stephens, W. R. W. Hildebrand and his
times. 1888 922.21

This last calls for the reference

Hildebrand. See Gregory VII., Pope.

The lives of popes, or any other works dealing with them as individuals, do not need references from their family names, because these names are merged when the bearers are raised to the pontificate, and it is unlikely that anyone will look under Pecci for[Pg 138] Leo XIII. Two useful general references can be added

Roman Catholic Church.
See also Popes.

See also the names of Popes as Gregory VII.,

These references assume that there are books in the catalogue upon the popes generally.

It will have been observed in passing that both these books, and that upon Prince Henry the Navigator, in the previous examples, belong to series, the titles of which are contained in the entries. They are usually noticed for headings in the dictionary catalogue, as it can be made to furnish a list of the volumes in a library, belonging to a series, under the name of the series. As such a list is not intended to serve as a makeshift form of subject-entry, the first word (articles excepted) of the title of the series is taken for the entry-word of the heading, as Heroes of the Nations, Public Men of To-day, Epochs of Church History, capitals being used to denote that these are special names. There are three ways of entering under a series heading, viz., (1) by the authors' names arranged in alphabetical order, as

Heroes of the Nations; ed. by Evelyn Abbott:
Beazley, C. R. Prince Henry the Navigator, 1895 923.9

(2) by the subject, especially in a series of a biographical or personal nature, as

Public Men of To-day:
Leo XIII., by J. McCarthy. 1896 922.21

[Pg 139]

and (3) by the number if the volumes in the series bear a consecutive number, as

International Scientific Series:
v. 74. Stebbing, T. R. R. History of crustacea.
1898 595.3

Though allowed for by some of the codes of rules, this latter is a form not to be commended, as it often involves a search through a long list to find a particular book. The only possible advantage it has is that the latest published volumes are to be found at the end of the list, though this would not apply to new and revised editions if they had the old volume numbers. When economy of space is of some moment, as it too often is in the printed catalogues, there being a certain element of doubt as to the utility of these series entries, they can be dispensed with, upon the presumption that a person requiring a book will know either the name of the author or its subject, and the author-entry reveals if it is one of a series. Whatever likelihood there may be of a person wishing to read all the books in the Heroes of the Nations or English Men of Letters Series, it is improbable that anyone will want to read systematically from volume 1 to 74 of the International Scientific Series owing to the variety of subjects. The name of the series should be given in the author-entry even in the brief form of catalogue. A certain amount of discretion has to be exercised in giving lists of series, as many publishers' series, like the Pitt Press Series, Bohn's Libraries, Clarendon Press Series, Everyman's Library, pass unnoticed. If space can be afforded, it serves some little purpose towards[Pg 140] indicating the character and scope of books to give the names of such series in the principal entry. There is no place in the classified catalogue for separate lists of series.

The saints and similar personages next claim our attention. The entries will be under their names, and not under "Saint." Examples of the correct form are

Augustine, St., Bp. of Hippo.
Confessions; with an Eng. transl. by Wm.
Watts, 1631. (Loeb classical lib.) 2 v.
1912 922.1

Augustine, St., of Canterbury:
Cutts, E. L. Augustine of Canterbury. 1895 922.1

Francis, St., of Assisi:
Little, W. J. K. St. Francis of Assisi. 1897 922.2
Francis, St., de Sales.
Spiritual letters: a selection, transl. 1880 242

Francis Xavier, St.:
Venn, H. Missionary life and labours of
Francis Xavier. 1862 922.2

Only the first and fourth of these are main-entries, and neither of them really needs a subject-entry. The main-entries for the rest are

Cutts, Edward L. Augustine of Canterbury.
(Leaders of religion.) 1895 922.1
Little, W. J. Knox. St. Francis of Assisi: his
times, life, and work. port. 1897 922.2
Venn, Henry. The missionary life and labours of
Francis Xavier. 1862 922.2

[Pg 141]

The process of canonization does not affect cataloguing so materially that all persons canonized must be entered under their Christian names, indeed, the Francis Xavier at least needs the reference

Xavier, St. Francis. See Francis Xavier.

Comparatively modern instances, as Sir Thomas More or Bishop John Fisher—now the Blessed Thomas More and Blessed John Fisher—continue to receive the usual entries under More and Fisher, though they will not be found under those names in the recently-published Catholic Encyclopedia, but under Thomas and John respectively. Whatever form of name may be adopted for the heading, it does not affect the title of the book, which must be retained as given by the writer, thus

More, Sir Thomas:
Bridgett, T. E. Wit and wisdom of Blessed
Thomas More. 1892

Friars or other ecclesiastics who drop their surnames and adopt a religious name happily are not often found among the writers of books in an average library, though the cataloguer of a theological library will have to reckon with them. One example will suffice

Hyacinthe, Père (Chas. J. M. Loyson). Catholic
reform and the Anglican Church: correspondence;
transl. by Lady Durand. 1879 282

A reference from Loyson to Hyacinthe is necessary; indeed, in this case the British Museum Catalogue enters under Loyson with the reference the reverse way.

[Pg 142]

In the event of a friar leaving his order, and resuming his "worldly" name, entry is by that name. A modern instance of this would be

McCabe, Joseph. Life in a modern monastery.
1898 271

the author having been Father Antony of the Franciscans. No reference is needed here, and it would only be required in the event of his having published books under his monastic name.

The first book takes two subject-entries, one under "Roman Catholic Church" (or "Roman Catholicism"), and the other under "Church of England," as

Roman Catholic Church:
Hyacinthe, Père. Catholic reform and the
Anglican Church. 1879 282

The subject-entry for the other book is

McCabe, J. Life in a modern monastery.
1898 271

There are yet others who are entered by their Christian names, for lack of another; mostly mediæval writers, who are, however, usually distinguished by means of their place, or office, or occupation. It will suffice to name a few as examples of the type without adding book-titles to them, viz., Mathew of Paris (Parisiensis); Mathew of Westminster; Paulus Diaconus; Reginald, Monk of Durham; Thomas à Kempis; Walter of Henley; William of Malmesbury.

[Pg 143]

Among the books set for cataloguing by library assistants and students at a recent examination was one, the title-page of which read

Edited from Manuscripts
Bishop of Chester, and Honorary Student of Christ Church,
Published by The Authority of the Lords Commissioners of Her
Majesty's Treasury, under the Direction of the Master of the Rolls.
Printed for Her Majesty's Stationery Office,
By Eyre and Spottiswoode,
Printers to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty.

The results, as worked out, were surprising, and proved the great difficulty experienced by most in interpreting a title-page. Among the renderings were these, with others equally incorrect:—

Stubbs, William, editor. Historiæ novellæ libri
tres. Vol. 1. Lond. 1887

[Pg 144]

This had a further entry under "Historiæ Novellæ," William of Malmesbury being ignored altogether. The punctuation and markings for the printer are copied as given, and are here printed accordingly.

Willelmi Malmesbiriensis, Monachi de Gestis
Regum Anglorum Libri Quinque Historiæ
Nouvellæ Libri Tres. ed. by William Stubbs,
(Bp.) vol. 1. 1887

with a further entry in all particulars the same under

"Stubbs, William (Bp. Ed.)."
Stubbs, William (Bp. of Chester afterwards
Truro) (ed.) Willelmi Malmesbiriensis
Monachi De Gestis Regum Anglorum
Libri Quinque; Historiæ Novellæ Libri
Tres. v. 1. London, H.M. Stationery
Office, 1887

with references from Chester and Truro in this manner

Truro, William, Bp. of. See Stubbs, William.

As the students were not permitted to use books of reference, the mistake of placing Bishop Stubbs at Truro instead of Oxford was pardonable, if not commendable, because it proved that the student had the knowledge that Chester was not the last bishopric held by Stubbs, and that, under ordinary circumstances, the correct see would have been named.

Malmsbury (William) Duke. Historiæ novellæ
libri tres; ed. from manuscripts by William
Stubbs. vol. 1.

[Pg 145]

with a reference equal to the full entry, in this manner

Stubbs (William) ed. See also Malmsbury
(William) Duke. Historiæ novellæ libri tres.
vol. 1.

One gave the main-entry under "Malmesbirienses," with references from "Stubbs" and "Malmesbury, William," and apparently tripping over the word "libri" added a subject-entry under "Libraries, Monastic." Another translated the title and marked it for printing in this style

William (of Malmesbury). Story of the reigns of
the Kings of England. Ed. by William
Stubbs (Bishop of Chester) vol 1 8vo
London 1887.

This punctuation, or want of it, as well as the indifferent use of a parenthesis and bracket, are characteristic of the work of many young cataloguers. If the "copy" were sent to press without revision and followed by the printer, the result would be peculiar, to say the least.

The correct form of entry upon the lines so far laid down is

William of Malmesbury. De gestis regum
anglorum. Historiæ novellæ; ed. by Wm.
Stubbs. (Chronicles and memorials.) v. 1.
1887 942.01

The requisite additional entries being

Stubbs, Wm., Bp. (Ed.) See William of Malmesbury.

Chronicles and Memorials of Great Britain,
&c. ("Rolls Series").
William of Malmesbury. De gestis regum
anglorum. v. 1. 1887[Pg 146] 942.01

English History.
See also Chronicles and Memorials.
Rolls series. See Chronicles and Memorials.

If it is considered desirable, fuller references may be given

Stubbs, William, Bp. of Oxford (Ed.) See
William of Malmesbury.

See also Chronicles and Memorials.

provided this style is generally adopted throughout the catalogue. As an allowance for all possible needs, a reference can be added

History of England. See England (History).

In arranging the order of names of the description shown in this chapter it is customary to place them (a) apostles, (b) saints, (c) monarchs, (d) mediæval names, (e) friars, (f) surnames as usual. To put this into concrete form it becomes

James, St., the Apostle.
James, St.
James I., King.
James Edward, Prince.
James, Archbp. of Bulgaria.
James of Huntingdon.
James, Brother.
James, Abraham.
James, G. P. R.

There are other personages who have first-name entries for whom no definite rule can be laid down other than that which common knowledge or custom dictates. Certain of the great artists are so entered,[Pg 147] Michael Angelo (sometimes given as Michel Angelo and Michelangelo) as Michael, and not Buonarotti, Raphael not Santi, Rembrandt not Rhijn. Others are known and always referred to by a sobriquet, or nickname, which may be the best name for entry, but reference to a good dictionary of artists, like Bryan's, settles any doubt that may arise.

There are also mediæval writers of the later period who have what may be termed special names, by which they are more generally known, but these names are, as a rule, in such common use that they are unlikely to present any special difficulty. Erasmus, Grotius, Melancthon are examples of this class.

[Pg 148]

Noblemen. Oriental Names.

Noblemen. Title v. Family Name. Double Subject-Entry. Oriental Names. Indian Names. Japanese and Chinese Names. Hebrew Names. Maori Names.

Whether noblemen are to be entered in the catalogue as authors or subjects, the question of entry by title or family name requires careful consideration. Difference of opinion exists on this point. This difference is carried into the codes of rules, the Library Association of this country, curiously enough, advocating entry by the family name, whereas the American Association, ignoring the republican tradition, recommends entry under the latest title. This latter recommendation is certainly far more convenient, because, as a rule, the title is better remembered, even in cases of recent "creations." Those who make any large use of the Dictionary of National Biography know how troublesome it is in this respect, invariably entailing two references. For the catalogues of popular libraries, entry under the latest and highest title is by far the most convenient and satisfactory, while no possibility of mistake can arise if references are given in doubtful cases from the family name to the title, or from an earlier and lower to a later and higher title.

Some illustrations of such names are the following:—

Rosebery, Earl of. Napoleon: the last phase.
1904 944.05

[Pg 149]

Under the rule in the English Code (Joint-Code) this would be given as

Primrose, Archibald P., Earl of Rosebery. Napoleon:
the last phase. 1904 944.05

For the former entry no reference is needed from Primrose to Rosebery, but in the latter the reference from Primrose is absolutely indispensable.

The indexer of a lately-published book on dress gets over the difficulty in a very easy if unsophisticated way by entering under "Lord," after this manner

Lord Beaconsfield, how dressed, 235
"    Brougham, his check trousers, 104

It is of importance to have the books entered under the highest title attained at the time the catalogue is published. The two undermentioned books illustrate this point. The first is described as by "the late Alexander, Earl of Crawford and Balcarres, Lord Lindsay, Etc.," and the second as by "Lord Balcarres." We distinguish between them and enter in this way

Crawford and Balcarres, Alexander, 25th Earl
of. The Earldom of Mar in sunshine and
shade during 500 years. 2 v. Edin., 1882 923.2
Crawford and Balcarres, David, 27th Earl of.
The evolution of Italian sculpture, illus. 4o
1909 784

This latter work being published while the author was Lord Balcarres necessitates the reference

Balcarres, Lord. See Crawford and Balcarres,
Earl of.

which will fit any Earl of Crawford who might have published a book while using the courtesy title of[Pg 150] Lord Balcarres. It may be admitted that entry by the family name would bring all books together by members of this particular family, irrespective of the titles under which they may have written, whether Lord Balcarres, Lord Lindsay, or Earl of Crawford, but such cases are few.

When the title of a nobleman is adopted for the entry in cases where he has written books before being raised to the peerage, it is essential that the reference from his former name be given, particularly if it differs from the title he has assumed, as

Lubbock, Sir John. See Avebury, Lord.
Mitford, A. B. Freeman. See Redesdale, Lord.

If the family name and the title are alike, or almost so, the reference is seldom necessary, as the two names come near together. Examples are:—

Courtney of Penwith, Lord (Leonard H. Courtney).
Morley of Blackburn, Lord (John Morley).

In the event of there being many entries under the names of Courtney and Morley, the references are required. In arranging these names for order they would, of course, precede those of commoners, irrespective of the alphabetical order of the secondary parts, that is to say "Courtney of Penwith, Lord," comes before, say, "Courtney, Abram."

As "exceptions which prove the rule," there are a few noblemen who are decidedly better known and are always referred to by their family names, of which two outstanding instances are Francis Bacon (Viscount St. Albans) and Horace Walpole (Earl of Orford).

[Pg 151]

The subject-entries for the three books given above are

Napoleon I., Emperor:
Rosebery, Earl of. Napoleon: the last phase.
1904 944.05
Mar, The Earldom of. Crawford, Earl of. 2 v.
1882 923.2

Crawford, Earl of. The evolution of Italian
sculpture. 1909 784

There is no occasion to distinguish between the Earls of Crawford in the sub-entries except in the very remote possibility of two of them having written on the same subject.

The book on Italian sculpture raises a very troublesome question in connection with subject-entries for the dictionary catalogue, namely, whether double entry is required or not. The youthful beginner may be told here, as a kind of aside, that there is no third subject to this book, it has nothing to do with "Evolution" as such. The book is not upon sculpture as a whole, but upon that subject with a geographical (or national) limitation, yet the prominence of Italian sculpture in that art calls for an entry under "Sculpture," as shown above. The book, moreover, is not specifically upon Italian art, but only upon a phase of it, yet those who want to study Italian art in all its aspects must have their attention directed to it. Accordingly we either need an entry, as

Crawford, Earl of. The evolution of Italian
sculpture. 1909 784

[Pg 152]

or the more economical reference:—

See also Sculpture.

When space is a consideration, then the reference will suffice, but where it can be afforded, double entry is advised. If there are many entries under such a heading it can be sub-divided to simplify reference—divisions as "General," "Greek and Roman," "Italian," "British," suggest themselves, though the amount of sub-division usually depends upon the material to be arranged. The heading need not necessarily be the geographical one (Italy), as here shown; a term more direct, say "Italian Art," might be chosen.

In any case a book of this definite character would not be entered under "Art" in the dictionary catalogue, sculpture being but a branch of the Fine Arts, as also are painting and architecture. The heading "Art" then would be reserved for books dealing with art generally, including all the arts, or, at least, the two principal, painting and sculpture, which people mostly mean when speaking of art, though in no case must the valuable guiding reference be omitted

See also Sculpture.

Furthermore, there is no reason why this heading should not be reserved for books upon art generally without a qualification, and the books upon national art be placed under the names of the country concerned, with a further reference of a comprehensive nature, to this effect

[Pg 153]

See also Architecture. Painting. Sculpture.
For the art of particular countries see
their names as Greece, Italy, Japan.

Though not quite in the same category, by far the most troublesome names the cataloguer has to contend with are the Oriental, both of the far and near East. They are increasingly coming under notice, not only attached to translations, but to books written in English, and have to be reckoned with for the catalogues of even comparatively small libraries. If the cataloguer should stumble in his selection of the name under which he makes the entry, he has the satisfaction of knowing that he errs in good company, with the further consolation of believing that there will be few who know enough to discover his mistake, though these facts will be no justification, and should only serve to put him on his guard. In Abdullah Yusuf-Ali's Life and labour of the people of India (1907) we read:—

"If Miss Toru Dutt were to come to life again, and had nothing better to do than go to the British Museum, she would never be able to trace her own book from the Catalogue. Her name is to be found neither under Dutt nor under Toru, but as Tarulata Datta. Mrs. Naidu's name appears under S. as Sarojini Nayadu. Perhaps some sympathy might be extended to the Frenchman who never could understand why names were treated so badly in England; there was one he knew which they wrote as Marjoribanks and pronounced as Chumley! To be consistent the British Museum Catalogue ought (especially after the recent spell[Pg 154]ing crusade) to spell the names of the President of the United States "Rôs-felt" and classify it under T as Theodoros—Theodore being only a modern corruption of a good Greek name."

This is quoted for what it is worth, though coming as it does from a native source and from one who can also write in English, it is entitled to great respect. The following paragraph taken from The Westminster Gazette is helpful in this connection:—

"The usually full telegrams from India during the past week have furnished several examples of that perpetual puzzle the proper use of Indian names. Both the home and the Anglo-Indian Press are apt to stumble, and to an Indian reader their mistakes must be as amusing as the 'Lord Balfour' and 'Sir Morley' of certain French newspapers are to us. As a rule, the blunders occur in reference to Parsee or Bengali names. Roughly speaking, every Bengali man has three names. The first is his given name, the second is conventional or honorific, the third is the patronymic, analogous to an Irish or Scottish clan-name. For example, Dr. Rash Behari Ghose (who should have been president of this year's National Congress), Mr. Romesh Chandra Dutt (the historian and ex-Civil servant), Bepin Chandra Pal (the well-known agitator). In each case the important names are the first and third; the second cannot be used without the first, though in certain forms of address the third is omitted. Thus, while it is permissible to speak of Dr. Rash Behari, Reuter is quite wrong with his 'Dr. Behari Ghose.' Similarly, the Times should not speak of 'Mr. Chandra Pal,' nor the Morning Post of 'Babu Banerjea.' We may say 'Bepin[Pg 155] Babu' or 'Mr. Pal,' 'Surendra Babu,' or Mr. Banerjea; but it is safer to give the full names. Parsee names are another matter, and a more intricate one."

