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Title: The Botanical Magazine, Vol. 09

Author: William Curtis

Release date: December 22, 2011 [eBook #38382]

Language: English

Credits: Produced by Jason Isbell and the Online Distributed
Proofreading Team at


Botanical Magazine;


Flower-Garden Displayed:


The most Ornamental Foreign Plants, cultivated in the Open Ground, the Greenhouse, and the Stove, are accurately represented in their natural Colours.


Their Names, Class, Order, Generic and Specific Characters, according to the celebrated Linnæus; their Places of Growth, and Times of Flowering:




Intended for the Use of such Ladies, Gentlemen, and Gardeners, as wish to become scientifically acquainted with the Plants they cultivate.


Author of the Flora Londinensis.


"But softer tasks divide Florella's hours;
"To watch the buds just op'ning on the day;
"With welcome shade to screen the languid flowers,
"That sicken in the summer's parching ray.
"Oft will she stoop amidst her evening walk,
"With tender hand each bruised plant to rear;
"To bind the drooping lily's broken stalk,
"And nurse the blossoms of the infant year."

Mrs. Barbauld.

For W. CURTIS, N^o 3, St. George's Crescent, Black-Friars-Road;
And Sold by the principal Booksellers in Great-Britain and Ireland.


Convolvulus Linearis. Narrow-Leaved Convolvulus.

Class and Order.

Pentandria Monogynia.

Generic Character.

Corolla campanulata, plicata. Stigmata 2. Caps. 2-locularis: loculis dispermis.

Specific Character.

CONVOLVULUS linearis caulibus erectis fruticosis, foliis linearibus acutis piloso-sericeis, floribus terminalibus umbellato-paniculatis, calycibus pilosis.


The plant here represented has long been cultivated as a greenhouse plant in this country under the name of Convolvulus Cantabrica, but it differs so essentially from that plant, as figured and described by Prof. Jacquin in his Flora Austr. and accords so little with the other species described by Linnæus, that we have been induced to regard it as a perfectly distinct species; in most points it agrees with Convolvulus Cneorum, but differs in having leaves much narrower, more pointed, and less silky.

It strikes most readily from cuttings, is a hardy greenhouse plant, and flowers during most of the Summer, qualities which many of the modern and more shewy greenhouse plants cannot boast.

The precise time of its introduction here, together with its particular place of growth, we have not as yet been able satisfactorily to ascertain.


Amaryllis Lutea. Yellow Amaryllis.

Class and Order.

Hexandria Monogynia.

Generic Character.

Corolla hexapetaloidea, irregularis. Filamenta fauci tubi inserta, declinata, inæqualia proportione vel directione. Linn. Fil.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

AMARYLLIS lutea spatha indivisa obtusa, flore sessili, corolla campanulata erecta basi breve tubulosa, staminibus erectis, alternis brevioribus. Linn. Fil. Ait. Kew. v. 21. p. 415.

COLCHICUM luteum majus. Bauh. Pin. p. 69.

NARCISSUS autumnalis major. The greater Autumne or Winter Daffodill. Park. Parad. p. 77. 75. f. 7.


The Amaryllis lutea is a hardy perennial bulbous plant, a native of Spain, and other of the more Southern parts of Europe, and was cultivated in our Gardens in the time of Gerard, and Parkinson.

Flora, who commences her revolutionary reign, by enlivening the flower border with the Spring Crocus, and its numerous varieties, terminates it with flowers equally pleasing, and of similar hues; thus we have the present plant, the Saffron Crocus, and the Colchicum, flowering nearly at the same time, from the end of September, through October, and sometimes part of November.

Similar as the Amaryllis is to the yellow Spring Crocus, in the colour, and form of its flowers, it differs obviously in the number of its stamina, the breadth of its leaves, and the size and colour of its root.

Authors describe it as varying in size, in the breadth of its leaves, the height of its flowers, and multiplication of the Corolla.

The Dutch Florists export it under the title of yellow Colchicum, following the name of some of the old writers.

It succeeds best in a soil moderately moist, in which it increases considerably by offsets, and flowers to the most advantage when the roots have remained for some few years undisturbed in the same spot.


Capparis Spinosa. The Caper Shrub.

Class and Order.

Polyandria Monogynia.

Generic Character.

Cal. 4-phyllus, coriaceus. Petala 4. Stamina longa. Bacca corticosa, unilocularis, pedunculata.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

CAPPARIS spinosa pedunculis unifloris solitariis, stipulis spinosis, foliis annuis, capsulis ovalibus. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 487. Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 221.

CAPPARIS spinosa fructu minore, folio rotundo. Bauh. Pin. p. 480.


We are happy in having it in our power to lay before our readers a representation of the Caper shrub, whose blossoms are rarely seen in this country, though its flower-buds are in very general use as a pickle; indeed, so great is their consumption, that they form a very considerable article of commerce.

The plant grows spontaneously in the more southern parts of Europe, especially in Italy and the Levant; in its wild state it forms a shrub of low growth, having numerous, spreading, spinous branches, somewhat thickly beset with smooth roundish leaves; the blossoms grow alternately on the branches, and when the plant begins to flower, one opens generally every other morning, but so delicate are its parts, that on a hot summer's day it fades before noon: the petals are white; the filaments, which are extremely numerous, are white below, and of a rich purple above; in these the beauty of the flower chiefly consists, as in the pistillum or pointal does its great singularity; at first view, one would be led to conclude, that the part so conspicuous in the centre of the flower was the style terminated by the stigma in the usual way; but if we trace this part of the flower to a more advanced state, we shall perceive, that what we took for the style, was merely an elongation of the flower-stalk, and what we took for the stigma, was in reality the germen placed on it, crowned with a minute stigma, without any intervening style; this germen swells, turns downward, and ultimately becomes the seed-vessel, rarely ripening in this country.

Miller observes, that these plants are with difficulty preserved in England, for they delight to grow in crevices of rocks, and the joints of old walls and ruins, and always thrive best in an horizontal position; so that when they are planted either in pots or the full ground, they rarely thrive, though they may be kept alive for many years.

It flowers in May and June, and is usually raised from seeds.

Mr. Aiton regards it as a greenhouse plant, and informs us that it was cultivated by Gerard in 1596.


Passerina Grandiflora. Great-Flowered Passerina.

Class and Order.

Octandria Monogynia.

Generic Character.

Cal. 0. Cor. 4-fida. Stamina tubo imposita. Sem. 1. corticatum.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

PASSERINA grandiflora glaberrima, foliis oblongis acutis concavis extrinsecus rugosis, floribus terminalibus sessilibus solitariis. Linn. Suppl. Pl. p. 226.


The Passerina here figured, distinguished from all the other known species by the largeness of its flowers, is described in the Suppl. Pl. of the younger Linnæus, but not enumerated in the Hortus Kewensis of Mr. Aiton: it is indeed a plant recently introduced to this country from the Cape; we saw it last Summer in great perfection, at Messrs. Lee and Kennedy's, Hammersmith; it forms a small neat shrub, somewhat like the Phylica ericoides, is a hardy greenhouse plant, flowering in May and June, and increased without difficulty from cuttings.


Catananche Cærulea. Blue Catananche.

Class and Order.

Syngenesia Polygamia Æqualis.

Generic Character.

Recept. paleaceum. Cal. imbricatus. Pappus aristatus, caliculo 5 seto.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

CATANANCHE cærulea squamis calicis inferioribus ovatis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 722. Ait. Kew. v. 3. p. 134.

CHONDRILLA cærulea cyani capitulo. Bauh. Pin. 130.


The Catananche cærulea is a native of the South of France, where it grows in hilly situations that are stony: it is a perennial herbaceous plant, moderately hardy, and has long been cultivated in our gardens, Mr. Aiton says, by Parkinson in 1640: Miller, who treats of it in his Dictionary, describes it as a pretty ornament to a garden, and one that is easily kept within bounds; there is certainly much about it to excite our admiration, more especially in the structure of the calyx, and the florets: the flowers, which are of a pale blue colour with a dark eye, make their appearance from July to October.

