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Title: The History of the Most Noble Order of the Garter

Author: Elias Ashmole

Release date: March 22, 2015 [eBook #48555]

Language: English

Credits: Produced by Chris Curnow, Jonathan Harry, Sonya Schermann,
Stephen Rowland, Google Books and the Online Distributed
Proofreading Team at


Transcriber's Note:

The cover image was created by the transcriber and is placed in the public domain.

His Royal Highness GEORGE AUGUSTUS
Prince of Wales, &c. And Knight of the
most Noble Order of the Garter.

M. Vdr. Gucht Scul.

Of the most NOBLE
Order of the GARTER:
And the several ORDERS of Knighthood extant in EUROPE.


I. The Antiquity of the Town, Castle, Chapel, and College of Windsor; with their several Officers: The Foundation of the ORDER by King EDWARD III. The Statutes and Annals at large, as they have been altered and amended.

II. The HABITS, ENSIGNS, and OFFICERS of the ORDER. The Ceremonies of Election, Investiture, and Instalment of Knights: The manner of their Feasts; and the Duties and Fees payable on these Occasions. Some Account of the Founders, with an exact List of all that have been installed since the Institution, and their several Coats of Arms emblazon’d.

Written at the Command of King Charles II. By ELIAS ASHMOLE, Esq; Windsor Herald. Now compared with the Author’s Corrections in his Library at Oxford, faithfully digested, and continued down to the present Time.

The Whole illustrated with proper Sculptures.

LONDON: Printed for A. Bell in Cornhill, E. Curll, J. Pemberton, and A. Collins in Fleet-street; W. Taylor and J. Baker in Pater-Noster-Row, 1715.

Price 7 s. 6 d.

Prince of WALES, &c.


PARDON me, Mighty Prince, that in the Crowd of Your Joyful and Devoted Britons, one of an obscure Fame presumes to lay his Humble Offering at Your Feet.

IT is the History of the MOST NOBLE ORDER of the GARTER; which, from its first Institution, has been constantly worn by Persons of the highest Birth, and most illustrious Merit.

IF the Stile and Manner, in which it is treated, were proportionable to the Dignity of the Subject, there would need no Apology for this Dedication. For to whom, next to the Great Sovereign of the Garter, whose true Heir You are, in all manner of Virtue and Honour, could this Treatise have recourse for Protection, but to Your Royal Highness, who are the Premier Knight of this Most Noble Order, and the standing Grace and Ornament of it.

BUT far above all particular Views, are the unspeakable Blessings derived to these Kingdoms, by the SUCCESSION of Your Illustrious Royal House: Every Briton seems new Born, and to have borrow’d fresh influence from its Glorious Presence.

THE Godlike Virtues of Your Royal Father, are not to be excelled; and should we venture to express an Equality, it can only be the Appearance of Your Royal Highness’s imitating so Great a Pattern.

AS He is Wise and Good beyond Praise, so has He a Title to the Hearts of His People beyond Question; which stands Confirmed by the highest Instances of Divine Providence, as well as the incontestible Authorities of Temporal Laws: On these Foundations, what glorious Prospects may we not Build of future Happiness?

IT were easy to dwell on this Subject, were it not wasting Moments of much more concern to Your Royal Highness, than what I am able to Express.

MAY Your Royal Highness long Live to Adorn this MOST NOBLE ORDER, and to support the Crown, by a bountiful and flourishing issue, that there may never want one of Your Royal Line to sit on the Throne of Great-Britain,

Is the Ardent Prayer of,
Your Royal Highness’s
Most Faithful,
Most Obedient,
and Humbly Devoted Servant.


Those who are acquainted with Mr. Ashmole’s History of the most Noble Order of the Garter, will easily satisfy themselves; that no Pains or Industry was wanting to Perfect and Complete so Voluminous a Work: He had the Encouragement of a very gracious Prince, and the use of publick Records, more particularly the several Books of the Order, with the Assistance of several MSS wrote by the Officers of Arms, who bore Part in the Ceremonies, or went on Embassies to Stranger Kings, Princes, &c. and by their constant Observations, were familiarly versed in all its Laws and Customs.

These were very great helps to him, and it must be confessed his own elaborate Study had not less owing to it. There is nothing that has relation to this most Noble Order, which he has not touched on; and indeed it is a Work so very copious, that he does himself acknowledge he has inserted some things of little importance; which he desires may be considered to be done, to gratify some few who have a more immediate concern therein.

The Reader will in this Treatise find little else omitted: A very painful and exact Abridgment has been made, many Corrections of the Author’s, which he saw before his Death, and left among his other Books in his Library at Oxford, are here carefully altered; some Additions are made, a List continued, of the several Knights-Companions, as well as Officers of the Order, for above forty Years; and the Coats of Arms of abundance of the Knights-Companions visibly corrected from good Authorities; and every distinct Chapter treated of at large; so that this Work has not been compleated but at great Labour as well as Expence, which could not have been supported, but for the Encouragement some of the Knights-Companions of the most Noble Order were pleased to give it; as well in their Subscriptions, as in the good Opinion they seemed to Express of the Design.

Most Noble Order

IT was, undoubtedly, a good Sentiment in the first Collector of this Learned Work, to introduce, as well as a Discourse of Knighthood in general, a Treatise of all the several Orders that have prevail’d in other Parts of the World; for these in their Rise and Institutions, having a relative Sense to the particular Subject he was to illustrate, seemed to afford him a very good Opportunity of doing it, by building on so convenient a Foundation.

I shall therefore, (tho’ much more confin’d to brevity) follow the same Method, making it serve as a proper Introduction; there being many Things in the voluminous Original, which I conceive may with less Inconveniency be dispenc’d with.

It was a constant Maxim in all well-regulated Governments, to give a just Encouragement to Merit, and this by proportioning Rewards to the Service done; for Merit must be suppos’d to consist in the Performance of some Virtuous or Heroick Action, directed for the publick Good: And as Vertue is either Military or Civil, so the Distribution of Rewards is different; either by bestowing Degrees and Titles of Honour, or by Donations of Wealth; so that in either Construction, Vertue may have its proper and suitable Reward.

But the proper Reward of Military Vertue, is Honour: (to which distinct Head this Work is confin’d.) Honour, which Aristotle calls the Greatest of exteriour Goods: And being an Object of a nobler Ambition than the Accumulation of Wealth, is principally the Aim of that Vertue we understand by Valour; which springs from more generous Spirits, and hath been the constant Foundation of raising Men to the highest Eminence of Glory, and superiour Dignity.

But that Fame might not lose itself in an unbounded Notion, it was at length thought fit to reduce Honour into Form and Order, by investing the Person meriting with some particular Title or Appellation of Excellence, (the Original of all Nobility;) of which Knighthood, as it hath been accounted the most suitable Reward to the greatest Vertue, so it hath been esteemed the chief and primary Honour among many Nations.

The Romans held Honour and Vertue in that Esteem, that they deify’d, and dedicated Temples to them: They made them so contiguous in their Situation, that there was no other Passage to that of Honour, but thro’ the Temple of Vertue, mystically admonishing, that Honour was not to be attained by any other Way.

In several of the Roman Coins we see Honour and Vertue represented together in one Reverse, and in one Medal; the Face of Honour so shadows that of Vertue, that but a little of it appears, Honour being the more illustrious of the two; and where we behold any Person outwardly adorned with it, we are to judge him inwardly endued with Vertue, inasmuch as Honour is his due, and justly bestowed upon him.

§. 2. In tracing the Original of Knighthood, we are not so vain to say, with the French, that S. Michael was the premier Chevalier; yet thus much we may assert, that ’tis near as ancient as Valour and Heroic Vertue, notwithstanding the Ceremonies and Circumstances of it have varied according to several Ages and Nations: And therefore, with much Probability, we may derive the Original of Military Honour from the Trojans and Greeks; among whom, as Knights of great Renown, were Hector, Troilus, Æneas, Antenor, Agamemnon, Menelaus, Peleus, Tydeus, &c. And thus Homer uses the Word ἱππότης, in the same Sense as Eques was afterwards among the Latins.

Τοῖσι δὲ καὶ μετέειπε γερήνιος ἱππότα Νέστωρ,
’Mong whom thus Nestor spake, that honour’d Knight.

§. 3. Upon a more substantial Basis we shall descend to the Romans; among whom, in the very Infancy of their Military Glory, a Society of Knights was instituted, immediately after their Union with the Sabines. Romulus inrolled Centuriæ tres Equitum, three Centuries of Knights, out of the chiefest Families, whom he appointed to be his Life-guard, and called them Celeres, from their Activity and Dispatch in Martial Affairs.

Tarquinius Priscus made an Addition to these Centuries; the like did Servius Tullius, who ordained, that those who should succeed in that Body, should be elected ex censu, viz. from a considerable and certain Valuation of their Estates, who had the greatest Cense, and were of the most Noble Families, says Dyonys. Halicarn. And soon after, the Equestrian Class began to be formed and constituted one of the three Orders of the Commonwealth, which were thus rank’d, according to Livy: Senatus, Ordo Equestris & Plebs; which in the Roman Literal Notes is set down after this Manner: CON. SEN. E. ORD. P. Q. R. And forasmuch as this Degree is placed between the Patricians, or Senators, and the Plebeians, it answers exactly the State of our Knights between the Nobility and Commonalty: And from this Order, to the Height of Nobility which resided in the Senators, was the Way prepared; Junius Brutus being the first who was raised to a Senator from the Equestrian Order.

It was a Constitution, as old as Tiberius’s Reign, that none should be admitted, unless Free-born, or a Gentleman for three Generations; and, indeed, for a long Time none were elected Knights but the best Sort of Gentlemen, and Persons of Extraction, as was the illustrious Mœcenas.

Atavis regibus ortus eques, Mart.

who aspired no higher, not out of any Incapacity of attaining greater Honours, but that he desired them not, says Paterculus: Yet at length, thro’ Corruption of Times, Plebeians and Freedmen being too frequently received into this Degree (too near a Parallel among the Knights of this Age) occasion’d their Power to grow less and less, ’till it shrunk to nothing; so that the Places and Offices of Judges which they before had executed, became conferrable upon the Publicans. And when Cicero was Consul, anno ab urbe conditi 690, the Equestrian Order stood in need of Re-establishment, whereupon they were then incorporated into that Commonwealth in the third Degree, all Acts passing in the Name of the Senate, the People of Rome, and the Equestrian Order.

They often enjoy’d Abroad the Government of several Provinces, whereof Egypt had this peculiar to itself, that none of the Senators were admitted, but only those of the Equestrian Order, whose Decrees Augustus commanded to be had in like Regard, as if the Magistrates of Rome, or Kings, Consuls, or Prætors, had pronounced them.

As a Mark of Eminence, they had the Titles of Splendidi and Illustres bestowed upon them, and sometimes have been called most sacred Knights.

And besides other Privileges, they had Seats with the Senators in the Circus Maximus; and by the Roscian Law, sat next them in the Theatres: They had likewise a College called Collegium Equitum; and Temples were dedicated to the Goddess Fortune, under the Title of Equestri Fortunæ.

Having shewn the Dignity and Honours of the Equestrian Order among the Romans, we shall now touch upon the Degrees of Knighthood which have been Personal, and may be comprehended under the Modern Title of Equites Aurati, or Milites Simplices, (as distinguish’d from the several Orders of Chivalry, instituted in Christendom.) In the Circumstance of whose Creation we confess, nothing in the Roman Ordo Equestris hath place, tho’ that might be the Ground and Original of the Dignity, and one common End in both, namely, the Pursuit of Military Exploits, and Service in the Wars.

§. 4. Of the Degrees of Knighthood. We shall first of the Monozons, i. e. Knights begirt with the Military Girdle, a Custom devolved to the Germans and Gauls from ancient Times, and from them to After-Ages.

Sir Henry Spelman notes, That the late Emperors conferred the Dignity of Knighthood with the Military Girdle instead of all other Arms, because that Part more eminent amongst them girdeth, supporteth, and adorneth the rest; whence Selden calls this Girding the most essential part of the Ceremony. Nor do we find among the various Ceremonies of Knighthood any that have continued so constant in Practice as the endowing with Girdle and Sword, Ornaments proper to the Dignity and Marks of Honour and Vertue, with which the Statues and Portraitures of Knights, on their Grave-stones have been adorned.

For as at this Day Knights are styled Equites Aurati, from the Golden Spurs, heretofore put on at their Creation, so were they more anciently Singulo Miletari donati, in respect, when any one was Knighted, he was not only smitten with the Sword, but invested with Sword and Belt, yet retain’d at the creating our Knights of the Bath, as the old Formulary thus hath it; Then shall the King of great Favour take the Sword, and gird the Esquire therewith.

Secondly, The Baccalaurei or Knights Batchelors, are to be consider’d, who are indifferently styled Chevaliers, Milites, Equites Aurati, and Knights. This Degree is truly accounted the first of all Military Dignity, and the Foundation of all Honours in our Nation, and is derived from, if not the same with that immediately preceding. For as the Ceremony of a gentle Touch on the Shoulder with the flat Side of the Sword hath been since used, instead of girting with the Sword and Belt, (especially in Times of War, or in Haste) as an Initiation into the Military Order; so on the contrary, it is not unusual now-adays, for the Prince, at least Gladio, if not Cingulo donare; for he oftentimes bestows the Sword upon the Person he Knighteth.

Miræus gives them the Epithet Aurati, from the Privilege of wearing Gold upon their Swords and Spurs, omitting Tiraquel’s fanciful Distinction between Miles and Eques Auratus, who allows the former to signify a Knight Noble before, and the other to denote one whom we call a Knight and no Gentleman, or applicable to the Neapolitan Gentlemen, (usually called Cavalieri) who are all styled Equites, tho’ they never have attained the Knightly Dignity.

The third Sort were Knights Banerets, who so well deserv’d in the Wars, that they were afterwards permitted to use Vexillum quadratum, a square Banner, whence they were called Equites vexillarii, or Chevaliers a Buniere from the Dutch Banerheere, Lord or Master of the Banner.

Camden conceives this Title first devis’d by K. Edward 3. in Recompence of Martial Prowess; a Recital of which Dignity is mention’d in a Patent 20 E. 3. to John Coupland, for his Service, in taking David King of Scots Prisoner. But it was much more ancient with us, as well as in France; and they had particular Robes, and other Ornaments given them from the Crown, ad apparatum suum pro militia, tanquam pro Baneretto, a Rege suscipienda, &c. viz. ad unum Tunicam, &c. after which is set down the particular Robes, and other Ornaments appointed for his Creation.

To shew this Dignity yet more ancient, there is the Evidence of a Writ in K. Edw. 3d’s Time, for furnishing Thomas Bardolf with the Robes of a Baneret. It is an Honour esteemed the last among the Greatest, viz. Nobilitum Majorum, or the First of the Second Rank; and is placed in the Middle between the Barons and the other Knights; in which respect the Baneret may be called Vexillarius minor, as if he were the lesser Banner-Bearer; to the End he might be so differenced from the Greater, namely the Baron, to whom the Right of bearing a square Banner doth belong.

But there are some remarkable differences between these Knights and Knights-Batchelors; as in the Occasions and Circumstances of their Creations, the Baneret being not Created, unless at a Time when the King’s Standard is erected, and that he bears his own Banner in the Field; whilst the Knight-Batchelor follows that which is anothers.

This farther difference is observed between them, that the Knight-Baneret had so many Gentlemen his Servants at Command, as that he could raise a Banner, and make up a Company of Soldiers to be maintained at his Table, and with his own Pay: But the Knight-Batchelor had not sufficient for this, and therefore marched under the Banner of another; and the Wages of the Baneret were double.

Next to these, we are to mention Knights of the Bath, which is a Degree that hath the Investiture and Title of Knight, with an additional Denomination, derived from Part of the Ceremony of his Creation. It is the general receiv’d Opinion, that our K. Hen. 4. first instituted these Knights, which is justify’d by Sir John Froisard, who says he created 46 of them at his Coronation, chusing them from such, as were either his Favorites, or had pretensions to it from their personal Merits, or Services.

But if the Ceremonies and Circumstances of their Creation be well consider’d, it may be inferr’d, that he rather restor’d the ancient way of making Knights, than Instituted them; and consequently that the Knights of the Bath, are really no other than Knights-Batchelors; that is, such as are created with those Ceremonies, wherewith Knights-Batchelors were formerly created by Ecclesiasticks: But some of them having been laid aside, were then brought again into Use, and made peculiar to this Degree, and since continued to them upon some solemn and great Occasion.

At the first View they look like a distinct Order of Knighthood; but cannot be so accounted, because they have no Statutes assigned them, nor are in Case of Vacancy, supply’d, (the Essentials of distinct Orders) nor do they wear their Robes beyond the Time of that Occasion upon which they were created; as chiefly, the Coronation of a King or Queen, the Creation of a Prince of Wales, Duke of York, and the like; whereas also their Number is uncertain, and always at the Pleasure of the King.

Favine calls them Knights of the Crown, because, to distinguish them from Esquires, they wore upon their Left Shoulder an Escutcheon of Black Silk embroider’d with three Crowns of Gold; but therein he mistakes, for they never used only a Silk Lace, and the Jewel they wore was made of Gold, containing three Crowns, with this Motto Tria juncta in una, hanging down under the left Arm at a Carnation Ribbon worn cross the Body.

This leads us to the Degree of Baronets, who seem allied to Knighthood, by having granted them the Addition of Sir to be set before their Names: But this gives them not the Dignity of Knighthood; nor can they properly be styled Knights, until they be actually Knighted.

It is a Degree erected Anno 9. Jac. 1. and the Grant made by Letters Patents under the Great Seal of England. It is Hereditary to them, and the Heirs Male of their Bodies lawfully begotten, for ever; and by a subsequent Decree of the said King, Precedence is granted to them before all Banerets, except such as should be made by the King under his Standard, display’d in an Army Royal in open War, and the King personally present, and next to and immediately after the younger Sons of Viscount and Barons.

The Ground for erecting this Degree was partly Martial; for tho’ themselves were not enjoined personal Service in the Wars, yet each Baronet was to maintain thirty Foot Soldiers for three Years in Ireland, after the rate of Eight Pence per Day, for the Defence of that Kingdom, and chiefly to secure the Plantation of Ulster.

They were at least to be descended from a Grand-father, on the Father’s Side, that bore Arms, and had a Revenue of 1000 l. per Ann. or Lands of old Rents of equal Value with 1000 l. per Ann. of improv’d Lands, or at least two Parts of three of such Estate in Possession; the other third in Reversion Expectant upon one Life held only in Jointure.

The Year after, King James I. added some new Privileges and Ornaments, viz. to Knight those already made that were no Knights; and the Heirs hereafter of every Baronet should, at the Age of One and Twenty Years, receive Knighthood; likewise that all Baronets might bear in Canton, or in an Inescutcheon, the Arms of Ulster; and farther, to have place in the Armies of the King in the Gross, near about the Royal Standard.

Since the Institution of Baronets in England, there have been made divers in Ireland after the like Form: And the Knights of Nova Scotia in the West-Indies were ordained in Imitation of Baronets in England by the said King James, A. D. 1622. for the Planting that Country by Scotch Colonies, and the Degree made likewise Hereditary.

These latter wear an Orange Tawny Ribbon as their Badge, to distinguish them from other Knights; and it appears, there was an Intention, 1627. to move his then Majesty, that all Baronets and Knights Bachelors might wear Ribbons of several Colours, some Badge or Jewel, in such Sort as did the Knights of the Bath, to distinguish the one from the other: But that Matter dropt.

§. 5. We shall now observe the Etymology of Eques, Miles, Chevalier, Ritter, and Sir. The Grecians had a Title of Honour equivalent to the Signification of Eques in the Latin, from Equus, an Horse, because one Part of the Ceremony, whereby this Honour became conferred, was the giving of an Horse; or because having an Horse at the Publick Charge, they received the Stipend of an Horseman to serve in the Wars, Horses being Symbols of War, Bello armantur equi. It is to be noted, That the Degree of Knighthood in the Dialects of other Nations hath the same Derivation: For in the French, a Knight is called Chevalier; in the German, Ridder, or Ritter, q. d. Rider; so the Gheslagen Ridder is interpreted, The dubbed Knight; in the Italian, it is Cavagliero; in the old British, Morchog; concerning which, hear one of Jeffery Chaucer’s Scholars.

Eques ab Equo is said of very right,
And Chevalier is said of Chevalrie,
In which a Rider called is a Knight;
Arragoners done also specifie
Caballiero through all that Partie,
Is Name of Worship, and so took his ’ginning
Of Spurs of Gold, and chiefly Riding.

And tho’ the Word Miles signified at first any legally inrolled for the War, which Inrolment was twofold, Honoraria and Vulgaris; yet upon the Decay of the Roman Empire, upon the Irruption of the innumerable Forces of the Alani, Goths, Vandals, &c. which consisted in Horse, their Foot was rendred useless. Miles was no longer said of him that served on Foot in the Wars, but began to be properly spoken of the Horseman; whence it came into Vogue, That among the Titles of Nobility, he who had that of Miles bestowed on him, was understood to be Horseman, or Eques, that is, of the Equestrian Dignity.

Selden observes Miles to be equivocal: and that in the old feodal Laws of the Empire it signify’d a Gentleman, as the Word Gentleman is signify’d in Nobilis; and with us it hath been frequently used to denote both Gentlemen, and Knights; for Milites denotes Gentlemen, or great Freeholders, and not dubbed Knights, viz. such who hold by Knights Service from a Lord of a Mannour, and such who are chosen from the several Counties to serve in the High Courts of Parliament.

Miles, even in the Saxon Times, denoted sometimes a Dignity. But about the Year 1046, becoming a Title of Honour, it is since most generally appropriated to Persons who have received Knighthood correspondent to Eques and Chevalier, tho’ indeed less proper; in regard Knighthood is the Dignity of Horsemanship, and the Tenure of Lands by Knights Fees here in England, anciently called Regale Servitium, is in truth Horse Service; and the Tenants such as served the King on Horseback in Wars, are Gentlemen at least (if not of Noble Extraction.)

Minshew says, the Equites, which heretofore followed and accompanied the Emperor, are, in the German Tongue, called Knechtes, that is, Servitors, or Ministers; but Camden says, Knecht, in Saxon Cniht, was in far more ancient Times accepted as an honorary Title; and, among the old Germans, signify’d a Person arm’d with Spear and Lance, (the Ensigns of their Knighthood) as in After-Times such were, among other Nations, adorned with a Girdle and Belt, since called Equites aurati, and sometimes simply Milites.

The Addition Sir to the Names of all Knights Banerets, Knights of the Bath, and Batchelor Knights, pronounced at the Time when they are created, with this Compellation: Arise, Sir John, or Sir Thomas, &c. is accounted Parcel of their Style, which the Banerets enjoy by virtue of a Clause in their Patent. It is a Contraction of the Old French Sire, taken for Seigneur, or Lord, from the Greek Κύριος. But how it came to be first given, we cannot find; nevertheless, our English Writers have bestowed it upon the major Part of the Nobility, after they had been received into the Order of Knighthood; and in the Life of St. Thomas Becket, written about the Time of King Edw. 1. we meet with the Title prefix’d to the Names of the four Knights, who slew the said St. Thomas.

§. 6. The Ensigns of the Equestrian Order among the Romans, by which they were made, was a Publick Horse, or a Gold Ring; yet still, to those who had Equestrian Cense, the Horse was the ancienter Badge of the two; but when thro’ the Multitude of these Knights no Publick Horses were assigned, but to such who were ready to enter upon Military Service, and to fight in the Legions, such were called Legionary Knights, to distinguish them from the rest, who had only receiv’d the Honour of a Gold-Ring; for they were not all employ’d in Wars.

The Censor (after the Institution of that Office ab urbe condita, 310.) and afterwards the Emperor, were the Persons who bestowed this Equus Militaris, or Publicus, as it was called from the Annual Allowance, to keep him, which they gave unto those of known Vertue and approv’d Life, compelling him to serve in the Wars, tho’ against his Will; (but in the more ancient Method of Election, Constraint was not used.) And upon Negligence in the Care of these Horses, or any Blemish, Reproach, or Infamy, or Loss of Patrimony in the Knights, the Horses were not only taken away, but the Knights wholly disfranchis’d. Rosinus laying down the Manner and Order used in ejecting such Knights, adds, A Recital being made of all the Knights that were inrolled, those whose Names he omitted, were thereby understood to be depriv’d of that Dignity.

When they had served in the Wars the Time appointed by Law, it was the Custom to lead their Horses by the Bridle into the Forum, before the Duumvirs [Censors,] and giving an Account under whom and what Generals or Captains they had served; they were thereupon dismissed from farther Service in the Wars: An Example whereof Plutarch relates to have been given by Pompey himself.

But whereas among the Roman Inscriptions we find Equo publico honoratus donatus, ornatus, and exornatus, such is not to be construed to be of Equestrian Dignity, but only to have received the præmia militaria, with which the Emperors used to recompense some particular Exploit, by the Honour of such a Gift, according to Salmasius. Equus Publicus, by a wondrous, nevertheless an accustom’d Speech, among the Romans, is the Knight, qui equo publico meret. And qui equo publico donatus, the other deserving Person.

As to the Ring: In Genesis we read of Pharoah’s taking off his Ring, and putting it upon Joseph’s Hand. When they came in Fashion with the Romans, the Senators at first wore Iron ones, which were accounted the Ensign of Military Vertue, received upon a Publick Account. Howbeit, in Process of Time, when Gold Rings were drawn into Use, none but Senators and Knights had them. The Difference among the Rings of the three Orders in the State were, as Licetus observes, Gold Rings set with precious Stones were given to the Senators only; Plain Rings without Stones to the Knights, and Iron Rings to the Plebeians, or Free-born-men; insomuch that Equestri dignitate donare and annulo honorare, is a promiscuous Phrase in Tacitus, to give the Dignity of Knighthood; and at the Battle of Cannæ, by the two Measures or Bushels of Gold Rings sent to Carthage, the Number of the Roman Knights there slain was computed.

§. 7. At length Freed-Men being created Knights, the Jus annulorum, the Right of wearing Gold Rings, became promiscuous.

Among the Germans, the Shield and Lance were accounted the grand Badges of Military Honour, or Knighthood. This the Lombards, the Franks, and our Country-men, all descending out of Germany, used, and was to us (in the Opinion of Sir Hen. Spelman) the Foundation of the Knightly Order. Much like the ancient Germans was the Custom of making Knights among the Irish: And Favine notes the Shield and Lance were the proper Arms appertaining to a French Knight, which Esquires, Armigers, carried always after their Masters, Shields and Scutes (as they are vulgarly called) i. e. Equestrian Targets, inclining to an Oval, not Shields or Bucklers of Foot Soldiers.

Another Ensign and Ornament of Knightly Honour is, the Cingulum militare, or Balteus, which, Varro says, is Tuscan, signifying a military Girdle, which were garnished with great Buckles, Studs, and Rings of pure Gold, to shew their Dignity and Power in military Commands; and with such a Belt, set with Pearls and precious Stones, young Athelstan was girded, when he receiv’d Knighthood from his Grandfather King Alfred. Our Knights were no less anciently known by these Belts, than by their gilt Swords, Spurs, &c. Howbeit the Use now only appears in Knights of the Bath.

To this Belt was also added a Sword, not of Ordinary Use; and therefore termed the Sword of a Knight, which was hallowed with great Ceremony.

Another eminent Badge is the Golden Spurs, wherewith, at the Time of their Creation, Knights Spurs were wont to be adorned; and to these, a little after the Conquest, were added far more and greater Ornaments. They were usually put on after the Person had been presented to the Prince who gave the Honour, to signify, that the new-made Knight should not only declare his Valour by his Sword, but also by the Management of his Horse, which he should encourage and excite with his Spurs, to the carrying on his valiant Designs. These Spurs have been of that Esteem, that Knight Batchelors are latinized Equites aurati; among the Germans, Ritter dess Gulden Sporns; and with us heretofore, Knights of the Spurs: And several Families by the Name of Knight, bear for their Arms the Spurs on a Canton.

It is farther certify’d among the Rights of a Knight Baneret, that upon the Account of his Knighthood he may wear gilt Spurs, as well as a gilt Sword; and that the Spurs are essential, may be collected from the Degradation of a Knight, where his gilt Spurs are first cut off with an Hatchet, the Case of Sir Andra Harcla. In the last Place is the Collar, an Ensign of Knightly Dignity among the Germans, Gauls, Britons, Danes and Goths, among whom it was customary to wear them, as denoting such as were remarkable for their Valour. But in later Times, it was the peculiar Fashion of Knights among us to wear Golden Collars composed of S S. or other various Devices; so that those Monuments are known to be erected for Knights on whose Portraitures such Ornaments are found.

§. 8. The Qualifications for Knighthood are principally three. 1. Merit, the bare mentioning whereof shall suffice here. 2. Birth, viz. that the Parties who enter thereinto ought first to make appear they be Gentlemen of three Paternal Descents, bearing Coat Armour; and much the same was the Law of the Empire under Frederick 2. A. D. 1212. Some think it also insufficient, unless descended so by the Mother’s Side; at least she must be a freed Woman. And, 3. Estate, which also serves to support the Dignity.

Thus Wealth was so much regarded among the Chaledonians, that those who were rich, bore the Name of Knights. It was Estate that entitled a Man to this Honour among the Romans; for the Censor might compel any Citizen equal to the Equestrian Cense, whom he thought fit to take that Order: And this consisted of 400000 Sesterces, i. e. 3025 l. of our Money.

And as in Old Rome, so here in England, not long after the Conquest, they who held a Knights Fee, viz. 680 Acres of Land might claim it, says Camden. But it appears from Selden, that no certain Number, or Extent of Acres, made a Knight’s Fee; and Temp. Hen. 3. and Edw. 1. and 1 Edw. 2. the Census militis was measured by 20 l. by the Year, or more; and by the Royal Prerogative, some who held 15, then 20, at other times 30, then 40, and sometimes 50 l. Lands, were required to accept this Honour by Writs directed to the Sheriffs of the Counties, and were excused only by Reason of old Age, irrecoverable Weakness, Loss of Limbs, or being in Holy Orders; and upon all other Causes (if exempted) they paid a Fine, estimated according to the Nature of the Excuse, or length of Time given.

But in the promiscuous Course of Knighthood, where the Men of Wealth and Estate (whether otherwise worthy or not) became dignify’d; yet the Gate of Honour was not then shut against those, who wanting Riches, deserved well of their Country; for when Princes conferr’d such Dignities upon Men of narrow Fortunes, they usually bestowed with them annual Pensions, or Lands, agreeable to the Judgment of the Author of the Division du monde, who saith that the Honour of Knighthood is not to be given any Person who hath not a considerable Estate, unless sufficient Means to support the Honour of the Order be also given with it.

These Pensions are frequently mention’d in our Rolls, sometimes during Pleasure, and sometimes during the Life of the Knight, or till better Provision should be made for their Supports: Examples whereof are, Sir John Atte Lee, Sir Nele Loring, Sir John Walsh, Knights. The like Rewards our Kings gave to such whose Merit raised them to the Degree of a Baneret, express’d in their Patents, ad manutenendum statum Baneretti, Pro sustentatione sua, ut ipse statum Baneretti melius manutenere possit, Pro statu suo manutenendo; or Words to the like Effect: Examples where of are, Sir Reginald Cobham, Sir Thomas de Rokeley, Sir John Lysle, and Sir Roger de Swynerton, Banerets.

It may be next consider’d who can make Knights; wherein it is apparent, that they who never were, and others who never could be Knights, have conferr’d this Dignity; yet ’tis to be understood, that Necessity and Custom hath in this Case the Force of a Law: For anciently, Bishops and Priests made Knights; so also do the Popes, and some Commonwealths; likewise our Queens. For the Sovereign, or the Heir apparent, tho’ they be no Knights, may nevertheless do it, by reason they possess the Kingdom; and are therefore the Head and Chief of Chevalry, and consequent all the Power thereof is contained in their Command. To conclude this Point, Knighthood was always received from the Hands of another Person, either by Ceremony, or Diploma, except only the Kings of Spain, who Time out of Mind made themselves Knights; and this by Vertue of an old Law written in the Arragonian Tongue, as Ambrosias Morales reports. And, to shew that no Man upon Earth hath any Power over him, he shall gird himself with the Sword made after the Form of a Cross; and that Day can no other Man be Knighted.

§. 9. Of the Ceremonies and Formalities used at the Conferring of Knighthood, the most ancient was perform’d by putting the Belt loose over the Shoulder, or girding it close about the Waste. The Bend in Armoury represents the one, and the Fess the other. The first Christian Kings at giving this Belt kissed the new Knight on the Left Cheek, saying, In the Honour of the Father, and the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, I make you a Knight. It was called Osculum pacis, the Kiss of Favour, or Brotherhood, and is presumed to be the Accollade, or Ceremony of Imbracing, which Charles the Great used when he Knighted his Son Lewis the Debonair. It was in the Time of the same Emperor, the Way of Knighting by the Colaphum, or Blow on the Ear, used in Sign of sustaining future Hardships, which is thought to have been deriv’d from the Manner of Manumission of a Slave among the Romans; a Custom long after retained in Germany and France. Thus William Earl of Holland, who was to be Knighted before he could be Emperor, at his being elected King of the Romans, received Knighthood by the Box of the Ear, &c. from John King of Bohemia, A. D. 1247.

In the Time of the Saxons here in England, Knights received their Institutions at the Hands of Great Prelates or Abbots; which, according to their Opinion, render’d them more auspicious. In the accomplishing of which Solemnity, they added many religious Ceremonies, as Watching, Fasting, Bathing, and Consecrating the Sword; an Instance of which we have in Heward Lord of Brune, in Lincolnshire, who received this Honour from Brand, Abbot of St. Edmundsbury. But not long after the Conquest, this Custom was restrained by a Synod at Westminster, A. D. 1102. 3 H. 1. which among other Things ordained Ne Abbates [i. e. all Spiritual Persons] faciunt milites. However the religious Ceremonies for the most part continued, especially Vigils and Bathings, as appears by that grand Solemnity at the Creation of 267 Knights, Sons of Earls, Barons, and Knights, upon Whitsontide, anno 34 Edw. 1. cited by Selden and Camden. And these Formalities the Saxons and Normans, not only here in England, but the French, Spaniards, and other Nations, observ’d, concluding from it, that decency of Habit was as well expected from them, as Integrity of Life, and purity of Manners. And the like religious Ceremony was heretofore observ’d in Spain at the Creation of Knights, whether Cavelleros de Espuela d’Orada, or Amados [our Knights Batchelors,] In this Form, the Person to be Knighted was bathed in the Evening, and presently laid in Bed; then cloathed in rich Robes, and led to the Church to perform his Vigils: That being over, and Mass heard, his Spurs were put on, and his Sword girt about him, then drawn out, and put into his Right Hand; whereupon the Oath was forthwith administred to him; which taken, he that bestowed the Dignity gave him una Pesconade, a Blow, or Stroke on the Neck, saying, God assist you in the Performance of your Promise.

The Oath or Vow the Knights professed, was in general, to relieve and protect Widows, the Fatherless, Oppressed and Miserable, and to defend the Church of God; which to keep and perform was esteem’d as meritorious, as to do all that a Monk, Frier, or Canon Regular should.

There is also mention (by Mr. Selden) of consecrating the Sword, offering it at the Altar, and receiving it again from thence, as an implicit Kind of taking an Oath. But as in Peace and great Leisure these tedious Ceremonies were used, yet it was otherwise in Times of War, or on a Day of Battle, where Hurry and Throng of Affairs would not permit; and therefore, as well before the joining of Battle, as after Victory obtained, it was usual for the Prince or General in the Field, on Sight of the Army, to give those whom he thought fit to advance to that Honour (they humbly kneeling before him) a Stroke with a naked Sword flatwise upon their Shoulders, or else to touch their Heads or Shoulders lightly, without any other Ceremony, except pronouncing Sis Eques in nomine Dei; to which he adds, Rise, Sir —— Knight, or in the French, Sus, or Sois, Chevalier, au nom de Dieu, which we commonly call Dubbing, the old English Word used for Creating [Consecrating] a Knight, from doopen to dip, by Bathing.

Another Manner of creating Knights Abroad was, by Royal Codicils, or Letters Patents (these the Spaniards call Privilegios de Cavelleria) whereupon such Knights are intitled Equites Codicellares; and these were sent to such as dwelt in remote Countries, and sometimes, but rarely, extended so as to make the Degree hereditary. There is one Example, that by the bare signification of Letter, without any Ceremonies or Patents under Seal; Philip IV. of Spain, Jan. 15. 1633. conferr’d upon all the Captains that behav’d themselves valiantly in Defence of Mastricht (then lately besieg’d by the Hollanders) to those that were Gentlemen, the Title of Knights; and to others, that of Gentlemen.

Having thus briefly shew’d the various Forms of Creation of Knights Batchelors, I shall remark what Selden has observ’d of Knights Bannerets in later Times, wherein he that was advanc’d to that Honour in the Field, was inducted between two Senior Knights with Trumpets before them, and the Heralds carrying a long Banner of his Arms, call’d a Penon; in which Manner being brought to the King or Lieutenant, who bidding him good Success, the Tip of the Banner is cut off, that of an Oblong it might become a Square, like the Banner of a Baron: This done, he returns to his Tent, conducted as before. As for the many and various Formularies at the Creation of a Knight of the Bath, see Sir Edward Byshe among his Notes upon Upton and Sir William Dugdale’s Warwicksh. The Knights of the Bath, at the Coronation of King Charles II. watched and bathed; they took an Oath; they were girded with a Sword and Belt; and lastly, dubbed by the King with the Sword of State.

§ 10. In the Dignity, Honour and Renown of Knighthood, is included somewhat of Magnificence more excellent than Nobility it self; which mounting the Royal Throne, becomes the Assertor of Civil Nobility, and sits as Judge at the Tribunal therefore. Knight is noted by Camden as a Name of Dignity, but Baron is not so. For if heretofore a Baron had not receiv’d Knighthood, he was written plainly by his Christian Name, and that of his Family, without any Addition but that of Dominus, a Term attributed to a Knight; and in ancient Charters, the Titles and Names of Knights may be seen set before Barons. It bestows Gentility not only upon the meanly Born, but upon his Descendants, and encreaseth the Honour of those well-descended. Hereunto agrees the Common-Law: If a Villain be made a Knight, he is thereby immediately enfranchised, and consequently accounted a Gentleman; agreeable to the Roman Law, where the Donation of a Gold-Ring ennobled a Slave. Mœcenas dy’d a Companion of that Order; even Kings and Princes look upon it as an Accession to their Honour, their other Titles shewing Dominion and Power, this their Valour and Courage. Geysa, King of Hungary, Leopold, Marquis of Austria, Ottacher, Duke of Stiria, and Frederick, Duke of Austria and Stiria; Godfry, Duke of Brabant, with Henry his Son, Peter, King of Arragon, the Emperor Henry III. our William Rufus, King Edward III. Henry VI. Henry VII. Edward VI. Lewis XI. Francis I. Kings of France, and others, received this Dignity at the Time they enjoy’d their other Titles. And tho’ it is said the Sons of the French King are Knights as soon as they receive Baptism, yet are they not judg’d worthy the Kingdom, unless first solemnly created. And we elsewhere find, that the Royal Heirs of Arragon were suspended from that Crown, until they had received the Honour of Knighthood. And after the Norman Conquest, our young Princes were sent over to the neighbouring Kings to receive this Honour. Thus our King Henry II. was sent to David, King of Scots, and Knighted by him in Carlisle; and Edward I. at the Age of Fifteen Years, to Alphonsus XI. King of Castile, for the same Dignity. In like manner did foreign Princes repair hither, to receive the Honour from our Kings. As Malcolme, King of Scotland, and Alexander, Son of William, King of Scotland, Knighted by our King John, Anno 1212. So was Alexander III. by our King Henry III. at York, Anno 1252. and Magnus, King of the Isle of Man, by the same King. All which sufficiently demonstrate the great Renown of Knighthood, and the Honour and Esteem which was ever had for that Order.

Of the Religious Orders of Knighthood in Christendom.

§ 1.

THE Grounds and Causes of founding Societies or Knightly Orders, were several and different, tho’ all terminated in one End. Among which, principally were these, First, A sincere Love to Honour, and therein chiefly to excite and promote Vertue by suitable Rewards; such was the Design of King Arthur, when he formed himself and other Martial Men into a Fellowship, which he stiled Knights of the Round Table. Secondly, To repress the Incursions and Robberies of the Saracens and Barbarians, to vindicate the Oppressed, redeem the Enslaved, and to entertain and relieve Pilgrims and Strangers, which were Part of the Duties the Knights Hospitallers and Templars, &c. stood engag’d in. A third Reason was, To Fight in Defence of the Christian Faith, against Pagans and Infidels; to enlarge the Christian Territories, and promote the Service of the Catholick Church: And indeed their Zeal very much advanced Christianity. Lastly, When Sovereign Princes perceived themselves embroiled in Wars or dangerous Factions, the erecting such an Order or Society was, that they might by such a Tye restore Peace, quiet all Jealousies, unite Affections, and secure a lasting Friendship and powerful Assistance, both for their own and their Country’s Safety. And to this End were Badges of several Orders devised, as Pledges of Remembrance to quicken and establish their Friendship.

§ 2. These Orders are of Two Kinds, 1. Religious, or Ecclesiastical; and, 2. Military, or Secular.

§ 3. The Institutions of the latter Sort were after a while thought too weak to continue, if not sustained by Religion and Piety; and too defective without adjoyning Ecclesiastical Persons thereunto. Therefore the Founders, considering Divine Assistance should concur with Military Industry, began to dedicate these Orders to the Honour and Worship of God, or to our Saviour, or to the blessed Virgin, or some other of the Saints, to gain the Protection and Favour of Heaven, more easily, as they thought, obtainable by the Prayers and Offices of the Clergy. Whereupon some in their Institution joyned Sacred Orders to their Military, and made Provision for Sacred Persons to pray for their Prosperity at home, while they were engaged abroad. Hence King Edw. III. at the first Institution of the Garter, appointed Thirteen Secular Canons, and Thirteen Vicars to attend the Celebration of Divine Offices. Upon the same Account certain Foundations of Divine Service were erected at Bugey, for the Order of the Annunciads; at Dijon, for the Order of the Golden Fleece; and at Mont St. Michael in Normandy, for the Order of St. Michael.

§ 4. I shall now deliver a brief Account of the Religious Orders of Knighthood, proceeding according to their Antiquity.

1. The Knights of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem,
are accounted the most Ancient.

Dr. Heylin reports this Order to be instituted A. D. 1099. at such Time as the Temple of Jerusalem was regain’d from the Saracens by Philip King of France. Yet Favin will have it to be by Baldwin the First, King of Jerusalem; for while the Saracens possess’d the City, there were certain Canons Regular of St. Augustin, to whom they permitted the Custody of the Holy Sepulchre. These Canons Baldwin made Men of Arms, and Knights of the Holy Sepulchre, and ordained that they should nevertheless retain their white Habits, and on the Breast bear his own Arms, which were Argent a Cross potent: Or, between four Crosses of the same, commonly call’d The Jerusalem Cross. Their Great Master was the Patriarch of Jerusalem. They were to guard the Sepulchre, fight against the Saracens and Infidels, protect Pilgrims, redeem Christian Captives, hear Mass every Day, recite the Hours of the Cross, and to bear the five red Crosses in memory of our Saviour’s Wounds. Their Rule was confirm’d by Pope Innocent III. Upon the loss of the Holy Land, these Knights retired to Perugia in Italy; but retaining their white Habit, chang’d their Arms to a double red Cross. A. D. 1484. they were incorporated to the Knights Hospitallers of Jerusalem then in Rhodes. But A. D. 1496. Alexander VI. made himself, and the Popes his Successors, Great Masters thereof, and empower’d the Guardian of the Holy Sepulchre (his Vicar General) to bestow the same upon Pilgrims to the Holy Land. Philip II. King of Spain, endeavour’d to restore this Order in some of his Dominions, about the Year 1558. himself being elected Great Master: And another Attempt was made by the Duke of Nevers, 1615. but these Designs took no Effect.

2. Knights Hospitallers of St. John Baptist in Jerusalem.

Before the taking of Jerusalem from the Saracens, certain Christian Merchants of Naples obtain’d leave from the Caliph of Egypt to erect a small and convenient House, for the Entertainment of themselves and Countrymen, which they built before the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, together with a small Oratory. To them repair’d certain Canons of the Order of St. Augustin, who built another Oratory; but the Confluence of Pilgrims growing great, they erected a large Hospital, in the Place where our Saviour celebrated his last Supper, for the better accommodating devout Travellers, who for want of a Place to lodge in were often robb’d and murder’d: So that at length from their Charity and Hospitality, as also for that they took St. John Baptist for their Patron, they obtain’d that Title. It was instituted A. D. 1092. or according to others 1099. by Gerard, a Native of Thoulouse, who came to Jerusalem in the Time of Godfry of Bouillon, and built this Hospital (which became the first Seat of this Order) dedicated to St. John of Cyprus, Bp. of Alexandria, commonly call’d Johannes Eleemosynarius; and King Baldwin I. conferred on them large Privileges, permitting them Arms, and instituted them to be Knights, A. D. 1104. Their Duty was to fight against the Infidels, and they acknowledged Obedience to the Patriarch of Jerusalem; but growing rich, they obtained from Rome to be absolved from that Obedience. Pope Gelasius II. or Calixtus II. A. D. 1120. confirmed their Rule of living; and Adrian IV. receiv’d them under the Protection of the Papal See, being likewise endowed with ample Privileges, and exempted from Payment of Tithes, by succeeding Popes, chiefly by Pius IV.

They took the black Habit of Hermits of St. Augustin, and lived under his Rule by Grant of Honorius II. Anno 1125. vowing Obedience, Poverty, and Chastity; and on the Breast of their Habit wore at first a plain Cross of White Cloth, which was after changed to one with Eight Points; but in time of War they used a Red Cassock, bearing the White Cross upon it. Unto Gerard succeeded Raimund, who digested and enlarged their Laws and Institutions in the Composition whereof his Stile was Raimundus Dei gratia servus pauperum Jesu Christi & Custos Hospitalis Jerusolymitani; but afterwards he and his Successors had the Title of Great Master of the Order given him, to denote his Power and Authority. At this Day he has the Title of Prince of Malta and Goza; among his Privileges he seals in Lead, as doth the Pope and Doge of Venice; he acknowledges the Pope for his Head, and the King of Spain for his Patron; he had under him in several Kingdoms Priors; some of whom had also the Addition of Great with us in England he was stiled Prior Hospitalis; St. Johannis Jerusalem in Anglia, and by that Title was he summoned to the Parliament as a Baron of this Kingdom, and at length for Place and Precedency was ranked the first Baron; and the greatness of these Knights grew to such height that temp. H. 3. they had in Christendom 19000 Mannors.

When Saladine took Jerusalem, these Knights retreated to Acres or Ptolemais, and that being taken they seized upon the Island of Rhodes, A. D. 1308. whence they began to be call’d Knights of Rhodes; but A. D. 1522. being driven, thence by Solyman, they betook themselves to the Island of Malta, which with Tripoli and Goza were granted to them in Fee by the Emperor Charles V. A. D. 1530. under the Tender of one Falcon yearly to the Viceroy of Sicily, and to acknowledge the King of Spain and Sicily for their Protectors. In this Isle they continue a Bulwark to those Parts, and from this their Settlement are called Knights of Malta.

3. Knights Templars.

About the Year 1117, 1118, 1119, or 1120, this Order took Beginning, Baldwin II. then reigning in Jerusalem; when Nine Gentlemen, of whom Two of noble Extraction, Hugh de Paganes and Godfrey de St. Omer, came in Devotion to the Holy Land; they were called Brothers of the Militia of the Temple, ordinarily Knights Templars, from the Habitation assigned them out of a part of the King’s own Palace, adjoyning to the Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem. Their first Undertaking was to guard the most dangerous Ways about that City, against the Violence and Robberies of the Saracens, which made them acceptable to all, and for which they had Remission of their Sins; but for the first Nine Years they were yet so poor that they lived upon the Alms of others, wore Clothes bestowed in Charity upon them, and rode two on one Horse; in memory of which primitive Poverty their Seal had the Impress, which is represented in Math. Paris, A. D. 1127. They had Rules assigned them, drawn up by St. Bernard Abbot of Clairvaux, by the Appointment of Pope Honorius II. and Stephen Patriarch of Jerusalem. They made their Vows of Obedience, Poverty and Chastity, and to live under the Rules of Canons regular of St. Augustin. Their Habit was White, to which, in the Time of Eugenius III. they added the Red Cross, and of the same Form that the Hospitallers wore (Favin says a patriarchal Cross) and sowed it on the left Shoulder of the Maulles. These with the Holy Sepulchre Hospitallers and Teutonicks, principally supported a long time the Kingdom of Jerusalem; but when Riches encreas’d, and their Revenues augmented, they grew proud, fell from the Obedience of the Patriarch to joyn with the Pope; and at last, 1307. all the Knights of this Order in France were, in one and the same Hour, seized and imprison’d by Philip le Bel, King of France, with Consent of Pope Clement V. being charged with most infamous and damnable Crimes. And in England, Anno 1. Ed. 2. they were also apprehended afterwards, rendred Convicts, and all their Possessions seized into the King’s Hands. Howbeit the Bishop of York commiserating their deplorable Condition within his Diocess, charitably disposed of them in Monasteries under his Jurisdiction. Two Years after many of these Knights were burn’d in France, and Jaques de la Maule, the last great Master, suffered the same Fate, having seen, A. D. 1312. his Order by Papal Authority, condemned and perpetually dissolved; after which their Lands were annexed to the Hospitallers, for their Service against the Turks.

Thus they fell, no less famous for Martial Atchievments in the East, than their Wealth in the West; for they enjoyed 16000 Lordships in Europe, and a Spanish Author tells us, their Revenue was Two Millions yearly, and had in possession 40000 Commanderies, which occasion’d divers to think they were falsly accused, and by suborned Witnesses, merely upon the Ambition and covetous Design of Philip King of France.

4. Knights of the Order of St. Lazarus.

These were at the first a Fraternity of Religious Monks, after which they became Ecclesiastick Knights, in Imitation of the Knights of the Holy Sepulchre. Pope Pius V. 1572. stiles it Antiquissimum Charitatis & Militiæ Christi Ordinem; yet it must be understood as an Order of Monks, founded by St. Basil, about the time of Julian the Apostate, A. D. 366. upon a Charitable Account, viz. to take Care of Leprous Persons (a Malady frequent in the East) by which they became separated, even from the Conversation of Men. At length, through the Incursion of the Barbarians, and Injury of Time, it lay extinguish’d, but was revived when the Latin Princes joyned in a Holy League to recover the Holy Land. And a famous Hospital was erected at Jerusalem, under the Title of St. Lazarus, for the Reception of Lepers: For in that Time the Monks of this Order added Martial Discipline to their Skill in Physick; and for their Services against the Infidels, begat a great Esteem from Baldwin II. King of Jerusalem, and some of his Successors. In process of Time this Order decayed, being suppressed by Innocent VIII. who united it to the Hospitallers at Rhodes, A. D. 1490. Nevertheless Pius IV. restored it A. D. 1565. confirming the old, and granting new Privileges, making his kinsman Don Janot de Chastillon great Master. Pius V. A. D. 1567. enlarged their Privileges, permitting them to take one Wife only, to wit, a Virgin, not a Widow. Lastly, Pope Gregory XIII. A. D. 1572. bestowed the Great Mastership of this Order upon Emanuel Philibert Duke of Savoy, and his Successors, and prescribed them the Cistercian Rule; and accordingly he had the Investiture and Collation of the Commanderies in Spain and Italy.

5. Knights of the Teutonick Order, or Prussia.

In the Time of the Holy War, a wealthy Gentleman of Germany, who dwelt at Jerusalem, commiserating the Condition of his Country-men, coming thither in Devotion, made his House their Receptacle; afterwards he erected a Chapel to the Blessed Virgin, whence they had also the Title of Marian Knights. To him associated other Germans, and in short time encreasing, they professed the Military Employments of the Templars, and followed the Acts of Piety and Charity of the Hospitallers. A. D. 1190. or 1191. they elected Henry Walpott their first Master, and the following Year were confirmed by Celestine III. under the Title of Knights Teutonicks, or Dutch Knights, of the Hospital of St. Mary the Virgin, vowing Poverty, Obedience, and Charity, and following the Rule of St. Augustin. Their Statutes were composed from those of the Hospitallers and Templars, and One Article was, That none but Germans should be of this Order. Their Habit was a White Mantle, on the Breast a plain Black Cross, but some make it a Black Cross voided with a Cross Potent. At Acon they erected another Hospital; but after that City was taken by Saladine, they removed under Hermannus their Master into Germany, on whom the Emperor Frederick II. A. D. 1229. and Pope Honorius III. bestowed Prussia; where having conquer’d that Nation, and reduced it from Paganism, they built the City of Maryburgh, and there, A. D. 1340. fixed the chief Residence of their great Master. This Country they enjoyed till 1525. that Albertus Brandenburgh, the Last great Master, made solemn Renunciation of that Order, and became feudatory to Sigismond I. King of Poland, who created this Albert first Duke of Prussia: However, some of the Knights disrellishing this Action elected another great Master, viz. Albert Wolfang, and leaving Prussia setled in Germany, where they now reside. The younger Sons of the German Princes being, for the most part received into this Order, giving it the greatest Reputation.

6. Knights of Mount-Joy.

These are so called, from a Castle where this Order was instituted, built upon the Point of a Mountain not far from Jerusalem, whence the Pilgrims first view’d the Holy City, and where these Knights lay in Garrison. Their Habit was White, and the Badge thereof an Octogonal Cross Red; they vowed Poverty, Chastity, and Obedience, and followed the Rule of St. Basil; which Pope Alexander III. A. D. 1180. changed to that of Augustine. Upon the Loss of the Holy Land they retired to Spain, and fought against the Moors, and according to the Places they resided, in had other Names, in Catalonia and Valentia, Equites de Mongoia, i. e. Mount Joy; but in Castile, Knights of Monfrac, a Castle there. When Alphonso IX. King of Castile gave them Lands they had won from the Moors, the Donation says, To you Don Rodrigo Gonsales, Master of Monfrac, of the Order of Mount Joy. Upon the Decay of this Order, A. D. 1221. this Castle was given to Don Gonsalionez, Master of the Order of Calatrava, by Ferdinand the Saint; and these Knights were incorporated with them.

7. Knights of St. John of Acon or Acres.

Under the Patronage of this Saint was this Order erected; they exercised all Duties of Charity towards Pilgrims, and assumed Arms in imitation of the Hospitallers; they followed the Rule of St. Augustine; and according to Favina, had a Black Habit, upon which they wore a White Cross patee. After Acon was taken they removed into Spain, and flourished in the Reign of Alphonsus the Astrologer King of Castile, about which time Pope Alexander IV. approved the Order under the conjoined Title of St. Thomas and St. John of Acon. This King gave them by his Will all the Furniture of his House, and much Money; but afterward they dwindled, and at last were united to the Hospitallers. The Ensign was a Red Cross, in the middle whereof stood the Figures of St. John and St. Thomas.

8. Knights of St. Thomas.

Distinct from the former, yet wearing the same Habit, as the Knights of St. John of Acon, making the same Processions, and following the same Rule; their Badge was a Saltire Gules, (or as others are of Opinion) the same with that of St. John of Acon, wanting the Figures in the middle: But Favin reports, this Order was instituted by King Richard I. after the Surprizal of Acon; and that these Knights were of the English Nation, who wore a White Habit and a Red Cross, charged in the middle with an Escallon, and that St. Thomas Becket was their Patron. Howbeit, after the Christians were driven out of the Holy Land, the Knights of this Order were joined to the Hospitallers.

9. Knights of St. Blaze.

These were also called Knights de Sta. Maria; they were Officers and Servants to the Kings of Armenia; their Habit was Sky colour with a Cross Gold on their Breasts; others say a Red Cross, and in the middle the Picture of St. Blaze, their Patron. This Order was at the height, when the Armenian Kings of the House of Luzignan kept their Court in Acon.

10. Knights of the Martyrs in Palestine.

These took their Denomination from an Hospital in Palestine, dedicated to St. Cosmus and St. Damianus, Martyrs; where Acts of Charity were exercised towards Sick Strangers. Their Profession obliged them to other Works of Mercy, viz. to redeem Captives, and bury their Dead. They followed the Rule of St. Basil, which was confirmed to them by Pope John XXII. There Badge was a Red Cross, in the middle whereof, within a Circle, was the aforesaid Two Saints. When they retir’d into Europe they changed into a Red Cross, and St. Augustin’s Rule.

11. Knights of St. Catherine at Mount Sinai.

This Order was instituted, A. D. 1063. under the Patronage of St. Catherine, whose Body was there deposited in the Church of the Monastery erected and dedicated to her Name. Their first Institution was to guard the said Sepulchre, to secure Travellers, defend the Grecian Pilgrims, and to relieve them with Hospitality. Their Habit was White, and they lived under the Rule of St. Basil the Great, vowing conjugal Chastity, and Obedience to the Abbot of this Monastery, who was their Superior. But when the Turks obtained these Countries, these Knights were ill treated and driven away, and the Order almost abolished; nevertheless some Shadow remains for such as travel to visit the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem, do now and then pass to this Monastery at Mount Sinai, where in imitation of the Padre Guardian of Jerusalem, the principal Monk in this Covent makes them Knights of St. Catherine over her Tomb, with the like Questions and Formulary as used at the Holy Sepulchre. These Knights now wear upon the left side of their White Habit the Cross of Jerusalem, and Instrument of St. Catherine’s Martyrdom; but according to others, the middle of the Wheel is pierced with a Sword.

12. Knights of St. Anthony in Æthiopia.

After the Death of St. Anthony the Hermite, who dy’d about the Year 357. many of his Disciples remaining near Æthiopia, follow’d his Example and Manner of Life, and their Successors liv’d in great Austerity and Solitariness in the Desart (therefore call’d Anchorites) till the Year 370. when ’tis said John, Emperor of Æthiopia, erected them into a Religious Order of Knighthood, under the Title and Protection of St. Anthony, Patron of his Empire, and bestow’d upon them great Privileges; and being thus instituted, they receiv’d St. Basil’s Rule, and cohabited in Monasteries. Their Habit is black, with a blue Cross Tau. Their chief Seat is in the Isle of Meroe; but in other Parts of Æthiopia they have great Numbers of Convents, and no less than 2000000 of annual Revenue. The eldest Sons of Nobles and Gentlemen cannot be admitted, but the second Sons may; and if a Man (except a Physician) have three Sons, he is bound to assign one of them to be of this Order. Their Vow is to observe conjugal Chastity; to die in Defence of the Christian Faith; to guard the Empire; to obey their Laws and their Superiors; and to go to War when and wheresoever commanded: Moreover, they take an Oath not to fight in Wars between Christians, nor receive Holy Orders, or marry without License. They are of two Sorts: One employ’d in the Wars, the other who being Old are exempted from Military Services, and retire themselves under the Title and Profession of Monks, to the Abbies where they first took their Habit; before which they must serve three Years against the Arabian Pyrates about the Red Sea, three Years against the Turks, and three against the Moors upon the Borders of Borneo. When they come to be admitted into their Abbey, they are introduced in their Military Habit, of which being disrob’d, the Religious one is put on, viz. a black Gown reaching down to the Ground, lined with blue, having a blue Cross fix’d to the Breast, and over that a black Cowle; they are afterwards led to the Church, and there make their Profession. Philip VII. Son to the Founder, enlarg’d their Lands and Privileges, and added a Border of Gold to the Badge of the blue Cross, as observed at this Day.

In Italy, France and Spain, there are a Sort of Monks that have the Title of Knights of St. Anthony, which observe the Rule of St. Augustin, and they wear a plain Cross like that in Æthiopia; but the Principals of these wear a double St. Anthony’s Cross of blue Satin, the one above the other. Their chief Seat is at Vienne in Dauphine, of which Place the General of the Order bears the Title of Abbot, the Monastery being erected into an Abbey 1297. in Honour of St. Anthony, whose Body was translated thither from Constantinople; and all other Places built in Honour of his Name, were made subject to him A. D. 1523. Morœus calls them The Hospitallers of St. Anthony, and says they begun in France A. D. 1121. from Gaston a Nobleman of Vienna. But Baronius and others say, Gaston and Gerin instituted it earlier, making the Letter Thau their Ensign or Badge.

13. The Constantinian Angelick Knights of St. George
in Greece, but now in Italy.

Marquez, a Spanish Writer, makes this one of the first Military Orders in Christendom, and derives a formal Institution, Rules and Laws from Constantine the Great, which appears little better than Fabulous, therefore we shall omit his Account.

The Great Masters have their chief Seat and Convent at Brianno near Venice, and is Hereditary in the Family of Angelus Flavius Comnenus. Among the rest of their Prerogatives, the Masters are Commensales Pontificum, i. e. may sit at the Table with the Pope, who defends them as Benefactors to the Church, and Founders of the Lateran Cathedral at Rome. As Subjects to no Prince, they have Power of coyning Money: They give Titles of Counts and Princes to their own Fraternity, and take upon them the restoring to Honours, of legitimating Bastards, making Doctors, Poets Laureats and Publick Notaries. This Order is under the Protection of the Virgin Mary and Patronage of St. George; and they profess Obedience and conjugal Chastity; they wear a white Habit, on the left Side whereof is sowed a red or crimson Velvet Cross, Flory; in the middle is the Labarum symbol imbroidered with the Letter A upon one Arm of the Cross, and Ω on the other. The Sides are wrought with Gold and Silk, but the Labarum is all Gold. Amongst these Knights are three Degrees; the first call’d Collered or Grand Crosses, wearing a Collar form’d of Labarums, whereat hangs the Cross and St. George. The second are the Knights, and these wear the Cross above describ’d. The third are Servants, and they bear the Cross only, without the Labarum. The many Grand Priorates or Commanderies belonging to this Order, shew the Power they were formerly endow’d with.

14. Knights of St. James in Galicia or Sanctiago.

This is the principal Order in Spain, and had its Title of Don Raniro, King of Leon, who about the Year 826. at Clavigio, by the Assistance of St. James (said to appear upon a white Horse, bearing a Banner with a red Cross) and gain’d a mighty Victory over a great Army of the Moors. Some place the Institution about the Year 1160. others 1175. whereas it was only then confirm’d, and their Rule of Living prescrib’d by Pope Alexander III. there being a Fraternity of Knights in Spain, A. D. 1030. under a Master and Governor, with Revenues.

And altho’ this Order at first were dispos’d to vertuous Courses, and valiantly to encounter the Moors, Enemies to the Cross of Christ, yet in time they became scandalously perverted, but were afterwards reduc’d to a better Life, and approv’d on by the said Pope Alexander, who receiv’d them into the Protection of the Papal See, and gave them the Rule of St. Augustin, the Form of holding Chapters, of electing their Masters, of Treves, and thirteen Commendadores of Houses, and of the Visitors; and in short very large Privileges, together with the Monastery of St. Lorjo, situate in Galicia near Sanctiago; and the Prior and Canons thereof were incorporated into this Order.

Their Ensign is a red Cross, which the Knights wear upon their Breast, terminating like the Blade of a Sword, the Hilt crosletted and fashion’d after the ancient Manner; whereupon it was call’d La Order de Sanctiago de la Espada.

Their Habit is a white Mantle close before, on the Breast whereon is placed the said Cross, made of Silk or Cloth, and they are obliged to wear it upon their Garments, Coats or Cloaks, tho’ they use Crosses of Gold likewise.

When the Moors were driven out of Spain, and the principal Branch of this Order expir’d, upon a Contest for the Place of Great Master, the Crown of Castile stepp’d in between, and by consent of the Knights, obtain’d it under the Title of Administrator, which was granted to King Ferdinand; and his Son Charles V. annex’d it with all its Rights, &c. to his Successors in the Kingdoms of Castile and Leon. Since which, the Kings of Spain now enjoy the Administration of this Order, and carry that Title and Stile in the Inscription upon the Great Seal thereof, which holds the Royal Arms of Spain, upon a Cross that filleth all the Shield, with a Sword at each of the four Corners.

15. Knights of St. Saviour in Arragon.

These were instituted A. D. 1118. by Don Alphonso, call’d Emperor of Spain, King of Navarre, Arragon, &c. chosen out of the Spanish and French Nobility that assisted in his Wars. He form’d them into a Society, the better to enable him to drive the Moors out of Saragossa, and the whole Territory of Arragon. Their Rule of living was the Cistercian, and somewhat conformable to the Knights Templars. When the Moors were driven out of Spain, their rich Commanderies were at length united to the Crown.

Their Habit was a white Mantle, on the Breast whereof was a red Cross Anchre; but some say it was the Figure of our Saviour.

16. Knights d’Avis in Portugal.

Don Alphonso Henriquez, first King of Portugal, took from the Moors, A. D. 1147. the City of Evora, and to strengthen it, sent thither several gallant Commanders, who assum’d the Title of Knights of St. Mary of Evora, putting themselves under the Protection of our blessed Lady. Not long after they were call’d d’Avis, from a Castle upon the Portuguese Frontiers, conquer’d from the Moors, whither they transplanted themselves. It was confirm’d by Pope Innocent III. A. D. 1204. under the Rule of St. Benedict, and therefore in some Papal Rules call’d of St. Benedict d’Avis. The Knights profess conjugal Chastity and Obedience. Anno 1213. they submitted themselves to the Rule, Statutes and Visitation of the Order of Calatrava; but in the Time of John of Portugal (natural Son to Pedro King of Portugal) seventh Great Master d’Avis, they cast off their Acknowledgments to Calatrava, and never after submitted to them; and afterwards, when the Crown of Portugal fell into the Hands of Philip II. King of Spain, this Order was govern’d according to the Statutes of Portugal.

Their Badge is a green Cross, Flory, (such as the Knights of Alcantara us’d to wear.) They must be Gentlemen by Extraction, both of the Father’s and Mother’s side.

17. Knights of St. Michael’s Wing in Portugal.

About the Year 1165. others say 1171. Don Alphonso, who founded the Order d’Avis, founded this also after his obtaining a notable Victory over the Moors and Albara King of Sevil, in which Battle St. Michael the Archangel is said to appear on the right Side of Alphonso, and fight against them.

Their Investiture, &c. was the same with d’Avis. It is now grown out of Use, but the Mastership remains with the King of Portugal.

18. Knights of St. Gereon.

This Order was establish’d by Frederick Barbarossa the Emperor; others say by Frederick II. and consisted only of the German Nation. They follow’d the Rule of St. Augustin, and wore a white Habit, whereon was sow’d a black Patriarchal Cross, set on a little green Hill.

19. Knights of St. Julian de Pereyro, or of Alcantara.

They had the first Appellation from St. Julian de Pereyro, a Town in Leon, where they had a Monastery built for them by Ferdinand II. King of Leon and Galicia, who in his Diploma of Privileges granted thereunto 1176. stiled himself Protector of this Society of Knights. In the Approbation-Bull of Pope Alexander III. their Chief is called Prior; but in that of Pope Lucius III. he is stiled Master of Pereyro. They used a Secular Habit, modest and grave, and the Ecclesiasticks a Clerical Habit, with a Shred of Cloth and a Scapulary, to distinguish them from other Seculars and Ecclesiasticks. They observed the Rule of St. Benedict moderated, as it was convenient for the Exercise of Arms against the Moors, for which End it was instituted. Their ancient Badge was a Pear-tree Vert, in Allusion to the Name.

The Occasion of altering the first Appellation was upon change of their Habitation. Pope Adrian VI. annex’d this Mastership, together with those of St. James and Calatrava, to the Royal Crown of Castile for ever.

20. Knights of Trugillo or Truxillo in Spain.

This Order is so call’d from the City of Trugillo in Estremadura, but when, or by whom founded, or their Badge, is unknown. Some suppose these Knights the same with that of Alcantara; ’tis evident they were in being A. D. 1227. when ’tis pretended the Master of Alcantara took Trugillo from the Moors, and plac’d there a Brotherhood of Knights. But it seems these Knights of Truxillo, were a distinct Order several Years before, and ’tis not unlikely that they might be incorporated into that of St. Julian de Pereyro, and by this Means the Order of Alcantara acquired the Towns of Trugillo, Sancta Cruz, &c. which Alfonso IX. King of Castile had given them. They were to be of Noble Descent, and make proof of their Gentility; they were obliged to be near the King’s Person, and to attend him in all Martial Expeditions, maintaining always Two Horses and Servants in Readiness.

21. Knights of Calatrava.

This Order was instituted in Castile by Sanchio III. and so called from Calatrava, a Frontier Castle of Castile and Toledo, which the Moors took, A. D. 714. compounded of the Arabick Cala a Castle, and the Spanish Travas Manacles, with which the Moors fettered the Christians; 400 Years after which, upon the Recovery of the Town from the Moors, it was given to the Knights Templars; but they, unable to stop the mighty Conquests of the Moors, the said Sanchio by Proclamation promis’d the Inheritance to any who would undertake the Defence of it, being the Key of the Kingdom of Toledo. At length Raymond of Barcelona (formerly a Knight, then a Cistercian Abbot) by the Perswasion of Velasquez, accepted the Proffer, and had the Donation, A. D. 1158. and fortifying it by the Help of his Associates, this Order arose, call’d at first Militia de Calatrava. Upon the account of the Fertility of the Place, 20000 Men and their Families were drawn from the neighbouring Countries to settle there, so that the Moors never after attempted it. They remain’d under their own Masters till Pope Adrian VI. annex’d it to the Crowns of Castile and Leon.

22. Order of the Holy Ghost at Rome.

Marquez calls them Brothers of the Hospital of the Holy Ghost, who tho’ not invested with Swords and Spurs, are nevertheless reckoned among the Military Orders, because bound to certify their Gentility before Admittance. Their chief Seat is the Sumptuous Hospital of the Holy Ghost, founded at Saxia near the River Tyber at Rome, by Pope Innocent III. A. D. 1198. or 1201. But the Ancient Foundation was the Hospital of the Holy Ghost at Montpelier in France, tho’ this other became the Principal. They profess Chastity, Poverty, and Obedience, living under the Rule of St. Augustine, and have a Master. Their Ensign is a White Patriarchal Cross with Twelve Points, sowed to their Breast, and on the left side of their Black Mantle.

In this Hospital, Care is taken for the nursing and bringing up exposed Children, curing Infirmities, Entertainment of Strangers for Three Days, relieving the Poor, and the like Works. Their Revenue is about 24000 Ducats per Day, having great Commandaries in Italy, Sicily, Spain, France, Burgundy, Germany, and elsewhere.

23. Knights of St. George d’Alfama.

So named from a Town in Tortosa, were instituted, A. D. 1201. received Approbation from the Papal See, A. D. 1363. and A. D. 1399. was united to the Order of our Lady of Montesa.

24. Knights of Christ in Livonia, or of the Sword-bearers.

A. D. 1186. Mainard first preach’d Christianity to the Livonians, and erected the Bishoprick of Riga; but his Successors meeting with many Difficulties, A. D. 1200. Albert, then Bishop of Livonia, instituted this Order in Imitation of the Knights Teutonicks, with design to extirpate Idolatry, and promote the Gospel. He prescribed to these Knights the Cistercian Rule and Habit, viz. a long White Mantle and Black Hood; on the Breast was the Figure of a Red Sword, or rather Two plac’d in Saltire, whence they had the Title of Ensiferi fratres, or Brethren Sword-bearers. Their Statutes were something like the Knights Templars, and they vowed Obedience and Chastity. Pope Innocent III. confirmed this Order, which became fully instituted, A. D. 1203. but because they could not of themselves accomplish their End. About the Year 1237, they were united to the Teutonick Order, and submitted to their Rule and Habit, by whose Help they overcame the Livonians, and brought them to the Christian Faith; thenceforward the Great Master of Livonia acknowledged him of Prussia their Superior, until Walter de Pletemberg, their Great Master, separated this Order from their Obedience to the Teutonick. Finally, A. D. 1561. Gothard de Ketler, the last Great Master, following the Example of the Great Master of Prussia, became subject to the Crown of Poland, surrendering to King Sigismond II. the City and Castle of Riga, and all the Lands, Charters, Privileges, &c. of this Order, receiving in exchange the Dukedom of Curland, to him and his Heirs for ever; so the Order expired after 357 Years continuance.

25. Knights of Jesus Christ in Italy or France.

St. Dominick descended of the Family of the Guzmans in Spain, instituted this Order, A. D. 1206. principally to fight against the Albigenses, then call’d Hereticks. He prescribed to them a White Habit, and for their Badge a Cross flory, quarterly, sable and argent. The Work being done with the Albigenses, they devoted themselves wholly to spiritual Warfare; and afterwards, upon admitting Widows and Virgins into their Order, they became called Fratres seu Sorores de Pœnitentia B. Dominici, whose Rule Pope Innocent VI. confirm’d circa An. 1360.

26. Knights of St. Mary de Merced. in Aragon.

James I. of Aragon, being sometime a Prisoner to Simon Earl of Montfort in France, where he suffered much Hardship, and being moved with the insufferable Miseries the Christians endured under the Slavery of the Moors, made a Vow to the Blessed Virgin, That when delivered himself, he would endeavour the Redemption of such Christians as the Moors had made Captives, and accordingly laid up great Summs for the Performance; and afterwards, by the Council of Raymond de Penafort, his Confessor, and Pedro Nolasco, a Noble Chevalier, he founded in Barcelona this Order of la Nueva Merced, so named by the Virgin, who, as they reported, appeared to them all in one and the same Hour, directing the Institution. In Anno 1358. I find it called also Ordo beatæ Eulaliæ, from St. Eulalia the Virgin and Martyr, buried at Barcelona in the Church bearing her Name. This Order began on the Day of St. Laurence, in August, A. D. 1218. in the Fifth Year of that King, which Day they annually commemorate. They were to gather Alms, and go in Person to redeem Christian Slaves; which Work prospered so well, that Velasco (the first General or Head) set at Liberty 400 within the Space of Six Years after its Foundation. Their Habit was a Coat and Scapular of course white Cloath, garnished with Cordons and Ribbons, wherewith they fast’ned it about their Necks, and from the upper-end thereof issued a Cap that covered half their Head: The Monks wore their Coats and Scapulars reaching down to their Feet; but those of the Knights were much shorter. A. D. 1251. King James, the Founder, granted unto all the Fraternity, that they should wear upon their Scapulars the Arms of Aragon, viz. Or 4 Pales Gules, and above that the White Cross of the Church of Barcelona in a red Field, with Two Coats joined together per fess in one Shield, which came afterwards to be encompassed with a Bordure, which the Knights wore on their Scapulars, but the Monks on their Mantles, and both upon their Breasts. Disputes arising among themselves, they were incorporated with the Knights of Montesa; so that, ever since, the whole Fraternity have been only Priests. The Master General hath his Residence at Barcelona, by the Decrees of Pope Clement V. and John XXII. To conclude, they now collect great Sums of Money, send out their Agents yearly, chiefly to Algiers and Fess, and for the Redemption of Christian Captives, and have from the Time of their Institution followed their proposed Ends with all religious Care and Faithfulness.

27. Knights of the Rosary in Toledo.

Roderick, Bishop of Toledo in Spain, seeing the Country sore oppressed by the Moors, assembled the Noblest of the City, and proposed the Necessity of their Assistance to extirpate the Moors; whereunto they being unanimously inclin’d, he gave Beginning to this Order. By their Statutes, besides fighting against the Moors, they are obliged to say, continually, the Rosary of our Blessed Lady. Their Rule of Living was that of St. Dominick; and their Ensign the Figure of our Lady of the Rosary upon a Cross flory, quarterly, argent and sable.

28. Knights of St. Mary the Glorious, in Italy.

Their Author was Bartholomeo de Vincenza, a Friar Preacher, or Dominican, afterwards Bishop of that City. The End he chiefly designed, was to procure Peace to Italy, then much disquieted by Civil Wars. It was instituted, A. D. 1233. called Generalis Devotionis annus, and approved and confirmed by Pope Urban IV. A. D. 1262. and the Rule of St. Dominick prescribed them, who are obliged to take into their Care Widows and Orphans, and endeavour to beget Concord among such as are at Variance. Their Habit is a White Tunick or Cassock, and a Mantle of Russet; some make their Badge which they wear upon their Breast a purple Cross patee bordered with Gold, others make it a purple Cross patee, with Two Stars in chief; but Marquez, that has writ of the Order of Knighthood, gives it an Octogonal Cross, like that of Malta. They profess Obedience and Conjugal Chastity; but are forbid to wear Spurs or Bridles of Gold: They are commonly called Cavaleri de Madona, and reside at Bolonia, Modena, and other Italian Cities; and because they have no Monasteries, but dwell in their own Houses at Ease and Plenty, they were called Fratres Gaudentes or Hilares.

29. Knights of St. James, in Portugal,

Were instituted, A. D. 1310. by Denys VI. King of Portugal, in honour of St. James, under whose Protection he became victorious in divers Battles against the Moors, and at length quieted his Kingdom by the Assistance of these Knights. It was not long after its Institution ere this Order flourished, through the Privileges the Founder bestowed, and the Approbation of Pope Nicholas IV. and others his Successors. The Knights profess Conjugal Chastity, Hospitality and Obedience, and none are admitted till they make proof of their Gentility by Blood. Their Ensign is a red Sword, formed like that of St. James of Galicia; the Habit White, and the only difference between them lies in a little Twist of Gold which these of Portugal draw about their Sword. At Alcasar de Sul was their Principal Convent, which they afterwards removed to Dalmela, where it yet continues. Their Statutes, &c. are much the same with those of St. James in Galicia, whereupon some erroneously have confounded them.

30. Knights of our Lady, and of St. George of Montesa.

This Order succeeded into the Lands and Possessions of the Knights Templars in Valentia, as the Knights Hospitallers did into those of the Templars in France, Italy, and England; for James II. King of Aragon and Valentia, refusing to give their Revenues to the Hospitallers (which as other Princes had done) gave them to the Convent of Montesa, where had been placed both Knights and Friars of the Order of Calatrava; and excusing himself to Pope John XXII. A. D. 1317. he instituted this Order in the City Valentia (nevertheless subject to that of Calatrava) and made choice of the Town of Montesa, to give the Knights both Name and Habitation, whom he obliged to defend his Kingdom against the Moors. Their College, dedicated to St. George, was built the following Year, and their Statutes confirmed by the said Pope John, who gave them the Cistercian Rule. Upon their Habit is White, and the Badge a plain red Cross, which they wear on their Breasts. A. D. 1399. the Order of St. George d’Alfama was incorporated to it. And the Great Office of Master hereof is in the King of Spain, who hath the Revenue of Thirteen Commandaries belonging thereunto to the Value of 23000 Ducats per annum.

31. Knights of Christ in Portugal.

These sprang also from the Ruin of the Knights Templars, whose confiscated Estates King Denys, sirnamed Penoca, desired of Pope John XXII. might not be disposed out of his Kingdom, in regard of the great Evils the Neighbouring Moors in Algarves, did his Kingdom; and forasmuch as the Town of Castro Marin was a Frontier, and commodious to resist the Enemy, he moved for Licence to institute an Order of Knights therein, and offer’d his Holiness the Rents and Jurisdiction thereof, which accordingly was granted by the Pope, and dedicated it to the Honour of God, and the Exaltation of the Catholick Faith, under the Title of the Military Order of our Lord Jesus Christ, as is alledged from the miraculous Apparition of our Saviour crucified, seen by the King when he went out to fight the Moors.

32. Knights of the Passion of Jesus Christ.

This Order was erected by Charles King of France, (tho’ it made no Progress) and our King Richard II. with a large Design exceeding all other Religious Orders, except those of St. John of Jerusalem and Knights Templars. They were to renew the Memory of our Saviour’s Passion, to extirpate Pride, Covetousness and Luxury, to make way for the Reconquest of Jerusalem and Palestine, and for the Subversion and Confusion of Enemies of the Faith. A MSS. in the Arundelian Library, reckons up Twenty Causes for the Necessity of its Institution, which are too long to be inserted; and altho’ it was dedicated to our Saviour, yet the Blessed Virgin was look’d upon as a principal Mediatress and Advocate of this Holy Chevalry. Their Governments in the principal Convent, were to be debated by Five Councils, in the Presence of the Prince: 1. The Quotidian Council, consisting of Twenty-four: 2. The Particular consisting of about Fourty: 3. The Grand Council consisting of Eighty. 4. The General Chapter held every Year. And, 5. The Universal Chapter to be held every Fourth or Sixth Years, consisting of a Thousand Knights of the Chevalry. The Principal Officer was the Grand Justiciary, the next the Grand Bailiff: In the Chief City, and in every City and Castle of theirs, one was to administer Justice called a Potestate. In the general Chapter was to be an Officer called the Senator, and in the Universal Chapter a Dictator with Coadjutors and Assistants.

In the principal Convent were to be Ten Executers of Justice, and Four styled Charitable Commissaries, whose Office was, to provide for Widows and Orphans; and whereas this Order was made up of Eight several Languages, and as many Notaries, who put on the Habit of the Brothers; for the greater Regularity of their Order, they were to bind themselves by Oath to the Observance of these Three Points, Obedience to Sovereigns, Poverty of Spirit, and Conjugal Chastity. They were allotted for their Maintainance, the Possession of Cities, Castles, &c. Gold, Silver, &c. and all to be in common, &c.

There was to belong to the Castle or Principal Convent a Church of marvellous Structure; it was design’d Fifty Cubits in breadth, without any Pillars, a Hundred Cubits long, and in height Twenty-five; likewise an Hospital, where the Widows of the Holy Chevalry should attend upon the Sick and Infirm; a Baptistery or Font, for the Baptizing the Children of the Knights; a stately Palace, with a great Hall and large Consistories, to contain the Prince and Council with their Retinue; with a large and delightful Cloister for the Canons and Clerks; together with a very spacious Palace, to entertain the Princes of the West when they came that Way, either to War, or upon Pilgrimage: In fine, there was to have been Three chief Halls, wherein they might dine together; with distinct Lodgings and Habitations, Wine-Cellars, Granges, Granaries, Stables for Horses and Cattel, Easements, Mills, Cisterns, Baths, and all other Necessaries for the Chevalry. Their Habit was to denote the Passion of Jesus.

The Dress they were obliged to was a hansome Cloth Coat of a civil Colour, reaching down half way their Legs, and girt with a large Girdle of Silk or Leather Two Fingers broad, the Buckle of Black Horn, the Tongue and Garnishing of the Holes, Tin; to have Red Chaperons or Caps, representing the Blood of our Saviour; over their said Coats, a Mantle of White Cloth or Serge, which from the Shoulders downward was to be open on both Sides along the Arms, and in that Part before the Breast a Cross of red Cloth or Serge Two Fingers broad, extending to the Breadth and Length of that Part of the Mantle; the Cross of the Prince’s Mantle was to be edged round with a Gold Fringe about half an Inch broad; there were to be some other small Distinction as to the Shape of the Cross upon the White Habit to be used by this Holy Chevalry. Their Arms in a Banner were Argent, upon a Cross Gules; a Compass of Four convex semi-circles, conjoyning Four intervening Angles alternately sable (in Allusion to the Agony of our Lord) charged with an Agnus Dei Or, the Compass and Cross both fimbriated Gold, with a little red Bordure.

In Times of extraordinary Danger, and great Battles, they were to have another singular and solemn Banner; every Knight was to have his Esquire armed at all Points, a little Valet for his Lance and Helmet, a bigger to carry his Mail, and a third to lead his Sumpter; Five Horses, and Four Servants were to attend him in all Warlike Expeditions, and Two or Three Horses and Servants in all Times of Peace. The Number of these Knights of the Holy Chevalry was 1000 or 1100.

33. The Order of the Brician Knights in Sweden.

Was founded, A. D. 1366. by an holy and famous Queen of that Kingdom which they repute St. Bridget, the Aim of whose Profession was to oppose Heresy, secure the Confines of the Kingdom, bury the Dead, succour Widows and Fatherless, and to keep up Hospitality. Their chief Ensign was a Blue Octogonal Cross, and under it a Tongue of Fire, the Symbol of Love and Charity.

34. Knights of St. Maurice in Savoy.

This Order took its rise upon the Retreat of Amadeus VIII. Duke of Savoy, into the Desart of Ripaille, near the Lake of Geneva, and was conferr’d by him, A. D. 1434. on Ten of his Courtiers, who retir’d with him, as well as to preserve the Memory of St. Maurice, the Patron of Savoy. Nine Years after its Institution, the Founder was elected Pope, A. D. 1439. and assumed the Name of Felix V. Nine Years after that he resigned the Chair, and retir’d to his Solitude in Ripaille, where he died, Jan. 7. 1451. and lies buried at Lausanna. The Order continued not long after his Death; but Duke Emanuel Philibert restored it, A. D. 1572. and the Dukes of Savoy are their Grand Masters.

35. Knights of the Holy Ghost,

Were instituted by Pope Paul II. A. D. 1468. under the Title of Brethren of the Hospital of the Holy Ghost, They wore upon their Habits a White Cross forme.

36. Knights of St. George in Austria and Carinthia.

The Emperor Frederick III. others say Rudolphus of Hapsburgh, first Founder of the Greatness of the House of Austria, instituted this Order, A. D. 1470. chiefly to guard the Frontiers of Germany, Hungary, Austria, Stiria, and Carinthia, and to suppress the Insolency of the Turks, since which these Knights have gallantly behaved themselves. The Great Master was advanc’d to the Honour of a Prince; and the Castle of Mildstad in Carinthia was given him for his Seat, where was founded a Cathedral Church of Canons, under the Rule of St. Augustin. Their Ensign is the Arms of St. George, a red Cross, and their Habit white; they profess Conjugal Chastity and Obedience, and have the Emperors for their Protectors.

There are also Cavalleros de San Jorge en Alemania, an Order erected by the Emperor Maximilian, 1494. upon the like Design with the former; it was confirmed by Pope Alexander VI. and is under the same Profession and Protection as the other. There Ensign is a red Cross, with a Crown of Gold on the top of it; they were otherwise called crowned Knights; for after they had served a Year, they and their Heirs have a peculiar right of Adorning their Shields and Helms with a Crown; the Occasion was upon a notable Victory obtained against the Turks, who confessed that a Man on Horseback supposed to be St. George, put them into that Fear and Disorder as to quit the Field.

37. Knights of St. George at Rome.

These were instituted by Alexander VI. 1498. or, as others say, by Pope Paul III. at whose Death it became extinct. They dwelt at Ravenna, their Province, and were to secure the Adriatick Sea from Pyrates.

38. Knights of St. Peter at Rome.

Pope Leo X. A. D. 1520. instituted this Order to fight against the Turks, and defend the Sea Coasts. Their Number was Four Hundred; they wore the Image of St. Peter within an Oval of Gold hanging at a Golden Chain.

39. Knights of St. Paul at Rome,

Were instituted by Paul III. 1540. and while he was Pope, he made Two Hundred of them. Their Ensign was St. Paul’s Image hanging at a Golden Chain.

40. Knights called Pios at Rome.

Pope Pius IV. erected this Order 1560. He created of them at first 375. but they encreased to 535. He granted them very considerable Endowments, and preferr’d them before the Knights of the Empire, and Malta, because they were his Courtiers, and had the Charge of carrying his Chair on their Shoulders when he went abroad.

41. Knights of St. Stephen at Florence.

This Order was founded in imitation of the Knights of Malta, 1561. by Cosmo de Medicis II. Duke of Florence, afterwards first Duke of Tuscany, in honour of St. Stephen, Pope and Martyr, the Patron of the City of Florence, and in memory of the Battle on the 6th of August, (St. Stephens-day) at Marciano, where overthrowing the Assertors of Liberty, he laid the Foundation of his Grandeur. Pius IV. confirmed it under the Rule of St. Benedict, which was afterwards enlarged with many Emoluments and Privileges, by the succeeding Popes. The Knights vow’d Conjugal Chastity and Charity, in relieving the Afflicted, Obedience to their Masters the Great Dukes of Tuscany. The chief Place of their Residence was at Pisa, where the Founder erected a Church and Convent, as a Nursery for Persons skilful in Maritime Affairs, but since it is transferred to Cosmopoli in the Isle of Ilva. Their Habit is a long Mantle of White Chamlet trimmed with Red, and on the left part of their Breast a Cross (like that of Malta) of red or crimson Satin border’d with Gold; it is daily worn on their Cloaks, and on their Military Garments, and about their Necks in a Ribbon on Festival Days. This Order (like the Maltese) also consists of Knights, Priests and Servants. The Priests wear the Cross of red Taffaty without a Bordure, the Servants the Cross of St. Anthony only. The Statutes were reformed by Ferdinand Duke of Tuscany, Son to the Founder, and approv’d, 1590.

42. Knights of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus in Savoy.

Pope Gregory XIII. having, at the Request of Emanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy, restor’d the Order of St. Lazarus, and the Order of St. Maurice, A. D. 1572. and constituted this Duke Grand Master, the same Year, for their greater Honour, he united them under the Title of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus, and appointed the Dukes of Savoy Hereditaries and Masters, and oblig’d them to furnish out two Gallies for the Service of the Papal See, to be employ’d against Pyrates. Upon this Union, the Knights had assign’d them for Habit a Gown of Crimson Tabby, with wide Sleeves, a long Train, and edg’d with white Taffaty, and a Cordon with a Tassel of White and Green fix’d to the Collar. The Badge is, A green Cross ancree of St. Laurence, plac’d Saltirewise, surmounted with the white Cross pornelle of St. Maurice, which the Knights wear either in a Gold Chain, or any colour’d Ribbon. And the said Duke founded for the Knights two fair Convents, one at Nice, the other at Turin, and bestow’d on them all the Revenues within his Territories, formerly appertaining to the Order of St. Lazarus. The Dukes of Savoy, as Grand Masters, use this Title.

43. Knights of Loretto.

This Order, about the Year 1587. was instituted by Sixtus V. who erected the Church of our Lady at Loretto into a Cathedral and Bishop’s See, and gave the Knights for their Ensign, the Image of our Lady of Loretto, hung in a Gold Chain. This is not quite extinguish’d.

44. Knights of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel.

Tho’ the Grand Mastership of St. Lazarus, and its Commandaries in all Dominions, were confirm’d by Pope Gregory XIII. upon the House of Savoy, yet under King Henry III. some Knights in France, of that Order, refus’d to joyn with their Fellows, under the Obedience of the Duke of Savoy. King Henry IV. desirous to have a new order, bearing the Denomination of The Blessed Virgin, &c. apply’d himself to Pope Paul V. and obtain’d what he su’d for A. D. 1608. (besides other Pensions out of certain Ecclesiastical Benefices in France) the Commandaries and Hospitals of St. Lazarus in that Kingdom, and the Knights of St. Lazarus that remain’d in France, were incorporated with them under two Titles; their Seal being inscrib’d, Sigillum Ordinis & Militiæ Mariæ Virginis de Monte Carmeli, & Sancti Lazari in Hierusalem. The Order consists of One Hundred choice French Gentlemen, whose Offices are to attend on the King in every warlike Expedition. They vow Chastity and Obedience, and profess to fight against the Enemies of the Romish See. The Feast of the Patroness is the 16th of July; Philibert Nerestang, a valiant Knight of St. Lazarus, was elected their first Master 1608. Their Badge is a Cross of 8 Points of tawny Velvet or Sattin, with a white Border sow’d on the left Side of their Cloaks, and the Image of the Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel plac’d in the Middle, within a Rundle encompass’d with Rays of Gold. They also wear about their Necks, in a tawny Silk Ribbon, the like Cross of Gold; but the Image of the said Knights is enamel’d on both Sides. There Investiture is like that of Malta.

45. Knights of the most Glorious Virgin Mary of Rome.

A. D. 1618. Pedro, John Baptista, and Bernardo, sirnam’d Petrignaneos (three Brethren of Spelta in Italy) invented this Order: To which was added, the Rule of St. Francis d’Assise, whereof the Popes are Great Masters. Paul V. confirm’d them, and gave these Knights the Palace of St. John Lateran for their Convent, and the City and Port of Civita Vecchia to make their Arsenal; with an Island adjacent, together with the Government of his Gallies. Their Institution was for the Exaltation of the Roman Church, and to check or suppress the Turks roving in the Mediterranean. There are three Sorts of this Order, 1. Knights Gentlemen, Laicks. 2. Knights Gentlemen, Priests and benefic’d. 3. Knights Chaplains, or Servants of Arms. All of these wear on the left Side of their Mantles their Badge, which is a blew Cross floree Azure, border’d with Silver, having 4 Mullets, or Stars, at the End of each Flower, to signifie the Four Evangelists; in the Middle is a Circle (extended round underneath the Arms of the Cross) set with 12 Rays for the 12 Apostles, inscrib’d, In hoc signo vincam; and within it (taking up the Center of the Cross) is a Cypher of M. S. i. e. Sancta Maria, crown’d with Chaplets of Flowers, and Stars of Gold set over the Chaplet.

