Title: New Englands Prospect
Author: active 1629-1635 William Wood
Release date: October 9, 2014 [eBook #47082]
Credits: Produced by The Online Distributed Proofreading Team at
http://www.pgdp.net (This file was produced from images
generously made available by The Internet Archive)
The good assurance of your native worth, and thrice generous disposition, as also the continuall manifestation of your bounteous favour, and love towards my selfe in particular, hath so bound my thankfull acknowledgement, that I count it the least part of my service to present the first fruites of my farre-fetcht experience, to the kinde acceptance of your charitable hands: well knowing that though this my worke, owne not worth enough to deserve your patronage, yet such is your benigne humanity, that I am confident you will daigne it your protection, under which it willingly shrowdes it selfe. And as it is reported of that man whose name was Alexander, being a cowardly milke-sop by nature, yet hearing of the valiant courage of that magnificent Hero, Alexander the Great, whose name hee bore, he thenceforth became stout and valorous; and as he was animated by having the very name of puissant Alexander; so shall these my weake and feble labours, receive life and courage by the patronage of your much esteemed selfe; whereby they shall bee able to out-face the keenest fanges of a blacke mouth'd Momus. For from hence the world may conclude, that either there was some worth in the booke, that caused so wise a person to looke upon it, and to vouchsafe to owne it, or else if they suppose that in charity he fosterd it, as being a poore helpelesse brat, they may thence learne to do so likewise. If here I should take upon me the usuall straine of a soothing Epistolizer, I should (though upon better grounds than many) sound forth a full mouth'd encomiasticke of your incomparable worth: but though your deserts may justly challenge it, yet I know your vertuous modesty would not thanke me for it; and indeed your owne actions are the best Heralds of your owne praise, which in spite of envy it selfe must speake you Wise, and truly Noble: and I for my part, if I may but present any thing, which either for its profit or delight may obtaine your favourable approbation, I have already reaped the harvest of my expectation; onely I must desire you to pardon my bold presumption, as thus to make your well deserving name, the frontispeece to so rude and ill deserving frame. Thus wishing a confluence of all blessings both of the throne, and foot-stoole, to be multiplied upon your selfe, and your vertuous Consort, my very good Lady, together with all the Stemmes of your Noble family, I take my leave and rest,
Though I will promise thee no such voluminous discourse, as many have made upon a scanter subject, (though they have travailed no further than the smoake of their owne native chimnies) yet dare I presume to present thee with the true, and faithfull relation of some few yeares travels and experience, wherein I would be loath to broach any thing which may puzzle thy beleefe, and so justly draw upon my selfe, that unjust aspersion commonly laid on travailers; of whom many say, They may lye by authority, because none can controule them; which Proverbe had surely his originall from the sleepy beleefe of many a home-bred Dormouse, who comprehends not either the raritie or possibility of those things he sees not, to whom the most classicke relations seeme riddles, and paradoxes: of whom it may be said as once of Diogenes, that because he circled himselfe in the circumference of a tubbe, he therefore contemned the Port and Pallace of Alexander, which he knew not. So there is many a tub-brain'd Cynicke, who because any thing stranger than ordinary, is too large for the straite hoopes of his apprehension, he peremptorily concludes it is a lye: But I decline this sort of thicke-witted readers, and dedicate the mite of my endeavours to my more credulous, ingenious, and lesse censorious Country-men, for whose sake I undertooke this worke; and I did it the rather, because there hath some relations heretofore past the Presse, which have beene very imperfect; as also because there hath beene many scandalous and false reports past upon the Country, even from the sulphurious breath of every base ballad-monger: wherefore to perfect the one, and take off the other, I have laid downe the nature of the Country, without any partiall respect unto it, as being my dwelling place where I have lived these foure yeares, and intend God willing to returne shortly againe; but my conscience is to me a thousand witnesses, that what I speake is the very truth, and this will informe thee almost as fully concerning it, as if thou wentest over to see it. Now whereas I have written the latter part of this relation concerning the Indians, in a more light and facetious stile, than the former; because their carriage and behaviour hath afforded more matter of mirth, and laughter, than gravity and wisedome; and therefore I have inserted many passages of mirth concerning them, to spice the rest of my more serious discourse, and to make it more pleasant. Thus thou mayest in two or three houres travaile over a few leaves, see and know that, which cost him that writ it, yeares and travaile, over Sea and Land before he knew it; and therefore I hope thou wilt accept it; which shall be my full reward, as it was my whole ambition, and so I rest,
|Chap. 1. Of the Situation, Bayes, Havens, and Inlets.||1|
|Chap. 2. Of the seasons of the yeare, Winter and Summer, together with the heat, cold, snow, raine, and the effects of it.||3|
|Chap. 3. Of the Climate, length, and shortnesse of day and night, with the suiteablenesse of it to English bodies for health and sicknesse.||8|
|Chap. 4. Of the nature of the Soyle.||10|
|Chap. 5. Of the Hearbs, Fruits, Woods, Waters, and Minerals.||13|
|Chap. 6. Of the Beasts that live on the land.||18|
|Chap. 7. Beasts living in the water.||24|
|Chap. 8. Of the Birds and Fowles both of land and water.||26|
|Chap. 9. Of Fish.||32|
|Chap. 10. Of the severall plantations in particular.||36|
|Chap. 11. Of the evils, and such things as are hurtful in the plantation.||44|
|Chap. 12. What provision is to be made for a Iourney at Sea, and what to carry with us for our use at Land.||49|
|Chap. 1. Of the Connectacuts, Mowhacks, or such Indians as are West-ward.||56|
|Chap. 2. Of the Tarrenteenes or the Indians inhabiting East-ward.||60|
|Chap. 3. Of the Pequants and Narragansets, inhabiting South-ward.||61|
|Chap. 4. Of the Aberginians or Indians North-ward.||62|
|Chap. 5. Of their Apparell, Ornaments, Paintings, &c.||64|
|Chap. 6. Of their diet, cookery, &c.||65|
|Chap. 7. Of their dispositions and good qualifications, as friendship, &c.||69|
|Chap. 8. Of their hardinesse.||75|
|Chap. 9. Of their wondring at the first view of any strange invention.||77|
|Chap. 10. Of their Kings governement, and Subiects obedience.||79|
|Chap. 11. Of their Mariages, &c.||81|
|Chap. 12. Of their worship, &c.||82|
|Chap. 13. Of their Warres.||84|
|Chap. 14. Their games, sports, &c.||85|
|Chap. 15. Of their huntings.||88|
|Chap. 16. Of their Fishings.||89|
|Chap. 17. Of their Arts, &c.||90|
|Chap. 18. Of their Language.||91|
|Chap. 19. Of their deaths, &c.||92|
|Chap. 20. Of their women, &c.||94|
For as much as the Kings most excellent Majesty hath beene graciously pleasd by the grant of his Letters Patents, at first to give life to the plantations of New England, and hath dayly likewise by his Favours and Royall protection cherished their growing hopes; whereby many of his Majesties faithfull Subjects haue beene imboldned to venture persons, states, and indeavours, to the inlargement of his Dominions in that Westerne Continent: Wherefore I thought fit (for the further encouragement of those that hereafter, either by Purse, or Person shall helpe forward the Plantation,) to set forth these few observations out of my personall and experimentall knowledge.
The place whereon the English have built their Colonies, is judged by those who have best skill in discovery, either to be an Iland, surrounded on the North side with the spacious River Cannada, and on the South with Hudsons River, or else a Peninsula, these two Rivers overlapping one another, having their rise from the great Lakes which are not farre off one another, as the Indians doe certainely informe us. But it is not my intent to wander far from our Patent; wherefore I referre you to the thrice memorable discoverer of those parts, Captaine Smith, who hath likewise fully described the Southerne and North-east part of New England, with the noted head-lands, Capes, Harbours, Rivers, Ponds, and Lakes, with the nature of the Soyle, and commodities both by Sea and Land, &c. within the degrees of fourty one and fourty five.
The Bay of Massachusets lyeth under the degree of fourty two and fourty three, bearing South-west from the Lands end of England: at the bottome whereof are situated most of the English plantations: This Bay is both safe, spacious, and deepe, free from such cockling Seas as runne upon the Coast of Ireland, and in the Channels of England: there be no stiffe running Currents, or Rockes, Shelves, Barres, Quicksands. The Mariners having sayled two or three Leagues towards the bottome, may behold the two Capes embracing their welcome Ships in their Armes, which thrust themselves out into the Sea in forme of a halfe-moone, the surrounding shore being high, and shewing many white Cliffes in a most pleasant prospect with divers places of low land, out of which divers Riuers vent themselves into the Ocean, with many openings, where is good Harbouring for Ships of any burthen; so that if an unexpected storme or crosse winde should barre the Marriner from recovering his desired Port, he may reach other Harbours, as Plimmouth, Cape Ann, Salem, Marvill Head; all which afford good ground for Anchorage, being likewise land-lockt from Winde and Seas. The chiefe and usuall Harbour, is the still Bay of Massachusets, which is close aboard the plantations, in which most of our ships come to anchor, being the nearest their mart, and usuall place of landing of Passengers; it is a safe and pleasant Harbour within, having but one common and safe entrance, and that not very broad, there scarce being roome for 3. Ships to come in board and board at a time, but being once within, there is roome for the Anchorage of 500. Ships.
This Harbour is made by a great company of Ilands, whose high Cliffes shoulder out the boistrous Seas, yet may easily deceiue any unskilfull Pilote; presenting many faire openings and broad sounds, which afford too shallow waters for any Ships, though navigable for Boates and small pinnaces. The entrance into the great Haven is called Nantascot; which is two Leagues from Boston; this place of it selfe is a very good Haven, where Ships commonly cast Anchor, untill Winde and Tyde serve them for other places; from hence they may sayle to the River of Wessaguscus, Naponset, Charles River, and Misticke River, on which Rivers bee seated many Townes. In any of these fore-named harbours, the Sea-men having spent their old store of Wood and Water, may haue fresh supplies from the adjacent Ilands, with good timber to repaire their weather-beaten Ships: Here likewise may be had Masts or Yards, being store of such Trees as are usefull for the same purpose.
For that part of the Countrey wherein most of the English have their habitations: it is for certaine the best ground and sweetest Climate in all those parts, bearing the name of New England, agreeing well with the temper of our English bodies, being high land, and sharpe Ayre, and though most of our English Townes border upon the Sea-coast, yet are they not often troubled with Mists, or unwholesome fogges, or cold weather from the Sea, which lies East and South from the Land. And whereas in England most of the cold windes and weathers come from the Sea, and those situations are counted most unwholesome, that are neare the Sea-coast, in that Countrey it is not so, but otherwise; for in the extremity of Winter, the North-east and South winde comming from the Sea, produceth warme weather, and bringing in the warme-working waters of the Sea, loosneth the frozen Bayes, carrying away their Ice with their Tides, melting the Snow, and thawing the ground; onely the North-west winde comming over the Land, is the cause of extreame cold weather, being alwaies accompanied with deepe Snowes and bitter Frost, so that in two or three dayes the Rivers are passable for horse and man. But as it is an Axiome in Nature, Nullum violentum est perpetuum, No extreames last long, so this cold winde blowes seldome above three dayes together, after which the weather is more tollerable, the Aire being nothing so sharpe, but peradventure in foure or five dayes after this cold messenger will blow a fresh, commanding every man to his house, forbidding any to out-face him without prejudice to their noses; but it may be objected that it is too cold a Countrey for our English men, who have beene accustomed to a warmer Climate, to which it may be answered, (Igne levatur hyems) there is Wood good store, and better cheape to build warme houses, and make good fires, which makes the Winter lesse tedious: and moreover, the extremity of this cold weather lasteth but for two Moneths or ten weekes, beginning in December, and breaking up the tenth day of February; which hath beene a passage very remarkeable, that for ten or a dozen yeares the weather hath held himselfe to his day, unlocking his ycie Bayes and Rivers, which are never frozen againe the same yeare, except there be some small frost untill the middle of March. It is observed by the Indians that every tenth yeare there is little or no Winter, which hath beene twice observed of the English; the yeare of new Plimouth mens arrivall was no Winter in comparison; and in the tenth yeare after likewise when the great company settled themselves in Massachusets Bay, was a very milde season, little Frost, and lesse Snow, but cleare serene weather, few North-west windes, which was a great mercy to the English comming over so rawly and uncomfortably provided, wanting all utensils and provisions which belonged to the well being of Planters: and whereas many died at the beginning of the plantations, it was not because the Country was unhealthfull, but because their bodies were corrupted with sea-diet, which was naught, their Beefe and Porke being tainted, their Butter and Cheese corrupted, their Fish rotten, & voyage long, by reason of crosse Windes, so that winter approaching before they could get warme houses, and the searching sharpnes of that purer Climate, creeping in at the crannies of their crazed bodies, caused death and sicknesse; but their harmes having taught future voyagers more wisedome, in shipping good provision for Sea, and finding warme houses at landing, finde health in both. It hath bin observed, that of five or sixe hundred passengers in one yeare, not above three have died at Sea, having their health likewise at Land. But to returne to the matter in hand, dayly observations makes it apparant, that the peircing cold of that Country produceth not so many noysome effects, as the raw winters of England. In publike assemblies it is strange to heare a man sneeze or cough as ordinarily they doe in old England; yet not to smother any thing, lest you judge me too partiall in reciting good of the Countrey, and not bad; true it is, that some venturing too nakedly in extreamity of cold, being more foole hardy than wise, have for a time lost the use of their feete, others the use of their fingers; but time and Surgery afterwards recovered them: Some haue had their over-growne beards so frozen together, that they could not get their strong water-bottells into their mouthes; I never heard of any that utterly perished at land with cold, saving one English man and an Indian, who going together a Fowling, the morning being faire at their setting out, afterward a terrible storme arising, they intended to returne home; but the storme being in their faces, and they not able to with-stand it, were frozen to death, the Indian having gained three flight-shot more of his journey homeward, was found reared up against a tree with his Aqua-vitæ bottle at his head. A second passage (concerning which many thinke hardly of the Country in regard of his cold) was the miscarriage of a boate at sea; certaine men having intended a voyage to new Plimouth, setting sayle towards night, they wanted time to fetch it, being constrained to put into another harbour, where being negligent of the well mooring of their Boate, a strong winde comming from the shore in the night, loosned their killocke, and drove them to Sea, without sight of land, before they had awaked out of sleepe; but seeing the eminent danger, such as were not benummed with cold, shipt out their Oares, shaping their course for Cape Cod, where the Indians met them, who buried the dead, and carryed the Boate with the living to Plimouth, where some of them died, and some recovered. These things may fright some, but being that there hath beene many passages of the like nature in our English Climate, it cannot dishearten such as seriously consider it, seeing likewise that their owne ruines sprung from their owne negligence.
The Countrey is not so extreamely cold, unlesse it be when the North-west winde is high, at other times it is ordinary for Fishermen to goe to Sea in Ianuary and February, in which time they get more Fish, and better than in Summer, onely observing to reach some good Harbours before night, where by good fires they sleepe as well and quietly, (having their mayne sayle tented at their backes, to shelter them from the winde) as if they were at home. To relate how some English bodies have borne out cold, will (it may be) startle beliefe of some, it being so strange, yet not so strange as true. A certaine man being something distracted, broke away from his Keeper, and running into the Wood, could not bee found with much seeking after; but foure dayes being expired, he returned, to appearance as well in body, as at his egresse, and in minde much better: for a mad man to hit home through the unbeaten Woods, was strange, but to liue without meate or drinke in the deepe of Winter, stranger, and yet returne home bettered, was most strange: but if truth may gaine beleefe, you may behold a more superlative strangenesse. A certaine Maide in the extreamity of cold weather, (as it fell out) tooke an uncertaine journey, in her intent short, not above foure miles, yet long in event; for losing her way, she wandred sixe or seaven dayes in most bitter weather, not having one bit of bread to strengthen her, sometimes a fresh Spring quenched her thirst, which was all the refreshment she had; the Snow being upon the ground at first, shee might have trackt her owne foot-steps backe againe, but wanting that understanding, shee wandred, till God by his speciall providence brought her to the place shee went from, where she lives to this day.
The hard Winters are commonly the fore-runners of pleasant Spring-times, and fertile Summers, being iudged likewise to make much for the health of our English bodies: It is found to be more healthfull for such as shall adventure thither, to come towards Winter, than the hot Summer; the Climate in Winter is commonly cold and dry, the Snow lies long, which is thought to be no small nourishing to the ground. For the Indians burning it to suppresse the under-wood, which else would grow all over the Countrey, the Snow falling not long after, keepes the ground warme, and with his melting conveighs the ashes into the pores of the earth, which doth fatten it. It hath beene observed, that English Wheate and Rye proves better, which is Winter sowne, and is kept warme by the Snow, than that which is sowne in the Spring. The Summers be hotter than in England; because of their more Southerne latitude, yet are they tollerable; being often cooled with fresh blowing windes, it seldome being so hot as men are driven from their labours, especially such whose imployments are within doores, or under the coole shade: servants have hitherto beene priviledged to rest from their labours in extreame hot weather, from ten of the clocke till two, which they regaine by their early rising in the morning, and double diligence in coole weather. The Summers are commonly hot and dry, there being seldome any raines; I have knowne it sixe or seaven weekes, before one shower hath moystened the Plowmans labour, yet the Harvest hath beene very good, the Indian Corne requiring more heate than wet; for the English Corne, it is refresht with the nightly dewes, till it grow vp to shade his roots with his owne substance from the parching Sunne. In former times the Raine came seldome, but very violently, continuing his drops, (which were great and many) sometimes foure and twenty houres together; sometimes eight and fourty, which watered the ground for a long time after; but of late the Seasons be much altered, the raine comming oftner, but more moderately, with lesse thunder and lightnings, and suddaine gusts of winde. I dare be bold to affirme it, that I saw not so much raine, raw colds, and misty fogges in foure yeares in those parts, as was in England in the space of foure Moneths the last Winter; yet no man at the yeares end, complained of too much drought, or too little raine. The times of most Raine, are in the beginning of Aprill, and at Michaelmas. The early Springs and long Summers make but short Autumnes and Winters. In the Spring when the Grasse beginnes to put forth, it growes apace, so that where it was all blacke by reason of Winters burnings, in a fortnight there will be Grasse a foote high.
The Countrey being nearer the Equinoctiall than England, the dayes and nights be more equally divided. In Summer the dayes be two houres shorter, and likewise in Winter two houres longer than in England. In a word, both Summer and Winter is more commended of the English there, than the Summer Winters, and Winter Summers of England; and who is there that could not wish, that Englands Climate were as it hath beene in quondam times, colder in Winter, and hotter in Summer? or who will condemne that which is as England hath beene? Virginia having no Winter to speake of, but extreame hot Summers, hath dried up much English blood, and by pestiferous diseases swept away many lusty bodies, changing their complexion not into swarthinesse, but into Palenesse; so that when as they come for trading into our parts, wee can know many of them by their faces. This alteration certainely comes not from any want of victuals or necessary foode, for their soyle is very fertile and pleasant, yeelding both Corne and Cattle plenty, but rather from the Climate, which indeede is found to be hotter than is suiteable to an ordinary English constitution.
In New England both men and women keepe their naturall complexions, in so much as Sea men wonder when they arrive in those parts, to see their Countrey-men so fresh and ruddy: If the Sunne doth tanne any, yet the Winters cold restores them to their former complexion; and as it is for the outward complexion, so it is for the inward constitution; not very many being troubled with inflammations, or such diseases as are encreased by too much heate: and whereas I say, not very many, yet dare I not exclude any; for death being certaine to all, in all Nations there must be something tending to death of like certainty. The soundest bodies are mortall and subject to change, therefore fall into diseases, and from diseases to death. Now the two chiefe messengers of mortality, be Feavers and Callentures; but they be easily helpt, if taken in time, and as easily prevented of any that will not prove a meere foole to his body. For the common diseases of England, they be strangers to the English now in that strange Land. To my knowledge I never knew any that had the Poxe, Measels, Greene-sicknesse, Head-aches, Stone, or Consumptions, &c. Many that have come infirme out of England, retaine their old grievances still, and some that were long troubled with lingering diseases, as Coughs of the lungs, Consumptions, &c. have beene restored by that medicineable Climate to their former strength and health. God hath beene pleased so to blesse men in the health of their bodies, that I dare confidently say it, out of that Towne from whence I came, in three yeares and a halfe, there dyed but three, one of which was crazed before he came into the Land; the other were two Children borne at one birth before their time, the Mother being accidentally hurt. To make good which losses, I have seene foure Children Baptized at a time, which wipes away that common aspersion, that women have no Children, being a meere falsity, there being as sweete lusty Children as in any other Nation, and reckoning so many for so many, more double births than in England; the women likewise having a more speedy recovery, and gathering of strength after their delivery than in England.
The last Argument to confirme the healthfulnesse of the Countrey, shall be from mine owne experience, who although in England I was brought up tenderly under the carefull hatching of my dearest friends, yet scarce could I be acquainted with health, having beene let blood sixe times for the Pleurisie before I went; likewise being assailed with other weakning diseases; but being planted in that new Soyle and healthfull Ayre, which was more correspondent to my nature, (I speake it with praise to the mercifull God) though my occasions have beene to passe thorow heate and cold, wet, and dry, by Sea and Land, in Winter and Summer, day by day, for foure yeares together, yet scarse did I know what belonged to a dayes sicknesse.
The Soyle is for the generall a warme kinde of earth, there being little cold-spewing land, no Morish Fennes, no Quagmires, the lowest grounds be the Marshes, over which every full and change the Sea flowes: these Marshes be rich ground, and bring plenty of Hay, of which the Cattle feed and like, as if they were fed with the best up-land Hay in New England; of which likewise there is great store which growes commonly betweene the Marshes and the Woods. This Medow ground lies higher than the Marshes, whereby it is freed from the over-flowing of the Seas; and besides this, in many places where the Trees grow thinne, there is good fodder to be got amongst the Woods. There be likewise in divers places neare the plantations great broad Medowes wherein grow neither shrub nor Tree, lying low, in which Plaines growes as much grasse, as may be throwne out with a Sithe, thicke and long, as high as a mans middle; some as high as the shoulders, so that a good mower may cut three loads in a day. But many object, this is but a course fodder: True it is, that it is not so fine to the eye as English grasse, but it is not sowre, though it grow thus ranke; but being made into Hay, the Cattle eate it as well as it were Lea-hay and like as well with it; I doe not thinke England can shew fairer Cattle either in Winter, or Summer, than is in those parts both Winter and Summer; being generally larger and better of milch, and bring forth young as ordinarily as Cattle doe in England, and have hitherto beene free from many diseases that are incident to Cattle in England.