We may take a book by way of illustration, and examine it for cataloguing. The title-page of that chosen reads

The Tarikh-i-Rashidi of Mirza Muhammad Haidar, Dughlát. A history of the Moghuls of Central Asia. An English version edited, with commentary, notes, and map by N. Elias. The translation of E. Denison Ross. London, Sampson Low, &c. 1895

Upon somewhat general principles—too general to be always reliable—the entry in such names is usually made under the first name, which in this instance is Mirza, the author being referred to throughout the preface as Mirza Haidar, though it appears that other European writers have called him Haidar Mirza. In some parts of Asia the reversal of the name in this way makes considerable difference; when "Mirza" leads it means simply "Mr." or "Esq.," but at the end of the name it is equivalent to "Prince," and is so used only by persons who belong to a reigning family. As the writer was a prince, his name could properly be given either way. Mirza being a title and not a name, cannot be the entry-name, yet it is so entered, with other Mirzas, in the Catalogue of the London Library. The British Museum enters the name as "Muhammad Haidar, Dughlát." For most libraries an entry to the following effect will prove sufficient

[Pg 156]

Muhammad Haidar, Mirza. The Tarikh-i-Rashidi:
a history of the Moghuls of Central Asia;
ed. by N. Elias. 1895 950

The book from which the paragraph criticising the British Museum Catalogue was taken will serve as a further example, though it is a very simple one; the author, apparently appreciating the difficulty his name presents to Westerns, has given it at the end of the preface and on the binding as "A. Yusuf-Ali," though it is in full, Abdullah Yusuf-Ali, on the title-page. This enables us to see that it is correct to treat the name as if it were an occidental one, and the entry is

Yusuf-Ali, Abdullah. Life and labour of the
people of India, illus. 1907

For ascertaining the meaning of terms attached to Oriental names, the "List of Oriental titles and occupations with their signification," given in Linderfelt's Eclectic Card Catalog Rules already named is useful. For Indian names such works of reference as Whitworth's Anglo-Indian Dictionary, Beale and Keene's Oriental Biographical Dictionary, and Lethbridge's Golden Book of India are serviceable.

Japanese and Chinese names present the same difficulty, though the books themselves often indicate the correct name for entry, especially in translations. Works in the original will necessitate obtaining the aid of an expert, not only for giving the name of the author and stating the subject with which he deals, but for making a transliteration or some rendering suitable for a catalogue entry. On the rare occasions when this is required, there is seldom[Pg 157] any difficulty in obtaining reliable voluntary help. Quite recently the Chelsea Library obtained the loan of a Japanese manuscript from the Swedish Royal Library, and a Frenchman translated it into English.

For the present Japanese names are oftener met with than Chinese, not only attached to translations, but to books written in English and continental languages, and first name entry is not always the correct form. To take two examples in illustration

The ideals of the East, with special reference to
the art of Japan, by Kakasu Okakura. 1903
A Japanese artist in London, written and illustrated
by Yoshio Markino. 1910

In the prefaces of these books the writers are referred to as Mr. Okakura and Mr. Markino respectively, therefore, these names may be looked upon as corresponding to, although not actually the same as, the family name in European usage, and the entries are given accordingly

Okakura, Kakasu. The ideals of the East, with
special reference to the art of Japan. 1903 709.52
Markino, Yoshio. A Japanese artist in London,
illus. 1910 914.21

There is every probability that had these books been published in Japan the names of the authors would have been reversed upon the title-pages, as "Okakura Kakasu" and "Markino Yoshio," but that fact does not involve any necessity for references in an English catalogue.

Chinese names may need quite different treatment, and, failing any clue as to the correct name for entry, the first given should be taken. The[Pg 158] following will not only illustrate this point, but serve to demonstrate the method of condensing a title which in full is

The Light of China. The Tâo Teh King of Lâo Tsze, 604-504 B.C. An accurate metrical rendering, translated directly from the Chinese text, and critically compared with the standard translations, the ancient and modern Chinese commentaries, and all accessible authorities. With preface, analytical index, and full list of important words, and their radical significations. By I. W. Heysinger, M.A., M.D., Author of "Solar Energy, its Source and Mode Throughout the Universe," Etc., Etc. Research Publishing Co., Philadelphia, MDCCCCIII.

This is more advertisement than title-page, and the cataloguer renders it all as simply as possible in this way:—

Lâo Tsze. The Light of China: the Tâo Teh
King; metrical transl., ed. by I. W. Heysinger.
Philad., 1903 299.5

Before proceeding further, these books by Orientals must have subject-entries to complete them. The first is a history of the Mongols, and not of the Mohammedan Empire in India as the title might seem to imply, therefore the entry is

Mongols, The:
Muhammed Haidar. Tarikh-i-Rashidi: history
of the Moghuls. 1895 950

The author's name here cannot be curtailed to "Muhammed H." Two references are needed, none being required from Moghuls to Mongols,

[Pg 159]

Asia, Central:
See also Mongols.
Elias, N. (Ed.) See Muhammed Haidar.

Social life.
Yusuf-Ali, A. Life and labour of the people of
India. 1907 915.4

Okakura, Kakasu. The ideals of the East.
1903 709.52

Markino, Yoshio. A Japanese artist in
London. 1910 914.21

Where names have become so much adapted to the Western style, as the above two, it might be possible to reduce them to "Okakura, K." and "Markino, Y.", though the full form is preferable, even in sub-entries.

The Chinese work being by the founder of the religion known as "Taoism," receives an entry accordingly

Lâo Tsze. The Light of China: the Tâo Teh
King. 1903 299.5

The necessary reference is

See also Taoism.

Hebrew names, those of Jewish rabbis especially, come up occasionally for entry, but a general recommendation to consult the Jewish Encyclopedia (12 v. 1901-6) will suffice.

[Pg 160]

There are many other forms of foreign names, but the foregoing remarks and illustrations will enable the cataloguer to see that no definite rule governing all forms of names, even those of a particular nationality, can be laid down. For instance, to go further afield in the world, no code gives any guidance for Maori names, yet it is conceivable that people of this race may yet figure as authors of English books, even if only sermons, as a number of them are clergymen of the Church of England. So far as Crockford's Clerical Directory serves as a guide, their names appear mostly under "Te," as Te Awekotuku, Te Hana, Te Ngara, Te Raro, but there are no names of the kind in the British Museum Catalogue under "Te," and, therefore, the careful cataloguer will take heed, when the occasion arises, to ascertain exactly the really important and distinguishing part of the name, and enter accordingly.

[Pg 161]

Pseudonyms. Married Women.

Pseudonyms v. Real Names. The Better-known Name. Methods of Marking Pseudonyms. Writers who use Two Names. Phrase-Pseudonyms. Specific Entry. Repetition Dashes. Use of Capitals for Emphasis. Women's Names Changed by Marriage. Anonymous Books. The Discovery of Authors of Anonymous Books. "By the Author of——." Names consisting of Initials only.

The cataloguer's troubles do not end when the, to him, vexatious styles of names referred to in the previous pages are settled. He has to decide for himself the somewhat difficult question of entry under pseudonyms or real names when known, or under married or maiden names when both have been used by women authors.

These classes come into the same division as changed names, though the standard codes of rules make different recommendations, some to enter by the real name, others by the pseudonym, but most are in favour of the latter.

The A.L.A. and L.A. Joint-Code rule is to "enter under the pseudonym of a writer when the real name is not known," which is another way of saying "enter under the real name when known."

A great deal of attention has from time to time been paid to this subject by librarians. Some years ago the whole tendency was to hunt in all places, likely or unlikely, in the hope of discovering the real name of an author who used a pseudonym, and, when the search was successful, of getting it into[Pg 162] print as soon as possible. A librarian thereby may have scored by being ahead of his fellows with the information, and the user of the catalogue may have acquired knowledge, though possibly he did not want it, especially if it involved looking up two references instead of one. The tendency is now somewhat in the other direction, and it may safely be said that, except for some excellent reason, the entries should be given under the pseudonym, rules or no rules. It may reasonably be contended that the better-known, whether it be the pseudonym or the real name, is the right one for the entry, as being the more reasonable and satisfactory. Should there be any doubt which is the better known, then it is "a mistake on the right side" to enter under the real name of the author.

There is a little variation in the styles of printing such entries in a catalogue. Some give them after this manner

Annunzio, Gabriele d', pseud. (i.e. Gaetano Rampagnetto).
The triumph of death.

Others print the assumed name in italics, as

Dale, Darley, pseud. (Francesca M. Steele).
Seven sons; or, the story of Malcolm and
his brothers.

while others put it shorter still, without any loss of clearness as to meaning

"France, Anatole" (A. François Thibault.) Le
livre de mon ami.

In none of these cases is it deemed necessary, at least in an average catalogue, to refer from the real name to the pseudonym, for the reason that[Pg 163] not one person in a thousand would think of looking under the real names of these authors. In the catalogues of large and important libraries, particularly reference libraries, these references can be given, as a matter of course, according to the rules, otherwise there is the risk of the same author appearing in two places under different names. It is well, on principle, to take a rooted objection to this, though under special circumstances it is conceivable that it might be no great disadvantage. Take a modern instance

Danby, Frank. Pigs in clover.

which is by Julia Frankau, the author of two important books—one on colour prints and the other on the mezzotinto engraver, J. R. Smith—both published under her real name. These books are so far apart in character from her novels that both names might very well be used in the catalogue. In the classified catalogue the use of the two names would not matter, but in the dictionary catalogue it requires consideration. Again, there is little likelihood of these books all appearing in the same catalogue; the lending library would not have the books on prints, and the reference or other special library which might contain them would hardly have the novels. This illustration is named simply to show the consideration that can be given to a case of the kind. It does not really end here, because there is always the chance of the author writing more fiction under her real name. Remembering this, and the fact that she has already published books under her proper name, the reference becomes necessary for safety in the future. That is to say, for the novel the reference is given[Pg 164] from Frankau to the pseudonym until the time comes to reverse the process.

There are several similar instances where the books, though widely differing in character, are none the less likely to appear in the same catalogue. The writings of the late Rev. John M. Watson may be cited as a case in point, those on religious subjects being published under his real name, and his stories under the pseudonym of "Ian Maclaren." A present-day example of the same thing is the book

Hannay, James O. The spirit and origin of
Christian monasticism. 1903 271

which is by the same author who writes novels under the pseudonym of "George A. Birmingham." In the case of a library publishing a separate catalogue of fiction there can be no objection to following the course already recommended, by entering under the pseudonym

"Birmingham, George A." (Jas. O. Hannay).
The red hand of Ulster.

If there is no separate catalogue of fiction, the author's books must all be brought together, when it is inevitable that the real name, rather than the fictitious, be taken for all entries. Here arises the problem whether the pseudonym is to be attached to the entry for the book on monasticism or limited to the books written under the assumed name. It is helpful to mark the distinction in this way

Hannay, Jas. O. The spirit and origin of
Christian monasticism. 1903 271
— ("Geo. A. Birmingham"). The red hand of

not overlooking the essential reference

"Birmingham, George A." See Hannay, Jas. O.

[Pg 165]

There is at least one example of an author publishing works of fiction under both his real name and a pseudonym, viz., J. E. Preston Muddock, who writes some stories under his true name, and his detective stories under that of "Dick Donovan." The right course to pursue in this case is to enter all under Muddock. Unless there is strong objection to placing books by one writer in two places, there is no reason why the separate entries should not appear under both names. While introduced here to show a possible method of treatment, it must not be taken as recommended.

Muddock, J. E. P. The dead man's secret.
— The lost laird.
See also Donovan, Dick.
"Donovan, Dick" (J. E. P. Muddock). Tales of
— The sin of Preaching Jim.
See also Muddock, J. E. P.

When the name of an author is known to be, or, from its nature, is obviously a pseudonym, it is better given in inverted commas, or whatever other style is adopted to mark a pseudonym, whether the real name be known or not. Such names are "Skelton Kuppord," "Walker Miles," "Home Counties," "Daniel Chaucer." A pseudonym which consists of a phrase can rarely be regarded as a name, and it is wiser to treat the book as if it were anonymous, after the manner referred to later, bringing the phrase-pseudonym into the title-entry in this way

Kruger's secret service, by One who was in it.
1900 968

[Pg 166]

To enter under "One who was in it" would be useless as well as wasteful. A similar example is

The life of a prig, by One. 1886

when the entry under "One" would be equally futile and absurd. So also would be

The danger of spiritualism, by a Member of the
Society for Psychical Research. 1901

if entered under "Member." The first of these two receives a title-entry, which is a recognition of the pseudonym, as

Prig, The life of a, by One. 1886

In these examples the non-recognition of the pseudonym is due to the fact that its application is confined to a particular instance or a particular book. This recommendation for treating phrase-pseudonyms must be carefully considered in relation to the books produced by the users. Those who write regularly and publish several works under such pseudonyms must be recognised—as witness the case of "A Son of the Marshes."

At this point the arrangement of working out the foregoing entries in full may be continued. The first is

Hannay, J. O. The spirit, &c., of Christian
monasticism. 1903 271

or, in the event of there being but a single work on the subject

Monasticism, Christian, The spirit, &c., of.
Hannay, J. O. 1903 271

[Pg 167]

If there is a separate fiction catalogue or class-list, the entry for the novel by the same author is

Red hand of Ulster, The. Birmingham, G. A.

When the entries are embodied in the dictionary catalogue, and the real name of the author is taken for the main-entry, the title-entry becomes

Red hand of Ulster, The. Hannay, J. O.

It must be admitted that this might puzzle a person who remembers the title of the book and could recognise it by the name of the author, but would fail to identify Hannay with Birmingham. The entry must, all the same, be given in this form to guide to the name of "Hannay," where the principal entry is to be found. The same remark equally applies to the title-entries requisite for Mr. Muddock's books, if they are all entered under "Muddock" in orthodox fashion and not divided. If divided the entries would be

Dead man's secret, The. Muddock, J. E. P.
Lost laird, The. Muddock, J. E. P.
Tales of terror. Donovan, D.
Sin, The, of Preaching Jim. Donovan, D.

The "Kruger" book comes under some such heading as

Boers, The, and Boer Wars:
Kruger's secret service, by One who was in it.
1900 968

with references thereto from "Africa, South," "Transvaal, The," and "Orange Free State."

At the risk of labouring the point—an important one which will bear emphasis—the last book affords[Pg 168] an opportunity for again demonstrating the handling of a book for specific subject-entry in the dictionary catalogue. This form of entry requires that books bearing upon the Boer Wars, the French Revolution, the Crimean War, the Indian Mutiny, the Gunpowder Plot, the American Revolution, or any other historical happening to which a definite name is attached, shall be entered under such specific name, not under the name of the country or countries concerned. It might be possible to evade this by giving a reference from the name of the event to the name of the country, but it is against the principles of the dictionary catalogue. The matter has to be reasoned out like this: a history of the last Boer War is not a history of South Africa, is not even a history of the Transvaal or of the Orange Free State, although it terminated the existence of the republics of those states. Similarly a history of the Crimean War is not a history of Russia, and has as much to do with Turkey, to say nothing of this country or of France; a history of the Franco-German War is neither a history of France nor of Germany, but merely a detached epoch in the history of both countries, however much it had to do with the founding of the present German Empire and the fall of the French Empire. Therefore, literal exactness requires, as already stated, that entry be made under the names whereby such events are known with See also references thereto from the names of the countries involved. It is also required that the term chosen for the heading shall be definite and not general. If the heading, say, of "Civil War" were taken in a British catalogue for books upon the great Civil War of the 17th century, it[Pg 169] would be incorrect, because too inclusive, as books upon civil war in the abstract or on civil wars generally or in any country, as the Civil War between North and South in America, could all be grouped under it, therefore the heading must be "earmarked" in some way to show what particular civil war is meant, say, "Civil War, The Great," or "Civil War and Commonwealth," or even "Civil War, The." The addition of the definite article to the last heading serves to show that the Puritan revolution is meant, though it would not give the same meaning in an American catalogue. In this way headings to be adopted are reasoned out before being decided upon.

The "Life of a prig" is already sufficiently disposed of, though it is not a story, but is more or less in the nature of a satire recounting the troubles of an Oxford man, uncertain as to whether he should belong to the Anglican or Roman Church. It is marked for the classified catalogue as a satire of the late Victorian period. This is a type of book that is the bane of the cataloguer's life, and he is not to be blamed if he summarily disposes of it under any heading or title that does not altogether relegate it to obscurity. The last is

Dangers, The, of spiritualism, by a Member
of the Society for Psychical Research.
1901 133.9

and is the sole entry for this book.

Attention may here be directed to two points arising in connection with some of the above entries. It will be noticed that in the Hannay entry a "repetition dash" (—) has been given in lieu of[Pg 170] the name for the second entry, as it would be for all subsequent entries under the same name. To make use of this dash for any other purpose is dangerous, and should be avoided. The old-fashioned custom of using it to save repeating words in the title-entries, led to the well-known catalogue jokes:—

Mill on Liberty.
— — the Floss.
Lead, kindly Light.
— Silver and.

and others equally ridiculous. Every word omitted was indicated by a separate dash, after this manner

Three Men in a Boat.
— — on the Bummel.
Toilers of the Field.
— — — Sea.
Told by the Colonel.
— — — Death's Head.

It is hardly necessary to say that in all the above cases no dashes were required; every word should have been given, both for the sake of understanding and appearance.

The second point relates to the recommendation, already referred to, that the word following the article in titles whereby the entries are alphabetized should have a capital letter, and also that one should be given to the first word of an alternative title. Nothing can be said against these proposals unless it is that they give certain words an undue prominence. The books of J. E. P. Muddock serve admirably as illustrations:—

Muddock, J. E. P. The Dead man's secret; or,
[Pg 171]The valley of gold.
— The Great white hand; or, The Tiger of
— The Lost laird.
— The Man from Manchester.

This, however, resolves itself more into a question of taste than of expediency.

In the same category as pseudonyms come the women who, in changing their names by marriage, perhaps more than once, have written under all forms of their names—"aggravating ladies" as they have been called. At times they are better known by the names of their husbands, as Mrs. Mark Pattison, Mrs. Humphry Ward, Mrs. Sidney Webb. It would be injudicious to adopt a fixed rule to cover all cases of this kind. The best-known name recommendation again applies, although the rule usually laid down is to enter a married woman under whatever name she first used as an author, with references thereto from her later names. In some cases this is quite a safe and convenient rule, while in others it involves looking in two places. To state a case, people are now more familiar with the works of Mrs. Sidney Webb under that name than under her maiden name of Beatrice Potter. If entry were made under Potter it would in any case necessitate a reference to Webb for those books which she had written jointly with her husband. Therefore, it being admitted that the better-known name, also the more correct, is that of Webb, the entries are so given, with the reference from Potter, i.e.,

Webb, Beatrice (Potter). The co-operative movement
in Great Britain. 1891 334
— (joint-author.) See also Webb, Sidney.
Potter, Beatrice. See Webb, Beatrice.[Pg 172]
Webb, Sidney. Socialism in England. 3rd ed.
1901 335.1
— and Beatrice. The history of trade unionism.
1894 331.88

For order of arrangement it will be noticed that books written by Sidney Webb alone precede those written by him as a joint-author, with his name in the leading place. If the last-named book had been published as "by Beatrice and Sidney Webb" the entry would, as a matter of course, be under Mrs. Webb's name, her book on co-operation coming before it. The Workman illustration given in Chapter V. should be considered in this connection. Another, and rather different difficulty of the kind, is when a man and his wife have collaborated and published with the wife's maiden name in the leading place. If the lady has written other books before marriage and continues to use her maiden name on books written by herself, it settles the matter sufficiently to warrant entry under the maiden name, as

Fowler, Ellen Thornycroft (Mrs. Felkin). Concerning
Isabel Carnaby.
— In subjection.
— and Alfred L. Felkin. Kate of Kate Hall.

with the usual references

Felkin, Alfred L. (joint-author). See Fowler,
Ellen T.
Felkin, Ellen T. See Fowler, Ellen T.

and the customary title-entries under "Concerning," "In," and "Kate."