46. Knights of the Annunciade, and St. Michael the Archangel in
Mantua, or of the Christian Militia in Moravia.

By these Names they have been promiscuously called. It was instituted 1618. by Charles Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua and Nevers, in Conjunction with Adolph, Count of Altham his Brother, and John Baptist Petrignan Sfortia. To give it the greater Lustre, they divided the World among them; Charles took the North and West Parts, Adolph the Eastern, and the other had the South, where they were personally to found Convents and invest Knights. Duke Charles began his Institution of this Order under the Rule of St. Francis, in Olmutz the Metropolis of Moravia, the Year aforesaid, and dedicated it to the blessed Virgin and St. Michael: But what Progress the others made in their pious Resolutions, History is silent. It has been likewise styl’d, Conceptionis Ordo & Militis Virginis annunciatæ. Anno 1612. several illustrious Princes of divers Countries entered themselves into that Order at Vienna. It was approv’d by Pope Paul V. and confirm’d by Pope Paul VIII. 1624. The Design of its Institution was, to establish Peace and Concord among Christian Princes and their Subjects; to release Captives, and deliver the Oppressed out of the Hands of the Infidels.

On some unhappy Difference among the illustrious Founders, in a short time it moulder’d away and became ineffectual, that the Mahometans (for whose Destruction it was design’d) heard only the Report of it.


§ 1.

HAVING particulariz’d the Religious Orders, I shall proceed to those accounted absolutely Military. Among them,

1. Knights of the Round Table may, for Antiquity,
challenge the first Place

The Founder was Arthur King of Britain, crown’d in the Year of our Lord 516, at the Age of 15 Years; of whose incredible Courage and Gallantry, tho’ some have stretch’d too far, yet William of Malmsbury is of Opinion, he was worthy to have been celebrated by true and faithful Historians, and not false and spurious Tales. He it was that long prop’d up his declining Country, and inspir’d Martial Courage into his Subjects, the Saxons, in twelve pitch’d Battles having overcome, and conquer’d divers Countries. He liv’d in so great Repute and Renown, that worthy Knights came from all Parts to his Court, as a Seminary of Military Discipline, to demonstrate their Valour in point of Arms. This gave him Occasion to select out of these, and his own Subjects, some say Twenty Four of the most Valiant, which he united in a Fellowship; and to avoid all Controversy upon Precedency, caus’d a Round Table to be made, whence the Order had its Appellation. He admitted not only Britains, but Strangers; and their Qualifications were to be Persons of Nobility, Dignity, and renown’d for Vertue and Valour. The Place where they were instituted was Windsor; and those others of Note, where he and his Knights assembled, were at Caerleon in Monmouthshire, Winchester, and Camelot in Com’ Somerset; and their time of convening was Whitsuntide. In Winchester Castle was a large Round Table, call’d (and affirm’d to be) King Arthur’s; or at least set up in the room of one more ancient, which was destroy’d in the rebellious Times of Forty One, with other Reliques there. The Articles of their Profession (Number 12) are set down by Sir William Segar. We find no authentick Proof what Badge they bore, notwithstanding the Report that King Arthur had a Shield nam’d Pridwin, wherein the Virgin Mary was depicted. His Sword and Lance had also their Names, one being call’d Caliburne, the other Irone or Rone. It’s not remember’d that this Order surviv’d the Founder, but rather that it expir’d with him, most of these Knights perishing with him at the Battle of Kamblan, now Camelsford, in Cornwall, where tho’ he kill’d his Enemy Mordred, yet he dy’d A. D. 542.

It may be noted, that the like Round Table grew in Estimation shortly after the Norman Conquest, being permitted at Haslelades, Tilts and Turnaments, temp. Steph. and R. I. And Roger Mortimer, Earl of March, kept the Celebration of the Round Table (consisting of One Hundred Knights, and as many Ladies) with Tilting at Kenelworth-Castle, in Com’ Worcest’ 7 Ed. I. And King Edward III. designing to restore it, held a Just at Windsor in the 18th Year of his Reign; and in the 19th ordain’d it annually to be kept there at Whitsontide. But it was thought fit upon divers Accounts to forbid these Assemblies, and in particular 16 H. III. at Shrewsbury, when the King went to meet Llewellin Prince of Wales, and in 36 H. III. and at many other times.

2. Knights of the Oak in Navarre,

Were instituted by Garcia Ximenes of the Blood of the Goths, who had formerly retir’d from the World to a solitary Life, but relinquish’d it to command an Army rais’d by the Navarrois, to deliver themselves from the Oppression of the Moors. As he was marching to encounter them, A. D. 722. there appear’d to him from the Top of an Oak the Sign of the Cross, ador’d by an infinite Number of Angels. On giving Battle to the Infidels he gain’d a remarkable Victory, and the People elected him their King; and he in thankfulness to God erected this Order, investing his Nobles therewith, and oblig’d them to defend the Christian Faith, and acknowledge Obedience to his Successors, Kings of Navarre. Time has eclips’d this Order.

3. The Order of the Gennet,

Was Founded by Charles Martel, in Memory of the famous Battle near Tours, A. D. 726. where he overthrew 385000 Saracens and Moors, with their General Abdiramo; and to reward those who had well-behav’d themselves in this Action. The great Number of rich Gennet Furr, (Ermine has since gain’d the better value) as also the Creatures themselves taken alive among the Spoils, was the Occasion of assuming the Name: But others impute it to Gennets, a kind of neat-shap’d Horses, whereof not unlikely a great Part of the Founder’s Cavalry consisted. The Knights were Sixteen in Number, and were accounted the first Order of this Nature among the French, which continu’d till the Institution of the Star, when it was laid aside, tho’ some French Authors question if ever the Order was in being.

4. The Order of the Crown-Flower,

Erected by Charles the Great, Son of King Pepin, A. D. 802. to reward the Frizons, who had behav’d themselves valiantly in his Armies, and to encourage others to emulate their Vertue. It was so call’d from its Ensign, viz. an Imperial Crown embroider’d with Gold. The Knights were invested with the Military Belt and a Box on the Ear.

5. The Order of the Dog and Cock.

That there was such an Order in France is related by several Writers, but they give no certain Account of its Institution.

6. The Order of St. Andrew, or the Thistle, in Scotland,

Is reported by John Lesley, Bishop of Ross, to take beginning from a bright Cross in Heaven, in Fashion of that whereon St. Andrew suffer’d Martyrdom, which appear’d to Hungus, King of the Picts (and to the Scots whom Achaius King of Scotland sent to his Assistance) the Night preceding the Battle with Athelstan King of England; over whom prevailing, they went in Solemn Procession to the Kirk of St. Andrew, to thank God and his Apostle for their Victory, promising that they and their Posterity would ever bear the Figure of that Cross in their Ensigns and Banners. Favin, in his Theatre of Honour, relates it to be instituted upon the famous League, Offensive and Defensive, made between Achaius and Charlemain King of France; to preserve the Memory of which Alliance, Achaius added the Tressure of Flowers de Lys to the Lyon, and took for Device the Thistle and Rue, which he compos’d into a Collar of his Order; and for his Motto, Pour ma Defence: Yet doth Menenius make these the Symbols of two different Orders, one of the Thistle, whence the Knights were so styl’d, and the Motto, Nemo me impune lacessit; the other call’d Sertum Rutæ, or The Garland of Rue: Nevertheless to both these Collars hung one and the same Jewel, viz. the Figure of St. Andrew, bearing his Cross before him. But there are some, saith the same Author, that refer the Institution of the Thistle (the Badge of the Scotch Kingdom from the Times of Achaius) to the Reign of Charles VII. King of France, when the Amity was renew’d between both Kingdoms. Lastly, Others place its Foundation 1500. Their principal Ensign is a Gold Collar, compos’d of Thistles interlink’d with Anulets of Gold, and pendant thereto St. Andrew with his Cross, and this Epigraph, Nemo me impune lacessit. Their solemn Meeting was annually on St. Andrew’s Day, in the Church of the Town dedicated to his Name: During the Festivity, the Knights were richly habited, and wore their Parliament Robes, having fix’d on their left Shoulders an Azure Roundle, charg’d with a Saltire Argent, or St. Andrew’s Cross enfil’d in Centre, with a Crown compos’d of Flower de Luces Or. For the ordinary and common Ensign, the Knights us’d a Green Ribbon, whereat hung a Thistle of Gold, crown’d with an Imperial Crown, within a Circle of Gold, containing the last nam’d Epigraph; and now of late they have sew’d to their left Breast an Irradiation (like that of The Knights of the Garter) over a Saltire Silver, the Irradiation charg’d with a Blew Roundle of St. Andrew’s Cross. Their Number consisted of Thirteen, in Allusion to our blessed Saviour and the Twelve Apostles.

7. Knights of our Lady of the Star,

Owe their Original to Robert the Devout of France, A. D. 1022. to manifest his strict Devotion to the blessed Virgin. They were in Number Thirty, inclusive of the Chief. Their Seat was in the noble and ancient House of St. Owen, call’d de Chichey, near St. Denys in France. This Order was of no long continuance, for being much sully’d and disgrac’d (during the Civil and Foreign Wars) by the Imitation of Persons that had neither Birth nor Merit to recommend them, King Charles VII. took Occasion to efface it A. D. 1455. by delivering up, in a Chapter, the Ensign that he wore to the Chevalier du Guet, Captain of the Night-watch in Paris, the Lords and Princes throwing it off after it had receiv’d that Mark of Infamy; tho’ some alledge it declin’d upon the Erection of The Order of St. Michael, as the Star supplanted that of the Gennet.

8. The Order of the Lilly in Navarre, or of St. Mary of the Lilly,

Was founded A. D. 1048. by Garcius VI. King of Navarre, in Honour of the blessed Virgin Mary, after his Recovery from a languishing Sickness. Others relate, that prevailing against the Moors, he made a Feast in Honour of the blessed Virgin, at which he instituted this Order, electing his Brothers and Sons among the first Knights. It was esteem’d the most Illustrious of all Spain, and consisted of Thirty Eight Knights, extracted out of the ancientest Blood of Navarre, Biscay and Old Castile. The Kings of Navarre were their Chief. They promis’d, at their Institution, to expose their Lives and Fortunes in Defence of the Christian Faith, the Conservation of the Crown, and Expulsion of the Moors.

9. The Order of the Sword in Cyprus,

Was erected 1195. by Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem and Cyprus, after he had purchas’d that Isle of our King Richard I. in Commemoration of so fortunate a Plantation of 15000 Persons whom he brought thither. Some question the Truth of this; however all assent, its Founder was one of the Lusignan Family. The Collar was compos’d of round Cordons of white Silk, woven into Love-Knots, interlac’d with the Letters S and R. Beneath this Collar hung an Oval of Gold, whereon was perfigur’d a Sword, the Blade enamell’d Silver, the Hilt Gold, and about the Oval this Motto, Securitas Regni. Micheli says, Pro Fide Servanda, and Gothofredus, pro integritate tuenda. Their Festivity was Ascension-Day, whereon the Founder gave it (in the Church of St. Sophia, the Cathedral of Nicosia in Cyprus) to his Brother Amaury, and to Three Hundred Barons establish’d in that his new Kingdom. There were Eight Kings of Cyprus of the Lusignan Line, Great Masters; but when this Isle fell into the Hands of the Turks, this Institution ceas’d.

10. The Bear in Switzerland,

Was instituted A. D. 1213. by the Emperor Frederick II. in Favour of the Abbot of St. Gall in Swaben, who had assisted him in gaining the Empire. These Knights wore a Collar of Gold, at the End whereof hung a Bear Gold, mounted on an Hillock enamell’d with Black, in Honour of St. Ursus of the Theban Legion, who was martyr’d before the Temple of the Sun at Soleurre in Switzerland. It was also call’d The Order of St. Gall, from the Name of the Patron (a Scotch Gentleman, and the Apostle of Swaben) of the Place where it receiv’d its Appellation. The Abbot whereof, for the Time being, had Power to confer this Honour, which was done by girding with the Military Belt (the Sword being first consecrated) and putting on the Collar. It continu’d ’till the Switzers became a Common-Wealth; and then the Castles of the Nobles being dismantled, it was laid aside.

11. The Broom-Flower in France,

Took its Original from Lewis of France, to honour the Coronation of his Queen Margaret, A. D. 1234. Their Habits were Cassocks of White Damask, and Violet Chaperons; the Collar compos’d of Broom-Flowers Proper, interlac’d with Flowers de Lys, hanging thereat a Cross Florence Gold, to which was added this Inscription, Exaltat Humiles; the Founder accounting the Broom the Symbol of Humility. Their Number was at the Sovereign’s Pleasure, and this Order continu’d till the Death of King Charles V. Some say Charles VI. instituted it, and others deny the being of any such Order.

12. The Ship and Double Crescent in France.

Such an Order was of Old, in Honour of the great Atchievements of that Nation, tho’ by whom founded is unknown. Favin affirms, St. Lewis erected this after he had instituted the Broom Flower, to animate the Nobility to accompany him in his Expedition to Africa, 1269. Their Badge was alluding to the Name of the Order, the Figure of a Ship Pendant in an Oval of Gold; and expir’d with St. Lewis after the first Class of Knights; but its Honour was kept up by Charles, Brother of St. Lewis, and flourish’d in Sicily with his Successors, until the Kings of Arragon obtain’d that Kingdom.

13. Knights of St. James in Holland.

This Order was erected by Florentius, Earl of Holland and Zeland, and Lord of Friseland; and he, A. D. 1290. bestow’d the Ensigns of it, in his Palace at the Hague, upon Twelve of his chief Nobility, among which was Lancenot Lord Hamilton, Embassador from the King of Scots. They were invested with a Collar of Gold, or Military Belt of Silver gilt, set off with Six Escallops, whereat was hung the Picture of St. James the Apostle.

14. The Order of the Swan in Cleveland.

If ever any such was, it has been effac’d long since. Yet Favin says, the Princes of Cleve have born the Swan for their Order, Devise, Crest and Supporters, to preserve the Memory of the Knight of the Swan, whose Romance he sets down. And further reports, That Charles Gonzaga of Cleve, Duke of Nevers, had a Design to re-establish it.

15. The Knights of Jesus at Rome,

Were instituted by Pope John XXII. at Avignon in France, A. D. 1320. as a Temporal Prince, being Lord Paramount of St. Peter’s Patrimony. Paul V. much augmented it. Their Badge is a plain Cross Gules, inclos’d within a Cross patee Or, hanging at a Gold Chain. Pope Clement IX. 1668-9. treated Three of the Embassadors from the Swiss Cantons with the usual Ceremonies, himself putting on the Chains, and the Captains of his Guards girding their Swords about them.

16. The White Eagle in Poland,

Was instituted by Ladeslaus, King of Poland, to honour the Marriage of his Son Casimire the Great, with Anne Daughter of Gedimer Duke of Lithuania, 1325. The Ensign was a white Eagle crown’d.

17. The Order of Knights de la Banda in Castile,

Was set up by Alphonsus II. King of Leon in Castile, in the City of Victoria, A. D. 1332. (or Palencia 1330. or Burgos 1368. according to others) not long before his Coronation, the better to secure himself against his Enemies. Soon after the Solemnity was celebrated at Burgos, in the Monastery of St. Mary Royal, where the Candidates, conducted by the King to the Altar, and depositing their Arms, spent the Night in Watching and Prayer. The Morrow after Mass, they were invested with a red military Belt or Ribbon, of four Fingers broad, which came a-cross the Body over the right Shoulder, and so under the left Arm, and was the Ensign from whence they took their Denomination. This Order was chiefly to Honour the Nobility; and at first none were admitted but the younger Sons of Noblemen [excluding elder Brothers] or Persons well-descended, or Esquires, who had serv’d in Court or Camp Ten Years at least. It was anciently of great Esteem, and Kings have vouchsafed to take its Ensign; but at length it was disus’d.

18. The Order de la Calza,

Instituted at Venice A. D. 1400. from the Example of the Knights de la Banda, in Honour of the Inauguration of Duke Michele Steno. It consisted of a Society of particular Noblemen and Gentlemen, who voluntarily met together, and elected a Chief among themselves. They took an Oath to observe their Articles, part whereof was, the Honour of the City, where noble and splendid Regales were made; and with such like magnificent Divertisements did they entertain King Henry III. of France, and other noble Personages. It receiv’d the greater Lustre, by the Addition of several Italian Princes; and the most conspicuous Families were receiv’d into it. Their Habit, on Solemn Days, was a Crimson Senator’s Vest appearing very splendid. Their Ensign, a Sun in a Sheild painted in their Banners. It arriv’d to such Profuseness, that in 1590. it was wholly laid aside.

19. The Order of St. Mark in Venice,

Is here reckon’d, because the Knights are dignify’d with a Title and particular Ensign of Honour at their Creation. The Ceremony is after the Manner of Knights Batchelors, by Dubbing with a Sword, and their Title a bare Mark of Honour, having no Laws or Statutes, or particular Obligations enjoyn’d. It had the Denomination from St. Mark the Evangelist, whose Body was translated to Venice, 828. and became the Titular Angel and Guardian of that City, his Picture being display’d in their Banners. The exact Time of its Institution is not certainly determin’d. The Badge that adorns these Knights, is, a Gold Chain put over their Shoulders at their Creation, whereat depends a Medal, on one side whereof is the Symbol of St. Mark, viz. a winged Lyon, holding in his right Paw a drawn Sword, and in his left an open Book, with this Motto, Pax tibi Marce Evangelista meus. On the Reverse, the Duke surviving is beautify’d with a particular Impress. Sometimes represented on his Knee, receiving a Standard from the Hands of St. Mark. This Medal is worn on a Cross enamell’d Blew. The Duke confers this Honour, either privately in his Chamber, or publickly in a full College. The Senate have the Power of creating this Order; and they who receive it by their Sanction, the Dignity is greater than from the Hands of the Duke himself. Absent Persons are invested by Letters Patents; and to aggrandize their Honour and Title, style themselves Knights of St. Mark.

20. The Order of the Seraphims, or Seraphick Knights,
otherwise sirnam’d of Jesus,

Was begun by Magnus IV. King of Sweden 1334. in Memory of the Siege laid to the Metropolitan City of Upsala. The Collar was compos’d of Seraphims and Patriarchal Crosses.

21. The Order of the Sword and Military Belt in Sweden.

By whom or when founded we have no Memoirs. The Collar made up of Swords, with Belts twining round them (the Symbol of Love and Justice) the Swords somewhat inclining towards the Point, and so joyn’d Two and Two, Point to Point, plac’d round in a Circle.

22. The Order of the Knot in Naples.

When Lewis, King of Hungary, warr’d against Joan, Queen of Naples; not so much to dispossess her of the Kingdom, as to revenge his Brother Andrew’s Death, whom this Joan, his Wife, had strangled 1351. On the 26th of May, the Queen and Lewis Prince of Tarantuni, being crown’d King and Queen of that Realm on the same Day, in Commemoration of so pacifick an Union, and to tear up all their Enmities, the Prince instituted this Order; into which enter’d, at that Time, Threescore and Ten Lords. Their Habit was White, and their Ensign a Knot (the Emblem of Love and Friendship) intermixt with Gold. This Order expir’d in a short Time.

23. Knights of the Annunciade in Savoy.

Ame VI. Earl of Savoy, instituted this Order, under the Title of The Collar 1362. in Honour of the Fifteen Divine Mysteries of the Rosary. Favin, on a mistaken Ground, calls it The Order of the Snares of Love, in regard its Founder had receiv’d of his Lady, a Bracelet made of the Tresses of her Hair, plaited in Love-knots, and that the four Letters, afterwards interlac’d by the Founder, should signifie Frappes, Entres, Rompes, Tout. It is conspicuous enough at the first Erection it was call’d of The Collar, and so remain’d till Charles III. or Le Bon Duke of Savoy, bestow’d on it the Title of The Annunciation, from the Picture of the Annunciation which he annex’d to The Collar, 1518. The Founder appointed the Number of his Knights to be Fifteen, among whom Sir Richard Musard, an Englishman, is recorded 1434. and 1568. their Number was encreas’d to Twenty, that being solely lodg’d in the Breast of their Sovereign. Riene Castle, in Buger, was their principal Seat; they had a Chartreuse to entertain Fifteen Priests to celebrate Fifteen Masses to the Honour of the Fifteen Joys of the blessed Virgin, and to the Soul’s Health of these Knights; and here were their Ceremonies and Chapters held, until Charles Emmanuel I. exchang’d it and other Places for the Marquisate of Saluces, 1607. on the Anniversary of the Feast and Celebration of the Order (being fix’d upon the Day of the Annunciation) were translated first to the Church of St. Dominick at Montmeiller, and afterwards by him to the Hermitage of Camaldule, upon the Mountain of Turin call’d l’Eremo Assis. The ancient Collar was of Gold, Three Fingers broad; in barbarous Characters were ingraved these Letters, F E R T, and one Knot (commonly call’d the Savoy Knot) at the end of each Fert; which, with Three other Knots entwin’d one within another, made up the Circumference pendant at the Collar without any Figure. These old Characters were suppos’d to be the Initials of Fortitudo ejus Rhodum tenuit, alluding to Amadeus le Grand, who so valiantly defended Rhodes against the Turks, 1310. But that this was long before the Devise of the House of Savoy, is manifest from the Coins of Lewis de Savoy, Baron de Vaud. who dy’d 1301. the Monument of Thomas de Savoy, who dy’d 1233. whereon was lying at the Feet of his Portraiture a Dog with a Collar about his Neck, inscrib’d Fert, as an integral Word, and from a Brass Coin of the said Earl’s, on the Reverse whereof are Two Knots of the Model before spoke of, and the Word Fert in the midst. There is the Ectype of a Silver Coin of Peter de Savoy, (who erected in England the noble Pile of that Name in the Strand, temp. H. III.) wherein is represented the Devise Fert in Gothick Characters, the true Interpretation of which Word cannot be explain’d. This ancient Collar is still in vogue and daily worn, but now called The little Collar, fashion’d of Gold or Silver gilt, about an Inch broad, and of different weight. The Knights wear it about their Necks, close to the Collar of their Doublet. Duke Charles III. as he much restor’d the Splendor of this Order, Anno 1518. introduc’d the larger one, only worn upon high Days. It weighs about Two Hundred Crowns, and is compos’d of the Word Fert, interwoven with Knots, severed with Fifteen Roses of Gold, whereof Seven are enamell’d with White, and Seven with Red, and border’d with Two Thorns. The Figure of the Annunciation is enamell’d in various Colours, pendant at three Chainets to another Rose-colour’d both White and Red. He first appointed the great Mantle of Crimson Velvet, his own being furr’d with Ermines, but the rest of the Knights with Miniver, fring’d and border’d with Savoy Knots in fine Gold; under this Mantle is worn a Surcoat of fine Damask. Duke Emanuel Philibert, his Son, alter’d the Colour of the Mantle to Azure, and lin’d it with White Taffaty, of which Silk he made the Surcoats. Charles Emanuel chang’d the Mantle into an Amaranthus or Purple Colour, seeded with Roses and Flames in embroidery of Gold and Silver, and lin’d with Cloth of Silver tissu’d Blue, now in use; under which, instead of the White Taffaty Surcoat, is now worn a White Satin Suit embroider’d with Silk, the Hose gather’d upwards in the fashion of Trouses.

24. The Thistle in France,

Was instituted on New-Year’s Day 1370. by Lewis II. Duke of Bourbon, upon his Marriage with Anne, Daughter to the Count Daulphine in Auvergne. The first Solemnities of this Order were perform’d at Nostre Dame de Maulins in Bourbonnois, where he founded a College of Twelve Canons, in Honour of the blessed Virgin; the Intent was, to corroborate his Interest for the Aid of the Duke of Orleans, against the Faction of the House of Burgundy, and by joyning of Flowers de Lys and Thistles (the Symbols of Hope and Courage) emblematically to express the Nobleness of his Spirit against all the Power of Fortune. He ordain’d the Number of Knights to be Twenty Six, comprehending himself and his Successors, Dukes of Bourbon, as Chiefs, and oblig’d them to wear daily a Belt, a Girdle of Watchel coloured Velvet, lin’d with Crimson Sattin embroider’d with Gold, and therein the Word Esperance curiously wrought. The Girdle was fasten’d with a Buckle and Thong of Gold, bearded and chequer’d with Green, enamel’d in Form like the Head of a Thistle. On the Anniversary of the Festival (the Conception of our Lady) the Knights wore Cassocks or Surcoats of Carnation Damask with White Sleeves, girded as before; the Mantle of the Order was sky-colour’d Damask with broad Welts of Gold Embroidered on the Collar, and lined with Red Satin, but the Mantlet of Green Velvet, the Bonnet was also of Green Velvet; at the Point of the Band hung a Tassel of Crimson Silk and Threads Gold, the Lining of Crimson Taffaty, and turn’d up after the antique manner, whereon they had embroided the Golden Shield with the Word Allen; the great Collar was of Gold, of the weight of Ten Marks, enamelled with Green, distended like Network, which was filled with Flowers de Lys (together with the Letters of the Impress) plac’d in a Lozenge of Red Enamel; at the Bottom of the Collar, in an Oval of Gold (the Circle whereof was enamelled with Green and Red) appeared the Figure of the Patroness, the Virgin Mary, irradiated with Gold, and crowned with Twelve Silver Stars, a Crescent of the same under her Feet, enamell’d with Purple and Sky-colour; at the End of the Oval depended the Head of a Thistle enamelled Green, but bearded White. The Founder took an exact Patern for the Order of the Garter, with which he acquainted himself while he was Prisoner in Windsor Castle.

25. The Order of the Dove

Was begun by John I. King of Castile in Segovia, 1390. or, as others, 1379. to encourage his Nobles to prosecute the Noble Acts of his Grandfather King Henry III. but the Founder dying the same Year, before it had taken root, it became of small Continuance.

26. The Order of the Argonauts of St. Nicholas

Was instituted by Charles III. King of Naples, 1382. to preserve Amity among the Nobles, to compose Enmities and suppress Seditions. If any of these Knights, upon a Variance, refused a Reconciliation, the Ensigns were to be forfeited. Others say the Design was to advance Navigation, to which their Ensign alludes, being a Ship floating upon the Waters in the midst of a Storm, having this Motto, Non credo tempori. In the Convent of that sumptuous Church which St. Nicholas, Bishop of Smyrna, erected, was the grand Feast held on the Anniversary of that Saint. This King appointed a White Habit for the Knights, and prescribed them laudable Constitutions; but for want of a settled Revenue, their Splendor expired with their Founder.

27. Knights of St. Anthony in Hainault.

Albert of Bavaria, Earl of Hainault, Holland, and Zeland, designing an Expedition against the Turks and Moors, instituted this Order, 1382. The Ensign thereof was a Golden Collar wrought after the Fashion of an Hermit’s Girdle, at which hung a Walking-Staff, and a little Golden Ball.

28. The Porcupine in France,

Was erected by Lewis of France, Duke of Orleans, 1393. to honour the Solemnization of the Baptism of his eldest Son Charles, by his Wife Daughter to the Duke of Milain. He chose the Porcupine for his Devise, with this Epigraph, Cominus & Eminus; not only out of the aspiring Hopes conceived of this Child, but also to intimate something of Revenge against John Duke of Burgundy, his mortal Enemy; the Porcupine being an Emblem both Offensive and Defensive. Others make Charles aforesaid the Founder of this Order, 1430. in Imitation or Emulation of the Golden Fleece, instituted by Philip Duke of Burgundy. Their Number, including the Founder, was Twenty Five; their Habit, Surcoats of Violet Velvet, and over them Mantles of Watchet Velvet lin’d with Carnation Satin; the Collar was formed of Gold Chains, at the End whereof hung a Porcupine of Gold upon an enamelled Hillock of Grass and Flowers, which Creature was also embroidered on the Knights Belts.

29. The Order of the Lily or Lilies in Arragon or de la Jarra
de S. Maria, of the Vessel of St. Mary,

Was erected by Ferdinand King of that Country, called the infant of Antiquera, 1403. and dedicated to the Blessed Virgin. Favin ranges it under the Denomination of the Title of the Looking-glass of the Blessed Virgin in Castile, instituted in Memory of a Victory King Ferdinand obtained in that Kingdom against the Moors, 1410. whence he transplanted them with him into Arragon, 1413. when he received the Crown, where it flourished under the Sons of that King, and then the Line was extinct.

30. The Order of the Dragon overthrown in Hungary,

Was instituted, A. D. 1413. by the Emperor Sigismond the Glorious, 1418. for the Defence of the Christian Religion, and to crush or oppugn all Hereticks and Schismaticks, and for the Satisfaction he receiv’d in conferring Peace to the Churches of Hungary and Bohemia, by the Aid of the Council of Constance. It was in high esteem shortly after in Germany; but the Order and Founder had very near the same Period. The Knights wore daily, as their Ensign, a Green Cross flory, on solemn Days, a Scarlet Cloak, and on the Mantlet of Green Silk a double Chain of Gold (others say a Green Ribbon) at the End of which hung a Dragon dead with broken Wings, in posture of being overcome (the Symbol of Heresy) enamelled with Variety of Colours.

31. The Equites Tusini in Bohemia, or else both in
Bohemia and Austria.

This Order had its Name from Toca, a Cap or Coif. The Archdukes of Austria were its Founders; which they enacted to engage their Subjects in Defence of the Christian Faith against Turks and Hereticks, conferring upon the Knights towards their Support whatsoever they acquired in the Wars, which was a respite to themselves, after almost Two Hundred Years Charges, and Military Expence; indeed the Encouragement proved so good a Bait, that they cleared their Provinces almost of all Turks and Schismaticks that infested them. Their Badge was a plain Green Cross, and their Habit Red.

32. Ordo Disciplinarum,

Was instituted by the Bohemian Kings, or rather the Austrian, to be a Curb upon the Turks and Hereticks, at least to prescribe the Confines of the Kingdom. The Collar of the Order had a White Eagle. These Knights flourished in Germany, in the Reigns of Sigismond and Albert Emperors.

33. Orde de la Scama, in Castile,

Was instituted by John II. King of that Realm, about the Year, 1420. to excite his Nobility to fight against the Moors, which produced so good Effect, that in a short time the Moors were shamefully overthrown. That King granted them Privileges, gave them their Statutes and Rules; but upon his Death the Splendor hereof was greatly eclips’d. Their Ensign was a Cross composed of the Scales of Fishes. They were obliged to defend Castile against the Moors, to dye in Defence of the Faith, and when the King went to War they marched before him. Their Ensign was a Cross composed of the Scales of Fishes, the Spanish Scama bearing the same Signification as the Latin Squama.

34. The Order of the Golden Fleece,

Had its Original from Philip II. Duke of Burgundy, Sirnam’d the Good, the 10th of Jan. 1429. at his Marriage with Elizabeth, Daughter of Portugal, in the City of Bruges in Flanders, to perpetuate the Memory of his great Revenues raised by Wools with the Low-Countries. Some say in Commemoration of Gideon, who with Three Hundred Men vanquished a numerous Army of the Midianites; or of Jacob’s Fleece, viz. the Party-coloured and streaked Fleece, after the Example of Jason and his Argonauts, whose Expedition to Colchos he intended to make his Patern by a Voyage into Syria against the Turks. He founded it to the Glory of the Almighty Creator, and Redeemer, in Reverence of the Virgin Mary, and St. Andrew the Apostle, who was Patron thereof, and whose Festival was celebrated on that Day, but afterwards translated to the 1st of May, by reason of the shortness of the Days, and the Fatigue aged Knights would find to convene in an intemperate Season. The Knights at first were Twenty Four, beside the Duke, chief and supream, who reserved the Nomination of Six more at the next Chapter; but Charles V. encreased them, 1516. to Fifty. Duke Charles and Maximilian, Sons to the Founder, annex’d many Privileges to them, which were confirmed, 1556. For their Habit Three different Mantles were ordain’d them at the grand Solemnity; the first Day, of Scarlet Cloth, richly embroidered about the Lower End, with Flints struck into Sparks of Fire and Fleeces, with Chaperons of the same; and the same Day, after Dinner, to proceed to Vespers in Mantles of Black, and of the Colour of Chaperons; the Day following they were to hear Mass habited as themselves thought fit; but Duke Charles aforesaid prescribed them Mantles of White Damask for that Day’s Ceremony, and changed their Cloth Mantles into Velvet. The great Collar is composed of double Fusils, placed Back to Back, Two and Two together, in form of the Letter B, representing it both Ways, to signify Bourgoigne. And these Fusils are interwoven with Flint-stones (in reference to the Arms of the ancient Kings of Bourgoigne) seeming to strike Fire, and Sparkles of Fire between them, the Device of the Founder, at the End whereof hung the Resemblance of a Golden Fleece, enamelled proper. To the Flint Paradine ascribes the Motto, Ante ferit quam Flamma micet; and to the Fleece, Pretium non vile laboris. The Jewel is commonly worn in a double Chainet or Males of Gold, linked together at convenient Distance, between which runs a small Red Ribbon, or otherwise it is worn in a Red Ribbon alone. The Emperors of Germany descended from Philip Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy and Count of Flanders, were the Sovereigns of it, till Charles V. gave the Guardianship of it to the Kings of Spain, which he perform’d on the 25th of October, 1556. conferring it on his Son King Philip at Bruxelles, when he took the Collar from his Neck, and with his own Hands put it over his Son’s Shoulders in the Presence of divers of the Knights, with this Form, Accipe, fili mi, quem e collo meo detraho, tibi præcipuum Aurei velleris torquem, quem Philippus Dux Burgundiæ cognomine bonus Atavus noster, monumentum Fidei Sacræ Romanæ Ecclesiæ, esse voluit & hujusce Institutionis ac Legum ejus, fac semper memineris: Since which the Honour of being Chief of this Order remains at this Day in that Crown.

35. The Order of St. George at Genoa,

Was given by Frederick III. Emperor of Germany, in honour of St. George the titular Saint and Patron of Genoa. The Ensign is a plain Cross Gules, and worn by the Knights at a Chain of Gold about their Neck. The Dukes of Genoa are Chiefs thereof; and in regard their Dignity lasts but two Years, the Order is much impair’d thro the Inconstancy and Alteration of the Times.

36. The Order of the Croissant, or Half-Moon in France,

Was erected in the City of Anjou, 1464. or according to the Saincte Marthes, A. D. 1448. by Rene of the House of Anjou, King of Jerusalem and Sicily, &c. Duke of Anjou, &c. The Intent thereof was the Honour of God, Support of the Church, and Exaltation of Knighthood; over which he declared himself and his Successors, Dukes of Anjou and Kings of Sicily, Chiefs. He also chose St. Maurice, Knight and Martyr, for Patron, and held the first Ceremonies in the Church of Angiers dedicated to his Name. The Symbol which the Knights wore on the right Side of their Mantle, was a Golden Crescent, whereon in Red Enamel was this Word L’oz, signifying L’oz en Croissant, whereby they were spur’d forwards to search after the Increase of Valour and Reputation. At this Crescent was fasten’d as many small Pieces of Gold, fashion’d like Columns, and enamell’d with Red, as the Knights had been engag’d in Battels and Sieges; for none could be adopted into this Order, unless he had well trod the Paths of Honour. The Knights were Thirty Six, others say Fifty, in Number. For their Habit they wore Mantles of Red or Crimson Velvet, and a Mantlet of White, with the Lining and Surcoat of the same.

37. The Order of the Ermin in Britanny,

Was erected by Francis I. Duke of Bretagne, to perpetuate the Memory of his Grand-father John the Conqueror, or else in Imitation of other Orders in France; and thereupon he new built his Castle of Ermin. The Number of these Knights were Twenty Five. Their Habits were Mantles of White Damask lin’d with Carnation, and the Mantlet of the same. The great Collar was of Gold, compos’d of Ears of Corn in Saltire, bound above and beneath with Two Circles of Gold, imitating the Crown of Ceres, denoting the Care of Husbandry, and was sometimes called The Order of the Ears of Corn. At the End of this Collar hung the Mus Ponticus, or Ermin, passing over a Turf of Grass diaper’d with Flowers, at the Edge whereof was imboss’d this Epigraph in French, Amaire, the Device of his said Grand-father, by which he made known his Courage; and rather than fail in the least Punctilio of his Word, he would undergo any Misfortune. This Order ended when the Dukedom of Bretagne became annex’d to the Crown of France, by the Marriage of Anne, Dutchess of Bretagne, to Charles VIII. and Lewis XII. both French Kings.

38. The Order of the Ermin in Naples

Owes its Institution to Ferdinand I. King of Naples, at the Expiration of the War which he was engag’d in with John of Lorain, Duke of Calabria, 1463. being induc’d thereto by the Treason and Confederacy of his Brother-in-law Marinus Marcianus, Duke of Sessa, who design’d to murder him, and transfer the Kingdom to the Duke of Calabria: But the Plot being defeated, instead of bringing him to Justice, he not only pardon’d him, but instituted this Chevalry, admitting therein all the Noblemen of Title and Figure in the Kingdom, and generously appointed him one of the first Knights. The Collar was of Gold, intermix’d with Mud or Dirt, to which depended an Ermin and this Motto, Malo mori quam fœdari, alluding to the clean Nature of the Animal.

39. The Order of St. Michael in Naples,

Had its Original from the same King Ferdinand, in honour of St. Michael the Arch-Angel, Patron of Apulia. The Habit of the Knights was a long White Mantle embroider’d with Ermins, and the Collar of Gold compos’d of the Letter O, to which hung in an Oval the Epigraph Decorum. By the Habit it seems to be the preceding Order, if that was dedicated to St. Michael.

40. The Order of St. Michael in France.

Lewis XI. King of that Realm, considering how his Affairs were entangled, to re-unite the Affections of his Nobility to himself, instituted these Knights, 1469. giving them their Denomination from St. Michael the Arch-Angel, the titular Angel and Protector of France, in Reverence of whom their ancient Kings were wont to solemnize this Feast-day with great Magnificence, and keep an open Court. Their Number at first were to be Thirty Six, whereof the King and his Successors were Chief: But it afterwards proceeded to Three Hundred. The Collar is compos’d of Escallop-Shells of Gold, joyn’d one with another and double-banded, fasten’d on small Chains of Gold, at the End of which is annex’d an Oval of the same; and therein, on an Hillock, is the Figure of St. Michael combating and trampling down the Dragon. The Motto, Immensi tremor Oceani. The Habit was a Mantle of White Damask hanging down to the Ground, furr’d with Ermin, having its Cope embroider’d with Gold, and the Border of the Robe interwoven with Escallops of Gold; the Chaperon or Hood, with its long Tippet, was made of Crimson Velvet; but afterwards King Henry II. order’d this Mantle to be Cloth of Silver, embroider’d with Three Crescents of Silver, interwoven with Trophies, Quivers and Turkish Bows, semied and canton’d with Tongues and Flames of Fire; the Chaperons of Crimson Velvet should have the same Embroidery. Their Grand Festival was to be celebrated on Michaelmas-day, at the Church of Mount Michael in Normandy; but after wards transferr’d to Bois de Vincennes near Paris. There is an Herald of Arms to attend this Order, called Monsieur St. Michael. Upon the instituting The Order of the Holy Ghost, not only Care was taken to preserve this of St. Michael, and to rectify it, but the Knights had the Privilege allow’d them, that if they thought fit they were made capable of receiving that of The Holy Ghost, which no Stranger or Native could be enroll’d in that had taken upon him any other Order. The Collar of St. Michael may be worn with that of The Holy Ghost, and it is now frequently us’d. The Evening before any receive The Order of the Holy Ghost, he is admitted into The Order of St. Michael.

41. The Order of the Elephant in Denmark.

King Christian I. being at Rome upon a religious Account, Pope Sixtus IV. among other Honours, invested him with this Order, in Memory of the Passion of our Saviour; and withal ordain’d the Supreme or Chief in his Successors, Kings of Denmark.

This King founded the magnificent Chapel of the Three Kings in the Cathedral Church of Roschilt, (Four Leagues from Copenhagen) where the Knights were to assemble upon the Death of any of their Fraternity. He admitted thereunto divers Kings, Princes and Noblemen. Its chief Ensign was the Figure of an Elephant, on whose side (within a Rundle) was a Crown of Thorns, with Three Nails all bloody, in Memory of the Passion. The Knights were oblig’d to Acts of Piety, Alms-Deeds, and certain Ceremonies, especially upon those Days on which they wore the Ensigns. King John valu’d it so highly, that he wore them on every solemn Festival. He advanc’d it to that Pitch of Grandeur, that our King Henry VIII. and James V. King of Scotland, accepted it.

Hertholm, a learned Dane, in a particular Treatise of this Elephantine Order, says, The Badge was meerly Military, anciently given as a Memorial and Incitement to the Danish Princes, who took upon them the Defence of Christianity against the Moors and Africans.

Heretofore the Knights wore a Collar of Gold compos’d of castellated Elephants and Crosses, something like the Crosses ancrees (Menenius calls them Spurs) at which hung the Picture of the Virgin Mary to the Middle, holding Christ in her Arms, and surrounded with a Glory of Sun-beams. But that long since laid aside, they now wear only a Blue Ribbon, at which hangs an Elephant enamell’d White, adorn’d with Five large Diamonds set in the Middle. These Elephants, in the Reign of King Christian IV. had in the same Place, within a Circle, the Letter C, and in the Center of it the Figure 4, denoting Christianus Quartus.

This Honour is usually conferr’d on the Days of the King’s Coronation. Frederick III. brought into use, in Imitation of The Garter, an embroider’d Glory of Silver Purple wrought upon the left Side of their Cloak or Vest, on which was embroider’d Two Crowns within a Rundle, bearing this Motto, Deus providebit. The late King, his Son, chang’d the Motto to, Pietate & Justitia; but all the Knights created by his Father are oblig’d to continue the former Motto.

42. The Order of the Burgundian Cross at Tunis,

Was instituted on St. Mary Magdalen’s Day, 1535. by Charles V. Emperor of Germany and King of Spain, after he had restor’d Mulleasses, King of Tunis, to his Kingdom, to reward those Commanders who had behav’d themselves well in the Victory. It was the Day wherein he made his pompous Entry into Tunis, when clad in the Coat he usually wore in Battle, whereon was embroider’d a Burgundian Cross, which Cross he made the Badge, and added a Steel striking Sparks of Fire out of a Flint, with this Inscription, Barbaria; and for a more ornamental Decoration, gave a Collar of Gold, whereat hung this Badge.

43. Knights of the Holy Ghost,

Were instituted by the French King, Henry III. 1578. to unite his Nobles more firmly in their Obedience, to encourage them to persevere in the Romish Religion, and to illustrate the State of his Nobility. It was so call’d by reason he was born on Whitsunday, 1550. elected that Day, 1573. King of Poland; and on that Day, 1574. came to the Crown of France. It was to consist of One Hundred Knights, besides the Sovereign or Great Master, which Office is inseparable from the Crown of France. A long Mantle of Black Velvet turn’d up on the left Side, and open’d on the right, was also appointed for the Habit, being at first embroider’d round with Gold and Silver, consisting of Flowers de Lys and Knots of Gold, between Three sundry Cyphers of Silver; and above the Flowers de Lys and Knots, were thickly powder’d Flames of Fire. This great Mantle was garnish’d with a Mantle of Cloth of Silver, cover’d with Embroidery made after the same Fashion, excepting only, that instead of Cyphers there were wrought Doves of Silver, and both these Robes double lin’d with a Satin of Orange-Tawney. The great Collar worn over the Mantle, was at first compos’d of Flowers de Lys, canton’d or corner’d with Flames of Fire, interwoven with Three Cyphers and divers Monograms of Silver; one was the Letter H and a Greek Lambda, both double, for the King’s Name and the Queen’s, Lovisa de Lorain; the other Two were reserv’d in the King’s own Mind. But these Cyphers were taken off the Colour and the Embroidery of the Robes by King Henry IV. and for a Mark of his Victories, Trophies of Arms were interlac’d instead thereof, with the Letter H crown’d (the Initial of his Name) whereout arose Flames and Sparks of Fire; and for the like Reason the H has been chang’d into L, both by Lewis XIII and XIV. At this Collar hung a Cross richly enamell’d in the midst, whereon was figur’d a Dove in a flying Posture, as descending down from Heaven with full spread Wings: And that an Epigraph might not be wanting, some have attributed to it this, Duce & Auspice. Besides these Ornaments, the Knights wear a Black Velvet Cap, with a White Plume; their Breeches and Doublets are of Cloth of Silver, and their Shoes White ty’d with Roses or Knots of Black Velvet. The Badges ordain’d to be ordinarily worn, are a Cross of Yellow or Orange-colour Velvet, like a Malta Cross, fix’d on the left Side of their Breast, except in military Expeditions, and then they are permitted to wear them of Cloth of Silver or White Velvet, having a Silver Dove, and at the Angles or Corners, Rays and Flowers de Lys of Silver. They have a Cross of the Order made of Gold (like the Malta Cross) with a Flower de Lys in each Angle, to be worn about their Necks in a Blue Ribbon, and to be enamell’d White about the Sides, but not in the Middle. Such as are Knights both of St. Michael and The Holy Ghost, are to bear the Figure of St. Michael on one Side, and of a Dove on the other. The Anniversary is held on the first Day of the New-Year, but the first Part of the Ceremony begins always on the last Day of the Old, when it was instituted; and the Place for celebrating thereof is the Church of Augustin Fryars in Paris.

44. The Order of The precious Blood of our Saviour
Jesus Christ of Mantua,

Was instituted, 1608. by Vincentio de Gonzago IV. Duke of Mantua, and II. of Montferat, for Defence and Propagation of Christianity, and in Honour of Three Drops of Blood of our Redeemer; as also to set forth more nobly the Nuptials of his eldest Son Francisco. It was confirm’d by Pope Paul V. and consisted of Twenty Knights, the Founder and his Successors to be Great Masters. The Collar is compos’d of Ovals of Gold, some extended in Length, others in Breadth, alternately, and interlink’d with small Anulets: Those in Length have these Words rais’d in White Enamel, Domine probasti; on the other in Breadth is a Grey Crucible fill’d with small Rods of Gold, and placed on a Trevet of Black Enamel over Flames of Fire, intimating, that they who incorporated in this Society, should hold inviolable Faith and Concord in the greatest Trials and Emergences of Life; at the End of the Collar is pendant a larger Oval of Gold, in which are figur’d two Angels standing upright, holding between them a Chalice crown’d, in the Table whereof are painted Three Drops of Bloods enamell’d Red, and round the Oval, Nihil isto triste recepto.

45. The Order of the Amaranta,

Owes its Institution to Christina, Queen of Sweden, about the Year 1645. in honour of a Lady of that Name, of great Beauty, Courage, Modesty and Charity. The chief Ensign is a Jewel of Gold compos’d of Two A’s, adorn’d with Diamonds on both Sides, and join’d together by reversing one of them, being set within a Circle of Laurel Leaves wreath’d about with White, and on the Four Sides this Motto, Dolcenella memoria; which Jewel the Knights wear either in a Gold Chain, or a Crimson or Blue Ribbon, as they best like of. His Investiture is with this Ceremony: The Queen being seated under her State, an intended Knight kneels before her, when she acquaints him with her Inducements to confer on him this Honour, enumerating his Services and Merits: This done, he takes an Oath, still kneeling and holding his Hands between the Queen’s, to defend her Person from Harm, and the Persons of his Brother Knights; to incite Justice, Vertue and Piety, and discountenance its Opposers; after which the Queen puts about him (in the manner of a Baudrick) a Crimson Silk Scarf with the Jewel fasten’d thereto. To an absent Prince or Personage, she sends the Jewel, accompany’d with her Letter, which supplies the Place of a personal Investiture. Among many others have been several Kings and Princes. Sir Bulstrode Whitlocke has been elected Knight of this Order.

46. The Order of the Black Eagle,

Was instituted by Frederick King of Prussia, and Elector of Brandenburgh, soon after he had the Title of King conferr’d upon him.

§ 2. 1. In the West-Indies, Montezuma, King of Mexico, set Knighthood in the highest Splendor, ordaining certain military Orders, with several Badges and Ensigns. The most honourable among the Knights were those that carry’d the Crown of their Hair ty’d with a little Red Ribbon, having a rich Plume of Feathers, from which did hang Branches and Rolls of Feathers upon their Shoulders. They carry’d as many Rolls as they had done gallant Exploits in the Wars; and the King himself and his Sons were of this Order; which Purchas calls Eagle Knights.

2. There was another Order, call’d Of the Lyons and Tygers. These Knights being commonly the most valiant in the Wars, always bore with them their Badges and Armories.

3. Other Knights there were, as The Grey Knights, not so much respected as the rest. They had their Hair cut round about the Ears: They made War upon their Enemies with Ensigns like other Knights, and were only arm’d to the Girdle, while the most Honourable were Cap-a-Pee’d. All Knights might carry Gold and Silver, be array’d in rich Cotton, have the use of painted and gilt Vessels, and wear Shoes; but the common People only the earthen sort; neither might they carry Shoes nor Attire themselves, but in a gross Stuff. Every Order had their Lodging assign’d them in the Palace, distinguish’d by their proper Ensigns: The first was the Lodging of the Prince, the second of Eagles, the third of Lyons and Tygers, and the fourth of Grey Knights.

The Province of Cinaloa (near New Mexico) created their Knights by giving a Bow, and setting them to encounter a Lyon or some other wild Beast.

The Inguas, or Lords of Peru, dedicated their Children to Honour, by adorning them with Guarras or Ensigns. They pierced their Ears, whip’d them with Slings, smeared their Faces with Blood, in order they should be true Knights to the Ingua. Those of Royal Extraction, before they received the Order of Knighthood abstained Seven Days from all manner of Nutriment, except a little raw Grain and Water, and after being heartned and brisked up again, performed some Military Exercises, also Racing, Wrestling, Leaping, Shooting, Slinging, throwing the Dart and Lance, &c. and enduring to be beaten on the Hands and Legs with Wands; these being as it were the Tests whether they could endure the Hardships of War or no; for if they did not sustain them manfully, they were denied Knighthood. The Ceremonies being performed by boaring an Hole in the Ears, putting on gallant Shoes, and wearing of the Breeches, which before they were restricted, adorning their Heads with Flowers, and having the Privilege of an Herb that none but themselves cou’d make use of, and lastly giving an Axe into their Hands. Menenius calls these Knights Oreiones, from the Spanish Orejas, flop or loll-eared, in the Latin Auriculares, from the Leaf which they bore hanging in their Ears, or because they only negotiated Affairs with the Emperor, and had his Ear at all times.

In Japan there’s an Order of Knights called Mengoras, part of whom are called Bonzees, living in Fraternities, as our Religionists in Europe. Some of these have the Charge of their Idols, and the Service relating to their Temples, others follow the Wars. They profess Chastity with such Severity, that no Woman is allow’d to enter their Cities. They govern the Kingdoms they conquer, and are so very opulent that some of them possess 60000 Duckets per Annum; and have a publick Armory well stored to make use of upon any Exigence, which is maintain’d by a daily Contribution. Women have been excluded their Share in this Way of Honour, tho’ their Courage and Valour have equalized the Amazons of old; the Example is of the noble Women of Tortosa in Spain, or the Femme Cavaliers of the Torchi. Micheli barely calls them Chavalleros, or rather Chavalleras, seeing the Latins have had the Words, Equitissæ & Militissæ, to express, Virago’s and Heroines.

Don Raymond, last Earl of Barcelona, having in the Year 1149. reduced the City of Tortosa from the Moors, on the Thirty First following they laid a fresh Siege to it, in hopes to recover it. The Inhabitants were at length reduced to great Streights; they desired Relief of the Earl, but he not being in a Condition to answer their Request, they had Thoughts of a Surrender; which the Women to prevent put on the Apparel of the Men, and by a resolute Salley forced the Moors to raise the Siege. The Gallantry of the Action the Earl acknowledged by granting them several Privileges, and to perpetuate the Memory instituted this Order, somewhat like a Military one, and none were to be admitted, only those brave Women, and the Honour to derive to their Descendants, and assigned them for a Badge a Thing like a Fryer’s Capouche, sharp at the Top, after the Form of a Torch, of a Crimson Colour, to be worn upon their Head-Cloaths; that at all publick Meetings the Women should have Precedence of the Men, and should be exempted from all Taxes, and that all the Apparels and Jewels left by their dead Husbands should be theirs.

A more general Ornament of Honour peculiar to the Fair Sex is the Cordon, which some will have to be an Order, or Equivalent thereunto. The Institution is attributed to Anne Britaigne, Wife to Charles VIII. of France, who instead of the Military Belt or Collar, bestowed a Cordon or Lace on several Ladies, admonishing them to live chastly and devoutly, always mindful of the Cords and Bonds of our Saviour, and to engage them to a greater Esteem of it, she surrounded her Escutcheon of Arms with the like Cordon; from which Example the Arms of unmarried Ladies and Gentlewomen are usually adorn’d with them.

Of the Castle, Chapel and College of Windsor, &c.

Having dispatch’d the several Orders of Knighthood, and trac’d them from their proper Fountains, we come now to treat of the most Noble Order of the Garter; an Order, that not only grants Merit, and Honourable, and Valiant Exploits at Home, but what Imperial Heads and Persons, fam’d for the Antiquity of their Race, or Gallantry of Actions, have always esteem’d a further Advancement to their Glory therein to be enroll’d. For the better Explanation, it will be necessary to begin with the Description of the Castle, Chapel, and College of Windsor. The Place claims no greater Antiquity than of the Saxons, named by them Windleshore, and, as Cambden conjectures, had the Denomination from the Winding of a Shore thereabouts, as did Wandsworth in Surry, heretofore written Windlesworth. The first authentick Notice is from the Donation which King Edward the Confessor made thereof to the Monks of Westminster, (as the Charter expresses it) For the Hope of eternal Reward, the Remission of all his Sins, the Sins of his Father, Mother, and all his Ancestors, to the Praise of Almighty, &c. he grants Wyndleshore, with all its Appurtenances, as an Endowment and perpetual Inheritance, to the Use of the Monks there, and at Westminster, that served GOD. Those Monks enjoy’d it not long, for King William the Conqueror, in the first Year of his Reign, being greatly enamour’d with the pleasant Situation and Commodiousness of the Place, situate so near the Thames, and the Wood fit for Game, invited Eadwin, the then Abbot, and the Monks, to accept in Exchange for it, Wokendune in Essex, a Mansion called Ferings, with all its Members and Hamlets, together with Fourteen Sokemen and their Lands, and one Freeholder, and Three Houses in Colchester, all in Essex, since which it has remained in the Crown.

The King being thus possess’d, forthwith built a Castle upon the Hill, which, in Doomsday Book, contained half an Hide of Land, and is there noted to be Parcel of the Mannor of [Clivore] Clure. This Castle King Henry I. rebuilt, and beautified with great Magnificence, and, in the Tenth Year of his Reign, held his Whitsontide there with great State and Splendor. Shortly after, in a Charter of Peace between King Stephen and Duke Henry, (King Henry II. afterwards) this Castle was called Mola de Windesor, the Fortress of Windesor. Within this Castle was King Edward III. born, (commonly called Edward of Windsor) and was baptized in the old Chapel; and so great was his Affection to that Place, that he constituted it the Seat of the most noble Order of the Garter; and to embellish it the more, he founded the College of the Chapel of St. George, and much enlarged, and beautified the Castle.

For this Work he appointed several Surveyors, whom he assigned to press Hewers of Stone, Carpenters, and such other Artificers as were thought useful and necessary, as also to provide Stone, Timber, and all other Materials for them. William de Wyckham (who attained to be Bishop of Winchester) was one of these Supervisors, and had that Place conferr’d on him by Letters Patent, October 30. Ed. III. And a Grant of the same Fee was likewise allowed to Robert de Bernham, viz. One Shilling a Day, while he was at Windsor, Two Shillings when he went elsewhere about that Affair, and Three Shillings per Week to his Clerk; afterwards he was chief Custos and Surveyor of this Castle, of the Mannors of Old and New Windsor, and of other Castles, Mannors, &c. belonging to the King, to provide Workmen, and look after the Repairs, and in those Mannors to hold Leets and other Courts, Pleas of Trespass and Misdemeanours.

About the 34th of Ed. III. it is presumed the most considerable Enlargement of the Castle was made, seeing there was then great Store of the ablest Diggers and Masons impress’d, by virtue of Writs directed to the several Sheriffs, with Command under 100 l. Penalty to send them to Windsor the Sunday after the Feast of St. George, to work at the Kings Charge, from whence they were not to depart without Wyckham’s License, Security having been first taken by the Sheriffs, and returned into Chancery. London found Forty; Essex, in conjunction with Hertford, Forty; Wilts, Leicester, with Worcester, Cambridge, with Huntington Forty, Kent, Gloucester, Somerset, with Devon, and Northampton, one with another, found also Forty a-piece. And because divers of these Workmen, for Gain and Advantage, clandestinely left Windsor to the Hindrance of the Work, all Persons were forbid to employ or retain them under Forfeiture of all they had, and likewise to arrest those that withdrew themselves from the Work, and commit them to Newgate. A. 36. Ed. III. many of them being swept away by the Pestilence, the like Writs were directed to other Sheriffs, under a Hundred Pound Penalty, to send able Men; whereupon the Counties of York sent Sixty, Derby Twenty Four, Salop Sixty, Hereford Fifty, Nottingham Twenty Four, Lancaster Twenty Four, and Devon Sixty. A. 37. Ed. III. The noble Edifice was ready for Glazing, and of Twenty Four of that Occupation impress’d for the King’s Service, Twelve were to be employed at Windsor. In this Year and the next a great Proficiency was made, and vast Quantities of Stone were amassed, dug out of the Quarries of Wellesfor, Newel, and Carby, and other Places. From the 37th to the 43d, the Building of the Castle was diligently pursued. We find no Addition to this august Pile till his 48th Year, and after that Time nothing more during his Reign, so that it is supposed this Famous Piece for Magnificence and Strength was then chiefly finished, viz. the Great Hall of St. George, the Lodgings on the East and South side of the Upper Ward, the Keep or Tower in the Middle Ward, the Chapel of St. George, the Houses for the Custos and the Canons in the Lower Ward, with the whole Circumference of the Walls, their several Towers and Gates, as in the present Posture they remain.

In succeeding Times King Hen. VII. added that stately Fabrick adjoining to the King’s Lodgings, in the Upper Ward. King Hen. VIII. re-edified the great Gate at the Entrance into the Lower Ward. King Edw. VI. began, and Queen Mary perfected the Conveying the Water, from Blackmore-Park in Wingfield Parish, into a Fountain of curious Workmanship erected in the Middle Ward, which supplied all the Castle. Queen Elizabeth made a Terrace Work on the North side of the Castle; from whence there is a pleasant Prospect down upon Eaton-bridge, the Thames, and the adjacent Country. King Charles I. A. D. 1636. built the Gate at the East end of the Terrace, which leads into the Park. And lastly, King Charles II. greatly beautified and repair’d the Fabrick, and furnish’d it with a curious Armory; and, in fine, every Thing is so fitly disposed and ordered, that they are worthy of the Notice of every nice and curious Traveller.

Camden elegantly describes its Situation in Prose in this manner: From an Hill (says he) that rises with a gentle Ascent, it enjoyeth a most delightful Prospect round about; foreright, in the Front, it overlooketh a Vale, lying out far and wide, garnished with Corn Fields, flourishing with Meadows, deck’d with Groves on either side, and watered with the most mild and calm River Thames. Behind it arise Hills every where, neither rough nor over high, attired, as it were with Woods, and even dedicated, as one would say, by Nature, to hunting Game.

And thus Denham’s Muse pourtrays it:

Windesor, the next (where Mars with Venus dwells,
Beauty with Strength) above the Valley swells
Into my Eye, and doth it self present
With such an easy and unforc’d ascent,
That no stupendious Precipice denies
Access, no horror turns away our Eyes;
But such a Rise as doth at once invite
A Pleasure, and a reverence from our sight.
Thy mighty Masters Emblem, in whose face
Sat Meekness heightned with Majestick Grace;
Such seems thy gentle height, made only proud
To be the Basis of that pompous Load.
Than which a nobler weight no Mountain bears
But Atlas only that supports the Spheres.

This Castle is under the Government of a Constable, so call’d in the Reign of King John, and has bore that Denomination ever since: The Office is of great Antiquity, Honour and Power, but of small Revenue, for it is partly Military and Civil; as Military he commands the Castle and any Garrison placed therein, and is obliged to defend it against all Enemies whatsoever; all the Prisoners brought hither are committed to his Charge, and is answerable for all that is in the Castle to the King, under whom he is Commander, as a Civil Officer. He is Judge of a Court of Record held there by Prescription, for determining, by way of Common Law, all Pleas between Party and Party, arising within the Precincts of the Forest of Windsor, and Liberties thereof, which compriseth many Towns; and all legal Processes issue out in his Name. He is allowed a Deputy learned in the Law, who is called the Steward of the Court of Record, and is Keeper of the Constable’s Seal of Office. This Officer supplies the Constable’s Place as a Judge of the Court of Common Pleas, from whose Judgment the Appeal is by Writ of Error returnable in the King’s-Bench, or Common Pleas at Westminster. The Constable is likewise Forester and Warden of the Forest of Windsor, which is an 120 Miles in compass. He hath under him one or more Lieutenants at his Pleasure, and may imprison any Trespasser in Vert and Venison Convict, having a Prison in the Castle for that Purpose, named the Coalhole. He hath the Freedom of using the Sports of the Forest, which is granted to no Person without his or the King’s License, and signs all Warrants to kill Deer, (except what the King signs) and is to fell Timber and Wood.

He that was Chastelain (the French Word for Constable) in William the Conqueror’s Reign was Walter Fitz Other, from whom the Family of the Barons of Windsor are descended, and the Earls of Plimouth, bearing the Surname of Windsor, Temp. Car. II. Prince Rupert was Constable.

We come next to the Chapel of St. George, which is situate in the Lower Ward or Court of this Castle, and so named by King Edw. III. shortly after he had founded the College mention’d in the next Section; he having pulled down the old Chapel erected there by King Henry I. and dedicated to King Edward the Confessor, to raise a more stately Structure in its stead; to bring which Matter to Perfection, in the 24th Year of his Reign, John de Spoulee had the Office of Master of the Stone-Hewers, and had Power to provide Masons, and other Artificers, to whose Care they were entrusted. In Anno 25. Ed. I. John de Dorchester, Sub-Constable of the Castle, was appointed to keep a Controul upon all the Provisions bought for the Works of the Chapel, as well as on the Payments, and all other Affairs relating thereunto. To this Fabrick he erected several Houses adjoining, for the Custos and Canons to reside in; and afterwards King Hen. IV. gave them the void Place in the Castle call’d the Woodhall, nigh the great Hall, for building of Houses and Apartments for the Vicars, Clerks, and Choristers, and the other Ministers, assigned for the Service of the Chapel; but King Edw. IV. observing the Walls and Foundation of the Chapel sapped and consumed, and esteeming the Fabrick not stately or spacious enough, designed another more noble and excellent in its Room: In order to it Richard Beauchamp, Bishop of Salisbury, was constituted Master and Surveyor of the Work, who had Power from the King to remove all Impediments, demolished divers of the Officiary Houses, and other irregular Piles and decay’d Walls, and dug up their Foundations, particularly those ancient Buildings on the East side of the Chapel, which extended unto the Walls on the North side of the Castle, where the Towers, viz. Clurey’s Tower, and Le Amenery’s Tower, and Barney’s Tower, were situated; as also on the South side of the Chapel, unto the Belfry there, exclusively; the Materials whereof he might bestow upon any Buildings in the Castle, as he thought convenient. How well the Bishop discharged this Office, appears from the Preamble of his Patent, whereby that King conferred on him the Chancellorship of the Garter, in which is set forth, That out of meer Love towards the Order, he had given himself the Leisure daily to attend the Advancement and Progress of this goodly Fabrick.

From this Erection of K. Ed. IV. arose the elegant and beauteous Structure now standing, enlarged in Length at least an Hundred Fathom (tho’ it did not arrive to its Perfection until the Reign of King Henry VIII.) together with the Dean and Canons Houses on the North side of the Chapel, and those of the Petty Canons raised at the West End, in form of a Fetter-lock (one of King Edward the IVth’s Badges) and so vulgarly call’d. Temp. Henry VII. Sir Reginald Bray, Knight of the Garter, became a liberal Benefactor, finishing the Body of the Chapel, and rearing the Middle Chapel on the South thereof, which still retains his Name, and where his Body lies interred, as is manifest by his Arms, Badges, &c. cut in Stone, and by his last Will. Anno 21. Hen. VII. John Hylmer and William Vertue, Free Masons, undertook the Vaulting the Roof of the Choir (a curious Piece of Architecture) for 700 l. and finish’d it by Christmas, 1508. Anno 8 Henry VIII. the Rood Loft, and Lanthorn, were erected, with the Contributions raised by the Knights Companions. Near to the East end of this Chapel, was a little Fabrick of Free-Stone, raised by Cardinal Wolsey, call’d the Tomb House, in the Middle whereof he designed to erect a Monument for King Henry VIII. and had almost finished it before he died; but this was demolished, 1646. by command of the Long Parliament; and all the Copper Figures, exceedingly enriched by Art, carry’d thence. This Place King Charles I. intended to enlarge, for the Interment of his own Royal Body, and those of his Successors; but those villainous Times drawn on, they with much ado afforded him but a mean obscure Place near the first high Place in the Choir of this Chapel, in the same Vault where the Bodies of King Henry VIII. and his last Queen yet remain.

In this Chapel, besides many of the Knights Companions, repose the Body of King Hen. VI. removed from Chertsey Abbey in Surrey, deposited under the Uppermost Arch at the South side of the Altar, without any Monument or Inscription, and likewise that of King Edw. IV. under a large Stone of Tuch, raised within the opposite Arch, at the North side of the Altar, but without Inscription, having on the outside of his Grave a Range of Steel gilt, to inclose it from the North Isles, cut excellent well in Church-work.

Over this Arch hung this King’s Coat of Mail, cover’d over with Crimson Velvet, and thereon the Arms of England and France quarter’d and richly embroider’d with Pearl and Gold, interwoven with divers Rubies; which Trophy had remain’d over his Monument ever since his Interment, till plunder’d by Captain Fogg, 1642. who at the same time sacrilegiously robb’d the Chapel of all its Altar-Plate.

Within this Chapel were several Chantries endow’d with Lands and other Revenues, for Chaplains and Priests to sing Masses for the Souls of their Founder’s Kindred.

William of Wickham, Bishop of Winchester, in 3 Hen. IV. gave Two Hundred Marks to the Dean and Chapter, to buy Twenty Marks per Annum to maintain one Chaplain.

18 Ed. IV. The Feoffees of Richard, Duke of Glocester, gave the Mannors of Bentfieldbury in Essex, Knapton in Norfolk, and Chetlesworth in Suffolk, for a daily Mass.

22 Ed. IV. Sir Thomas St. Leger founded a Chantry of Two Priests, who were to officiate in the middle Chapel on the North Side of the Church; and the said King, by his Will, ordain’d Two Priests to serve at his Tomb, with an Exhibition of Twenty Marks yearly a-piece.

9 Hen. VII. There was another Chantry Priest assign’d for Thomas Pasche and William Hermer, &c. who was to perform his Office at the Altar on the North Side the new Church.

13 Hen. VII. Margaret, Countess of Richmond, founded a Chantry for Four Chaplains, to celebrate Mass in the East Part of the new Work of the Chapel.

18 Hen. VII. William, Lord Hastings, founded a Chantry for One Priest, on the North Side of the Choir, about the middle whereof this Lord lies.

21 Hen. VII. Charles Somerset, Lord Herbert, (afterwards Earl of Worcester) left a Secular Priest for a daily Mass, &c. to be said in the South Chapel dedicated to the Virgin Mary, where he lies interr’d. Both these Lords have built Appartments adjoyning for their Chantry Priests, now to be seen and distinguish’d by their Arms, garter’d and cut in Stone over their several Doors.

To these we shall add the Foundation of the new Commons, erected over against the North Door of the Body of St. George’s Chapel, by James Denton one of the Canons, Anno 11 Hen. VIII. for the Lodging and Dieting such of the Chantry Priests, Choristers and stipendiary Priests, who had before no certain Place where to hold Commons in, which he furnish’d with all proper Utensils, the Charge amounting to 489 l. 7 s. 1 d. in lieu of which the Choristers were to say certain Prayers when they enter’d the Chapel, commemorate his Death, and pray for his and the Souls of all the Faithful departed.

In this Chapel of St. George there were heretofore several Anniversaries or Obits held and celebrated, which we pass over. And as it was usual for some of the military Profession to spend the Remains of their Lives in pious Speculations, for their King and Country, and the Salvation of their own Souls, Permission was allow’d to the well-dispos’d Knights of the Garter, who retir’d from the Noise and Bustle of the World, to make their Abode there; yet so as to maintain themselves out of their own Revenues. King Henry VIII. ordain’d that the Sovereign should assign them convenient Appartments within the Castle; and the like Favour he granted to other Knights, tho’ not of the Order; but the Lodgings to be such as the Sovereign and Knights Companions should decree: However, we do not find the Knights Companions made use of the Benefit, but only for their better Accommodation at the grand Feast of the Order, &c. A Motion was made, 14 Car. I. that they might have Lodgings assign’d them in the great Court, which they offer’d to repair at their own Charge, since all the Officers had Conveniencies in the Castle, but the Knights Companions none, which the King did not dissent to, provided it be without Exclusion of the great Officers of State.

§ 3. Within the Chapel of the Castle, erected by King Henry I. was founded a College for Eight Canons, to be maintain’d by an annual Pension out of the Exchequer. King Edw. II. founded here a Chantry for Four Chaplains and Two Clerks; as likewise a Chapel in the Park of Windsor, under the same Regulation, for Four more Chaplains, whom King Edw. III. remov’d and joyn’d to those before settled in the Chapel of the Castle, and built Habitations for their better Accommodation, on the South Side thereof.

The Foundation we treated of here was confirm’d by Letters Patent, dated at Westminster, Aug. 6. 22 Edw. III. three Quarters of a Year before he erected The Order of the Garter, when he laid the Foundation of the ancient Chapel a-fresh, in honour of God, the Virgin Mary, St. George and St. Edward the Confessor; and ordain’d, that to King Henry’s Eight Canons there should be annex’d One Custos, Fifteen more Canons, and Twenty Four Alms-Knights, together with other Ministers, all under the Power of the Custos, and these to be supported out of the Revenues wherewith this Chapel should be endow’d: Upon which Pope Clement VI. 1351. by his Bull directed to the Arch-bishop of Canterbury and Bishop of Winchester, approved in part the King’s Intention.

The next Year the Statutes and Ordinances of the College commenc’d, by Virtue of the Pope’s Authority, the King’s Command, and Consent of the Bishop of Salisbury, in whose Diocess the Chapel is situate. By which Statutes, Winchester (one of the Pope’s Delegates) instituted a College, within the Precincts of the Chapel of St. George, consisting of one Custos, Twelve Secular Canons, Thirteen Priests or Vicars, Four Clerks, Six Choristers, and Twenty Six Alms-Knights, besides other Officers.


§ 4. The first Custos was John de la Chambre, constituted Nov. 14. 22 Edw. III. to whom succeeded William Mugg, on the 18th of June following: Which Mugg is the first, if the Institution of the College bears Date by Papal, and not Kingly Authority. After him were others that were call’d by the same Title; till the last Year of King Henry IV. when Thomas Kingston was presented by the Name of Dean; and his Successor, John Arundel, observing divers Endowments granted to the College alternately, by the Name of Custos, Dean and Custos, or lastly of Dean only; and doubting this Variation of Titles in Time might bring Inconveniences upon the Foundation, petition’d the Parliament, 8 Hen. VI. whereupon the King, by Letters Patent under the Great Seal, granted that the said John should be Custos sive Decanus for Life, and his Successors Custodes sive Decani, Wardens or Deans of the Free Chapel of St. George, within the Castle of Windsor; and that the Custos, or Dean and Canons thereof, and their Successors, by that Appellation, should have and hold, to them and their Successors for ever, all Lands, Tenements, &c. Liberties, &c. devolv’d upon the College at any Time before: So that here was a kind of new Incorporation, by the Title of Custos, or Deans and Canons only; at least this was a great Step to compleat the Privilege they after enjoy’d, when thro’ the Interest of Richard Beauchamp, Bishop of Salisbury, then also Dean of Windsor, and Chancellor of the Order, King Edw. IV. by Letters Patent dated Dec. 6. in the 19th Year of his Reign, model’d them by the Name of Dean and Canons of the Free Chapel of St. George within the Castle of Windsor, one Body corporate in Thing and Name, with a perpetual Succession, and capable in Law to purchase, receive and take Lands, &c. in Fee and Perpetuity; to have a common Seal, and might plead and be impleaded by that Name; and for better Security, the Letters Patent of Incorporation were, within Three Years after, pass’d into an Act of Parliament now in force.

The Authority of the Custos or Dean consists in being President over the rest of the College; to govern, direct and order them their Goods and Estates. He has all manner of Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction over them, with a Reservation of Power of Appeal to the Chancellor of England, who is Visitor of that College.

When any Persons lead Lives inordinate, he with the Chapter (in Cases where no particular Penalty is appointed) may reprehend or correct at Discretion; and in Matters of Discord, shall within Eight Days reconcile the contending Parties, or do Justice. After thrice Admonition, may expel from the College all Sowers of Discord, Backbiters and Whisperers, that are below the Degree of a Canon. And that there be no defect of Government, when the Dean has Occasion to be absent above Eight Days, he shall appoint One of the Canon Residents for his Deputy, in whose absence he has the Title of Lieutenant, and on all Occasions to exercise his Office; for the Statutes allow him Sixty Days in a Year for Non-residence; which space the Royal Visitation, 1552. enlarg’d to One Hundred and Ten Days; and the Lord Chancellor Hyde granted him Liberty of Six Weeks absence. But in the Vacancy of the Custos, the Chapter has all his Power conferr’d on them; which Chapter ought, within Two Days after the Vacancy made known, elect one of the Resident Canons, under the Title of President, to govern the College until they be provided of another Custos.


The Canons, by the Letters Patent of the first Erection, were appointed to be Twenty Four, including the Custos; but upon the Institution of the College by the Bishop of Winton, there was ordain’d, as afore-noted, One Custos, Twelve Secular Canons, and Thirteen Priests or Vicars, in all Twenty Six, compleatly the Number of The Knights of the Garter: And for a fuller Distinction between these Canons Secular and the Priests, the first Twelve are, in a Bull of Pope Innocent VIII. nam’d Majores Canonici, the others Minores, or Petty-Canons. To these Twelve Seculars were assign’d so many Prebendships in the Chapel of St. George (as also Stalls in the Choir and Place in the Chapter) together with that held by the Custos, whence they are frequently styl’d Prebends, and have a sacerdotal Power; for if they are not in full Orders before they are instal’d, they must, within a Year after they have enjoy’d their Prebendship, be ordain’d a Priest, or quit the Benefice.

By the Bull of Pope Clement VI. the Right of presenting the Canons, Priests, Clerks, Alms-Knights and other Ministers, were reserv’d to the Founder and his Successors; yet we find the first Canons were presented to the Custos, by the Founders of The Order of the Garter viz. the Twenty Five first Knights Companions, every one presenting singularly; yet this was but with the Sovereign’s Permission, Pro hac vice; and that none of them should be entitled to it hereafter but the Sovereign alone. And because it might the more effectually be observ’d, the Custos was oblig’d upon every Canon’s Death, to signify the same to the Sovereign, that he might pitch on One to succeed; which being nominated, he is approved, instituted, and instal’d, by the Custos or Dean, to whom he swears Canonical Obedience, and Observance of the Statutes.

The principal Duty of these Canons (and of all the other Ministers of the College) is continually to attend upon the Service of God in the Chapel of St. George; and the Statutes run upon each Day’s Omission of a Canon Resident, to be mulcted his quotidian Distribution 12 d. And tho’ we find no License of Non-Residence granted them by their Founder, yet there is mention of Canons Resident and Non-Resident, for whom great Defalcations are appointed to be made, to prevent such Neglects, because the residentiary Canons bear not only the Burden of that Duty belonging to the Chapel, but the Expence of Hospitality and other Works of Charity, occasion’d from their residing at Windsor.

Richard Beauchamp, Bishop of Salisbury, obtain’d Power from Sextus IV. to make new Statutes, and dispens’d with the old Ones; and in 1478. he gave to the Dean and every Canon Fourteen Days of Non-Residence in every Term, to wit, Fifty Six Days in the Year. By the Visitation, 1552. they obtain’d a Dispensation for Eighty Days; and the Lord Chancellor Hatton yet gave them a further Permission to Two Hundred and Two Days, which the Lord Chancellor Hyde confirm’d; so that there remains One Hundred and Sixty Three Days in the Year, in which the Canons ought to be resident with Hospitality, to be consonant to their Statutes.

The Canons are particularly oblig’d to pray for the Sovereign, and for the happy Estate of the Order. If any Knight Companion, or other Person, should bestow Ten Pounds per Annum, in order to be Partaker of the Prayers appointed for the Benefactors of the College, his Name was to be inscribed amongst them, and he also prayed for. Which Article, tho’ King Hen. V. confirmed, yet with this Restriction, it should not be admitted without the Consent of the Sovereign, or the Knights-Companions of the Order. 4 Edw. VI. some one of them were enjoyned to commemorate the Benefactors in a Discourse upon the Tuesday next after the third Sunday in Lent, and on the first Tusedays in June, September and December, and not only to set forth the Munificence of the Founder, and of King Hen. VIII. but of all others, so as to excite their Auditors to an Emulation, in the Increase of Religion, and setting forth of God’s Glory.

The civil Obligations of these Canons are to attend the Sovereign (or his Deputy) and the Knights Companions at their grand Feast, and at the Feasts of the Installation, or when the Sovereign or Knights Companions shall come to the Chapel of St. George upon a Religious Account. On those solemn Days, over their Ecclessastical Habit they wear a Murrey Mantle, (at this Day a Taffaty Robe, in Fashion like the three inferior Officers of the Order) with the Arms of St. George arched within a Rundle on the Right Shoulder.


Those now call’d Petty Canons in the Patent of Foundation went undistinguish’d with the Canones Majores: only in the Bull of Pope Clement VI. to the Archbishop of Canterbury and Bishop of Winton, for instituting the College, they are called Presbyteri; and by the said Bishop in the very Words of his Statutes, Presbyteri seu Vicarii, by which last Name they are styl’d at the first Erection of the Garter. Their Number was originally Thirteen, only King Henry the VIIIth’s English Statutes mention Eight petty Canons, besides Thirteen Vicars, (but the Latin takes Notice only of Thirteen Priests, some called Canonici Minores, others Vicarii.) Ann. 1. Edw. VI. Twelve Priests were appointed, and named Petty Canons, that is, Four to be added to the Eight mention’d in the Statute of King Henry VIII. Yet in Queen Elizabeth’s Ordinances for the continual Charge, the Petty Canons thereby provided for are Thirteen, agreeable to the ancient Number of Vicars; but at this Day they are reduced to Seven, and one of them Subchanter.

The Vicars at their Admission are bound to be Priests, at least Deacons, and at the next Ordination they must commence Priests. Their Statutes oblige them to continual Residence; and if absent from Matins or from the grand Mass, they are amerced 2 d. and for every Canonical Hour, the Mass of the Virgin Mary, or for the Defunct, a Penny: All which Forfeitures were to be deducted out of their Sallary, and divided among those Vicars that duly attend these Duties. But the Statutes 1 Edw. VI. state the Forfeit of Absence from Matins to be one Half-penny, and the like from Procession, Communion or Even-Song, to be paid to the Poor’s Box. And not only they, but all other Ministers of the Chapel, if they leave the College above Twenty Days, without Reasons sufficiently approved of by the Residentiary Canons; or any of the Society that lead a vicious or scandalous Life, after the Fact manifestly proved before the Custos, are to be expelled; but an Absence less than Twenty Days, without Leave granted, is punishable at Discretion.

Each Vicar enjoy’d at first an annual Pension of 8 l. paid after this Manner, viz. every Kalendar Month 8 s. for their Diet, and at the Expiration of every Quarter Day the Surplus was consign’d for other Necessaries they stood in need of. King Ed. IV. encreased their Pensions to Twenty Marks a-piece; to which Queen Elizabeth (they being then called Petty Canons) advanced 13 s. and 4 d. per Annum to each out of the Lands confirm’d on the College by King Ed. VI. and now their yearly Sallaries are encreas’d to Thirty Pounds. Out of these Petty Canons is elected a Subchanter, (and commonly the same Person is the Dean’s Vicar) who has the Cure of Souls, marries and buries, &c.


For the Service of the Choir at the Foundation were allotted Four Clerks, one whereof was to be instituted a Deacon, and another a Sub-deacon before their Admission, and these two were design’d (upon Vacancy) to the Vicars Places. But for the other Two, Institution into lesser Orders, in which they were to continue, were sufficient. Each of the Two first sort had Eight Marks per Ann. and the other Two but Six. King Ed. IV. encreas’d their Number to Thirteen, and allow’d them 10 l. per Ann. They are mention’d to be Thirteen in Hen. VIII’s Statutes. 1 Ed. VI. they were encreas’d to Fifteen; but here appointed to be Laymen, wearing Surplices in the Choir, each having the same Allowance. 4 Ed. VI. a Model was proposed to augment the Number of these Fifteen Clerks to Twenty. But in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth they were again reduced to Thirteen, as at this present they remain, (one of them as Organist hath a double Clerk’s Place, and consequently reckon’d for Two) and an Augmentation to each of 2 l. 13 s. 4 d. three Farthings yearly; which being at first opposed by the Dean and Prebends, they at length (5 Eliz.) consented to allow them 40 s. per Ann. a-piece, not out of the new Lands, but out of other Payments which the Dean and Chapter should otherwise receive; and 1662. they encreased their annual Pensions to 23 l. a-piece. They are obliged to be present in the Choir at Divine Service as well as the Petty Canons, and under the same Forfeitures; nor may they or the Petty Canons go out of Town above Three at once, lest the Choir should be left unprovided.


For the Service of the Choir were appointed Six Choiristers, and they to be of the Clerical Order at their Admission; to each of which was allow’d Five Marks per Ann. And as the Deacon and Sub-deacon were plac’d in the College only in Addition to the Vicars, and design’d to succeed them in their Vacancies; so also were there Six secular Children, endued with clear tuneable Voices, to succeed the Choiristers, when they perceiv’d a Roughness or Alteration in their Voices. King Ed. IV. encreas’d the Number of Choiristers to Thirteen, and allow’d them annually Six Marks a-piece, and which was again confirm’d by King H. VIII’s Statutes. Yet the Injunction of 1 Ed. VI. reduced them to Ten; but Queen Elizabeth establish’d the former Number, and gave in Augmentation among them all of 3 l. 11 s. 8 d. They are now reduced to Eight, and their present Exhibition is 12 s. per Month.

§. 5. The Alms Knights we shall treat of in a threefold Estate: 1. Under the Foundation; 2. When disjointed thence by Act of Parliament; and, 3. As established anew by Queen Elizabeth.

1. Then, King Edward III. out of the great Regard he had to military Honour, and those who had bravely behav’d themselves in his Wars, yet after chanced to fall in decay, made a Provision for their Relief and comfortable Subsistence in old Age, by providing for them in this his Foundation, and making a Coalition in one joint Body with the Custos and Canons; these he call’d Milites Pauperes, and we Poor or Alms-Knights. The stated Number at first were Twenty Four, equal to the Custos and Canons at the first Erection. But shortly after, upon his instituting the Order of the Garter, Two more were added (as there was to the first Canons) to make the compleat Number of the Knights-Companions of that Order, which were Twenty Six, as we find stated at the Ordination of the College by the Bishop of Winchester, the Pope’s Delegate.

The Intention of the Founder was for those that were real Objects of Charity, as he describes them, viz. poor Knights, infirm in Body, indigent and decay’d, or as the Statutes of the Garter qualifies them, such as thro’ adverse Turns of Fortune were reduced to that Extremity that they had not wherewithal to sustain themselves, to live so genteelly as was suitable for a Military Condition, which for greater Caution was reiterated in the Statutes of King Hen. V. King Hen. VIII. and in the Orders of Queen Elizabeth; for it was express’d, in case any Estate of 20 l. per Annum devolved on them, such Knights were to be discharged the College, and they were to proceed to a new Election.

At the first each Knight-Companion of the Order presented his Alms-Knight, but ever after their Election was to be at the Disposal of the Sovereign. Their Habit was a Red Mantle, with the Escutcheon of St. George, without any Garter to surround it. Their Exhibition, after their first Election was 12 d. a-piece every Day they were at Service in the Chapel, or resident in the College, besides 40 s. per Annum for other Contingencies, it being the stated Allowance appointed to each of the Canons Residents.

About the Beginning of King Hen. VI’s Reign, their quotidian Distributions and Annual 40 s. had been unpaid upon the Account of some Dissentions risen between them and the Dean and Canons; but upon Complaint of John Bishop of York, Lord Chancellor of England, and Visitor of the College, 10 Hen. VI. they were redressed, and their Arrears of both discharged, without any Deduction, and likewise obtained this Clause, That if the Treasurer of the College became negligent in future Payments, he should lose his own Quotidians, from the Time of his voluntary Omission, and the same to be divided among the Alms-Knights. Their Duty was to pray for the Sovereign and the Knights Companions, to be every Day present at High Mass, the Masses of the Virgin Mary, at Vespers and Compline, and in default to be mulcted their 12 d. toties quoties, which was to be converted to the Use of the other Alms-Knights, then residing in the Castle of Windsor; notwithstanding which Decree, the Dean did afterwards break in upon them, and disposed of these Forfeitures at his Pleasure, till 2 Rich. II. Adam, Bishop of St. David’s, then Chancellor of England, and Visitor of the College, redress’d it, and another Complaint of like Nature being made of the Deans disposing of Donations and other Liberalities of the Knights Companions in wrong of the Alms-Knights, this Chancellor decreed an equal Distribution between the Alms-Knights and Canons, till the King and Council should otherwise determine.

These and other Differences between the Dean and Canons and Alms Knights, grew up to that height, that they became irreconcileable, insomuch as in the Act of Parliament, 22 Edw. IV. for incorporating of the Custos and Canons, by the Name of Dean and Canons, the Alms-Knights were not only omitted; but this Clause inserted, That the Dean and Canons, and their Successors, should for ever more be utterly quit and discharged from all manner of Exhibition or Charge of or for any of the said Knights. And this under the Cover, That the King has greatly augmented the Number of the Ministers of the Chapel, that the Revenue was insufficient to maintain both them and the Alms-Knights; but in the Dean and Canons Answer to the Knights Petition to repeal this Act, the Cause is alledged, For that some of these Knights used their utmost Endeavours before this Act, to incorporate themselves, and to be exempt from the Obedience and Rule of the Dean and Canons.

After this Act, which struck off their Quotidian Portions and Fees assigned by King Edward’s Foundation, how the Alms Knights subsisted we find not; but so soon as King Hen. VII. came to the Crown, they petitioned the King and Parliament for Repeal of the Act, 22 Edw. IV. and alledged it was obtained without their Knowledge, or being called thereunto, which Plea availed not at all; but on the contrary, the Dean and Canons, some Years after, got an Exemplification thereof under the great Seal, dated Feb. 4. 18 Hen. VII.

And it is very evident from King Hen. VIII’s Letter to the College, that what they did in this Nature after this Act commenced, was merely upon Courtesie; for he returns them Thanks for a Pension of Twenty Marks conferred upon Peter Narbone, whom he had recommended to an Alms-Knights Place, and Promises to burthen them no more with Requests of this sort, but that he would settle Lands for their Maintenance. So great was their Caution, Narbone was by Covenants indented between him and the Dean and Canons, to relinquish his Pension upon that King’s settling Lands on the College, for the Provision of such Knights. In the Interval between the Disunion of the College and Alms-Knights, to their Establishment by Queen Elizabeth, their Habit and Badge continued the same, and was so confirmed by Hen. VIII’s Statutes. It may be collected by his last Will, there was an Intention to draw the Garter about the Escutcheon of St. George, which Projection came to nothing, and expired. In this Interval it is observ’d that several Persons of considerable Rank and Distinction became Alms-Knights; some of which were rendred great Objects of Charity; among which Number was Sir Robert Champlayne, a valiant Knight, an Honour to our Nation, for his renowned and martial Services abroad. He was of King Henry VI’s Party in the Civil Wars against King Edw. IV. Immediately after whose coming to the Crown he left England, and travelled into Hungary, (with an Equipage of Three Servants and Four Horses) where in the Assistance of Mathous Corvinius King of Hungary against the Turks, he behaved himself very gallantly; but prosperous Fortune not always attending him with Success, he receiv’d many Wounds; and at length was taken Prisoner, lost all, and forced to pay 1500 Ducats for his Ransom; for the Attestation of which he had the Great Seals of the King of Hungary, the Archbishop of Crete, Legate de Latere in Hungary, the Emperor of Germany, the King of Sicily, the Count Palatine of the Rhine, and the Duke of Burgundy; and lastly, a Declaration thereof under the Privy Seal of King Edw. IV. And being reduced to so low an Ebb of Fortune, he was, thro’ Hen. VII’s Favour, admitted an Alms-Knight.

But some obtained Admittance, probably out of Devotion, rather than Poverty, as Thomas Hulme, Clarenceux King of Arms, Temp. Edw. IV. Lodowick Carly, the King’s Physician, and John Mewtes, Secretary of the French Tongue, both Temp. Hen. VII. and Bartholomew Westby made second Baron of the Exchequer, 1 Hen. VIII.

It is evident King Hen. VIII. designed a Re-establishment of half the ancient Number of Alms-Knights, viz. Thirteen; for which purpose he appointed by his Will 600 l. per Annum, in Mannors, Lands, and Spiritual Promotions, settled upon the Dean and Canons, and their Successors for ever, upon the Proviso’s that they should find Two Priests to say Mass at his Tomb, to commemorate yearly Four Obits for him, and at every Obit distribute 12 l. in Alms, likewise to pay 12 d. a Week to those Thirteen Alms-Knights, who were to have once a Year a long Gown of White Cloth, and a Mantle of Red, besides Five Marks annually, to such one among them as should be constituted their Governor, and so much for a Sermon every Sunday throughout the Year. In Performance of which Will, King Edw. VI. in the first Year of his Reign, did confer several Lands upon the College; but 600 l. per Annum of these Rents were by the Dean and Canons paid back, to be employed on erecting of Houses for the Alms-Knights, intended to be settled by King Hen. VIII. This Work began not till the 3d and 4th of Philip and Mary, and was finished the 5th and 6th of their Reign, the Charge amounting to 2747 l. 7 s. 6 d. These Houses are situate on the South side of the Lower Ward of the Castle, and contain Thirteen Rooms, besides an Hall, a Kitchin, and a Pastry; the Stone was brought from Reading, the Timber from the Forest, and the Lead, and Apparels for the Chimnies, from Suffolk Place in Southwark. At a Chapter of the Garter, held the 1st of June, the 4th and 5th of Philip and Mary, the Houses being then near finished, a Debate arose about placing some Alms-Knights therein, if possible, by Michaelmas following, whereupon the Marquiss of Winton, Lord-Treasurer, had Orders to assign Lands for their Maintenance; and towards the compleating of this the Queen had nominated Nine of the Thirteen designed; but falling sick in August, a stop was put to the Affair, till Queen Elizabeth coming to the Crown confirmed her Sister’s Grants to the Nine nominated Knights, and made up the Number full Thirteen, ordained by King Henry VIII. under which Establishment they still remain; for afterwards, viz. Aug. 30. in the first Year of her Reign, minding the Continuance of King Edward’s Foundation, the Intent of her Progenitors, and Advancement of the Order of the Garter, and King Henry VIII’s Will, for the Support of Thirteen poor Men decayed in Wars, to be called Thirteen Knights of Windsor; and having erected certain Orders for their better Regulation, and declar’d how and in what manner the 600 l. given by her Father should be employ’d for the Maintenance of these Knights and their Successors, she lastly declared, That the Dean and Canons should for ever cause these Rules and Orders to be observed.

Impr. That there be Thirteen Poor Knights, all Gentlemen, one whereof to be Governour, that have spent their Time in the Wars, or other Service of the Realm, having little or nothing to live upon, to be elected by the Sovereign and Successors.

2. It. The Governour and Knights must be unmarried, yet that the Crown may dispence withal; and upon their marrying are to lose their Place.

3. It. None deformed, and convicted of Heresie, Felony, or any notable Crime, is to be admitted of the Thirteen, and after admittance, so convicted, to be expelled.

4. It. Each Knight to have yearly, for their Liveries, a Red Gown of Four Yards, and a Mantle of Blue or Purple of Five Yards, at 6 s. and 8 d. per Yard.

5. It. An Escutcheon of St. George embroidered without the Garter, to be upon the Left Shoulder of the Mantle.

6. It. The Charges of the Cloth, Lining, Making, and Embroidering, to be paid by the Dean and Chapter, out of the Revenue of the Foundation.

7. It. That the Knights attend, Morning and Afternoon, Divine Service, within the College, in their ordinary Apparel, without a reasonable Let to be allowed by the Governour.

8. It. That they keep their Lodgings appointed, and Table in a common Hall appointed, and to have their Provisions by a common Purse, except for a reasonable Cause any be licensed to the contrary by the Dean, and that License not to endure above Twenty Days in a Year, excepting only for Sickness.

