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Title: Webster's Unabridged Dictionary

Author: Various

Release date: August 22, 2009 [eBook #29765]
Most recently updated: June 28, 2023

Language: English

Credits: Graham Lawrence




A (named a in the English, and most commonly ä in other languages).

Defn: The first letter of the English and of many other alphabets. The capital A of the alphabets of Middle and Western Europe, as also the small letter (a), besides the forms in Italic, black letter, etc., are all descended from the old Latin A, which was borrowed from the Greek Alpha, of the same form; and this was made from the first letter (Aleph, and itself from the Egyptian origin. The Aleph was a consonant letter, with a guttural breath sound that was not an element of Greek articulation; and the Greeks took it to represent their vowel Alpha with the ä sound, the Phoenician alphabet having no vowel symbols. This letter, in English, is used for several different vowel sounds. See Guide to pronunciation, §§ 43-74. The regular long a, as in fate, etc., is a comparatively modern sound, and has taken the place of what, till about the early part of the 17th century, was a sound of the quality of ä (as in far).

2. (Mus.)

Defn: The name of the sixth tone in the model major scale (that in
C), or the first tone of the minor scale, which is named after it the
scale in A minor. The second string of the violin is tuned to the A
in the treble staff.
 — A sharp (A#) is the name of a musical tone intermediate between A
and B.
 — A flat (A) is the name of a tone intermediate between A and G.

A per se Etym: (L. per se by itself), one preëminent; a nonesuch.
O fair Creseide, the flower and A per se Of Troy and Greece. Chaucer.

A (# emph. #).

1. Etym: [Shortened form of an. AS. an one. See One.]

Defn: An adjective, commonly called the indefinite article, and signifying one or any, but less emphatically.

Defn: "At a birth"; "In a word"; "At a blow". Shak.

Note: It is placed before nouns of the singular number denoting an individual object, or a quality individualized, before collective nouns, and also before plural nouns when the adjective few or the phrase great many or good many is interposed; as, a dog, a house, a man; a color; a sweetness; a hundred, a fleet, a regiment; a few persons, a great many days. It is used for an, for the sake of euphony, before words beginning with a consonant sound [for exception of certain words beginning with h, see An]; as, a table, a woman, a year, a unit, a eulogy, a ewe, a oneness, such a one, etc. Formally an was used both before vowels and consonants.

2. Etym: [Originally the preposition a (an, on).]

Defn: In each; to or for each; as, "twenty leagues a day", "a hundred pounds a year", "a dollar a yard", etc.

A, prep. Etym: [Abbreviated form of an (AS. on). See On.]

1. In; on; at; by. [Obs.] "A God's name." "Torn a pieces." "Stand a tiptoe." "A Sundays" Shak. "Wit that men have now a days." Chaucer. "Set them a work." Robynson (More's Utopia)

2. In process of; in the act of; into; to; — used with verbal substantives in -ing which begin with a consonant. This is a shortened form of the preposition an (which was used before the vowel sound); as in a hunting, a building, a begging. "Jacob, when he was a dying" Heb. xi. 21. "We'll a birding together." " It was a doing." Shak. "He burst out a laughing." Macaulay. The hyphen may be used to connect a with the verbal substantive (as, a-hunting, a-building) or the words may be written separately. This form of expression is now for the most part obsolete, the a being omitted and the verbal substantive treated as a participle.

A. Etym: [From AS. of off, from. See Of.]

Defn: Of. [Obs.] "The name of John a Gaunt." "What time a day is it "
Shak. "It's six a clock." B. Jonson.

A A.

Defn: A barbarous corruption of have, of he, and sometimes of it and of they. "So would I a done" "A brushes his hat." Shak.

A A.

Defn: An expletive, void of sense, to fill up the meter
A merry heart goes all the day, Your sad tires in a mile-a. Shak.

A- A-

Defn: A, as a prefix to English words, is derived from various sources. (1) It frequently signifies on or in (from an, a forms of AS. on), denoting a state, as in afoot, on foot, abed, amiss, asleep, aground, aloft, away (AS. onweg), and analogically, ablaze, atremble, etc. (2) AS. of off, from, as in adown (AS. ofdüne off the dun or hill). (3) AS. a- (Goth. us-, ur-, Ger. er-), usually giving an intensive force, and sometimes the sense of away, on, back, as in arise, abide, ago. (4) Old English y- or i- (corrupted from the AS. inseparable particle ge-, cognate with OHG. ga-, gi-, Goth. ga-), which, as a prefix, made no essential addition to the meaning, as in aware. (5) French à (L. ad to), as in abase, achieve. (6) L. a, ab, abs, from, as in avert. (7) Greek insep. prefix a without, or privative, not, as in abyss, atheist; akin to E. un-.

Note: Besides these, there are other sources from which the prefix a takes its origin.

A 1 A 1. A registry mark given by underwriters (as at Lloyd's) to ships in first-class condition. Inferior grades are indicated by A 2 and A 3.

Note: A 1 is also applied colloquially to other things to imply superiority; prime; first-class; first-rate.

Aam, n. Etym: [D. aam, fr. LL. ama; cf. L. hama a water bucket, Gr.

Defn: A Dutch and German measure of liquids, varying in different cities, being at Amsterdam about 41 wine gallons, at Antwerp 36½, at Hamburg 38¼. [Written also Aum and Awm.]

Aard"-vark`, n. Etym: [D., earth-pig.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: An edentate mammal, of the genus Orycteropus, somewhat resembling a pig, common in some parts of Southern Africa. It burrows in the ground, and feeds entirely on ants, which it catches with its long, slimy tongue.

Aard"-wolf`, n. Etym: [D, earth-wolf] (Zoöl.)

Defn: A carnivorous quadruped (Proteles Lalandii), of South Africa, resembling the fox and hyena. See Proteles.

Aa*ron"ic, Aa*ron"ic*al, a.

Defn: Pertaining to Aaron, the first high priest of the Jews.

Aar"on's rod`. Etym: [See Exodus vii. 9 and Numbers xvii. 8]

1. (Arch.)

Defn: A rod with one serpent twined around it, thus differing from the caduceus of Mercury, which has two.

2. (Bot.)

Defn: A plant with a tall flowering stem; esp. the great mullein, or hag-taper, and the golden-rod.

Ab-. Etym: [Latin prep., etymologically the same as E. of, off. See Of.]

Defn: A prefix in many words of Latin origin. It signifies from, away , separating, or departure, as in abduct, abstract, abscond. See A- (6).

Ab, n. Etym: [Of Syriac origin.]

Defn: The fifth month of the Jewish year according to the ecclesiastical reckoning, the eleventh by the civil computation, coinciding nearly with August. W. Smith.

Ab"a*ca, n. Etym: [The native name.]

Defn: The Manila-hemp plant (Musa textilis); also, its fiber. See
Manila hemp under Manila.

ABACINATE A*bac"i*nate, v.t. Etym: [LL. abacinatus, p.p. of abacinare; ab off + bacinus a basin.]

Defn: To blind by a red-hot metal plate held before the eyes. [R.]

A*bac`i*na"tion, n.

Defn: The act of abacinating. [R.]

Ab`a*cis"cus, n. Etym: [Gr.Abacus.] (Arch.)

Defn: One of the tiles or squares of a tessellated pavement; an abaculus.

Ab"a*cist, n. Etym: [LL abacista, fr. abacus.]

Defn: One who uses an abacus in casting accounts; a calculator.

ABACK A*back", adv. Etym: [Pref. a- + back; AS. on bæc at, on, or toward the back. See Back.]

1. Toward the back or rear; backward. "Therewith aback she started." Chaucer.

2. Behind; in the rear. Knolles.

3. (Naut.)

Defn: Backward against the mast;-said of the sails when pressed by the wind. Totten. To be taken aback. (a) To be driven backward against the mast; — said of the sails, also of the ship when the sails are thus driven. (b) To be suddenly checked, baffled, or discomfited. Dickens.

Ab"ack, n.

Defn: An abacus. [Obs.] B. Jonson.

Ab*ac"ti*nal, a. Etym: [L. ab + E. actinal.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: Pertaining to the surface or end opposite to the mouth in a radiate animal; — opposed to actinal. "The aboral or abactinal area." L. Agassiz.

Ab*ac"tion, n.

Defn: Stealing cattle on a large scale. [Obs.]

ABACTOR Ab*ac"tor, n. Etym: [L., fr. abigere to drive away; ab+agere to drive.] (Law)

Defn: One who steals and drives away cattle or beasts by herds or droves. [Obs.]

A*bac"u*lus, n.; pl. Abaculi. Etym: [L., dim. of abacus.] (Arch.)

Defn: A small tile of glass, marble, or other substance, of various colors, used in making ornamental patterns in mosaic pavements. Fairholt.

Ab"a*cus, n. E. pl. Abacuses ; L. pl. Abaci. Etym: [L. abacus, abax,

1. A table or tray strewn with sand, anciently used for drawing, calculating, etc. [Obs.]

2. A calculating table or frame; an instrument for performing arithmetical calculations by balls sliding on wires, or counters in grooves, the lowest line representing units, the second line, tens, etc. It is still employed in China.

3. (Arch.) (a) The uppermost member or division of the capital of a column, immediately under the architrave. See Column. (b) A tablet, panel, or compartment in ornamented or mosaic work.

4. A board, tray, or table, divided into perforated compartments, for holding cups, bottles, or the like; a kind of cupboard, buffet, or sideboard. Abacus harmonicus (Mus.), an ancient diagram showing the structure and disposition of the keys of an instrument. Crabb.

Ab"a*da, n. Etym: [Pg., the female rhinoceros.]

Defn: The rhinoceros. [Obs.] Purchas.

ABADDON A*bad"don, n. Etym: [Heb. abaddon destruction, abyss, fr. abad to be lost, to perish.]

1. The destroyer, or angel of the bottomless pit; — the same as Apollyon and Asmodeus.

2. Hell; the bottomless pit. [Poetic] In all her gates, Abaddon rues Thy bold attempt. Milton.

ABAFT A*baft", prep. Etym: [Pref. a-on + OE. baft, baften, biaften, AS. beæftan; be by + æftan behind. See After, Aft, By.] (Naut.)

Defn: Behind; toward the stern from; as, abaft the wheelhouse. Abaft the beam. See under Beam.

A*baft", adv. (Naut.)

Defn: Toward the stern; aft; as, to go abaft.

ABAISANCE A*bai"sance, n. Etym: [For obeisance; confused with F. abaisser, E. abase]

Defn: Obeisance. [Obs.] Jonson.

A*bai"ser, n.

Defn: Ivory black or animal charcoal. Weale.

A*baist", p.p.

Defn: Abashed; confounded; discomfited. [Obs.] Chaucer.

ABALIENATE Ab*al"ien*ate, v.t. Etym: [L. abalienatus, p.p. of abalienare; ab + alienus foreign, alien. See Alien.]

1. (Civil Law)

Defn: To transfer the title of from one to another; to alienate.

2. To estrange; to withdraw. [Obs.]

3. To cause alienation of (mind). Sandys.

Ab*al`ien*a"tion, n. Etym: [L. abalienatio: cf. F. abalianation.]

Defn: The act of abalienating; alienation; estrangement. [Obs.]

Ab`a*lo"ne, n. (Zoöl.)

Defn: A univalve mollusk of the genus Haliotis. The shell is lined with mother-of-pearl, and used for ornamental purposes; the sea-ear. Several large species are found on the coast of California, clinging closely to the rocks.

A*band", v.t. Etym: [Contracted from abandon.]

1. To abandon. [Obs.] Enforced the kingdom to aband. Spenser.

2. To banish; to expel. [Obs.] Mir. for Mag.

ABANDON A*ban"don, v.t. [imp. & p.p. Abandoned; & vb.n. Abandoning.] Etym: [OF. abandoner, F.abandonner; a (L. ad)+bandon permission, authority, LL. bandum, bannum, public proclamation, interdiction, bannire to proclaim, summon: of Germanic origin; cf. Goth. bandwjan to show by signs, to designate OHG. banproclamation. The word meant to proclaim, put under a ban, put under control; hence, as in OE., to compel, subject, or to leave in the control of another, and hence, to give up. See Ban.]

1. To cast or drive out; to banish; to expel; to reject. [Obs.] That he might . . . abandon them from him. Udall. Being all this time abandoned from your bed. Shak.

2. To give up absolutely; to forsake entirely ; to renounce utterly; to relinquish all connection with or concern on; to desert, as a person to whom one owes allegiance or fidelity; to quit; to surrender. Hope was overthrown, yet could not be abandoned. I. Taylor.

3. Reflexively : To give (one's self) up without attempt at self- control ; to yield (one's self) unrestrainedly ; — often in a bad sense. He abandoned himself . . . to his favorite vice. Macaulay.

4. (Mar. Law)

Defn: To relinquish all claim to; — used when an insured person gives up to underwriters all claim to the property covered by a policy, which may remain after loss or damage by a peril insured against.

Syn. — To give up; yield; forego; cede; surrender; resign; abdicate; quit; relinquish; renounce; desert; forsake; leave; retire; withdraw from. — To Abandon, Desert, Forsake. These words agree in representing a person as giving up or leaving some object, but differ as to the mode of doing it. The distinctive sense of abandon is that of giving up a thing absolutely and finally; as, to abandon one's friends, places, opinions, good or evil habits, a hopeless enterprise, a shipwrecked vessel. Abandon is more widely applicable than forsake or desert. The Latin original of desert appears to have been originally applied to the case of deserters from military service. Hence, the verb, when used of persons in the active voice, has usually or always a bad sense, implying some breach of fidelity, honor, etc., the leaving of something which the person should rightfully stand by and support; as, to desert one's colors, to desert one's post, to desert one's principles or duty. When used in the passive, the sense is not necessarily bad; as, the fields were deserted, a deserted village, deserted halls. Forsake implies the breaking off of previous habit, association, personal connection, or that the thing left had been familiar or frequented; as, to forsake old friends, to forsake the paths of rectitude, the blood forsook his cheeks. It may be used either in a good or in a bad sense.

A*ban"don, n. Etym: [F. abandon. fr. abandonner. See Abandon, v.]

Defn: Abandonment; relinquishment. [Obs.]

A`ban`don", n. Etym: [F. See Abandon.]

Defn: A complete giving up to natural impulses; freedom from artificial constraint; careless freedom or ease.

A*ban"doned, a.

1. Forsaken, deserted. "Your abandoned streams." Thomson.

2. Self-abandoned, or given up to vice; extremely wicked, or sinning without restraint; irreclaimably wicked ; as, an abandoned villain.

Syn. — Profligate; dissolute; corrupt; vicious; depraved; reprobate; wicked; unprincipled; graceless; vile. — Abandoned, Profligate, Reprobate. These adjectives agree in expressing the idea of great personal depravity. Profligate has reference to open and shameless immoralities, either in private life or political conduct; as, a profligate court, a profligate ministry. Abandoned is stronger, and has reference to the searing of conscience and hardening of heart produced by a man's giving himself wholly up to iniquity; as, a man of abandoned character. Reprobate describes the condition of one who has become insensible to reproof, and who is morally abandoned and lost beyond hope of recovery. God gave them over to a reprobate mind. Rom. i. 28.

A*ban"doned*ly, adv.

Defn: Unrestrainedly.

A*ban`don*ee", n. (Law)

Defn: One to whom anything is legally abandoned.

A*ban"don*er, n.

Defn: One who abandons. Beau. & Fl.

A*ban"don*ment, n. Etym: [Cf. F. abandonnement.]

1. The act of abandoning, or the state of being abandoned; total desertion; relinquishment. The abandonment of the independence of Europe. Burke.

2. (Mar. Law)

Defn: The relinquishment by the insured to the underwriters of what may remain of the property insured after a loss or damage by a peril insured against.

3. (Com. Law)

Defn: (a) The relinquishment of a right, claim, or privilege, as to mill site, etc. (b) The voluntary leaving of a person to whom one is bound by a special relation, as a wife, husband, or child; desertion.

4. Careless freedom or ease; abandon. [R.] Carlyle.

A*ban"*dum, n. Etym: [LL. See Abandon.] (Law)

Defn: Anything forfeited or confiscated.

Ab"a*net, n.

Defn: See Abnet.

A*ban"ga, n. Etym: [Name given by the negroes in the island of St.

Defn: A West Indian palm; also the fruit of this palm, the seeds of which are used as a remedy for diseases of the chest.

ABANNATION; ABANNITION Ab`an*na"tion, Ab`an*nition, n. Etym: [LL. abannatio; ad + LL. bannire to banish.] (Old Law)

Defn: Banishment. [Obs.] Bailey.

ABARTICULATION Ab`ar*tic`u*la"tion, n. Etym: [L. ab + E. articulation : cf. F. abarticulation. See Article.] (Anat.)

Defn: Articulation, usually that kind of articulation which admits of free motion in the joint; diarthrosis. Coxe.

A*base", v.t. [imp.&p.p. Abased; & vb. n. Abasing.] Etym: [F.
abaisser, LL. abassare, abbassare ; ad + bassare, fr. bassus low. See
Base, a.]

1. To lower or depress; to throw or cast down; as, to abase the eye. [Archaic] Bacon. Saying so, he abased his lance. Shelton.

2. To cast down or reduce low or lower, as in rank, office, condition in life, or estimation of worthiness; to depress; to humble; to degrade. Whosoever exalteth himself shall be abased. Luke xiv. ll.

Syn. — To Abase, Debase, Degrade. These words agree in the idea of bringing down from a higher to a lower state. Abase has reference to a bringing down in condition or feelings; as to abase one's self before God. Debase has reference to the bringing down of a thing in purity, or making it base. It is, therefore, always used in a bad sense, as, to debase the coin of the kingdom, to debase the mind by vicious indulgence, to debase one's style by coarse or vulgar expressions. Degrade has reference to a bringing down from some higher grade or from some standard. Thus, a priest is degraded from the clerical office. When used in a moral sense, it denotes a bringing down in character and just estimation; as, degraded by intemperance, a degrading employment, etc. "Art is degraded when it is regarded only as a trade."

A*based", a.

1. Lowered; humbled.

2. (Her.) Etym: [F. abaissé.]

Defn: Borne lower than usual, as a fess; also, having the ends of the wings turned downward towards the point of the shield.

A*bas"ed*ly, adv.

Defn: Abjectly; downcastly.

A*base"ment, n. Etym: [Cf. F. abaissement.]

Defn: The act of abasing, humbling, or bringing low; the state of being abased or humbled; humiliation.

A*bas"er, n.

Defn: He who, or that which, abases.

A*bash", v.t. [imp. & p.p. Abashed; & vb. n. Abashing.] Etym:
[OE. abaissen, abaisshen, abashen, OF.esbahir, F. ébahir, to
astonish, fr. L. ex + the interjection bah, expressing astonishment.
In OE. somewhat confused with abase. Cf. Finish.]

Defn: To destroy the self-possession of; to confuse or confound, as by exciting suddenly a consciousness of guilt, mistake, or inferiority; to put to shame; to disconcert; to discomfit. Abashed, the devil stood, And felt how awful goodness is. Milton. He was a man whom no check could abash. Macaulay.

Syn. — To confuse; confound; disconcert; shame. — To Abash, Confuse, Confound. Abash is a stronger word than confuse, but not so strong as confound. We are abashed when struck either with sudden shame or with a humbling sense of inferiority; as, Peter was abashed in the presence of those who are greatly his superiors. We are confused when, from some unexpected or startling occurrence, we lose clearness of thought and self-possession. Thus, a witness is often confused by a severe cross-examination; a timid person is apt to be confused in entering a room full of strangers. We are confounded when our minds are overwhelmed, as it were, by something wholly unexpected, amazing, dreadful, etc., so that we have nothing to say. Thus, a criminal is usually confounded at the discovery of his guilt. Satan stood Awhile as mute, confounded what to say. Milton.

A*bash"ed*ly, adv.

Defn: In an abashed manner.

A*bash"ment, n. Etym: [Cf. F. ébahissement.]

Defn: The state of being abashed; confusion from shame.

A*ba"si*a, n. [NL.; Gr. - not + a step.] (Med.)

Defn: Inability to coördinate muscular actions properly in walking. -
- A*ba"sic (#), a.

ABASSI; ABASSIS A*bas"si, A*bas"sis, n. Etym: [Ar.& Per. abasi, belonging to Abas (a king of Persia).]

Defn: A silver coin of Persia, worth about twenty cents.

A*bat"a*ble, a.

Defn: Capable of being abated; as, an abatable writ or nuisance.

ABATE A*bate", v.t. [imp.& p.p. Abated, & vb.n. Abating.] Etym: [OF. abatre to beat down, F. abattre, LL. abatere; ab or ad + batere, battere (popular form for L. batuere to beat). Cf. Bate, Batter.]

1. To beat down; to overthrow. [Obs.] The King of Scots . . . sore abated the walls. Edw. Hall.

2. To bring down or reduce from a higher to a lower state, number, or degree; to lessen; to diminish; to contract; to moderate; toto cut short; as, to abate a demand; to abate pride, zeal, hope. His eye was not dim, nor his natural force abated. Deut. xxxiv. 7.

3. To deduct; to omit; as, to abate something from a price. Nine thousand parishes, abating the odd hundreds. Fuller.

4. To blunt. [Obs.] To abate the edge of envy. Bacon.

5. To reduce in estimation; to deprive. [Obs.] She hath abated me of half my train. Shak.

6. (Law)

Defn: (a) To bring entirely down or put an end to; to do away with; as, to abate a nuisance, to abate a writ. (b) (Eng. Law) To diminish; to reduce. Legacies are liable to be abated entirely or in proportion, upon a deficiency of assets. To abate a tax, to remit it either wholly or in part.

A*bate", v.i. Etym: [See Abate, v.t.]

1. To decrease, or become less in strength or violence; as, pain abates, a storm abates. The fury of Glengarry . . . rapidly abated. Macaulay.

2. To be defeated, or come to naught; to fall through; to fail; as, a writ abates. To abate into a freehold, To abate in lands (Law), to enter into a freehold after the death of the last possessor, and before the heir takes possession. See Abatement, 4.

Syn. — To subside; decrease; intermit; decline; diminish; lessen. — To Abate, Subside. These words, as here compared, imply a coming down from some previously raised or exited state. Abate expresses this in respect to degrees, and implies a diminution of force or of intensity; as, the storm abates, the cold abates, the force of the wind abates; or, the wind abates, a fever abates. Subside (to settle down) has reference to a previous state of agitation or commotion; as, the waves subside after a storm, the wind subsides into a calm. When the words are used figuratively, the same distinction should be observed. If we conceive of a thing as having different degrees of intensity or strength, the word to be used is abate. Thus we say, a man's anger abates, the ardor of one's love abates, "Winter rage abates". But if the image be that of a sinking down into quiet from preceding excitement or commotion, the word to be used is subside; as, the tumult of the people subsides, the public mind subsided into a calm. The same is the case with those emotions which are tumultuous in their nature; as, his passion subsides, his joy quickly subsided, his grief subsided into a pleasing melancholy. Yet if, in such cases, we were thinking of the degree of violence of the emotion, we might use abate; as, his joy will abate in the progress of time; and so in other instances.

A*bate, n.

Defn: Abatement. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

A*bate"ment, n. Etym: [OF. abatement, F. abattement.]

1. The act of abating, or the state of being abated; a lessening, diminution, or reduction; removal or putting an end to; as, the abatement of a nuisance is the suppression thereof.

2. The amount abated; that which is taken away by way of reduction; deduction; decrease; a rebate or discount allowed.

3. (Her.)

Defn: A mark of dishonor on an escutcheon.

4. (Law)

Defn: The entry of a stranger, without right, into a freehold after the death of the last possessor, before the heir or devisee. Blackstone. Defense in abatement, Plea in abatement, (Law), plea to the effect that from some formal defect (e.g. misnomer, want of jurisdiction) the proceedings should be abated.

A*bat"er, n.

Defn: One who, or that which, abates.

ABATIS; ABATTIS Ab"a*tis, Aba"t*tis, n. Etym: [F. abatis, abattis, mass of things beaten or cut down, fr. abattre. See Abate.] (Fort.)

Defn: A means of defense formed by felled trees, the ends of whose branches are sharpened and directed outwards, or against the enemy.

Ab"a*tised, a.

Defn: Provided with an abatis.

A*ba"tor, n. (Law)

Defn: (a) One who abates a nuisance. (b) A person who, without right, enters into a freehold on the death of the last possessor, before the heir or devisee. Blackstone.

A`bat`toir", n.; pl. Abattoirs. Etym: [F., fr. abattre to beat down.
See Abate.]

Defn: A public slaughterhouse for cattle, sheep, etc.

Ab"a*ture, n. Etym: [F. abatture, fr. abattre. See Abate.]

Defn: Grass and sprigs beaten or trampled down by a stag passing through them. Crabb.

A`bat`voix", n. Etym: [F. abattre to beat down + voix voice.]

Defn: The sounding-board over a pulpit or rostrum.

ABAWED Ab*awed", p.p. Etym: [Perh. p.p. of a verb fr. OF. abaubir to frighten, disconcert, fr. L. ad + balbus stammering.]

Defn: Astonished; abashed. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Ab*ax"i*al, Ab*ax"ile, a. Etym: [L. ab + axis axle.] (Bot.)

Defn: Away from the axis or central line; eccentric. Balfour.

A*bay", n. Etym: [OF. abay barking.]

Defn: Barking; baying of dogs upon their prey. See Bay. [Obs.]

Abb, n. Etym: [AS. aweb, ab; pref. a- + web. See Web.]

Defn: Among weaves, yarn for the warp. Hence, abb wool is wool for the abb.

Ab"ba, n. Etym: [Syriac abba father. See Abbot.]

Defn: Father; religious superior; — in the Syriac, Coptic, and Ethiopic churches, a title given to the bishops, and by the bishops to the patriarch.

ABBACY Ab"ba*cy, n.; pl. Abbacies. Etym: [L. abbatia, fr. abbas, abbatis, abbot. See Abbey.]

Defn: The dignity, estate, or jurisdiction of an abbot.

Ab*ba"tial, a. Etym: [LL. abbatialis : cf. F. abbatial.]

Defn: Belonging to an abbey; as, abbatial rights.

Ab*bat"ic*al, a.

Defn: Abbatial. [Obs.]

Ab"bé`, n.Etym: [F. abbé. See Abbot.]

Defn: The French word answering to the English abbot, the head of an abbey; but commonly a title of respect given in France to every one vested with the ecclesiastical habit or dress.

Note: * After the 16th century, the name was given, in social parlance, to candidates for some priory or abbey in the gift of the crown. Many of these aspirants became well known in literary and fashionable life. By further extension, the name came to be applied to unbeneficed secular ecclesiastics generally. Littré.

ABBESS Ab"bess, n. Etym: [OF.abaesse, abeesse, F. abbesse, L. abbatissa, fem. of abbas, abbatis, abbot. See Abbot.]

Defn: A female superior or governess of a nunnery, or convent of nuns, having the same authority over the nuns which the abbots have over the monks. See Abbey.

ABBEY Ab"bey, n.; pl. Abbeys. Etym: [OF. abaïe, F. abbaye, L. abbatia, fr. abbas abbot. See Abbot.]

1. A monastery or society of persons of either sex, secluded from the world and devoted to religion and celibacy; also, the monastic building or buildings.

Note: The men are called monks, and governed by an abbot; the women are called nuns, and governed by an abbess.

2. The church of a monastery.

Note: In London, the Abbey means Westminster Abbey, and in Scotland, the precincts of the Abbey of Holyrood. The name is also retained for a private residence on the site of an abbey; as, Newstead Abbey, the residence of Lord Byron.

 — Monastery; convent; nunnery; priory; cloister. See Cloister.

ABBOT Ab"bot, n. Etym: [AS. abbod, abbad, L. abbas, abbatis, Gr. abba father. Cf. Abba, AbbÉ.]

1. The superior or head of an abbey.

2. One of a class of bishops whose sees were formerly abbeys. Encyc. Brit. Abbot of the people. a title formerly given to one of the chief magistrates in Genoa. — Abbot of Misrule (or Lord of Misrule), in mediæval times, the master of revels, as at Christmas; in Scotland called the Abbot of Unreason. Encyc. Brit.

Ab"bot*ship, n. Etym: [Abbot + -ship.]

Defn: The state or office of an abbot.

Ab*bre"vi*ate, v.t. [imp. & p.p. Abbreviated; & vb.n.
Abbreviating.] Etym: [L. abbreviatus, p.p. of abbreviare; ad +
breviare to shorten, fr. brevis short. See Abridge.]

1. To make briefer; to shorten; to abridge; to reduce by contraction or omission, especially of words written or spoken. It is one thing to abbreviate by contracting, another by cutting off. Bacon.

2. (Math.)

Defn: To reduce to lower terms, as a fraction.

Ab*bre"vi*ate, a. Etym: [L. abbreviatus, p.p.]

1. Abbreviated; abridged; shortened. [R.] "The abbreviate form." Earle.

2. (Biol.)

Defn: Having one part relatively shorter than another or than the ordinary type.

Ab*bre"vi*ate, n.

Defn: An abridgment. [Obs.] Elyot.

Ab*bre"vi*a`ted, a.

Defn: Shortened; relatively short; abbreviate.

Ab*bre`vi*a"tion, n. Etym: [LL. abbreviatio: cf. F. abbréviation.]

1. The act of shortening, or reducing.

2. The result of abbreviating; an abridgment. Tylor.

3. The form to which a word or phrase is reduced by contraction and omission; a letter or letters, standing for a word or phrase of which they are a part; as, Gen. for Genesis; U.S.A. for United States of America.

4. (Mus.)

Defn: One dash, or more, through the stem of a note, dividing it respectively into quavers, semiquavers, or demi-semiquavers. Moore.

Ab*bre"vi*a`tor, n. Etym: [LL.: cf. F. abbréviateur.]

1. One who abbreviates or shortens.

2. One of a college of seventy-two officers of the papal court whose duty is to make a short minute of a decision on a petition, or reply of the pope to a letter, and afterwards expand the minute into official form.

Ab*bre"vi*a*to*ry, a.

Defn: Serving or tending to abbreviate; shortening; abridging.

Ab*bre"vi*a*ture, n.

1. An abbreviation; an abbreviated state or form. [Obs.]

2. An abridgment; a compendium or abstract. This is an excellent abbreviature of the whole duty of a Christian. Jer. Taylor.

Abb" wool.

Defn: See Abb.

A B C A B C".