[Pg 173]

The subject-entries for the foregoing books are

Webb, B. The co-operative movement in
Great Britain. 1891 334

It would be incorrect, for the sake of economy, to omit the definite article in this, as it somewhat alters the sense. At times it can be left out without any risk of changing the meaning, as in the book on trades unions below. Some cataloguers make a feature of giving the Christian name in full in subordinate entries if the author is a woman.

Webb, S. Socialism in England. 1901 335.1

Trades Unions:
Webb, S., &c. History of trade unionism.
1894 331.88

A reference is needed to assist towards that coordination between the subject-entries of a catalogue serving to bring its related parts together, and is helpful by way of suggestion to the inquirer when using it.

See also Trades Unions.

There can be no objection in the above instance, or in those of Mrs. Humphry Ward and other ladies well known and commonly spoken of by their husband's names, to giving, if desired, the entries under those names, provided the usual references are furnished.

Webb, Beatrice. See Webb, Mrs. Sidney.
Ward, Mary A. See Ward, Mrs. Humphry.

[Pg 174]

It would, however, be possible to dispense with the references altogether, if only a comparatively small number of entries under Webb or Ward appear in the catalogue.

To show the difficulty experienced by cataloguers in keeping pace with ladies who change their names by marriage, it may be mentioned that even a well-known author like the late Lady Dilke, who was Mrs. Mark Pattison, can be found in good catalogues placed accidentally under both names. On the other hand it is as well to be quite sure when following up the changed names of women authors. The London Library and some lesser catalogues have confused Anne Manning and Mrs. A. M. Rathbone, with the result that books are amalgamated erroneously under one name though written by different persons. In other catalogues of minor importance "George Eliot" has figured as Mrs. G. H. Lewes and Marie Corelli as Marion Mackay.

Although recommended by some rules, there is no real necessity for giving references from the married names of writers of the importance of "George Eliot" or Charlotte Brontë, as it is improbable that anyone would refer to "Cross" or "Nicholls" for these authors.

This treatment of women authors may be summed up by repeating the recommendation "use the best-known name in all cases"—if the lady writes under her maiden name and is mostly known thereby, that is the name to use; if by her married name, then use that.

If she has been married more than once and written under all forms of her name (of which[Pg 175] examples are A. Mary F. Robinson, who was Madame Duclaux and then Madame Darmesteter, and Mrs. Aubrey Le Blond, née Whitshed, formerly Mrs. Fred. Burnaby and Mrs. Main) then, again, the best-known (in these cases Robinson and Le Blond) are the right ones to use, not neglecting the references from the others. If a writer has consistently used a pseudonym, that, again, is the best to adopt for the entry. For example, there is a Spanish novelist, known as "Fernan Caballero," who, surviving three husbands, resumed her maiden name. In her case it is not worth while searching for or discussing which of her names should be chosen, that by which she is universally known being undoubtedly the best.

Books published anonymously—that is where the authors' names are not upon the title-pages, and no clue to them is to be found in the books—are more annoying to the cataloguer than pseudonymous works. At times a preface or a dedication in a book may bear the author's name or initials, or there may be something serving to reveal his identity in the text, and such evidence must be searched for. In the event of the book itself yielding no help, then the customary sources of information are turned to, the best for British cataloguers being Halkett and Laing's Dictionary of the Anonymous and Pseudonymous Literature of Great Britain (though this is not absolutely reliable). The British Museum, London Library, or other important catalogues at command should be consulted, particularly the catalogues of the place from which the book comes, as the wanted information may be known locally.[Pg 176] For French books Barbier's Dictionnaire des ouvrages anonymes is useful.

The method of cataloguing an anonymous book may be shown here. The title-page of that chosen reads

The failure of Lord Curzon: a study in "imperialism": an open letter to the Earl of Rosebery, by "Twenty-eight years in India." 1903

The preface opens with a statement that the writer has adopted anonymity though quite aware that it is the thinnest of screens if there is any wish to pierce behind it, and he goes on to say that a twenty-eight years' acquaintance with India, etc., suggests some knowledge of the matter he discusses, thus showing that "Twenty-eight years in India" is not the title of another book, but a species of pseudonym. If this "thinnest of screens" cannot be penetrated, and the mere suggestion that it can should serve to put the cataloguer on his mettle, then there are two ways of entering the book regarding it as strictly anonymous. One is to enter uniformly by the first word of the title not an article as

Failure, The, of Lord Curzon: a study in "imperialism,"
by "Twenty-eight years in
India." 1903

The better way to enter anonymous books when concerned with particular persons or places is under the names of such persons or places, provided they are named on the title-pages, as

Curzon of Kedleston, Lord. The failure of
Lord Curzon: a study in "imperialism," by
"Twenty-eight years in India." 1903

[Pg 177]

This is a sufficient entry, as any person wanting the book could not fail to remember that it related to Lord Curzon unless he thought of Indian administration, which would be the subject-entry for it. Another method, much the same in principle, is to enter under the first substantive in the title.

If the name of the author is ascertained later and with certainty, as this was, the entry must be altered accordingly

O'Donnell, C. J. The failure of Lord Curzon:
a study in "imperialism," by "Twenty-eight
years in India." 1903 354.54

When literal exactness is the custom of the library the author's name as above would be enclosed in brackets to show that it is an addition made by the cataloguer under the rule previously alluded to. If that is the method decided upon for entering anonymous books, the first-word entry is still retained, with the author's name added.

Failure, The, of Lord Curzon: a study in
"imperialism," by "Twenty-eight years in
India" [C. J. O'Donnell.] 1903 354.54

With the author's name revealed the entry under Lord Curzon becomes a subject-entry

Curzon of Kedleston, Lord:
O'Donnell, C. J. The failure of Lord Curzon.
1903 354.54

The author's name was obtained from a newspaper paragraph some months after the publication of the book, and verified before use. If the paragraph had been of the speculative nature of the following, it[Pg 178] would have been wiser to ignore it, and wait for something more definite

"The mention of Mr. Jack London suggests an interesting question of authorship. There has been some discussion about the anonymous author of the lately published 'Kempton Wace Letters.' Now, in that book we find the superscription, 'The Ridge, Berkeley, California'; and we can think of only three writers who talk about California—'Gertrude Atherton,' Miss Beatrice Harraden, and Mr. Jack London. The style of the 'Kempton Wace Letters' is so remote from that of the two first-named, and on the other hand is so much like that of the young Californian, that we venture to suggest Mr. London as the author."

Paragraphs of this kind always appeal to the careful cataloguer, and keep his mind on the alert until the point is settled one way or other. One so obviously inspired as the following is authoritative enough for use

"Sir Charles Eliot, whose authorship of the important work on the Near East, 'Turkey in Europe,' by 'Odysseus,' is now an open secret, has produced in 'The East Africa Protectorate,' to be published by Mr. Edward Arnold on March 8th, an account of the country of which he recently resigned the Commissionership."

There is another method of cataloguing anonymous books sometimes seen, viz., bringing them all together under a heading "Anon." It has nothing to commend it unless it be the apparent advantage of having all anonymous books in one place. This is somewhat akin to the practice of grouping all thin books under the comprehensive heading "Pamphlets"—comprehensive because if the idea is carried out logically only two headings are required, "Pamphlets" and "Books."

[Pg 179]

Another class of anonymous books is that in which they are stated to be "By the Author of" some other book which is named. These are dealt with in the same way as any other anonymous books, except that it is convenient to furnish a list of the books that a library possesses written by such an author, this list being given under the title of the best-known book, if such can be distinguished—if not, the one most frequently named on the title-pages of the rest of the books is taken, when references can be given from the others. Examples are

— Miss Toosey's mission.
— Tip cat.
Miss Toosey's mission, by the Author of
See also Laddie.

If italics are preferred to quotation marks, the style will be instead

Tip cat, by the Author of Laddie.
See also Laddie.

Instead of grouping the books under "Laddie," a covering note can be appended to each book by the author as

Other books by the same author are Lil, Miss
Toosey's mission, Tip cat.

or the style, if preferred, may be

Miss Toosey's mission.
Other books by the same author are Laddie,
Lil, Tip cat.

It is all the more necessary to follow out this method[Pg 180] of entry in the case of sequels to such books. For example there is a book

Lady of the decoration, The.

and its sequel

Lady married, The, by the Author of "The lady
of the decoration."

when the books can be entered together and in order of reading as

Lady of the decoration, The.
— Lady married, The, by the [same author.]

Other and better-known instances are the books "by the Author of 'Elizabeth and her German Garden.'" Here, however, the identity of the author has been ascertained, and the books are all brought together in the ordinary way under her name (Countess von Arnim), and are not put under "Elizabeth and her German Garden," the entry for which book would disclose the name of the author and direct to the main-entry (Arnim), where all her books are to be found.

Further troublesome books are those in which the authors' names are veiled by initials which may be given on the title-pages or at the end of the prefaces. The method of entry is much the same as that for books altogether anonymous, except that either an entry or a reference is given from the last initial (from the first also if thought to be required) to the entry word adopted. The full title of the book taken in illustration reads:

The makers of Hellas: a critical inquiry into the philosophy and religion of Ancient Greece, by E.E.G.; with an introduction, notes, and conclusion by Frank B. Jevons, M.A., Litt.D. 1903

[Pg 181]

The editor tells us that the author died before the work was in print, and the author requested him to publish it without revealing the authorship. Even if the author had lived the book would have appeared anonymously or under a pseudonym. We may presume that the initials are those of the author's name, when we have choice of entry as if the initials were not given, as

Makers of Hellas, The: the philosophy and
religion of Ancient Greece, by E.E.G.; ed.
by Frank B. Jevons. 1903 180

with references from the initials and the Editor as

G., E. E. See Makers of Hellas.
Jevons, Frank B. (Ed.) See Makers of Hellas.

or, more conveniently and just as usefully, with an entry instead of a reference under the initials

G., E. E. The makers of Hellas: the philosophy
and religion of Ancient Greece; ed. by Frank
B. Jevons. 1903 180

the reference from the Editor then being changed to

Jevons, Frank B. (Ed.) See G., E. E.

or, under the circumstances, an entry might be given

Jevons, Frank B. (Ed.) The makers of Hellas,
by E. E. G. 1903 180

when the first entry that under "Makers" can be dispensed with. The subject-entry is

Greece, Ancient:
Philosophy and Religion.
G., E. E. The makers of Hellas. 1903 180

and a reference, hardly wanted, but better given

Hellas. See Greece, Ancient.

[Pg 182]

An entry of the above character with a bare initial takes precedence of all the G's in the alphabetical arrangement, and therefore is not placed as Gee but before Gaa, because the letters following the initial are an unknown quantity (G——).

In the event, likely enough, of the name covered by the initials being ascertained, the entry should then be given under the name. Instances of these are

On the banks of the Seine, by A.M.F., Authoress of "Foreign courts and foreign homes." 1900

Days and hours in a garden, by "E.V.B." 1884

when the authors being known the entries are

Falls, Alice M. On the banks of the Seine. 1900

or more particularly exact

F[alls], A[lice] M. On the banks of the Seine.
B[oyle], E. V. Days and hours in a garden.

with the essential references in such cases

F., A.M. See Falls, Alice M.
B., E.V. See Boyle, E. V.

These books may serve to illustrate more than the one point. The first does not need a title-entry under "On," and certainly none under "Banks" or "Seine," as the title is a fanciful one, which is hardly likely to be remembered in any connection apart from its author and subject. If a contrary view were taken, the most that could be given would be this entry:

Seine, On the banks of the. Falls, A. M. 1900

[Pg 183]

which is altogether misleading, as the book has nothing to do with the river, but is a series of sketches of French historical events occurring in Paris. The correct entry therefore is

Falls, A. M. On the banks of the Seine.
1900 944

In contradistinction the second book is most likely to be remembered by its title as

Days and hours in a garden. Boyle, E. V. 1884

This is one of the forerunners of a long series of books of garden diaries or essays, containing notes upon flowers, birds, and other things connected with gardens, and the thoughts they suggest upon a variety of subjects, and is, by no means, a practical book for the working gardener. Such books, while inevitably coming under a heading "Gardens and Gardening," need to be grouped together apart from the practical books under a sub-division, "Literary Miscellany," or some other suitable term.

There are books, too, with initials in the place of the authors' names which obviously do not stand for a name as

The Athanasian Creed, by LL.D. 1861

or the last initial is clearly not part of the name, as

A sermon preached at the funeral of Lady Mary
Armyne, by J. D., M.A. 1676

The first book is better regarded as entirely anonymous, which it virtually is, as

Athanasian Creed, The, by LL.D. 1861 238.1

[Pg 184]

and the second upon the lines previously indicated as

D., J., M.A. A sermon preached at the funeral
of Lady Mary Armyne. 1676 252.9

or, even better still, as

Armyne, Lady Mary, Sermon preached at the
funeral of, by J. D., M.A. 1676 252.9

with the reference, if considered necessary,

D., J., M.A. See Armyne, Lady Mary.

The initials may at times cover a pseudonym when, if this happens to be unknown, the method of entry would as a matter of course be similar to that outlined above. If it is known that the initials represent a pseudonym or phrase-pseudonym, of which A.L.O.E., meaning "A Lady of England," is a well-known example, then the entry is given under the first letter and not the last, thus

"A.L.O.E." (Charlotte M. Tucker). House
Beautiful; or, the Bible museum. 1868

and following the customary procedure for pseudonym the reference is given from the real name

Tucker, Charlotte M. See A.L.O.E.

Here again it is recommended to alphabetize as if the first initial (A) stood alone, and at the beginning of the alphabet rather than as Aloe. This may not be a matter of much moment, but it is one of those apparently trivial details which in the aggregate make the catalogue more accurate, more convenient, and more useful.

[Pg 185]

The Bible and other Sacred Books. Newspapers, &c.

"Anonyma" continued. The Bible and other Sacred Books. Commentaries and Concordances. Newspapers and Periodicals. Directories and Annuals.

There are various books which, while not strictly anonymous, are regarded for cataloguing as if they were. Some of these have already been referred to under Societies, but there remain a few others to consider. Among them are the Bible and other sacred books, the Koran, the Talmud, the Vedas, etc.

The Bible calls more frequently for attention than any of the others. All editions of the text or portions of it are entered under the heading "Bible," and, if they are numerous, the entries are sub-divided and arranged in this or some similar order:—

a. The whole Bible (whether including the
apocryphal books or not).
1. Original language. Polyglots.
2. Greek and Latin.
3. English.
4. All other languages alphabetically by
the names of the languages.
5. Selections from the Old and New
Testaments in the order of the
[Pg 186] Books ("Authorised Version").
b. The Old Testament.
1. Hebrew.
2. English.
3. Other languages (as before).
4. Selections from the Old Testament.
c. The New Testament.
1. Greek.
2. English.
3. Other languages.
4. Selections from the New Testament.

If there were a number of entries under any one of these sub-divisions, they would be placed in chronological order by editions. The selections, if many, would be arranged first by the names of the books, then by languages, and lastly by editions as before.

A few illustrations typical of the form of entry will be useful.

Bible, The:
Old and New Testaments.
Greek. British Museum. Facsimile of the
Codex Alexandrinus. 4 v. 4o 1879-83 220.48
English. The Holy Bible. 4o Oxford Univ.
Press, 1857 220.52
— Authorised version, in the easy reporting
style of Pitman's shorthand. 20th cent.
ed. n.d. 220.52
French. La sainte Bible; traduction d' Ostervald.
Paris, 1899 220.54
Italian. La sacra Bibbia; tradotta da Diodati.
Roma, 1880 220.55
Old Testament.
Irish; transl. by Wm. Bedel. 4o 1685[Pg 187] 221.562
Parts of Old Testament.
Genesis; ed. by G. W. Wade. 1896 222.11
— and part of Exodus: a revised version,
with marginal references, &c., by Henry
Alford. 1872 222.11
Psalms. Greek. The Psalms according to
the Septuagint; ed. by H. B. Swete.
Camb., 1896 223.2
Daniel and Ezra. Hebrew and English.
John Leusden's translation of all the
Syriac verses into pure Biblical Hebrew,
with the parallel text in English. 1900 224.5

The New Testament wholly or in parts would be similarly arranged.

All the foregoing remarks apply only to editions of the text as far as the dictionary catalogue is concerned. Commentaries on the whole Bible, or on the separate books, follow the customary rules for main entry, and only come under the general heading of "Bible" as subject when they deal with the Bible as a whole. Commentaries upon the Old Testament or the New Testament separately are entered under "Old Testament" and "New Testament" respectively—not under "Bible"; and isolated commentaries upon a particular book under the name of that book. These points are more clearly shown by examples. When a commentary covers the whole Bible, or is meant to do so, as The Speaker's Commentary, The Expositor's Bible, The International Critical Commentary, The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges, and others, there would be a main-entry under the general editor's name, and subordinate entries or references[Pg 188] (entries are better) under the writers or editors of the separate volumes. The contents of the volumes must either be set out under the main-entry or under the heading "Bible."

Driver, Samuel R., and others (Eds.) The
international critical commentary on the Holy
Scriptures. 24 v. 1909-13 220.7
In course of publication. For the contents of
the volumes see Bible (Commentaries).

Bible, The:
Driver, S. R. &c. (Eds.) International critical
commentary. 24 v. 1909-13 220.7
Genesis, by John Skinner; Exodus, by
A. R. S. Kennedy (following on through the
rest of the books in the Bible order).

It is literally more correct to set out the contents of these different volumes under the main-entry (Driver), but it is far more convenient to give them under "Bible," as above. If given under "Driver," then the note should be attached to the entry under "Bible."

The different volumes, as said before, are catalogued under the names of the individual authors, but not under the names of the separate books when they are part of a general commentary, as

Skinner, John. A critical and exegetical commentary
on Genesis. (International critical
commentary.) 1910 220.7

An alternative and briefer form is

Brooke, A. E. International critical commentary:
The Johannine Epistles. 1912 220.7

[Pg 189]

When a writer has contributed more than one volume to the work the entries can be amalgamated in this fashion

Sanday, Wm. International critical commentary:
Synopsis of the four Gospels. The Epistle to
the Romans. 2 v. 1907-13 220.7

In the event of it being decided to give references instead of entries under the names of the authors of the separate volumes, such references must direct to the entry where the contents of the volumes are set out, otherwise the connection will not be apparent. The contents being under "Bible" in the above instance, the reference should read

Skinner, John. See Bible (Commentaries):
Driver. International critical commentary.

Without the latter part this reference would be too indefinite to be useful. The entry itself, first shown under Skinner, takes hardly less space, and is preferable.

When a book is what may be called a monograph-commentary, i.e., a book standing alone upon a single book or two or three books of the Bible, it receives the same treatment as would any other work, irrespective of its connection with the Bible. For example

Tholuck, A. Commentary on the Gospel of St.
John. 1860 226.5

is placed with any other books upon the Fourth Gospel, as

John, St., Gospel of:
Tholuck, A. Commentary on the Gospel of
St. John. 1860 226.5

[Pg 190]

Monographs of this character are not lost to the inquirer who only consults the heading "Bible," if the guiding references are provided.

Bible, The:
See also Old Testament; New Testament;
and the names of the separate Books as
Genesis, Job, John, St.

Old Testament:
See also the names of the separate Books.

New Testament:
See also the names of the separate Books.