9. It. They are not to haunt the Town, nor Publick Houses, nor call any Woman into their Lodgings, without reasonable Cause and License of the Dean.

10. It. Twelve of them to be obedient to him appointed to be Governour, and all Thirteen to the Dean and Chapter, in the Observation of these Statutes.

11. It. The Thirteen Knights to have Places within the Church, where the Dean and Canons shall think best to hear the Divine Service together.

12. It. To be present at the quarterly Service, for the Memory of the Patrons and Founder of the College, and especially of King Hen. VIII. and Queen Elizabeth, and have each of them, at that Time, 20 d. and the Governour 2 s. The said Service to be the Sundays next before the Quarter-days, the Annunciation, St. John Baptist, Michaelmas, and Christmas.

13. It. Any of the Twelve Knights disobeying the Governour, in any of these Statutes, to incur the Forfeiture the Dean and Chapter shall put on him, the Governour to report the Offence, which if more heinous, the Dean and Chapter are to give a Warning, and register the same, and after a second Warning Expulsion is to follow; the like Punishment to the Governour, disobeying the Dean and Chapter in the Observation of these Statutes.

14. It. The Penalties of the Punished to be imployed by the Dean and Chapter at their Discretion, upon any of the Ministers or Choristers of the Church.

15. It. Upon the King or Queen’s coming to or going from Windsor, the Thirteen Knights are to stand before their Doors in their Apparel, and do Obedience.

16. It. At the keeping of the Feast of St. George, they are to stand likewise in their Apparel before their Doors, at the coming and going out of the Lieutenant, and of other the Knights-Companions.

17. It. At every Feast of St. George they shall sit together in their Apparel at one Table, and have Allowance of Meat and Drink at the Royal Charges.

18. It. They are daily in their Prayers to pray for the Sovereign and the Knights-Companions.

19. It. They are always to lie in their Lodging, and upon lying out of them and the College, without License from the Dean, to forfeit 12 d.

20. It. If Lands or Revenues of 20 l. per Annum fall to any of the poor Knights, he is to be removed, and another put into his Place.

21. It. They are every Day (excepting Cause of Sickness) to be present at Divine Service in the College, as aforesaid, and receive a daily Distribution of 12 d. per Day, to be paid them monthly, if it may be, or at least in such sort as the other Ministers of the Chapel be paid; and he that shall absent himself one Day, without leave from the Dean, shall lose his Distribution of 12 d.

22. It. The Governour is to keep a Book, and register, the Absenters, and other Defaulters of the Statutes, whereof he shall deliver one to the Dean, and another to the Steward, or him that payeth the poor Knights, who by Order of the Dean is to make proper Defalcations at the Time of paying them.

23. It. The Dean once a Year is to appoint a Day and Hour, at which the poor Knights are to be warned to be present, to hear these Statutes read, and any Knight absenting after that Warning, and without License, is to forfeit 6 s. 8 d.

24. It. Any elected poor Knight, before he take any Commodity of his Room, shall take a corporal Oath before the Dean, to be faithful and true to the Crown, and that for the time of their tarrying there to truly observe the Statutes and Ordinances upon the Penalties contain’d in the said Statutes.

The 25th Article is a Dispensation for those poor Knights chosen before these Statutes, who were not certainly known Gentlemen, yet Men well reported for Honesty, and meet to be relieved; but with an Intent that none hereafter be admitted, unless a Gentleman born, agreeable to the first Order.

The annual Allowance of each, upon this new Establishment, is 18 l. 5 s. to be paid by the Dean of Windsor, (but their Governour has 3 l. 6 s. and 8 d. more) besides their Gown and Mantle mentioned in their Statutes. King James I. doubled this Pension, and made it payable out of the Exchequer quarterly.

To these Thirteen Alms-Knights, temp. Car. I. Five more were added, Two of the Foundation of Sir Peter la Maire, Knight, and Three of Sir Francis Crane, Knight, Chancellor of the Garter; for Sir Peter, by his last Will, dated Jan. 8. 1631. bequeath’d 1500 l. to charitable Uses, to be dispos’d as Sir Francis (who had marry’d his Sister) should think fit, within Four Years after his Death; whereupon Sir Francis, determining to erect certain Houses in Windsor-Castle, for the dwelling of Five Alms-Knights, design’d the said 1500 l. towards that Use, and what was deficient made up at his own Cost, charging his Brother Executor, Sir Richard Crane, by his Will, dated Aug. 27. 1635. to see the Pile which he had began, finish’d. Sir Francis also bequeath’d 200 l. per Annum to be settled in Lands, by his Executors, for the perpetual Maintenance of Five Alms-Knights, after the rate of 40 l. per Annum to every one of them; but his Executor growing slack in the Performance, the Work being rather expos’d to Ruin, than forwarded by him; upon Complaints made to the Sovereign and Knights-Companions in Chapter, Orders were issu’d out to quicken him, and a peremptory Letter, dated Mar. 7. 1639. to go on with the Work faithfully; which Commands he evading, and bad Times coming on, the Building was totally neglected. Sir Richard Crane afterward dying, by his Will, dated Sept. 20. 1645. he appointed that his Mannor of Carbrooke in Norfolk, should stand bound for ever for Payment of the said 200 l. per Annum; whereupon, by Inquisition taken at Windsor, Mar. 4. 1652. (by Virtue of a Commission upon the Statute Anno 43 Eliz. for charitable Uses) the Mannors of Woodrising and Wesfield, &c. in Norfolk, were found liable to satisfie for building and finishing the said Five Houses, and payment of the 200 l. yearly; and further, that the Arrears thereof, from Sir Francis Crane’s Death, came at that time to 3200 l. some Contest ensu’d in Chancery; nevertheless the 200 l. per Annum was, July 19. 1655. decreed to be paid out of all the Lands which were Sir Richard’s, and the building of the Houses out of his personal Estate. At Two Years Expiration arose that fair Pile of Building, between the Chancellor’s and Garter’s Towers, against the West Wall, in the lower Ward of the Castle, which was begun again and finish’d the next Year; the Expences amounting to 1700 l. But for a final End of this Suit, it was decreed, Jan. 27. 1659. the Mannor of Carbrooke should stand charg’d with 200 l. per Annum, payable half-yearly at Michaelmas and Lady-day, or within Thirty Days after, for the Maintenance of Five Alms-Knights, together with 30 l. yearly for Repairs, payable also then; which annual Sum of 230 l. Anno 12 Car. II. in a Chapter held at Whitehall, Jan. 14. the King decreed the Chancellor of the Order, for the Time being, should receive and dispose thereof thus: 200 l. per Annum among the Five new Alms-Knights quarterly, at the Four usual Feasts of the Year, and to employ the residue upon Repair of the new Buildings erected for their Lodgings; which Powers were inserted in the Patent for his Office, bearing date the 20th of the same Month. And it was moreover decreed, that these Five Knights should be subject to the same Rules and Government of the Thirteen of Queen Elizabeth’s Foundation, and made equal Partakers of the same Privileges, and wear the like Habits.

King Charles I. taking into Consideration the Donation of Sir Francis Crane, which made the Alms-Knights Eighteen, (tho’ they were not yet settled) intended to make up Twenty Six, as they were at the Institution of the Order; to compleat which Design, a Chapter was held at Whitehall, Apr. 18. 1637. for the Knights-Companions to consider the best Way how the same might be effected, and report their Opinions; but nothing was done thereupon, and this Affair waits a more propitious Opportunity.

§ 6. The other Ministers of the College and Chapel of St. George, call’d Ministers in the Foundation Patent, are the superior Officers, viz. The Chantor, Steward and Treasurer.

The Chantor is elected from among the Canons, whose Office is chiefly to govern those that sing in the Choir, and such as are employ’d about Divine Service. Before the Reformation he appointed who should begin the Antiphones, celebrate Masses, and read the Lessons, Epistles and Gospels. To his Care was committed all the Books, Crosses, Chalices, Vestments, and all the Sacred Ornaments of the Chapel. He receives the Offerings there made, and Accounts for them; for all which Services an annual Pension of 5 l. is allow’d him.

The Steward and Treasurer are annually chosen on the Morrow after Michaelmas-day from out of the Canons Resident. To the Steward’s Office appertains the Government of all the Revenues of the College, the Rents and Profits whereof he is to pay the Treasurer. In his Custody are repos’d all the Ornaments, Jewels, and other Treasure of the Chapel, not committed to the Chantor, under the Obligation of rendring an Account; and his yearly Pension is 5 l.

The Treasurer is to distribute to the Custos, Canons, Vicars, &c. their Pensions and Allowances, which if he fail Eight Days after their prefix’d Times of Payment, he is debar’d of his own quotidians, as Canon Resident, until such Arrears be discharg’d; as likewise the Steward, if he be found delinquent. His Pension is also 5 l. per Annum. There is one Treasurer to receive the Rents of the old Lands, and another chosen from the Canons to receive the new, who have been allow’d the like annual Pensions. The former is term’d Seneschallus veteris, the latter Seneschallus novæ Dotationis.

Moreover, there is a Steward of the Courts, and Clerk of the Lands, which is an Officer under both the before-mention’d Stewards. He keeps the Courts by himself or Deputy, and is a Barrester at Law, and the standing Council for the College. His yearly Pension is 20 Nobles. But the Council in Spiritualibus is usually a Graduate in the Law.

The Chapter-Clerk enters and registers all Acts of the Chapter-House; he draws and engrosses all Indentures, Patents, Grants, Leases, &c. which pass the common Seal of the Dean and Canons. His Pension is 3 l. 6 s. 8 d. per Annum. The Under Stewardship and Chapter Clerkship heretofore were enjoy’d by one Person, but of late they are divided, and now he must be a Barrester at Law.

Of the Virgers Institution the Statutes of the College make mention, that in Procession and other Solemnities, they were to go before the Dean and Canons, bearing their Rods, for which Service they were to have annually a Robe, and 6 d. per Diem. And besides these, there are Two Sextons, Two Bell-ringers, a Clock-keeper, and a Porter who attends the shutting and opening of the Gates.

§ 7. For the Endowment of the College we shall only treat upon those Lands given to the Maintenance of this Foundation by the Founder himself, or by his Successors, or by Sovereigns of The Order of the Garter, such as have been Knights-Companions.

King Edw. III. by his Letters Patent of the Foundation [22 Edw. III.] aforesaid, gave them [the Custos, Canons, Alms-Knights and Ministers] the Advowsons of the Churches of Wyardesbury [Rasbury] in Lincoln, South-Tanton in Exeter, and Uttoxater in Coventry and Litchfield Diocess, in Frank Almoigne, free from all Secular Exactions; which License, to appropriate the same to the College, notwithstanding the Statute of Mortmain, he appointed as much out of his Treasure for their Support, as amounted to an immoveable Estate of 1000 l. per Annum; and lest there might be any Defect in the Knights Title to Uttoxater and South-Tanton, Henry Earl of Lancaster, 23 Edw. III. and Thomas Beauchamp Earl of Warwick, that Year had special Licenses granted them in Right of Patronage to the said Two Advowsons, and they to receive the same. Another such License, 28th of January, 24 Edw. III. was given to William de Bohun Earl of Northampton, for assigning to the Custos and Chaplains the Advowson of Dodyngton in Com. Oxon, which he held of the King in Capite. The 28th of January following, this Royal Founder conferr’d on them (by the Name of Custos and Chaplains of his free Chapel at Windsor) one Messuage, Seventeen Acres of Land, one of Pasture, and 3 s. Rent, in Wyrardesbury in Com. Bucks, which had been convey’d to him by Richard de Gloucester, Heir to Isabel de Ditton; and the 22d of May ensuing granted unto them the Advowson of Dachet near Windsor.

Anno 25 Edw. III. the King gave them the Advowsons of the Churches of Eure in Com. Bucks, of Riston in Com. Norfolk, and of Whaddon and Caxton in Com. Cantab., and in May that Year the Advowson of Simondesbourne (surrender’d temp. Edw. IV. to Richard Duke of Gloucester) and of St. Stephens of Saltash. The first of these Queen Philippa purchas’d of Sir John Darcy, and the other of Edward the Black Prince; and gave them both, first to the King, that by his Grant afterwards to the College its Title might be more corroborated. The same Year, October 26. the King bestow’d on them 100 Marks per Annum, out of the Farm of the Town of Northampton, to be paid by the Bailiff of the Town at Easter and Michaelmas by equal Allotments: And it was at the Founder’s Instance (therefore worthy to be inserted) that the Town of Yarmouth, 26 Edw. III. under their Common Seal, granted them a Last of Red Herrings yearly, well dry’d and cleans’d, to take the Corporation into their Prayers; tho’ some say it was a Penance enjoyn’d them for murdering a Magistrate.

In the 26 Edw. III. the Founder granted them and their Successors the Mannor of Eure near Weybrigg, in Com. Bucks, the Mannor of Craswell in Bray in Com. Berks, and a Wear call’d Braybrook, situated in the Thames, with all the Lands in that Parish convey’d unto him by Sir John Philibert, together with the Knights Fees, Advowsons, &c. belonging to those Mannors. He gave to the Custos and College soon after the Seisin thereof, as also of a Wood call’d Temple-Wood in Stoke-Pogeys, convey’d to the King by John de Molyns: But deeming all the Lands too small for the End he intended, 28 Edw. III. the King granted the Custos and College, by Letters Patent, a Pension of 100 l. per Annum out of the Exchequer; and upon the vacating the same, 34 Edw. III. he gave them yearly Lands of 101 l. 11 s. 11 d. out of the Possessions of religious Aliens, which fell into his Hands by Occasion of the French Wars: But lest these Possessions should be again restor’d upon a Treaty of Peace, they were to receive the annual Sum of 101 l. 11 s. 11 d. out of the Exchequer, till they were provided of Lands of the like Value. Upon several Restrictions, he granted them 51 l. 9 s. 9 d. yearly to be receiv’d out of 126 l. which the Prior of Takkele paid him for the Farm of that Priory, it being then in the King’s Hand by reason of the War with France. And by reason the Revenues did not amount to 1000 l. per Annum, as he design’d at the Foundation, in the 35th Year of his Reign, he granted them so much Money yearly out of the Exchequer, as would make up the Deficiency, till Lands or Rents of that Value should be settled on them. Lastly, 39 Edw. III. the Founder bestow’d on them a Piece of Ground in New Windsor, (whereon had stood an House of John of London) in lieu of the great Garden South of the Castle, formerly given them by him; and also a Garden opposite thereunto on the other side of the Way. Besides these Largesses of the Founders, there were others made by pious and devout Persons, said to be incorporated into the first Foundation, and made up that Revenue which William Bishop of Winchester adjudg’d sufficient for the Support of the College, which we shall silently pass over with the bare mention only.

The Mannor of Dodyngton-Castle; two Pastures call’d Frith and Ashcroft; the Chapel of Langeley; the Parsonages of Estriton, Langeley-Maries, Wantynge, Shaldeborne, Wedonbeek, Glynde and Ryslepe; the Pensions of the Vicarages of Wantynge, Clyffe, Tylthey and Gottesford; and the Portions of Bassyngborne and Prestwyke, in Haseley magna, Chalgrave, Adewelle, Aston, Rowhand, Sevyndon, Kyngeston and Henton, in Stoke-Basset, and Clopecote in Gatehampton; Whytechyrche, Maplederham, Retherfeld, Esthenreth Stretham; of Thornecroft in Letherhed; of Totynbeek in Wodesdon; Evington, Woodmershthorne; of Fordham, Ethrope, Newenham, and in Tollesworth.

In succeeding Times other considerable Donations were made by the Sovereigns and Knights Companions (omitting others.) Some of which, as they fall in our way, we shall speak of.

13 Rich. II. that King gave them a Croft in Northmolton, with the Advowson of that Church.

9 Hen. V. John, Duke of Bedford, third Son to King Hen. IV. conferr’d on them the Priory of Okeborne in Wilts (a Cell to Bec in Normandy) with all its Appurtenances: Which Donation was confirm’d by King Hen. V. and afterwards by King Edw. IV.

7 Edw. IV. that King, who had a singular Respect for the College, conferr’d on them the Mannor of Atherston in Com. Warwick, the Mannors and Advowsons of Chesingbury in Wilts, and of Quarle in Hantshire; the Church and Priorate of Uphaven, and the Deanry or Chapel of St. Burien in Cornwall, with an Addition of an annual Pension, which the Abbot of Sautrie discharg’d for the Church of Fulburne, to the Abbey de bona Requie, and another yearly Income of 20 l. paid by the Abbot of Rousford for the Mediety of the Church of Rotheram.

13 Edw. IV. he consign’d to them the Mannor or Priorate of Munclane, in Com. Hereford.

14 Edw. IV. he gave unto them the Custody, Patronage, and free Disposition of the Hospital or Free Chapel of St. Anthony, London, (a Preceptory to St. Anthony of Vienna, with all the Liberties, Privileges, Lands, &c.) upon the first Vacancy. The same Year he endow’d them with the Priorate of Brimsfield in Com. Gloucest. the Mannor of Blakenham in Suffolk; the Priorate of St. Elene in the Isle of Wight; the Priorate or Mannor of Charleton in Wilts; and all the Lands, &c. in Northmundon, Compton and Weleigh, in Sussex and Southampton; the Mannor of Ponyngton and Widon in Dorset, together with an annual Pension of 12 Marks, payable by the Priory of Monte acuto, with all the Lands, Tenements, Rents, Advowsons, &c. annex’d to the said Priorates and Mannors. The same Year he bestow’d on them the Mannor of Membury in Com. Dorset; the Lordships of Preston and Monkesilver in Com. Somerset; the Advowsons of Puryton and Wollavington in that County, together with the Knights Fees, Advowsons, Profits, Rights, &c.

18 Edw. IV. his Feoffees, the Queen, the Arch-Bishop of York, and others seised to the Use of the King, demis’d to them the Mannor of Wykecombe, call’d Bassetsbury, the Fee-Farm of the Town of Great Wykecombe, the Mannor of Crendon in Com. Bucks, and the Mannors of Haseley and Pyrton in Com. Oxon: And that Year the King gave unto them the Advowson of the Church of Cheshunt, being of his own Patronage, provided the Vicarige was sufficiently endow’d, and a compleat Sum of Money annually distributed among the poor Parishioners, according to the Diocesan’s Ordinance. To these he united the Custody or Deanry of the Free Chapel of Wolverhampton in Com. Staff. to the Custos or Dean of this College, and his Successors for ever; which Church, cum membris, is exempt from not only the Jurisdiction, &c. of the Bishop of Litchfield and Coventry, but by a Papal Bull from all Legates and Delegates; nor is it subject to any terrene Power, but the King of England alone, and under it to the perpetual Visitation of the Keepers of the Great Seal, pro tempore.

20 Edw. IV. he resign’d to them the Advowson or Patronage of the Prebend of Ewern in Com. Dorset, with all its Rights and Privileges: And lastly, in the 21st Year of his Reign, he granted them Two Parts of the Mannors of Old Swynford and Gannow, in Com. Wygorn. and the Reversion of the Third Part of them, with the Advowson of the Church of Old Swynford; nor was he thus munificent alone, but excited and spurr’d on others to the like Example, licensing, in the first Year of his Reign, all his Subjects to confer what they pleas’d to the Dean and Canons, within the Value of 300 Marks per Annum, as well such as held of him in Capite or otherwise, notwithstanding the Statute of Mortmain; and afterwards increas’d this License to Lands of 500 l. per Annum Value, (which King Hen. VIII. extended to 1000 l.) Hereupon, Anno 20 Edw. IV. John, Duke of Suffolk, and Elizabeth his Wife, the King’s Sister, were permitted to assign to them the Mannor or Lordship of Grovebury, otherwise call’d Leighton Busard, in Com. Bedford, the Church of Tintagell in Cornwall, as also Nineteen Messuages, Seven Tofts, One Hundred and Forty Acres of Land, Fourteen of Meadow, One Hundred and Forty of Pasture, One Hundred of Wood, and Four Shillings Rent in Newford and Blanford, in Com. Dorset, and Seventy Messuages, Twelve Tofts, Five Hundred Acres of Land, One Hundred of Meadow, Two Hundred of Pasture, Forty of Wood, and Twenty Shillings Rent, in Stokeley, Northall, Edelesburgh and Rodenach, in Com. Bucks, and Twenty Messuages, Eight Tofts, Three Hundred Acres of Land, Sixty of Meadow, Two Hundred of Pasture, Forty of Wood, and Twenty Shillings Rent, in Compton St. John, in Com. Sussex, and Ten Messuages, Nine Tofts, Two Hundred Acres of Land, Twenty of Meadow, One Hundred of Pasture, Ten of Wood, and Twenty Shillings Rent, in Portsmouth and Burghegge, in Hampshire, and One Messuage, Three Tofts, Sixty Acres of Land, Six of Meadow, Forty of Pasture, and Twenty Shillings Rent, in Stodeham, in Com. Hertford, held of the King in Capite, without any Restriction whatsoever, for which the Duke and Dutchess were to be had in the perpetual Orisons of the Dean and Canons. The same Year Sir Walter Devoreux de Feners, Knight, together with Sir John Devoreux and others his Feofees, made over to them the Mannor, Church, and perpetual Advowsons of Sutton Courtney in Com. Berks.

All the before-mentioned Endowments are called the Lands of the old Dotation, to distinguish them from those confirmed on the College by King Edw. VI. which are term’d the Lands of the new Dotation; of which hereafter. But several of them given by King Edw. IV. the College never possessed, viz. Atherston, Quarle, Uphaven, St. Burien, Fulburne Pension, Brimfield, St. Elen, Charleton, Blakenham, Ponyngton, Wedon, Old Swynford, and Gannow, and of some others they were seized but a short time, viz. Chesingbury, the Lands in Newford, Blandford, and Portsmouth. Besides these, the College was dispossess’d of Gottesford, temp. Hen. VI. of Cheshunt, temp. Hen. VII. temp. Hen. VIII. or a little before of Wodemershthorn, Tylthey, Retherfeld, Levyngdon, Stoke-Basset, Stretham, Totingbeek, Fordham, Elthorp, Newenham, and Tollesworth; afterwards they surrendred into the Hands of King Hen. VIII. Eure, Clyff, Ashton, Rowhand, Kingston, Esthenreth, Northmundon, Compton, Weleg, Compton St. John, and Shobingdon Portion; and upon the Reformation the College lost at least 1000 Marks per Annum, in the Profit made by St. Anthony’s Piggs, which the Appropriation of the Hospital of St. Anthony’s London brought to it, and no less then 500 per Annum, the Offerings of Sir John Shorne’s Shrine at Northmarston in Com. Bucks, a Man of great Piety and Veneration with the People, and sometime Rector there. The Advowson of this Church was appropriated to the Dean and Canons, by the Convent of Dunstaple, temp. Edw. IV. in exchange for Wedenbeck in Com. Bedford.

The Dean and Canons having convey’d unto K. H. VIII. the Mannor and Rectory of Ivor in Bucks, the Mannor of Dammery-Court in Dorset, and other Lands, Rents, Portions, and Pensions in the Counties of Somerset, Hants, Middlesex, Oxford, and Sussex, to the yearly Value of 160 l. 2 s. 4 d. for which they had no Recompence in his Life, that King, by his last Will, ordered them an Equivalent upon the Commutation and Agreement of an Exchange; which Will, King Edw. VI. his Son and Successor performed, as well for the Assurance of Lands, to the yearly Value of 600 l. to the Dean and Canons for ever, to the Uses in the Will, as for the Assurance of other Lands, of the annual Value of the said 160 l. 2 s. and 4 d. wherefore by Letters Patent, dated the 7th of October, in the First Year of his Reign, he granted them the Rectories of Bradnynche, Northam, Iplepen, Ilsington, and Southmolton in Com. Devon, the Tithe of Corn of Otery, in that County, as also Blossoms-Inn in St. Laurence-lane, London, the Tithes of Grain, &c. of the Rectory of Ambrosbury, in Wilts, and all the Tithes of Bedwyn, Stoke, Wilton, Harden, Harden-Tunrige, Knoll, Pathall, Chisbury, East-Grafton, West-Grafton, Grafton-Martin, and Wexcomb, the Prebend of Alcannyngs and Urchefounte, the Rectories of Urchefounte, Stapleford, Tytcombe, and Froxfeild, all in Com. Wilts, and all the annual Pension of 8 l. issuing out of the Manner of Icombe in Com. Gloucester, the Rectory and Vicarige of Ikelington in Cambridgeshire, the Rectory of East-Beckworth in Surrey, the Reversion of the Portion of Tithes of Trequite in Cornwall, and the Rent of 13 s. 4 d. reserved upon the same, the Rectory and Church of Plympton, and the Chapels of Plymstoke, Wembury, Shagh, Sandford-Spone, Plympton, St. Maurice and Brixton, in Com. Devon, the Rectory of Isleworth and Farickenham in Com. Middlesex, and Shiplake in Com. Oxon, the Reversion of the Rectory of Aberguille, and of the Chapels of Llanlawet [Llanbadock] and Llanpenysaunt, with the Rent of 30 reserved thereon, the Reversions of the Rectory of Talgarth, with the reserved Rent of 11 l. 6 s. 8 d. the Reversion of the Rectory of Mara in Com. Brecknock, and 6 l. Rent, and that of St. Germains in Cornwall, with 61 l. 13 s. and 4 d. Rent, to have and to hold, &c. forever, except the Tithes of Woolpat and Fitzwaren in Wilts, the Vicarige-House of Ikelington, Marriage-Money, Dirge-Money, and Mass-Money, and the whole Profit of the Bedrolls of Ikelington; nevertheless to pay the Crown in the Court of Augmentation, for the Rectories of Aberguille, Talgarth and Mara, the Chapels Llanbadock and Llanpenysaunt 4 l. 2 s. 8 d. in the Name of Tenths, and for all Rents, Services, &c. of the other Rectories, &c. 48 l. 7 s. 4 d. annually at Michaelmas. Moreover, within all these Premises, the King granted them Court Leets, or Views of Frankpledge, and to levy Fines, Amerciaments, Free Warrens, Waifs, and Felons Goods, and all other Profits, &c. whatsoever, and the said Rectories, Tithes, Pensions, Rents, and all other Gifts and Grants in the Possession of the Dean and Chapter, were confirmed to them by Act of Parliament, 2 Jac. I.

The ancient Rate of these New Lands in the King’s Books was 661 l. 6 s. and 8 d. per Annum; but according to the improved Rents, as they were then turned over to the College, 812 l. 12 s. 9 d. out of which 160 l. 2 s. 4 d. was yearly allowed them in Requital of their Lands passed to King Hen. VIII. and 600 l. per Annum, for accomplishment of his Will; but the remaining Sum, viz. 52 l. 10 s. 5 d. was reserved in lieu of Tenths, to be paid into the Court of Augmentation; nevertheless, this last reserved Sum was not assented unto by the Dean and Canons to be so paid, because the Charges issuing out of the Lands were larger than were expressed in the Rental. And we find that, shortly after, the Rents of St. Germains, Northam, Ilsington, &c. part of the New Lands, were received and accounted for, according to the old Rate in the King’s books, to wit, 162 l. 13 s. 4 d. per Annum, in Recompence for the Lands conveyed to King Hen. VIII. and out of which they paid a yearly Surplusage of 2 l. 2 s. 1 d. This Sum, together with the Rents of the rest of the New Lands, being upon the said Improvement accounted to be 597 l. 17 s. 11 d. made in all 600 l. per Annum; and this was laid out by the Dean and Canons for some time towards erecting the Alms-Knights Apartments.

Thus stood the Lands accounted for till the Settlement made by Queen Elizabeth, who in the First Year of her Reign appointed the Dean and Canons to convert the Rents of these New Lands to such Uses and Intents as she had set down in a Book signed with her Sign manual, and annexed to an Indenture made between her and the Dean and Canons; by which Indenture they were obliged to apply the Rents and Profits of these Lands, as was prescribed in the Book, and to observe the Ordinances therein, and upon Default, to abide such Orders as the Crown, or any Knight-Companion, deputed by the Sovereign, shall set forth.

      l. s. d.
In this Book the Total of the Revenue reckon’d at the ancient Value     661 06 08
The Annual Charge and Disbursements therein set down     430 19 06
And so Remains     230 07 02

Which Remainder has been and is assigned for Payment of Tenths to the Crown, Vicars, Curates, Annual Stipends, Officers Fees, Reparation of the Premisses, and for the Relief of the Dean and Canons, in Maintenance and Defence of the said Lands.

And to the End the Queen might know how the Revenue was disposed of, she gave charge that her Lieutenant and the Knights-Companions should annually (at the Feast of the Order held at Windsor) state the Accompt, and see how the Income was expended, and that her Lieutenant should yearly be put in mind of it by one of the Officers of the Order. This Ordinance was renewed, 21 Jac. I. and the Chancellor of the Order was appointed to be the Remembrancer, and in Obedience thereunto, the Account of these new Lands (which begins at Lady-Day, as that of the old Lands doth at Michaelmas) was afterwards exhibited in Chapter, and in particular that Account, 9 Car. I. which was submitted to the Sovereign and Knights-Companion’s Consideration, who referred the Inspection thereof to the Knights-Commissaries, who were to consult over the Affairs of the Order.

§. 8. The Privileges of the Chapel and College are Ecclesiastical and Temporal: As to the first, Pope Clement VI. exempted the Chapel, College, Canons, Priests, Clerks, Alms-Knights and Officers, from all ordinary Jurisdiction of Archbishops, Bishops, Archdeacons, and all Judges and Officers, and received them within the Protection of the Papal-See; and granted a farther Privilege, That the Custos should have Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction over the Canons, Priests, &c. as also the Cure of their Souls, notwithstanding any Papal Constitution, Provincial, or Synodical, yet allowing that the Custos should receive that Cure from the Diocesan of the Place. In Consideration of this Exemption, the Custos was to pay annually, on St. George’s Day, a Mark in Silver, to the Pope’s Chamber. Two Years preceding, the Chapel was called the King’s Free Chapel, which Title it still enjoys; for it owes Subjection to none but the Sovereign of England, the Supream of the Church, as heretofore it stood divided between the King and See of Rome. The Privilege of Exemption included in the Confirmation of Liberties, made by the Founder in his Charter, dated Anno Regni sui 47. and all other Emoluments granted by him, are confirmed by Act of Parliament, 8 Hen. VI. As the College has its sole Dependance on the Crown, it is visitable only by the Lord-Chancellor, whose Visitations and Power are reserved to him by the Statutes of the College, and himself called in the King’s Commission for Visitation, 2 Rich. II. Governor of the said Chapel, as well in Spirituals as Temporals, and, under the King, immediate Custos. And so jealous were the Dean and Canons, lest the Power of the said Exemption should be infringed, that when Sixtus IV. had granted the Bishop of Salisbury, and themselves, to make new and interpret the ancient Statutes, they soon obtained a Revocation of that Authority, lest the said Bishop (in whose Diocess the College is situate) being so unpowered, might by Degrees bring them under his Jurisdiction, in prejudice to their Exemption. And, A. D. 1485. to prevent such design, the Archbishop of Canterbury, &c. were commission’d to see the Bull revoked, and Salisbury enjoyned not to intermeddle further in the College Affairs. Moreover other Bishops, and the Chancellor of England, were to renew, alter, or new make such Statutes as might accrue to the Advantage of the College.

If the Archbishop of Canterbury be present in the Chapel, he sits below the Dean, nor can he consecrate there, without his License. And this is very remarkable, that at the ratifying the Peace between King Charles I. and Lewis XIII. A. D. 1629. in the Chapel at Windsor, Dr. Wren, then Dean of the College, gave the Oath to the French Ambassador, and not the Archbishop of Canterbury, tho’ he was then present.

The Dean and Chapter are to weigh well and debate at their yearly Chapters all things fit to be dispatched in reference to the College Affairs, and whatsoever Determination they come to, not repugnant to their Statutes, all Persons are firmly obliged to observe.

The Deans have no Institution from any Bishop, but his Institution, Investiture, and Installation into the Custos-ship, Canonship, and Prebendship, is conferred from such of the Canons Resident, to whom the King (who collates) doth recommend him. Other Marks of Exemption appear in the constant proving of Wills before him, or in his Absence before his Lieutenant. In using the Power of Excommunication within their Jurisdiction (the Precincts of the College) granting a Dispensation for eating Flesh in Lent, a farther Mark of their Privilege appears, that the Ordination for the Chantry Priests were confirmed by the Dean and Chapter, and not the Bishop of the Diocess, as were the Statutes of the new Commons. The Dean is exempt from paying all Synodals, or Procurations, nor can any of the King’s Chaplains preach in the Chapel of St. George, unless he be a Canon there, or have License from the King, or from the Dean and Canons. They send no Delegates to the Synod, and when the Point was debated, 1640. it was carried in the Negative, as being against their Liberties, and might intitle them to the Payment of Subsidies; nor are they intitled to any Share in the Government of the Church, more than the Colleges in the Universities, where there are many nominal Deans. In short, when by the Act of Uniformity, 14 Car. II. every Clergyman was bound to subscribe before the Archbishop or his Ordinary, the Canons subscribed before the Dean; and tho’ some of them subscribed before the Bishop, yet was it with a Salvo, saving the Rights and Privileges of this Free Chapel.

Their Temporal Immunities and Privileges are these, as granted them by Charter, 6 Mar. 27 Edw. III. and confirmed by several of his Successors.

The Custos and Canons were free from paying Aid upon making the King’s eldest Son a Knight, and marrying his eldest Daughter, and exempt of all Aids to the King’s Contributions and Tallages.

Whensoever the Clergy should give a Tenth, or other Imposition, out of their Spiritualties, or the Commons give a Tenth, Fifteenth, or other, out of their Temporalties, Subsidy, or the King tax his own Demean, or the Pope impose any Money to be raised upon the Clergy, to give it the King, this College and their Possessions were to stand freed thereof.

They were discharged from any Contributions of arraying Soldiers, and from sending them to guard the Sea-Coasts, and from every Fine and Composition of the like Nature. Their Houses within the Castle of Windsor, as elsewhere, are quit from any Livery of the King’s and Queen’s Stewards, Marshals, Purveyors, Officers, and Servants, and from the like Officers of the Peers or Nobles, and the said Officers were not to intermeddle there, without Leave of the Custos and Canons.

No Duke, &c. or Nobleman, nor any Stewards, Marshals, Escheators, Sheriffs, Coroners, Bailiffs, or Officers, nor other Person of what Condition soever, upon any Pretence, were not to lodge or remain in their Houses without their Consent.

The Custos, Canons, and their Tenants, were not to pay any Toll, Paviage, Piccage, Barbicanage, Terrage, Pontage, Murage, Passage, Payage, Lestage, Stallage, Tallage, Carriage, Pesage, and from Scot and Geld, Hidage, Scutage, working about Castles, Parks, Bridges, Walls for the King’s Houses; and from Suits to the County, or Hundred Courts, and Wapentakes, or Court Leets, Murder, and common Amerciaments, before either King, Justices of the Bench, or Itinerant, and from every like Custom had an Immunity.

Within their Lands, Fees, and Precincts, the Chattels of all Felons and Fugitives were seized to their own Use. All Fines for Trespasses, and all other Contempts and Misdemeanors, Fines pro licentia concordandi, and for all other Causes, Amerciaments, Redemptions, Issues, and Forfeitures whatsoever, Annum Diem Vastum & Streppum, and all Things which might belong to the King and his Heirs, and all Wrecks, Waifs, and Strays, were granted them.

No Purveyance of Corn, Hay, Horses, Carts, Carriages, Victuals, or any Goods, Chattels, or any thing whatsoever, should be carried off by any of the King’s Officers, upon their or their Tenants Land.

They were to be free from paying any Pension, Corrody, or other Sustentation to be granted to the Crown.

They were to have free Warren in all their Demain Lands wheresoever, and that altho’ they lay within the Bounds of the King’s Forest.

That they should enjoy for their Conveniency a weekly Market on Wednesday, at their Mannor of Ever in Bucks, and Two Fairs to last Eight Days, one on the Eve and Feast of St. Peter and St. Paul, and Two Days after the other, upon the Eve and Feast of St. Peter ad Vincula, and Two Days following.

That they should, in all their Lands have Socage and Sackage, Infangthef, Utfangthef, and View of Frankpledge, with Thewe, Pillory, and Tumbrel for punishing Malefactors, and Power to erect Gallows upon their own Soil for executing those apprehended in their Jurisdiction.

They were to be exempt of all Suits and Pleas of the Forest, and of all Charges or Fees which the Officers of the Forest might demand, and from the Expeditation of their Dogs and Suits of Court there; as likewise all from Gelds, Dane Gelds, Knights Fees, Payments for Murder and Robbery, Building or Repairing of Bridges, Castles, Parks, Pools, Walls, Sea Banks, Causeways, and Inclosures; and of all Assizes, Summonses, Sheriffs Aids, their Bailiffs, or Officers, bearing of Treasure, and all other Aids whatever; as also from the common Assessments and Amerciaments of the County, and Hundred, and all Actions relating to them; they were discharged from the Payment of Ward-penny, Aver-penny, Tithing-penny, and Hundred-penny, and quit from Grithbreck, Forestal, Homesoken, Blodwite, Wardwite, Hangwite, Fightwite, Leyrwite, Lastage, Pannage, Assurt, and Waste of the Forest; so that such Waste be not committed in the Forests, Parks, and Woods belonging to the Crown, and then reasonable Satisfaction, without Imprisonment, should be accepted.

All Writs and Attachments were returnable to them, as well relating to the Pleas of the Crown as other, thro’ all their Lands and Fees, and no Sheriff, Bailiff, or Officer, should execute any such there, unless in Default of the Custos and Canons, and they to have and hold Leets, and Lawdays, and Cognizance of all Pleas betwixt their Tenants, as well of Trespasses and Contracts, as others. And lastly, They were to have and hold Wards, Reliefs, Escheats, Forfeitures, and other Profits, Issues, and Emoluments whatsoever, within their own Fees, from all their Tenants, which might appertain to the Crown, as if the Tenants did hold of the Crown or others in Capite.


We come now to treat of the most Noble and Illustrious Order of the Garter; which, if we consider either its Antiquity, or the Nobleness of the Personages, that have been enroll’d, it excels and outvies all other Institutions of Honour in the whole World. It owes its Original, as is confessed on all Hands, to Edward III. King of England and France; yet as to the Occasion, there are several Opinions which we shall rectifie. The vulgar and more general is, that the Garter of Joan, Countess of Salisbury, dropping casually off as she danced in a solemn Ball, King Edward stooping took it up from the Ground, whereupon some of his Nobles smiling, as at an amorous Action, and he observing their sportive Humour, turned it off with a Reply in French, Honi soit qui mal y pense; but withal added, in disdain of their Laughter, That shortly they should see that Garter advanced to so high an Honour and Renown as to account themselves happy to wear it.

But upon Examination of this Tradition, let others judge what Credit it bears to establish its Belief; for Sir John Froissart, the only Writer of the Age that treats of this Institution, assigns no such Original, nor for 200 Years after is there any thing to the Purpose in our other Historians, till Polydore Virgil took occasion to say something of it; but had it been Fact, some French Historian or other, would not have neglected to register it at a convenient Time with a Scoff and Ridicule, since that Nation was so ready to deride King Henry V’s Design of invading them with a Return of Tennis Balls.

In the Original Statutes of this Order, there is not the least Conjecture to countenance the Conceit of such a Feminine Institution, no not so much as laying an Obligation on the Knights-Companions to defend the Quarrels of Ladies (as some Orders then in being enjoyned;) nor doth the Author of that Tract entitled Institutio clarissimi Ordinis Militaris a prænobili subligaculo nuncupati, prefaced to the Black Book of the Garter, let fall the manifest Passage to ground it on.

As to what Polydore says, he is not so confident to ascertain the Person whose Garter it was; but cautiously declining that, says, it was either the Queen’s, or the King’s Mistress’s; and if it were the latter, yet doth he omit her Name and Title, both which (on what Authority we find not) are supplied by modern Historians, who call her Joan Countess of Salisbury, the same elsewhere celebrated by the Name of the Fair Maid of Kent, (whom Edward the Black Prince, afterward married) whereas no Historian ever gave the least Inuendo that King Edward III. ever courted her as a Mistress. Selden points at her when he calls the Lady, from whom the Garter slipp’d, Countess of Kent and Salisbury: But about the Time when this Order was founded she in truth was dignified with neither Honour; for altho’ she was Daughter to Tho. of Woodstock, Earl of Kent, and had been sometime the reputed Wife of William Mountague, second Earl of Salisbury, yet then she cou’d not properly be accounted Countess of Salisbury. She was actually Wife to Sir Thomas Holland, (one of the First Founders of the Order.) Nor was she yet (tho’ afterwards) Countess of Kent, because her Brother John Earl of Kent, at the Institution of this Order, survived, and died not till 26 Edw. III.

That there was a Countess of Salisbury with whom King Edward III. became greatly enamour’d, Froissart reports after this manner, That this King having relieved a Castle of that Earl’s in the North, wherein his Countess had been besieged by the Scots (the Earl himself being at that time Prisoner in France;) upon sight of her extraordinary Beauty he fell in love with her; but she so virtuously demeaned her self, during his Abode there, that he declined further Solicitation. However, some time after, the King out of Desire to see her, proclaim’d solemn Justs in London, whither this Countess and other Ladies being invited, came up. This Castle it seems was Wark upon Tweed in Northumberland, which King Edward had formerly bestowed on her Husband, for his good Service past, when he first espoused her, being then but a Knight.

Altho’ it should be admitted that this Countess of Salisbury was the King’s Mistress, yet must it be remark’d, That she was Wife to William Mountague, Kt. created Earl of Salisbury, Anno 11 Edw. III. Mother to William the before-mention’d second Earl, that her Christian Name was Catherine, not Alice, as Froissart, not Joan, as others call her, Daughter to William Lord Granston, and that she expired 28 Edw. III. But that the whole may appear, what indeed it is, a meer Fable, we shall insert the Judgment of Dr. Heylin, who took great Pains in this Particular. This, says he, I take to be a vain and idle Romance, derogatory both to the Founder and the Order first published by Pol. Virgil, a Stranger to the Affairs of England, and by him taken upon no better ground than Fama Vulgi, the Tradition of the common People, too trifling a Foundation to so great a Building.

Of the same Contexture with the former is another Tradition in Andrew du Chesne, That the Queen departing from the King to her own Apartments, and he following soon after, chanced to espy a Blue Garter lying on the Ground (supposed to have slipp’d from her Leg) whilst some of his Attendants carelesly passed by it, as disdaining to stoop at such a Trifle; but he knowing the Owner, commanded it to be given him; at the Receipt of which he said, You make but small account of this Garter; but within few Months, I’ll cause the best of you all to reverence it alike. Some suppose that the Motto was the Queen’s Answer, when the King asked her, What Men would conjecture of her, upon her losing her Garter in such a manner?

Both Relations are far distant from Fact; nevertheless it has thus far’d with other Orders of Sovereign Foundation, and an amorous, instead of an honourable Account, has been falsly render’d of their Institution; as for Instance, The Order of the Annunciade, and that of The Golden Fleece.

There is a third Opinion grounded on a Relation made of King Rich. I. who, whilst his Forces were employ’d against Cyprus and Acon, and extremely tir’d and harrass’d with the Siege, he, by the Assistance and Mediation of St. George (as imagin’d) was inspir’d with fresh Courage, and bethought himself of a new Device, which was to tie about the Legs of a Number of Knights, a Leathern Thong Garter, for such had he then at hand, whereby they being emulated to future Glory, with Assurance of Reward if they prov’d victorious, they might be excited to behave themselves intrepidly and well, much after the Examples of the old Romans, among whom were distributed various Crowns for several Causes, to adorn the Soldiers: But if King Richard I. did make use of this Device in the Holy Land, as a Signal or Mark of Distinction of a Party, upon some warlike Exploit, yet that he took Occasion to create a distinct Order of Knighthood thereupon, there is not sufficient warrant to believe; (for it is only put down in the Preface of the Black Book, but not in any Part of the Annals of the Order; nor can it plead higher Antiquity than the Reign of King Hen. VIII. when written.) All the Advantage that can be made of it, is, to heighten the Reputation of that Saint among the English, by which Means the Garter came to be dedicated to him, and not that it contributed to its Institution.

§ 2. The true Motive was therefore, neither the Ladies Garter, or King Richard’s Leathern Thong, that it owes it Original to: But King Edward, being a Person of consummate Vertue, gave himself up to military Affairs; and being engag’d in War for recovering his Right to France, made use of the best Martialists of the Age, did thereupon first design (induc’d by its ancient Fame) the Restoration of King Arthur’s Round Table, to invite hither the Gallant Spirits from abroad, and endear them to himself; and adjudging no Place more requisite than Windsor, upon New-Year’s-Day, A. D. 1344. he issu’d out Letters of Protection for the safe going and return of Foreign Knights, to try their Valour at the Solemn Justs to be held there on Monday after the Feast of St. Hilary following (which happen’d Jan. 19.) And these Letters of Safe-Conduct continu’d in force until the Octaves of the Purification of our blessed Virgin ensuing, being the 18th Year of his Reign. At the Time appointed, he provided a great Supper to begin the Solemnity, and then ordain’d this Festival to be annually at Whitsontide; and immediately after these first Exercises were over, for a future and better Accommodation, he impress’d Workmen and Carriages for erecting a particular Building in the Castle, and therein plac’d a Table of Two Hundred Foot Diameter, where the Knights should have their Entertainment of Diet, at his Expence of 100 l. per Week; to which Building he gave the Name of The Round Table. And as at these great Conventions the Days were spent in all Kinds of noble Feats of Arms, Justs and Turnaments, so were a great Part of the Nights consum’d in publick Balls and dancing with the Ladies that attended the Queen thither; and perhaps it was hence conjectur’d, that at some of these Balls the Queen’s Garter, or the Garter of Catherine, Countess of Salisbury, might slip off, and the King’s taking it up occasion Smiles in the Bystanders; and afterwards, when the King had modell’d his intended Order, a Garter offering it self for its chief Ensign, might add to the Conjecture; but that it was the principal Cause, is a groundless Imagination. And tho’ King Edward advanc’d the Honour of the Garter, as to denominate the Order, yet was it not to enhance Reputation to, or perpetuate an effeminate Occasion, but to adorn Martial Prowess, with Honours, Rewards and Splendor; to increase Vertue and Valour in the Hearts of his Nobility, that so true Worth, after long and hazardous Exploits, should not enviously be depriv’d of that Glory which it hath intrinsically deserv’d, and that active and hardy Youths might not want a Spur in their Progression in the Paths of Vertue, which is to be esteem’d glorious and eternal.

It is further observable, that the French King, Philip de Valoys, in Emulation of this Seminary at Windsor, set up a Round Table at his Court, and invited Knights and valiant Men of Arms out of Italy and Almaine thither, lest they should repair to our King Edward III. which meeting with Success, prov’d a Countermine to his main Design; who perceiving that his Hospitality towards strange Knights, upon Account of reviving King Arthur’s Round Table was too general, nor did sufficiently ingratiate them to his Person, but being unconstrain’d and at Liberty, did after their Departure take what Side they pleas’d in the ensuing Wars, he at length resolv’d upon a Projection more particular and select, and such as might oblige those whom he thought fit to make his Associates, in a lasting Bond of Friendship and Honour: And having issu’d forth his own Garter for the Signal of a Battle, that was crown’d with Success, (which is conceiv’d to be the Battle of Cressy, fought about Three Years after his erecting the Round Table;) upon so remarkable a Victory, he thence took Occasion to institute this Order, and gave the Garter Preheminence among the Ensigns of it, whence that select Number, whom he incorporated into a Fraternity, are styl’d Equites Aureæ Periscelidis, and vulgarly Knights of the Garter. By this Symbol he design’d to bind the Knights and Fellows of it mutually unto one another, and all of them joyntly to himself, as Sovereign of the Order; nor was his Expectation frustrated, for it did not serve only as a vehement Spur and Incentive to Honour and martial Vertue, but also as a golden Bond of Unity and internal Society; and for this Consideration Cambden aptly calls it a Badge of Unity and Concord.

By the Symbols of this Garter the Knights are reminded, with all Religiousness, Sincerity, Friendliness, Faithfulness and Dexterity, not to leave the Pursuit of whatsoever they take in hand, nor to enterprize any Thing contrary to the Statutes of the Order; neither to frustrate the Rights of Peace and Friendship, nor vilify the Law of Arms, or proceed in any Thing farther than Faith and Compact, or the Bond of Friendship will admit. Moreover, in the binding of the Leg with this enobled Ensign, there was given this Caveat and Exhortation, that the Knights should not pusillanimously (by running away from Battle) betray the Valour and Renown which is ingrafted in Constancy and Magnanimity. Nay, so exactly did the Founder contrive the whole Habit into the Signification of the Garter, that he ordain’d his and the Knights-Companions Robes and Ornaments to be all alike, both for Materials and Fashion, intimating thereby, That they ought to conserve brotherly Affection among themselves. The great Collar of the Order was made of equal Weight, and like Number of Knots and Links, in Token of the like Bond of Faith, Peace and Amity inviolably to be observ’d and retain’d amongst them: In fine, all Things were so design’d, that every one might plainly perceive how much these Things tended to the Maintenance of Amity and Concord.

In further reference to the establishing this Order, the aforesaid King calling together the Earls, Barons, and principal Knights of his Kingdom, Freely, says Froissart, and obligingly declar’d his Mind to them concerning this Affair: To which all of them being well inclin’d, entertain’d the Motion with equal Joy and Applause, deeming it would prove a very great Advancement to Piety, Nobility and Vertue, and likewise an excellent Expedient for the uniting not only his Subjects one with another, but all Foreigners conjunctively with them, in the Bonds of Amity and Peace. And ’tis very improbable the prudent Founder should summon his Nobles to consult about the Grandeur of an Order, that had taken its Rise from so slight an Occasion as the dropping of a Garter from a Lady’s Leg. Now, to draw the Tye of Friendship more close, the King caused those who were (or should be) of the Order, to be call’d Fellows, Associates, Colleagues, Brethren, and Knights-Companions, and the Order it self a Society, Fellowship, College of Knights, and Knight-Companionship; and their Habits to be all alike, to represent how they ought to be united in all Chances and various Turns of Fortune; Co-partners both in Peace and War, assistant to one another in all serious and dangerous Exploits; and thro’ the whole Course of their Lives to shew Fidelity and Friendliness one towards another. There are other Reasons assign’d, much to the same Effect, That the Order was instituted to fortifie the Confidence of the King, the Kingdom and Martial Vertue; that is to say, to strengthen the Faith of the Subjects towards them, and for their greater Security, and because the Garter carries with it a Bond or Tye of Fellowship, and is a Symbol of Amity between Princes, being Companions of the same Order.

In the last Place, if we look upon the Statutes of its Institution, we shall find the Injunctions wholly Military, and so are the Words of Admonition pronounc’d at the putting on the Ensigns of the Order: And the Ground of the Institution (in the Preamble to King Henry VIII’s Exemplar) is said to be for the Honour of God and Exaltation of the Catholick Faith, joyn’d both with Piety and Charity, in establishing a College of religious Men to pray for the Prosperity of the Sovereign of the Order and the Knights-Companions, and to perform other holy Duties; as also ordaining a Maintenance for a Company of Alms-Knights, who have not otherwise wherewith to support themselves; but not one Word relating to the Engagement on behalf of the feminine Sex.

And whereas King Edw. III. had laid Claim by his Title to the Kingdom of France, and in Right thereof assum’d its Arms, he from the Colour of them, ’tis said, caus’d the Garter to be made Blue, and the Circumscription Gold: And it may, without straining, be inferr’d from the Motto, Honi soit qui mal y pense, that he retorted Shame and Defiance upon him that should dare to think amiss of so just an Enterprize, as he had undertaken for recovering of his lawful Right to that Crown; and that the Magnanimity and Bravery of those Knights, whom he had elected into this Order, was such as would impower and enable them to maintain the Quarrel against all who thought ill of it. Consonant to this is the Conjecture of Harpsfield, that this Apophthegm was design’d to put the Knights-Companions in mind, Not to admit any Thing in their Actions, or among their Thoughts, derogatory to themselves and their Honour.

That Age did exceedingly abound with Impresses, Motto’s and Devices, and particularly King Edw. III. was so excessively given up to them, that his Apparel, Plate, Bed, Houshold-Furniture, Shields, and even the Harness of his Horses, and the like, were not without them, many of which now to descant upon would be a fruitless Attempt, seeing the Occasion of the Invention, and the Circumstances are lost, that should illustrate them; and others, by reason of their Brevity, seem’d insignificant, in regard something was designedly omitted, and left to be understood, which cannot now be rightly supply’d, so as to arrive at the Mind of the Inventor. Of this Number may be this Motto, It is as it is, which was embroider’d upon a Doublet of that King; tho’ there are others which seem more easy to be decypher’d; as that daring Motto wrought upon his Surcoat and Shield provided to be used at a Turnament,

Hay, Hay, the Wythe Swan;
By God’s Soul I am the Man.

§ 3. The Time when the Order was instituted, Historians differ widely about; Selden, Cowper, and others, from Froissart (who wrote temp. Rich. II.) would have it in the 18th of King Edw. III. But since Froissart errs, in making the Number of Knights-Companions no fewer than Forty, which is a grand Mistake, Why might not he trip in Point of Time, and confound the Year of its Erection, with that wherein the Founder renew’d the Order of The Round Table, Windsor being the Place for both. For should we admit, that during some Part of the Solemnity held in this King’s 18th Year, when the Accident of the Lady’s Garter slipping off happen’d, what other Inference can be made, but that he had only an Intention to put in Execution somewhat afterwards? Not that an Order was actually erected at that Time: Besides, the Jollity of the Season, the Greatness of the Concourse, and the Splendidness of the Festivity, it was too busy a Time to suffer much Consultation tending thereunto; or at least to mould and model a Design so compleat and substantial, as it appears to have been even at first. If we joyn Fabian, he is plain, that tho’ the King design’d the Institution at the End of the Festival, (which he places between Candlemas and Lent, in the 19th, and not 18th Year of that King) Yet was it not then, saith he, but afterwards establish’d by him. Nevertheless, Mr. Selden elsewhere observes, it had its Original in the 24th Year of the said King. And our industrious Stow (with whom Lily, Speed, and Segar agree) tells us, That the first Feast of the Order was celebrated A. D. 1350. which exactly agrees to the 24th of Edward III. But Polydore Virgil places it after the 25th of Edward III. We must therefore have recourse to some other Proofs for elucidating this Point, since this Chronological Æra of the true Time of its Institution hath wonderfully slipp’d the Pens of all Writers.

Admitting then that the erecting this Order was first thought of by King Edward, at some of those grand Assemblies of The Round Table, held after the French King had set up the like; yet was it not mature, or brought to any Perfection, till after his glorious Victories and Triumphs over the French and Scots in the Battles of Cressy and Nevil’s Cross, (in the last of which the Scotch King, David, was taken Prisoner) and until King Edward had Calais surrendred to him, as will appear very conspicuous.

Among the Rolls of the Great Wardrobe, is one containing the Account of all the King’s Liveries, from Michaelmas Anno 21, to the 31st of Jan. 23 Edw. III. In the same are divers Things mention’d to be adorn’d with Garters, which were provided against the first grand Feast of St. George; and among the rest, the Royal Robes, viz. his Mantle, Surcoat and Hood; likewise a Bed of Blue Taffaty was bedeck’d with Garters, containing the Motto, Honi soit qui mal y pense. There were made for the Sovereign Three Harnesses, whereof Two were of White Velvet, wrought over with Garters de blu & diaspris per totum compedmein cum Woodhouses; and the Third de Velvetto Ynde cont. Lappekin quisseux & caligas, wrought over likewise with Garters. Had the Roll been divided into Years, or had distinguishing Marks of Time upon it, we might have been guided with more Certainty as to the true Year of the Institution. However, we may thence conclude it was not founded in the 18th of Edw. III. because that the Sovereign’s Robes were not made until the 22d Year of his Reign at soonest; perhaps not till the Beginning of the 23d. But to put the Matter beyond dispute, the Founder’s Statutes fix the Time of Institution to his 23d Year; so do the Statutes of King Henry V. and the Preface to the Black Book, Leland, Mills and Dr. Heylin. To conclude, when he had fix’d upon the Day and Place for celebrating the first grand Feast of this Order, he sent his Heralds into Germany, France, Scotland, Burgundy, Hainault, Flanders and Brabant, to invite all Knights and Esquires, (with Assurance of Safe-Conduct and Liberty for Fifteen Days, both before and after the grand Solemnity) to shew their military Prowess and other publick Exercises there to be perform’d, proper to the Place and Occasion; agreeable to which Invitation, sundry Knights and Gallant Men came over to signalize their Valour; and what made the Solemnity more glorious, King Edward’s Queen was there present, attended with Three Hundred of the fairest Ladies, in all imaginable Splendor and Gaity.

§ 4. The Patrons of the Order were several, under whose Protection (according to the Custom of the Age) King Edw. III. put himself and all the Knights-Companions, that the Affairs of the Order might be defended, preserved and govern’d.

The first and chiefest which he elected, was the Holy Trinity, which in a more especial Manner was invocated to the Aid and Assistance of this Order.

Secondly, King Edward III. intitled peculiarly the blessed Virgin Mary, accounted then the general Mediatrix and Protectress of all Men; unto whom King Edward IV. was so strictly devoted, that he thought some additional Ceremonies requisite to her farther Honour, and thereupon ordain’d, that on her Five Solemnities the Knights Companions should annually (as accustom’d on the Feast of St. George) wear the Habit of the Order as long as Divine Service was celebrating, (unless they had sufficient Cause of excuse) bearing on the right Shoulders of their Robes a golden Figure of the Virgin Mary; and that they should go in the same Manner and Habit upon all Sundays throughout the Year; and lastly, that on the same Days for ever they should say Five Pater Nosters, with as many Ave Maria’s.

Thirdly, St. George of Cappadocia, a most choice Champion of Christ and famous Martyr, was also elected one of the Patrons to this Order by King Edward III. not so much as he was a Professor of the Christian Faith, or for that he was an armed Soldier or Knight of Christ, but so much the more because in those Wars, which were waged by the Christians against the Infidels, he by several Appearances manifested his Presence as a most certain Encourager and Assistant to the Christians; the Relations whereof may be seen in Dr. Heylin’s History, who hath laboriously and judiciously maintain’d the History of this Saint, against those that will not allow him a Place in Heaven, or a Being in the Church. In like manner the learned Selden hath avouch’d him to be the special Patron, Protector, Defender, and Advocate of this Realm of England; and has made it plainly appear in what Veneration he hath been honour’d abroad, especially among the Eastern Nations. To whose corroborating Testimonies we shall add, That this Title of Patron to our Nation, as given to St. George by the Founder of this Order, in a Patent granted to the Dean and Canons of the Chapel of St. Stephen at Westminster, and St. George at Windsor, which dischargeth them from Payment of Tythes; as also by King Henry VIII. in the Preamble of his Statutes. And tho’ in general he is styl’d the Principal Patron of the Affairs of Christendom, and a tutelar Guardian of military Men, yet among all Christians the English did excel; and in this Nation the Founder of this Order, in making choice of such an approv’d expert Captain and Patron, in particular Respect of whom the Knights had the Title of Equites Georgiani, St. George’s Knights, and the Order it self came to be call’d the Ordo Divi Sancti Georgii, The Order of St. George.

It is remarkable, that Du Chesne, a noted French Historian, acknowledges it was by the special Invocation of St. George that King Edward III. gain’d the Battle of Cressy, which afterwards bringing to his Remembrance, He founded, says he, a Chapel within the Castle of Windsor. But if we may ascend a step higher, and give credit to Harding, it’s recorded King Arthur paid St. George particular Honours, for he advanc’d his Picture in one of his Banners, which was about Two Hundred Years after his Martyrdom, and very early for a Country so remote from Cappadocia to have him in Reverence and Esteem.

Lastly, The Founder added a fourth Patron, whose Name himself bore, viz. St. Edward the Confessor, his Predecessor, King of England; and we find he was wont to be invocated by this Founder, as well as St. George, in any great Difficulties and Streights. Walsingham gives an Instance at the Skirmish of Calais, A. D. 1349. when King Edward, in great Anger and Grief, drew out his Sword, and most passionately cry’d out, Ha St. Edward, Ha St. George; which his Soldiers hearing, ran presently to him, and rushing violently upon the Enemy, put many of them to the Sword. These Four Patrons we find recorded together in the Preamble of the Foundation of Windsor College by King Edward III. tho’ in the Preamble to his Statutes of the Order, and to King Henry V’s Statutes, St. Edward the Confessor is omitted; nevertheless he is enumerated with the rest in the Preamble to King Henry VIII’s.

§ 5. As to the Honour and Reputation of this Noble Order, either in Comparison with others, or in Reference to it self, it challenges the Precedency of Antiquity, before the eldest Rank of Honour of that Kind any where establish’d.

Secondly, The Statutes of the Foundation were so exquisitely and judiciously devised and compacted, upon such solid Foundations of Honour and Nobleness, that they afterwards became a Precedent to other Orders; and gave the Plan to those Two of The Golden Fleece and of Monsieur St. Michael, as is manifest by comparing their Statutes.

Thirdly, It is no small Honour that accrues to this Order, that the Number of these Knights-Companions were never encreas’d, but as they were Twenty Six with the Sovereign, so they now thus continue, ut Pretium faciat raritas; for the infringing this Article hath split several other military Orders into Contempt and Ruin, as nothing more tarnishing, or throwing a sully on the Worth of Glory and Honour, than when render’d so vulgar, and indifferently disposed without Distinction and Merit, as is exemplify’d in The Order of the Star, and the now declining Order of St. Michael.

Fourthly, It has receiv’d more additional Lustre by being honour’d with the Companionship of divers Emperors, Kings and Sovereign Princes, who esteem’d it the Summit of their Glory, and the highest Trophy of additional Honour, to be enroll’d in the Number. Insomuch that some of them with Impatience courted the Election. For we find recorded in the Register, A. D. 1672. Eight Emperors of Germany, Three Kings of Spain, Five French Kings, Two Kings of Scotland, Five Kings of Denmark, Five Kings of Portugal, Two Kings of Sweden, One King of Poland, One King of Arragon, Two Kings of Naples, besides divers Dukes and other free Princes; as One Duke of Guelderland, One Duke of Holland, Two Dukes of Burgundy, Two Dukes of Brunswick, One Duke of Milan, Two Dukes of Urbin, One Duke of Ferrara, One Duke of Savoy, Two Dukes of Holstein, One Duke of Saxony, and One Duke of Wertemberg, Seven Count Palatines of the Rhine, Four Princes of Orange, and One Marquis of Brandenburg.

Fifthly, It entitles those Knights and Noblemen, whose Vertue hath rais’d them to this Pitch of Greatness, to be Companions and Associates with Emperors and Kings, a Prerogative of an high Nature, and a sufficient Recompence for the greatest Merit. We shall close up all with the high Elogy bestow’d on it by the learned Selden, That it exceeds in Majesty, Honour and Fame, all Chivalrous Orders of the World.

The Statutes and Annals of the Order.

Order and Regularity is not only the Beauty and Symmetry of Government and Societies, but also greatly contributes to their Establishment and Perpetuity. Statutes and Rules are as well the Bounds to determine, as Bonds to unite Fellowship and Societies together; and if either fall into disuse, or be unadvisedly broken, they open a Field to Dissolution and Ruin.

Such like Considerations mov’d and excited the victorious King Edward III. (after he had determin’d the Erection of this most renown’d Order of the Garter) to devise and institute several laudable Statutes and Ordinances, to be duly observ’d and kept within the said Order; which being collected into one Body, are call’d The Statutes of Institution.

The Original of these was ordain’d to be kept within the Treasury of the College of Windsor, but hath long since wholly perish’d; yet a Transcript of them is recorded in the Reign of King Henry V. in an old Book call’d Registrum Ordinis Chartaceum. Two more ancient Exemplars of this Body of Statutes are also in being; the one in the Library of the Lord Hatton, and the other in the Black Book of the Order; and comparing them together, I shall here give from the Latin the Heads they consist of.

1. The King of England, his Heirs and Successors, are to be Sovereigns or Superiors of this Order.

2. None are to be admitted, unless he be a Gentleman of Blood, and that he be a Knight and without Reproach.

3. The Knights-Companions were to be Twenty Six, each to have at Windsor a Mantle and Garter for the better Splendor of the Order; to wear the said Habit whensoever they go to the Chapel of St. George or Chapter-House, to hold a Chapter, or do any thing relating to their Order. In like manner they are to wear the Habit upon the Vigils of St. George, in their Procession from the King’s Lodgings to the Chapel or Chapter-House, and returning back, and during Supper, continue so habited till it be over, and likewise on the Morrow of St. George’s Day, at Chapel, Dinner-time, Supper-time, and afterwards all the said Day, until the Sovereign or his Deputy shall deposite the Ensigns of the Order, and decree their Departure.

4. There were to be Thirteen Canons Secular, who at the Time of their Institution, or within a Year, were to be Priests, and as many Vicars already Priests, or to be made so at the next Ordination, answerable to the number of the Knights-Companions; these religious Persons to be presented by the several Founders each one, and upon the Death or Vacancy of such presented, the Sovereign of the Order ever afterwards to have the Nomination of them, who were bound to pray for the good Estate of the Sovereign and his Kingdom, and particularly for this Order.

5. The Canons were to wear a Purple Mantle, with the Arms of St. George in a Roundle upon their right Shoulder.

6. There were to be Twenty Six poor veterane Knights, each to have a competent Subsistence, their Election to be after the manner of the Canons aforesaid.

7. These Knights were to have a Red Mantle, with the Arms of St. George; but without any Circle of the Garter about it.

8. If the Sovereign could not be present at the solemn Festival of St. George, his Deputy was to supply his Place at the Charge of the Sovereign; but such Deputy was not to make any new Ordinances, tho’ he has License to correct or amend the old Ones.

9. Every Year, upon the Vigils of St. George, the Knights-Companions within the Realm, or elsewhere, if conveniently, are to assemble, at Windsor Castle, and be present there at the Celebration of Divine Service, in the Habit of the Order, where placed regularly in their Stalls or Seats, directly over their Heads their Helmets and Swords, &c. are to be hung up, and remain as long as such Knights live, in Honour of them, and to signify the Defence of the Church, to which they are obliged as a Military Order; but in case the Feast of St. George happens to fall within the Quindene or Fifteen Days after the Feast of Easter, then it was to be prorogued to the Sunday next following, accounting Fifteen Days from Easter Day, that every Knight-Companion might have reasonable time to come, nor be forced to ride upon any of the Three Easter Holy-days.

10. That they meet in St. George’s Chapel yearly, on the Eve of St. George, at the Hour of Three in the Afternoon; and if they come not at the Time assigned, without a just Excuse, which the Sovereign or his Deputy allows, their Penalty is to be according to the Ordinance of the Chapter; which is, That they shall not enter into the Chapter Door for that time, but stay without, and shall have no Voice in any thing that is done in the said Chapter; and if they come not before the Beginning of Vespers, they shall not enter into their Stalls, but shall tarry below before the said Stalls in the Choiristers Places during Vespers. The like Penalty is ordain’d for not coming to the Mass or Morning-Service betime, and at Vespers, on St. George’s Day; and whosoever shall absent himself wholly from this Solemnity, without sufficient Excuse and Leave from the Sovereign or Deputy, he is not to enter within his Stall the next Feast after, but shall stay below, and before his Stall, as it is said at Vespers, and in the Morrows Procession must walk before the Three processional Crosses, [now the Choiristers,] and at Mass [Service] shall sit below until the Offering, and he to offer last. After which he is to come before the Sovereign, or his Deputy’s Stall, and ask Pardon, which re-instates him in his Stall. Absenting the next second Time upon the Feast, without Leave, he has no Stall allowed him until he hath given and offered a Jewel upon St. George’s Altar, to the Value of Twenty Marks, which is to be double every Year until a Reconciliation.

11. Wheresoever they be, they must wear their Blue Robes from the Beginning of the first Vespers, on the Eve of St. George’s Day, to the second Vespers on the Morrow inclusive, &c.

12. If any Knight-Companion appears publickly without his dignifying Garter, upon challenging the same, is to pay half a Mark to the Custos and College.

13. At the Times of Offering, each associated with the other who holds the opposite Stall, are to march in Procession together to make their Offerings; but alone, when his Consort is absent, and so that in all Processions the Sovereign goes last.

14. In the Morrow after the Solemnity of St. George’s Feast is over, before their separating, a Mass de Requie or Office de Defunctis was to be used, at which the Knights-Companions were all entirely to be present, without necessary Impediment shown to the Sovereign or Deputy for Liberty to depart.

15. They were to leave their Robes at Windsor always, to be ready for them there upon any sudden Occasions that might evene.

16. Journying near Windsor, in Honour of the Place, unless lawful Cause obstructs, they must take it in their Way, and assuming the Habit of the Order the Canons wore, devoutly to meet and conduct them into the Chapel; where, if it happens to be time of Divine Service, they are to hear the same; if not, they are to be detained no longer than while the Canons shall say the Psalm de profundis for the Defunct, and during their own Offering: But if any had riden thro’ the Town, without visiting the Chapel and offering there, for every Neglect he must go one Mile on Foot from the said Chapel, to shew his Obedience, and offer an Half-Penny in Honour of St. George.

17. Upon first Notice of the Death of any of the Order, the Sovereign shall ordain a Thousand Masses, every Foreign Prince shall cause Eight Hundred, a Prince of Wales Seven Hundred, a Duke Six Hundred, an Earl Three Hundred, every Baron Two Hundred, and every Knight Batchellor One Hundred Masses to be celebrated for the Good of the Soul departed; which neglected for a Quarter of a Year after notice of such Death, the Masses are to be doubled; upon half a Year’s Neglect, again doubled; and so from Time to Time in like Form till the End of the Year, and then the Year’s to be doubled.

18. Upon sure Notice of the Death of a Knight-Companion, the Sovereign, or his Deputy, is to converse by Letters, the Remainder [not Strangers] that are within the Kingdom, to meet him within Six Weeks in some convenient Place, and elect another; which assembled, at least Six, with the Sovereign or Deputy, every of them present is to name Nine of the worthiest and sufficientest Knights without Reproof that he knows, whether native Subjects or Foreigners, sobeit they hold no contrary Party, or be against the Sovereign, viz. Three Earls, or of sublimer Title; Three Barons, and Three Knights Batchellors, which Names the Bishop of Windsor, for the Time being, was to write, or, in his Absence, the Dean or Register, and, in their Absence, the oldest Residencer in the College, and after shew them to the Sovereign, who is to chuse out of them him that has the most Voices, and whom he esteems the most beneficial to the Crown and Kingdom. Every Knight failing to appear at an Election, without an approved Cause, was to pay to the Custos and College the Penalty of a Mark, and at his next coming to the Chapter shall kneel upon the Ground, in the midst of the Chapter, before the Sovereign or Deputy, until Reconciliation.

19. Soon after Election, the Knight-Companion elect is to have a Garter, in token of his Election, and that he is a Fellow of the Order; and as soon as decreed to take Possession of his Stall, but not before, is to have a Mantle, which, if he dies before he receiv’d, he was not to be accounted as one of the Order, because he wanted Possession; nevertheless he was to have one half of the Masses abovesaid, because he had the Garter deliver’d to him and nothing beside. If he was not installed within a Year after his receiving the Garter, and especially if within the Realm, and without reasonable Excuse to be allowed of by the Sovereign or Deputy, his Election became void, and they might proceed to a new one: Moreover, neither the Sword nor Helmet was to be put upon his Stall within the Castle, before his coming; to the End, that if the Knight elect came not, his Atchievements might not be unhandsomly taken down and abused, but honourably removed into the Choir for the publick Use and Profit of the said College.

20. Every Foreigner elected was to have Certification of such his Election from the Sovereign, at the Sovereign’s Charge, who was to send him the Garter and the Mantle, and a Copy of the Statutes of the Order, under the Common Seal of the said Order, within Four Months after the Election, the better for him to advise on; which being accepted, of whatsoever Condition he be, he was obliged within Eight Months after to send a sufficient Proxy, according to his State and Dignity, a Knight irreprehensible to be installed in his Room, and who was to bring with him a Silk Mantle of the Blue Colour of the Order, also a Sword and Helmet to remain at Windsor, which Mantle was be put upon the right Shoulder of the Proxy, by the Sovereign or Deputy at the time of Installment, when he is introduced to take the Stall in the Name of his Lord and Master; neither was he to deposite the same till the End of Divine Service; after which he was not to wear it, nor be admitted in the Chapter-House, or have any Suffrage, by virtue of any Powers vested in him; but this Favour Foreigners elected by Proxy were to have, that could not personally come themselves, they were to be Partakers of the whole Masses and Orisons of the Order; whereas, if they died before the Installation, they were to have but a Moity of them.

21. Upon the Death of any Earl, [or of Superior Dignity] Baron, or Knight Batchellor, his Successor, whether Earl, [or of Superior Dignity] Baron, or Knight, was to have a vacant Stall of his Predecessor, without any changing of Places, except the Prince of Wales alone, who was to have always the next Stall, and opposite to the Sovereign; so that it may happen for a Knight to have an Earl’s Place, or an Earl a Knight’s Place; and this because the first Founders might be known.

22. Every Knight-Companion at his first Entrance, was to give a certain Alms, according to their Eminence and Degree, for the perpetual Maintenance of the Canons and Poor Knights, viz. the Sovereign Forty Marks, a Foreign King Twenty Pounds, a Prince of Wales Twenty Marks, a Duke Ten Pounds, an Earl Ten Marks, a Baron a Hundred Shillings, and a Knight Batchellor Five Marks, that by these pious Donations they might justly entitle themselves to the Name and Privileges of the Order; wherefore, before these Payments were rightly performed, their Sword and Helmet [Atchievements] were not to be hung up, and for Foreigners the Sovereign was obliged to pay himself.

23. Upon the Death of any of the Founders his Arms, in a Plate of Metal, was to be fixed upon the Back of his Stall, and their Successors were to have the like, but to be placed underneath their Predecessors, and not to be so great as those of the first Founders.

24. At Admission every Knight-Companion must promise and swear personally, or by Proxy, faithfully to observe the Statutes of the Order, and none are to be installed by Proxy but Foreigners only, which cannot conveniently come in Person.

25. If the Sovereign be out of England at the Installation of any Knight-Companion, or could not attend himself to do what appertains to him in that Point, he might impower and authorize any of the Fellows to officiate for him.

26. That there be a Common Seal or Signet Keeper, whom the Sovereign was to assign.

27. Every Knight-Companion was to have a Copy of the Statutes under the Seal of the Order, the Original sealed likewise with the said Seal, to remain for evermore within the Treasury of the College, and upon the Death of any Knight-Companion, his Executors were to send back such Copy to be deliver’d to the Custos or Warden.

28. No Knight-Companion was to go out of the Realm and Dominion of England, without the Knowledge and Licence of the Sovereign, who of Grace and Favour is bound to grant it upon a Military Expedition, or other notable Act appertaining to the Honour of Knighthood, in Preference and Advancement of this Order of St. George.

29. They were not to arm themselves against each other, but in the Wars of their Sovereign Lord, in his right and just Quarrel; and if it happen’d that any of the Order should be retain’d in the Cause and Quarrel of any Lord, and the adverse Party desir’d another Knight-Companion on his Side, that latter Knight is by no means to agree but to excuse himself in all Things, because his Fellow was armed on the other Side, and was retain’d before him. And every Knight was bound to except and agree, at his being retain’d, that he may have his Discharge from the Wars, upon any of the Order’s being engaged in Arms before him for the contrary Party; and if the second retained knows not of it, upon notice that any of his Fellows were retained before him, and armed on the contrary Side, the second retained Knight was to excuse himself to his Master, and relinquish the Quarrel.

30. All Licences given to the Knight-Companions to travel in quest of Honour by Military Exploits; also all Certificates, mandatous Letters, Certificates, and other Writings whatsoever relating to the Order, were to be issued out by the Sovereign, under the Seal of the Order, to remain in the keeping of one of the Order, during the Sovereign’s Pleasure. And if the Keeper of the Seal absent himself upon reasonable Cause, he was to leave the Seal with another of the Fellowship that the Sovereign should appoint, to the Intent that the Seal at no time be out of the Presence of the Sovereign, he being within his Dominion. And in like manner concerning the Seal in the Absence of the Sovereign or the Deputy.

31. If any Knight-Companion for Devotion sake should desire to dwell at Windsor, he was to maintain himself at his own, and not at the College Charge.

32. Any other Knight, not of the Order, upon the Account of Devotion, that would reside there, was to be provided for at the Appointment of the Sovereign, and the Fellowship also. Any Knight or other Person giving 10 l. yearly Rents or Lands, or more, to the College, to participate of their Prayers and Suffrages, he was to be registred in the Calendar of Benefactors, and continually be pray’d for by the Canons and Poor Knights.

33. Upon the Death of any Canon, the Custos or Warden is to certify the same by Letters to the Sovereign, if beyond Sea, to know whom he pleases to present to the Canonship.

34. There was to be a Register appointed by the Sovereign and Fellowship, the most intelligent Person of the College, who was to be present at the Chapters, to record their Elections and the Electors, their Punishments, and Causes of them, with their Reconciliations, all Acts whatsoever administred in their Council, from Chapter to Chapter yearly; for the faithful Execution of which Office he was to be sworn at his Admission therein; and whatsoever had been register’d was in the Beginning of the following Chapter, on the Vigils of St. George, to be publickly recited before the Sovereign and the whole Fellowship, that what was amiss and incorrect might be mended and reduced to due Form.

§ 2. Besides these Statutes there are Two other Bodies, or Exemplars establish’d since, the one by King Henry V. the other by King Hen. VIII. King Henry V. finding the Glory of the Order declining, removed the Grand Festival and other Solemnities, and commanded a strict Observation of all the Founder’s Statutes, and brought many more to like Perfection, which he subjoined to such of them, where they might be properly and are as follow:

To Article 3. That the Knights should mark their Obeisance in the Choir first to the Altar, and next to the Sovereign, or in his Absence to his Stall.
8. That the Deputy should elect, if the Sovereign (when abroad) had not Six Knights with him.
9. That the Feast of St. George should not be kept upon St. Mark’s Day, nor the Days of St. Philip and Jacob, nor of the Holy Cross, neither upon any Days which should happen in the Festivals of the Ascension or Pentecost, or other solemn Feasts ordained by the Church to the interrupting their Divine Service.
12. That when a Knight should ride out he might wear a Blue Silk Ribbon instead of his Garter.
14. That the Order and Manner of Offering up the Atchievements should be as is there prescribed, viz. before they offer their Money, their Swords should be first offered by Two Companions, which the Sovereign or his Deputy should appoint, and afterwards their Helmets with their Crests, by Two others of the Order.
20. That Knights absent in the Sovereign’s Service might be install’d by Deputy.
31. That the Sovereign should take a Signet of the Order abroad with him, to be fixed to all the Acts he does in Foreign Parts relating to this Order, in Distinction to those done at home.
34. That no Charge should be admitted upon the College by the Custos or Canons, without the Sovereign’s Consent likewise.

The Statutes with these Additions (as the Statutes of Institution) this King caused to be translated into French, and transcribed into a Roll, which was ordered to be presented to every Knight-Companion under the common Seal of the Order. In after Times it was transcribed into Books; and by a Decree, Anno 3 Hen. VII. an Original Book of these Statutes and Institutions, fair written, was to be reposed in the College of St. George, and the Scribe or Register to have Transcripts of them in Readiness, to present the elected Knights withal.

The last and largest Body was first began, and received the finishing Stroke by King Hen. VIII. chiefly in regard some of the former Statutes wanted Explication and others Contraction. And for the compleating of which Purpose, on St. George’s Day, Anno 9 Regni sui he summoned all the Knights-Companions to convene next Year at the Time of the Solemnity, about the Abrogation of what tended to darken the Honour of this Order (if any such were), and for the Advancement of what might promote the Grandeur and Lustre of it. But these Resolves came to no Perfection till May 28. Anno 11 Regni sui, when he entred upon this Reformation with all magnificent Ceremony imaginable, for being accompanied with Nineteen Knights-Companions of the Order proceeding in Cavalcade to the Chapter-House, and taking into Consideration their former Statutes of Knights-Companions, with all due Reverence implor’d the Sovereign to reform and explain them as he should think convenient, which he brought to a successful Period, by the Advice and Consent of the Society assembled: That done, all present entreated the Sovereign, kneeling, that where any of them had been peccant against the Order, he would please to remit, and issue out a general Pardon, which he granted and ratify’d in Chapter next Day. This was a Task of Three Years compleat before it rose to Perfection, viz. April 23. Anno 14 Hen. VIII. for then the Sovereign, out of right singular Love, well-temper’d Zeal, and entire Affection to this most noble Order, to the Estate of Chivalry, and the Continuance and Encrease thereof; as also at the humble Request and instant Importunity of the then Knights-Companions, and by their Advice, Counsel and Consent, did interpret and elucidate all the Obscurities, Doubts and Ambiguities of the former Statutes and Ordinances. Divers Affairs contain’d in Fifty of them being explain’d and amended; he made likewise necessary Additions, the Original whereof being sign’d and seal’d, were commanded to be carefully laid up in the Treasury of Windsor College, to remain as a Standard to succeeding Times; yet they have not been seen there these many Years past.

The Articles and Clauses added to the former Statutes, in this last Body, are these:

To Article 1. That the Interpretation of the Statutes, &c. belongeth to the Sovereign.
2. The Three Points of Reproach declar’d, and what is meant by a Gentleman of Blood.
4. Of the Prerogative of the Feast.
5. How the Feast is to be observed by absent Knights.
6. Attendance on the Sovereign, if he be not at the Feast.
7. That the Sovereign’s Deputy may correct Things in Chapter.
12. The offering up of Atchievements, and a Taper arm’d with an Escutcheon.
13. Canons to sit in the lower Stalls, when any Knights are present.
14. That Six Knights make a Chapter.
20. The Manner of Installation set down.
21. Clause for a Foreign Knight’s Deputy to be conducted from the Chapter-House to the Stall; and for making an Election void, if the Knight send not his Proxy within Seven Months.
23. For advancing and translating of Stalls.
25. Plates not to be larger than the first Founders, except Strangers.
27. The Time Three Months prefix’d for the Executor of a deceas’d Knight-Companion to send back the Copy of the Orders deliver’d to him at his Admission, which might be also sent to one of the principal Officers of the Order.
38. Concerning the Collar of the Order.

This Body of Statutes was compil’d in Latin, and is recorded in the Black Book of the Order. It was translated into French and English by Sir Thomas Wriothesley, Kt. then Garter King of Arms. The English Version annex’d here to this Treatise, is what hath since been deliver’d (instead of the former Statutes) to all succeeding Knights-Companions, according to the Injunction; but of late Times appointed to be sent to Foreign Princes and other elect Knights abroad, sealed with the Great Seal of the Order, affix’d to a Label of Blue Silk and Gold.

§ 3. There have been several Endeavours since the Reign of King Henry VIII. for reforming the Statutes. As first, King Edward VI. who as Sovereign, by the Orders themselves, had an undoubted Prerogative set him to alter and reform many Things which seem’d inconsistent with the Religion he establish’d. To which Purpose, at a Chapter at Greenwich, held April 23. in the Third Year of his Reign, the Lord St. John, the Earl of Arundel, and Sir William Paget, were to peruse and make them agreeable to the King’s other Proceedings, by the Assistance and Advice of the Protector, the Duke of Somerset, and other Companions. This was follow’d by a subsequent Order pass’d in the Chapter at Greenwich the Year after, that the Statutes should be reform’d and corrected as they thought expedient: And for the better Accomplishment of their Design, at the next Feast, April 24. 5 Edw. VI. another Order commenc’d, impowering the Duke of Somerset, the Marquess of Northampton, the Earls of Warwick, Arundel, Bedford and Wilts, to peruse and amend the Statutes and other Books of the Order, which were brought to some tolerable Degree of Perfection; for thereupon a new Body was collected (in general very much altering the Laws of the Order) and publish’d March 17. Anno 7 Edw. VI. But this King within Four Months after expiring, Queen Mary, his Sister and Successor, the very first Thing she transacted was to abrogate and make them void; wherefore we need not mention them, as never in use and unrevived. For the Execution of which Purpose, she conven’d a Chapter at St. James’s, the 27th of September following; and it was then decreed, that the said Laws and Ordinances, as inconvenient, impertinent, and tending to Novelty, should be disannulled, and no Account to be made of them for the future; and for the quicker Execution, Sir William Petre (that Day admitted Chancellor) had Orders to see them speedily expung’d out of the Book of Statutes, and forthwith defac’d, lest any Memory of them should remain to Posterity; and only those of her Father, Hen. VIII. and his Royal Predecessors, should be retain’d.

In this Affair King Philip, her Husband, appear’d no less zealous; for on the 5th of August, 1 and 2 Philip and Mary, (which was the 3d Day after he had been invested with the Habit) himself being present at a Chapter at Windsor, it was ordain’d, That all Acts and Decrees in the Great Book, [i. e. the Black Book aforesaid] which were repugnant and disagreeable, either with the ancient and receiv’d Statutes of the Order, or else with the Laws of the Realm, should clearly be abolish’d and erased, by the Marquis of Winchester, the Earls of Arundel, Pembroke, and the Lord Paget.

No sooner was Queen Elizabeth fix’d on the Throne, but soon after, viz. on St. George’s Day, in the second Year of her Reign, a View of the Statutes was committed, by Commission, to Four of the Knights-Companions, viz. the Marquis of Northampton, the Earls of Arundel and Pembroke, and the Lord Howard of Effingham, who were thereby impower’d to peruse and consider those Statutes with the utmost Care and regard, if any of them were repugnant to the Religion, Laws and Statutes of the Realm; and if any such were recorded, to represent them faithfully to the Sovereign, that she, in Conjunction with the Knights-Companions, might establish such Decrees concerning them as she should think fit; but that any thing was done in pursuance hereunto, doth not appear; for the Transcripts of her Father’s Body of the Statutes, throughout the Time of her Reign, were presented to the Knights-Companions at their Installations; and the Practice of her Time was pursuant to the Direction therein, except in some few Things now and then added or alter’d at future Chapters, when there arose fresh Matters for such Expedients.

King James I. her Successor, revolv’d something towards a new Regulation; and in order to put it in Execution, the 14th of May, in the 9th Year of his Reign, decreed, That Commissionary Letters should be granted to the Earls of Nottingham, Worcester, Pembroke and Northampton, to empower them to examine the Registers and other Monuments which pertained to that Order; and where any Passage should be found obsolete or obscure, to make it conspicuous and clear; where Contrariety appear’d, fitly to reconcile it; yet with no Design of innovating any Thing, but an Intention of renewing all, as near as might be, to the first Standard and most ancient Institution of the Order; saving always Power to himself, as Sovereign of the Order, to add or diminish any Matter (according to the Occasion) as it should seem agreeable to his Prudence for the Honour of this Most Noble Order. What Progress they made in this Commission, the Memoirs of that Time are silent in; but some few Years after, this Affair was reviv’d, and another was issu’d forth, to the Earls of Nottingham, Worcester, Southampton, Arundel and Montgomery, and the Viscount Lisle, all Knights-Companions, dated April 26. in the 16th Year of his Reign; which Six, or any Four of them, were thereby constituted to take an exact Survey of all the ancient Statutes and Articles of the said Order; and authoriz’d to call before them all such Persons, whether Officers of the said Order, or others, as could give any Light or Information concerning that Affair; and after a serious Deliberation, to pen down what in them they conceiv’d meet to be explain’d, and what to be added, whereby to render the Order more illustrious, that the same being presented to the Sovereign and the Society, at a Chapter holden, might be resolv’d on in part, or in all, to be put in Execution, if it seem’d so good to that King.

This Affair mov’d very slowly; but towards the latter End of his Reign, the Earls of Worcester, Montgomery, Arundel, Surry and Leicester, Five of the Six Commissioners above-nam’d, having held divers Conferences, and debated several Matters represented to them, and at a Chapter convened at Whitehall the 19th of May, Anno 20 Jac. I. did present to the Sovereign certain Articles, subscribed with their Hands, which, for the Honour of the Order, they thought requisite to be duly observ’d.

By the first of which they made Provision for a further Progression and Advancement of the illustrious Institution, in proposing, that every Year a Commission from the Sovereign should be granted, or continu’d to such Knights of the Order as the Chapter should pitch on, to deliberate and weigh all Affairs that fell under the Order, and that the Year after, an Estimate, by the Knights in Chapter, should be exhibited, of their Resolutions and Proceedings by Virtue of the said Commission. This, with Eight other Articles, were confirm’d by the Sovereign and Twelve of the Knights-Companions, the 22d of May following, in a Chapter held at Whitehall; and so prosperously their Endeavours succeeded, that on the Feast-day of St. George, at Windsor in the ensuing Year, the Earl of Worcester, (being then the Sovereign-Deputy) with Ten Knights-Companions more, gave their assent to Eight other Articles (most of them concerning the Alms-Knights) which the Morning after had the Approbation of the Sovereign; and before the Celebration of Divine Service, by his Deputy and Companions assembled in the Chapter-House, the Observation thereof was duly decreed.

King Charles I. design’d and endeavour’d the most compleat and absolute Reformation of any of his Predecessors; and at the Solemnity of St. George, held at Windsor the 6th of October, in the 6th Year of his Reign, He commission’d Nine Knights-Companions, viz. the Earls of Mulgrave, Pembroke, Montgomery, Arundel, Surry, Salisbury, Carlisle, Dorset, Holland, Berkshire and Suffolk, with command to assemble Four Times in a Year, to take into their Consideration the Affairs of the Order; all which, but the Earls of Mulgrave and Dorset, met at Whitehall the 2d of January following, where some few Matters fell under their Consultation. This Commission was seconded by one of a larger extent about Three Months after, and directed to the said Knights-Companions, or to any Eight, Seven, Six, Five or Four of them, empowering them to meet and devise, and exactly preponderate all the Statutes and Ordinances of the Order, as well such as were established at the Foundation, as those that had been since made, by Explanation or Addition, and to weigh advisedly whether any Thing had been enacted, that had caused Doubt or Ambiguity, or stood in need of any Change or Amendment; and if upon mature Deliberation by them thus conven’d, there should appear any Contrariety or Defect, for want of plain Expression, or other Omission, fit to be supplied, tending to the Honour of the Order, That then the Sovereign might, upon Return of their Proceedings, resolve upon some general Declaration in Chapter, to reform and reduce into one Body all the Statutes and Ordinances thereof, that the same being compil’d and settled in one perfect Model, might be so consign’d to Posterity, free from all future Questions and Doubts.

Nevertheless not any thing was done upon this Commission, tho’ it stood in force even from the 6th to the 13th Year of this King’s Reign; but where the Neglect lay History does not fully inform us, tho’ it may be conjectur’d by what follows.

At the Feast of St. George, celebrated by Prorogation at White-hall, for the Year 1636. upon the 17th, 18th, and 19th Days of April, 1637. divers Petitions for Reformation, and reducing of Matters to their pristine Constitution, were presented to the Sovereign by the Chancellor, and read; some of which, more especially, tending to set off and encrease the Honour of the Order, were received and decreed by the Sovereign, and the rest referr’d to the said Knights-Commissioners. The first of those Decrees which at that time had its Sanction, was to revive and renew the Powers given in the former Commission; and thereupon a new one, dated the 7th of May following, was issued under the Great Seal of the Order, and directed to the Earls of Mulgrave, Darby, Pembroke, and Montgomery, Arundel, and Surry, Kelly, Salisbury, Dorset, Holland, Barkshire, Suffolk, Lyndsey, Exeter, Marquiss Hamilton, Duke of Lenox, the Earls of Darby, Moreton, and Northumberland, or to Three or more of them, to meet and consult of any Matters contain’d in the Statutes, or for Honour of the Order. These Knights-Commissioners were endow’d with all the plenary Powers given in the foresaid Commission, dated 6 Car. I. unto which was granted a further Addition, for the better effecting the Sovereign’s Care: That Three or more of them should meet at the Sovereign’s Court, and begin to put the said Commission in execution in Whitson Week next ensuing, attended and assisted by the Chancellor of the Order, and all, or any other Officers, or such of them as they should fix on, or find serviceable. And being assembled, to have free Liberty to hear, propound, and debate of whatsoever shall fall under their Cognisance, or that they should conceive conducible to the Honour and perfect Establishment of so Illustrious and Noble a Body. And to prepare all Matters of such their Resolutions and Debates to be laid before the Sovereign at the next Feast of St. George, and so successively at every Chapter so appointed by him, to receive his full Determination, Approbation, and Royal Assent, with further Power to adjourn from time to time, after the first Opening and Reading of the said Commission; their Meetings to be in such Places, and on such Days as should seem most convenient to them.

Now who wou’d suppose, that after so Noble an Intention of the Sovereign, and his earnest Solicitude to issue forth a second Commission, his hearty recommending and exciting their Deligence for a speedy Dispatch, and lastly, his expecting an Account of their Transactions the next Feast, these honourable Persons, Companions of the Order, should need a Spur to accomplish so laudable a Design; but it was so.