To returne to the Subject in hand, there is so much hay-ground in the Countrey, as the richest voyagers that shall venture thither, neede not feare want of fodder, though his Heard increase into thousands, there being thousands of Acres that yet was never medled with. And whereas it hath beene reported, that some hath mowne a day for halfe of a loade of Hay: I doe not say, but it may be true, a man may doe as much, and get as little in England, on Salisbury Plaine, or in other places where Grasse cannot be expected: So Hay-ground is not in all places in New England: Wherefore it shall behoue every man according to his calling, and estate, to looke for a fit situation at the first, and if hee be one that intends to live on his stocke, to choose the grassie Vallies before the woody Mountaines. Furthermore, whereas it hath beene generally reported in many places of England, that the Grasse growes not in those places where it was cut the fore-going yeares, it is a meere falshood; for it growes as well the ensuing Spring as it did before, and is more spiery and thicke, like our English Grasse: and in such places where the Cattle use to graze, the ground is much improved in the Woods, growing more grassie, and lesse weedy. The worst that can be sayd against the meddow grounds, is because there is little edish, or after-pasture, which may proceede from the late mowing, more than from any thing else; but though the edish be not worth much, yet is there such plenty of other Grasse and seeding, that there is no want of Winter-fodder till December, at which time men beginne to house their milch-cattle and Calves: Some, notwithstanding the cold of the Winter, have their Young Cattle without doores, giving them meate at morning and evening. For the more upland grounds, there be different kinds, in some places clay, some gravell, some a red sand; all which are covered with a black mould, in some places above a foote deepe, in other places not so deepe. There be very few that have the experience of the ground, that can condemne it of barrennesse; although many deeme it barren, because the English use to manure their land with fish, which they doe not because the land could not bring corne without it, but because it brings more with it; the land likewise being kept in hart the longer: besides, the plenty of fish which they have for little or nothing, is better so used, than cast away; but to argue the goodnesse of the ground, the Indians who are too lazie to catch fish, plant corne eight or ten yeares in one place without it, having very good crops. Such is the rankenesse of the ground that it must bee sowne the first yeare with Indian Corne, which is a soaking graine, before it will be fit for to receive English seede. In a word, as there is no ground so purely good, as the long forced and improoved grounds of England, so is there none so extreamely bad as in many places of England, that as yet have not beene manured and improved; the woods of New England being accounted better ground than the Forrests of England or woodland ground, or heathy plaines.
For the naturall soyle, I preferre it before the countrey of Surry, or Middlesex, which if they were not inriched with continuall manurings, would be lesse fertile than the meanest ground in New England; wherefore it is neyther impossible, nor much improbable, that upon improvements the soile may be as good in time as England. And whereas some gather the ground to be naught, and soone out of hart, because Plimouth men remove from their old habitations, I answer, they do no more remove from their habitation, than the Citizen which hath one house in the Citty & another in the Countrey, for his pleasure, health, & profit. For although they have taken new plots of ground, and built houses upon them, yet doe they retaine their old houses still, and repaire to them, every Sabbath day; neyther doe they esteeme their old lots worse than when they first tooke them: what if they doe not plant on them every yeare? I hope it is no ill husbandry to rest the land, nor is alwayes that the worst that lies sometimes fallow. If any man doubt of the goodnesse of the ground, let him comfort himselfe with the cheapenesse of it; such bad land in England I am sure wil bring in store of good monie. This ground is in some places of a soft mould, and easie to plow; in other places so tough and hard, that I have seene ten Oxen toyled, their Iron chaines broken, and their Shares and Coulters much strained: but after the first breaking up it is so easie, that two Oxen and a Horse may plow it; there hath as good English Corne growne there, as could be desired; especially Rie and Oates, and Barly: there hath beene no great tryall as yet of Wheate, and Beanes; onely thus much I affirme, that these two graines grow well in Gardens, therefore it is not improbable, but when they can gather seede of that which is sowne in the countrey, it may grow as well as any other Graine: but commonly the seede that commeth out of England is heated at Sea, and therefore cannot thrive at land.
The ground affoards very good kitchin Gardens, for Turneps, Parsnips, Carrots, Radishes, and Pumpions, Muskmillions, Isquoutersquashes, Coucumbers, Onyons, and whatsoever growes well in England, growes as well there, many things being better and larger: there is likewise growing all manner of Hearbes for meate, and medicine, and that not onely in planted Gardens, but in the Woods, without eyther the art or the helpe of man, as sweet Marjoram, Purselane, Sorrell, Peneriall, Yarrow, Mirtle, Saxifarilla, Bayes, &c. There is likewise Strawberries in abundance, very large ones, some being two inches about; one may gather halfe a bushell in a forenoone: In other seasons there bee Gooseberries, Bilberies, Resberies, Treackleberies, Hurtleberries, Currants; which being dryed in the Sunne are little inferiour to those that our Grocers sell in England: This land likewise affoards Hempe and Flax, some naturally, and some planted by the English, with Rapes if they bee well managed. For such commodities as lie underground, I cannot out of mine owne experience or knowledge say much, having taken no great notice of such things; but it is certainely reported that there is Iron stone; and the Indians informe us that they can leade us to the mountaines of blacke Lead, and have showne us lead ore, if our small judgement in such things doe not deceive us: and though no body dare confidently conclude, yet dare they not utterly deny, but that the Spaniards blisse may lye hid in the barren Mountaines; such as have coasted the countrey affirme that they know where to fetch Seacole if wood were scant; there is plenty of stone both rough and smooth, usefull for many things, with quarries of Slate, out of which they get covering for houses, with good clay, whereof they make Tiles and Brickes, and pavements for their necessary uses.
For the Countrey it is as well watered as any land under the Sunne, every family, or every two families having a spring of sweet waters betwixt them, which is farre different from the waters of England, being not so sharpe, but of a fatter substance, and of a more jetty colour; it is thought there can be no better water in the world, yet dare I not preferre it before good Beere, as some have done, but any man will choose it before bad Beere, Wheay, or Buttermilke. Those that drinke it be as healthfull, fresh, and lustie, as they that drinke beere; These springs be not onely within land, but likewise bordering upon the Sea coasts, so that some times the tides overflow some of them, which is accounted rare in the most parts of England. No man hitherto hath beene constrained to digge deepe for his water, or to fetch it farre, or to fetch of severall waters for severall uses; one kind of water serving for washing, and brewing and other things. Now besides these springs, there be divers spacious ponds in many places of the Countrey, out of which runne many sweet streames, which are constant in their course both winter and summer, whereat the Cattle quench their thirst, and upon which may be built water mills, as the plantation encreases.
The next commoditie the land affords, is good store of Woods, & that not onely such as may be needfull for fewell, but likewise for the building of Ships, and houses, & Mils, and all manner of water-worke about which Wood is needefull. The Timber of the Countrey growes straight, and tall, some trees being twenty, some thirty foot high, before they spread forth their branches; generally the Trees be not very thicke, though there be many that will serve for Mill posts, some beeing three foote and a halfe o're. And whereas it is generally conceived, that the woods grow so thicke, that there is no more cleare ground than is hewed out by labour of man; it is nothing so; in many places, divers Acres being cleare, so that one may ride a hunting in most places of the land, if he will venture himselfe for being lost: there is no underwood saving in swamps, and low grounds that are wet, in which the English get Osiers, and Hasles, and such small wood as is for their use. Of these swamps, some be ten, some twenty, some thirty miles long, being preserved by the wetnesse of the soile wherein they grow; for it being the custome of the Indians to burne the wood in November, when the grasse is withered, and leaves dryed, it consumes all the underwood, and rubbish, which otherwise would over grow the Country, making it unpassable, and spoile their much affected hunting: so that by this meanes in those places where the Indians inhabit, there is scarce a bush or bramble, or any combersome underwood to bee seene in the more champion ground. Small wood growing in these places where the fire could not come, is preserved. In some places where the Indians dyed of the Plague some foureteene yeares agoe, is much underwood, as in the mid way betwixt Wessaguscus and Plimouth, because it hath not beene burned; certaine Rivers stopping the fire from comming to cleare that place of the countrey, hath made it unusefull and troublesome to travell thorow, in so much that it is called ragged plaine, because it teares and rents the cloathes of them that passe. Now because it may be necessary for mechanicall artificers to know what Timber, and wood of use is in the Countrey, I will recite the most usefull as followeth.
Though many of these trees may seeme to have epithites contrary to the nature of them as they grow in England, yet are they agreeable with the Trees of that Countrie. The chiefe and common Timber for ordinary use is Oake, and Walnut: Of Oakes there be three kindes, the red Oake, white, and blacke; as these are different in kinde, so are they chosen for such uses as they are most fit for, one kind being more fit for clappboard, others for sawne board, some fitter for shipping, others for houses. These Trees affoard much Mast for Hogges, especially every third yeare, bearing a bigger Acorne than our English Oake. The Wallnut tree is something different from the English Wallnut, being a great deale more tough, and more serviceable, and altogether as heavie: and whereas our Gunnes that are stocked with English Wallnut, are soone broaken and cracked in frost, beeing a brittle Wood; we are driven to stocke them new with the Country Wallnut, which will indure all blowes, and weather; lasting time out of minde. These trees beare a very good Nut, something smaller, but nothing inferiour in sweetnesse and goodnesse to the English Nut, having no bitter pill. There is likewise a tree in some part of the Countrey, that beares a Nut as bigge as a small peare. The Cedar tree is a tree of no great growth, not bearing above a foot and a halfe square at the most, neither is it very high. I suppose they be much inferiour to the Cedars of Lebanon so much commended in holy writ. This wood is more desired for ornament than substance, being of colour red and white like Eugh, smelling as sweete as Iuniper; it is commonly used for seeling of houses, and making of Chests, Boxes, and staves. The Firre and Pine bee trees that grow in many places, shooting up exceeding high, especially the Pine: they doe afford good masts, good board, Rozin and Turpentine. Out of these Pines is gotten the candlewood that is so much spoken of, which may serve for a shift amongst poore folkes; but I cannot commend it for singular good, because it is something sluttish, dropping a pitchie kinde of substance where it stands. Here no doubt might be good done with saw mils; for I have seene of these stately highgrowne trees, ten miles together close by the River side, from whence by shipping they might be conveyed to any desired Port. Likewise it is not improbable that Pitch and Tarre may be forced from these trees, which beare no other kinde of fruite. For that countrey Ash, it is much different from the Ash of England, being brittle and good for little, so that Wallnut is used for it. The Horne-bound tree is a tough kind of Wood, that requires so much paines in riving as is almost incredible, being the best for to make bolles and dishes, not being subject to cracke or leake. This tree growing with broad spread Armes, the vines winde their curling branches about them; which vines affoard great store of grapes, which are very big both for the grape and Cluster, sweet and good: These be of two sorts, red and white, there is likewise a smaller kind of grape, which groweth in the Islands which is sooner ripe and more delectable; so that there is no knowne reason why as good wine may not be made in those parts, as well as in Burdeuax in France; being under the same degree. It is great pittie no man sets upon such a venture, whereby he might in small time inrich himselfe, and benefit the Countrie; I know nothing which doth hinder but want of skilfull men to manage such an imployment: For the countrey is hot enough, the ground good enough, and many convenient hills which lye toward the south Sunne, as if they were there placed for the purpose. The Cherrie trees yeeld great store of Cherries, which grow on clusters like grapes; they be much smaller than our English Cherrie, nothing neare so good if they be not very ripe: they so furre the mouth that the tongue will cleave to the roofe, and the throate wax horse with swallowing those red Bullies (as I may call them,) being little better in taste. English ordering may bring them to be an English Cherrie, but yet they are as wilde as the Indians. The Plummes of the Countrey be better for Plummes than the Cherries be for Cherries, they be blacke and yellow about the bignesse of a Damson, of a reasonable good taste. The white thorne affords hawes as bigge as an English Cherrie, which is esteemed above a Cherrie for his goodnesse and pleasantnesse to the taste.
Having related unto you the pleasant situation of the Countrey, the healthfulnesse of the climate, the nature of the soile, with his vegetatives, and other commodities; it will not be amisse to informe you of such irrationall creatures as are daily bred and continually nourished in this countrey, which doe much conduce to the well being of the Inhabitants, affording not onely meate for the belly, but cloathing for the backe. The beasts be as followeth.
Concerning Lyons, I will not say that I ever saw any my selfe, but some affirme that they have seene a Lyon at Cape Anne which is not above six leagues from Boston: some likewise being lost in woods, have heard such terrible roarings, as have made them much agast; which must eyther be Devills or Lyons; there being no other creatures which use to roare saving Beares, which have not such a terrible kind of roaring: besides, Plimouth men have traded for Lyons skinnes in former times. But sure it is that there be Lyons on that Continent, for the Virginians saw an old Lyon in their plantations, who having lost his Iackall, which was wont to hunt his prey, was brought so poore that he could goe no further. For Beares they be common, being a great blacke kind of Beare, which be most feirce in Strawberry time, at which time they have young ones; at this time likewise they will goe upright like a man, and clime trees, and swimme to the Islands; which if the Indians see, there will be more sportfull Beare bayting than Paris Garden can affoard. For seeing the Beares take water, an Indian will leape after him, where they goe to water cuffes for bloody noses, and scratched sides; in the end the man gets the victory, riding the Beare over the watery plaine till he can beare him no longer. In the winter they take themselves to the clifts of rockes, and thicke swamps, to shelter them from the cold; and foode being scant in those cold and hard times, they live onely by sleeping and sucking their pawes, which keepeth them as fat as they are in Summer; there would be more of them if it were not for the Woolves, which devoure them; a kennell of those ravening runnagadoes, setting on a poore single Beare, will teare him as a Dogge will teare a Kid: it would be a good change if the countrey had for every Woolfe a Beare, upon the condition all the woolves were banished; so should the inhabitants be not onely rid of their greatest annoyance, but furnished with more store of provisions, Beares being accounted very good meate, esteemed of all men above Venison: againe they never prey upon the English cattle, or offer to assault the person of any man, unlesse being vexed with a shot, and a man run upon them before they be dead, in which case they will stand in their owne defence, as may appeare by this instance. Two men going a fowling, appointed at evening to meete at a certaine pond side, to share equally, and to returne home; one of these Gunners having killed a Seale or Sea calfe, brought it to the side of the pond where hee was to meete his comrade, afterwards returning to the Sea side for more gaine; and having loaded himselfe with more Geese and Duckes, he repaired to the pond, where hee saw a great Beare feeding on his Seale, which caused him to throw downe his loade, and give the Beare a salute; which though it was but with Goose shot, yet tumbled him over and over, whereupon the man supposing him to be in a manner dead, ran and beate him with the hand of his Gunne; The Beare perceiving him to be such a coward to strike him when he was down, scrambled up, standing at defiance with him, scratching his legges, tearing his cloathes and face, who stood it out till his six foot Gunne was broken in the middle, then being deprived of his weapon, he ran up to the shoulders into the pond, where hee remained till the Beare was gone, and his mate come in, who accompanied him home.
The beast called a Moose, is not much unlike red Deare, this beast is as bigge as an Oxe; slow of foote, headed like a Bucke, with a broade beame, some being two yards wide in the head, their flesh is as good as Beefe, their hides good for cloathing; The English have some thoughts of keeping them tame, and to accustome them to the yoake, which will be a great commoditie: First because they are so fruitfull, bringing forth three at a time, being likewise very uberous. Secondly, because they will live in winter without any fodder. There be not many of these in the Massachusets bay, but forty miles to the Northeast there be great store of them; These pore beasts likewise are much devoured by the Woolves: The ordinary Deare be much bigger than the Deare of England, of a brighter colour, more inclining to red, with spotted bellies; the most store of these be in winter, when the more Northerne parts of the countrey bee cold for them; they desire to be neare the Sea, so that they may swimme to the Islands when they are chased by the Woolves: It is not to be thought into what great multitudes they would encrease, were it not for the common devourer the Woolfe; They have generally three at a time, which they hide a mile one from another, giving them sucke by turnes; thus they doe, that if the Woolfe should finde one, he might misse of the other. These Deare be fat in the deepe of winter; In Summer it is hard catching of them with the best Greyhounds that may be procured, because they bee swift of foote. Some credible persons have affirmed, that they have seene a Deare leape three score feet at little or no forcement; besides, there be so many old trees, rotten stumps, and Indian barnes, that a dog cannot well run without being shoulder-shot: yet would I not disswade any from carrying good dogges; for in the winter time they be very usefull; for when the snow is hard frozen, the Deare being heavie, sinkes into the snow, the doggs being light runne upon the top and overtake them, and pull them downe: some by this meanes have gotten twenty Buckes and Does in a winter, the hornes of these Deare grow in such a straight manner, (overhanging their heads) that they cannot feede upon such things as grow low, till they have cast their old hornes: of these Deare there be a great many, and more in the Massachusets bay, than in any other place, which is a great helpe and refreshment to these planters. The Porcupine is a small thing not much unlike a Hedgehog; something bigger, who stands upon his guard and proclaimes a Noli me tangere, to man and beast, that shall approach too neare him, darting his quills into their legges, and hides. The Rackoone is a deepe furred beast, not much unlike a Badger, having a tayle like a Fox, as good meate as a Lambe; there is one of them in the Tower. These beasts in the day time sleepe in hollow trees, in the moone shine night they goe to feede on clammes at a low tide, by the Sea side, where the English hunt them with their dogges. The Squerrells be of three sorts, first the great gray Squerrell, which is almost as bigge as an English Rabbet; of these there be the greatest plenty, one may kill a dozen of them in an afternoone, about three of the clocke they begin to walke. The second is a small Squerrell, not unlike the English Squerrell, which doth much trouble the planters of Corne, so that they are constrained to set divers Trappes, and to carry their Cats into the Corne fields, till their corne be three weekes old. The third kind is a flying Squerrell, which is not very bigge, slender of body, with a great deale of loose skinne which shee spreads square when shee flyes, which the winde gets, and so wafts her Batlike body from place to place; it is a creature more for sight and wonderment, than eyther pleasure or profit. The Rabbets be much like ours in England. The Hares be some of them white, and a yard long; these two harmelesse creatures are glad to shelter themselves from the harmefull Foxes, in hollow trees, having a hole at the entrance no bigger than they can creepe in at: if they should make them holes in the ground, as our English Rabbets doe, the undermining Renoilds would rob them of their lives, and extirpate their generation. The beasts of offence be Squunckes, Ferrets, Foxes, whose impudence sometimes drives them to the good wives Hen roost, to fill their Paunch: some of these be blacke; their furre is of much esteeme.
The Ounce or the wilde Cat, is as big as a mungrell dog, this creature is by nature feirce, and more dangerous to bee met withall than any other creature, not fearing eyther dogge or man; he useth to kill Deare, which hee thus effecteth: Knowing the Deares tracts, hee will lye lurking in long weedes, the Deare passing by he suddenly leapes upon his backe, from thence gets to his necke, and scratcheth out his throate; he hath likewise a devise to get Geese, for being much of the colour of a Goose he will place himselfe close by the water, holding up his bob taile, which is like a Goose necke; the Geese seeing this counterfet Goose, approach nigh to visit him, who with a suddaine jerke apprehends his mistrustlesse prey. The English kill many of these, accounting them very good meat. Their skinnes be a very deepe kind of Furre, spotted white and black on the belly. The Woolves bee in some respect different from them of other countries; it was never knowne yet that a Woolfe ever set upon a man or woman. Neyther do they trouble horses or cowes; but swine, goates and red calves which they take for Deare, be often destroyed by them, so that a red calfe is cheaper than a blacke one in that regard; in Autumne and the beginning of the Spring, these ravenous rangers doe most frequent our English habitations, following the Deare which come downe at that time to those parts. They be made much like a Mungrell, being big boned, lanke paunched, deepe breasted, having a thicke necke, and head, pricke eares, and long snoute, with dangerous teeth, long flaring haire, and a great bush taile; it is thought of many, that our English Mastiffes might be too hard for them; but it is no such matter, for they care no more for an ordinary Mastiffe, than an ordinary Mastiffe cares for a Curre; many good Dogges have beene spoyled with them. Once a faire Grayhound hearing them at their howlings run out to chide them, who was torne in peeces before he could be rescued. One of them makes no more bones to runne away with a Pigge, than a Dogge to runne away with a Marrow bone. It is observed that they have no joynts from the head to the tayle, which prevents them from leaping, or suddaine turning, as may appeare by what I shall shew you. A certaine man having shot a Woolfe, as he was feeding upon a Swine, breaking his legge onely, hee knew not how to devise his death, on a suddaine, the Woolfe being a blacke one, he was loath to spoyle his furre with a second shot, his skinne being worth five or sixe pound Sterling; wherefore hee resolved to get him by the tayle, and thrust him into a River that was hard by; which effected, the Woolfe being not able to turne his joyntlesse body to bite him, was taken. That they cannot leape, may appeare by this Woolfe, whose mouth watering at a few poore impaled Kiddes, would needes leape over a five-foote pale to be at them; but his foote slipping in the rise, he fell a little short of his desire, and being hung in the Carpenters stockes, howled so loud, that he frighted away the Kids, and called the English, who killed him. These be killed dayly in some place or other, either by the English, or Indian; who have a certaine rate for every head: Yet is there little hope of their utter destruction, the Countrey being so spacious, and they so numerous, travelling in the Swamps by Kennels: sometimes ten or twelve are of a company. Late at night, and early in the morning, they set up their howlings, and call their companies together at night to hunt, at morning to sleepe; in a word they be the greatest inconveniency the Countrey hath, both for matter of dammage to private men in particular, and the whole Countrey in generall.