There is a gain in economy by entering books upon any or all of St. Paul's Epistles under his name, instead of distributing them under the names of the churches to which they were addressed. Books to illustrate this are

Lightfoot, J. B., Bp. St. Paul's Epistle to the
Philippians: a revised text; with intro., notes,
and dissertations. 1900 227.6
— St. Paul's Epistles to the Colossians and to
Philemon: a revised text; with intros., notes,
and dissertations. 7th ed. 1884 227.7
— St. Paul's Epistle to the Galatians: a revised
text; with intro., notes, and dissertations.
1902 227.4
Pridham, Arthur. Notes and reflections on the
Epistle to the Philippians. [1879] 227.6

Although the Lightfoot volumes contain the original text of the Epistles, their value may be said to lie in the notes and dissertations which bring them under the monograph-commentary arrangement. They may, further, be regarded as[Pg 191] a single work in three volumes—as in reality they are, though it is not so stated on the title-pages. The entries for subject are

Paul, St.:
Lightfoot, J. B. St. Paul's Epistles. 3 v.
1. Galatians 227.4
2. Philippians 227.6
3. Colossians and Philemon 227.7
Pridham, A. Notes, &c. on the Epistle to the
Philippians. [1879] 227.6

References can be given from the names of the several Epistles, always provided there are books upon them under the heading, as

Galatians, Epistle to the. See Paul, St.

Those who have but limited space at their disposal may consider that the principal entries above given under Lightfoot are too full, and should be reduced. In their case the style given under "Paul, St." may, with a little amplification, be taken to afford more definite information, as

Lightfoot, J. B., Bp. St. Paul's Epistles; with
intros., notes, &c. 3 v.
1. Galatians. 1902 227.4
2. Philippians. 1900 227.6
3. Colossians and Philemon. 1884 227.7

The cataloguing of the Bible or its parts, and books upon it, presents little or no trouble in the classified catalogue, as the systems of classification are very fully and carefully worked out under this division, as in Dewey's 220 to 229.

The editions of the sacred books of other religions will not be so many in most libraries, and consequently need no special consideration.[Pg 192] The following two books upon the Koran will suggest the method of entry for others:

Koran, The; transl. from the Arabic by J. M.
Rodwell. (Everyman's lib.) [1909] 297
Wherry, E. M. Commentary on the Qurán, comprising
Sale's translation. 4 v. 1896 297

References are necessary from the names of the religions concerned.

See also Koran.

Varieties of the name, as Qurán and Coran, hardly need notice for reference purposes, as presumably a searcher would not fail to look under Koran. The same remark applies to Mahomet and Muhammed, though a reference from Islam to Mohammedanism is desirable. A reference from Christianity to the Bible would be superfluous.

It will be noticed that the main-entry for the Wherry book is not given under "Koran." The reason for this is the same as that for the books by Bishop Lightfoot, viz., that the commentary, and not the text, is the essential part of the work. Therefore the principal entry is

Wherry, E. M. A comprehensive commentary
on the Qurán, comprising Sale's translation
and preliminary discourse. (Trübner's
Oriental ser.) 4 v. 1896 297

References from the translators named in both the books are essential, especially as Sale's is the better known, though the reference is more usefully given to the Koran, as

Sale, George (transl.) See Koran, The.
Rodwell, J. M. (transl.) See Koran, The.

[Pg 193]

Though both of these books belong to series, neither series is of the character that calls for an entry under its name, unless it be the "Trübner's Oriental Series." The "Everyman's Library" is too comprehensive, and both are sufficiently noticed by naming the series in the main-entries, as shown.

The instructions laid down in some of the codes of rules would seem to imply that the writers of commentaries should be left in obscurity. This is not so: they stand upon the same footing as other authors, and are entitled to the same consideration; their names being adopted for the main-entry, as shown in the Lightfoot and Wherry examples given above; unless the commentaries are of so slight a character, being mere notes, or otherwise occupy so small a place as to be nothing more than an editing of the text. An instance of this latter type is a book bearing the title

Sartor resartus: a fully annotated edition with an introductory essay on Thomas Carlyle, by Rev. James Wood. 1902

Carlyle's name does not appear upon the title-page as the author, probably because it was deemed unnecessary to give it, but it is rendered simply as

Carlyle, Thomas. Sartor resartus; annotated,
with an intro. essay on Carlyle, by James
Wood. 1902 824.82

with the usual reference from the editor

Wood, Jas. (Ed.) See Carlyle, Thos.

or more definitely

Wood, James (Ed.) See Carlyle, Thomas (Sartor

[Pg 194]

The first of these references contains abbreviated forms of Christian names, which, as economies, are quite allowable, because they are well recognised and convey the same meaning as if given in full. Other names of the kind are Alex., Alf. or Alfd., Chas., Edwd., Eliz., Fredk., Geo., Margt., Robt., Saml., Wm., though it is inadvisable to use them in the transcriptions of book titles; "The marriage of Wm. Ashe," "Sir Geo. Tressady," "Geo.'s mother," must be avoided.

In the same category as commentaries come concordances, with some differences of opinion as to the necessity for giving the main-entry under the compiler's name or the author concordanced. The compiler is entitled to an acknowledgment of his work, although it is of the "scissors and paste" order of literature; it is, however, not a matter of great moment, as under any circumstances both entries are given. The following are illustrations:

Ellis, F. S. A lexical concordance to the poetical
works of Percy Bysshe Shelley. 1892 821.77
Husband, M. F. A. A dictionary of the characters
in the Waverley Novels of Sir Walter Scott.
1910 823.73

Shelley, Percy B.:
Ellis, F. S. Concordance to the poetical
works of Shelley. 1892 821.77

Scott, Sir Walter:
Husband, M. F. A. Dictionary of the
characters in the Waverley Novels. 1910 823.73

Newspapers, magazines, periodicals, reviews, directories, annuals, almanacks, and publications of[Pg 195] like kind are also regarded as anonymous, and are given a first-word title-entry.

Newspapers of a general character published in London would be entered in British catalogues without any regard to the place of publication, as

Times, The.
Daily Telegraph, The.
Westminster Gazette, The.
Illustrated London News, The.

and not as London Times, London Daily Telegraph, London Westminster Gazette, London News, Illustrated. Local papers, on the other hand, are entered under the name of the place, whether the name appears in their titles or not, as

Chelsea. West London Press.
Manchester Guardian, The.
Liverpool. Porcupine, The.
Leeds Mercury, The.

The number of volumes and period covered should be given as well as any change of names the papers have undergone. The editors, even when known, pass unnoticed, and no general heading of "Newspapers" (or any other entry) is required except in the classified catalogue, where all newspapers fall into place under the heading—in the Dewey classification 072 (Newspapers—English).

Magazines and periodicals receive similar treatment, being entered under the first word of their distinctive titles, as

Athenæum, The.
Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine.
Dublin Review, The.
Review of Reviews, The.
Spectator, The.

[Pg 196]

When newspapers, periodicals, or magazines change their titles without breaking the continuity of publication, retaining some connection between their old and new titles, the entries are given under the latest titles, with references from the earlier if required, as

Nineteenth Century, The,—and after.
Nation, The (formerly The Speaker).
Speaker, The. See Nation, The.

The alternative and better form, especially where the periodical has a separate volume number sequence under each of the titles, is to enter both as if quite distinct publications, but with notes attached marking the connection, as

Speaker, The. 10 v. 1890-1900 052
See under Nation, The, for continuation.
Nation, The. v. 1-12. 1900-12 052
And continuation. Formerly The Speaker. See
under Speaker.

Weekly and monthly periodicals are sometimes the official organs of learned or scientific societies, in which case the name of the society becomes the entry word, as

Society of Arts, Journal of the.
Royal Geographical Society, Journal of the.
Society of Chemical Industry, Journal of the.

References are given, where deemed necessary, from the first word of the title to the name of the society

Journal of the Society of Arts. See Society of

Publications such as these, and other technical or scientific periodicals, deserve, and should receive, additional entries under the names of the subjects[Pg 197] with which they are mainly concerned, even if the subjects are not indicated by their titles. The building papers, for example, are as much devoted to architecture as to building, and need subject-entries as well as main-entries, thus:—

Architect, The.
Architectural Review, The.
British Architect, The.
Builder, The.
Building News, The.

So far as the nature of the contents of all these papers goes, they may fitly be entered in the same manner under "Building"—The Architect and The British Architect, having as much to do with building as The Builder and The Building News. To prevent misunderstanding, it may be explained that the mere titles above are given to show the method of entry; the number of volumes, dates of publication, or other particulars must be added in the ordinary way.

Directories, annuals, and other "books which are not books," receive first-word entry as already stated, but a few examples may be cited.

Medical directory, The. 1912 926.1
Law list, The. 1913 923.4
Crockford's Clerical directory. 1913 922
Kelly's Handbook to the titled, landed, and
official classes. 1912 923
Statesman's year-book, The; ed. by J. Scott Keltie. 1912 310
Whitaker, Joseph. Almanack. 1913 310

[Pg 198]

Of these, the first two hardly need further entries, unless they be under "Doctors" and "Lawyers," the third must be entered under "Clergy," the fourth, though merely a directory of selected names, receives a title-entry, as

Titled, landed, &c. classes, Kelly's Handbook.
1912 923

The last two might very well be entered under a heading of "Statistics"; although not on statistics, they contain much statistical information. General directories are not entered under a heading "Directories," but under the names of the places or classes with which they are concerned.

[Pg 199]


Title-Entries. Classics. Specific Subject. Concentration of Subject. Definite Headings. Popular Terms. Historical Fiction. Novels in Series. Sequels. Fiction Known by Special Titles. Books with Changed Titles. Annotations. Form Entries. Summary Hints.

Without dwelling too much on the various points that seem to need emphasis, some may be recapitulated with advantage.

There is a great tendency among cataloguers to overdo the title-entries in a dictionary catalogue, thereby adding to its bulk and cost without gaining any compensating advantage. One of the chief objections to the dictionary catalogue is superfluous first-word title-entries. To give a title-entry is an easy method of disposing of a book when its precise subject is not readily discerned. To enter books with titles like Factors in modern history under "Factors," The Winter Queen under "Winter," Romance of the renaissance chateaux under "Romance," Wanderings by Southern waters under "Wanderings," England's case against Home Rule under "England's," serves no practical purpose; in fact often leads to "hotch-potch" like the following:

Dutch at Home. By Esquiros
— Dialogues. By Harlen
— Dictionary
— Figure Painters. By Gower
— Guiana. By Palgrave
— Painters. By Stanley
— Pictures. By Sala
— Republic: Address on. By Harrison
— — Rise of the. By Motley
— School of Painting. By Havard

[Pg 200]

The second of these alone needed a title-entry, the others should have been allocated to their proper subjects. Title-entries of this type are seldom necessary outside works of fiction, volumes of essays or of poems with specific titles, and a few books that are specially known by their titles, of which Eothen, Sesame and lilies, Sartor resartus, are types. Title-entries should be the exception, not the rule. In the case of classics—that is "classics" in a wide sense, not merely the Greek and Latin—there is rarely any occasion to give more than the principal entries, the authors being so thoroughly well known that title-entries or references are redundant. None of Shakespeare's plays requires a title-entry; no entries are needed under "Iliad" or "Odyssey," or under "Inferno," or "Divine Comedy," or even under "Paradise Lost" or "Faust" (for Goethe's).

It is a useful axiom for the cataloguer that he must ascertain clearly what is the definite subject of a book before he decides upon the proper subject-heading for it in the dictionary catalogue, as he is compelled to do before he can assign the exact place for a book in the classified catalogue. Further, he should not attach too much importance to the terms of the title-page in the process, else he will stumble on "pitfalls" in the shape of titles that may mislead, and so be induced to place a book on artificial lighting with the title "The art of illumination" under the wrong kind of "Illuminating," an "Essay on Irish bulls" under "Cattle," "The psychology of socialism" under "Mind," and "The Fine Art of Jujutsu" under "Art," even misread "Jujutsu" as the name of an artist.

[Pg 201]

As already stated, it is well to avoid scattering books upon a single subject, even if viewed from varying standpoints, under several headings throughout the catalogue, if they can be reasonably brought together, and the fact that the books are in different languages must not be allowed to affect the matter. As a case in point, we may take such a subject of the day as "Tariff Reform." It is both possible and desirable to concentrate under some appropriate and inclusive heading, say "Free Trade Question" or "Tariffs," the books for and against free trade; embodying under it those dealing with special aspects of the question, instead of scattering them, on account of the terms used on their title-pages, under "Protection," "Food Taxes," "Imperial Preference," "Tariffs," "Fiscal Question," "Tariff Reform," "Fair Trade," "Reciprocity," etc. When these terms occur in the titles, a reference from them to the heading can easily be given if thought desirable. Omitting the principal entries, this may be illustrated by showing several books of apparently very different views that really bear upon this question, and justify inclusion under it.

Free Trade Question:
Ashley, P. Modern tariff history. 1904
Aubry, P. Etude critique de la politique
commerciale de l'Angleterre.
Avebury, Lord. Free trade. 1904
Taussig, F. W. The tariff history of
the United States. 1901
Unwin, Mrs. C. (Ed.) The hungry
forties. 1904
Williams, E. E. The case for protection.
— "Made in Germany." 1896
Williamson, A. British industries
and foreign competition. 1894

[Pg 202]

This also serves to show the convenience of fixing upon some term of a permanent character for a subject-heading, and so "ear-marking" it by means of cross-references that synonymous headings cannot occur. It may be argued that these terms are not strictly synonymous, indeed, are mostly opposites, Free Trade not being Tariff Reform or Protection. It must be remembered that every book upon such a subject contains something on the other side of the question, therefore bringing books together in this fashion certainly gives a whole view of the subject. Were the entries numerous under the heading, they could be divided to show the books advocating free trade and those against. There are other subjects that lend themselves to similar treatment, as for example that shown on page 109. Where the terms used are undoubtedly synonymous, definite choice of one has to be made, and the cross-reference given from the other; Ethics or Moral Philosophy, Political Economy or Economics, Physics or Natural Philosophy, and so on; the more modern or commonly used terms being preferable, as Ethics, Economics, Physics.

Popular, rather than scientific or technical, names should be chosen for subject-headings, especially for the catalogues of libraries used by all classes of the community—Spiders not Arachnida, Worms not Annelida, Fishes not Ichthyology, Crime (Punishment, etc., of) not Penology, Stamp-Collecting not Philately, Consumption not Phthisis. Care must be taken that the popular term means the same thing—thus a book upon algæ cannot be entered under "Sea-weeds" if it includes the freshwater species.

[Pg 203]

It is also customary to avoid the use of foreign terms if there are English equivalents, but this is not always the case—"jiu-jitsu" (or "jujutsu"), for example, has no word in English meaning the same thing.

It is trite and commonplace to say that there is much reliable history written in the form of fiction, and a great deal of fiction in the guise of serious books: this being so, the cataloguer is well advised to reckon with it. Whether we shall notice all novels "with a purpose" opens too wide a question, but many are not only true to life but are real history, and meant to be so. For example, a recently published book

Diver, Maud. The hero of Herat.

while ostensibly a novel, is a biography, which may be read as such, of Major Eldred Pottinger, who devoted his life to furthering British interests on the Indian frontier. Another book of the kind, nominally fiction yet virtually a life of Hamilton, the American statesman, is

Atherton, Gertrude F. The Conqueror.

On the other hand, works of historical romance are got up in size and appearance, including the provision of portraits as illustrations, to range with histories and biographies, and thus they deceive the unwary, who are apt to regard them as authoritative and genuine, although perhaps it is not the intention of the author that they should be so regarded. Such a book is

"Hare, Christopher" (Mrs. Andrews.) Isabella
of Milan, Princess d'Aragona, and wife of
Duke Gian Galeazzo Sforza: the intimate
story of her life in Milan. 1911

[Pg 204]

While written in the form of letters, it is pure romance, with an historical basis.

In the ordinary way these books would receive quite different treatment, even for the classified catalogue. For the dictionary catalogue the books palpably novels would have title-entries given them, as

Hero of Herat, The. Diver, M.
Conqueror, The. Atherton, G. F.

whereas the larger-sized book receives a subject-entry as a serious book,

Isabella of Milan, Princess d'Aragona, &c.
Hare, C. 1911

and would be placed with historical biography in the classified catalogue.

This raises the important question whether the cataloguer is ever justified in giving subject-entries for works of fiction, especially historical romances. Much depends upon the nature and quality of the book. When it can be read as a contribution to the subject or period with which it deals, without being to any extent misleading, then it may fairly and usefully receive a subject-entry. Where so entered, it will prevent misunderstanding if a note (annotation) is appended to the entry, stating that the work is in fiction form. A schoolmaster, who was versed in the life of Sir Thomas More, read Anne Manning's "The household of Sir Thomas More" more than once, and could hardly be convinced that it was a work of fiction.

Catalogued according to the suggestions here outlined, the entries for the works of fiction would be

[Pg 205]

Diver, Maud. The Hero of Herat: a frontier
biography in romantic form.
Though in fiction form the book is a biography
of Major Eldred Pottinger, who devoted his life
to furthering British interests on the frontier of
Pottinger, Major Eldred, The Hero of Herat.
Diver, M.
A novel embodying Pottinger's life.
Atherton, Gertrude F. The Conqueror: being
the true and romantic story of Alexander
Life of Hamilton, the American statesman, in
fiction form.

Hamilton, Alexander:
Atherton, G. F. The Conqueror.
Fiction, incorporating Hamilton's life.
Manning, Anne. The household of Sir Thomas
A story based on More's life.

More, Sir Thomas:
Manning, A. The household of Sir Thomas
A story founded on fact.

The foregoing remarks not only relate to historical fiction, but also to other works that are undoubtedly contributions to their subjects apart from the form in which they are written. A book just published is

Richardson, Leslie. Vagabond days in Brittany.
illus. 1913 944.1

The preface opens with a statement to the effect that "although the book is cast in the form of a story, all the facts about Brittany and her people are true, and may be relied upon by those who care to use the work as a guide-book." This[Pg 206] warrants an entry under the subject "Brittany," and justifies the Dewey number given to it.

If the proportion of fiction outweighs the fact so largely that the book is valueless except as romance, it is wiser to limit the entries to author and title. It is possible (but undesirable) to enter all the works of fiction dealing with a particular person, or epoch, or event, under the subjects, but they should be kept apart from serious works, under a sub-heading marking them distinctly as fiction. Valuable helps in this connection are Dr. E. A. Baker's Guide to the Best Fiction and Historical Fiction.

When novels belong to a connected series, and are meant to be read in a particular order, it is helpful to indicate the order of reading. French fiction is noteworthy in this respect, Balzac's Scènes de la vie, Zola's Les Rongon-Macquart, Ohnet's Les batailles de la vie, and Rolland's Jean-Cristophe, may be named as examples. In English fiction we have Trollope's Chronicles of Barsetshire and Mrs. Oliphant's Chronicles of Carlingford. A recent example is that of Mr. Hugh Walpole, whose novels are arranged in order of sequence in this way

Walpole, Hugh. Studies in place:
The wooden horse.
Maradick at forty.
Mr. Perrin and Mr. Traill.
— Prologues to "The rising city":
The prelude to adventure.
— The rising city.

They can be given in this order in the catalogue, instead of alphabetically, for the reason that[Pg 207] a general title is accorded to the series. Title-entries are required in the customary manner under "Wooden," "Maradick," "Mr.," "Prelude," "Fortitude," "Rising," but not under "Studies in place" or "Prologues."