For altho’ the Commission was opened at White-hall the 30th of May following, in the Presence of the Earls of Pembroke and Montgomery, Salisbury, Holland, Marquiss of Hamilton, and Duke of Lenox, Commissioners; yet Sir Thomas Row Chancellor, in his Letter to Dr. Christopher Wren, dated the 4th of June, 1637. sadly complained, That it was much as he could do to draw together Five of the Knights-Companions, to open and read the Commission, and this quasi in transitu, was in Confusion and Hurry, and all that was transacted was to appoint another Convention at Court in Midsummer Week then next ensuing, and charge the Chancellor to prepare Matter (for Propositions and Observations upon the Statutes) fit for their Consultations against that Appointment, according to the Tenor of the Commission. And in another Place writes, That he found such Difficulty to procure Meetings, and as certain non Chalance in every one, as if it were but a ceremonious Affair, and so few hearty in it, that he feared he and the Officers should wait to little Purpose: And so indeed it fell out; for albeit he attended in Midsummer Week, according to their Direction, yet there was nothing dispatch’d, save only the adjourning of their Meeting to London.

Some little Progress was afterwards made in this Affair at White-hall the 8th of February following, where Three of them were present, viz. the Earls of Berkshire, Lindsey, and Northumberland, who order’d the Chancellor, Register, and Garter, to prepare an Abbreviation of the Statutes, and reduce every thing of one Head into an Act, to keep up to Method, and avoid Confusion.

The 1st of February after, another Assembly of Seven of the Knights-Commissioners was held at White-hall, in whose Presence a few Points were debated; but little or nothing concluded.

§ 4. As concerning the Annals of the Order, or the Books wherein the several Resolutions and Decrees occasionally made in Chapters, and wherein other historical and ceremonial Matters relating to it are recorded, it will not be amiss to give some Account of them in this Place.

The first, in Order of time, is an old Paper Book written in French, call’d Registrum Chartaceum, hitherto fortunately preserv’d in the Paper Office at White-hall, which probably was begun by John Coningham; for we find him, 1414. (a little before the Annals commenced) made Canon of Windsor, and Register of the Order, and in regard the same Hand-Writing is carry’d on from the Beginning of the Book down to 16 Hen. VI. inclusive, where follows an Hiatus till Anno 23 Hen. VI. that the Annals began to be set down with another Hand; and that he shortly after died in 1445. Henceforward these Annals are entred with promiscuous Hands, which may be presumed the proper Hand-Writings of the Registers of this Noble Order, as they succeeded each other in the Office.

After we find Richard Sidnor mention’d in the Register Anno 16 Hen. VIII. (who subscribed his Name at the foot of every Leaf) the Annals were pen’d in one Hand until Anno 26 Hen. VIII. that Robert Aldrydge, D. D. and one of the Canons of Windsor succeeded him; and then ’tis evident the Writing also was changed to an old set Roman Hand, which ran on to the End of 29 Hen. VIII. in which Year he was advanced to the Bishoprick of Carlisle; and this Book breaks off in the 31st of his Reign.

Besides this there is another Book that goes by the Name of the Black Book, wherein the Annals of the Order are transcribed in Latin, concerning which there pass’d a Decree, Anno 3 Hen. VII. that it should be fairly copy’d out, and afterwards that the Sovereign should be put in Remembrance of it; but neither of these Decrees was put in execution, nor was this confirm’d till towards the End of the Reign of King Henry VIII. This Book differs very little from the Registrum Chartaceum, for therein is nothing enrolled relating to the Order (except one of the Exemplars of the Founders Statutes, and a Catalogue of the first Twenty-five Knights-Companions) before the 4th Year of King Henry V. the Annals of the Order, until that time, being entirely lost. It hath the same Hiatus or Intervals from 16 to 23 Hen. VI. from 7 to 10 of Edw. 4. from 4 to 7 Hen. VII. and from 10 to 14 Hen. 7. It also runs parallel therewith for the most part, and that it was compil’d by Dr. Aldrydge, whilst he continu’d Register, is collected from some Passages in the Preface of all the Sovereigns, ending with King Henry VIII. The Transcription of this Book was finish’d Anno 13 Hen. VIII. for so far is written, as also the Appendix, with one and the same Hand; (in a middle-siz’d Text) but Anno 32 Hen. VIII. another Hand appears, which, with some Variation, is continu’d to the End of 5 Edw. VI. where this Book breaks off.

The Register of the Order was oblig’d to provide Two Books, and therein to enter the Ordinances, Statutes, and Acts of this Noble Corporation, one to be lodg’d at the Chapter House at Windsor, and call’d, Index Windesoriensis, and the other being a Duplicate of the former, to remain in his own Custody, ready to expose to the View of the Sovereign, whensoever he should demand it; this latter was called Aulæ Registrum.

As to the general Directions for Compiling these Books, and the Particulars they are to consist of, we are inform’d from the said Statutes and Constitutions; for besides the Entry of all the Scrutinies taken in Chapter and Elections made thereupon, it is his Office to record the Penalties inflicted on Knights-Companions, and the Reconciliation of all Delinquents with other Acts, and their Causes appertaining to the Order, all which are decreed to be recited before the Sovereign and Knights-Companions at the Beginning of the Chapter yearly, if Occasion be, to correct and reduce into Method. Moreover he is to record all the Policies in War, Exploits, Transactions, and memorable Atchievements, both of the Sovereign and Knights-Companions, according as he can best attain the Knowledge of them, by his own diligent Search, or the Assistance of Mr. Garter, which having consign’d to Writing from Year to Year, is to be perused at the next Chapter by the Knights-Companions, for their Approbation and Correction; and being reiterated the second time in the Chapter, he is to see that they be fairly engrossed in the said Book, for a perpetual Remembrance.

And because the time perfix’d for Rehearsal of these Particulars in Chapter, had in succeeding Years been imploy’d in other Affairs. In one of those Articles which the Knights-Companions exhibited to King Jac. I. the 19th of May, Anno Jac. R. 20. and ratified the 22d of May following, it was decreed that nothing of this Nature, or any other Act in Chapter, should be registred before it had been perus’d and pass’d the Consideration of the then Knights-Companions, or at least Four of them, who when they should set Times apart to consult of the Affairs of this Order (for which they were chiefly commission’d) might then also make Use of such Opportunities as should give this Business Dispatch with more Conveniency. Upon mature Consideration had of those Injunctions, the then Register at a Chapter held 19 Nov. 22 Car. II. presented the Continuation of the Annals of this Order, which he had ranged in order to register in the Liber Carolinus, and submitted them to the Approbation of the Knights-Companions, whom the Sovereign had commission’d to inspect the Affairs of the Order; which Tender, when they declin’d, he propos’d that it might pass the Examination of the Prelate; but they not giving their Assent to it, in regard the Register himself was under the Obligation of an Oath, to deal with the utmost Fidelity in his Reports, it was decreed, That the said Annals should be fairly recorded in the Book, without any further Inspection.

Besides the abovemention’d Particulars, there were Materials of another Nature, decreed to be collected by the Chancellor of the Order and Garter King of Arms, to be digested first, and after entred by the Register; for whereas one part of the Chancellor’s Duty was to make a Narration every Year in Chapter, at the Feast of St. George, of the illustrious Exploits of the Knights-Companions, as well as the Actions that tend to eclipse their Glory; so the Register was to note these, and record them from a perpetual Æra or Memorial of their Honour or Disgrace.

And it is part of Garter’s Duty diligently to enquire after the Valiant, Fortunate, and Renown’d Acts, both of the Sovereign and the rest of the Knights-Companions, and relate them with all Exactness to the Register, for his Engrossing: But how sparingly these are put in execution, the Annals themselves bear witness. However, Sir Edward Walker Garter-King has drawn up an Account of the shining Actions and Characters of the Knights-Companions, beginning with Thomas Earl of Strafford, and continuing it down to his Son, which he deliver’d Dr. Ryves the Register, for the Use afore-directed.

Among the Articles establish’d at the Feast of St. George, 21 Jac. I. the last is, That the then Register should compose a Book, wherein should be orderly transcribed the Form and Manner of all the Solemnities, Ceremonies, and Processions, at the Celebration of the Order; as also of taking down and offering the defunct Knight’s Atchievements, that the Knights-Companions might have free Recourse to it; but such Book never was extant.

For the Safety and Preservation of the Annals, the Knights-Commissioners determined the 22nd of May, An. Jac. I. 20. That a secure and convenient Place within the Castle of Windsor should be appointed, in which all Acts concerning the Order should be reposed, and to which every Knight-Companion at all times might have access. And upon the Remove or Decease of the Register of the Order, the Book, containing the Account of all such Transactions, should be committed to one of the Knights of the Order.

The second of these Books is called the Blue Book, so call’d, being bound in Blue Velvet; it begins with the first Year of Queen Mary, and ends at the 18th of King Jac. I.

The third being bound in Red Velvet, is denominated the Red Book; it commences where the Blue Book leaves off, and treats of the like Acts and Entries, and is carry’d down to 14 Car. I: having first given a full Account of the Installation of the Prince, afterwards King Charles II. And as to great part of this Work, it was perform’d by the elegant and judicious Dr. Matthew Wren, Bishop of Ely, and Register of the Order, whose excellent Pattern his Brother and Successor Dr. Christopher Wren hath copy’d in its following Tract. This Bishop compiled a MS. A. D. 1631. wherein, by way of Comment upon King Henry VIII’s Statutes, he hath compendiously shewn what Alteration there hath passed in the Law of the Garter, a Work performed with great Judgment, and exceedingly useful to the Curious.

The fourth and last Book is, Liber Carolinus, and commences 1640. wherein the Annals are brought down to the beginning of 1670. by Ryves, then Register. And in a Chapter conven’d at Windsor the 16th of April, Anno 13 Car. II. it was decreed, That there should be Two of these Books compiled, the one printed in Latin, in the Custos of the Register at Windsor; and the other in English, to be reserv’d at Whitehall, and call’d, Registrum Aulicum.

The Habit and Ensigns of the Order.

THE Habit and Ensigns of this most Noble Order are most eminently distinguishable and magnificent, and consist of these Particulars, viz. Garter, Mantle, Surcoat, Hood, George, and Collar; for as the Romans were very exact and particular in assigning each Degree a peculiar Habit and Vesture, by which the Quality and Rank of their Citizens might be discernable, the Distinction of Apparel was afterwards taken up by divers other Nations, whence every Military, as well as Ecclesiastick Order of Knighthood, did appropriate to it self a peculiar Dress, Ensign, or Badge, as a Mark of Distinction one from another, to set off the Lustre and Honour of their several Societies.

The four first, viz. the Garter, Mantle, Surcoat, and Hood, were assigned the Knights Companions, by the Founder, and the George and Collar by King Henry VIII. and all these together are called the whole Habit or Ensigns of the Order, which we shall treat of succinctly, beginning with the Garter.

The Royal Garter challengeth the Preheminence, for from it this famous Order receiv’d its Denomination: It is the first part of the Habit presented to Foreign Princes and Absent Knights, and that wherewith they, and all other elect Knights, are first adorn’d; and of so great Honour and Grandeur, that by the bare Investiture with this Noble Ensign, the Knights are esteem’d Companions of the greatest Military Order in the World.

The Materials whereof it was compos’d at first, is an Arcanum; nor is it described by any before Polydore Virgil, and he but in general: As to the ornamental Part of it, it was adorn’d with Gold and precious Stones, and had a Buckle of Gold at the End, to fasten it about the Leg; but there’s no doubt but it was wrought with rich Embroidery, and the Motto rais’d with Gold, Pearl, and sundry Sorts of Silk, as may be guess’d from the Garters anciently plac’d on the left side of the Knights-Companions Mantles, and those other little embroider’d Garters, wherewith their Surcoats and Hoods were heretofore embellish’d.

The present Habits, Ensigns and Badges, belonging to the Officers of the Garter.

The Prelate & Chancellors Mantle. Registers, Garters & Black Rods Mantle. Garters Scepter. Black Rod Chancellors Badge Garters Badge Black Rods Badge

Chancellors Badge Garters Badge Black Rods Badge The Garter The Sovereigns Mantle. Hood. Surcoat. The Collar and Great George Ribbond & George A Knight Companions Mantle. Cap and Feather.

But of those wrought in the last Age, we have more particular Satisfaction; for we find the Garter sent to Emanuel Duke of Savoy, Anno 1 and 2 Philip and Mary, was set with Letters of Goldsmith’s Work, the Buckle and Pendant of the same, and on the Pendant a Ruby, and a Pearl hanging at the End. The Garter made for Francis II. Anno 6 Elizabeth, was richly wrought with Letters of Gold, set off and garnish’d with Stones, the Buckle and Pendant weighing Three Ounces and an half-quarter, was richly set with Rubies and Diamonds. The French King Henry IV. had a Garter of Purple Velvet embroider’d with Letters of Gold, and deck’d out with Diamonds and Rubies. And the Garter of Christian IV. King of Denmark, was embroider’d with Gold and Pearls: But that Garter sent to Gustavus Adolphus King of Sweden, outvied all others conferr’d by former Sovereigns, each Letter of the Motto being compos’d of small Diamonds; and for every Stop, a Diamond within a Range of Diamonds, above and below, on the sides of the Garter, and besides other Diamonds on the Buckle, and about the same, to the Number in all of 411.

The Garter which King Charles I. wore upon his Leg at the Time of his Martyrdom, had the Letters of the Motto compos’d likewise of Diamonds, which amounted to the Number of 412. It came to the Hands of Captain Preston (one of the Usurper’s Captains) from whom the Trustees, for Sale of the King’s Goods, receiv’d it, and sold it to Ireton, sometimes Lord Mayor of London, for 205 l. But after the Restoration, the King’s Attorney-General proceeding upon an Action of Trover and Conversion, Verdict was given for the King against him for 205 l. and 10 l. costs of Suits, in Trinity Term, 16 Car. II.

The Motto of King Charles II. was set with Diamonds upon Blue Velvet, and the Borders wrought with fine Gold Wire; the Diamonds which framed the Letters of the Motto, were Rose Diamonds, much of a Size or Proportion; but those which framed the Stops, Table-Diamonds; the Total which set each Letter, compos’d the Stops, Ilot Holes, and adorn’d the Buckle; the Table was Two Hundred and Fifty; the Hinge of the Buckle was pure Gold, and on it the Sovereign’s Picture to the Breast, curiously cut in Flat-stitch, crown’d with a Laurel and the military Garb of the first Roman Emperors; the Table or Pendant was Gold, and on the back-side thereof engrav’d St. George on Horse-back encountring the Dragon.

This noble Ensign, the Garter, was at the Erection of the Order appointed to be wore on the left Leg, a little beneath the Knee, which Usage still presides: And the placing it thus, on the Sepulchral Portraictures of Knights-Companions, was an early Custom; for on the Alabaster Monument of Sir William Fitz-warin, who was interr’d in the North-side of the Chancel at Wantage in Com. Berks, 35 Edw. III. he lies there with his Surcoat of Arms upon his Breast, and the Representation of a Garter (but without Motto) carv’d upon his left Leg. In the same Posture lies Sir Richard Pembridge, elected a Knight-Companion, temp. Edw. III. and is portraicted on his Monument in the South-side of the Cathedral of Hereford, below the Pulpit, and encompass’d with a Rail of Iron-Spikes.

The next Monument whereon the Garter was depicted, was that erected for Sir Simon Burley, (beheaded A. D. 1388.) and rear’d in the North-Wall near the Choir of St. Paul’s, London. Thence-forward the Practice became more frequent, and then the Motto began to be cut thereon; insomuch that it is now the constant and just Practice to do it, whensoever the Knights-Companions are exhibited in Effigies.

And altho’ this Ensign was first design’d in Ornament to the left Leg, yet it was not confin’d so solely thereto, but was anciently us’d to incircle the Escutcheon of St. George’s Arms, worn by the Sovereign and Knights-Companions on their Mantles, who within a small space after us’d it to surround their own proper Coat of Arms, which their Successors have retain’d as their peculiar Privilege, permitting it to none but to their principal Officer, the Prelate of the Order.

The first Example that occurs, is the before-mention’d of Sir Francis Burley, where, on the Front, towards the Head, is his own Arms empaling his first Wife’s, set within a Garter, (wanting the Impress;) but another having the same Empalement, (plac’d below the Feet) is surrounded with a Collar of SS. of the same Form with that about his Neck.

The Monument also of Joan, Wife of Ralph Nevil, Earl of Westmoreland, on the South-side of the Choir, in the Cathedral of Lincoln, bears the Arms of Nevil, empaling those of Joan, his Wife, (who dy’d A. D. 1410.) Incircled within a Garter, and fix’d on this Lady’s Monument, Daughter to John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, is there such a Collar of SS. placed about a Square; but the Paint being faded, was render’d unintelligible.

Another antique Instance is that Escutcheon, Sable, Three Ostrich Feathers Argent, surrounded with the Garter, affix’d in the Glass-Windows of Greenwich-Church in Kent, by Humfrey, Duke of Glocester, and Supported with a Greyhound and an Antelope. It is reported, these Three Feathers were the Ensign of King Henry IV. which were conferr’d by John of Gaunt, his Father, who bore them for his Device, and placed in a Field Sable, as here, but the Pens were powder’d with Ermin, for a difference from the Black Prince’s Feather, which were Argent, as the King’s Pen was Or, and the Duke of Somerset’s Compony Argent and Azure.

The Arms of Sir Lewis Robessart, Lord Bourchier, Knight-Companion, temp. Hen. V. we find encompass’d with a Garter on each side his Monument, in Westminster-Abbey.

At the Interment of Richard Duke of York, Father to King Edw. IV. at every Corner of the Majesty-Escutcheon (set over the Image of the Defunct) was an Escutcheon of the Arms of France and England quarterly, and Four Angels Gold, holding the same within a Garter. And so some of the Funeral Escutcheons of John Viscount Wells, (who dy’d 14 Hen. VII.) were surrounded with the Garter, as others bearing his Lady’s Arms.

At the Interment of Thomas Duke of Norfolk, in Thetford-Abbey, (who dy’d 16 Hen. VIII.) there was provided a Shield of his Arms within a Garter, and a Coronet affix’d over it; a Target also of the Arms of George, Earl of Shrewsbury, within a Garter, was born at his Funural, Anno 33 Hen. VIII.

It was the Custom, (begun about the Reign of Hen. VII.) when the Obsequies of any Foreign Prince were celebrated in England, to paint an Escutcheon of such Prince’s Arms within the Collar of the Order, whereof he was Sovereign or a Fellow-Companion; as those of the French King, Charles VIII. celebrated at St. Paul’s, London, had Escutcheons of the Arms of France, within the Collar of the Order of St. Michael, at each End of the Hearse; and when the Obsequies of John King of Portugal were solemniz’d at St. Paul’s, there was, among others, one large Escutcheon of his Arms within the Collar of the Golden Fleece. The Funeral Rites of the Emperor Charles V. being perform’d in Westminster-Abbey, 22 and 23 Dec. 1558. there were Ten great Escutcheons compass’d with Garters, to shew he was a Fellow of this Order: And upon the same Account, where Princes were Sovereigns of one, and Companions of another Order, their Hearses were hung with Escutcheons of their Arms, surrounded with the Collars or principal Badges of both those Orders; as at the Interment of Francis I. the French King, celebrated at St. Paul’s, London, 1 Edw. VI. the Escutcheons were the Arms of France, encompass’d within the Garter of St. George, and Collar of St. Michael. At the Obsequies of Hen. II. of France, Anno 1 Eliz. at St. Paul’s also, there were some Escutcheons of his Arms, incircled both with the Garter and Collar of the Golden Fleece, having been a Knight-Companion of both these Orders: Under the Joysts was a Majesty Escutcheon of Black Taffaty of this King’s Arms, within a Garter crown’d with an Imperial Crown, and in several Places of the Hearse were fasten’d other Escutcheons of his Arms within this principal Ensign of the Garter.

King Hen. VIII. was the first that introduc’d into his Great Seal the Eschutcheon of his Arms incircled within a Garter, as may be seen placed on either side his Portraiture sitting on his Royal Throne; since him, all succeeding Sovereigns have born their Arms after that Manner, not only in their great and Privy-Seals, but in those other appertaining to their Courts of Justice, and generally in all Matters where their Arms were visible (except Coins); in Imitation of whom, the Knight-Companions have done the like.

But there were An. 21 Car. 1. certain Half Crowns stamp’d in the West of England, containing the Sovereigns Arms, so encompassed, regally crowned and supported; and this was the first Money whereon the Royal Garter appeared. After him King Charles II. having an Eye to the Advancement of the Honour of this Order, caused the irradicated Cross of St. George encompass’d about with the Royal Garter to be publickly stamp’d in the Center of his Silver Coin, struck upon the Recoinage of it, Anno 14. Car. 2.

There were other Medals heretofore stamp’d upon several Occasions, wherein the Garter was designedly express’d, and enclosing Shields of their Arms; as that in the Year 1619. Frederick Prince Palatine of the Rhine, was crowned King of Bohemia, and Robert Cecil Earl of Salisbury created Lord Treasurer, both Knights Companions of this Noble Order: Moreover, Gold Rings have been cast into the Figures of Garters; the Ground on the outside enamell’d with a deep Blue, through which the golden Letters of the Motto appearing, set them off with an admirable Beauty. And it seems such Rings were in vogue since the Preface to the black Book of the Order makes mention of wearing the Garter on the Leg and Shoulder, and sometimes likewise subjoins the Thumb, interdum Pollice gestare; by which we may naturally conjecture, that Gold Rings were formed into the Fashion of Garters, and bestowed by some new installed Knights upon their Relations and Friends to wear in Memorial of so great an Honour conferred upon them.

Among the Officers belonging to the Order the Prelate is permitted to bear his proper Arms (impaled with those of his See) within the Garter, and the rest only to wear the Badges of their Offices, surrounded with the same to express their peculiar Relation.

Besides the Manner of bearing Arms, within the Garter of this Order, the Garter either in whole or part, hath been by Way of Armory, but without the Motto; as in the Seal belonging to the Office of Garter King of Arms, where the Garter (enclosing a Crown) is placed on a Chief, between a Lyon of England and a Flower de Lys of France. And to instance in Family, we find Argent Three Demy-Garters Azure, buckled and garnished, Or, granted by King Hen. VII. to his Servant Peter Nerborne, and sable a Garter, Or, between Three Buckles of the Second, to be born by Buckland or Bowland in Com. Northampton.

§. 2. The second Ensign of the Order is the Mantle, which is the Chief of those Vestments which the Sovereign and Knights-Companions make use of upon all solemn Occasions relating to the Order. That this Pattern was derived to us from the ancient Greeks and Romans, is not at all to be disputed, since it so little varies in Fashion from their Pallium or Toga; for the Grecian Pallium was a sort of long Cloak, which only wanted a Collar or Cape, and the Roman Toga as proper to them, as the Pallium to the Grecians, and the Custom as Antique as Romulus himself; for he is recited by Plutarch to have worn it. The Pallium is more fully described to be a kind of upper Robe that covered the whole Body, made fast on the right Shoulder with a Fibula or Clasp. It was usually worn over the Tunica or short Coat, whence the Proverb Tunica Pallio propior, and is more particularly observed to have been a Garment fashioned without Sleeves, that reached down to the Ancles.

In describing this upper Robe, called the Mantle, (the Sovereigns being distinguished from the Knights-Companions, only by a long Train) we shall first set down its various Appellations it is mentioned by in the Records of the Order; Secondly, the Materials whereof it consists; Thirdly, the Colour; Fourthly, the Quantity; and last of all the Ornamental Trimmings, that nothing be omitted to satisfy any curious Enquirer.


In the Founder’s Statutes it is called Mantellum, and in Hen. V. Manteau, both which we render Mantle. But the Exemplar of the Founder’s Statutes entred in the black Book, and the Statutes of King Henry VIII. call it Trabea, which Rosinus reckons among the different Kinds of Mantles or Gowns. And in 20 Art. of King Hen. VIIIth’s Statutes, it is applied both to the Mantle and Surcoat; sometime it is stiled Chlamyda; sometime Stola; but in other Places more pertinently, Pallium and Toga.


That Mantle prepared for the Founder against the first Feast of this Order, appears to be fine Woollen Cloth, and it is not improbable this Material was chosen, rather than any other richer, to the Intent the Founder might give the Preference to our native Commodity, altho’ there’s permitted in the Statutes of Institution a permission for the Proxies of Foreign Princes to bring over with them Mantles of Silk and Velvet when they came to receive possession of their Principal Stalls, either because other Countries were better stored with such Commodities than our English Cloth, or that it might be more agreeable to represent the State and Grandeur of Foreign Princes, as accounting Silk or Velvet the nobler Representation.

What Duration the wearing Cloth had, is not directly set down, but the first time we discover their Mantles to be of Velvet, is about the beginning of the Reign of King Hen. VI. which Sort of Silk hath thence remained until this Day. About this Period, ’tis observed, that the Mantles of Foreign Princes were made here of Velvet, for so was that transmitted to the King of Portugal, elected Anno 1346. Concerning the Mantles of the Knights-Companions, there is no doubt but they were of the same Materials with those made for the Sovereign, viz. at first of fine Woollen Cloth, and when the Sovereign exchanged it for Velvet, they followed his Example; but we cannot meet with equal Satisfaction in this Point, because the Knights-Companions provided this Robe at their own Expence; and their private Accounts herein passing thro’ so many Contingences, were of no great Durability. But their Surcoats were of the Sovereigns Donation, and consequently the Particulars of them remain on Record in the Rolls and Accounts of the great Wardrobe.

The Colour of these Mantles is appointed by the Statutes to be Blue, and of this Colour was the Founders; by which, as by the Ground-work of the Royal Garter, it is not improbable he alluded to the Colour of the Field in the French Arms, which a few Years before he began to Quarter with those of England. But the Colour of the Surcoat was changed every Year, as will appear by and by. Of the same Colour were the Velvet Mantles, made temp. Hen. VI. who tho’ he altered the Stuff, did not vary the Dye. It is apparent, that the blue Colour was retained to King Edw. IVth’s Reign, for when this Sovereign transmitted the Habit and Ensigns of the Order to Julian de Medicis, the Mantle was of blue Velvet.

But in King Hen. VIIIth’s Statutes there’s no mention at all of the Colour of this upper Robe, save only of the Mantle, which the Proxy of a Foreign Prince was enjoined to bring with him when he came to assume the Stall of his Principal; which, tho’ it does not come directly up to the Point, yet it is to be observed to be of blue Velvet. And it’s highly probable that the blue Colour remained still to be used; for within a few Months after the compiling the said Statutes, it’s plain, the Mantle sent to James King of Scotland, was of blue Velvet, and in the ancient Form of Admonition and Signification appointed to be spoke at the Investiture of Foreign Princes, and then in Plea it is called the Mantle of celestial Colour. Likewise the Mantle sent to Emanuel Duke of Savoy, 1 and 2 Ph. and Mar. was of the same Composure.

In Queen Elizabeth’s Reign, upon what Ground History is silent, the Colour of Foreign Prince’s Mantles was changed from Blue to Purple, for of that Colour were the Mantles sent to the French Kings, Charles IX. Anno. 6 Eliz. and Hen. III. Ann. 27 Eliz. So also to the Emperor Maximilian 9 Elizabeth, to Fredrick II. King of Denmark, An. 24 Eliz. to Joh. Casimire Count Palatine of the Rhine, Anno 21 Eliz. to Christiern IV. King of Denmark, An. J. R. IV. But that sent to Frederick Duke of Wirtemberg in the same Year, was a mix’d Colour of Purple and Violet.

Thus the Purple Colour came in Request, and continued till about the 12 of King Charles I. when he determining to restore the Colour of the Mantle to the primitive Institution, gave Directions to Mr. Peter Richaut, Merchant, to provide himself with a Quantity of rich blue Velvets from Genoa; and upon their arrival into England, signify’d his Pleasure by Sir Thomas Rowe the Chancellor, That all Knights-Companions should purchase as much of the said Velvet as would furnish them with new Robes against St. George’s-Day next ensuing; compliance to whose Will, all the Knights paid Obedience, at the Rate of Thirty seven Shillings a Yard, being the Price the Sovereign paid to Mr. Richaut for the Velvet of his own Robes. And the first Essay of these Mantles was to honour the Installation of the Prince, afterwards King Charles II.

And because there were many Knights-elect to be installed after the Restoration, it was ordained at the Chapter held at Whitehall the 14th of Jan. Anno 12. Car. 2. (called to consider of the Preparations of the grand Feast then at hand), That Directions should be given to the Master of the Wardrobe to negotiate Abroad for excellent Velvets of Skie Colour, and Crimson, and other Materials agreeable for the Mantles and Surcoats, both of the old Knights-Companions, and those that were then to be installed; which was accordingly effected, and they were transmitted in time to accommodate them at the said Feast.

Tho’ the just Number of Ells of Cloth for the Sovereigns Mantle at the first Institution are not set down, yet in the Total for his Mantle, Hood, and Surcoat, there was allowed ten Ells of long Cloth. The Mantle of King Henry VI. took up one Piece, five Ells and three Quarters of blue Velvet; and those sent to Frederick II. and Christian IV. Kings of Denmark; and to the French King, Henry III. contained each twenty Yards of Velvet.

This we find to be the Allowance for Foreign Princes, and are the more full and extensive, by reason of their long Train, which being more scanty in the Mantles of Knights-Subjects, eighteen Yards was sufficient to make one of them. The full Length of King Charles II. from the Collar behind to the end of the Train, was three Yards the Length of the foreside, one Yard and three Quarters from the Foot along the bottom to the fixing on of the Train, was two Yards, and from thence the Length or Compass of the Train, two Yards.

The left Shoulder of each of these Mantles have from the Institution been adorned with a large fair Garter, containing this Motto, Honi soit qui mal y pense. These were distinguished from the lesser Garters, anciently embroider’d upon the Surcoats and Hoods of the Sovereigns and Knights-Companions, by the Name of Garters Gross.

Within this Garter was the Arms of St. George, viz. Argent a Cross Gules, and was heretofore wrought in Sattin, with Gold, Silver and Silk; but in descending Times greater Expence and Magnificence became the Practice of the Order, for it was embordered upon Velvet with Damask, Gold, and sundry Sorts of Purls, Plates, Venice Twists and Silks, and the Letters of the Motto and Borders of the Garter composed of fair Oriental Pearl. The Garter fix’d upon the Mantle of King Charles II. was encircled with large Oriental Pearl, so were the Letters of the Motto and the Cross within the Garter, the Diameter of which was seven Inches, but the Depth from the upper Part to the end of the Pendant, ten Inches.

Temp. Hen. VI. it seems to have been the Mode to embellish the Mantle with three or four Velts drawn down the sides, and round the bottom, as it appears by the Monument of John Talbot Earl of Shrewsbury in the South-wall of the Chancel of Whitechurch in Com. Salop.

About that Time the Lining of this Robe was white Damask, and afterwards white Sattin; but of later Date it was lined with white Taffaty, which continues yet in vogue.

For exemplary Ornament, the Mantle had fixed to its Collar a pair of long Strings, anciently woven of blue Silk only (called Cordons, Robe-strings or Laces); but of later Days, twisted round and made of Venice Gold and Silk of the Colour of the Robe, at each end of which hung a great Knob or Button, wrought over and raised with a rich Caul of Gold, and Tassels thereunto of like Silk and Gold.

And at the Collar was usually fixed an Hook and Eye of Gold for its firmer affixing of it to the Shoulders.

§. 3. The Third Ensign of the Order is the Surcoat or Kirtle, which altho’ we find no Place for it in the Founder’s Statutes, is nevertheless as ancient as the Mantle or upper Robe, that is only taken Notice of there, for such a Vesture King Edward III. then made, together with his Mantle and a Hood to celebrate the first Feast of the Order in.

Its Original it owes to the Greeks and Romans; amongst whom this Garment had its determinated Tunica, and was worn next under the Toga, but amongst them was both narrower and shorter; it was girt close to the Body with a Girdle, and so fitted, that the Hem of it reached a little below the Knee, or to the middle of the Ham. It was the proper Mode of the Roman Citizens, and by its trimming were the three Degrees among them known; for the Senators Tunicks were embroidered or purfled over with broad purple Studs, the Knights with narrow ones, and the Plebeians plain.

In setting forth the Surcoat, which was heretofore annually bestowed by the Sovereign or the Knights-Companions, and therefore called his Livery, we shall, as in the Description of the Mantle, treat somewhat of the Name, Materials, Colour, Quantity and Garnishing of it.

As to the Name in the old Rolls of the great Wardrobe, it is stiled Roba, but more properly as the Founder’s first Surcoat is called Tunica, which Name it bears in the red Book of the Order. In English it is rendred Gown, Kirtle, Surcoat, Undercoat and Robe. The Appellation of Gown is attributed to Surcoats of the Sovereigns and Foreign Princes, Temp. Hen. VI. Edw. IV. and Hen. VII. But since, and very lately, it hath been bestowed also on the Surcoats of Knights-Companions; and that of Kirtle sometimes given to those sent to Foreign Princes, as appears by the Books of Warrants in the great Wardrobe, but the rest are Terms of a later Date: As the first Mantles, so the first Surcoats were composed of Woollen Cloth, and tho’ the Cloth of the Mantles was in some space after changed for Velvet, yet the Surcoats continued afterwards to be of Cloth, at least till after the Office of Chancellor of the Garter was erected by King Edward IV. as is manifest by the Precedent of this Livery in the Sovereigns great Wardrobe; but in process of Time they became Velvet, which sort of Silk is yet retained.

The Colour of this Vesture was anciently changed every Year, commonly into Blue, Scarlet, Sanguine in Grain, or White. But the Colour of the Mantles remained the same as at the Institution, until Queen Elizabeth’s Reign, and then it commenced Blue: And ’tis remarkable, that the Surcoats of the Knights-Companions, were always of the same Colour with the Sovereigns.

The Founder’s first Surcoat was of the same Cloth and Colour with the Mantle, viz. Blue, but in the 34th Year of his Reign he altered it to Black, and of the same Colour were those he conferred that Year upon these following Knights-Companions, viz. the Black Prince, the Earls of Ulster, Richmond and Salisbury, Edmund of Langly, Sir Richard la Vach, Sir Hugh Wrotesly, Sir Reginald Cobham, Sir Bartholomew Burghest, the Lord Mohun, Sir Walter Manney, Sir Nele Loring, Sir Walter Paveley, Sir William Fitz Warin, Sir Miles Stapleton, the Earls of Stafford, Warwick and Suffolk, and Sir Thomas Ughtred: The Motive that induced him to pitch upon this sable Colour, was conceived to be a kind of Humiliation, because the Pestilence began again to spread its Malevolence, which had furiously raged Eleven Years before. The Surcoats which the Sovereign gave the Dukes of Lancaster and Clarence, and Fourteen other Knights, Anno 37. Edward III. were of Cloth, Sanguine in Grain. Those Twenty four provided for the Feast of St. George, Anno 7 Richard II. were Violet in Grain, whereof one was for the Sovereign, the other Twenty three for the Knights-Companions, following John King of Castile, and Leonard Duke of Lancaster, the Earls of Cambridge, Buckingham, Derby, Kent, Warwick, Stafford, Salisbury, Northumberland and Nottingham, the Lords Nevil, Basset, and John Holland, Sir Guy Bryan, Sir William Beauchamp, Sir Thomas Percy, Sir Nele Loring, Sir John Sulby, Sir Lodowick Clifford, Sir Simon Burley, Sir Richard Burley, Sir Bryan Stapleton and Sir Soldan de la Trane.

Anno 11 Richard II. there were ordered against St. George’s Feast Twenty three Surcoats of white Cloth for the Sovereign, and Twenty two Knights-Companions; and the 12 and 19 Year of the same King, the Sovereign bestowed on the same Persons Surcoats of long blue Cloth, after the Original Model. The Twenty two Surcoats made up for the Feast of St. George, Anno 1 Henry V. were of white Cloth; Anno —— Henry VI. the Sovereigns Gown or Surcoat was of Scarlet, as was that sent to the King of Portugal in the 13th Year of the same King. Anno —— Henry VI. the Sovereign had white Cloth; and so were the Surcoats given to Twenty Knights-Companions more in the —— Year of his Reign. Afterwards the beforementioned Four Colours began to be disused, for the Surcoat presented to Julian de Medicis, temp. Edward IV. was purple Velvet, and towards the latter end of the Reign of King Henry VIII. and since, it is upon Record, the Surcoats of the Sovereign and all the Knights-Companions were Crimson Velvet, nor did the Colour suffer a Mutation in the Surcoat, tho’ King Charles I. restored the Mantle to its first primitive Colour, Anno 12 Regni sui.

There has been some disproportion in the Quantity of the Cloth allowed in the Provision against one and the same Feast, for Anno 34 Edward III. the Earls of Stafford, Warwick, and Suffolk, as also Sir Thomas Ughtred had then for each of their Surcoats six Ells of Cloth (perhaps the tallness of their Stature required it) when the other Fifteen Knights were allowed but five Ells, being the same Quantity the Sovereign’s Surcoat had contained in it at the same time.

The Dukes of Holland and Clarence, Anno 1 Henry V. with the Earls of Arundel, were allowed Eight Ells a-piece, the Dukes of Bedford, Gloucester and York, the Earls of Westmorland and Warwick, the Lords Grey, Fitz Hugh and Roos, six Ells apiece; the Earls of Dorset, with six Barons and five Knights Batchelors, but five Ells apiece. Afterwards, when the Number of Ells of Cloth, Garters and Furrs came to be ascertained for each Degree, all the Knights-Companions (even the Prince of Wales) were not to exceed five Ells: But since Velvet came in Plea, the Allowance for Surcoat and Hood hath been eighteen Yards, when the Surcoat reached down to the Feet; but now it being the Fashion to wear it shorter, the Allowance is stinted to Ten. The Length of King Charles II’s Surcoat was one Yard and an half, and of the Sleeve one Yard wanting a Nail.

The Ornamental Trimmings of these Garments are next worthy of Note, especially at the Time of Instituting this Order, for they were then, and a long time after, powdered all over with little Garters, embroidered with Silk and Gold-Plate, in each of which was neatly wrought the Motto, Honi soit, &c. Besides, the Buckles and Pendants to those small Garters, were Silver gilt; of these Garters there were no less than 160 upon the first Surcoat and Hood made for the Founder.

In King Richard II’s Reign, the little Garters that adorned the Surcoats of the Sovereign, and the other Knights were wrought in Embroidery upon blue Taffaty with Cyprus, and Soldat Gold and Silk of divers Colours, and the Letters Gold. And as the Sovereign was not limited in the Proportion of Cloth or Velvet for his Surcoat, no more was he confined to the Number of Garters, wherewith to adorn it; nor do I find that any of the Knights-Companions were, until the Precedent of the Livery of the Garter was settled, for Anno 1 Henry V. the Dukes of Holland and Clarence, the Earl of Arundel, the Dukes of Bedford and Gloucester had each of their Surcoats adorned with 120 Garters, but the Duke of York, and the rest wore but 100. The Settlement in the Precedent of the Livery was, in relation to Degrees of Honour, a greater or less Number of Garters: Thus,

A Duke 120   Garters.
A Marquis 110  
An Earl 100  
A Viscount 90  
A Baron 80  
A Baronet 70  
A Knight-Batchelor 60  

About the Reign of King Henry VI. the Sovereigns Number of Garters did not much exceed those which the Founder allow’d to himself at the Institution; for the Surcoat and Hood of the said King consisted of 173; and the King of Portugal, Anno 13 Henry VI. 120 Garters. But this Drapery of their Robes became at length quite obsolete, perhaps when Cloth was altered to Velvet, and the plain Surcoat hath to this Day continued in Use.

While these Surcoats remained of Cloth, they were lined with Bellies of pure Minever Fur, only the Sovereigns was purfled with Ermin; and of these, it seems, a like Proportion was at first stated to all the Knights-Companions, viz. 200 Bellies. Yet in the Reign of King Richard II. some Difference began in the Allowance to the Knights-Companions, for a Baron, and all Degrees upward had 200 Bellies; but under a Baron 120 only. However, Anno 1. Henry V. the Barons were tantamount to the Knights-Batchelors, for all Degrees above a Baron were allow’d, a Fur of 200 Bellies. But the Barons and Knights-Batchelors Furs were only 120 Bellies.

Afterwards, by the Precedent of the Garter, there was another Proportion limited, the Prince, a Duke, a Marquis, an Earl, had each of them Five Timber of pure Minever allowed to a Surcoat; but the Viscount, Baron, Baronet and Batchelor-Knights but Three Timber apiece. In time these Furs were disused, and the Surcoats came to be lined with white Sarcenet, to which, temp. Eliz. white Taffaty succeeded, and that still continues.

What became of the old Surcoats, since the Knights-Companions had new ones every Year, the Black Book of the Order informs us, That on the Eve of the Feast of St. George, the Knights wore to Vespers, the Sovereigns Livery or Surcoats, used by them the preceding Year, which after that Night they threw off, (for the new Surcoats were worn on the Feast-Day); but the Ensigns and Ornaments of this Kind were disposed of to the Use of the Colledge.

The Hood and Cap comes in the next Place to be spoken of, which Hood in King Henry VIII’s Statutes, and the Black Book of the Order is called Humerale; but in the Rolls of the Great Wardrobe, Capucium. In the French it is Chaperon, a Word used in the Statute, Anno 1. Richard II. C. 7. and also retained in the Old English Copy of Henry VIII’s Statutes made of his Reign, and annexed to this Treatise. They were anciently wore for Defence of the Head against the Inclemencies of Weather, but of later Times Caps and Hats have supplied their place. How they sat upon the Head, may be observed in the Portraitures of the first Founders; as also with some Variety of Fashion in succeeding Ages: Yet is not the Hood quite thrown by, since ’tis still kept reclining upon the Back, almost like a Pilgrim’s Hat.

This Hood was ordained, and is yet retained as part of the Habit of this most Noble Order. And tho’ neither it nor the Surcoat is mentioned in the Statutes of Institution, or in either its Exemplars, nor doth King Henry V. lay any Stress upon it, yet it is of equal Antiquity with the rest, as appears from the Rolls of the great Wardrobe, and Henry VIII’s Statutes have made remarkable Observation of it, for the Mantle, Surcoat, Hood, and Collar are called the Habit of the Order: And in the Black Book, Anno 22. Henry VII. at the Investiture of Philip King of Castile, the Mantle, Kirtle, Hood and Collar are expresly called Whole Habit.

It was heretofore, and now is generally made of the same Materials as the Surcoat, and was anciently trimmed and set off with a small Proportion of Garters lined with Cloth of a different Colour, and such as would best strike the Sight; but now with Taffaty, as is the Lining of the Surcoat.

As to the Cap, which was instituted to succeed the Hood; it hath been, and yet is, fashioned of black Velvet lin’d with Taffaty; but the Figure hath several Times varied; for Temp. Henry VIII. it was flat, in Queen Elizabeth’s Reign it was a little raised in the Head; but in King James’s Time they were much more high-crown’d. This Cap hath been usually adorn’d with Plumes of White Feathers, and Spriggs, and bound about with a Band set thick with Diamonds; so was the Cap for the Installation of King Charles II. and sometimes the Brims have been tack’d up with a large and costly Jewel.

This Custom of wearing Caps and Feathers at the Grand Solemnities of the Order, had, for some Time, about the Beginning of King James I. Reign, been omitted, and thereupon, in a Chapter held the 13th of April, Anno 10. Jac. I. this commendable Custom was re-establish’d.

To these may be added the Cross of the Order encompass’d with a Garter, which by the Sovereign was ordain’d the 27th of April, 2 Car. I. to be worn upon the Left Side of the Cloaks, Coats, and riding Cassocks of the Sovereigns and Knights-Companions, of the Prelate and Chancellor at all Times, when they were not adorn’d with their Robes, and in all Places and Assemblies (but not embellish’d with Pearls and Stones) that the wearing thereof might be a sufficient Indication to the World, of that Height of Honour they arriv’d to from the said most Noble Order, instituted for Persons of the greatest Merit and Worth.

And it was not long after e’er the Glory or Star, as it was usually call’d, having certain Beams of Silver, that shot out in Form of a Cross, was introduc’d and annex’d to it, in Imitation (as thought) of the French, who after the same manner wore the chief Ensign of the Order of the Holy Ghost, being the Representation of a Dove irradiated with such like Beams.

And whereas some Painters affirm the Symbol of the Holy Ghost to be thus adorn’d congruous enough, yet censure it improper for a Garter, let them consider that King Edw. IV. erected his White Rose with the like Glory, whereof both the Stone Work and Wood Work of St. George’s Chapel in Windsor, manifestly illustrate, whose Antiquity makes a Precedent for it long before the Institution of the Order of the Holy Ghost; but this King assum’d this Device upon appearance of three Suns, which suddenly united together into one immediately, before his successful Victory at Mortimer’s-Cross, a happy Æra he thought himself oblig’d to perpetuate. And they mistake who suppose it to be the Garter that is thus irradiated, whereas it is something else more worthy of the Glory, for from it, not the Garter, do the Rays diffuse, viz. the inclos’d Cross of the Order, celebrated as glorious, since it darted its bright Beams from Heaven, when it appear’d to Constantine the Great; as the same is represented on a Silver Medal: On the one Side whereof was a Bust in profile, or side Face of King Charles I. and on the Reverse, this Badge of the Order, within a Garter, inscrib’d, Honi, &c. a Cross irradiated, dispersing its Beams in a Rhombular Form of Eight Angles, beyond the Orbit or bounding Lines of the said Garter, having for Circumscription, Prisci decus Ordinis Auctum, 1629.

§ 5. Having finish’d our Discourse concerning the Robes of the Order, we shall speak of the Robes and Hoods assign’d to the Queen, Knights-Companions Wives, and other great Ladies, by the Donation of the Sovereigns, set off and embellished with Minute Garters, and lin’d with Rich Furs, which Robes they were adorn’d with during the Solemnity of the Feast of St. George, a Custom almost as ancient as its Institution. The first Mention we find recorded of the Feminine Habit occurs, Anno 7. R. II. when the Queen, the Sovereign’s Mother, the Dutchess of Lancaster, the Countesses of Cambridge, Buckingham, Pembroke, Oxford, and Salisbury, the Ladies Philippa and Catherine, Daughters to the Duke of Lancaster, and the Lady Mohun had such kind of Robes and Hoods provided for them. They were made of Cloth, Violet in Grain, like as the Sovereign and Knights-Companions that Year, the Robes lin’d with Fur, but the Hoods with Scarlet, and both embroidered over with little Garters, and the Proportion of Cloth, Furs, and Garters, were stated according to their several Ranks and Degrees; for the Queen had Eight Ells, and Half an Ell of Scarlet for the Lining of her Hood. The Sovereign’s Mother had allow’d her one whole Piece, and a double Proportion of Scarlet; but from the large Quantity it is conceiv’d she had Two Robes and Hoods made at this time: Besides, the particular Number are but Eleven Persons, and cannot else reach the Total of the Robes that were made up and expressly set down to be Twelve. The Dutchess of Lancaster had the Allowance of Half a Piece, and Half an Ell of Scarlet; the Countess of Cambridge Seven Ells of Cloth and Half an Ell of Scarlet, and the rest of the Ladies the same Proportion of Cloth with the Knights-Companions, i. e. each Five Ells a-piece, and Half an Ell of Scarlet. According to their Cloth was also their Proportion of Minever; the Queen’s Allowance was Two Furs, each containing Three Hundred Bellies of pure Minever; the Sovereign’s Mother had twice that Proportion, the Dutchess of Lancaster, and Countess of Cambridge had the same Allowance as the Queen; but all the rest of the Ladies had only one Fur of Two Hundred Bellies. Besides the embroidered Garters to deck out the Twenty-four Surcoats of the Sovereign and Knights-Companions, and the Twelve Robes for the Queen, and other Ladies, amounted to the Number of 2900.

Against the Feast of St. George, Anno. 11. R. II. there were prepared Fifteen Robes and Hoods for the Queen and other Ladies, of the same Livery and suit with the Sovereign and Knights-Companions, viz. White long Cloth, and Blue Cloth for the Lining of their Hoods, bearing the same Proportion in all Things as the former, Anno 13. Rich. II. the Ladies Robes and Hoods were Sanguine Cloth, and the Lining of their Hoods Cloth in Grain. And in the 19th Rich. II. they were Blue Cloth, and long Cloth in Grain for Lining their Hoods. In both these Years we find the Dutchess of Aquitaine had double the Proportion of Cloth allow’d her (as had also the Dutchess of York) viz. Fourteen Ells, (the Queen having then but the former Allowance of Eight Ells) and yet her Proportion of Lining, both for the Robe and Hood, was no more than allow’d the Queen.

But Anno 1 Henry V. the same Quantities of Cloth, Minevers, and Garters, were the same to Ladies of all Degrees, and that was to each Five Ells of White Woollen Cloth, only the Queen-Mother had Eight Ells of White Cloth and Eight Ells of Black Cloth, a Fee containing Two Hundred Bellies of Minever, and an Hundred embroidered Garters, and 12 Henry VI. the Master of the great Wardrobe was commanded to make ready the like Livery, both for Colour of Cloth, number of Ells, Bellies of Minever, and Garters, for the Countess of Suffolk, against the approaching Feast of St. George.

A plainer Narrative is made of these Liveries, Anno 16 Edw. IV. when at the Feast of St. George at Windesor, the Queen, the Lady Elizabeth, the King’s Daughter, and Dutchess of Suffolk, the King’s Sister, had for their Livery Murrey Gowns embroidered with Garters.

Besides these Robes worn by the Ladies at the Festivals of the Order, there seems to be some Imitation of wearing a Garter also on their Left Arms, as the Knights did on their Left Leg, as it is observ’d on the Countess of Tankervile’s Monument, where she is so pourtray’d.

After a long Disuse of these Robes, Anno 14 Car. I. there was an endeavour to restore it; for the Deputy Chancellor sollicited the Sovereign in Chapter, That the Ladies of the Knights-Companions might be granted the Privilege to wear a Garter of the Order about their Arms, and an upper Robe at Festival Times, according to ancient Usage, upon which Motion the Sovereign gave Order that the Queen’s Pleasure should be known herein, and the Affair left to the Ladies particular Request, and the Year ensuing, upon the Deputy Chancellor’s Report at another Chapter at Windesor, it was then left to a Chapter to be called by the Knights-Companions, to preponderate of every Circumstance, how it were fittest to be effected for the Honour and Lustre of the Order; which was appointed to be held at London about All-hollantide next; But the unhappy War breaking out, this Matter entirely broke off.

§ 6. There remains now the Collar and George, brought in by King Henry VIII. And first, of Collars in general, which is an Ornament not of late, but ancient Invention, and the wonderful Consent of most Nations plead for it: Sacred Writ sets down the Collar of Gold for one of the Ornaments Pharaoh conferr’d upon Joseph. The Images of Isis and Osiris were represented with such like Collars, in a manner, extending to their Shoulders, as Kircher informs us. Their Workmanship seems wonderfully curious, being intersected with various Lines, and divided with Tablets and precious Stones. The Collar was of an illustrious Original among the Romans, and gave Denomination to the Family of Torquati, descended from L. Manlius, whom the Soldiers surnam’d Torquatus, because he fought with a Champion of the Gauls, Anno V. C. 392. and, having foil’d him in fight, cut off his Head, and then pluck’d off his Collar, bloody as it was, and put it about his own Neck. In further Memory of which Action were found several Roman Coins referring to L. Torquatus, Consul with L. Cotta, Anno V. C. 688. And it’s remarkable that when one of another Tribe was adopted into this Family, he did also assume this Badge of Honour, as in the Coin of D. Junius Silanus, tho’ the Fashion of the Work somewhat differ’d from the former.

In pristine Times none but Kings and Princes wore Collars, and therefore their Use seems of Dignity and Power, as is evident from Daniel, where the Assyrian Kings used this Ornament. Afterwards Men famous for Wisdom and Council, had them as a distinguishing Badge, as in the Example of Joseph, and from the Proclamation of Belshazzar King of Babylon, who proposed it as a Præmium to him that could interpret the Hand-Writing upon the Wall. And Men famous for Military Atchievements had it conferr’d upon them, in Recompence of their Merits; thus Collars were of the Number of the Dona & Præmia Militaria among the Romans, and the Honour of receiving them thought worthy to be consign’d to Posterity in Marble Inscriptions. From them the later Emperors receiv’d it, and we read of investing a Knight of the Holy Sepulchre with a Collar at his Creation; where, as soon as the Ceremony of his Ordination is over, the Padre Guardian Kisses the new Made Knight, and puts about his Neck (according to the mode of the Ancients) a Golden Collar, with a Cross hanging at it.

Most aptly therefore have the Sovereigns of Military Orders annex’d this Ornament of the Collar to their Habit, and conferr’d it on the Fellows and Companions, many of whom have meritoriously deserv’d it for their great Wisdom and valorous Exploits, and for this reason it was instituted in additional Glory to the Ensigns of the Garter, compos’d in a peculiar manner, in Relation to the Name and Title; to the wearing of which the Sovereign oblig’d both himself and Knights-Companions, and his and their Successors.

This Collar was ordain’d to be of Gold Thirty Ounces Troy weight, but not to exceed it; howbeit that Collar sent to Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, weigh’d Thirty-four Ounces and a Quarter, and that of King Charles I. 35 Ounces and an Half; which, after his Sufferings, fell into the Hands of Thomas Harrison, one of Oliver’s Major-Generals, and was by him delivered to the Trustees for Sale of the King’s Goods: They, 1649. sent it to the Mint, with divers of the Regalia, to set the Stamp on work for the first Gold that the upstart Common-wealth coin’d.

It was appointed by King Henry VIII’s Statutes, that this Collar should be compos’d of Pieces of Gold in Fashion of Garters, the Ground enamelled Blue, and the Letters of the Motto Gold; in the midst of each Garter, Two Roses plac’d, the innermost enamelled Red, and the outermost White, contrarily in the next Garter, the innermost Rose enamelled White, and the outermost Red, and so alternately; but of later Times these Roses are wholly Red.

The Number of these Garters are so many as be the ordain’d Number of the Sovereign and Knights-Companions; at the Institution they were Twenty-six, being fasten’d together with as many Knots of Gold, and this Mode hitherto has continu’d invariable; nor ought the Collar to be adorn’d or enrich’d with precious Stones, (as the George may be) such being prohibited by the Law of the Order.

At the Middle of the Collar before pendant, at the Table of one of the Garters in the Collar is to be fix’d the Image of St. George arm’d sitting on Horseback, who having thrown the Dragon on his Back encounters him with a Tilting-Spear. This Jewel is not encompass’d with a Garter or Row of Diamonds, as in the lesser George; but in round Relief. It is allow’d to be beautified and sett off with Diamonds and other Enrichments, at the Pleasure of the Knight-Companion who possessed it, and upon that Score it hath been frequently adorn’d with Variety of costly Work, whereon the Diamonds, and other precious Stones, being set to that Advantage as might, upon its Motion and Agitation, dart forth a resplendent Lustre.

Before the Establishment of this Article by King Henry VIII. it appears that the Knights-Companions were invested with Collars at their Installations, for the Black Book makes mention of a Collar among the Ensigns of the Garter, wherewith Philip King of Castile was invested, Anno 22 Henry VII. but whether a Collar of SS’s, or of another Model, is not specifi’d: Nevertheless this Scruple is in part clear’d up by an old Memorial of the Ceremonies, at the Creating Henry Lord Stafford Earl of Wiltshire, 1 Henry VIII. where it is said in the Annals, that after he was invested with the Robes of his State and Dignity, the Collar of the Garter was put about his Neck at constituting him a Knight of the Order. And to make it more conspicuous in a Vellum Book of the Statutes sent to Maximilian the Emperor, sign’d 1508. by the Register T. Rowthale, and in another of Edward Stanley Lord Monteagle, elected ann. 6. Hen. VIII. the Forty First Article, enjoins a Collar to be worn by each Knight-Companion expresly called the Collar of the Order, which tho’ it be not in all Respects consentient to that prescribed by King Henry VIII’s Statutes, yet there is not much Variation, and ’tis reported to be a Gold Collar coupled together by several Pieces of Links, in Fashion of Garters, with a Vermilion Rose, and the Image of St. George hung thereat. The Reason of the Knights-Companions wearing it at the Times appointed, the License for putting it to mending, the Command not to enrich the Collar, but the George only; and under a Penalty not to sell, pawn or alienate it upon any Necessity whatsoever, are wholly the same as was afterwards enjoyn’d by King Henry VIII. So that he did but only annex to his Body of Statutes a Decree, which for the greatest part had been put in practise before. In the 11th Hen. VIII. upon Interpretation of the Eleventh Article of the Statutes, the Collar is there enumerated as part of the entire Robes that a Knight-Companion is oblig’d to wear, for a more convincing Proof, That the Collar of Garters was used before King Henry VIII’s Reign, the Monument of Sir Giles Daubeny plainly Delineates (who departed 22 Henry VII.) in Westminster-Abbey, where his Portraicture in the Robes of the Order is adorned with such a Collar as King Henry VIII’s Statutes do afterwards describe.

As the Garter sent to Gustavus Adolphus King of Sweden, so the great George (pendant at his Collar weighing Seven Ounces) was set with large and resplendent Diamonds, to the Number of Eighty-Four.

In what Regard this Noble Ensign of Honour the Collar, hath been with the Sovereigns and Knights-Companions, not only of the Order of the Garter, but other Military Orders, may be collected from the Pictures of some of them, as well as from their Seals, Coins, and Medals, for in these they have been pleased to exhibit their Effigies and Escutcheons of Arms; and omitting Foreign Examples, the Collars, both of the Garter and Thistle, were express’d in the Coronation Medal of King Charles I. in Scotland, 1633. tho’ in that of his Coronation at Westminster, and afterwards in that of King Charles II. 1661. the Collar of the Order of the Garter are only put over their Royal Robes.

These Ornaments of the Collars, have been affix’d sometimes encircling the Shields of their Arms; and in a Seal of Charles the Bold Duke of Burgundy, Sovereign of the Order of the Golden Fleece, plac’d to an Instrument dated, 1470. it is worthy of Remark, that Collar adorns the Neck of the Lyon of Flanders; but the Sovereigns of the Garter usually encompass’d their Arms, not within the Collar of the Order, but the Royal Garter, that being its principal Ensign; and sometimes, having no Shield of Arms, the void Space within the Garter, exhibits their Arms.

Observable is the Seal of Charles Count Palatine of the Rhine, wherein is a Shield quarterly of the Palatinate and Bavaria, obscuring the Lyon Guardant its Supporter, his Four SS’s only appearing quadrangularly, and his Head a top ensign’d with an Electoral Crown; this Shield is encircled both within the Garter and Collar of the Order, and is the first Example wherein both these Ensigns are jointly together. It is very frequent to express the Collars of different Orders together: Thus I have seen the Arms of Robert Dudley Earl of Leicester, entour’d within the Garter, and a Collar of the Order of St. Michael, having been Knight of these Orders, and the Funeral Atchievement of the late James Hamilton Douglas Duke of Hamilton, had the Garter and a Collar of the Thistle about it. And in a Plate under the Effigies of the Duke of Aspernons, a Shield of his Arms quarter’d, is encompass’d with the chiefest Ensigns of those Three Orders, whereof he was a Brother and Companion, viz. with the Garter and the Collars of St. Michael and the Holy Ghost. And the older the Order is in the Roll of Antiquity, whose chief Ensign is there represented, the nearer ought it to be plac’d to the Escutcheon of Arms, being the more Honourable Post. A Mistake was committed in the marshalling these Collars, when the Duke of Chevereux affixed it over his Stall at Windsor, the Collars of St. Mithael and the Holy Ghost are plac’d nearer to his Escutcheon than that of the Garter.

§ 8. And whereas we have spoke of another kind of Collar, call’d a Collar of SS’s, worn as Badges of lower and inferior Honour, it will not be amiss to inform our Judgment in other Affairs concerning them. Wicelius informs us from a Book in the Library of Fulda, where (in the Life of the Two Brothers Simplicius and Faustinus, both Senators, and suffer’d Martyrdom under Dioclesian) there is a Description of the Society of St. Simplicius, consisting of Noble Personages in their own Families, and describing the Collar wore as the Badge of it says, thus: It was the Custom of those Persons to wear about their Necks Silver Collars, compos’d of double SS’s, which denote the Name of Saint Simplicius, between these double SS’s. The Collar consisted of Twelve small Plates of Silver, in which were engraven the Twelve Articles of the Creed, together with a single Trefoil: The Image of St. Simplicius hung at the Collar, and from it Seven Plates, representing the Seven Gifts of the Holy Ghost. As to the manner of their Martyrdom, they were bound together by the Neck to a Stone, and thrown over the Bridge into the River Tyber.

At what Time the Collar of SS’s came into England is not fully determin’d, but it will appear at least Three Hundred Years since, and worn as an Ornament for Women, as well as Men; for on a Monument in the Collegiate Church of Warwick, the Figure of Margaret, Wife to Sir William Peito (said to be interr’d Temp. Edw. III.) hath a Collar of SS’s drawn about, and set close to her Neck, which the Sculpture in The Antiquities of Warwickshire, by mistake, represented like a Ruff. There was also a Collar of SS’s about the Neck of Sir Simon Burley’s Statue in St. Paul’s London.

In the ancient Creation of an Esquire in England, part of the Ceremony was the King’s putting about his Neck a Silver Collar of SS’s. And Selden, in his Titles of Honour contemns not the old Ballad, The Tanner of Tamworth, to prove the Creation of Esquires in King Edw. IV’s Reign, by conferring such Collars on them. But that the Golden one was the undoubted Badge of a Knight, as may be instanc’d by many undeniable Examples, deduc’d from the Monuments of such Persons, Temp. Hen. VI. Ed. IV. Hen. VII. Hen. VIII. and since, and so legally appropriate thereto, that in the Act 24 H. VIII. made for Reformation of Apparel, there is a Proviso entred, That Knights, notwithstanding, might publickly wear a Gold Collar of SS’s, tho’ since it is grown obsolete and useless. Favin tells us that our Hen. V. instituted an Order surnam’d Knights of the SS’s on the Day of the Martyrs St. Crispine and Crispianus; which tho’ he found nothing of it in our English Historians, yet from the Chronicle of Juvenal des Ursins, where he treats of the Battle of Agincourt, he collected this following Relation.

The King of England exhorted his Men, and commanded, That if any had trespass’d against another, they should be reconcil’d and confess’d to the Priests, otherwise no good Success wou’d accrew to them in their Attempts. He advis’d them to be civil in their March, and to do their Duty well, and agreed upon these Conditions, That those of their Company who were not of gentle Extraction he wou’d make so from the Fountain of Honour, and give them Warrants, that for the future they should enjoy the Privileges the Gentlemen of England had; and to the End they might be distinguish’d from others, he granted them leave to wear a Collar powder’d with the Letter S.”

Among the Variety of Collars of SS’s now in vogue, there are these following: The Lord Mayor of London’s Collar is compos’d of Gold, having a Knot (like one of those that tye the Garters together in the great Collar of the Order) inserted between Two SSs, and they again situated between Two Roses, viz. a White Rose within a Red, and in the Middle before the Breast is a large Portcullis, whereat hangs a most rich Jewel sett with large Diamonds.

The Collars of the Lords Chief Justices of both the Benches, and the chief Baron of the Exchequer, are (in Memory of the said St. Simplicius, a Senator, and consequently a Gownman) form’d of the Letter S, and a Knot alternately, having a Rose set in that part of it which falls out to be in the Middle of their Breasts, and another on their Backs; the Five Flowers of these Roses are constituted of Five large Pearls.

Those Collars, which appertain to the Kings and Heralds of Arms, as well as to Serjeants at Arms, having been bestow’d by former Kings, and renew’d to them by King Charles II. to be worn upon Days of solemn Attendance, are compos’d of SS’s link’d together. In the Middle of the Breast is a Rose, at each of which hangs Three small Drops of Silver; but the SS’s in the Collars worn by the Kings of Arms are made somewhat larger than the other, and in that part lying on either Shoulder, is a Portcullis taken in between the SS’s, which are wanting in the rest.

The general difference of the Collars appropriate to the before-named Degrees, is this; Knights have allow’d them Collars of Silver gilt, but Esquires only Silver; and therefore in the Creating of an Herald, in part of that Ceremony, he is made an Esquire, by putting on him a Collar of SS’s of Silver; and so is a Serjeant at Arms.

The Kings of England have sometimes been pictured with a Collar of SS’s about their Arms, in like manner as the Garter doth surround them, as appears from an Impression of King Henry VIII’s Privy Signet; whereon his Royal Arms crown’d are encircled with a Collar of SS’s, to the lower End of which are affix’d Two Portcullisses.

§ 9. We come now to the lesser George of the Order; and we do not find that the Effigies of St. George was at any time worn by the Sovereign or Knights-Companions, before the Breast or under the Arm, as now used till the 13th of Henry VIII. But then that King decreed in a Chapter held at Greenwich, the Morrow after St. George’s Day, That every Knight should wear loosely before his Breast the Image of St. George in a Gold Chain, or otherwise, in a Ribband, the same to be fasten’d within the ennobled Garter, for a manifest Distinction between the Knights-Companions, and others of the Nobility and Knights, who, according to the Mode of those Times, wore large Gold Chains, the ordinary Ensigns of Knighthood. And thus the wearing the Medal or Jewel, usually call’d the lesser George, to distinguish it from the other Work at the Collar of the Order, first receiv’d the Injunction, and hath since been frequently used.

This George was, for the most part, pure Gold curiously wrought, but divers of them were exquisitely graved in Onyx’s and Agats, and with such a happy Collection of the Stones, that heightned and received their Beauty by the Skill of the Artificer, in contriving the Figures and History, the natural Tincture of the Stones have so fitted them with Colours for Flesh, Hair, and every thing else, even to Surprize and Admiration. In this Jewel is St. George represented in a Riding Posture encountring the Dragon with his drawn Sword.

By the last Article of King Henry VIII’s. Statutes, it was allowed to be enriched at the Pleasure of the Possessor, (as is the great George) which for the most Part hath been curiously enamell’d, and the Garter about it sett with Diamonds. And of what weight and bigness these lesser George’s were, may be gather’d from that sent to the French King Charles IX. being an Ounce and an half and half quarter Weight. The Variety of Workmanship in those Gold Chains whereat this Jewel hung, was usually great, according to the Fancy and Pleasure of the Persons for whom they were wrought. But within a short Space, wearing the lesser George in Silk-Ribbands, as well as Gold-Chains, was promiscuously us’d and ad Libitum. (So were the Symbols of Foreign Orders, as divers Coins and Medals declare.) But the Colour of these Ribbands when they came first to be wore, was black. John Dudley Viscount Lisle, the Lords St. John and Parr, so used them at their Investiture, 35 Henry VIII. and several Pictures of other Knights-Companions about that time confirm the same. That small Chain whereat hung the lesser George transmitted to Emanuel of Savoy, Ann. 1 & 2 Ph. & Mar. was formed of twelve Pieces of Gold, in every of which was sett three small Diamonds, and of twelve other like Pieces, wherein were three Rubies and twenty four Pearls.

It appears by a Letter of Sir Richard St. George, Kt. Clarencieux, dated July 10th, 1627. that the blue Ribband had some Years before been additional to the Ornament of the Order; and ’tis reported, that Robert Earl of Essex observing in France the Jewels of the Order of St. Michael and St. Esprit worn in blue Ribbands, upon his return was the principal motive those Ribbands whereat the George hung, were exchanged into that Colour. And in a Picture of Queen Elizabeth, drawn towards the Declension of her Reign, her lesser George is represented hanging before her Breast in a blue Ribband. And this Colour was more caressed, and grew in great repute, by reason it was the Ground of the Garter, and nearest the Colour of the Mantle of the Order: So that toward the latter End of the Reign of King James I. because the dye of the Ribband had not been peculiarly express’d in any Statute, and the blue and azure accustomed for some Years past, it was decreed, That for the future it should be always of blue, and no other; nor in time of Mourning it self, should be changed.

The Manner of wearing this Ribband in time of Peace, was of later Times pendant about the Neck, down to the Middle of the Breast, where the lesser George hung; but since, for the more Conveniency of Riding or Action, the same is spread over the left Shoulder, and brought under the right Arm where the Jewel hangs.

But where the Pictures of the Sovereign and Knights-Companions are drawn in Armour, there even to this Day the George is represented as fix’d to a Gold Chain instead of a blue Ribband, and worn about the Neck, not brought under the right Arm, as exhibited on the three Pound Pieces of Gold stamped at Oxford by King Charles I. 1643. and a Medal of Charles Count Palatine of the Rhine, dated 1645.

Among the invaluable Jewels and other Curiosities of King Charles I. which came to the Hands of the Trustees appointed for Sale of his Goods, were these,

  l. s. d.
A George containing 161 Diamonds, Sold for 71 2 0
A George cut in Onyx, with 41 Diamonds in the Garnish, 37 0 0
A small George with a few Diamonds 9 0 0
A George with 5 Rubies and 3 Diamonds, and 11 Diamonds in a Box 11 0 0
A George cut in a Garnet 8 0 0
Total 136 2 0

The George King Charles I. had at his Martyrdom, was curiously Engraved in an Onyx set about with twenty One large Table-Diamonds in the Fashion of a Garter. On the reverse of the said George was the Picture of the Queen set in a Case of Gold, the Lid neatly enamell’d with Goldsmith’s Work, and surrounded with another Garter adorned with an equal Number of Diamonds, as was that of King Charles II. also sett with fair Diamonds; and after the Defeat given to the Scotch Forces at Worcester, 4 Car. II. was strangely preserved by Colonel Blague, one of that King’s dispersed Attendants, who resigned it for safety to the Wife of Mr. Barlow of Blare-Pipe-House in Stafford-shire, where he took Sanctuary; from whom Robert Milward Esq; receiv’d and gave it into the Hands of Mr. Isaac Walton, (all Loyalists.) It came again to Blague’s Possession, then Prisoner in the Tower; whence making his escape, he restor’d it to King Charles II.

It is worthy of Remark, that besides the Sovereign of the most Noble Order of the Garter, other Princes of Christendom have assumed the bearing St. George encountring the Dragon in like Posture, tho’ not so anciently, nor upon the same Grounds and Foundation as they; probably having elected him Patron and Guardian of their Countries or Families; such as the Emperors of Russia, the Dukes of Mantua, and the Counts Mansfield in Germany, as their Seals and Coins plainly demonstrate.

In the Great Seal of Borice Feodorwicke, Emperour of Russia affixed to his Letter sent to Queen Elizabeth, dated at Mosco, June 12th, 1602, was a double Headed Eagle displaid, having each Head crowned, and bearing an Eschutcheon with the Representation of St. George upon its Breast. There is another of this Emperour’s Great Seals, fixed to his Letter, dated May 31st. 1594. which he also sent to Queen Elizabeth. On one side is the above-said Eagle, having on his Breast an Escutcheon charged with an Horse currant; the Reverse the Figure of St. George encountring the Dragon with his Spear. The Great Seal of Alexie Michaelowich, Emperour of Russia, affixed to his Letters sent King Charles II. 1660. hath a like Eagle with a third Crown situated between the two Heads, and bearing in a Cartouch-Compartment upon his Breast, the Figure of St. George: Which Representation of St. George and the Dragon, we find assigned for Arms, to Anne de Russie, Daughter to Jarislaus King of Russia and Muscovia, given in Espousal to Henry I. King of France, 1051. and thus Blazon’d, D’in St. Marthe de Gueules, a un homme a Cheval, d’argent, tenant une Lance en la main, qu’il darde en la gueule d’un Dragon renverse.

The Counts of Mansfield have frequently stamp’d it on their Coin. On one side is St. George encountring the Dragon with his Sword, with this Circumscription, Sanct. Geo. Co. do. de Man. on the reverse, his Arms circumscribed, Mon. de Arc. Co. do. de Man. Of those of the Dukes of Mantua, we may see one of Vincentius Duke of Mantua and Montferat, a Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece, wherein is his Effigies to the Breast, Vinc. D. G. Dux MANT. III. MONTFERU. on the Reverse St. George and the Dragon, Motto, Protector nostra aspic. 1591. and Casal at the Bottom.

§ 10. When the Habit or part of it ought to be worn is the next thing we shall speak of.

The more solemn Days and Occasions which require a fuller conformity, and the wearing the whole Habit, i. e. the Garter, Mantle, Surcoat, Hood, Collar, Great George, and Cap, are first, The High Festival of the Order, commonly called St. George’s Feast, whether it be solemnized on the 22d, 23d or 24th of April, annually, or any other Days within the Year by Prorogation, as is apparent by all the Bodies of the Statutes.

For, First it is ordained, That the Knights-Companions should be Arrayed in the whole Habit on the Eve of St. George, before the Sovereign proceeded to the Chapter to hear Divine Service, and being so Robed, should attend on the Sovereign to the Chapter-House, thence to the Chapel, and return with him back in the same manner, until after Supper, as well those that minded to Sup, as those that should not Sup; nor might they disrobe, until the Sovereign or his Deputy had put off his, or declar’d it seasonable for his or their doing so.

By the same Statute they were enjoined to wear the whole Habit on the Feast of St. George, both at their Progression in the Morning to the Chapter-House or Chapel, at their return to Dinner from thence to the Second Vespers, and back to Supper, as also till Supper was over, and until the Sovereign or his Lieutenant took leave of the rest of the Knights-Companions.

Secondly, It is manifest from King Henry VIII’s Statutes, That the Eve, the Day of St. George, and Morrow following, were to be observed with solemn Service, and holding of Chapters wheresoever the Sovereign was resident; tho’ the Grand Feast were Prorogued to a longer Duration; and when by reason of such Prorogation, they should convene in any Place besides Windsor to attend the Sovereign for the Solemnization of St. George’s Day, they then must Adorn themselves with the whole Habit from beginning of the first Vespers, until the last Evening Service of the same Day.

Thirdly, On such other Days of the Year whereon the Grand Feast is held by Prorogation, and during such Part of the Eve and Day of the Feast, as is before appointed when it is held on its proper Day.

Fourthly, By absent Knights, whensoever the Grand Feast of St. George should be celebrated, and wheresoever they should happen at that time to reside, (if at Liberty, and not under restraint) to keep it in like manner as if then present with the Sovereign, or his Deputy in the Place where he should Celebrate the Feast. The time of wearing the whole Habit in this Point extends but to the End of the second Vespers, as in the second Instance above.

Fifthly, The Knights-Companions are to wear the entire Habit at the Feasts of Installation when they assist at that Ceremony; where, if it commence in the Evening, they are not to disrobe themselves till after Supper; and being the next Morning habited as before, then to proceed to the Chapter-House or Chapel, and not to devest themselves till Dinner is ended.

The less solemn Occasions are those, which require the wearing the Mantle or Collar of the Order only.

And they are first, upon the Morrow after the Grand Feast-Day, when the Sovereign and Knights-Companions proceed to the Chapel, and make their Offering; then it sufficeth, that they barely put on the Mantle, which, Service being Finished, they were wont to leave it at the Chapter-House-Door as they retired out of the Chapel.

Secondly, As often as Chapters are called, and in what Place soever assembled, either for Elections, or other Causes, as it shall please the Sovereign to nominate: And as often as it is requisite for the Sovereign, or any of the Knights-Companions to enter into the Chapel of St. George at Windsor; and in reference hereunto, is the Article 15 E. 3. was that their Mantles should remain in the Vestry at Windsor, that upon any sudden emergency, they might be in readiness: for in the Inventory of the Chapel taken 8 R. 2. we find remaining at that time in the Vestry, a Mantle appertaining to the Sovereign, another to John Duke of Britain, a third to John Holland Earl of Huntington, another to Edmund Langley Earl of Cambridge, and one to Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent, all of them then surviving: And by a Decree past at the Grand Feast 1 H. 6. the Mantle of the young Sovereign was appointed to be left at Windsor, as the Statutes required; and this Article was confirmed by King Henry VIII. by Virtue whereof, the Mantles of the Emperor Charles V. and Anna Duke of Montmorency, were left in the Custody of the Dean and Canons of Windsor. And heretofore in the Bill of drawing up Matters necessary for the Installation of a Knight-Companion, there were usually two Mantles set down; one expressed to be left in the College, and the other for all other Occasions that might intervene.

These Mantles thus ordered to be reposed in the College upon emergent Occasions, were anciently committed to the Custody of the Black-Rod, as granted by Letters Patent with the Office 1 H. 5. And after the Death of the Owners, devolved to the Dean and Canons of Windsor, either for the publick Use of the Knights-Companions when they casually came to Windsor, or else sold sometimes to the Heirs of the Deceased, or others who succeeded in the Order, as that of Charles V. was to the Earl of Bedford, and that of the Constable of France lent to the Earl of Warwick, Ann. 7 Eliz. which appears from the Accounts of the Chanter of the College, temp. H. 4. H. 5. H. 8. Q. Eliz. and Jac. 1. who in all times answered the full Benefit thereof to the College, as being a certain Perquisite to the Dean and Canons, which they accordingly had and enjoyed.

And yet we find some of the College made over-bold with the Robe of Sigismond the Emperour, and sold it while he surviv’d. But the Archbishop of York, who, as Chancellor of England, visited the College, 1431. secured the Money from being distributed among those that sold it, and reserved the Dividend to the Dean and Chapter that should chance to be living at that Emperour’s Expiration; and commanded for the Future under Pain of Excommunication, That no Dean and Canon should imbezil or aliene any Knights-Companion’s Mantle while he was alive, but the same should be decently and faithfully kept and preserved. But we are informed, that this Statute was altered, Ann. 9 Eliz. and one drawn up to this effect, That the Knights-Companions should be bound by Oath to take care by their Wills, that after their Decease, all the Ornaments which they had received should be restored, the Robes to the College, and the Jewels to the Sovereign that gave them.

In the last Place, the Times of wearing the Collar of the Order, with the Great George appendant, which is not only enjoined to be worn (as part of the Habit) at the grand Feasts and Feasts of Installation, but also at other times when not any of the rest of the Habit is ordered (saving the Garter) is to be worn, as in special, at the principal and solemn Feasts of the Year, and other Feast-Days: To which a particular Order in Chapter, Ann. 4 Eliz. thus directs,

The Holy-days and Sundays within the twelve Days.
St. Matthias Day.
Holydays in Easter-Week.
St. Mark’s Day.
St. Philip and Jacob’s Day.
Holy-days in Whitsun-Week.
St. Peter’s Day.
St. James’s Day.
St. Bartholomew.
St. Matthew.
St. Luke.
St. Simon and Jude.
St. Andrew.
St. Thomas.

Besides these, the Sovereigns and Knights-Companions have been accustomed to wear this Ensign upon the Anniversary of the Sovereign’s Coronation, of the Gun-Powder Treason, and, of later Times, on the Sovereign’s Birth-day: So formerly upon some occasional Ceremonies not relative to the Order; as when a Knight-Companion hath been created into Titles of Dignity and Honour, he had the Collar of the Garter added to his Investiture, as appears in the Case of Henry Stafford, created Earl of Wiltshire, Ann. 1 Hen. 8. And at a Chapter held May 22d. 1622. That such Knights-Companions as should afterwards assist at the Funeral of any Knight-Companion, should wear the Collar apert at the said Funeral. And it was so observed by the Dukes of Ormond and Richmond, the Earls of Manchester and Sandwich, at the Obsequies of George Monk Duke of Albemarle.

Howbeit, the Custom is otherwise as to wearing the Garter, the principal Ensign of the Order; for tho’ it be injoyned to be wore at the grand Festivals, &c. yet it does not imply that it might be left off: For indeed it ought daily to be worn both by the Sovereign and Knights Companions. And therefore was it decreed even in its Institution, That if any Knight-Companion should in publick be found without one buckled about his Leg, upon Challenge he should be mulct a Noble to the Dean and College of Windsor. By King Henry VIII. the Fine was raised a Mark, payable as before to any of the five Officers of the Order, or to the Dean; besides which Fine, the Knight lies liable to a Check. But to alleviate the Strictness, and obviating other Inconveniencies, King Henry V. admitted of a Qualification; and in case of riding with Boots, ordained, That it might suffice if the Knight-Companion wore some Ribband or Silk-Lace to represent the Garter; tho’ in this very Article there is a Proviso, That no Knight-Companion should enter into Chapter, without his Garter buckled about the Leg.

In short, King Henry VIII. ordained, That the Gold-Chain whereat the lesser George (in that Age) hung, should be worn all other days in the Year, except the Principal and Solemn Feasts, whereon the great Collar was ordained to be worn, and except in time of War, Sickness, or long Voyage, in any of which Cases, a Silk-Lace or Ribband, with the Image of St. George thereat, was sufficient; and the blue Ribband having since succeeded in Place of the Gold Chain, the Injunction of this Statute extends to it in all particulars.


§ 1.

Concerning the Officers appointed for the service of the Order, to give it a greater degree and augmentation of Honour, the Founder constituted a Prelate, Register and Usher, assigning them several Duties. Some of his Successors added the Chanchellor and Garter, and all of them Sworn to be of the Council of the Order; among these the Prelate and Chanchellor are usually nominated the Principal, the other three the inferiour Officers of the Order.

In this Chapter we shall give some account of their Institution, Oath, Habit, Ensigns, Privileges and Pensions; for as to the nature of their Offices and their Duties, they are for the general, Recorded in the Black Book, under the Title Constutiones ad Officiales Ordinis [Garterij] peculiariter attinentes, &c. Upon the Establishment, Anno 13. Hen. VIII. 1521. and annex’d to his Statutes, and more particularly their Duties, will occur in several places of the ensuing Discourse, where they properly fall in to be Treated of, as follows;

The Prelate is the first and primier Officer, and in the Founders Statutes, call’d Prælatus Ordinis; and that the then Bishop of Winchester, William de Edyngton was the first Prelate is very obvious from thence; he is an Officer of Honour only, and hath neither Pension nor Fees allowed him by the said Constitutions; this Office is vested in the Bishop of Winchester, for the time being; and from the Annals of the Order it’s manifest his Successors have continued Prelates to this Day, except the interruption only of a few Months, Anno 7. Ed. 6. immediately after the publishing this King’s Statutes; wherein the other Four Officers were constituted anew, to attend the Order, but the Prelate wholly laid by.

What high reputation this See hath been favour’d with, may be collected from an Act of Parliament, 31. Hen. VIII. concerning the Placing of the Lords in Parliament Chamber, and other Assemblies and Conferences of Council, whereby this Bishop had Place assigned him next to the Bishop of Durham, who hath place by that Act, next the Archbishop of York; tho’ before in respect of the prehemenence of this noble Order, he had precedence and Place granted above all Bishops, and next unto the Arch-Bishops. At that Officers admittance he is oblig’d to take an Oath in the presence of the Soveraign or his Lieutenant, which consists of these particulars.

1. To be present in all Chapters, whereunto he is Summoned.

2. To report all things truly without Favour or Fear.

3. To take the Scrutiny faithfully, and present it to the Sovereign.

4. To keep secret, and not disclose the Councils of the Order.

5. To promote and maintain the Honour of it.

6. To withstand and reveal what is designed to the contrary.

This Oath is read in Chapter, by the Register of the Order, the Gentleman-Usher of the Black-Rod, holding the Book, whilst the Prelate Kneels between the Sovereign’s Knees.

Of the ROBE.

As the Knights-Companions had their Surcoats bestowed on them, at the Sovereigns charge, and therefore called the Kings Livery, so had the Officers of the Order their Liveries or Robes out of the Sovereign’s Wardrobe, and in particular the Prelate of the Order: For in the Rolls of the great Wardrobe, we find that William de Edyngton had allow’d him for his Robe of the Sovereign’s Livery, against the Feast of St. George, Anno 37. Ed. III. one Cloth of Sanguine grain, and a large quantity of Furs for trimming it up: And we find this Robe so assigned the Prelate to be of the sute or colour of the Knights-Companions Surcoats the same Year, viz. Sanguine in grain, and that he had a great allowance of Furr; for his being a Mantle was larger than any of the Knights Surcoats, tho’ they are both call’d by the same name Roba in the Rolls of the Wardrobe, Anno 7. Rich. II. William de Wyckham then Prelate had the same allowance, one Cloth of Violet in grain and other Materials. But the Discrimination was in the Bellies of Minevers, whose Number was now much encreased, and that the same allowance was bestowed on him in the 11th and 19th Years of the said King. But in these three Instances the Colour of the Cloth was different, and suitable to the Knights-Companions Surcoats, those very Years, viz. Violet in grain, White and Blue, and Anno 12. Hen. VI. the Robe of Henry Beaufort, Cardinal and Prelate was White, as then were the Surcoats of the Knights-Companions, whence it is evident the Livery formerly allowed the Prelate annually varied in Colour, as did the Knights-Companions Surcoats.

In that ancient Precedent of the Liveries of the Garter, remaining in the great Wardrobe, wherein the Surcoats of the Knights-Companions are reduced to a Stated proportion in the measure of the Cloth, number of Furs and Garters, modeled out according to their state degrees, there the Prelate hath the following allowance for his Livery,

24 Yards of Woollen Cloth.    
18 Timber pur   Minever.
18 Timber gross.  
3 Timber de Biss.    

By all which it is manifest what Materials and colour the Prelate’s Robe was of at the institution of the Order, and for a long time after, nor do we find any variation until the Reign of King Hen. VIII. and then this Habit was ordained to be Crimson Velvet, lin’d with white Taffaty, faced with blue, and thereon down the opening before upon the bordures, sundry Royal cognizances on the right side, the Rose of England Crowned, on the left side opposite one of King Edw. IV’s. Badges, viz. a Rose within the Sun Beams Crowned; and then the aforesaid Badges again vice versa, with more Damaskings; on the right side the Flower de luce of France Crowned, and on the left side King Edw. III’s. peculiar Badge, viz. The Sun Beams issuing out of a Cloud, and those Badges repeated in alternate situations; every Badge interpolated with an Area of Embroidered Damasking; Forty of these Clouds wrought of Gold, Silver and Silk, having in the middle the Saxon Letter E of Gold, were provided to him several Garments made for that King 21 Edw. III. and Embellished with Stars. As the left Shoulder of a Knight Companions Mantle, so the right Shoulder of the Prelates Robe is injoyned to be Embroidred with a Scutcheon of St. George’s Arms, encompassed with a Garter, and adorned with Cordons of blue Silk mingled with Gold. After a while the colour of this Robe became changed to Murray. The allowance of Velvet 16 Yards, of white Sarcenet for Lining 12 Yards, and a Garter for the Shoulder, Embroidred with Purls of Damask Gold. But 23 Eliz. for the Livery of Bishop Watson then newly admitted, the quantity of Velvet was encreased to 18 Yards; but the Lining and Garter remained as it was, so also the Cordon, having Buttons and Tassels of blue Silk, and Venice Gold; the like Robe in all particulars were made for Bishop Cooper, and Bishop Bilson, his Successars, Temp. Eliz.

About 12 Car. I. the Prelate and Chancellor Petition’d the Sovereign to restore them their ancient Rights and Privileges of Honour, in relation to their Ensigns and Robes upon their outward Garments, whereupon 13 Car. I. it was Ordered in Chapter, that the Knights-Commissioners (newly Established by that Chapter) should take into their consideration the Robes the Prelate and Chancellor were to be invested with, and certify the Sovereign the ancient Colour and Fashion; but nothing was effected untill after the Restoration, and then by Warrant under the Signet of the Order, Dated February 19. 13. Car. II. the Prelate had assigned him for his Livery of the Order, one Robe of Purple Velvet, containing 18 Yards, and 10 Yards of white Taffaty for Lining, as also the Arms of St. George within a Garter, wrought with Letters, and Purls of Damask, Gold and Pearls, having Laces, Buttons and Tassels of purple Silk, and Venice Gold; but what inducements the Sovereign had for so changing the Murray Colour for Purple, has not reached our Intelligence. The time he is obliged to Wear this Robe, is in express text of the Constitutions, to be Yearly on the Vigil and Day of St. George, wheresoever he is at liberty, whether it be in Parliament, or any other solemn Occasion, or Festival whatsoever.

The Honours conferred on this Officer, are, that his Post in all Proceedings and Ceremonies of the Order, is on the right Hand of the Chancellor; that he hath the Privilege of Marshalling his Arms within the ennobled Garter, and accordingly hath it been customary to surround them, impaling his See. He hath allotted him convenient Appartments within the Castle of Windsor, in a Tower Situated on the North-side, called Winchester Tower; and as often as he shall Arrive thither, or to any other Place at the Sovereign’s Command, upon the Affairs of the Order, he ought to have allowed him of the Court Livery for Himself and Retinue, according to the Stipends, that Earls resident in Court do possess. 2 Car. I. This Officer (so well as the Chancellor) had the Honour allowed him, to Wear upon the left Part of his Cloak, Coat, and riding Cassock, at all seasons, when he should not be Invested with his Robe, and in all Places, and Assemblies, a Scutcheon of the Arms of St. George, but not inriched with Pearls and Stones. But not long after there was some restraint upon this Act, tho’ I do not find it repealed.

§ 2. The institution of the Chancellors Office, his Oath, Robe, Badge, and Pension next follows to be handled. At the Erecting this Noble Order, the common Seal was ordained to remain in the custody of whomsoever the Sovereign should please to lodge it, but expresly to be one of the Knights-Companions; among whom in after-times, Sir John Robertsack is Stiled Custos Sigilli Ordinis, having the custody of it by Decree, 1. Hen. VI. by a Prolepsis of Speech, Styled Chancellor in the Black Book. But King Edw. IV. finding it requisite to fix the Office of Chancellor of the Garter, in a Person distinct from the Knights-Companions, and subservient to them, Decreed in a Chapter at Westminister, 16 Regni sui, That the Seal of the Order should be resigned to Richard Beauchamp, then Bishop of Salisbury to keep during pleasure, and he to be called Chancellor of this most noble Order; not long after by Letters Patent, under the Great Seal of England, Dated the 10th of Oct. 15. Edw. IV. this King declared, that tho’ this Office was not expressed by the Founder’s Statutes, yet was it nevertheless very useful, and therefore for the Advancement, and good of the Order, he constituted an Officer named Chancellor: And forasmuch as this Office was of great Import and Concern, and required an expert and able Person, it was His further Pleasure, that none but a Bishop should Execute it; moreover considering the Chapel of St. George at Windsor, was Founded within the Diocess of Salisbury, and having regard to the prudence and diligence of the said Beauchamp, who out of meer love to the Order, attended daily the progress of the Work, wherewith the King was then in hand for enlarging the Chapel at Windsor; he did therefore Ordain the said Bishop for the Term of his Life, Chancellor of the Order, and after his decease, his Successors, Bishops of Salisbury, should always have and hold the said Chancellor-ship; Nevertheless, provided that the King’s Concession should be put in execution, by the Advice of the Knights-Companions, and without prejudice to the Bishop of Winchester, in those things which ought by the Statutes of Institution to belong unto him.

This Office thus conferred upon Beauchamp personally for Life, and perpetually to his Successors, Bishops of Salisbury, by vertue of this Grant continued Chancellors, nor doth it appear that any other Person had been invested therein, until Ann. 7. E. VI. that Sir William Cecil, then principal Secretary of State, was made Chancellor.

For upon Reformation of the Order by that King, his Statutes wholly excluded the Ecclesiasticks, and appointed that the Chancellors-Office should be executed by a Knight qualified, with Honour and Reputation to manage a Post of that Care and Fidelity; he thereupon appointed Sir William Cecil, Chancellor; And here first entred a secular Person, notwithstanding which in a Charter to the Bishop of Salisbury, 4 Eliz. (containing the Charters of Queen Mary, H. VIII. and H. VII. and in another 4. Car. I.) the forementioned Letters Patents, made to Beauchamp, by King Edw. IV. are therein recited totidem verbis, and confirmed as a Tacit Reservation of the Right and Title of those Bishops, whensoever the Sovereign should have a benign and propitious Aspect towards that See. The first of these Bishops who concerned himself for recovering this high Station to that See, was Bishop Cotton, who upon the Death of Sir Edward Dyer, sometime Chancellor, Petitioned the Sovereign, 6. Jac. I. and prayed Restitution thereof to the Church of Salisbury; but before any determination, the two chief Justices, and chief Baron was advised withal, who were of Opinion, that this Office was not compleatly or sufficiently annexed to the Bishoprick of Salisbury by King Edw. IV. But Cook in his Institutes, reports the point Void, upon the incertainty of the Grant, for that a new Office was Erected, and not defined what Jurisdiction or Authority the Officer should Exercise; and there’s assigned a third Reason, That the Grant was in the Sovereign’s disposal, because the Patent was obtained without Fee; with one or more of these Opinions, the Sovereign’s judgment being swayed, He forthwith nominated Sir John Herbert, one of His privy Council to the Chancellor-ship, and so this affair remained Silent, until Anno 12. Car. I. when John Davenant, Bishop of Salisbury, upon Sir Francis Cranes decease, remonstrated to the Sovereign his Claim to this Office, whereupon at a Chapter held at Windsor, 5th of Dec. that Year, the Sovereign propos’d to the Knights-Companions present, that tho’ he had made Election of Sir Thomas Rowe for his Chancellor that time, yet understanding a Claim made by the Bishop of Salisbury, that the Place was annexed to that See, he commanded the Lords-Companions to take the pretence of right into their considerations; to which proposition of the King’s, they answered that they thought it not their duty to search for the Title of any Person, but that if the Bishop did produce his Evidence and Proofs, he might present it in Chapter to be considered.