1. The first three letters of the alphabet, used for the whole alphabet.

2. A primer for teaching the alphabet and first elements of reading. [Obs.]

3. The simplest rudiments of any subject; as, the A B C of finance. A B C book, a primer. Shak.

ABDAL Ab"dal, n. Etym: [Ar. badil, pl. abdal, a substitute, a good, religious man, saint, fr. badala to change, substitute.]

Defn: A religious devotee or dervish in Persia.

Ab*de"ri*an, a. Etym: [From Abdera, a town in Thrace, of which place
Democritus, the Laughing Philosopher, was a native.]

Defn: Given to laughter; inclined to foolish or incessant merriment.

Ab*de"rite, n. Etym: [L. Abderita, Abderites, fr. Gr. '

Defn: An inhabitant of Abdera, in Thrace. The Abderite, Democritus, the Laughing Philosopher.

Ab"dest, n. Etym: [Per. abdast; ab water + dast hand.]

Defn: Purification by washing the hands before prayer; — a
Mohammedan rite. Heyse.

Ab"di*ca*ble, a.

Defn: Capable of being abdicated.

Ab"di*cant, a. Etym: [L. abdicans, of abdicare.]

Defn: Abdicating; renouncing; — followed by of.
Monks abdicant of their orders. Whitlock.

Ab"di*cant, n.

Defn: One who abdicates. Smart.

Ab"di*cate, v.t. [imp. & p.p. Abdicated; & vb.n. Abdicating.]
Etym: [L. abdicatus, p.p. of abdicare; ab + dicare to proclaim, akin
to dicere to say. See Diction.]

1. To surrender or relinquish, as sovereign power; to withdraw definitely from filling or exercising, as a high office, station, dignity; as, to abdicate the throne, the crown, the papacy.

Note: The word abdicate was held to mean, in the case of James II., to abandon without a formal surrender. The cross-bearers abdicated their service. Gibbon.

2. To renounce; to relinquish; — said of authority, a trust, duty,
right, etc.
He abdicates all right to be his own governor. Burke.
The understanding abdicates its functions. Froude.

3. To reject; to cast off. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.

4. (Civil Law)

Defn: To disclaim and expel from the family, as a father his child; to disown; to disinherit.

Syn. — To give up; quit; vacate; relinquish; forsake; abandon; resign; renounce; desert. — To Abdicate, Resign. Abdicate commonly expresses the act of a monarch in voluntary and formally yielding up sovereign authority; as, to abdicate the government. Resign is applied to the act of any person, high or low, who gives back an office or trust into the hands of him who conferred it. Thus, a minister resigns, a military officer resigns, a clerk resigns. The expression, "The king resigned his crown," sometimes occurs in our later literature, implying that he held it from his people. — There are other senses of resign which are not here brought into view.

Ab"di*cate, v.i.

Defn: To relinquish or renounce a throne, or other high office or
Though a king may abdicate for his own person, he cannot abdicate for
the monarchy. Burke.

Ab`di*ca"tion, n. Etym: [L. abdicatio: cf. F. abdication.]

Defn: The act of abdicating; the renunciation of a high office, dignity, or trust, by its holder; commonly the voluntary renunciation of sovereign power; as, abdication of the throne, government, power, authority.

Ab"di*ca*tive, a. Etym: [L. abdicativus.]

Defn: Causing, or implying, abdication. [R.] Bailey.

Ab"di*ca`tor, n.

Defn: One who abdicates.

Ab"di*tive, a. Etym: [L. abditivus, fr. abdere to hide.]

Defn: Having the quality of hiding. [R.] Bailey.

Ab"di*to*ry, n. Etym: [L. abditorium.]

Defn: A place for hiding or preserving articles of value. Cowell.

ABDOMEN Ab*do"men, n. Etym: [L. abdomen (a word of uncertain etymol.): cf. F. abdomen.]

1. (Anat.)

Defn: The belly, or that part of the body between the thorax and the pelvis. Also, the cavity of the belly, which is lined by the peritoneum, and contains the stomach, bowels, and other viscera. In man, often restricted to the part between the diaphragm and the commencement of the pelvis, the remainder being called the pelvic cavity.

2. (Zoöl.)

Defn: The posterior section of the body, behind the thorax, in insects, crustaceans, and other Arthropoda.

Ab*dom"i*nal, a. Etym: [Cf. F. abdominal.]

1. Of or pertaining to the abdomen; ventral; as, the abdominal regions, muscles, cavity.

2. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Having abdominal fins; belonging to the Abdominales; as, abdominal fishes. Abdominal ring (Anat.), a fancied ringlike opening on each side of the abdomen, external and superior to the pubes; — called also inguinal ring.

Ab*dom"i*nal, n.; E. pl. Abdominals, L. pl. Abdominales.

Defn: A fish of the group Abdominales.

Ab*dom`i*na"les, n. pl. Etym: [NL., masc. pl.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: A group including the greater part of fresh-water fishes, and many marine ones, having the ventral fins under the abdomen behind the pectorals.

Ab*dom`i*na"li*a, n. pl. Etym: [NL., neut. pl.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: A group of cirripeds having abdominal appendages.

Ab*dom`i*nos"co*py, n. Etym: [L. abdomen + Gr. (Med.)

Defn: Examination of the abdomen to detect abdominal disease.

Ab*dom`i*no*tho*rac"ic, a.

Defn: Relating to the abdomen and the thorax, or chest.

Ab*dom"i*nous, a.

Defn: Having a protuberant belly; pot-bellied. Gorgonius sits, abdominous and wan, Like a fat squab upon a Chinese fan. Cowper.

Ab*duce", v.t. [imp. & p.p. Abduced; & vb.n. Abducing.] Etym:
[L. abducere to lead away; ab + ducere to lead. See Duke, and cf.

Defn: To draw or conduct away; to withdraw; to draw to a different
part. [Obs.]
If we abduce the eye unto either corner, the object will not
duplicate. Sir T. Browne.

Ab*duct", v.t. [imp. & p.p. Abducted; & vb.n. Abducting.] Etym:
[L. abductus, p.p. of abducere. See Abduce.]

1. To take away surreptitiously by force; to carry away (a human being) wrongfully and usually by violence; to kidnap.

2. To draw away, as a limb or other part, from its ordinary position.

Ab*duc"tion, n. Etym: [L. abductio: cf. F. abduction.]

1. The act of abducing or abducting; a drawing apart; a carrying away. Roget.

2. (Physiol.)

Defn: The movement which separates a limb or other part from the axis, or middle line, of the body.

3. (Law)

Defn: The wrongful, and usually the forcible, carrying off of a human being; as, the abduction of a child, the abduction of an heiress.

4. (Logic)

Defn: A syllogism or form of argument in which the major is evident, but the minor is only probable.

Ab*duc"tor, n. Etym: [NL.]

1. One who abducts.

2. (Anat.)

Defn: A muscle which serves to draw a part out, or form the median line of the body; as, the abductor oculi, which draws the eye outward.

A*beam", adv. Etym: [Pref. a- + beam.] (Naut.)

Defn: On the beam, that is, on a line which forms a right angle with the ship's keel; opposite to the center of the ship's side.

A*bear", v.t. Etym: [AS. aberan; pref. a- + beran to bear.]

1. To bear; to behave. [Obs.] So did the faery knight himself abear. Spenser.

2. To put up with; to endure. [Prov.] Dickens.

A*bear"ance, n.

Defn: Behavior. [Obs.] Blackstone.

A*bear"ing, n.

Defn: Behavior. [Obs.] Sir. T. More.

ABECEDARIAN A`be*ce*da"ri*an, n. Etym: [L. abecedarius. A word from the first four letters of the alphabet.]

1. One who is learning the alphabet; hence, a tyro.

2. One engaged in teaching the alphabet. Wood.

A`be*ce*da"ri*an, A`be*ce"da*ry, a.

Defn: Pertaining to, or formed by, the letters of the alphabet; alphabetic; hence, rudimentary. Abecedarian psalms, hymns, etc., compositions in which (like the 119th psalm in Hebrew) distinct portions or verses commence with successive letters of the alphabet. Hook.

A`be*ce"da*ry, n.

Defn: A primer; the first principle or rudiment of anything. [R.]

A*bed", adv. Etym: [Pref. a- in, on + bed.]

1. In bed, or on the bed. Not to be abed after midnight. Shak.

2. To childbed (in the phrase "brought abed," that is, delivered of a child). Shak.


Defn: Same as Aby. [Obs.] Chaucer.

ABELE A*bele", n. Etym: [D. abeel (abeel-boom), OF. abel, aubel, fr. a dim. of L. albus white.]

Defn: The white polar (Populus alba).
Six abeles i' the churchyard grow. Mrs. Browning.

A*bel"i*an, A"bel*ite, A`bel*o"ni*an, n. (Eccl. Hist.)

Defn: One of a sect in Africa (4th century), mentioned by St. Augustine, who states that they married, but lived in continence, after the manner, as they pretended, of Abel.

ABELMOSK A"bel*mosk`, n. Etym: [NL. abelmoschus, fr. Ar. abu-l-misk father of musk, i.e., producing musk. See Musk.] (Bot.)

Defn: An evergreen shrub (Hibiscus — formerly Abelmoschus- moschatus), of the East and West Indies and Northern Africa, whose musky seeds are used in perfumery and to flavor coffee; — sometimes called musk mallow.

Ab`er-de-vine", n. (Zoöl.)

Defn: The European siskin (Carduelis spinus), a small green and yellow finch, related to the goldfinch.

Ab*err", v.i. Etym: [L. aberrare. See Aberrate.]

Defn: To wander; to stray. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

Ab*er"rance, Ab*er"ran*cy, n.

Defn: State of being aberrant; a wandering from the right way; deviation from truth, rectitude, etc. Aberrancy of curvature (Geom.), the deviation of a curve from a circular form.

Ab*er"rant, a. Etym: [L. aberrans, -rantis, of aberrare.]

Defn: See Aberr.]

1. Wandering; straying from the right way.

2. (Biol.)

Defn: Deviating from the ordinary or natural type; exceptional;
The more aberrant any form is, the greater must have been the number
of connecting forms which, on my theory, have been exterminated.

ABERRATE Ab"er*rate, v.i. Etym: [L. aberratus, of aberrare; ab + errare to wander. See Err.]

Defn: To go astray; to diverge. [R.]
Their own defective and aberrating vision. De Quincey.

Ab`er*ra"tion, n. Etym: [L. aberratio: cf. F. aberration. See

1. The act of wandering; deviation, especially from truth or moral rectitude, from the natural state, or from a type. "The aberration of youth." Hall. "Aberrations from theory." Burke.

2. A partial alienation of reason. "Occasional aberrations of intellect." Lingard. Whims, which at first are the aberrations of a single brain, pass with heat into epidemic form. I. Taylor.

3. (Astron.)

Defn: A small periodical change of position in the stars and other heavenly bodies, due to the combined effect of the motion of light and the motion of the observer; called annual aberration, when the observer's motion is that of the earth in its orbit, and dairy or diurnal aberration, when of the earth on its axis; amounting when greatest, in the former case, to 20.4'', and in the latter, to 0.3''. Planetary aberration is that due to the motion of light and the motion of the planet relative to the earth.

4. (Opt.)

Defn: The convergence to different foci, by a lens or mirror, of rays of light emanating from one and the same point, or the deviation of such rays from a single focus; called spherical aberration, when due to the spherical form of the lens or mirror, such form giving different foci for central and marginal rays; and chromatic aberration, when due to different refrangibilities of the colored rays of the spectrum, those of each color having a distinct focus.

5. (Physiol.)

Defn: The passage of blood or other fluid into parts not appropriate for it.

6. (Law)

Defn: The producing of an unintended effect by the glancing of an instrument, as when a shot intended for A glances and strikes B.

Syn. — Insanity; lunacy; madness; derangement; alienation; mania; dementia; hallucination; illusion; delusion. See Insanity.

Ab`er*ra"tion*al, a.

Defn: Characterized by aberration.

Ab`e*run"cate, v.t. Etym: [L. aberuncare, for aberruncare. See

Defn: To weed out. [Obs.] Bailey.

Ab`e*run"ca*tor, n.

Defn: A weeding machine.

ABET A*bet", v.t. [imp. & p.p. Abetted; & vb.n. Abetting.] Etym: [OF. abeter; a (L. ad) + beter to bait (as a bear), fr. Icel. beita to set dogs on, to feed, originally, to cause to bite, fr. Icel. bita to bite, hence to bait, to incite. See Bait, Bet.]

1. To instigate or encourage by aid or countenance; — used in a bad sense of persons and acts; as, to abet an ill-doer; to abet one in his wicked courses; to abet vice; to abet an insurrection. "The whole tribe abets the villany." South. Would not the fool abet the stealth, Who rashly thus exposed his wealth Gay.

2. To support, uphold, or aid; to maintain; — in a good sense. [Obs.]. Our duty is urged, and our confidence abetted. Jer. Taylor.

3. (Law)

Defn: To contribute, as an assistant or instigator, to the commission of an offense.

Syn. — To incite; instigate; set on; egg on; foment; advocate; countenance; encourage; second; uphold; aid; assist; support; sustain; back; connive at.

A*bet", n. Etym: [OF. abet, fr. abeter.]

Defn: Act of abetting; aid. [Obs.] Chaucer.

A*bet"ment, n.

Defn: The act of abetting; as, an abetment of treason, crime, etc.

A*bet"tal, n.

Defn: Abetment. [R.]

A*bet"ter, A*bet*tor, n.

Defn: One who abets; an instigator of an offense or an offender.

Note: The form abettor is the legal term and also in general use.

Syn. — Abettor, Accessory, Accomplice. These words denote different degrees of complicity in some deed or crime. An abettor is one who incites or encourages to the act, without sharing in its performance. An accessory supposes a principal offender. One who is neither the chief actor in an offense, nor present at its performance, but accedes to or becomes involved in its guilt, either by some previous or subsequent act, as of instigating, encouraging, aiding, or concealing, etc., is an accessory. An accomplice is one who participates in the commission of an offense, whether as principal or accessory. Thus in treason, there are no abettors or accessories, but all are held to be principals or accomplices.

Ab`e*vac"u*a"tion, n. Etym: [Pref. ab- + evacuation.] (Med.)

Defn: A partial evacuation. Mayne.

A*bey"ance, n. Etym: [OF. abeance expectation, longing; a (L. ad) +
baer, beer, to gape, to look with open mouth, to expect, F. bayer,
LL. badare to gape.]

1. (Law)

Defn: Expectancy; condition of being undetermined.

Note: When there is no person in existence in whom an inheritance (or a dignity) can vest, it is said to be in abeyance, that is, in expectation; the law considering it as always potentially existing, and ready to vest whenever a proper owner appears. Blackstone.

2. Suspension; temporary suppression. Keeping the sympathies of love and admiration in a dormant state, or state of abeyance. De Quincey.

A*bey"an*cy, n.

Defn: Abeyance. [R.] Hawthorne.

A*bey"ant, a.

Defn: Being in a state of abeyance.

Ab"ge*ord`ne*ten*haus`, n. [G.]

Defn: See Legislature, Austria, Prussia.

Ab"hal, n.

Defn: The berries of a species of cypress in the East Indies.

Ab*hom"i*na*ble, a.

Defn: Abominable.

Note: [A false orthography anciently used; h was foisted into various
words; hence abholish, for abolish, etc.]
This is abhominable, which he [Don Armado] would call abominable.
Shak. Love's Labor's Lost, v. 1.

Ab*hom`i*nal, a. Etym: [L. ab away from + homo, hominis, man.]

Defn: Inhuman. [Obs.] Fuller.

Ab*hor", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Abhorred; p. pr. & vb. n. Abhorring.]
Etym: [L. abhorrere; ab + horrere to bristle, shiver, shudder: cf. F.
abhorrer. See Horrid.]

1. To shrink back with shuddering from; to regard with horror or detestation; to feel excessive repugnance toward; to detest to extremity; to loathe. Abhor that which is evil; cleave to that which is good. Rom. xii. 9.

2. To fill with horror or disgust. [Obs.] It doth abhor me now I speak the word. Shak.

3. (Canon Law)

Defn: To protest against; to reject solemnly. [Obs.]
I utterly abhor, yea, from my soul Refuse you for my judge. Shak.

 — To hate; detest; loathe; abominate. See Hate.

Ab*hor", v. i.

Defn: To shrink back with horror, disgust, or dislike; to be contrary or averse; — with from. [Obs.] "To abhor from those vices." Udall. Which is utterly abhorring from the end of all law. Milton.

Ab*hor"rence, n.

Defn: Extreme hatred or detestation; the feeling of utter dislike.

Ab*hor"ren*cy, n.

Defn: Abhorrence. [Obs.] Locke.

Ab*hor"rent, a. Etym: [L. abhorens, -rentis, p. pr. of abhorrere.]

1. Abhorring; detesting; having or showing abhorrence; loathing; hence, strongly opposed to; as, abhorrent thoughts. The persons most abhorrent from blood and treason. Burke. The arts of pleasure in despotic courts I spurn abhorrent. Clover.

2. Contrary or repugnant; discordant; inconsistent; — followed by to. "Injudicious profanation, so abhorrent to our stricter principles." Gibbon.

3. Detestable. "Pride, abhorrent as it is." I. Taylor.

Ab*hor"rent*ly, adv.

Defn: With abhorrence.

Ab*hor"rer, n.

Defn: One who abhors. Hume.

Ab*hor"ri*ble, a.

Defn: Detestable. [R.]

Ab*hor"ring, n.

1. Detestation. Milton.

2. Object of abhorrence. Isa. lxvi. 24.

ABIB A"bib, n. Etym: [Heb. abib, lit. an ear of corn. The month was so called from barley being at that time in ear.]

Defn: The first month of the Jewish ecclesiastical year, corresponding nearly to our April. After the Babylonish captivity this month was called Nisan. Kitto.

A*bid"ance, n.

Defn: The state of abiding; abode; continuance; compliance (with).
The Christians had no longer abidance in the holy hill of Palestine.
A judicious abidance by rules. Helps.

A*bide", v. i. [imp. & p. p. Abode, formerly Abid(#); p. pr. & vb. n.
Abiding.] Etym: [AS. abidan; pref. a- (cf. Goth. us-, G. er-, orig.
meaning out) + bidan to bide. See Bide.]

1. To wait; to pause; to delay. [Obs.] Chaucer.

2. To stay; to continue in a place; to have one's abode; to dwell; to sojourn; — with with before a person, and commonly with at or in before a place. Let the damsel abide with us a few days. Gen. xxiv. 55.

3. To remain stable or fixed in some state or condition; to continue; to remain. Let every man abide in the same calling. 1 Cor. vii. 20. Followed by by: To abide by. (a) To stand to; to adhere; to maintain. The poor fellow was obstinate enough to abide by what he said at first. Fielding. (b) To acquiesce; to conform to; as, to abide by a decision or an award.

A*bide", v. t.

1. To wait for; to be prepared for; to await; to watch for; as, I abide my time. "I will abide the coming of my lord." Tennyson.

Note: [[Obs.], with a personal object.
Bonds and afflictions abide me. Acts xx. 23.

2. To endure; to sustain; to submit to. [Thou] shalt abide her judgment on it. Tennyson.

3. To bear patiently; to tolerate; to put up with. She could not abide Master Shallow. Shak.


Note: [Confused with aby to pay for. See Aby.]

Defn: To stand the consequences of; to answer for; to suffer for.
Dearly I abide that boast so vain. Milton.

A*bid"er, n.

1. One who abides, or continues. [Obs.] "Speedy goers and strong abiders." Sidney.

2. One who dwells; a resident. Speed.

A*bid"ing, a.

Defn: Continuing; lasting.

A*bid"ing*ly, adv.

Defn: Permanently. Carlyle.

A"bi*es, n. Etym: [L., fir tree.] (Bot.)

Defn: A genus of coniferous trees, properly called Fir, as the balsam fir and the silver fir. The spruces are sometimes also referred to this genus.

Ab"i*e*tene, n. Etym: [L. abies, abietis, a fir tree.]

Defn: A volatile oil distilled from the resin or balsam of the nut pine (Pinus sabiniana) of California.

Ab`i*et"ic, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to the fir tree or its products; as, abietic acid, called also sylvic acid. Watts.

Ab"i*e*tin, Ab"i*e*tine, n. Etym: [See Abietene.] (Chem.)

Defn: A resinous obtained from Strasburg turpentine or Canada balsam. It is without taste or smell, is insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol (especially at the boiling point), in strong acetic acid, and in ether. Watts.

Ab`i*e*tin"ic, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to abietin; as, abietinic acid.

Ab"i*e*tite, n. (Chem.)

Defn: A substance resembling mannite, found in the needles of the common silver fir of Europe (Abies pectinata). Eng. Cyc.

Ab"i*gail, n. Etym: [The proper name used as an appellative.]

Defn: A lady's waiting-maid. Pepys. Her abigail reported that Mrs. Gutheridge had a set of night curls for sleeping in. Leslie.

A*bil"i*ment, n.

Defn: Habiliment. [Obs.]

ABILITY A*bil"i*ty, n.; pl. Abilities(#). Etym: [F. habileté, earlier spelling habilité (with silent h), L. habilitas aptitude, ability, fr. habilis apt. See Able.]

Defn: The quality or state of being able; power to perform, whether physical, moral, intellectual, conventional, or legal; capacity; skill or competence in doing; sufficiency of strength, skill, resources, etc.; — in the plural, faculty, talent. Then the disciples, every man according to his ability, determined to send relief unto the brethren. Acts xi. 29. Natural abilities are like natural plants, that need pruning by study. Bacon. The public men of England, with much of a peculiar kind of ability. Macaulay.

Syn. — Capacity; talent; cleverness; faculty; capability; efficiency; aptitude; aptness; address; dexterity; skill. Ability, Capacity. These words come into comparison when applied to the higher intellectual powers. Ability has reference to the active exercise of our faculties. It implies not only native vigor of mind, but that ease and promptitude of execution which arise from mental training. Thus, we speak of the ability with which a book is written, an argument maintained, a negotiation carried on, etc. It always something to be done, and the power of doing it. Capacity has reference to the receptive powers. In its higher exercises it supposes great quickness of apprehension and breadth of intellect, with an uncommon aptitude for acquiring and retaining knowledge. Hence it carries with it the idea of resources and undeveloped power. Thus we speak of the extraordinary capacity of such men as Lord Bacon, Blaise Pascal, and Edmund Burke. "Capacity," says H. Taylor, "is requisite to devise, and ability to execute, a great enterprise." The word abilities, in the plural, embraces both these qualities, and denotes high mental endowments.

A*bime" or A*byme", n. Etym: [F. abîme. See Abysm.]

Defn: A abyss. [Obs.]

Ab`i*o*gen"e*sis, n. Etym: [Gr. (Biol.)

Defn: The supposed origination of living organisms from lifeless matter; such genesis as does not involve the action of living parents; spontaneous generation; — called also abiogeny, and opposed to biogenesis. I shall call the . . . doctrine that living matter may be produced by not living matter, the hypothesis of abiogenesis. Huxley, 1870.

Ab`i*o*ge*net"ic, a. (Biol.)

Defn: Of or pertaining to abiogenesis. Ab`i*o*ge*net"ic*al*ly, adv.

Ab`i*og"e*nist, n. (Biol.)

Defn: One who believes that life can be produced independently of antecedent. Huxley.

Ab`i*og"e*nous, a. (Biol.)

Defn: Produced by spontaneous generation.

Ab`i*og"e*ny, n. (Biol.)

Defn: Same as Abiogenesis.

Ab`i*o*log"ic*al, a. Etym: [Gr. biological.]

Defn: Pertaining to the study of inanimate things.

Ab*ir"ri*tant, n. (Med.)

Defn: A medicine that diminishes irritation.

Ab*ir"ri*tate, v. t. Etym: [Pref. ab- + irritate.] (Med.)

Defn: To diminish the sensibility of; to debilitate.

Ab*ir`ri*ta"tion, n. (Med.)

Defn: A pathological condition opposite to that of irritation; debility; want of strength; asthenia.

Ab*ir"ri*ta*tive, a. (Med.)

Defn: Characterized by abirritation or debility.


Defn: 3d sing. pres. of Abide. [Obs.] Chaucer.

ABJECT Ab"ject, a. Etym: [L. abjectus, p. p. of abjicere to throw away; ab + jacere to throw. See Jet a shooting forth.]

1. Cast down; low-lying. [Obs.] From the safe shore their floating carcasses And broken chariot wheels; so thick bestrown Abject and lost lay these, covering the flood. Milton.

2. Sunk to a law condition; down in spirit or hope; degraded; servile; groveling; despicable; as, abject posture, fortune, thoughts. "Base and abject flatterers." Addison. "An abject liar." Macaulay. And banish hence these abject, lowly dreams. Shak.

Syn. — Mean; groveling; cringing; mean-spirited; slavish; ignoble; worthless; vile; beggarly; contemptible; degraded.

Ab*ject", v. t. Etym: [From Abject, a.]

Defn: To cast off or down; hence, to abase; to degrade; to lower; to debase. [Obs.] Donne.

Ab"ject, n.

Defn: A person in the lowest and most despicable condition; a
castaway. [Obs.]
Shall these abjects, these victims, these outcasts, know any thing of
pleasure I. Taylor.

Ab*ject"ed*ness, n.

Defn: A very abject or low condition; abjectness. [R.] Boyle.

Ab*jec"tion, n. Etym: [F. abjection, L. abjectio.]

1. The act of bringing down or humbling. "The abjection of the king and his realm." Joe.

2. The state of being rejected or cast out. [R.] An adjection from the beatific regions where God, and his angels and saints, dwell forever. Jer. Taylor.

3. A low or downcast state; meanness of spirit; abasement; degradation. That this should be termed baseness, abjection of mind, or servility, is it credible Hooker.

Ab"ject*ly, adv.

Defn: Meanly; servilely.

Ab"ject*ness, n.

Defn: The state of being abject; abasement; meanness; servility.

Ab*judge", v. t. Etym: [Pref. ab- + judge, v. Cf. Abjudicate.]

Defn: To take away by judicial decision. [R.]

ABJUDICATE Ab*ju"di*cate, v. t. Etym: [L. abjudicatus, p. p. of abjudicare; ab + judicare. See Judge, and cf. Abjudge.]

Defn: To reject by judicial sentence; also, to abjudge. [Obs.] Ash.

Ab*ju`di*ca"tion, n.

Defn: Rejection by judicial sentence. [R.] Knowles.

Ab"ju*gate, v. t. Etym: [L. abjugatus, p. p. of abjugare.]

Defn: To unyoke. [Obs.] Bailey.

ABJUNCTIVE Ab*junc"tive, a. Etym: [L. abjunctus, p. p. of abjungere; ab + jungere to join.]

Defn: Exceptional. [R.] It is this power which leads on from the accidental and abjunctive to the universal. I. Taylor.

Ab`ju*ra"tion, n. Etym: [L. abjuratio: cf. F. abjuration.]

1. The act of abjuring or forswearing; a renunciation upon oath; as, abjuration of the realm, a sworn banishment, an oath taken to leave the country and never to return.

2. A solemn recantation or renunciation; as, an abjuration of heresy. Oath of abjuration, an oath asserting the right of the present royal family to the crown of England, and expressly abjuring allegiance to the descendants of the Pretender. Brande & C.

Ab*ju"ra*to*ry, a.

Defn: Containing abjuration.

Ab*jure", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Abjured; p. pr. & vb. n. Abjuring.]
Etym: [L. abjurare to deny upon oath; ab + jurare to swear, fr. jus,
juris, right, law; cf. F. abjurer. See Jury.]

1. To renounce upon oath; to forswear; to disavow; as, to abjure allegiance to a prince. To abjure the realm, is to swear to abandon it forever.

2. To renounce or reject with solemnity; to recant; to abandon forever; to reject; repudiate; as, to abjure errors. "Magic I here abjure." Shak.

 — See Renounce.

Ab*jure", v. i.

Defn: To renounce on oath. Bp. Burnet.

Ab*jure"ment, n.

Defn: Renunciation. [R.]

Ab*jur"er, n.

Defn: One who abjures.

ABLACTATE Ab*lac"tate, v. t. Etym: [L. ablactatus, p. p. of ablactare; ab + lactare to suckle, fr. lac milk.]

Defn: To wean. [R.] Bailey.

Ab`lac*ta"tion. n.

1. The weaning of a child from the breast, or of young beasts from their dam. Blount.

2. (Hort.)

Defn: The process of grafting now called inarching, or grafting by approach.

ABLAQUEATE Ab*la"que*ate, v. t. Etym: [L. ablaqueatus, p. p. of. ablaqueare; fr. ab + laqueus a noose.]

Defn: To lay bare, as the roots of a tree. [Obs.] Bailey.

Ab*la`que*a"tion, n. Etym: [L. ablaqueatio.]

Defn: The act or process of laying bare the roots of trees to expose them to the air and water. [Obs.] Evelyn.

Ab`las*tem"ic, a. Etym: [Gr. (Biol.)

Defn: Non-germinal.

Ab*la"tion, n. Etym: [L. ablatio, fr. ablatus p. p. of auferre to
carry away; ab + latus, p. p. of ferre carry: cf. F. ablation. See

1. A carrying or taking away; removal. Jer. Taylor.

2. (Med.)

Defn: Extirpation. Dunglison.

3. (Geol.)

Defn: Wearing away; superficial waste. Tyndall.

Ab`la*ti"tious, a.

Defn: Diminishing; as, an ablatitious force. Sir J. Herschel.

Ab"la*tive, a. Etym: [F. ablatif, ablative, L. ablativus fr. ablatus.
See Ablation.]

1. Taking away or removing. [Obs.] Where the heart is forestalled with misopinion, ablative directions are found needful to unteach error, ere we can learn truth. Bp. Hall.

2. (Gram.)

Defn: Applied to one of the cases of the noun in Latin and some other languages, — the fundamental meaning of the case being removal, separation, or taking away.

Ab"la*tive, (Gram.)

Defn: The ablative case. ablative absolute, a construction in Latin, in which a noun in the ablative case has a participle (either expressed or implied), agreeing with it in gender, number, and case, both words forming a clause by themselves and being unconnected, grammatically, with the rest of the sentence; as, Tarquinio regnante, Pythagoras venit, i. e., Tarquinius reigning, Pythagoras came.

Ab"laut, n. Etym: [Ger., off-sound; ab off + laut sound.] (Philol.)

Defn: The substitution of one root vowel for another, thus indicating a corresponding modification of use or meaning; vowel permutation; as, get, gat, got; sing, song; hang, hung. Earle.