For all creatures that liv'd both by Land and Water, they be first Otters, which be most of them blacke, whose furre is much used for Muffes, and are held almost as deare as Beaver. The flesh of them is none of the best meate, but their Oyle is of rare use for many things. Secondly, Martins, a good furre for their bignesse: Thirdly, Musquashes, which be much like a Beaver for shape, but nothing neare so bigge; the Male hath two stones which smell as sweete as Muske, and being killed in Winter, never lose their sweete smell: These skinnes are no bigger than a Coney-skinne, yet are sold for five shillings a peece, being sent for Tokens into England. One good skinne will perfume a whole house-full of cloathes, if it be right and good. Fourthly, the Beaver, concerning whom if I should at large discourse, according to knowledge or information, I might make a Volumne. The wisedome and understanding of this Beast, will almost conclude him a reasonable creature: His shape is thicke and short, having likewise short legs, feete like a Mole before, and behinde like a Goose, a broad tayle in forme like a shooe-soale, very tough and strong; his head is something like an Otters head, saving that his teeth before, be placed like the teeth of a Rabbet, two above, and two beneath; sharpe and broad, with which he cuts downe Trees as thicke as a mans thigh, afterwards diuiding them into lengths, according to the use they are appointed for. If one Bever be too weake to carry the logge, then another helpes him; if they two be too weake, then Multorum manibus grande levatur onus; foure more adding their helpe, being placed three to three, which set their teeth in one anothers tough tayles, and laying the loade on the two hindermost, they draw the logge to the desired place. That this may not seeme altogether incredible, remember that the like almost may be seene in our Ants, which will joyne sometimes seaven or eight together in the carrying of a burthen. These Creatures build themselves houses of wood and clay, close by the Ponds sides, and knowing the Seasons, build them answerable houses, having them three stories high, so that as land-floods are raised by great Raines, as the waters arise, they mount higher in their houses; as they asswage, they descend lower againe. These houses are so strong, that no creature saving an industrious man with his penetrating tooles can prejudice them, their ingresse and egresse being Vnder water. These make likewise very good Ponds, knowing whence a streame runnes from betweene two rising Hils, they will there pitch downe piles of Wood, placing smaller rubbish before it with clay and sods, not leaving, till by their Art and Industry they have made a firme and curious damme-head, which may draw admiration from wise understanding men. These creatures keepe themselves to their owne families, never parting so long as they are able to keepe house together: And it is commonly sayd, if any Beaver accidentally light into a strange place, he is made a drudge so long as he lives there, to carry at the greater end of the logge, unlesse he creepe away by stealth. Their wisedome secures them from the English, who seldome or neuer kills any of them, being not patient to lay a long siege, or to be so often deceived by their cunning evasions, so that all the Beaver which the English have, comes first from the Indians, whose time and experience fits them for that imployment.
Having shewed you the most desireable, usefull, and beneficiall creatures, with the most offensive carrions that belong to our Wildernesse, it remaines in the next place, to shew you such kinds of Fowle as the Countrey affords: They are many, and we have much variety both at Sea and on Land; and such as yeeld us much profit, and honest pleasure, and are these that follow; as
The Eagles of the Countrey be of two sorts, one like the Eagles that be in England, the other is something bigger with a great white head, and white tayle: these bee commonly called Gripes; these prey upon Duckes and Geese, and such Fish as are cast upon the Sea-shore. And although an Eagle be counted King of that feathered regiment, yet is there a certaine blacke Hawke that beates him; so that hee is constrayned to soare so high, till heate expell his adversary. This Hawke is much prized of the Indians, being accounted a Sagamores ransome.
To speake much of Hawkes, were to trespasse upon my owne judgement, and bring upon my selfe a deserved censure, for abusing the Faulconers termes: But by relation from those that have more insight into them than my selfe: There be divers kinds of Hawkes: their Aieries are easie to come by, being in the holes of Rockes, neare the shore, so that any who are addicted to that sport, if he will be but at the charge of finding Poultry for them, may have his desires. We could wish them well mew'd in England; for they make hauocke of Hens, Partridges, Heathcockes, and Duckes; often hindering the Fowler of his long look't for shoote. The Humbird is one of the wonders of the Countrey, being no bigger than a Hornet, yet hath all the demensions of a Bird, as bill, and wings, with quills, spider-like legges, small clawes: For colour, she is as glorious as the Raine-bow; as she flies, she makes a little humming noise like a Humble-bee: wherefore shee is called the Humbird. The Pigeon of that Countrey, is something different from our Dove-house Pigeons in England, being more like Turtles, of the same colour; but they haue long tayles like a Magpie: And they seeme not so bigge, because they carry not so many feathers on their backes as our English Doves, yet are they as bigge in body. These Birds come into the Countrey, to goe to the North parts in the beginning of our Spring, at which time (if I may be counted worthy, to be beleeved in a thing that is not so strange as true) I have seene them fly as if the Ayerie regiment had beene Pigeons; seeing neyther beginning nor ending, length, or breadth of these Millions of Millions. The shouting of people, the ratling of Gunnes, and pelting of small shotte could not drive them out of their course, but so they continued for foure or five houres together: yet it must not be concluded, that it is thus often; for it is but at the beginning of the Spring, and at Michaelmas, when they returne backe to the Southward; yet are there some all the yeare long, which are easily attayned by such as looke after them. Many of them build amongst the Pine-trees, thirty miles to the North-east of our plantations; joyning nest to nest, and tree to tree by their nests, so that the Sunne never sees the ground in that place, from whence the Indians fetch whole loades of them.
The Turky is a very large Bird, of a blacke colour, yet white in flesh; much bigger than our English Turky. He hath the use of his long legs so ready, that he can runne as fast as a Dogge, and flye as well as a Goose: of these sometimes there will be forty, threescore, and a hundred of a flocke, sometimes more and sometimes lesse; their feeding is Acornes, Hawes, and Berries, some of them get a haunt to frequent our English corne: In winter when the Snow covers the ground, they resort to the Sea shore to look for Shrimps, & such smal Fishes at low tides. Such as love Turkie hunting, must follow it in winter after a new falne Snow, when hee may follow them by their tracts; some have killed ten or a dozen in halfe a day; if they can be found towards an evening and watched where they peirch, if one come about ten or eleaven of the clocke he may shoote as often as he will, they will sit, unlesse they be slenderly wounded. These Turkies remaine all the yeare long, the price of a good Turkie cocke is foure shillings; and he is well worth it, for he may be in weight forty pound; a Hen two shillings. Pheasons bee very rare, but Heathcockes, and Partridges be common; he that is a husband, and will be stirring betime, may kill halfe a dozen in a morning.
The Partridges be bigger than they be in England, the flesh of the Heathcockes is red, and the flesh of a Partridge white, their price is foure pence a peece. The Ravens, and the Crowes be much like them of other countries. There are no Magpies, Iackedawes, Coockooes, Iayes, Sparrows, &c. The Stares be bigger than those in England, as blacke as Crowes, being the most troublesome, and injurious bird of all others, pulling up the cornes by the roots, when it is young, so that those who plant by reedy and sedgy places, where they frequent, are much annoyed with them, they being so audacious that they feare not Guns, or their fellowes hung upon poles; but the Corne having a weeke or nine dayes growth is past their spoyling. The Owles be of two sorts; the one being small speckled, like a Partridge, with eares, the other being a great Owle, almost as big as an Eagle, his body beeing as good meate as a Partridge. Cormorants bee as common as other fowles, which destroy abundance of small fish, these are not worth the shooting because they are the worst of fowles for meate, tasting ranke, and fishy: againe, one may shoot twenty times and misse, for seeing the fire in the panne, they dive under the water before the shot comes to the place where they were; they use to roost upon the tops of trees, and rockes, being a very heavy drowsie creature, so that the Indians will goe in their Cannowes in the night, and take them from the Rockes, as easily as women take a Hen from roost; No ducking ponds can affoard more delight than a lame Cormorant, and two or three lusty Dogges. The Crane although hee bee almost as tall as a man by reason of his long legges, and necke; yet is his body rounder than other fowles, not much unlike the body of a Turkie. I have seene many of these fowles, yet did I never see one that was fat, I suppose it is contrary to their nature to grow fat; Of these there be many in Summer, but none in winter, their price is two shilling. There be likewise many Swannes which frequent the fresh ponds and rivers, seldome consorting themselves with Duckes and Geese; these bee very good meate, the price of one is six shillings. The Geese of the countrey be of three sorts, first a brant Goose, which is a Goose almost like the wilde Goose in England, the price of one of these is six pence. The second kind is a white Goose, almost as big as an English tame Goose, these come in great flockes about Michelmasse, sometimes there will be two or three thousand in a flocke, these continue six weekes, and so flye to the southward, returning in March, and staying six weekes more, returning againe to the Northward; the price of one of these is eight pence. The third kind of Geese, is a great gray Goose, with a blacke necke, and a blacke and white head, strong of flight; these bee a great deale bigger than the ordinary Geese of England, some very fat, and in the Spring so full of Feathers, that the shot can scarce peirce them; most of these Geese remaine with us from Michelmas to Aprill; they feede on the Sea of Fish, and in the woods of Acornes, having as other Foule have, their passe and repasse to the Northward and Southward: the accurate marksmen kill of these both flying and sitting; the price of a good gray Goose is eighteene pence. The Duckes of the countrey be very large ones and in great abundance, so is there of Teale likewise; the price of a Ducke is six pence, of a Teale three pence. If I should tell you how some have killed a hundred Geese in a weeke, 50. Duckes at a shot, 40. Teales at another, it may be counted impossible, though nothing more certaine. The Oldwives, be a foule that never leave tatling day or night, something bigger than a Ducke. The Loone is an ill shap'd thing like a Cormorant; but that he can neyther goe nor flye; he maketh a noise sometimes like a Sowgelders horne. The Humilities or Simplicities (as I may rather call them) bee of two sorts, the biggest being as big as a greene Plover, the other as big as birds we call knots in England. Such is the simplicity of the smaller sorts of these birds, that one may drive them on a heape like so many sheepe, and seeing a fit time shoot them; the living seeing the dead, settle themselves on the same place againe, amongst which the Fowler discharges againe. I my selfe have killed twelve score at two shootes: these bird are to be had upon sandy brakes at the latter end of Summer before the Geese come in. Thus much have I shewed you as I know to bee true concerning the Fowle of the countrey. But me thinkes I heare some say that this is very good if it could be caught, or likely to continue, and that much shooting will fright away the fowles. True it is, that every ones imployment wil not permit him to fowle: what then? yet their imployments furnish them with silver Guns with which they may have it more easie. For the frighting of the fowle, true it is that many goe blurting away their pouder and shot, that have no more skill to kill, or winne a Goose, than many in England that have rustie Muskets in their houses, knowes what belongs to a Souldier, yet are they not much affrighted. I have seene more living and dead the last yeare than I have done in former yeares.
Having done with these, let me leade you from the land to the Sea, to view what commodities may come from thence; there is no countrey knowne, that yeelds more variety of fish winter and summer: and that not onely for the present spending and sustentation of the plantations, but likewise for trade into other countries, so that those which have had stages & make fishing voyages into those parts, have gained (it is thought) more than the new found land Iobbers. Codfish in these seas are larger than in new found land, six or seaven making a quintall, whereas there they have fifteene to the same weight; and though this they seeme a base and more contemptible commoditie in the judgement of more neate adventurers, yet it hath bin the enrichment of other nations, and is likely to prove no small commoditie to the planters, and likewise to England if it were thorowly undertaken. Salt may be had from the salt Islands, and as is supposed may be made in the countrey. The chiefe fish for trade is Cod, but for the use of the countrey, there is all manner of fish as followeth.
To omit such of these as are not usefull, therefore not to be spoken of, and onely to certifie you of such as be usefull. First the Seale which is that which is called the Sea Calfe, his skinne is good for divers uses, his body being betweene fish and flesh, it is not very delectable to the pallate, or congruent with the stomack; his Oyle is very good to burne in Lampes, of which he affoards a great deale. The Sharke is a kinde of fish as bigge as a man, some as bigge as a horse, with three rowes of teeth within his mouth, with which he snaps asunder the fishermans lines, if he be not very circumspect: This fish will leape at a mans hand if it be over board, and with his teeth snap off a mans legge or hand if he be a swimming; These are often taken, being good for nothing but to put on the ground for manuring of land. The Sturgions be all over the countrey, but the best catching of them be upon the shoales of Cape Codde, and in the River of Mirrimacke, where much is taken, pickled and brought for England, some of these be 12.14.18. foote long: I set not downe the price of fish there, because it is so cheape, so that one may have as much for two pence, as would give him an angell in England. The Sammon is as good as it is in England and in great plenty. The Hollibut is not much unlike a pleace or Turbut, some being two yards long, and one wide, and a foot thicke; the plenty of better fish makes these of little esteeme, except the head and finnes, which stewed or baked is very good: these Hollibuts be little set by while Basse is in season. Thornebacke and Scates is given to the dogges, being not counted worth the dressing in many places. The Basse is one of the best fishes in the countrey, and though men are soone wearied with other fish, yet are they never with Basse; it is a delicate, fine, fat, fast fish, having a bone in his head, which containes a sawcerfull of marrow sweet and good, pleasant to the pallat, and wholsome to the stomack. When there be great store of them, we onely eate the heads, and salt up the bodies for winter, which exceedes Ling or Haberdine. Of these fishes some be three and some foure foot long, some bigger, some lesser: at some tides a man may catch a dozen or twenty of these in three houres, the way to catch them is with hooke and line: The Fisherman taking a great Cod-line, to which he fastneth a peece of Lobster, and throwes it into the Sea, the fish biting at it he pulls her to him, and knockes her on the head with a sticke. These are at one time (when Alewives passe up the Rivers) to be catched in Rivers, in Lobster time at the Rockes, in Macrill time in the Bayes, at Michelmas in the Seas. When they use to tide it in and out to the Rivers and Creekes, the English at the top of an high water do crosse the Creekes with long seanes or Basse Netts, which stop in the fish; and the water ebbing from them they are left on the dry ground, sometimes two or three thousand at a set, which are salted up against winter, or distributed to such as have present occasion either to spend them in their houses, or use them for their ground. The Herrings be much like them that be caught on the English coasts. Alewives be a kind of fish which is much like a Herring, which in the latter end of Aprill come up to the fresh Rivers to spawne, in such multitudes as is allmost incredible, pressing up in such shallow waters as will scarce permit them to swimme, having likewise such longing desire after the fresh water ponds, that no beatings with poles, or forcive agitations by other devices, will cause them to returne to the sea, till they have cast their Spawne. The Shaddes be bigger than the English Shaddes and fatter. The Macrells be of two sorts, in the beginning of the yeare are great ones, which be upon the coast; some are 18. inches long. In Summer as in May, Iune, Iuly, and August, come in a smaller kind of them: These Macrills are taken with drailes which is a long small line, with a lead and hooke at the end of it, being baited with a peece of red cloath: this kind of fish is counted a leane fish in England, but there it is so fat, that it can scarce be saved against winter without reisting. There be a great store of Salt water Eeles, especially in such places where grasse growes: for to take these there be certaine Eele pots made of Osyers, which must be baited with a peece of Lobster, into which the Eeles entring cannot returne backe againe: some take a bushell in a night in this manner, eating as many as they have neede of for the present, and salt up the rest against winter. These Eeles be not of so luscious a tast as they be in England, neyther are they so aguish, but are both wholesome for the body, and delightfull for the taste: Lamprons and Lampreyes be not much set by; Lobsters be in plenty in most places, very large ones, some being 20. pound in weight; these are taken at a low water amongst the rockes, they are very good fish, the small ones being the best, their plenty makes them little esteemed and seldome eaten. The Indians get many of them every day for to baite their hookes withall, and to eate when they can get no Basse: The Oisters be great ones in forme of a shoo horne, some be a foote long, these breede on certaine bankes that are bare every spring tide. This fish without the shell is so big that it must admit of a devision before you can well get it into your mouth. The Perewig is a kind of fish that lyeth in the oaze like a head of haire, which being touched conveyes it selfe leaving nothing to bee seene but a small round hole. Muscles be in great plenty, left onely for the Hogges, which if they were in England would be more esteemed of the poorer sort. Clamms or Clamps is a shel-fish not much unlike a cockle, it lyeth under the sand, every six or seaven of them having a round hole to take ayre and receive water at. When the tide ebs and flowes, a man running over these Clamm bankes will presently be made all wet, by their spouting of water out of those small holes: These fishes be in great plenty in most places of the countrey, which is a great commoditie for the feeding of Swine, both in winter, and Summer; for being once used to those places, they will repaire to them as duely every ebbe, as if they were driven to them by keepers: In some places of the countrey there bee Clamms as bigge as a pennie white loafe, which are great dainties amongst the natives, and would bee in good esteeme amongst the English, were it not for better fish.
Having described the situation of the countrey in generall, with all his commodities arising from land and Sea, it may adde to your content and satisfaction to be informed of the situation of every severall plantation, with his conveniences, commodities, and discommodities, &c. where first I will begin with the outmost plantation in the patent to the South ward, which is called Wessaguscus an Indian name: this as yet is but a small Village, yet it is very pleasant, and healthfull, very good ground, and is well timbred, and hath good store of Hey ground; it hath a very spacious harbour for shipping before the towne; the salt water being navigable for Boates & Pinnaces two leagues. Here the inhabitants have good store of fish of all sorts, and Swine, having Acornes and Clamms at the time of yeare; here is likewise an Alewife river. Three miles to the North of this is mount Walleston, a very fertile soyle, and a place very convenient for Farmers houses, there being great store of plaine ground, without trees. This place is called Massachusets fields where the greatest Sagamore in the countrey lived, before the Plague, who caused it to be cleared for himselfe. The greatest inconvenience is, that there is not very many Springs, as in other places of the countrey, yet water may bee had for digging: A second inconvenience is, that Boates cannot come in at a low water, nor ships ride neare the shore. Sixe miles further to the North, lieth Dorchester; which is the greatest Towne in New England; well woodded and watered; very good arable grounds, and Hay-ground, faire Corne-fields, and pleasant Gardens, with Kitchin-gardens. In this plantation is a great many Cattle, as Kine, Goats, and Swine. This plantation hath a reasonable Harbour for ships: Here is no Alewife-river, which is a great inconvenience. The inhabitants of this towne, were the first that set upon the trade of fishing in the Bay, who received so much fruite of their labours, that they encouraged others to the same undertakings. A mile from this Towne lieth Roxberry, which is a faire and handsome Countrey-towne; the inhabitants of it being all very rich. This Towne lieth upon the Maine, so that it is well woodded and watered; having a cleare and fresh Brooke running through the Towne: Vp which although there come no Alewives, yet there is great store of Smelts, and therefore it is called Smelt-brooke.
A quarter of a mile to the North-side of the Towne, is another River called Stony-river; upon which is built a water-milne. Here is good ground for Corne, and Medow for Cattle: Vp westward from the Towne it is something rocky, whence it hath the name of Roxberry; the inhabitants have faire houses, store of Cattle, impaled Corne-fields, and fruitfull Gardens. Here is no Harbour for ships, because the Towne is seated in the bottome of a shallow Bay, which is made by the necke of land on which Boston is built; so that they can transport all their goods from the Ships in Boats from Boston, which is the nearest Harbour.
Boston is two miles North-east from Roxberry: His situation is very pleasant, being a Peninsula, hem'd in on the South-side with the Bay of Roxberry, on the North-side with Charles-river, the Marshes on the backe-side, being not halfe a quarter of a mile over; so that a little fencing will secure their Cattle from the Woolues. Their greatest wants be Wood, and Medow-ground, which never were in that place; being constrayned to fetch their building-timber, and fire-wood from the Ilands in Boates, and their Hay in Loyters: It being a necke and bare of wood: they are not troubled with three great annoyances, of Woolves, Rattle-snakes, and Musketoes. These that live here upon their Cattle, must be constrayned to take Farmes in the Countrey, or else they cannot subsist; the place being too small to containe many, and fittest for such as can Trade into England, for such commodities as the Countrey wants, being the chiefe place for shipping and Merchandize.
This Necke of land is not above foure miles in compasse, in forme almost square, having on the South-side at one corner, a great broad hill, whereon is planted a Fort, which can command any ship as shee sayles into any Harbour within the still Bay. On the North-side is another Hill, equall in bignesse, whereon stands a Winde-mill. To the North-west is a high Mountaine with three little rising Hils on the top of it, wherefore it is called the Tramount. From the top of this Mountaine a man may over-looke all the Ilands which lie before the Bay, and discry such ships as are upon the Sea-coast. This Towne although it be neither the greatest, nor the richest, yet it is the most noted and frequented, being the Center of the Plantations where the monthly Courts are kept. Here likewise dwells the Governour: This place hath very good land, affording rich Corne-fields, and fruitefull Gardens; having likewise sweete and pleasant Springs. The inhabitants of this place for their enlargement, have taken to themselves Farme-houses, in a place called Muddy-river, two miles from their Towne; where is good ground, large timber, and store of Marsh-land, and Medow. In this place they keepe their Swine and other Cattle in the Summer, whilst the Corne is on the ground at Boston, and bring them to the Towne in Winter.
On the North side of Charles River is Charles Towne, which is another necke of Land, on whose North-side runs Misticke-river. This Towne for all things, may be well paralel'd with her neighbour Boston, being in the same fashion with her bare necke, and constrained to borrow conveniences from the Maine, and to provide for themselves Farmes in the Countrey for their better subsistance. At this Towne there is kept a Ferry-boate, to conveigh passengers over Charles River, which betweene the two Townes is a quarter of a mile over, being a very deepe Channell. Here may ride forty ships at a time. Vp higher it is a broad Bay, being above two miles betweene the shores, into which runnes Stony-river, and Muddy-river. Towards the South-west in the middle of this Bay, is a great Oyster-banke: Towards the North-west of this Bay is a great Creeke, upon whose shore is situated the Village of Medford, a very fertile and pleasant place, and fit for more inhabitants than are yet in it. This Towne is a mile and a halfe from Charles Towne, and at the bottome of this Bay the River beginnes to be narrower, being but halfe a quarter of a mile broad. By the side of this River is built New-towne, which is three miles by land from Charles Towne, and a league and a halfe by water. This place was first intended for a City, but upon more serious considerations it was not thought so fit, being too farre from the Sea; being the greatest inconvenience it hath. This is one of the neatest and best compacted Townes in New England, having many faire structures, with many handsome contrived streets. The inhabitants most of them are very rich, and well stored with Cattell of all sorts; having many hundred Acres of ground paled in with one generall fence, which is about a mile and a halfe long, which secures all their weaker Cattle from the wilde beasts. On the other side of the River lieth all their Medow and Marsh-ground for Hay.