The order of reading of sequels is indicated by means of notes to the entries, as

Wood, Mrs. Henry. The Channings.
— Roland Yorke.
Sequel to the above.
Dumas, Alexandre. Chicot the jester.
Sequel to Marguerite de Valois.
— Forty-five guardsmen.
Sequel to Marguerite de Valois and Chicot the
— Marguerite de Valois.
The sequels are Chicot the Jester and Forty-five

Sometimes the books are placed in the order they are intended to be read, and numbered accordingly. The first comes into place in its alphabetical order of title, and the rest follow irrespective of the alphabetical order, after this manner

Dumas, Alexandre. The Chevalier d'Harmental
— 1. The companions of Jehu
— 2. The first republic
— 1. The conspirators
— 2. The Regent's daughter
— The Count of Monte-Cristo
— The last Vendée; or, the she-wolves of Machecoul
— 1. Marguerite de Valois
— 2. Chicot the jester
— 3. Forty-five guardsmen

This is not so desirable a form as the notes appended to the entries, because it is less clear in[Pg 208] meaning. It also needs an explanatory note that the books are numbered in the order of sequence, otherwise it will not be understood that each series of numbers stands apart from the rest.

At this point it may be mentioned that well-known works of fiction are often more familiarly known by short titles than by what may be called their official titles, especially if those titles include proper names. This has to be taken into account for title-entries, if not in the main entries. Accordingly "The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe" is entered as "Robinson Crusoe," "The posthumous papers of the Pickwick Club" as "Pickwick Papers," and "The personal history and experience of David Copperfield the Younger" as "David Copperfield."

Books with changed titles are among the "pitfalls" that beset the path of the librarian, and call for special alertness on the part of the cataloguer. Three such books came under notice on a single day recently, and are here named, as they show the difficulty of preventing the acquisition of duplicates and of the consequent addition of superfluous entries to the catalogue. An American edition of a novel by Agnes and Egerton Castle, entitled The heart of Lady Anne, was duly catalogued by that title until found to be the same book as French Nan (American editions are troublesome in this respect); Anderson's The a b c of artistic photography in theory and practice (1913) was found to be identical with his The artistic side of photography (1908); and Norton's Bible student's handbook of Assyriology (1913) to be merely a new edition of his [Pg 209]Popular handbook of useful and interesting information for beginners in the elementary study of Assyriology (1908).

A most commendable feature of modern cataloguing is the explanatory notes and other annotations appended to catalogue entries. These are for the most part to be found in the lists of additions to libraries published monthly, quarterly, or annually; such publications lending themselves readily to this descriptive form of cataloguing. The classified catalogue has also the advantage over the dictionary form for this purpose, because, rarely having more than a single entry for each book, the question as to where the note is to go does not arise. The dictionary catalogue having two or more entries, the addition of annotations enlarges it materially, besides presenting the difficulty of deciding to which of the entries the note is to be attached, if not to all. Some notes are better under the author-entry, and others are more appropriate to the subject. Nevertheless, some fully annotated dictionary catalogues have been issued, notably Mr. C. W. F. Goss's catalogues of the Bishopsgate Institute Library and Mr. W. E. Doubleday's Hampstead Public Library catalogues.

When annotations are given, they should be pithy, to the point, and, as far as possible, free from criticism. A bookseller may have some strong religious leanings or political opinions which he can afford to publish by means of notes in his catalogues without anybody being more than amused thereby, but the wise public official, as the servant of all creeds and parties, will respect all alike, and take care, if only for his own sake, that he does not hurt the susceptibilities of any. He will keep[Pg 210] his personal opinions to himself in a "water-tight" compartment, where they cannot affect or influence his public work, whether it be in cataloguing or in book-selection. It is greatly to the credit of public librarians that they pursue this policy as a mere matter of course, their training enabling them to view all literature broadly, without prejudice or any reference to the bias of the contents of books. To say this, does not mean that a cataloguer may not attach a note to a controversial book of any kind indicating the point of view taken by the author, but he should do so without expressing his own opinion.

Some annotations are nothing more than a repetition or paraphrase of the title-page, and so add nothing to the information contained in the catalogue entry. They appear to be given upon the supposition that every book in an annotated catalogue must have an annotation, but this is a mistake, as the majority of title-pages admirably summarize the contents of books, for which purpose they exist. It is when they fail to do this, or do it indefinitely, or when the book has some especial feature not noticed in the title to which it is worth while directing attention, that the annotation is required and proves of value.

Other features enter into the composition of an annotation. Brevity is not only the soul of it, but is absolutely essential if a catalogue is to be kept within bounds. A note based upon a review should avoid any appearance of partiality, as reviewers are not invariably impartial. It is helpful to readers to get some rough idea of the amount of knowledge needed to understand a book—for example, a book[Pg 211] dealing with astronomy mathematically would be above the heads of most people, and when a work is of this nature it should be so stated. The qualifications of an author for writing upon a subject are often noted—he may be a professor of the subject at a university, or have some other position or some experience that marks him as an authority. This, perhaps, is not of first-rate importance, as it may be presumed that no one would write a book upon a subject of which he knows nothing, or who is not qualified in some way to deal with it; a kindly, if not always correct, view to take. Summed up, the whole object of an annotation is to assist in the choice of a book, and to elucidate the treatment of its subject, though it may be said that the purpose is defeated in these days when so many opportunities for examining the book itself exist. The subject is exhaustively dealt with in Mr. E. A. Savage's Manual of Descriptive Annotations for Library Catalogues. The following are typical examples of annotations selected from various sources:—

McCarthy, Justin. Story of Gladstone's life.
N.Y. and London Macmillan 1897. 12+436 p. illus.
portraits, plates, O.

A Home-ruler's memoir of Gladstone; based upon personal acquaintance; of permanent value as a memoir; written in an entertaining style and well illustrated, but partisan-eulogistic, gossipy and inaccurate. See for best biography G. B. Smith, for best short one G. W. E. Russell. Careful Gladstone bibliography, Notes and queries, Dec. 10, 24, 1892; Jan. 7, 21, 1893.

Ath. 1898. 1:182; Sat. R. 85:178; Spec. 80:342; Acad. 53:199.

This is taken from a catalogue of American origin, and appeared before the publication of Morley's authoritative Life of Gladstone. The note is a somewhat elaborate one, valuable in its refer[Pg 212]ences to other books, but questionable in its criticism. The entry was meant for a card-catalogue, and not prepared for any particular library.

Street, G. S. Trials of the Bantocks.
A satire. The trials of the Bantocks come in
their endeavour to be fashionable.

Richter, Eugene. Pictures of the socialistic
future; freely adapted from Bebel. 1907
A satire against socialism. It tells the experiences
of an ardent socialist workman and his
family in Berlin and the dire results of the
"coming revolution."

Unwin, P. W. Practical solid geometry. (Camb.
mathematical ser.) 1909
An elementary course, complete in itself, covering
Stage 1 of the Board of Education examination.

Jacoby, Geo. W. Suggestion and psychotherapy.
The influence of the mind in the causation and
in the cure of disease.

Ruffini, Francesco. Religious liberty; with a
preface by J. B. Bury. (Theol. transl. lib.)
The author is Prof. of Ecclesiastical Law at
Turin. The history of religious liberty and toleration
in a wide sense.

Whether a catalogue makes any pretence of being annotated or not, every library contains books with some features that render them unique or almost so, when it is worth while showing this by means of a note attached to the entries as a matter of course. The books may be in manuscript, be works of the early printers, be extra illustrated, or be first editions of some value, and these facts are usually[Pg 213] stated. The two following are taken from a catalogue containing no annotations except such as may be characterised as inevitable:—

Camden, William. Britannia; transl. and enlarged
by Richard Gough. 4 v. in 23. fo 1806
Interleaved copy, illustrated with engraved maps,
views, portraits, &c., and original drawings and
sketches, &c.

— English. The Second Folio, Bishops'
Version. 707 leaves. fo London, Richard
Jugge, 1572
Note.—The Book of Psalms is printed in
parallel columns of black letter and Roman
type, the black letter from the Great Bible,
and the Roman, a new version.
—— The Holy B.; containing the Old Testament
and the New. fo London,
Robert Barker, 1611
Note.—This is the 2nd Issue of the 1st ed. of
the Authorised Version of King James'
Bible, and is commonly called the Great
She Bible from Ruth iii. 15.

Other forms of notes that are unavoidable have already been indicated, as for example, those denoting the order of reading for sequels, and the amount of reliable history in works of fiction.

In the previous pages it has been more or less hinted that form entries—that is, entries for books written in a particular literary form, as poetry, drama, essays, fiction—are out of place in a dictionary catalogue, and to introduce them is to drag in sections from the classified catalogue which do not suitably fit. While it is an exaggeration to say that if books in poetical form are to be entered[Pg 214] under the heading "Poetry," then it logically follows that prosy books require a heading "Prose," or if novels and romances are to be entered under "Fiction," then serious books should be placed under "Fact"; there is, all the same, a certain amount of truth behind it. If a poetical work has a general title, as "Poems" or "Poetical Works," then there is no need to do more than enter it under the author's name; if it has a distinctive title, a title-entry is given in addition. This also applies to dramas and dramatic works, and to volumes of sermons, letters, or essays. The method of dealing with volumes of essays has been more definitely shown in Chapter VI., and with works of fiction in other chapters. Volumes of letters or sermons bearing upon a definite subject are entered for subject as any other books, the form not signifying.

Beginners in cataloguing may find the following direct and simple hints or rules useful for treating subjects in a dictionary catalogue:—

1.—Clearly ascertain what is the definite subject of a book before cataloguing it.

2.—Do not rely entirely upon the wording of the title-page.

3.—Fix permanently the name adopted for a subject and in such a way that synonymous headings cannot occur.

4.—Bring together all books upon the same subject irrespective of the language in which they are written.

5.—Adopt popular terms in preference to scientific for subject-headings, if the Library is intended to be used by all classes of the community.

[Pg 215]

6.—Make sure that the popular term has the same meaning as the scientific, and is as comprehensive.

7.—Avoid scattering books upon a single subject, though viewed from different standpoints, under several headings, if they can be concentrated under one heading.

8.—Avoid entries under first or other word of the title as far as possible, where a subject-entry is all that is needed. Title-entries should be the exception not the rule.

9.—Make a subject-heading when there are two or more books upon the same subject; when only one gives a subject title-entry.

10.—Series entries are to be given as such and not as a makeshift form of subject-entry.

11.—Form entries, generally speaking, are out of place in the dictionary catalogue. If given they are better relegated to an appendix.

12.—References and cross-references should be always subordinate and connected.

13.—References are rarely given from lesser to greater subjects, but should not be overlooked from greater to lesser.

14.—In no case should references be given from author to subject or vice versa, or in any form not distinctly relative, otherwise they are apt to be incongruous.

15.—Volumes of a collective or miscellaneous character require that each item be considered and catalogued as if a separate work.

[Pg 216]

16.—Works of a marked classical character are not considered to require title entries, and seldom need subject-entries.

17.—Works of fiction with proper names in their titles call for consideration as to the best form of title-entry.

18.—When a book deals with a subject with a geographical limitation, choice between subject and geographical heading is sometimes necessary for the sake of economy. When in doubt give both entries.

19.—The above rule can be departed from in the case of the home country.

20.—The judicious abbreviation of entries is not so simple as it appears on the surface and requires care.

21.—Alphabetical arrangement is not by any means as simple as a b c.

22.—The use of repetition dashes should be strictly limited, and never exceed two under any circumstances.

[Pg 217]

The Printing of Catalogues.

The Preparation of "Copy." Markings for Type. Styles of Printing in Various Catalogues. Table of Types. Tenders for Printing. Model Specification. Reading and Correction of Proofs. Type "Kept Standing."

The preparation of the manuscript of the catalogue for the press, and the reading and correction of proofs, call for great care on the part of the cataloguer, if the results of his labours are to be entirely satisfactory when in print.

The slips being all sorted into exact order, it is well to paste them down on sheets of paper, to make the "copy" for the printer. Any kind of paper serves the purpose, provided it is strong and the sheets are uniform in size; back numbers of periodicals, if on good paper, do quite well. When the entries in the dictionary catalogue under a subject-heading are fairly numerous, they are sub-divided before they are pasted down; the entries themselves usually suggesting the appropriate sub-headings—or "arrangement according to material." Some sub-divisions have been added to the illustrative entries in these pages to show this. The headings of the second and subsequent entries under an author's name, and under a subject, are cut away before the slips are pasted down, or they must be scored through afterwards; watchful care has to be exercised lest too much be cut off the slips at this time. If the catalogue is classified the numerical symbols are interpreted, and such class-headings,[Pg 218] divisions, and sub-divisions written as are required to be printed. The sheets of paper should be pasted and the slips laid on them and rubbed down, instead of pasting each slip separately.

Should the catalogue entries be written or typed on good cards, inconvenient to paste down, or which it is desired to preserve, they can be numbered consecutively and strung together for the printer; anything upon them not meant to be printed being marked out, including in this case also the headings of second and subsequent entries under a single heading and an author's name.

Whether sent on separate cards or as pasted sheets, each entry must be marked for the sizes and styles of type the printer is to use. The following is a convenient and recognised method of doing this:—

For CAPITALS underline three times in black ink.

For Small Capitals underline twice in black ink.

For Italics underline once in black ink.

For Clarendon, Antique, or other heavy type underline as before but in red.

For smaller type than the body of the catalogue mark the portions down the margin with a vertical line.

Various considerations enter into the question of the style or "get-up" (i.e., size, types, paper, binding) of the catalogue. In all rate-supported libraries the foremost of these is the expense involved. Owing to the disconnected nature of catalogue entries the setting is somewhat troublesome work for the compositor, and, taking longer time than straightforward work, costs more, though the modern[Pg 219] type-setting machines, Linotype and Monotype, have facilitated the work. It is a well-known fact in connection with public libraries that the public will not pay more than a merely nominal sum for a catalogue, and certainly nothing approaching the cost of printing—to be compelled to sell a catalogue for 6d. which cost 1s. 6d. or 2s. per copy to produce is a common experience. Sometimes the difference in cost is made good by advertisements, though this is an unreliable source of revenue. Advertisers do not regard a catalogue as a good medium for this purpose owing to the small number in an edition; the fact that it is in constant use does not weigh much with them. If advertisements can be dispensed with so much the better, as they detract from the appearance of a catalogue even if they do not actually disfigure it. The extent of the library catalogued also enters into the matter. A small one not requiring a large catalogue can use larger type in printing, though a small library and a small income often go together, when strict economy has to be exercised. Again there is the question of including the books of the reference department in the catalogue, making it a general one, which adds to its bulk and cost. The reference books having to be used upon the premises are quite sufficiently brought under notice by means of the card or sheaf form of catalogues, typewritten or in manuscript, now in general use, though it may be desirable for a newly-established library to have a complete catalogue of all departments. Those persons who understand a "reference department" to consist of a few directories, dictionaries, and almanacks, may thus learn that it comprises much[Pg 220] more. The extent of the collection also affects this, as it is desirable, if not actually necessary, that the printed catalogue shall be kept within such limits as to be portable, and in a single volume, because some people prefer to have their own copies rather than make use of those provided in the library, and others make their choice of books solely at home. All this applies more especially to the catalogues of lending libraries, as, generally speaking, printed catalogues of reference libraries are seldom seen nowadays—they are more of a luxury than a necessity.

The illustrative examples throughout this work give an idea of the styles of types recommended, though the choice is more one of usage or personal preference. The following examples, taken from various catalogues, are selected as representing the styles of printing usually met with in catalogues.

A common and very economical form is set in 8-point (or brevier) old-style type, with authors' names, when leading, in small capitals, the subject-headings in antique, with the entries under them in 6-point (or nonpareil) as well as all contents and annotations. It is printed in double columns with a double rule dividing the columns, and on a royal octavo page:—

Hayne, M. H. E., and H. W. Taylor.
The pioneers of the Klondyke. 1897 I 4126
Haynes, E. S. P. Religious persecution:
a study in political psychology. 1904 B 1530
Pritchard, H. Where black rules white. 1900 I 4986
St. John, Sir S. Hayti; or, the Black Republic.
1889 I 4378
Texier, C. Au pays des généraux: Haiti. 1891 I 1145
Heber. Reginald, Bp. Poetical works. '75 H 90
Robinson, T. The last days of Bishop
Heber. 1831 I 2348

[Pg 221]

A variation has the authors' names, wherever they occur, printed in clarendon (heavy type) and the subject-headings in capitals and small capitals after this fashion:—

Cellini, Benvenuto. Life of, [by himself]; transl.,
[with an introduction,] by John A. Symonds.
2 v. roy. 8o. 1888 E 7032
Birrell, A. A rogue's memoirs. (In his Obiter
dicta, ser. I.) 1884 H 3462
Goethe, J. W. von. Benvenuto Cellini. (In
his Sämtliche Werke, v. 29.) [1885] H 3131
Celsus, Aurelius C. De medicina; ad fidem optimorum
librorum denuo recensuit adnotatione
critica indicibusque instruxit C. Daremberg.
(Bibl. script Graec. et Roman. Teubneriana.)
pp. xlviii, 407
sm. 8o. Lipsiae, 1859 O 430
Froude, J. A. Origen and Celsus. (In his
Short studies, ser. 4.) 1883 E 2926

Guest, E. Origines Celticae 2 v. 1833 E 5178
Lemière, P. L. Etude sur les Celtes et les
Gaulois 1881 E 3848
— Revue celtique. Tomes 4-11 8 v. 1881-91 H 1857
Rhys, J. Origin and growth of religion as
illustrated by Celtic heathendom 1888 A 3481
Warren, F. E. The liturgy and ritual of the
Celtic church 1881 A 3595
see also Ireland (Language and literature.)

The disadvantage of this style is the over-emphasis of authors' names at the cost of subject-headings, which are somewhat obscured instead of being made prominent. The general appearance is not good, the page having a "spotty" look.