It is propagated by seeds, which Miller recommends to be sown in the Spring; the seedlings should be transplanted in the Autumn, into the borders where they are to remain; it may also be increased by slips: the plant requires a situation moderately dry, and is most productive of flowers and seeds when it stands long in one spot.

In the 14th edit. of the Systema Vegetab. of Prof. Murray, mention is made of a variety with double flowers, which we believe has not been seen in this country.


Amaryllis Sarniensis. Guernsey Amaryllis.

Class and Order.

Hexandria Monogynia.

Generic Character.

Cor. hexapetaloidea irregularis. Filamenta fauci tubi inserta declinata inæqualia proportione vel directione. Linn. fil. Ait. Kew. p. 415.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

AMARYLLIS sarniensis, petalis linearibus planis, staminibus pistilloque rectiusculis corolla longioribus, stigmatibus partitis revolutis. Linn. fil. Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 420. Thunb. Jap. p. 131.

LILIUM sarniense. Dougl. Monogr. t. 1, 2.

NARCISSUS japonicus rutilo flore. Corn. Canad. Kæmpf. Amæn. p. 872.


The Guernsey Lily, as it is most commonly called, is originally a native of Japan; where it is described to grow by Kæmpfer and Thunberg, who visited that island, the latter says on the hills about Nagasaki, from thence roots are said to have been introduced to the garden of Johannes Morinus at Paris, in which it flowered, October 1634: its introduction to this country, which was subsequent to that date, as Dr. Douglass relates in his Monographia on this plant, "happened by a very singular melancholy accident, of which Dr. Morison, who no doubt had it from some persons then residing in Guernsey, gives us the following account: A Dutch or English ship, it is uncertain which, coming from Japan, with some of the roots of this flower on board, was cast away on the island of Guernsey; the roots were thrown upon a sandy shore, and so by the force of the winds and waves, were soon buried in sand; there they remained for some years, and afterwards, to the great surprise and admiration of the inhabitants, the flowers appeared in all their pomp and beauty." Some of these soon made their appearance in this country: Mr. Aiton relates, that the plant was cultivated here in 1659, by General Lambert, at Wimbledon.

Fatal as Guernsey proved to the unfortunate mariners, it afforded the roots of our plant a soil and situation apparently congenial to their own; in that island they have flourished ever since, there they are propagated in the open borders of the flower-garden with the least possible trouble, flowering most readily, but we believe never producing any ripe seeds; from thence most of the roots which flower with the curious here, are yearly imported in the Autumn.

In Guernsey, the cold of the Winter is far less intense than with us; many of those plants which we keep in our greenhouses, stand with them in the open ground; the superior mildness of the climate enables them to cultivate this plant with more success than we can do, even perhaps with all the expence and trouble to which we might subject ourselves; to such, however, whose situations may be favourable, and who may be fond of making experiments, we recommend the perusal of Fairchild's Directions, a practical Gardener of great ingenuity, and who appears to have had much experience in the culture of this plant[A].

It is usual to plant the imported bulbs in pots of sand, or light loam, as soon as they arrive, and place them in the parlour window, or greenhouse; they blossom in September and October; the flowers, which continue about a month in perfection, are inodorous, but make up for that deficiency by the superior splendour of their colours: Dr. Douglass thus describes them, each flower when in its prime looks like a fine gold tissue wrought on a rose-coloured ground, but when it begins to fade and decay, it looks more like a silver tissue, or what they call a pink colour: when we look upon the flower in full sun-shine, each leaf appears to be studded with thousands of little diamonds, sparkling and glittering with a most surprising and agreeable lustre; but if we view the same by candle-light, these numerous specks or spangles look more like fine gold dust.

Both Kæmpfer and Thunberg agree, that the Japanese regard the root as poisonous.

[A] "They love a light earth, made with dung and sand, and a little lime rubbish with it does very well, it keeps the roots sound; for if the earth be too stiff or wet, you may keep them for many years before they blow. If they are in pots, they should be put in the house in Winter, to keep them from the severe frosts, which are apt to rot the roots. The time of moving them is when they have no leaves on the root, that is from June to August: those that come with six leaves this year, seldom fail blowing the next year: they need not be put in fresh earth above once in two or three years: by this method of management I have had the same roots blow again in four years time. The many miscarriages that happen to the Guernsey Lily, are by letting the leaves be killed by the fierceness of the frost in Winter, or by cutting them off, as some people do, when they are green, which will so much weaken the plants, that they may keep them twenty years and not have them blow; by the above management, where there is a stock, there will be continually some blowing.

"Miller recommends for these roots the following compost: Take a third-part of fresh virgin earth from a pasture-ground which is light, then put near an equal part of sea-sand, to which you should add rotten dung and sifted lime rubbish, of each an equal quantity."

The great business in the culture of this flower, next to a proper soil and situation, seems to consist in giving the plant as much air as possible, and in preserving the foliage in the Winter from the injury of frost.


Agrostemma Cœli Rosa. Smooth-Leav'd Cockle, or Rose Campion.

Class and Order.

Decandria Pentagynia.

Generic Character.

Cal. 1-phyllus, coriaceus. Petala 5 unguiculata: limbo obtuso indiviso. Caps. 1 locularis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

AGROSTEMMA C[oe]li rosa glabra, foliis lineari-lanceolatis, petalis emarginatis coronatis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. p. 435. Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 116.

LYCHNIS segetum, Nigellastrum minus glabrum dicta, flore eleganter rubello. Moris. Hist. 2. p. 543. s. 5. t. 22. f. 32.

LYCHNIS pseudomelanthiis similis africana glabra angustifolia. Herm. Leyd. 391. t. 393.


Mr. Aiton informs us in his Hortus Kewensis, that the charming annual here figured, the liveliness of whose colours no paint can express, was cultivated by Miller in 1739; seeing it is a plant of such beauty, and honoured with so distinguished an appellation, it is singular that it should not by this time have made its way more generally into our gardens.

The Cockle of our corn-fields is an ornamental plant, the present species resembles it; but while the plant itself is much smaller, its flowers are proportionably larger, and their colours more vivid.

It is an annual of ready growth, a native of Sicily and the Levant, flowering in July and August, and ripening its seeds in September and October.

It appears to most advantage when several plants of it grow together; the best mode, therefore, is to sow about a dozen seeds early in April on the several spots of the flower-border where you intend they shall remain; no other care is necessary than to keep the plants free from weeds and vermin.

The Agr. Cœli rosa of Miller's Gard. Dict. ed. 6 4to. is the coronaria.


Sempervivum Tortuosum. Gouty Houseleek.

Class and Order.

Dodecandria Dodecagynia.

Generic Character.

Cal. 12-partitus. Petala 12. Capsulæ 12 polyspermæ.

Specific Character.

SEMPERVIVUM tortuosum foliis obovatis subtus gibbis villosis, nectariis bilobis. Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 148.


We know of no figure of this plant, the first and only account of which is to be found in the Hort. Kew. of Mr. Aiton; there it is specifically described, and from thence we discover that it was introduced from the Canary Islands, where it is a native, by Mr. Masson, in 1779.

It is a shrubby plant of low growth, producing numerous fleshy leaves growing thickly together, which being evergreen, and making a pretty appearance the year through, render the plant worthy a place in all general collections at least, of greenhouse plants; and though it cannot vie with many of the more shewy high-priced novelties, it is an abiding plant, not subject to casualties, while many of those are here to day and gone to morrow.

It throws up its flowering stems, supporting numerous, starry, stonecrop-like flowers, in July and August, and is most readily propagated by cuttings.

It is one of those species of Houseleek which connect the genera Sedum & Sempervivum.


Dianthus Superbus. Superb Pink.

Class and Order.

Decandria Digynia.

Generic Character.