Upon this Encouragement, the Bishop presented a Petition, which was read in the Chapter at Windsor, the 18th of April ensuing, to this effect, That King Edw. IV., by Letters Patent, had Erected this Office of Chancellor, and did then grant the same to Richard Beauchamp, Bishop of Salisbury, and his Successors for ever, in consideration that the Chapel of St. George was within their Diocess; that those Bishops had enjoyed the same, according to the Charter, which Charter had been confirmed under the Great Seal of England, by some other Kings and Queens, and lastly by the King himself. But that the use and exercise of that Office had for many Years been discontinued from them, praying therefore an Hearing, and Examination, that the right of the said Church might be preserved and restored. To the substance of which it was objected.

First, That> the Great Seals of England did not work within, or upon the Statutes and Rules of the Order of the Garter.

Second, That no Grant could prescribe the present Sovereign, it being a Law Fundamental within the Order, Suprema Lex was Suprema Voluntas.

Third, That it did not appear by the Records of the Order, that the Office of the Chancellor was any otherwise conferred upon Richard Beauchamp, Bishop of Salisbury, than quam diu Regiæ celsitudini complaceret.

To the First, It was answered by way of Exception, as to the Grant of Offices, forasmuch as the Great Seal of England was took into, and became legal within the Order in like cases; and not any Patent for an Office, had past under the Seal of the Order, but under the Great Seal of England, and in particular the Office of the Chancellor-ship, which had not been transacted, if any legal defect had been therein.

To the Second, granting it was so as was Objected, it appeared that the Sovereign was as much at liberty to restore this Office to the See of Salisbury, as continue it to secular Dignities.

To the Third, what was alledged out of the Records of the Order, related only to the time of delivering the Seals to Bishop Beauchamp: But afterwards when the Office was Erected by Letters Patent, it was then granted to him during Life. Something was replied from the Judges Opinions, even in this case, Ann. Jac. R. VI. But the Sovereign thought it was not then well canvass’d and weighed, to permit the Chapter Acts of this Order, wholly independant from other Laws, to receive construction and determination from the common Law, and therefore declared that the Bishop ought to be heard; and to that purpose, gave him Orders to prepare the Vouchers and Proofs of his pretensions in vindication of his Petition, and to send them to be delivered to the Knights-Commissioners, elected for the affairs of the Order, for their consideration at the next Chapter, which was accordingly put in execution, and then refierred to them again to be considered, prepared and abbreviated, to be perused by the Sovereign, for his final determination. But the Scotch War shortly after breaking forth, and troubles running high at Home, the further Prosecution was laid aside, and not revived until the 19th of Nov. Anno 21. Car. II. When Seth Ward, Bishop of Salisbury, took encouragement upon the former grounds, and the Sovereign’s favour, to set on foot this Claim, by a Petition presented to the Chapter then held at Whitehall, where, after a full debate and mature deliberation had of its equity and just Foundation, he obtained a Decree for Re-establishment of this Office on the Bishops of that See, upon the first vacancy, Dated the 19th of Nov. 1669. and present his Majesty the Sovereign, the Dukes of York, and Ormond, Earls of Oxford and Manchester, Prince Rupert, Earls of Bristol and Sandwich, and the Duke of Monmouth.

Of the OATH.

The Oath the Chancellor takes at his Admission which we find to be the same with the Prelates, and in the like humble Posture upon the Knee, and usually Administred by the Register of the Order. As to his Robe, it was at first the same with the Prelates, both for Cloth and Colour, but his proportion of Cloth far less, having allowed him but 5 Yards, when the Prelate had 24, nor but 3 Timber of Minever gross, where the Prelate had 19, beside a large quantity of other Furs; nor was the Colour confined to one kind, until the constitutions of this Office appointed it to be Crimson, as was the Prelates, for no doubt it was before annually changed, as his was to the Colour of the Knights-Companions Surcoats; however by the Picture of the ancient Habits of the Officers, it is conspicuous, it was debared the Royal Badges, wherewith the Prelates Rose was Embroidred; when the Colour of the Prelates Robe was changed to Murray, the Chancellors had the same Alteration and was Trim’d alike in all other particulars. The proportion allowed to Sir Thomas Smith for his Livery, Anno 14. Eliz. was 18 Yards of Murray Velvet, 12 Yards of Sarcenet for the Lining, one Garter wrought with Pearls of Damask Gold for the Shoulder, one Lace (or Cordon) with Buttons, and Tassels of blue Silk and Venice Gold, and the same Materials and Quantities were afterwards distributed out of the Sovereigns great Wardrobe, to the succeeding Chancellors.

But Anno 13. Car. I. The Prelate and Chancellor endeavouring a Reformation in this Habit, the Dye both of the Prelates and this Officers Robe was changed into Purple.

Besides this Robe, the Chancellor of the Order hath an honourable Badge of Distinction assigned him to wear, first granted to Sir William Peters and his Successors, the 9th of October, 1 and 2 Ph. and Mar. viz. a golden Rose enclosed within a Garter, which he and his Successors, Chancellors of the Order, have ever since worn daily about their Necks; at first it was Pendant in a Gold-Chain, but since in a Purple Ribband. It seems something of this Design had been in Agitation a little before, so soon as the Chancellorship became vested in a Layman; for King Edward VI’s Statutes did Ordain, That the Chancellor should wear about his Neck a Cross of the Order, with a red Rose, in a white, of Gold, all compassed within a Garland of red and white Roses.

And because it was suggested to King Charles I. That there were different Accounts and Uncertainties contained in some Books concerning the Wearing of this Badge, He, by Warrant dated at Oxford the 16th of December in the 21st Year of his Reign, 1645. ordained Sir James Palmer Kt. and Bart. Chancellor of the said Order, (and his Successors) should wear about his Neck at all times in Honour of his said Place, (that thereby he may be known to be of that Office and Dignity, as hath been accustomed) a Medal or Jewel of Gold enamelled with a red Rose, (within a Garter of Blue enamel, with this Sentence inscribed, Hony soit qui mal y pense) or such an one as we or the rest of the Knights-Companions of the said Most Noble Order of the Garter do or shall from time to time hereafter wear in our Collars of the said Order in particular Reference to us or them. And in the Reverse thereof, he shall bear the Escutcheon of St. George enamelled within a Garter also in reference to the Order it self, which he only shall wear hanging by a light purple Ribband, or in a gold Chain, as hath been accustomed.

Among the Officers of the Order, the Chancellor is seated next beneath the Prelate, and in all Proceedings and Sessions, goeth, and sitteth, on his left Hand: And as it was ordered by the Constitutions of the Officers, That if the Chancellor hapned to be a Layman, he should be also a Knight, and have other personal Endowments. So did King Charles I. conceive it requisite to confer some further Mark of Distinction upon this Officer, in relation to Place and Precedence without the Order; to which effect, there passed a Decree in a Chapter assembled by the Sovereign at Whitehall, the 23d of April, 1623. present, the Earls of Mulgrave, Montgomery, Rutland, Carlisle, Holland, Suffolk, Pembroke, Arundel and Surrey, Salisbury, Dorset, Bark-shire and Northampton, That Sir Francis Crane, the present Chancellor, and all others that should succeed him in that Place hereafter, shall, in right of that Place, in all Assemblies, and upon all Occasions, be ranked and placed immediately after Knights-Privy-Councellors, and before the Chancellor of the Exchequer, the Persons holding both Places, being in Pari gradu, and consequently before all others, whom the said Chancellor is to precede, &c.

And to the intent the Chancellor of the Exchequer’s Place may be certainly known, May the 20th, 21 Jac. I. it was thus established, That the Knights of the Most Noble Order of the Garter, the Privy-Councellors, the Master of the Courts of Wards and Liveries, the Chancellor and Under Treasurer of the Exchequer, Chancellor of the Dutchy, the Chief Justice of the Court of King’s Bench, the Master of the Rolls, the Chief Justice of the Court of Common-Pleas, the Chief Baron of the Exchequer, and all other Judges and Barons of the Degree of the Coif, should have Place and Precedency in all Places, and upon all Occasions before the younger Sons of Viscounts and Barons, and before all Baronets, &c.

The aforesaid Constitutions provide the Chancellor of the Order an Habitation within the Castle of Windsor, as well as the Prelate, which is the South-West Tower in the lower Ward of the Castle, call’d the Chancellor’s Tower. The Possession thereof had been for some time in the Power of others; and therefore by a Chapter convened at White-hall, Nov. 5th, 5 Car. I. it was restored unto Sir Francis Crane, then Chancellor of the Order, and after his Decease, to descend to his Successors. These Constitutions also ordained him the like Liveries at the Table and Court of the Sovereign, as were allowed to the Prelate.

At the first Erection of this Office, the Chancellor had no Pension awarded him, until the Constitutions in reference to the Officers were Established. At that time there was conferr’d on him a Pension of 100l. per Annum, in consideration of his Employment, or else an allowance proportionate in Fees, Offices or other Promotions, over and above his Lodgings in the Castle, and Liveries at Court. But as to Fees and Perquisites, there are none to be Claimed by this Officer; and for that Reason, he not only possesses the said Pension, but all his disbursements allowed him, even to Paper, Wax, and Wafers; and indeed those who enjoyed the Office esteem’d it as a degradation of their Post, to receive either fee, or gratuity for any affair Transacted within the Order; and Sir Thomas Rowe, sometime Chancellor, affirmed That his Office was an Office of Honour, and not of Fees, and that he had always excepted against Fees, for the disbursement of the Sovereign’s Money: Tho’ he acknowledged some had bestowed on his Clerk a small gratuity, for the bare Ingrossing of an Alms Knights Patent, but nothing farther.

And because the Custody of the Seals of the Order, appertains to this Officer; it will be here the fittest Place to mention something of them. By the Statutes of Edw. III. they were to have a Common Seal. This is confirmed by the Statutes of King Hen. V. and since named the Great Seal of the Order. The use of this is not only to Seal the Original Statutes, appointed to remain perpetually within the Treasury of Windsor College, as also those Copies of which each Knight-Companion is obliged to conserve one, but likewise all Letters of Licence to any of the Knights-Companions desirous of winning Honour abroad, and all Mandates and Certificates, relating to the Order.

After what Model the first Seal was compos’d, we have no exact Relation. Polydore Virgil tells us, That when the Founder of the Order had fixed Choice of St. George for its Patron, he represented him Armed, and Mounted on an Horse, bearing a Silver Shield, and thereon a Red Cross, but whether St. George thus designed, was on the first Seal, or only a Scutcheon of his Arms, as in latter times, is uncertain. But his Author observes that the Founder Habited his Soldiers in white Jackets or Coats, and on their Breasts and Backs sowed Red Crosses, parallel to the Arms assigned to St. George, as well as to the Kingdom of England, put under his Patronage, which Arms the Sovereigns of the Order, have ever since exhibited in their Standards. But besides this Common Seal King Hen. V. in the 9th Year of his Reign, Instituted a privy Signet, in case the Sovereign should be called out of this Kingdom upon weighty Affairs. The intent thereof was to affix it to all Acts passed by the Sovereign beyond Sea, to distinguish them from those of his Deputies in England. King Hen. VIII’s Statutes, Ordain the making both of a Common Seal and Signet, and direct that the Arms of the Order should be Engraven upon each of them. The Common Seal used in his Reign was a Garter, within it a Shield having the Cross of St. George, impaling the National Arms, the said Shield encompassed with two Branches hanging from the Regal Crown, which debruses part of the Garter; the Signet being designed after the same manner, but less: Temp. Jac. I. it suffered no other alteration, but only in the National Arms, by admitting the Quarterings of Scotland and Ireland, and new-fashioning the Crown, omitting the suspension of the Shield.

There was a Seal made at the beginning of the Reign of King Cha. I. which being esteemed too little for the Grandure and Honour of the Sovereigns Commissions, if was afterwards Decreed in Chapter, held 18th of April. 13. Car. I. That a new one should be made of a larger Size, with the accustomed Arms and Motto, and the care thereof commited to Sir Thomas Rowe, Chancellor; which Command he Executed with all due care and regard, as is manifestly evident by the nobleness of the design: One Representation being St. George, in Armour, adorned with a waveing Mantle, his Bever open, his Helmet plumed, holding a Shield of his Arms in his left Hand, and striking with a Sword in his right, his Body mounted on a bold Horse, Trampling over a Dragon, which Assails the Champion, the whole Figure is well contracted, and the Sun, a Rock, the Bones of devoured Men, and a Mountain in Lointon, in it is Circumscribed, Magnum sigillum Nobilis Ordinis Garterij; having the enrichments of festons between every Word placed pentagonally: The other Representation, is the Royal Garter imperially Crowned, enclosing a Shield of the Arms of St. George, impaling the Sovereign’s Arms, the same Bordered with Fret-work, and other Ornaments in Cartouche. In the same decree, direction was given also for a new Signet, the former being thought too big for Letters, and this was an Oval shaped so from its Impression, which was the Garter Crowned, wherein was St. George, and the Sovereigns Arms impaled.

It was at the same Chapter further decreed; “That all Legations to deliver this Order to Foreign Princes, all other Acts, bearing the Stile of Commissions, all Patents of Offices and Fees, all Grants or Licences sent out of the Kingdom, should be Sealed with this Seal, which should be henceforward called the Great Seal of the Order; so also the Book of Statutes, sent to Elect Knights or Foreign Princes, being fixed to a Label of Blue Silk, and held according to antient Custom; and that all Letters concerning the Order, whether of signification of Election, or Lieutenancy, or Summons upon prorogation, or other Directions from the Sovereign, should only be Sealed with the Signet: Moreover, these Seals were appointed to be thenceforth Born before the Sovereign in all Publick Assemblies, during the Celebration of St. George’s Feast, or in other its Solemnities by the Chancellor of the Order, in a Purse of blue Velvet,” and Command given to Sir Thomas Rowe, to provid one accordingly; on the foreside of which Purse was richly Embroidred (by a Gold-Smith) with Venice Gold and Silver, Gold and Silver Purls and Plates, and variety of Naples Silks, the Arms of St. George impaling the Sovereign, surrounded with a Garter Crowned, having a very fair Running Work, or Compartment round about it, the charge of which amounted to 13 l. 16 s. 10 d.

By the Statutes of Institution, it was ordained, That in case the Knights-Companions, to whose care the Sovereign did commit the Seal of the Order, should upon lawful Occasions, be absent from Court, it behoves him to leave it behind him, with some other Knight-Companion to present, to the Sovereign, to the intent it might be always in readiness; but if the Sovereign be out of His Kingdom, then the disposal of it, was commited to the Deputies, and the Signet of the Order should have a Warrant for all such Acts and Decrees as should be confirmed there.

The distance from Court was by the Constitutions, restricted to 10 Miles, and by the Statutes of King Hen. VIII. to 20. upon consideration whereof we find Sir Thomas Rowe Chancellor, having some occasions, Anno 13 Car. I. to be absent above 20 Miles, tendred the Seals to the Sovereign, who was pleased to dispence with the Statutes, and permitted him to keep them nevertheless.

§ 3. The Registers Oath, Mantle, Badge, Privileges and Pension, fall next under our consideration; he was one of the three, Constituted at the Institution of the Order, under the Title of Registrator and Registrarius, and so is called in the Statutes of King Hen. V. elsewhere in the Books of the Order, Scriba and Actuarius. What were the first Registers, names we cannot discover, till the Reign of King Hen. V. But it may be presumed, they were Canons of Windsor; because this Office was at first assigned to one of that College; besides the Registers from the Reign of King Henry V. to the beginning of King Henry VIIIth Reign, were also Canons of this College, among whom was John Coningham, (and the first found called so) as the Fragments of a Glass Inscription in Clare Church near Windsor, where he was Rector, attests. The first Dean of Windsor, Constituted Register of the Order was John Vesey, Anno 8. Hen. VIII. many of whose Successors in this Deanry, have since been admitted; nevertheless, as they were Canons not Deans of Windsor, and tis not improbable the Deans were Elected to this Office, as being enabled to support the Reputation of the Registership, with the Revenue of his Deanry, better than any of the Canons, with the addition of the Pension. But at a Chapter held at Whitehall, the 22d of April, 11 Car. I. The Sovereign thought it convenient that the Office of Dean and Register should concenter in one and the same Person, as formerly, and therefore commanded this his Pleasuer to be Enrolled among the Annals of the Order, that so it might pass in the future Times, from Example into Rule.

By the Constitutions of the Office, a secular Person is made capable of it, no less than an Ecclesiastick, how be it, He is to be a Man of singular integrity, eminent quality, a Knight, and signalized for Experience and Learning; but if an Ecclesiastick, then must he be a Person of consummate Erudition, a professor of Divinity or Law, either Canon, or Civil, and a Dignitarian in some Cathedral Church, or else a Canon at Windsor.

The substance of his Oath in the Statute of the Institutions was, That he should enter upon the Registry, with all Fidelity, the Scrutinies, Elections, Penalties, Reconciliations, and all other Acts relating to the Order, to which was added, that he shall faithfully Discharge his Duty in all things. But in King Hen. VIIIth Days, the Oath enjoyned him, differs nothing from that of the Prelates and Chancellors.

At his Admission, he takes this Oath Kneeling, while the Prelate used to pronounce the Words as Anno 1 Mar. 5. and 6. Ph. and Mar. but in his absence, as Anno 3 Eliz. the Chancellor administred it. Anno 4. Car. I. the Prelate, Chancellor, and Register, took their Oaths at one time, and then it was thus Ordered; first the Register took it Kneeling between the Sovereign’s Knees, the Black Rod holding the Evangelists, and the Garter read the Words out of the black Book; this done, the Register read the Words of the Prelates Oath, when he was Sworn; and in the last place, did the like to the Chancellor; after this manner did Garter read the Words to the Registers, admitted 11 Car. I. and 12 Car. II. We cannot trace the Habit this Officer had assigned him at the Erection of the Order; but it afterwards appears, that his Allowance was the same with the Chancellors, consisting of 5 Yards of Woollen Cloth, and 3 Timber of Minever gross, equalent to what those Knights-Companions had allotted, who were under the degree of an Earl: The Habit he is pourtrayed in, at a proceeding of King Hen. VIIIth Reign, shews it to be Ecclesiastical, a black Gown, a Surplice over that, reaching to his Ancles, and thereon a Mantle of Furs; but the Constitutions of his Office restricted him to none, wherein there seems a defect, since they have assignd Habits to the Garter, and black Rod. Notwithstanding by a Draught of the Officers in their ancient Dress, it is plainly demonstrable to be a Mantle, somewhat of a Russel colour, Faced with a Pane of blue, whereon is Embroidred a Flower-de-luce Crowned Gold, then another Pane red, thereon a Lyon Passant gardant Crowned Gold, and so they are alternately placed to the bottom; to this Mantle belong Cordons of Silk, blue and yellow.

Since that time, not only the Registers, but also Garters and Black Rods, Robes, underwent some Alterations; for by a Decree in Chapter, called at St. James, Jun. 1. 4 and 5. Ph. and Mar. these Officers were assigned Mantles of crimson Satin, Lined with Taffaty, and a Scutcheon of St. George’s Arms, Embroidred on the left Shoulder, but not encircled with a Garter, having the same Buttons and Tassels as were appointed to the Prelate and Chancellor; the proportion of Satin assigned to each Mantle, was 14 Yards, and as many Yards of white Taffaty.

And tho’ the Registers Mantle was Ann. 27 Eliz. composed of the preceeding Materials, and had like Trimming, yet they agree not in their Proportions, here being allowed 18 Yards of crimson Satin, and but 12 of Taffaty; from hence these Mantles continued immutable until the 20th of Feb. 13 Car. II. when there Issued a Warrant to the Master of the great Wardrobe, to prepare for this Officer, as also for Garter, and the Black Rod, for their Liveries Mantles of scarlet Satin, each containing 18, and 10 Yards of white Taffaty for Lining, but consonant in all other Punctilio’s with the former; yet why the colour was altered, is not expressed.

The Register seems to have been represented with a Scrowle in his Hand, for his Badge, and by the proceedings in Queen Elizabeth’s Reign, Pictured with a Book, both proper Symbols of his Office. In Dr. Christopher Wren’s Registership, the Sovereign Commanded him to cover the red Book of the Order with crimson Velvet, and assigned for the Garter, two Pens in Saltire, interlacing the Garter above with these two Letters C R Crowned, all being richly Embroidred, (as also the Border) with Venice Gold and Silver, and various colours of Naples Silk, by Harrison the Sovereign’s Embroiderer, with a Clasp, in Imitation of the Garter, surrounding the Representation of St. George, which cost 12 l. 17 s. 6 d. This Book he was Ordered to bear before his Breast, on all Solemn Occasions when he wore his Mantle, and for his better Convenience, he made a Belt and an Ouch to hang it by.

So high a Regard had the Sovereigns of this Order, not only to this Officer, but likewise to Garter and Black Rod, that they took them into a particular Protection, and by the Constitutions of their Offices granted them, “That they, their Goods and Servants should severally remain under the Safe-guard of the Sovereign; and if any Injury or Violence should chance to be offered them either by Subjects or Forreigners, whensoever they should exhibit their Complaint to the Sovereign, either himself or the Knights-Companions should afford them Justice; but if the adverse Party should refuse to submit his Cause to the Sovereign, then the Sovereign and Knights-Companions should shew themselves so far inclinable towards these Officers, as to be ready to allow them all favour, countenance, &c.” consistent with Justice and Equity.

Upon the strength and Security of this ancient Privilege, to avoid the prolongation of a Law Suit, Dr. Christopher Wren Register, Petitioned the Sovereign in Chapter, held at Whitehall, the 19th of April, 13 Car. I. against one Thornhill, who under Pretence of Digging for Salt-Peter, had so Undermined his Pigeon-house, Built on the Rectory of Knoil Magna in Wiltsh. that it fell down; and upon reading of the Petition, it was resolved by the Sovereign, and Knights-Companions, “That they would consider the Grant in the Constitutions, and, until it was farther declared, the Chancellor of the Order should have Power upon Information of any rigour upon Controverse begun in any other Court, to write Letters under the Signet of the Order, that all vexation against them should be superseded until Information of the cause were given to and determination in the Cause resumed by the Sovereign, or leave of him obtained to Proceed.” After this it is set down, that Thornhill was Summoned before the Lords Commissioners of the Navy, and his negative Answer given in, and represented to the Sovereign in another Chapter, conven’d the 4th of October ensuing; whereupon it was ordered, “That the Chancellor should write to the same Lords Commissioners, and another to the Earls of Pembroke, Arundel and Dorset, three of the Knights-Companions, to Empower them, that they or any three of them, should cause the said Thornhill to be brought before them, and likewise write to any of the Inhabitants of Knoil, to view and testifie the Truth, to hear any further proof on the behalf of either Party, and to give Sentence according to Justice, that so a tedious Suit of Law might be prevented, and the Dignity of this most noble Order protected.” These Commands of the Chancellor being Executed, and Certificates returned from the Country, the Knights Companions, in a Chapter held the 23th of May, 14 Car. I. were moved to peruse them; but before they could meet, Thornhill fled, and the Prosecution of this business ceased. Upon the same footing was it, that the said Dr. Wren obtained from King Cha. I. His Gracious Protection for himself, Servants, and Estate, literally expressed in the late War, as the Violaters of that Order would answer this our contrary at their Peril, Dated at Oxford, under the Signet of this our Order the 12th Day of Dec. in the 19th Year of our Reign.

This Officer by the Constitutions hath a Pension of 50 l. per Annum, or proportionable in Fees, Offices, or other Emoluments; and Ann. 1. and 2 Ph. and Mar. the same numerical Pension was conferred on Owen Oglethorp, Dean of Windsor, out of the Exchequer, until some Ecclesiastical Preferment of like value should devolve on him. The same was confirmed to Dr. Maxey, by Decree in Chapter, 16 Jac. I. and afterwards to Dr. Beaumont, by Letters Patent, under the Great Seal of England, 20 Jac. I. but there needed no Allotment of Lodgings at Windsor to this Officer, as there was to the rest, since both the Canons and Dean were provided of Houses belonging to their Ecclesiastical Dignities within the College, at the Erection of the Order.

§ 4. The fourth Officer of the Order is Garter. He Was ordained by King Henry V. with the advice and consent of all the Knights-Companions, who for the Honour of the Order, was pleased he should be the principal Officer within the College of Arms, and chief of the Heralds. The Services enjoyned him, relating to the Order, were in preceding Times, performed by the Windsor Herald of Arms, an Officer created with that Title by K. Edward III. much about the time of his Erecting this Order, and an Annual Pension of 20 Marks, payable out of the Exchequer, by Letters Patent for Life, which was confirmed by King R. II.

Sir William Brugges was the Person first created Garter, and called in the Institution of his Office, Jartier Roy d’armys des Anglois, but elsewhere stiled Willielmus Brugges, alias Dictus, Gartier Rex Armorum. This Sir William became a great Benefactor to St. George’s Church at Stamford, and in the Windows of the Chancel caused to be Represented King Edward III. with his twenty five Knights-Companions kneeling, Habited in their Mantles and Surcoats of Arms, but now much shattered and defaced; John Smert his Successor had this Office conferred on him by Letters Patents, under this Title Rex Armorum de Garteria, and John Wrythe was stiled Principalis Heraldus, & Officiarius inclyti Ordinis Garterij, Armorumq; Rex Anglicorum, but Sir Gilbert Dethick leaving out Heraldus joyned Principalis Rex, which still continues.

In the Constitutions of his Office he is called Garterus, Rex Armorum Angliæ, whom the Sovereign and Knights-Companions have decreed to be a Gentleman of Blood and Arms, of unspotted Reputation, and Born within the Kingdom of England; besides as King Hen. V. did before, so doth King Hen. VIII. declare that he shall be chief of all the Officers of Arms, dependant upon the Crown of England.

The substance of his Oath administred by the Register at his admission, whilst he humbly kneeleth at the Sovereign’s Feet, in the Chapter House; is,

1. To yield Obedience to the Sovereign, and Knights-Companions.

2. To keep Silence, and not disclose the Secrets of the Order.

3. To make Signification of the Death of each Knight-Companion.

4. To execute all things faithfully committed to his Care.

5. To enquire diligently after all the noble Acts of the Knights-Companions, and certifie them to the Register.

6. To be faithful in the exercise of his Office.

And such an Oath Sir Christopher Barker took at a Chapter held at Greenwich 28 Hen. VIII. when he was made Garter.

As for a particular Habit, we do not find any inserted in the Great Wardrobe, whence it is presumed, he was at first distinguished from the rest of the Officers of the Order, by his Coat Embroidred with the Sovereign’s Arms, like as the Provincial King’s then wore. But after the Constitutions of the Officers were Established, there was assigned him a Habit or Mantle in all respects, resembling the Register, (saving that the Ground whereon the Lyons and flower-de-luces were Embroidred, was entirely Red) and this to be wore only at the publick Solemnities of the Order. Queen Mary Commanded it to be made of crimson Satin, and so it remained till the Restoration, when the Colour was altered to scarlet.

This Officer is appointed to bear a white Rod or Scepter at every Feast of St. George, the Sovereign being present, gilded at both ends, and at the top the Arms of the Order impaling the Sovereign’s Arms pourtray’d on an oblong Cube Crowned, but no directions are given in the Constitutions for this Crown, nor for that Ducal one on his Head wherewith his Effigies has been represented, and yet at all great Solemnities is never used that we can discover. There was assigned him by Queen Eliz. a Badge of Gold to be worn daily by him and his Successors, before the Breast, in a gold Chain or Ribband, and thereon Ennamelled the Sovereign’s Arms, Crowned with an Imperial Crown, and both surrounded with the Garter: But Sir Edward Walker when made Garter, obtained the Sovereign’s leave to Impale therein St. George’s Arms, with those of the Sovereign’s, which Badge is alike on both sides.

There is an House appointed for his Habitation within Windsor Castle, called Garters Tower. It was by Chapter annexed for ever to the Office of Garter, and restored to Sir William Segar’s Possession, 2d of May, 1630. By the Constitution of his Office, he is to be allowed Barons Service in the Sovereign’s Court, and his Table Served next after the Dean of the Chapel, with such Liveries as of old were accustomed.

It appears that King Hen. V. after his erecting this Office, died before he had settled a Pension upon Sir William Brugges, for supportation of his little Estate, which the Knights-Companions taking into consideration, and that he might more honourably comport himself to the Service of the Order, till the young King should come to Age, they being assembled in a Chapter, with the consent of the Prelate, decreed the said Sir William to receive of each of them at every Feast of St. George, as is set down, viz.

  Of the Bishop of Winchester Prelate 5   Marks.
Dukes 5
Of every   Earl 6   Nobles.
Baron or Baronet 4
Knight Batchelor 2

The first payment was agreed to be pay’d down, and so to remain in force annually with request to the absent Knights, that for the Honour of the Order, and causes in the Instrument express’d, they would approve of their Ordinance which passed under the Seal of the Order, Dated at Windsor, 1422. Afterwards King Hen. VI. in consideration of his Services to his Father and himself, with consent of his Council, granted to the said Brugges, by Letters Patent, a Pension of 20 l. per Annum, out of the Fee Farm of the City of Winchester during his pleasure, which Pension upon the surrender of his Patent he granted anew to him and Agnes his Wife, for their Lives and the longer liver of them; and when this Office upon Sir William Brugges death, was devolved on John Smert, Guyenne herald (3 April 28 Hen. VI.) he had the yearly Sum of 20 l. granted him therewith for Life out of the Exchequer: But his Successor John Wrythe, Norroy, obtained an increase of Pension to 40 l. per Annum, made payable out of the small Customs of the City of London; this annual Sum was afterwards confirmed to Garter by the Constitution of his Office, and an Augmentation from the then Knights-Companions additional to the Pensions granted by their Predecessors, upon the Death of King Hen. V.

Of   A Duke 4   Pounds.
A Marquess 5   Marks.
An Earl 4
A Baron 6   Nobles.
A Knight Batchelor 4

In succeeding times the Sovereign thought fit to augment this Pension to 50 l. per Annum, (now payable out of the Revenue settled upon the Order,) and the Knights-Companions yet to enlarge their Sallery, which they did, (the Sovereign assenting) by the decree made in a Chapter held at Windsor 13, 14, and 15. Sept. An. 1617. wherein it was ordained, That their Officer Sir William Segar Garter Knight, King of Arms of that Order should then, and from thenceforth have renew’d and paid unto him certain annual Fees and Pensions, anciently enjoyed by his Predecessors, with a surplus of 10 l. per Annum, which his Majesty’s Act of Royal Bounty, hath given to his said Servant for his better support and maintenance, as also of Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, the Sum of 8 l. and of every Duke of the Blood 6 l. all other Estates, viz. a Duke not of the Blood 4 l. a Marquess 5 Marks, an Earl 4 Marks, a Viscount 7 Nobles, a Baron 40 s. and a Knight Batchelor that shall be of the Order, 26 s. 8 d. all which said Sums of Money, according to the several degrees of their Estates, are to be paid, (continues the Decree) unto the said Garter or his assigns yearly at St. Georges’s Feast, or immediately after, as well by the Knights then present, as by those that shall be absent, or hereafter are to succeed in the said Order; and after the decease of the said Garter, to his Successors for ever.

At St. Georges’s Feast, Celebrated at Windsor, 22, 23, and 24 of April, Anno 15 Car. II. Sir Edward Walker then Garter, representing by Petition, that the annual Pension of the installed Knights then in Arrear for one Year, amounted to 94 l. 13 s. 4 d. according to their proper proportion, the Sovereigns Share, (he being to pay for all stranger Knights) amounted at that time, to 32 l. 13 s. 4 d. and humbly praying that his Majesty would grant to him and his Successors an 100 l. per Annum, out of the Revenue settled to the use of the Order, in lieu not only of those said Pensions, payable from the Sovereign and Knights-Companions, both Strangers and Subjects; but for resigning his Claim to his annual Pension of 50 l. in consideration for preparing Scutcheons and removal of Atchievements. This Petition the Sovereign was pleased to refer to a Committe of the Knights-Companions, who, namely the Duke of Albemarl, the Earls of Lindsey, Manchester, Sandwich, and Stafford, who being attended by Garter, and weighing the event of the Petition, offered their opinions to the Sovereign, to grant him the said 100 l. per Annum in lieu of what he offered to quit, whereby the interest of this Office might be preserved in a more compendious Method than it was, his Majesty exempted from those small payments for Strangers, and the Knights-Subjects themselves were discharged from their annual Pension, and his Majesty ratifying the same shortly after, Sir Henry de Vic, the Chancellor, was ordered to pay unto Garter, and his Successors the said annual Pension of 100 l. which was accordingly put in Execution, as an Equivalent for all Fees and Salaries relating to the Order of the Garter.

The Duty of this Officer in general is, to perform, or cause to be effected all Transactions whatsoever, the Sovereign, or Prelate, or Chancellor shall enjoyn him, in relation to this Most Noble Order.

§. 5. The fifth and last Officer is the Black-Rod. This Officer was instituted by the Founder, King Ed. III. but whether at the first Erection of the Order doth not appear. Howbeit, within a few Years after, 35 E. III. the King conferr’d to William Whitehorse, Esq; for Life, Officium Hostiarii Capellæ Regis infra Castrum de Windesore, with a Fee of 12 d. a Day out of his Exchequer.

Anno 3 Hen. IV. this Office is called Officium Virgarij comitivæ de la Garter infra Castrum Regis de Windesore; and under that Denomination was confirmed to Thomas Sye, with the Fees and Emoluments thereunto expressed. In the Patent to his Successor, John Athilbrigg, Ann. 1 H. 5. it is stiled, Officium Virgarij sive Ostiarij, &c. Afterwards it hath the Title, Officium Virgæ-bajuli coram Rege ad festum Sancti Georgii infra Castrum Regis de Windesore. And ever since it runs in the Patents by the Appellation of Virgæ-Bajulus, Virgarius, or Nigri-vergifer. But in the Constitutions of his Office, he hath the Title of Hostiarius; and under the restriction of these Qualifications, that he be a Gentleman of Blood and Arms, born within the Sovereigns Dominions; and if he be not a Knight at his admission into the Office, he ought then to be Knighted. As Garter was Entituled the Principal Officer of Arms, so was the Black-Rod, for the Honour of the Order, appointed the Chief Usher in the Kingdom. And as he is so, and frequently called Gentleman-Usher of the Black-Rod, so we shall wave, as we did in Garter, all things appertaining to his Employments, otherwise than what directly is included in this Most Noble Order.

In a Chapter held at Whitehall, the 13th of February, 6 Car. I. It was decreed, That the Office of the Black-Rod should from thenceforth successively, as soon as the same should become void (James Maxwell, Esq; then enjoying it) be annexed to some one of the Gentlemen-Ushers, Daily-waiters, whom the Sovereign should appoint.

This was carried upon the Petition of the Gentlemen-Ushers, Daily-waiters, seconded by the Lord Chamberlain, the Earl-Marshal, and others, Knights-Companions; as is evident from another Petition of theirs to the Sovereign in Chapter, assembled at Oxford, the 17th of January, 20 Car. I. But some Years after this, 1642. the Lord Lanrick, Secretary for Scotland, had on Mr. Maxwell’s behalf, obtained the Sovereign’s Warrant for Letters-Patent under the Great-Seal, for two Lives, Maxwell’s and Mr. Alexander Thayn, the longest Liver of them; whereby the said Decree was frustrate to the Gentlemen-Ushers; of which making Complaint in the last mentioned Chapter, the Sovereign and Knights-Companions (in regard this latter Grant was not only repugnant to the preceding Decree, and the Great-Seal surreptitiously gained, but ought likewise to have passed the Seals of the Order) order’d Peter Newton, Esq; to be presently sworn into this Office. Nevertheless, after the Restoration, A. D. 1660. Newton being then dead, the Gentlemen-Ushers, Daily-waiters, Petition’d again, and Thayne was demanded to put in his Answer; and the result of the whole was, after mature Deliberation in a Chapter held at Whitehall, the 20th of February, 13 Car. II. the Decree which fix’d this Office to one of the Gentlemen-Ushers Daily-waiters, was confirmed, and John Ayton, one of the Petitioners, was sworn Gentleman-Usher of the Black-Rod, which was performed by the Register in the Presence of the Sovereign, the Chapter sitting.

The Form of the Oath given to this Officer, temp. Hen. VIII. was, Truly and Faithfully to observe and keep all the Points of the Statutes of the Order as to him belonged and appertained.

He hath the like Habit with the Register and Garter before described, but his Ensign and Badge is somewhat different from Garter’s; for first, it was ordained, That he or his Deputy should carry a Black-Rod (whence he hath his Title) before the Sovereign, or his Deputy, at the Feast of St. George, within the Castle of Windsor, and at other Solemnities and Chapters of the Order. On the Top of which there ought to be set a Lyon of England. This Rod serves instead of a Mace, and has the same Authority to apprehend Delinquents, and such have offended against the Statutes of this Most Noble Order. And where he apprehends any one of the Order, as Guilty of some Crime for which he is to be expell’d the Order, the manner of it is by touching them with this Black-Rod, and his Fee for it, is 5 l.

He has assigned him a Golden Badge to be openly worn in a Gold Chain, or Ribband, before his Breast, composed of one of the Knots in the Collar of the Order which tye the Roses together, and encompassed with a Garter, being alike on both sides; which was conferred on him and his Successors, by Decree in Chapter, held the 24th of April, 8 Eliz.

’Tis as ancient as Hen. Vth’s Reign, for there’s a House in Windsor Castle granted to this Officer by Letters-Patent, during Life. And the same Provision is made for him by the Constitutions of his Office. It is situate on the South-side of the Castle in the middle Ward. The said Constitutions give him Baron-Service at Court, and Livery thereto appertaining; and besides these, the keeping of the said Castle, and the two Parks adjacent.

King Charles I. having taken into his Hands the little Park of Windsor, and bestow’d it upon James Maxwell, then Usher of the Black-Rod, He, at a Chapter held at Whitehall, the 5th of November, 1629. decreed, That as the Custody of the said Park was conferr’d on Maxwell in right of his Office; so the same should for ever after be annex’d thereto, and not to be disposed of but under the Great Seal of the Order, and that only to the Usher of the Order for the time being.

Lastly, this Officer had anciently a Fee of 12 d. per diem, which we find continu’d down in the Letters-Patents, whereby this Office was granted. Besides which, the Constitutions of his Office allow him an annual Pension of 30 l. heretofore paid him out of the Exchequer, but by King Charles I. assigned him out of 1200 l. per Ann. settled upon the Order; touching which, and the Payment of the Officers Pensions upon the new Establishment, is the next Section.

§. 6. King James I. taking into his Royal Breast, the Constitution of this Most Noble Order, that it was in the Nature of a Distinct Sovereignty, govern’d by Laws and Conventions proper to the Body, and himself as Sovereign in Matters immediately relating thereunto, had the sole and uncontroulable Authority of revising, adding, or explaining; and finding that the Pensions paid to the Officers of the Order (as those to the Alms-Knights) and some other Expences, had been anciently made payable out of his Exchequer by vertue of the Great Seals of England, or otherwise by Privy-Seals; and conceiving it incongruous, that the Officers should claim their Pensions by vertue of any other Seal than that of the Order, for it is in some kind derogatory to the Honour of the Order, to permit other Seals to be used within the same: He thereupon with twelve Knights-Companions in a Chapter held at Whitehall, the 22d of May, 20 Jac. I. passed a Decree, That all things concerning the Order should hereafter be ratify’d under the Seal of the Order only, and in particular, that the Grants of poor Knights Places, after their being Signed by the Sovereign, should be passed under the Seal of the Order only, and none other. And the Year following, the Chancellor was ordered, That he should take Advice of the Sovereign’s Attorney-General how by Vertue of the Seal of the Order, the Pensions, (given to the Poor Knights) might be paid and receiv’d, His Majesty’s further Pleasure being, That all Grants and Payments concerning the Order, should afterwards be confirmed under the Seal of the Order only, and by Vertue thereof.

As to the Alms-Knights Patents, this Decree was of Force and Validity, but in the other Generals, how far it was pursu’d we know not; for in some of them it grew obsolete and useless. But in a Chapter called at Windsor, the 22d of April, 10 Car. I. a Debate arose about setting a Part of the Annual Summ of 1000 l. out of the Receipts of his Majesty’s Exchequer, to be employ’d particularly in discharge of Expences towards the Feasts of the Order, Legations to Foreign Princes, Payment of the Officers Pensions, &c. disbursed for the Necessity and Reputation of this Noble Order. Afterwards at a Chapter held the 18th of April, 13 Car. I. that Sovereign ratify’d his Royal Assignation, and increased his Bounty to 1200 l. per Ann. setling it for those designs in a Perpetuity for ever, and making it payable out of the Customs in the Port of London, but to be received by the Chancellor of the Order for the time being, as Treasurer of this Money, of which he was to give up an Account to the Sovereign and Knights-Companions yearly at St. George’s Feast. And in pursuance of this Ratification, the Attorney-General had Instructions to draw up a Book for his Royal Signature to Warrant its passing under the Great Seal of England, which was dispatch’d, the Letters-Patent bearing teste at Westminster, the 23d of January, 13 Car. I. Immediately after, Sir Thomas Rowe, the Chancellor of the Order, presented a List of the ordinary Fees and Charges of the Order, upon which it was agreed to, That there should issue out a standing Commission to the Chancellor under the Great Seal of the Order to warrant the Yearly Payments, and he to be discharged according as the said Patent had provided. This Commission passing the Great Seal the 3d of May, 14. Car. I. the Sovereign thereby impower’d the Chancellor to make payable out of the yearly Revenue of 1200 l. all and every the yearly Fees, Pensions, Salaries, and other Payments due and payable to the Officers of the Order, Alms-Knights, or others, appertaining to the Order, either by Charter, Grant, or Assignation under the Seal and Signet of the Order, or by any other Lawful way whatsoever, and in particular,

      l. s.    
To   Himself as Chancellor 100 0   per Ann.
Register of the Order 50 0
Garter Principal King of Arms 50 0
Usher of the Black-Rod 30 0
Thirteen Alms-Knights 237 5
    Total 467 5    

And Sir Thomas Rowe, and in his Absence beyond Sea, Sir James Palmer, Deputy-Chancellor receiv’d out of the Sovereigns Receipts of Subsidies, Customs and Imposts, the 1200 l. per Ann. out of which they paid the Annual Pensions above-named, under the Title of certain and ordinary Charges, as also such as come within the Denomination of Accidental and Extraordinary Expences; of which kind in their time, were,

Mantles, when the Sovereigns pleas’d to bestow them on the Knights-Companions.

Plate for the Altar in St. George’s Chappel at Windsor.

Embroidery of the Purse for holding the Seals.

Removal of Atchievements and Plates against Installations.

Escutcheons set up at St. George’s Feast.

Privy Seals and Fees disburst for receiving the 1200 l. per Annum.

Fees for Installation of Foreign Princes and Stranger-Knights.

Parchment used in Dispensations and Prorogations.

Blue Wax for the Seals of the Order.

By which we are easily inform’d, what ought to be accounted extraordinary Expences, towards the Discharge whereof this Sum was to be employ’d as far as it would reach, to mitigate the Cost the great Wardrobe formerly stood taxed with, Provisions of the Order, both for foreign Embassies and Expences at Home.

The Manner of the Chancellor’s passing his Account, as directed by the said Commission, was thus done by Sir James Palmer, He humbly moved the Sovereign in Chapter held the 10th of October, 15 Car. I. That it would please him to view the Disbursements made for the Expences of the Order, which thereupon being Examined by the Knights in the Sovereign’s Presence, the same were found agreeable to the Directions of the Commission, and the Payments justify’d by the Acquittance of every Officer to whom any Fee was due, no Payment having been made without the Sovereign’s Hand first to Authorize it: All which being seen and allow’d, the Account (wherein his Disbursements exceeded his Receipts 37 l. 13 s. 10 d.) was esteemed Equitable and Just, and passed by the Subscription of Charles then Prince of Wales, the Earls of Pembroke and Montgomery, Salisbury, Holland, Berk-shire, Duke Hamilton, and the Earl of Northumberland.

§. 7. The Executions of these Offices is the last thing here to be described: For tho’ all the Officers are strictly obliged to give personal Attendance to their Offices; yet, in case of Sickness, Absence out of the Kingdom, or other emergent Reasons, the Sovereign is pleased to dispence with them, and constitute others to Officiate in their stead, who on such Occasions wear the Robe of that Officer whom they represent, so in case of Vacancy, the Absence of the Prelate at the Grand Feast celebrated at Windsor, 31 Hen. VI. is noted in the Black Book to have been upon just Cause, and the Bishop of Bangor officiated Divine Service, and next Morning celebrated the Mass pro defunctis. The following Year, his Place in these religious Duties was supply’d by the Bishop of Salisbury, as Ann. 36 and 37 Hen. VI. and at all times of the Prelates absence, the Sovereign hath made known his Will what Bishop should supply for him. The Office of Chancellor hath been executed by Proxies, and to this may first be referred a Passage in the Black Book, where Dr. Taylor hath the Title of Vice-Chancellor. Of later times, when Sir Thomas Rowe was employ’d in an Embassy into Germany, Sir James Palmer, Kt. (one of the Gentlemen-Ushers of the Privy-Chamber) was deputed by the Sovereign to the Chancellor-ship during his Absence, having the Purse with the Seals deliver’d to him the 4th of May, 14 Car. I. being sworn by the Register of the Order durante deputatione & beneplacito Regis, which Clause was likewise annex’d in the Deputy Chancellor’s Oath, 12 Car. II. Upon Sir Thomas Rowe’s return, and indisposition, 16 Car. I. Sir James was again deputed Chancellor, and a third time, 18 Car. I. continu’d Deputy Chancellor unto the Death of Sir Thomas Rowe, of which the Sovereign being inform’d at Oxford, 1644. reserved the disposal of this Office ’till Sir James’s return to Court, and then commanded him to wear the Badge and Ribband about his Neck, ’till a Chapter of the Order compleated his admittance.

In the Vacancy of the Register-ship, Ann. 2 H. VIII. Thomas Ruthall Bishop of Durham, supply’d it: And Ann. 18 and 19 Eliz. Dr. Day, Dean of Windsor, executed the Office, and attended at the Feasts of St. George, as Deputy-Register; Dr. George Carew then Register, having Licence by his Patent to execute it by himself or Deputy, being dispenc’d with by the Queen in case of Sickness, or other Impediment. After his Decease, Dean Day was commanded to execute the Office during its Vacancy (being 14 Years) which he effected ’till he was advanced to the Bishoprick of Winchester, An. 38 Eliz. upon which, Dr. Robert Bennet (who succeeded him in his Deanry) was the same Year admitted Register. Afterwards, Dr. Beaumont, being much broken with Age, and other Diseases, Dr. John King, the junior Canon, supplied his Place.

The Office of Garter hath been supplied by Deputation: For in those Embassies with the Ensigns of the Order to Foreign Princes, where special Occasions detained Garter at home, some of the Kings or Heralds of Arms, have been order’d upon those Employments, upon the Recommendation of Garter to the Sovereign; whereof there are several Instances; the last of Gregory King, Esq. Lancaster-Herald, who lately carried over the Habit to the Elector of Hanover. So also in case of Vacancy; for we find that Clarencieux, King of Arms, executed this Office after Sir Gilbert Dethick’s Death, in January, 27 Eliz. being then sent with the Earl of Darby to the French King Henry III. As also in Reference to the Preparations the 15th of April following, and Service performed thereat, and at the Feast of St. George ensuing.

The Constitution of the Office of Black-Rod admit of a Deputy to bear the Rod before the Sovereign, where a lawful Occasion impedes his personal Service. And Sir Peter Young, (Chief Gentleman-Usher,) performed this Office at the Feast of St. George held at Windsor, Ann. 6 Car. I. James Maxwell, Esq. Black-Rod, was in France upon the Sovereign’s Service; and after, being Mission’d by the King into Scotland, Peter Newton, Esq; supplied his Place at the Feast at Windsor, 8th, 9th, and 10th of October, Anno 15 Car. I.


§. 1.

We come now to treat of the Election of a Knight into the Order, according to the Statutes of Institution, which Ordains, That whensoever any Knight-Companion happens to depart this Life, The Sovereign (or his Deputy) after certain Notice had thereof, should forthwith by his Letters, Summon all the Knights-Companions then within the Realm (who were able to come) to meet him within Six Weeks after such Notice, in what convenient Place soever he pleased to assign for the Electing a new Companion into the Society. Thus did the Law of this Most Noble Order, in case of Death, and to prevent Vacancies, at first provide; wherewith we evidently find the Practice of elder Times did punctually concur: For as soon as Garter, in Discharge of his Duty, had made Certificate to the Sovereign of a Knight-Companion’s Decease, or otherwise to the Register of the Order, all fitting Diligence was used to fill up the vacant Stall, within the Space limited by this Statute, or immediately after, and for the quicker Dispatch, Letters of Summons were issued to the Knights-Companions, to give personal Attendance at the Election. In an ancient one upon the Death of Sir Henry Fitz Hugh, Knight-Companion, Temp. Henry V. these particulars were no less pursuant to the Statutes, than worthy Observation.

“I. The Day whereon the defunct Knight-Companion died is therein set down.

“II. Direction is given for celebrating Masses, according to the Tenor of the Statutes.

“III. Intimation that a Stall is become void by the Knight’s Decease.

“IV. The Law of the Order vouched, which appoints an Election of another Knight within six Weeks after Certificate made of the Death of the former, to avoid as much as may be an interval in Succession.

“V. The Sovereign’s Power asserted where he sees Cause to Prorogue the Election.

“VI. An Injunction to attend personally at the Election, under a Penalty express’d in the Statutes.

“VII. The Day, Place, and Hour for Appearance is with certainty appointed, to the End all might Accommodate themselves to be present.

“VIII. The End of coming is mention’d with full Disposition and Preparation to perform what the Statutes in this Case requir’d.

“IX. Lastly, Direction is there given to the Knight summoned, that in case his coming to the Chapter was impeded, he should certifie the Reason of his Default against the time of his Appearance, of the Validity whereof the Sovereign was to be sole Umpire.”

And generally of these Topicks, and to this Purport were the Letters of Summons in succeeding times composed.

The before-mention’d Branch of the Statutes of Institution hath been sufficiently enforced by Incorporating it into the Statutes, temp. H. V. and H. VIII. nor hath it since undergone any Alteration; howbeit some further Addition and Explanation were annexed to them, 21 Jac. I. at a Chapter held at Windsor the 24th of April that year, where it was decreed, That the Sovereign being advertised of the Death of a Knight-Companion, the Knights-Companions remaining at Court should move him to declare his Pleasure whether he would that Letters should be sent to all the Knights-Companions within the Realm to attend his Person for the Choice of a new Knight, at a Day by the said Sovereign appointed, according to the ancient Statutes of the Order, or be pleas’d to defer the Election until the Feast of St. George, at what time Elections have been most usually made; and according as he resolv’d in what Place it should be, so it ought (by Letters directed to the Knights-Companions within the Realm) to be made known unto them.

This Deferring, or Prorogation of the Election, was no new thing, tho’ not indulged by the Statutes, or declared Law, before this 21 Jac. I. as is evident by the Letter of Summons sent after the Death of Sir Robert D’Umfrevil, Knight Companion, temp. H. 4. wherein Notice is taken of the Limitation given by the Statutes, after Certificate of Death, viz. Six Weeks, within the Space whereof a new Election was to commence; yet where a Chapter for Election could not conveniently be summoned within that limited Time, it was sufficient if the Soveraign declared as he did in the said Placart and entered in the Black Book, That being then involved in other Business, he could not well attend this Affair, and therefore deferr’d the time for Election, unto the Eve of St. George next following.

But of later Date, this formal Way of Summons by Letter, hath been discontinued, and only remained to such as are remote, and warned only by a verbal Message. For the Chancellor of the Order having consulted the Soveraign’s Pleasure, as to the Day and Place, usually acquaints Garter therewith, who thereupon goes immediately to the Knights Companions then at Court, and desires their Attendance at the Chapter, according to the Soveraign’s Designation.

And here it is to be remarked, that no Knight Elect ought to be summoned to a Chapter of Election, or are rendered sufficient of giving their Votes therein, until they be compleatly installed, either in Person, or by Proxy. Nor indeed did any Necessity intervene, or require it till the late rebellious times, when the Castle of Windsor being Garrison’d by the Parliament’s Forces, it was not possible for the Duke of York and Prince Rupert, to take Possession of their Stalls, as the Law of the Order enjoined. Therefore the then Soveraign, whose Right it is, did, 17 Jan. 1644, dispense with their Installations in St. George’s Chapel, for the present, and invested them with the Privileges of the Order, among which the Power of voting in Chapter, was one: Provided those Princes should first take the Oath given at Installations, and afterwards perform the accustomed Ceremonies, so soon as it should be thought convenient, and the Castle was restored to the Possession of his Majesty. In compliance to which Proviso they both then took the Oath, and on the Eve of the first Feast of St. George after the Restoration, the Duke was installed; and on the Eve of the second Feast, 15 Car. 2. by the Earls of Northumberland and Berk-shire; and the Prince by the Duke of Albemarle and Earl of Lindsey.

§. 2. The Place of Election.] But at what time soever the Ceremony of Election is purposed, the same ought to be Celebrated in Chapter, (for so is the Assembly of the Sovereign and Knights-Companions call’d, where or whensoever conven’d) whether at the Solemnity of St. George’s Feast, the ordinary or most accustom’d Time, or on other Days specially set apart by the Sovereign; and when the Sovereign thinks fitting in the Interval of Feasts, to elect any Foreign Prince or other Person, Stranger or Subject, he often transacts it in peculiar Chapters called to that purpose, and then appoints both Day and Place, having that Prerogative. Some few Examples both of pristine, and of late Time, make it manifest and apparent.

  Place.   Day and Year.   Knights elected.
1. Sign of the Lion in Brentford   July 11. 24 H. 6.   Alb. de Vasques Dalmadea, E. of Averentia.
Lord Beauchamp.
Lord Hoo.
2. Sov. Bed-Chamber at Westminster   Nov. 27. 25 H. 6.   Sir Francis Surreyne.
3. London, within the Bishops Palace.   Feb. 8th 39 H. 6.   Richard E. of Warwick.
Lord Bonvile.
Sir Thomas Kyriel.
Sir John Wenlock.
4. Tower of London.   August 8. 14 Ed. 4.   G. Ubaldus, D. of Urbin.
H. Percy, E. of North.
5. Star-Chamber.   May 15th. 15 Ed. 4.   Edward Pr. of Wales.
Richard Duke of York.
T. Grey, Mar. of Dorset.
6. Sovereign’s Bed-Chamber in the Wardrobe, London.   Febr. 10. 19 E. 4.   Ferdinand, K. of Spain.
Hercules, D. of Ferrara.
7. Greenwich,   July 14. 15 H. 8.   Lord Ferrers.
8. Calais.   Oct. 27th. 24 H. 8.   A. Montmor. E. Beamon.
P. Chabot, E. of Newbl.
9. Hampton-Court.   Jan. 9th. 32 H. 8.   Edward Seymour, Earl of Hertford.
10. Windsor.   Aug. 6. 1 & 2 Ph. & Mar.   Emanuel Duke of Savoy.
11. Whitehall.   Feb. 8th. 20 Eliz.   John Casimire, Count Palatine of the Rhine.
12. York.   Sept. 12. 16 Car. I.   Thomas Earl of Strafford.

But for the most Part since the Beginning of Queen Elizabeth’s Reign, Whitehall, the Sovereign’s almost constant Court and Abode, hath been the usual Place whereunto all the Knights Companions have been specially Summon’d, and peculiar Chapters assembl’d for Election in the Intervals between the Vacancy and St. George’s Feast. However, while King Charles II. was in Exile, and wanted the compleat Number of Knights to constitute a full Chapter, he was necessitated not only to dispence with the Ceremony of Election in Chapter, but also in supplying the Defect of a Scrutiny, by making his own Election; yet after his Restoration, Whitehall recover’d her wonted Honour, and April the 1st. 13 Car. II. at a Chapter call’d and held in the Bed-Chamber there, the Duke of Richmond, the Earls of Lindsey, Manchester, and Strafford were elected.

§. 3. In the next Place we are to consider what Number of Knights-Companions ought to be assembl’d to make up a compleat Chapter of Election.

By the Statutes, there should be Six in Number at the least, besides the Sovereign or his Deputy; the due observance of which hath been so strict formerly, that Elections have been deferr’d where Chapters have been deficient in that Number; for Proof of which, the Duke of Gloucester, Ann. 9 Hen. VI. then Deputy to the Sovereign (at that Time in France) for Celebrating the Feast of St. George at Windsor, forbore to proceed to Election, because the Number of Knights-Companions there assembled was less than the Statutes requir’d. And Ann. 10 Hen. V. no Election was Solemniz’d, tho’ one Stall was void by the Death of the Lord Clifford, and probably for that reason; for the Earl of Bedford, then the Sovereign’s Deputy, had but three Knights present with him, Ann. 22, or rather 23. Humphry Duke of Bucks being deputed to celebrate the Feast of St. George at Windsor, altho’ there was at that Time four Stalls vacant, yet did no Nomination pass; one reason, because there was not present a sufficient Number to compleat the Election. So when the same King celebrated the Grand Feast personally at Windsor, Anno 31. Regni sui, having but three Knights attending him thereat, the Election was Prorogu’d for the very same Reason; in like manner 32, 33 and 34 Hen. VI. the Elections were retarded, for at the first of them there were present but two Knights-Companions, besides the Sovereign’s Deputy; and at the Two last but four, besides the Sovereign, tho’ the Registrum Cartaceum, Ann. 33. names five by adding the Duke of Somerset. At the Feast of St. George celebrated at Windsor, A. D. 1471. Temp. Edw. IV. the Sovereign fully resolving to Constitute an Election, and having but five Knights-Companions present, Calys, Pursuivant at Arms, was dispatch’d to London for Sir John Astley to repair thither and compleat the Chapter, rather than violate the Laws of the Order. January the 31st. 21 Car. II. being design’d for the Election of Christopher Duke of Albemarle, and there being Conven’d but five Knights at the Chapter, the Election was put off ’till the Third of February following, at which Time a proportionable Number of Knights being present, his Election receiv’d their Approbation.

§. 4. Yet in cases of Necessity only, and to illustrate the Power and Prerogative of the Sovereigns, where the Exigency requires it, tho’ not to be made use of where there is a possibility to perform the Rules and Injunctions of the Statutes, the Sovereigns for divers Reasons, have been induced to dispence with this Branch of the Statute for want of a plenary Number to compleat a Chapter. And the first Liberty observ’d herein, was made use of by King Henry VIII. Ann. 26. Regni sui, who upon the Death of the Lord Montjoy, very speedily assembl’d a Chapter at Whitehall, where no more than five Knights-Companions being present, the Absence of the rest were excus’d by special Grace and Favour, and the Injunction of the Statute (as the Annals subjoin) concerning the Number of Nominators, were by the same Clemency dispenc’d with, because of the Exigency of the Time and Place, and immediately upon taking a Scrutiny, James V. King of Scotland was elected into the Fellowship of this illustrious Order, but from that Time to the Rebellion, there occurs not any thing of this Nature; but the Wickedness of those Days created new Exigencies and Projections, which occasion’d, or rather inforc’d the Sovereign, King Charles I, most unwillingly to awaken and rouse up this dormant Prerogative, which he put in Execution at a Chapter purposely assembl’d for the Election of Thomas Earl of Strafford, held at the City of York the 12th of September, 16 Car. I. where at that Time and Place he dispenc’d with the Defect of Number of Six Knights-Companions, having then with him Four only, some of the rest being engag’d in his Service against the Scots.

Afterwards when several of the Knights-Companions so much adhered to the Long Parliament, that all Summons were ineffectual to draw them to their Attendance upon their Sovereign, tho’ but to celebrate the Grand Festival of their Patron (much less to the compleating Chapters of Election) to which they were obliged by the Oath taken at their Installment, the Sovereign was constrain’d to extend further his Supreme Authority; and thereupon at the Feast of St. George, celebrated at York, the 18th, 19th and 20th of April, Ann. 18. Regni sui, in a Chapter held on the Eve of the said Feast by himself and but four other Knights Companions, It was Order’d, That Letters of Dispensation should be drawn up for the insufficient Number (as wanting Six Knights) to hold a Chapter of Election, and for Authorizing the Knights then present to deliver in their Votes according to Custom in other Scrutinies, that so the Sovereign might proceed to the Election design’d. By vertue of which Dispensation, the Duke of York and Prince Rupert were elected Fellows of this noble Society.

The like Dispensation was made at Oxford upon the 2d of March, Anno 20. Car. I. there being but five Knights-Companions present with the Sovereign; at which Chapter, William Prince of Orange, and Bernard de Foix, Duke of Espernon, were elected.

Last of all, in reference to the holding three several Chapters preparatory to the Feast of St. George, and grand Installation celebrated at Windsor the 15th, 16th, and 17th of April, 13. Car. II (one of which Chapters was held for the Election of Four Knights, and to deliberate with the surviving Knights-Companions) the Sovereign was pleas’d the 29th of March preceeding, to pass the like Dispensation under the Signet of the Order, and his own Sign Manual, for this defect; and thereby made those three Chapters as legal as if the Number of Knights-Companions had been compleat.

§. 5. We are now arriv’d at opening the Chapter, whereinto neither the Sovereign, nor any of the Knights-Companions are to be admitted without the Ornament, both their Mantles and Garters, as the Statutes ordain, and the Law is still in force, tho’ the Chapter hath been assembl’d elsewhere than at Windsor. As for instance, one call’d at Whitehall for the Election of John Count Palatine of the Rhine, Anno 20. Eliz. the Earl of Huntingdon, and the Lord Grey of Wilton, not having their Mantles then at Court, were not permitted to enter into the Chapter to give their Votes.

King Charles I. determining to call a Chapter for electing the foresaid Thomas Earl of Strafford at York, where neither he nor any of the Knights-Companions then attending his Person, had the Robes of the Order with them; and taking into his Royal Consideration, the Statutes now mention’d, did by his Authority, as Sovereign of the Order, dispence with those Knights then present for coming into the Chapter without their Mantles.

Afterward, upon other Emergencies that ow’d their Origin to the late Rebellion, the Sovereign did the like in some subsequent Chapters held at Oxford.

After the Restoration, a Dispensation passed the Signet of the Order, dated the 10th of January, 12 Car. II. (the Great Seal being under the Hand of the Graver but not finish’d) He was necessitated to make use of his Supreme Authority for holding a Chapter the 14th of January following, in regard the Knights-Companions then in being were not as yet provided of new Robes.

Presuming then, that a full Number of Knights, (in Obedience to their Summons) are attending their Sovereign habited in their Mantles and Garters, and entred into the Chapter-House at Windsor, or other Place appointed for this Assembly, the Sovereign having taken his Seat at the upper End of the Table, and given leave to the Knights-Companions to sit, the Occasion of their being call’d together is first declar’d either by the Sovereign himself, or the Chancellor of the Order by his Command.

The next thing in Course, is to exhibit to the Sovereign Information of all the vacant Stalls; and if the Sovereign chance to be in Foreign Parts, an Information ought to be transmitted to him by his Deputy or Lieutenant; but if in England, and present in the Chapter, then to be presented him by the Chancellor, or in his Absence by the Register, or other Officer of the Order.

After this they singly debate how the Place of the defunct Knight shall be supply’d, and sometimes (where two or more Stalls are found void) whether they shall be all fill’d up at that time, or if not, how many Knights shall be elected pro hac vice.

But when the Scrutiny is intended to be taken in the Choir of St. George’s Chapel at Windsor, these or the like particulars (referring to Election) are commonly consider’d of on the Feast-Day in the Chapter held immediately before Vespers, wherein it is most usually order’d, That the Scrutiny shall be taken in the Chapel that following Afternoon. And so it was decreed on St. George’s Day, Anno 5. Edw. VI. viz. That the Elections of Knights should be taken that Even-song in the Chapel.

This being effected, the Chancellor begins to collect the Knights-Companions Votes, and this is frequently term’d the taking the Scrutiny: For the ampler View of the Nature of which Action and Ceremony, we shall proceed to certain Considerations preparatory thereunto, beginning with what concerns the Nomination of the Persons to be proposed to the Election.

§. 6. And first, That Knights-Companions only present in Chapter, have the sole Right inherent in themselves, to nominate and propose Persons to the Sovereign’s Election, consentaneous to the Bodies of the Statutes, that even from the Institution of this Most Noble Order, it hath not ever suffer’d any deviations.

It is worthy of Remark, that Anno 26. Eliz. the Feast of St. George being Celebrated at Greenwich, the Earl of Warwick, and Lord Burleigh were seized with a Fit of the Gout, upon the Feast Day, which retarded them from Evening Prayer, whilst the Scrutiny was taken; whereupon we find their Indisposition of Body, and Absence, noted in that Scrutiny, where their Nominations should else have been set down, had they been present. And upon the same Occasion was what Robert Cook, Esq; Clarenceux, King at Arms, informs us, That as for those Knights Companions who happen to be absent when the Scrutiny is taken, altho’ this Absence is occasioned by Accident of Sickness, or with the Soveraign’s Licence, nevertheless, in regard of this their Absence at that very time, their Votes may not be received.

Those Knights Companions that come late to the Chapter, forfeit likewise the Privilege of giving their Votes for that time, which so happened to Prince Rupert, and the Earl of Strafford, at the Chapter held for the Election of James Duke of Monmouth, in the Privy Chamber at Whitehall, 29 Mar. 1663.

Altho’ none of the absent Knights-Companions can give a Proxy to vote, or otherwise send their Suffrages into the Chapter or Chapel, there to pass in Nomination; yet formerly, circa temp. H. 5. & H. 6. when divers of the Knights Companions were frequently employed in the Wars of France, and consequently so fixed to their Commands, that they could not personally attend the Feast of St. George at Windsor, it was usual for the Commander there in Chief, with Consent of those Knights Companions, to make a formal Certificate, or Presentment (but not to pass it by way of Nomination or Vote, for that the Law of the Order did not permit) to the Soveraign, or his Lieutenant and Knights Companions assembled at the Feast, of such Persons famous for martial Valour and Virtue, with an Account of their gallant Acts and Atchievements, (attested by other Persons of Honour) as were at that time, and in that Kingdom, in the Sovereign’s Service, and seemed worthy Candidates for the Honour of the Election, to the intent victorious and brave Persons might be preferr’d to so noble and sublime a Post; an Example whereof we find preserved by the Industrious and Learned Dugdale.

“My Lord the Duc of Bedford remembreth, as by the Statutes of the Order of the Gartre, the Election of the Stalls voyde. He saith in the Voyc of the Brethren, and of the Fellowship, beyng at the tyme of the Fest, in the Presence of the Soverain or hys Deputy; that thinkyth to my said Lord, that for hys Acquital to Knighthood, that fytteth hym to give in Knowledge to the Kyng Soverain of the Ordre, and to his Fellowship of the same Ordre, the great Honours of the notable Knights, that from tyme to tyme exercyseth, and have exercysed in Knighthood; and especially in the Service of their Soverain Lord. And of such notable Knyghts as my Lord of Bedford, for the tyme remembreth him of, he hath by the Advyce of them of the Fellowship of the Ordre, being now in France, in the Kyngs Service, and givyng in charge to the said Garter Kyng of Arms, of the Ordre, to shew theyr Names to the Kyng, and to expound Part of theyr Deeds, Acts, and of theyr Worthyness. First to expose the Honour of Sir John Radeclyff that hath contynowed all the tyme of the victorious Kyng that last dyed, whom Christe absolve, at the first landing of hym, at Quies de Caux, where the sayd Radeclyff receyved the Order of a Knyght, and after contynowed the Siege of Hareflew. And after with my Lord of Excester at the Battaile of Vallemont, and of Quies de Caux. And also sithen the deth of the sayd victorious Kyng, Radeclyff being Seneschall of Guyen, hath brought by hys Labour in Knyghthood to hys Soveraign Lord’s obeysance within the Duchie of Guyen many dyverse Cities, Towns and Fortresses. And in especial deserved great and notable merits at the Siege of the City of Bazates, whych Siege was accorded, appointed, and set day of Battaile and of Rescous, the whych day was kept and houlden with great power on both Sydes, and under Banners displayed, the Enemyes doubtyng to fyght wyth Radeclyff required hym of apoyntment they to depart under saufe conduct from the said Field, the whych saufe conduct he graunted them for the term of eight days, like as they required the honour and empruse rested in the said Radeclyff, and to hys hygh meryte, for incontynent followyng was delyvered to hym, the reddyssion and possession of the sayd Cytty of Bazates. And also the sayd Radeclyff was at the Battaile of Assincouert, and hath contynowed and exercysed the Armys the Space of xxviij Wynters unreproched. And in the tyme of his Esquierhood was at the Battaile of Shrewsbury and at the Journey of Husks wyth the Lord Grey at the discomfiture and taking of Owenson.

Syr Thomas Ramston,
Syr Rauff Butler,
Syr William Oldegall,
Syr Robert Harlyng,
Syr Gilbert Halsall.

Item, My Lord the Duc of Bedford beseecheth the Kyng Soveraign of the Order to have also for recommendyd to his good grace and highnesse other of his Subjects and Servants now being in hys Service in the Realme of France, whych hath done and yet doth take great payne by their knyghtly labour dayly to serve the merite of worthyness and prowess, as Syr Robert Hungerford, Syr Thomas Beamont, Syr John Popeham, Syr Nicholas Burdet, Syr Rauff Nevill, Syr Edward Wyver, Syr John Robesart, Syr Tyre Robesart, Syr William Bretton, Syr Thomas Kyngston, Syr Richard Hankford, and dyverse other.”

But lest it may be suppos’d by some, that the Knights-Companions present in Chapter, can at their pleasures nominate or propose to elect such Persons as they deem meet, so they be qualify’d according to the Statutes, this Privilege is to be understood of Knights Subjects only: For in all Cases concerning Strangers, the Sovereign doth but barely grant them Sufferance, and may direct and confine the Knights-Companions to the Nomination of such as he at any time intends to Honour with Election, which Prerogative was particularly Asserted, 31 Eliz. and 3 Car. I.

In the First of these Instances, the Blue Book, of the Order recordeth, That at a Chapter held immediately before Vespers on St. George’s Day, the Earl of Huntingdon, then Lieutenant for the Sovereign, made known to the Knights-Companions, That the Sovereign did permit them, or leave it to their Pleasure to chuse into the Order whatsoever Foreign Prince they should by their Votes approve of.

Here we have two Points that offer themselves to our Consideration. First, That the Knights-Companions have not the Liberty to nominate what Foreign Prince they please, but the same is derivative from the Sovereign, and only by his Permission. Secondly, To weigh the Paragraph well, that Nominare ought to be render’d or understood here by the Word Eligere, and that the Power delegated to the Knights-Companions from the Sovereign, was only to nominate, not elect; For it immediately follows, That the Knights-Companions went from the Chapter to the Second Vespers; and while the Divine Offices were celebrating, the Prelate receiv’d their Nominations, and that very Evening the Lieutenant presented them to the Sovereign for her to consider of; which had been insignificant and useless, if the Knights-Companions had been impower’d by her Licence to have made the Choice themselves. But the contrary is evident; for the next Morning, all the Knights-Companions attending the Sovereign in Chapter, she herself confirm’d there the Election not of any Foreign Prince, but of the Earl of Sussex, and the Lord Buckhurst.

In the other Instance, Anno 3 Car. I. the Sovereign in a Chapter held before Vespers on St. George’s Day, signify’d it to be his Pleasure (Three Stalls being then vacant) that out of Foreign Princes, the Nomination of whom, (saith the Annals in that very Place) belongs only to the Sovereign, i. e. The Sovereign has the Prerogative to direct the Knights-Companions to name, or impose upon them the Nomination of such Foreign Prince he pleaseth they, the Knights-Companions, should pitch upon; which must undoubtedly be understood to Nominate, or enter down into the Scrutiny, (not elect) Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, and Henry Prince of Orange. For a little after, it is evident, when the Scrutiny was presented to the Sovereign, that himself, not the Knights-Companions, made Election of them.

And it is further manifest, by the Scrutiny there inserted, that both those Princes were named by every of the Knights-Companions then present, according to the Sovereign’s signification (which has been usually done at all other Times upon the like Occasions.) But concerning the third Person then to be Elected, the Sovereign, (intending him to be a Knight-Subject) left it entirely to their Pleasure to Nominate whomsoever they thought worthy of their Votes. Since this Time, the Nominations in like Cases, have been sufficiently acknowledg’d by the Knights-Companions themselves, to be a Prerogative belonging solely to the Sovereign. For to the End they might more expeditiously and clearly shew their Compliance, it was moved in a Chapter held at Oxford, March the 2d. 19 Car. I. That it might become a Custom for the Sovereign to declare before-hand, whether he would elect any Foreign Prince, and whom, that so the Knights-Companions might be there to name him in the Scrutiny.

§. 7. Another Consideration in our Progress towards the Act of Election, is appertaining to the Number, Qualifications and Dignities of the Persons nominated, which may be more conspicuously resolved from another Branch of the before-mention’d Article, viz. That every one of the Knights-Companions present at the Election should nominate for himself nine very sufficient Persons, whom he should judge free from all Reproach and Scandal, whether Subjects to the Sovereign, or Foreigners, Provided they are known not to Favour or Abet any Party at enmity with him; that is to say, three Earls, or others of higher Degree, three Barons, and three Knights. Wherein the Things chiefly observable, we rank under five Heads.

For the First of these, their Number. Every Knight-Companion assembl’d in Chapter, is injoin’d to name Nine, neither more nor less. So also saith King Henry V’s Statutes. Nor are King Henry VIIIth’s. any ways dissonant. And in this particular, the Statutes have been hitherto inviolably observed, except in one Case. As to Numbers, and the Mysteries wrapt up in them, we shall not further insist upon. But why our Royal Founder selected this particular Number above all other, unless he had some Eye, and tacit Reflection on the Nine Worthies, or a treble threefold Cord and Symbol of perfect Stability and solid Amity, the Number Nine is accounted to signifie, can with no great Facility or Certainty be decypher’d.

As to the Second Point, they ought to be of unspotted Character. The Injunction in the Statutes of Institution takes Order, that the Persons designed for Election, should be free from all Reproach, and of untaintted Reputation; and according to those of King Henry V. are to be the best and most sufficient Knights, and freest from Reproach. To the same purpose the Exemplar in the Black-Book, Such as are fittest, and whom they who Nominate believe to be free from Ignominy and Dishonour. And to this Act of Nomination belongs part of the Second Article in Henry VIIIth’s Statutes, That no Knight-Companion should name any Person whom he thinks or esteems in his Conscience to have upon him any Spot of Reproach. But on the Contrary in another Place of the same Statutes it is Provided, That they be nominated and proposed out of the Number of the most worthy and select Knights.

How tender the Knights-Companions were in pristine Times of infringing this particular, is proved from a notable Passage which happen’d Ann. 39 Hen. VI. at a Scrutiny taken the 8th of February, in the Bishop of London’s Palace, where John de Foix Earl of Kendal, a Gascoigner by birth, (which makes the Example more eminent, that a Stranger should have so great Regard to the Honour of the Order) not being acquainted with the Quality and Merit of Knights and Honourable Persons amongst us so well and demonstrably as to nominate such whom he was confident were irreprehensible, forbore to mention any Persons at all. And certainly, seeing the Statutes put very considerable Qualifications upon the Deputies and Proxies, made choice for the Installation of Strangers (as elsewhere shown) much more Caution and Regard ought to be used both in the Nomination and Election of Knights into this radiant and illustrious Society.

The third Head the Statutes render indifferently capable of being nominated or elected, either Knights Subjects, or Strangers, [Free Princes or their Subjects.] And it was so even at the Election upon the first Choice, where among the Twenty five Elected Knights, Twenty three of them were Subjects. And this was the constant Custom not only in the remaining Part of the Founders Reign, and during those of his three Successors, but has continued ever since, as appears from the Scrutinies taken and entred throughout the Annals of the Order.

Of those who have gain’d admission into this Noble Order by Election, we shall in the last Chapter give an Account in a compleat Catalogue of them, and likewise insert the Names of such as have missed their Election, yet are not to be buried in Oblivion, out of this very respect, that by their standing Candidates, have the Fame of being enrolled in the Principal Register of Honour now in the Christian World. It cannot be supposed we should give a List of all, (for that were a Task too laborious, and wou’d prove too numerous) but only of those of eminent Quality in foreign Parts, with the Æra when the Scrutinies were taken.

A CATALOGUE of some Strangers who have been nominated, but not elected.
Rambrith de Walsey   25 Hen. 6.
Johannes de Voynada
Franciscus Sforza, Dux Mediolani   28 Hen. 6.
Franciscus secundus, Dux Britanniæ   13, 14, 15, 22 E. 4.
Henricus quartus, Rex Legionis & Castil.   14 Ed. 4.
Matthius Corvinus, Rex Hungariæ   19, 22 Ed. 4.
Fredericus secundus, Dux Austriæ   22 E. 4. 1 R. 3.
Philippus quartus, Dux Burgundiæ   14 Hen. 7.
Franciscus Maria, Dux Urbini   1, 2 Hen. 8.
Uladislaus secundus, Rex Hungariæ   1, 2, 6 Hen. 8.
Christianus secundus, Rex Daniæ   6, 8 Hen. 8.
Dux Barryæ   8 Hen. 8
Comes Galaciæ
Alphonsus Dux Ferrariæ   13, 15 Hen. 8.
Ludovicus secundus, Rex Hungariæ   13, 14, 15 H. 8.
Maximilianus Sforza, Dux Mediolani   14, 15, 16 H. 8.
Marchio Pescaræ   17 Hen. 8.
Johannes tertius, Rex Portugalliæ   17, 18, 26, 28 H. 8.
—— Marchio Mantuæ   18 Hen. 8.
Carolus Burbonus, Dux Vandosme   24 Hen. 8.
Gulielmus Dux Clivensis   32 Hen. 8.
—— Dux Bavariæ
Dux Alvæ   1 & 2 Ph. and M.
Dux Medinæ Cæli
Comes Fereæ
Franciscus secundus, Rex Galliæ    
Franciscus tertius, Comes Palatinus    
Augustus Dux Saxoniæ    
Alphonsus secundus, Dux Ferrariæ    
—— Dux Andegavensis    
Dominus Grabazenby   24 Hen. 8.
Dominus Humers
Dominus Johannes Mounte
Dominus Harmibolt
Dominus Boysy

Those Persons were render’d incapable of Nomination who were known to Act in contrary Interest to the Sovereign; as the Exemplar in the Black-Book expresseth more copiously, Such as are not his Adversaries, or Abettors, or willing Defenders of his Adversaries. Sometimes the Knights-Companions being more wary and discreet in Nominating them, to put either disrespect upon the Sovereign, or offer Violation to the Statutes.

In the last Place, concerning the Degree, Rank and Dignity of the Nine Knights proposed to be Elected, the Statutes of the Institution set forth, That they be, First, Three Earls, or Persons of great Dignity. Secondly, Three Barons. And, Thirdly, Three Knights: Or, as it is in Henry V’s Statutes, Trois Contes ou de greegnear estat, trois Banerets, & trois Batchelers. These Degrees are to be ranked in Three Classes, and they distinguish’d by Three Divisions, all including the Three Degrees aforesaid.

Whereas all other Bodies and Exemplars of the Statutes make positive mention of Earls only, yet the Statutes of Hen. VIII. in this Point are more ample, by expressing the first Class, Dukes, Marquesses, and Earls, or Persons superior to these in Degree, wherein the highest Dignity is comprehended.

We may observe the different Title, viz. Baneret that Henry V’s Statutes hath given us instead of Baron; and not only in this Article, but in all other where there is Occasion to treat of Barons; and yet the Record intends by it no other than the Person it mentions: For tho’ a Banneret had its Denomination à vexillo, it usually signify’d a Degree of Honour next below a Baron, both in a later and a modern Date; yet formerly among our Records, it is expressedly Synonymous to Baron, as is sufficiently clear’d up by our most Learned Selden; and in this Sense is to be taken here, and not as a distinct Title of lower Degree, because we observe the Bannerets rank’d in all Scrutinies before King Henry VIII. establish’d his Statutes (except one) with the Knights-Batchelors, not with Barons.

The Title of the third and lowest Rank in this Classis in the Statutes of their Institution, are called Milites Bachalauri, and in those of King Henry V. Batchelors, and elsewhere Bachalauri & Bachelauri Equites, which in common Acceptation are the same with Milites, tho’ thus render’d to evince their difference from Knights-Bannerets, who are of a superior Degree of Honour. And here we may observe, that there is no Place in a Scrutiny for any under the Degree of a Knight-Batchelor. And tho’ Three of the Nine mentioned are set down to be Barons, and Three other Earls, or of higher Degree, yet must these Six be such as have had conferred on them the Order of Knighthood, else their Names are rejected, and neither given or taken in Nomination; for the Words of the Statute expresly are, That each of the Knights assembl’d at the Election shall name nine Knights.

Thus King Charles I. Anno 6 Regni sui, designing to invest James Marquess of Hamilton with this Order, conferr’d the Honour of Knighthood upon him immediately before his Nomination: And the Annals in that Place put this commentary Remark thereupon, Because by the Statutes it is provided, that none should be elected into the Order that have not been dignify’d with the Title of Knight.

Yet the Ceremony of Knighting the Person designed to be elected, was not so strictly regarded, but sometimes this Branch of the Statute was either wholly passed, or else confounded with the second Article throughout the several Bodies of the Statutes, which prohibits the Choice or Election of any Person into the Society, as this doth the Proposal or Nomination. And thereupon perhaps it was conceiv’d, that altho’ the Nomination, Election, and sometimes Delivery of the Ensigns of the Order was first dispatch’d and past, yet it was sufficient if the Honour of Knighthood was conferr’d afterwards; as in the Cases of William Earl of Derby and Thomas Lord Burleigh, Anno 43. Eliz. where the Register observes, That as soon as their Election was over, and they Usher’d into the Chapter, the Earl of Derby, (who it seems had not been Knighted before) was dubbed Knight with a drawn Sword, according to Custom, after which they had the Garter and George put on by the Sovereign her self.

In like manner, Ulrick Duke of Holstein, and Henry Earl of Northampton, immediately after their Election, (the last Day of St. George’s Feast, Ann. 3. Jac. I.) and before they receiv’d the Ensigns of the Order, had the Dignity of Knighthood conferr’d on them by the Sovereign; and in like manner the Earl of Sussex, Ann. 3 C. I. which the Red-Book of the Order recites, That as soon as it was understood that the Earl had not receiv’d the Order of Knighthood before, the Sovereign immediately drawing his Sword, Knighted him; which was not done till after his Election and Investiture with both the George and Garter.

Thus did the Ceremony of Knighthood succeed the Election of Charles Prince of Wales, the 21st of May, Ann. 14 Car. I. for after he had been elected, and invested with the Ensigns of the Order by the two Senior Knights (the Earls of Pembroke and Montgomery, and of Arundel and Surry) were intreated by the rest of the Knights-Companions, to present his Highness to the Sovereign in the Name of all the rest, to be initiated a Knight-Batchelor. He was conducted by the said Earls (his Supporters) into the Presence-Chamber in Windsor-Castle, where before the Chair of State, he most Solemnly receiv’d the Order of Knighthood from his Father King Charles I.

To Honour which Knighthood, and the Memory thereof, Four of the chief Nobility then present were Knighted, viz. the Earls of Essex, St. Alban’s and Elgin, and Viscount Grandison, being conducted from the Great Chamber to the Sovereign’s State, each between two Batchelor-Knights.

Afterwards the Law in this Point began again to be more rightly understood; and by that Time James Duke of York came to be elected (which was the 20th of April, 18 Car. I. at the Feast of St. George celebrated at York) the Sovereign appointed, and accordingly conferr’d Knighthood upon him the Day before, which he receiv’d upon his Knees, being conducted into the Presence-Chamber between two of the Nobility, who were also Knights, the Marquess of Hertford and Viscount Grandison. In Honour and Commemoration whereof, Four other Noblemen receiv’d the Honour of Knighthood at that time, the Earl of Carnarvan, the Lords George D’Aubignie, John Stewart, and Bernard Stewart, each supported by two Knights.

And thus Prince Edward Count Palatine of the Rhine, and George Duke of Buckingham, being designed by King Charles II. to be admitted into this Noble Order, were both first Knighted at St. Germains in France, 1649. and afterwards had the Ensigns of the Order sent unto them, by the Hands of Sir Edward Walker, Kt. Garter, who, in right of his Office, invested them therewith.

Yet in the Case of Prince Rupert, who was elected with James Duke of York, Ann. 18. Car. I. His want of Knighthood became no impediment, because he was a Prince in another Country, viz. Count Palatine of the Rhine, and Duke of Bavaria, and might therefore justly challenge a Privilege to come within the Rule of foreign Princes.

But the Sovereign, to arrive as near to the Intention and Observance of the Statute as he could, (where there was a possibility to do it, and the Honour would be well accepted by the Prince) thought it requisite by Commission under the Great Seal of England, to impower Thomas Earl of Arundel and Surry, and George Lord Goring, both being then in Holland, or either of them, to Knight the said Prince before putting on the Garter (seeing it could not possibly be done before his Election) which was intended to be sent by him by the Hands of Sir John Burrough, Garter. But Death intervening, the Sovereign’s Intention was frustrated; altho’ the Prince, upon his coming afterwards into England, receiv’d both the Garter and the George from the Sovereign himself at Nottingham nevertheless without Knighthood, which to excuse, it may well be alledg’d, that the Sovereign might not recollect this Part of the Ceremony, it being a Time of so great Turmoil and Fatigue, occasion’d by the then setting up of his Standard.

However, upon the 17th of January, 1644. when a Decree past in Chapter then assembl’d at Oxford, That both the Duke of York and the Prince, should enjoy all Emoluments and Privileges of the Order, tho’ they were not as yet Install’d (which Ceremony was to be compleated assoon as Windsor was out of the Power of the Rebels.) The Prince, before he receiv’d his Oath, was conducted by the Earl of Berk-shire and Duke of Richmond and Lenox, unto the Sovereign, and had conferr’d on him the Honour of Knighthood, there being at the same Time two of the Nobility Knighted in Memorial of that Solemnity, the Lord Henry Seymour, Second Son to the Marquess of Hertford, and the Lord Capell, conducted each between two Knights.

§. 8. We are now come to speak of the Scrutiny it self, in reference to which, we shall consider by whom it ought, or hath been usually taken, and the Manner and Form thereof.

By the Statutes of the Institution, the Collecting the Knights-Companions Votes, and entring them in the Scrutiny, solely appertains to the Prelate of the Order; and upon him is this Office devolved, not only by the other Bodies of the Statutes, but by the Constitutions of his Post, and the Obligation of his Oath, whose right we find duly asserted upon this Persons taking a Scrutiny, Anno 29 Eliz.

The Statutes likewise provided, That if the Prelate was at any Time absent, then the Dean of Windsor, or the Register, or the Senior Residentiary of the College, or the Secretary, or Scribe of the Order, should undertake the Employment; and elsewhere it is mention’d expressly, In the absence of the Prelate, whose particular Duty otherwise it was. And among the various Examples enroll’d in the Annals of the Order, these Examples abundantly confirm it. The Prelate of the Order collected the Suffrages from the Knights-Companions, Anno 9 Hen. V. when John Earl-Marshal, and Four other Knights were elected. The like did Henry Beaufort, Lord-Cardinal, Prelate of the Order, upon the Election of John King of Portugal, Anno 13 Hen. VI. And when the Duke of Suffolk was chose, Anno 26 Hen. VI. the Prelate then also gather’d the Suffrages; which he likewise did upon the Feasts of St. George, Celebrated in the 12th, 13th, 14th, 27th, 28th, 30th, 31th, 34th and 35th Years of Queen Elizabeth’s Reign. Sometimes the Scrutinies have been gathered both by the Dean of Windsor, and the Register of the Order jointly; as we find by the Election of John Lord Talbot, Ann. 2 Hen. VI. of Sir John Falstaff, Ann. 6 Hen. VI. and the Duke of Quinbery, Ann. 5 Hen. VI. all receiv’d at the Feasts of St. George, celebrated at Windsor.

It is more than a bare Conjecture, that the Dean at those Times receiv’d the Votes from the Knights-Companions on the Sovereign’s side, while the Register collected those on the Prince’s; for ’tis observ’d, that in King Henry Vth’s Reign, in Posts of different Natures, one whereof was to signifie the Sovereign’s Pleasure to the Knights-Companions about their paying due Reverence, first to God, and afterwards to himself; and the other in a Ceremonial, which directs the Manner and Order of Mulcting the Knights-Companions; in both which, the Dean perform’d the Service on the right Hand the Choir (the Sovereign’s side) and the Register on the left.

Sometimes the Register of the Order took them alone, as at the Election of John Earl of Arundel, Anno 10 Hen. VI. and those of the Earl of Morteyn and Sir John Grey, Ann. 14 Hen. VI. Moreover it’s plain, that when the Office of Register was not fill’d, and Thomas Ruthall, Bishop of Duresme, executed it during its Vacancy, the Bishop himself, Ann. 2 Hen. VIII. collected the Suffrages. The like did William Day, Dean of Windsor, in the Absence of George Carew, Dean of the Chapel and Register of the Order, at the Feasts of St. George held at Whitehall, Anno 18 and 19 Eliz.

This Duty was executed by the Register from the 15th Year of King Henry VIII. to the Period of his and his Son’s Reign, as the Black-Book of the Order fully evinces; as also on St. George’s Day, Ann. 1. Eliz. by John Boxhall; and at the Feast of St. George held Ann. 1 Jac. I. by Giles Thompson, who in the several Times were Registers, yet we must not mistake that what they officiated was on their own behalf, but supply’d the Place of the Prelate.

In the Beginning of Queen Mary’s Reign, we find the Chancellor of the Order began to perform this Service, being by King Henry VIIIth’s Statutes adjoined to those other Offices before describ’d, to collect the Scrutinies in absence of the Prelate, and thereby made capable of the Employment, which afterwards is tacitly remark’d to be perform’d as if in his own right, when the Register has only effected it in the Chancellor’s absence, tho’ in reality it was no other, than as in the Instance of the Bishop of Duresme and Dr. Day aforesaid, who took the Scrutiny in the Vacancy of the Office, and absence of the Register.

Anno 4 Eliz. the Register in the Absence of the Chancellor (who was sick,) upon the Feast Day of St. George, collected the Suffrages. And Ann. 8. Eliz. George Carew, then Register of the Order, took the Votes of the Knights-Companions in absence of Sir William Petre, Chancellor of the Order. So also Ann. 4. Jac. I. where the Cause of the Chancellor’s Absence is noted to be Sickness, and Ann. 6. Jac. I. to be Death.

In the first of these Instances, we find the Prelate expressly set down to be there; in the two following, his presence is implyed, for it is said, that the Four Officers of the Order did attend both Feasts, whereof, (the Chancellor being wanting) the Prelate must needs be one.

Now all these Passages seem to relate to the Right of the Chancellors rather than the Prelates by this Remark, That every of the Scrutinies were taken in the Absence of the Chancellor, which looks something like a cautionary Remark that denoted the Right of Executing this Office to the Chancellor, rather than the Prelate.

When a Deputy-Chancellor hath been admitted to Officiate in the Chancellor’s absence, he, and not the Prelate, hath taken the Scrutiny, (tho’ present) as at the Election of Charles Prince of Wales, the 20th of May, 14 Car. I. and at another taken the 22d of May following, and the same when the Suffrages were collected for the Election of the Duke of York and Prince Rupert at York, Anno 17 Car. I.

But there is one Passage more (upon taking a Scrutiny Anno 22 Jac. I.) which seems Advantageous to the Chancellor in this Point, where it is said, That when the Knights-Companions had given their Votes (as say the Annals) THE CHANCELLOR WHO, ACCORDING TO HIS OFFICE, was to receive them, presented them to the Sovereign. Howbeit, in truth there is no sufficient Foundation for the Register to insert this as done by the Chancellor, by Virtue of his Office, or any one Act or Chapter that hath suspended or made void, the Right of the Prelate, which is reserved by him, even by the Patent, for erecting the Office of Chancellor; especially in those Affairs, which, respecting the Order, ought by the Statute of the Institution to appertain to him. But since the stated Time of performing this Ceremony in the Chapel, the Prelate (if present) is presumed to be Officiating at the Altar, in discharge of another part of his Duty, upon this consideration hath the Service been then imposed upon the Chancellor, and others.