The next example is much the same in character as the first, except that it is set in modern-faced type, the shelf numbers are given in heavy type, and the gauge is different. On the whole it presents a pleasing appearance, though the punctuation is unusual:—

[Pg 222]

Glaciers. Green (W. S.) Among the Selkirk
glaciers. 1890. ill. maps. C 2376
Helmholtz (H.) Ice and glaciers: in his
Popular lectures, v. 1. 1884. E 4726
Molloy (G.) The glaciers of the Alps: in his
Gleanings in science. 1888. E 4926
Rendu (  ) Theory of the glaciers of Savoy.
1874. map. E 4623
in Tyndall (J.) The forms of water. 1885.
ill. E 4179
Gladiators; by G. J. W. Melville. v. d. F 6041,
F 6042
Gladstone (J. H.) The life of Faraday: in
Science lectures, Manchester, v. 2. 1885. E 3841
Gladstone (William E.) Gleanings of past
years. 1879-97. 8v. 12o H 8114-21
1. The Throne and the Prince Consort; The
Cabinet and constitution. 2. Personal and
literary. 3. Historical and speculative. 4. Foreign.
5-6. Ecclesiastical 7. Miscellaneous. 8. Theological
and Ecclesiastical.
Homer. 1878. 12o G 7233

"Old-style" in type does not mean old-fashioned, but the more artistic and readable type modelled on the lettering of the early printers, principally those of the Italian presses, and is that most preferred at present. If anything, modern-faced type is the older fashioned. Fantastic or decorated types, even for initial capitals at the commencement of a division of the catalogue, are better avoided. The following is an example somewhat after the style of the second given above, but applied to a classified catalogue:—

944 French History.

Coignet (Clarisse) Francis I. [of France] and his
times. [Translated] from the French by Fanny
Twemlow. Lond. 1888. 8vo. pp. iv. 371.
944.028 C 1
Beauchamp (Comte de) Louis XIII. d'après sa
correspondance avec le Cardinal de Richelieu.
Paris, 1902. fol. pp. [iv]. 460. Ports., map and
[Pg 223]illus.
F 944.032 B 1
Furse (George Armand) 1800. Marengo and
Hohenlinden. Lond. 1903. 8vo. pp. xii. 478.
Port., illus. and maps.
944.046 F 2
Bowles (Thomas Gibson) The defence of Paris,
[1870-71] narrated as it was seen. Lond. 1871.
8vo. pp. x. 405. Map and illus.
944.08 B 4

When varying sizes of type are used for distinctive purposes, the contrast is better brought about by using for the smaller type one which is two sizes under that of the body of the catalogue. Thus if 10-point (or long primer) is used, then 8-point (or brevier) is taken for the small type rather than 9-point (or bourgeois), which would not be sufficiently distinctive. All the above examples are in 8-point (or brevier) with 6-point (or nonpareil) for the small size. The following table of types and the space they occupy is useful for reference:—

This is old-style 12-point (Pica)
This is old-style 11-point (Small Pica)
This is old-style 10-point (Long Primer)
This is old-style 9-point (Bourgeois)
This is old-style 8-point (Brevier)
This is old-style 7-point (Minion)
This is old-style 6-point (Nonpareil)
This is modern-faced 12-point (Pica)
This is modern-faced 11-point (Small Pica)
This is modern-faced 10-point (Long Primer)
This is modern faced 9-point (Bourgeois)
This is modern-faced 8-point (Brevier)
This is modern faced 7-point (Minion)
This is modern-faced 6-point (Nonpareil)
[Pg 224]

Where cost has not to be considered, a better effect is obtained by printing a catalogue across the page instead of in double columns. This takes up nearly twice as much space, given the same size of type, and is usually printed in demy octavo size (8½ inches by 5½). If the number of entries is large the catalogue makes a thick volume, though this depends largely upon the size of type used. The following example is taken from a class-list printed in 8-point (or brevier) with notes and contents in 6-point (or nonpareil) as in the double-columned catalogues shown above:—

Poole, G. Ayliffe. History of ecclesiastical architecture in
England, pp. xiv, 415, port 8o. 1848
— and OTHERS. Architectural notices of the churches of the
archdeaconry of Northampton: deaneries of Higham
Ferrers and Haddon. pp. xii. 288, illus. roy. 8o. 1849
Potter, Joseph. Remains of ancient monastic architecture in
England roy. fo. [1845-7]
Contents—Buildwas Abbey church, pl. 33.—Wenlock Priory church.
pl. 30.—Tintern Abbey church. pl. 49.
— Specimens of antient English architecture: ... plans, elevations,
sections, and details.—Ecclesiastical. pp. 31, pl. 42.
roy. 4o. 1848
Prickett, Marmaduke. Historical and architectural description
of the Priory church of Bridlington. pp. xxviii, 130, pl. 17.
8o. Cambridge, 1831
Prioux, Stanislas. Monographie de l'ancienne abbaye royale
Saint-Yved de Braine; [avec plans, élévations, &c.] pp. iii,
104, pl. 26. fo. Paris, 1859

It is with the object of using larger-sized types that catalogues are printed across the page, as the double-columned catalogue does not admit of the use of large type without adopting a wide page, which is somewhat inconvenient. The next three examples are of the larger-type character:—[Pg 225] The following is set in 9-point (bourgeois) with the contents and notes in 5-point (or pearl). The setting of works of fiction in double columns is an economical feature, as the short titles of this class of literature permit a saving. The catalogue from which it is taken, including preface and key to the indicator of 50 pages, contains 760 pages for a lending library of just under 20,000 volumes:—

Reeves, Wm. P. The Long White Cloud—Ao Tea Roa. [New Zealand]. 1898 3026 H
State Experiments in Australia and New Zealand. 2 vols. 1902 610 C
Reflection, Aids to, by S. T. Coleridge. 1873 19 B
Reflets sur la sombre route, par 'Pierre Loti.' 1899 1809 G
Reform Bill. Epoch of Reform, 1830-50, by J. McCarthy. 1882 1018 H
Reformation, The:—
Beard, C. The Reformation of the 16th century. Hibbert Lect. 1897 839 B
Beckett, W. H. The English Reformation of the 16th century. 1890 694 B
Bettany, G. T. Popular history of the Reformation and Modern Protestantism.
1895 1808 H
Reich, Emil. Foundations of modern Europe. 1904 4331 H
The War of American Independence, 1763-83. The French Revolution. Napoleon. The Re-action. The
Revolutions. The Unity of Italy. The Unity of Germany. The Franco-German War.
Reid, Capt. Mayne. Odd People; singular races of man. 1885 543 D and 1598 K
Afloat in the Forest 2608 I and 1174 K Chase of the
Boy Hunters 2609 I and 1175 K Leviathan 2614 I and 1180 K
Boy Slaves 2610 I and 1176 K Child Wife 2615 I and 1181 K
Boy Tar 2611 I and 1177 K Cliff Climbers 2616 I and 1182 K
Bruin 2612 I and 1178 K Sequel to 'Plant Hunters.
Bush Boys 2613 I and 1179 K Death-Shot 2617 I and 1183 K

[Pg 226]

The type here is 11-point (or small pica) with contents and notes in 6-point (nonpareil). This catalogue runs to 790 pages (for 32,000 volumes) without advertisements, and a bound copy weighs 2¾ lbs.:—

Burlesque plays and poems 1511
Chaucer's 'Rime of Thopas.' Beaumont and Fletcher's 'Knight of the burning
pestle.' Villier's 'Rehearsal.' Phillips's 'Splendid shilling.' Fielding's 'Tom
Thumb the Great.' Carey's 'Namby Pamby and Chrononhotonthologos.' Canning's
'Rovers.' Rhode's 'Bombastes Furioso.' Smith's 'Rejected addresses.' Hood's
'Odes to great people.'
Burls, Robert. Plan and Operations of the Essex Congregational
Union. 1848 Ref. 3346
Burmah: Clifford, H. Further India. 1904 G16522
Cuming, E. D. In the shadow of the pagoda. 1893 7042
Hall, H. F. Soul of a people. 1902 G15227
— A people at school. 1906 G16750
Murray's Handbook for India, Burmah & Ceylon. '07 Ref. 3446
Nisbet, J. Burma under British rule and before. 2 v. G15413-14
Refer also to Manipur, Shan States.
Burn, R. S., Ed. Ornamental draughtsman and designer.
1892 7277
Burnaby, E. Ride from Land's End to John o' Groats.
1893 4661
Burnaby, Fred. Ride to Khiva. 1877 1761581
Burnand, Sir F. C. Happy thoughts. 1874 5609

[Pg 227]

In this the type of the body of the catalogue is the same in size as the previous example (11-point), the contents under subject-heading being in 8-point (brevier) take up less room. The catalogue contains 500 pages for 15,000 volumes.

Wilson (John) [Christopher North] Noctes ambrosianæ.
4 v.
See also De Quincey (T.) Works. v. 16
— Hall (S. C.) Book of memories. [1876]
Wilson (J. P.) Scriptural proofs. 1887
Wilson (R.) Steam boilers. 1879
Wilson (W.) Swimming instructor, il. 1883
Murray's Handbook for Wiltshire, etc. map. 1882
Worth (R. N.) Guide to Wiltshire, map. 1887
Willert (P. F.) Henry of Navarre and the
Huguenots in France. il. 1893
William I. Freeman (E. A.) William the Conqueror.
Planche (J. R.) The Conqueror and his companions.
2 v.
William II. Freeman (E. A.) Reign of William
Rufus. 2 v.
William III. Traill (H. D.) William III. 1888
William IV. Fitzgerald (P.) Life and times of
William IV. 2 v. 1884
Greville (C. C. F.) Journals. v. 2-3. 1888
Huish (R.) Life and reign of William IV. il.
William of Malmesbury. Chronicle of the kings of
England. [449-1142.] 1847
Williams (E. E.) "Made in Germany." 1896

There are other sizes of catalogues from a quarto to a duodecimo, so far as the size of the pages is concerned, but the above examples include all sizes of type that it is advisable to use; anything larger than 11-point (small pica) being too[Pg 228] large, and anything smaller than 6-point (nonpareil) is hardly readable. Brevier, or the nearest to it, 8-point, is a useful and economical size, as examination of the foregoing examples proves, and while it is comparatively small it must be remembered that catalogues are merely looked at and not read through in the ordinary meaning of the term.

The styles of types having been settled, it is customary to invite tenders for the work from printing firms selected because of their repute, experience, and ability to carry out such work. The possibility of securing a satisfactory or economical piece of work is very remote if it is open to all who choose to tender, even within a local area. The cheapest tender obtained in this way frequently proves the dearest in the end, to say nothing of the worry and vexation caused to the librarian by people undertaking work they have not the material or competence to execute properly. All firms must tender upon the same basis, and therefore it is essential that a specification be prepared for the purpose. The following is prepared for the style of printing first mentioned (page 220), though it can be easily altered in this and other respects to suit requirements. It is fairer to all concerned if a specimen page is set up embodying the cataloguer's intentions and all the styles of type it is proposed to use as nearly as possible in the right proportions, though this is not of first-rate importance if the various sizes to be used are separately priced and measured up for payment at the completion of the work. It must be remembered that though smaller type occupies less space it costs more to compose than the larger. It is also an[Pg 229] advantage to have some portion of the manuscript ("copy") ready in order that a printer tendering may examine it and judge of its nature if he so desires.

[Specification for Printing.]


Specification for Printing a Catalogue of the Public Library.

The Committee of the Public Library invite tenders for printing a catalogue of their Lending Library upon the following conditions:

Edition and Size.—The edition to consist of three thousand copies, royal octavo in size (not less than 9¼ by 6 when bound).

Note.—The number of the edition depends entirely upon local circumstances and probable sales. A library of 5,000 borrowers will take about seven years to sell 3,500 copies of a catalogue at 6d. per copy.

Paper.—To be at least 32lbs. royal to the ream, of good finish, white, uniform in tint throughout.

Type and Setting.—8-point Old-style, with occasional small capitals, italics, and Clarendon or antique, with 6-point for subjects,[1] notes, and contents, and the proper accented letters in foreign languages. To be set solid, two columns to the page, seventy lines 8-point to the column (apart from page-heading, which is to contain a title and catch-word syllables), each fifteen ems wide, with [Pg 230]double division rules between. Turnover lines to be indented one em, the repeat dash to be a one em rule, the class-letter and number to stand clear four ems, the 6-point indent to be two ems. Spaces between the end of the book-entry and the class-letter to be filled with leaders. The type must not be worn or broken, and must be free from wrong-founts. The "copy" must be closely followed for the punctuation and use of capitals.

[1] If the entries under subject-headings are to be in smaller type.

Machining.—The sheets to be well worked in perfect register, with good ink and uniform impression, afterwards rolling or pressing if needed.

Note.—Good printers do not now need to hot press or roll the sheets.

Time.—From the first receipt of copy, the work to be proceeded with at a rate of not less than two sheets of sixteen pages each per week until completed [or in default thereof the printer to pay a sum of two pounds per week as damages.]

Note.—A penalty clause is optional; much depends upon the printer, who may be very dilatory and use the work to fill up with when not otherwise busy.

Proofs.—Two copies of proof in galley and two copies of a revise in page to be furnished for reading and correction. The Librarian to have the right to demand a revise in galley and such revises in page as he shall deem necessary. No sheet to be sent to press until ordered by the endorsement of the Librarian thereon.

Additions and corrections.—The Librarian to have the right to insert additional matter in galley but not in page except as an author's correction. No extra charge to be allowed for author's corrections unless pointed out and priced at the time they are made.

[Pg 231]

Number of pages.[2]—The number of pages is estimated to be 250 more or less, but this is not guaranteed, and no allowance will be made for any miscalculation in this respect.

[2] An estimate made from the "copy" is liable to turn out wrong when the work is in type, the tendency being to overstate the number of pages, when the printer is within his rights, according to trade usages, in claiming for profit upon the full number of pages upon which his estimate is based; therefore it is wise to leave the matter open in this way.

Covers.—Three thousand covers to be printed upon coloured paper of an approved tint, not less than 34lbs. to the ream (royal). The front of this cover to be printed with the title of the catalogue.

Note.—If the catalogue is not to be bound in boards, but is to have paper covers only, the weight of the paper should be at least 70lbs.

Binding.—The whole edition is to be bound in good strawboards of suitable thickness, with cloth strip backs, and strongly sewn with thread, the covers being pasted on the front and back and the whole cut flush. Fourteen days will be allowed for binding after the last sheet has been returned for the press.

Delivery.—The catalogues when completed are to be securely tied up in brown paper parcels of fifty each and delivered to the Librarian at the Public Library.

Tender.—The tender is to state the price per page for 8-point and for 6-point type respectively, this price to be inclusive of all charges for press corrections, covers, binding, and delivery as aforesaid. When completed the work is to be measured[Pg 232] up, and charges will be allowed according to the quantity used of each of the above types. Payment will be made within three months afterwards.

Other conditions.—The work is to be executed to the entire satisfaction of the Librarian, and if he is dissatisfied with it in any respect he is authorised to stop the work and refer the matter to the Library Committee for their decision, which shall be final and binding.

Contract.—The Committee may require the firm whose tender is accepted to enter into a contract with the Borough Council to carry out the work in accordance with this specification and its conditions, and to give an undertaking that the rate of wages paid and hours of labour observed are those that are generally accepted as fair by the printing trades.

The Committee do not bind themselves to accept the lowest or any tender.

Specimens of the kind of work required can be inspected at the Librarian's office, where also the "copy" can be seen as far as ready.

Tenders, with samples of the papers proposed to be used, are to be sent in sealed envelopes, endorsed "Catalogue," to reach the undersigned not later than noon on the 5th day of November, 1913.


Public Library,
The Broadway,
20th October, 1913.

[Pg 233]

The preliminaries having been settled, the work of printing is put in hand by furnishing the printer with a supply of "copy," of say 100 sheets, duly marked for varieties of type and other details. In due course the printer will send two or three copies of proofs printed in single column on long strips of paper known as "galleys," with ample margins on which to mark the corrections. The corrections are not marked on the printed matter alone, but the nature of the correction required is also marked in the margin. An assistant, possessing some knowledge of the subject, should read out the "copy" slowly and distinctly to the cataloguer, at the same time directing attention to any peculiarities of spelling, punctuation, accented letters, and the like. It is a very difficult task to correct the proofs by reference to the "copy" without having it read aloud. Each galley having been once read through should have the shelf numbers called again, as mistakes in these cause most trouble. After this the cataloguer will be well advised to read the galleys through carefully once more, apart from the "copy," provided he can spare the time, and is not overwhelmed with proofs by the printer. He should also mark the places for the insertion of any additions, which are either written on the margins or, if large in number, made into a new sheet of "copy," with a separate numbering for each item, this numbering being used for marking the exact place where it is to be inserted.

When the corrections are many, as they often are in the early stages of the work before the compositor has got into the right way, it is advisable to have "a revise" in galley—that is, an additional[Pg 234] "pull" after the corrections are made. Should the corrections be comparatively few, the printer may safely be trusted to put them right, and a revise in page form will suffice. This revise in page needs careful reading for catch-letters and other page headings, and for the repetition of authors' names and subject-headings when they are divided at the tops of columns (or pages). This reading is done without the "copy," which, once being read, is not needed again, except for reference.

Most catalogues are now set up on the Linotype or Monotype machines, when it is as well to ascertain which of these machines is in use. By the Linotype a single addition of a word or correction of a letter involves the resetting of the whole line, possibly two, and the lines must be re-read. Corrections on the Monotype are made by single pieces in the ordinary way. It is essential in hand-setting to look out for wrong founts, that is pieces of another size or style of type which have been accidentally mixed up with that being used, and if printed will mar the appearance. Broken and worn letters also should be marked to be changed. Work on the type-setting machines is not so much subject to these faults, though they are possible. The method of correcting a proof and the signs used in the process are shown in Appendix A.

With the object of saving expense in the printing of new editions of catalogues, some librarians are trying the experiment of keeping the type standing and paying a small rental. The edition printed is then not so large as usual, and when a new edition is required the type is again used and the new additions inserted. An arrangement of this kind[Pg 235] requires that the original estimate shall include a price per page for reprints with additions and for re-imposition. This attempt at economy has not yet got beyond the experimental stage.

The storage of type until wanted for reprinting does not enter into consideration where the Monotype setting machine is used, the perforated paper rolls being easily filed away until required again; though this is rather the concern of the printer than of the librarian.

We may conclude with the following quotation taken from the preface of a library catalogue:—

"In the former catalogue it was said that 'It would seem to be impossible to produce a catalogue absolutely free from errors of compilation or the press, and some are already noted for correction when the next edition is called for.' This statement still holds good."

[Pg 236]

Specimen Page showing Marked Proof.

Loisy, Alfred. The gospel and thə̸ church. @
1903 B 1517
é| Loliée, Frdéric. A short istory of l.c.
compārative literature. 1906 H 2485 w.f.
Lollards, The, of the Chiltern Hills.
Summers, W. H. 1906 B 1652
s.c. Lollis, Cesare de. Vita di Cristoforo⏌
Colombo. 1895 I 5608
cap. Lombard street. BagehotW. 1892 C 401 ,/
Lombock. With the Dutch in i̸n̸ the East.
Cool, W. 1897 I 3978
Loménie, Louis de. Beaumarchais and
his times. 4 v 1856 I 5563-66
Lommel, E. The nature of light. (Int. ital.
scien. ser.) 1885 E 108
trs. London, Jack. The call|the͜|of͡|wild K 2155
┣┫   A daughter of the ṣṇọẉṣ K 5590 stet
— The people of the abyss. 1903 C 1441
X The livs ofpoor in London. the/
History and Descriptin. o/
l.c. Allbut, R. London ambles with Chales r/
Dickens, n.d. |I| 4157
Apperson, G. L. By⁐gone London life. 1903 |I| 4732
Arundell, T. Historical reminiscences of the
City and its livery companies. 1869 I 1404
boroughs See also the names of parishes as Chelsea, Kensing -/
ton, of buildings as the Tower, Westminster
Abbey, e̸t̸c.; and of places as Charing Cross, &/rom.
# Hyde|Park, Ludgate Hill. &c.
Social, &c. life.
"Dogberry(Ed). Humours and oddities of the "/
London police courts. 1894 C 883
Wynter, A. Curiosities of civilization, n.d. H 2172
Long, A. L. Memoirs of (̸General] [/
︶̍ Robert E.:Lee. 1886 I 2259
Long exile, The. Tolsto, Count J 1875 ï/

[Pg 237]

Explanations of Markings used in Proof Correcting.

s.c. Small capitals.
cap. Capital.
Full stop to be inserted.
trs. Transpose.
┣┫ Insert a dash.
X Broken or worn letter.
═══ Alignment to be straightened.
l.c. Change capital to lower case (i.e. small letter).
# Space to be inserted.
Indent (one em).
︶̍ Push down space showing.
@ A turned letter.
w.f. Wrong fount (the letter is of the wrong type).
Space out to gauge.
,/ Insert a comma.
Delete; remove letters or words.
ital. Italic to be used.
stet Word not to be altered.
Straighten perpendicularly.
Join letters to make one word.
-/ A hyphen to be inserted.
rom. Change from italic to roman.
"/ Insert quotation mark.
[ Substitute a bracket.
N.P. Commence new paragraph.

[Pg 238]

Specimen Page Corrected.