Cal. cylindricus, 1-phyllus: basi squamis 4. Petala 5 unguiculata. Caps. cylindrica, 1-locularis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

DIANTHUS superbus floribus paniculatis: squamis calycinis brevibus acuminatis, corollis multifido-capillaribus, caule erecto. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 418.

CARYOPHYLLUS simplex alter, flore laciniato odoratissimo. Bauh. Pin. 210.

CARYOPHYLLUS plumarius Austriacus sive superba Austriaca. The feathered Pinke of Austria. Park. Parad. p. 316. 4.


Many of the plants of this genus diffuse an agreeable odour, which renders them most desirable objects for the flower-garden: this quality the present species possesses in a superior degree to most others; a few of its flowers communicate to a nosegay a delicate and most delicious smell, or placed in a vial of water they will even scent a small apartment[B]: it is to be regretted, however, that the blossoms, unless placed in water, from their extreme delicacy, flag soon after they are gathered.

It may be doubted whether the Dianthus superbus of Miller's Dict. ed. 6. 4to. be our plant; if it be, the description is not drawn up with that accuracy which distinguishes his descriptions in general; the mode of culture, however, which he recommends is strictly applicable to it, as the plant rarely continues in vigour more than two years, and as it is in its greatest beauty the first year of its flowering, he recommends that young plants should be annually raised for succession from seeds, which are plentifully produced; the seeds of this plant ought therefore to be kept in the shops with annuals and biennials.

The Dianthus superbus is a native of Germany, Switzerland, France, and Denmark: Clusius found it growing in the moist meadows about Vienna, and on the borders of woods adjoining to such, with some of its flowers white, others purplish; Parkinson describes them of these two colours, but says the most ordinary with us are pure white, which is contrary to what we now find them: they are rarely produced before August, from which period they will continue frequently to blossom till October.

The Spring is the best time for sowing its seeds; the plants require no very nice or particular treatment.

[B] This fragrance has been noticed by all the old authors who have treated of the plant: Clusius describes the flowers as suavissimi odoris et è longinquo nares ferientis, of which words Parkinson's are almost a literal translation "of a most fragrant sent, comforting the spirits and senses afarre off."


Origanum Dictamnus. Dittany Of Crete.

Class and Order.

Didynamia Gymnospermia.

Generic Character.

Strobilus tetragonus, spicatus, calyces colligens.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

ORIGANUM Dictamnus foliis inferioribus tomentosis, spicis nutantibus. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 541. Ait. Kew. v. 2 p. 311. Dittany of Candia.

DICTAMNUS creticus. Bauh. Pin. p. 222.


By the name of Dittany of Crete, the species of Origanum here figured, has long been known in this country as a medicinal plant; to the purposes of physic it still indeed continues to be applied, as imported in a dried state from the Levant: when bruised, the whole plant gives forth an aromatic fragrance, highly grateful; as an ornamental plant, it has also been long, and is now, very generally cultivated in this country. Turner, whose Herbal was printed in 1568, writes thus concerning it, "I have sene it growynge in England in Maister Riches gardin naturally, but it groweth no where ellis that I know of, saving only in Candy." As at this period no idea was entertained of a greenhouse, the plant must have been cultivated in the open ground, where it would doubtless grow readily, if secured from the severity of the weather, it being more hardy than many plants usually kept in greenhouses.

This plant is at all times ornamental, but more particularly so when in flower, in which state it appears during most of the summer and autumnal months.

It is usually increased by cuttings, which strike readily.


Hermannia Alnifolia. Alder-Leaved Hermannia.

Class and Order.

Monadelphia Pentandria.

Generic Character.

Pentagyna. Caps. 5-locularis. Petala basi semitubulata, obliqua.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

HERMANNIA alnifolia foliis cuneiformibus lineatis plicatis crenato-emarginatis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 610. Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 412.

ARBUSCULA africana tricapsularis ononidis vernæ singulari folio. Pluk. Mant. 14. t. 239. f. 1.


Hermannia is a genus of plants named in honour of Dr. Paul Herman, a Dutch Botanist of great celebrity, author of the Paradisus Batavus, and other valuable works: twenty-six species are enumerated in the 13th edition of the Syst. Naturæ of Linnæus by Prof. Gmelin, and eight in the Hortus Kewensis of Mr. Aiton; most of those in the latter work are cultivated in the nurseries near town: they form a set of the more hardy greenhouse plants, grow readily, and flower freely; their blossoms are for the most part yellow, and have a considerable affinity with those of the Mahernia.

The present species flowers very early in the spring, from February to May, producing a great profusion of bloom during that period; is a native of the Cape, and was cultivated by Mr. Miller, in 1728.

It rarely ripens its seeds with us, but is readily increased by cuttings.

The nurserymen near town regard this plant as the grossularifolia of Linnæus, calling another, equally common species, with longer and narrower leaves, alnifolia, and which does not appear to be described by Linnæus or mentioned by Mr. Aiton; our plant accords exactly with the Linnæan description of alnifolia, and there is we think no doubt of its being the alnifolia of the Hortus Kewensis, and Mr. Miller's Dictionary.


Gnaphalium Eximium. Giant Cudweed.

Class and Order.

Syngenesia Polygamia Superflua.

Generic Character.

Recept. nudum. Pappus plumosus vel capillaris. Cal. imbricatus, squamis marginalibus rotundatis, scariosis, coloratis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

GNAPHALIUM eximium foliis sessilibus ovatis confertis erectis tomentosis, corymbo sessili. Linn. Mant. Pl. p. 573. Syst. Nat. ed. 13. Gmel.

ELYCHRYSUM africanum foliis lanceolatis integris tomentosis decurrentibus, capitulus congestis ex rubello aureis. Edw. Av. t. 183.


In the summer of 1794, towards the end of July, the Gnaphalium here figured, the most magnificent and shewy of all the species hitherto introduced to this country, flowered in great perfection at Messrs. Lee and Kennedy's, Hammersmith: Mr. Lee informs me, that he raised it from seeds given him by Capt. William Paterson, author of a Narrative of four journeys into the country of the Hottentots, and Caffraria, and who has most laudably exerted himself in introducing many new and interesting plants to this country; this gentleman assured Mr. Lee, that the plant was found in a wild state, five hundred miles from the Cape, on the borders of the Caffre country, from whence the natives bring bundles of the dried plant to the Cape as presents; in the state the plant has long since been imported from that fertile coast: if we mistake not, a specimen of this sort is figured in Petiver's works, and a coloured representation is given of it in Edwards's History of Birds, taken from a dried plant, brought from the Cape, by Capt. Isaac Worth, in 1749.

The plants we saw were about a foot and a half high, the stalks shrubby, and but little branched; the foliage and flowers as represented on the plate.

Several of the Gnaphaliums it is well known are liable to be killed by moisture, especially in the winter season; during that time, this plant in particular, should be kept as dry as possible, and, if convenient, on a shelf, separate from the other plants of the greenhouse; when it is necessary to give it water, it should never come in contact with the foliage or flowers: with these precautions it may be kept very well in a good greenhouse, in which it should remain, even during summer.

It may be raised from seeds, and also from cuttings.


Melianthus Minor. Small Melianthus, or Honey-Flower.

Class and Order.

Didynamia Angiospermia.

Generic Character.

Cal. 5-phyllus: folio inferiore gibbo. Petala 4: nectario infra infima. Caps. 4-locularis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

MELIANTHUS minor stipulis geminis distinctis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 581. Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 368.

MELIANTHUS africanus minor fœtidus. Comm. rar. 4. t. 4.


There are few flowers that do not secrete from some kind of a glandular substance, honey, or nectar, to a greater or smaller amount; in those of the present genus, this liquid is particularly abundant, even dropping from the flowers of the major, in considerable quantity; in the present species it flows not so copiously, but is retained in the lower part of the blossom, and is of a dark brown colour, an unusual phenomenon.