A*blaze", adv. & a. Etym: [Pref. a- + blaze.]

1. On fire; in a blaze, gleaming. Milman. All ablaze with crimson and gold. Longfellow.

2. In a state of glowing excitement or ardent desire. The young Cambridge democrats were all ablaze to assist Torrijos. Carlyle.

ABLE A"ble, a. [Comp. Abler; superl. Ablest.] Etym: [OF. habile, L. habilis that may be easily held or managed, apt, skillful, fr. habere to have, hold. Cf. Habile and see Habit.]

1. Fit; adapted; suitable. [Obs.] A many man, to ben an abbot able. Chaucer.

2. Having sufficient power, strength, force, skill, means, or resources of any kind to accomplish the object; possessed of qualifications rendering competent for some end; competent; qualified; capable; as, an able workman, soldier, seaman, a man able to work; a mind able to reason; a person able to be generous; able to endure pain; able to play on a piano.

3. Specially: Having intellectual qualifications, or strong mental powers; showing ability or skill; talented; clever; powerful; as, the ablest man in the senate; an able speech. No man wrote abler state papers. Macaulay.

4. (Law)

Defn: Legally qualified; possessed of legal competence; as, able to inherit or devise property.

Note: Able for, is Scotticism.
"Hardly able for such a march." Robertson.

Syn. — Competent; qualified; fitted; efficient; effective; capable; skillful; clever; vigorous; powerful.

A"ble, v. t. Etym: [See Able, a.] [Obs.]

1. To make able; to enable; to strengthen. Chaucer.

2. To vouch for. "I 'll able them." Shak.

ABLE; -ABLE; IBLE; -IBLE *a*ble. Etym: [F. -able, L. -abilis.]

Defn: An adjective suffix now usually in a passive sense; able to be; fit to be; expressing capacity or worthiness in a passive sense; as, movable, able to be moved; amendable, able to be amended; blamable, fit to be blamed; salable.

Note: The form ible is used in the same sense.

Note: It is difficult to say when we are not to use -able instead of -ible. "Yet a rule may be laid down as to when we are to use it. To all verbs, then, from the Anglo-Saxon, to all based on the uncorrupted infinitival stems of Latin verbs of the first conjugation, and to all substantives, whencesoever sprung, we annex - able only." Fitzed. Hall.

A`ble-bod"ied, a.

Defn: Having a sound, strong body; physically competent; robust.
"Able-bodied vagrant." Froude.
 — A`ble-bod"ied*ness, n..

ABLEGATE Ab"le*gate, v. t. Etym: [L. ablegatus, p. p. of ablegare; ab + legare to send with a commission. See Legate.]

Defn: To send abroad. [Obs.] Bailey.

Ab"le*gate, n. (R. C. Ch.)

Defn: A representative of the pope charged with important commissions in foreign countries, one of his duties being to bring to a newly named cardinal his insignia of office.

Ab`le*ga"tion, n. Etym: [L. ablegatio.]

Defn: The act of sending abroad. [Obs.] Jer. Taylor.

A`ble-mind"ed, a.

Defn: Having much intellectual power.
 — A`ble-mind"ed*ness, n.

A"ble*ness, n.

Defn: Ability of body or mind; force; vigor. [Obs. or R.]

Ab"lep*sy, n. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Blindness. [R.] Urquhart.

A"bler, a.,

Defn: comp. of Able.
 — A"blest, a.,

Defn: superl. of Able.

ABLET; ABLEN Ab"let, Ab"len Etym: [F. ablet, ablette, a dim. fr. LL. abula, for albula, dim. of albus white. Cf. Abele.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: A small fresh-water fish (Leuciscus alburnus); the bleak.

Ab"li*gate, v. t. Etym: [L. ab + ligatus, p. p. of ligare to tie.]

Defn: To tie up so as to hinder from. [Obs.]

ABLIGURITION Ab*lig`u*ri"tion, n. Etym: [L. abligurito, fr. abligurire to spend in luxurious indulgence; ab + ligurire to be lickerish, dainty, fr. lingere to lick.]

Defn: Prodigal expense for food. [Obs.] Bailey.

A"blins, adv. Etym: [See Able.]

Defn: Perhaps. [Scot.]

A*bloom", adv. Etym: [Pref. a- + bloom.]

Defn: In or into bloom; in a blooming state. Masson.

Ab*lude", v. t. Etym: [L. abludere; ab + ludere to play.]

Defn: To be unlike; to differ. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.

ABLUENT Ab"lu*ent, a. Etym: [L. abluens, p. pr. of. abluere to wash away; ab + luere (lavere, lavare). See Lave.]

Defn: Washing away; carrying off impurities; detergent. — n. (Med.)

Defn: A detergent.

A*blush", adv. & a. Etym: [Pref. a- + blush.]

Defn: Blushing; ruddy.

Ab*lu`tion, n. Etym: [L. ablutio, fr. abluere: cf. F. ablution. See

1. The act of washing or cleansing; specifically, the washing of the body, or some part of it, as a religious rite.

2. The water used in cleansing. "Cast the ablutions in the main." Pope.

3. (R. C. Ch.)

Defn: A small quantity of wine and water, which is used to wash the priest's thumb and index finger after the communion, and which then, as perhaps containing portions of the consecrated elements, is drunk by the priest.

Ab*lu"tion*a*ry, a.

Defn: Pertaining to ablution.

Ab*lu"vi*on, n. Etym: [LL. abluvio. See Abluent.]

Defn: That which is washed off. [R.] Dwight.

A"bly, adv.

Defn: In an able manner; with great ability; as, ably done, planned, said.

-ABLY -a*bly(#).

Defn: A suffix composed of -able and the adverbial suffix -ly; as, favorably.

Ab"ne*gate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Abnegated; p. pr. & vb. n.
Abnegating.] Etym: [L. abnegatus,p. p. of abnegare; ab + negare to
deny. See Deny.]

Defn: To deny and reject; to abjure. Sir E. Sandys. Farrar.

Ab`ne*ga"tion, n. Etym: [L. abnegatio: cf. F. abnégation.]

Defn: a denial; a renunciation. With abnegation of God, of his honor, and of religion, they may retain the friendship of the court. Knox.

Ab"ne*ga*tive, a. Etym: [L. abnegativus.]

Defn: Denying; renouncing; negative. [R.] Clarke.

Ab"ne*ga`tor(#), n. [L.]

Defn: One who abnegates, denies, or rejects anything. [R.]

Ab"net, n. Etym: [Heb.]

Defn: The girdle of a Jewish priest or officer.

ABNODATE Ab"no*date, v. t. Etym: [L. abnodatus, p. p. of abnodare; ab + nodus knot.]

Defn: To clear (tress) from knots. [R.] Blount.

Ab`no*da"tion, n.

Defn: The act of cutting away the knots of trees. [R.] Crabb.

ABNORMAL Ab*nor"mal, a. Etym: [For earlier anormal.F. anormal, LL. anormalus for anomalus, Gr. abnormis. See Anomalous, Abnormous, Anormal.]

Defn: Not conformed to rule or system; deviating from the type; anomalous; irregular. "That deviating from the type; anomalous; irregular. " Froude.

Ab`nor*mal"i*ty, n.; pl. Abnormalities.

1. The state or quality of being abnormal; variation; irregularity. Darwin.

2. Something abnormal.

Ab*nor"mal*ly, adv.

Defn: In an abnormal manner; irregularly. Darwin.

Ab*nor"mi*ty, n.; pl. Abnormities. Etym: [LL. abnormitas. See

Defn: Departure from the ordinary type; irregularity; monstrosity.
"An abnormity . . . like a calf born with two heads." Mrs. Whitney.

Ab*nor"mous, a. Etym: [L. abnormis; ab + norma rule. See Normal.]

Defn: Abnormal; irregular. Hallam. A character of a more abnormous cast than his equally suspected coadjutor. State Trials.

A*board", adv. Etym: [Pref. a- on, in + board.]

Defn: On board; into or within a ship or boat; hence, into or within a railway car.

2. Alongside; as, close aboard. Naut.: To fall aboard of, to strike a
ship's side; to fall foul of.
 — To haul the tacks aboard, to set the courses.
 — To keep the land aboard, to hug the shore.
 — To lay (a ship) aboard, to place one's own ship close alongside
of (a ship) for fighting.

A*board", prep.

1. On board of; as, to go aboard a ship.

2. Across; athwart. [Obs.] Nor iron bands aboard The Pontic Sea by their huge navy cast. Spenser.

A*bod"ance, n. Etym: [See Bode.]

Defn: An omen; a portending. [Obs.]

A*bode", pret.

Defn: of Abide.

A*bode", n. Etym: [OE. abad, abood, fr. abiden to abide. See Abide.
For the change of vowel, cf. abode, imp. of abide.]

1. Act of waiting; delay. [Obs.] Shak. And with her fled away without abode. Spenser.

2. Stay or continuance in a place; sojourn. He waxeth at your abode here. Fielding.

3. Place of continuance, or where one dwells; abiding place; residence; a dwelling; a habitation. Come, let me lead you to our poor abode. Wordsworth.

A*bode", n. Etym: [See Bode, v. t.]

Defn: An omen. [Obs.]
High-thundering Juno's husband stirs my spirit with true abodes.

A*bode", v. t.

Defn: To bode; to foreshow. [Obs.] Shak.

A*bode", v. i.

Defn: To be ominous. [Obs.] Dryden.

A*bode"ment, n.

Defn: A foreboding; an omen. [Obs.] "Abodements must not now affright us." Shak.

A*bod"ing, n.

Defn: A foreboding. [Obs.]

A*bol"ish, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Abolished; p. pr. & vb. n.
Abolishing.] Etym: [F. abolir, L. abolere, aboletum; ab + olere to
grow. Cf. Finish.]

1. To do away with wholly; to annul; to make void; — said of laws, customs, institutions, governments, etc.; as, to abolish slavery, to abolish folly.

2. To put an end to, or destroy, as a physical objects; to wipe out.
And with thy blood abolish so reproachful blot. Spenser.
His quick instinctive hand Caught at the hilt, as to abolish him.

Syn. — To Abolish, Repeal, Abrogate, Revoke, Annul, Nullify, Cancel. These words have in common the idea of setting aside by some overruling act. Abolish applies particularly to things of a permanent nature, such as institutions, usages, customs, etc.; as, to abolish monopolies, serfdom, slavery. Repeal describes the act by which the legislature of a state sets aside a law which it had previously enacted. Abrogate was originally applied to the repeal of a law by the Roman people; and hence, when the power of making laws was usurped by the emperors, the term was applied to their act of setting aside the laws. Thus it came to express that act by which a sovereign or an executive government sets aside laws, ordinances, regulations, treaties, conventions, etc. Revoke denotes the act or recalling some previous grant which conferred, privilege, etc.; as, to revoke a decree, to revoke a power of attorney, a promise, etc. Thus, also, we speak of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. Annul is used in a more general sense, denoting simply to make void; as, to annul a contract, to annul an agreement. Nullify is an old word revived in this country, and applied to the setting of things aside either by force or by total disregard; as, to nullify an act of Congress. Cancel is to strike out or annul, by a deliberate exercise of power, something which has operative force.

A*bol"ish*a*ble, a. Etym: [Cf. F. abolissable.]

Defn: Capable of being abolished.

A*bol"ish*er, n.

Defn: One who abolishes.

A*bol"ish*ment, n. Etym: [Cf. F. abolissement.]

Defn: The act of abolishing; abolition; destruction. Hooker.

Ab"o*li"tion, n. Etym: [L. abolitio, fr. abolere: cf. F. abolition.
See Abolish.]

Defn: The act of abolishing, or the state of being abolished; an annulling; abrogation; utter destruction; as, the abolition of slavery or the slave trade; the abolition of laws, decrees, ordinances, customs, taxes, debts, etc.

Note: The application of this word to persons is now unusual or obsolete

Ab`o*li"tion*ism, n.

Defn: The principles or measures of abolitionists. Wilberforce.

Ab`o*li"tion*ist, n.

Defn: A person who favors the abolition of any institution, especially negro slavery.

Ab`o*li`tion*ize, v. t.

Defn: To imbue with the principles of abolitionism. [R.] Bartlett.

A*bo"ma, n. (Zoöl.)

Defn: A large South American serpent (Boa aboma).

ABOMASUM; ABOMASUS Ab`o*ma"sum, Ab`o*ma"sus, n. Etym: [NL., fr. L. ab + omasum (a Celtic word.] (Anat.)

Defn: The fourth or digestive stomach of a ruminant, which leads from the third stomach omasum. See Ruminantia.

A*bom"i*na*ble, a. Etym: [F. abominable. L. abominalis. See

1. Worthy of, or causing, abhorrence, as a thing of evil omen; odious in the utmost degree; very hateful; detestable; loathsome; execrable.

2. Excessive; large; — used as an intensive. [Obs.]

Note: Juliana Berners . . . informs us that in her time [15th c.], "abomynable syght of monkes" was elegant English for "a large company of friars." G. P. Marsh.

A*bom"i*na*ble*ness, n.

Defn: The quality or state of being abominable; odiousness. Bentley.

A*bom"i*na*bly, adv.

Defn: In an abominable manner; very odiously; detestably.

A*bom"i*nate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Abominated; p. pr. & vb. n.
Abominating.] Etym: [L. abominatus, p. p. or abominari to deprecate
as ominous, to abhor, to curse; ab + omen a foreboding. See Omen.]

Defn: To turn from as ill-omened; to hate in the highest degree, as if with religious dread; loathe; as, to abominate all impiety.

 — To hate; abhor; loathe; detest. See Hate.

A*bom`i*na"tion, n. Etym: [OE. abominacioun, -cion, F. abominatio.
See Abominate.]

1. The feeling of extreme disgust and hatred; abhorrence; detestation; loathing; as, he holds tobacco in abomination.

2. That which is abominable; anything hateful, wicked, or shamefully vile; an object or state that excites disgust and hatred; a hateful or shameful vice; pollution. Antony, most large in his abominations. Shak.

3. A cause of pollution or wickedness.

Syn. — Detestation; loathing; abhorrence; disgust; aversion; loathsomeness; odiousness. Sir W. Scott.

A*boon", prep.

Defn: and adv. Above. [Scot. & Prov. Eng.]
Aboon the pass of Bally-Brough. Sir W. Scott.
The ceiling fair that rose aboon. J. R. Drake.

Ab*o"ral, a. Etym: [L. ab. + E. oral.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: Situated opposite to, or away from, the mouth.

A*bord", n. Etym: [F.]

Defn: Manner of approaching or accosting; address. Chesterfield.

ABORD A*bord", v. t. Etym: [F. aborder, à (L. ad) + bord rim, brim, or side of a vessel. See Border, Board.]

Defn: To approach; to accost. [Obs.] Digby.

Ab`o*rig"i*nal, a. Etym: [See Aborigines.]

1. First; original; indigenous; primitive; native; as, the aboriginal tribes of America. "Mantled o'er with aboriginal turf." Wordsworth.

2. Of or pertaining to aborigines; as, a Hindoo of aboriginal blood.

Ab`o*rig"i*nal, n.

1. An original inhabitant of any land; one of the aborigines.

2. An animal or a plant native to the region. It may well be doubted whether this frog is an aboriginal of these islands. Darwin.

Ab`o*rig`i*nal"i*ty, n.

Defn: The quality of being aboriginal. Westm. Rev.

Ab`o*rig"i*nal*ly, adv.

Defn: Primarily.

ABORIGINES Ab`o*rig"i*nes, n. pl. Etym: [L. Aborigines; ab + origo, especially the first inhabitants of Latium, those who originally (ab origine) inhabited Latium or Italy. See Origin.]

1. The earliest known inhabitants of a country; native races.

2. The original fauna and flora of a geographical area

A*borse"ment, n.

Defn: Abortment; abortion. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.

A*bor"sive, a.

Defn: Abortive. [Obs.] Fuller.

ABORT A*bort", v. i. Etym: [L. abortare, fr. abortus, p. p. of aboriri; ab + oriri to rise, to be born. See Orient.]

1. To miscarry; to bring forth young prematurely.

2. (Biol.)

Defn: To become checked in normal development, so as either to remain rudimentary or shrink away wholly; to become sterile.

A*bort", n. Etym: [L. abortus, fr. aboriri.]

1. An untimely birth. [Obs.] Sir H. Wotton.

2. An aborted offspring. [Obs.] Holland.

A*bort"ed, a.

1. Brought forth prematurely.

2. (Biol.)

Defn: Rendered abortive or sterile; undeveloped; checked in normal development at a very early stage; as, spines are aborted branches. The eyes of the cirripeds are more or less aborted in their mature state. Owen.

A*bor"ti*cide, n. Etym: [L. abortus + caedere to kill. See Abort.]

Defn: The act of destroying a fetus in the womb; feticide.

ABORTIFACIENT A*bor`ti*fa"cient, a. Etym: [L. abortus (see Abort, v.) + faciens, p. pr. of facere to make.]

Defn: Producing miscarriage. — n.

Defn: A drug or an agent that causes premature delivery.

A*bor"tion, n. Etym: [L. abortio, fr. aboriri. See Abort.]

1. The act of giving premature birth; particularly, the expulsion of the human fetus prematurely, or before it is capable of sustaining life; miscarriage.

Note: It is sometimes used for the offense of procuring a premature delivery, but strictly the early delivery is the abortion, "causing or procuring abortion" is the full name of the offense. Abbott.

2. The immature product of an untimely birth.

3. (Biol.)

Defn: Arrest of development of any organ, so that it remains an imperfect formation or is absorbed.

4. Any fruit or produce that does not come to maturity, or anything which in its progress, before it is matured or perfect; a complete failure; as, his attempt. proved an abortiori.

A*bor"tion*al, a.

Defn: Pertaining to abortion; miscarrying; abortive. Carlyle.

A*bor"tion*ist, n.

Defn: One who procures abortion or miscarriage.

A*bor"tive, a. Etym: [L. abortivus, fr. aboriri. See Abort, v.]

1. Produced by abortion; born prematurely; as, an abortive child. [R.]

2. Made from the skin of a still-born animal; as, abortive vellum. [Obs.]

3. Rendering fruitless or ineffectual. [Obs.] "Plunged in that abortive gulf." Milton.

4. Coming to naught; failing in its effect; miscarrying; fruitless; unsuccessful; as, an abortive attempt. "An abortive enterprise." Prescott.

5. (Biol.)

Defn: Imperfectly formed or developed; rudimentary; sterile; as, an abortive organ, stamen, ovule, etc.

6. (Med.) (a) Causing abortion; as, abortive medicines. Parr. (b) Cutting short; as, abortive treatment of typhoid fever.

A*bor"tive, n.

1. That which is born or brought forth prematurely; an abortion. [Obs.] Shak.

2. A fruitless effort or issue. [Obs.]

3. A medicine to which is attributed the property of causing abortion. Dunglison.

A*bor"tive*ly, adv.

Defn: In an abortive or untimely manner; immaturely; fruitlessly.

A*bor"tive*ness, n.

Defn: The quality of being abortive.

A*bort"ment, n.

Defn: Abortion. [Obs.]

A*bought", imp. & p. p.

Defn: of Aby. [Obs.]

A*bound", v. i. [imp. & p. p. Abounded; p. pr. & vb. n. Abounding.]
Etym: [OE. abounden, F. abonder, fr. L. abundare to overflow, abound;
ab + unda wave. Cf. Undulate.]

1. To be in great plenty; to be very prevalent; to be plentiful.
The wild boar which abounds in some parts of the continent of Europe.
Where sin abounded grace did much more abound. Rom. v. 20.

2. To be copiously supplied; — followed by in or with. To abound in, to posses in such abundance as to be characterized by. — To abound with, to be filled with; to possess in great numbers. Men abounding in natural courage. Macaulay. A faithful man shall abound with blessings. Prov. xxviii. 20. It abounds with cabinets of curiosities. Addison.

A*bout", prep. Etym: [OE. aboute, abouten, abuten; AS. abutan,
onbutan; on + butan, which is from be by + utan outward, from ut out.
See But, Out.]

1. Around; all round; on every side of. "Look about you." Shak. "Bind them about thy neck." Prov. iii. 3.

2. In the immediate neighborhood of; in contiguity or proximity to; near, as to place; by or on (one's person). "Have you much money about you" Bulwer.

3. Over or upon different parts of; through or over in various directions; here and there in; to and fro in; throughout. Lampoons . . . were handed about the coffeehouses. Macaulay. Roving still about the world. Milton.

4. Near; not far from; — determining approximately time, size, quantity. "To-morrow, about this time." Exod. ix. 18. "About my stature." Shak. He went out about the third hour. Matt. xx. 3.

Note: This use passes into the adverbial sense.

5. In concern with; engaged in; intent on. I must be about my Father's business. Luke ii. 49.

6. Before a verbal noun or an infinitive:

Defn: On the point or verge of; going; in act of.
Paul was now aboutto open his mouth. Acts xviii. 14.

7. Concerning; with regard to; on account of; touching. "To treat about thy ransom." Milton. She must have her way about Sarah. Trollope.

A*bout", adv.

1. On all sides; around. 'Tis time to look about. Shak.

2. In circuit; circularly; by a circuitous way; around the outside; as, a mile about, and a third of a mile across.

3. Here and there; around; in one place and another. Wandering about from house to house. 1 Tim. v. 13.

4. Nearly; approximately; with close correspondence, in quality, manner, degree, etc.; as, about as cold; about as high; — also of quantity, number, time. "There fell . . . about three thousand men." Exod. xxii. 28.

5. To a reserved position; half round; in the opposite direction; on the opposite tack; as, to face about; to turn one's self about. To bring about, to cause to take place; to accomplish. — To come about, to occur; to take place. See under Come. — To go about, To set about, to undertake; to arrange; to prepare. "Shall we set about some revels Shak. — Round about, in every direction around.

A*bout"-sledge", n.

Defn: The largest hammer used by smiths. Weale.

ABOVE A*bove", prep. Etym: [OE. above, aboven, abuffe, AS. abufon; an (or on) on + be by + ufan upward; cf. Goth. uf under. *199. See Over.]

1. In or to a higher place; higher than; on or over the upper surface; over; — opposed to below or beneath. Fowl that may fly above the earth. Gen. i. 20.

2. Figuratively, higher than; superior to in any respect; surpassing; beyond; higher in measure or degree than; as, things above comprehension; above mean actions; conduct above reproach. "Thy worth . . . is actions above my gifts." Marlowe. I saw in the way a light from heaven above the brightness of the sun. Acts xxxvi. 13.

3. Surpassing in number or quantity; more than; as, above a hundred. (Passing into the adverbial sense. See Above, adv., 4.) above all, before every other consideration; chiefly; in preference to other things. Over and above, prep. or adv., besides; in addition to.

A*bove", adv.

1. In a higher place; overhead; into or from heaven; as, the clouds above.

2. Earlier in order; higher in the same page; hence, in a foregoing page. "That was said above." Dryden.

3. Higher in rank or power; as, he appealed to the court above.

4. More than; as, above five hundred were present.

Note: Above is often used elliptically as an adjective by omitting the word mentioned, quoted, or the like; as, the above observations, the above reference, the above articles. — Above is also used substantively. "The waters that come down from above." Josh. iii. 13. It is also used as the first part of a compound in the sense of before, previously; as, above-cited, above- described, above-mentioned, above-named, abovesaid, abovespecified, above-written, above-given.

A*bove"board`, adv.

Defn: Above the board or table. Hence: in open sight; without trick, concealment, or deception. "Fair and aboveboard." Burke.

Note: This expression is said by Johnson to have been borrowed from gamesters, who, when they change their cards, put their hands under the table.

A*bove"-cit`ed, a.

Defn: Cited before, in the preceding part of a book or writing.

A*bove"deck`, a.

Defn: On deck; and hence, like aboveboard, without artifice. Smart.

A*bove"-men`tioned, A*bove"-named`(#), a.

Defn: Mentioned or named before; aforesaid.

A*bove"said`, a.

Defn: Mentioned or recited before.

A*box", adv. & a. (Naut.)

Defn: Braced aback.

A"bra, n. [Sp., a bay, valley, fissure.]

Defn: A narrow pass or defile; a break in a mesa; the mouth of a cañon. [Southwestern U. S.]

Ab`ra*ca*dab"ra, n. Etym: [L. Of unknown origin.]

Defn: A mystical word or collocation of letters written as in the figure. Worn on an amulet it was supposed to ward off fever. At present the word is used chiefly in jest to denote something without meaning; jargon.

Ab*ra"dant, n.

Defn: A material used for grinding, as emery, sand, powdered glass, etc.

Ab*rade", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Abraded; p. pr. & vb. n. Abrading.]
Etym: [L. abradere, abrasum, to scrape off; ab + radere to scrape.
See Rase, Raze.]

Defn: To rub or wear off; to waste or wear away by friction; as, to abrade rocks. Lyell.

A*brade", v. t.

Defn: Same as Abraid. [Obs.]

A`bra*ham"ic, a.

Defn: Pertaining to Abraham, the patriarch; as, the Abrahamic covenant.

A`bra*ham*it"ic, A`bra*ham*it*ic*al(#), a.

Defn: Relating to the patriarch Abraham.

A"bra*ham-man`(#) or A"bram-man`(#), n. Etym: [Possibly in allusion
to the parable of the beggar Lazarus in Luke xvi. Murray (New Eng.
Dict. ).]

Defn: One of a set of vagabonds who formerly roamed through England, feigning lunacy for the sake of obtaining alms. Nares. To sham Abraham, to feign sickness. Goldsmith.

A*braid", v. t. & i. Etym: [OE. abraiden, to awake, draw (a sword),
AS. abredgan to shake, draw; pref. a- (cf. Goth. us-, Ger. er-, orig.
meaning out) + bregdan to shake, throw. See Braid.]

Defn: To awake; to arouse; to stir or start up; also, to shout out.
[Obs.] Chaucer.

A*bran"chi*al, a. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Abranchiate.

A*bran`chi*a"ta, n. pl. Etym: [NL., from Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: A group of annelids, so called because the species composing it have no special organs of respiration.

A*bran"chi*ate, a. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Without gills.

Ab*rase", a. Etym: [L. abrasus, p. p. of abradere. See Abrade.]

Defn: Rubbed smooth. [Obs.] "An abrase table." B. Jonson.

Ab*ra"sion, n. Etym: [L. abrasio, fr. abradere. See Abrade.]

1. The act of abrading, wearing, or rubbing off; the wearing away by friction; as, the abrasion of coins.

2. The substance rubbed off. Berkeley.

3. (Med.)

Defn: A superficial excoriation, with loss of substance under the form of small shreds. Dunglison.

Ab*ra"sive, a.

Defn: Producing abrasion. Ure.

A*braum" or A*braum" salts, n. Etym: [Ger., fr. abräumen to remove.]

Defn: A red ocher used to darken mahogany and for making chloride of potassium.

ABRAXAS A*brax"as, n. Etym: [A name adopted by the Egyptian Gnostic Basilides, containing the Greek letters , , , , , , , which, as numerals, amounted to 365. It was used to signify the supreme deity as ruler of the 365 heavens of his system.]

Defn: A mystical word used as a charm and engraved on gems among the ancients; also, a gem stone thus engraved.

A*bray", v. Etym: [A false form from the preterit abraid, abrayde.]

Defn: See Abraid. [Obs.] Spenser.

Ab`re*ac"tion, n. [Pref. ab-+ reaction, after G. Abreagirung.]

Defn: See Catharsis, below.

A*breast", adv. Etym: [Pref. a- + breast.]

1. Side by side, with breasts in a line; as, "Two men could hardly walk abreast." Macaulay.

2. (Naut.)

Defn: Side by side; also, opposite; over against; on a line with the vessel's beam; — with of.

3. Up to a certain level or line; equally advanced; as, to keep abreast of [or with] the present state of science.

4. At the same time; simultaneously. [Obs.] Abreast therewith began a convocation. Fuller.

A*breg"ge, v. t.

Defn: See Abridge. [Obs.]

Ab`re*nounce", v. t. Etym: [L. abrenuntiare; ab + renuntiare. See

Defn: To renounce. [Obs.] "They abrenounce and cast them off."

Ab`re*nun`ci*a"tion, n. Etym: [LL. abrenuntiatio. See Abrenounce.]

Defn: Absolute renunciation or repudiation. [Obs.] An abrenunciation of that truth which he so long had professed, and still believed. Fuller.

ABREPTION Ab*rep"tion, n. Etym: [L. abreptus, p. p. of abripere to snatch away; ab + rapere to snatch.]

Defn: A snatching away. [Obs.]

A`breu`voir", n. Etym: [F., a watering place.] (Masonry)

Defn: The joint or interstice between stones, to be filled with mortar. Gwilt.

A"bri*cock, n.

Defn: See Apricot. [Obs.]

A*bridge", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Abridged; p. pr. & vb. n. Abridging.]
Etym: [OE. abregen, OF. abregier, F. abréger, fr. L. abbreviare; ad +
brevis short. See Brief and cf. Abbreviate.]

1. To make shorter; to shorten in duration; to lessen; to diminish; to curtail; as, to abridge labor; to abridge power or rights. "The bridegroom . . . abridged his visit." Smollett. She retired herself to Sebaste, and abridged her train from state to necessity. Fuller.

2. To shorten or contract by using fewer words, yet retaining the sense; to epitomize; to condense; as, to abridge a history or dictionary.

3. To deprive; to cut off; — followed by of, and formerly by from; as, to abridge one of his rights.

A*bridg"er, n.

Defn: One who abridges.

A*bridg"ment, n. Etym: [OE. abregement. See Abridge.]

1. The act abridging, or the state of being abridged; diminution; lessening; reduction or deprivation; as, an abridgment of pleasures or of expenses.

2. An epitome or compend, as of a book; a shortened or abridged form; an abbreviation. Ancient coins as abridgments of history. Addison.

3. That which abridges or cuts short; hence, an entertainment that makes the time pass quickly. [Obs.] What abridgment have you for this evening What mask What music Shak.

Syn. — Abridgment, Compendium, Epitome, Abstract, Synopsis. An abridgment is made by omitting the less important parts of some larger work; as, an abridgment of a dictionary. A compendium is a brief exhibition of a subject, or science, for common use; as, a compendium of American literature. An epitome corresponds to a compendium, and gives briefly the most material points of a subject; as, an epitome of history. An abstract is a brief statement of a thing in its main points. A synopsis is a bird's-eye view of a subject, or work, in its several parts.

A*broach", v. t. Etym: [OE. abrochen, OF. abrochier. See Broach.]

Defn: To set abroach; to let out, as liquor; to broach; to tap.
[Obs.] Chaucer.