Lastly, We find the Scrutiny to be once taken by Garter, Ann. 16. Car. I. at the Election of Thomas Earl of Strafford. But this was at a Time, when not only the Prelate, but all the other Officers of the Order, excepting Sir John Burrough, Garter, were absent, and consequently this Service so executed, ought rather to be judged to have been done in the Prelate’s than Chancellor’s Right.

§. 9. But whosoever gather’d the Suffrages, the Time when they enter’d upon this Duty (in the Intervals of Feasts, where the Occasion requir’d a peculiar Chapter for an Election) was usually after the Chapter had been open’d, and the Matter of Election proposed by the Sovereign; after which he proceeded with all possible Reverence and Respect.

Howbeit upon an extraordinary Occasion (in the Interval of the Grand Feasts) the Sovereign hath sometimes called an Assembly of the Knights Companions, to be convened at the Castle of Windsor, who in the Choire of St. George’s Chapel (not Chapter-House) after the more solemn Manner, have deliver’d in their Nominations, and returning thence into the Chapter-House, he there continu’d the Election. Thus did King Henry VIII. upon the 7th of June in the 17th Year of his Reign, in reference to the Election of the Lord Henry Fitz Roy, (so stil’d in the Scrutiny, and rank’d among the Barons; for as yet he was not created Duke of Somerset and Richmond) and Ralph Nevil, Earl of Westmorland.

On the 20th of May, Anno 14 Car. I. being Trinity-Sunday, the Sovereign caus’d a Chapter to be held that Afternoon in the Chapter-House at Windsor, for the Nomination and Election of Charles Prince of Wales; at the Breaking up whereof, the Sovereign and Knights-Companions proceeded immediately to St. Georges’s Chapel, where at Evening-Prayer, (which was not within the Compass of the Feast, for that began not ’till next Day) the Scrutiny was taken.

And besides those Examples which shew the Nominations have been collected (upon peculiar Occasions) in the Choire at Windsor, there are one or two Instances they have been also taken in the Chapel at Whitehall, as on the 15th of May, Ann. 1 Car. I. at the Choice of Edmund Earl of Dorset, Henry Earl of Holland, and Thomas Viscount Andover, as on the 4th of July the same Year, whereat the Duke of Chevereux was pitch’d upon.

The Suffrages have commonly been collected at the Second Vespers, or in the Time of Evening-Prayer on St. George’s Day, or on that Day whereon the Feast of St. George hath been celebrated by Prorogation; and with this Distinction of Time, the taking of divers Scrutinies are mark’d.

However, there occurs one Scrutiny gather’d in the Chapter-House at Windsor on the Eve of the Grand-Feast, at which the person immediately elected, was sent for in, and had the Ensigns of the Order conferr’d upon him, when immediately the Sovereign made his Progression to the Chapel, and after some small Interval, the Elect proceeded to his Installation. And this was the Case of James Marquess Hamilton, Ann. 6 Car. I. who lying under an Obligation to commence his Voyage next Morning towards Germany (whither he had the Commission of General of 6000 Foot in Assistance of the King of Sweden) occasion’d this his Sovereign’s Indulgence, and quick dispatch.

When the Scrutiny first began to be collected in the Chapel, is treated of somewhat general and indefinite. Ann. 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9 Eliz. it was during the time of Evening-Prayer. And in like manner, Ann. 4 Jac. I. and 13 Car. I. And when the Feast of St. George was solemniz’d at Whitehall, the 18th of April, 13 Car. I. the Annals say, That the Sovereign recreated himself with the Melody of Evensong, during which the Chancellor collected the Votes of the Knights-Companions.

But in some other Places, the Time when this Matter was transacted is restricted to a precise Time, or some particular Part of Evening Prayer, as Anno 26 and 27 Eliz. whilst the Choire sung the Service, and the like Anno 14 Jac. I. but 4 Car. I. while the Anthem was sung after the second Lesson, but more frequently after the first Lesson, as in the 2 and 9 Car. I. while the Anthem was singing, or whilst they were hymning the Anthem of the blessed Virgin called the Magnificat, and which is all one with that, Anno 14 Car. I. viz. assoon as the first Lesson was read, or at the first Lesson, which is remembred to be the usual Part of the Service, in which the nomination ought to begin.

§. 10. The manner of the Order the Knight-Companions Votes ought to be collected when the Scrutiny is taken in the Choire, when the Register informs us, upon the Celebration of St. Georges’s Feast at Greenwich, 28 Hen. VIII. as entred into the Black Book; “That he used his Diligence in going to and fro from one Side to the other, to demand and redemand the Suffrages from the Knights-Companions, according to the Variety and Disposition of their Stalls,” which same Methods in eisdem terminis the Chancellor observed, Anno 24 Eliz. and without question was generally performed at other Seasons, for the annals describe it to be perform’d de more 5 Eliz. or juxta Ordines Constitutionis Anno 26 Eliz.

That the Officer who collects the Scrutiny, is obliged to begin at the youngest Knight-Companion, and so proceed upward towards the Eldest, is evident from the Order mentioned to be in Vogue, An. 2 and 20 Eliz. as also 15 Car. I. But to give a more particular Account of this Ceremony, as it stood temp. Car. I. and doubtless long before, tho’ not Recorded in Scriptis, is as follows.

First, The Officer arose and went into the Middle of the Choire; directly over against his own Seat, he made two Reverences, first towards the high Altar, and next to the Sovereign, then he proceeded up to the Choire near the hault pace against the Stall of the junior Knight-Companion, and there made like Reverence; this done he went up to the Stall of the said junior Knight, and with a singular Reverence to him, only demanded whom he pleased to nominate, which having taken, (making to him a second Reverence,) he descended into the Choire, and thence passed to the next senior Knight on the other Side, (unless by reason of the vacancy of the Stall he Sits on the same Side with the junior) and having received his nomination from the second Knight-Companion, he again crossed the Choire to the Third, and in like manner he ascended according to the Seniority of the Knights-Companions present, (always crossing the Choire where there was occasion) until he arrived at the senior Knight-Companion; and having thus received all their Nominations, he returned into the Middle of the Choire, and after accustomed Reverences, took his Seat.

This Method in collecting the Votes as to the general, and in the Choire, ought likewise to be observed when they are taken from the Knights-Companions in Chapter, they being ranked in due order on either Side of the Table, according to the Seniority of their Elections and situations of Stalls in the Choire; the Officer beginning with the junior and thence gradually ascending to the senior Knight.

And that we may rightly apprehend after what form every Knight-Companion Ranketh the Names of those Persons he proposeth, and how each Classis is distinguished and divided, the following Scrutiny will manifest which was taken off, May, Anno 13 Hen. VI. upon the Vacancy of one Stall hapning by the death of Sir Henry Tanke Clux a German, and the first Scrutiny found Marshalled among the Annals of this most noble Order.

    Principes. Barones. Equites.
Dux Exoniæ. Duc. Norfolciæ Dom. Lovell Dom. S. Stanley
Duc. Warwici Dom. Audley Dom. J. Holland
Com. Oxoniæ Dom. Dudley Dom. J. Steward
Marc. Suffolc.   Duc. Norfolciæ Dom. Lovell Dom. J. Fengs
Com. Devoniæ Dom. Audley D. R. Woodvyle
Com. Oxoniæ Dom. Foix. Dom. A. Ogard
Com. Salopiæ.   Duc. Warwici Dom. Audley Dom. R. Fengs
Duc. Norfolciæ Dom. Dudley Dom. T. Stanley
Com. Oxoniæ Dom. Foix Dom. T. Kiriell
Dom. Sudeley.   Duc. Norfolciæ Dom. Foix Dom. R. Fengs
Duc. Warwici Dom. Lovell Dom. J. Fengs
Com. Devoniæ Dom. Audley Dom. G. Bonevile
Dom. Willoughby.   Duc. Warwici Dom. Wells Dom. T. Kiriell
Duc. Norfolciæ Dom. Lovell D. J. Montgomery
Com. Oxoniæ Dom. Laware D. R. Shotesbroke
Dom. Scales.   Duc. Warwici Dom. Foix D. E. Hungerford
Com. Oxoniæ Dom. Clyfford D. G. Beauchamp
Com. Devoniæ Dom. Laware Dom. A. Ogard
Dom. Johannes Falstaff.   Duc. Warwici Dom. Boucer D. R. Hungerford
Duc. Norfolciæ Dom. Audley Dom. R. Roos.
Com. Oxoniæ D. Gray Ruffyn Dom. A. Ogard
Dom. J. Beauchamp.   Duc. Warwici Dom. Foix Dom. R. Fengs
Com. Devoniæ Dom. Lovell Dom. J. Fengs
Com. Oxoniæ Dom. Audley Dom. R. Roos.

In the first Column each Knight-Companion hath his own Name perfixt to those Persons for whom he condescends his Vote, to the intent it may appear by whom the Knights candidates are nominated, and these are Ranked in three several Divisions.

The first contains, The Degrees of Earls, Marquesses, Dukes, Princes, Kings and Emperors; yet at a Scrutiny taken Anno 24 Hen. VI. in a Chapter held at Brainford, Albro Vasquez d’almadea, (who immediately following, is Stiled Comes Averentiæ) is by a mistake Ranked; but in the second Division among the Barons, and twice among the Knights Votes of the Marquess of Suffolk, and Earl of Shrewsbury, but this Error perhaps owes its original for want of due knowledge, either of the Law in the Statutes or his Degree, the latter of which is the most feasible to conjecture; for being a Stranger, his Title might not be so generally divulged, nor is it taken notice of in the Scrutiny itself, tho’ in the annals immediately after it was rectified.

And to shew the probability of this Point, the Earls of Oxford, Devonshire, and Arundel, (whose degrees were sufficiently known) at a Scrutiny taken Anno 24 Hen. VI. are ranked in the second Division among the Barons, and Anno 1 Hen. VIII. the Earl of Darby is three Times so placed, and again 13 Hen. VI. the Earl of Devonshire twice; but this happened not thro oversight or neglect of the Statutes, but because at these Nominations wherein they are so Ranked, the first Division to which they appertained, happened to be fill’d up with those other higher Dignities belonging to the same Class, viz. Kings or Dukes, as when the beforementioned Earls of Oxford, Devonshire, and Arundel, were set down in the Place of Barons; the King of Portugal, the Dukes of Warwick and Norfolk, were put in the Class of Princes, and so it happened in many other instances.

On the contrary, Anno 15 and 16 Edw. IV. the Lord Rich. Grey one of the Queen’s Sons, by her former Husband, Sir John Grey of Groby Knight; in respect of his Alliance to the Royal Family, is Ranked in the first Division among the Princes, under the Title Dominus Richardus filius Reginæ, and afterwards Anno 19 Edw. IV. set only among the Barons, as well with the former Title as this Richardus Dominus Grey, but Anno 22 Edw. IV. he is thrice register’d among the Princes, and as often with the Barons, whence it is observable that to be Enrolled in the Rank of Princes, may be afforded of courtesie to Persons of high Eminency and Blood; but then as they can lay no claim to it by their Merit, so such of the Knights-Companions as Rank them lower, suffer no diminution in their Honour.

Wherein the second Division are Ranked the Barons and Viscounts, for Viscounts in all Scrutinies, after the first Erection of that Dignity, were on the same level with the Barons, until the 3 of Jac. I. (excepting only John Dudley Viscount Lisle, Anno 35 Hen. VIII. who by every Knight, the Duke of Norfolk excepted, is Ranked in the first Division of Princes) and in a Scrutiny then taken, Robt. Cecil Viscount Craneborne is the second Viscount in the List that has been Ranked with Princes, whence it became the frequent Practice in succeeding Scrutinies, until Anno 14 Car. I. And then (upon a Question put in Chapter convened at Westminster 23 May 14. Car. I.) whether Earls Sons and Viscounts were eligible with Barons, it passed in the affirmative, and that by general usage except in the two cases just mentioned; and about the same time we find it reiterated near that Time, for in two Scrutinies taken the 19th and 21st of that Instant May, the Viscounts are therein reduced to the second Division, and Ranked with the Barons.

The Knights-Batchelors and Bannerets held the same Rank in King Hen. VIII’s Statutes, in all Scrutinies with Barons.

But tho’ the word in King Hen. VIIIth’s late Statutes is Baronettus instead of Banerettus, yet is this frequently obvious in some ancient Books and Records, as well as in those ancient Writers, long before the Title of Baronet was conceived or brought into use.

In the last place he who demands those Suffrages (the Knights-Companions present) is by the Statutes of Institution to receive them in writing; for in a Scrutiny taken Anno 2 Hen. VI. at the Election of John Lord Talbote and Turnival, the Dean of Windsor, and the Register of the Order, wrote down the Votes and Nominations of every singular Knight present at the Day of Election.

And at another Scrutiny Anno 4 Hen. VI. to fill up that which by an Error in the Black Book is set down Sir Henry Fitzhugh, ’tis inserted, That the Dean and Register wrote down in Order, (according to their Seniority) the Votes of the Knights-Companions. And after the Scrutinies began to be entred in the Annals, it is evident the general Practice kept pace with the Injunction of the Statutes; only there are two instances of an Election confirmed without taking a Scrutiny in writing, one in the case of the Princes Henry and Christiern IV. King of Denmark, where the Knights-Companions in a Chapter convened at Whitehall, 14 of July 1 Jac. I. gave in their Votes viva voce, and immediately the Sovereign admitted them both into the Illustrious Society; the other was the Case of James Marquis Hamilton, Elected the 2d of Feb. 20 Jac. I. with the vocal consent of all the Knights-Companions.

It is worthy observation, that this Method, and the omission of taking the Scrutiny in writing, is not only contrary to the Law of the Order expressly set down for a more stable consignation of the Action, and more faithful transmission of it to Posterity, but exceeding prejudicial to Persons of Honour, and Distinction, whose Names would otherwise survive with great veneration among the candidates of this Illustrious Order, and of which Honour many deserving Persons will be hereafter deprived, if the Injunctions of the Statutes be not observed in this particular respect.

The Presentation of it to the Sovereign.

THE Knights-Companions, having delivered their Suffrages, the Officer by whom they are Collected, humbly presents to the Sovereign the Nominations, for so it is recorded the Prelate of the Order acted in the 9th of Hen. the Vth. If these Votes were taken in Chapter, the Paper usually was immediately presented to the Sovereign who made his Election, before the Chapter broke up; but if gathered in the Chapel, tho’ it was given to the Sovereign, yet the choice was not made then, but the Morning after, and this was the manner in the 2d and 5th Years of Queen Eliz. Another time it hath not been presented till the Vespers were finished, but in the Practice of latter Days the Scrutiny hath not been given up to the Sovereign till the next Day at the opening of the Chapel before Morning-Prayer, as in the 13, 15, 20, 30 Years of Queen Eliz. demonstrates, and was the accustomed Practice of the 17th Year of King Charles the first of ever-sacred Memory; the last presentation was transcribed in a little Book, and with all due Reverence offered upon the Knee, before any other Affair was transacted in the Chapter.

This has been the general Use as we are ascertain’d, Anno 2 Hen. VI. the Dean of Windsor, and the Register of the Order, having Collected the Vote of every Knight, they were immediately given into the Hands of the Sovereign’s Deputy; and in the same nature were they presented on the 4th Hen. VI. when John Duke of Bedford was Lieutenant, in the 20th of Queen Eliz.; when the Suffrages were Collected by Sir Francis Walsingham the Chancellor, he gave them up to the Earl of Sussex, then Lieutenant to the Sovereign.

But it’s evident from several Passages in the Blue Book of the Order, that the Lieutenant afterward delivered them to the Sovereign, as is apparent from the Records of the 30th, 34th, 38th, and the 40th Year of Queen Eliz.

In the 12th Year of K. James I. some Exceptions arose upon the Chancellor’s not presenting the Scrutiny to the Prince, (who at that time was the Sovereign’s Lieutenant) but to the Sovereign himself, which was an Error he fell into, as well as some of his Predecessor’s; as the 2d, 3d, and 25th of Eliz. demonstrate.

The Sovereign’s Considerations upon the Qualifications of those
to be elected.

§ 12. As the Knights-Companions are under an Obligation, by the Statutes, to nominate no Person, but who can bear the Test of the afore-mention’d Qualifications, there’s a Standard of Honour provided for the Sovereign, to measure the Extraction, Quality, and Merit of the Person proposed to be elected, least it might chance, thro’ the Indulgence of the Sovereign, this Fountain of Honour might be mudded by the Choice of inferior and undeserving Persons, for the Statutes run—because this Order consists of Goodness, and honourable Virtue, doth not admit Unworthiness and Villany, and so by Consequence secludes all Persons of mean Extraction and Merit.

The Qualifications for Election are exhibited in the 2d Article, as in the 18th are included those of Nomination: The Words of the Institution are, That none shall be elected into the Order; and refer only to the Act of Election: For if we consult the rest of the Statutes, and compare them with this Passage, they run according to this Tenor, That none shall be elected and chosen a Companion of this Order. These refer more principally to the Time of the Election, and not to the Investiture with Garter, and George, and Installation, from the Expressions of admitting and receiving Knights into this Order, as the Examplars of the Statutes of Institution set forth. And this is farther illustrated, from another Passage in the 2d Article of Henry the VIII’s Statutes, where the Word Reproach is mentioned, saith, The Guilt thereof so incapacitates a Man’s Election, that for the future it’s a Bar, and utterly disqualifies him for that Honour.

There are Two Points requisite for Qualifications and Endowments; first, to be a Gentleman of Blood; and, 2dly, a Knight without Reproach. By the Statutes of Henry the Vth’s Institutions, no Man ought to be elected, unless he be a Gentleman born. The Examplar in the Black Book saith, Unless he be worthy upon the Account of Birth and Arms: And in another Passage, That he be one eminent for his Demeanour and good Report; which intimates the Conjunction of Blood and Virtue, which make up the noblest Composition. The Statutes of King Henry VIII. are more extensive than those, and say, He must be a Gentleman by Name, Arms, and Blood; and least this Character might seem intricate and perplex’d, A Gentleman of Blood is defin’d to be, One descended of three Descents of Nobles, viz. of Name and Arms, both by his Father and Mother’s side.

It’s certain Gentility does not receive its Perfection in the Person it was first devolv’d on, but is rather compleated by Succession: For, among the Romans, tho’ the Father was Free-born, and of the Equestrian Cense; yet it was farther requisite, that the Grand-father should be the same, or else they could not obtain the Ring, one of the Symbols of the Equestrian Order, as Pliny informs us. Gentility hath its beginning in the Grand-father, its increase in the Father, and full ripeness in the Son; and consequently in the Constitution of Gentility, the Father and Grand-father conveying a Lustre to the Son, make it entire and compleat; for its incongruous to suppose a ripeness in the Son, unless there had been a former encrease in the Father, and a longer Series from the Grand-father.

The memorable Instance of the Lord William Paget, who was divested of the Garter five Years after his Election, upon Pretence of his not being a Gentleman of Blood by either Father or Mother, proceeded not wholly from the defect in Point of Extraction, as Haward relates, but rather from the Prevalence and Practice of John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, by whose means he was most unjustly deprived of the Garter; repenting, perhaps, at the great Honours he had done this Lord, by his fair Character of him to King Edward VI. when he procured him a new Grant of those Arms, under the Great Seal of England, when he was Earl Marshal, which he had some time before received from the Garter Principal King of Arms.

But, admit the defect of Blood and Arms, for three Descents, were the true Cause of the recalling his Garter, that it might be conferred upon the Earl of Warwick, eldest Son of the said Duke, who, out of courtesie, is called so, in which Relation both Haward and Stow have mistaken, for they were bestowed upon Sir Andrew Dudley, Brother to the Duke; for tho’ he was put in the Scrutiny enter’d among the Annals of Edward VI. in the Sixth Year of his Reign, upon St. George’s Day, yet was the Earl neither then, nor at any other time, elected.

The Ensigns of this most Noble Order, as soon as Queen Mary ascended the Throne, were with as much Honour restored to the Lord Paget, and with as great and absolute an Authority, as they were disgracefully taken from him. And in Confirmation of this Lord’s Restauration, he had the Garter buckled on his Leg, and the Collar and the Order put about his Shoulders, with the George depending, by two of the Knights-Companions present; and the Garter King at Arms was order’d, That he should take Care his Atchievements should be replaced over his Stall at Windsor, which is the 9th on the Sovereign’s side. It is observable, that the very Records of the Order brand his Degradation as Injustice; as if it were inferable, That when Honour is conferred, upon the Account of Virtue and exquisite Endowments, the Consideration of these supplies the defect and obscurity of Extraction. The Sovereign, whose Prerogative it was to declare and interpret the Statutes, being present in Chapter, thought fit to qualifie the Law, and gave him this honourable Commendation, That he had highly deserved of the Nation, by his Prudence and Counsel.

And though there’s only inserted in the Examplar of the Black Book, Virtue and good Report for a Qualification, yet the same was observed by the Sovereigns and Lieutenants in foregoing Times, with great Circumspection; and that the Magnanimity, Fortitude, Prudence, Generosity, Fame, Reputation, and other Virtues and Excellencies, whether innate or acquired, of the Person proposed to Election, have by prudent Inquisition been inspected, and brought to the Touchstone, before they have been admitted into so noble and illustrious a Body.

Those Qualities were chiefly consider’d and esteemed by Henry V. for which Reason, at an Election in the 9th Year of his Reign, he gave the Preference, before others that were nominated and presented unto him, to John, Earl Marshal, William, Earl of Suffolk, John, Lord Clifford, Sir Lewis Robertsack, and Sir Heer Tank Clux.

Humphry, Duke of Gloucester, Deputy to K. Hen. VI. trod in the same Steps, and did weigh, by the strict Rules of Fortitude and Prudence, the gallant and noble Actions and Deserts of John, Lord Talbot, before the Election, and gave in an Approbation worthy of his own Judgment, and that Candidate’s Merit. And for this Reason it’s expressed in the Annals of the Order, that such noble and heroick Qualifications should have the favour of Election preferrable to others, as is evident in the Matter of Choice of Sir Nicholas Carew, in the 28th of Hen. VIII. That he was a very fit Person, upon the Eminency of his Extraction and Fame, and the many noble and worthy Actions he had performed; so as that all present did, without any delay, unanimously approve of his Election. And after this Tenure run the Commendation of Henry, Earl of Cumberland, at his Election, viz. The many famous and loyal Atchievements performed by him, both at several other times, and then more especially, when the Tumult of Rebellion began to break forth in those Borders where he had his Habitation.

The 2d Point to treat on is, That no one is qualified for Election, unless he be a Knight; or as it is expressed in one of the Examplars in the Hatton Library, Unless girded with the unstained Girdle of Knighthood; so singular a regard the Law of the Order hath to this particular Qualification above the rest: And least Chance or Inadvertency might let slip a Person not Knighted into the Scrutiny, were the Words inserted ut minimum, that he be at least a Knight before he be elected, when the Sovereign comes to make his Choice. It is evident from the 2d Article in the Statutes, that it hath long since received this Construction, as appears by an eminent Instance. In the 17th of Hen. VIII. The Feast of St. George being celebrated at Greenwich, and the Sovereign being present, having elected the Lord Roos, afterwards Earl of Rutland, into the Society of this most noble Order; and being advertised on the Morrow after St. George’s Day, while the Mass of Requiem was celebrating, That he had not before received the Dignity of Knighthood, according to the Statutes, which positively enjoin, That whosoever is elected into this Society, should be in Degree at least a Knight; that is, actually Knighted before-hand. And tho’ the Lord Roos was, at the Time of his Election a Baron of this Realm, which is a higher degree of Honour than a Knight; The Sovereign after Mass re-assembled the Knights-Companions, and annulled the Election, and commanded the Garter and George, so lately conferred, to be taken off, and in the same Place dubbed him a Knight; and then he was Elected again, with an unanimous Consent, and so declared by the Sovereign’s own Mouth; and was restored to his Ensigns and Ornaments, by the Dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk. Agreeable to this, it’s recorded in the Red Book of the Order; that none of the English, Scotch, or Welsh Nation, how considerable soever otherwise, in the Prerogative of Blood or Virtue, can be Elected into this most honourable Society; but that he ought to be first ennobled and rendered capable, by this first degree of Knightly Honour.

But this Law does not bind Foreign Princes; for by a Decree at White-Hall, in 13 Charles I. these Words, ut minimum, are explained to relate to all Subjects, of what Degree soever, within the Sovereign’s Dominions; but Foreign Princes ought not to be Knighted, as the Basis and first Degree of Chivalry. The Statutes of Institution, as to those before-mentioned, not only enjoyn them to be Knights, but to be free of all Infamy and Reproach. In Henry V’s. Statutes, it stands, Chivalier sans reproche, which Answers in the Latin, Eques irreprehensus; and the Argument used by the Duke of Bedford, for promoting the Election of Sir John Radcliff, was, that he had continued and exercised the Armies, the space of twenty eight Years, without Reproach. King Henry VIII. determined this Word Reproach into three Species; first, when a Knight hath been convicted of Heresy, against the Catholick Faith; or suffered any publick Punishment for such Offence: Here Heresy is reckoned among those defects, that deprive Men of Honour; because it bends its Force against the Catholick Church, which not only renders a Man, in the ballance of Honour, of no Weight and Esteem, but more than all other Sins, makes him Infamous. And therefore when by Tongue, Pen, or Actions, a Man endeavours to trample under Foot the sacred Law, he scandalizeth Government, and seduceth others.

The second Point is, when any Knight hath been arraigned, convicted, and attainted of Treason; however Q. Elizabeth qualified this Point by a Decree, made in the first Year of her Reign; that in case any Persons so convicted, were pardoned by the Sovereign, and restored in Blood; every such Gentleman in Name, Arms, and Blood, and descended as aforesaid, being otherwise qualified, according to the ancient Statutes of the Order, should be thenceforth accounted Eligible, and might be Chosen a Companion. This Decree, it’s presumed, owes its Original, upon the occasion of restoring in Blood William Marquiss of Northampton, and the Lord Robert Dudley, after Earl of Leicester, who had been attainted of High Treason in the first of Q. Mary: And we find that in the next Feast of St. George, they recovered their Privileges of Honour, and were preferred in Nomination, and on the last Day of the Feast, were Elected into this most illustrious Society.

Though the Marquess of Northampton had been formerly Elected in the 35 H. 8. and was restored in Blood, as I said before; it’s very remarkable, that it was thought fit to descend to a new Nomination and Election, as appears from the Decree it self, as it was performed upon the third of June Anno primo Eliz.

The last Point of Reproach, is, where a Knight Companion hath fled from Battle; in which the Sovereign, or his Lieutenant, or other Captain, (having the King’s Authority) were present; when Banners were displayed, and both Sides proceed to Fight. Now for a Person to behave himself cowardly in the Fight, abandon his Colours, leave his Prince, Friends, and Companions, in hazard of Life, are undoubtedly Concerns of a very high and reproachful Nature, and draw down Dishonour upon the Order, the Sovereign, and Knights Companions, and a sufficient indication of a pusilanimous Mind; that prefers to drag an infamous Life, and makes his Honour a Sacrifice to a reproachful Safety; for the Resolution of a right Martial Spirit, ought either to return decked with Victory, or die upon the Bed of Honour.

By the Laws of King Edward the Confessor, the Soldier that runs from his Colours, either in Land or Sea Service, his Life and Estate were made liable to answer the Offence; and our Acts of Parliaments have made it Felony, without Benefit of Clergy; for as much as such desertion endangers the Estate of the King, Nobility, and Commonwealth.

But the danger is of a far more dismal hue, when Officers, or he that Commands in Chief, or who has any Post of Trust assigned him, either quit it, or is found defective in his Duty, as was Thomas Earl of Lancaster, who quitted the Army at the Siege of Berwick, the consequence of which proved an abortion to the whole Design; and for which he was proclaimed Traytor, Anno 12 E. 2. And therefore whoever is culpable of any of these three Points of Reproach, is disqualified from being Elected into this most noble Order. Before we proceed any farther, it may not be improper to take notice of an Error which Polydore Virgil hath interwove with one, and which Erhardus Celius, in his History of England, hath copyed from that Author, but refuted by the learned Pen of Dr. Heylein, viz. that the Knights-Companions have certain Laws belonging to their Order, whereby they are obliged to help one another, and in Time of Battle never to betake themselves to shameful Flight: The Statute Law of the Order is silent upon the first Clause, nor is the latter otherwise to be taken, than one of those Points of Reproach spoke of in the second Statute of K. Henry VIII. which nulls the Election of the Person nominated, if he be peccant in that Point: Now that which gives some Umbrage to the Knights mutual Assistance and Defence, is founded upon an Article in their Statutes, which prohibits the arming themselves one against another, to create a mutual Affection, and to extinguish Feuds, which is the Life and Soul of Society, and which the Founder, to prevent Inconveniencies, had a great Regard to; and therefore he Ordained, which has been confirmed since by other Statutes; That none of the Knights-Companions should Arm themselves against any of their Fellows, unless either in the Cause of his Sovereign, or his own just Quarrel: And this Clause it was, that gave the Handle to both Parties, that sided with the Houses of York and Lancaster; some firmly adhering to Henry VI. whom they accounted Sovereign of the Order; and others taking Part with Edward IV. as esteeming him Sovereign de Jure, though not de Facto.

But more firmly to tye this Knot of Amity among this noble Fraternity, least they should unhappily engage in Factions one against another, and proceed so violently as might commence into Actions of Blood and Slaughter; it was ordained, That if a Knight-Companion should happen to be retained in the Service of a Foreign Prince, to take up Arms in his Quarrel; and after his Adversary desired to entertain another Knight-Companion on his Side also; he that was last invited, was bound to wave this Offer, and in no wise to give his Consent. And upon this, the Knights-Companions were obliged to make special Precautions in that their Engagements; that if any of his Fellows were retained on the other Side, and that if he knew not that another of his Fellows had been engaged with the Adversary, so soon as it came to his Knowlege, he was obliged to relinquish the Service he before had undertaken.

To these three Points of Reproach we have set down, we find in a Manuscript, that belonged to Heny Grey, third Marquiss of Suffolk, a fourth added to these other three Points of Reproach; in these Words:

That if any Knight of the Order, from henceforth, by Prodigality or Ryot, wilfully or negligently, Dispend, Sell, Aliens, or do away his Patrimony or Livelihood, by reason whereof, he shall not be able honourably to maintain himself, and his Estate, in such honourable manner, as may Conserve the honour of the said Order, and of himself; in this Case he shall be Summoned by the Usher of Arms of the Order, called the black Rod, by Commandment of the Soveraign, his Lieutenant, or Deputy; to appear before his Majesty, or his Commissioners, and the Knights of the Order, at the next Chapter ensuing; there to be examined before the Soveraign, or his said Commissioners, and the Knights and Companions of the said Order; and if he be found in such great default of Prodigality, insolent Riot, or wilful Negligence; that then the Soveraign, with the advice of the Company of the said Order may deprive and degrade him of the said Order, at the said Chapter, if it be their Pleasure.

Though this fourth Point is not inserted into King Henry VIII’s Statutes, yet the Substance thereof seems to be approved of before; for we find among some Orders, prepared by the Marquiss of Exeter, and other Knights-Companions, at a Chapter at Windsor, the twenty fifth and twenty sixth Days of May, Anno 8 Henry VIII. one of them was something to this Purpose.

§. 13. Amongst the Number of these Candidates, the Sovereign is chiefly to regard those who have most Voices, or whom he conceives most requisite to contribute to the Honour of the Garter, and most Beneficial to himself, and of most Advantage to his Crown and Kingdom. We find the Law hath not always reserved the greatest Number of Voices, as will appear from the Annals; yet it has sometimes confirmed the Election, as in the Case of the Duke of Queenberry An. 5 Henry VI. where, after a due and sufficient Examination taken of the Scrutiny, the Duke, by the consent of most Voices, was Elected into the Stall of Thomas Duke of Exeter; and so was the Election of Sir Nicholas Carew, the twenty fourth of April, in the 28 Henry VIII.

It is remarkable in a singular Instance, that when two Knights had on either Side equal Voices; which was the Case of Sir John Fastolf, and Sir John Radcliff; the first being esteemed more Worthy, by the Sovereign’s Lieutenant, obtained the Election.

The second Inducement relates to such as, in all Appearance, may bring most Renown to the Order, and advance it to a higher pitch of Greatness; and these have in a great Measure been effected, by enrolling Foreign Princes into this illustrious Society, whose Valour and great Merit have proclaimed them deserving both of Nomination and Election. And upon this Consideration, K. Charles I. of blessed Memory, upon Consideration had of the glorious Atchievements, and high Renown, of Gustavus Adolphus King of Sweden; judged it a Part of his Respect, not only to render him all Offices of Kindness and Friendship, as to a Prince nearly allied, and his most special Friend; but also to impart to him, as far as in him lay, the greatest and highest Honour that might be, and especially such, wherewith the military Virtue of so great a Captain was wont to be adorned.

But the principal Motive thought requisite to Elect Foreign Princes into this Society of Honour, hath been expressed in the Commissions of Legations, to be in Respect of their glorious Merits, ennobled by the lustre and grace of their Heroick Virtues, their eminent Nobleness, Grandeur, Prowess, and Magnificence; the renown of which, Fame had divulged and spread Abroad throughout the World.

Where the Advantage of the Sovereign’s Service was thrown into the Ballance, no Consideration could outvie its Pretensions, as in 2 H. 6. justifies; whose eminent Service for his King and Country, was the sole Motive that crowned his Election: And the great Zeal and Affection, which John Jaspar Ferdinand de Marchin shewed for the Cause and Service, and the recovery of the just Rights of King Charles II. was the strongest Inducement that swayed that Sovereign to chuse him, in the tenth Year of his Reign, a Knight-Companion of this most noble Order. But the last inducement is of the greatest Latitude, for the Sovereign has a Power to reject whosoever he pleases, though they do exceed in multiplicity of Voices, and in other Qualifications; and even to Elect a Person that’s but once mentioned, as was shewn in the Person of Casimire, the fourth King of Poland, An. 28 Henry VI. who having only the single Vote of the Lord Scales; yet upon respect to the Sovereign, how advantageous he might be for his, and his Kingdom’s Interest, obtained the Election.

And of later Date, (as the Preambles for the carrying the Ensigns to Foreign Princes set forth) the Advantages the Sovereign has conceived to possess himself of, in the improving, confirming, and establishing, of a most strict and inviolable Bond of Friendship, and fair Correspondence, between him and Foreign Princes, their Realms and Subjects, hath been a grand Inducement to Elect such Princes into this most noble Order.

§ 14. Upon the vacancy of any of the Knights-Companions Stalls, the Election of others to supply those, is a Prerogative of the Sovereign, and in some Cases to his Lieutenant; for it’s recorded in the Black Book of the Order, in Henry VIII’s Statutes: That if any Stalls fall Vacant, it should belong to the Sovereign, to Elect new Knights, wheresoever he was Resident; upon Condition, the Chapter consisted of six compleat Knights-Companions; but if he chanced to be out of his Realms, and the Number was deficient, and that his Lieutenant held the Feast of St. George at Windsor; in such a Case the Election belongs to the Lieutenant, who is first to be certified of his Sovereign’s Pleasure, and what Esteem he has for the Candidates, to the intent such Information may guide, or direct his Election.

This Power of Election is fully acknowledged, by the Knights-Companions themselves, to be in the Sovereign; as the fragment of a Letter demonstrates, sent from the Chapter, convened at Windsor, upon the Feast of St. George, to Henry V. then in France; viz. That the Sovereign, in what Place soever residing, may, as is most fitting, Elect into a vacant Stall, (there being a sufficient Number of Knights called to this Election) such as he shall judge serviceable to his Crown, or do exceed others in deserts, and nobleness of descent: And at publishing the Election of Duke Emanuel of Savoy, in the Reign of Philip and Mary, who were joint Sovereigns of the Order; it’s styled, The Election of the King and the Queen.

This grand Prerogative of the Sovereign being not duly weighed by Polydore Virgil, occasioned his tripping in this Affair, and drew in Claudius Coteræus into the same palpable mistake; for writing of this Order, and the Succession of new Knights, reports in his History of England, That one Knight is received in the room of another deceased, by the Choice and Election of all the rest; and Erhard Celly in his Anglo-Wirtemb. does as falsely affirm, That no Person may be received into this Order, not so much as by the Sovereign, unless with the common Consent and Suffrage of all the Knights-Companions.

But these Passages are altogether erroneous, the Knights-Companions only nominate the Persons, but the right of Election remains solely in the Sovereign of the Order; for whosoever is honoured with his Choice, is immediately admitted; and pronouncing barely the Name of the Person in Chapter, constitutes the Election. After the Scrutiny hath been taken, and presented to the Sovereign, he peruseth it himself, or the Chancellor, or some other Officer of the Order that gathered it, reads it over to him; afterwards the Sovereign resolves forthwith, upon some one or more of the Knights, contained in the Scrutiny; and then publickly declareth the Name of him, or them, he does Elect; and by the bare Act of his Pronunciation, they Commence Elected Knights; except now and then the Sovereign is pleased to give his Reasons, why the Knight is Elected by him.

But though this Act of Election be solely in the Sovereign, yet the Consent of the Knights-Companions is frequently recorded in the Annals, and sometimes mentioned in the Commissions of Legations to Foreign Princes; not that the single Act of Election is, in truth, the Act of the whole Chapter, or is made invalid, without the joynt Consent of the Knights-Companions, present at the Election; but their Consent so expressed, is to be taken as an honorary Respect given them by the Register, intimating rather an Applause, or Commendation of their Sovereign’s Choice, as being in their Opinions Just and Right, according to the Merit of the Elected, than a material Circumstance, tending to the Ratification of the Election made by the Sovereign, as if defective without it.

§. 15. Among other Duties incumbent on the Register, and expressed in the Statutes of the Order, this is one: That the Register’s Office is to set down, and record for a Memorial, the Elections (or Scrutinies,) and Names of the Knights Elected: But in succeeding Times a Scruple arose, if this was not needless, when the Scrutiny should be taken, yet no Election made; to clear up which doubt, in a Chapter held in 5 Elizabeth, on St. George’s-Day, it’s recorded as the Sovereign’s Will and Pleasure, that thenceforward it should be Enacted, and received as the Sanction of a Law, within this Order; That if any Nominations were taken from the Knights-Companions, the same should be entered into the Annals, though there were no Election made of any Person into the Order at that Time: Which we presume was so Decreed, out of great deference to those Princes and noble Personages, who, in descending Times, should, by the glory of their Exploits, appear but worthy of a bare Nomination into so resplendent and illustrious an Order. And in pursuance of this Decree, there is frequent mention made of the delivery of the Scrutiny into the Hands of the Register, in order to be Recorded.

The Blue Book says, Anno 22 Elizabeth; That the Chancellor himself delivered the Knights-Companions Votes to the Register, to be committed to Writing, for a perpetual Memorial; and accordingly the Register, as his Duty obliged him, transcribed them, and put them in their proper Place, with all Care and Fidelity. Anno 34 of the same Queen, ’tis said, the Votes were delivered to the Register, who took care to Record them, according to usual Order. Yet maugre this Law, the Entry of Scrutinies hath been sometimes omitted, either by the Register’s forgetfulness of the Decree, or some accidental Miscarriages. In some Places of the Annals, in the room of Scrutinies, we find Excuses entered, as it’s said, Anno 28 Elizabeth; that the Prelate, immediately after Vespers, presented the Scrutiny to the Sovereign; but because there was no Election made of any new Knights, in regard of hurry, or weighty and pressing Affairs, it was laid aside, and through Neglect lost, or at least came not into the Register’s Hands, to be inserted in its proper Place. And when the Dean of Windsor collected the Scrutiny at Vespers, Anno 18 Elizabeth, it’s said, No Election was made, nor any thing else done: The like Excuse is made, Anno 5 Charles I. but the Fault is thrown upon the Chancellor; for though the Scrutiny had been taken by him, during the Vespers of the Feast-Day, yet would he not suffer it to be entered. In some Places we find, Anno 31 Elizabeth, the Votes being presented, they were left with her. And Anno 11 Charles I. the Scrutiny of Algernoon Earl of Northumberland never came to the Register’s Hands.

But the Law yet remains in force, that all Nominations and Votes of the Knights-Companions ought to be enter’d among the Annals, whether Election be made or not, unless it shall please the Sovereign, upon some Emergency, to forbid it: As appears but by one Example of such a Prohibition, viz. Anno 40 Eliz. where, by the Queen’s special Command, the Scrutiny then taken was not recorded among the Acts of this most Noble Order. But then it is declared, That the Register took care to set down all the Passages as they happened, the Names only excepted. And why the Scrutiny is not inserted in the Registry, An. 44 of Eliz. gives this Account: That upon assembling the Knights-Companions, it seemed good to the Sovereign, for several urgent Reasons, best known to her self, to give Commandment, That for that time, they would wholly forbear all Scrutiny of Votes, and Nominations of Persons; except which, there was nothing wanting to heighten the Solemnity of that Assembly: But this in the Annals is said to be præter morem, contrary to the usual Custom.

§ 16. Anno 27 of Eliz. there is a remarkable Occurrence, not to be passed over; for the Earls of Rutland and Derby, the morrow after St. George’s Day, were desirous to have seen the Scrutiny, which was committed into the Custody of the Dean of Windsor, to be registred, in pursuance of the before-mentioned Decree, Anno 5 Eliz. but he returned a modest denial, and said, It ought not to be seen before it was register’d. The Earls, not satisfied with this Answer, requested the Opinions of the Knights-Companions, present at the Feast, on this Affair; who, upon mature Deliberation, adjudged the Point against them; and since it has been a standing Rule, that no Knight-Companion ought to see whom the other hath named.

§ 17. It hath chanced, that tho’ the Nominations for Election have been received, presented and perused, yet the Sovereign hath thought expedient to defer it, upon several Considerations, and principally where an intent was to keep an open Stall; but we must understand this of such Scrutinies as are taken of Course, at the Vespers on the Feast-day.

And the most memorable Example of this Kind, is that of the Emperor Sigismond, who expired in the 16th Year of K. Henry VI. whose Stall was reserved Twenty One Years, and then determined, that Prince Edward, the Sovereign’s only Son, should fill it up, being at that time about Six Years of Age. This is the first Emperor, whose Election we find register’d in the Annals, being about the 7th of May, in the 4th Year of Henry V. styled Sigismundus Imperator Almanicus.

And keeping a vacant Stall was sometimes given as a Reason by the Sovereign for his deferring an Election, as is plain from An. 13. Car. I. when the Scrutiny taken the Day before was read over in the Chapter-House, the Sovereign declared, That he would receive no Man into the Order before his Son Charles. Whereupon all the Knights-Companions gave their Opinions, That this Resolution was rather the effect of Justice, than Fatherly Indulgence; since they all acknowledged him, to be more a Prince by Merit, and towardliness of his Youth, than by the Fortune of his Birth. At which the Sovereign expressed his Satisfaction no otherwise than by Silence.

And in like manner, Anno 15 Charles I. when the Chancellor of the Order gave up the Scrutiny to the Sovereign, he declared——That he had a purpose to have Chosen Prince Rupert, his Nephew, a Knight of the Order; but being then a Prisoner with the Emperor, he would not Elect any at that Time; whereupon, a vacancy of a Stall was reserved. It has sometimes been the Sovereign’s Pleasure to defer Elections, without expressing the Cause, as in the 13 of Elizabeth; though she perused the Scrutiny in Chapter, yet the Blue Book informs us; That the said Sovereign made no Election, though two Stalls were vacant. Thus was it in the 2, 3, 11, and 12, of K. James I. where no other mention is made than this; none were admitted into the Order this Year.

Sometimes we find these Prorogations of Elections recorded, as solely done by the Will of the Sovereign; and at other Times by the Sovereign, and the approbation of the Knights-Companions; to the first of these we find a Memorial, in the 22 of Elizabeth, on the 24 of April; that the Knights-Companions had a Message sent to their Chapter, held before Morning-Prayer; That it was the Pleasure of the Sovereign to prorogue the Election to the following Year. And so it was, in the 10th of Charles I. though the Nomination was taken by the Chancellor, and presented to the Sovereign in Chapter, the Sovereign did not think fit to make any Election at all. And for a Testimony of the second, we meet with this Instance, in the 27th of Elizabeth; that with the concurrent Approbation and Assent of all the Knights-Companions then assisting, the Sovereign thought fit to put off the Election to another Time. As to the seeming difference of the Sovereign’s absolute Authority, and yet the Knights-Companions Approbation, we have cleared up that Point in the Act of Election; for though it is his unquestionable Authority and Prerogative, to Prorogue Elections ad libitum, yet out of Respect, and Honour to the Knights-Companions, their Approbation hath been sometimes exprest.

§ 18. When any Knight-Companion hath received a Summons, to appear at a Chapter of Election, and doth wilfully refuse, or withdraw himself, he was to be mulct a Mark for his Disobedience, which King Henry VIII’s Statutes inlarged to twenty Shillings, payable to the Dean and College of Windsor, to pray for defunct Souls. And at his next appearance in Chapter, he was to remain kneeling in the midst of them, before the Sovereign, or Deputy, till he was restor’d to their Favour: Yet upon a just Cause signified to the Sovereign some time before, under the Seal of his Arms, he was excused, if it was found just and feasible; if not, it was rejected, and he remained Punishable.

And for greater Caution, this Clause was formerly inserted, in the Letters of Summons; where, after the Time and Place for Election was certified, and command given to observe both, the Letter concludes thus, et se estre ny poues nous Signifies soubz, &c. and if it cannot be accomplished, that is, if the Knight-Companion could not meet at the time assigned, to perform what the Statutes oblige, he should then signify to the Sovereign, under his Seal, the cause of his Impediment; so that he might perceive by his Excuse, whether it was worthy of Acceptance, or he in Fault or not.

The Investiture of a Knight-Subject with the Garter and George.

IF the Knight chance to be at Windsor, that is newly Elected, or wheresoever the Chapter is held, after the Sovereign hath signified his Pleasure in the Election of the Person, the Garter is immediately dispatched out of the Chapter, to give him the Intelligence; as is apparent upon the Choice of the Lord Howard, and Sir Henry Marney, Anno 2 Henry VIII. who was dispatched from the Chapter, to conduct them to the Sovereign’s Presence, to be invested with the principal Ensigns of the Order, the Garter and George.

And as Garter hath been accustomed to signify in Person the Election of a Knight, in like manner an Election is signified, by the Letters of the Sovereign, when he is pleased (for the greater Honour of the Person) to weave by verbal Notice: In such Cases, it’s the Chancellor’s Office to draw up the Letters, and they are to pass, both under the Sovereign’s Sign Manual, and Signet of the Order. Such a particular mark of Distinction and Honour was conferr’d on our Sovereign of Blessed Memory, King Charles II. Sir John Burrough Garter, carrying the Letter.

Charles Rex,

“Our most dear and entirely beloved Son, having, to our great Comfort, seen and considered the ripeness of your Youth, and conceived joyful and pregnant Hopes of your manly Virtue, in which we are assured you will increase, to your own Honour, both in Prowess, Wisdom, Justice, and all Princely Endowments; and that the Emulation of Chevalry will, in your tender Years, provoke and encourage you, to pursue the Glory of Heroick Actions, befitting your Royal Birth, and our Care and Education. We with the Companions of our most Noble Order of the Garter, assembled in Chapter, holden this present Day, at our Castle of Windsor; have Elected and Chosen you one of the Companions of our Order. In Signification whereof, we have sent unto you, by our Trusty and Well-Beloved Servant, Sir John Burrough Knight-Garter, and our principal King of Arms, these our Royal Letters, requiring you to make your speedy repair unto us, to receive the Ensigns of our most Noble Order, and to be ready for your Installation, upon the 21st Day of this present Month. Given under the Signet of our Order, at our Castle of Windsor, the 20th of May, in the 14th Year of our Reign, 1638.”

To our dearly beloved Son Prince Charles.

This is the only Instance we have met with, where a Letter was sent to an Elect Knight, and he at the same time present at Court; but when an Election is confirmed, and the Person remote from the Court, then the general Tenure of the Letter is, both to signify his Election, and Summon him to his Investure, with the Garter and George, as was performed by the Earl of Derby, and Sir Edward Strafford, to King Henry of France.

But where the Sovereign is pleased to mention particular Services, to recommend the Election of a Knight, the Preamble of the Letter is worded accordingly; and as this is a Case not very frequent, it will not be amiss to exemplify it in the Choice of Sir John Falstoff, where the Letter runs thus—We considering the virtuous Fidelity you have shown, and the honourable Exploits you have done, in the Service of our thrice renowned Father, and that in our Service also, you (as many others) have given Proof of that Honour, and these Deserts, wherewith God hath endowed you, always suffering, as is the part of a good Subject, the Pains and Toils of War, for the vindicating and maintaining of our just Right, Claim, and Title, have Chosen you one of our Companions of our Order.

When the Letter barely signifies Election, that is, when the Sovereign does not design a present investure with the Garter and George, but defers it till he takes Possession of his Stall, the Day of his Installation is inferred towards the end of the Letter; and upon his appearance at Windsor, so soon as he appears in the Chapter-House, the Garter is first buckled about his left Leg, then follows his Investure with the rest of the Ornaments of the Order, and lastly his Installation. And this was the Case of Henry Earl of Northumberland, Anno 29 Henry VIII. whose Investure of the Garter was deferr’d till his appearance at Windsor, and then the whole Ceremony was performed at once.

§ 2. If the elect Knight be at hand, where the Chapter is convened, and the Garter hath been sent to make known to him the Honour, and Conduct him into the Chapter-House, to receive the Garter and George, before they break up, Intimation being given of his approach, the Sovereign sends out two of the Knights-Companions to meet him, who, after a mutual Salute, Conduct him between them, to the Presence of the Sovereign, Garter going before them. Thus was Ubrick Duke of Holstein, Anno 3 Jac. I. introduced into the Chapter, between Prince Henry, and the Earl of Dorset, and Christian Duke of Brunswick Anno 22 Jac. I. between William Earl of Pembrook and Philip Earl of Montgomery, to receive the Garter and George. The 6th of November, Anno 14 Charles II. Christian Prince of Denmark being elected at a Chapter held at White-Hall, and then absent, the Garter King was dispatched next Day by the Sovereign, to inform him, and to desire his Presence the next Day, that he might receive his Investure; which accordingly was done, being conducted between the Earls of Lindsey and Manchester into the Chapter, Garter preceding them, and after three Obeysances, they brought him up to the Sovereign. Among Knights-Subjects, we find the Lord Burley, and the Lord Grey, were conducted to the Sovereign by the Lord Clynton, and the Earl of Bedford, Anno 14 Elizabeth, cum multis aliis. Anno 4 Jac. I. Robert Earl of Salisbury proceeded up to the Sovereign’s Throne, between the Earls of Nottingham and Dorset. In the Reign of King Charles I. the Earl of Northampton was conducted to receive the Garter in the Chapter-House at Windsor, between the Earls of Pembrook and Montgomery. And when King Charles II. appeared, upon his Letter of Summons, at the Chapter held in the withdrawing Chamber in Windsor Castle, to receive his Investure, two of the Senior Knights, viz. Philip Earl of Pembrook and Montgomery, and Thomas Earl of Arundel and Surry, were sent out to Conduct him in, who brought him between them unto the Sovereign, the Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod going before.

The Duke of Monmouth being elected at a Chapter held in the withdrawing Room at White-Hall, the 28th of March, Anno 15 Charles II. Garter was immediately sent to him in the Sovereign’s Bed-Chamber, who being met at the Door by the Earls of Lindsey and Manchester, both the Garter and the Black Rod passed to the lower End of the Room before the Duke and the two Knights-Companions, whence they proceeded up to the Sovereign with three Reverences. At the Election of James Duke of Cambridge, in the same Room at White-Hall, (December 3. Anno 18 Charles II.) Garter was also sent forth into the Bed-Chamber, to acquaint him that the Earl of Manchester, and the Duke of Monmouth, were appointed by the Sovereign and Chapter to bring him in thither; that done, the aforesaid Knights-Companions arose and went to the Duke, whom meeting at the Bed-Chamber Door, they took their compass about the rest of the Knights-Companions, (then standing) and brought him between them, from the lower End of the Room, close before the Sovereign, the Garter and Black Rod proceeding.

§ 3. The Knight elect being thus introduced to the Sovereign, bows with all Reverence, and formerly a short gratulatory Speech was the vogue, that set forth his acknowledgment of his Sovereign’s Royal Favour, and the grateful Respect he bore to the Knights-Companions for his Election.

Anno 28. Hen. VIII. we find Sir Nicholas Crew, after he had been conducted into the Chapter-House at Windsor, to receive his Investiture, thus to address himself: giving infinite Thanks both to the Sovereign and whole Society, for that they had vouchsafed to receive him into the Honour of this most illustrious Order, being a Person in his own Esteem most unworthy thereof: In the next Place professed, That whereas he was preferred in this Choice before many others, much more deserving than himself, it was not to be attributed to his Merits, or any Thing by him performed, but meerly to the Sovereign’s Bounty, and the Favour of the Knights-Companions towards him.

The conferring of so singular an Honour, being thus thankfully own’d, the Ceremony of Investiture begins; the Garter first takes place, as the most ancient and chiefest Ensign, and then the George; but the compleat Investiture is not performed until the Elect Knights are installed at Windsor. Formerly the manner of robing of them was performed on this wise: First, the Elect Knight set his Foot upon a Stool, and then one of the Knights-Companions, by the Sovereign’s appointment, as his Substitute, buckled the enobled Garter about his left Leg, as may be seen in the Antiquities of Warwickshire, in an old Draught of the Combats of Sir John Astley, who was inrolled in this illustrious Body, and is so represented. But of later Date, the Elect Knight kneeled on his right Knee, whilst this Ceremony was performed, in which space the Words of Admonition and Signification, at this part of the Investiture, were read. The Admonition, upon the buckling of the Garter, in the English Statutes of K. Hen. VIII. is set down on this manner:


The loving Brethren of the Order of the Garter, have received you their Brother and Fellow; and in Token of this, they give and present you this present Garter, which God grant that you receive and wear from henceforth to his Praise and Glory, and to the Exaltation and Honour of the said Noble Order, and your self.

Afterwards it was decreed, at a Chapter held at Windsor, the 5th of August, Anno 1 & 2 Phil. and Mary, to this effect: ‘That not only the same Advertisements, which were wont to be given to Strangers at their Investitures, should be likewise given to Knights-Subjects, that for the future should be elected and install’d; and with a farther Proviso, ‘That among the Knights-Companions there should not be any difference either in Ceremony or Habit.’

Hereupon the aforesaid Tenure ceased to be used upon the fixing of the Garter, and one Form remained at the Investiture of Strangers and Knights-Subjects, which is pronounced by the Chancellor, if the Sovereign or his Lieutenant be present, otherwise by the Register.

“To the Laud and Honour of Almighty God, his immaculate Mother, and St. George the holy Martyr, tye or gird your Leg with this noble Garter, wearing it to the increase of your Honour, and in Token and Remembrance of this most noble Order; remembring that thereby you being admonished and encouraged, in all just Battels and Wars, which only you shall take in Hand, both strongly to fight, valiantly to stand, and honourably to have Victory.”

But against the Investiture of K. Charles II. the Words of the Signification being better weighed and considered, were thus methodized:

“To the Honour of God Omnipotent, and in Memorial of the blessed Martyr St. George, tye about thy Leg, for thy Renown, this noble Garter; wear it as the Symbol of the most illustrious Order, never to be forgotten or laid aside; that thereby thou may’st be admonished to be couragious; and having undertaken a just War, into which only thou shalt be engaged, thou may’st stand Firm, valiantly Fight, and successfully Conquer.”

The Princely Garter being thus buckled on, and the Words of the Signification pronounced, the Elect Knight is brought before the Sovereign, who puts about his Neck the George, pendant at a Sky-colour’d Ribband, at which part of the Ceremony, the Admonition used at the adorning of an installed Knight with the Collar of the Order, (only changing the Word Collar for Ribband) is pronounced; but were alter’d upon the Occasion assign’d before.

“Wear this Ribband about thy Neck, adorn’d with the Image of the blessed Martyr, and Soldier of Christ, St. George; by whose Imitation provok’d, thou may’st so overpass both prosperous and adverse Adventures, that having stoutly vanquished thy Enemies, both of Body and Soul, thou may’st not only receive the Praise of this transient Combat, but be crown’d with the Palm of eternal Victory.”

Greater Respect is conferr’d upon foreign Princes, who receive their Election here, than abroad; because the Sovereign most usually performs the Investiture himself; as was solemniz’d upon Philip, King of Castile, when the Sovereign took the Garter from the King at Arms, and fixed it on his Leg, and Prince Henry fasten’d the Buckle.

Queen Elizabeth her self buckled the Garter about the Leg of John Casimier, Count Palatine of the Rhine, and hung about his Neck a Gold Chain with the George at it. And the like Honour did King James I. confer upon the Duke of Holstein, in the 3d Year of his Reign.

Sometimes it happens, tho’ very rarely, for the Sovereign, out of his special Grace and Favour, to condescend to Honour a Knight-Subject this way; tho’, when Queen Elizabeth was pleased to adorn the Lord Burleigh with the Garter, the Annals record it to be done as it were by the by. The same Favours she bestow’d, tho’ at different times, upon Henry, Earl of Sussex, and the Earl of Shrewsbury. King James I. invested Henry, Earl of Northampton, with the principal Ensigns of the Order, as a Person worthy of so great an Honour: And the Blessed Martyr placed both the Garter and the George, with his own Hands, upon King Charles II.

Sometimes the Sovereign hath but performed part of the Investiture, and laid his Commands on the senior Knight to do the rest. Thus, Anno 13 Henry VIII. the Sovereign reached out the Garter to the Marquis of Dorset, and commanded him to buckle it about the Leg of the Earl of Devonshire; which, whilst he was about, the Duke of Norfolk gave him his Assistance, and the Sovereign put on the Gold Chain. At the Investiture of Christian, Duke of Brunswick, Anno 22 Jac. I. the Sovereign put about his Neck the Blue Ribband, whereat hung the Effigies of St. George; and the Earls, who introduc’d him to the Sovereign’s Presence, buckled on the Garter. Thus did the Sovereign to William, Earl of Northampton, Anno 4 Car. I. and the Earl of Pembroke fasten’d the Garter about his left Leg.

This Order of Investiture began to be inverted Anno 22 Jac. I. the George and the Ribband being first put on, and the Garter last. And so was it performed when the Prince of Denmark, Dukes of Monmouth, Cambridge, and Albemarle, received their Investiture in the Reign of King Charles II. The Garter, as it was the first, so is the principal and most worthy Ensign of the Order; and, in the Practice of all former Times, had always the Preference given to it. The Investiture with these two Ensigns, hath generally been performed by the two senior Knights, at the Command of the Sovereign; but always in his Presence, the Chapter sitting; but if absent, then by his Lieutenant. For, in 31 Eliz. the Lord Buckhurst being elected at Whitehall, and coming to Court wholly ignorant of the Affair, and after the Sovereign was risen, (yet leaving the Chapter sitting) her Lieutenant invested him both with the Garter and George. After the Solemnity is compleated, the elect Knight renders most humble Thanks to the Sovereign, and with due Respects salutes the Knights-Companions, who re-salute the elect Knight, and joyfully receive him into their Society. If two or more elect Knights receive this Investiture at one time, as soon as the Senior is invested, and his humble Thanks presented, he moves downwards towards the Chapter-House Door, and there stands till the next Junior Knight is invested; and if there be more, so on until the Chapter break up.

§ 4. Where a Knight-Subject, at the time of his Election, is far distant from Court, or beyond Sea, and the Sovereign determines to send him the Two principal Ensigns of the Order, the Charge of this Employ does of right belong to the Garter. For the Proof of which there are divers Precedents.

The Letters heretofore sent from the Sovereign, along with the Ensigns of the Order, to the elect Knights, have, for the most part, been drawn after the Form of those that certify the Election, and differs only in the last Clause, which requires the elect Knight to repair to the Sovereign: The difference lay not in the Body, but in the Direction of the Letter, which was always worded according to the Quality of the Person to whom it was sent. As to a Knight-Batchelor, the Direction was, To our trusty and well-beloved; and to an Earl, Right trusty, and right well-beloved Cousin; to a Duke, Right trusty, and right entirely beloved Cousin, &c.

The Forms of those Letters, sent upon like Occasions to Knights-Subjects, when King Charles II. was beyond Sea, were penn’d after another Model, and contained other additional particular Clauses; as, 1. Power to wear the Star of Silver about St. George’s Cross; 2. The Great Collar of the Order; and, 3. To style themselves Knights, and Companions of the Order of the Garter, in as ample a Manner, as if they had been installed at Windsor; with an Assurance of receiving the whole Habit there, when the Sovereign was restored to the Possession thereof.

And it appears from some of these Letters, that by reason Sir Edward Walker, Garter, was otherwise employ’d in the Service of the Sovereign, when they were transmitted, the Sovereign pitch’d upon other Persons, to carry both the Letters and Ensigns of the Order, and yet continued the Garter in the Rights of his Office. However, Sir Edward esteeming this devolving his Employment on others, as an Invasion on the Rights of his Office; and having a just regard for the Interest of his Successors, no less than his own, humbly petitioned King Charles II. for Redress, and obtained his gracious Reference thereupon, to several Knights of the Order, to examine the Matter, and to give in their Report, what they found, and what they thought proper to be effected therein; and upon whose Report the Sovereign did him full Right by his gracious Declaration. For the Dukes of Buckingham and Hamilton, and the Marquis of Newcastle, to whom this Affair was referr’d, gave in their Report to the King at Breda, May 27. 1650.

We, George, Duke of Buckingham, William, Duke of Hamilton, and William, Marquis of Newcastle, Knights of the most noble Order of the Garter, having read and consider’d the within written Petition, do find the Allegations therein mentioned to agree with the Statutes and ancient Practices of the said Order; and that Garter King of Arms, and his Deputies, ought to bear all Letters-Patents appertaining to the Brethren of the said Order, and all Elections to the Knights elect. And we do therefore make this Report to your Majesty, to the end you may be pleased to mantain the Petitioner in his just Rights; and that no Example lately made may be brought in Precedent against him, or his Successors in the said Office.

G. Buckingham.
W. Newcastle.

It was formerly the Practice, to send the Book of Statutes, under the common Seal of the Order, together with the Letters signifying an Election, and the Ensigns of the Order, no less to a Knight Subject than to a Stranger, that he might peruse and advise thereupon, whether he would accept of the Election, or not; for so it appears, Anno 4 Hen. VI. by the Letters sent to Sir John Falstoff.

Within a few Days after Prince Rupert was elected into this Order, (being then in Holland) a Commission of Legation was prepared to be sent thither, with the Garter and George, by Sir John Burrough, Kt. to perform the Investiture with them; but Sir John dying, prevented the Ceremony. Some time after the Prince had been in England, the then Sovereign thought fit to lay his Commands on Sir James Palmer, Chancellor of the Order, to attend his Highness, to declare the Reason why the said Commission was not sent and executed, as was designed, as well as to deliver him the Commission it self; to the intent (being prevented of receiving his Installation at Windsor, because that Castle continued in the Possession of the Rebels) it might remain with him as a Memorial of his Sovereign’s Princely Favour, and Respect to his Quality and Merits, and for a farther Evidence of his being admitted into this most Noble Order, since there was no other Memorial thereof, but the Minutes of his Election, and this Commission. And accordingly on Monday, the 14th of January, 1644. the Chancellor, accompanied with Dr. Christopher Wren, Register, and Sir Edward Walker, newly made Garter, attended the Prince at his Lodgings in Oxford; who, having notice of their Design, receiv’d them with all obliging Civility; and the Chancellor, in an eloquent Speech, made known to his Highness his Sovereign’s Commands, and the Intent of his coming; which was no sooner finished, but Sir James Palmer presented his Petition to the Prince, who gave his Majesty many humble Thanks for this gracious Message; and acknowledged his Majesty’s Favours beyond his Desert; but promised he would study to be more worthy by his Actions, than in return of Words; with many Thanks to the Chancellor, and other Officers of the Order, for their Trouble: Whereupon they took their Leave, and the Chancellor went immediately to his Majesty, and gave him a Narrative of what they had done.

§ V. It was an ancient Custom, and part of the Ceremony belonging to the Investiture with the Garter, to give him an Oath, whether he was a Stranger or a Subject-Knight, which we find styled, The Oath in such Cases accustomed to be taken; and which was to this effect; That the Knight should well and faithfully keep and observe, so far as God should enable him, all that was contained in the Statutes of the Order: But this of late hath been disused, and not imposed, unless upon foreign Princes.

It is observable, that Anno 4 Hen. VI. a particular Commission was issued, to the Earls of Warwick, Salisbury, and Suffolk, with Power, to any Two, or One of them, to receive this Oath from Sir John Falstoff, upon his Investiture; which was besides the Oath his Proctor was afterwards to take at the Installation, which Sir John empowered him to do on his behalf; which was, Such Oath as should be required at the time of Installation.

Altho’ we have fully treated of the Ceremony and Manner of investing a Knight elect, with the Garter and George, we shall subjoin Two or Three considerable Instances, as most proper to this Place.

When Philip, Prince of Spain, Anno 1 Mariæ, had these Ensigns of the Order sent him, the Sovereign joyn’d Garter King of Arms, with the Earl of Arundel, to perform the Investiture; who, upon notice of his arrival on the Coast of England, set forward on their Journey to Southampton; where, on Friday the 20th of July, they took Water, and meeting the Prince before he landed, entered his Barge, and gave him notice of his Election in a short Speech; which being ended, Garter having the Garter in his Hand, kissed it, and so presented it to the Earl, who forthwith fasten’d it about the Prince’s Leg; and after Garter had presented the Earl with the George, hanging at a Chain of Gold, he put it likewise about the Prince’s Neck. The Ceremony of Investiture being thus performed, the Prince came on shore at Southampton; and on the uppermost Stair were ready attending his landing, the Marquis of Winchester, Lord High Treasurer of England, with divers other Lords: The Prince gave the Lord Williams his White Staff, and made him Lord Chamberlain of his Houshould; and Sir Anthony Brown, Master of his Horse, presented him, from the Queen, a Horse with a Foot-cloth of Crimson Velvet, richly embroider’d with Gold and Pearls, having the Bridle and all other Furniture suitable, whereon he rode to the Cathedral, and after Prayers to the Lodging prepared for him.

Concerning the Garter’s Investiture of the Earl of Warwick, at Newhaven in France, the first of May, Anno 5 Eliz. is as follows: The Garter repairing first to the Earl’s Lodgings, put on his Mantle in the next Chamber to the Earl’s, and proceeded into the Earl’s Chamber; where, having made Three Reverences, he buckled the Garter about his left Leg, and after put on the George and the Ribband about his Neck; reading to the Earl the Words of the Signification, appointed to be pronounced at the Investiture; which being concluded, Garter retir’d into the Room where he had put on his Mantle, and there disrobed himself, and so the Ceremony ended.

It was the Custom about these Times, for the Nobility, Allies, or Friends, to the elect Knight, to send him by the Garter, several Garters and Georges, as Marks of Congratulation for the Honour he was to receive, which the Garter delivered to him when the Investiture was finished, and he had put off his Robe, with the particular Services and Respects of those Friends who had bestow’d them. For thus was it with the Earl of Warwick, at Newhaven, and the Lord Scroop at Carlisle, Anno 26 Eliz. At the Garter’s return to Court, he is obliged to deliver an Account to the Sovereign, how he hath discharged his Employment; and by special Directions from the elect Knight, who presents the highest Respects he can express, as well to the Sovereign as to the rest of the Knights-Companions, for honouring him with a Reception into so illustrious a Body.

We shall close this Section with a brief Account of the Investiture of the Duke of Gloucester, on Easter-day in the Morning, being the 14th of April, 1653. In reference to which Ceremony there was provided:

1. A Garter with the Motto, to be tyed about his left Leg.

2. A George in a Ribband, to be put about his Neck.

3. An embroider’d Cross of St. George, with a Garter and Star, to be sew’d on the left Shoulder of the Duke’s Cloak.

4. A Velvet Cushion, whereon the Ensigns and Ornaments of the Order were to be laid.

For the Honour of the Order, and his said Highness, Sir Edward Walker, Garter, humbly proposed, That he might be assisted by Two or Four Knights in performing his Duty.

That his Highness the Duke might receive the Ensigns of the Order, in the Presence-Chamber of the Princess Royal, or in his own, accompanied with the Queen of Bohemia, her Royal Highness, and some other Persons of Honour and Quality.

That his Highness having placed himself under the State, Garter should take the Cushion upon his Arms, on which were to be laid all the particular Ornaments just now mentioned; being assisted with the Knights, and a Passage left for him to make his Three Obeysances, he should proceed up towards the Duke, and lay the Cushion with the Ornaments upon a Stool set near his Highness for that purpose.

That he should signifie to his Higness, in few Words, the Cause of his coming, and then deliver into his Hands the Sovereign’s Letter.

That his Highness having receiv’d it, should break it open, and deliver it back to the Garter to be read; which he having done, should return it to his Highness.

That, after this, he should proceed to the Investiture of his Highness with the Ensigns of the Order.

Which being done, he briefly represented unto his Highness, in a Speech, somewhat of the Quality and Splendor of the Order.

And, lastly, to kiss his Highness Hand, and so depart. And according to those Proposals, and in the same Order, were all Things performed.

§ 6. The Sovereign of this most Noble Order defrays the Charges of the Garter, whensoever, and as often as he is dispatch’d to any elect Knight-Subject, either with Letters to signifie his Election, or to invest him with the Garter and George; and this is commonly proportioned according to the length or the shortness of the Journey. The Allowance for the Journey which Sir Gilbert Dithick, Garter, made into the Counties of Lincoln and Cumberland, first to the Earl of Rutland, and then to the Lord Scroop, when Queen Elizabeth was Sovereign, appears to have been 20 l.

Besides the Sovereign’s Allowance to the Garter, he receives honourable Gratuities and Rewards from the elect Knight himself, after he has performed the Investiture; and these have usually been proportioned, according to the estimate of the Honour he receives, and the particular affection he has for the Garter, and the service done by him. Among whom, Anno 17 Henry VIII. we find the Earl of Arundel bestow’d on Thomas Wriothesley, Garter, ten Pounds in Angelots, being then at his Mannor of Dawnley; and Ralph Earl of Westmoreland, elected at the same Time with the aforesaid Earl, being at Mile-end, gave to him six Pounds thirteen Shillings and four Pence. The Earl of Northumberland, in the 23 of Henry VIII. bestow’d on the Garter, for the verbal certifying him of his Election, four Pounds, though he went no farther than the Chapter-House Door.

Lastly, Anno 26 Elizabeth, the Earl of Rutland honourably received the Garter at Newark, and the Lord Scroop gave him thirty Pounds in Gold, a Velvet Cloak, and a Gallaway Nag, and to William Dethick, York Herald, who accompanied Garter to Carlisle, ten Pounds.

But since these Times, the Knights elect have enlarged their gratuities to Garter, for his Service upon this Occasion.

Of Preparations for the Personal Installation of a Knight.

§ 1.

THE Inauguration of a Knight of this most Noble Order, consists in a Conjunction of many Ceremonies, and contains the most solemn part of those, which compleateth all the rest; and till this great Solemnity be regularly and duly performed, the Person elected hath not the Honour to be enrolled among the Number of Founders, but barely passes for an elect Knight, and no other: For the Statute expresly says, That in Case a Knight elect die before his Installation, He shall not be named one of the Founders; and the reason assigned for it is, because he hath not had the full Possession of his Estate, and in this Point do the other Bodies of the Statutes agree. But when the Ceremonies of Installation are compleatly finished, without all doubt the Knight is amply vested, in Possession of all Honours and Privileges appertaining to the Founder of this most Noble Order. But to spur up each elect Knight, who is either a Subject to his Sovereign, or resides within the Realm, (and consequently is better able to provide for Installment, than one remaining in Foreign Parts,) for the completion of his Honour, or else to wave the Act of Election, he has the space of one Year allowed him by the Statutes for Installation, otherwise his Election is ordained to be absolutely null and void: Nor can there be any Motive sufficient to retard the Sovereign from proceeding to a new Election, unless the elect Knight send or produce an Extenuation or Excuse for such his delay, fit to be excepted by the Sovereign or his Deputy, and the whole of that resplendent Body, or that the Sovereign himself think fit to defer the Ceremony of Installation for some time longer. For which reason, when certain Articles, tending to the Honour of the Order, had been prepared by the Sovereign’s Lieutenant and ten Knights-Companions, in a Chapter held the 24th of April, Anno 21 Jacobus I. ratified by the Sovereign, and ordered to be observed; one of them was for accelerating the Installation, after the Knight had been elected, yet qualified with this Exception: Unless for some special Cause the Sovereign shou’d think fit to defer the same until the Eve or Day of St. George next following, the Time of Election.

§ 2. The Feast of Installation hath not been hitherto assigned to any certain Period of Time, but has always depended upon the Will and Pleasure of the Sovereign, to affix a convenient Day, which hath been granted upon the request of the Knights elect, or some other of the Knights-Companions, whose Favour and Esteem with the Sovereign was best able to prevail; such a one do we find Anno 35 Elizabeth; who, on the behalf of the Earls of Shrewsbury and Cumberland, obtained the 19th of June the said Year, to be appointed for the Installation. It sometimes happens, that though the Day of Installation be prefixed, yet something extraordinary intervening, it hath been prorogued to a farther and more convenient Season for the Sovereign’s Affairs. And the most remarkable Instance is set down, Anno 3 and 4 Philip and Mary, when the Earl of Sussex, the Lord Grey, and Sir Robert Rochester, Knights elect, had their Installation, together with the Feast of St. George, prorogued to the 10th of May in the Year aforesaid. But many urgent Affairs, relating both to the King and the Queen, fell out about that time; not only the Grand Feast, but the Solemnity of their Installation were prorogued to the 5th of December, and stood so by several Prorogations, to the 20th of February next ensuing; yet it was ordered that the Earl of Sussex shou’d be immediately installed, which was performed on the 8th of January, and the Lord Grey the 20th of April following; but Sir Robert Rochester never obtained that Honour.

Though the time of Installation be arbitrary and uncertain, yet hath the Place, from the first Institution of the Order, been appointed only to the Sovereign’s Free Chapel of St. George, within whose Choice are erected the Sovereigns and Knights-Companions Stalls, and under its sacred Roof their Banners and Atchievements are affixed, as Monuments of their high Merit, and so great Honour. For though the Celebration of the Grand Feast of St. George, happened to be removed from Windsor, by a Decree of the 1 Elizabeth; yet the Feast of the Installation was excepted, and ordered to be Solemniz’d in that Place: For Anno 21 Jac. I. it was provided among the Orders, That after an Election made of a Knight of the Order, his Installation shou’d be performed at Windsor, according to the ancient Customs and Statutes of the Order. When the Sovereign hath been pleased to prefix a certain Day for this Solemnity of Installation, there are several things to be obtained, previous to it. (1.) A Commission to admit and instal the elect Knight. (2.) Letters to each of the Commissioners, and the elect Knight, to repair to Windsor. (3.) Warrants for the Sovereign’s Livery. (4.) A Bill or Warrant for the removal of Stalls and Atchievements, all signed by the Chancellor of the Order, with the Sign Manual of the Sovereign: And lastly, the Knights own Preparations; among which his Atchievements are to be ready to be hung up, as soon as he is installed.

§ 3. No elect Knight can be installed, unless by the Sovereign of the Order himself, or by his Commission drawn up in Writing, and passed under the Great-Seal of the Order, directed either to his Lieutenant or Knights-Commissioners. There is but one Instance to be found, where the Sovereign hath been pleased to Honour a Knight by installing of him himself; and that was Philip of Castile and Leon, Anno 22 Henry VII. yet it is feasible enough that Sigismond the Emperor, and some other Foreign Princes of Rank and Eminence, might be installed by other Sovereigns, though there’s no Memorial left upon Record. In reference to Installation by Commission, it was ordained by the Statutes of Institution; That in Case the Sovereign shou’d be absent out of the Kingdom, at the Time of Installation of any of the Knights, so as he could not personally perform those things his Office obliged him to, it shou’d be Lawful for him to Constitute, as his Deputy in this Affair, whomsoever of the Society he shou’d think fit; and he to have Power and Authority, in the Sovereign’s Name, to Perform and Execute these Things, which it wou’d have been in his own part to have done, had he been Present. By Virtue of this Article, the Sovereign’s Deputy, or Lieutenant, performed the Ceremony before the Reign of King Henry VIII. which was usually done at the Feast of St. George; but in the Commission given out for Installation, formerly the Lieutenant was first mentioned, and the Knights-Companions appointed for his Assistance at the said Feast, were joined with him in the Commission for Installation; but of late, the Commission hath passed to the Lieutenant alone. King Henry VIII. by his Statutes, enlarged the Power of his Deputy, and they run to two or more of the Knights-Companions, that shou’d Exercise the same by the Sovereign’s Letters of Commission. And by the Privilege of this Article, whensoever after, the Sovereign’s did Constitute an Installation, otherwise than at the Feast of St. George, they then delegated their Authority to such of the Knights-Companions as were judged most proper to perform this Ceremony. The Year after the enacting this Statute, there’s a Commission recorded to be issued out to the Marquiss of Dorset, and the Earls of Devonshire and Kent, to Instal the Lords Ferrers of Chartley, the substance of which is in our Annals. The particular Powers these Commissions have granted to them, are to accept and admit the Knight into the Order, to receive the Oath, and to Instal him; And their general Power is, to effect and accomplish every Point which belongs to his due Admittance, and plenary Instalment.

§ 4. Besides, the Commission impowering the Sovereign’s Lieutenant, or Knights-Commissioners, therein nominated to the Installation of an elect Knight, it hath been a matter frequent with the Sovereign, to Issue out Letters of Summons under his privy Signet, both to the Commissioners for Installation, and elect Knights, under the signet of the Order; those to the Commissioners are directed severally to each, nominated in the Commission; who are to give them notice of the Instalment, and to require their repair to Windsor, against the Day assigned, that they may proceed to their Installation. Those directed to the elect Knights, pass likewise under the Sovereign’s Sign Manual, and Signet of the Order; and if there be two or more Knights appointed to be Installed on the same Day, the like Letter is sent to each of them, the difference being only in the Direction.

Besides these Letters sent from the Sovereign, the Chancellor (if the Sovereign be absent,) in his circular Letter to the Knights-Companions, gives them an intimation of the designed Installation, upon the Feast of St. George. And if the Feast be held either by the Sovereign or his Lieutenant, he dispatcheth a Letter to the Prelate of the Order, intimating the Sovereign’s Commands for his attendance at the Day appointed; and if it be performed by Commissioners, he issues his Letters to the three inferior Officers of the Order, purporting the same Command; the conveyance of which appertains to the Garter, and are left to his Care, and Trust, by the Constitutions relating to the Order, whose allowances and rewards upon these and such like Services, in their due Place, shall be considered.

§ 5. The third matter to be obtained by the Chancellor of the Order, is the Sovereign’s Warrant, directed for the Master of the Great Wardrobe, for the Time being, to deliver so much Velvet for the Livery of the Order, as will make the Knight elect a Surcoat and Hood, and as much Sarcenet or Taffety as will serve to line them: Of such a Warrant there is an ancient Precedent in Latin, entered in the Black Book of the Order; where it runs, Nos ideo volumus & præcipimus, ut hinc Tabellioni virgas Octodecem subrubri ostri de more tradas, cum tanto albo serico, quanto vestimentum inde conficiendum infulciri poterit, pro liverata (quam vocant) sua, &c. There is likewise inserted another Precedent in English of the like Nature, for the delivery of these Materials to Sir John Wallop Kt. elected Anno 38 Henry VIII. and in the same Form run all the Warrants of Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth.

Over and above these, there is a Warrant and Scheme prepared for the Sovereign to Sign, wherein is described the Order of the Stalls of Windsor, as he wou’d have them stand at the ensuing Election; by the Virtue of which, the Garter is impowered to shift or remove the Plates and Atchievements of the present Knights-Companions, so that room may be made for the elect Knight, or Knights, and to fix the new Plates and Atchievements within, and over the Stalls, in such order as they are rank’d in the Scheme. As soon as the Sovereign’s Pleasure is known concerning an Installation, Garter brings to the Chancellor of the Order, the Names of the present Knights-Companions, placed in the order they then fit in their Stalls, to the intent he may present them to the Sovereign; who, upon observing the series wherein they stand already, he may easier determine how to alter and place both them, and the new elect Knights. Anno 27 Elizabeth, the Office of the Garter being Vacant, this employ was put upon the Clarenceux, and the Sovereign’s Warrant for removal and placing of Plates and Atchievements, was delivered to him, five Days before the Installation of the Earl of Rutland, the Lords Cobham and Scroop, who thereupon fixed them according to the direction given; upon what Ground this alteration and removal came to be made, and continues still in Vogue, though it was otherwise at the Institution of the Order, wherein we must have recourse to the Statutes, and the antique Practice grounded upon them: Among the Statutes, those of the Institution did ordain, That if any Earl, Baron, or Knight-Batchellor, shou’d depart this Life, he that succeeded in his Place, of what Condition or State soever, shou’d possess the same Stall which his Predecessor held before, without changing: So that it might happen for an Earl, or a Duke, to succeed a Knight, and, vice versa, it was thus at first constituted by Edward III. that it might be known who were the first Founders of this most Noble Order.

Now how punctually this Article of the Statutes hath been observed, that none Chosen along time after the Institution of the Order, shou’d interrupt or change this course, we shall demonstrate, conceiving it very material to eye those Tables, yet preserved in the Chapter-House in Windsor, wherein are collected the Names of all those Knights-Companions who succeeded one another in each Stall, until the beginning of Henry VII’s Reign.

From which Series of Succession, we shall remark how exactly the Law in this Point hath been observed, even to King Henry VIII’s Reign, when it received some alteration in this Point. For we find in the Annals several Knights designed for the Stall of their immediate Predecessors, by the Honour only of Election, although prevented of Installation by Death, or other accidents; and the Statutes do not only bind him who shall chance to attain the Honour of Installation, but him who shall succeed or come after the Defunct Knight. First therefore we shall Instance in Foreign Kings, among whom we find Ericus King of Denmark, to have received Installation in Henry V’s Reign, not according to the State and Dignity of a King, but into the Stall of that Knight-Companion whom he succeeded, viz. the Duke of Bavaria. John the first King of Portugal, a Knight and Companion, likewise in Henry V’s Time, was installed in the second Stall on the Sovereign’s Side, which belong’d to Henry Duke of Lancaster, his first Predecessor: And to this King did succeed, in the same Stall, his Son Edward King of Portugal, Anno 13 Henry VI. to whose Successor Humphry, Anno 34, and Casimir King of Poland were elected, Anno 28 Henry VI. into the sixth Stall on the Prince’s side, at that Time vacant by the Death of the Duke Conimbero, whose first Founder was Sir John Mohun. Alphonsus King of Arragon and Naples, Anno 38 Henry VI. was elected into the Stall of Don Altro Vasques Dalmedea Count d’Averence, being the seventh on the Sovereign’s side, Sir Hugh Courtney first possessing it. Ferdinand King of Naples and Sicily, elected Anno 3 Edward IV. was installed on the third on the Prince’s side, Ralph Earl of Stafford having been first installed therein. And lastly, we find Alphonsus King of Sicily and Jerusalem, being elected by Henry VII. received his Installation on the Prince’s side, whose Predecessor was Thomas Beauchamp Earl of Warwick.

In the second Place, if we descend to Foreign Princes, it is remarkable, that William Duke of Gueldres, elected by Richard II. was installed in that which Sir John Beauchamp possessed, and William Earl of Holland, Haynalt, and Zealand, in that which appertained to Sir John Chandos. Philip Duke of Burgundy, in the Time of Henry V. into the Stall of Sir John Clifford. And Anno 28 Henry VI. Henry Duke of Brunswick was elected into the Duke of Suffolk’s Stall.

And as the Statute was carefully observed, with reference to the Election and Installation of Foreign Princes, so no less in relation to the Princes of the Blood at Home; among whom let us observe, in the third Place, the ranking the Sons of the Founder of this most Noble Order; where we see Lyonel Duke of Clarence his third Son, to have been installed in the sixth Stall on the Sovereign’s side, whose immediate Predecessor was Sir John Beauchamp: In like manner John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, his fourth Son was installed in the seventh Stall on the Prince’s side, having Sir Thomas Holland for his Predecessor and a Founder: His fifth Son Edmund Langley, Duke of York, possess’d the Stall Sir Hugh Courtney did before: And the sixth Son, Thomas Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester, enjoy’d the Stall Sir John Grey did before: This Rule was likewise observed strictly in relation to the Sons of King Henry VII.

If we review the aforesaid Tables, we shall find, that as the Knights-Companions of higher Dignity assumed the Stalls, (when they became vacant) though often of the lower sort, so some of the inferior rank among them have had the Honour to be installed in Seats of a superior Class, and this by the virtue and due of the Law.

Amongst these Knights-Companions we shall enumerate Sir Philip la Vache, a Gascon, who, in the Reign of King Richard II. was first installed in the Prince’s Stall, (being vacant by the Death of John of Gaunt,) though afterwards removed to the third Stall on the Sovereign’s side. Sir Nicholas Sarnesfield, Standard-bearer to the Founder, who succeeded Hugh Earl of Stafford, and after him Sir William Arundel, immediate Successor to Sir Nicholas, were both installed in the second Stall on the Sovereign’s side: As likewise Sir John Robsart, Sir Gilbert Talbot, and Sir John Grey, &c. were installed in the second or third Stalls on the Sovereign’s side.

These Instances already asserted, are sufficient to manifest the Usage and Practice, how the Knights-Companions have succeeded in the Stalls of their immediate Predecessors, down to the Reign of Henry VIII. and was consonant and agreeable to the ancient Law of the Order.

But we are to observe, that tho’ each Knight was, by the before-mentioned Article, constituted to succeed his immediate Predecessor, in the Stall void by his Death, yet there’s an exception as to that of the Prince of Wales. This Stall is the first on the left Hand, at the entrance into the Choir of St. George’s Chappel at Windsor, and wherein Edward the Black Prince was installed; from this Stall does the whole range of Stalls on the same side take their Denomination, and to which the Prince of Wales, as soon as he is elected into the Order, hath a due Title. Though this Stall de Jure appertains to that Prince, yet heretofore, when the Sovereign had no Heir, then was it for the present disposed to some other Knight, otherwise a defect in the full Number of Knights-Companions would have ensued.

The first that obtained that Honour, (besides the Prince of Wales,) was John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, decreed him by K. Richard II. who never had Issue, and removed from the seventh Stall thither. But the first Companion that happened to be installed in it, was Sir Philip la Vache just mentioned, which was a great Honour done to one of his Rank: But it fell to him by the then Law of the Order, being elected into the Room of the said Duke, who died possessed of it. But King Henry IV. coming to the Crown, and his eldest Son being created Prince of Wales, laid claim to the Stall by Virtue of that Statute, and had it assigned to him. Nevertheless, that the former Possessor might suffer as little diminution as might be in the Honour of his Session, he was removed no lower than to the Stall which King Henry IV. lately held, when he was Earl of Derby.

Upon the Death of Henry IV. Henry V. being Sovereign, Sir John Dabrichcourt supplyed the vacancy, and was installed therein; and he dying in the fifth Year of that King possess’d thereof, his Plate continues in that Stall to this Day, and the Emperor Sigismond succeeds Sir John Dabrichcourt in the Prince’s Stall.

Some few Years before King Henry VI. died, he had a Son Born; and though the Emperor Frederick was elected into the Order, Anno 35 Henry VI. yet was that Stall reserved for the Prince, (though he never possess’d it) and the Emperor 37 Henry VI. was installed by Proxy in the Duke of Somerset’s Stall, then lately deceased.

In Edward IV’s Reign, the right of this Stall returned again to Edward his Son, the Prince of Wales, and in Henry VII’s, to Prince Arthur, but upon his Death, to Maximilian, Son of Frederick King of the Romans, and after Emperor, enjoyed it. So did the Emperor Charles V. (his Grandchild,) in regard there was no Son as yet Born to the Sovereign.

But Prince Edward being Born, while the Stall was possessed by Charles V. it chanc’d likewise that the King of the Scots died, which caus’d King Henry VIII. to reserve his Stall for that Prince, although he never had Possession of it, or was elected into the Order, though we find him once registred in a Scrutiny. King Henry VIII. dying, Prince Edward became, both by Inheritance and Succession, Sovereign of this most Noble Order.

From this Time, to the eighth Year of King James I. there was no Prince of Wales, who finding the Prince’s Stall vacant, at his entrance upon the English Throne, did in a Chapter in the first Year of his Reign, advance the French King Henry IV. from the second Stall on the Sovereign’s side, into it; and appointed Prince Henry to be installed in that King’s void Seat, where he continued till Anno 3 Jac. I. that Christierne IV. King of Denmark, came to be installed by Proxy, and the Prince was moved lower to make way for him, though he was Senior both by Election and Installation. Anno 9 Jac. I. upon the Death of the French King, not the Prince, whose Right it was, since he was created Prince of Wales, but the said King of Denmark, was translated to the vacant Stall; and hereupon Prince Henry was returned again to the second Stall on the Sovereign’s side, which he enjoyed as long as he survived, and upon his Death, Prince Charles was removed into it, and there remained all King James’s Reign.

When King Charles II. came to be installed, the Sovereign finding him prevented from assuming the Prince’s Stall, the King of Denmark being yet alive, assigned to him the second Stall on the Sovereign’s side, (wherein himself sat whilst Prince of Wales,) and where hitherto his Plate remains as a fixed Memorial of his Installation therein.

Although it has been made apparent, that the Knights-Companions, at their Election or Installation, succeeded the immediate defunct Knight in his Stall, yet we may observe, that sometimes after Installation, as an especial signal of Favour and Indulgence, the Sovereign hath been pleased, though very rarely, to advance a Knight-Companion to a higher Stall than that wherein he was first placed; and though there be no such Permission granted by the Law of the Order, yet we find John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, removed from the seventh Stall on the Prince’s side, to the Prince’s Stall it self, and it’s said to be done by the Decree of the Sovereign and the Knights-Companions. And no doubt but as this was done by so good Authority, and so upon no less enducements to the Sovereign, and the whole Society. We shall here mention a few of these extraordinary Cases. William Henalt, Earl of Ostervant, was advanced by King Richard II. from the eleventh Stall on the Sovereign’s side, to the Duke of Britain’s, being the second on the Prince’s side. Humphry Duke of Gloucester, in the Reign of King Henry VI. was removed from the eleventh Stall on the Sovereign’s side, to the second on the same side; and Richard Nevil, Earl of Warwick, by the Consent of the Knights-Companions in Chapter, Anno 39 Henry VI. was translated to the Duke of Buckingham’s Stall; the Lord Bonvil, to the Lord Scales’s Seat; Sir Thomas Kyriell, to the Place of the Earl of Shrewsbury; and the Lord Wenlock, to the Stall of Viscount Beaumont. But King Henry VIII. thinking it requisite for the Sovereign of this most Noble Order, to be impowered by a General, how to Act that at Pleasure, which the former Sovereigns did not, but by the Power of particular Acts, or Orders, in the Chapter; after he had confirmed the ancient Law of succeeding in the Stall of the immediate Predecessor, and not to suffer an alteration without the Sovereign’s Licence, in the next Article he established this Privilege upon Himself and Successors: That if there were any Place or Stall void, the Sovereign, at his own Pleasure, might Advance and Translate any Knight of the Society into the void Stall, so that it were higher than that, wherein he sate before.

This in Effect did vacat the ancient Law of succeeding in Stalls, though at the same Time he seem’d to Confirm it to the Knights-Subjects, for afterwards Translations preceeding to Installations, became so frequent, that the Right an elect Knight had to his Predecessor’s Stall, was seldom enjoyed. However, hereby he confirmed a Power to gratify such of the Knights-Companions, as he shou’d think fit to advance, without having recourse to a Chapter; and from hence began the Custom to Issue out Warrants, under the Sovereign’s Sign Manual, for the Translation of Stalls, and consequently the alteration and removal of such of the Knights-Companions Helms, Crests, Banners, and Plates, who shou’d receive a higher Exaltation.

Besides the Power established upon the Sovereigns of this most Noble Order, of translating Stalls, when a vacancy happened, they farther added this larger Prerogative: That the Sovereign, once in his Life, might, if it pleased him, make a general Translation of all the Stalls at his Pleasure, except of Emperors, Kings, Princes, and Dukes, who shou’d keep their Stalls and Places, unless advanced to a higher Room and Stall. In which Translation, the long continuance in the Order, and the Praises, Worthiness, and Merits of the Knights-Companions, were to be considered and remembred.

But this Branch of the Sovereign’s Prerogative, as far as we can find, was never put in Execution, though the Translation, Anno 27 Henry VIII. border’d something upon it, perhaps lest it might raise too great Feuds among the Knights-Subjects; forasmuch as that of translating only, (when there happened a vacancy,) begot great Emulations, which at length introduced a Change, to which we shall pass, after we have taken notice of a Clause added in the twenty second Article of King Henry VIII’s Statutes, relating to Princes.