There are only two species of this genus described, the major and the minor, both of which are cultivated in our nurseries; the major is by far the most common, the most hardy, and the most ornamental plant; its foliage indeed is peculiarly elegant: this species will succeed in the open border, especially if placed at the foot of a wall with a south or south-west aspect, taking care to cover the root to a considerable depth with rotten tan in severe frosts: the minor is always kept in the greenhouse, in which, when it has acquired a certain age, it flowers regularly in the spring, and constantly so, as far as we have observed of the plants in Chelsea Garden; Mr. Aiton says in August, and Commelin the summer through.

The Melianthus minor grows to the height of three, four, or five feet; its stem, which is shrubby, during the flowering season is apt to exhibit a naked appearance, having fewer leaves on it at that period, and those not of their full size; but this, perhaps, may in some degree be owing to the plant's being placed at the back of others.

The foliage when bruised has an unpleasant smell.

It is a native of the Cape, and, according to Mr. Aiton, was cultivated by the Duchess of Beaufort, in 1708; is propagated readily by cuttings.


Mimosa Myrtifolia. Myrtle-Leaved Mimosa.

Class and Order.

Polyandria Monogynia.

Generic Character.

Flores mere masculi reliquis intersiti. Cal. 5-dentatus. Cor. 5-fida aut 0. Stamina 4-locularis. Legumen. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 13. Gmel.

Specific Character.

MIMOSA myrtifolia foliis ovato-lanceolatis obliquis undulatis acuminatis margine cartilagineis: primordialibus pinnatis. Smith Trans. Linn. Soc. v. 1. p. 252.


The seeds of this species of Mimosa having been sent over in plenty, with some of the first vegetable productions of New South-Wales, and growing readily, the plant has been raised by many cultivators in this country; Mr. Hoy, gardener to the Duke of Northumberland, produced a specimen of it in flower at a meeting of the Linnean Society in 1790; it is a shrub of quick growth, and a ready blower: a plant of it in the stove of Chelsea-Garden has this year (May 10, 1795) produced ripe pods, and perfect seeds. In the greenhouse, where it flowers from February to April, the blossoms go off without shewing any tendency to produce fruit.

It is first described by Dr. Smith, in the Transactions of the Linnean Society; the leaves in the plants that have fallen under our notice have not accorded exactly with those he has described, having neither been of a glaucous green colour, according to the usual acceptation of that term, nor very much undulated; and though those of an individual plant may have presented such an appearance, we are persuaded they do not do so generally when growing and in good health.

The foliage is usually edged with red, and the flowers are fragrant.


Erica Ampullacea. Flask Heath.

Class and Order.

Octandria Monogynia.

Generic Character.

Cal. 4-phyllus. Cor. 4-fida. Filamenta receptaculo inserta. Antheræ apice bifidæ, pertusæ. Caps. 4-locularis, 4-valvis, polysperma.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

ERICA ampullacea foliis ciliatis mucronatis, bractæis coloratis, floribus umbellatis subquaternis erecto-patentibus, stylo exserto.


The Erica here figured has some affinity in the form of its flowers to the E. ventricosa, as these in their shape resemble a flask or bottle, especially of that kind in which water is usually kept, we have named it ampullacea; it is of very modern introduction.

On the 11th of June 1784, we had the pleasure to see a small plant of this species in flower, with Mr. Williams, Nurseryman, Turnham-Green, an unwearied and ingenious cultivator of this beautiful tribe of plants in particular, the richness of whose collection will appear in the subsequent list; by him it was raised from Cape seeds, though not more than the height of ten inches, it produced eighteen branches, most of which put forth flowers at their summits; we counted sixty-six blossoms on this small plant.

The leaves are short, linear, somewhat triangular, rigid, edged with fine crooked hairs, very visible when magnified, and terminating in a mucro or point, on the older branches recurved and mostly eight-rowed; each branch is usually terminated by four or five flowers, at first growing closely together, and covered so strongly with a glutinous substance, as to look as if varnished, and which is so adhesive as to catch ants and small flies; as the flowering advances, they separate more widely from each other, and finally a young branch grows out of the centre from betwixt them; the true calyx is composed of four lanceolate leaves, sitting close to and glued as it were to the corolla; besides these, there are several other leaves, which might be mistaken for those of the calyx, but which may with more propriety be called Bracteæ or Floral-leaves; some of these, like the calyx, are wholly red, others red and green mixed together, and broader than the leaves of the plant; the flowers are about an inch and a quarter in length, inflated below, and contracted above into a long narrow neck, dilating again so as to form a kind of knob, in which the antheræ are contained, just below the limb, which divides into four somewhat ovate obtuse segments, the upper side of these segments is of a very pale flesh colour, the under side of them as well as the dilated part just below them bright red, the body of the flower flesh colour, marked with eight longitudinal stripes, of a deeper hue; filaments eight, antheræ within the tube; style projecting about the eighth of an inch beyond the corolla; stigma, a round glutinous head.

The flowers as they decay become of a deeper red colour, and finally pale brown, still retaining their form and appearing to advantage;—hitherto the plant has produced no seeds here, is increased with difficulty either by cuttings or layers, but with most certainty in the latter way.

A Catalogue of Heaths, cultivated and sold by Richard Williams, at his Nursery, Turnham-Green, Middlesex.


* abietina.
* ampullacea.
—— var. squarrosa.
* Banksii.
* cerinthoides.
—— var. fl. albo.
* coccinea.
—— var. fl. rubro.
* conspicua.
* cruenta.
* curviflora.
* discolor.
* elata.
* fascicularis.
* formosa.
* grandiflora.
* halicacaba.
* mammosa.
—— var. fl. purp.
—— var. fl. rubro.
* Massoni.
* monadelphia.
* Monsoniana.
—— var. fl. albo.
* muscari.
* nudiflora.
* Pattersoni.
—— var. fl. rubro.
* Petiveri.
* pinifolia.
* Plukenetii.
* sessiliflora.
* simpliciflora.
* Sparrmanni.
* spicata.
—— var. fl. albo.
—— var. fl. albo.
* tubiflora.
* ventricosa.
* versicolor.
* verticillata.
* vestita.
—— var. fl. albo.

N.B. Those marked with an asterisk have tubular flowers.


Hermannia Lavendulifolia. Lavender-Leaved Hermannia.

Class and Order.

Monadelphia Pentandria.

Generic Character.

Pentagyna. Caps. 5-locularis. Petala basi semitubulata, obliqua.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

HERMANNIA lavendulifolia foliis lanceolatis obtusis integerrimis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 611. Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 413.

HERMANNIA frutescens folio Lavendulæ latiore et obtuso flore parvo aureo Boerh. Dill. Hort. Elth. t. 147.


The Hermannia here figured is a plant of humble growth, forming a small bushy shrub, a foot or a foot and a half in height, and producing numerous flowers thinly scattered over the branches, the greatest part of the summer; it is this disposition which it has of flowering so freely, that renders it a desirable plant for the greenhouse, in which it is commonly kept, and of which it is an old inhabitant.

Dillenius has figured it in his admirable work the Hortus Elthamensis, published in 1732; hence we learn that it was cultivated in Mr. Sherard's celebrated garden at Eltham prior to that date.

It is a native of the Cape, and is readily increased by cuttings.


Amaryllis Equestris. Barbadoes Amaryllis, or Lily.

Class and Order.

Hexandria Monogynia.

Generic Character.

Cor. hexapetaloidea, irregularis. Filamenta fauci tubi inserta, declinata, inæqualia proportione vel directione. Linn. fil.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

AMARYLLIS equestris spatha subbiflora, pedicellis erectis spatha brevioribus, tubo siliformi horizontali, limbo oblique patulo sursum curvo, fauce, pilosa. Linn. fil. Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 417.

AMARYLLIS dubia Linn. Am. Ac. 8. p. 254.

LILIUM americanum puniceo flore Belladonna dictum. Herm. Par. Bat. p. 194. cum fig.