A*broach", adv. Etym: [Pref. a- + broach.]

1. Broached; in a condition for letting out or yielding liquor, as a cask which is tapped. Hogsheads of ale were set abroach. Sir W. Scott.

2. Hence: In a state to be diffused or propagated; afoot; astir. "Mischiefs that I set abroach." Shak.

A*broad", adv. Etym: [Pref. a- + broad.]

1. At large; widely; broadly; over a wide space; as, a tree spreads its branches abroad. The fox roams far abroad. Prior.

2. Without a certain confine; outside the house; away from one's abode; as, to walk abroad. I went to St. James', where another was preaching in the court abroad. Evelyn.

3. Beyond the bounds of a country; in foreign countries; as, we have broils at home and enemies abroad. "Another prince . . . was living abroad." Macaulay.

4. Before the public at large; throughout society or the world; here and there; widely. He went out, and began to publish it much, and to blaze abroad the matter. Mark i. 45. To be abroad. (a) To be wide of the mark; to be at fault; as, you are all abroad in your guess. (b) To be at a loss or nonplused.

Ab"ro*ga*ble, a.

Defn: Capable of being abrogated.

Ab"ro*gate, a. Etym: [L. abrogatus, p. p.]

Defn: Abrogated; abolished. [Obs.] Latimer.

Ab"ro*gate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Abrogated; p. pr. & vb. n.
Abrogating.] Etym: [L. abrogatus, p. p. of abrogare; ab + rogare to
ask, require, propose. See Rogation.]

1. To annul by an authoritative act; to abolish by the authority of the maker or his successor; to repeal; — applied to the repeal of laws, decrees, ordinances, the abolition of customs, etc. Let us see whether the New Testament abrogates what we so frequently see in the Old. South. Whose laws, like those of the Medes and Persian, they can not alter or abrogate. Burke.

2. To put an end to; to do away with. Shak.

Syn. — To abolish; annul; do away; set aside; revoke; repeal; cancel; annihilate. See Abolish.

ABROGATION Ab`ro*ga"tion, n. Etym: [L. abrogatio, fr. abrogare: cf. F. abrogation.]

Defn: The act of abrogating; repeal by authority. Hume.

Ab"ro*ga*tive, a.

Defn: Tending or designed to abrogate; as, an abrogative law.

Ab"ro*ga`tor, n.

Defn: One who repeals by authority.

A*brood", adv. Etym: [Pref. a- + brood.]

Defn: In the act of brooding. [Obs.] Abp. Sancroft.

A*brook", v. t. Etym: [Pref. a- + brook, v.]

Defn: To brook; to endure. [Obs.] Shak.

ABRUPT Ab*rupt", a. Etym: [L. abruptus, p. p. of abrumpere to break off; ab + rumpere to break. See Rupture.]

1. Broken off; very steep, or craggy, as rocks, precipices, banks; precipitous; steep; as, abrupt places. "Tumbling through ricks abrupt," Thomson.

2. Without notice to prepare the mind for the event; sudden; hasty; unceremonious. "The cause of your abrupt departure." Shak.

3. Having sudden transitions from one subject to another; unconnected. The abrupt style, which hath many breaches. B. Jonson.

4. (Bot.)

Defn: Suddenly terminating, as if cut off. Gray.

Syn. — Sudden; unexpected; hasty; rough; curt; unceremonious; rugged; blunt; disconnected; broken.

Ab*rupt", n. Etym: [L. abruptum.]

Defn: An abrupt place. [Poetic]
"Over the vast abrupt." Milton.

Ab*rupt", v. t.

Defn: To tear off or asunder. [Obs.] "Till death abrupts them." Sir
T. Browne.

Ab*rup"tion, n. Etym: [L. abruptio, fr. abrumpere: cf. F. abruption.]

Defn: A sudden breaking off; a violent separation of bodies.

Ab*rupt"ly, adv.

1. In an abrupt manner; without giving notice, or without the usual forms; suddenly.

2. Precipitously. Abruptly pinnate (Bot.), pinnate without an odd leaflet, or other appendage, at the end. Gray.

Ab*rupt"ness, n.

1. The state of being abrupt or broken; craggedness; ruggedness; steepness.

2. Suddenness; unceremonious haste or vehemence; as, abruptness of style or manner.

ABSCESS Ab"scess, n.; pl. Abscesses. Etym: [L. abscessus a going away, gathering of humors, abscess, fr. abscessus, p. p. of absedere to go away; ab, abs + cedere to go off, retire. See Cede.] (Med.)

Defn: A collection of pus or purulent matter in any tissue or organ of the body, the result of a morbid process. Cold abscess, an abscess of slow formation, unattended with the pain and heat characteristic of ordinary abscesses, and lasting for years without exhibiting any tendency towards healing; a chronic abscess.

Ab*sces"sion, n. Etym: [L. abscessio a separation; fr. absedere. See

Defn: A separating; removal; also, an abscess. [Obs.] Gauden.

Ab*scind", v. t. Etym: [L. absindere; ab + scindere to rend, cut. See

Defn: To cut off. [R.] "Two syllables . . . abscinded from the rest."

Ab*sci"sion, n. Etym: [L. abscisio.]

Defn: See Abscission.

Ab"sciss, n.; pl. Abscisses.

Defn: See Abscissa.

ABSCISSA Ab*scis"sa, n.; E. pl. Abscissas, L. pl. Abscissæ. Etym: [L., fem. of abscissus, p. p. of absindere to cut of. See Abscind.] (Geom.)

Defn: One of the elements of reference by which a point, as of a curve, is referred to a system of fixed rectilineal coördinate axes.

Note: When referred to two intersecting axes, one of them called the axis of abscissas, or of X, and the other the axis of ordinates, or of Y, the abscissa of the point is the distance cut off from the axis of X by a line drawn through it and parallel to the axis of Y. When a point in space is referred to three axes having a common intersection, the abscissa may be the distance measured parallel to either of them, from the point to the plane of the other two axes. Abscissas and ordinates taken together are called coördinates. — OX or PY is the abscissa of the point P of the curve, OY or PX its ordinate, the intersecting lines OX and OY being the axes of abscissas and ordinates respectively, and the point O their origin.

Ab*scis"sion, n. Etym: [L. abscissio. See Abscind.]

1. The act or process of cutting off. "Not to be cured without the abscission of a member." Jer. Taylor.

2. The state of being cut off. Sir T. Browne.

3. (Rhet.)

Defn: A figure of speech employed when a speaker having begun to say a thing stops abruptly: thus, "He is a man of so much honor and candor, and of such generosity — but I need say no more."

Ab*scond", v. i. [imp. & p. p. Absconded; p. pr. & vb. n.
Absconding.] Etym: [L. abscondere to hide; ab, abs + condere to lay
up; con + dare (only in comp.) to put. Cf. Do.]

1. To hide, withdraw, or be concealed. The marmot absconds all winter. Ray.

2. To depart clandestinely; to steal off and secrete one's self; — used especially of persons who withdraw to avoid a legal process; as, an absconding debtor. That very homesickness which, in regular armies, drives so many recruits to abscond. Macaulay.

Ab*scond", v. t.

Defn: To hide; to conceal. [Obs.] Bentley.

Ab*scond"ence, n.

Defn: Fugitive concealment; secret retirement; hiding. [R.] Phillips.

Ab*scond"er, n.

Defn: One who absconds.

Ab"sence, n. Etym: [F., fr. L. absentia. See Absent.]

1. A state of being absent or withdrawn from a place or from companionship; — opposed to presence. Not as in my presence only, but now much more in my absence. Phil. ii. 12.

2. Want; destitution; withdrawal. "In the absence of conventional law." Kent.

3. Inattention to things present; abstraction (of mind); as, absence of mind. "Reflecting on the little absences and distractions of mankind." Addison. To conquer that abstraction which is called absence. Landor.

ABSENT Ab"sent, a. Etym: [F., fr. absens, absentis, p. pr. of abesse to be away from; ab + esse to be. Cf. Sooth.]

1. Being away from a place; withdrawn from a place; not present. "Expecting absent friends." Shak.

2. Not existing; lacking; as, the part was rudimental or absent.

3. Inattentive to what is passing; absent-minded; preoccupied; as, an absent air. What is commonly called an absent man is commonly either a very weak or a very affected man. Chesterfield.

Syn. — Absent, Abstracted. These words both imply a want of attention to surrounding objects. We speak of a man as absent when his thoughts wander unconsciously from present scenes or topics of discourse; we speak of him as abstracted when his mind (usually for a brief period) is drawn off from present things by some weighty matter for reflection. Absence of mind is usually the result of loose habits of thought; abstraction commonly arises either from engrossing interests and cares, or from unfortunate habits of association.

Ab*sent", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Absented; p. pr. & vb. n. Absenting.]
Etym: [Cf. F. absenter.]

1. To take or withdraw (one's self) to such a distance as to prevent intercourse; — used with the reflexive pronoun. If after due summons any member absents himself, he is to be fined. Addison.

2. To withhold from being present. [Obs.] "Go; for thy stay, not free, absents thee more." Milton.

Ab`sen*ta"ne*ous, a. Etym: [LL. absentaneus. See absent]

Defn: Pertaining to absence. [Obs.]

Ab`sen*ta"tion, n.

Defn: The act of absenting one's self. Sir W. Hamilton.

Ab`sen*tee", n.

Defn: One who absents himself from his country, office, post, or duty; especially, a landholder who lives in another country or district than that where his estate is situated; as, an Irish absentee. Macaulay.

Ab`sen*tee"ism, n.

Defn: The state or practice of an absentee; esp. the practice of absenting one's self from the country or district where one's estate is situated.

Ab*sent"er, n.

Defn: One who absents one's self.

Ab"sent*ly, adv.

Defn: In an absent or abstracted manner.

Ab*sent"ment, n.

Defn: The state of being absent; withdrawal. [R.] Barrow.

Ab`sent-mind"ed(#), a.

Defn: Absent in mind; abstracted; preoccupied.
 — Ab`sent-mind"ed*ness, n.
 — Ab`sent-mind"ed*ly, adv.

Ab"sent*ness, n.

Defn: The quality of being absent-minded. H. Miller.

Ab"sey-book`(#), n.

Defn: An A-B-C book; a primer. [Obs.] Shak.

Ab"sin"thate, n. (Chem.)

Defn: A combination of absinthic acid with a base or positive radical.

Ab"sinthe`, Ab"sinth`, n. Etym: [F. absinthe. See Absinthium.]

1. The plant absinthium or common wormwood.

2. A strong spirituous liqueur made from wormwood and brandy or alcohol.

Ab*sin"thi*al, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to wormwood; absinthian.

Ab*sin"thi*an, n.

Defn: Of the nature of wormwood. "Absinthian bitterness." T.

ABSINTHIATE Ab"sin"thi*ate, v. t. Etym: [From L. absinthium: cf. L. absinthiatus, a.]

Defn: To impregnate with wormwood.

Ab*sin"thi*a`ted, a.

Defn: Impregnated with wormwood; as, absinthiated wine.

Ab*sin"thic, a. (Chem.)

Defn: Relating to the common wormwood or to an acid obtained from it.

Ab*sin"thin, n. (Chem.)

Defn: The bitter principle of wormwood (Artemisia absinthium). Watts.

Ab"sin*thism, n.

Defn: The condition of being poisoned by the excessive use of absinth.

Ab*sin"thi*um, n. Etym: [L., from Gr. (Bot.)

Defn: The common wormwood (Artemisia absinthium), an intensely bitter plant, used as a tonic and for making the oil of wormwood.

Ab"sis, n.

Defn: See Apsis.

ABSIST Ab*sist", v. i. Etym: [L. absistere, p. pr. absistens; ab + sistere to stand, causal of stare.]

Defn: To stand apart from; top leave off; to desist. [Obs.] Raleigh.

Ab*sist"ence, n.

Defn: A standing aloof. [Obs.]

ABSOLUTE Ab"so*lute, a. Etym: [L. absolutus, p. p. of absolvere: cf. F. absolu. See Absolve.]

1. Loosed from any limitation or condition; uncontrolled; unrestricted; unconditional; as, absolute authority, monarchy, sovereignty, an absolute promise or command; absolute power; an absolute monarch.

2. Complete in itself; perfect; consummate; faultless; as, absolute perfection; absolute beauty. So absolute she seems, And in herself complete. Milton.

3. Viewed apart from modifying influences or without comparison with other objects; actual; real; — opposed to relative and comparative; as, absolute motion; absolute time or space.

Note: Absolute rights and duties are such as pertain to man in a state of nature as contradistinguished from relative rights and duties, or such as pertain to him in his social relations.

4. Loosed from, or unconnected by, dependence on any other being; self-existent; self-sufficing.

Note: In this sense God is called the Absolute by the Theist. The term is also applied by the Pantheist to the universe, or the total of all existence, as only capable of relations in its parts to each other and to the whole, and as dependent for its existence and its phenomena on its mutually depending forces and their laws.

5. Capable of being thought or conceived by itself alone; unconditioned; non-relative.

Note: It is in dispute among philosopher whether the term, in this sense, is not applied to a mere logical fiction or abstraction, or whether the absolute, as thus defined, can be known, as a reality, by the human intellect. To Cusa we can indeed articulately trace, word and thing, the recent philosophy of the absolute. Sir W. Hamilton.

6. Positive; clear; certain; not doubtful. [R.] I am absolute 't was very Cloten. Shak.

7. Authoritative; peremptory. [R.] The peddler stopped, and tapped her on the head, With absolute forefinger, brown and ringed. Mrs. Browning.

8. (Chem.)

Defn: Pure; unmixed; as, absolute alcohol.

9. (Gram.)

Defn: Not immediately dependent on the other parts of the sentence in government; as, the case absolute. See Ablative absolute, under Ablative. Absolute curvature (Geom.), that curvature of a curve of double curvature, which is measured in the osculating plane of the curve. — Absolute equation (Astron.), the sum of the optic and eccentric equations. — Absolute space (Physics), space considered without relation to material limits or objects. — Absolute terms. (Alg.), such as are known, or which do not contain the unknown quantity. Davies & Peck. — Absolute temperature (Physics), the temperature as measured on a scale determined by certain general thermo-dynamic principles, and reckoned from the absolute zero. — Absolute zero (Physics), the be ginning, or zero point, in the scale of absolute temperature. It is equivalent to -273º centigrade or -459.4º Fahrenheit.

Syn. — Positive; peremptory; certain; unconditional; unlimited; unrestricted; unqualified; arbitrary; despotic; autocratic.

Ab"so*lute, n. (Geom.)

Defn: In a plane, the two imaginary circular points at infinity; in space of three dimensions, the imaginary circle at infinity.

Ab"so*lute*ly, adv.

Defn: In an absolute, independent, or unconditional manner; wholly; positively.

Ab"so*lute*ness, n.

Defn: The quality of being absolute; independence of everything extraneous; unlimitedness; absolute power; independent reality; positiveness.

ABSOLUTION Ab`so*lu"tion, n. Etym: [F. absolution, L. absolutio, fr. absolvere to absolve. See Absolve.]

1. An absolving, or setting free from guilt, sin, or penalty; forgiveness of an offense. "Government . . . granting absolution to the nation." Froude.

2. (Civil Law)

Defn: An acquittal, or sentence of a judge declaring and accused person innocent. [Obs.]

3. (R. C. Ch.)

Defn: The exercise of priestly jurisdiction in the sacrament of penance, by which Catholics believe the sins of the truly penitent are forgiven.

Note: In the English and other Protestant churches, this act regarded as simply declaratory, not as imparting forgiveness.

4. (Eccl.)

Defn: An absolving from ecclesiastical penalties, — for example, excommunication. P. Cyc.

5. The form of words by which a penitent is absolved. Shipley.

6. Delivery, in speech. [Obs.] B. Jonson. Absolution day (R. C. Ch.), Tuesday before Easter.

Ab"so*lu`tism, n.

1. The state of being absolute; the system or doctrine of the absolute; the principles or practice of absolute or arbitrary government; despotism. The element of absolutism and prelacy was controlling. Palfrey.

2. (Theol.)

Defn: Doctrine of absolute decrees. Ash.

Ab"so*lu`tist, n.

1. One who is in favor of an absolute or autocratic government.

2. (Metaph.)

Defn: One who believes that it is possible to realize a cognition or concept of the absolute. Sir. W. Hamilton.

Ab"so*lu`tist, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to absolutism; arbitrary; despotic; as, absolutist principles.

Ab`so*lu*tis"tic, a.

Defn: Pertaining to absolutism; absolutist.

Ab*sol"u*to*ry, a. Etym: [L. absolutorius, fr. absolvere to absolve.]

Defn: Serving to absolve; absolving. "An absolutory sentence."

Ab*solv"a*ble, a.

Defn: That may be absolved.

Ab*solv"a*to*ry, a.

Defn: Conferring absolution; absolutory.

Ab*solve" (#; 277), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Absolved; p. pr. & vb. n.
Absolving.] Etym: [L. absolvere to set free, to absolve; ab + solvere
to loose. See Assoil, Solve.]

1. To set free, or release, as from some obligation, debt, or responsibility, or from the consequences of guilt or such ties as it would be sin or guilt to violate; to pronounce free; as, to absolve a subject from his allegiance; to absolve an offender, which amounts to an acquittal and remission of his punishment. Halifax was absolved by a majority of fourteen. Macaulay.

2. To free from a penalty; to pardon; to remit (a sin); — said of the sin or guilt. In his name I absolve your perjury. Gibbon.

3. To finish; to accomplish. [Obs.] The work begun, how soon absolved. Milton.

4. To resolve or explain. [Obs.] "We shall not absolve the doubt." Sir T. Browne.

Syn. — To Absolve, Exonerate, Acquit. We speak of a man as absolved from something that binds his conscience, or involves the charge of wrongdoing; as, to absolve from allegiance or from the obligation of an oath, or a promise. We speak of a person as exonerated, when he is released from some burden which had rested upon him; as, to exonerate from suspicion, to exonerate from blame or odium. It implies a purely moral acquittal. We speak of a person as acquitted, when a decision has been made in his favor with reference to a specific charge, either by a jury or by disinterested persons; as, he was acquitted of all participation in the crime.

Ab*solv"ent, a. Etym: [L. absolvens, p. pr. of absolvere.]

Defn: Absolving. [R.] Carlyle.

Ab*solv"ent, n.

Defn: An absolver. [R.] Hobbes.

Ab*solv"er, n.

Defn: One who absolves. Macaulay.

Ab"so*nant, a. Etym: [L. ab + sonans, p. pr. of sonare to sound.]

Defn: Discordant; contrary; — opposed to consonant. "Absonant to nature." Quarles.

Ab"so*nous, a. Etym: [L. absonus; ab + sonus sound.]

Defn: Discordant; inharmonious; incongruous. [Obs.] "Absonous to our reason." Glanvill.

Ab*sorb", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Absorbed; p. pr. & vb. n. Absorbing.]
Etym: [L. absorbere; ab + sorbere to suck in, akin to Gr. absorber.]

1. To swallow up; to engulf; to overwhelm; to cause to disappear as if by swallowing up; to use up; to include. "Dark oblivion soon absorbs them all." Cowper. The large cities absorb the wealth and fashion. W. Irving.

2. To suck up; to drink in; to imbibe; as a sponge or as the lacteals of the body. Bacon.

3. To engross or engage wholly; to occupy fully; as, absorbed in study or the pursuit of wealth.

4. To take up by cohesive, chemical, or any molecular action, as when charcoal absorbs gases. So heat, light, and electricity are absorbed or taken up in the substances into which they pass. Nichol. p. 8

Syn. — To Absorb, Engross, Swallow up, Engulf. These words agree in one general idea, that of completely taking up. They are chiefly used in a figurative sense and may be distinguished by a reference to their etymology. We speak of a person as absorbed (lit., drawn in, swallowed up) in study or some other employment of the highest interest. We speak of a person as ebgrossed (lit., seized upon in the gross, or wholly) by something which occupies his whole time and thoughts, as the acquisition of wealth, or the attainment of honor. We speak of a person (under a stronger image) as swallowed up and lost in that which completely occupies his thoughts and feelings, as in grief at the death of a friend, or in the multiplied cares of life. We speak of a person as engulfed in that which (like a gulf) takes in all his hopes and interests; as, engulfed in misery, ruin, etc. That grave question which had begun to absorb the Christian mind — the marriage of the clergy. Milman. Too long hath love engrossed Britannia's stage, And sunk to softness all our tragic rage. Tickell. Should not the sad occasion swallow up My other cares Addison. And in destruction's river Engulf and swallow those. Sir P. Sidney.

Ab*sorb`a*bil"i*ty, n.

Defn: The state or quality of being absorbable. Graham (Chemistry).

Ab*sorb"a*ble, a. Etym: [Cf. F. absorbable.]

Defn: Capable of being absorbed or swallowed up. Kerr.

Ab*sorb"ed*ly, adv.

Defn: In a manner as if wholly engrossed or engaged.

Ab*sorb"en*cy, n.

Defn: Absorptiveness.

Ab*sorb"ent, a. Etym: [L. absorbens, p. pr. of absorbere.]

Defn: Absorbing; swallowing; absorptive. Absorbent ground (Paint.), a ground prepared for a picture, chiefly with distemper, or water colors, by which the oil is absorbed, and a brilliancy is imparted to the colors.

Ab*sorb"ent, n.

1. Anything which absorbs. The ocean, itself a bad absorbent of heat. Darwin.

2. (Med.)

Defn: Any substance which absorbs and neutralizes acid fluid in the stomach and bowels, as magnesia, chalk, etc.; also a substance e. g., iodine) which acts on the absorbent vessels so as to reduce enlarged and indurated parts.

3. pl. (Physiol.)

Defn: The vessels by which the processes of absorption are carried on, as the lymphatics in animals, the extremities of the roots in plants.

Ab*sorb"er, n.

Defn: One who, or that which, absorbs.

Ab*sorb"ing, a.

Defn: Swallowing, engrossing; as, an absorbing pursuit.
 — Ab*sorb"ing, adv.

Ab`sor*bi"tion, n.

Defn: Absorption. [Obs.]

Ab*sorpt`, a. Etym: [L. absorptus, p. p.]

Defn: Absorbed. [Arcahic.] "Absorpt in care." Pope.

Ab*sorp"tion, n. Etym: [L. absorptio, fr. absorbere. See Absorb.]

1. The act or process of absorbing or sucking in anything, or of being absorbed and made to disappear; as, the absorption of bodies in a whirlpool, the absorption of a smaller tribe into a larger.

2. (Chem. & Physics)

Defn: An imbibing or reception by molecular or chemical action; as, the absorption of light, heat, electricity, etc.

3. (Physiol.)

Defn: In living organisms, the process by which the materials of growth and nutrition are absorbed and conveyed to the tissues and organs.

4. Entire engrossment or occupation of the mind; as, absorption in some employment.

Ab*sorp"tive, a.

Defn: Having power, capacity, or tendency to absorb or imbibe. E.

Ab*sorp"tive*ness, n.

Defn: The quality of being absorptive; absorptive power.

Ab`sorp*tiv"i*ty, n.

Defn: Absorptiveness.

Ab*squat"u*late, v. i.

Defn: To take one's self off; to decamp. [A jocular word. U. S.]

Abs"que hoc

Defn: . Etym: [L., without this.] (Law) The technical words of denial used in traversing what has been alleged, and is repeated.

Ab*stain", v. i. [imp. & p. p. Abstained; p. pr. & vb. n.
Abstaining.] Etym: [OE. absteynen, abstenen, OF. astenir, abstenir,
F. abstenir, fr. L. abstinere, abstentum, v. t. & v. i., to keep
from; ab, abs + tenere to hold. See Tenable.]

Defn: To hold one's self aloof; to forbear or refrain voluntarily,
and especially from an indulgence of the passions or appetites; —
with from.
Not a few abstained from voting. Macaulay.
Who abstains from meat that is not gaunt Shak.

Syn. — To refrain; forbear; withhold; deny one's self; give up; relinquish.

Ab*stain", v. t.

Defn: To hinder; to withhold.
Whether he abstain men from marrying. Milton.

Ab*stain"er, n.

Defn: One who abstains; esp., one who abstains from the use of intoxicating liquors.

ABSTEMIOUS Ab*ste"mi*ous, a. Etym: [L. abstemius; ab, abs + root of temetum intoxicating drink.]

1. Abstaining from wine. [Orig. Latin sense.] Under his special eye Abstemious I grew up and thrived amain. Milton.

2. Sparing in diet; refraining from a free use of food and strong drinks; temperate; abstinent; sparing in the indulgence of the appetite or passions. Instances of longevity are chiefly among the abstemious. Arbuthnot.

3. Sparingly used; used with temperance or moderation; as, an abstemious diet. Gibbon.

4. Marked by, or spent in, abstinence; as, an abstemious life. "One abstemious day." Pope.

5. Promotive of abstemiousness. [R.] Such is the virtue of the abstemious well. Dryden.

Ab*ste"mi*ous*ness, n.

Defn: The quality of being abstemious, temperate, or sparing in the use of food and strong drinks. It expresses a greater degree of abstinence than temperance.

Ab*sten"tion, a. Etym: [F. See Abstain.]

Defn: The act of abstaining; a holding aloof. Jer. Taylor.

Ab*sten"tious, a.

Defn: Characterized by abstinence; self-restraining. Farrar.

ABSTERGE Ab*sterge, v. t. Etym: [L. abstergere, abstersum; ab, abs + tergere to wipe. Cf. F absterger.]

Defn: To make clean by wiping; to wipe away; to cleanse; hence, to purge. [R.] Quincy.

Ab*ster"gent, a. Etym: [L. abstergens, p. pr. of abstergere.]

Defn: Serving to cleanse, detergent.

Ab*ster"gent, n.

Defn: A substance used in cleansing; a detergent; as, soap is an abstergent.

Ab*sterse", v. t.

Defn: To absterge; to cleanse; to purge away. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

Ab*ster"sion, n. Etym: [F. abstersion. See Absterge.]

Defn: Act of wiping clean; a cleansing; a purging.
The task of ablution and abstersion being performed. Sir W. Scott.

Ab*ster"sive, a. Etym: [Cf. F. abstersif. See Absterge.]

Defn: Cleansing; purging. Bacon.

Ab*ster"sive, n.

Defn: Something cleansing.
The strong abstersive of some heroic magistrate. Milton.

Ab*ster"sive*ness, n.

Defn: The quality of being abstersive. Fuller.

Ab"sti*nence, n. Etym: [F. abstinence, L. abstinentia, fr. abstinere.
See Abstain.]

1. The act or practice of abstaining; voluntary forbearance of any action, especially the refraining from an indulgence of appetite, or from customary gratifications of animal or sensual propensities. Specifically, the practice of abstaining from intoxicating beverages, — called also total abstinence. The abstinence from a present pleasure that offers itself is a pain, nay, oftentimes, a very great one. Locke.

2. The practice of self-denial by depriving one's self of certain kinds of food or drink, especially of meat. Penance, fasts, and abstinence, To punish bodies for the soul's offense. Dryden.

Ab"sti*nen*cy, n.

Defn: Abstinence. [R.]

ABSTINENT Ab"sti*nent, a. Etym: [F. abstinent, L. abstinens, p. pr. of abstinere. See Abstain.]

Defn: Refraining from indulgence, especially from the indulgence of appetite; abstemious; continent; temperate. Beau. & Fl.

Ab"sti*nent, n.

1. One who abstains.

2. (Eccl. Hist.)

Defn: One of a sect who appeared in France and Spain in the 3d century.

Ab"sti*nent*ly, adv.

Defn: With abstinence.

ABSTORTED Ab*stort"ed, a. Etym: [As if fr. abstort, fr. L. ab, abs + tortus, p. p. of torquere to twist.]

Defn: Wrested away. [Obs.] Bailey.

ABSTRACT Ab"stract` (#; 277), a. Etym: [L. abstractus, p. p. of abstrahere to draw from, separate; ab, abs + trahere to draw. See Trace.]

1. Withdraw; separate. [Obs.] The more abstract . . . we are from the body. Norris.

2. Considered apart from any application to a particular object; separated from matter; exiting in the mind only; as, abstract truth, abstract numbers. Hence: ideal; abstruse; difficult.

3. (Logic) (a) Expressing a particular property of an object viewed apart from the other properties which constitute it; — opposed to Ant: concrete; as, honesty is an abstract word. J. S. Mill. (b) Resulting from the mental faculty of abstraction; general as opposed to particular; as, "reptile" is an abstract or general name. Locke. A concrete name is a name which stands for a thing; an abstract name which stands for an attribute of a thing. A practice has grown up in more modern times, which, if not introduced by Locke, has gained currency from his example, of applying the expression "abstract name" to all names which are the result of abstraction and generalization, and consequently to all general names, instead of confining it to the names of attributes. J. S. Mill.

4. Abstracted; absent in mind. "Abstract, as in a trance." Milton. An abstract idea (Metaph.), an idea separated from a complex object, or from other ideas which naturally accompany it; as the solidity of marble when contemplated apart from its color or figure. — Abstract terms, those which express abstract ideas, as beauty, whiteness, roundness, without regarding any object in which they exist; or abstract terms are the names of orders, genera or species of things, in which there is a combination of similar qualities. — Abstract numbers (Math.), numbers used without application to things, as 6, 8, 10; but when applied to any thing, as 6 feet, 10 men, they become concrete. — Abstract or Pure mathematics. See Mathematics.

Ab*stract", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Abstracted; p. pr. & vb. n.
Abstracting.] Etym: [See Abstract, a.]

1. To withdraw; to separate; to take away. He was incapable of forming any opinion or resolution abstracted from his own prejudices. Sir W. Scott.

2. To draw off in respect to interest or attention; as, his was wholly abstracted by other objects. The young stranger had been abstracted and silent. Blackw. Mag.

3. To separate, as ideas, by the operation of the mind; to consider by itself; to contemplate separately, as a quality or attribute. Whately.

4. To epitomize; to abridge. Franklin.

5. To take secretly or dishonestly; to purloin; as, to abstract goods from a parcel, or money from a till. Von Rosen had quietly abstracted the bearing-reins from the harness. W. Black.

6. (Chem.)

Defn: To separate, as the more volatile or soluble parts of a substance, by distillation or other chemical processes. In this sense extract is now more generally used.

Ab*stract", v. t.

Defn: To perform the process of abstraction. [R.]
I own myself able to abstract in one sense. Berkeley.

Ab"stract`, n. Etym: [See Abstract, a.]