Halfe a mile Westward of this plantation, is Water-towne; a place nothing inferiour for land, wood, medow, and water to New-towne. Within halfe a mile of this Towne is a great Pond, which is divided betweene those two Townes, which divides their bounds Northward. A mile and a halfe from this Towne, is a fall of fresh waters, which conveigh themselves into the Ocean through Charles River. A little below this fall of waters, the inhabitants of Water-towne have built a Wayre to catch Fish, wherein they take great store of Shads and Alewives. In two Tydes they have gotten one hundred thousand of those Fishes: This is no small benefit to the plantation: Ships of small burden may come up to these two Townes, but the Oyster-bankes doe barre out the bigger Ships.
The next Towne is Misticke, which is three miles from Charles Towne by land, and a league and a halfe by water: It is seated by the waters side very pleasantly; there be not many houses as yet. At the head of this River are great and spacious Ponds, whither the Alewives preasse to spawne. This being a noted place for that kinde of Fish, the English resort thither to take them. On the West side of this River the Governour hath a Farme, where he keepes most of his Cattle. On the East side is Maister Craddockes plantation, where he hath impaled a Parke, where he keepes his Cattle till he can store it with Deere: Here likewise he is at charges of building ships. The last yeare one was upon the Stockes of a hundred Tunne, that being finished, they are to build one twice her burden. Ships without either Ballast or loading, may floate downe this River; otherwise the Oyster-banke would hinder them which crosseth the Channell.
The last Towne in the still Bay, is Winnisimet; a very sweet place for situation, and stands very commodiously, being fit to entertaine more planters than are yet seated: it is within a mile of Charles Towne, the River onely parting them. The chiefe Ilands which keepe out the Winde and the Sea from disturbing the Harbours, are first Deare Iland, which lies within a flight-shot of Pullin-point. This Iland is so called, because of the Deare which often swimme thither from the Maine, when they are chased by the Woolves: Some have killed sixteene Deere in a day upon this Iland. The opposite shore is called Pullin-point, because that is the usuall Channel. Boats use to passe thorow into the Bay; and the Tyde being very strong, they are constrayned to goe ashore, and hale their Boats by the seasing, or roades, whereupon it was called Pullin-point.
The next Iland of note is Long Iland, so called from his longitude. Divers other Ilands be within these: viz. Nodles Ile, Round Ile, the Governours Garden, where is planted an Orchard and a Vine-yard, with many other conveniences; and Slate-Iland, Glasse-Iland, Bird-Iland, &c. These Iles abound with Woods, and Water, and Medow-ground; and whatsoever the spacious fertile Maine affords. The inhabitants use to put their Cattle in these for safety, viz. their Rammes, Goates, and Swine, when their Corne is on the ground. Those Townes that lie without the Bay, are a great deale nearer the Maine, and reape a greater benefit from the Sea, in regard of the plenty both of Fish and Fowle, which they receive from thence: so that they liue more comfortably, and at lesse charges, than those that are more remote from the Sea in the Inland-plantations.
The next plantation is Saugus, sixe miles North-east from Winnesimet: This Towne is pleasant for situation, seated at the bottome of a Bay, which is made on the one side with the surrounding shore, and on the other side with a long sandy Beach. This sandy Beach is two miles long at the end, whereon is a necke of land called Nahant: It is sixe miles in circumference; well woodded with Oakes, Pines, and Cedars: It is beside well watered, having beside the fresh Springs, a great Pond in the middle; before which is a spacious Marsh. In this necke is store of good ground, fit for the Plow; but for the present it is onely used for to put young Cattle in, and weather-goates, and Swine, to secure them from the Woolues: a few posts and rayles from the low water-markes to the shore, keepes out the Woolves, and keepes in the Cattle. One Blacke William, an Indian Duke, out of his generosity gave this place in generall to this plantation of Saugus, so that no other can appropriate it to himselfe.
Vpon the South-side of the sandy Beach the Sea beateth, which is a true prognostication, to presage stormes and foule weather, and the breaking up of the Frost: For when a storme hath beene, or is likely to be, it will roare like Thunder, being heard sixe miles; and after stormes casts up great store of great Clammes, which the Indians taking out of their shels, carry home in baskets. On the North-side of this Bay is two great Marshes, which are made two by a pleasant River which runnes betweene them. Northward up this River, goes great store of Alewives, of which they make good Red Herrings; in so much that they have beene at charges to make a wayre, and a Herringhouse, to dry these Herrings in; the last yeare were dryed some 4 or 5 Last for an experiment, which proved very good; this is like to prove a great inrichment to the land, (being a staple commoditie in other Countries) for there be such innumerable companies in every river, that I have seene ten thousand taken in two houres by two men, without any wayre at all, saving a few stones to stop their passage up the river. There likewise come store of Basse, which the Indians and English catch with hooke and line, some fifty or threescore at a tide. At the mouth of this river runnes up a great creeke into that great Marsh, which is called Rumny Marsh, which is 4 miles long and 2 miles broad; halfe of it being Marsh ground and halfe upland grasse, without tree or bush: this Marsh is crossed with divers creekes, wherein lye great store of Geese, and Duckes. There be convenient ponds for the planting of Duckcoyes. Here is likewise belonging to this place divers fresh meddowes, which afford good grasse and foure spacious ponds like little lakes, wherein is store of fresh fish: within a mile of the towne, out of which runnes a curious fresh brooke that is seldome frozen by reason of the warmenesse of the water; upon this streame is built a water Milne, and up this river comes Smelts and frost fish much bigger than a Gudgion. For wood there is no want, there being store of good Oakes, Wallnut, Cædar, Aspe, Elme; The ground is very good, in many places without trees, fit for the plough. In this plantation is more English tillage, than in all new England, and Virginia besides; which proved as well as could bee expected, the corne being very good especially the Barly, Rye, and Oates.
The land affordeth the inhabitants as many rarities as any place else, and the sea more: the Basse continuing from the middle of Aprill to Michaelmas, which stayes not above half that time in the Bay: besides here is a great deale of Rock-cod and Macrill, insomuch that shoales of Basse have driven up shoales of Macrill from one end of the sandie beach to the other, which the inhabitants have gathered up in wheel-barrowes. The Bay that lyeth before the Towne at a low spring tyde, will be all flatts for two miles together, upon which is great store of Musclebanckes, and Clam bancks, and Lobsters amongst the rockes and grassie holes. These flatts make it unnavigable for shippes, yet at high water great Boates, Loiters, and Pinnaces of 20, and 30 tun, may saile up to the plantation, but they neede have a skilfull Pilote, because of many dangerous rockes and foaming breakers, that lye at the mouth of that Bay. The very aspect of the place is fortification enough to keepe off an unknowne enemie, yet may it be fortified at a little charge, being but few landing places there about, and those obscure. Foure miles Northeast from Saugus lyeth Salem, which stands on the middle of a necke of land very pleasantly, having a South river on the one side, and a North river on the other side: upon this necke where the most of the houses stand is very bad and sandie ground, yet for seaven yeares together it hath brought forth exceeding good corne, by being fished but every third yeare; in some places is very good ground, and very good timber, and divers springs hard by the sea side. Here likewise is store of fish, as Basses, Eeles, Lobsters, Clammes, &c. Although their land be none of the best, yet beyond those rivers is a very good soyle, where they have taken farmes, and get their Hay, and plant their corne; there they crosse these rivers with small Cannowes, which are made of whole pine trees, being about two foot & a half over, and 20. foote long: in these likewise they goe a fowling, sometimes two leagues to sea; there be more Cannowes in this towne than in all the whole Patent; every houshould having a water-house or two. This Towne wants an Alewife river, which is a great inconvenience; it hath two good harbours, the one being called Winter, and the other Summer harbour, which lyeth within Derbies Fort, which place if it were well fortified, might keepe shippes from landing of forces in any of those two places. Marvill Head is a place which lyeth 4 miles full South from Salem, and is a very convenient place for a plantation, especially for such as will set upon the trade of fishing. There was made here a ships loading of fish the last yeare, where still stands the stages, and drying scaffolds; here be good harbour for boates, and safe riding for shippes. Agowamme is nine miles to the North from Salem, which is one of the most spatious places for a plantation, being neare the sea, it aboundeth with fish, and flesh of fowles and beasts, great Meads and Marshes and plaine plowing grounds, many good rivers and harbours and no rattle snakes. In a word, it is the best place but one, which is Merrimacke, lying 8 miles beyond it, where is a river 20 leagues navigable, all along the river side is fresh Marshes, in somes places 3 miles broad. In this river is Sturgeon, Sammon, and Basse, and divers other kinds of fish. To conclude, the Countrie hath not that which this place cannot yeeld. So that these two places may containe twice as many people as are yet in new England: there being as yet scarce any inhabitants in these two spacious places. Three miles beyond the river of Merrimacke is the outside of our Patent for the Massachusetts Bay. These be all the Townes that were begun, when I came for England, which was the 15 of August 1633.
I have informed you of the Country in generall and of every plantation in particular, with their commodities and wherein one excelleth another. Now that I may be every way faithfull to my reader in this worke, I will as fully and truely relate to you what is evill, and of most annoyance to the inhabitants. First: those which bring most prejudice to their estates are the ravenous Woolves, which destroy the weaker Cattell, but of these you have heard before: that which is most injurious to the person and life of man is a rattle snake which is generally a yard and a halfe long, as thicke in the middle as the small of a mans legge, she hath a yellow belly, her backe being spotted with blacke, russet, yellow, and greene colours, placed like scales; at her taile is a rattle, with which she makes a noyse when she is molested, or when she seeth any approach neere her, her necke seemes to be no thicker than a mans thumbe yet can she swallow a Squerill, having a great wide mouth, with teeth as sharpe as needles, wherewith she biteth such as tread upon her: her poyson lyeth in her teeth, for she hath no sting. When any man is bitten by any of these creatures, the poyson spreads so suddenly through the veines & so runs to the heart, that in one houre it causeth death, unlesse he hath the Antidote to expell the poyson, which is a root called snakeweed, which must be champed, the spittle swallowed, and the root applyed to the sore; this is present cure against that which would be present death without it: this weede is ranck poyson, if it be taken by any man that is not bitten: whosoever is bitten by these snakes his flesh becomes as spotted as a Leaper until hee be perfectly cured. It is reported that if the party live that is bitten, the snake will dye, and if the partie die, the snake will live. This is a most poysonous and dangerous creature, yet nothing so bad as the report goes of him in England. For whereas he is sayd to kill a man with his breath, and that he can flye, there is no such matter, for he is naturally the most sleepie and unnimble creature that lives, never offering to leape or bite any man, if he be not troden on first, and it is their desire in hot weather to lye in pathes, where the sunne may shine on them, where they will sleepe so soundly that I have knowne foure men stride over one of them, and never awake her; 5 or 6 men have beene bitten by them, which by using of snake weede were all cured, never any yet losing his life by them. Cowes have beene bitten, but being cut in divers places, and this weede thrust into their flesh were cured. I never heard of any beast that was yet lost by any of them, saving one Mare. A small switch will easily kill one of these snakes. In many places of the Countrie there bee none of them, as at Plimouth, Newtowne, Igowamme, Nahant, &c. In some places they will live on one side of the river, and swimming but over the water, as soone as they be come into the woods, they turne up their yellow bellies and dye. Vp into the Countrey westward from the plantations is a high hill, which is called rattlesnake hill, where there is great store of these poysonous creatures. There be divers other kinde of snakes, one whereof is a great long blacke snake, two yards in length which will glide through the woods very swiftly; these never doe any hurt, neither doth any other kinde of snakes molest either man or beast. These creatures in the winter time creepe into clifts of rockes and into holes under ground, where they lie close till May or Iune. Here likewise bee great store of frogs, which in the Spring doe chirpe and whistle like a bird, and at the latter end of summer croake like our English frogges. Heere be also toades which will climbe the topes of high trees where they will sit croaking, to the wonderment of such as are not acquainted with them. I never saw any Wormes or Moles, but pismires and spiders be there. There are likewise troublesome flies. First there is a wilde Bee or Waspe, which commonly guards the grape, building her cobweb habitation amongst the leaves: secondly a great greene flye, not much unlike our horse flyes in England; they will nippe so sore that they wil fetch blood either of man or beast, and be most troublesome where most Cattle be, which brings them from out of the woods to the houses; this flye continues but for the Moneth of Iune. The third is a Gurnipper which is a small blacke fly no bigger than a flea; her biting causeth an itching upon the hands or face, which provoketh scratching which is troublesome to some; this fly is busie but in close mornings or evenings, and continues not above three weekes, the least winde or heate expells them. The fourth is a Musketoe which is not unlike to our gnats in England; In places where there is no thicke woods or Swampes, there is none or very few. In new Plantations they be troublesome for the first yeare, but the wood decaying they vanish: these Flies cannot endure winde, heate or cold, so that these are onely troublesome in close thicke weather, and against raine many that be bitten will fall a scratching, whereupon their faces and hands swell. Others are never troubled with them at all: those likewise that swell with their biting the first yeare, never swell the second: for my owne part I have bin troubled as much with them or some like them, in the Fen country of England as ever I was there: Here be the flies that are called Chantharides, so much esteemed of Chirurgions, with divers kinds of Butterflies. Thus have you heard of the worst of the countrey: but some peradventure may say no, and reply that they have heard that the people have beene often driven to great wants and extremities; To which I answer, it is true that some have lived for a certaine time with a little bread, other without any, yet all this argues nothing against the countrey in it selfe, but condemnes the folly and improvidence of such as would venture into so rude and unmanaged a countrey, without so much provisions as should have comfortably maintained them in health and strength till by their labours they had brought the land to yeeld his fruite. I have my selfe heard some say that they heard it was a rich land, a brave country, but when they came there they could see nothing but a few Canvis Boothes & old houses, supposing at the first to have found walled townes, fortifications and corne fields, as if townes could have built themselves, or corne fields have growne of themselves, without the husbandrie of man. These men missing of their expectations, returned home and railed against the Country. Others may object that of late time there hath beene great want; I denie it not, but looke to the originall, and tell me from whence it came. The roote of their want sprung up in England, for many hundreds hearing of the plenty of the Country, were so much their owne foes and Countries hindrance, as to come without provision; which made things both deare and scant: wherefore let none blame the Country so much as condemne the indiscreetnesse of such as will needs runne themselves upon hardship. And I dare further assure any that will carrie provision enough for a yeare and a halfe, shall not neede to feare want, if he either be industrious himselfe, or have industrious agents to mannage his estate and affaires. And whereas many doe disparrage the land saying a man cannot live without labour, in that they more disparage and discredit themselves, in giving the world occasion to take notice of their droanish disposition, that would live of the sweate of another mans browes: surely they were much deceived, or else ill informed, that ventured thither in hope to live in plenty and idlenesse, both at a time: and it is as much pitty as he that can worke and will not, should eate, as it is pitty that he that would worke and cannot, should fast. I condemne not such therefore as are now there, and are not able to worke; but I advise for the future those men that are of weake constitutions to keepe at home, if their estates cannot maintaine servants. For all new England must be workers in some kinde: and whereas it hath beene formerly reported that boyes of tenne or a twelve yeares of age might doe much more than get their living, that cannot be, for he must have more than a boyes head, and no lesse than a mans strength, that intends to live comfortably; and hee that hath understanding and Industrie, with a stocke of an hundered pound, shall live better there, than he shall doe here of twenty pound per annum. But many I know will say if it be thus, how comes it to passe then that they are so poore? To which I answere, that they are poore but in comparison, compare them with the rich Merchants or great landed men in England, and then I know they will seeme poore. There is no probability they should be exceeding rich, because none of such great estate went over yet; besides, a man of estate must first scatter before he gather, he must lay out monies for transporting of servants, and cattle and goods, for houses and fences and gardens, &c. This may make his purse seeme light, and to the eye of others seeme a leaking in his estate, whereas these disbursments are for his future enrichments: for he being once well seated and quietly setled, his increase comes in double; and howsoever they are accounted poore, they are well contented, and looke not so much at abundance, as a competencie; so little is the poverty of the Country, that I am perswaded if many in England which are constrained to begge their bread were there, they would live better than many doe here, that have money to buy it. Furthermore when corne is scarse, yet may they have either fish or flesh for their labour: and surely that place is not miserably poore to them that are there, where foure Egges may be had for a Penny, and a quart of new Milke at the same rate: Where Butter is sixe-pence a pound, and Cheshire-Cheese at five pence; sure Middlesex affords London no better penny-worths. What though there be no such plenty, as to cry these things in the streetes? yet every day affords these penny-worths to those that neede them in most places. I dare not say in all: Can they be very poore, where for foure thousand soules, there are fifteene hundred head of Cattle, besides foure thousand Goates, and Swine innumerable? In an ill sheepe-yeare I have knowne Mutton as deere in Old-England, and deerer than Goates-flesh is in New-England, which is altogether as good if fancy be set aside.
Many peradventure at the looking over of these relations, may have inclinations or resolution for the Voyage, to whom I wish all prosperity in their undertakings; although I will use no forcive arguments to perswade any, but leave them to the relation; yet by way of advice, I would commend to them a few lines from the Pen of experience. And because the way to New England is over Sea, it will not be amisse to give you directions, what is most necessary to bee carried. Many I suppose, know as well, or better than my selfe; yet all doe not, to those my directions tend; although every man have ship-provisions allowed him for his five pound a man, which is salt Beefe, Porke, salt Fish, Butter, Cheese, Pease, Pottage, Water-grewell, and such kinde of Victuals, with good Biskets, and sixe-shilling Beere: yet will it be necessary, to carry some comfortable refreshing of fresh victuall. As first, for such as have ability, some Conserves, and good Clarret Wine to burne at Sea: Or you may have it by some of your Vintners or Wine-Coopers burned here, & put up into vessels, which will keepe much better than other burnt Wine, it is a very comfortable thing for the stomacke; or such as are Sea-sicke: Sallet-oyle likewise. Prunes are good to be stewed; Sugar for many things: White Biskets, and Egs, and Bacon, Rice, Poultry, and some weather-sheepe to kill aboard the ship; and fine flowre-baked meates, will keepe about a weeke or nine dayes at Sea. Iuyce of Lemons well put up, is good either to prevent or cure the Scurvy. Here it must not be forgotten to carry small Skillets, or Pipkins, and small frying-panns, to dresse their victuals in at Sea. For bedding, so it be easie, and cleanely, and warme, it is no matter how old or coarse it be for the use of the Sea; and so likewise for Apparrell, the oldest cloathes be the fittest, with a long coarse coate, to keepe better things from the pitched ropes and plankes. Whosoever shall put to Sea in a stoute and well-conditioned ship, having an honest Master, and loving Sea-men, shall not neede to feare, but he shall finde as good content at Sea, as at Land.
It is too common with many to feare the Sea more than they neede, and all such as put to Sea, confesse it to be lesse tedious than they either feared or expected. A ship at Sea may well be compared to a Cradle, rocked by a carefull Mothers hand, which though it be moved up and downe, yet is it not in danger of falling: So a ship may often be rocked too and againe upon the troublesome Sea, yet seldome doth it sinke or over-turne, because it is kept by that carefull hand of Providence by which it is rocked. It was never knowne yet, that any ship in that voyage was cast away, or that ever fell into the Enemies hand.
For the health of Passengers it hath beene observed, that of sixe hundred soules, not above three or foure haue dyed at Sea: It is probable in such a company, more might have dyed either by sicknesse or casualities, if they had stayed at home. For Women, I see not but that they doe as well as men, and young Children as well as either; having their healths as well at Sea as at Land: Many likewise which have come with such foule bodies to Sea, as did make their dayes uncomfortable at Land, have beene so purged and clarified at Sea, that they have beene more healthfull for after-times; their weake appetites being turned to good stomackes, not onely desiring, but likewise disgesting such victuals as the Sea affords. Secondly, for directions for the Countrey, it is not to be feared, but that men of good estates may doe well there; alwayes provided, that they goe well accommodated with servants. In which I would not wish them to take over-many: tenne or twelve lusty servants being able to mannage an estate of two or three thousand pound. It is not the multiplicity of many bad servants, (which presently eates a man out of house and harbour, as lamentable experience hath made manifest) but the industry of the faithfull and diligent labourer, that enricheth the carefull Master; so that he that hath many dronish servants, shall soone be poore; and he that hath an industrious family, shall as soone be rich.