It is observable the ancient Law of succeeding in Stalls, in relation to them, was wholly altered. For King Henry VIII. upon the Establishment of his Body of Statutes, not only appointed those Strangers, then present of the Order, to be seated next himself; but that all Emperors, Kings, and Princes, should hold their Stalls after their Estates, and the very next unto the Sovereign, tho’ Knights-Subjects, upon vacancy, become removable at Pleasure.

For this reason, the Emperor Maximilian II. and after him Rudolph II. his Son, had the Prince’s Stalls assigned them after their Election into the Order; and several of the Kings of France were placed in the next below, being the second on the Sovereign’s side. And when there chanced to be more than one King at a time in the Order, the second Stall on the Prince’s side was assigned him; for Precedency was measured now by Dignity and State, and not by the Antiquity of the Order; As appears from the King of Bohemia, Anno 19 Henry VIII. and the King of Spain, Anno 8 Elizabeth, Princes Strangers, according to their regality, and illustrious extraction, had their Scituation next to Kings, as is manifest from the Dukes of Savoy, Montmorency, and Holstein, Anno 3 Elizabeth, and Frederick Prince Palatine, and Maurice Prince of Orange, Anno 11 Jac. I.

But notwithstanding these Assignments of Stalls to Strangers, they were nevertheless subject to removal, sometimes to Stalls higher than their own, upon the Death of a Stranger, who died possessed of a superior one; and sometimes again to others lower, for the advancing a Knight of greater Degree and Distinction, where the upper Stalls were already supplied; else they could not be so ranked, according to their respective Quality, as the Statutes enjoyn; nor indeed wou’d any Stranger King have accepted of an Election, unless he was placed in a distinguishable Stall, suitable to his Dignity. Ferdinand, Emperor of Germany, is an instance of Advancement in translation of Stalls; for after the Death of the Emperor Charles V. his Brother, he was advanced from the second Stall on the Prince’s side, into the Prince’s Stall. And Henry IV. of France, from the second on the Sovereign’s side, to the Prince’s Stall, and Christierne IV. King of Denmark, Anno 9 Jac. I.

Among Princes Strangers, we find Emanuel Duke of Savoy, advanced from the third on the Prince’s side, to the second on the same side, Anno 2 Elizabeth; and Frederick Prince Palatine, Anno 1 Charles I. was advanced from the second of the Prince’s, to the second on the side of the Sovereign; likewise Henry Frederick, Prince of Orange; was advanced from the third of the Sovereign’s, to the second of the Prince’s, upon the Death of the King of Sweden, Anno 10 Charles I.

When the French King Charles IX. was elected, Anno 6 Elizabeth, the superior Stalls were already filled with Strangers, and there was no Expedient left to give him the Stall the Sovereign design’d him, but by the removal of some of those Knights-Strangers lower; and upon this, Emanuel Duke of Savoy was displaced to the third on the Sovereign’s side.

But the French King was not installed, until the 16th of January, Anno 8 Elizabeth, and before that it was concluded to remove the King of Spain to the Duke of Savoy’s Stall, as void before, and to instal the French King in the King of Spain’s, which was accordingly done; so that upon this occasion, there were four Strangers, and five Knights-Subjects, removed lower, to make way for the French King.

The 20th of April, Anno 2 Jac. I. The Duke of Wirtemberg was installed in the third Stall on the Prince’s side, and the Year following advanced to a higher.

The 26th of May ensuing, Ulerick Duke Holst, had assigned unto him that Stall from which the Duke of Wirtemberg was advanced: But against the Installation of Christierne, the fourth King of Denmark, the Duke was removed back to his Seat, wherein he was installed, and the Duke advanced into the vacant one. All which will appear more conspicuous, from the appointment of Stalls on these Occasions, which follow.

A remove of Banners and Plates, at the Installation of Frederick Duke of Wirtemberg, Anno Jac. I. Reg. 2.


1. The Sovereign 1. The French King
2. The Prince 2. Void
3. Earl of Nottingham 3. Duke of Wirtemberg
4. Earl of Ormond 4. Earl of Dorset
5. Earl of Shrewsbury 5. Earl of Cumberland
6. Earl of Northumber. 6. Earl of Worcester
7. Lord Sheffeild 7. Earl of Suffolk
8. Earl of Devonshire 8. Sir Henry Lea
9. Earl of Sussex 9. Lord Scroop
10. Earl of Derby 10. Lord Burleigh
11. Duke of Lenox 11. Earl of Southampton
12. Earl of Marr 12. Earl of Pembrook
13. Void 13. Void

The Order of Stalls at the Feast of St. George, Anno Jac. I. Reg. 3.


1. The Sovereign 1. The French King
2. The Prince 2. Void
3. Duke of Wirtemberg 3. Earl of Nottingham
4. Earl of Ormond 4. Earl of Dorset
5. Earl of Shrewsbury 5. Earl of Cumberland
6. Earl of Northumber. 6. Earl of Worcester
7. Lord Sheffeild 7. Earl of Suffolk
8. Earl of Devonshire 8. Sir Henry Lea
9. Earl of Sussex 9. Lord Scroop
10. Earl of Derby 10. Lord Burleigh
11. Duke of Lenox 11. Earl of Southampton
12. Earl of Marr 12. Earl of Pembrook
13. Void 13. Void

A remove of Banners and Plates, at the Installation of Christian IV. King of Denmark, the 8th of September, Anno Jac. I. Reg. 3.


1. The Sovereign 1. The French King
2. The King of Denmark 2. The Prince
3. Duke of Holst 3. Duke of Wirtemberg
4. Earl of Nottingham 4. Earl of Ormond
5. Earl of Dorset 5. Earl of Shrewsbury
6. Earl of Cumberland 6. Earl of Northumber.
7. Earl of Worcester 7. Lord Sheffeild
8. Earl of Suffolk 8. Earl of Devonshire
9. Sir Henry Lea 9. Earl of Sussex
10. Lord Scroop 10. Earl of Derby
11. Earl of Exeter 11. Duke of Lenox
12. Earl of Southampton 12. Earl of Marr
13. Earl of Pembrook 13. Earl of Northampton

In this last Scheme, we find Prince Henry removed from the second on the Sovereign’s, to the second on the Prince’s side, to make room for the King of Denmark. And tho’ the Duke Chevereux, Anno 3 Charles I. was advanced from the third Stall on the Sovereign’s side, to the second on the Prince’s side, that became vacant by the Death of the Duke of Brunswick; yet the Year after, upon the admission of Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, he was removed two Stalls lower, and the Prince Elector Palatine one.

We pass on now from the removal and translation of a Knight-Subject, after he had been installed, to the assignment of his Stall, at the Time of the Installation it self; where it is worthy of Remark, That on the 24th of April, Anno 6 Elizabeth, in lieu of the ancient Law, which appointed each elect Knight to succeed in the Stall of his Predecessor, a new one was introduced, being composed, as was conceived, upon a more just level than the former, and as far as was possible, to extinguish all danger that might arise from Emulation. The Words are: That all Knights, who for the future were admitted into the Society of the Order, should take and be installed in the lowest Stall, according to the Course and Seniority of their Election, except only Stranger Kings and Princes.

Upon which it chanced, that when a Knight-Subject elect was to be installed, all the Knights-Companions, between him and the vacant Stall, were removed higher, that the space might be supplied: And if two or more were to be installed together, they possessed the lowest Stalls, according to the Seniority of their Election. And though the manner and order in removals, is become a thing of course, and rendered familiar and easy; yet it cannot be effected, or the Atchievements, Banners, or Plates, displaced, unless by a Warrant issued from the Sovereign, to justify the Garter for such his removals; which will plainly appear by the insertion of these Schemes.

The Order of Stalls, as they stood at the Feast
of St. George, Anno 29 Eliz.


1. The Sovereign 1. Void
2. The French King 2. The King of Spain
3. The King of Denmark 3. Void
4. Duke John Casimire 4. Void
5. Viscount Mountague 5. Earl of Leicester
6. Earl of Shrewsbury 6. Earl of Warwick
7. Lord Hunsdon 7. Void
8. Void 8. Earl of Worcester
9. Earl of Huntington 9. Lord Burleigh
10. Lord Grey 10. Earl of Derby
11. Earl of Pembrook 11. Ld. How. of Effingh.
12. Void 12. Lord Cobham
13. Lord Scroop 13. Void
A Translation of Stalls made against the Feast
of Installation, Anno 30 Eliz.


1. The Sovereign 1. Void
2. The French King 2. The King of Spain
3. The King of Denmark 3. Void
4. Duke John Casimire 4. Void
5. Viscount Mountague 5. Earl of Leicester
6. Earl of Shrewsbury 6. Earl of Warwick
7. Lord Hunsdon 7. Earl of Worcester
8. Earl of Huntington 8. Lord Burleigh
9. Lord Grey 9. Earl of Derby
10. Earl of Pembrook 10. Ld. How. of Effingh.
11. Lord Cobham 11. Lord Scroop
12. Earl of Essex 12. Earl of Ormond
13. Sir Christop. Hatton 13. Void

The first of these Schemes plainly evince, how the Stalls were ranked on St. George’s-Eve, Anno 29 Elizabeth, and the other how modelled against the Installation of the Earls of Essex and Ormond, and that of Sir Christopher Hatton, the 23d of May, Anno 30 Elizabeth, which demonstrates those three elect Knights appear to be installed in the lowermost Stalls, (as the last mentioned Decree enjoyns,) and by reason the Earl of Essex, and Sir Christopher Hatton, were settled on the Sovereign’s side, the vacancy in the eighth and twelfth Stalls of the same side became filled up; the Earl of Huntington being advanced into the eighth, the Lord Grey in the ninth, and the Earl of Pembrook in the tenth Stall, by the advance of the Earl of Worcester into the seventh on the Prince’s side, the vacancy is there supplyed, and the other Knights seated below him, by a like removal, left the twelfth Stall for the Earl of Ormond, and the thirteenth void.

The same Order was observ’d by King James, as appears by another Scheme of the Stalls settled on the 3d of July, Anno 1 Jac. I. at the Election of the Duke of Lenox, the Earls of Northampton, Marr, and Pembrook.

Stalls altered at a Chapter held at Windsor, the
3 July, Anno 1 Jac. I.


1. The Sovereign 1. The French King
2. The Prince 2. Void
3. Earl of Nottingham 3. Void
4. Earl of Ormond 4. Lord Buckhurst
5. Earl of Salop 5. Earl of Cumberland
6. Earl of Northumberl. 6. Earl of Worcester
7. Lord Sheffeild 7. Ld. How. of Walden
8. Lord Hunsdon 8. Lord Montjoy
9. Sir Henry Lea 9. Earl of Sussex
10. Lord Cobham 10. Lord Scroop
11. Earl of Derby 11. Lord Burleigh
12. Duke of Lenox 12. Earl of Southampton
13. Earl of Marr 13. Earl of Pembrook

From hence it is evident, that these elect Knights were installed in the lowest Stalls, and so continued throughout the series of his Reign, and since, except the Prince of Wales, and Charles Duke of York, Sons to the said Sovereign: For the Prince was installed on the second on the Sovereign’s side, and upon that Election of the Duke of York, Anno Jac. I. the second Stall on the Prince’s side was assigned him, and the Morrow after St. George’s Day, upon which he was elected, he made a solemn Progression to the Chapel, in order to take Possession of it. Upon Whitsunday following, at a serious Debate, it was determined in Chapter, that notwithstanding he was the Sovereign’s Son, yet he shou’d have no more Preheminence than other Knights-Companions, and that his Atchievements, which had been set up over the second Stall on the Prince’s side, shou’d be removed to that Stall next above the Viscount Rochester’s, and to be conserted with the Earl of Montgomery, before whom he had the Preference, on Whitsun-Munday, as they proceeded to the Chapter-House, in order to their Installation. And where it was farther Decreed, That all Princes not Absolute, shou’d be installed thenceforth in the Prince’s Place. But after this had passed, Endeavours were used to advance the Duke into the Stall he was first appointed to, and the Kings of Arms were consulted upon this Point; who certified, that Richard Duke of York, second Son to King Edward IV. was installed in the fourth Stall on the Prince’s side, and had Precedence of the Duke of Suffolk, and the Earls of Dowglass and Essex, who were elected long before him: That Henry Duke of York, second Son to King Henry VII. was installed in the third Stall on the Sovereign’s side, and had the Preference of the Duke of Buckingham, and the Earls of Oxford and Derby, his Seniors; and in the last Place, that Henry Fitz Roy, Duke of Richmond, base Son of King Henry VIII. had Place and Precedence before the Dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk, and other Knights-Companions. Upon which Grounds it was thought requisite that the Issue of the Sovereign should enjoy the same Privileges in this Affair, as those Princes that were Strangers; and therefore at another Chapter assembled at White-Hall, on Easter-Monday, being the 13th of April, Anno 10 Jac. I. the Order which passed the Year before, for making the Duke a Puisne, was abrogated, and he was translated to the second Stall on the Prince’s side, and paired with Prince Henry, as may be seen by the Stalls then settled, and entered into the Blue Book of the Order.

We need not bring any more corroborating Circumstances of the Observation of the Chapter Act, made Anno 6 Elizabeth, as it relates to Knights-Subjects, which has been punctually performed; but since Strangers are therein excepted, it will not be amiss to note, that the Rule and Practice continued as was established by King Henry VIII. viz. that they were installed in Seats next to the Sovereign, according to the illustriousness of their Dignity and Birth.

We shall mention one Instance, of the manner of placing both Strangers and Knights-Subjects at one and the same Time. At the first coming of King Charles I. to the Crown, there were of both Conditions to be installed in one Day, to wit, the Duke of Brunswick a Stranger Prince, the Earls of Salisbury and Carlisle, Knights-Subjects, elected by King James I. in the 22d Year of his Reign, and on the 15th of May following, the Earls of Dorset and Holland were elected with the Viscount Andover, and the Duke of Chevereux the 4th of July after. And when the removal of Stalls was propounded for the Admission of these seven elect Knights, it was agreed too, that the Dukes of Brunswick and Chevereux shou’d be installed in the uppermost Stall among Strangers, as King Henry VIII. had before ordained, but the Knights-Subjects in the lowermost Stalls, according to the pristine Practice, as appears from the Decree, Anno 6 Elizabeth, and from the settlement of Stalls then made, and thus intituled. ·

A remove of Banners and Stalls, at the Feast of St. George, and Installation holden at Windsor, the 13, 14, 15 Days of December, Anno 1625. At which time were installed the Dukes of Brunswick, and Chevereux, the Earls of Salisbury, Carlisle, Holland, Dorset, and the Viscount Andover, as follows.


1. The Sovereign 1. The King of Denmark
2. The Prince Palatine 2. The Duke of Brunswick
3. Duke Chevereux 3. Earl of Northumberl.
4. Earl of Worcester 4. Lord Sheffeild
5. Earl of Suffolk 5. Earl of Sussex
6. Earl of Darby 6. Earl of Marr
7. Earl of Pembrook 7. Earl of Montgomery
8. Earl of Arundel 8. Earl of Somerset
9. Earl of Kelly 9. Viscount Wallingford
10. Earl of Rutland 10. Duke of Buckingham
11. Earl of Leicester 11. Earl of Salisbury
12. Earl of Carlisle 12. Earl of Dorset
13. Earl of Holland 13. Viscount Andover

After the Restauration of King Charles II. to his Crown and Kingdoms, when several Knights-Companions, both Strangers and Subjects, were to be installed, a Debate arose in the Chapter held at White-Hall, the 10th of April, Anno 13 Car. II. about placing their Atchievements over their Stalls; upon which the following Order was issued out.


Whereas divers elect Knights and Companions of our most Noble Order of the Garter are, by our special Appointment, to be installed in the Chapel of our Castle of Windsor, upon the 15th Day of this Instant; and that some of them who are Strangers, do not as yet, nor are likely to appear, either in their own Persons, or by their sufficient Proxies at the said Instalment, and so might run the hazard to lose the Benefit and Advantage of their Pre-election, in Point of Rank and Precedency, in respect of some of our Subject-Knights, who, though since elected, will be first installed, without some Expedient taken therein to prevent it. There being no reason, (nor is it our intention) that those noble Persons shou’d suffer that prejudice, for want of that usual formality, and for which they are not in the fault, but others, who, according to the Statutes and ancient Custom, were to give timely Advertisement to the said Foreign elected Knights, and to Summon them by themselves or Proxies, to assist at the said Instalment: Our Will and Pleasure is, you proceed forthwith to the placing of the Hatchments of all the respective Knights and Companions of our said Order, whether installed or elect, Subject or Stranger, over the Stalls, which we do in manner as followeth assign, and appoint them in our aforesaid Chappel.

1. The Sovereign 1. Void
2. The Duke of York 2. The Elector Palatine
3. Prince Elector of Brand. 3. Prince of Orange
4. Prince Rupert 4. Prince Edward
5. Earl of Salisbury 5. Earl of Barkshire
6. Earl of Northumberl. 6. Duke of Espernon
7. Duke of Ormond 7. Duke of Buckingham
8. Earl of Southampton 8. Marquiss of Newcastle
9. Earl of Bristol 9. Prince Tarente
10. Count Marshin 10. Duke of Albermarle
11. Earl of Sandwich 11. Earl of Oxford
12. Duke of Richmond 12. Earl of Lindsey
13. Earl of Manchester 13. Earl of Strafford

And for so doing, this shall be your sufficient Warrant, any Statute, or Custom, to the contrary notwithstanding: Given under the Signet of our said Order, at our Court at White-Hall, the 10th of April, 1666.

To our Trusty and Well-beloved Servant, Sir Edward Walker, Kt. Garter, and Principal King of Arms, of our most Noble Order of the Garter.

By the Sovereign’s Command
Hen. de Vic.

By which we find the Stranger Princes are placed in the upper Stall, nearest the Sovereign, according to their Dignities and Degrees, and all the Knights-Subjects as to the Time of their Elections. It is to be observed upon this Settlement, that though the Earl of Southampton did not receive his Garter and George, till the Sovereign, upon his happy arrival in England, conferred it upon him with his own Hand; yet, according to the Time of the Election, Place and Precedency were allowed him; which was in January, An. Dom. 1649. in the Isle of Jersey, some few Days before Duke Hamilton and the Marquiss of Newcastle were elected.

It was ordered by the Sovereign and Knights-Companions, convened in Chapter on the 10th of January, Anno 14 Car. II. That thenceforward all Princes Strangers, of what Condition soever, shou’d have Precedence among themselves, according to the Seniority of their Elections and Installations. Upon which the Sovereign, under the Signet of the Order, authorized the Garter, upon the 30th of March, to set up their Atchievements in St. George’s Chapel, in the Order here exhibited.


1. The Sovereign 1. Void
2. Duke of York 2. Prince Elector Palatine
3. Prince Rupert 3. Prince of Orange
4. Elector of Brandenbur. 4. Prince of Denmark
5. Earl of Salisbury 5. Earl of Barkshire
6. Earl of Northumberl. 6. Duke of Ormond
7. Duke of Buckingham 7. Earl of Southampton
8. Marquiss of Newcastle 8. Earl of Bristol
9. Prince Tarente 9. Count Marshin
10. Duke of Albermarle 10. Earl of Sandwich
11. Earl of Oxford 11. Duke of Richmond
12. Earl of Lindsey 12. Earl of Manchester
13. Earl of Strafford 13. Duke of Monmouth

But upon mature Consideration of a Law made by Henry VIII. for placing of Strangers, and for another founded by Queen Elizabeth for Knights-Subjects; the Sovereign, by the consent of the most Noble Companions present, at a Chapter held the 19th of November, 1699. was pleased to Ordain, first, That the Prince of Wales, and such Emperors and Kings that shou’d be of the Order, shou’d be placed in the nearest Stalls to that of the Sovereign, according to their Elections and Installations.

Then, That all other Sovereign Princes, and Princes of the Blood, shou’d be placed in their Stalls next unto the King’s, according to the Seniority, in the Order. And thirdly, That all other his Majesty’s Subjects and Strangers, not of the Dignity above-mention’d, shou’d be installed in the lowest Stalls, according to their Antiquity in the Order, and the ancient Practice.

And whereas the Stall termed the Prince’s had been long vacant, the Sovereign King Charles II. by the advice of the most Noble Companions, at the same Chapter, was pleased to order, That the present King of Sweden shou’d, by his Proxy, be placed in that Stall, and his Atchievements hung up thereon accordingly, in convenient Time. Which order was strictly put in Execution, and the Stalls at the Feast of St. George, Anno 23 Car. II. were thus ranged.


1. The Sovereign 1. The King of Sweden
2. King of Denmark 2. The Duke of York
3. Prince Elector Palatine 3. Prince Rupert
4. Prince of Orange 4. Elector of Brandenbur.
5. Pr. Elector of Saxony 5. Duke of Ormond
6. Duke of Buckingham 6. Duke of Newcastle
7. Earl of Bristol 7. Prince Tarante
8. Count Marshin 8. Earl of Sandwich
9. Earl of Oxford 9. Duke of Richmond
10. Earl of Strafford 10. Duke of Monmouth
11. Duke of Albermarle 11. Void
12. Void 12. Void
13. Void 13. Void

§ 7. Having dispatch’d the ancient Law of Succession into void Stalls, and of Translation from one to another; we come now to consider what is farther to be prepared for the Knight elect, against the Day of the great Solemnity, at his own Expence; the chief of which are;

1. A Mantle or upper Robe, with its Appurtenance.
2. A Collar of the Garter and Great George.
3. A Cap of black Velvet, adorned with Plumes.
4. A Helmet, Crest, Mantlings, and Sword.
5. A Banner of his Arms.
6. A Plate of his Arms and Stile.
7. A Cushion, to carry his Robes and Collar upon.
8. Lodging Escutcheons.

Though the Kirtle on the Surcoat was anciently given by the King to the Knights-Subjects, yet we do not find the Mantle of the Order was, nor indeed of a later Date, unless now and then, as a distinguishing mark of Favour. But the Sovereign always bestows the Mantle upon Strangers, as well as the whole Habit, when he has elected them into the Society of the Order. And upon sending of the whole Habit over by Garter to the King of Portugal, Anno 13 Hen. VI. the Mantle, Surcoat, and Hood, were accompted for in the Great Wardrobe, and is to this Day practised.

However of late the Sovereign hath been pleased, now and then, to confer the Mantle upon a Knight-Subject. Witness King James I. Anno 21. did to James Marquiss of Hamilton; and King Charles I. Anno 4. to Theophilus, Earl of Suffolk, and the Year ensuing to William, Earl of Northampton: And Anno 14. Sir James Palmer, by his Sovereign’s Direction, paid for the Velvet and Taffety of the Earl of Kelly’s Mantle and Surcoat, to Sir Peter Richaut, and put it upon the Account of the extraordinary Expence of the Order.

King Charles II. as a signal Mark of his Favour, caused seventeen Mantles (with the usual Liveries of Surcoat and Hood,) to be made ready against the grand Feast of St. George, Anno 13. which he confered not only among the new elect Knights, but upon the Earls of Salisbury, Barkshire, and Northumberland, that were three Senior Knights-Companions.

The Collar of the Order, and the great George, the elect Knight is to provide himself, unless where the Sovereign is pleased to bestow the Mantle, which is always accompanied with the Collar, and then a like Warrant issues to the Master of the Jewel-House, as was used for providing the seventeen Collars, Anno 13 Car. II.

The black Velvet Cap before-mentioned and described, with the Helm, Crest, and Mantlings, together with a Sword and Girdle, are to be got in readiness by the care and direction of the Garter, but at the Expence of the Knights elect; all which are to be set over his Stall, as soon as his Installation Fees are paid.

This Honour, that every Knight-Companion shall have his Helm, Crest, and Sword, affixed over his Stall at the Chappel of St. George, is particularly provided for in all the several Bodies of Statutes; and are ordained to remain there during the Lives of the Possessors, In Memory of him that bears them, and a Testimony of the Defence of the Church, as the Oaths of Military Orders require.

The Helms upon this Occasion are composed of Steel, and of a more than ordinary proportion; those for Sovereign Princes are framed open, with large Barrs; but those for the Knights-Subjects are made close. About King Henry VIII’s Reign, the Knights-Subjects Helms were parcel gilt with fine Gold in Oil, wrought with curious Works, and burnished with fine Gold. But in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, and since that Time, it hath been the Custom to gild their Helms all over, and place the Arms of St. George in the Middle before the Vizors.

The Mantlings that hang down on either side of the Helm, together with the Wreath, are in some places called Appendixes, and are all of Tissue, or Cloth of Gold, and formerly lined with Sarcenet; but in the Reign of Queen Mary they were exchanged for white Satin, for so were the Mantlings of Anthony Brown, Viscount Montague, and William Howard, Lord Admiral, lined.

At the bottom of these Mantlings hang a pair of gilt Knobs burnished with Gold, from which spring out Tossels either of Gold or Silver, (consentaneous to the Metal in the Knights Court of Armour) mixed with Silk of the chief Colour in his Arms.

Upon the Helm and Mantlings, is placed a Wreath of corded Silk, of the Knight’s Colours, which was formerly of Sarcenet, but now of Taffety.

The Crest of the Knight is placed either upon these Wreaths, or Issuant out of a Crown, or Ducal Cap, turned with Ermin; and of what kind soever the Crest is, the same is neatly carved in Wood, and either gilt, or wrought in; Directly before the Helm, an armed Sword hangs down, the Pomel, Cross, and Chape are gilt; the Scabbard is made of the same Tissue or Cloth of Gold as the Mantlings are, as is the Girdle that belongs to it; but the Buckles and Pendants are of Copper Gilt.

The Custom of setting up the Helm, Crest, and Sword, over the Stall of the Knights, is as ancient as the Institution of the Order; but when the Banners were first hung up, we have not so clear a Conviction; for neither the Statutes of Institution, nor those of Henry V. make mention of them.

The first time they occur to us, we find to be in Anno 2 Hen. VI. in the black Book of the Order, where the Banners of the King of Portugal is particularly spoke of, among the Atchievements then set over the Stall. But they are more particularly mentioned in the Body of King Henry VIII’s Statutes.

The Fashion of the Sovereign’s and all the Knights-Companions Banners are square; yet it does no where appear what the exact Standard was; yet we find them in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth to be two Yards and a Quarter Long, and a Yard and three Quarters Broad, besides the Fringe, which is composed of Gold, or Silver and Silk, of the Colours in the Wreath; and on them are wrought, upon Taffety-Sarcenet, double Sarcenet, or rich Taffety, with fine Gold Colours on both sides, the Paternal Coat of the Knights-Companion, together with his Quartering, or so many of them as he pleases to use, and the Garter is to take care they be warrantably Marshalled.

And because a single Coat was not conceived to stand fair enough in a Banner of this proportion, the Sovereign hath been pleased to grant a new Coat, to bear in Quarters his Paternal one, if he wanted it; as King James I. did to Robert Carr, Viscount Rochester; to whose Paternal Coat he first added a Lion Passant, Gardant Or, in the dexter Part, as an especial Gift of his Favour, and then invented a new Coat, to be born in Quarter therewith, viz. Quarterly Or and Gules, a Lyon Rampant Sable over all, June 8. Anno 9 Jac. I.

These Banners of Arms are fixed to the End of long Staves, painted in Oil, formerly of the Colour of the Wreaths, but now Red; their Ends are put into Sockets of Iron, well fixed in the Wall, directly over the Knights-Companions Helms and Crests, and frequently lined with Fustian to preserve them.

There is moreover to be provided a Copper Plate Gilt, whereupon are engraved, the Escutcheon of the Knights elect Arms in Colours Enamilled, with his Quartering, Helm, Crest, and Supporters, and underneath, his Style and Titles of Honour, encircled with a Garter. Which Plate the Garter usually takes Care to provide, and is to be fixed on the back of the Knights Stall, assigned for his Installation.

A Velvet Cushion is likewise to be provided, to carry the Knight’s elect Mantle, Collar, Hood, and Book of Statutes, before him, in the Progress into the Choire, in order to his Installation. At the Installation of the Lord Treasurer Weston, and the Earls of Exeter and Lindsey, who were installed, Anno 6 Car. I. the materials and garnishing of these Cushions are recited severally, to contain one Yard and a Half of Crimson Velvet, one Ell of rich Taffety for their Lining, four Yards of Fringe, and four great Tossels.

Lastly, There have frequently been made ready a convenient Number of Lodging Escutcheons of the elect Knights Arms, invironed with a Garter, and his Stile and Titles placed underneath; it having been an ancient Custom, for the Knights to distribute these Escutcheons at the Inns, in their Passage to, and at Windsor, as a Memorial of their Installation.

What falls under the Care of the Garter to prepare and make ready, the Expence sometimes has been cast up, and the Account stated and defraid before-hand; by which means, he was in a better capacity to furnish out the Ceremony, for so did the Earls of Shrewsbury and Cumberland, Anno 34 Eliz.

Besides these mentioned to be prepared and provided either by the Chancellor of the Order, or the Garter, the Knight elect must take care of other Affairs more particularly relating to himself and his retinue; such as are Apparel, the Number of his Attendants and Servants, with their Cloaths and Liveries, his Coach and Saddle Horses, both for himself and them, with other material Circumstances, to set off his Cavalcade and Proceeding with greater Pomp and Gallantry. The Provisions for Dyet at Windsor (if the Feast be kept at the elect Knight’s Charge and Expence,) are to be considered of, and very often some Clark of the Sovereign’s Kitchin is to be consulted, in the management of that Affair.

The Hall or Room where the grand Dinner is to be kept, as well as the Chapter-House and Chappel, ought chiefly to be decked and adorned with rich and sumptuous Furniture, against this Solemnity, over and above what is commonly used. The Hall or Dining-Room is to be set off with rich Hangings; and if the Sovereign or his Lieutenant hold the Feast, there must be placed a Cloth of State at the upper End of it. The Chapter-House is also to be hung, and a rich Carpet spread upon the Table, set about with Velvet Chairs and Cushions; and because in the late Times of Rebellion and Plunder, this Place was not exempt, and nothing was found there upon the Restauration; King Charles II. in a Chapter convened the 1st of January, Anno 14th of his Reign, caused Directions to be given to the Master of the Wardrobe, to provide Velvet for Chairs, to furnish the Chapter-House, and Cushions to be used in the Choir of St. George’s Chappel, which accordingly were prepared against the following Feast.

Against the Installation of Philip, King of Castile and Leon, Anno 22 Henry VII. The Table in the Chapter-House was covered with Cloth of Gold, and the Forms with Baudkin; before the Sovereign was laid a Cushion of Cloth of Gold, whereupon a Crucifix lay, and the Evangelist turned open to a place of the Cannon, with several Tapers burning on either Side. At the upper End of the Table, towards the Right Hand, was set a Chair for the Sovereign, under a golden Canopy, with Cushions of Cloth of Gold, and on the Left Hand a Stool with like Embellishments, for the King of Castile.

In St. George’s Chappel, the High Altar is to be richly adorned with Plate, the Sovereign’s Stall with a Canopy, and other usual Ornaments, and the Stalls of the Knights-Companions present at the Ceremony, with Velvet Cushions. As to the Furnishing of other Places in the Castle of Windsor, on so solemn an Occasion, we shall relate the Account of the Ceremony of the Installation of the King of Leon and Castile, just now mentioned. The Words are these:

To wit of the gret rich Cobbord, which continually stode in the gret Hall, which was all guilt Plate, or of the gret and rich Beds of Estate, Hangings of rich Cloth of Gold, or of the rich and sumptuous Clothes of Arras, with divers Clothes of Estate, both in the King’s Loggings, and in the King of Castile’s Loggings, so many Chambers, Haulls, Chappels, Closettes, Galleries, with odir Loggings, so richly and very well appointed, with divers odir things, that I suffice or cannot discern, and as I suppose few or none that there were, that ever saw Castell or odir Loggings, in all things so well and richly appointed, and the great continual fare, open Houshold, so many Noble Men soo well appareilled and with soo short Warnying, heretofore, as I think hath not been seen.

The Personal Installation of a Knight-Subject.

§ 1.

Formerly the Knights elect proceeded from London to their Installation at Windsor, in the nature of a Solemn and stately Cavalcade, which was performed on Horse-back, with the greatest Grandeur, and exceeding Pomp, whether we refer to the great Number of their Honourable Friends, who, on gallant Coursers, rode along with them; or the multitude of their own Attendants well mounted, the magnificence of whose Apparel, Jewels, Gold Chains, rich Embroideries, and Plumes of Feathers, of their Lord’s Colours, struck Amazement, and even dazled the Eyes of the Spectators.

Equivalent to this Pompous Show was the Feast, which contained in it all manner of Stateliness and Plenty, as well of Provision, as other Incidents that might increase its Glory, in which the elect Knights, who kept it at their own Expence, strove not only to out-vie their Predecessor, but to Excel one another; That all Embassadors and Strangers esteemed it one of the goodliest and noblest Sights, that was to be exhibited in Christendom.

But to make the splendor of the Cavalcade no less conspicuous to the City of London, than to the Town and Castle of Windsor, the Knights elect have taken up their Lodgings, sometimes in the Strand, sometimes in Salisbury-Court, in Holborn, or within the City; and for intent they chose to pass through some Eminent Streets, that the People might the better Survey them, and receive the greater Satisfaction. To illustrate which Matter, we shall descend to some Particulars.

Anno 34 Eliz. Gilbert, Earl of Shrewsbury, in order to his Cavalcade, was lodged in Mr. Gresham’s House, (now known by the Name of Gresham-College,) whence he Rode through the City, accompanied with many of his Honourable Friends, and a numerous and gallant Train of Attendants and Servants, to Charing-Cross, where he met George, Earl of Cumberland, (his Companion elect) and thence both Rode together towards Windsor; within a Mile or two of which Place, Garter King of Arms met them, and Marshalled their Attendants in Order; and then the elect Knights proceeded with their gallant Train through the Town into the Castle in this Order.

1. Trumpets, two and two.
2. Gentlemen in Blue Coats and Gold Chains.
3. Gentlemen of Note.
4. Garter.
5. Gentlemen Ushers.
6. The two elect Knights, Earl of Ormond, and Baron of Effingham; with their Footmen about them.
7. Noblemen, Knights, and Gentlemen of Quality.
8. All their Servants in the Rear.

Custom and Peace contributed to make the Cavalcades more glorious, during the Reigns of Queen Elizabeth, and King James I. and especially that of Robert, Earl of Salisbury, and Thomas, Viscount Bindon, May 21st, Anno 4 Jac. I. who arrived at Windsor honourably accompanied, with a great appearance of Nobility, Knights, and Gentlemen of Figure.

But the Fate of this Solemnity, much like that glorious Body of the Sun, (whose Lustre at such times it strove to outshine) had now and then its interpositions, and intermitting Clouds, at other times long Nights, and the Splendor and Glory thereof but struck the Sight now and then; when the Pleasure of the Sovereign grew auspicious, or the Honour of the Order became fixed upon more generous Spirits. But to speak impartially, there may grow an Excess in such Solemnities, even to Shame and Surfeit; and the best Cure to prescribe for it, is a long Abstinence. Nor was this Festival at all Times free from this Distemper, but then a quick Application of the Sovereign’s soon rectified it by taking away the Cause, and prohibiting Excess in their Attendants.

For this reason it was that King James I. observing those Excesses the elect Knights run into upon this Occasion, and willing to cheque the growing Inconveniencies, at the Installation, of Francis, Earl of Rutland, Sir George Villars, Kt. (afterwards Duke of Buckingham) and the Viscount Lisle, Anno 14 of his Reign, forbid Livery Coats, for saving Charge, and avoiding Emulation; and shortly after, in a Chapter at White-Hall, Anno 16. with the Consent of the Knights-Companions then assembled, to put some restraint upon the Number of Attendants, decreed, That every of the Knights-Companions should have fifty Persons to attend him unto the Annual Solemnities of the Order, and no more.

In the Installation of William, Earl of Northampton, Anno 5 Car. I. we find this stinted Number encreased to fourscore, who began his Cavalcade to Windsor, from Salisbury House in the Strand, and certainly wou’d have exhibited a more glorious Show, had not a continual Rain for three Days space impeded him. Nevertheless, that what he designed with so much Splendor and Gallantry might out-live the accident of foul Weather, the Order of it shall be inserted here.

The Order of riding to the Installation of William,
Earl of Northampton, 20th of April, 1629.

1. Trumpets, whose Banners were of Damask, and had the Earls Arms, with his Crest and Supporters environed with a Garter.

2. The meanest of his Servants; as Grooms and Yeomen, in Blue Coats, two and two.

3. His Lordship’s other Servants, in Blue Coats; as Gentlemen, Esquires, and Knights, two and two.

4. Two Secretaries; Mr. Ralph Goodwin, and Mr. Francis Merosse.

5. Steward, Mr. Cuthbert Ogle.

6. Comptroller, Mr. William Goodwyn.

7. Two Pages.

8. His spare Horse, led by the Gentleman of his Horse.

9. His Chaplain to distribute his Alms.

10. Pursiuvants at Arms, two and two.

11. Gentleman Usher, Mr. Walter Thomas, Bareheaded.

12. The Senior Herald covered.

13. The Earls of Berkshire, Northampton, and Salisbury.

14. Noblemen in their Places, two and two.

15. Knights, Esquires, and Gentlemen, which accompanied him.

16. The Commissioners Servants.

17. Other Noblemens, Knights, Esquires, and Gentlemens Servants.

Henry Earl of Danby, and William Earl of Morton, being to receive the Honour of Installation, Anno 10 Car. I. disposed themselves for their more commodious Passage, and the Peoples View; one was at Warwick House in Holbourn, and the other at Dorset House in Salisbury-court, and made their Progression severally through the Streets to Hyde-Park, each having two Noblemen to support him, with their Footmen in rich Coats on either side them.

Their Gentlemen Ushers rode Bareheaded, and before them the Officers of Arms wearing their Coats, and their Servants in blue Coats and Cognizances, (as was the ancient Mode,) were all led on by Trumpets. The rest of the Lords, Knights, and Gentlemen followed after each Knight’s elect Troop, according to their Rank and Quality foremost. The Proceeding of the Earl of Morton, was Marshalled in this manner.

1. Trumpets, two and two.
2. Grooms in Coats, two and two.
3. Yeomen, two and two.
4. Gentlemen, two and two.
5. Secretaries.
6. Stewards.
7. Gentleman of the Horse.
8. Pages.
9. Four Officers of Arms.
10. Gentleman Usher bare.
11. Lancaster Herald covered.
12. Earl Morton, supported between two chief Lords.
13. Foot-men on each side, in rich Coats.
14. Noblemen and Gentlemen, according to their Degrees.

At Slough, (two Miles on this side Windsor,) they all made a stand, and being again placed in Order, they proceeded to Windsor Castle, where, alighting in the lower Court, the Knights elect were conducted to their several Apartments.

The last Cavalcade this Age has beheld, was exhibited by Algernoon, Earl of Northumberland, May 13. Anno 11 Car. I. from Dorset House in Salisbury-court, toward Windsor; nor was it the least in Pomp and Glory: Eight and forty Gentlemen preceeded, then came the Pages, being Earls Sons, viz.

1. Mr. William Herbert, Mr. John Herbert, Mr. Philip Cecil, Mr. Algernoon Sidney.
2. Heralds at Arms, two and two.
3. Mr. Blundeville, Gentleman Usher, Bareheaded.
4. Norroy King of Arms.
5. Marquiss of Winchester.
6. The Earls of Northumberland and Kent.

And somewhat behind him, the rest of the Lords, Knights, and Gentlemen in order; they had Priority according to their Quality, Riding two and two, and the Coaches closing up the Troop.

There was a publick Cavalcade designed from Somerset House in the Strand, to Windsor Castle, when King Charles II. was to have been installed, which though it proved Abortive, yet ought not to be omitted, by reason of the Chancellor’s Letter to each Knight-Companion, to make Preparation to attend him thither.

May it please your Lordship,

“The King’s Majesty, Sovereign of this most Noble Order of the Garter, having determined to Create the Prince his Eldest Son Knight, and to propose him in Election, to be a Companion of his Order; for the better Conveniency of his Installation, hath prorogued, by a Commission under the Seal of his Order, given the 25th of February, now remaining in my Custody, the Celebration of the Feast of St. George, from the 22, 23, and 24 of April next, whereon it shou’d have been Solemnized, unto the 21, 22, and 23 of May, immediately ensuing; and thereby given Command to all the Knights-Companions, and Officers of this Order, that they should attend his Royal Person, at his Palace of White-Hall, upon those Days appointed. In discharge of the Duty of my Place, and by special Order, I do signify unto your Lordship his Majesty’s Will, and that it is his Pleasure, for the more Honour of the Prince, and the Noble Feast of his Election and Installation, that your Lordship shou’d be attended with your Servants and Retinue, according to solemn Custom, and be prepared to Accompany his Higness, from Somerset House in the Strand, unto the Castle of Windsor, upon the 18th of that Month, and assist at the Ceremony and Feast of his Installation, upon the Day following: Praying your Lordship that you would be pleased to take knowlege hereby, both of the Time and Place designed, and of the Sovereign’s Order, I humbly rest,”

In all due Obedience,
   and Observance,
      Thomas Rowe.

St. Martin’s-lane,
  Feb. 27. 1637.

When this Letter was issued out, the Sovereign intended to create the Prince Knight of the Bath, which Ceremonies were intended to begin at the old Palace-yard in Westminster, upon the 21st Day of May, Anno 13 Car. I. and to Solemnize the Feast of St. George, upon the 23d of the same Month at White-Hall, and to take the Scrutiny that Evening for his Election into this Order: The next Day was designed to invest him with the Garter and George, and the Day after to set forward the Cavalcade towards Windsor, wherein also the Knights of the Bath, (intended to be created with the Prince,) were to Ride with their Robes. But this Resolution being altered, stop’d the Progression of the Cavalcade, and in the room of a Knight of the Bath, he was created a Knight-Batchellor at Windsor.

Formerly it was the manner for the Sovereign’s Lieutenant to Ride to Windsor, attended with a gallant and glittering Train, and no small Number of his own Gentlemen and Yeomen richly attired, and in every Punctilio fifty set out, as was seen in the Cavalcade of the Duke of Norfolk, Earl Marshal of England, and Lieutenant for the Sovereign, for St. George’s Feast, Anno 5 Eliz. who had attending him twenty of his own Gentlemen and Yeomen, at the Time the Earls of Northumberland and Warwick were to be installed; but this was never put in Practice, but when the Sovereign appointed the Installation and the Feast of St. George to be celebrated together.

The Lieutenant, and his Assistants, or sometimes the Knights-Commissioners, (if the Feast of St. George be not then Solemnized,) being arrived in the Castle, immediately retire to their Lodgings, which for the most part have been prepared at the Dean’s House, whose Rooms are the fairest in the Castle, and the best fitted for Accommodation, next to those of the Sovereign’s in the upper Ward; and for the Knights elect, they were at all Times furnished with Lodgings in some of the Prebends Houses.

The Offering in the Chappel, on the Eve of the Feast.

§ 2. If it so chanced that the Installation was performed by Commissioners, and the Cavalcade proceeded from London, in the Morning of the Day preceeding the Installation, and arrived at the Castle of Windsor early that Afternoon; then the Knights-Commissioners have been accustomed only to put on their Mantles, and enter St. George’s Chappel to offer; but without the Attendance of Heralds, or any solemn Procession into the Choir, save one of the Prebends; where having placed themselves in their Stalls with usual Reverences, and heard an Anthem, they passed up to the Altar with the Verger and Garter before them, and there made their Offering, both of Gold and Silver, according to the usual Custom. As soon as Vespers were finished, after the same manner they descended from their Stalls, and departed to their Lodgings; and in this case the Knights-Commissioners did not lay by their Mantles till Supper was ended.

In this nature was the Ceremony of Offering (on the Eve of the Installation) performed by the Lord Admiral and Earl of Ormond, Commissioners for the Installation of the Earl of Shrewsbury and Cumberland, Anno 34 Eliz. But at the Installation of the Earl of Rutland, and others, Anno 26 Eliz. the Lord Hunsdon (one of the Commissioners for that Solemnity,) refused to make his Offering alone, though he arrived timely enough, on the Eve of the Feast at Windsor Castle, because he wanted the Company of Viscount Mountague, who was a joynt Commissioner with him, that arrived not till the Morning after.

This Offering of the Knights-Commissioners, coming to the Castle on the Eve of the Installation, is founded upon an Article of Edward III. which runs to this Effect: That if any of the Knights-Companions, being upon a Journey, shou’d accidentally pass by Windsor-Castle, he is to turn in thither, in Honour of the Place, and prepare himself to enter into the Chappel to Offer; first putting on his Mantle, without which he must never presume to enter into it; but upon Emergencies, and allowable Causes, he is to be excused.

After the Knight-Companion had entered the Castle, the Canons Resident were, by the aforesaid Article, appointed to meet and recieve him, and with due Reverence conduct him into the Choir. If it was at the Celebration of High Mass, the Knight was obliged to stay and hear it, in Honour of God and St. George; but if he arrived in the Afternoon, he was to stay till the Canons, and the rest of the Choir, had sung the Anthem de Profundis, which no sooner was ended, but he proceeded to the High Altar and Offered, and returned to his Stall with usual Reverences, and then departed.

But if the Knight-Companion passed through the Town of Windsor, and neglected to Offer at the Chappel, as often as he omitted it, he was bound, upon his Obedience, to walk a Mile on Foot to the Chappel, in Honour of St. George, and upon defailure, to offer a Peny, which by King Henry VIII’s Statutes is inlarged to a Groat. Upon the Explication of this Article, there arose a Dispute about the just Distance intended from the Castle; and that the Knights-Companions might be sensible of the breach of the Injunction, it was thought requisite by King Henry VIII. to set down a certain Bound, which in his Statutes is declared to be two Miles; within which, if any of the Knights-Companions come, and do not repair to the Chappel and Offer, he is liable to the Mulct before specified.

Upon Hunting, or other Pastimes the Forest afforded, they used to send their Offering in Money to the Canons, which being received, the Knights took it for a Dispensation of the Ceremony enjoined by the Statutes.

Endeavours were used to have this Article interpreted with greater Latitude, which so far took Effect, that at a Chapter called at Windsor the 10th of October, Anno 15 Car. I. it was ordered, that some Expedient might be found out, to save the Knights from the Breach of their Oath, if they came within the limited Distance of the Place, and passed thence without Offering. But no farther Progress being made in that Affair, the Law stands as it did.

The Supper of the Eve.

§ 3. The Supper, after their arrival at Windsor, is but in the Nature of a private Meal, and prepared for the Lieutenant (or Commissioners) or Knights elect, most commonly at the Dean’s House. Anno 26 Eliz. on the Eve of the Installation of the Earl of Rutland and Lord Cobham, the Commissioners supped together with such Lords and Gentlemen of Figure as came along with them; and no Nobleman had above one Servant to attend him at the Table, and the rest provided for themselves at their proper Inns. Sometimes they have been permitted to Sup in some Appartments of the Sovereign’s Lodgings; for so it was at the Installation of the Lord Russel, and other elect Knights, Anno 31 Henry VIII. and likewise of the Earl of Shrewsbury, and Lord Hunsdon, Anno 3 Eliz. the Lieutenant and Knights supped in the great Chamber there, in the same Regularity that was used at other Times. And in the 34th of Queen Elizabeth, when the Earls of Shrewsbury and Cumberland were installed, all the Lords and Gentlemen supped together at one long Table set in the Council Chamber.

The Order in proceeding to the Chapter-House.

§ 4. Before we come to the particular Ceremonies of the Installation, transacted either by the Sovereign, (or in his absence by his Lieutenant or Commissioners,) we shall premise this general Remark: That since neither the Statutes of Institution, nor those of King Henry V. afford us a Formulary for the Personal Installation of a Knight elect; yet those enacted by King Henry VIII. do briefly exhibit the Order and Method of it. And we must farther observe, that if the Installation be appointed together with the Feast of St. George, then either the Sovereign, or else his Lieutenant and Assistants are present; but if at any other Season, then it passeth by Commissioners only.

After such time therefore as the Sovereign, his Lieutenant, or Commissioners, have prefixed the Hour wherein to proceed to the Chapter House, in Order to the Installation, (which has generally been dispatched in the Evening,) all the Knights-Companions, and elect Knights, the Officers of the Order, and of Arms, the Prebends of the College, and Alms-Knights, are to give their Attendance, viz. the Knights-Companions, and elect Knights, and Officers, of the Order, on the Sovereign, in his inward Lodging; the elect Knights, and Officers of Arms, in the Presence Chamber, the Prebends and Alms-Knights, in the Great Chamber, where they waited the Sovereign’s coming forth.

The Attendance to be given upon the Sovereign’s Lieutenant, and such of the Knights-Companions as are appointed for his Assistants, is by the Officers of the Order and of Arms, the Prebends and Alms-Knights, either at his Lodgings, or elsewhere he shall deem meet to appoint; from which the Knights-Companions are exempt. For though the Knights-Companions have sometimes proceeded to the Chappel before the Sovereign’s Lieutenant, at an Installation, yet hath it been at such time only, as they accompanied their Sovereign to Windsor, to hold the Feast of St. George; and if the Sovereign, through any Indisposition, or weighty Affair, cou’d not pass down to the Chappel on the Eve of the Feast, yet they being obliged by the Statutes to celebrate Vespers, did upon this Occasion proceed thither, though not upon the Account of Installation; as it fell out at the Installation of Prince Henry, and four other Knights, Anno 1 Jac. I. when the Progression began from the Presence Chamber, and thence passed to the Chappel in the following Order.

1. Alms-Knights.
2. Prebends.
3. Pursuivants.
4. Heralds.
5. Ulster King of Arms.
6. Lyon King of Arms.
7. Clarenceux King of Arms.
8. The four elect Knights.
9. Knights-Companions.
10. Garter.
11. Register.
12. Black Rod.
13. Chancellor.
14. The Sovereign’s Lieutenant leading the Prince in his Hand.

At the Installation of the Duke of Brunswick, and five other elect Knights, the 23d of November, Anno 1 Car. I. the Knights-Companions likewise proceeded before the Sovereign’s Lieutenants, tho’ the Sovereign was at Windsor, but not in the Cavalcade.

Upon the Sovereign’s Commissioners, neither the Knights-Companions, nor the Prelate, nor Chancellor, do give their Attendance; only at the Grand Feast of St. George, Anno 13 Car. II. the Chancellor then waiting on the Sovereign at Windsor, in the Duties of his Place, out of a singular Regard to his Royal Highness the Duke of York, attending the Commissioners in the proceeding to his Installation, for at that time he was Comptroller of his Houshould.

The Proceedings on this solemn Occasion have been generally order’d on Foot; yet upon extraordinary Incidents have been marshalled and disposed on Horse-back, in manner of a Cavalcade, as was used at the Installation of Philip King of Castile, Anno 22 Hen. VII. and that when the Lord Russel and other elect Knights were installed, Anno 31 Hen. VIII. King Philip (when the Earl of Sussex was installed, Anno 1 and 2. Ph. and Mar.) honoured him with his Presence, and riding on Horse-back, with several of the Knights-Companions, from his Lodgings in the Castle, down to the Cloister Door, at the East-End of the Chappel, and there alighting, proceeded directly to the Chapter-House. The Proceeding was on Horse-back, at the Installation of the Earl of Shrewsbury and the Lord Hunsdon, Anno 3 Eliz. and at the Earl of Northumberland’s and Earl of Warwick’s, Anno 5. At the Installation of Francis, Duke Montmorency, the Viscount Hereford, and the Lords Burleigh, Grey, and Shandos, Anno 14 Eliz. The Sovereign’s Lieutenant and Knights Assistants did Robe themselves in the Sovereign’s Lodging in the Castle; and meeting in the Presence Chamber, proceeded downwards towards the outer Hall-door, in the upper Ward of the Castle, when taking their Horses, adorned with Foot Clothes, they proceeded on Horse-back to the West Door of the Chappel.

If the Progression was begun on Horse-back at the beginning of the Feast, so it continued, as often as the Sovereign (his Lieutenant or Commissioner) went to the Chapter-House, or Chappel, and their returns were marshalled in the like Order at their setting out.

The Servants and Attendants belonging to the Knights elect, (if they be taken into the Procession,) pass on first two and two in a Rank, according to their Quality; and those who are the most inferior, the foremost: Next the Alms-Knights in their Habits and usual Order.

Then follows the Virger of the College.

After him the Prebends or Canons: But what attendance they have given heretofore at the Installations, the Memoirs of this illustrious Society is wholly silent in; for in those Schemes left us of proceeding to Installations, in the Reigns of King Henry VIII. King Edward VI. Queen Mary, and part of Queen Elizabeth, we find them not inserted, though since they are next to the Prebends of the College, the Pursuivants, Heralds, and Provincial Kings of Arms, proceed in a Body.

After them the Knights-Subjects elect, unless the Proctor of an absent Knight-Subject, pass at the same time in this Proceeding, who take Place after the Provincial Kings: And if it so chance, that the Proctor to a Stranger-Prince be present at the same time, he is to proceed between the Knight-Subject’s Proctor, and the Knights-Subject elect. But Prince Henry at his Installation, Anno 1 Jac. I. moved in a Place Superior to all the Knights-Companions, and was paired with the Earl of Nottingham, the Sovereign’s Lieutenant for that Occasion. Where two or more elect Knights prepare for their Installation at the same time, they take Place according to the Seniority of their Election, going two and two together; and if the Number be odd, the Junior elect Knight passeth alone. Formerly the elect Knight passed in his ordinary Apparel, wearing over it in Days of Yore a short Gown, afterwards a Cloak, and of latter Times a Coat, as did the Earl of Northumberland, Anno 5 Eliz. and the Earls of Pembrook and Derby, Anno 16 Eliz. and the Annals of the Order make this remark upon the Earl of Sussex, and the Lord Buckhurst, Anno 31 of Eliz. of Charles Duke of York, An. 9 Jac. I. But this was before any peculiar under Habit, was appointed to the Knights-Companions, for now there being a Cloth of Silver Doublet, and Trunk Hose, established to be worn at the Feast of Installation, and of St. George, the elect Knight proceeds in this Dress, as did the Duke of Albermarle, Anno 23 Car. II.

In this proceeding to the Chapter-House, he wears only the Garter about his Leg, and the George and the Ribbond wherewith he was invested, either about his Neck, or as of late drawn under his right Arm, which being omitted by Sir George Villars, and Viscount Lisle, is noted to be contrary to order.

The Earl of Rutland with his Fellow elect Knights, Anno 14 Jac. I. proceeded Bare-headed, as did the Duke of Lenox, Anno 9 Car. I. as well as the Duke of Albermarle, Anno 23 Car. II.

The elect Knight does not always make one in this Proceeding, but sometimes stays at his Lodgings in the Castle, as did the Earls of Shrewsbury and Cumberland, Anno 34 Eliz. or else at some other convenient Station adjoining to the Chapter-House, till he be sent for in thither, to receive Investiture with the Surcoat, as the Duke of Montmorency did, and other elect Knights, Anno 14 Eliz. who went privately from the Sovereign’s Lodgings, down to the House of Mr. French, (then one of the Prebends,) and rested in the Parlour, until they were sent for: Sometimes the Knight elect goes privately into the East-Isle of the Chappel behind the High Altar, and there remains till called in, as did the Duke of Monmouth, Anno 15 Car. II.

If the Sovereign be present at the Installation, the Knights-Companions proceed next after the Knights elect, according to the order of their Stalls; but if the Sovereign’s Lieutenant, then his Assistants go in their Places; as at the Installation of the Earl of Shrewsbury and Lord Hunsdon, Anno 3 Eliz. makes plain, the proceeding being ordered after this manner.

1. Vergers.
2. Alms-Knights.
3. Officers of Arms.
4. Elect-Knights.
5. Assistants to the Lieutenants.
6· Officers of the Order.
7. Earl of Arundel, Lieutenant.

If the Installation be dispatched by Commissioners, then the three inferior Officers of the Order immediately follow the Knight elect, and proceed next before the Commissioners, and they were thus marshalled at the Installation of the Earl of Northampton, Anno 5 Car. I.

1. The Earls Servants.
2. Alms-Knights.
3. Prebends.
4. Heralds.
5. Elect-Knights.
6. Officers of the Order.
7. The Sovereign’s Commissioners.

Yet Anno 16 Eliz. at the Installation of the Earls of Pembrook and Derby, we find the Officers did precede the elect Knights, but it was through inadvertency; at the Installation of the Earl of Northampton, some Question and Debate arose, concerning the precedency of these three Officers, in this proceeding, where it was at length concluded, that from the Castle to the Chappel, they shou’d proceed before the Commissioners; but in returning from the Chappel to the Castle, they shou’d follow.

We presume the Question, (whatsoever it was) chanced not to be propounded, till the proceeding was ready to pass on, and then started on a sudden, because the Heralds (as the Annals note,) did not quickly discypher the matter, that it proceeded more from surprize, than want of Ability to resolve.

This determination which took Place, was barely grounded upon Conjecture, and if seriously considered, will appear disconsonant to Precedents and Practice, both before and since; where all returns are marshalled answerable to their setting forth, unless the Condition of any Person in the mean time suffer a Mutation.

It’s observable, that when Installation pass by Commissioners only, these three inferior Officers wear their Robes, but bear not the Ensigns of their Office in the Proceeding. And this seems to be deduced from particular Injunctions, laid down in the Constitutions belonging to the Officers of the Order, which appoint Garter and Black-Rod to bear the Ensigns of their Offices at the Feast of St. George, when the Sovereign or his Deputy shall be present; whence it may be inferred, that if either chance to be absent, they are under no obligation to bear them: For at the Installations of Frederick, King of Denmark, and John Casimire, Count Palatine of the Rhine, Anno 25 Eliz. no Ensigns were born by the Officers; and so was it practised the Year after, at the Installations of the Earl of Rutland and Lord Cobham, as the Red-Book of Order plainly sets forth. But if the Sovereign himself be present, or that he constitute a Lieutenant in his stead, the Register then carries the Red-Book, and the Garter and the Black-Rod bear each of them their Rods. It is remarkable, that in every proceeding to Installation, by Lieutenant, or Commissioners, the Garter carries the Sovereign’s Commission in his Hand before them to the Chapter-House. At the Installation of the Earls of Derby and Moreton, the Officers of the Order proceeded before the Knights to the Chapter-House, not only without the Ensigns of their Office, but their Heads covered; and the reporter of this Installation gives this for a reason; because there was then neither the Sovereign, nor his Lieutenant, representing the King’s Person, present.

The Sovereign sometimes being willing to confer additional Honours to some elect Knights, hath appointed their Installation at such time as he personally solemnized the Feast of St. George, as he did at the Installation and Election of Philip King of Castile, Anno 22 Hen. VII. which for its memorableness, and mixt proceeding on Horse-back, we shall insert in this Place: He passed from the Sovereign’s Lodging in the Castle, to the South-Door of St. George’s-Chappel, and was thus ordered.

1. Knights according to their Degrees.
2. Lords after their Degrees.
3. Knights-Companions in their whole Habit, bearing Company with some of the Knights of the Order of Joyson d’Or.
4. Prelate of the Order.
5. Archbishop of Canterbury.
6. The Spanish Ambassador.
7. Joyson d’Or, King of Arms, in Coat of Arms.
8. Garter King of Arms, in his Coat of Arms.
9. The Sword.
10. Philip King of Castile.
11. The Prince.
12. King Henry VII. Sovereign of the Order.

Anno 19 Jac. I. was another instance at the Feast of St. George, when the Sovereign, with several Knights-Companions, proceeded also to the Chapel, at the personal Installation of Frederick, Prince Palatine of the Rhine; we might add several other Examples, but shall only mention that of the personal appearance of King Charles II. at the grand Feast of St. George, held next after his happy Restoration, whereat twelve elect Knights were installed. At this Solemnity of Installation, the Sovereign proceeds in full Robes, having the Sword of State born before him by a Nobleman not of the Order, his Train-bearers, &c. following the Sovereign’s Lieutenant and his Assistants, as also the Commissioners proceed in full Robes, which is mention’d, Anno 31 Henry VIII. when the Earl of Arundel and his Assistants installed the Lord Russel and two other elect Knights, but the Sovereign’s Lieutenant only hath his Train carried up, which is usually perform’d by some of his own Gentlemen.

The Processional way (if beginning in the Presence-Chamber,) is from thence in the upper Ward of the Castle, and through the other Wards in at the Cloyster Door, and so to the Chapter-House; but if from the Dean’s House, they go only through the Cloysters, into which there is an immediate Passage from the Deanry: The proceeding having entred the East Door of St. George’s Chapel, and past by the Chapter-House Door, makes a stand in the North Isle; while first the Officers of the Order, next the Knights-Commissioners, or else the Knights-Assistants, and the Sovereign’s Lieutenant; or lastly the Knights-Companions, and the Sovereign with the Sword born before him, pass into the Chapter-House, but the Knight or Knights elect do not enter, but as they come in at the Chapel-Door, they fall off on the left Hand into the East Isle behind the high Altar, and there repose themselves, (on Chairs or Stools, with Cushions purposely prepared,) until they are called into the Chapter-House. This hath generally been the Custom, of which many Examples might be produced, but in respect to great Personages they have been sometimes (though rarely) admitted into the Chapter-House, with the Sovereign or his Lieutenant, among whom Philip of Castile and Leon, Anno 22 Henry VII. and Prince Henry, Anno 1 Jac. I. the latter was led in by the Sovereign’s Lieutenant, when four other elect Knights installed with him sat till they receiv’d their Summons to enter.

Sometime the Sovereign and Knights-Companions wav’d going to the Chapter-House, and pass’d immediately into the Choir, as did King James Anno 9. when Charles Duke of York and others were installed; the like did King Charles I. but then a Chapter was held in the Privy-Chamber, before the proceeding set forward; and in the former instance, when the proceeding came as far as the East End of the Chapel, the Duke of York, &c. with Norroy before them, went out of the proceeding into the Chapter-House, and there reposed, while the Sovereign proceeded on to the South Door of the Chapel, and thence into the Choir.

The Ceremonies perform’d in the Chapter-House.

§ 5. After the Lieutenant’s entrance into the Chapter-House, and opening the Chapter; Garter, with three Reverences, presents first the Commissioners of Lieutenancy to hold the Feast, next that of Installation, to the Lieutenant, (or if the Installation pass’d by Commissioners, then only the Commission of Installation to the Senior Commissioner,) which being receiv’d, he delivers it to the Register of the Order, who forthwith Reads it; for to him this Duty belongs, as is recorded in the Black-Book of the Order, on occasion of Garter’s reading the Commission for Installation of Sir Thomas Brandon, Anno 22 Henry VII. the Register being then absent.

When the Register hath read the Commissions, he returns them to the Lieutenant, (or Commissioners,) and he again to the Garter, as at the Installation of the Earls of Shrewsbury and Cumberland, Anno 34 Eliz. If the Sovereign be present, the Chancellor acquaints him the Knights elect are without, otherwise the Lieutenant, and Assistants, (or Commissioners) consult touching the calling in, and receiving them, and Garter is usually employed in this Service; who, with all due respect, compliments and conducts him to the Chapter-House Door: But in the instance of the Earls of Shrewsbury and Cumberland aforesaid, Garter went to their Lodgings, and having delivered his Message, they forthwith repaired to the Chapter-House, their Train attending them to the Door: At the Installation of Francis Duke of Montmorency, the Earl of Leicester, then the Sovereign’s Lieutenant, as an evidence of singular respect, sent from the Chapter two of the four Assistants assigned him, who taking Garter, and the Officers of Arms before them, led him thence between them to the Chapter-House.

When there are two or more elect Knights, that wait in the East Isle, expecting to be called in, Garter first conducts the Senior by Election to the Chapter-House Door, and so the rest in their several Orders, as in 14 Jac. I. by the Earl of Rutland, Sir George Villars, and the Viscount Lisle; and so again 13 Car. II. As soon as Garter hath conducted the elect Knight to the Chapter-House Door, two of the Commissioners, (when the Installation is performed by Commissioners,) or two of the Knights-Assistants, (when by the Sovereign’s Lieutenant,) or two of the Senior Knights, (if the Sovereign himself be present,) receive him without, who is immediately conducted from the Chapter-House Door, up to the Sovereign, (his Lieutenant, or Commissioners,) to whom he makes humble Reverence; when the Lieutenant, (or Senior Commissioners,) in a short Speech, publishes the effect of his Commission, and declares to him the Sovereign’s bounty and ready kindness, in a full admittance into this Honourable Society, which the elect Knight very humbly acknowledges and accepts. When Philip King of Castile and Leon was installed in Person, Anno 22 Henry VII. the Sovereign being present rose from his Throne, and gave him Information of the Statutes and Ceremonies of the Order, and how he was bound by them; to all which he freely and readily assented.

These Ceremonies of receiving an elect Knight being over, he disrobes himself of his upper Garment, then the Surcoat and Kirtle is taken from the Table, with which he is invested; and during this Ceremony, the following Words of Admonition, entred at the end of King Hen. VIII’s Book of English Statutes, are read or spoken.

Take this Robe of Purple, to the encrease of your Honour, and in Token, or Sign, of the most Honourable Order you have receiv’d; wherewith you being defended, may be bold not only strong to Fight, but also to offer your self to shed your Blood for Christ’s Faith, the Liberties of the Church, and the just and necessary defence of them that are oppressed and needy.

After this, his Sword is close girt about him over his Surcoat, by the Commissioners, (or the Assistants to the Lieutenant, or some of the Knights-Companions,) and sometimes in the way of assistance, Garter hath done this Service; and as soon as the Ceremony is over, the Sovereign, or his Lieutenant, proceeds into the Choir, leaving the elect Knights behind them: The Hood was heretofore put on in the Chapter-House, (for so the Statutes of King Henry VIII. do appoint,) after the elect Knight hath been invested with his Surcoat, and before he proceeded to his Installation; but of late, because it must be taken off again in the Choir, and laid aside, that the Mantle may be put on, it hath been esteemed a sort of diminution in the Investiture to take off any part of the Habit before the whole Investiture be compleated; so that in the beginning of the Reign of King James I. it was judged more convenient that the Hood should be carried on the Cushion by Garter into the Choir, together with the Mantle and Collar, and not be put on till after Investiture with the Mantle; and thus it was observed at the Feasts of St. George, 13, 15, and 23 Car. II. And though antiently it was laid over the left Shoulder, and so worn upon all Occasions, yet Anno 2 and 3 Phil. and Mar. the wearing it so being taken notice of to obscure the Escutcheon of St. George, embroidered on the same Shoulder of the Mantle, it was decreed in a Chapter held the same Year, 22 of April, that for the future the Knights-Companions should wear their Hoods on their right Shoulders, to the end that the Escutcheon might be the better seen and appear.

Nevertheless, there was a Question moved 12 Jac. I. whether the usage of wearing the Hood should not be restored to the left Shoulder, but it seems it was over-ruled; and 23 Car. II. some of the Knights-Companions imagining it most proper to wear their Hoods on their left Shoulders, ran into that error, but upon better information the next Morning, altered them to the right. To Foreign Princes, there is liberty given by King Hen. VIII’s Statutes to receive, if they please, their Habit wholly within the Chapter-House, before they enter their Stalls; by which it appears that this was the Custom in times past; an instance whereof we have in Philip King of Castile, Anno 22 Henry VII. who was entirely invested in the Chapter-House with the Garter, Surcoat, Mantle, Hood, and Collar; the Sovereign himself putting his Hand to his Investiture with the Mantle. Hence King Philip, Grandson to the aforesaid King of Castile, was invested with the whole Habit of the Order before he assumed the Stall; in Philip and Mary’s proceeding to the Chapel, he receiv’d his Investiture within the West Door, and there the Register delivered the Mantle to the Earls of Derby and Pembrook, who kissing it, presented it to the Queen, who, assisted by the said Earls, personally invested the King therewith: Next Garter gave the Collar to the Earls of Arundel and Pembrook, who likewise presented it to the Queen, and she thereon put it about King Philip’s Neck; and immediately the Knights-Companions, having robed themselves within the Chapel Door, proceeded before the King and Queen, who with joined Hands passed into the Choir, where the Queen led him to the Sovereign’s Stall, which ascending, they both sat therein. But as the aforesaid Statute leaves this to the pleasure of the Stranger Prince, and was permitted only for gaining Time, so none, who have receiv’d personal Installation at Windsor since, have been fully invested before they entered the Choir. For instance, Francis, Duke de Montmorency, 14 Eliz. and Frederick, Prince Palatine of the Rhine, 10 Jac. I. were both invested with their Surcoats only in the Chapter-House, but they receiv’d their Mantles, Hoods, and Collars, in their Stalls, after they had taken their Oaths.

The proceeding into the Choir.

§ 6. The Knight elect, habited as before, proceeds from the Chapter-House along the North Isle, and enters the West Door of the Choir in solemn Order; but his Place in this proceeding is changed, for here he is led between two Knights-Companions. This is noted in the Black-Book to be the Order wherein Albra Vasques d’Almadea, Earl of Averence, and two others, proceeded to their Installations, 24 Henry VI. And notwithstanding the Statutes of Institution, and those made by King Henry V. are silent in the Order of this Proceeding; yet for an elect Knight to be led to his Stall between two fellow Knights, is no modern Ceremony; since we likewise find, that the Viscount Bourchier, 30 Henry VI. past to his Instalment between the Lord Hastings and Lord Beauchamp. But the Order of proceeding is precisely set down in Henry VIII’s Statutes, viz. That the elect Knight, attended by his Gentlemen and Servants, shall be led between two other Knights-Companions, the Officers of the Order going before them. And this has been the constant Practice at all Installations since; the Knight elect proceeding, either between two of the Knights-Commissioners, when there hath been no Lieutenant, or between two of the Knights Assistants, where a Lieutenant was constituted; or lastly between the two Senior Knights-Companions, the Sovereign being present: But when there hath been three Commissioners named, then the two Senior Commissioners take the Knight elect between them, and the Junior Knight-Commissioner proceeds before them; which was observed at the Instalment of the Earls of Essex and Ormond, and Sir Christopher Hatton, 30 Eliz.

In all cases where the Sovereign is present at an Installation, after the custom of investing with the Collar in the Chapter-House was left off, it is generally to be observed, that as soon as the Investiture with the Surcoat is finished, the Sovereign passes from the Chapter-House into the Choir, with the whole proceeding before him, leaving the elect Knight behind; and when he and the Knights-Companions have taken their Stalls, the two Senior Knights-Companions, by the Sovereign’s verbal Directions, descend from their Stalls, and stand under their Banners, whilst the Alms-Knights, but not the Prebends, Officers of Arms, and the three inferior Officers of the Order, pass out of the Choir, and proceed before them to the Chapter-House, from whence they introduce the elect Knight into the Choir to his Installation; but if there be more than one Knight installed, then the two next Senior Knights descend, and so the next, till all the elect Knights are Conducted in: And this course is likewise observed when a Lieutenant is constituted, and hath been generally so practised since the Investiture with the Collar was performed in the Choir; and particularly at the Installations of the Duke of Lenox, the Earls of Pembrook, Marr, and Southampton, 1 Jac. I. and of the Duke of Holstein, and the Earl of Northampton, 3 Jac. I. In this proceeding to Installation, the Register usually carries a Book of the New Testament, for the elect Knight to take his Oath on, as likewise the Oath it self, fairly written on Parchment: Garter bears his Mantle till he arrives at his Stall; and King Henry VIII’s Statutes place this Service upon some of the Knights-Companions likewise; but it never appears that it was ever performed by any of them. ’Tis probable, that about the time when this Injunction passed, it was the Custom for Garter to bear the Mantle on his Arm; for so it was at the Installation of the Lord Russel, and others, 31 Henry VIII. but it was not long after, that the laying it on a Velvet Cushion began. The great Collar of the Order was likewise laid upon the Cushion, at the Installation of Sir Henry Sidney, 6 Eliz. the Earl of Shrewsbury, 34 Eliz. and in this manner born before the Knights elect, 13 Car. II. before the Duke of Monmouth, 15 Car. II. and before the Duke of Albermarle, 23 Car. II. with these the Hood, heretofore put on in the Chapter-House, hath of late been laid on the Cushion, and also the Book of Statutes, and so born by Garter before Prince Henry, 1 Jac. I. and Frederick, Elector Palatine, 10 Jac. I. and before the Knights Installation, 13 Car. II. and since.

And here it is to be observed, that when Garter bears the Ornaments and Ensigns on the Cushion before an elect Knight, or a Proctor, he is always placed between the Register and Black-Rod in the proceeding: Lastly, in this proceeding the Knight elect goeth Bare-headed, holding his Cap in his Hand; and so did the Duke of Albermarle, 23 Car. II. for it hath been thought incongruous to the Order of Investiture, as is before observed of the Hood, to put on any part of the Habit, or other Ornaments, that must be taken off again, before the Investiture is compleated; and the proper Place for putting on the Cap is not till all the other is finished.

The Ceremonies of Installation.

§ 7. When the proceeding hath entered the Choir, the Alms-Knights, and Officers of Arms, make their Obeysances toward the High Altar, and the Sovereign’s Royal Stall, in the manner hereafter described; then they proceed to the Steps before the Altar, and divide themselves; next the Officers of the Order make the same Reverence; and lastly, the two Commissioners, or Knights Assistants, or Knights-Companions, and Knights-elect, all three together. After this the Officers of the Order turn aside toward the Stall designed for the elect Knight, and approaching near it, stand below in the Choir, whilst the Commissioners, or Assistants, or Knights-Companions, pass into the lower Row of Stalls, sometimes called the middle Row, directly under the designed Stall, leading the elect Knight with them, who in this Place takes his Oath, called in the Annals, the sacred Oath of the Order of the Garter; during which time he ought to stand between the two Knights-Companions who brought him thither, as at the Installation of Prince Henry, 1 Jac. I. and when the Earl of Shrewsbury was installed, 34 Eliz. ’tis observed, that the Senior Commissioner first entered the lower row of Stalls; but 31 Henry VIII. at the Installation of the Lord Russel, and others, the Junior Assistant went up first. The Knight elect being thus placed, the Register of the Order standing before them, but below in the Choir, reads the Oath; for it is part of his Duty to administer the same: And in this solemn Ceremony, the New Testament, whereon the Oath is taken, generally opened in some Place of the Gospels, is indifferently held by one of the three inferior Officers of the Order, or sometimes the Register hath held it, as at the Installation of the Earl of Derby, 16 Eliz. the Earl of Rutland, and Lord Cobham, 26 Eliz. At other times the Garter hath held it, as 5 Eliz. when the Earl of Northumberland took his Oath; and 10 Car. I. at the Installation of the Earl of Moreton: But when the Earl of Shrewsbury was Sworn, 34 Eliz. the Usher of the Black Rod performed this Office.

Whilst the Oath is administring, the elect Knight holds his right Hand on the Holy Evangelists; and when the Register hath pronounced the Words, he immediately Responses, I will, so help me God, and then takes off his Hand reverently, kissing the Book; and by this Ceremony seals his Obligation to the Statutes of this most Noble Order. The Ceremony used when Philip, King of Castile and Leon, took the Oath, which was done in the Chapter-House at Windsor, 22 Henry VII. he laid his Hand on the Canon, under which was placed the Book of Statutes of the Order by the Prelate, to whom it was delivered by the Register, and having repeated the Words of the Oath, and reverently kissed all those things by which he Swore, he took a Pen from the Prelate’s Hand, and Signed the Oath he had taken, and deliver’d it to the Sovereign then present.

The Form of the ancient Oath appointed by the Statutes of Institution, to be taken by a Knight-Subject, was very short, but comprehensive: That he should well and faithfully observe, to the utmost of his Power, all the Statutes of the Order; and this was all the Oath taken by the first Founders, and to which they also affixed their Seals; and so it continued without alteration or addition, till towards the End of King Edward IV’s Reign; and then, at a Chapter held at the King’s Wardrobe in London, it was decreed, That all the Knights-Companions then alive, and all such as should afterwards be admitted into the Order, should be obliged to subjoin the Words following: That they wou’d aid, support, and defend, with all their Power, the Royal College of St. George, within the Castle of Windsor, as well in its Possessions, as all other things whatsoever; which being drawn in form, was enter’d in the Black Book; but has since receiv’d many alterations: And there is an instance, 1 Eliz. when the Oath has been dispensed with; as by the Duke of Norfolk, and others, in regard the Rites and Ceremonies of Religion were then altered, and no new form of an Oath settled, so that they only obliged themselves by Promise to observe such Statutes and Orders as should be decreed in the next Council of the Order, which was soon after settled, and recorded in the Red Book of the Order, and is the Oath taken by a Knight-Subject at this Day.

You being Chosen to be one of the Honourable Company of this most Noble Order of the Garter, shall Promise and Swear, by the Holy Evangelists, by you here touched, that, wittingly or willingly, you shall not break any Statute of the said Order, or any Articles in them contained; the same being agreeable, and not repugnant to the Laws of Almighty God, and the Laws of this Realm, as far forth as to you belongeth and appertaineth: So help you God, and this Holy Word.

As soon as the Knight elect hath taken the Oath, he is led to his appointed Stall, through the Entrance next beneath it, and there placed before it. In the Interim, Garter advancing into the lower row of Stalls, to the Place where the elect Knight stood when he took the Oath, presents from thence the Mantle, Collar, and Book of Statutes, to those who led him, who invest the Knight elect first with the Mantle, by putting it on his Shoulders. There are some Examples where the elect Knight hath been invested before he went up to his Stall, as in the case of the Earl of Northumberland, 5 Eliz. Francis, Duke de Montmorency, and others, 14 Eliz. the Earls of Dunbar and Montgomery, 6 Jac. I. and the Prince of Wales, 14 Car. I. among which may be numbered those installed at the Grand Feast of St. George, 13 Car. II. but this happen’d through a vast Concourse of People in the Chapel, that prevented the due Order.

In the Red Book it is observed, that the Investiture with the Mantle and Collar, hath been sometimes performed by the Black Rod; as at the Installation of the Earl of Northampton, 5 Car. I. the Lord Treasurer Weston, the Earls of Exeter and Lindsey, and the Marquiss of Hamilton, 6 Car. I. Nevertheless, this is to be understood as this Officers Assistance to the Knights-Companions, whose Office it only is, and no otherwise. Whilst the Ceremony of Investiture with the Mantle is performing, the Words of Admonition proper thereto, are pronounced as follows.

Take this Mantle of Heavenly Colours, in Sign and Token of the most Honourable Order you have receiv’d, and to the increase of your Honour, signed and marked as you see, with a red Escutcheon of our Lord’s Cross, to the intent that you, being always defended by the Virtue and Strength thereof, may pass through your Enemies, and them also overcome and vanquish, so that at the last, for your worthy and approved Acts, you may, after this Temporal Chivalry, come to Eternal Triumphant Joys in Heaven.

But at the Installation of King Charles II. they receiv’d some alteration, and were put in the following Form.

Receive this Robe of Heavenly Colour, the Livery of this most excellent Order, in augmentation of thy Honour, enobled with the Shield and Red Cross of our Lord, by whose Power thou may’st safely pierce Troops of thy Enemies, and be over them ever Victorious; and being in this temporal Warfare Glorious in egregious and heroick Actions, thou may’st obtain Eternal and Triumphant Joy.

Next, the Commissioners, Assistants, or Knights-Companions, lay the Hood on the Knight’s right Shoulder over the Mantle, and bringing the Tippet athwart his Breast, tuck it under the Girdle, at which his Sword hangs: And lastly tye the Collar about his Shoulder, over his Mantle and Hood; and at this part of the Investiture, the following Words of Admonition are likewise pronounced.

To the encrease of your Honour, and in Token of the Honourable Order you have receiv’d; take this Collar about your Neck, with the Image of the Holy Martyr, and Christ’s Knight, St. George, by whose aid you being defended, may pass through the Prosperities and Adversities of this World, that having here the Victory, as well of your Ghostly as Bodily Enemies, you may not only receive the Glory and Renown of Temporal Chivalry, but also at the last, the endless and everlasting reward of Victory.

This Form of Words receiv’d likewise alteration when King Charles II. was to be installed, to the Tenor following.

Wear this Collar about thy Neck, adorn’d with the Image of the Blessed Martyr and Soldier of Christ, St. George, by whose Imitation provoked, thou may’st so overpass both prosperous and adverse Encounters, that having stoutly vanquished thy Enemies, both of Body and Soul, thou may’st not only receive the Praise of this transient Combat, but be Crowned with the Palm of eternal Victory.

Antiently at the Solemnity of Installation, when the Sovereign, or his Lieutenant was present, the elect Knight, after he had been invested with the Mantle in his Stall, was immediately conducted out of the Choir, back to the Chapter-House, where the Sovereign, or Lieutenant, used to remain till his return, there to receive the Collar of the Order from one of them, which done, he is said to have receiv’d the entire Possession of his Habit. This is contained in King Henry VIII’s Statutes, and appears to have been the Practice about that Time, as in the case of the Lord Mountjoy, and others, 18 Hen. VIII. and several others after, in the 1 and 3 Edw. VI. and the 3, 5, and 14 Eliz. The Proceeding back to the Chapter-House on this occasion, was much after the manner of what is before mention’d, except, that here the new installed Knight took his Place according to the Dignity of his Stall. But ’tis observable, that when the Sovereign’s Lieutenant remained in the Chapter-House, while the elect Knight proceeded to his Installation, the Usher of the Black-Rod stayed behind to attend the Lieutenant; and as soon as the Investiture with the Collar was over, the Lieutenant proceeded to the Choir in the Rear, and the new installed Knight in Place according to his Stall, as in the case of the Lord Russel, and others, 31 Hen. VIII. and the Marquiss of Dorset, and others, 1 Edw. VI. The Proceeding having entered the Choir, and the Lieutenant and Knights-Companions taken their Seats, then the usual Ceremonies, the Service of the Church began.

But when the Installation was performed by Commissioners, the Collar of the Order was laid on the Cushion with the Mantle, and born before the elect Knight to his Stall, where, after his Investiture with the Mantle and Hood, he receiv’d Investiture with the Collar also, of which there are several Examples in the time of Phil. and Mar. and Queen Eliz. In like manner, at all Installations since, where the Sovereign has been present, the ancient custom of returning to the Chapter-House being laid aside, the Knights-Companions, who led the elect Knights to their Stalls, did there invest them with their Collars also; as the Earl of Rutland, Sir George Villars, and the Viscount Lisle, 14 Jac. I. and the Earl of Suffolk, 4 Car. I. and hath been thus observed at all Installations since, the Sovereign present.

So soon as the Investiture with the Mantle, Hood, and Collar is over, those appointed deliver the Book of Statutes to the new invested Knight, which was observed to the Earls of Shrewsbury and Cumberland, 34 Eliz. the Earl of Rutland, Sir George Villars, and the Viscount Lisle, 14 Jac. I. and so generally to all elect Knights since. This Book the Knight is to keep safe in his own Custody, for his Instruction in the Laws and Ceremonies of this most Noble Order. They likewise give him the Black Velvet Cap adorned with Plumes of white Feathers, and this in particular was observed to be the last Ceremony performed at the Installation of King Charles II.

All things relating to the full Investiture being ended, there remains only to compleat this great Ceremony, the Installation it self, which is performed in the manner following. The new invested Knight standing before his Stall, and turning toward the High Altar, makes humble Obeysance that way, and then toward the Sovereign, or if absent, toward his Stall; which done, the Commissioners, Knights-Assistants, or Knights-Companions, receive and embrace him with great Civility, as their Fellow and Companion, and set him down in his assigned Stall with Professions of Esteem, and Wishes for his Honour and Happiness. Of this Ceremony, there is a notable Instance at the Installation of Philip, King of Castile, 22 Henry VII. where the Sovereign personally introduced him to his Stall, and there placed him, at which time there was a certain Form of Words pronounced relating to the elect Knight’s Session, and Act of Installation, no less than at his Investiture, but the same are not repeated.

The Order to be observed when two or more Knights
are installed in one Day.

§ 8. In this case it seems to have been the ancient Practice, when the Ceremony has been perform’d by two Commissioners, or two Knights-Assistants, that as soon as they had finished all the Ceremonies due to the Senior of them, they left him possest of his Stall, and forthwith returned to the Chapter-House in the usual manner, and thence conducted the next Senior elect Knight, and so of the rest; So it was at the Installation of Albro Vasques d’Almadea, Earl of Averenches, the Lord Beauchamp, and Sir Thomas Hoo, in the time of Henry VI. and so of the Earl of Huntington, 1 Edw. VI. when the two Assistants, after they had invested and installed the said Earl, returned to the Chapter-House for the Lord la War, and so for the Lord Cobham, and Sir William Herbert. In like manner, when the Commissioners had given the Proctor to Emanuel, Duke of Savoy, Possession of his Principal’s Stall, 1 and 2 Phil. and Mar. they proceeded back for William Lord Howard; so by the Earl of Pembrook, 16 Eliz. when they had first installed the Earl of Derby, and by the Earl of Cumberland, after the Earl of Shrewsbury had been installed.

When the Sovereign hath nominated three Commissioners, they have returned altogether to fetch in the other Knights singly, that were to be installed, and alternately changed their Places in the proceeding to the several Installations, one of them always going single before; as at the Installation of the Earls of Essex and Ormond, and Sir Christopher Hatton, 30 Eliz. when the Earl of Worcester, the Lords Hunsdon and Grey, were Commissioners: And if the Lieutenant had four Assistants assigned him, which was necessary when many Knights were to be installed, the order of their Installation hath been as follows.

First, Two of the Senior Knights-Assistants conducted the Senior elect Knight to his Installation, and the other two Assistants proceeded with the second elect Knight; the former then took the third elect Knight, and so alternately changed till all were installed: As at the Installation of Francis, Duke de Montmorency, and others, 14 Eliz. And the like manner of alternate change is observed if four Commissioners be constituted, as at the Installation of Frederick, King of Denmark, and John, Prince Palatine of the Rhine, 25 Eliz. where the King’s Proxy was conducted into the Choir between the Earl of Leicester and the Lord Hunsdon, the two Senior Commissioners; and the Prince, between the Earl of Huntington and the Lord Charles Howard, the two Junior Commissioners.

But some have been of Opinion, that the Commissioners named to this Employment, ought not to divide the Duty, and part of them to Instal one, and part the other, and by such an alternative to dispatch the Ceremony, as in former Cases; but all jointly assist at each Installation: Of which Opinion there is an Instance at the Installation of the Earl of Salisbury, and the Viscount Bindon, 4 Jac. I. where the Earl having been brought into the Choir, invested and installed by the Earls of Nottingham and Suffolk, the two Senior Commissioners, the other two Commissioners who were left behind in the Chapter-House, to conduct the Viscount to his Stall, remembring that all four were joint Commissioners, apprehended that the Earl was not legally installed, because they, as Co-partners in the Commission, had not assisted; and this Opinion being debated, prevailed so far, that it was agreed to be imparted to the Earl of Salisbury, who submitted to descend into the lower Seats before his Stall, and there all four Commissioners gave him his Oath again, then led him to his Stall, and a second Time invested and installed him; and so of the Viscount Bindon.

But this Method was not only new, but different from former Practice, as in all the cases before recited; and besides, where the Sovereign hath authorized his Lieutenant to perform this Ceremony, and appointed some of the Knights-Companions to assist, they, and not the Lieutenant, have done the Duty belonging to Installation, that part of it of investing with the Collar in the Chapter-House, the whole Duty at the Installation of Prince Henry excepted. And ’tis to be farther observed, that the foregoing case of the joint Assistance in the Installation of the Earl of Salisbury, was thought so little Essential, or worthy of becoming a Precedent, that at the very next Feast, when the Earls of Dunbar and Montgomery were installed, 6 Jac. I. and four Commissioners appointed, the two Senior installed the Earl of Dunbar, and the two Junior the Earl of Montgomery; and so again, 10 Car. I. by the Earls of Danby and Moreton. But lastly, if the Sovereign be present, and consequently the Knights-Companions perform this Ceremony, then there is generally so many of them as can go through the whole, without changing, after the manner used when done by Commissioners or Assistants; in which case the two Senior Knights-Companions descend from their Stalls, and passing thro’ the Choir to the Chapter-House with the Proceeding before them, conduct to his Installation the eldest elect Knight; and having performed that whole Ceremony, return and take their Stalls, and so the rest in due Order; as was practised at the Installation of Prince Henry, and others, 1 Jac. I. and of the Earl of Rutland, 14 Jac. I. and at the grand Feast of St. George, 13 Car. II. but here the separate proceeding with each single Knight to and from the Chapter House, taking too much time, and the Day being far spent in the Ceremonies of the Dukes of Ormond and Buckingham; the Sovereign ordered, that with the next Proceeding, the rest of the elect Knights, being eight, besides two Proxies, should all be introduced at once; so that each of them being placed before his Stall, took the Oath, receiv’d his Investiture, and was led up to his Stall, and took Possession of it by solemn Installation.

And in regard so many Knights elect were introduced together, it was judged necessary, that their Mantles and Collars should be likewise brought in the proceeding, and each elect Knight appointed one of the Gentlemen that attended him, to bear the Cushion whereon they were laid, before him to the Choir Door, where they held them in their Arms, till Garter in due order fetch’d them into the Choir: And here we may insert this general Rule, that at all Installations, where some of the elect Knights are not sent for unto the Chapter-House, to receive Investiture with the Surcoat, before the Senior elect Knight hath been conducted to his Stall, but left to repose themselves in the East Isle of the Chappel, as hath often happened, the Knights Commissioners, or Assistants, on their return to the Chapter-House, send Garter for the next Senior elect Knight, whom they receive at the Door thereof, and having invested him with his Surcoat, and girt his Sword about him, proceed with him to his Installation in the usual manner. And the same method is observed if there were more elect Knights to follow; and we find it 30 Henry VIII. 16, and 34, and 10 Car. I.

The Knight, or Knights, having now receiv’d a compleat Installation, the Knights-Commissioners, Assistants, or Knights-Companions, with marks of Respect, take their leave of the last installed Knight, and descending into the Choir, take their own Stalls; but the Senior Knight-Companion ascends first: But observe, that if the Stalls of the Knights-Commissioners, Assistants, or Knights-Companions, be on the same side with the last installed Knight, then they descend not into the Choir, but pass directly to them along the Stalls, as in the 34 Eliz. The Ceremonies of Installation being finished, the Officers of Arms first, next the Alms-Knights, descend from the Steps of the Altar, and take their several Stations in the Choir; then one of the Prebends of the College, or, if the Sovereign be present, the Prelate, with the Serjeant of the Vestry before him, is conducted to the Altar by the Verger of the Chappel, and there begins the Service appointed by the Church, which being ended, the Proceeding passes out of the Choir in usual Order, either to the Presence-Chamber, or the Lieutenants, or Commissioners Lodgings, as the Occasion is.

The Offering of Gold and Silver.

§ 9. But if the Installation be solemnized in the Morning, the Service of the Church having proceeded as far as the Offertory, two of the Prebends, appointed to recieve the Offering, are conducted to the Altar by their Verger, and first the Alms-Knights, then the Officers of Arms, ascend the Steps of the Altar again, and stand in order as before. After which, Garter Summons down the Knights-Companions to the Offering, who descend into the Choir under their proper Stalls, as does the Sovereign’s Lieutenant, who offers first for the Sovereign, he receiving the Bezant from the Senior Knight, and then returns to his Stall: And at this instant, was the usual time heretofore for offering the Defunct Knights Atchievements, which was altered by King James I. as will be seen hereafter.

The Lieutenant, after a short stay in his Stall, descends again, and proceeds up to the Altar, to make his own Offering of Gold and Silver, and then returns, as do the rest of the Knights-Companions, including those newly installed, in their due order. But when the Installation passes by Commissioners, there is then no Offering made for the Sovereign, but the Commissioners offer first, and after them the other Knights in due order.

The Ceremony of Offering at the Installation of Philip, King of Castile, 22 Henry VII. is remarkable. He descended from his Stall into the Choir, and standing before it, as the other Knights-Companions did, the Sovereign left his Royal Stall to proceed to the Offering, to which the King would have followed, but the Sovereign would not permit, obliging the King to proceed along with him, on his left Hand, though he desired to perform his Duty as a Brother of the Order, so that they made their Offerings so near together, where, though the Sovereign had the Precedence, yet ’twas hardly observable.

Of the grand Dinner at the Installation.

§ 10. On the Day of Installation, there hath, from ancient Time, been appointed a Noble and Sumptuous Feast, and though it was agreed on in a Chapter, 3 Edward VI. That the Knights elect might, from thenceforth, be installed by Commission without a Feast; yet after his Reign, we find the old custom of a Feast at this Solemnity restored.

If the Sovereign appoint the Installation to be when the Feast of St. George is also celebrated, and is himself personally present, the Feast is then kept at the Sovereign’s Charge; and if in such case he constitute a Lieutenant, then the Installation Dinner is kept at the Charge of the Lieutenant; and is usually prepared in some of the Sovereign’s Lodgings in the Castle, but seldom in St. George’s Hall; as was done by the Earl of Arundel, at the Installation of the Earl of Shrewsbury, and the Lord Hunsdon, 3 Eliz. But when the Installation is kept at any other time of the Year, than that of St. George’s Feast, then the new installed Knights are at all the Expence; who generally have had the Dinner prepared in the Dean’s Lodgings; however, be it where it will, the Sovereign, or his Lieutenant, Commissioners, or Assistants, together with the new installed Knights, proceed thither in full Robes; which is observed in the Installation of 3 Eliz. above, to be according to the ancient Custom. At the Installation, 31 Henry VIII. the Sovereign’s Lieutenant walked alone, after him his two Assistants, and lastly the new installed Knights.