Mr. Aiton, in his Hortus Kewensis, has inserted this species of Amaryllis, as named and described by the younger Linnæus; he informs us, that it is a native of the West-Indies, and was introduced by Dr. William Pitcairn, in 1778: as its time of flowering is not mentioned, we may presume, that it had not blossomed in the royal garden when the publication before mentioned first made its appearance; it no doubt has since, as we have seen it in that state in the collections of several Nurserymen, particularly those of Mr. Grimwood and Mr. Colvill.

It flowers towards the end of April.

The flowering stem rises above the foliage, to the height of about a foot or more, produces from one to three flowers, similar to, but not quite so large as those of the Mexican Amaryllis, to which it is nearly related; it differs however from that plant essentially in this, that the lower part of the flower projects further than the upper, which gives to its mouth that obliquity which Linnæus describes.

The spatha is composed of two leaves, which standing up at a certain period of the plant's flowering like ears, give to the whole flower a fancied resemblance of a horse's head; whether Linnæus derived his name of equestris from this circumstance or not, he does not condescend to inform us.

Mr. Aiton regards it as a greenhouse plant; like those of many of the Ixias, however, the bulbs are of the more tender kind.

It is propagated by offsets, but not very readily.


Othonna Pectinata. Wormwood-Leaved Othonna.

Class and Order.

Syngenesia Polygamia Necessaria.

Generic Character.

Recept. nudum. Pappus subnullus, Cal. 1-phyllus multifidus subcylindricus.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

OTHONNA pectinata foliis pinnatifidis: laciniis linearibus parallelis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 793. Ait. Kew. v. 3. p. 276.

JACOBÆA africana frutescens, foliis absinthii umbelliferi incanis. Comm. hort. 2. p. 137. t. 69.


The Othonna pectinata is a native of Africa, a long-established and common plant in greenhouses, having been cultivated by Mr. Miller, in 1731; it recommends itself chiefly on account of its foliage, which forms a pleasing contrast to the darker greens of other plants.

It flowers in May and June, is moderately hardy, and readily increased by cuttings.

In many collections we meet with old plants of it three or four feet high; formerly, when greenhouse plants were few in numbers and the houses large, it might be proper to keep such; but now there is not that necessity, especially since the vast accession of plants from the Cape and New-Holland, made within these few years.


Hermannia Althæifolia. Marsh-Mallow-Leaved Hermannia.

Class and Order.

Monadelphia Pentandria.

Generic Character.

Pentagyna. Caps. 5-locularis. Petala basi semitubulata, obliqua.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

HERMANNIA althæifolia foliis ovatis crenatis plicatis tomentosis, calycibus florentibus campanulatis angulatis, stipulis oblongis foliaceis. Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 411.

HERMANNIA althæifolia foliis ovatis plicatis crenatis tomentosis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 610.

HERMANNIA capensis althææ folio. Pet. Gaz. 53. t. 34. f. 2.

KETMIA africana frutescens foliis mollibus et incanis. Comm. hort. 2. p. 151. t. 79.


The Hermannia althæifolia, a native of the Cape, is a plant of much larger growth than the lavendulifolia, rising to the height, if suffered to do so, of three, four, or more feet; its blossoms are proportionably large, and of a deep yellow colour, inclined to orange.

It is a plant of free growth, much disposed to produce flowers during most of the summer months; hence it is kept very generally in collections of greenhouse plants: is propagated readily by cuttings.

Was cultivated by Mr. Miller, in 1728. Ait. Kew.

Our readers will see, that the specific description of Linnæus has been altered in the Hortus Kewensis, and that it now comprizes all the striking features of the plant.


Verbena Aubletia. Rose Vervain.

Class and Order.

Diandria Monogynia.

Generic Character.

Cor. infundibuliformis subæqualis curva. Calycis unico dente truncato. Semina 2 s. 4 nuda (Stam. 2 s. 4.)

Specific Character and Synonyms.

VERBENA Aubletia tetrandra, spicis laxis solitariis, foliis trifidis incisis. Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 33.

VERBENA Aubletia tetrandra, spicis solitariis, coroliis fasciculatis, foliis cordatis inciso-serratis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 66. Suppl. Pl. p. 86.

BUCHNERA canadensis Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 13. p. 478.

VERBENA Aubletia. Jacq. hort. v. 2. p. 82. t. 176.

OBLETIA Journ. de Rozier introd. 1. p. 367. t. 2.


It has fallen to the lot of this plant to have an unusual degree of attention bestowed on it by various botanists, and after being regarded as a distinct genus by several, to be finally classed with the Verbena; in the Supplementum Plantarum of the younger Linnæus it is minutely described.

We learn from the Hortus Kewensis of Mr. Aiton that it is a native of North-America, introduced by Mons. Richard in 1774, and that it flowers in June and July.

The extreme brilliancy of its colours renders it a very ornamental greenhouse plant, it seldom grows above the height of two feet; in favourable seasons ripens its seeds readily, by which it is usually propagated, being a biennial.


Pelargonium Echinatum. Prickly-Stalked Geranium.

Class and Order.

Monadelphia Heptandria.

Generic Character.

Cal. 5-partitus: lacinia suprema definente in tubulum capillarem nectariferum secus pendunculum decurrentem. Cor. 5 petala irregularis. Filamenta 10, inæqualia, quorum 3 raro 5 castrata. Fructus 5 coccus, rostratus: rostra spiralia, introrsum barbata.

Specific Character.

PERLARGONIUM echinatum caule carnoso, stipulis spinescentibus, foliis cordato-subrotundis 3-5 lobis, floribus umbellatis, umbellis subseptemfloris.


This singular and most beautiful species of Pelargonium, recently introduced to this country, this Summer flowered with Mr. Colvill, Nurseryman, in the King's-Road, Chelsea, from one of whose plants our figure and description have been taken.

Stalk green, surface smooth and somewhat glossy, fleshy, beset with spines which bend back and terminate in brownish somewhat weak points; these appear to have been primarily the stipulæ, which become thus fleshy and rigid, and from this circumstance not altogether peculiar to this species, it takes the name of echinatum; the leaves stand on long footstalks, are somewhat heart-shaped, mostly roundish, divided into three or five lobes, veiny, soft, and downy, especially on the under side, which is of a much lighter colour than the upper, the flowering stem proceeds from the summit of the stalk, and is a foot or more in height; as it advances it throws out its branches, or peduncles, ultimately about five in number, each of which has a leaf at its base, similar to the other leaves of the plant, but smaller, and terminates in an umbel of seven or eight flowers; as the umbels blossom in succession, a period of several months usually intervenes betwixt the blowing of the first and the last; when the flower is expanded, the hindmost leaf of the calyx continues upright, the others are reflexed as in other species of this genus, they are all beset with fine long hairs; the three lowermost petals are pure white, with a little gibbosity at the base of each, the two uppermost are marked each with three irregular spots, of a rich purple colour, inclining to carmine, the two lowermost spots narrowest and of the deepest colour; of the stamina there are six filaments which have antheræ, and four of which have none; stigma red, divided into five parts, and a little longer than the fertile filaments.

In its habit this plant resembles somewhat the Pelargonium cordifolium, is a native of the Cape, flowers from May to September, in favourable seasons has produced seeds here, but is more usually increased by cuttings.

Varies with petals of a rich purple colour, in which the spots are similar, though not so conspicuous.


Erinus Alpinus. Alpine Erinus.

Class and Order.

Didynamia Angiospermia.

Generic Character.

Cal. 5-phyllus. Cor. Limbus 5-fidus æqualis. Caps. 2-locularis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

ERINUS alpinus floribus racemosis, foliis spathulatis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 570. Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 357.

AGERATUM serratum alpinum. Bauh. pin. 221.


The Erinus alpinus is a native of Switzerland, Germany, and France; inhabiting the more mountainous parts of those countries.

It is a very desirable little plant for the decoration of rock work, growing in close tufts, and producing numerous flowers of a lively purple colour during most of the summer months.

Is increased without difficulty by parting its roots in Autumn, or from seed; in the winter some plants of it should be kept in pots under a frame or hand-glass, as it is liable to be injured by wet and frost.