Now for the incouragement of his men, he must not doe as many have done, (more through ignorance than desire) carry many mouthes, and no meate; but rather much meate for a few mouthes. Want of due maintenance produceth nothing but a grumbling spirit with a sluggish idlenesse, when as those servants which be well provided for, goe thorough their imployments with speede and cheerefulnesse. For meale, it will be requisite to carry a Hogshead and a halfe, for every one that is a labourer, to keepe him till hee may receive the fruite of his owne labours, which will be a yeare and a halfe after his arrivall, if hee land in May or Iune. He must likewise carry Malt, Beefe, Butter, Cheese, some Pease, good Wines, Vinegar, Strong-waters, &c. Whosoever transports more of these than he himselfe useth, his over-plus being sold, will yeeld as much profit as any other staple commodity. Euery man likewise must carry over good store of Apparrell; for if he come to buy it there, he shall finde it dearer than in England. Woollen-cloth is a very good comodity, and Linnen better; as Holland, Lockram, flaxen, Hempen, Callico stuffes, Linsey-woolsies, and blew Callicoe, greene Sayes for Housewives aprons, Hats, Bootes, Shooes, good Irish stockings, which if they be good, are much more serviceable than knit-ones. All kind of grocery wares, as Sugar, Prunes, Raisons, Currants, Honey, Nutmegs, Cloves, &c. Sope, Candles, and Lamps, &c. All manner of household-stuffe is very good Trade there, as Pewter and Brasse, but great Iron-pots be preferred before Brasse, for the use of that Country. Warming-pannes and Stewing-pannes bee of necessary use, and good Trafficke there. All manner of Iron-wares, as all manner of nailes for houses, and all manner of Spikes for building of Boates, Ships, and fishing stages: all manner of tooles for Workemen, Hoes for planters, broad and narrow for setting and weeding; with Axes both broad and pitching-axes. All manner of Augers, piercing bits, Whip-saws, Two-handed saws, Froes, both for the riving of Pailes and Laths, rings for Beetles heads, and Iron-wedges; though all these be made in the Countrey: (there being divers Blacke-smiths) yet being a heavy commodity, and taking but a little stoage, it is cheaper to carry such commodities out of England. Glasse ought not to be forgotten of any that desire to benefit themselves, or the Countrey: if it be well leaded, and carefully pack't up, I know no commodity better for portage or sayle. Here likewise must not be forgotten all Vtensils for the Sea, as Barbels, splitting-knives, Leads, and Cod-hookes, and Lines, Machrill-hooks and lines, Sharke-hookes, Seanes, or Basse nets, large and strong, Herring-nets, &c. Such as would eate Fowle, must not forget their sixe-foote Gunnes, their good Powder and shot, of all sorts; a great round shot called Bastable-shot, is the best; being made of a blacker Lead than ordinary shot: Furthermore, good Pooldavies to make sayles for Boates, Roads, and Anchors for Boates and Pinnaces, be good; Sea-coale, Iron, Lead, and Mil-stones, Flints, Ordonances, and whatsoever a man can conceive is good for the Countrey, that will lie as Ballast, he cannot be a loser by it. And lest I should forget a thing of so great importance, no man must neglect to provide for himselfe, or those belonging to him, his munition for the defence of himselfe and the Countrey. For there is no man there that beares a head, but that beares military Armes: even Boyes of fourteene yeares of age, are practised with men in militarie discipline, every three weeks. Whosoever shall carrie over Drummes and English Colours, Pattesons, Halberds, Pickes, Muskets, Bandelerous, with Swords, shall not neede to feare good gaine for them, such things being wanting in the country: Likewise whatsoever shall be needefull for fortifications of holds and Castles, whereby the common enemy may be kept out in future times, is much desired. They as yet have had no great cause to feare; but because securitie hath beene the overthrow of many a new plantation, it is their care according to their abilities, to secure themselves by fortifications, as well as they can: Thus having shewed what commodities are most usefull, it will not be amisse to shew you what men be most fit for these plantations.
First, men of good working, and contriving heads, a well experienced common wealths man for the good of the body politicke in matters of advice and counsell, a well skilled and industrious husbandman, for tillage and improvements of grounds; an ingenious Carpenter, a cunning Ioyner, a handie Cooper, such a one as can make strong ware for the use of the countrie, and a good Brickmaker, a Tyler and a Smith, a Leather dresser, a Gardner, and a Taylour: one that hath good skill in the trade of fishing, is of speciall use, and so is a good Fowler, if there be any that hath skill in any of these trades, if he can transport himselfe, he needs not feare but he may improve his time and endeavours to his owne benefit, and comfort; if any cannot transport himselfe, he may provide himselfe of an honest master, and so may doe as well. There is as much freedome and liberty for servants as in England and more too; a wronged servant shall have right volens nolens from his injurious master, and a wronged master shall have right of his injurious servant, as well as here: Wherefore let no servant be discouraged from the voyage, that intends it. And now whereas it is generally reported, that servants and poore men grow rich, and the masters and Gentrie grow poore; I must needs confesse that the diligent hand makes rich, and that labouring men having good store of employments, and as good pay, live well, and contentedly; but I cannot perceive that those that set them aworke are any way impoverished by them; peradventure they have lesse monie by reason of them, but never the lesse riches; a mans worke well done being more beneficiall than his monie, or other dead commodities, which otherwise would lye by him to no purpose. If any men be so improvident as to set men about building of Castles in the Aire, or other unnecessary employments, they may grow poore; but such as employ labourers about planting of Corne, building of houses, fenceing in of ground, fishing, and divers other necessary occasions, shall receive as much or more by poore mens labours, than those that live in England doe from the industrie of such as they hire: Wherefore I doe suppose this to be but the surmisings of some that are ignorant of the state of the countrey, or else misinformed by some ill willers to the plantations. Many objections I know are daily invented, to hinder the proceedings of these new plantations, which may dampe the unsetled spirits of such as are not greatly affected with those undertakings; Some say the Spaniard layes claime to the whole country, being the first discoverer hereof, and that he may make invasion upon those parts as well as he hath done upon S. Christophers, and S. Martins, and those places: but it doth not follow that because he tooke such places as lay just in his way to the West Indies, that he should come thousands of miles with a great Navie to plantations, as yet not worth the pillage: and when the plantations are growne noted in the eyes of the common foes for wealth, it is hoped that when the Bees have Honie in their Hives, they will have stings in their tailes. Hath not Virginia beene planted many yeares which is foure hundred miles nearer the Spaniards course, and yet never met with any affrontments; so that this scruple smells of feare and pusill-animitie. To wipe away all groundlesse calumniations, and to answer to every too curious objections, and frivolous question (some so simple as not ashamed to aske whether the Sunne shines there or no) were to run in infinitum; but I hope that the severall manuscripts and letters, and informations by word of mouth from such of our honest countrimen which daily have recourse unto us, have given full satisfaction to such as are well willers to the plantations: and for such as are estranged to it in affection, if every word that hath beene eyther writ or spoken were a forcive argument, yet would it be too little to steddie their beleefe in any one particular concerning the country. Some are nimble eared to heare faults, and so ready tongued to publish them, yea often times with strained constructions; a false asseveration usually winneth more beleefe than two verifying negatives can resettle: Some there are who count with Claudian that it is an incomparable happinesse to have their birth, life & burying in the same place: these are never likely to remove further than the shell of their owne countrie. But because there are some noble spirits that devote their states, and their persons, to the common good of their king and country, I have therefore for their direction and delight made this relation: For as the end of my travell was observation, so I desire the end of my observation may tend to the information of others: As I have observed what I have seene, and written what I have observed, so doe I desire to publish what I have written, desiring it may be beneficiall to posteritie; and if any man desire to fill himselfe at that fountaine, from whence this tasting cup was taken, his owne experience shall tell him as much as I have here related, and thus I passe from the country as it stands to the English, and come to discourse how it stands to the old Natives, and they to it, as followeth.
The country as it is in relation to the Indians, is divided as it were into Shires, every severall division being swayde by a severall king. The Indians to the East and North east, bearing the name of Churchers, and Tarrenteenes. These in the Southerne parts be called Pequants, and Narragansets; those who are seated West-ward be called, Connectacuts, and Mowhacks: Our Indians that live to the North-ward of them be called Aberginians, who before the sweeping Plague, were an Inhabitant not fearing, but rather scorning the confrontments of such as now count them but the scumme of the country, and would soone roote them out of their native possessions were it not for the English.
These are a cruell bloody people, which were wont to come downe upon their poore neighbours with more than bruitish savagenesse, spoyling of their Corne, burning their houses, slaying men, ravishing women, yea very Caniballs they were, sometimes eating on a man one part after another before his face, and while yet living; in so much that the very name of a Mowhack would strike the heart of a poore Abergenian dead, were there not hopes at hand of releefe from English to succour them: For these inhumane homicides confesse that they dare not meddle with a white faced man, accompanyed with his hot mouth'd weapon. These Indians be a people of a tall stature, of long grimme visages, slender wasted, and exceeding great armes and thighes, wherein they say their strength lyeth; and this I rather beleeve because an honest gentleman told me, upon his knowledge, that he saw one of them with a fillippe with his finger kill a dogge, who afterward flead him and sod him, and eate him to his dinner. They are so hardie that they can eate such things as would make other Indians sicke to looke upon, being destitute of fish and flesh, they suffice hunger and maintaine nature with the use of vegetatives; but that which they most hunt after, is the flesh of man; their custome is if they get a stranger neere their habitations, not to butcher him immediately, but keeping him in as good plight as they can, feeding him with the best victualls they have. As a neere neighbouring Indian assured me, who found what he had spoke true by a lamentable experience, still wearing the cognizance of their cruelty on his naked arme, who being taken by them eate of their foode, lodged in their beds, nay he was brought forth every day, to be new painted, piped unto, and hem'd in with a ring of bare skinned morris dancers, who presented their antiques before him: In a word, when they had sported enough about this walking Maypole, a rough hewne satyre cutteth a gobbit of flesh from his brawnie arme, eating it in his view, searing it with a firebrand, least the blood should be wasted before the morning, at the dawning wherof they told him they would make an end as they had begun; hee answered that he cared as little for their threats as they did for his life, not fearing death; whereupon they led him bound into a Wigwam, where he sate as a condemned Prisoner, grating his teeth for anguish being for the present so hampered, and the next day to be entombed in so many living sepulchers; he extends his strength to the utmost, breaketh the bands from his hands, and loosing the cords from his feete, thought at once to be revenged for the flesh of his arme, and finding a hatchet, layes one with an arme of revenge to the unliving of ten men at first onset, afterward taking the opportunitie of the dead of night, fled through the woods and came to his native home, where he still lives to rehearse his happie escapall; of the rest of their inhumane cruelties let the Dutchmen, (who live among them) testifie, as likewise the cruell manner of leading their prisoners captive, whom they doe not onely pinnion with sharpe thongs, but likewise bore holes through their hamstrings, through which they thread a cord coupling ten or a dozen men together.
These Indians be more desperate in warres than the other Indians; which proceeds not onely from the fiercenesse of their natures, but also in that they know themselves to be better armed and weaponed; all of them wearing sea horse skinnes and barkes of trees, made by their Art as impenitrable it is thought as steele, wearing head peeces of the same, under which they march securely and undantedly, running, and fiercely crying out, Hadree Hadree succomee succomee we come we come to sucke your blood, not fearing the feathered shafts of the strong-armed bow-men, but like unruly headstrong stallions beate them downe with their right hand Tamahaukes, and left hand Iavelins, being all the weapons which they use, counting bowes a cowardly fight. Tamahaukes be staves of two foote and a halfe long, and a knob at one end as round and bigge as a footeball: a Iavelin is a short speare, headed with sharpe sea-horse teeth; one blow or thrust with these strange weapons, will not neede a second to hasten death, from a Mowhackes arme. I will conclude this discourse concerning the Mowhackes, in a tragicall rehearsall of one of their combates. A Sagamore inhabiting neere these Canniballs, was so dayly annoyed with their injurious inhumanitie, that he must either become a tributarie subject to their tyrannie, or release himselfe from thraldome by the stroke of warre, which he was unable to wage of himselfe: wherefore with faire entreaties, plausible perswasions, forcive arguments, and rich presents he sent to other Sagamores, he procured so many souldiers as summed with his owne, made his forces sixe thousand strong; with the which he resolutely marched towards his enemies, intending either to win the horse or loose the saddle. His enemies having heard of his designes, plotted how to confront him in his enterprize, and overthrow him by trecherie; which they thus attempted; knowing their enemies were to swimme over a muddie river, they divided their bands lying in ambush on both sides the river, waiting his approach, who suspected no danger looking for nothing but victory; but immediately they were invyroned with their unexpected foes, in their greatest disadvantage: for being in the water, shoote they could not, for swimming was their action; and when they came to the side, they could not runne away, for their feete stucke fast in the mudde, and their adversaries impaled them about, clubbing and darting all that attained the shore; so that all were killed and captived, saving three who swimming further under the waters (like the Ducke that escapeth the Spannell by diving) untill they were out of sight of their blood thirstie foes, recovered the shoare creeping into the thickets, from whence after a little breathing and resting of their weary limbes, they marched through the woods and arrived at their owne homes, relating to their inquisitive survivers the sadde event of their warre, who a long time after deplored the death of their friends, still placing the remembrance of that day in the Callender of their mishappes.
The Tarrenteenes saving that they eate not mans flesh, are little lesse salvage, and cruell than these Canniballs: our Indians doe feare them as their deadly enemies; for so many of them as they meete they kill. About 2 yeares agoe, our Indians being busie about their accustomed huntings, not suspecting them so neere their owne liberties, were on the suddaine surprized by them; some being slaine, the rest escaping to their English Asylum, whither they durst not pursue them; their Sagamore was wounded by an arrow, but presently cured by English Chirurgery. These Indians are the more insolent, by reason they have guns which they dayly trade for with the French, (who will sell his eyes as they say, for beaver:) but these doe them more credit than service; for having guns they want powder, or if they have that, they want shot, something or other being alwayes wanting; so that they use them for little, but to salute coasting boates that come to trade, who no sooner can anchor in any harbour; but they present them with a vollie of shot, asking for sacke and strong liquors, which they so much love since the English used to trade it with them, that they will scarse trade for any thing else, lashing out into excessive abuse, first taught by the example of some of our English who to uncloathe them of their beaver coates, clad them with the infection of swearing and drinking, which was never in fashion with them before, it being contrary to their nature to guzell downe strong drinke, or use so much as to sippe of strong-waters, vntill our bestiall example and dishonest incitation brought them to it; from which I am sure hath sprung many evill consequents, as disorder, quarrels, wrongs, unconscionable and forcive wresting of Beaver and Wampompeage: and from over-flowing Cups there hath beene a proceeding to revenge, murther and over-flowing of blood. As witnesse Maister Wayes Boate, which they sunke with stones after they had killed his son, with three more: buzzing the English in the eares, that they see it bulged against the rockes, and the men drowned in the beating surges: but afterwards being betrayed, as many as were caught, were hanged. Another who was situated on Richmonds Iland, living as he list amongst them, making his couetous corrupt will his law; after many abuses, was with his family one evening treacherously murthered, under a faire pretence of trade; so that these that lived beside the Law of God, and their King, and the light of Nature, dyed by their hands that car'd neither for God, King, nor Nature. Take these Indians in their own trimme and naturall disposition, and they be reported to be wise, lofty-spirited, constant in friendship to one another; true in their promise, and more industrious than many others.
The Pequants be a stately warlike people, of whom I never heard any misdemeanour; but that they were iust and equall in their dealings; not treacherous either to their Country-men, or English: Requiters of courtesies, affable towards the English. Their next neighbours the Narragansets, be at this present the most numerous people in those parts, the most rich also, and the most industrious; being the store-house of all such kind of wild Merchandize as is amongst them. These men are the most curious minters of their Wampompeage and Mowhakes, which they forme out of the inmost wreaths of Periwinkle-shels. The Northerne, Easterne, and Westerne Indians fetch all their Coyne from these Southerne Mint-masters. From hence they have most of their curious Pendants & Bracelets; from hence they have their great stone-pipes, which wil hold a quarter of an ounce of Tobacco, which they make with steele-drils and other instruments; such is their ingenuity & dexterity, that they can imitate the English mold so accurately, that were it not for matter and colour it were hard to distinguish them; they make them of greene, & sometimes of blacke stone; they be much desired of our English Tobaconists, for their rarity, strength, handsomnesse, and coolnesse. Hence likewise our Indians had their pots wherein they used to seeth their victuals before they knew the use of Brasse. Since the English came, they have employed most of their time in catching of Beavers, Otters, and Musquashes, which they bring downe into the Bay, returning backe loaded with English commodities, of which they make a double profit, by selling them to more remote Indians, who are ignorant at what cheape rates they obtaine them, in comparison of what they make them pay, so making their neighbours ignorance their enrichment. Although these be populous, yet I never heard they were desirous to take in hand any martiall enterprize, or expose themselves to the uncertaine events of warre: wherefore the Pequants call them Women-like men; but being uncapable of a jeare, they rest secure under the conceit of their popularitie, and seeke rather to grow rich by industrie, than famous by deeds of Chevalry. But to leave strangers, and come to declare what is experimentally knowne of the Indians, amongst whom we live: of whom in the next Chapter.
First of their Stature, most of them being betweene five or six foote high, straight bodied, strongly composed, smooth skinned, merry countenanced, of complexion something more swarthy than Spaniards, black hair'd, high foreheaded, blacke ey'd, out-nosed, broad shouldred, brawny arm'd, long and slender handed, out brested, small wasted, lanke bellied, well thighed, flat kneed, handsome growne leggs, and small feete: In a word, take them when the blood briskes in their veines, when the flesh is on their backs, and marrow in their bones, when they frolick in their antique deportments and Indian postures; and they are more amiable to behold (though onely in Adams livery) than many a compounded phantasticke in the newest fashion. It may puzzle beliefe, to conceive how such lustie bodies should have their rise and daily supportment from so slender a fostering; their houses being meane, their lodging as homely, commons scant, their drinke water, and Nature their best cloathing; in them the old proverbe may well be verified: (Natura paucis contenta) for though this be their daily portion, they still are healthfull and lusty. I have beene in many places, yet did I never see one that was borne either in redundance or defect a monster, or any that sickneffe had deformed, or casualitie made decrepit, saving one that had a bleared eye, and an other that had a wenne on his cheeke. The reason is rendred why they grow so proportionable, and continue so long in their vigour (most of them being 50 before a wrinkled brow or gray haire betray their age) is because they are not brought downe with suppressing labour, vexed with annoying cares, or drowned in the excessive abuse of overflowing plenty, which oftentimes kils them more than want, as may appeare in them. For when they change their bare Indian commons for the plenty of Englands fuller diet, it is so contrary to their stomacks, that death or a desperate sicknesse immediately accrews, which makes so few of them desirous to see England. Their swarthinesse is the Sun's livery, for they are borne faire. Their smooth skins proceede from the often anoynting of their bodies with the oyle of fishes, and the fat of Eagles, with the grease of Rackoones, which they hold in summer, the best antidote to keepe their skinne from blistering with the scorching Sunne; and it is their best armour against the Musketoes, the surest expeller of the hairy excrement, and stops the pores of their bodies against the nipping winters cold. Their black haire is naturall, yet it is brought to a more jetty colour by oyling, dying, and daily dressing. Sometimes they weare it very long, hanging down in a loose dishevel'd womanish manner; otherwhile tied up hard and short like a horse taile, bound close with a fillet, which they say makes it grow the faster: they are not a little phantasticall or custom-sick in this particular; their boyes being not permitted to weare their haire long till sixteene yeares of age, and then they must come to it by degrees; some being cut with a long foretop, a long locke on the crowne, one of each side of his head, the rest of his haire being cut even with the scalpe: the young men and souldiers weare their haire long on the one side, the other side being cut short like a screw; other cuts they have as their fancie befooles them, which would torture the wits of a curious Barber to imitate. But though they be thus wedded to the haire of their head, you cannot wooe them to weare it on their chinnes, where it no sooner growes, but it is stubbed up by the rootes, for they count it as an unuseful, cumbersome, and opprobrious excrement, insomuch as they call him an English mans bastard that hath but the appearance of a beard, which some have growing in a staring fashion, like the beard of a cat, which makes them the more out of love with them, choosing rather to have no beards than such as should make them ridiculous.
Now these naked bodies may seeme too weake to with-stand the assaulting heat of their parching Summers, and the piercing cold of the icie Winters, or it may be surmised that these earthly fabricks should be wasted to nothing by the tempestuous dashings of wind-driven raines, having neither that which may warme within, or shelter without; yet these things they looke not after, saving a paire of Indian Breeches to cover that which modesty commands to be hid, which is but a peece of cloth a yard and a halfe long, put betweene their groinings, tied with a snakes skinne about their middles, one end hanging downe with a flap before, the other like a taile behinde. In the Winter time the more aged of them weare leather drawers, in forme like Irish trouses, fastned under their girdle with buttons; they weare shooes likewise of their owne making cut out of a Mooses hide, many of them weare skinnes about them, in forme of an Irish mantle, and of these some be Beares skinnes, Mooses skinnes, and Beaver skinnes sewed together, Otter skinnes, and Rackoone skinnes; most of them in the Winter having his deepe furr'd Cat skinne, like a long large muffe, which hee shifts to that arme which lieth most exposed to the winde; thus clad, hee busles better through a world of cold in a frost-paved wildernesse, than the furred Citizen in his warmer Stoave. If their fancie drive them to trade, they choose rather a good course blanket, thorough which they cannot see, interposing it betweene the sunne and them; or a piece of broade cloth, which they use for a double end, making it a coate by day, and a covering by night; they love not to be imprisoned in our English fashion: they love their owne dogge fashion better (of shaking their eares, and being ready in a moment) than to spend time in dressing them, though they may as well spare it as any men I know, having little else to doe. But the chiefe reasons they render why they will not conforme to our English apparell, are, because their women cannot wash them when they bee soyled, and their meanes will not reach to buy new when they have done with their old; and they confidently beleeve, the English will not be so liberall as to furnish them upon gifture: therefore they had rather goe naked than be lousie, and bring their bodies out of their old tune, making them more tender by a new acquired habit, which poverty would constraine them to leave: although they be thus poore, yet is there in them the sparkes of naturall pride, which appeares in their longing desire after many kinde of ornaments, wearing pendants in their eares, as formes of birds, beasts, and fishes, carved out of bone, shels, and stone, with long bracelets of their curious wrought wampompeage and mowhackees, which they put about their necks and loynes; these they count a rare kinde of decking; many of the better sort bearing upon their cheekes certaine pourtraitures of beasts, as Beares, Deares, Mooses, Wolves, &c. some of fowls, as of Eagles, Hawkes, &c. which be not a superficiall painting, but a certaine incision, or else a raising of their skin by a small sharpe instrument, under which they conveigh a certain kind of black unchangeable inke, which makes the desired forme apparent and permanent. Others have certaine round Impressions downe the outside of their armes and brests, in forme of mullets or spur-rowels, which they imprint by searing irons: whether these be foiles to illustrate their unparalleld beauty (as they deeme it) or Armes to blazon their antique Gentilitie, I cannot easily determine: but a Sagamore with a Humberd in his eare for a pendant, a black hawke on his occiput for his plume, Mowhackees for his gold chaine, good store of Wampompeage begirting his loynes, his bow in his hand, his quiver at his back with six naked Indian spatterlashes at his heeles for his guard, thinkes himselfe little inferiour to the great Cham; hee will not stick to say, hee is all one with King Charles. He thinkes hee can blow downe Castles with his breath, and conquer kingdomes with his conceit. This Pompey can endure no equall, till one dayes adverse lotterie at their game (called Puimme) metamorphize him into a Codrus, robbing him of his conceited wealth, leaving him in minde and riches equall with his naked attendants, till a new taxation furnish him with a fresh supplie.