1. That which comprises or concentrates in itself the essential qualities of a larger thing or of several things. Specifically: A summary or an epitome, as of a treatise or book, or of a statement; a brief. An abstract of every treatise he had read. Watts. Man, the abstract Of all perfection, which the workmanship Of Heaven hath modeled. Ford.

2. A state of separation from other things; as, to consider a subject in the abstract, or apart from other associated things.

3. An abstract term. The concretes "father" and "son" have, or might have, the abstracts "paternity" and "filiety." J. S. Mill.

4. (Med.)

Defn: A powdered solid extract of a vegetable substance mixed with sugar of milk in such proportion that one part of the abstract represents two parts of the original substance. Abstract of title (Law), an epitome of the evidences of ownership.

 — Abridgment; compendium; epitome; synopsis. See Abridgment.

Ab*stract"ed, a.

1. Separated or disconnected; withdrawn; removed; apart. The evil abstracted stood from his own evil. Milton.

2. Separated from matter; abstract; ideal. [Obs.]

3. Abstract; abstruse; difficult. [Obs.] Johnson.

4. Inattentive to surrounding objects; absent in mind. "An abstracted scholar." Johnson.

Ab*stract"ed*ly, adv.

Defn: In an abstracted manner; separately; with absence of mind.

Ab*stract"ed*ness, n.

Defn: The state of being abstracted; abstract character.

Ab*stract"er, n.

Defn: One who abstracts, or makes an abstract.

Ab*strac"tion, n. Etym: [Cf. F. abstraction. See Abstract, a.]

1. The act of abstracting, separating, or withdrawing, or the state of being withdrawn; withdrawal. A wrongful abstraction of wealth from certain members of the community. J. S. Mill.

2. (Metaph.)

Defn: The act process of leaving out of consideration one or more properties of a complex object so as to attend to others; analysis. Thus, when the mind considers the form of a tree by itself, or the color of the leaves as separate from their size or figure, the act is called abstraction. So, also, when it considers whiteness, softness, virtue, existence, as separate from any particular objects.

Note: Abstraction is necessary to classification, by which things are arranged in genera and species. We separate in idea the qualities of certain objects, which are of the same kind, from others which are different, in each, and arrange the objects having the same properties in a class, or collected body. Abstraction is no positive act: it is simply the negative of attention. Sir W. Hamilton.

3. An idea or notion of an abstract, or theoretical nature; as, to fight for mere abstractions.

4. A separation from worldly objects; a recluse life; as, a hermit's abstraction.

5. Absence or absorption of mind; inattention to present objects.

6. The taking surreptitiously for one's own use part of the property of another; purloining. [Modern]

7. (Chem.)

Defn: A separation of volatile parts by the act of distillation.

Ab*strac"tion*al, a.

Defn: Pertaining to abstraction.

Ab*strac"tion*ist, n.

Defn: An idealist. Emerson.

Ab`strac*ti"tious, a.

Defn: Obtained from plants by distillation. [Obs.] Crabb.

Ab*strac"tive, a. Etym: [Cf. F. abstractif.]

Defn: Having the power of abstracting; of an abstracting nature. "The abstractive faculty." I. Taylor.

Ab*strac"tive*ly, adv.

Defn: In a abstract manner; separately; in or by itself. Feltham.

Ab*strac"tive*ness, n.

Defn: The quality of being abstractive; abstractive property.

Ab"stract`ly (#; 277), adv.

Defn: In an abstract state or manner; separately; absolutely; by itself; as, matter abstractly considered.

Ab"stract`ness, n.

Defn: The quality of being abstract. "The abstractness of the ideas."

ABSTRINGE Ab*stringe", v. t. Etym: [L ab + stringere, strictum, to press together.]

Defn: To unbind. [Obs.] Bailey.

Ab*strude", v. t. Etym: [L. abstrudere. See Abstruse.]

Defn: To thrust away. [Obs.] Johnson.

Ab*struse", a. Etym: [L. abstrusus, p. p. of abstrudere to thrust
away, conceal; ab, abs + trudere to thrust; cf. F. abstrus. See

1. Concealed or hidden out of the way. [Obs.] The eternal eye whose sight discerns Abstrusest thoughts. Milton.

2. Remote from apprehension; difficult to be comprehended or understood; recondite; as, abstruse learning. Profound and abstruse topics. Milman.

Ab*struse"ly, adv.

Defn: In an abstruse manner.

Ab*struse"ness, n.

Defn: The quality of being abstruse; difficulty of apprehension.

Ab*stru"sion, n. Etym: [L. abstrusio. See Abstruse.]

Defn: The act of thrusting away. [R.] Ogilvie.

Ab*stru"si*ty, n.

Defn: Abstruseness; that which is abstruse. [R.] Sir T. Browne.

Ab*sume", v. t. Etym: [L. absumere, absumptum; ab + sumere to take.]

Defn: To consume gradually; to waste away. [Obs.] Boyle.

Ab*sump"tion (#; 215), n. Etym: [L. absumptio. See Absume.]

Defn: Act of wasting away; a consuming; extinction. [Obs.] Sir T.

ABSURD Ab*surd", a. Etym: [L. absurdus harsh-sounding; ab + (prob) a derivative fr. a root svar to sound; not connected with surd: cf. F. absurde. See Syringe.]

Defn: Contrary to reason or propriety; obviously and fiatly opposed to manifest truth; inconsistent with the plain dictates of common sense; logically contradictory; nonsensical; ridiculous; as, an absurd person, an absurd opinion; an absurd dream. This proffer is absurd and reasonless. Shak. 'This phrase absurd to call a villain great. Pope. p. 9

Syn. — Foolish; irrational; ridiculous; preposterous; inconsistent; incongruous. — Absurd, Irrational, Foolish, Preposterous. Of these terms, irrational is the weakest, denoting that which is plainly inconsistent with the dictates of sound reason; as, an irrational course of life. Foolish rises higher, and implies either a perversion of that faculty, or an absolute weakness or fatuity of mind; as, foolish enterprises. Absurd rises still higher, denoting that which is plainly opposed to received notions of propriety and truth; as, an absurd man, project, opinion, story, argument, etc. Preposterous rises still higher, and supposes an absolute inversion in the order of things; or, in plain terms, a "putting of the cart before the horse;" as, a preposterous suggestion, preposterous conduct, a preposterous regulation or law.

Ab*surd", n.

Defn: An absurdity. [Obs.] Pope.

ABSURDITY Ab*surd"i*ty, n.; pl. Absurdities. Etym: [L. absurditas: cf. F. absurdite.]

1. The quality of being absurd or inconsistent with obvious truth, reason, or sound judgment. "The absurdity of the actual idea of an infinite number." Locke.

2. That which is absurd; an absurd action; a logical contradiction. His travels were full of absurdities. Johnson.

Ab*surd"ly, adv.

Defn: In an absurd manner.

Ab*surd"ness, n.

Defn: Absurdity. [R.]

A*bu"na, n. Etym: [Eth. and Ar., our father.]

Defn: The Patriarch, or head of the Abyssinian Church.

ABUNDANCE A*bun"dance, n. Etym: [OE. (h)abudaunce, abundance, F. abundance, F. abondance, L. abundantia, fr. abundare. See Abound.]

Defn: An overflowing fullness; ample sufficiency; great plenty; profusion; copious supply; superfluity; wealth: — strictly applicable to quantity only, but sometimes used of number. It is lamentable to remember what abundance of noble blood hath been shed with small benefit to the Christian state. Raleigh.

Syn. — Exuberance; plenteousness; plenty; copiousness; overflow; riches; affluence; wealth. — Abundance, Plenty, Exuberance. These words rise upon each other in expressing the idea of fullness. Plenty denotes a sufficiency to supply every want; as, plenty of food, plenty of money, etc. Abundance express more, and gives the idea of superfluity or excess; as, abundance of riches, an abundance of wit and humor; often, however, it only denotes plenty in a high degree. Exuberance rises still higher, and implies a bursting forth on every side, producing great superfluity or redundance; as, an exuberance of mirth, an exuberance of animal spirits, etc.

ABUNDANT A*bun"dant, a. Etym: [OE. (h)abundant, aboundant, F. abondant, fr. L. abudans, p. pr. of abundare. See Abound.]

Defn: Fully sufficient; plentiful; in copious supply; — followed by in, rarely by with. "Abundant in goodness and truth." Exod. xxxiv. 6. Abundant number (Math.), a number, the sum of whose aliquot parts exceeds the number itself. Thus, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, the aliquot parts of 12, make the number 16. This is opposed to a deficient number, as 14, whose aliquot parts are 1, 2, 7, the sum of which is 10; and to a perfect number, which is equal to the sum of its aliquot parts, as 6, whose aliquot parts are 1, 2., 3.

Syn. — Ample; plentiful; copious; plenteous; exuberant; overflowing; rich; teeming; profuse; bountiful; liberal. See Ample.

A*bun"dant*ly, adv.

Defn: In a sufficient degree; fully; amply; plentifully; in large measure.

A*burst", adv. Etym: [Pref. a- + burst.]

Defn: In a bursting condition.

A*bus"a*ble, a.

Defn: That may be abused.

A*bus"age, n.

Defn: Abuse. [Obs.] Whately (1634).

A*buse", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Abused; p. pr. & vb. n. Abusing.] Etym:
[F. abuser; L. abusus, p. p. of abuti to abuse, misuse; ab + uti to
use. See Use.]

1. To put to a wrong use; to misapply; to misuse; to put to a bad use; to use for a wrong purpose or end; to pervert; as, to abuse inherited gold; to make an excessive use of; as, to abuse one's authority. This principle (if one may so abuse the word) shoots rapidly into popularity. Froude.

2. To use ill; to maltreat; to act injuriously to; to punish or to tax excessively; to hurt; as, to abuse prisoners, to abuse one's powers, one's patience.

3. To revile; to reproach coarsely; to disparage. The . . . tellers of news abused the general. Macaulay.

4. To dishonor. "Shall flight abuse your name" Shak.

5. To violate; to ravish. Spenser.

6. To deceive; to impose on. [Obs.] Their eyes red and staring, cozened with a moist cloud, and abused by a double object. Jer. Taylor.

Syn. — To maltreat; injure; revile; reproach; vilify; vituperate; asperse; traduce; malign.

A*buse", n. Etym: [F. abus, L. abusus, fr. abuti. See Abuse, v. t.]

1. Improper treatment or use; application to a wrong or bad purpose; misuse; as, an abuse of our natural powers; an abuse of civil rights, or of privileges or advantages; an abuse of language. Liberty may be endangered by the abuses of liberty, as well as by the abuses of power. Madison.

2. Physical ill treatment; injury. "Rejoice . . . at the abuse of Falstaff." Shak.

3. A corrupt practice or custom; offense; crime; fault; as, the abuses in the civil service. Abuse after disappeared without a struggle.. Macaulay.

4. Vituperative words; coarse, insulting speech; abusive language; virulent condemnation; reviling. The two parties, after exchanging a good deal of abuse, came to blows. Macaulay.

5. Violation; rape; as, abuse of a female child. [Obs.] Or is it some abuse, and no such thing Shak. Abuse of distress (Law), a wrongful using of an animal or chattel distrained, by the distrainer.

Syn. — Invective; contumely; reproach; scurrility; insult; opprobrium. — Abuse, Invective. Abuse is generally prompted by anger, and vented in harsh and unseemly words. It is more personal and coarse than invective. Abuse generally takes place in private quarrels; invective in writing or public discussions. Invective may be conveyed in refined language and dictated by indignation against what is blameworthy. C. J. Smith.

A*buse"ful, a.

Defn: Full of abuse; abusive. [R.] "Abuseful names." Bp. Barlow.

A*bus"er, n.

Defn: One who abuses [in the various senses of the verb].

ABUSION A*bu"sion, n. Etym: [OE. abusion, abusioun, OF. abusion, fr. L. abusio misuse of words, f. abuti. See Abuse, v. t.]

Defn: Evil or corrupt usage; abuse; wrong; reproach; deception; cheat. Chaucer.

A*bu"sive, a. Etym: [Cf. F. abusif, fr. L. abusivus.]

1. Wrongly used; perverted; misapplied. I am . . . necessitated to use the word Parliament improperly, according to the abusive acceptation thereof. Fuller.

2. Given to misusing; also, full of abuses. [Archaic] "The abusive prerogatives of his see." Hallam.

3. Practicing abuse; prone to ill treat by coarse, insulting words or by other ill usage; as, an abusive author; an abusive fellow.

4. Containing abuse, or serving as the instrument of abuse; vituperative; reproachful; scurrilous. "An abusive lampoon." Johnson.

5. Tending to deceive; fraudulent; cheating. [Obs.] "An abusive treaty." Bacon.

Syn. — Reproachful; scurrilous; opprobrious; insolent; insulting; injurious; offensive; reviling.

A*bu"sive*ly, adv.

Defn: In an abusive manner; rudely; with abusive language.

A*bu"sive*ness, n.

Defn: The quality of being abusive; rudeness of language, or violence
to the person.
Pick out mirth, like stones out of thy ground, Profaneness,
filthiness, abusiveness. Herbert.

A*but", v. i. [imp. & p. p. Abutted; p. pr. & vb. n. Abutting.] Etym:
[OF. abouter, aboter; cf. F. aboutir, and also abuter; a (L. ad) +
OF. boter, buter, to push: cf. F. bout end, and but end, purpose.]

Defn: To project; to terminate or border; to be contiguous; to meet; — with on, upon, or against; as, his land abuts on the road.

A*bu"ti*lon, n. Etym: [Ar. aubutilun.] (Bot.)

Defn: A genus of malvaceous plants of many species, found in the torrid and temperate zones of both continents; — called also Indian mallow.

A*but"ment, n.

1. State of abutting.

2. That on or against which a body abuts or presses; as (a) (Arch.) The solid part of a pier or wall, etc., which receives the thrust or lateral pressure of an arch, vault, or strut. Gwilt. (b) (mech.) A fixed point or surface from which resistance or reaction is obtained, as the cylinder head of a steam engine, the fulcrum of a lever, etc. (c) In breech-loading firearms, the block behind the barrel which receives the pressure due to recoil.

A*but"tal, n.

Defn: The butting or boundary of land, particularly at the end; a headland. Spelman.

A*but"ter, n.

Defn: One who, or that which, abuts. Specifically, the owner of a contiguous estate; as, the abutters on a street or a river.

A*buzz", a. Etym: [Pref. a- + buzz.]

Defn: In a buzz; buzzing. [Colloq.] Dickens.

ABY; ABYE A*by", A*bye", v. t. & i. [imp. & p. p. Abought.] Etym: [AS. abycgan to pay for; pref. a- (cf. Goth. us-, Ger. er-, orig. meaning out) + bycgan to buy. See Buy, and cf. Abide.]

1. To pay for; to suffer for; to atone for; to make amends for; to give satisfaction. [Obs.] Lest to thy peril thou aby it dear. Shak.

2. To endure; to abide. [Obs.] But nought that wanteth rest can long aby. Spenser.

A*bysm", n. Etym: [OF. abisme; F. abime, LL. abyssimus, a superl. of
L. abyssus; Gr. Abyss.]

Defn: An abyss; a gulf. "The abysm of hell." Shak.

A*bys"mal, a.

Defn: Pertaining to, or resembling, an abyss; bottomless; unending;
Geology gives one the same abysmal extent of time that astronomy does
of space. Carlyle.

A*bys"mal*ly, adv.

Defn: To a fathomless depth; profoundly. "Abysmally ignorant." G.

A*byss", n. Etym: [L. abyssus a bottomless gulf, fr. Gr.

1. A bottomless or unfathomed depth, gulf, or chasm; hence, any deep, immeasurable, and, specifically, hell, or the bottomless pit. Ye powers and spirits of this nethermost abyss. Milton. The throne is darkness, in the abyss of light. Dryden.

2. Infinite time; a vast intellectual or moral depth. The abysses of metaphysical theology. Macaulay. In unfathomable abysses of disgrace. Burke.

3. (Her.)

Defn: The center of an escutcheon.

Note: This word, in its leading uses, is associated with the cosmological notions of the Hebrews, having reference to a supposed illimitable mass of waters from which our earth sprung, and beneath whose profound depths the wicked were punished. Encyc. Brit.

A*byss"al, a. Etym: [Cf. Abysmal.]

Defn: Belonging to, or resembling, an abyss; unfathomable. Abyssal zone (Phys. Geog.), one of the belts or zones into which Sir E. Forbes divides the bottom of the sea in describing its plants, animals, etc. It is the one furthest from the shore, embracing all beyond one hundred fathoms deep. Hence, abyssal animals, plants, etc.

Ab`ys*sin"i*an, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to Abyssinia. Abyssinian gold, an alloy of 90.74 parts of copper and 8.33 parts of zink. Ure.

Ab`ys*sin"i*an, n.

1. A native of Abyssinia.

2. A member of the Abyssinian Church.

A*ca"ci*a, n. (Antiq.)

Defn: A roll or bag, filled with dust, borne by Byzantine emperors, as a memento of mortality. It is represented on medals.

ACACIA A*ca"cia, n.; pl. E. Acacias, L. Acaciæ. Etym: [L. from Gr. ak to be sharp. See Acute.]

1. A genus of leguminous trees and shrubs. Nearly 300 species are Australian or Polynesian, and have terete or vertically compressed leaf stalks, instead of the bipinnate leaves of the much fewer species of America, Africa, etc. Very few are found in temperate climates.

2. (Med.)

Defn: The inspissated juice of several species of acacia; — called also gum acacia, and gum arabic.

Ac"a*cin, Ac"a*cine, n.

Defn: Gum arabic.

Ac`a*deme", n. Etym: [L. academia. See Academy.]

Defn: An academy. [Poetic] Shak.

Ac`a*de"mi*al, a.

Defn: Academic. [R.]

Ac`a*de"mi*an, n.

Defn: A member of an academy, university, or college.

Ac`a*dem"ic, n.

1. One holding the philosophy of Socrates and Plato; a Platonist. Hume.

2. A member of an academy, college, or university; an academician.

ACADEMIC; ACADEMICAL Ac`a*dem"ic, Ac`a*dem"ic*al, a. Etym: [L. academicus: cf. F. académigue. See Academy.]

1. Belonging to the school or philosophy of Plato; as, the Academic sect or philosophy.

2. Belonging to an academy or other higher institution of learning; scholarly; literary or classical, in distinction from scientific. "Academic courses." Warburton. "Academical study." Berkeley.

Ac`a*dem`ic*al*ly, adv.

Defn: In an academical manner.

Ac`a*dem"ic*als, n. pl.

Defn: The articles of dress prescribed and worn at some colleges and universities.

Ac`a*de*mi"cian (#; 277), n. Etym: [F. académicien. See Academy.]

1. A member of an academy, or society for promoting science, art, or literature, as of the French Academy, or the Royal Academy of arts.

2. A collegian. [R.] Chesterfield.

Ac`a*dem"i*cism, n.

1. A tenet of the Academic philosophy.

2. A mannerism or mode peculiar to an academy.

A*cad"e*mism, n.

Defn: The doctrines of the Academic philosophy. [Obs.] Baxter.

A*cad"e*mist, n. Etym: [F. academiste.]

1. An Academic philosopher.

2. An academician. [Obs.] Ray.

A*cad"e*my, n.; pl. Academies. Etym: [F. académie, L. academia. Cf.

1. A garden or grove near Athens (so named from the hero Academus), where Plato and his followers held their philosophical conferences; hence, the school of philosophy of which Plato was head.

2. An institution for the study of higher learning; a college or a university. Popularly, a school, or seminary of learning, holding a rank between a college and a common school.

3. A place of training; a school. "Academies of fanaticism." Hume.

4. A society of learned men united for the advancement of the arts and sciences, and literature, or some particular art or science; as, the French Academy; the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; academies of literature and philology.

5. A school or place of training in which some special art is taught; as, the military academy at West Point; a riding academy; the Academy of Music. Academy figure (Paint.), a drawing usually half life-size, in crayon or pencil, after a nude model.

A*ca"di*an, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to Acadie, or Nova Scotia. "Acadian farmers." Longfellow. — n.

Defn: A native of Acadie. Acadian epoch (Geol.), an epoch at the
beginning of the American paleozoic time, and including the oldest
American rocks known to be fossiliferous. See Geology.
 — Acadian owl (Zoöl.), a small North American owl (Nyctule
Acadica); the saw-whet.

ACAJOU Ac"a*jou, n. Etym: [F. See Cashew.] (Bot.) (a) The cashew tree; also, its fruit. See Cashew. (b) The mahogany tree; also, its timber.

Ac"a*leph, Ac`a*le"phan n.; pl. Acalephs, Acalephans. Etym: [See
Acalephæ.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: One of the Acalephæ.

Ac`a*le"phæ, n. pl. Etym: [NL., from Gr.

Defn: A group of Coelenterata, including the Medusæ or jellyfishes, and hydroids; — so called from the stinging power they possess. Sometimes called sea nettles.

Ac`ale"phoid, a. Etym: [Acaleph + -oid.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: Belonging to or resembling the Acalephæ or jellyfishes.

A*cal"y*cine, Ac`a*lys`i*nous, a. Etym: [Gr. (Bot.)

Defn: Without a calyx, or outer floral envelope.

A*canth", n.

Defn: Same as Acanthus.

A*can"tha, n. Etym: [Gr. Acute.]

1. (Bot.)

Defn: A prickle.

2. (Zoöl.)

Defn: A spine or prickly fin.

3. (Anat.)

Defn: The vertebral column; the spinous process of a vertebra.

Ac"an*tha"ceous, a.

1. Armed with prickles, as a plant.

2. (Bot.)

Defn: Of, pertaining to, or resembling, the family of plants of which the acanthus is the type.

A*can"thine, a. Etym: [L. acanthinus, Gr. Acanthus.]

Defn: Of, pertaining to, or resembling, the plant acanthus.

A*can`tho*car"pous, a. Etym: [Gr. (Bot.)

Defn: Having the fruit covered with spines.

A*can`tho*ceph"a*la, n. pl. Etym: [NL., from Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: A group of intestinal worms, having the proboscis armed with recurved spines.

A*can`tho*ceph"a*lous, a. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Having a spiny head, as one of the Acanthocephala.

Ac`an*thoph"o*rous, a. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Spine-bearing. Gray.

A*can`tho*po"di*ous, a. Etym: [Gr. (Bot.)

Defn: Having spinous petioles.

Ac`an*thop"ter*i, n. pl. Etym: [NL., from Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: A group of teleostean fishes having spiny fins. See

Ac`an*thop"ter*ous, a. Etym: [Gr.

1. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Spiny-winged.

2. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Acanthopterygious.

Ac`an*thop`ter*yg"i*an, a. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Belonging to the order of fishes having spinose fins, as the perch. — n.

Defn: A spiny-finned fish.

Ac`an*thop`ter*yg"i*i, n. pl. Etym: [NL., from Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: An order of fishes having some of the rays of the dorsal, ventral, and anal fins unarticulated and spinelike, as the perch.

Ac`an*thop`ter*yg"i*ous, a. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Having fins in which the rays are hard and spinelike; spiny- finned.

A*can"thus, n.; pl. E. Acanthuses, L. Acanthi. Etym: [L., from Gr.

1. (Bot.)

Defn: A genus of herbaceous prickly plants, found in the south of
Europe, Asia Minor, and India; bear's-breech.

2. (Arch.)

Defn: An ornament resembling the foliage or leaves of the acanthus
(Acanthus spinosus); — used in the capitals of the Corinthian and
Composite orders.

A CAPPELLA A cap*pel"la. Etym: [It. See Chapel.] (Mus.) (a) In church or chapel style; — said of compositions sung in the old church style, without instrumental accompaniment; as, a mass a capella, i. e., a mass purely vocal. (b) A time indication, equivalent to alla breve.

A*cap"su*lar, a. Etym: [Pref. a- not + capsular.] (Bot.)

Defn: Having no capsule.

A*car"di*ac, a. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Without a heart; as, an acardiac fetus.

A*car"i*dan, n. Etym: [See Acarus.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: One of a group of arachnids, including the mites and ticks.

Ac`a*ri"na, n. pl. Etym: [NL., from Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: The group of Arachnida which includes the mites and ticks. Many species are parasitic, and cause diseases like the itch and mange.

Ac"a*rine, a. (Med.)

Defn: Of or caused by acari or mites; as, acarine diseases.

Ac"a*roid, a. Etym: [NL., acarus a mite + -oid.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: Shaped like or resembling a mite.

Ac`ar*pel"lous, a. Etym: [Pref. a- not + carpel.] (Bot.)

Defn: Having no carpels.

A*car"pous, a. Etym: [Gr. (Bot.)

Defn: Not producing fruit; unfruitful.

Ac"a*rus, n.; pl. Acari. Etym: [NL., from Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: A genus including many species of small mites.

A*cat`a*lec"tic, a. Etym: [L. acatalecticus, Gr. (Pros.)

Defn: Not defective; complete; as, an acatalectic verse.
 — n.

Defn: A verse which has the complete number of feet and syllables.

A*cat"a*lep`sy, n. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Incomprehensibility of things; the doctrine held by the ancient Skeptic philosophers, that human knowledge never amounts to certainty, but only to probability.

A*cat`a*lep"tic, a. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Incapable of being comprehended; incomprehensible.

A*ca"ter, n.

Defn: See Caterer. [Obs.]

A*cates", n. pl.

Defn: See Cates. [Obs.]

A*cau"date, a. Etym: [Pref. a- not + caudate.]

Defn: Tailless.

Ac`au*les"cent, a. Etym: [Pref. a- not + caulescent.] (Bot.)

Defn: Having no stem or caulis, or only a very short one concealed in the ground. Gray.

A*cau"line, a. Etym: [Pref. a- not + cauline.] (Bot.)

Defn: Same as Acaulescent.

A*cau"lose, A*cau"lous, a. Etym: [Gr. caulis stalk. See Cole.] (Bot.)

Defn: Same as Acaulescent.

Ac*ca"di*an, a. Etym: [From the city Accad. See Gen. x. 10.]

Defn: Pertaining to a race supposed to have lived in Babylonia before
the Assyrian conquest.
 — Ac*ca"di*an, n., Ac"cad, n. Sayce.

Ac*cede", v. i. [imp. & p. p. Acceded; p. pr. & vb. n. Acceding.]
Etym: [L. accedere to approach, accede; ad + cedere to move, yield:
cf. F. accédere. See Cede.]

1. To approach; to come forward; — opposed to recede. [Obs.] T. Gale.

2. To enter upon an office or dignity; to attain.
Edward IV., who had acceded to the throne in the year 1461. T.
If Frederick had acceded to the supreme power. Morley.

3. To become a party by associating one's self with others; to give one's adhesion. Hence, to agree or assent to a proposal or a view; as, he acceded to my request. The treaty of Hanover in 1725 . . . to which the Dutch afterwards acceded. Chesterfield.

 — To agree; assent; consent; comply; acquiesce; concur.

Ac*ced"ence, n.

Defn: The act of acceding.

Ac*ced"er, n.

Defn: One who accedes.

Ac*cel`er*an"do, a. Etym: [It.] (Mus.)

Defn: Gradually accelerating the movement.

Ac*cel"er*ate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Accelerated; p. pr. & vb. n.
Accelerating.] Etym: [L. acceleratus, p. p. of accelerare; ad +
celerare to hasten; celer quick. See Celerity.]

1. To cause to move faster; to quicken the motion of; to add to the speed of; — opposed to retard.

2. To quicken the natural or ordinary progression or process of; as, to accelerate the growth of a plant, the increase of wealth, etc.

3. To hasten, as the occurence of an event; as, to accelerate our departure. Accelerated motion (Mech.), motion with a continually increasing velocity. — Accelerating force, the force which causes accelerated motion. Nichol.

Syn. — To hasten; expedite; quicken; dispatch; forward; advance; further.

Ac*cel`er*a"tion, n. Etym: [L. acceleratio: cf. F. accélération.]

Defn: The act of accelerating, or the state of being accelerated; increase of motion or action; as, a falling body moves toward the earth with an acceleration of velocity; — opposed to retardation. A period of social improvement, or of intellectual advancement, contains within itself a principle of acceleration. I. Taylor. (Astr. & Physics.) Acceleration of the moon, the increase of the moon's mean motion in its orbit, in consequence of which its period of revolution is now shorter than in ancient times. — Acceleration and retardation of the tides. See Priming of the tides, under Priming. — Diurnal acceleration of the fixed stars, the amount by which their apparent diurnal motion exceeds that of the sun, in consequence of which they daily come to the meridian of any place about three minutes fifty-six seconds of solar time earlier than on the day preceding. — Acceleration of the planets, the increasing velocity of their motion, in proceeding from the apogee to the perigee of their orbits.

Ac*cel"er*a*tive, a.

Defn: Relating to acceleration; adding to velocity; quickening. Reid.

Ac*cel"er*a`tor, n.

Defn: One who, or that which, accelerates. Also as an adj.; as, accelerator nerves.

Ac*cel"er*a*to*ry, a.

Defn: Accelerative.

Ac*cel"er*o*graph, n. Etym: [Accelerate + -graph.] (Mil.)

Defn: An apparatus for studying the combustion of powder in guns, etc.

Ac*cel`er*om"e*ter, n. Etym: [Accelerate + -meter.]

Defn: An apparatus for measuring the velocity imparted by gunpowder.

ACCEND Ac*cend", v. t. Etym: [L. accendere, accensum, to kindle; ad + candère to kindle (only in compounds); rel. to candere to be white, to gleam. See Candle.]

Defn: To set on fire; to kindle. [Obs.] Fotherby.

Ac*cend`i*bil"i*ty, n.

Defn: Capacity of being kindled, or of becoming inflamed; inflammability.

Ac*cend"i*ble, a.

Defn: Capable of being inflamed or kindled; combustible; inflammable.

Ac*cen"sion, n.

Defn: The act of kindling or the state of being kindled; ignition.

Ac*cen"sor, n. Etym: [LL., from p. p. accensus. See Accend.] (R. C.

Defn: One of the functionaries who light and trim the tapers.

ACCENT Ac"cent`, n. Etym: [F. accent, L. accentus; ad + cantus a singing, canere to sing. See Cant.]

1. A superior force of voice or of articulative effort upon some particular syllable of a word or a phrase, distinguishing it from the others.

Note: Many English words have two accents, the primary and the secondary; the primary being uttered with a greater stress of voice than the secondary; as in as'pira''tion, where the chief stress is on the third syllable, and a slighter stress on the first. Some words, as an'tiap'o-plec''tic, in-com'pre-hen'si-bil''i-ty, have two secondary accents. See Guide to Pron., tt 30-46.