Was cultivated here by Mr. Miller in 1759.


Robinia Hispida. Rough-Stalk'd Robinia, or Rose Acacia.

Class and Order.

Diadelphia Decandria.

Generic Character.

Cal. 4-fidus. Legumen gibbum elongatum.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

ROBINIA hispida racemis axillaribus, foliis impari pinnatis, caule inermi hispido. Linn. Mant. p. 668. Ait. Kew. v. 3. p. 53.

ROBINIA racemis axillaribus, pedicellis unifloris, foliis impari pinnatis, caule inermi. Jacq. Amer. 211. t. 179. f. 101.

PSEUDO ACACIA hispida floribus roseis. Catesb. Carol. 3. p. 20. t. 20.


There are few trees or shrubs which have contributed more to adorn our plantations, and shrubberies, than those of this genus, nine species of which are enumerated in the Hort. Kew. of Mr. Aiton, most of these are natives either of North-America, or Siberia: the present species, an inhabitant of Carolina, is perhaps the most ornamental of the whole: its large pendant bunches of rose-coloured flowers load the branches in May and June, and sometimes a second crop will be produced late in the season, these with us usually fall off without producing any seed-vessels.

This shrub is not disposed to grow very tall in America, it is most prudent indeed to keep it humble, to the height of four or five feet, and to plant it in a sheltered part of the garden, as its branches are liable to be broken by high winds: Marshall (Arb. Amer.) describes it as spreading much from its running roots; we have not observed it to do so in any great degree here; it is propagated by layers, by cuttings of the roots, and by grafting; it is of ready growth, disposed to blow even when young, and not nice as to soil, or situation; the flowers afford a good example of the class Diadelphia, they are large and beautiful, but without scent.

Was cultivated by Mr. Miller in 1758. Ait. Kew.


Linum Flavum. Yellow Flax.

Class and Order.

Pentandria Pentagynia.

Generic Character.

Cal. 5-phyllus. Petala 5. Caps. 5-valvis 10 locularis. Sem. solitaria.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

LINUM flavum calycibus subserrato-scabris lanceolatis subsessilibus, panicula ramis dichotomis. Linn. Sp. Pl. v. 1. ed. 3. p. 399. Mant. p. 360. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 303. Jacq. Fl. Austr. v. 3. t. 214.

LINUM sylvestre latifolium luteum. Bauh. pin. 214.

LINUM sylvestre III. latifolium. Clus. hist. 1. p. 317.


There is a considerable similarity betwixt the representation of the present plant and that of the Linum arboreum figured on the 234th plate of this work, they are nevertheless two species widely differing, the flavum being a hardy herbaceous perennial, a native of Germany, the arboreum a greenhouse shrub from the Levant, both possessing considerable beauty, and highly worthy a place in all collections of ornamental plants.

The Linum flavum is not mentioned either in the Dictionary of Mr. Miller, or the Hortus Kewensis of Mr. Aiton, and as far as our knowledge extends was a stranger in this country, till we raised it the year before last from seeds sent us by Mr. Daval, of Orbe in Switzerland; Clusius gives us a representation of it in flower, and Prof. Jacquin another much superior; according to the latter, it grows by the sides of hedges and among shrubs in mountainous situations, and rarely exceeds a foot in height.

From the little experience we have had of this plant, it appears to be easy of culture, and to succeed best in a soil moderately stiff and moist; the flowers expand most in a morning when the sun shines, and continue in succession during June, July, and part of August; it appears as if it would ripen its seeds in my garden; these vegetate freely: the plant may also be increased by parting its roots in autumn, or by cuttings of the young shoots.


Daphne Cneorum. Trailing Daphne.

Class and Order.

Octandria Monogynia.

Generic Character.

Cal. 0. Cor. 4-fida corallacea marcescens stamina includens, Bacca 1-sperma.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

DAPHNE Cneorum floribus congestis terminalibus sessilibus, foliis lanceolatis nudis mucronatis. Linn. Syst. Veget. ed. 14. Murr. p. 371. Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 26.

THYMELEÆ affinis facie externa. Bauh. pin. 463.

CNEORUM. Matth. hist. 46. Clus. hist. 89, 90. f. 1.


This charming little shrub is a native of Switzerland and Austria: Clusius informs us that it grows in great abundance on many of the mountains near Vienna, so much so that women gather it when in flower and sell it in the markets; its beautiful and fragrant blossoms come forth in April and May, the principal season for its flowering, but it frequently blows during most of the Summer, and even in the Autumn; it varies with white blossoms.

It is extremely hardy, thrives remarkably well in road sand in almost any situation; is propagated by seeds, which very rarely ripen with us, by layers, and by grafting it on the stock of the Mezereon, whereby it acquires an elevation superior to what it has naturally.


Genista Triquetra. Triangular-Stalk'd Genista.

Class and Order.

Diadelphia Decandria.

Generic Character.

Cal. 2-labiatus: 2/3. Vexillum oblongum a pistillo staminibusque deorsum reflexum.

Specific Character.

GENISTA triquetra foliis ternatis, summis simplicibus, ramis triquetris procumbentibus. L'Herit. Stirp. nov. t. 88. Ait. Kew. v. 3. p. 14.


Mons. L'Heritier, author of many modern publications in Botany, distinguished for their accuracy and elegance, was the first who described and figured this species of Genista, a native of Corsica, and cultivated here by John Ord, Esq. as long since as the year 1770.

It is a hardy, evergreen, trailing shrub, producing a vast profusion of bloom; which renders it eminently conspicuous in May and June; its flowers are rarely succeeded by seed-vessels, so that it is usually propagated by layers.

When tied up properly, and carefully trained to stake, it may vie with most of our ornamental shrubs: for covering a wall, or paling, where the situation is not too shady, it probably would succeed very well, at least it is deserving of trial.


Pelargonium Ceratophyllum. Horn-Leaved Crane's Bill.

Class and Order.

Monadelphia Heptandria.

Generic Character.

Cal. 5-partitus: lacinia suprema definente in tubulum capillarem, nectariferum, secus pendunculum decurrentem. Cor. 5-petala, irregularis. Filam. 10 inæqualia, quorum 3 raro 5 castrata. Fructus 5-coccus, rostratus, rostra spiralia introrsum barbata.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

PELARGONIUM ceratophyllum umbellis multifloris, foliis remote pinnatis carnosis teretibus, laciniis canaliculatis obsolete trifidis. L'Herit. Geran. n. 50. t. 13. Ait. Kew. v. 2 p. 422.


Mr. Aiton informs us that this species of Pelargonium, which is one of the more fleshy kinds, is a native of the South-West Coast of Africa, and was introduced to the Royal Garden at Kew by Mr. Anthony Hove in 1786.

It flowers during most of the Summer months, and ripens its seeds, by which it may be increased, as also by cuttings; it is found to be more tender than many others, and more liable to be injured by damps, and hence it will require a treatment more applicable to a dry stove plant.


Polygala Chamæbuxus. Box-Leaved Milk-Wort.

Class and Order.

Diadelphia Octandria.

Generic Character.

Cal. 5-phyllus: foliolis 2 majoribus alæformibus, ante maturitatem seminis coloratis. Caps. obcordata, 2-locularis. Sem. solitaria.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

POLYGALA Chamæbuxus floribus sparsis: carinæ apice subrotundo, foliis lanceolatis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 639. Ait. Kew. v. 3. p. 4. Jacq. Fl. Austr. v. 3. p. 19. t. 233.

CHAMÆBUXUS flore coluteæ. Bauh. Pin. 471.

ANONYMOS flore Coluteæ. Clus. Hist. p. 105. f.

POLYGALOIDES procumbens foliis duris ovatis nervo aristato. Hall. Hist. n. 345.


Clusius, in his Hist. Pl. rar. gives an accurate description and good figure of the present plant, before unnoticed (as he observes) by any author; it has since been particularly described by Haller and Jacquin; the former makes a distinct genus of it, by the name of Polygaloides.