Having done with their most needfull cloathings and ornamentall deckings; may it please you to feast your eyes with their belly-timbers, which I suppose would be but stibium to weake stomacks as they cooke it, though never so good of it selfe. In Winter-time they have all manner of fowles of the water and of the land, & beasts of the land and water, pond-fish, with Catharres and other rootes, Indian beanes and Clamms. In the Summer they have all manner of Sea-fish, with all sorts of Berries. For the ordering of their victuals, they boile or roast them, having large Kettles which they traded for with the French long since, and doe still buy of the English as their neede requires, before they had substantiall earthen pots of their owne making. Their spits are no other than cloven sticks sharped at one end to thrust into the ground; into these cloven sticks they thrust the flesh or fish they would have rosted, behemming a round fire with a dozen of spits at a time, turning them as they see occasion. Some of their scullerie having dressed these homely cates, presents it to his guests, dishing it up in a rude manner, placing it on the verdent carpet of the earth which Nature spreads them, without either trenchers, napkins, or knives, upon which their hunger-sawced stomacks impatient of delayes, fals aboard without scrupling at unwashed hands, without bread, salt, or beere: lolling on the Turkish fashion, not ceasing till their full bellies leave nothing but emptie platters: they seldome or never make bread of their Indian corne, but seeth it whole like beanes, eating three or foure cornes with a mouthfull of fish or flesh, sometimes eating meate first, and cornes after, filling chinkes with their broth. In Summer, when their corne is spent, Isquoutersquashes is their best bread, a fruite like a young Pumpion. To say, and to speake paradoxically, they be great eaters, and yet little meate-men; when they visit our English, being invited to eate, they are very moderate, whether it be to shew their manners, or for shamefastnesse, I know not; but at home they will eate till their bellies stand south, ready to split with fulnesse; it being their fashion to eate all at some times, and sometimes nothing at all in two or three dayes, wise Providence being a stranger to their wilder wayes: they be right Infidels, neither caring for the morrow, or providing for their owne families; but as all are fellowes at foot-ball, so they all meete friends at the kettle, saving their Wives, that dance a Spaniell-like attendance at their backes for their bony fragments. If their imperious occasions cause them to travell, the best of their victuals for their journey is Nocake, (as they call it) which is nothing but Indian Corne parched in the hot ashes; the ashes being sifted from it, it is afterward beaten to powder, and put into a long leatherne bag, trussed at their backe like a knapsacke; out of which they take thrice three spoonefulls a day, dividing it into three meales. If it be in Winter, and Snow be on the ground, they can eate when they please, stopping Snow after their dusty victuals, which otherwise would feed them little better than a Tiburne halter. In Summer they must stay till they meete with a Spring or Brooke, where they may have water to prevent the imminent danger of choaking. With this strange viaticum they will travell foure or five daies together, with loads fitter for Elephants than men. But though they can fare so hardly abroad, at home their chaps must walke night and day as long as they have it. They keepe no set meales, their store being spent, they champe on the bit, till they meete with fresh supplies, either from their owne endeavours, or their wives industry, who trudge to the Clam-bankes when all other meanes faile. Though they be sometimes scanted, yet are they as free as Emperours, both to their Country-men and English, be he stranger, or neare acquaintance; counting it a great discourtesie, not to eate of their high-conceited delicates, and sup of their un-oat-meal'd broth, made thicke with Fishes, Fowles, and Beasts boyled all together; some remaining raw, the rest converted by over-much seething to a loathed mash, not halfe so good as Irish Boniclapper.
To enter into a serious discourse concerning the naturall conditions of these Indians, might procure admiration from the people of any civilized Nations, in regard of their civility and good natures. If a Tree may be judged by his fruite, and dispositions calculated by exteriour actions; then may it be concluded, that these Indians are of affable, courteous, and well disposed natures, ready to communicate the best of their wealth to the mutuall good of one another; and the lesse abundance they have, to manifest their entire friendship; so much the more perspicuous is their love, in that they are as willing to part with their Mite in poverty, as treasure in plenty. As he that kills a Deere, sends for his friends, and eates it merrily: So he that receives but a piece of bread from an English hand, parts it equally betweene himselfe and his comerades, and eates it lovingly. In a word, a friend can command his friend, his house, and whatsoever is his, (saving his Wife) and have it freely: And as they are love-linked thus in common courtesie, so are they no way sooner dis-joynted than by ingratitude; accounting an ungratefull person a double robber of a man, not onely of his courtesie, but of his thankes which he might receive of another for the same proffered, or received kindnesse. Such is their love to one another, that they cannot endure to see their Countrey-men wronged, but will stand stiffely in their defence: plead strongly in their behalfe, and justifie one anothers integrities in any warrantable action. If it were possible to recount the courtesies they have shewed the English, since their first arrivall in those parts, it would not onely steddy beleefe, that they are a loving people, but also winne the love of those that never saw them, and wipe off that needelesse feare that is too deepely rooted in the conceits of many, who thinke them envious, and of such rankerous and inhumane dispositions, that they will one day make an end of their English inmates. The worst indeede may be surmised, but the English hitherto have had little cause to suspect them, but rather to be convinced of their trustinesse, seeing they have as yet beene the disclosers of all such treacheries as have bin practised by other Indians. And whereas once there was a proffer of an universall League amongst all the Indians in those parts, to the intent that they might all joyne in one united force, to extirpate the English, our Indians refused the motion, replying, they had rather be servants to the English, of whom they were confident to receive no harme, and from whom they had received so many favours, and assured good testimonies of their love, than equals with them, who would cut their throates upon the least offence, and make them the shambles of their cruelty. Furthermore, if any roaving ships be upon the coasts, and chance to harbour either East-ward, North-ward, or South-ward in any unusuall Port, they will giue us certaine intelligence of her burthen and forces, describing their men either by language or features; which is a great priviledge and no small advantage. Many wayes hath their advice and endeavour beene advantagious unto us; they being our first instructers for the planting of their Indian Corne, by teaching us to cull out the finest seede, to observe the fittest season, to keepe distance for holes, and fit measure for hills, to worme it, and weede it; to prune it, and dresse it as occasion shall require.
These Indians be very hospitable, insomuch that when the English have trauelled forty, fifty, or threescore miles into the Countrey, they have entertained them into their houses, quartered them by themselves in the best roomes, providing the best victuals they could, expressing their welcome in as good termes as could be expected from their slender breeding; shewing more love than complement, not grumbling for a fortnights or three weekes tarrying; but rather caring to provide accommodation correspondent to their English custome. The doubtfull traveller hath oftentimes beene much beholding to them for their guidance thorow the unbeaten Wildernesse: my selfe in this particular can doe no lesse in the due acknowledgment of their love, than speake their commendations, who with two more of my associates bending our course to new Plimouth, lost our way, being deluded by a misleading path which we still followed, being as we thought too broad for an Indian path (which seldome is broader than a Cart's rutte) but that the dayly concourse of Indians from the Narragansets who traded for shooes, wearing them homewards had made this Indian tract like an English walke, and had rear'd up great stickes against the trees, and marked the rest with their hatchets in the English fashion, which begat in us a security of our wrong way to be right, when indeed there was nothing lesse: The day being gloomy and our compasses at home, we travelled hard till night to lesse purpose than if we had sat still, not gaining an inch of our journey for a dayes travell: but happily wee arrived at an Indian Wigwamme, where we were informed of our misprision, and invited to a homely lodging, feasted with the haunch of a fat Deere, and the ensuing morning the son of my naked hoast, for a peece of Tobacco, and a foure penny whittle, tooke the clew of his traveling experience, conducting us through the strange labyrinth of unbeaten bushy wayes in the woody wildernesse twentie miles to our desired harbour.
A second demonstration of their love in this kind may appeare in a passage of the same nature. An unexperienced wood man ranging in the woods for Deere, traveled so farre beyond his knowledge, till he could not tell how to get out of the wood for trees, but the more he sought to direct himselfe out, the more he ranne himselfe in, from the home he most desired; the night came upon him preventing his walking, and the extremitie of cold seasing upon his right foote for want of warming motion, deprived him of the use thereof, so that he could not remoove farther than his snowie bed, but had there ended his dayes, had not sixe commiserating Indians, who heard of his wandering, found him out by diligent search, being almost dead with despaire and cold: but after they had conquered his despaire with the assurance of his safe conduction to his habitation, and expelled the cold by the infusion of strong waters which they brought for the same purpose; they framed a thing like a hand barrow and carryed this selfe-helpelesse person on their bare-shoulders twelve miles to his residence: many other wandring benighted coasters have beene kindly entertained into their habitations, where they have rested and reposed themselves more securely than if they had beene in some blind obscure old Englands Inne, being the next day directed in their right way: many lazie boyes that have runne away from their masters, have beene brought home by these ranging foresters, who are as well acquainted with the craggy mountaines, and the pleasant vales, the stately woods, and swampie groves, the spacious ponds, and swift running rivers, and can distinguish them by their names as perfectly, and finde them as presently, as the experienced Citizen knows how to finde out Cheape-side crosse, or London stone. Such is the wisedome and pollicie of these poore men, that they will be sure to keepe correspondence with our English Magistrates, expressing their love in the execution of any service they command them, so far as lyes in their power, as may appeare in this one particular. A certaine man having layd himselfe open to the Kings lawes, fearing attachment, conviction, and consequently execution: sequestred himselfe from the honest societie of his neighbours, betaking himselfe unto the obscure thickets of the wildernesse, where hee lived for a time undiscovered, till the Indians who leave no place unsearched for Deere, found out his haunt, and having taken notice by diverse discourses concerning him, how that it was the governers desire to know where he was; they thought it a part of their service to certifie him where he kept his rendevouze, who thereupon desired if they could to direct men to him for his attachment, but he had shifted his dwelling, and could not be found for the present, yet he was after seene by other Indians, but being double pistold, and well sworded, they feared to approach so neere him as to grapple with him: wherefore they let him alone till his owne necessary businesse cast him upon them; for having occasion to crosse a river, he came to the side thereof, where was an Indian Cannow, in which the Indians were to crosse the river themselves, hee vauntingly commanded wastage; which they willingly graunted, but withall plotting how they might take him prisoner, which they thus effected; having placed him in the midship of their ticklish wherrie, they lanched forth into the deepe, causing the capering Cannow to cast out her combersome ballast into the liquid water; which swomme like a stone, and now the water having dank't his pistoles, and lost his Spanish progge in the bottome, the Indians swomme him out by the chinne to the shore, where having dropt himselfe a little dry, he began to bluster out a storme of rebellious resistance, till they becalmed his pelting chafe with their pelting of pibles at him, afterward leading him as they list to the governour. These people be of a kinde and affable disposition, yet are they very warie with whom they strike hands in friendshippe: nothing is more hatefull to them than a churlish disposition, so likewise is dissimulation: he that speakes seldome, and opportunely, being as good as his word, is the onely man they love. The Spaniard they say is all one Aramouse (viz. all one as a dog) the Frenchman hath a good tongue, but a false heart: The English man all one speake, all one heart; wherefore they more approve of them than of any Nation: garrulitie is much condemned of them, for they utter not many words, speake seldome, and then with such gravitie as is pleasing to the eare: such as understand them not, desire yet to heare their emphaticall expressions, and lively action; such is the milde temper of their spirits that they cannot endure objurgations, or scoldings. An Indian Sagamore once hearing an English woman scold with her husband, her quicke utterance exceeding his apprehension, her active lungs thundering in his eares, expelled him the house; from whence he went to the next neighbour, where he related the unseemelinesse of her behaviour; her language being strange to him, hee expressed it as strangely, telling them how she cryed Nannana Nannana Nannana Nan, saying he was a great foole to give her the audience, and no correction for usurping his charter, and abusing him by her tongue. I have beene amongst diverse of them, yet did I never see any falling out amongst them, not so much as crosse words, or reviling speeches, which might provoke to blowes. And whereas it is the custome of many people in their games, if they see the dice runne crosse or their cards not answere their expectations: what cursing and swearing, what imprecations, and raylings, fightings and stabbings oftentimes proceede from their testy spleene. How doe their blustering passions, make the place troublesome to themselves and others? But I have knowne when foure of these milder spirits have sit downe staking their treasures, where they have plaied foure and twentie houres, neither eating drinking or sleeping in the Interim; nay which is most to be wondered at, not quarreling, but as they came thither in peace so they depart in peace: when he that had lost all his wampompeage, his house, his kettle, his beaver, his hatchet, his knife, yea all his little all, having nothing left but his naked selfe, was as merry as they that won it: so in sports of activitie at footeball though they play never so fiercely to outward appearance, yet anger-boyling blood never streames in their cooler veines, if any man be throwne he laughes out his foyle, there is no seeking of revenge, no quarreling, no bloody noses, scratched faces, blacke eyes, broken shinnes, no brused members, or crushed ribs, the lamentable effects of rage; but the goale being wonne, the goods on the one side lost; friends they were at the footeball, and friends they must meete at the kettle. I never heard yet of that Indian that was his neighbours homicide or vexation by his malepart, saucy, or uncivill tongue: laughter in them is not common, seldome exceeding a smile, never breaking out into such a lowd laughter, as doe many of our English. Of all things they love not to be laught at upon any occasion; if a man be in trade with them and the bargaine be almost strucke, if they perceive you laugh, they will scarce proceed, supposing you laugh because you have cheated them: the Crocodiles teares may sooner deceive them, than the Hienas smiles: although they be not much addicted to laughter, yet are they not of a dumpish sad nature, but rather naturally chearefull: As I never saw a gigling Democrite, so I never saw a teare dropping Heraclite; no disaster being so prevalent as to open the flood-gate of their eyes, saving the death of friends, for whom they lament most exceedingly.
For their hardinesse it may procure admiration, no ordinary paines making them so much as alter their countenance; beate them, whip them, pinch them, punch them, if they resolve not to whinch for it, they will not; whether it be their benummed insensiblenesse of smart, or their hardie resolutions, I cannot tell; It might be, a Perillus his Bull, or the disjoynting racke might force a roare from them, but a Turkish drubbing would not much molest them, and although they be naturally much affraid of death, yet the unexpected approach of a mortall wound by a Bullet, Arrow, or Sword, strikes no more terrour, causes no more exclamation, no more complaint, or whinching, than if it had beene a shot into the body of a tree: such wounds as would be suddaine death to an English man, would be nothing to them. Some of them having beene shot in at the mouth, and out under the eare, some shot in the breast, some runne thorough the flankes with Darts, and other many desperate wounds which eyther by their rare skill in the use of vegitatives, or diabolicall charmes they cure in short time. Although their hardinesse beare them out in such things wherein they are sure death will not ensue, yet can it not expell the feare of death, the very name and thoughts of it is so hideous to them, or any thing that presents it, or threatens it, so terrible; insomuch that a hundred of them will runne from two or three Guns, though they know they can but dispatch two or three at a discharge, yet every man fearing it may be his lot to meete with his last, will not come neare that in good earnest, which he dare play withall in jest. To make this good by a passage of Experience. Three men having occasion of trade amongst the Westerne Indians, went up with some such commodities as they thought most fit for trade; to secure their person they tooke a Carbine, two Pistoles and a sword, which in outward shew was not great resistance to a hundred well skilled bow men: The Indians hearing their gunnes making a thundring noyse, desired to finger one of them, & see it discharged into a tree, wondring much at the percussion of the bullet; but they abiding two or three dayes, the gunnes were forgotten, and they began to looke at the oddes being a hundred to three, whereupon they were animated to worke treason against the lives of these men, and to take away their goods from them by force; but one of the English understanding their language, smelt out their treachery, and being more fully informed of their intent by the Indian women, who had more pitty, hee steps to their King, and hailing him by the long haire from the rest of his councell, commanded him either to goe before him and guide him home, or else he would there kill him. The Sagamore seeing him so rough, had not the courage to resist him, but went with him two miles; but being exasperated by his men who followed him along, to resist, and goe no further; in the end hee would not, neither for faire promises nor fierce threatnings, so that they were constrained there to kill him, which struck such an amazement and daunting into the rest of that naked crew, with the sight of the guns, that though they might easily have killed them, yet had they not the power to shoot an arrow, but followed them, yelling and howling for the death of their King forty miles; his goods being left among them, he sent word by other Indians, that unlesse they sent him his goods againe, which hee there left, hee would serve them as hee served their King, whereupon they returned him his commodities, with intreaty of peace, and promises of fairer trade if he came again. If these heartlesse Indians were so cowed with so slender an onset on their owne dunghill, when there were scarce six families of ours in the Countrie, what need wee now feare them being growne into thousands, and having knowledge of martiall discipline? In the night they neede not to be feared, for they will not budge from their owne dwellings for feare of their Abamacho (the Devill) whom they much feare, specially in evill enterprizes, they will rather lye by an English fire than goe a quarter of a mile in the darke to their owne dwellings: but they are well freed from this scarecrow since the comming of the English, and lesse care for his delusions; and whereas it hath beene reported, that there are such horrible apparitions, fearefull roarings, thundering and lightning raised by the Devill, to discourage the English in their settling, I for mine owne part never saw or heard of any of these things in the Countrie: nor have I heard of any Indians that have lately beene put in feare, saving two or three, and they worse scar'd than hurt, who seeing a Black-more in the top of a tree, looking out for his way which he had lost, surmised he was Abamacho or the Devill, deeming all Devils that are blacker than themselves; and being neare to the plantation, they posted to the English, intreated their aide to conjure this Devill to his owne place, who finding him to be a poore wandring Black-more, conducted him to his Master.
These Indians being strangers to Arts and Sciences, and being unacquainted with the inventions that are common to a civilized people, are ravisht with admiration at the first view of any such sight: They tooke the first Ship they saw for a walking Iland, the Mast to be a Tree, the Saile white Clouds, and the discharging of Ordinance for Lightning and Thunder, which did much trouble them, but this thunder being over, and this moving Iland stedied with an Anchor, they manned out their cannowes to goe and picke strawberries there, but being saluted by the way with a broad side, they cried out, what much hoggery, so bigge walke, and so bigge speake, and by and by kill; which caused them to turne back, not daring to approach till they were sent for. They doe much extoll and wonder at the English for their strange Inventions, especially for a Wind-mill, which in their esteeme was little lesse than the worlds wonder, for the strangenesse of his whisking motion, and the sharpe teeth biting the corne (as they terme it) into such small peeces; they were loath at the first to come neere to his long armes, or to abide in so tottering a tabernacle, though now they dare goe any where so farre as they have an English guide. The first plow-man was counted little better than a luggler: the Indians seeing the plow teare up more ground in a day, than their Clamme shels could scrape up in a month, desired to see the workemanship of it, and viewing well the coulter and share, perceiving it to be iron, told the plow-man, hee was almost Abamocho, almost as cunning as the Devill; but the fresh supplies of new and strange objects hath lessen'd their admiration, and quickned their inventions, and desire of practising such things as they see, wherein they expresse no small ingenuitie, and dexterity of wit, being neither furthered by art, or long experience. It is thought they would soon learne any mechanicall trades, having quicke wits, understanding apprehensions, strong memories, with nimble inventions, and a quicke hand in using of the Axe or Hatchet, or such like tooles: much good might they receive from the English, and much might they benefit themselves, if they were not strongly fettered in the chaines of idlenesse; so as that they had rather starve than worke, following no employments, saving such as are sweetned with more pleasures and profit than paines or care, and this is indeede one of the greatest accusations that can be laid against them, which lies but upon the men, (the women being very industrious) but it may be hoped that good example, and good instructions may bring them to a more industrious and provident course of life. For already, as they have learned much subtiltie & cunning by bargaining with the English, so have they a little degenerated from some of their lazie customes, and shew themselves more industrious. In a word, to set them out in their best colours, they be wise in their carriage, subtle in their dealings, true in their promise, honest in defraying of their debts, though poverty constraine them to be something long before; some having died in the English debt, have left Beaver by order of Will for their satisfaction: They be constant in friendship, merrily conceited in discourse, not luxuriously abounding in youth, nor dotingly froward in old age, many of them being much civilized since the English Colonies were planted, though but little edified in Religion: They frequent often the English Churches, where they will sit soberly, though they understand not such hidden mysteries. They doe easily beleeve some of the History of the Bible, as the creation of the World, the making of man, with his fall: but come to tell them of a Saviour, with all the passages of the Gospell, and it exceeds so farre their Indian beleefe, that they will cry out (Pocatnie) id est, is it possible? yet such is their conviction of the right way, that when some English have come to their houses, victuals being offered them, forgetting to crave Gods blessing upon the creatures received, they have beene reproved by these, which formerly never knew what calling upon God meant: thus farre for their naturall disposition and qualities.
Now for the matter of government amongst them: It is the custome for their Kings to inherite, the sonne always taking the Kingdome after his fathers death. If there be no sonne, then the Queene rules; if no Queene, the next to the blood-royall; who comes in otherwise, is but counted an usurping intruder, and if his faire carriage beare him not out the better, they will soone unscepter him.
The Kings have no Lawes to command by, nor have they any annuall revenewes; yet commonly are they so either feared or beloved, that halfe their Subjects estate is at their Service, and their persons at his command; by which command he is better knowne than by any thing else. For though hee hath no Kingly Robes, to make him glorious in the view of his Subjects, nor dayly Guardes to secure his person, or Court-like attendance, nor sumptuous Pallaces; yet doe they yeeld all submissive subjection to him, accounting him their Soveraigne; going at his command, and comming at his becke, not so much as expostulating the cause, though it be in matters thwarting their wills; he being accounted a disloyall subject that will not effect what his Prince commands. Whosoever is knowne to plot Treason, or to lay violent hands on his lawfull King, is presently executed. Once a yeare he takes his progresse, accompanied with a dozen of his best Subjects to view his Countrey, to recreate himselfe, and establish good order. When he enters into any of their houses, without any more complement, he is desired to sit downe on the ground; (for they use neither stooles nor cushions) and after a little respite, all that be present, come in, and sit downe by him, one of his Seniors pronouncing an Oration gratulatory to his Majesty for his love; and the many good things they enjoy under his peacefull government. A King of large Dominions hath his Viceroyes, or inferiour Kings under him, to agitate his State-affaires, and keepe his Subjects in good decorum. Other Officers there be, but how to distinguish them by name is some-thing difficult: For their Lawes, as their evill courses come short of many other Nations, so they have not so many Lawes, though they be not without some, which they inflict upon notorious malefactors, as Traytors to their Prince, inhumane murtherers, and some say for adultery; but I cannot warrant it for a truth. For theft, as they have nothing to steale worth the life of a man, therefore they have no law to execute for trivialls; a Subject being precious in the eye of his Prince, where men are so scarce. A malefactor having deserved death, being apprehended, is brought before the King, and some other of the wisest men where they enquire out the originall of a thing; after proceeding by aggravation of circumstances, he is found guilty, and being cast by the Iury of their strict inquisition, he is condemned, and executed on this manner: The Executioner comes in, who blind-folds the party, sets him in the publike view, and braines him with a Tamahauke or Club; which done, his friends bury him. Other meanes to restraine abuses they have none, saving admonition or reproofe; no whippings, no Prisons, Stockes, Bilbowes, or the like.