2. A mark or character used in writing, and serving to regulate the pronunciation; esp.: (a) a mark to indicate the nature and place of the spoken accent; (b) a mark to indicate the quality of sound of the vowel marked; as, the French accents.

Note: In the ancient Greek the acute accent (') meant a raised tone or pitch, the grave (`), the level tone or simply the negation of accent, the circumflex ( ~ or ^) a tone raised and then depressed. In works on elocution, the first is often used to denote the rising inflection of the voice; the second, the falling inflection; and the third (^), the compound or waving inflection. In dictionaries, spelling books, and the like, the acute accent is used to designate the syllable which receives the chief stress of voice.

3. Modulation of the voice in speaking; manner of speaking or pronouncing; peculiar or characteristic modification of the voice; tone; as, a foreign accent; a French or a German accent. "Beguiled you in a plain accent." Shak. "A perfect accent." Thackeray. The tender accent of a woman's cry. Prior.

4. A word; a significant tone; (pl.) expressions in general; speech. Winds! on your wings to Heaven her accents bear, Such words as Heaven alone is fit to hear. Dryden.

5. (Pros.)

Defn: Stress laid on certain syllables of a verse.

6. (Mus.) (a) A regularly recurring stress upon the tone to mark the beginning, and, more feebly, the third part of the measure. (b) A special emphasis of a tone, even in the weaker part of the measure. (c) The rythmical accent, which marks phrases and sections of a period. (d) The expressive emphasis and shading of a passage. J. S. Dwight.

7. (Math.) (a) A mark placed at the right hand of a letter, and a little above it, to distinguish magnitudes of a similar kind expressed by the same letter, but differing in value, as y', y''. (b) (Trigon.) A mark at the right hand of a number, indicating minutes of a degree, seconds, etc.; as, 12'27'', i. e., twelve minutes twenty seven seconds. (c) (Engin.) A mark used to denote feet and inches; as, 6' 10'' is six feet ten inches.

Ac*cent", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Accented; p. pr. & vb. n. Accenting.]
Etym: [OF. accenter, F. accentuer.]

1. To express the accent of (either by the voice or by a mark); to utter or to mark with accent.

2. To mark emphatically; to emphasize.

Ac"cent`less, a.

Defn: Without accent.

Ac*cen"tor, n. Etym: [L. ad. + cantor singer, canere to sing.]

1. (Mus.)

Defn: One who sings the leading part; the director or leader. [Obs.]

2. (Zoöl.)

Defn: A genus of European birds (so named from their sweet notes), including the hedge warbler. In America sometimes applied to the water thrushes.

Ac*cen"tu*a*ble, a.

Defn: Capable of being accented.

Ac*cen"tu*al, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to accent; characterized or formed by accent.

Ac*cen`tu*al"i*ty, n.

Defn: The quality of being accentual.

Ac*cen"tu*al*ly, adv.

Defn: In an accentual manner; in accordance with accent.

Ac*cen"tu*ate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Accentuated; p. pr. & vb. n.
Accentuating.] Etym: [LL. accentuatus, p. p. of accentuare, fr. L.
accentus: cf. F. accentuer.]

1. To pronounce with an accent or with accents.

2. To bring out distinctly; to make prominent; to emphasize. In Bosnia, the struggle between East and West was even more accentuated. London Times.

3. To mark with the written accent.

Ac*cen`tu*a"tion, n. Etym: [LL. accentuatio: cf. F. accentuation.]

Defn: Act of accentuating; applications of accent. Specifically
(Eccles. Mus.),

Defn: pitch or modulation of the voice in reciting portions of the liturgy.

Ac*cept", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Accepted; p. pr. & vb. n. Accepting.]
Etym: [F. accepter, L. acceptare, freq. of accipere; ad + capere to
take; akin to E. heave.]

1. To receive with a consenting mind (something offered); as, to accept a gift; — often followed by of. If you accept them, then their worth is great. Shak. To accept of ransom for my son. Milton. She accepted of a treat. Addison.

2. To receive with favor; to approve. The Lord accept thy burnt sacrifice. Ps. xx. 3. Peradventure he will accept of me. Gen. xxxii. 20.

3. To receive or admit and agree to; to assent to; as, I accept your proposal, amendment, or excuse.

4. To take by the mind; to understand; as, How are these words to be accepted

5. (Com.)

Defn: To receive as obligatory and promise to pay; as, to accept a bill of exchange. Bouvier.

6. In a deliberate body, to receive in acquittance of a duty imposed; as, to accept the report of a committee. [This makes it the property of the body, and the question is then on its adoption.] To accept a bill (Law), to agree (on the part of the drawee) to pay it when due. — To accept service (Law), to agree that a writ or process shall be considered as regularly served, when it has not been. — To accept the person (Eccl.), to show favoritism. "God accepteth no man's person." Gal. ii. 6.

 — To receive; take; admit. See Receive.

Ac*cept", a.

Defn: Accepted. [Obs.] Shak.

Ac*cept`a*bil"i*ty, n. Etym: [LL. acceptabilitas.]

Defn: The quality of being acceptable; acceptableness. "Acceptability of repentance." Jer. Taylor.

ACCEPTABLE Ac*cept"a*ble, a. Etym: [F. acceptable, L. acceptabilis, fr. acceptare.]

Defn: Capable, worthy, or sure of being accepted or received with pleasure; pleasing to a receiver; gratifying; agreeable; welcome; as, an acceptable present, one acceptable to us.

Ac*cept"a*ble*ness, n.

Defn: The quality of being acceptable, or suitable to be favorably received; acceptability.

Ac*cept"a*bly, adv.

Defn: In an acceptable manner; in a manner to please or give satisfaction.

Ac*cept"ance, n.

1. The act of accepting; a receiving what is offered, with approbation, satisfaction, or acquiescence; esp., favorable reception; approval; as, the acceptance of a gift, office, doctrine, etc. They shall come up with acceptance on mine altar. Isa. lx. 7.

2. State of being accepted; acceptableness. "Makes it assured of acceptance." Shak.

3. (Com.) (a) An assent and engagement by the person on whom a bill of exchange is drawn, to pay it when due according to the terms of the acceptance. (b) The bill itself when accepted.

4. An agreeing to terms or proposals by which a bargain is concluded and the parties are bound; the reception or taking of a thing bought as that for which it was bought, or as that agreed to be delivered, or the taking possession as owner.

5. (Law)

Defn: An agreeing to the action of another, by some act which binds the person in law.

Note: What acts shall amount to such an acceptance is often a question of great nicety and difficulty. Mozley & W.

Note: In modern law, proposal and acceptance are the constituent elements into which all contracts are resolved. Acceptance of a bill of exchange, check, draft, or order, is an engagement to pay it according to the terms. This engagement is usually made by writing the word "accepted" across the face of the bill. Acceptance of goods, under the statute of frauds, is an intelligent acceptance by a party knowing the nature of the transaction.

6. Meaning; acceptation. [Obs.] Acceptance of persons, partiality, favoritism. See under Accept.

Ac*cept"an*cy, n.

Defn: Acceptance. [R.]
Here's a proof of gift, But here's no proof, sir, of acceptancy. Mrs.

Ac*cept"ant, a.

Defn: Accepting; receiving.

Ac*cept"ant, n.

Defn: An accepter. Chapman.

Ac`cep*ta"tion, n.

1. Acceptance; reception; favorable reception or regard; state of being acceptable. [Obs.] This is saying worthy of all acceptation. 1 Tim. i. 15. Some things . . . are notwithstanding of so great dignity and acceptation with God. Hooker.

2. The meaning in which a word or expression is understood, or generally received; as, term is to be used according to its usual acceptation. My words, in common acceptation, Could never give this provocation. Gay.

Ac*cept"ed*ly, adv.

Defn: In a accepted manner; admittedly.

Ac*cept"er, n.

1. A person who accepts; a taker.

2. A respecter; a viewer with partiality. [Obs.] God is no accepter of persons. Chillingworth.

3. (Law)

Defn: An acceptor.

ACCEPTILATION Ac*cep`ti*la"tion, n. Etym: [L. acceptilatio entry of a debt collected, acquittance, fr. p. p. of accipere (cf. Accept) + latio a carrying, fr. latus, p. p. of ferre to carry: cf. F. acceptilation.] (Civil Law)

Defn: Gratuitous discharge; a release from debt or obligation without payment; free remission.

ACCEPTION Ac*cep"tion, n. Etym: [L. acceptio a receiving, accepting: cf. F. acception.]

Defn: Acceptation; the received meaning. [Obs.]
Here the word "baron" is not to be taken in that restrictive sense to
which the modern acception hath confined it. Fuller.
Acception of persons or faces (Eccl.), favoritism; partiality. [Obs.]

Ac*cept"ive, a.

1. Fit for acceptance.

2. Ready to accept. [Obs.] B. Jonson.

Ac*cept"or (#; 277), n. Etym: [L.]

Defn: One who accepts; specifically (Law & Com.),

Defn: one who accepts an order or a bill of exchange; a drawee after he has accepted.

Ac*cess" (#; 277), n. Etym: [F. accès, L. accessus, fr. accedere. See

1. A coming to, or near approach; admittance; admission; accessibility; as, to gain access to a prince. I did repel his letters, and denied His access to me. Shak.

2. The means, place, or way by which a thing may be approached; passage way; as, the access is by a neck of land. "All access was thronged." Milton.

3. Admission to sexual intercourse. During coverture, access of the husband shall be presumed, unless the contrary be shown. Blackstone.

4. Increase by something added; addition; as, an access of territory.
[In this sense accession is more generally used.]
I, from the influence of thy looks, receive Access in every virtue.

5. An onset, attack, or fit of disease. The first access looked like an apoplexy. Burnet.

6. A paroxysm; a fit of passion; an outburst; as, an access of fury. [A Gallicism]

Ac*ces"sa*ri*ly, adv.

Defn: In the manner of an accessary.

Ac*ces"sa*ri*ness, n.

Defn: The state of being accessary.

Ac*ces"sa*ry (#; 277), a.

Defn: Accompanying, as a subordinate; additional; accessory; esp., uniting in, or contributing to, a crime, but not as chief actor. See Accessory. To both their deaths thou shalt be accessary. Shak. Amongst many secondary and accessary causes that support monarchy, these are not of least reckoning. Milton.

ACCESSARY Ac*ces"sa*ry (277), n.; pl. Accessaries. Etym: [Cf. Accessory and LL. accessarius.] (Law)

Defn: One who, not being present, contributes as an assistant or instigator to the commission of an offense. Accessary before the fact (Law), one who commands or counsels an offense, not being present at its commission. — Accessary after the fact, one who, after an offense, assists or shelters the offender, not being present at the commission of the offense.

Note: This word, as used in law, is spelt accessory by Blackstone and many others; but in this sense is spelt accessary by Bouvier, Burrill, Burns, Whishaw, Dane, and the Penny Cyclopedia; while in other senses it is spelt accessory. In recent text-books on criminal law the distinction is not preserved, the spelling being either accessary or accessory.

ACCESSIBILITY Ac*cess`i*bil"i*ty, n. Etym: [L. accessibilitas: cf. F. accessibilité.]

Defn: The quality of being accessible, or of admitting approach; receptibility. Langhorne.

ACCESSIBLE Ac*cess"i*ble, a. Etym: [L. accessibilis, fr. accedere: cf. F. accessible. See Accede.]

1. Easy of access or approach; approachable; as, an accessible town or mountain, an accessible person.

2. Open to the influence of; — with to. "Minds accessible to reason." Macaulay.

3. Obtainable; to be got at. The best information . . . at present accessible. Macaulay.

Ac*cess"i*bly, adv.

Defn: In an accessible manner.

Ac*ces"sion, n. Etym: [L. accessio, fr. accedere: cf. F. accession.
See Accede.]

1. A coming to; the act of acceding and becoming joined; as, a king's accession to a confederacy.

2. Increase by something added; that which is added; augmentation from without; as, an accession of wealth or territory. The only accession which the Roman empire received was the province of Britain. Gibbon.

3. (Law) (a) A mode of acquiring property, by which the owner of a corporeal substance which receives an addition by growth, or by labor, has a right to the part or thing added, or the improvement (provided the thing is not changed into a different species). Thus, the owner of a cow becomes the owner of her calf. (b) The act by which one power becomes party to engagements already in force between other powers. Kent.

4. The act of coming to or reaching a throne, an office, or dignity; as, the accession of the house of Stuart; — applied especially to the epoch of a new dynasty.

5. (Med.)

Defn: The invasion, approach, or commencement of a disease; a fit or paroxysm.

 — Increase; addition; augmentation; enlargement.

Ac*ces"sion*al, a.

Defn: Pertaining to accession; additional. [R.] Sir T. Browne.

Ac*ces"sive, a.

Defn: Additional.

Ac`ces*so"ri*al, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to an accessory; as, accessorial agency, accessorial guilt.

Ac*ces"so*ri*ly, adv.

Defn: In the manner of an accessory; auxiliary.

Ac*ces"so*ri*ness, n.

Defn: The state of being accessory, or connected subordinately.

Ac*ces"so*ry (#; 277), a. Etym: [L. accessorius. See Access, and cf.

Defn: Accompanying as a subordinate; aiding in a secondary way; additional; connected as an incident or subordinate to a principal; contributing or contributory; said of persons and things, and, when of persons, usually in a bad sense; as, he was accessory to the riot; accessory sounds in music.

Note: Ash accents the antepenult; and this is not only more regular, but preferable, on account of easiness of pronunciation. Most orhoëpists place the accent on the first syllable.

Syn. — Accompanying; contributory; auxiliary; subsidiary; subservient; additional; acceding.

Ac*ces"so*ry, n.; pl. Accessories.

1. That which belongs to something else deemed the principal; something additional and subordinate. "The aspect and accessories of a den of banditti." Carlyle.

2. (Law)

Defn: Same as Accessary, n.

3. (Fine Arts)

Defn: Anything that enters into a work of art without being indispensably necessary, as mere ornamental parts. Elmes.

 — Abettor; accomplice; ally; coadjutor. See Abettor.

Ac*ciac`ca*tu"ra, n. Etym: [It., from acciaccare to crush.] (Mus.)

Defn: A short grace note, one semitone below the note to which it is prefixed; — used especially in organ music. Now used as equivalent to the short appoggiatura.

ACCIDENCE Ac"ci*dence, n. Etym: [A corruption of Eng. accidents, pl. of accident. See Accident, 2.]

1. The accidents, of inflections of words; the rudiments of grammar. Milton.

2. The rudiments of any subject. Lowell.

ACCIDENT Ac"ci*dent, n. Etym: [F. accident, fr. L. accidens, -dentis, p. pr. of accidere to happen; ad + cadere to fall. See Cadence, Case.]

1. Literally, a befalling; an event that takes place without one's foresight or expectation; an undesigned, sudden, and unexpected event; chance; contingency; often, an undesigned and unforeseen occurrence of an afflictive or unfortunate character; a casualty; a mishap; as, to die by an accident. Of moving accidents by flood and field. Shak. Thou cam'st not to thy place by accident: It is the very place God meant for thee. Trench.

2. (Gram.)

Defn: A property attached to a word, but not essential to it, as gender, number, case.

3. (Her.)

Defn: A point or mark which may be retained or omitted in a coat of arms.

4. (Log.) (a) A property or quality of a thing which is not essential to it, as whiteness in paper; an attribute. (b) A quality or attribute in distinction from the substance, as sweetness, softness.

5. Any accidental property, fact, or relation; an accidental or nonessential; as, beauty is an accident. This accident, as I call it, of Athens being situated some miles from the sea. J. P. Mahaffy.

6. Unusual appearance or effect. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Note: Accident, in Law, is equivalent to casus, or such unforeseen, extraordinary, extraneous interference as is out of the range of ordinary calculation.

Ac`ci*den"tal, a. Etym: [Cf. F. accidentel, earlier accidental.]

1. Happening by chance, or unexpectedly; taking place not according to the usual course of things; casual; fortuitous; as, an accidental visit.

2. Nonessential; not necessary belonging; incidental; as, are accidental to a play. Accidental chords (Mus.), those which contain one or more tones foreign to their proper harmony. — Accidental colors (Opt.), colors depending on the hypersensibility of the retina of the eye for complementary colors. They are purely subjective sensations of color which often result from the contemplation of actually colored bodies. — Accidental point (Persp.), the point in which a right line, drawn from the eye, parallel to a given right line, cuts the perspective plane; so called to distinguish it from the principal point, or point of view, where a line drawn from the eye perpendicular to the perspective plane meets this plane. — Accidental lights (Paint.), secondary lights; effects of light other than ordinary daylight, such as the rays of the sun darting through a cloud, or between the leaves of trees; the effect of moonlight, candlelight, or burning bodies. Fairholt.

Syn. — Casual; fortuitous; contingent; occasional; adventitious. — Accidental, Incidental, Casual, Fortuitous, Contingent. We speak of a thing as accidental when it falls out as by chance, and not in the regular course of things; as, an accidental meeting, an accidental advantage, etc. We call a thing incidental when it falls, as it were, into some regular course of things, but is secondary, and forms no essential part thereof; as, an incremental remark, an incidental evil, an incidental benefit. We speak of a thing as casual, when it falls out or happens, as it were, by mere chance, without being prearranged or premeditated; as, a casual remark or encounter; a casual observer. An idea of the unimportant is attached to what is casual. Fortuitous is applied to what occurs without any known cause, and in opposition to what has been foreseen; as, a fortuitous concourse of atoms. We call a thing contingent when it is such that, considered in itself, it may or may not happen, but is dependent for its existence on something else; as, the time of my coming will be contingent on intelligence yet to be received.

Ac`ci*den"tal, n.

1. A property which is not essential; a nonessential; anything happening accidentally. He conceived it just that accidentals . . . should sink with the substance of the accusation. Fuller.

2. pl. (Paint.)

Defn: Those fortuitous effects produced by luminous rays falling on certain objects so that some parts stand forth in abnormal brightness and other parts are cast into a deep shadow.

3. (Mus.)

Defn: A sharp, flat, or natural, occurring not at the commencement of a piece of music as the signature, but before a particular note.

Ac`ci*den"tal*ism, n.

Defn: Accidental character or effect. Ruskin.

Ac`ci*den*tal"i*ty, n.

Defn: The quality of being accidental; accidentalness. [R.]

Ac`ci*den"tal*ly, adv.

Defn: In an accidental manner; unexpectedly; by chance; unintentionally; casually; fortuitously; not essentially.

Ac`ci*den"tal*ness, n.

Defn: The quality of being accidental; casualness.

Ac"ci*die, n. Etym: [OF. accide, accidie, LL. accidia, acedia, fr.

Defn: Sloth; torpor. [Obs.] "The sin of accidie." Chaucer.

Ac`ci*pen"ser, n.

Defn: See Acipenser.

Ac*cip"i*ent, n. Etym: [L. accipiens, p. pr. of accipere. See

Defn: A receiver. [R.] Bailey

Ac*cip"i*ter, n.; pl. E. Accipiters. L. Accipitres. Etym: [L., hawk.]

1. (Zoöl.)

Defn: A genus of rapacious birds; one of the Accipitres or Raptores.

2. (Surg.)

Defn: A bandage applied over the nose, resembling the claw of a hawk.

Ac*cip"i*tral, n.

Defn: Pertaining to, or of the nature of, a falcon or hawk; hawklike.

Ac*cip"i*tres, n. pl. Etym: [L., hawks.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: The order that includes rapacious birds. They have a hooked bill, and sharp, strongly curved talons. There are three families, represented by the vultures, the falcons or hawks, and the owls.

Ac*cip"i*trine (#; 277), a. Etym: [Cf. F. accipitrin.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: Like or belonging to the Accipitres; raptorial; hawklike.

Ac*cis"mus, n. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. (Rhet.)

Defn: Affected refusal; coyness.

ACCITE Ac*cite", v. t. Etym: [L. accitus, p. p. of accire, accere, to call for; ad + ciere to move, call. See Cite.]

Defn: To cite; to summon. [Obs.]
Our heralds now accited all that were Endamaged by the Elians.

Ac*claim", v. t. Etym: [L. acclamare; ad + clamare to cry out. See
Claim, Clamor.] [R.]

1. To applaud. "A glad acclaiming train." Thomson.

2. To declare by acclamations. While the shouting crowd Acclaims thee king of traitors. Smollett.

3. To shout; as, to acclaim my joy.

Ac*claim", v. i.

Defn: To shout applause.

Ac*claim", n.

Defn: Acclamation. [Poetic] Milton.

Ac*claim"er, n.

Defn: One who acclaims.

Ac`cla*ma"tion, n. Etym: [L. acclamatio: cf. F. acclamation.]

1. A shout of approbation, favor, or assent; eager expression of approval; loud applause. On such a day, a holiday having been voted by acclamation, an ordinary walk would not satisfy the children. Southey.

2. (Antiq.)

Defn: A representation, in sculpture or on medals, of people expressing joy. Acclamation medals are those on which laudatory acclamations are recorded. Elmes.

Ac*clam"a*to*ry, a.

Defn: Pertaining to, or expressing approval by, acclamation.

Ac*cli"ma*ta*ble, a.

Defn: Capable of being acclimated.

Ac*cli`ma*ta"tion, n. Etym: [Cf. F. acclimation. See Acclimate.]

Defn: Acclimatization.

Ac*cli"mate (#; 277), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Acclimated; p. pr. & vb. n.
Acclimating.] Etym: [F. acclimater; à (l. ad) + climat climate. See

Defn: To habituate to a climate not native; to acclimatize. J. H.

Ac*cli"mate*ment, n.

Defn: Acclimation. [R.]

Ac`cli*ma"tion, n.

Defn: The process of becoming, or the state of being, acclimated, or habituated to a new climate; acclimatization.

Ac*cli"ma*ti`za*ble, a.

Defn: Capable of being acclimatized.

Ac*cli"ma*ti*za"tion, n.

Defn: The act of acclimatizing; the process of inuring to a new climate, or the state of being so inured. Darwin.

Ac*cli"ma*tize, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Acclimatized; p. pr. & vb. n.

Defn: To inure or habituate to a climate different from that which is natural; to adapt to the peculiarities of a foreign or strange climate; said of man, the inferior animals, or plants.

Ac*cli"ma*ture (#; 135), n.

Defn: The act of acclimating, or the state of being acclimated. [R.]

Ac*clive", a.

Defn: Acclivous. [Obs.]

Ac*cliv"i*tous, a.

Defn: Acclivous. I. Taylor.

Ac*cliv"i*tous, a.

Defn: Acclivous. I. Taylor.

ACCLIVITY Ac*cliv"i*ty, n.; pl. Acclivities. Etym: [L. acclivitas, fr. acclivis, acclivus, ascending; ad + clivus a hill, slope, fr. root kli to lean. See Lean.]

Defn: A slope or inclination of the earth, as the side of a hill, considered as ascending, in opposition to declivity, or descending; an upward slope; ascent.

Ac*cli"vous (#; 277), a. Etym: [L. acclivis and acclivus.]

Defn: Sloping upward; rising as a hillside; — opposed to declivous.

ACCLOY Ac*cloy", v. t. Etym: [OF. encloyer, encloer, F. enclouer, to drive in a nail, fr. L. in + clavus nail.]

Defn: To fill to satiety; to stuff full; to clog; to overload; to burden. See Cloy. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Ac*coast", v. t. & i. Etym: [See Accost, Coast.]

Defn: To lie or sail along the coast or side of; to accost. [Obs.]
Whether high towering or accosting low. Spenser.

ACCOIL Ac*coil", v. t. Etym: [OE. acoillir to receive, F. accueillir; L. ad + colligere to collect. See Coil.]

1. To gather together; to collect. [Obs.] Spenser.

2. (Naut.)

Defn: To coil together. Ham. Nav. Encyc.

ACCOLADE Ac`co*lade" (#; 277), n. Etym: [F. accolade, It. accolata, fr. accollare to embrace; L. ad + collum neck.]

1. A ceremony formerly used in conferring knighthood, consisting am embrace, and a slight blow on the shoulders with the flat blade of a sword.

2. (Mus.)

Defn: A brace used to join two or more staves.

Ac*com*bi*na"tion, n. Etym: [L. ad + E. combination.]

Defn: A combining together. [R.]

Ac*com"mo*da*ble, a. Etym: [Cf. F. accommodable.]

Defn: That may be accommodated, fitted, or made to agree. [R.] I.

Ac*com"mo*dable*ness, n.

Defn: The quality or condition of being accommodable. [R.] Todd.

Ac*com"mo*date, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Accommodated; p. pr. & vb. n.
Accommodating.] Etym: [L. accommodatus, p. p. of accommodare; ad +
commodare to make fit, help; con- + modus measure, proportion. See

1. To render fit, suitable, or correspondent; to adapt; to conform; as, to accommodate ourselves to circumstances. "They accomodate their counsels to his inclination." Addison.

2. To bring into agreement or harmony; to reconcile; to compose; to adjust; to settle; as, to accommodate differences, a dispute, etc.

3. To furnish with something desired, needed, or convenient; to favor; to oblige; as, to accommodate a friend with a loan or with lodgings.

4. To show the correspondence of; to apply or make suit by analogy; to adapt or fit, as teachings to accidental circumstances, statements to facts, etc.; as, to accommodate prophecy to events.

 — To suit; adapt; conform; adjust; arrange.

Ac*com"mo*date, v. i.

Defn: To adapt one's self; to be conformable or adapted. [R.] Boyle.

Ac*com"mo*date, a. Etym: [L. accommodatus, p.p. of accommodare.]

Defn: Suitable; fit; adapted; as, means accommodate to end. [Archaic]

Ac*com"mo*date*ly, adv.

Defn: Suitably; fitly. [R.]

Ac*com"mo*date*ness, n.

Defn: Fitness. [R.]

Ac*com"mo*da`ting, a.

Defn: Affording, or disposed to afford, accommodation; obliging; as an accommodating man, spirit, arrangement.

ACCOMMODATION Ac*com`mo*da"tion, n. Etym: [L. accommodatio, fr. accommodare: cf. F. accommodation.]

1. The act of fitting or adapting, or the state of being fitted or adapted; adaptation; adjustment; — followed by to. "The organization of the body with accommodation to its functions." Sir M. Hale.

2. Willingness to accommodate; obligingness.

3. Whatever supplies a want or affords ease, refreshment, or convenience; anything furnished which is desired or needful; — often in the plural; as, the accomodations — that is, lodgings and food — at an inn. Sir W. Scott.

4. An adjustment of differences; state of agreement; reconciliation; settlement. "To come to terms of accommodation." Macaulay.

5. The application of a writer's language, on the ground of analogy, to something not originally referred to or intended. Many of those quotations from the Old Testament were probably intended as nothing more than accommodations. Paley.

6. (Com.) (a) A loan of money. (b) An accommodation bill or note. Accommodation bill, or note (Com.), a bill of exchange which a person accepts, or a note which a person makes and delivers to another, not upon a consideration received, but for the purpose of raising money on credit. — Accommodation coach, or train, one running at moderate speed and stopping at all or nearly all stations. — Accommodation ladder (Naut.), a light ladder hung over the side of a ship at the gangway, useful in ascending from, or descending to, small boats.

Ac*com"mo*da`tor, n.

Defn: He who, or that which, accommodates. Warburton.

Ac*com"pa*na*ble, a.

Defn: Sociable. [Obs.] Sir P. Sidney.

Ac*com"pa*ni*er, n.

Defn: He who, or that which, accompanies. Lamb.

Ac*com"pa*ni*ment, n. Etym: [F. accompagnement.]

Defn: That which accompanies; something that attends as a circumstance, or which is added to give greater completeness to the principal thing, or by way of ornament, or for the sake of symmetry. Specifically: (Mus.)

Defn: A part performed by instruments, accompanying another part or parts performed by voices; the subordinate part, or parts, accompanying the voice or a principal instrument; also, the harmony of a figured bass. P. Cyc.

Ac*com"pa*nist, n.

Defn: The performer in music who takes the accompanying part. Busby.

Ac*com"pa*ny, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Accompanied; p. pr. & vb. n.
Accompanying] Etym: [OF. aacompaignier, F. accompagner, to associate
with, fr. OF. compaign, compain, companion. See Company.]

1. To go with or attend as a companion or associate; to keep company with; to go along with; — followed by with or by; as, he accompanied his speech with a bow. The Persian dames, . . . In sumptuous cars, accompanied his march. Glover. They are never alone that are accompanied with noble thoughts. Sir P. Sidney. He was accompanied by two carts filled with wounded rebels. Macaulay.

2. To cohabit with. [Obs.] Sir T. Herbert.

Syn. — To attend; escort; go with. — To Accompany, Attend, Escort. We accompany those with whom we go as companions. The word imports an equality of station. We attend those whom we wait upon or follow. The word conveys an idea of subordination. We escort those whom we attend with a view to guard and protect. A gentleman accompanies a friend to some public place; he attends or escorts a lady.

Ac*com"pa*ny, v. i.

1. To associate in a company; to keep company. [Obs.] Bacon. Men say that they will drive away one another, . . . and not accompany together. Holland.

2. To cohabit (with). [Obs.] Milton.

3. (Mus.)

Defn: To perform an accompanying part or parts in a composition.

Ac*com"ple*tive, a. Etym: [L. ad + complere, completum, to fill up.]

Defn: Tending to accomplish. [R.]

Ac*com"plice, n. Etym: [Ac- (perh. for the article a or for L. ad) +
E. complice. See Complice.]

1. A cooperator. [R.]
Success unto our valiant general, And happiness to his accomplices!

2. (Law)

Defn: An associate in the commission of a crime; a participator in an offense, whether a principal or an accessory. "And thou, the cursed accomplice of his treason." Johnson.

Note: It is followed by with or of before a person and by in (or sometimes of) before the crime; as, A was an accomplice with B in the murder of C. Dryden uses it with to before a thing. "Suspected for accomplice to the fire." Dryden.

Syn. — Abettor; accessory; assistant; associate; confederate; coadjutor; ally; promoter. See Abettor.

Ac*com"plice*ship, n.

Defn: The state of being an accomplice. [R.] Sir H. Taylor.

Ac`com*plic"i*ty, n.

Defn: The act or state of being an accomplice. [R.]

Ac*com"plish, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Accomplished, p. pr. & vb. n.
Accomplishing.] Etym: [OE. acomplissen, OF. accomplir, F. accomplir;
L. ad + complere to fill up, complete. See Complete, Finish.]

1. To complete, as time or distance.
That He would accomplish seventy years in the desolations of
Jerusalem. Dan. ix. 2.
He had accomplished half a league or more. Prescott.