Loisy, Alfred. The gospel and the church.
1903 B 1517
Loliée, Frédéric. A short history of
comparative literature. 1906 H 2485
Lollards, The, of the Chiltern Hills.
Summers, W. H. 1906 B 1652
Lollis, Cesare de. Vita di Cristoforo
Colombo. 1895 I 5608
Lombard Street. Bagehot, W. 1892 C  401
Lombock. With the Dutch in the East.
Cool, W. 1897 I 3978
Loménie, Louis de. Beaumarchais and
his times. 4 v. 1856 I 5563-66
Lommel, E. The nature of light. (Int.
scien. ser.) 1885 E 108
London, Jack. The call of the wild K 2155
— A daughter of the snows K 5590
— The people of the abyss. 1903 C 1441
The lives of the poor in London.

History and Description.
Allbut, R. London rambles with Charles
Dickens, n.d. I 4157
Apperson, G. L. Bygone London life. 1903 I 4732
Arundell, T. Historical reminiscences of the
City and its livery companies. 1869 I 1404
See also the names of boroughs as Chelsea, Kensington,
of buildings as the Tower, Westminster
Abbey, &c., and of places as Charing Cross,
Hyde Park, Ludgate Hill, &c.
Social, &c. life.
"Dogberry" (Ed.). Humours and oddities of the
London police courts. 1894 C  883
Wynter, A. Curiosities of civilization, n.d. H 2172
Long, A. L. Memoirs of [General]
Robert E. Lee. 1886 I 2259
Long exile, The. Tolstoï, Count J 1875

[Pg 239]


The following are some of the words most frequently used in connection with books and in cataloguing, with suitable abbreviations. All abbreviations must be used guardedly and with discretion, so that they cannot be confused with other words, and are self-explanatory with the context. For a full list see a useful book, "Author and Printer," by F. Howard Collins (Frowde).

About (circa) c. (with a date following)
Account acct.
Advertisements advts.
Ancient anc.
Anonym, Anonymous anon.
Archbishop Archbp., Abp.
Atlas atl.
Ausgabe Ausg.
Band (German for volume) Bd.
Bibliography, Bibliographical bibliog.
Biography, biographical biog.
Bishop Bp.
Book, Books bk., bks.
Born b.
Calf (in binding) cf.
Cardinal Card.
Century cent.
Chapter, Chapters chap., chaps.
Cloth cl.
Colonel Col.
Coloured col.
Company co.
Compiled, Compiler comp.
Complete compl.
Continued contd.
County co.
Crown (in book sizes) cr.
Demy dy.
Dictionary dict.
Died d.
Duodecimo 12o, 12mo., duo.
East E.
Economy econ.[Pg 240]
Edited, Editor, Edition ed.
Editors, Editions eds.
England, English Eng.
Enlarged enl.
Explanation, Explanatory explan.
Facsimile facs.
Folio fo
Folios ff.
Frontispiece frontis. or front.
Gilt edges g.e.
Great Britain Gt. Brit.
Half (in binding) hf. (as hf. cf.)
Handbook hdbk.
Herausgegeben hrsg. or herausg.
Historical, History hist.
Illustrator, Illustrated, Illustrations illus.
Imperial (in book sizes) imp.
Including, Inclusive incl.
International internat.
Introduction, Introductory intro.
Large la.
Large paper l.p.
Leaves ll.
Lectures lecs.
Library lib.
Literary, Literature lit.
Manuscript MS.
Manuscripts MSS.
Modern mod.
Morocco (in binding) mor.
New edition n.e. or new ed.
New series n.s. or new ser.
New Testament N.T.
No date n.d., N.D., or s.a. (sine anno)
No place (of publication)
No date or place s.a. et l.
No title-page n.t.-p.
North N.
Number, Numbers no., nos.
Oblong obl.
Octavo 8o, 8vo, O.
Old Testament O.T.
Original orig.
Out of print o.p.
Pages pp.
Pamphlet, Pamphlets pamph. or phlt., phlts.
Parliamentary parly. (as parly. paper)
Part, Parts pt., pts.
Plate, Plates pl., pls.
Portrait, Portraits port., ports.
Preface, prefatory pref.[Pg 241]
Preliminary prelim.
Printed, Printer pr.
Privately printed priv. pr.
Proceedings proc.
Professor Prof.
Pseudonym, Pseudonymous pseud. or ps.
Published pubd.
Quarto 4o, 4to, Q.
Re-edited re-ed.
Reference ref.
Reprint, Reprinted repr.
Reproduction, Reproduced reprod.
Reverend Rev.
Revised rev.
Royal (in book sizes) roy.
Saint St.
Sequel seq.
Series ser.
Sextodecimo 16o, 16mo.
Small (in book sizes) sm.
Society soc. (names of Societies as Royal Soc.)
South S.
Super (in book sizes) sup.
Supplement suppl.
Thus (sic) inserted to mark mistakes or peculiarities.
Title-page wanting t.-p.w.
Traduit, Tradotto trad.
Translator, Translated transl. or tr.
United Kingdom U.K.
United States U.S.A.
University Univ.
Various dates v.d.
Vocabulary vocab.
Volume, Volumes v. or vol.
Von, Van v.
With w. as w. col. illus. (with coloured illustrations).

Places of publication (specimen abbreviations):—
Birmingham B'ham.
Cambridge Camb.
Dublin Dub.
Edinburgh Edin.
Glasgow Glasg.
Liverpool L'pool.
Manchester M'chester.
New York N.Y.
Oxford Oxf.
Philadelphia Philad.
[Pg 242]

A short list of pseudonyms with the real names, including women authors whose names are changed by marriage:—

Pseudonym. Real Name.
A.L.O.E. Charlotte M. Tucker
Acheta Domestica L. M. Budgen
Ackworth, John F. R. Smith
Adams, Mrs. Leith Mrs. R. S. de Courcy Laffan
Adeler, Max Charles H. Clark
Agnus, Orme John C. Higginbotham
Aimard, Gustave Olivier Gloux
Ainslie, Noel Edith Lister
Alexander, Mrs. Annie F. Hector
Alien Mrs. L. A. Baker
Allen, F. M. Edmund Downey
Amateur Angler, The Edward Marston
Amyand, Arthur Andrew Haggard
Andom, R. Alfred W. Barrett
Angell, Norman R. Norman A. Lane
Annunzio, Gabriele d' Gaetano Rapagnetto
Anstey, F. Thos. Anstey Guthrie
Argles, Mrs. Mrs. Hungerford
Aubrey, Frank Francis H. Atkinson
Audley, John Mrs. E. M. Davy
Aunt Judy Mrs. Margaret Gatty
Aunt Naomi Gertrude A. Landa
Ayscough, John F. D. Bickerstaffe Drew
B., A. K. H. A. K. H. Boyd
B., E. V. Eleanor V. Boyle
Barker, Lady Lady Broome
Basil Richard Ashe King
Bede, Cuthbert Edward Bradley
Belgian Hare, The Lord Alfred Douglas
Bell, Nancy Mrs. Arthur Bell
Belloc, Marie A. Mrs. Belloc Lowndes
Bentzon, Th. Thérèse Blanc
Bickerdyke, John C. H. Cook
Billings, Josh Henry W. Shaw
Bird, Isabella L. Mrs. I. L. Bishop
Birmingham, George A. James O. Hannay
Blackburne, E. Owens Elizabeth Casey
Boldrewood, Rolf Thos. A. Browne
Bovet, M. A. de Marquise de Bois Hébert
Bowen, Marjorie Gabrielle V. M. Campbell[Pg 243]
Brada Comtesse Puliga
Braddon, M. E. Mrs. Maxwell
Breitmann, Hans Charles G. Leland
Brenda Mrs. Castle Smith
Buckley, Arabella B. Mrs. Fisher
Burnett, Frances Hodgson Mrs. H. Townesend
Caballero, Fernan Cecilia Boehl de Faber
Cambridge, Ada Mrs. G. F. Cross
Carmen, Sylva Elisabeth, Queen of Roumania
Carroll, Lewis Charles L. Dodgson
Cassidy, James Mrs. E. M. Story
Cavendish Henry Jones
Cellarius Thos. W. Fowle
Champfleury Jules F. F. Husson-Fleury
Chester, Norley Emily Underdown
Christian, Sydney M. L. Lord
Clare, Austin W. M. James
Cleeve, Lucas Mrs. H. Kingscote
Cobbleigh, Tom Walker Raymond
Collingwood, Harry Wm. J. C. Lancaster
Colmore, George Mrs. Baillie Weaver
Connor, Marie Marie C. Leighton
Connor, Ralph Charles W. Gordon
Conrad, Joseph Joseph C. Korzeniowski
Conway, Derwent Henry D. Inglis
Conway, Hugh F. J. Fargus
Conway, James Jas. Conway Walter
Coo-ee Wm. S. Walker
Coolidge, Susan Sarah C. Woolsey
Cooper, Rev. Wm. M. James G. Bertram
Corthis, André Mdlle. Husson
Craddock, C. E. Mary N. Murfree
Crawley, Captain G. F. Pardon
Cromarty, Deas Mrs. R. A. Watson
Coulevain, Pierre de Mdlle. F. de Coulevain
Counties, Home J. W. K. Scott
Dale, Darley Francesca M. Steele
Dall, Guillaume Madame Jules Lebaudy
Danby, Frank Julia Frankau
D'Anvers, N. Mrs. Arthur Bell
Dean, Mrs. Andrew Mrs. Alfred Sidgwick
Dehan, Richard Clotilde Graves
Donovan, Dick J. E. Preston Muddock
Douglas, George Geo. D. Brown
Douglas, O. Miss Buchan
Douglas, Theo Mrs. H. D. Everett
Dowie, Ménie M. Mrs. E. A. Fitzgerald
Duncan, Sara J. Mrs. Everard Cotes
Ecilaw, Ary Comtesse Czapska
Egerton, George Mrs. R. Golding Bright
Eha Edward H. Aitken[Pg 244]
Eliot, George Mary Anne Evans (afterwards Mrs. Cross)
Elbon, Barbara Leonora B. Halsted
Elizabeth, Charlotte Charlotte E. Tonna
Ellis, Luke J. Page Hopps
Fairless, Michael Margaret Fairless Barber
Falconer, Lanoe Mary E. Hawker
Fane, Violet Lady Philip Currie
Farningham, Marianne Mary A. Hearne
Ferval, Claude Baronne de Pierrebourg
Field, Michael Misses Bradley and Cooper
Fin Bec W. B. Jerrold
Fleming, George Julia C. Fletcher
Flynt, Josiah Frank Willard
Foreman Pattern-Maker, A J. G. Horner
Forester, George George Greenwood
Fowler, Edith A. Mrs. R. Hamilton
Fowler, Ellen Thornycroft Mrs. A. L. Felkin
France, Anatole Anatole François Thibault
Francis, M. E. Mrs. M. Blundell
Francis, R. E. Frances Poynter
Free Lance, A. F. H. Perrycoste
Freer, Martha W. Mrs. M. W. Robinson
Frost, George Mrs. S. Eddison
G. G. — Harper
Garrett, Edward Isabella F. Mayo
Gaunt, Mary Mrs. Lindsay Miller
Gerard, Dorothea Mdme. Longard de Longgarde
Gerard, Emily Mdme. de Laszowska
Gerard, Morice J. Jessop Teague
Gerrare, Wirt W. O. Greener
Gift, Theo. Dorothy H. Boulger
Grand, Sarah Mrs. M'Fall
Gray, Maxwell M. G. Tuttiett
Green, Anna K. Mrs. C. Rohlfs
Grey, Rowland Lilian R. Brown
Grier, Sydney C. Hilda Gregg
Gréville, Henry Alice M. C. Durand
Grove, Lilly Mrs. J. G. Frazer
Gubbins, Nathaniel Edward Spencer
Gyp Comtesse de Martel de Janville
Haliburton, Hugh J. L. Robertson
Hall, Eliza Calvert Lina C. Obenchain
Hamel, Frank Miss F. Hamel
Hamst, Olphar Ralph Thomas
Hay, Ian J. A. Beith
Hay, Marie Baroness von Hindenburg
Hare, Christopher Mrs. Andrews
Hayes, Henry Mrs. E. O. Kirk
Heddle, Ethel F. Mrs. W. Marshall
Hegan, Alice C. Mrs. A. C. Rice[Pg 245]
Henry, O. Sydney Porter
Hertz-Garten, Theodor Mrs. de Mattos
Hickson, Mrs. Murray Mrs. S. Kitcat
Hieover, Harry Charles Bindley
Hill, Headon F. Grainger
Hilliers, Ashton H. M. Wallis
Hobbes, John Oliver Mrs. Pearl M. T. Craigie
Hoffmann, Professor A. J. Lewis
Holcombe, Arnold Arnold Golsworthy
Holdsworth, Annie Mrs. E. Lee Hamilton
Holland, Clive C. J. Hankinson
Hope, Andrée Mrs. Harvey
Hope, Anthony Anthony H. Hawkins
Hope, Ascott R. Robt. H. Moncreiff
Hope, Graham Jessie Hope
Hope, Laurence Violet Nicholson
Hopper, Nora Mrs. Chesson
Houville, Gérard d' Mde. H. de Regnier
Howard, Keble Keble Bell
Hume, Martin A. S. Martin A. Sharp
Ingoldsby, Thomas Richard H. Barham
Intelligence Officer Lionel James
Iota Kathleen Caffyn
Iron, Ralph Mrs. O. Cronwright-Schreiner
Ironside, John E. M. Tait
Jacberns, Raymond Georgina M. I. Ash
Jacomb, A. E. A. E. Jacomb Hood
James, Croake James Paterson
Janus Johann J. I. von Döllinger
Joubert, Carl Adolphus W. C. Grottey
K., O. Mdme. Olga Novikoff (née Kireff)
Keith, Leslie Mrs. G. L. Keith Johnston
King, K. Douglas Mrs. Godfrey Burr
Kipling, Alice Mrs. Fleming
L., L. E. Letitia E. MacLean (née Landon)
La Pasture, Mrs. H. de Lady Hugh Clifford
Laffan, May Mrs. W. N. Hartley
Larwood, Jacob L. R. Sadler
Laurence, A. St. Alfred L. Felkin
Law, John Miss M. E. Harkness
Layland, F. Mrs. Francis Barratt
Leander, Richard R. Volkmann
Lee, Holme Harriet Parr
Lee, Vernon Violet Paget
Legrand, Martin James Rice
Lennox Lennox Pierson
Lenotre, G. Théodore Gosselin
Lesueur, Daniel Jeanne Loiseau
Lévi, Eliphas Alphonse L. Constant[Pg 246]
Lindsay, Harry H. Lindsay Hudson
London, John o' Wilfred Whitten
Loti, Pierre Louis M. J. Viaud
Lucka, Sydney Henry Harland
Lyall, Edna Ada E. Bayly
Lys, Christian Percy J. Brebner
Maartens, Maarten J. M. W. van der Poorten Schwartz
McAulay, Allan Charlotte Stewart
Maclaren, Ian John M. Watson
Macleod, Fiona William Sharp
Main, Mrs. Mrs. Aubrey Le Blond
Malet, Lucas Mrs. M. St. L. Harrison (née Kingsley)
Mansergh, Jessie Mrs. G. de H. Vaizey
Marchant, Bessie Mrs. J. A. Comfort
Markham, Mrs. Mrs. Eliz. Penrose
Marlitt, E. Henriette F. C. E. John
Marlowe, Charles Harriet Jay
Marryat, Florence Mrs. F. Lean
Marvell, Ik. Donald G. Mitchell
Mathers, Helen Mrs. H. Reeve
Meade, L. T. Mrs. Toulmin Smith
Melville, Lewis Lewis S. Benjamin
Meredith, Isabel Olivia F. M. Rossetti
Meredith, Owen Earl Lytton
Merriman, Henry Seton H. S. Scott
Miles, Amber Mrs. Cobden Sickert
Miles, Walker E. S. Taylor
Miller, Joaquin C. H. Miller
Mimosa Mrs. M. Chan Toon
Montbard, G. Charles A. Loyes
Montgomery, K. L. Kathleen and Letitia Montgomery
Morris, May Mrs. Sparling
Mulholland, Rosa Lady Gilbert
Nesbit, E. Edith Bland (Mrs. Hubert Bland)
Nimrod C. J. Apperley
Nordau, Max M. S. Südfeld
North, Christopher Prof. John Wilson
North, Laurence J. D. Symon
North, Pleydell Mrs. Egerton Eastwick
Novalis Friedrich von Hardenburg
Nye, Bill E. W. Nye
Old Boomerang J. R. Houlding
Oldcastle, John Wilfred Meynell
Oliver, Pen Sir Henry Thompson
Optic, Oliver Wm. T. Adams
Orczy, Baroness Mrs. Montagu Barstow
O'Rell, Max Paul Blouët[Pg 247]
Otis, James J. O. Kaler
Ouida Louise de la Ramée
Owen, J. A. Mrs. Owen Visger
Oxenham, John W. A. Dunkerley
Page, H. A. Alex H. Japp
Palmer, Wm. Scott Mrs. M. E. Dowson
Pansy Isabella M. Alden
Parallax Samuel B. Robotham
Parley, Peter Wm. Martin
Paston, George Miss E. M. Symonds
Pattison, Mrs. Mark Lady E. F. S. Dilke
Paull, M. A. Mrs. John Ripley
Percy, Sholto and Reuben Joseph C. Robertson and Thomas Byerley
Phelps, Eliz. S. Mrs. H. D. Ward
Pilgrim Mrs. W. P. Browne
Plain Woman, A. Miss Ingham
Prescott, E. Livingston Edith K. Spicer-Jay
Prevost, Francis H. F. P. Battersby
Pritchard, Martin J. Justina Moore
Prout, Father F. Mahony
Q. Sir A. T. Quiller Couch
Raimond, C. E. Elisabeth Robins
Raine, Allen Mrs. P. Puddicombe
Rapier A. E. T. Watson
Rayner, Olive Pratt Grant Allen
Reed, Myrtle Mrs. McCullough
Rhoscomyl, Owen Owen Vaughan
Ridley, Mrs. Edward Lady Alice Ridley
Rita Mrs. W. Desmond Humphreys
Rives, Amélie Princess Troubetzky
Robert ("A City Waiter") John T. Bedford
Robins, G. M. Mrs. L. Baillie Reynolds
Robinson, A. Mary F. Mde. A. M. F. Darmesteter
Rogers, Halliday Miss Reid
Rosny, J. H. Les frères Boex
Ross, Adrian Arthur R. Ropes
Ross, Martin Violet Martin
Roy, Gordon Helen Wallace
Rutherford, Mark W. Hale White
Ruthven, E. C. Miss Coleman
Ryce, John Alice M. Browne
St. Aubyn, Alan Frances Marshall
Saint-Patrice James H. Hickey
Saintine, X. B. de Joseph N. Boniface
Saki H. H. Munro
Sand, George A. L. Dudevant
Scalpel, Æsculapius Edward Berdoe
Scott, Leader Lucy E. Baxter
Seafield, Frank Alex. H. Grant
Sedgwick, Anne D. Mrs. B. de Sélincourt[Pg 248]
Séguin, L. G. L. G. Strahan
Serao, Matilde Mde. E. Scarfoglio
Setoun, Gabriel Thos. N. Hepburn
Sharp, Luke Robert Barr
Shaw, Flora L. Lady Lugard
Shirley Sir John Skelton
Sigerson, Dora Mrs. Clement Shorter
Sinjohn, John John Galsworthy
Sketchley, Arthur Geo. Rose
Slick, Sam T. C. Haliburton
Son of the Marshes, A Denham Jordan
Son of the Soil, A J. S. Fletcher
Spinner, Alice Mrs. A. Z. Fraser
Stendhal, M. de Marie Henri Beyle
Stepniak, S. S. M. Kravchinsky
Stonehenge John H. Walsh
Strathesk, John John Tod
Stretton, Hesba Hannah Smith
Stuart, Esmé Miss Leroy
Swan, Annie S. Mrs. Burnett Smith
Swift, Benjamin Wm. R. Paterson
Tallentyre, S. G. Beatrice Hall
Tasma Madame J. Couvreur
Thackeray, Anne I. Lady A. I. Ritchie
Thanet, Octave Alice French
Thirlmere, Rowland John Walker
Thomas, Annie Mrs. Pender Cudlip
Thorne, Guy C. Ranger Gull
Thorne, Whyte Richard Whiteing
Tomson, Graham R. Rosamund M. Watson
Travers, Graham Margt. G. Todd
Turner, Ethel Mrs. H. R. Curlewis
Turner, Lilian Mrs. F. L. Thompson
Twain, Mark Samuel L. Clemens
Tynan, Katharine Mrs. H. A. Hinkson
Tytler, Sarah Henrietta Keddie
Uncle Remus Joel C. Harris
Vados Agnes Farley
Vernon, K. Dorothea K. D. Ewart
Vivaria, Kassandra Mrs. M. Heinemann
Wakeman, Annie Mrs. Annie Lathrop
Walker, Patricius Wm. Allingham
Wallis, A. S. C. Miss Opzoomer
Wanderer E. H. d'Avigdor
Warborough, Martin L. Grant Allen
Ward, Artemus Chas. F. Browne
Warden, Florence Mrs. Florence James
Wardle, Jane Oliver M. Hueffer
Waters Wm. Russell
Weale, B. L. Putnam Bertram L. Simpson
Webb, Mrs. Mrs. Webb Peploe[Pg 249]
Wells, Charles J. H. L. Howard
Wentworth, Patricia Mrs. G. F. Dillon
Werner, E. Elisabeth Bürstenbinder
Weston, James Edward Step
Wetherell, Eliz. Susan Warner
Wharton, Grace and Philip John C. and Katharine Thomson
Whitby, Beatrice Mrs. Philip Hicks
Wiggin, Kate D. Mrs. J. C. Rigg
Wilcox, E. G. Mrs. Egerton Allen
Wilkins, Louisa Louisa Jebb
Wilkins, Mary E. Mrs. M. E. Freeman
Williams, F. Harold F. W. O. Warde
Winchester, M. E. M. E. Whatham
Winter, John Strange Mrs. H. E. V. Stannard
Woodroffe, Daniel Mrs. J. C. Woods
Worboise, Emma J. Mrs. E. Guyton
York, Curtis Mrs. S. Richmond Lee
Z. Z. Louis Zangwill
Zack. Gwendoline Keats
[Pg 250]