It is an elegant little evergreen shrub of low growth, rarely exceeding a foot in height, with leaves like those of box, producing flowers from May to October, but most plentifully in May and June; each flower stands on a peduncle proceeding from a kind of triphyllous cup, formed of floral leaves, the true calyx is composed of three leaves, which are nearly white; the two outermost petals, similar to the wings of a papilionaceous flower, are also white, or nearly so; the third petal which forms a kind of tube and contains the eight stamina with the pistillum, is white at the base, but yellow towards the extremity, where it changes by degrees to a bright bay colour: both Clusius and Jacquin observed a variety of this plant, in which the calyx and wings were of a beautiful purple; this variety, we believe, has not yet been introduced to this country: the common sort was cultivated in the garden at Oxford, in 1658.

Miller describes it as a plant difficult of cultivation; it is not now regarded as such; both Clusius and Jacquin describe it as having creeping roots; such plants are generally increased without difficulty, and so is this; planted in bog earth on a shady border, it thrives extremely well, and spawns much, so that there is no necessity for having recourse to its seeds. It grows spontaneously on the Alps of Austria and Switzerland.


Ononis Fruticosa. Shrubby Rest-Harrow.

Class and Order.

Diadelphia Decandria.

Generic Character.

Cal. 5-partitus: laciniis linearibus. Vexillum striatum. Legumen turgidum sessile. Filamenta connata absque fissura.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

ONONIS fruticosa foliis sessilibus ternatis lanceolatis serratis, stipulis vaginalibus, pedunculis subtrifloris. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 653. Ait. Kew. 24.

ONONIS purpurea verna præcox frutescens, flore rubro amplo. Moris. Hist. 2. p. 170.


This charming little shrub, highly deserving of being more generally known, is a native of the South of France; and was cultivated here by Miller in 1748.

In favourable situations, it produces blossoms in great profusion during most of the Summer, and ripens seed in abundance: the situation it affects is dry and sandy, but it is a shrub by no means nice, as to soil or place of growth, and so hardy as to have borne the severity of last Winter, 1795, without injury.

In the collections about town we frequently find it in pots, kept with greenhouse plants.

It is said to vary with white flowers.

The best mode of raising it is from seed.


Anthericum Liliastrum. Savoy Anthericum, or St. Bruno's Lily.

Class and Order.

Hexandria Monogynia.

Generic Character.

Cor. 6-petala, patens. Caps. ovata.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

ANTHERICUM Liliastrum foliis planis, scapo simplicissimo, corollis campanulatis, staminibus declinatis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 330. Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 449.

HEMEROCALLIS floribus patulis secundis. Hall. Hist. n. 1230.

PHALANGIUM magno flore. Bauh. Pin. 29.

PHALANGIUM Allobrogicum majus. Clus. cur. app. alt.

PHALANGIUM Allobrogicum. The Savoye Spider-wort. Park. Parad. p. 150. tab. 151. f. 1.


Botanists are divided in their opinions respecting the genus of this plant; Linnæus considers it as an Anthericum, Haller and Miller make it an Hemerocallis.

It is a native of Switzerland, where, Haller informs us, it grows abundantly in the Alpine meadows, and even on the summits of the mountains; with us it flowers in May and June.

It is a plant of great elegance, producing on an unbranched stem about a foot and a half high, numerous flowers of a delicate white colour, much smaller but resembling in form those of the common white lily, possessing a considerable degree of fragrance, their beauty is heightened by the rich orange colour of their antheræ; unfortunately they are but of short duration.

Miller describes two varieties of it differing merely in size.

A loamy soil, a situation moderately moist, with an eastern or western exposure, suits this plant best; so situated, it will increase by its roots, though not very fast, and by parting of these in the autumn, it is usually propagated.

Parkinson describes and figures it in his Parad. Terrest. observing that "divers allured by the beauty of its flowers, had brought it into these parts."


Anagallis Monelli. Italian Pimpernel.

Class and Order.

Pentandria Monogynia.

Generic Character.

Cor. rotata. Caps. circumscissa 1-locularis, polysperma.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

ANAGALLIS Monelli, foliis lanceolatis caule erecto. Linn. Syst. Veget. ed. 14. Murr. p. 196. Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 201.

ANAGALLIS cœrulea foliis binis ternisve ex adverso nascentibus. Bauh. Pin. 552.

ANAGALLIS tenuifolia Monnelli. Clus. app. alt.


In Italy and Spain, where this plant grows spontaneously, it is an annual, producing seed in abundance; with us (as far at least as we have observed) it produces no seed, but like the Senecio elegans, and some other annuals, is renewed, and rendered perennial by cuttings, which strike freely, and by which the plant requires to be renovated once or twice in a season; though described as growing with an upright stem, it requires to be tied up to a stick; and if this be neatly and dexterously done, its brilliant azure flowers springing from every side of the stem, render it a charming ornament for the greenhouse or window: it flowers during most of the year.

Clusius called it Anagallis Monnelli, the first knowledge he had of the plant being from his friend Johannes Monnellus.

On the same plant we find the leaves grow two, three, or four together, with flowers corresponding.


Lobelia Cardinalis. Scarlet Lobelia, or Cardinal's Flower.

Class and Order.

Syngenesia Monogamia.

Generic Character.

Cal. 5-fidus. Cor. 1-petala, irregularis. Caps. infera 2, s. 3-locularis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

LOBELIA cardinalis caule erecto, foliis lato-lanceolatis serratis, racemo terminali secundo. Linn. Syst. Veg. ed. 14. Murr. p. 801. Ait. Kew. v. 3. p. 284.

RAPUNTIUM galeatum virginianum, coccineo flore majore. Moris. Hist. 2. p. 466. s. 5. t. 5. f. 54.

TRACHELIUM Americarum flore ruberrimo, sive Planta Cardinalis. The rich crimson Cardinal's Flower. Park. Parad. p. 356. t. 355.


This species of Lobelia, so eminently distinguished for the richness of its scarlet blossoms, is a native of the colder as well as warmer parts of North-America. Parkinson, who cultivated it in 1629, informs us that he received plants of it from France for his garden, and that "it groweth neere the river of Canada, where the French plantation in America is seated."

It is a hardy herbaceous plant, growing in favourable situations to the height of three or four feet; the main spike of flowers which terminates the stalk, is often a foot in length; by the time that most of its flowers are blown, side branches shoot out, and flower; so that the plant continues in bloom six weeks or two months: if the Autumn prove favourable, the plant with us produces plenty of seed in the open ground; to insure its ripening, some place pots of it, when blowing, in the greenhouse or stove.

Beautiful and hardy as this plant is, and long as it has been introduced to this country, we do not find it generally in gardens; we attribute this to its having, in a greater degree than many other plants, a partiality for a particular soil; in certain districts, where the soil is stiff and moist, it grows as freely as any weed, in other soils it is perpetually going off: it is also one of those plants whose roots require to be often parted; if this be done every Autumn, and they be planted in a stiff loam, the situation somewhat moist and shady, this very desirable plant may be had to grow and blossom in perfection.

It flowers from the latter end of July to October.

Is increased by parting its roots, by cuttings of the stalk and from seed.


Cotyledon Orbiculata. Round-Leaved Navel-Wort.

Class and Order.

Decandria Pentagynia.

Generic Character.

Cal. 5-fidus. Cor. 1-petala. Squamæ nectariferæ 5 ad basin germinis. Caps. 5.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

COTYLEDON orbiculata foliis orbiculatis carnosis planis integerrimis, caule fruticoso. Linn. Syst. Veg. ed. 14. Murr. p. 428. Ait. Kew. var. [delta] v. 2. p. 106.

COTYLEDON africanum frutescens incanum orbiculatis foliis. Herm. Lugd. 349. t. 551. Moris. Hist. 3. p. 474. s. 12. t. 7 f. 39.