Now to speake something of their Marriages, the Kings or great Powwowes, alias Conjurers, may have two or three Wives, but seldome use it. Men of ordinary Ranke, having but one; which disproves the report, that they had eight or tenne Wives apeece. When a man hath a desire to Marry, he first gets the good-will of the Maide or Widdow, after, the consent of her friends for her part; and for himselfe, if he be at his owne disposing, if the King will, the match is made, her Dowry of Wampompeage payd, the King joynes their hands with their hearts, never to part till death, unlesse Shee prove a Whore; for which they may, and some have put away their Wives, as may appeare by a story. There was one Abamoch married a Wife, whom a long time he intirely loved above her deservings, for that shee often in his absence entertained strangers, of which hee was oftentimes informed by his neighbours, but hee harbouring no sparke of jealousie, beleeved not their false informations (as he deemed them) being in a manner angry they should slander his Wife, of whose constancy hee was so strongly conceited: A long time did her whorish gloazing and Syren-like tongue, with her subtle carriage, establish her in her Husbands favour, till fresh complaints caused him to cast about, how to finde out the truth, and to prove his friends lyars, and his Wife honest, or her a Whore, and his friends true: whereupon hee pretended a long journey to visite his friends, providing all accoutraments for a fortnights journey; telling his Wife it would be so long before she could expect his returne, who outwardly sorrowed for his departure, but inwardly rejoyced, that she should enjoy the society of her old Lemman; whom she sent for with expedition, not suspecting her Husbands plot, who lay not many miles off in the Woods; who after their dishonest revelings, when they were in their midnight sleepe, approaches the Wiggwamme, enters the doore, which was neither barred nor lockt; makes a light to discover what hee little suspected; but finding his friends words to bee true, hee takes a good bastinado in his hand brought for the same purpose, dragging him by the haire from his usurped bed, so lamentably beating him, that his battered bones and bruised flesh made him a fitter subject for some skilfull Surgeon, than the lovely obiect of a lustfull strumpet; which done, hee put away his wife, exposing her to the curtesie of strangers for her maintenance, that so curtesan-like had entertained a stranger into her bosome.
Now of their worships: As it is naturall to all mortals to worship something, so doe these people, but exactly to describe to whom their worship is chiefly bent, is very difficult; they acknowledge especially two, Ketan who is their good God, to whom they sacrifice (as the ancient Heathen did to Ceres) after their garners bee full with a good croppe: upon this God likewise they invocate for faire weather, for raine in time of drought, and for the recovery of their sick; but if they doe not heare them, then they verifie the old verse, Flectere si nequeo Superos, Acharonta movebo, their Pow-wows betaking themselves to their exorcismes and necromanticke charmes, by which they bring to passe strange things, if wee may beleeve the Indians, who report of one Pissacannawa, that hee can make the water burne, the rocks move, the trees dance, metamorphize himselfe into a flaming man. But it may be objected, this is but deceptio visus. Hee will therefore doe more, for in Winter, when there is no greene leaves to be got, he will burne an old one to ashes, and putting those into the water, produce a new greene leafe, which you shall not onely see, but substantially handle and carrie away; and make of a dead snakes skinne a living snake, both to be seene, felt, and heard; this I write but upon the report of the Indians, who confidently affirme stranger things. But to make manifest, that by Gods permission, thorough the Devils helpe, their charmes are of force to produce effects of wonderment; An honest Gentle-man related a storie to mee, being an eye-witness of the same: A Pow-wow having a patient with the stumpe of some small tree runne thorough his foote, being past the cure of his ordinary Surgery, betooke himselfe to his charmes, and being willing to shew his miracle before the English stranger, hee wrapt a piece of cloth about the foote of the lame man; upon that wrapping a Beaver skinne, through which hee laying his mouth to the Beaver skinne, by his sucking charmes he brought out the stumpe, which he spat into a tray of water, returning the foote as whole as its fellow in a short time. The manner of their action in their conjuration is thus: The parties that are sick or lame being brought before them, the Pow-wow sitting downe, the rest of the Indians giving attentive audience to his imprecations and invocations, and after the violent expression of many a hideous bellowing and groaning, he makes a stop, and then all the auditors with one voice utter a short Canto; which done, the Pow-wow still proceeds in his invocations, sometimes roaring like a Beare, other times groaning like a dying horse, foaming at the mouth like a chased bore, smiting on his naked brest and thighs with such violence, as if he were madde. Thus will hee continue sometimes halfe a day, spending his lungs, sweating out his fat, and tormenting his body in this diabolicall worship; sometimes the Devill for requitall of their worship, recovers the partie, to nuzzle them up in their divellish Religion. In former time hee was wont to carrie away their wives and children, because hee would drive them to these Martens, to fetch them again to confirme their beliefe of this his much desired authoritie over them: but since the English frequented those parts, they daily fall from his colours, relinquishing their former fopperies, and acknowledge our God to be supreame. They acknowledge the power of the English-mans God, as they call, him, because they could never yet have power by their conjurations to damnifie the English either in body or goods; and besides, they say hee is a good God that sends them so many good things, so much good corne, so many cattell, temperate raines, faire seasons, which they likewise are the better for since the arrivall of the English; the times and seasons being much altered in seaven or eight yeares, freer from lightning and thunder, long droughts, suddaine and tempestuous dashes of raine, and lamentable cold Winters.
Of their Warres: Their old souldiers being swept away by the Plague, which was very rife amongst them about 14 yeares agoe, and resting themselves secure under the English protection, they doe not now practice any thing in martiall feates worth observation, saving that they make themselves Forts to flie into, if the enemies should unexpectedly assaile them. These Forts some be fortie or fiftie foote square, erected of young timber trees, ten or twelve foote high, rammed into the ground, with undermining within, the earth being cast up for their shelter against the dischargements of their enemies, having loope-holes to send out their winged messingers, which often deliver their sharpe and bloody embassies in the tawnie sides of their naked assailants, who wanting butting Rammes and battering Ordinances to command at distance, lose their lives by their too neare approachments. These use no other weapons in warre than bowes and arrowes, saving that their Captaines have long speares, on which if they returne conquerours they carrie the heads of their chiefe enemies that they slay in the wars: it being the custome to cut off their heads, hands, and feete, to beare home to their wives and children, as true tokens of their renowned victorie. When they goe to their warres, it is their custome to paint their faces with diversitie of colours, some being all black as jet, some red, some halfe red and halfe blacke, some blacke and white, others spotted with divers kinds of colours, being all disguised to their enemies, to make them more terrible to their foes, putting on likewise their rich Iewels, pendents and Wampompeage, to put them in minde they fight not onely for their Children, Wives, and lives, but likewise for their goods, lands and liberties; Being thus armed with this warlike paint, the antique warriers make towards their enemies in a disordered manner, without any souldier like marching or warlike postures, being deafe to any word of command, ignorant of falling off, or falling on, of doubling rankes or files, but let fly their winged shaftments without eyther feare or wit; their Artillery being spent, he that hath no armes to fight, findes legges to run away.
Bvt to leave their warres, and to speake of their games in which they are more delighted and better experienced, spending halfe their dayes in gaming and lazing. They have two sorts of games, one called Puim, the other Hubbub, not much unlike Cards and Dice, being no other than Lotterie. Puim is 50. or 60. small Bents of a foote long which they divide to the number of their gamesters, shuffling them first betweene the palmes of their hands; he that hath more than his fellow is so much the forwarder in his game: many other strange whimseyes be in this game; which would be too long to commit to paper; hee that is a noted gamster, hath a great hole in his eare wherein hee carries his Puims in defiance of his antagonists. Hubbub is five small Bones in a small smooth Tray, the bones bee like a Die, but something flatter, blacke on the one side and white on the other, which they place on the ground, against which violently thumping the platter, the bones mount changing colours with the windy whisking of their hands too and fro; which action in that sport they much use, smiting themselves on the breast, and thighs, crying out, Hub, Hub, Hub; they may be heard play at this game a quarter of a mile off. The bones being all blacke or white, make a double game; if three be of a colour and two of another, then they affoard but a single game; foure of a colour and one differing is nothing; so long as a man winns, he keepes the Tray: but if he loose, the next man takes it. They are so bewitched with these two games, that they will loose sometimes all they have, Beaver, Moose-skinnes, Kettles, Wampompeage, Mowhackies, Hatchets, Knives, all is confiscate by these two games. For their sports of activitie they have commonly but three or foure; as footeball, shooting, running and swimming: when they play country against country, there are rich Goales, all behung with Wampompeage, Mowhackies, Beaver skins, and blacke Otter skinnes. It would exceede the beleefe of many to relate the worth of one Goale, wherefore it shall be namelesse. Their Goales be a mile long placed on the sands, which are as even as a board; their ball is no bigger than a hand-ball, which sometimes they mount in the Aire with their naked feete, sometimes it is swayed by the multitude; sometimes also it is two dayes before they get a Goale, then they marke the ground they winne, and beginne there the next day. Before they come to this sport, they paint themselves, even as when they goe to warre, in pollicie to prevent future mischiefe, because no man should know him that moved his patience or accidentally hurt his person, taking away the occasion of studying revenge. Before they begin their armes be disordered, and hung upon some neighbouring tree, after which they make a long scrowle on the sand, over which they shake loving hands, and with laughing hearts scuffle for victorie. While the men play the boyes pipe, and the women dance and sing trophies of their husbands conquests; all being done a feast summons their departure. It is most delight to see them play, in smaller companies, when men may view their swift footemanship, their curious tossings of their Ball, their flouncing into the water, their lubberlike wrestling, having no cunning at all in that kind, one English being able to beate ten Indians at footeball. For their shooting they be most desperate marksmen for a point blancke object, and if it may bee possible Cornicum oculos configere they will doe it: such is their celerity and dexterity in Artillerie, that they can smite the swift running Hinde and nimble winged Pigeon without a standing pause or left eyed blinking; they draw their Arrowes between the fore fingers and the thumbe; their bowes be quicke, but not very strong, not killing above six or seaven score. These men shoot at one another, but with swift conveighance shunne the Arrow; this they doe to make them expert against time of warre. It hath beene often admired how they can finde their Arrowes, be the weedes as high as themselves, yet they take such perfect notice of the flight and fall that they seldome loose any. They are trained up to their bowes even from their childhood; little boyes with Bowes made of little stickes and Arrowes of great bents, will smite downe a peece of Tobacco pipe every shoot a good way off: as these Indians be good marksmen, so are they well experienced where the very life of every creature lyeth, and know where to smite him to make him dye presently. For their swimming it is almost naturall, but much perfected by continuall practise; their swimming is not after our English fashion of spread armes and legges which they hold too tiresome, but like dogges their armes before them cutting through the liquids with their right shoulder; in this manner they swimme very swift and farre, either in rough or smooth waters, sometimes for their ease lying as still as a log; sometimes they will play the dive-doppers, and come up in unexpected places. Their children likewise be taught to swimme when they are very young. For their running it is with much celeritie and continuance, yet I suppose there be many English men who being as lightly clad as they are, would outrun them for a spurt, though not able to continue it for a day or dayes, being they be very strong winded and rightly clad for a race.
For their hunting, it is to be noted that they have no swift foote Grayhounds, to let slippe at the sight of the Deere, no deepe mouthed hounds, or senting beagles, to finde out their desired prey; themselves are all this, who in that time of the yeare, when the Deere comes downe, having certaine hunting houses, in such places where they know the Deere usually doth frequent, in which they keep their randevowes, their snares and all their accoutraments for that imployment: when they get sight of a Deere, Moose or Beare, they studie how to get the wind of him, and approaching within shot, stab their marke quite through, if the bones hinder not. The chiefe thing they hunt after is Deere, Mooses, and Beares, it greeves them more to see an English man take one Deere, than a thousand Acres of land: they hunt likewise after Wolves, and wild Catts, Rackoones, Otters, Beavers, Musquashes, trading both their skinnes and flesh to the English. Besides their artillery, they have other devices to kill their game, as sometimes hedges a mile or two miles long, being a mile wide at one end, and made narrower and narrower by degrees, leaving onely a gap of sixe foote long, over against which, in the day time they lye lurking to shoot the Deere which come through that narrow gut; so many as come within the circumference of that hedge, seldome returne backe to leape over, unlesse they be forced by the chasing of some ravenous Wolfe, or sight of some accidentall passinger; in the night at the gut of this hedge, they set Deere traps, which are springes made of young trees, and smooth wrought coards; so strong as it will tosse a horse if hee be caught in it. An English Mare being strayed from her owner, and growne wild by her long sojourning in the Woods ranging up and downe with the wilde crew, stumbled into one of these traps which stopt her speed, hanging her like Mahomets tombe, betwixt earth, and heaven; the morning being come, the Indians went to looke what good successe their Venison trappes brought them, but seeing such a long scutted Deere, praunce in their Merritotter, they bade her good morrow, crying out, what cheere what cheere Englishmans squaw horse; having no better epithite than to call her a woman horse, but being loath to kill her, and as fearefull to approach neere the friscadoes of her Iron heeles, they posted to the English to tell them how the case stood or hung with their squaw horse, who unhorsed their Mare, and brought her to her former tamenesse, which since hath brought many a good foale, and performed much good service. In these traps Deeres, Mooses, Beares, Wolves, Catts, and Foxes, are often caught. For their Beavers and Otters, they have other kinde of trappes, so ponderous as is unsupportable for such creatures, the massie burthen whereof either takes them prisoners, or expells their breath from their squised bodyes. These kinde of creatures would gnaw the other kind of trappes asunder, with their sharpe teeth: these beasts are too cunning for the English, who seldome or never catch any of them, therefore we leave them to those skilfull hunters whose time is not so precious, whose experience bought-skill hath made them practicall and usefull in that particuler.
Of their fishing, in this trade they be very expert, being experienced in the knowledge of all baites, fitting sundry baites for severall fishes, and diverse seasons; being not ignorant likewise of the removall of fishes, knowing when to fish in rivers, and when at rockes, when in Baies, and when at Seas: since the English came they be furnished with English hookes and lines, before they made them of their owne hempe more curiously wrought, of stronger materials than ours, hooked with bone hookes: but lazinesse drives them to buy more than profit or commendations winnes them to make of their owne; they make likewise very strong Sturgeon nets with which they catch Sturgeons of 12. 14. and 16. some 18. foote long in the day time, in the night time they betake them to their Burtchen Cannows, in which they carry a forty fathome line, with a sharpe bearded dart, fastned at the end thereof; then lightning a blazing torch made of Burtchen rindes, they weave it too and againe by their Cannow side, which the Sturgeon much delighted with, comes to them tumbling and playing, turning up his white belly, into which they thrust their launce, his backe being impenetrable; which done they haile to the shore their strugling prize. They have often recourse unto the rockes whereupon the sea beates, in warme weather to looke out for sleepie Seales, whose oyle they much esteeme, using it for divers things. In summer they seldome fish any where but in salt, in winter in the fresh water and ponds; in frostie weather they cut round holes in the yce, about which they wil sit like so many apes, on their naked breeches upon the congealed yce, catching of Pikes, Pearches, Breames, and other sorts of fresh water fish.
Of their severall Arts and imployments, as first in dressing of all manner of skinnes, which they doe by scraping and rubbing, afterwards painting them with antique embroyderings in unchangeable colours, sometimes they take off the haire, especially if it bee not killed in season. Their bowes they make of a handsome shape, strung commonly with the sinnewes of Mooses; their arrowes are made of young Elderne, feathered with feathers of Eagles wings and tailes, headed with brasse in shape of a heart or triangle, fastned in a slender peece of wood sixe or 8 inches long, which is framed to put loose in the pithie Elderne, that is bound fast for riving: their arrowes be made in this manner because the arrow might shake from his head and be left behind for their finding, and the pile onely remaine to gaule the wounded beast. Their cordage is so even, soft, and smooth, that it lookes more like silke than hempe; their Sturgeon netts be not deepe, nor above 30. or 40. foote long, which in ebbing low waters they stake fast to the ground, where they are sure the Sturgeon will come, never looking more at it, till the next low water. Their Cannows be made either of Pine-trees, which before they were acquainted with English tooles, they burned hollow, scraping them smooth with Clam-shels and Oyster-shels, cutting their out-sides with stone-hatchets: These Boates be not above a foot and a halfe, or two feete wide, and twenty foote long. Their other Cannows be made of thinne Birch-rines, close-ribbed on the in-side with broad thinne hoopes, like the hoopes of a Tub; these are made very light, a man may carry one of them a mile, being made purposely to carry from River to River, and Bay to Bay, to shorten Land-passages. In these cockling fly-boates, wherein an English man can scarce sit without a fearefull tottering, they will venture to Sea, when an English Shallope dare not beare a knot of sayle; scudding over the overgrowne waves as fast as a winde-driven Ship, being driven by their padles; being much like battle doores; if a crosse wave (as is seldome) turne her keele up-side downe, they by swimming free her, and scramble into her againe.
Of their Language which is onely peculiar to themselves, not inclining to any of the refined tongues. Some have thought they might be of the dispersed Iewes, because some of their words be neare unto the Hebrew; but by the same rule they may conclude them to be some of the gleanings of all Nations, because they have words which sound after the Greeke, Latine, French, and other tongues: Their Language is hard to learne; few of the English being able to speake any of it, or capable of the right pronunciation, which is the chiefe grace of their tongue. They pronounce much after the Diphthongs, excluding L and R, which in our English Tongue they pronounce with as much difficulty, as most of the Dutch doe T and H, calling a Lobster a Nobstann. Every Countrey doth something differ in their Speech, even as our Northerne people doe from the Southerne, and Westerne from them; especially the Tarrenteens, whose Tongues runne so much upon R, that they wharle much in pronunciation. When any ships come neare the shore, they demand whether they be King Charles his Torries, with such a rumbling sound, as if one were beating an unbrac't Drumme. In serious discourse our Southerne Indians use seldome any short Colloquiums, but speake their minds at large, without any interjected interruptions from any: The rest giving diligent audience to his utterance; which done, some or other returnes him as long an answere, they love not to speake multa sed multum, seldome are their words, and their deeds strangers. According to the matter in discourse, so are their acting gestures in their expressions. One of the English Preachers in a speciall good intent of doing good to their soules, hath spent much time in attaining to their Language, wherein he is so good a proficient, that he can speake to their understanding, and they to his; much loving and respecting him for his love and counsell. It is hoped that he may be an instrument of good amongst them. They love any man that can utter his minde in their words, yet are they not a little proud that they can speake the English tongue, using it as much as their owne, when they meete with such as can understand it, puzling stranger Indians, which sometimes visite them from more remote places, with an unheard language.
Although the Indians be of lusty and healthfull bodies, not experimentally knowing the Catalogue of those health-wasting diseases which are incident to other Countries, as Feavers, Pleurisies, Callentures, Agues, Obstructions, Consumptions, Subfumigations, Convulsions, Apoplexies, Dropsies, Gouts, Stones, Tooth-aches, Pox, Measels, or the like; but spinne out the thread of their dayes to a faire length, numbering three-score, foure-score, some a hundred yeares, before the worlds universall summoner cite them to the craving Grave: But the date of their life expired, and Deaths arestment seazing upon them, all hope of recovery being past, then to behold and heare their throbbing sobs and deepe-fetcht sighes, their griefe-wrung hands, and teare-bedewed cheekes, their dolefull cries, would draw teares from Adamantine eyes, that be but spectators of their mournefull Obsequies. The glut of their griefe being past, they commit the corpes of their diceased friends to the ground, over whose grave is for a long time spent many a briny teare, deepe groane, and Irish-like howlings, continuing annuall mournings with a blacke stiffe paint on their faces: These are the Mourners without hope, yet doe they hold the immortality of the never-dying soule, that it shall passe to the South-west Elysium, concerning which their Indian faith jumps much with the Turkish Alchoran, holding it to be a kinde of Paradise, wherein they shall everlastingly abide, solacing themselves in odoriferous Gardens, fruitfull Corne-fields, greene Medows, bathing their tawny hides in the coole streames of pleasant Rivers, and shelter themselves from heate and cold in the sumptuous Pallaces framed by the skill of Natures curious contrivement; concluding that neither care nor paine shall molest them, but that Natures bounty will administer all things with a voluntary contribution from the overflowing store-house of their Elyzian Hospitall, at the portall whereof they say, lies a great Dogge, whose churlish snarlings deny a Pax intrantibus, to unworthy intruders: Wherefore it is their custome, to bury with them their Bows and Arrows, and good store of their Wampompeage and Mowhackies; the one to affright that affronting Cerberus, the other to purchase more immense prerogatiues in their Paradise. For their enemies and loose livers, whom they account unworthy of this imaginary happines, they say, that they passe to the infernall dwellings of Abamocho, to be tortured according to the fictions of the ancient Heathen.