Abbreviations, 68, 82, 84, 87;
list of, 239-241

Academical degrees, 49, 63

Academies, 97

Acts of Parliament, 103

Additions to entries not on title-pages, 53

Alignment of title-pages marking, 132

Alphabetical order. See Order of arrangement.

Alphabetico-classed catalogues, 13;
questions answered by, 22;
its defects, 27;
defined, 31

America, Library cataloguing in, 8

American Library Association Rules, 14

Annotated editions, 193

Annotations, qualifications of authors, 49;
explanatory of foreign book titles, 85;
to works of fiction, 204;
to mark sequels, 207;
in quarterly, &c., guides, 209;
advantage of classified catalogue for, 209;
dictionary catalogues, 209;
general considerations, 209-211;
examples, 211-212;
bibliographical, 213

Annuals, 197

Anonymous books, 175;
to discover author's name, 175;
method of entry, 176;
if author revealed, 177;
heading of "Anon," 178;
"By the author of —", 179;
initials, 180-184

Arabic figures, 40

Articles, The, in titles of books, 65, 123, 124;
omission of, in title-entries, 123, 173, 178;
in French title-entries, 126

Artists considered jointly with authors, 80;
names, 146

Associations, 107

Author catalogues, Questions answered by, 22;
defined, 29

Author-entry, 33;
turning about of authors' names, 49, 50;
authors with similar names, 63;
books by and on, 74, 75, 120;
authors of anonymous books, 177, 178.
See also Names, Personal. Joint-authors.

Barrett, Mr. F. T., 27

Bengali names, 154

Bible, The, 185-187;
commentaries, 187-191;
classified catalogue, 191

Bibliographical details, 39

Biographical dictionaries, 37-38

Biographical works in  the classified catalogue, 121

Birmingham Public Library, 12

Bishops, 62

Bishopsgate Institute catalogues, 209

"Book," Meaning of, 41

Books with changed titles, 208

Boston Athenæum Library catalogue, 14

Boston Public Library, 10

Brackets, Use of, 53, 177, 182

British Museum catalogue, 3;
British Museum rules, 7;
Royal Commission of 1850, 7;
Catalogue of Printed Books, 17;
Fortescue's Subject-index, 27-29;
order of information in entries tabulated, 42;
rule for social titles, 64;
method of cataloguing publications of societies, 97;
and Oriental names, 153

Brown, Mr. James D., on classifications, 17

[Pg 251]"By the author of —," 179-180

Canonized persons, 140-141

Capital letters, Use of, 64-66, 120;
for emphasis in titles, 170

Card catalogues, 33

Carlyle, Thomas, on catalogues, 4

Cataloguer, The qualifications of a, 3

Catalogues, Kinds of, 3;
the need for, 4;
value of, not according to size, 4;
of new libraries, 5;
necessity for good catalogues, 5;
cannot be haphazard, 6;
the needs of those for whom prepared, 19;
form to be fixed, 19;
difficulty of changing, 19;
to suit the public catered for, 20;
information catalogues should give, 21;
dictionary v. classified, 23;
various forms defined, 29-31;
details in catalogue entries, 39;
order of details tabulated, 41-43;
condensed entries, 43;
omissions in sub-entries, 44;
cost of printing, 219.
See also Alphabetico-classed. Classified. Dictionary.

Cataloguing, Mistaken ideas about, 1;
Prof. Fiske on, 2;
difficulties of, 2;
over-cataloguing, 5;
history of modern, 7 et seq.;
troublesome and expensive, 25;
stationery required, 32

Cataloguing rules, 6;
the study of, 32;
need for, 6, 9, 32;
Panizzi's British Museum rules, 8-9;
Jewett's rules, 10;
Crestadoro's plan, 10;
index-form, 11;
Cutter's rules, 14;
Joint-code of L.A. and A.L.A., 14;
Dziatzko's Instruction, 15;
Linderfelt's Eclectic rules, 15;
some simple, direct rules, 214-216

Changed names, 37, 111, 112

Chelsea Public Library, 157

Chinese names, 157

Christian or forenames, 35, 36;
confusion arising from same initials, 46;
to be kept in the vernacular, 76;
persons entered by, 132-147;
of monarchs, 135;
of women authors, 173;
contractions, 194

Civil distinctions, 64

Class lists defined, 30

Classical authors, 128-130

Classics, Title-entries for, 200

Classification, Dewey's Decimal, 16;
Brown's Adjustable, 17;
Cutter's Expansive, 17

Classified catalogues, Dewey classification and, 16;
questions answered by, 22;
Cutter on its advantages, 23;
and disadvantages, 24;
its cost, 25;
indexes to, 25;
early catalogues, 25;
and "open access," 25;
defined, 30;
marking the entry, 45;
curtailed entry, 46;
index entries, 46 et seq.;
"contents" in index entries, 72;
society publications, 100;
biographies, 121;
works of fiction, 125;
monarchs, 133, 136;
popes, 137;
annotations in, 209

Collations, 39, 40;
explanations of, 50, 118;
omitted as an economy, 123

Collected works, Cataloguing of, 76

Collier, J. Payne, 8

Colophon, 39

"Colour" books, 80

Commentaries, 193

Compilers, 194

Composers, Music, 89

Composite books, 58, 62

Compound personal names, 110-117, 127

Compound place-names, 105

Concordances, 194

Condensation of entries, 44, 45, 123, 158

[Pg 252]Congresses and conferences, 108

Contents of miscellaneous works, Setting-out of, 72, 75;
of music, 92

Co-operative cataloguing, 9

Corporate publications, 71

Correspondence, Writers in, 53

Cost of catalogues, 25, 219

County antiquarian societies, 98

Courtesy titles, 149

Crestadoro, A., 10

Cutter, C. A., Rules for a dictionary catalogue, 14;
order of information in entries, 42;
on the advantages and disadvantages of the classified catalogue, 23-24;
and of the dictionary catalogue, 25-27

Dashes, Repetition, 170

Dates of author's birth and death, 36;
dates of reigns, 136

Dates of publication, 39, 40, 44;
added, 68;
to music, 94;
to works of fiction, 123

"De," "de la," "du" in British names, 122;
in French names, 125-127

Definitions of styles of catalogues, 29

Dewey's, Mr. M., Decimal classification, 16;
applied, 45 et seq.

Dictionary catalogue, Early forms, 11-13;
questions it will answer, 22;
advantages and disadvantages, 25-27;
systematic, 29;
defined, 30;
annotations, 209

Directories, 197-198

Distinctions, Social, 64

Double entry for subjects, 151

Doubleday, Mr. W. E., 27, 209

Dramatic works, 214

Dziatzko, Prof., 15

Ecclesiastical titles, 62, 64

Economies in entries, 53, 59, 75, 77, 81, 123, 139

Editions, Collections of, 77

Editors' references, 54, 193;
essays under editor's name, 67

Edwards, Edward, 8

"Entry-reference," 107

Essays, Volumes of, by various authors, 66 et seq.;
by one author, 78;
form-entry, 214

Exhibitions, Publications of, 107

Family names of noblemen, 148-150

Fiction, Works of, Title-entries, 115;
in the classified catalogue, 117, 125;
in the dictionary catalogue, 115, 125;
dates of publication, 123;
fact in, 203;
in guise of serious literature, 203;
subject-entries for, 204-206;
cataloguing of, 206;
in series, 206-208;
with familiar titles, 208

Figures (numerals) in dates, 40;
in titles of books, 56, 87;
in titles of monarchs, 135

First-name entries, 132-147

First-word entry for anonymous books, 176, 177

Fiske, Prof. John, on cataloguing, 1

Foreign names, varieties of, 110

Foreign terms for subject-headings, 203

Form headings, 74, 213;
fiction, 115

Fortescue's, G. K., Subject Index to the British Museum Catalogue, 27-29

French fiction in series, 206

French names, compound, 114, 127;
with prefixes, 125

Friars, 141

Garden books, 183

Geographical headings, 105

Goss, Mr. C. W. F., 209

Government publications, 101-107

[Pg 253]Greek and Latin authors, 128-130

Handwriting, 33

"Heading," 44. See also Subject-headings.

Hebrew names, 159

History in fiction, 203

Honours lists, 64

Hyphens in compound names, 112

Illustrated books, 80

Illustrations (in collations), 39, 118

Impartiality, 209-210

Imprint, 39

Index-entry catalogues, 11, 35

Index entries to classified catalogue, 46 et seq.

Indexing contents of miscellaneous volumes, 71-79;
of music, 92-93;
co-operative indexes, 95

Indian names, 153

Initials of authors' names, Confusion arising from, demonstrated, 46;
covering name of author (anonymous books), 180-185;
covering titles or degrees, 183;
covering a pseudonym, 184

Institutions, Publications of, 107

Japanese names, 156, 159

Jewett, Prof. Charles C., 9

Jewish rabbis, 159

Joint-authors, Method of treatment, 48 et seq.;
writers in correspondence, 53;
husband and wife, 55, 172;
three and more, 58;
authors and illustrators, 80

Joint-code (L.A. and A.L.A.), 15;
order of information tabulated, 42;
and noblemen, 148;
and pseudonyms, 161

Jones, John Winter, 8

Koran, The, 192

Legal publications, 103

Library Association rules, 14;
and A.L.A. rules (Joint-code), 15;
order of information in entries, 42;
and noblemen, 148;
and pseudonyms, 161

Library useless without good catalogue, 4

Libretti, Writers of, 90

Linderfelt's Eclectic Card Catalog Rules, 15;
and Oriental titles, 156

Linotype, Printing by, 219, 234

Liverpool Public Library, 12

Local Government publications, 105

London as place of publication, 39

London Library catalogues, 18;
contractions, 51;
names of queens, 136;
Oriental names, 155;
women's names, 174;
for anonymous books, 175

Magazines, 195

Main entry. See Principal entry.

Manchester Public Libraries, 11, 120

Maori names, 160

Married women. See Women.

Mediæval writers, 142, 147

Military, &c., distinctions, 64

Minto, Mr. John, 15

Monarchs, 132

Monotype, Printing by, 219, 234, 235

Mottoes of title-pages, 38

Mullins, J. D., 12

Music, Translation of title-pages, 88;
the cataloguing of, 89-94

Names, Personal, Surnames, 34;
full names, 35, 36, 119;
initials, 35;
varieties used by a single writer, 36;
works of reference for full names, 37;
in sub-entries, 44, 45;
confusion owing to use of initials alone, 46;
to be kept in the vernacular, 76, 111;
[Pg 254]English compound names, 110-114;
foreign compound names, 114-116, 127;
changed names, 37, 111, 112;
names with prefixes, 117-128;
monarchs and princes, 132-136;
popes, 137;
saints, 140;
friars, 141;
mediæval writers, 142, 147;
artists, 146;
noblemen, 148;
Orientals, 153;
pseudonyms, 161;
married women, 171;
husband and wife, 172.
See also Christian names.

Newspapers, 195

Noblemen, 148-151

Notes, Descriptive, in catalogues. See Annotations.

Novels. See Fiction.

Numbers, Transcription of, 40, 56, 87, 135

Official publications, 101 et seq.

Omissions indicated, 38

"Open access" system, 17;
classified catalogues and, 25

Order of arrangement of entries, official publications, 104;
works in original and translations, 117;
names with prefixes, 118, 119, 122;
books by and on, 74, 120;
the articles in, 124;
of monarchs, 135;
apostles, saints, &c., 146;
joint-authors, 172;
initials for authors' names, 182, 184;
Bible, 185-186;
fiction in series, 206-207

Order of information in entries tabulated, 41-43

Oriental names, 16, 153-159

Pages, Number of, &c. ("collation"), 39, 40

Panizzi, Sir Anthony, 8

Parentheses, Names in, 34

Parliament, Acts of, 103

Parsee names, 154

Peerage, 63, 64

Periodicals, 195; indexes to, 95

Places of publication, 39, 40;
abbreviations, 51

Places with compound names, 105

Poetical works, 74, 214

Popes, 137

Popular terms for subject-headings, 202

Potentates, 132

Prefaces, Writers of, 116

Prefixes, Names with, 117-128

Principal entry, 33 et seq.

Printer's name (imprint), 39

Printing of catalogues:
preparation of the manuscript, 217;
marking for type, 218;
"get-up" and cost, 25, 218-20;
illustrative examples of styles of type, 220-227;
table of types, 223;
tenders, 228;
specification, 229-232;
reading of proofs, 233-234;
type "kept standing," 234;
markings in proof correcting illustrated, 236-238

Professorships, 49

Pseudonyms v. real names, 161;
method of distinguishing pseudonyms, 162;
references, 163;
both names, 163-165;
obvious pseudonyms, 165;
phrase-pseudonyms, 165;
covered by initials, 184;
list of pseudonyms with real names, 242-249

Publisher's name (imprint), 39, 40

Publisher's series, 139, 193

Publishing societies, 98-100

Punctuation, 70-71, 145

Punctuation of title-pages, 48

Qualifications of authors (annotations), 211

Queens, 136

Questions catalogues should answer tabulated, 21

Quotations on title-pages, 38

References, Joint-authors, 49, 59, 81;
cross-references for synonymous terms, 52, 67, 202;
editors, 54, 129;
[Pg 255]omissions of, 59;
See and See also references, 61;
use of subject references demonstrated, 56, 60, 61, 67, 73, 77, 86, 87, 102, 103, 107, 109, 134, 138, 146, 149, 152, 172, 173, 190, 192;
translators and illustrators, 83, 90;
writers of libretti, 90;
compound names, 112;
married names, 174

Repetition dashes, 170

"Rev." in titles, 64

Reviewing of books by newspapers, &c., 6;
in annotations, 210

Roman numerals, 40;
in titles of monarchs, 135

Royal personages, 132

Sacred books, 191-192

"Saint" in names, 118, 119

Saints, 140

Sermons, 214

Sequels in fiction, 206

Series, Entry of, 138-139, 193;
fiction, 206

"Sheaf-catalogues," 33

Sizes of books, 41, 105

Size of catalogues (extent), 4;
in printing, 227

Smithsonian Institution, 8

Society publications, 71;
"indexing" contents, 95;
indexes, 95;
methods of cataloguing, 95 et seq.;
in the classified catalogue, 100;
periodicals, 196

Specific entry, 61, 68, 152, 168, 200

Statutes, 103

Stereotyping catalogues, 9

Subject-catalogue defined, 30

Subject-entry, 43;
subjects not named on title-pages, 43;
subject-title-entry, 44;
subject-heading, 44;
author's surname in, 45;
not specific, 112;
not required for classical authors, 130;
question of double entry, 151;
for periodicals, 197;
definite subject to be ascertained, 200;
for fiction, 204;
simple rules for, 214-216.
See also Specific entry.

Subject headings, sub-division of, 57, 66, 74, 109, 152, 183, 217;
concentration of subjects, 109, 201;
terms to be fixed, 202;
popular terms, 202;
foreign terms, 127, 203;
references, 56;
demonstrated, 60, 66, 79, 112, 113, 151 et seq.
See also Specific entry. Synonymous headings.

Surnames. See Names, Personal.

Sutton, Mr. C. W., 120

Sweden, Royal Library, 157

Synonymous headings, 52, 67, 202.
See also References.

Technical journals, 196-197

Title-as-subject entry, 44, 124

Title-catalogue defined, 29

Title-entries for works of fiction, 115;
title-entry demonstrated, 119, 123 et seq.;
music, 91;
where required, 200;
superfluous, 57, 69, 121, 125, 182, 199

Title-page, Entry to be taken from the, 33;
and without alteration, 129;
treatment of title-pages demonstrated, 34, 48;
alignment of, marked, 132

Titles of books, Turning about of, 119, 123;
not to be altered, 129;
condensed, 158;
misleading, 200; of popular novels, 208;
changed titles, 208

Titles of rank, 63;
of noblemen, 148-151

Translations of title-pages, 85, 88

Translations, Order of arrangement of, 117

Translators, 83

Translators, Voluntary, 156

[Pg 256]Type-setting machines, 34, 234, 235

Types in printed catalogues, Examples of, 220-227;
table of types, 223

Uniformity in cataloguing, Prof. Jewett on, 9

"Van" and "von," 128

Volume, Works in more than one, 40, 41

Volumes of works in progress, 104

Watts, Thomas, 8

Wheatley's, H. B., How to catalogue a library, 18;
on adapting catalogues to the comprehension of the fool, 20

Winsor, Prof. Justin, 27

Women, Married, as joint-authors, 55-57, 171, 172;
known by name of husband, 173;
changed names, 174-175

Works in progress, 104

Transcriber's Notes:

Silently corrected simple spelling, grammar, and typographical errors.

Retained anachronistic and non-standard spellings as printed.