2. To bring to an issue of full success; to effect; to perform; to execute fully; to fulfill; as, to accomplish a design, an object, a promise. This that is written must yet be accomplished in me. Luke xxii. 37.

3. To equip or furnish thoroughly; hence, to complete in acquirements; to render accomplished; to polish. The armorers accomplishing the knights. Shak. It [the moon] is fully accomplished for all those ends to which Providence did appoint it. Wilkins. These qualities . . . go to accomplish a perfect woman. Cowden Clarke.

4. To gain; to obtain. [Obs.] Shak.

Syn. — To do; perform; fulfill; realize; effect; effectuate; complete; consummate; execute; achieve; perfect; equip; furnish. — To Accomplish, Effect, Execute, Achieve, Perform. These words agree in the general idea of carrying out to some end proposed. To accomplish (to fill up to the measure of the intention) generally implies perseverance and skill; as, to accomplish a plan proposed by one's self, an object, a design, an undertaking. "Thou shalt accomplish my desire." 1 Kings v. 9. He . . . expressed his desire to see a union accomplished between England and Scotland. Macaulay. To effect (to work out) is much like accomplish. It usually implies some degree of difficulty contended with; as, he effected or accomplished what he intended, his purpose, but little. "What he decreed, he effected." Milton. To work in close design by fraud or guile What force effected not. Milton. To execute (to follow out to the end, to carry out, or into effect) implies a set mode of operation; as, to execute the laws or the orders of another; to execute a work, a purpose, design, plan, project. To perform is much like to do, though less generally applied. It conveys a notion of protracted and methodical effort; as, to perform a mission, a part, a task, a work. "Thou canst best perform that office." Milton. The Saints, like stars, around his seat Perform their courses still. Keble. To achieve (to come to the end or arrive at one's purpose) usually implies some enterprise or undertaking of importance, difficulty, and excellence.

Ac*com"plish*a*ble, a.

Defn: Capable of being accomplished; practicable. Carlyle.

Ac*com"plished, a.

1. Completed; effected; established; as, an accomplished fact.

2. Complete in acquirements as the result usually of training; — commonly in a good sense; as, an accomplished scholar, an accomplished villain. They . . . show themselves accomplished bees. Holland. Daughter of God and man, accomplished Eve. Milton.

Ac*com"plish*er, n.

Defn: One who accomplishes.

Ac*com"plish*ment, n. Etym: [F. accomplissement, fr. accomplir.]

1. The act of accomplishing; entire performance; completion; fulfillment; as, the accomplishment of an enterprise, of a prophecy, etc.

2. That which completes, perfects, or equips thoroughly; acquirement; attainment; that which constitutes excellence of mind, or elegance of manners, acquired by education or training. "My new accomplishment of dancing." Churchill. "Accomplishments befitting a station." Thackeray. Accomplishments have taken virtue's place, And wisdom falls before exterior grace. Cowper.

Ac*compt" (#; formerly #), n.

Defn: See Account.

Note: Accompt, accomptant, etc., are archaic forms.

Ac*compt"a*ble, a.

Defn: See Accountable.

Ac*compt"ant, n.

Defn: See Accountant.

ACCORD Ac*cord", n. Etym: [OE. acord, accord, OF. acort, acorde, F. accord, fr. OF. acorder, F. accorder. See Accord, v. t.]

1. Agreement or concurrence of opinion, will, or action; harmony of
mind; consent; assent.
A mediator of an accord and peace between them. Bacon.
These all continued with one accord in prayer. Acts i. 14.

2. Harmony of sounds; agreement in pitch and tone; concord; as, the accord of tones. Those sweet accords are even the angels' lays. Sir J. Davies.

3. Agreement, harmony, or just correspondence of things; as, the accord of light and shade in painting.

4. Voluntary or spontaneous motion or impulse to act; — preceded by own; as, of one's own accord. That which groweth of its own accord of thy harvest thou shalt not reap. Lev. xxv. 5. Of his own accord he went unto you. 2 Cor. vii. 17.

5. (Law)

Defn: An agreement between parties in controversy, by which satisfaction for an injury is stipulated, and which, when executed, bars a suit. Blackstone. With one accord, with unanimity. They rushed with one accord into the theater. Acts xix. 29.

Ac*cord", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Accorded; p. pr. & vb. n. According.]
Etym: [OE. acorden, accorden, OF. acorder, F. accorder, fr. LL.
accordare; L. ad + cor, cordis, heart. Cf. Concord, Discord, and see

1. To make to agree or correspond; to suit one thing to another; to adjust; — followed by to. [R.] Her hands accorded the lute's music to the voice. Sidney.

2. To bring to an agreement, as persons; to reconcile; to settle, adjust, harmonize, or compose, as things; as, to accord suits or controversies. When they were accorded from the fray. Spenser. All which particulars, being confessedly knotty and difficult can never be accorded but by a competent stock of critical learning. South.

3. To grant as suitable or proper; to concede; to award; as, to accord to one due praise. "According his desire." Spenser.

Ac*cord", v. i.

1. To agree; to correspond; to be in harmony; — followed by with, formerly also by to; as, his disposition accords with his looks. My heart accordeth with my tongue. Shak. Thy actions to thy words accord. Milton.

2. To agree in pitch and tone.

Ac*cord"a*ble, a. Etym: [OF. acordable, F. accordable.]

1. Agreeing. [Obs.] Chaucer.

2. Reconcilable; in accordance.

Ac*cord"ance, n. Etym: [OF. acordance.]

Defn: Agreement; harmony; conformity. "In strict accordance with the law." Macaulay.

 — Harmony; unison; coincidence.

Ac*cord"an*cy, n.

Defn: Accordance. [R.] Paley.

Ac*cord"ant, a. Etym: [OF. acordant, F. accordant.]

Defn: Agreeing; consonant; harmonious; corresponding; conformable; —
followed by with or to.
Strictly accordant with true morality. Darwin.
And now his voice accordant to the string. Coldsmith.

Ac*cord"ant*ly, adv.

Defn: In accordance or agreement; agreeably; conformably; — followed by with or to.

Ac*cord"er, n.

Defn: One who accords, assents, or concedes. [R.]

Ac*cord"ing, p. a.

Defn: Agreeing; in agreement or harmony; harmonious. "This according
voice of national wisdom." Burke. "Mind and soul according well."
According to him, every person was to be bought. Macaulay.
Our zeal should be according to knowledge. Sprat.

Note: According to has been called a prepositional phrase, but strictly speaking, according is a participle in the sense of agreeing, acceding, and to alone is the preposition. According as, precisely as; the same as; corresponding to the way in which. According as is an adverbial phrase, of which the propriety has been doubted; but good usage sanctions it. See According, adv. Is all things well, According as I gave directions Shak. The land which the Lord will give you according as he hath promised. Ex. xii. 25. p. 13

Ac*cord"ing, adv.

Defn: Accordingly; correspondingly. [Obs.] Shak.

Ac*cord"ing*ly, adv.

1. Agreeably; correspondingly; suitably; in a manner conformable. Behold, and so proceed accordingly. Shak.

2. In natural sequence; consequently; so.

Syn. — Consequently; therefore; wherefore; hence; so. — Accordingly, Consequently, indicate a connection between two things, the latter of which is done on account of the former. Accordingly marks the connection as one of simple accordance or congruity, leading naturally to the result which followed; as, he was absent when I called, and I accordingly left my card; our preparations were all finished, and we accordingly set sail. Consequently all finished, and we accordingly set sail. Consequently marks a closer connection, that of logical or causal sequence; as, the papers were not ready, and consequently could not be signed.

Ac*cor"di*on, n. Etym: [See Accord.] (Mus.)

Defn: A small, portable, keyed wind instrument, whose tones are generated by play of the wind upon free metallic reeds.

Ac*cor"di*on*ist, n.

Defn: A player on the accordion.

Ac*cord"ment, n. Etym: [OF. acordement. See Accord, v.]

Defn: Agreement; reconcilement. [Obs.] Gower.

ACCORPORATE Ac*cor"po*rate, v. t. Etym: [L. accorporare; ad + corpus, corporis, body.]

Defn: To unite; to attach; to incorporate. [Obs.] Milton.

Ac*cost" (#; 115), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Accosted; p. pr. & vb. n.
Accosting.] Etym: [F. accoster, LL. accostare to bring side by side;
L. ad + costa rib, side. See Coast, and cf. Accoast.]

1. To join side to side; to border; hence, to sail along the coast or side of. [Obs.] "So much [of Lapland] as accosts the sea." Fuller.

2. To approach; to make up to. [Archaic] Shak.

3. To speak to first; to address; to greet. "Him, Satan thus accosts." Milton.

Ac*cost", v. i.

Defn: To adjoin; to lie alongside. [Obs.] "The shores which to the sea accost." Spenser.

Ac*cost", n.

Defn: Address; greeting. [R.] J. Morley.

Ac*cost"a*ble, a. Etym: [Cf. F. accostable.]

Defn: Approachable; affable. [R.] Hawthorne.

Ac*cost"ed, a. (Her.)

Defn: Supported on both sides by other charges; also, side by side.

ACCOUCHEMENT Ac*couche"ment (#; 277), n. Etym: [F., fr. accoucher to be delivered of a child, to aid in delivery, OF. acouchier orig. to lay down, put to bed, go to bed; L. ad + collocare to lay, put, place. See Collate.]

Defn: Delivery in childbed

Ac*cou*cheur", n. Etym: [F., fr. accoucher. See Accouchement.]

Defn: A man who assists women in childbirth; a man midwife; an obstetrician.

Ac*cou*cheuse", n. Etym: [F.., fem. of accoucher.]

Defn: A midwife. [Recent] Dunglison.

ACCOUNT Ac*count", n. Etym: [OE. acount, account, accompt, OF. acont, fr. aconter. See Account, v. t., Count, n., 1.]

1. A reckoning; computation; calculation; enumeration; a record of some reckoning; as, the Julian account of time. A beggarly account of empty boxes. Shak.

2. A registry of pecuniary transactions; a written or printed statement of business dealings or debts and credits, and also of other things subjected to a reckoning or review; as, to keep one's account at the bank.

3. A statement in general of reasons, causes, grounds, etc., explanatory of some event; as, no satisfactory account has been given of these phenomena. Hence, the word is often used simply for reason, ground, consideration, motive, etc.; as, on no account, on every account, on all accounts.

4. A statement of facts or occurrences; recital of transactions; a relation or narrative; a report; a description; as, an account of a battle. "A laudable account of the city of London." Howell.

5. A statement and explanation or vindication of one's conduct with reference to judgment thereon. Give an account of thy stewardship. Luke xvi. 2.

6. An estimate or estimation; valuation; judgment. "To stand high in your account." Shak.

7. Importance; worth; value; advantage; profit. "Men of account." Pope. "To turn to account." Shak. Account current, a running or continued account between two or more parties, or a statement of the particulars of such an account. — In account with, in a relation requiring an account to be kept. — On account of, for the sake of; by reason of; because of. — On one's own account, for one's own interest or behalf. — To make account, to have an opinion or expectation; to reckon. [Obs.] s other part . . . makes account to find no slender arguments for this assertion out of those very scriptures which are commonly urged against it. Milton. — To make account of, to hold in estimation; to esteem; as, he makes small account of beauty. — To take account of, or to take into account, to take into consideration; to notice. "Of their doings, God takes no account." Milton . — A writ of account (Law), a writ which the plaintiff brings demanding that the defendant shall render his just account, or show good cause to the contrary; — called also an action of account. Cowell.

Syn. — Narrative; narration; relation; recital; description; explanation; rehearsal. — Account, Narrative, Narration, Recital. These words are applied to different modes of rehearsing a series of events. Account turns attention not so much to the speaker as to the fact related, and more properly applies to the report of some single event, or a group of incidents taken as whole; as, an account of a battle, of a shipwreck, etc. A narrative is a continuous story of connected incidents, such as one friend might tell to another; as, a narrative of the events of a siege, a narrative of one's life, etc. Narration is usually the same as narrative, but is sometimes used to describe the mode of relating events; as, his powers of narration are uncommonly great. Recital denotes a series of events drawn out into minute particulars, usually expressing something which peculiarly interests the feelings of the speaker; as, the recital of one's wrongs, disappointments, sufferings, etc.

1. To reckon; to compute; to count. [Obs.] The motion of . . . the sun whereby years are accounted. Sir T. Browne.

2. To place to one's account; to put to the credit of; to assign; — with to. [R.] Clarendon.

3. To value, estimate, or hold in opinion; to judge or consider; to deem. Accounting that God was able to raise him up. Heb. xi. 19.

4. To recount; to relate. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Ac*count", v. i.

1. To render or receive an account or relation of particulars; as, an officer must account with or to the treasurer for money received.

2. To render an account; to answer in judgment; — with for; as, we must account for the use of our opportunities.

3. To give a satisfactory reason; to tell the cause of; to explain; - - with for; as, idleness accounts for poverty. To account of, to esteem; to prize; to value. Now used only in the passive. "I account of her beauty." Shak. Newer was preaching more accounted of than in the sixteenth century. Canon Robinson.

Ac*count"a*bil"i*ty, n.

Defn: The state of being accountable; liability to be called on to render an account; accountableness. "The awful idea of accountability." R. Hall.

Ac*count"a*ble, a.

1. Liable to be called on to render an account; answerable; as, every man is accountable to God for his conduct.

2. Capable of being accounted for; explicable. [R.] True religion . . . intelligible, rational, and accountable, — not a burden but a privilege. B. Whichcote.

 — Amenable; responsible; liable; answerable.

Ac*count"a*ble ness, n.

Defn: The quality or state of being accountable; accountability.

Ac*count"a*bly, adv.

Defn: In an accountable manner.

Ac*count"an*cy, n.

Defn: The art or employment of an accountant.

Ac*count"ant, n. Etym: [Cf. F. accomptant, OF. acontant, p. pr.]

1. One who renders account; one accountable.

2. A reckoner.

3. One who is skilled in, keeps, or adjusts, accounts; an officer in a public office, who has charge of the accounts. Accountatn general, the head or superintending accountant in certain public offices. Also, formerly, an officer in the English court of chancery who received the moneys paid into the court, and deposited them in the Bank of England.

Ac*count"ant, a.

Defn: Accountable. [Obs.] Shak.

Ac*count"ant*ship, n. Etym: [Accountant + -ship.]

Defn: The office or employment of an accountant.

Ac*count" book`.

Defn: A book in which accounts are kept. Swift.

Ac*cou"ple, v. t. Etym: [OF. acopler, F. accoupler. See Couple.]

Defn: To join; to couple. [R.]
The Englishmen accoupled themselves with the Frenchmen. Hall.

Ac*cou"ple*ment, n. Etym: [Cf. F. accouplement.]

1. The act of coupling, or the state of being coupled; union. [R.] Caxton.

2. That which couples, as a tie or brace. [R.]

Ac*cour"age, v. t. Etym: [OF. acoragier; à (L. ad) + corage. See

Defn: To encourage. [Obs.]

Ac*court", v. t. Etym: [Ac-, for L. ad. See Court.]

Defn: To treat courteously; to court. [Obs.] Spenser.

ACCOUTER; ACCOUTRE Ac*cou"ter, Ac*cou"tre, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Accoutered or Accoutred; p. pr. & vb. n. Accoutering or Accoutring.] Etym: [F. accouter, OF. accoutrer, accoustrer; à (L. ad) + perh. LL. custor, for custos guardian, sacristan (cf. Custody), or perh. akin to E. guilt.]

Defn: To furnish with dress, or equipments, esp. those for military
service; to equip; to attire; to array.
Bot accoutered like young men. Shak.
For this, in rags accoutered are they seen. Dryden.
Accoutered with his burden and his staff. Wordsworth.

Ac*cou"ter*ments, Ac*cou"tre*ments, n. pl. Etym: [F. accoutrement,
earlier also accoustrement, earlier also accoustrement. See

Defn: Dress; trappings; equipment; specifically, the devices and equipments worn by soldiers. How gay with all the accouterments of war!

Ac*coy", v. t. Etym: [OF. acoyer; ac-, for L. ad. See Coy.]

1. To render quiet; to soothe. [Obs.] Chaucer.

2. To subdue; to tame; to daunt. [Obs.] Then is your careless courage accoyed. Spenser.

Ac*cred"it, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Accredited; p. pr. & vb. n.
Accrediting.] Etym: [F. accréditer; à (L. ad) + crédit credit. See

1. To put or bring into credit; to invest with credit or authority;
to sanction.
His censure will . . . accredit his praises. Cowper.
These reasons . . . which accredit and fortify mine opinion. Shelton.

2. To send with letters credential, as an ambassador, envoy, or diplomatic agent; to authorize, as a messenger or delegate. Beton . . . was accredited to the Court of France. Froude.

3. To believe; to credit; to put trust in. The version of early Roman history which was accredited in the fifth century. Sir G. C. Lewis. He accredited and repeated stories of apparitions and witchcraft. Southey.

4. To credit; to vouch for or consider (some one) as doing something, or (something) as belonging to some one. To accredit (one) with (something), to attribute something to him; as, Mr. Clay was accredited with these views; they accredit him with a wise saying.

Ac*cred`i*ta"tion, n.

Defn: The act of accrediting; as, letters of accreditation.

Ac`cre*men*ti"tial, a. (Physiol.)

Defn: Pertaining to accremention.

Ac`cre*men*ti"tion, n. Etym: [See Accresce, Increment.] (Physiol.)

Defn: The process of generation by development of blastema, or fission of cells, in which the new formation is in all respect like the individual from which it proceeds.

Ac*cresce", v. i. Etym: [L. accrescere. See Accrue.]

1. To accrue. [R.]

2. To increase; to grow. [Obs.] Gillespie.

Ac*cres"cence, n. Etym: [LL. accrescentia.]

Defn: Continuous growth; an accretion. [R.] The silent accrescence of belief from the unwatched depositions of a general, never contradicted hearsy. Coleridge.

ACCRESCENT Ac*cres"cent, a. Etym: [L. accrescens, -entis, p. pr. of accrescere; ad + crescere to grow. See Crescent.]

1. Growing; increasing. Shuckford.

2. (Bot.)

Defn: Growing larger after flowering. Gray.

ACCRETE Ac*crete", v. i. Etym: [From L. accretus, p. p. of accrescere to increase.]

1. To grow together.

2. To adhere; to grow (to); to be added; — with to.

Ac*crete", v. t.

Defn: To make adhere; to add. Earle.

Ac*crete", a.

1. Characterized by accretion; made up; as, accrete matter.

2. (Bot.)

Defn: Grown together. Gray.

Ac*cre"tion, n. Etym: [L. accretio, fr. accrescere to increase. Cf.
Crescent, Increase, Accrue.]

1. The act of increasing by natural growth; esp. the increase of organic bodies by the internal accession of parts; organic growth. Arbuthnot.

2. The act of increasing, or the matter added, by an accession of parts externally; an extraneous addition; as, an accretion of earth. A mineral . . . augments not by grown, but by accretion. Owen. To strip off all the subordinate parts of his as a later accretion. Sir G. C. Lewis.

3. Concretion; coherence of separate particles; as, the accretion of particles so as to form a solid mass.

4. A growing together of parts naturally separate, as of the fingers toes. Dana.

5. (Law) (a) The adhering of property to something else, by which the owner of one thing becomes possessed of a right to another; generally, gain of land by the washing up of sand or sail from the sea or a river, or by a gradual recession of the water from the usual watermark. (b) Gain to an heir or legatee, failure of a coheir to the same succession, or a co-legatee of the same thing, to take his share. Wharton. Kent.

Ac*cre"tive, a.

Defn: Relating to accretion; increasing, or adding to, by growth.

Ac*crim"i*nate, v. t. Etym: [L. ac- (for ad to) + criminari.]

Defn: To accuse of a crime. [Obs.] — Ac*crim`i*na"tion, n. [Obs.]

ACCROACH Ac*croach", v. t. Etym: [OE. acrochen, accrochen, to obtain, OF. acrochier, F. accrocher; à (L. ad) + croc hook (E. crook).]

1. To hook, or draw to one's self as with a hook. [Obs.]

2. To usurp, as jurisdiction or royal prerogatives. They had attempted to accroach to themselves royal power. Stubbs.

Ac*croach"ment, n. Etym: [Cf. F. accrochement.]

Defn: An encroachment; usurpation. [Obs.] Bailey.

Ac*cru"al, n.

Defn: Accrument. [R.]

Ac*crue", v. i. [imp. & p. p. Accrued; p. pr. & vb. n. Accruing.]
Etym: [See Accrue, n., and cf. Accresce, Accrete.]

1. To increase; to augment. And though power failed, her courage did accrue. Spenser.

2. To come to by way of increase; to arise or spring as a growth or result; to be added as increase, profit, or damage, especially as the produce of money lent. "Interest accrues to principal." Abbott. The great and essential advantages accruing to society from the freedom of the press. Junius.

Ac*crue", n. Etym: [F. accrû, OF. acreü, p. p. of accroitre, OF.
acroistre to increase; L. ad + crescere to increase. Cf. Accretion,
Crew. See Crescent.]

Defn: Something that accrues; advantage accruing. [Obs.]

Ac*cru"er, n. (Law)

Defn: The act of accruing; accretion; as, title by accruer.

Ac*cru"ment, n.

Defn: The process of accruing, or that which has accrued; increase.
Jer. Taylor.

ACCUBATION Ac`cu*ba"tion, n. Etym: [L. accubatio, for accubatio, fr. accubare to recline; ad + cubare to lie down. See Accumb.]

Defn: The act or posture of reclining on a couch, as practiced by the ancients at meals.

ACCUMB Ac*cumb", v. i. Etym: [L. accumbere; ad + cumbere (only in compounds) to lie down.]

Defn: To recline, as at table. [Obs.] Bailey.

Ac*cum"ben*cy, n.

Defn: The state of being accumbent or reclining. [R.]

Ac*cum"bent, a.

1. Leaning or reclining, as the ancients did at their meals. The Roman.. accumbent posture in eating. Arbuthnot.

2. (Bot.)

Defn: Lying against anything, as one part of a leaf against another
leaf. Gray.
Accumbent cotyledons have their edges placed against the caulicle.

Ac*cum"bent, n.

Defn: One who reclines at table.

Ac*cum"ber, v. t.

Defn: To encumber. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Ac*cu"mu*late, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Accumulated; p. pr. & vb. n.
Accumulating.] Etym: [L. accumulatus, p. p. of accumulare; ad +
cumulare to heap. See Cumulate.]

Defn: To heap up in a mass; to pile up; to collect or bring together; to amass; as, to accumulate a sum of money.

Syn. — To collect; pile up; store; amass; gather; aggregate; heap together; hoard.

Ac*cu"mu*late, v. i.

Defn: To grow or increase in quantity or number; to increase greatly. Ill fares the land, to hastening ills a prey, Where wealth accumulates, and men decay. Goldsmith.

Ac*cu"mu*late, a. Etym: [L. accumulatus, p. p. of accumulare.]

Defn: Collected; accumulated. Bacon.

Ac*cu`mu*la"tion, n. Etym: [L. accumulatio; cf. F. accumulation.]

1. The act of accumulating, the state of being accumulated, or that which is accumulated; as, an accumulation of earth, of sand, of evils, of wealth, of honors.

2. (Law)

Defn: The concurrence of several titles to the same proof. Accumulation of energy or power, the storing of energy by means of weights lifted or masses put in motion; electricity stored. — An accumulation of degrees (Eng. Univ.), the taking of several together, or at smaller intervals than usual or than is allowed by the rules.

Ac*cu"mu*la*tive, a.

Defn: Characterized by accumulation; serving to collect or amass;
cumulative; additional.
 — Ac*cu"mu*la*tive*ly, adv.
 — Ac*cu"mu*la*tive*ness, n.

Ac*cu"mu*la`tor, n. Etym: [L.]

1. One who, or that which, accumulates, collects, or amasses.

2. (Mech.)

Defn: An apparatus by means of which energy or power can be stored, such as the cylinder or tank for storing water for hydraulic elevators, the secondary or storage battery used for accumulating the energy of electrical charges, etc.

3. A system of elastic springs for relieving the strain upon a rope, as in deep-sea dredging.

Ac"cu*ra*cy (#; 277), n. Etym: [See Accurate.]

Defn: The state of being accurate; freedom from mistakes, this exemption arising from carefulness; exact conformity to truth, or to a rule or model; precision; exactness; nicety; correctness; as, the value of testimony depends on its accuracy. The professed end [of logic] is to teach men to think, to judge, and to reason, with precision and accuracy. Reid. The accuracy with which the piston fits the sides. Lardner.

ACCURATE Ac"cu*rate, a. Etym: [L. accuratus, p. p. and a., fr. accurare to take care of; ad + curare to take care, cura care. See Cure.]

1. In exact or careful conformity to truth, or to some standard of requirement, the result of care or pains; free from failure, error, or defect; exact; as, an accurate calculator; an accurate measure; accurate expression, knowledge, etc.

2. Precisely fixed; executed with care; careful. [Obs.] Those conceive the celestial bodies have more accurate influences upon these things below. Bacon.

Syn. — Correct; exact; just; nice; particular. — Accurate, Correct, Exact, Precise. We speak of a thing as correct with reference to some rule or standard of comparison; as, a correct account, a correct likeness, a man of correct deportment. We speak of a thing as accurate with reference to the care bestowed upon its execution, and the increased correctness to be expected therefrom; as, an accurate statement, an accurate detail of particulars. We speak of a thing as exact with reference to that perfected state of a thing in which there is no defect and no redundance; as, an exact coincidence, the exact truth, an exact likeness. We speak of a thing as precise when we think of it as strictly conformed to some rule or model, as if cut down thereto; as a precise conformity instructions; precisely right; he was very precise in giving his directions.

Ac"cu*rate*ly, adv.

Defn: In an accurate manner; exactly; precisely; without error or defect.

Ac"cu*rate*ness, n.

Defn: The state or quality of being accurate; accuracy; exactness; nicety; precision.

ACCURSE Ac*curse", v. t. Etym: [OE. acursien, acorsien; pref. a + cursien to curse. See Curse.]

Defn: To devote to destruction; to imprecate misery or evil upon; to
curse; to execrate; to anathematize.
And the city shall be accursed. Josh. vi. 17.
Thro' you, my life will be accurst. Tennyson.

Ac*cursed", Ac*curst", p. p. & a.

Defn: Doomed to destruction or misery; cursed; hence, bad enough to be under the curse; execrable; detestable; exceedingly hateful; — as, an accursed deed. Shak. — Ac*curs"ed*ly, adv. — Ac*curs"ed*ness, n.

Ac*cus"a*ble, a. Etym: [L. accusabilis: cf. F. accusable.]

Defn: Liable to be accused or censured; chargeable with a crime or fault; blamable; — with of.

Ac*cus"al, n.

Defn: Accusation. [R.] Byron.

ACCUSANT Ac*cus"ant, n. Etym: [L. accusans, p. pr. of accusare: cf. F. accusant.]

Defn: An accuser. Bp. Hall.

ACCUSATION Ac`cu*sa"tion, n. Etym: [OF. acusation, F. accusation, L. accusatio, fr. accusare. See Accuse.]

1. The act of accusing or charging with a crime or with a lighter offense. We come not by the way of accusation To taint that honor every good tongue blesses. Shak.

2. That of which one is accused; the charge of an offense or crime, or the declaration containing the charge. [They] set up over his head his accusation. Matt. xxvii. 37.

 — Impeachment; crimination; censure; charge.

Ac*cu`sa*ti"val, a.

Defn: Pertaining to the accusative case.

ACCUSATIVE Ac*cu"sa*tive, a. Etym: [F. accusatif, L. accusativus (in sense 2), fr. accusare. See Accuse.]

1. Producing accusations; accusatory. "This hath been a very accusative age." Sir E. Dering.

2. (Gram.)

Defn: Applied to the case (as the fourth case of Latin and Greek nouns) which expresses the immediate object on which the action or influence of a transitive verb terminates, or the immediate object of motion or tendency to, expressed by a preposition. It corresponds to the objective case in English.

Ac*cu"sa*tive, n. (Gram.)

Defn: The accusative case.

Ac*cu"sa*tive*ly, adv.

1. In an accusative manner.

2. In relation to the accusative case in grammar.

Ac*cu`sa*to"ri*al, a.

Defn: Accusatory.

Ac*cu`sa*to"ri*al*ly, adv.

Defn: By way accusation.

Ac*cu"sa*to*ry, a. Etym: [L. accusatorius, fr. accusare.]

Defn: Pertaining to, or containing, an accusation; as, an accusatory libel. Grote.

Ac*cuse", n.

Defn: Accusation. [Obs.] Shak.

Ac*cuse", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Accused; p. pr. & vb. n. Accusing.]
Etym: [OF. acuser, F. accuser, L. accusare, to call to account,
accuse; ad + causa cause, lawsuit. Cf. Cause.]

1. To charge with, or declare to have committed, a crime or offense; (Law)

Defn: to charge with an offense, judicially or by a public process; - - with of; as, to accuse one of a high crime or misdemeanor. Neither can they prove the things whereof they now accuse me. Acts xxiv. 13. We are accused of having persuaded Austria and Sardinia to lay down their arms. Macaulay.

2. To charge with a fault; to blame; to censure. Their thoughts the meanwhile accusing or else excusing one another. Rom. ii. 15.

3. To betray; to show. Etym: [L.] Sir P. Sidney.

Syn. — To charge; blame; censure; reproach; criminate; indict; impeach; arraign. — To Accuse, Charge, Impeach, Arraign. These words agree in bringing home to a person the imputation of wrongdoing. To accuse is a somewhat formal act, and is applied usually (though not exclusively) to crimes; as, to accuse of treason. Charge is the most generic. It may refer to a crime, a dereliction of duty, a fault, etc.; more commonly it refers to moral delinquencies; as, to charge with dishonesty or falsehood. To arraign is to bring (a person) before a tribunal for trial; as, to arraign one before a court or at the bar public opinion. To impeach is officially to charge with misbehavior in office; as, to impeach a minister of high crimes. Both impeach and arraign convey the idea of peculiar dignity or impressiveness.

Ac*cused", a.

Defn: Charged with offense; as, an accused person.

Note: Commonly used substantively; as, the accused, one charged with an offense; the defendant in a criminal case.

Ac*cuse"ment, n. Etym: [OF. acusement. See Accuse.]

Defn: Accusation. [Obs.] Chaucer.