The Cotyledon orbiculata is one of our oldest succulents, being introduced as long since as 1690, by Mr. Bentick[C]: it still retains a place in most collections, deservedly indeed, for it has every claim to our notice; its appearance is magnificent, the glaucous colour of its foliage highly pleasing, its flowers large and of long duration; it blows freely, grows rapidly, is easily increased by cuttings, and will succeed in a house or window, with the common treatment of an African Geranium.

When suffered to grow, it will become a shrub of considerable size; but this is not necessary for its flowering, as young and small plants are disposed to throw out blossoms, which is not the case with a plant extremely similar to, and often confounded with it, viz. the Crassula Cotyledon, whose foliage indeed scarcely differs from our plant but in being finely dotted.

It is a native of the Cape, and flowers from June or July to September.

In the Hort. Kew. of Mr. Aiton, four varieties are enumerated, differing chiefly in the form of their foliage.

[C] Ait. Kew.


Manulea Tomentosa. Woolly Manulea.

Class and Order.

Didynamia Angiospermia.

Generic Character.

Cal. 5-partitus. Cor. limbo 5-partito, subulato: laciniis superioribus 4 magis connexis. Caps. 2-locularis, polysperma.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

MANULEA tomentosa foliis tomentosis, caulibus foliosis, pedunculis multifloris. Linn. Mant. 420. Syst. Veget. ed. 14. Murr. p. 569. Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 356.

SELAGO tomentosa foliis obovatis crenatis, caule prostrato, racemis ramosis. Linn. Amœn. Acad. v. 6. p. 90. Sp. Pl. ed. 3. p. 877.

PLANTA Pluk. Phyt. 319. f. 2.


Linnæus describes this plant in the Amœnitates Academicæ under the name of Selago tomentosa, by which name he continues to call it in the third edition of the Spec. Pl. in his Mantissa he describes it more minutely, and changes it to the Genus Manulea, first established by him in the said work; he observes, that in this species the corolla is more regular than in the others.

Mr. Aiton regards it as a biennial, its stalk is a foot or a foot and a half high, and woolly, its branches are opposite, not alternate as Linnæus describes them; in this perhaps they may vary; leaves opposite, sessile, obovate, narrowing to the base, toothed on the edge, edge rolled back a little in the young leaves, flowers grow in a long thyrsus, from two to five proceed from one common short peduncle; they are at first lemon-coloured, or greenish yellow, finally deep orange; Linnæus says the whole of the plant except the corolla is woolly, the tube of that even is hairy, the segments are smooth, with their edges rolled back, the upper part of the tube in which the stamina are included is dilated somewhat, as is also the lower part, so that it is narrowest in the middle. The flowers which make their appearance from May to November are usually succeeded by seeds, by which the plant is propagated.

It is a native of the Cape, and, according to Mr. Aiton, was introduced by Mr. Masson, in 1774.

The blossoms have a singular but unpleasant smell, not perceivable at a distance.

The variety of pleasant colours so conspicuous in the flowers, renders this rare plant desirable to such as aim at a general collection.


Rubus Odoratus. Flowering Raspberry.

Class and Order.

Icosandria Polygynia.

Generic Character.

Cal. 5-fidus. Petala 5. Bacca composita acinis monospermis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

RUBUS odoratus foliis simplicibus palmatis, caule inermi multifolio multifloro. Linn. Syst. Veg. ed. 14. Murr. p. 475. Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 210.

RUBUS odoratus. Corn. Canad. 149. t. 150.


Botanists and Gardeners have given to this species of Rubus the name of flowering, not because it is the only one which produces flowers, but from its being regarded for its flowers merely; they indeed are so shewy, and so plentifully produced, that the plant has long been thought to merit a place in most shrubberies; to the various inhabitants of which, both in the largeness and elegant form of its leaves, and the colour of its blossoms, it forms a pleasing contrast.

It is extremely hardy, and easily propagated by suckers; the only care which it requires, is to keep it within proper bounds: young plants of it produce the largest and finest flowers.

It blossoms from June to September, is a native of different and distant parts of North-America, and was cultivated here by Mr. Miller, in 1739.

Cornutus, who first figured and described this plant, gave it the name of odoratus, on account of the fragrance of its foliage; his words are "elegantissimi hujus folia fragrantissima sunt, paremque agrimonio odorato spirant odorem;" the fruit, rarely produced with us, he observes, is like the common Raspberry, but not so pleasant.


Antirrhinum Triphyllum. Three-Leaved Toad-Flax.

Class and Order.

Didynamia Angiospermia.

Generic Character.

Cal. 5-phyllus. Cor. basis deorsum prominens nectarifera. Caps. 2-locularis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

ANTIRRHINUM triphyllum foliis ternis ovatis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 555. Ait. Kew.

LINARIA triphylla minor lutea. Bauh. Pin. 212.

LINARIA triphylla cœrulea. Bauh. Pin. 212.

LINARIA hispanica. Clus. Hist. 1. p. 320.

LINARIA valentina. Tode Flaxe of Valentia. Park. Par. p. 268.


The Antirrhinum triphyllum, so called from the leaves growing by threes on the stalk (a character, by the bye, not very constant) was cultivated by Parkinson, and described by him in his Parad. terr. He appears to have been a stranger to the particoloured variety now so generally cultivated as an ornamental annual in our gardens; in its wild state the flowers of this Antirrhinum are of a yellow hue, with little or no purple in them, such indeed are frequently produced from seeds sown in our gardens.

It is a hardy annual, a native of Spain and Sicily, a plant of ready growth, requiring the common treatment of annuals sown in the Spring, and much disposed indeed to come up spontaneously where it has once grown; in sowing its seeds, care should be taken to preserve the produce of such flowers as have the most purple in them.


In which the Latin Names of the Plants contained in the Ninth Volume are alphabetically arranged.

295Agrostemma Cœli rosa.
290Amaryllis lutea.
294—— sarniensis.
305—— equestris.
319Anagallis Monelli.
324Antirrhinum triphyllum.
318Anthericum Liliastrum.
293Catananche c[oe]rulea.
291Capparis spinosa.
321Cotyledon orbiculata.
289Convolvulus linearis.
313Daphne Cneorum.
297Dianthus superbus.
303Erica ampullacea.
310Erinus alpinus.
314Genista triquetra.
300Gnaphalium eximium.
299Hermannia alnifolia.
304—— lavendulifolia.
307—— althæifolia.
312Linum flavum.
320Lobelia Cardinalis.
322Manulea tomentosa.
301Melianthus minor.
302Mimosa myrtifolia.
317Ononis fruticosa.
298Origanum Dictamnus.
306Othonna pectinata.
292Passerina grandiflora.
309Pelargonium echinatum.
315—— ceratophyllum.
316Polygala chamæbuxus.
311Robinia hispida.
323Rubus odoratus.
296Sempervivum tortuosum.
308Verbena Aubletia.


In which the English Names of the Plants contained in the Ninth Volume are alphabetically arranged.

290Amaryllis yellow.
294—— Guernsey.
305—— Barbadoes.
318Anthericum Savoy.
291Caper Shrub.
293Catananche blue.
295Cockle smooth-leaved.
289Convolvulus narrow-leaved.
315Crane's-bill horn-leaved.
300Cudweed giant.
313Daphne trailing.
298Dittany of Crete.
310Erinus alpine.
312Flax yellow.
303Heath flask.
299Hermannia alder-leaved.
304—— lavender-leaved.
307—— marshmallow-leaved.
296Houseleek gouty.
314Genista triangular-stalked.
309Geranium prickly-stalked.
320Lobelia scarlet.
322Manulea woolly.
301Melianthus small.
316Milk-wort box-leaved.
302Mimosa myrtle-leaved.
321Navel-wort round-leaved.
306Othonna wormwood-leaved.
292Passerina great-flowered.
319Pimpernel Italian.
297Pink superb.
323Raspberry flowering.
317Rest-harrow shrubby.
311Robinia rough-stalked.
324Toad-flax three-leaved.
308Vervain rose.