The Lieutenant’s Place at the Table is somewhat on the left Hand the Cloath of State, there sat the Earl of Arundel, 3 Eliz. but the other four Knights-Companions, his two Assistants, and the two new installed Knights, sat toward the Table’s End on both Sides, for that they could not well sit all on a side. But of late Years, as at the Installation, 5 Car. I. a Question arose, whether the Lieutenant or Commissioners should sit at Dinner in their Habits, since the Power given them seemed to expire when the Knights were elected; (though unanimously allowed the new installed Knights ought to do so,) and likewise Precedents quoted, as 29 Henry VIII. at the Installation of the Lord Cromwell, where the Knights put off their Habits, and dined in their ordinary Apparel; and so of the Earl of Rutland, and the Lord Cobham, 26 Eliz. where the Commissioners did the same, and the new installed Knights kept on only their Surcoats: But what followed on this Debate is not mention’d; but the general Practice at other Times hath been of keeping on the Habit till the Dinner is ended.

At the second Course, called also second Mess, or second Service, Garter, accompanied with the Officers of Arms, Proclaims the Stiles and Titles of Honour of the Sovereign (if he be personally, or by his Lieutenant, present,) in Latin, French, and English, and cries Largess thrice; next the Stiles of the new installed Knights in French, or English only, with two Largesses, and in that Order they were installed. And thus it was at the Installation of Charles, Duke of York, 9 Jac. I. of Frederick, Prince Palatine, 10 Jac. I. and the Earl of Rutland, and others, 14 Jac. I.

Philip, King of Castile, Dined with the Sovereign in his Privy-Chamber, 22 Henry VII. whose Stile was Proclaimed by Garter, not in the same Room, but at the Sovereign’s great Chamber-Door, and in St. George’s Hall, after Largess had been thrice cryed. When the Sovereign constitutes a Lieutenant, then is the Lieutenant’s Stile also Proclaimed, and to his other Honours is added this of his Lieutenancy, and afterwards the Stiles of the new installed Knights, as 3 Eliz. But the Order of this Ceremony is more particularly observed at the Installation of the Duke de Montmorency, and others, 14 Eliz. where first Garter cried Largess, and next Proclaimed the Sovereign’s Stile, &c. in three Languages, then stepping two Foot back, Proclaims the Lieutenant’s Stile in French only, with two Largesses; and after that, he cried one Largess for the Duke; and lastly, for all the other new installed Knights, only two Largesses, and the Officers of Arms did the like; and still as Garter had finished his Proclamation, the Heralds joined with him in crying Largess, and so with Reverence departed the Hall.

But lastly, it is proper to observe, that when neither the Sovereign, nor his Lieutenant, are present, then the Sovereign’s Stile is not Proclaimed, nor those of the Commissioners, but only of the new installed Knights.

As soon as Dinner is ended, the Knights-Companions rise from Table, and withdraw to disrobe themselves, and therewith the Solemnity of Installation ends: And if at any time the Solemnity continues that Evening, and the following Day, it is only because the Sovereign (or his Lieutenant,) is present, on account of celebrating St. George’s Feast, and not with reference to the Installation.

Of setting up the Knight’s Atchievements.

§ 11. The last thing to be done at this great Solemnity, is setting up the Helm, Crest, Sword, Banner, and Plate, of the new installed Knight, over his Stall in the Chappel of St. George; to which purpose they are to be provided, according to the Directions before given.

By the Statutes of Institution it is ordained, that the time for setting up the Atchievements shall be when the elect Knight comes to Windsor-Castle, that is, to his Installation, and not before; and the reason is there likewise given, lest it should happen, he not coming for his Installation within the time limitted, and consequently the vacating his Election ensuing, that a new Election being made, those military Ensigns might not seem to be disgracefully withdrawn, and an occasion of Dishonour given, which otherwise could not be avoided, if they should be suddenly taken down from a Place so high; which demonstrates, that the intention of this Article extends to the finishing the Ceremonies of Installation, before the Atchievements ought to be set up, by so carefully providing against the Dishonour of taking them down, in case the Election should become void; which must infallibly happen, if the Knight elect died but an Hour before he were compleatly installed. Accordingly, in the ancient Deputations both to Sir William Philip, and Sir John Falstaff, Power is given their Proctors first to demand, receive, and obtain their principal Stalls, and next to tender their Helms, and Swords, to be hung up in the Choir of Windsor, according to Custom: And for clearer Information of the course of this Ceremony, that the Sovereign impowered his Commissioners, first to give the Deputy Possession of his Principal’s Stall, and after to receive the Atchievements, and place them over it: This is to be considered as a Memorial of the Knights being installed a Companion of the Order, and ’tis incongruous in the Rules of Honour to have the Sign or a Memorial of an Action precede the Action it self.

Again, the Statutes expresly provide, that the Knights Atchievements shall not be hung up, till the Duties and Fees enjoined are first discharged; and ’tis certain, there are no Fees due, nor can be claimed, till the Ceremonies on which they become due are entirely finished. But to clear all Doubts which may arise upon this Point, it was at a Chapter held at White-Hall, the fourth of February, 22 Car. II. ordained, That not any of the Atchievements of an elect Knight’s Stall be set up in the Chappel at Windsor, before he be installed, and the Fees of Installation paid.

And though this was the Practice anciently, yet were the Atchievements always prepared and brought to Windsor, and set before the elect Knight’s Stall; and in case of his not coming to receive Installation, then, being no otherwise placed, they might be the easier removed without the Choir, in as decent manner as could be, so that the Honour of Knighthood might be preserved entire; nevertheless, to be retained for publick Use, and the Benefit of the College.

Where mention is made in the Annals of any Person employed to set up the Atchievements of a Knight, it is to be understood that he was his Proctor, and installed on his behalf: And there appears but one single Instance where one Person hath hung up a Knight’s Atchievements, when another was installed for him; and this happen’d 14th of August, Anno 29 Hen. VI. where the Lord Rivers having been elected to the Stall of the Lord Hungerford, his Sword and Helm were soon after (sent) hung up by William Bobden, his Esq; and Guyen Herald, and he installed the 30 October following, by Sir William Crafford his Proctor; but this was contrary to the Law of the Order.

Where the setting up of a Knight’s Atchievements is barely mentioned, without taking notice of the Installation, it is to be understood, that such Knight’s Installation was also solemniz’d at that Time: As in the case of the King of Portugal, of whom the Annals only note, that he had taken care to set over his Stall, Helm, Sword, and Banner, and all things belonging thereto, at the Feast at Windsor, 2 Henry VI. In what manner these Atchievements are fixed, appears by the Statutes; the Helm and Crest to be set over each Knight-Companion’s Stall, and the Sword to hang directly under them; but the Plate to be nailed to the back of the Knight’s Stall.

The Installation of a Knight-Subject by Proxy.

The Original Cause of making Proxies.

§ 1.

There was no liberty given at the Institution of the Order, for a Knight-Subject to be installed by his Proctor or Deputy; but on the contrary, in the Founder’s Statutes was inserted this express Prohibition. That none of the Knights elect should be permitted to be installed by Proxy, unless he were a Stranger. And this Law continued unaltered till the Reign of Henry V. when John Duke of Bedford, the Sovereign’s Deputy for holding the Feast of St. George at Windsor, 7 Henry V. and other the Knights-Companions then present, took it into Consideration; that where a Knight-Subject, elected into the Order, was at that Time employed beyond Sea, in the Service of his Prince, and likely to continue in that Service some time, it was agreed, that the said Duke should make an Address to the Sovereign, by Letters under the Seal of the Order, (he being then employed in the War against France,) that in the like cases his Majesty would Ordain, That Knights-Subjects might, as well as Strangers, be admitted into the Order, notwithstanding the Clause in the Statutes.

It likewise appears from that Letter, as well as from the Blue-Book, that Sir John Grey, and the Lord Bourchier, had been installed at the aforesaid Feast, by their several Proxies; which the Sovereign’s Deputy concurr’d with, out of great Respect to their Persons; lest by a too rigid Observance of the Statutes, by their absence in the Wars, where they were then loyally employed, and might meet their Deaths, they should want the desired Suffrages of those Masses, ordained to be Sung for a defunct Knight; as had happen’d to several by unsuspected delays. But to clear this matter, for the future it was Decreed, 9 Hen. V. That where any elect Knight was actually in the Sovereign’s Wars, or otherwise employed Abroad on his Sovereign’s Affairs, he should possess the Privilege of a Stranger in this particular; which Decree was added to King Henry Vth’s Statutes. And it was soon after enjoined the elect Knight, on notice of his Election, to take care timely to appoint his Proctor, that he might enjoy the Rights and Privileges of a Founder: Such an Obligation was laid on Sir John Falstaff, who, at the reception of the Garter, was in France, employed in the Sovereign’s Service.

But King Henry VIII. besides his Confirmation of this Decree, for allowance of a Proxy in the aforesaid two Cases, farther enlarged it, to such as the Sovereign should either Command, or permit Licence to be installed by Proxy, which is to be understood of Knights elect within the Kingdom, as well as those beyond Sea: By Virtue of which Clause, the elect Knight, the Earl of Dorset being Sick, 1 Car. I. obtained the Sovereign’s Licence to be installed by his Deputy Sir Richard Young.

Letters of Procuration.

§ 2. It is observed before, out of the Registrum Chartaceum, that Sir John Robesart, elected into the Order by King Henry V. was installed by Virtue of his Letter Missive, sent to Sir Thomas Barr his Proxy; but the same Register calls it, in another Place, a sufficient Procuration under his Seal of Arms, enabling him to perform the Ceremony of his Installation.

The Copy of this Instrument is not extant; but that Letter Missive Sir John Grey directed to Sir John Lisle, to take Possession of his Stall, and by Virtue of which he was installed, tells him he had Chosen him for his Proxy, and to take his Stall for him in his Name, &c. And omitting other Precedents, doubtless, in the case of a Knight-Subject, the Sovereign may, if he pleases, nominate and appoint a Proxy for Installation, where the elect Knight hath not done it himself; for here, all those Considerations of grand Respect, Forms of the Oath, &c. constantly afforded to Strangers, have no Place; which is evident from the Sovereign’s Letters of Summons to the Commissioners named for Installation of the Lord Grey, 4 and 5 Phil. and Mar. who at that time was Prisoner in France, and his Deputy Sir Humphry Radcliffe, is therein mentioned to be appointed by the Sovereign herself.

The first Precedent of Letters of Procuration, or Deputation, drawn into a solemn Form, is that made by Sir William Phelip, 5 Hen. V. by which, having obtained the Sovereign’s Licence, he impowers two Knights, Sir Andrew Butrely, and Sir John Henington, or either of them, as their Business would permit, to supply his Place, and take Possession of his Stall, in the Choir at Windsor.

Qualifications of a Proxy.

§ 3. The Qualifications of a Proctor, nominated by a Knight-Subject, are the same with those requisite in the Proctor of a Stranger, of which something will fall in our Way hereafter; I shall therefore only in general observe here, that to neither Knight-Subject, nor Stranger, the Proctor is to be under the Degree of a Knight, enobled with Arms, and of an honest and untainted Reputation; it being judg’d proper chiefly in this Point, that a Knight-Subject should exactly observe the same Rule enjoined to Strangers; in respect of which, it is very remarkable, that Sir William Lisle, though one of the Alms-Knights, yet in Degree a Knight, was not refused to be Proctor to Sir John Grey, 7 Hen. V.

Preparations for Installation.

§ 4. The Day for Installation of a Knight-Subject by Proxy, being appointed by the Sovereign, there are to be provided for him, first, a Commission for Installation, which by the Chancellor of the Order is presented to the Sovereign for his Sign Manual; to which is after affixed, the Seal of the Order: And appoints, 1. To conduct the Proctor to Windsor-Castle. 2. To put him in Possession, as from the Sovereign, of the Stall assigned his Principal. 3. To invest him with all the Benefits, Honours, Prerogatives, Franchises, and Liberties thereto belonging. 4. To receive his Mantle, Helm, and Sword, and set them up in their appointed Places. 5. To add thereto all usual Ceremonies. 6. Lastly, an Injunction to all the Knights to permit all the Solemnity punctually to be performed: An ancient Precedent of this is found 5 Hen. V. in the case of Sir John Falstaff: Also 2 Edw. IV. at the Installation of the Earl of Worcester, and other elect Knights, by their Proxies.

Of later Times, the Commissions granted on such Occasions differ from those made for the Personal Installation of the Knights themselves, only by premising the Cause of their Principal’s Absence, and Service he is then employed on; authorizing the Commissioners to admit the Proxy into his Stall: Likewise where the Installation is performed by two or more Commissioners, the Sovereign directs Letters to each of them, giving notice of the intended Solemnity, and requiring them to attend at a Day prefixt, to the end the Proxy may be put into Possession of his Principal’s Stall.

And as there is, upon admission of an elect Knight, installed by Proxy, the same ground for removal of Stalls, as in personal Installations; so the Sovereign issues out Warrants to Garter, some time before the Solemnity, to remove the Atchievements and Plates, as usual, and place them in the Order such Warrants direct. Anciently the Stall for an elect Knight, was assigned in the Commission issued for Installation, as in the case of Sir Henry Inghouse, Proctor to Sir John Falstaff, 5 Henry V.

The rest of the Particulars to be provided against the Day of Installation, are at the Knight’s own Charge, and are agreeable with those in Personal Installations.

Proceeding to the Chapter-House.

§ 5. The next thing to be consider’d, is the Proxies Place in proceeding to the Chapter-House, and this is immediately after the Provincial King of Arms, because as yet he hath not taken Possession of his Principal’s Stall; which done, it gives him a Place in his return according to its Dignity. In this Order the Proctors of the Marquiss of Newcastle, and the Earl of Bristol, proceeded (Bare-headed,) 13 Car. II.

And though this be the Proctor’s usual Place in this Proceeding, yet Sir Henry Sidney, Proctor to the Earl of Warwick, 5 Eliz. proceeded immediately before the elect Knights; which is the only instance of that kind.

Lastly, the Proctor, as in the case of an elect Knight, passes into the East-Isle, behind the High-Altar, as soon as he comes within St. George’s Chappel, while the Sovereign, Lieutenant, or Commissioners, proceed into the Chapter-House, and there reposeth himself till he is sent for in; as in the case of the Marquiss of Newcastle and Earl of Bristol above: But if the Proxy pass not in the Proceeding, he then goes privately to his Place, before the Proceeding sets forward.

Transactions in the Chapter-House.

§ 6. After the Chapter is opened, the first thing done, is for Garter to present the Commission or Commissions, which he carried in the Proceeding thither, as well that for the Lieutenancy, (if a Lieutenant held the Feast,) as of Installation, for admitting a Proxy, the Order of which is observed before.

The Letters of Procuration, or Deputation, are next read, after which the Proxy is sent for into the Chapter-House by Garter, who conducts him to the Door, and there the Commissioners, or Assistants, or Knights-Companions, receive him. But 5 Eliz. Sir Henry Sidney exhibited his Deputation, after he was called in: Or sometimes the Proxy produces his Deputation before the Proceeding to the Chapter-House, as Sir George Howard, Deputy to the Earl of Bedford, did, 6 Eliz. And in such case there is no need of admitting the Proxy into the Chapter-House, but that he may stay without, till the Sovereign, his Lieutenant, or Commissioners, are past into the Choir, and he sent for thither; at which time the Mantle was wont to be laid on his right Arm at the Chapter-House Door, by the Knights-Companions appointed to introduce him.

Anciently, as soon as the Proxy was admitted into the Chapter-House, and the Letters of Procuration were read, the Mantle of his Principal was usually laid on his right Arm by the Sovereign’s Lieutenant, or Commissioners, and part of it spread on the Proxies Shoulders, the Escutcheon of St. George lying uppermost, and the Cordons laid fair to be seen; and in this manner he bore it in the Proceeding to the Stall, where he held it till Service was ended; but ’tis now ordered otherwise, as by the direction of King Charles II. that the Mantle should be born on the left Arm.

But 5 Eliz. the Earl of Warwick’s Proctor had the Mantle born before him into the Choir by Garter, in the same manner as is usual to Knights Personally installed; and not delivered him, till he had taken the Oath; and at the delivery thereof, the Words of Admonition were pronounced by the Register; as it was observed to the Proxies of the Marquiss of Newcastle, and the Earl of Bristol, 13 Car. II.

Proceeding to the Choir.

§ 7. The Proxy proceeds from the Chapter-House Door, between the Sovereign’s Commissioners, &c. But touching the Order of this Proceeding, so much has already been said, that we shall give but one Instance, Anno 6 Elizabeth.

1. Verger.
2. Alms-Knights.
3. Officers of Arms.
4. Officers of the Order.
5. Lord Hunsdon, Proctor to the Lord Cobham.
6. Earl of Bedford.

Ceremonies performed in the Choir.

§ 8. The Proceeding having entered the Choir, the Commissioners, &c. conduct the Proxy into the lower Stall, directly under that designed for his Principal, where the Register reads the Words of the Oath, while the Proxy, laying his Hand on the Book, repeats them after him, and Kisses the Book: And this Oath his Deputation impowers him to take, in the Name of his Principal; the Form of the Oath having no difference from the Oath taken Personally by an elect Knight.

The Oath being taken in this solemn manner, the Proctor is led up to the Stall of his Principal, where both the Knights, who conducted him into the Choir, first take the Mantle, and lay it on his Arm, next laying their Hands on him, in the Name of his Lord and Master, from whom he received his Deputation, set him down therein: And so the Ceremony of Installation being fully ended, the Service of the Church begins.

If the Installation be performed in the Morning, there is an Offering of Gold and Silver; at which time the Proxy in his turn comes from his Principal’s Stall, and stands before it, and when the Sovereign, or the Lieutenant for him, and for himself, or else the Commissioners, and the rest of the Knights-Companions present, have offered, then the Proxy (being joined to the Knight, sitting in the opposite Stall, if present at the Solemnity, and having two Officers of Arms before them,) proceeds to the High Altar, and there offers both Gold and Silver; and then returns, and takes his Stall as the rest do. In this manner the Earl of Warwick’s Proxy, joining with the Earl of Northumberland, installed at the same time, proceeded to the Offering, 5 Eliz. As likewise the Proctor to the Earl of Bedford, with the Lord Hunsdon, 6 Eliz.

The Ceremony of the Offering being finished, the Service of the Church goes on, which being over, the Proceeding returns in the same Order it came to the Chapter-House, except, that now the Proxy takes his Place according to the Dignity of his Stall. But in regard the Statutes expresly declare; That after the Proxy hath been admitted to his Principal’s Stall, he shall neither wear the Mantle, nor have any Voice in Chapter, nor enter there in the absence of him that sent him; so that it was the ancient Practice to take off the Mantle from his Arm at the Chapter-House Door, in his return from the Choir, and delivered to the Verger of the Chappel, though sometimes to the Sexton, at other times to Garter, also to the Black-Rod, who hath taken it from off the Proxies Arm, and carried it into the Chapter-House; this done, the Proxy retires privately out of the Proceeding to his Lodging.

It appears however, but by what indulgence is not mentioned, that though Garter took the Mantle from Sir Henry Sidney, 5 Eliz. at the Chapter-House Door, on the Evening he returned from Installation; yet the next Morning he rode in the Procession to the Chapel, the Celebration of the Feast of St. George continuing, with the Mantle on his right Arm; and having entered the Choir, took his Principal’s Stall, bearing likewise the Mantle in the grand Procession, at the Offering of Money, and during Divine Service, and from the Chappel to the Castle to Dinner: And the like in the Afternoon of the said Day, he rode on Horse-back in the Proceeding to the Chapter-House Door, but there the Mantle was taken from him, and laid within upon the Table, whilst he retired into the East-Isle of the Chappel, and at the rising of the Chapter, it was again delivered to him, whence he proceeded in his Principal’s Place to the second Vespers.

Next Morning, the Lieutenant, and Assistants, having ended the Chapter, the Mantle was again laid on his Arm, and in that manner he passed to his Principal’s Stall, and afterwards offered, as on the Feast Day. The Morning Service ended, the Lieutenant and Assistants returned to the Chapter-House Door, where they put off their Mantles, and at the same time the Sexton of the College receiv’d the Mantle from him.

The Grand Dinner.

§ 9. At Dinner the Proxy sits with the Lieutenant or Commissioners, and takes Place where his Principal should sit if he were present; and this was so observed at the Installation of the Earl of Warwick, 5 Eliz.

The Stile of the Knight installed by Proxy, is proclaimed in French, or English, in the usual Form and Place, as 25 Hen. VIII. at the Installations of the Earls of Beaumont and Newblanke, by their Proxies; for they were Knight-Subjects, though not to the Sovereign, and therefore not improper to be made use of as an Instance. To conclude, the Proctor is to take care that the Atchievements and Plate of his Principal are set up in their proper Places, which appears not only from the ancient Letters of Procuration, but also by Commissions of Installation, which appoint that the Sovereign’s Deputy should receive from the Proctor his Principal’s Helm and Sword, (for there is no mention of the Banner till afterwards,) and place it over his Stall.

The Signification of Election to Strangers.

Within what time, and in what manner, Certificate
is made of their Election.

§ 1.

In regard that Strangers elect, are for the most part Sovereign Princes, whole Affairs obliged them to abide in their own Dominions, and very rarely permitted them to receive Personal Installation, it was thought fit to allow them several Privileges, by the Founder of this most Noble Order, and principally, that of giving previous and timely Notice of their Elections, and convenient time of consideration for Acceptance; affording Investiture in their own Countries, and permitting their Installations to be performed at Windsor by their Proxies or Deputies.

It was therefore by the Statutes ordained: That when any such should be chosen into the Order, they should be certified of their Elections by the Sovereign; and besides, that, at his Charge, the Garter should be sent over to them, with the Mantle and Statutes of the Order, Sealed with the common Seal; so that they might have notice, at least within four Months from the time of Election, to the end they might advise and determine with themselves, from the Tenor of the Statutes, whether they would receive the Honour of this most Noble Order.

In Pursuance of these Directions, it became customary for the Sovereign, when he sent his Letters, to send also, and that by way of solemn Embassy, the Habit and Ensigns of the Order, with a Book of the Statutes; and in case the Election were accepted, Investiture might be received before the return of the Persons, by whom the Habit was sent. As upon the Elections of Edward, King of Portugal, at the Feast of St. George, 13 Hen. VI. the Duke of Urbin, 14 Edw. IV. and several others.

The right of bearing these Letters signifying Election, and returning the Strangers Answer, belongs to Garter, by the Constitutions of his Office. And though Certificate of Election was to be made within four Months from the time of Election, yet King Henry VIII. added this necessary Clause: That when the Sovereign had any great or high Impediment, he might defer certifying the Election till a more convenient Time. As may be seen in the case of Frederick III. Emperor of Germany, in the time of Henry VI. who having been elected 35 of that King, had not Letters sent him to signify it till the next Year. It likewise appears, that Letters to the same Effect were then likewise dispatched to the King of Arragon, the Duke of Brunswick, and King of Poland, who had been elected eight Years before.

And yet we find it recorded, that the Habit and Ensigns of the Order were sent by special Ambassadors to all three, 34 Hen. VI. two Years before: But perhaps this ought to be understood of their being but then design’d, and ordered to be sent, and on second Thoughts might be stopped, or if sent, by some accident might have miscarried; otherwise it seems needless to have sent other Letters to give notice of their Election two Years after: But to clear this matter, we after find a second mention of sending the Habit and Ensigns to the King of Poland, 37 Hen. VI. by which it is demonstrable, that the first Embassy took no Effect.

It does not appear that King Hen. VIII. or any of his Successors, ever made use of that Liberty granted by the aforesaid Article of his Statutes, for deferring the significatory Letters of Election beyond the time appointed by the Statutes of Institution, as we find by the many Instances of that kind. Francis the first King of France was elected October 21. 19 Hen. VIII. and was installed the 25 January following; so that ’tis plain, the Letters of Notice must needs have been dispatched within the limited Time. James V. of Scotland, who was elected 20 Jan. 26 Hen. VIII. had notice of Election immediately sent him; and Hen. II. of France, having been elected 24 April, 5 Edw. VI. had Letters of Signification sent him in May following; and so in all Examples since. And when King Charles II. elected any Stranger whilst he was Abroad, Letters of Signification were sent them immediately after.

Of notice given of an Election, before sending the Habit.

§ 2. Here it is to be observed, with how much caution, more than the former, the Statutes of King Henry VIII. Ordain, to send Letters that signify Election, and the Book of Statutes only at first; but not the Garter and Mantle, till the elect Stranger, having had time to consult the Statutes, certifies his acceptance of the Order; and then, and not before, it is Decreed to send a solemn Embassy with the whole Habit, George, and Collar: And consonant to this, the Practice hath sometimes been. As in the case of Henry II. King of France, 5 Edw. VI. Emanuel, Duke of Savoy, 1 and 2 Phil. and Mar. and in that of Frederick, Duke of Wirtembergh, to whom Queen Elizabeth sent Letters soon after his Election, and he returned Thanks, and Acceptation, by his two Ambassadors, who received Promise of sending the whole Habit soon after; however, the same were not sent during her Life.

Notice of Election sent with the Habit.

§ 3. When the Sovereign hath been well assured of the elect Stranger’s acceptance, the same Embassy (as anciently before adding this Clause,) dispatched both Ceremonies. The Sovereign’s Letter signifying Election, being first presented, together with the Book of Statutes, and an acceptance declared, then within few Days, the whole Habit of the Order was solemnly delivered.

And thus it was directed soon after the Election of James V. King of Scots, to the Lord William Howard, sent on that Embassy; and in like manner, at the Election of Christian IV. King of Denmark, 1 Jac. I. to the Earl of Rutland sent on that Embassy. As also to Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, and Henry, Prince of Orange, within two Months, their Elections following on April 24. 3 Car. I. and the date of the Commission for delivering the Order being on June 24. following.

The manner and order of the delivery of these Letters, signifying Election, when the Habit is sent, is thus.

“First, The Ambassador and Officer of Arms having notice given them of the first Audience, present themselves to the Stranger Prince, in the accustomed manner of Ambassadors; and delivering the Sovereign’s Letters Missive, with all due Reverence, the Ambassador, after some short general Compliment from the Sovereign, signifying that his Master, and the Honourable Society of the Garter, in respect of his renowned Prowess, Valour, Virtues, &c. and to establish and encrease the Amity that is between them, hath elected him into the most Noble Order of St. George; and that Sovereigns do never elect any Stranger, but such as they highly Honour; and therefore earnestly desires it may be accepted as a true Testimony thereof: To which end the Sovereign hath sent him over, and his Herald there present, to perform the due Ceremonies.”

But this Commission of Legation hath sometimes been obstructed by the multitude of Affairs lying on the Sovereign’s Hands, particularly in the Time of Car. I. when engaged in that unnatural Civil War; so that when they sent their Letters of Signification, it was thought fit to Commissionate their Agent, or Resident at the Prince’s Court, and Garter Principal King of Arms, to deliver part; but the two chief and most peculiar Ensigns of the Order, viz. the Garter and George, deferring the solemn Embassy till a more convenient Season. The first Precedent of which kind, was 10 Jac. I. when Sir Ralph Winwood, and William Seagar, Esq; Garter, were Commissioned to deliver only, for the present, the Garter and George, to Maurice, Prince of Orange, five Days after his Election; and so to Charles, Prince Palatine of the Rhine, 9 Car. I. and to William, Prince of Orange, and the Duke de Espernon, the same Reign. And so likewise during the unhappy Exile of King Charles II. it was usual, for want of more conveniency, to present the elect Knight, in confirmation of his Election, whether he were Stranger, or Subject, with the Garter, George, Ribband; and sometimes a St. George’s Cross, radicated within a Garter, to be fixed on the left Shoulder of their Cloaks, or upper Garments. But these things after returned into their proper Channel, as we may see in several cases since, of which we need not instance more, than that of the present Sovereign, and his Royal Highness the Prince: The former at a Chapter of the most Noble Order, held at Kensington, 18 June, 1701. 13 Will. III. was elected, and on the 21 June, the Sovereign, by Commission under the Great Seal of the Order, constituted the Earl of Macclesfield, and Gregory King, Esq; Lancaster Herald, (then Deputy Garter King of Arms,) to carry the Habit and Ensigns, and to invest his then Electoral Highness therewith. The next Day after their arrival, at a private Audience, his Electoral Highness received the Garter and George, with the usual Formalities; and two Days after, viz. 24 August, was solemnly invested with the whole Habit of the Order. On 13 March following, 1702-3. he was installed at Windsor by his Proxy Charles, Lord Mohun, with the accustomed Ceremonies. The same Order was observed at the Election of his Royal Highness the Prince, 4 April, 5 Queen Anne; when the Lord Halifax, and John Vanbruge, Esq; Clarenceux King of Arms, (in the room of Sir Henry St. John, Knight Garter,) were Commission’d to carry the Habit and Ensigns. They had their first Audience, on this occasion, of the Prince, the 31 May, who afterwards received the Garter and lesser George, and on 2 June following, was invested with the whole Habit and Ensigns of the Order.

Certificates of Acceptation.

§ 4. After delivering the Sovereign’s Letter, signifying Election by the Ambassador, and the elect Stranger doth readily accept the Order, he is obliged, by the Statutes, to return the Sovereign a Certificate of such his Acceptance, and desire of Ratification. And ’tis observable, before the additional Clause made by King Henry VIII. this ceremonious Course had been the Practice of ancient Times; and both expected from, and observed by the King of Denmark, who having been elected, 6 Hen. V. was the eighth of the same King taken notice of for not returning, before that Time, an Answer, whether he accepted the Honour or no: And it appears, before the next Feast of St. George, he sent over his ready Acceptance, both of the Honour of Election, and of the Ensigns of the Order; and thereupon Directions were given for his Installation by the Lord Fitz Hugh, his Proxy.

But for an instance, after the said additional Clause, there is one remarkable enough, in the Preamble of the Sovereign’s Credential Letters to the Duke of Savoy, 1 and 2 Phil. and Mar. sent with the Habit and Ensigns of the Order; in which it appears: That the Sovereign having given notice of his Election into this most Noble Order, he had returned back his cheerful and ready Acceptance of, and singular Satisfaction in the said Choice; and therefore cordially wished it might attain its due Effect.

In succeeding Times it was thought necessary, where the whole Habit was sent to a Stranger, together with the Sovereign’s Letters of notice, to make a provisional Decree, (which passed, 13 Car. I) That Garter, and all others, whom he pleased to join in Commission with him, should be most punctually careful, that they delivered not the Ensigns of the Order to any elect Stranger, till they were satisfied, by his Letters Patent, of his kind and grateful Acceptance thereof; or in case of refusal, to forbear their Presentation.

And the same care was also taken, where only the Garter and George were sent; as appears by the Instructions sent, 19 Car. I. to Sir William Boswel, then appointed by the Sovereign to present those two principal Ensigns to William, Prince of Orange; where, among other things, he is expressly commanded, To take a Testimonial from the said Prince, of his kind Acceptation thereof, before he should deliver those Ensigns of Honour to him: So likewise in the Institutions of the same Date, for delivery of the Garter and George to the Duke de Espernon.

Of an Election not accepted.

§ 5. That sometimes this Honour hath not been accepted, appears in the single case of Philip II. Duke of Burgundy, who having been elected by King Henry V. then in France, had not, Anno 1 Henry VI. sent his Answer. It was therefore concluded on at the Feast of St. George, held at Windsor the said Year, by Humphry, Duke of Gloucester, then Deputy to the Sovereign, and by, and with the unanimous consent of the Knights-Companions present, to send Letters to the said elect Duke, by which he was desired to know, whether he gave his Acceptance or no? The Duke of Burgundy, it seems, made no Answer to this Letter: It was therefore again debated at the next Year’s Feast, and then thought fit, to send Persons over to him with the Nomination, who should press him for his final Answer. And then it appears, that the said Duke weighing the Statutes, and reflecting on the Quarrels between the Duke of Gloucester, and the Duke of Brabant his Unckle, made a plausible Excuse, refusing the Election, lest he should be forced either dishonourably to violate the pious Constitutions of the Order, or the obligations of Alliance; and upon this they proceeded to a new Election.

But this is the only instance of this kind; and it hath been the constant way of all elect Strangers, not only to accept, but to receive with the highest Marks of Satisfaction, the notice of their Election, and the Investiture of the Order.

The Investiture of Strangers, with the Habit and Ensigns of the Order.

The Time for sending the Habit and Ensigns unlimitted.

§ 1.

Though the Statutes of the Order appoint and prefix a time, wherein the Sovereign’s Letters of notice to an elect Knight ought to be sent, yet as to the sending a solemn Embassy with the Habit and Ensigns, they do not limit any certain time, but leave it wholly to the Sovereign’s Pleasure, wherein his own Interest and Conveniency, as well as that of the elect Stranger, is to be considered.

Nevertheless, the Statutes of Institution direct, that this Legation shall be dispatched with convenient speed; which must be interpreted to refer both to the Sovereign’s conveniency of sending, and the Stranger’s capacity of receiving.

And therefore we find it six Years after the Election of the Kings of Arragon and Poland, and the Duke of Brunswick, e’er we meet with the first notice of the Sovereign’s determination of sending over the Habit: For they having been elected 4 August, 28 Hen. VI. the preparations for the Legation were not made till the thirty fourth Year of the same King; and doubtless some cause, within the limits of that conveniency allowed to the Sovereign by the aforesaid Article of the Statutes, or the accident of Miscarriage might fall out; particularly in respect to the King of Poland, because three Years after the former Order of Legation, we find new Directions issued for sending the Ensigns of the Order to him.

But in King Henry VIIIth’s Body of Statutes, this Clause of sending the Legation with convenient speed, is wholly omitted, and the Sovereign is not limitted as to the Time; so that the Habit and Ensigns have happen’d to be sent sometimes sooner, sometimes later; as the Sovereign has thought convenient; of which sufficient hath been said already; and we find in two Elections of Strangers in the two late Reigns, viz. that of the present Sovereign and Prince; that the Legation was sent only a very few Days after their Election.

Preparations made for the Legation.

§ 2. In reference to this solemn Embassy, there are several things to be provided, before the Ambassadors, or Commissioners, take their Journey. As, (1.) Credential Letters. (2.) Commission of Legation. (3.) Warrants for the Habit and Ensigns. And (4.) other Necessaries.

The Credential Letters are, as to particulars, drawn suitable to the present Occasion, by the Chancellor of the Order, and directed to the Stranger elect; but the Substance, in general, is, That the Sovereign having elected him into the Society of the Order, hath sent his Ambassadors with full Power to present the Habit, and perform the Ceremonies due and accustomed, as if himself were present. And farther, to desire him, To give Credit to all that his Ambassadors shall say, or perform, on his behalf, in reference to their Commission, as he would do to himself.

These Letters pass under the Sign Manual of the Sovereign, and Signet of the Order; but it is observable, that these to Emanuel, Duke of Savoy, were sign’d both by King Philip and Queen Mary.

The Commission of Legation is likewise to be prepared by the Chancellor of the Order, fairly engrossed on Velom, and Sealed with the Great Seal of the Order, the Substance of which, for the most part, hath been as follows.

First, The Merits and Worthiness of the elect Stranger, to deserve the Honour of Election, and the reasons of inducing the Sovereign to confer the same upon him, are elegantly set forth.

Secondly, The Persons nominated for this Honourable Employment, are ordained, authorized, and deputed, and therein Stiled, Ambassadors, Procurators, and special Messengers, and so are acknowledged to be by the Stranger elect, in their Certificates of the Receipt of the Habit.

Thirdly, Their Power, Authority, and special Command, is to address themselves to the Stranger elect, and present, and deliver him from the Sovereign, the Garter, Mantle, and other Ensigns of the Order: Where observe, that there were four or five joined in a Commission, as it has sometimes happened, then any five, four, three, or two, were of the Quorum; whereof the Principal of the Embassy was always one.

Fourthly, They were impowered to require from the Stranger elect, his Oath, according to the Form prescribed in the Statutes; but this was a special case, and only inferred in the Commissions of Legation to Charles, Duke of Burgundy, 9 Edw. IV. and Ferdinand, Archdeacon of Austria, 15 Hen. VIII. and omitted in all Commissions since that time.

And lastly, To perform, and dispatch those things, which they should judge necessary, in the same manner as if the Sovereign were present in Person; and this Power it was thought fit to allow the Ambassadors, in case any thing should want to be performed which their Instructions had not sufficiently provided for.

The first Embassy on this occasion, recorded in the Blue-Book, is that to Edward, King of Portugal, 13 Hen. VI. to whom, for the greater Dignity of the Order, Garter was thought fit, by the Chapter, to be sent alone with the Habit of the Order: And hence is the original of Garter’s Claim to this Employment.

Nevertheless, in succeeding times, as the Order grew into Esteem, some one of the Knights-Companions was made choice of by the Sovereign to be Principal in these Legations; as were Galliard Sieur de Duras, sent to Charles, Duke of Burgundy, 9 Edw. IV., Arthur Plantagenet, Viscount Lisle, to Francis the first King of France, 19 Hen. VIII. and others.

Sometimes other Noblemen, or Persons of Quality, though not Knights-Companions, (yet correspondent to the Degree of the Stranger elect, or to the Esteem the present Interest begat in the Sovereign,) were employed chief in these Embassies; among whom Sir Charles Somerset, after Earl of Worcester, was sent to the Emperor Maximilian, 6 Hen. VII. Henry, Lord Morley, to Don Ferdinand, Prince of Spain, 15 Hen. VIII. and others.

In Embassies of this nature, it was heretofore usual, to join some Persons of Rank and Quality, or Office near the Sovereign, in the Commission; as Sir John Scot, Comptroller of the Houshold, and Sir Thomas Vaughan, Treasurer of the Houshold, both joined with the Sieur de Duras aforesaid: And Sir Nicholas Carew, and Sir Anthony Brown, with the Viscount Lisle.

To these Person, the Sovereign thought fit sometimes to add a Doctor of the Law, or a dignified Clergyman, and such as had the Language of the Country, not only the better to make such Answers to Questions as the Stranger elect might start, on perusal of the Statutes, but likewise to inform him touching the Institution of the Order, or other Passages relating to the Founder, or matters touching the Honour of the Garter. Besides, a dignified Clergyman was in those Times thought proper to Administer the Oath, and pronounce the Words of Signification, at the Investiture with the Habit and Ensigns of the Order.

And for these reasons, was John Russel, Doctor of the Civil Law, and Archdeacon of Berkshire, joined in Commission with the aforesaid Sieur de Duras, and Edward Lee, Doctor in Divinity, Archdeacon of Colchester, and the Sovereign’s Almoner, sent over with the Lord Morley; and others.

But of later Years the Sovereign’s Ambassador, Resident with the Stranger elect, hath supplied this Place; as did Sir Thomas Smith, in the Legation sent over to Charles IX. and Sir Edward Stafford, in that of the French King Henry III. and Sir Anthony Mildmay, to that of Henry IV.

Besides the aforementioned Persons, Garter was always joined in these Commissions of Legation, not only to keep on Foot his Right, but to manage the Ceremonious Part; and of this there are so many numerous Instances as are sufficient to justify the Privilege of his Office, and maintain the interest of an ancient Right. Besides which, if it were any way disputed, we find it decreed in a Chapter 13 Car. I. That the carrying the Ensigns of the Order to Stranger Princes, doth properly belong to Garter.

Besides those Persons joined in the Commission of Legation, there has frequently been appointed, either Norroy, King of Arms, or some one of the Heralds, to go in Quality of an Attendant in this Service, not only for the Honour of the Sovereign, but of the Stranger who is to receive the Habit, in regard the Ceremonies of Investiture with the whole Habit, require the Assistance of two Officers of Arms, of which there are some Precedents.

Lancaster Herald attended the Embassy to Charles IX. King of France: Chester Herald, and Rouge Dragon, Pursuivant at Arms, on that of Henry III. of France. A Herald likewise attended the Embassy to Emanuel, Duke of Savoy: York Herald, that of Maximilian, the Emperor: And Somerset Herald, to Henry IV. of France.

And whereas there went only Norroy to Christian IV. King of Denmark, it was because no more of the Officers of Arms could then be spared from their necessary Attendance on the Sovereign’s Coronation; so in the Embassy to Maurice, Prince of Orange, one Herald sufficed, because the Garter and George only were sent him, and consequently there was but little Service then to be performed.

Concerning other Companions, and Attendants, in these Legations, they are both for Quality and Number such, and so many, as the chief in the Legation judges sufficient for the Honour of the Sovereign, and the Dignity of the Embassy; and with these have usually gone several Noblemen, Knights, and Gentlemen.

In the third Place, there is to be prepared for these Legations, Warrants for the Habit and Ensigns of the Order; and these are also to be drawn up by the Chancellor of the Order, who is to attend the Sovereign for his Sign Manual thereto.

One Warrant is to be directed to the Master of the Great Wardrobe, to deliver to Garter the Mantle, with the Escutcheon of St. George within a Garter, embroidered on the left Shoulder, and Tossels belonging; and also the Surcoat and Hood.

There is also another Warrant drawn up, for the delivery of the Ensigns of the Order to Garter, viz. the rich Garter, and great Collar of the Order, with a George Pendant, and another George hanging in a blue Ribbond; together with Cases for them, lined with purple Velvet, and gilt on the outside.

And sometimes these Ensigns have been delivered out of the Jewel-House, to the Herald of Arms, joined in the Legation in Garter’s stead, as were those sent to Charles, King of Sweden, 20 Car. II. but those provided for John George, Duke of Saxony, to Sir Thomas Higgons, the Principal in the Legation; for which they gave their several Receipts.

The Sovereign’s Warrant for the delivery of the Ensigns sent to Maximilian the Emperor, was directed to the Lord Treasurer, for which Garter gave his Receipt. But for those sent to the French King, Henry IV. the Warrant was directed to the Master of the Jewel-House; and out of this Office have all the Ensigns of the Order been since delivered.

There are several other necessaries to be provided, which may pass as Appurtenances to the former, and are sometimes incerted in the Sovereign’s Warrants for the Habit of the Order, and at other times issued by particular Warrants: As a black Velvet Cap with white Feathers and a Heron Sprig, a Girdle and Hangers with the same coloured Velvet, with the Surcoat. A Yard of purple Velvet hath usually been allowed out of the Great Wardrobe, for covering the Book of Statutes, sent to the elect Stranger: And for the Velom, Writing and Binding the said Book, there is a Fee paid by the Sovereign to the Register of the Order, which hath generally been proportioned to the Dignity of the Receiver; for this Officer had allowed him for the Book sent,

l. s. d.
To the French King, Henry IV. 5 0 0
To John Casimir, Count Palatine 4 0 0
To the Duke of Holstein, 3 Jac. I. 3 6 8
To the King of Sweden, 3 Car. I. 3 0 0

But to be more particular, we will insert the Bill of Charges for the Book of Statutes, sent to James VI. of Scotland, 26 Hen. VIII.

  l. s. d.
For Velom 0 5 0
For illumining the Arms and Letters 0 10 0
For Writing 1 0 0
For Binding and Gilding 0 2 8
For half a Yard of purple Velvet 0 7 0
For half a Yard of crimson Sattin 0 7 0
For the purple Silk for the Laces 0 0 4
For the white and green Silk for the Seal 0 1 0
For red Silk for the Strings, and garnishing the Book 0 1 0
For an Ounce and half of Venice Gold 0 5 0
For shaping, making the Bag, and garnishing 0 3 4
For red Sarcenet for lining the Bag 0 1 4
For a Box 0 0 8
Total 3 4 6

This Book of Statutes ought to be Sealed with the common Seal of the Order, which not only the Institution, but all the other succeeding Bodies of Statutes appoint. Besides, at a Chapter held at White-Hall, 13 Car. I. the Law was confirmed; and thereupon it was again decreed, That the Book of Statutes sent to any Stranger Prince, should be Sealed with the Great Seal of the Order, affixed to a Label of blue Silk and Gold.

There is also to be provided a large purple Velvet Cushion, to carry the Robes on, when they are to be presented; this is likewise put into the Sovereign’s Warrant, and provided by the Master of the Great Wardrobe; usually containing one Yard and quarter in length, adorned with Fringe, Cauls, and Tossels of Gold and purple Silk, and within it a Pillow of Fustian filled with Down.

There were two Velvet Cushions prepared for the Service of the Duke of Wirtembergh’s Investiture, 1 Jac. I. one of Purple, for the Sovereign’s State; and another of Crimson, for the Duke; so the same Year to Christian IV. King of Denmark.

Two Majesty Escutcheons are likewise to be provided, painted in Oil, and gilt with Gold; one to have the Arms of the Sovereign surrounded with a Garter, under an Imperial Crown; the other of the Stranger’s Arms, within a Garter also, and such a Crown as is proper to his Dignity. Both these are to be put in Frames, painted and gilt, with their several Stiles fairly Written under the Arms, and set on the back of the Sovereign’s Stall, under the State, as also on the back of the Stall of the Stranger elect: But there were three Majesty Escutcheons sent over in the Legation to Henry, Prince of Orange, in regard that at his Investiture, Frederick, Elector Palatine, was present. In case the chief Person in the Legation be a Knight of the Order, then he is to have a like Escutcheon of his own Arms, set over his own Stall; for so had the Earl of Derby provided for him at the Sovereign’s Charge, when he was sent with the Habit to the French King, Henry III.

The remaining Necessaries, are such as relate to the Transportation of the Habit of the Order, viz.

One Pair of fine Holland Sheets to fold the Habit in.
Two sweet Bags of Taffaty to lay amongst them.
Two Trunks to put the said Parcels in.
One Sumpter Saddle.

All which are to be provided at the Sovereign’s Charge, and is also his Gift to the elect Prince.

What farther Warrants are to be obtained from the Sovereign, relate to Garter, and such other Officers of Arms, as are appointed to attend the Legation; as first a Warrant, whereby the Sovereign ascertains a Warrant for their Diet, and Reward, during their Journey, and till their return; and on which, most commonly, for greater certainty of its Payment, the Sovereign’s Privy Seal is obtained.

The Allowance to Garter in the Reign of Edw. VI. was ten Shillings a Day for his Diet, and Ten Shillings a Day more as a Reward: And this we find allowed to Sir Gilbert Dethick, in the Embassy to Henry II. King of France, 5 Edw. VI. and the like in his Legation to Maximilian the Emperor; and to Frederick II. King of Denmark, 24 Eliz.

And when Clarenceux was sent in the Place of Garter (the Office being void by the Death of the said Sir Gilbert) to the French King, Henry III. the same was also allowed him, and commenced nine Days before his setting out; and of which there are other Precedents.

Of this daily Allowance, Garter hath usually obtained an advance before-hand, for his better support by the way.

When any of the Heralds were sent in Garter’s Place, the same Allowances were made them, as if Garter had gone in Person; as had Henry St. George, Esq; Richmond Herald, sent with the Earl of Carlisle, to Charles, King of Sweden, 21 Car. I. As also to Thomas St. George, Esq; Somerset Herald, sent with Sir Thomas Higgins, to the Duke of Saxony, soon after.

As to the Allowance to such Officers of Arms, as are not joined in, but appointed to attend any of these Legations; it was usually, if a Herald, the Moiety of what was given to Garter: And if a Pursuivant at Arms, half as much as a Herald.

Agreeable to which, was the Allowance given to Chester Herald, and Rouge Dragon Pursuivant, in the Embassy to Henry II. King of France, 5 Edw. VI. and there called the old Rate; so also to Somerset Herald, to Frederick II. King of Denmark, and the French Kings, Henry III. and IV. And both the Herald and Pursuivant had also a proportionable part of their daily Allowances before-hand.

Besides which Allowances mentioned, Garter hath also Allowance for Postage, both Outward and Homeward, for Himself and Servants; and for Transportation of the Habit, and other Things necessary for the Voyage. And this by a Clause added in the Sovereign’s Warrant, is left to Garter at his return, when he gives in a Bill of particulars, subscribed with his Hand, to the Treasurer or Chamberlains of the Exchequer, to have been disbursed by him.

The Warrant to furnish Garter, or the Herald, with Post Horses, and convenient Shipping to carry them over, is usually had of the Privy Council, or Secretary of State; either before, or after the Lord Ambassador; and is not provided for in the same Ship.

The Ceremonies of Investiture.

§ 3. The Ceremonies performed at a Stranger Prince’s Receipt of the whole Habit and Ensigns of the Order, are highly Solemn, whether we consider the manner of Investiture performed by the Sovereign’s Ambassadors, on the Festivity and Triumphs, added by the new invested Prince.

First, the Commissions joined in the Legation, receiving notice of their first Audience, are to present themselves in the accustomed manner of Ambassadors, Garter, or his Deputy, going in breast with the chief of the Legation, if there be only himself joined in Commission with the Lord Ambassador, and in this Place William Segar, Esq; Norroy King of Arms, (sent in the room of Garter) proceeded with the Earl of Rutland at their first Audience before Christian, IV. King of Denmark.

Being arrived near the elect Stranger, they present the Letters, certifying Election, or their Credential Letters from the Sovereign; and after some short general Compliment by the Ambassador, he makes known to him, his Election in the usual Form, which is before sufficiently spoke of.

After the Formality of this Address is over, and that the Stranger hath by his Answer accepted of his Election, and consented to the Reception of the Order; the Ambassador immediately delivers him the Book of Statutes, that he may, if he pleases, peruse them before he assume the Habit, and desires his Consideration thereon. Next, both the Commissioners in the Legation present him with the George and Ribbond. and put it about his Neck, as in several Instances hath been shown.

In the interim, before the Day of Investiture, Time is usually set apart for Conference between the Sovereign’s Ambassador, and some of the elect Prince’s Council, touching the ordering of the Ceremonies, and wording the Oath to be by him taken. Garter is likewise to consider what Places in the elect Prince’s Court are fit to perform the Ceremony, and to see them made ready, and to instruct his Officers, what Duties and Services they are to undertake.

If the great Hall, or other large Room, be appointed, there ought to be prepared a Table, with a rich Carpet, whereon the Habit and Ensigns of the Order are to be laid, while the Sovereign’s Commission of Legation is read; another Table should be prepared for the Stranger who receives the Order; and a third for the Sovereign’s Ambassador.

In the Church or Chappel where they are to proceed to hear Divine Service, a Stall is to be erected under a Cloth of State, on the Right Hand Entrance of the Choir, for the Sovereign of the Order, wherein is to be fixed the Majesty Escutcheon of the Sovereign’s Arms; another Stall is also to be placed on the same side of the Choir for the invested Stranger, at the same distance from the Sovereign’s Stall, as is that for the elect Stranger in the Choir at Windsor; in which is to be fixt the Majesty Escutcheon of his own Arms, brought likewise over by Garter or his Deputy; a third Stall is to be erected for the Lord Ambassador, who (if a Knight-Companion) hath an Escutcheon of his own Arms within a Garter set over it; for so had the Marquiss of Northampton, at the Investiture of the French King, Henry II. Anno 5 Edw. VI. and the Earl of Derby, at that of Henry III. under all these Escutcheons of Arms, the Stiles and Titles (fairly Written) of the Sovereign, and each Knight-Companion, are to be affix’d.

Where there is no solemn Proceeding to Church, the Sovereign’s Escutcheon of Arms, with his Titles, have been set up at the upper end of the Room, where the Investiture is performed; so also the Stranger Knight’s at due distance, as at the Investiture of Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, in his Tent at the Leaguer, near Darshaw, in Prussia, 23 September, Anno 3 Car. I.

Besides the before-mentioned Preparations; the Church or Chappel, into which the new invested Stranger proceeds, is to be richly adorned, as we find by several Instances; as at the Investiture of King Henry III. when the Church of Augustine Fryars in Paris, was hung with rich Arras, and all the Choir and Stalls with Cloth of Gold. On the Day the Solemnity of Investiture is celebrated, the elect Stranger sends his Coach, and some Persons of Quality, to Accompany the Sovereign’s Ambassadors to his Court. At the Investiture of Henry, Prince of Orange, Frederick, Prince Palatine of the Rhine, sat with the Viscount Charleton, in one Boot of the Prince’s Coach, and Sir William Segar in the other; and were met by the said Prince at the Foot of the Stairs of his Court, and conducted thence into his great Chamber.

After such time as the elect Stranger, and the Sovereign’s Ambassadors, have a while retired; the Stranger usually first enters the Room appointed for the Ceremony, and stands under his own State, expecting the coming in of the Ambassadors, and notice thereof being given them, they (reposing in a Room near) proceed in manner following.

Servants to the Lord Ambassador, two and two.

The Herald in his Coat of Arms, bearing the Mantle, Surcoat, Hood, and Cap, in his Arms; and if a Pursuivant attend the Embassy, he (wearing his Coat) proceeds before him, bearing part of the said Habit.

Garter vested in his rich Coat of his Sovereign’s Arms, also (but at the Investiture of the Duke of Wirtemberg, he wore his Robe of Crimson Satten, as did Clarenceux, at the Investiture of the French King, Henry III.) bearing on a Cushion the Garter, and Collar of the Order, with the great George, the Book of Statutes, and the Commission of Legation.

Lastly, The Lord Ambassador, or chief in the Embassy, who, if a Knight-Companion, proceedeth in his compleat Habit.

If any other Knight-Companion is present, he also wears his whole Habit of the Order, as did the Constable of France, at the Investiture of the French King, Henry II. The said Constable also pair’d in the Proceeding with the Sovereign’s Ambassador.

In going up to the Sovereign’s State, they all make three Reverences, and drawing near, the Ambassadors Servants fall off on either side for the Herald to pass up to the Table, set before the Sovereign’s State; whereon (with a single Reverence) he lays the Robes.

Then Garter draws near the Table also, and with a like Reverence towards the Sovereign’s State deposites the Ensigns of the Order.

The Lord Ambassador follows, and makes his Reverence towards the Sovereign’s State, and after turning to the Stranger elect, and doing him Reverence, he (or some other fit Person) delivers himself in a short, but grave, and learned Oration; “in which he not only sets forth the Praises of the illustrious Order, and of the King the Sovereign, but also the Virtues, the memorable and praise-worthy Actions of the elect Stranger, to whom the Habit and Ensigns of the Order are sent: Neither are his Ancestors (if any of them have attain’d the Honour of this Order,) past over in Silence, that thereby his Heart (already breathing impatience and desire,) may be so much the more inflamed with an Earnestness to obtain the Honour and Favour of this so great a Dignity.

“He adds besides, that the Sovereign having well weigh’d these and the like things in his Mind, and maturely advis’d thereof with his Knights-Companions, they were perswaded and well satisfied in themselves, to nominate and chuse him before others; to the end that he might both himself be honoured by the Choice of such a Person, and also thereby give an increase and addition of Lustre to those renowned Actions and Virtues, which already were a chief Ornament to him.

“Lastly, He points towards the Ensigns of the Order, which he declares to have been sent by the Sovereign, out of great Love, and singular Affection, to dignify him therewith, as to a Person to whom he wish’d as well and honourably as to any other Prince whatsoever, and withall intreats him kindly to accept thereof, and wear them in remembrance of the Sovereign and his Order.”

This or the like Oration being ended, the Ambassadors present their Commission of Legation to the elect Stranger, who delivers it to his Secretary, and he publickly Reads it.

At the before-mentioned Investiture of the French King, Henry II. the Bishop of Ely, one of the Commissioners of the Legation, made the Speech, to which the Cardinal of Lorrain returned Answer in the said King’s behalf, with all thankful Acknowledgments of the Honour of the Order.

After the Commission is read, Garter presents the Oath fairly Written, which is administred to the elect Stranger, where, if any Exceptions were before made and admitted, they must be rehears’d, as we find it directed in the instructions given for the Investiture of James V. King of Scotland. The Ceremony of the Oath being finish’d, Garter takes from off the Cushion the Garter, and having kiss’d it, presents it to the Lord Ambassador, who kneeling down, puts it with all Reverence on the Stranger’s left Leg, being assisted by Garter, who pronounces these Words of Signification.

Ad laudem atque honorem Omnipotentis Dei, intemeratæ Matris ejus, & Sancti Georgii Martyris; cinge tibiam tuam hoc insigni Subligaculo, circumferens in augmentum honoris tui, & in signum ac memoriam illustrissimi Ordinis, nusquam oblivioni daturus, aut omissurus, quod eo moneris; ut valeas, inquam & velis in justo bello, quod solum inibis, stare firmiter, agere fortiter, & feliciter omnino vincere.

This being said, Garter takes the Surcoat, and with the Ceremony of a Kiss, delivers it to the Lord Ambassador, who (after the Stranger elect hath put off his Cloak or upper Garment, and Sword,) puts it upon him in this manner: First, The Lord Ambassador begins at the Stranger’s Right Arm, and Garter (or the Leiger Ambassador if present,) assists at the left Shoulder. The Stranger being thus vested with the Surcoat, both the Lord Ambassador and Garter gird his Sword about him, with a Velvet Girdle of the same Colour, at the doing whereof Garter saith these Words.

Capito vestem hanc purpuream, ad incrementum honoris, & in signaculum Ordinis accepti: qua munitus non veteberis pro fide Christi, libertate Ecclesiæ, pro jure, & oppressorum atque indigentium necessaria tuitione, sanguinem etiam fundere, nedum fortiter ac strenue dimicare.

After this, Garter takes up the Mantle and Hood, which, in like manner kissing, he delivers to the Lord Ambassador, who invests the Stranger therewith, and lays the Hood upon his right Shoulder; (the Train being given into the Hands of some Noble Personage to be born up,) Garter also pronouncing these Words.

Accipe Clamidem hanc Cœlici coloris, in signum Clarissimi hujus Ordinis, & in Augmentum etiam honoris tui, rubeo Clypeo Dominicæ crucis, uti cernis, insignitam: ut cujus virtute semper ac vigore protectus per Hostes tutus abeas, eos ubique superare valeas, & pro clarissimis denique Meritis, post egregiam hanc hujus temporis Militiam, ad æterna vereque Triumphalia gaudia pertingas.

Garter, in the last Place, takes up the Collar, and with a Kiss also presents it to the Lord Ambassador, who placeth it about the Stranger’s Shoulders, and Garter uttereth these Words.

Torquem hunc in Collo deferes, ad augmentum honoris, & in signum quoque clarissimi ordinis a te suscepti, cum imagine Sanctissimi Martyris, & Christi Militis Georgii: cujus præsidio suffultus, Mundi hujus tam prospera quam adversa sic pertranseas, ut animæ pariter ac corporis hostibus hic strenue devictis, non Temporariæ modo Militiæ gloriam, sed & perenis victoriæ palmam denique recipere valeas. Amen.

When the Ceremony of Investiture is finished, the Lord Ambassador congratulateth the new invested Stranger in the Sovereign’s Name, and in the Name of all the Knights-Companions, and then delivers him his Velvet Cap, adorned with white Plumes, and the Book of Statutes.

The Stranger being thus invested, stayeth a while in the Room, where he received this Honour, with the Ambassador, and after Complements of Congratulation between them, he goeth to the Church in a solemn manner, having the Train of his Mantle born up; at the Entrance into the Church, all in the Procession make three Reverences, the first towards the High Altar, the next towards the Sovereign’s Stall, and the third towards the new invested Stranger’s Stall.

The Lord Ambassador proceedeth towards the Seat assign’d for him, and stands before it till the Stranger hath ascended his Stall, and after making his Reverences, (as before) takes his; then Garter making the like Reverences, sits down on a Chair, plac’d for him before the Sovereign’s Stall.

But the Herald at Arms ought to be often near the Stranger, or else the Lord Ambassador, to inform them of the Order of Ceremony, because Garter is obliged to attend the Sovereign’s Royal Stall.

After a solemn Anthem, Garter passeth in the middle of the Choir, and by a Reverence, first to the invested Stranger, and next to the Lord Ambassador, gives them the Signal for descending, and being both come down, Garter passeth up before the Stranger to the High Altar, where he makes his Offering of Gold and Silver, being accompanied with the Lord Ambassador, the Herald laying the Cushion whereon he kneels when he Offers.

But if a Knight-Companion be sent on this Legation, then he proceeds first up to the Altar, preceeded by Garter, and Offers for the Sovereign, which done, he returns to his own Stall: Next, the invested Stranger proceeds up, (preceeded as before,) Offers, and returns back to his own Stall; afterwards the aforesaid Knight-Companion proceeds up again, and Offers for himself: And in this Order was the Offering made when the Emperor Maximilian was invested at Vienna, January 4. Anno 10. Eliz.

The new invested Stranger having offered, returns to his Stall, and the Lord Ambassador, with three Reverences, takes his Seat, the Organs, &c. playing all the while: When the solemn Service is finish’d, the Stranger descends again from his Stall, and with the Proceeding before him, returns in the same Order he came to the Room, where he received his Investiture.

It’s observable, that the Emperor Maximilian, out of a compliance with the Protestant Religion, caused, on the Day of his Investiture, all Prayers to Saints incensing, and other Matters and Ceremonies not used by the Church of England, to be wholly omitted at the Service in his Chappel.

At these great Solemnities, the invested Strangers have heretofore held most magnificent Feasts, but of late they are not so much in Use: And when Dinner was ready, they proceeded thither in their whole Habit, which they wore all Dinner time.

At the Investiture of Christian IV. King of Denmark, Anno 1 Jac. I. the Sovereign’s Stiles and Titles of Honour were proclaimed thrice, (before they sat down to Dinner,) and the said King’s twice; but when Maurice and Henry, Princes of Orange, received Investiture, the Stiles were proclaimed immediately after they were invested, and in the same Room, the Ceremony being perform’d to both in the Afternoon.

At the Feast made by Maximilian I. (King of the Romans,) Sir Charles Somerset, and Sir Thomas Wriothesley, sent on the Embassy, was admitted to his Table, and sat on his left Hand: On the Day of Investiture of Don Ferdinand, Prince of Spain, Arch-Duke of Austria, the Lord Morley, and Sir William Hussey, sat on his right Hand at Dinner, and Dr. Lee, and the said Sir Thomas Wriothesley, on his left; these four being join’d in the Commission of Legation.

At a Feast on the like Occasion by the French King, Henry II. he admitted to his Table (beside the Marquiss of Northampton, the principal Person in the Legation,) the before-mentioned Constable of France; and all three sat in their full Robes of the Garter, which they put not off till after Dinner. The Cardinal of Lorrain sat also at the King’s Table, but it was on the other side.

When the Investiture was performed in the Afternoon, then was the Grand Dinner turn’d into a Supper; as it was at the Investiture of Maximilian the Emperor, and two of the French Kings; but when Henry, Prince of Orange, receiv’d the Ensigns of the Order, there was no Feast at all, but purposely omitted, to prevent the difference which might have been occasioned by the Precedency and Place, between Ambassadors drinking of Healths, and other Complements.

On this Solemnity, and the Honour they deriv’d from it, some have thought fit to transmit the Memory to Posterity, by Medals, with Inscriptions relating thereto; such were those of Gold and Silver, which Frederick, Duke of Wirtemberg, caused to be made; as also those made by Charles, King of Sweden.

Certificates of having receiv’d the Habits, and Ensigns of the Order.

§ 4. The magnificent Solemnity of Investiture, &c. being compleatly finish’d, and the Ambassadors having fully performed their Duties therein; they are yet further to obtain from the new invested Stranger, before their departure, a publick Instrument, testifying the reception of the said Habit and Ensigns, Sign’d with his Hand, and Sealed with his Great Seal; this we find anciently done in several Instances, and is generally demanded and obtain’d.

Hereupon a Clause to this Effect is usually added, in Instructions given to Ambassadors; as appears from those to the Lord Howard and Garter, in the Embassy to James V. King of Scotland; namely, that Garter should remember (after the Investiture was performed,) to Purchase, and Sollicit a Certificate from the said King, of his reception of the Order, and taking the Oath, both under his Seal.

The Form and Substance of these Certificates are much alike; for after a recital of all the Powers given to the Ambassadors nam’d in the Commission of Legation, the Stranger Prince first makes Certificate of his receiving, and Investiture with the Mantle, Surcoat, Collar, and other Ornaments of the Order; and that they receiv’d them from the Sovereign’s Ambassador, with the accustom’d Solemnities.

In some of these Certificates, namely from Ferdinand, Prince of Spain, Anno 15 Hen. VIII. from Francis I. the French King, Anno 19 Hen. VIII. and from Gustavus, King of Sweden, Anno 3 Car. I. we find the taking the Oath appointed by the Statutes to be also certified. Of the return of these Certificates, the Annals of the Order sometimes take notice, and by a Decree, 13 Car. I. care was taken to oblige the Ambassadors to produce these Certificates to the Sovereign at their return.

The Stranger Prince hath been pleas’d sometimes, to give with the Certificate, a particular Testimonial of Garter’s punctual discharge of his Duty in the Legation, or of the Officer of Arms employed in his stead; as did Gustavus, King of Sweden, in the preamble of his Diploma, whereby he testifies the bestowing upon Henry St. George, Richmond Herald, the Honour of Knighthood; they have also usually given Garter Gratuities, either in Money, Diamonds, or some other Present of great value, of which several Instances might be produced.

The Installation of a Stranger by Proxy.

Touching the Choice and Nomination of a Proxy.

§ 1.

After the Stranger is invested, he is enjoin’d by the Statutes (be he of what State or Condition soever,) to send in eight Months after his Investiture, either a Proctor or Deputy to be installed in his behalf, in the Seat assign’d him within the Chappel of St. George at Windsor.

The Time limited for sending in Henry Vth’s Statutes, is but seven Months; and those of Henry VIII. allow no more; and that not only after Investiture, but after the Stranger hath certified the Sovereign of his reception of the Order.

By King Henry VIIIth’s Statutes, it’s also provided; That in case a Stranger do not send his Deputy or Proctor within seven Months, without having a reasonable Excuse, and such as should be allowed by the Sovereign or his Deputy, the Election (notwithstanding his former Acceptation,) should be also void, except so it be, that the Stranger be hindred or disturbed by great Affairs, and then might he send his Excuse to the Sovereign, or his Deputy, within one Month after; and according as the Sovereign or his Deputy should allow or disallow of his Excuse, that then the Sovereign or his Deputy might give unto him four Months of respite more; within which time, if he neither come, nor send his Deputy to be installed for him, then the said Election should be void for that time.

The French King, Francis I. was so earnest for compleating this Honour, that he dispatch’d his Proctor hither with all the speed he could, and most of the Stranger Princes have sent their Deputies within the limited time, there being very few Instances to the contrary, and those were occasioned through the multiplicity of Affairs.

When the Garter and George only have been sent to a Stranger, the Ceremony of Installation hath been dispenc’d with, till a more convenient time, as appears from the Instructions of March 4. Anno 19 Car. I. given at the sending these two principal Ensigns of the Order, to William, Prince of Orange, and Bernard de Foix, Duke d’Espernon, (in regard of the Interruptions then given by the Rebellion here,) such dispensations, and for the same reason, was King Charles II. necessitated to give those Strangers whom he honoured with Election, while he remain’d in Foreign Parts.

Upon the said King’s happy Restauration, among many other things relating to the Order, this particular was taken into consideration, in reference not only to the Duke de Espernon and Prince Maurice, who were dead, but those Strangers also then living; and at two Chapters held at White-Hall, Anno 13 Car. II. directions were given to Garter to place the Banners and Atchievements of the surviving Strangers over their respective Stalls; and the Sovereign, by his supream Power, (induc’d by the impossibilities of the late Troubles to perform the Installation, and by reason of the time elaps’d since their Elections,) dispenc’d wholly and absolutely with their Installations, but at the same time declar’d, that as the like necessity and conjuncture could never happen again, so he would not, on any motion or pretence whatsoever, give the like dispensation.

It seems to rest in the pleasure of the Stranger, whether he will chuse to send over any Person of his own Court, or give his Procuration to some one of the Sovereign’s Subjects, to receive his Stall, and in his Name to take Possession of it; the latter of which hath been done several times, out of desire to favour some of our Nobility with this Honour, of which many instances might be given.

It hath sometimes happned, that a Proctor for the Installation of a Stranger, hath been appointed and nominated by the Sovereign of the Order, though the Principal had nam’d another before: Thus it fell out in the case of Maurice, Prince of Orange, Anno 10 Jac. I. who having deputed Count Henry his Brother, to be installed for him, and he having put to Sea in Order thereto, but by reason of contrary Winds not arriving in England before the Day appointed for his Installation, the Sovereign and Knights-Companions ordered that Lodowick of Nassau, Kinsman to the elect Prince, should take Possession of his Stall on his behalf: A case somewhat like, was that of John George, Duke of Saxony, who sent over his Procuration to John, Earl of Bath; and he being detained in the West on extraordinary Occasions, when St. George’s Feast was held at Windsor, Anno 23 Car. II. wrote to the Chancellor of the Order, to obtain the Sovereign’s Dispensation, for not appearing in the Name of his Principal; who representing his humble request to the Sovereign, in a Chapter held on the Eve of the said Feast, he was pleas’d to grant it, and appointed Heneage, Earl of Winchelsea, who perform’d the Service. There is also an ancient Example of this kind, Anno 9 Hen. V. where the Sovereign nominated the Lord Fitz Hugh, Proctor for the King of Denmark; which yet was not done, till after the Sovereign had been certified that the said King had been invested, and obliged himself by Oath to the observation of the Statutes.

In like manner it is recorded, that the Earl of Cleveland was by the Sovereign appointed Deputy for the Installation of Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, and yet not unlike, but this might be with consent of the said King, though the Annals herein are silent.

The Proctor’s Qualifications.

§ 2. By the Statutes of the Order, the Proctor, whether he be nominated by his Principal, or by the Sovereign, must be Procurator sufficiens & Idoneas; that is, such a Person who hath always been accounted of unblameable Conversation, not branded with any note of Infamy, but altogether irreprovable. And such was Dominicus Franciscus, Deputy to Charles, Duke of Ferrara, who in the Black-Book of the Order is characterized to be a Knight of incorrupt Fame; nor are we to doubt but that other Proctors to Strangers were such, though the Testimonials of their Virtues do not appear in the Annals of the Order.

Secondly, The Proctor ought to be a Person correspondent to the State and Dignity of the Stranger that is invested, which may sufficiently appear by several Instances; the Emperor Maximilian I. appointed for his Proxy, the Marquiss of Brandenburgh, Anno 6 Hen. VII. Francis I. King of France, Adrian de Fercelin, Lord of Bross, Anno 19 Hen. VIII. and Henry IV. of France, Sieur de Chastes, Vice Admiral of France, Anno 42 Eliz.

Thirdly, It is provided that he be a Knight, and without any manner of Reproach; and if it so happen that he have not receiv’d the degree of Knighthood, the Sovereign is to bestow that Honour before he be allow’d to take upon him the Execution of his deputative Power; for none but Knights are capable of this Honour, or permitted to bear the Ensigns of so great an Order. Hereupon the Lord Willoughby of Eresby, Proctor for Frederick II. King of Denmark, was Knighted by the Sovereign, the Morning before he proceeded to take Possession of the Stall.

There was one reason notwithstanding, why this particular was not strictly stood upon, (though moved) in the case (and it’s the single case) of Henry Ramell, Hereditary Lord of Wosterwitz and Beckeskaw, Deputy for Christian IV. King of Denmark, Anno 3 Jac. I. for it being taken notice of that he was not a Knight, certain Persons were sent from the Sovereign to signify his Pleasure, that he should be advanc’d to the Honour of Knighthood before he took upon him the Ensigns of the Order in his King’s behalf; to which he made Answer, that he appeared here, not in his own, but in the Name of the King of Denmark; and that such a degree of Honour was unusual in his own Country, (being Born in Pomerania,) and therefore humbly desired that he might be excus’d from the Honour; upon which the Sovereign was pleas’d to dispence with him, and forthwith the said Deputy (but no Knight,) was admitted to take the Stall assign’d to the said King his Principal.

His Letters of Procuration.

§ 3. The Authority wherewith an elect Stranger invests his Proxy, which ought to pass under his Hand and Seal, do generally contain these Particulars.

First, He premiseth the Sovereign’s Election of him into the Order of the Garter, and his receipt of the Habit and Ensigns thereof, then takes notice or the Obligation the Statutes of the Order put upon him, for sending a Proxy to take Possession of his Stall, in regard the Dignity whereunto he is advanc’d in his own Country, will not permit him to repair Personally to Windsor; and being not only desirous that the Election and Investiture should obtain its due effect, but to fulfil, as far as in him lies, the Injunctions of the Statutes, in what concerns the assuming of his Stall, and taking the Oath appointed; he therefore Ordains, Authorises, and Deputes, a Person fitly qualified, (named in the Deputation,) his sufficient Proctor, and special Deputy, to appear at the Castle of Windsor in his behalf and in his Name, at the next Solemnity that should be held there, to supply his room, and receive Possession of the Stall assign’d him, according to the usual Form; and in all respects to perform those Ceremonies and Things in his behalf due and accustom’d, or should appear to belong any way to the Splendor or Ornament of the Order: As also to take the accustomed Oath with those Qualifications, and in that Form as had been (or should be) agreed on; and further, to fulfil all other things which he should think necessary to be perform’d on this Occasion, or whatsoever thing might require a more special Command, than was contain’d in the Letters of Procuration; and as fully as the Stranger should be obliged to, and would do, if he were there present in his own Person. Lastly, there is usually added a Clause of Ratification and Confirmation, of all such things as the Proctor should say or do, in reference to the Solemnity of installation.

Of the Proctor’s Reception.

§ 4. When the Sovereign is acquainted with the arrival of the Proxy, and the occasion of his coming, he soon after gives him Audience; after which, a Day for Installation is assign’d, and the Sovereign nominates some of the Knights-Companions his Commissioners, to perform the Ceremonies.

The Proctor heretofore has been receiv’d with very great State; Sir Balthasar Castilian, sent hither from the Duke of Urbin, Anno 22 Hen. VII. was met at the Sea-side by Sir Thomas Brandon, with a goodly Company of his own Servants well Hors’d, who kept Company with him, till they came near Deptford in Kent; where, by the Sovereign’s Command, he was met by Sir Thomas Dokara, and Sir Thomas Wriothesley, Garter: The said Sir Thomas Dokara had attending him thirty of his Servants, all in new Liveries, well Hors’d, every Gentleman bearing a Javelin in his Hand, and every Yeoman a Bow and a Sheaf of Arrows, and so they convey’d him to his Lodging. The next Day they conducted him to London, and by the way there met him divers Italians, and Paulus de Gygeles, the Pope’s Vice Collector, to whose House he was convey’d and lodg’d. The reception also of James Lord Rambovillet, Proctor for the French King, Charles IX. was very noble.

The Preparations for Installation.

§ 5. The Preparations of the Installation of a Stranger by Proxy, are the same as for the Proxy of a Knight-Subject, mention’d as before, and the Form of the Commission for Installation is much the same; the Preamble contains the Authority wherewith the Proxy is impower’d and is penn’d with like Words.

The Letters of notice to the Commissioners.

The Warrants for removing of Stalls, and for the Strangers Atchievements, are all to be obtain’d by the Chancellor of the Order, under the Sovereign’s Sign Manual, to which the Signet of the Order is to be affixt.

The Strangers Atchievements (as mention’d in the Warrant,) are to be provided at the Sovereign’s Charge; namely, his Helm, Crest, Mantlings, and Sword, together with a Banner of his Arms and Quarterings; and these the Proctor is enjoin’d to bring along with him to Windsor.

Sometimes a Warrant hath been directed to the Master of the Wardrobe, to provide but some part of these Atchievements; and another Warrant to the Lord Treasurer of England, to deliver Garter Money to provide the other part; in each of which, the particulars relating to either are enumerated; for so were the Warrants drawn up for the Atchievements of the French King, Henry II. At other times direction hath been to the Master of the Wardrobe, to deliver to Garter the whole, who thereupon puts the Charge upon Account.

Sometimes particular Warrants have been directed to the Master of the Wardrobe, to deliver several Parcels of the Materials, for the making up these Atchievements; as were those Warrants, to deliver the Sovereign’s Embroiderer, and to Garter, so much Velvet, Cloth of Gold, &c. for making the great Banner, and other the Atchievements of Charles IX. and Henry III. French Kings.

It also appears that Garter hath sometimes laid out the Money for all, or part of the Atchievements, and then delivered his Bill of disbursements into the Wardrobe; as is manifest from those Bills for the Atchievements of Frederick II. King of Denmark, in Count Palatine of the Rhine, and the Duke of Holstein.

Besides the Atchievements, some other things used at the Solemnity are commonly included in the foresaid Warrants; the Mantle of the Order is not prepared at the Sovereign’s Charge, for the Statutes of Institution appoint the Proxy to bring one with him, not that the Sovereign should provide it, having done that before, at the Legation with the whole Habit; nor is it found in the Rolls or Books of the Sovereign’s great Wardrobe, that any Account is made for providing a second Mantle, when the Proxy of a Stranger came hither; which, had the Sovereign been at such Charge, would not have been omitted.

The Proctor’s Cavalcade to Windsor.

§ 6. The Day appointed for the Installation drawing on, the Proxy was heretofore accompanied from London to Windsor, with the Sovereign’s Lieutenant and his Assistants, (if the Feast of St. George was then also celebrated,) or otherwise the Sovereign’s Commissioners with a great Retinue.

Among the rest, when the Deputy of the French King, Francis I. rode to Windsor, Anno 19 Hen. VIII. all the Knights-Companions that were in Commission for that Solemnity, assembled at the Lord Sandy’s Place near St. Paul’s Church in London, whence they rode to the Deputy’s Lodging, and thence accompanied him with a gallant Equipage to the Castle of Windsor, where Lodgings were prepared for him at the Dean’s House.

In like manner, Anno 8 Eliz. the Earls of Sussex and Leicester, and Lord Clinton, (three of the four Commissioners appointed for the Installation of the French King, Charles IX.) with other Lords and Gentlemen, took their Horses at the Court Gate at Westminster, and with a great Train rode to the Lodgings of the said King’s Proxy, (being then at St. Mary’s Spittle in London,) whence they went through Holbourn towards Windsor; the Earl of Southampton, Viscount Mountague, Sir Henry Lea, and Sir Edward Umpton, met them at Langford near Colbrook, with their Hawks, and shew’d the Proxy variety of sport, with which he being well pleased, they rode to his Lodgings at the Dean’s House at Windsor, the usual Place of entertaining the Strangers Proxies.

Supper after his Arrival there.

§ 7. The Evening of their arrival passeth with a sumptuous Supper, but the principal Entertainment is reserv’d for the following Day’s Dinner. At the Installation of the French King, Francis I. all the Commissioners met together at the Marquiss of Exeter’s Lodgings, and went to the Dean’s House, where they were entertain’d by him at Supper all at one Table; at another Table sat Garter, with certain of the Deputy’s chief Gentlemen, and some of the Heralds; and at a third sat the rest of the Heralds, and other of the Proxies Servants.

The Commissioners and other Noblemen, who accompanied the Proctor of Charles IX. to Windsor, supped also with him at the Dean’s; He himself sitting at the upper-end of the Table; then the Earls of Sussex and Leicester by him, one against the other, next the Earl of Southampton, and Viscount Mountague, then the Lord Clinton, and Lord Herbert of Cardiff, after them two Strangers of distinction, then lower sat the Lord Grey, and other Strangers, and last of all, at the lower end, opposite to the Proctor, sat Monsieur Dose, alias St. Michael, the French Herald. Garter, Black-Rod, and divers Strangers, supped with the Dean, and in the Parlour and Hall sat divers Pensioners, Gentlemen, and Strangers.

Of the Proceeding to the Chapter-House.

§ 8. What hath been before set down of the Proceeding to the Chapter-House, at the personal Installation of a Knight-Subject, will extend hither, both as to Order and Circumstances; yet this general Rule is to be born in mind, that the Place of a Stranger Prince’s Proctor here, is next after the Provincial King’s, (unless the Proctor of a Knight-Subject happen to intervene,) and before the Junior Knight-Companion, (unless a Knight-Subject pass then in the Proceeding,) of which we have an Instance at the Installation of the Dukes of Brunswick and Chevereux, and the Earl of Dorset, by their Proctors, but the Earls of Salisbury, Carlisle, and Holland, with Viscount Andover in Person, Anno 1 Car. I. when the Proceeding was ordered as followeth.

1. Two Waiters of the Sovereign’s Hall, in their Livery Coats, bearing White Rods.
2. Alms-Knights.
3. Prebends of the College.
4. Officers of Arms.
5. Proctors to the absent elect Knights.
6. Elect Knights in Person.
7. Knights-Companions.
8. Black-Rod.
9. Register.
10. Garter.
11. Chancellor.
12. Prelate.
13. Sovereign’s Lieutenant.
14. Courtiers and Gentlemen in the Rear.

Only in the single case of Christian IV. King of Denmark, Anno 3 Jac. I. (as an extraordinary Respect and Honour,) his Proxy went in the Proceeding to the Chapter-House next before the Sovereign’s Lieutenant.

As we had a former Example, of a Proctor to a Knight-Subject, who in this Proceeding past before the Alms-Knights, and Officers of Arms, namely, Sir Henry Sidney, Deputy to the Earl of Warwick, 5 Eliz. so here in the case of a Stranger, the Viscount Hereford, Proxy to the Duke of Holstein, installed 3 Eliz. went in this Proceeding to the Chapter-House, before the Officers of Arms: Which Proceeding was ordered as follows.

1. Gentlemen and Knights.
2. The Proctor and Ambassador of Holstein together.
3. Officers of Arms.
4. Register and Garter.
5. Lord Hastings, and Lord Paget, Commissioners.

If the Proxy of a Stranger pass in the Proceeding, which the Sovereign, his Lieutenant, or Commissioners, make to the Chapter-House, then for the most part he gives his Attendance in the Presence-Chamber, or in the Room whence the Lieutenant or Commissioners proceed, and there joins himself thereto.

But sometimes the Commissioners, as an instance of singular Respect, after their setting out, have taken the Proxies Lodging in their way, and there receiv’d him into the Proceeding; so did Prince Henry, by the Proctor of Christian IV. King of Denmark; and the Commissioners by the Proctor of the Duke of Wirtembergh, 2 Jac. I.

’Tis observed, that the Proxies of Strangers have not always gone in the Proceeding, but sometimes staid at their Lodging, till the Commissioners were ready to send for them to the Chapter-House. As at the Installation of Charles IX. King of France, 8 Eliz. the Commissioners meeting, they, and the three inferior Officers of the Order, robed themselves, and then went to the Proxies Lodging, and having just conferr’d with him, took leave, and proceeded to the Chapter-House, whence they sent out Garter to the Proxy, with invitation to come to them, who was presently conducted by Garter to the Chapter-House Door, where the two Senior Commissioners receiv’d him between them.

Sometimes the Proxies have past privately to the East-Isle of St. George’s Chappel, and there rested, before the Sovereign and Knights-Companions went into the Chapter-House, or proceeded into the Choir, without entering thereinto; for so did the Earl of Cleveland, and the Marquiss of Dorset, Proxies to Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, and Henry, Prince of Orange, 4 Car. I. The like Method was observed by the Earl of Dover, Proxy to Charles, Prince Palatine, 9 Car. I. and by Sir George Cartaret, Proxy to Christian, Prince of Denmark, 15 Car. II. so also of the Earls of Carlisle and Winchelsea, Proxies to Charles, King of Sweden, and John George, Prince Elector of Saxony, 23 Car. II.

The Ceremonies perform’d therein.

§ 9. When the Proceeding hath arrived at the Chapter-House Door, the Sovereign, and Knights-Companions, or the Lieutenant, &c. with the Officers of the Order before them, enter to hold their Consultation; the Stranger’s Proxy being first requested to stay without, till his Deputation, or Letters of Procuration are read, to the end they may understand the effect thereof.

To this purpose we find it directed, by an ancient Hand, that where any Knight is installed by his Deputy, he ought to stay without the Vestry, or Chapter-House Door, till he be introduced by two Knights-Companions: So the Lord Paget, one of the Commissioners for Installation of the Duke of Savoy, when the Proceeding was come to the Chapter-House Door, acquainted his Proxy with this Custom and Injunction, which he complied with.

The East-Isle, behind the High Altar, is the usual Place for Proxies to stay, till they are called into the Chapter, as it is also for the Deputies of Knights-Subjects, where Chairs and Cushions are prepared for this occasion.

The first thing done after the Chapter is opened, is reading the Commission for Installation, by the Register of the Order, (but if the Sovereign be present, no Commission issues,) and next, the Letters of Procuration; this being the most usual and proper Place for this Ceremony.

However, at the Installation of the French King, Francis I. by a very unusual compliance, the Commissioners went from the Chapter-House, after they had called in and invested the Earl of Oxford, with his Surcoat and Hood, to the Dean’s House, where the Proctor was lodg’d, and in a great Chamber there, shewed him the Sovereign’s Commission, and in it the Authority for admitting him into the Stall of his Lord and Master: Upon which the Proctor presented them with his Procuration, which impowered him to take Possession of it, and to perform what Ceremonies related to it; which Instrument the Register read before them. This being done, they all proceeded to the Chappel; where entering, they waved their return to the Chapter-House, and passed directly into the Choir.

After some time of Consultation in the Chapter-House, the Proxy is sent for in thither by Garter, who conducts him to the Chapter-House Door, and his Reception there by the Commissioners is after the same manner as is used to the Knight elect, or to his Proxy: But whether he ought to enter the Chapter-House, or be admitted any farther than the Door, or Porch thereof, and to pass thence immediately into the Choir, hath been some Question; because the Practice seems to have been sometimes one way, sometimes another.

All that we find to prohibit his Entrance therein, is an Expression in the short Ceremonial of Installation of Strangers by Proxy, entered in the Black-Book; where it says—That the Mantle is to be laid on the Proctor’s right Shoulder, in the Porch of the Chapter-House, because he is not to enter into it.

And there are two Instances where the Mantle was delivered to the Proctor at the Chapter-House Door; from whence some may infer, that the Practice of those Times was also agreeable to the aforesaid direction; namely, that of the Proctor of the French King, Francis I. 19 Hen. VIII. where Garter stood at the Chapter-House Door, with the Mantle, and as the Proceeding passed by, presented it to the two Senior Knights-Companions, who placed it upon the Proctor’s right Arm; and so of the Proctor of Emanuel, Duke of Savoy, 1 and 2 Phil. and Mar. who entered not into the Chapter-House, but had the Mantle discussed at the Door.

But these Instances, if duly weighed, cannot properly, or with any Advantage, be alledged to prove the Assertion; because the Affairs relating to both, receiv’d dispatch in the Proctors Lodging a little before, and where the Proctor himself was present, where the meeting of the Commissioners and Proctor cannot be deemed less than a Chapter, tho’ not held in the Chapter-House, from the Transactions that passed there, viz. producing the Sovereign’s Warrant, and the Proctor’s Instrument of Deputation, which were both read before them by the Register, and the Proctor accordingly admitted, which being finished, nothing relating to the present purpose required their passing into the Chapter-House, or remained to be done till they came into the Choir.

But the general Practice runs strong on the contrary side; for we find that the Proctor for Charles IX. King of France, 8 Eliz. was met at the Chapter-House Door, by the Earls of Sussex and Leicester, who took him in thither between them, where, after the Register had read, as well the Sovereign’s Commission for Installation, as his Letters of Procuration, and the Commissioners had admitted him Deputy for the said King, they all came forth, and laid his Principal’s Mantle on his right Arm and Shoulder, the Train whereof was born by the Earl of Southampton, assisted by the Lord Herbert of Cardiff.

Again it is remarkable, 25 Eliz. that Garter conducted the Proxy of Frederick II. King of Denmark, to the Chapter-House, and at that Place the Earl of Leicester, and the Lord Hunsdon, received and led him in: So also was Christian IVth’s Proxy led thither, by the Earls of Nottingham and Dorset. And in Jac. I. Lodowick, Count Nassau, Proctor to Maurice, Prince of Orange, was called into the Chapter-House, and there left, while the Sovereign, and Knights-Companions, proceeded into the Choir: Also in like manner was Sir George Cartaret, Proctor to Christian, Prince of Denmark, 15 Car. II. and the Proctors to the King of Sweden, and Duke of Saxony, 23 Car. II.

Nor are these Instances, and the Practice in this latter case, really derogatory to the Statutes, which, though they prohibit the Proxies Entrance into the Chapter-House, yet do not extend to any thing previous to the Installation, but what may happen after; for the Article of the Statutes having first directed the delivery of the Mantle to the Proxy, and next the assumption of his Principal’s Stall, in these Words, Dictus Procurator Installatus, it immediately subjoins, that from thenceforth, that is, from the time of Installation, he shall neither wear the Mantle, nor enter into the Chapter, nor have Voice there, by virtue of any Power granted him. All which are Prohibitions, plainly relating to future Examples, and arising after the Ceremonies of Installation are past, and not at all refering to what preceeds it.

And it seems the Law hath been thus understood, in regard the greater prevalence of Practice hath generally attended it; for not only the Proxies of Strangers, as is observed, but generally Knights-Subjects, have been called into the Chapter-House, and there received the Mantle, before they proceeded into the Choir.

The Ceremony of delivering the Mantle to the Proctor, is performed by the Sovereign, his Deputy, or the Commissioners, Garter presenting it to them; and the manner of it was anciently, by putting it on the Proxies right Arm or Shoulder, in the Name of his Lord and Master, there to hold it till the End of Divine Service.

But as there hath arisen some dispute, touching the Proctor’s entry into the Chapter-House before Installation, so it hath happened in this Point of receiving the Mantle, viz. whether in the Chapter, or Stall allotted their Principal, of which there are Examples.

That part of the Article in the Statutes of Institution, relating to this Point, runs thus:——That the Mantle, tempore Installationis Procuratoris, shall be laid on his Arm, &c. but whether this shall be construed to that instant of time, when the Proctor is brought to the Stall of his Principal, or to some greater Latitude, as during the time of Installation, including the very first Action, or beginning of the Ceremony, namely, the being called to the Chapter-House Door, and entrance into it, is the Question; because there are Instances in both, but the latter is most warrantable by the Statutes and general Practice.

The Article in Henry VIIIth’s Statutes being much more clear in describing and explaining the Ceremonies of Installation, than any of the former; (the particulars of which in every Point seems to be excellently regulated,) having mentioned the Sovereign, or his Deputies, laying the Mantle on the Proxies Arm, it immediately follows, as the very next thing to be performed in course of time; That afterwards he shall be led by two Knights, from the Chapter-House Door to the Stall, and there being, shall make his Oath, and be installed; it gives no Account of laying the Mantle on the Arm of the Proctor at the instant of Installation in the Choir, that being directed to be done before. It is also recorded in the Black-Book, where this Ceremony is more fully treated; That Garter shall take the Mantle upon his Arms, and deliver it to both the Knights-Commissioners, and that they (according to the Tenour of the Statutes,) shall lay it on the Proctor’s right Shoulder, in the Porch of the Chapter-House.

Besides, the ancient usage of receiving the Mantle in the Chapter-House, or at the Chapter-House Door, either before, or in the Proceeding to the Choir, of which many instances may be given, there are several modern instances where the Mantle was born to the Choir, (and sometimes the Collar of the Order with it,) not by the Proctor, but by Garter, before him, and delivered in his Principal’s Stall; as in the Proceeding of the Proxy for the Duke of Wirtembergh, Anno 2 Jac. I. when, after he had taken the Oath, and was led into the Duke’s Stall, (not before) was the Robe laid on his Arm; and so was it done in many more Installations; which manner hath so far prevail’d as to be the continu’d Practice, Garter carrying the Mantle on a Cushion before the Proctors into the Choir, and laying it (after they have taken their Oaths,) on their Arms in such manner, that the Cross of St. George may be conspicuous.

Of the Proceeding to the Choir.

§ 10. Concerning the Proxies Proceeding into the Choir, King Henry VIIIth’s Statutes direct: That he shall be accompanied and led by two Knights-Companions of the Order, from the Door of the Chapter-House, to the Stall assigned to his Principal; agreeable to which, is that Passage in the Black-Book; That as soon as the two Knights have placed the Mantle on his Arm, they shall take him between them, and conduct him to the Stall of his Lord; and thus assisted have all Proxies proceeded to the Choir.

Since the Custom of receiving the Collar in the Chapter-House was laid aside, the Sovereign, (or his Lieutenant,) with the Knights-Companions, (so soon as the Mantle is delivered the Proctor, or (as of late) that he hath been admitted according to the purport of his Deputation,) proceed to the Choir, leaving the Proxy behind them in the Chapter-House, and after they have taken their Stalls, the Sovereign directs two of the Knights-Companions to descend; who taking the Alms-Knights, Officers of Arms, and the three inferior Officers of the Order before them, pass to the Chapter-House, and bring thence the Proxy to his Installation. In this Proceeding the Proxy goes Bare-headed, as did the Earl of Dover, Proctor to Charles, Prince Palatine of the Rhine, and Sir George Cartaret, Proctor to the Prince of Denmark, Anno 15 Car. II.

The Ceremonies of Installation.