To satisfie the curious eye of women-readers, who otherwise might thinke their sex forgotten, or not worthy a record, let them peruse these few lines, wherein they may see their owne happinesse, if weighed in the womans ballance of these ruder Indians, who scorne the tuterings of their wives, or to admit them as their equals, though their qualities and industrious deservings may justly claime the preheminence, and command better usage and more conjugall esteeme, their persons and features being every way correspondent, their qualifications more excellent, being more loving, pittifull, and modest, milde, provident, and laborious than their lazie husbands. Their employments be many: First their building of houses, whose frames are formed like our garden-arbours, something more round, very strong and handsome, covered with close-wrought mats of their owne weaving, which deny entrance to any drop of raine, though it come both fierce and long, neither can the piercing North winde finde a crannie, through which he can conveigh his cooling breath, they be warmer than our English houses; at the top is a square hole for the smoakes evacuation, which in rainy weather is covered with a pluver; these bee such smoakie dwellings, that when there is good fires, they are not able to stand upright, but lie all along under the smoake, never using any stooles or chaires, it being as rare to see an Indian sit on a stoole at home, as it is strange to see an English man sit on his heeles abroad. Their houses are smaller in the Summer, when their families be dispersed, by reason of heate and occasions. In Winter they make some fiftie or threescore foote long, fortie or fiftie men being inmates under one roofe; and as is their husbands occasion these poore tectonists are often troubled like snailes, to carrie their houses on their backs sometime to fishing-places, other times to hunting-places, after that to a planting place, where it abides the longest: an other work is their planting of corne, wherein they exceede our English husband-men, keeping it so cleare with their Clamme shell-hooes, as if it were a garden rather than a corne-field, not suffering a choaking weede to advance his audacious head above their infant corne, or an undermining worme to spoile his spurnes. Their corne being ripe, they gather it, and drying it hard in the Sunne, conveigh it to their barnes, which be great holes digged in the ground in forme of a brasse pot, seeled with rinds of trees, wherein they put their corne, covering it from the inquisitive search of their gurmandizing husbands, who would eate up both their allowed portion, and reserved feede, if they knew where to finde it. But our hogges having found a way to unhindge their barne doores, and robbe their garners, they are glad to implore their husbands helpe to roule the bodies of trees over their holes, to prevent those pioners, whose theeverie they as much hate as their flesh. An other of their employments is their Summer processions to get Lobsters for their husbands, wherewith they baite their hookes when they goe a fishing for Basse or Codfish. This is an every dayes walke, be the weather cold or hot, the waters rough or calme, they must dive sometimes over head and eares for a Lobster, which often shakes them by their hands with a churlish nippe, and bids them adiew. The tide being spent, they trudge home two or three miles, with a hundred weight of Lobsters at their backs, and if none, a hundred scoules meete them at home, and a hungry belly for two dayes after. Their husbands having caught any fish, they bring it in their boates as farre as they can by water, and there leave it; as it was their care to catch it, so it must be their wives paines to fetch it home, or fast: which done, they must dresse it and cooke it, dish it, and present it, see it eaten over their shoulders; and their loggerships having filled their paunches, their sweete lullabies scramble for their scrappes. In the Summer these Indian women when Lobsters be in their plenty and prime, they drie them to keepe for Winter, erecting scaffolds in the hot sun-shine, making fires likewise underneath them, by whose smoake the flies are expelled, till the substance remain hard and drie. In this manner they drie Basse and other fishes without salt, cutting them very thinne to dry suddainely, before the flies spoile them, or the raine moist them, having a speciall care to hang them in their smoakie houses, in the night and dankish weather.
In Summer they gather flagges, of which they make Matts for houses, and Hempe and Rushes, with dying stuffe of which they make curious baskets with intermixed colours and portractures of antique Imagerie: these baskets be of all sizes from a quart to a quarter, in which they carry their luggage. In winter time they are their husbands Caterers, trudging to the Clamm bankes for their belly timber, and their Porters to lugge home their Venison which their lazinesse exposes to the Woolves till they impose it upon their wives shoulders. They likewise sew their husbands shooes, and weave coates of Turkie feathers, besides all their ordinary household drudgerie which daily lies upon them, so that a bigge bellie hinders no businesse, nor a childebirth takes much time, but the young Infant being greased and sooted, wrapt in a Beaver skin, bound to his good behaviour with his feete up to his bumme, upon a board two foote long and one foot broade, his face exposed to all nipping weather; this little Pappouse travells about with his bare footed mother to paddle in the Icie Clammbankes after three or foure dayes of age have sealed his passeboard and his mothers recoverie. For their carriage it is very civill, smiles being the greatest grace of their mirth; their musick is lullabies to quiet their children, who generally are as quiet as if they had neither spleene or lungs. To heare one of these Indians unseene, a good eare might easily mistake their untaught voyce for the warbling of a well tuned instrument. Such command have they of their voices. These womens modesty drives them to weare more cloathes than their men, having alwayes a coate of cloath or skinnes wrapt like a blanket about their loynes, reaching downe to their hammes which they never put off in company. If a husband have a minde to sell his wives Beaver petticote, as sometimes he doth, shee will not put it off untill shee have another to put on: commendable is their milde carriage and obedience to their husbands, notwithstanding all this their customarie churlishnesse and savage inhumanitie, not seeming to delight in frownes or offering to word it with their lords, not presuming to proclaime their female superiority to the usurping of the least title of their husbands charter, but rest themselves content under their helplesse condition, counting it the womans portion: since the English arrivall comparison hath made them miserable, for seeing the kind usage of the English to their wives, they doe as much condemne their husbands for unkindnesse, and commend the English for their love. As their husbands commending themselves for their wit in keeping their wives industrious, doe condemne the English for their folly in spoyling good working creatures. These women resort often to the English houses, where pares cum paribus congregatæ, in Sex I meane, they do somewhat ease their miserie by complaining and seldome part without a releefe: If her husband come to seeke for his Squaw and beginne to bluster, the English woman betakes her to her armes which are the warlike Ladle, and the scalding liquors, threatning blistering to the naked runnaway, who is soone expelled by such liquid comminations. In a word to conclude this womans historie, their love to the English hath deserved no small esteeme, ever presenting them some thing that is either rare or desired, as Strawberries, Hurtleberries, Rasberries, Gooseberries, Cherries, Plummes, Fish, and other such gifts as their poore treasury yeelds them. But now it may be, that this relation of the churlish and inhumane behaviour of these ruder Indians towards their patient wives, may confirme some in the beliefe of an aspersion, which I have often heard men cast upon the English there, as if they should learne of the Indians to use their wives in the like manner, and to bring them to the same subjection, as to sit on the lower hand, and to carrie water, and the like drudgerie: but if my owne experience may out-ballance an ill-grounded scandalous rumour, I doe assure you, upon my credit and reputation, that there is no such matter, but the women finde there as much love, respect, and ease, as here in old England. I will not deny, but that some poore people may carrie their owne water, and doe not the poorer sort in England doe the same, witnesse your London Tankerd-bearers, and your countrie-cottagers? But this may well be knowne to be nothing, but the rancorous venome of some that beare no good will to the plantation. For what neede they carrie water, seeing every one hath a Spring at his doore, or the Sea by his house? Thus much for the satisfaction of women, touching this entrenchment upon their prerogative, as also concerning the relation of these Indian Squawes.
Because many have desired to heare some of the Natives Language, I have here inserted a small Nomenclator, with the Names of their chiefe Kings, Rivers, Moneths, and dayes, whereby such as have in-sight into the Tongues, may know to what Language it is most inclining; and such as desire it as an unknowne Language onely, may reape delight, if they can get no profit.
|Au so hau nauc hoc||Lobstar|
|Assawog||will you play|
|A saw upp||to morrow|
|Ausomma petuc quanocke||give me some bread|
|Appepes naw aug||when I see it I will tell you my minde|
|Anno ke nugge||a sieve|
|An nu ocke||a bed|
|Autchu wompocke||to day|
|Ascom quom pauputchim||thankes be given to God.|
|Chesco kean||you lye|
|Commouton kean||you steale|
|Chicka chava||osculari podicem|
|Cossaquot||bow and arrowes|
|Cotattup||I drinke to you|
|Coetop||will you smoake Tobaco|
|Connucke semmona||It is almost night|
|Connu||good night to you|
|Cowompaum sin||God morrow|
|Dottaguck||the backe bone|
|Docke taugh he necke||what is your name|
|Et chossucke||a knife|
|Eat chumnis||Indian corne|
|Eans causuacke||4 fathomes|
|Easu tommoc quocke||halfe a skin of Beaver|
|Epimetsis||much good may your meate doe you|
|F is not used.|
|Gettoquasit||the great toe|
|Genehuncke||the fore finger|
|Gegnewaw og||let me see|
|Hub hub hub||come come come|
|Haddo quo dunna moquonash||where did you buy that|
|Haddogoe weage||who lives here|
|Icattop||faint with hunger|
|Keisseanchacke||backe of the hand|
|Ksitta||It hurts me|
|Kawkenog wampompeage||let me see money|
|Kagmatcheu||will you eate meate|
|Kettotanese||lend me monie|
|L is not used.|
|Matchet||It is naught|
|Mamanock||the eye brows|
|Mettosowset||the little toe|
|Metosaunige||the little finger|
|Mocossa||the black of the naile|
|Monacus||bowes and arrowes|
|Mawcus sinnus||a paire of shooes|
|Mutchecu||a very poore man|
|Matchet wequon||very blunt|
|Matta ka tau caushana||will you not trade|
|Nicke squaw||a maide|
|Noenaset||the third toe|
|Niccone||a blacke bird|
|Naw naunidge||the middle finger|
|Nobpaw nocke||the breast bone|
|Noeicantop||how doe you|
|Noei pauketan||by and by kill|
|Nenetah ha||Ile fight with you|
|Noei comquocke||a codfish|
|No ottut||a great journie|
|Necautauh han||no such matter|
|Nau mau nais||my sonne|
|No einshom||give me corne|
|Nenimma nequitta ta auchu||give me a span of any thing.|
|Nees nis ca su acke||2 fathome|
|Notchumoi||a little strong|
|Negacawgh hi||lend me|
|Noe winyah||come in|
|Naut seam||much wearie|
|Noe wammaw ause||I love you|
|Net noe whaw missu||a man of a middle stature|
|Occone||a Deere skinne|
|Occasu||halfe a quarter|
|Onquagh saw au||you are cunning|
|Pow-wow||a conjurer or wizard|
|Petta sinna||give me a pipe of Tobaco|
|Ponesanto||make a fire|
|Pausochu||a little journie|
|Pausawniscosu||halfe a fathome|
|Pesissu||a little man|
|Pauseptssoi||the sunne is rising|
|Pouckshaa||it is broken|
|Poussu||a big bellied woman|
|Quequas nummos||what cheare|
|Quequas nim||it is almost day|
|Quog quosh||make haste|
|R is never used.|
|Squitta||a fire sparke|
|Seasicke||a rattle snake|
|Supskinge||the wrist bones|
|Socottocanus||the breast bone|
|Siccaw quant||the hammes|
|Sis sau causke||the shinnes|
|Suckis suacke||a Clam|
|Soekepup||he will bite|
|Swanscaw suacko||3 fathomes|
|Succomme||I will eate you|
|Sasketupe||a great man|
|Taubut nean hee||Thankes heartily|
|Tap in||goe in|
|Titta||I cannot tell|
|Thaw||the calfe of the leg|
|Tahaseat||the sole of the foote|
|Tasseche quonunck||the insteppe|
|Tonokete naum||whither goe you|
|Tannissin may||which is the way|
|Tunketappin||where live you|
|Tonocco wam||where have you bin|
|Tasis||a paire of stockings|
|Tom maushew||a husband|
|Titto kean Icatoquam||doe you nod and sleepe|
|Tau kequam||very heavie|
|Taub coi||it is very cold|
|Vkepemanous||the breast bone|
|Vnkesheto||will you trucke|
|Whoe nuncke||a ditch|
|Wa aoy||the sunne is downe|
|Waacoh||the day breakes|
|Wekemawquot||it smells sweete|
|Weneikinne||it is very handsome|
|Whissu hochuck||the kettle boyleth|
|Waawnew||you have lost your way|
|Woenaunta||it is a warme summer|
|Wawmauseu||an honest man|
|Weneicu||a rich man|
|Weitagcone||a cleere day|
|X never used|
|Abonetta ta sucquanocquock||5 sleepes|
|Nequitta ta sucqunnocquock||6 sleepes|
|Enotta ta sucqunnocquock||7 sleepes|
|Soesicta sucqunnocquock||8 sleepes|
|Pausaquoquin sucqunnocquock||9 sleepes|
|Pawquo qunnocquock||10 sleepes|
|A quit-appause||1 moneths|
|Yoaw appause||4 moneths|
|Abonna appause||5 moneths|
|Nequit appause||6 moneths|
|Enotta appause||7 moneths|
|Sonaske appause||8 moneths|
|Assaquoquin appause||9 moneths|
|Piocke appause||10 moneths|
|Appona quit appause||11 moneths|
|Appon nees appause||12 moneths|
|Appon nis appause||13 moneths|
|Appon yoaw appause||14 moneths|
|Nap nappona appause||15 moneths|
|Nap napocquint appause||16 moneths|
|Nap nap enotta appause||17 moneths|
|Napsoe sicke appause||18 moneths|
|Nappawsoquoquin appause||19 moneths|
|Neesnischicke appause||20 moneths|
|Neesnischicke appon a quit appause||21 moneths|
|Neesnischicke apponees appause||22 moneths|
|Neesnischick apponis appause||23 moneths|
|Neesnischick appo yoaw appause||24 moneths|
|Woenohaquahham||Anglice King Iohn|
|Montowompate||Anglice King Iames|
|Osomeagen||Sagamore of the Pequants|
|Nassawwhonan||Two Sagamores of Nipust.|
|Pissacannua||A Sagamore and most noted Nigromancer.|
|Sagamores to the East and North-east, bearing rule amongst the Churchers and Tarrenteens.|
Variable capitalisations and hyphenations in the original have been retained.
Unusual and multiple spellings in the original have been retained.
The format of chapter headings has been regularised.
All corrections noted in the Errata, excepting one, have been applied.
Errata exception: 'p. 45. l. 29. house, horse.' Page 45 contains neither 'house' nor 'horse.'
Table of Contents, ',' changed to '.,' "Part. 1. Chap. 1."
Table of Contents, 'North-wards' changed to 'North-ward,' "or Indians North-ward."
Table of Contents, '&c.' added, "Of their Mariages, &c."
Errata, all references normalised to the form "p. nn. l. nn."
Errata, all corrections terminated with a full stop.
Errata, 'Squnotersquashes' changed to 'Squonterquashes,' "for Squonterquashes reade Isquoutersquashes."
Errata, 'he' changed to 'hee,' "p. 15. l. 10. hee, they."
Errata, 'spoiling' changed to 'spoyling,' "l. 28. spoyling, spoile."
Errata, 'humiliters' changed to 'Humiliteers,' "p. 27. l. 21. Humiliteers, Humilitees."
Errata, 'breach' changed to 'brech,' "l. 36. brech, Beach."
Errata, '20' changed to '24,' "p. 70. l. 24. Warme, worme."
Page 2, comma following 'Cape' struck, "Plimmouth, Cape Ann, Salem,"
Page 3, 'trance' changed to 'entrance,' "entrance, and that not very broad,"
Page 4, 'bittter' changed to 'bitter,' "with deepe Snowes and bitter Frost,"
Page 4, 'winds' changed to 'windes,' "few North-west windes,"
Page 5, 'secōd' changed to 'second,' "A second passage,"
Page 6, 'Cod' italicised, "shaping their course for Cape Cod,"
Page 6, 'beleife' changed to 'beliefe,' "startle beliefe of some,"
Page 10, 'Tres' changed to 'Trees,' "where the Trees grow thinne,"
Page 12, 'wch' changed to 'which,' "which hath one house in"
Page 13, 'Marjoran' changed to 'Marjoram,' "as sweet Marjoram,"
Page 14, comma struck after 'Iron,' "reported that there is Iron stone;"
Page 24, 'it' capitalised to 'It,' "It is observed that they have"
Page 25, 'peice' changed to 'peece,' "five shillings a peece,"
Page 25, 'vnder' changed to 'Vnder,' "egresse being Vnder water"
Page 26, 'affoords' changed to 'affords,' "as the Countrey affords:"
Page 29, 'seggy' changed to 'sedgy,' "by reedy and sedgy places,"
Page 32, 'Hhving' changed to 'Having,' "Having done with these,"
Page 32, second 'and' struck, "and is likely to prove"
Page 33, colon changed to comma, "and one wide, and a foot thicke;"
Page 36, sidenote 'Wessagustus' changed to 'Wessaguscus.'
Page 36, 'Wessagutus' changed to 'Wessaguscus,' "which is called Wessaguscus an Indian"
Page 36, 'aud' changed to 'and,' "having Acornes and Clamms"
Page 37, 'Alewiues' changed to 'Alewives,' "although there come no Alewives,"
Page 41, 'bound' changed to 'abound,' "abound with Woods, and Water,"
Page 42, 'weire' changed to 'wayre,' "without any wayre at all,"
Page 43, 'Sangus' changed to 'Saugus,' "Northeast from Saugus lyeth Salem,"
Page 44, 'ravenons' changed to 'ravenous,' "are the ravenous Woolves,"
Page 45, 'weed' changed to 'weede,' "this weede is ranck poyson,"
Page 45, 'bittē' changed to 'bitten,' "whosoever is bitten by"
Page 45, 'soundy' changed to 'soundly,' "will sleepe so soundly that I"
Page 47, 'yere' changed to 'yeare,' "first yeare, never swell the second:"
Page 49, 'fish' added, "fish or flesh for their labour"
Page 49, 'affoords' changed to 'affords,' "sure Middlesex affords London no better"
Page 49, second 'and' struck, "and what to carry"
Page 51, 'wel' changed to 'well,' "well accommodated with servants."
Page 51, 'iudustrious' changed to 'industrious,' "hath an industrious family,"
Page 52, 'hous-hold-stuffe' changed to 'household-stuffe,' "All manner of household-stuffe"
Page 52, 'ann' changed to 'and,' "both broad and pitching-axes."
Page 52, 'vtensils' changed to 'Vtensils,' "all Vtensils for the Sea,"
Page 53, second 'is' struck, "There is as much freedome"
Page 54, second 'too' struck, "too curious objections,"
Page 55, 'two' changed to 'too,' "would it be too little"
Page 55, 'likly' changed to 'likely,' "never likely to remove"
Page 56, 'Narraganssts' changed to 'Narragansets,' "called Pequants, and Narragansets;"
Page 58, 'wherupon' changed to 'whereupon,' "whereupon they led him bound"
Page 58, 'thy' changed to 'they,' "under which they march"
Page 59, 'inhabibiting' changed to 'inhabiting,' "A Sagamore inhabiting neere"
Page 59, semi-colon changed to full stop, "or loose the saddle. His"
Page 62, 'thē' changed to 'them,' "they make them of greene,"
Page 63, 'bewray' changed to 'betray,' "or gray haire betray their age"
Page 67, comma inserted after 'trenchers,' "without either trenchers, napkins, or knives,"
Page 67, 'Squoutersquashes' changed to 'Isquoutersquashes,' "Isquoutersquashes is their best bread,"
Page 68, 'thē' changed to 'them,' "feed them little better"
Page 68, 'Sūmer' changed to 'Summer,' "In Summer they must"
Page 68, 'with' changed to 'With,' "With this strange viaticum"
Page 71, 'Naragansets' changed to 'Narragansets,' "from the Narragansets who traded"
Page 71, 'Beere' changed to 'Deere,' "haunch of a fat Deere,"
Page 72, 'wel' changed to 'well,' "who are as well acquainted with"
Page 72, 'atachment' changed to 'attachment,' "fearing attachment, conviction,"
Page 73, 'Sagomore' changed to 'Sagamore,' "An Indian Sagamore once"
Page 74, 'angrer' changed to 'anger,' "yet anger-boyling blood"
Page 74, 'lamentables' changed to 'lamentable,' "the lamentable effects of rage;"
Page 76, 'enformed' changed to 'informed,' "fully informed of their intent"
Page 77, 'Black-moore' changed to 'Black-more,' "poore wandring Black-more,"
Page 83, 'somtimes' changed to 'sometimes,' "sometimes roaring like a Beare,"
Page 84, 'seven' changed to 'seaven,' "altered in seaven or eight yeares,"
Page 87, 'winked' changed to 'winged,' "and nimble winged Pigeon"
Page 87, 'markemen' changed to 'marksmen,' "as these Indians be good marksmen,"
Page 87, 'yong' changed to 'young,' "when they are very young."
Page 88, 'yeere' changed to 'yeare,' "in that time of the yeare,"
Page 88, 'Musquashies' changed to 'Musquashes,' "Otters, Beavers, Musquashes,"
Page 88, 'accidentatall' changed to 'accidentall,' "of some accidentall passinger;"
Page 89, comma following '14' changed to full stop, "12. 14. and 16. some 18. foote long"
Page 90, 'Burcthen' changed to 'Burtchen,' "made of Burtchen rindes,"
Page 90, 'weater' changed to 'weather,' "in frostie weather"
Page 91, 'exclnding' changed to 'excluding,' "excluding L and R,"
Page 92, 'doe' changed to 'doth,' "doth something differ in their"
Page 92, 'threed' changed to 'thread,' "the thread of their dayes"
Page 93, 'whō' changed to 'whom,' "whom they account unworthy"
Page 96, 'hubands' changed to 'husbands,' "they are their husbands Caterers,"
Page 96, comma struck after 'Beaver,' "his wives Beaver petticote,"
Page 97, 'salvage' changed to 'savage,' "and savage inhumanitie,"
Nomenclator C, 'drinke' changed to 'smoake,' "Coetop will you smoake Tobaco"
Nomenclator M, 'brees' changed to 'brows,' "Mamanock the eye brows"
Nomenclator N, 'Taunais' changed to 'Naunais,' "Naunais my daughter"
Nomenclator O, 'Vnquagh' changed to 'Onquagh,' "Onquagh saw au you are cunning"
Nomenclator Q, full stop struck after 'Quenops,' "Quenops be quiet"
Nomenclator S, 'snmmer' changed to 'summer,' "Sequan the summer"
Nomenclator Y, all entries regularised to begin with a capital letter.
Nomenclator Moneths, '16' changed to '19,' "Nappawsoquoquin appause 19 moneths"
Nomenclator Moneths, 'Neefnishicke' changed to 'Neesnischicke,' "Neesnischicke appon a quit appause 21 moneths"
Nomenclator Sagamores, 'Sagamoes' changed to 'Sagamores,' "Two Sagamores of Nipust."
Nomenclator Sagamores, full stop struck after 'Nattonanite.'