ACCUSER Ac*cus"er, n. Etym: [OE. acuser, accusour; cf. OF. acuseor, fr. L. accusator, fr. accusare.]

Defn: One who accuses; one who brings a charge of crime or fault.

Ac*cus"ing*ly, adv.

Defn: In an accusing manner.

Ac*cus"tom, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Accustomed; p. pr. & vb. n.
Accustoming.] Etym: [OF. acostumer, acustumer, F. accoutumer; à (L.
ad) + OF. costume, F. coutume, custom. See Custom.]

Defn: To make familiar by use; to habituate, familiarize, or inure; -
- with to.
I shall always fear that he who accustoms himself to fraud in little
things, wants only opportunity to practice it in greater. Adventurer.

 — To habituate; inure; exercise; train.

Ac*cus"tom, v. i.

1. To be wont. [Obs.] Carew.

2. To cohabit. [Obs.] We with the best men accustom openly; you with the basest commit private adulteries. Milton.

Ac*cus"tom, n.

Defn: Custom. [Obs.] Milton.

Ac*cus"tom*a*ble, a.

Defn: Habitual; customary; wonted. "Accustomable goodness." Latimer.

Ac*cus"tom*a*bly, adv.

Defn: According to custom; ordinarily; customarily. Latimer.

Ac*cus"tom*ance, n. Etym: [OF. accoustumance, F. accoutumance.]

Defn: Custom; habitual use. [Obs.] Boyle.

Ac*cus"tom*a*ri*ly, adv.

Defn: Customarily. [Obs.]

Ac*cus"tom*a*ry, a.

Defn: Usual; customary. [Archaic] Featley.

Ac*cus"tomed, a.

1. Familiar through use; usual; customary. "An accustomed action." Shak.

2. Frequented by customers. [Obs.] "A well accustomed shop." Smollett.

Ac*cus"tomed*ness, n.

Defn: Habituation.
Accustomedness to sin hardens the heart. Bp. Pearce.

ACE Ace, n.; pl. Aces. Etym: [OE. as, F. as, fr. L. as, assis, unity, copper coin, the unit of coinage. Cf. As.]

1. A unit; a single point or spot on a card or die; the card or die so marked; as, the ace of diamonds.

2. Hence: A very small quantity or degree; a particle; an atom; a jot. I 'll not wag an ace further. Dryden. To bate an ace, to make the least abatement. [Obs.] — Within an ace of, very near; on the point of. W. Irving.

A*cel"da*ma, n. Etym: [Gr. okel damo the field of blood.]

Defn: The potter's field, said to have lain south of Jerusalem, purchased with the bribe which Judas took for betraying his Master, and therefore called the field of blood. Fig.: A field of bloodshed. The system of warfare . . . which had already converted immense tracts into one universal aceldama. De Quincey.

A*cen"tric, a. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Not centered; without a center.

Ac"e*phal, n. Etym: [Gr. acéphale, LL. acephalus.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: One of the Acephala.

A*ceph"a*la, n. pl. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. Acephal.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: That division of the Mollusca which includes the bivalve shells, like the clams and oysters; — so called because they have no evident head. Formerly the group included the Tunicata, Brachiopoda, and sometimes the Bryozoa. See Mollusca.

A*ceph"a*lan, n.

Defn: Same as Acephal.

A*ceph"a*lan, a. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Belonging to the Acephala.

A*ceph"a*li, n. pl. Etym: [LL., pl. of acephalus. See Acephal.]

1. A fabulous people reported by ancient writers to have heads.

2. (Eccl. Hist.) (a) A Christian sect without a leader. (b) Bishops and certain clergymen not under regular diocesan control.

3. A class of levelers in the time of K. Henry I.

A*ceph"a*list, n.

Defn: One who acknowledges no head or superior. Dr. Gauden.

A*ceph"a*lo*cyst, n. Etym: [Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: A larval entozoön in the form of a subglobular or oval vesicle, or hy datid, filled with fluid, sometimes found in the tissues of man and the lower animals; — so called from the absence of a head or visible organs on the vesicle. These cysts are the immature stages of certain tapeworms. Also applied to similar cysts of different origin.

A*ceph`a*lo*cys"tic, a.

Defn: Pertaining to, or resembling, the acephalocysts.

A*ceph"a*lous, a. Etym: [See Acephal.]

1. Headless.

2. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Without a distinct head; — a term applied to bivalve mollusks.

3. (Bot.)

Defn: Having the style spring from the base, instead of from the apex, as is the case in certain ovaries.

4. Without a leader or chief.

5. Wanting the beginning. A false or acephalous structure of sentence. De Quincey.

6. (Pros.)

Defn: Deficient and the beginning, as a line of poetry. Brande.

A*ce"qui*a, n. [Sp.]

Defn: A canal or trench for irrigating land. [Sp. Amer.]

Ac"er*ate, n. Etym: [See Aceric.] (Chem.)

Defn: A combination of aceric acid with a salifiable base.

Ac"er*ate, a.

Defn: Acerose; needle-shaped.

A*cerb", a. Etym: [L. acerbus, fr. acer sharp: cf. F. acerbe. See

Defn: Sour, bitter, and harsh to the taste, as unripe fruit; sharp and harsh.

ACERBATE A*cerb"ate, v. t. Etym: [L. acerbatus, p. p. of acerbare, fr. acerbus.]

Defn: To sour; to imbitter; to irritate.

A*cerb"ic, a.

Defn: Sour or severe.

A*cerb"i*tude, n. Etym: [L. acerbitudo, fr. acerbus.]

Defn: Sourness and harshness. [Obs.] Bailey.

A*cerb"i*ty, n. Etym: [F. acerbité, L. acerbitas, fr. acerbus. See

1. Sourness of taste, with bitterness and astringency, like that of unripe fruit.

2. Harshness, bitterness, or severity; as, acerbity of temper, of language, of pain. Barrow.

A*cer"ic, a. Etym: [L. acer maple.]

Defn: Pertaining to, or obtained from, the maple; as, aceric acid.

ACEROSE Ac"er*ose`, a. Etym: [(a) L. acerosus chaffy, fr. acus, gen. aceris, chaff; (b) as if fr. L. acus needle: cf. F. acéreux.] (Bot.) (a) Having the nature of chaff; chaffy. (b) Needle-shaped, having a sharp, rigid point, as the leaf of the pine.

Ac"er*ous, a.

Defn: Same as Acerose.

ACEROUS Ac"er*ous, a. Etym: [Gr. &a; priv. + keras a horn.] (Zoöl.) (a) Destitute of tentacles, as certain mollusks. (b) Without antennæ, as some insects.

A*cer"val, a. Etym: [L. acervalis, fr. acervus heap.]

Defn: Pertaining to a heap. [Obs.]

ACERVATE A*cer"vate, v. t. Etym: [L. acervatus, p. p. of acervare to heap up, fr. acervus heap.]

Defn: To heap up. [Obs.]

A*cer"vate, a.

Defn: Heaped, or growing in heaps, or closely compacted clusters.

Ac`er*va"tion, n. Etym: [L. acervatio.]

Defn: A heaping up; accumulation. [R.] Johnson.

A*cer"va*tive, a.

Defn: Heaped up; tending to heap up.

A*cer"vose, a.

Defn: Full of heaps. [R.] Bailey.

A*cer"vu*line, a.

Defn: Resembling little heaps.

A*ces"cence, A*ces"cen*cy, n. Etym: [Cf. F. acescence. See Acescent.]

Defn: The quality of being acescent; the process of acetous fermentation; a moderate degree of sourness. Johnson.

ACESCENT A*ces"cent, a. Etym: [L. acescens, -entis, p. pr. of acescere to turn sour; inchoative of acere to be sour: cf. F. acescent. See Acid.]

Defn: Turning sour; readily becoming tart or acid; slightly sour.

A*ces"cent, n.

Defn: A substance liable to become sour.

Ac"e*ta*ble, n.

Defn: An acetabulum; or about one eighth of a pint. [Obs.] Holland.

Ac`e*tab"u*lar, a.

Defn: Cup-shaped; saucer-shaped; acetabuliform.

Ac`e*tab`u*lif"e*ra, n. pl. Etym: [NL. See Acetabuliferous.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: The division of Cephalopoda in which the arms are furnished with cup-shaped suckers, as the cuttlefishes, squids, and octopus; the Dibranchiata. See Cephalopoda.

ACETABULIFEROUS Ac`e*tab`u*lif"er*ous, a. Etym: [L. acetablum a little cup + - ferous.]

Defn: Furnished with fleshy cups for adhering to bodies, as cuttlefish, etc.

Ac`e*tab"u*li*form, a. Etym: [L. acetabulum + -form.] (Bot.)

Defn: Shaped like a shallow; saucer-shaped; as, an acetabuliform calyx. Gray.

ACETABULUM Ac`e*tab"u*lum, n. Etym: [L., a little saucer for vinegar, fr. acetum vinegar, fr. acere to be sour.]

1. (Rom. Antiq.)

Defn: A vinegar cup; socket of the hip bone; a measure of about one eighth of a pint, etc.

2. (Anat.) (a) The bony cup which receives the head of the thigh bone. (b) The cavity in which the leg of an insect is inserted at its articulation with the body. (c) A sucker of the sepia or cuttlefish and related animals. (d) The large posterior sucker of the leeches. (e) One of the lobes of the placenta in ruminating animals.

Ac"e*tal, n. Etym: [Acetic + alcohol.] (Chem.)

Defn: A limpid, colorless, inflammable liquid from the slow oxidation of alcohol under the influence of platinum black.

Ac`et*al"de*hyde, n.

Defn: Acetic aldehyde. See Aldehyde.

Ac`et*am"ide, n. Etym: [Acetyl + amide.] (Chem.)

Defn: A white crystalline solid, from ammonia by replacement of an equivalent of hydrogen by acetyl.

Ac`et*an"i*lide, n. Etym: [Acetyl + anilide.] (Med.)

Defn: A compound of aniline with acetyl, used to allay fever or pain; — called also antifebrine.

ACETARIOUS Ac`e*ta"ri*ous, a. Etym: [L. acetaria, n. pl., salad, fr. acetum vinegar, fr. acere to be sour.]

Defn: Used in salads; as, acetarious plants.

Ac"e*ta*ry, n. Etym: [L. acetaria salad plants.]

Defn: An acid pulp in certain fruits, as the pear. Grew.

Ac"e*tate, n. Etym: [L. acetum vinegar, fr. acere to be sour.]

Defn: A salt formed by the union of acetic acid with a base or positive radical; as, acetate of lead, acetate of potash.

Ac"e*ta`ted, a.

Defn: Combined with acetic acid.

ACETIC A*ce"tic (#; 277), a. Etym: [L. acetum vinegar, fr. acere to be sour.] (Chem.) (a) Of a pertaining to vinegar; producing vinegar; producing vinegar; as, acetic fermentation. (b) Pertaining to, containing, or derived from, acetyl, as acetic ether, acetic acid. The latter is the acid to which the sour taste of vinegar is due.

A*cet`i*fi*ca"tion, n.

Defn: The act of making acetous or sour; the process of converting, or of becoming converted, into vinegar.

A*cet"i*fi`er, n.

Defn: An apparatus for hastening acetification. Knight.

A*cet"i*fy, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Acetified; p. pr. & vb. n.
Acetifying.] Etym: [L. acetum vinegar + -fly.]

Defn: To convert into acid or vinegar.

A*cet"i*fy, v. i.

Defn: To turn acid. Encyc. Dom. Econ.

ACETIMETER Ac`e*tim"e*ter, n. Etym: [L. acetum vinegar + -meter: cf. F. acétimètre.]

Defn: An instrument for estimating the amount of acetic acid in vinegar or in any liquid containing acetic acid.

Ac`e*tim"e*try, n.

Defn: The act or method of ascertaining the strength of vinegar, or the proportion of acetic acid contained in it. Ure.

Ac"e*tin, n. (Chem.)

Defn: A combination of acetic acid with glycerin. Brande & C.

Ac"e*tize, v. i.

Defn: To acetify. [R.]

Ac"e*tol, n. [Acetic + -ol as in alcohol.] (Chem.)

Defn: Methyl ketol; also, any of various homologues of the same.

Ac`e*tom"e*ter, n.

Defn: Same as Acetimeter. Brande & C.

Ac`e*to*næ"mi*a, Ac`e*to*ne"mi*a, n. [NL. See Acetone; Hæma-.] (Med.)

Defn: A morbid condition characterized by the presence of acetone in the blood, as in diabetes.

Ac"e*tone, n. Etym: [See Acetic.] (Chem.)

Defn: A volatile liquid consisting of three parts of carbon, six of hydrogen, and one of oxygen; pyroacetic spirit, — obtained by the distillation of certain acetates, or by the destructive distillation of citric acid, starch, sugar, or gum, with quicklime.

Note: The term in also applied to a number of bodies of similar constitution, more frequently called ketones. See Ketone.

Ac`e*ton"ic, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to acetone; as, acetonic bodies.

Ac`e*to*nu"ri*a, n. [NL. See Acetone; Urine.] (Med.)

Defn: Excess of acetone in the urine, as in starvation or diabetes.

Ac`e*to*phe"none, n. [Acetic + phenyl + one.] (Chem.)

Defn: A crystalline ketone, CH3COC6H5, which may be obtained by the dry distillation of a mixture of the calcium salts of acetic and benzoic acids. It is used as a hypnotic under the name of hypnone.

Ac"e*tose, a.

Defn: Sour like vinegar; acetous.

Ac`e*tos"i*ty, n. Etym: [LL. acetositas. See Acetous.]

Defn: The quality of being acetous; sourness.

ACETOUS A*ce"tous (#; 277), a. Etym: [L. acetum vinegar, fr. acere to be sour.]

1. Having a sour taste; sour; acid. "An acetous spirit." Boyle. "A liquid of an acetous kind." Bp. Lowth.

2. Causing, or connected with, acetification; as, acetous fermentation. Acetous acid, a name formerly given to vinegar.

Ac"e*tyl, n. Etym: [L. acetum vinegar + Gr. -yl.] (Chem.)

Defn: A complex, hypothetical radical, composed of two parts of carbon to three of hydrogen and one of oxygen. Its hydroxide is acetic acid.

A*cet"y*lene, n. (Chem.)

Defn: A gaseous compound of carbon and hydrogen, in the proportion of two atoms of the former to two of the latter. It is a colorless gas, with a peculiar, unpleasant odor, and is produced for use as an illuminating gas in a number of ways, but chiefly by the action of water on calcium carbide. Its light is very brilliant. Watts.

Ach, Ache, n. Etym: [F. ache, L. apium parsley.]

Defn: A name given to several species of plants; as, smallage, wild celery, parsley. [Obs.] Holland.

A*chæ"an, A*cha"ian a. Etym: [L. Achaeus, Achaius; Gr.

Defn: Of or pertaining to Achaia in Greece; also, Grecian.
 — n.

Defn: A native of Achaia; a Greek.

A*char"ne*ment, n. Etym: [F.]

Defn: Savage fierceness; ferocity.

Ach"ate, n.

Defn: An agate. [Obs.] Evelyn.

A*chate", n. Etym: [F. achat purchase. See Cates.]

1. Purchase; bargaining. [Obs.] Chaucer.

2. pl.

Defn: Provisions. Same as Cates. [Obs.] Spenser.

Ach`a*ti"na, n. Etym: [NL., from Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: A genus of land snails, often large, common in the warm parts of America and Africa.

A*cha*tour", n. Etym: [See Cater.]

Defn: Purveyor; acater. [Obs.] Chaucer.

ACHE Ache, n. Etym: [OE. ache, AS. æce, ece, fr. acan to ache. See Ache, v. i.]

Defn: Continued pain, as distinguished from sudden twinges, or spasmodic pain. "Such an ache in my bones." Shak.

Note: Often used in composition, as, a headache, an earache, a toothache.

ACHE Ache, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Ached; p. pr. & vb. n. Aching.] Etym: [OE. aken, AS. acan, both strong verbs, AS. acan, imp. oc, p. p. acen, to ache; perh. orig. to drive, and akin to agent.]

Defn: To suffer pain; to have, or be in, pain, or in continued pain; to be distressed. "My old bones ache." Shak. The sins that in your conscience ache. Keble.

A*che"an, a & n.

Defn: See Achæan, Achaian.

A*chene", A*che"ni*um n. Etym: [Gr. (Bot.)

Defn: A small, dry, indehiscent fruit, containing a single seed, as in the buttercup; — called a naked seed by the earlier botanists. [Written also akene and achænium.]

A*che"ni*al, a.

Defn: Pertaining to an achene.

Ach"e*ron, n. Etym: [L., fr. Gr. (Myth.)

Defn: A river in the Nether World or infernal regions; also, the infernal regions themselves. By some of the English poets it was supposed to be a flaming lake or gulf. Shak.

Ach`e*ron"tic, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to Acheron; infernal; hence, dismal, gloomy; moribund.

A` che*val". [F., lit., on horseback.]

Defn: Astride; with a part on each side; — used specif. in designating the position of an army with the wings separated by some line of demarcation, as a river or road.

A position à cheval on a river is not one which a general willingly

A*chiev"a*ble, a.

Defn: Capable of being achieved. Barrow.

A*chiev"ance, n. Etym: [Cf. OF. achevance.]

Defn: Achievement. [Obs.] Sir T. Elyot.

A*chieve", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Achieved; p. pr. & vb. n. Achieving.]
Etym: [OE. acheven, OF. achever, achiever, F. achever, to finish; à
(L. ad) + OF. chief, F. chef, end, head, fr. L. caput head. See

1. To carry on to a final close; to bring out into a perfected state; to accomplish; to perform; — as, to achieve a feat, an exploit, an enterprise. Supposing faculties and powers to be the same, far more may be achieved in any line by the aid of a capital, invigorating motive than without it. I. Taylor.

2. To obtain, or gain, as the result of exertion; to succeed in
gaining; to win.
Some are born great, some achieve greatness. Shak.
Thou hast achieved our liberty. Milton.

Note: [[Obs]., with a material thing as the aim.]
Show all the spoils by valiant kings achieved. Prior.
He hath achieved a maid That paragons description. Shak.

3. To finish; to kill. [Obs.] Shak.

Syn. — To accomplish; effect; fulfill; complete; execute; perform; realize; obtain. See Accomplish.

A*chieve"ment, n. Etym: [Cf. F. achèvement, E. Hatchment.]

1. The act of achieving or performing; an obtaining by exertion; successful performance; accomplishment; as, the achievement of his object.

2. A great or heroic deed; something accomplished by valor, boldness, or praiseworthy exertion; a feat. [The exploits] of the ancient saints . . . do far surpass the most famous achievements of pagan heroes. Barrow. The highest achievements of the human intellect. Macaulay.

3. (Her.)

Defn: An escutcheon or ensign armorial; now generally applied to the funeral shield commonly called hatchment. Cussans.

A*chiev"er, n.

Defn: One who achieves; a winner.

Ach`il*le"an, a.

Defn: Resembling Achilles, the hero of the Iliad; invincible.

A*chil"les' ten"don, n. Etym: [L. Achillis tendo.] (Anat.)

Defn: The strong tendon formed of the united tendons of the large muscles in the calf of the leg, an inserted into the bone of the heel; — so called from the mythological account of Achilles being held by the heel when dipped in the River Styx.

A*chi"lous, a. Etym: [Gr. (Bot.)

Defn: Without a lip.

Ach"ing, a.

Defn: That aches; continuously painful. See Ache.
 — Ach"ing*ly, adv.
The aching heart, the aching head. Longfellow.

A`chi*o"te, n. Etym: [Sp. achiote, fr. Indian achiotl.]

Defn: Seeds of the annotto tree; also, the coloring matter, annotto.

A*chlam"y*date, a. Etym: [Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Not possessing a mantle; — said of certain gastropods.

Ach`la*myd"e*ous, a. (Bot.)

Defn: Naked; having no floral envelope, neither calyx nor corolla.

A*cho"li*a, n. Etym: [NL., from Gr. (Med.)

Defn: Deficiency or want of bile.

Ach"o*lous, a. (Med.)

Defn: Lacking bile.

Ach`ro*mat"ic, a. Etym: [Gr. achromatique.]

1. (Opt.)

Defn: Free from color; transmitting light without decomposing it into its primary colors.

2. (Biol.)

Defn: Uncolored; not absorbing color from a fluid; — said of tissue. Achromatic lens (Opt.), a lens composed usually of two separate lenses, a convex and concave, of substances having different refractive and dispersive powers, as crown and flint glass, with the curvatures so adjusted that the chromatic aberration produced by the one is corrected by other, and light emerges from the compound lens undecomposed. — Achromatic prism. See Prism. — Achromatic telescope, or microscope, one in which the chromatic aberration is corrected, usually by means of a compound or achromatic object glass, and which gives images free from extraneous color.

Ach`ro*mat"ic*al*ly, adv.

Defn: In an achromatic manner.

Ach`ro*ma*tic"i*ty, n.

Defn: Achromatism.

A*chro"ma*tin, n. (Biol.)

Defn: Tissue which is not stained by fluid dyes. W. Flemming.

A*chro"ma*tism, n. Etym: [Cf. F. achromatisme.]

Defn: The state or quality of being achromatic; as, the achromatism of a lens; achromaticity. Nichol.

A*chro`ma*ti*za"tion, n. Etym: [Cf. F. achromatisation.]

Defn: The act or process of achromatizing.

A*chro"ma*tize, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Achromatized; p. pr. & vb. n.
Achromatizing.] Etym: [Gr.

Defn: To deprive of color; to make achromatic.

A*chro"ma*top"sy, n. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Color blindness; inability to distinguish colors; Daltonism.

A*chro"ma*tous, a. [See Ahromatic.]

Defn: Lacking, or deficient in, color; as, achromatous blood.

A*chro"mic, a. [Gr. colorless; priv. + color.]

Defn: Free from color; colorless; as, in Physiol. Chem., the achromic point of a starch solution acted upon by an amylolytic enzyme is the point at which it fails to give any color with iodine.

A*chron"ic, a.

Defn: See Acronyc.

Ach`ro*ö*dex"trin, n. Etym: [Gr. dextrin.] (Physiol. Chem.)

Defn: Dextrin not colorable by iodine. See Dextrin.

Ach"ro*ous, a. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Colorless; achromatic.

A*chy"lous, a. Etym: [Gr. (Physiol.)

Defn: Without chyle.

A*chy"mous, a. Etym: [Gr. (Physiol.)

Defn: Without chyme.

ACICULA A*cic"u*la, n.; pl. Aciculæ. Etym: [L., a small needle, dimin. of acus needle.] (Nat. Hist.)

Defn: One of the needlelike or bristlelike spines or prickles of some animals and plants; also, a needlelike crystal.

A*cic"u*lar, a.

Defn: Needle-shaped; slender like a needle or bristle, as some leaves or crystals; also, having sharp points like needless. A*cic"u*lar*ly, adv.

ACICULATE; ACICULATED A*cic"u*late, A*cic"u*la"ted a. (Nat. Hist.) (a) Furnished with aciculæ. (b) Acicular. (c) Marked with fine irregular streaks as if scratched by a needle. Lindley.

A*cic"u*li*form, a. Etym: [L. acicula needle + -form.]

Defn: Needle-shaped; acicular.

A*cic"u*lite, n. (Min.)

Defn: Needle ore. Brande & C.

ACID Ac"id, a. Etym: [L. acidus sour, fr. the root ak to be sharp: cf. F. acide. Cf. Acute.]

1. Sour, sharp, or biting to the taste; tart; having the taste of vinegar: as, acid fruits or liquors. Also fig.: Sour-tempered. He was stern and his face as acid as ever. A. Trollope.

2. Of or pertaining to an acid; as, acid reaction.

Ac"id, n.

1. A sour substance.

2. (Chem.)

Defn: One of a class of compounds, generally but not always distinguished by their sour taste, solubility in water, and reddening of vegetable blue or violet colors. They are also characterized by the power of destroying the distinctive properties of alkalies or bases, combining with them to form salts, at the same time losing their own peculiar properties. They all contain hydrogen, united with a more negative element or radical, either alone, or more generally with oxygen, and take their names from this negative element or radical. Those which contain no oxygen are sometimes called hydracids in distinction from the others which are called oxygen acids or oxacids.

Note: In certain cases, sulphur, selenium, or tellurium may take the place of oxygen, and the corresponding compounds are called respectively sulphur acids or sulphacids, selenium acids, or tellurium acids. When the hydrogen of an acid is replaced by a positive element or radical, a salt is formed, and hence acids are sometimes named as salts of hydrogen; as hydrogen nitrate for nitric acid, hydrogen sulphate for sulphuric acid, etc. In the old chemistry the name acid was applied to the oxides of the negative or nonmetallic elements, now sometimes called anhydrides.

A*cid"ic, a. (Min.)

Defn: Containing a high percentage of silica; — opposed to basic. an acidic solution.

Ac`id*if"er*ous, a. Etym: [L. acidus sour + -ferous.]

Defn: Containing or yielding an acid.

A*cid"i*fi`a*ble, a.

Defn: Capable of being acidified, or converted into an acid.

Ac`id*if"ic, a.

Defn: Producing acidity; converting into an acid. Dana.

A*cid`i*fi*ca"tion, n. Etym: [Cf. F. acidification.]

Defn: The act or process of acidifying, or changing into an acid.

A*cid"i*fi`er, n. (Chem.)

Defn: A simple or compound principle, whose presence is necessary to produce acidity, as oxygen, chlorine, bromine, iodine, etc.

A*cid"i*fy, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Acidified; p. pr. & vb. n.
Acidifying.] Etym: [L. acidus sour, acid + -fy: cf. F. acidifier.]

1. To make acid; to convert into an acid; as, to acidify sugar.

2. To sour; to imbitter. His thin existence all acidified into rage. Carlyle.

Ac`id*im"e*ter, n. Etym: [L. acidus acid + -meter.] (Chem.)

Defn: An instrument for ascertaining the strength of acids. Ure.

Ac`id*im"e*try, n. Etym: [L. acidus acid + -metry.] (Chem.)

Defn: The measurement of the strength of acids, especially by a chemical process based on the law of chemical combinations, or the fact that, to produce a complete reaction, a certain definite weight of reagent is required. — Ac`id*i*met"ric*al, a.

A*cid"i*ty, n. Etym: [L. acidites, fr. acidus: cf. F. acidité. See

Defn: The quality of being sour; sourness; tartness; sharpness to the taste; as, the acidity of lemon juice.

Ac"id*ly, adv.

Defn: Sourly; tartly.

Ac"id*ness, n.

Defn: Acidity; sourness.

Ac"id proc"ess. (Iron Metal.)

Defn: That variety of either the Bessemer or the open-hearth process in which the converter or hearth is lined with acid, that is, highly siliceous, material. Opposed to basic process.

A*cid"u*late, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Acidulated; p. pr. & vb. n.
Acidulating.] Etym: [Cf. F. aciduler. See Acidulous.]

Defn: To make sour or acid in a moderate degree; to sour somewhat.

A*cid"u*lent, a.

Defn: Having an acid quality; sour; acidulous. "With anxious, acidulent face." Carlyle.

A*cid"u*lous, a. Etym: [L. acidulus, dim. of acidus. See Acid.]

Defn: Slightly sour; sub-acid; sourish; as, an acidulous tincture. E.
Burke. Acidulous mineral waters, such as contain carbonic anhydride.

Ac`i*er*age, n. Etym: [F. aciérage, fr. acier steel.]

Defn: The process of coating the surface of a metal plate (as a stereotype plate) with steellike iron by means of voltaic electricity; steeling.

Ac"i*form, a. Etym: [L. acus needle + -form.]

Defn: Shaped like a needle.

Ac"i*na"ceous, a. Etym: [L. acinus a grape, grapestone.] (Bot.)

Defn: Containing seeds or stones of grapes, or grains like them.

A*cin"a*ces, n. Etym: [L., from Gr. (Anc. Hist.)

Defn: A short sword or saber.

ACINACIFORM Ac`i*nac"i*form, a. Etym: [L. acinaces a short sword + -form: cf. F. acinaciforme.] (Bot.)

Defn: Scimeter-shaped; as, an acinaciform leaf.

Ac`i*ne"si*a, n. (Med.)

Defn: Same as Akinesia.

Ac`i*ne"tæ, n. pl. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: A group of suctorial Infusoria, which in the adult stage are stationary. See Suctoria.

Ac`i*net"i*form, a. Etym: [Acinetæ + -form.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: Resembling the Acinetæ.

ACINIFORM A*cin"i*form, a. Etym: [L. acinus a grape, grapestone + -form: cf. F. acinoforme.]

1. Having the form of a cluster of grapes; clustered like grapes.

2. Full of small kernels like a grape.

Ac"i*nose`, Ac"i*nous a. Etym: [L. acinosus, fr. acinus grapestone.]

Defn: Consisting of acini, or minute granular concretions; as, acinose or acinous glands. Kirwan.

Ac"i*nus, n.; pl. Acini. Etym: [L., grape, grapestone.]

1. (Bot.) (a) One of the small grains or drupelets which make up some kinds of fruit, as the blackberry, raspberry, etc. (b) A grapestone.

2. (Anat.)

Defn: One of the granular masses which constitute a racemose or compound gland, as the pancreas; also, one of the saccular recesses in the lobules of a racemose gland. Quain.

Ac`i*pen"ser, n. Etym: [L., the name of a fish.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: A genus of ganoid fishes, including the sturgeons, having the body armed with bony scales, and the mouth on the under side of the head. See Sturgeon.

Ac"i*ur`gy, n. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Operative surgery.

Ac*know", v. t. Etym: [Pref. a- + know; AS. oncnawan.]

1. To recognize. [Obs.] "You will not be acknown, sir." B. Jonson.

2. To acknowledge; to confess. [Obs.] Chaucer. To be acknown (often with of or on), to acknowledge; to confess. [Obs.] We say of a stubborn body that standeth still in the denying of his fault, This man will not acknowledge his fault, or, He will not be acknown of his fault. Sir T. More.

Ac*knowl"edge, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Acknowledged; p. pr. & vb. n.
Acknowledging.] Etym: [Prob. fr. pref. a- + the verb knowledge. See
Knowledge, and ci. Acknow.]

1. To of or admit the knowledge of; to recognize as a fact or truth; to declare one's belief in; as, to acknowledge the being of a God. I acknowledge my transgressions. Ps. li. 3. For ends generally acknowledged to be good. Macaulay.

2. To own or recognize in a particular character or relationship; to admit the claims or authority of; to give recognition to. In all thy ways acknowledge Him. Prov. iii. 6. By my soul, I'll ne'er acknowledge thee. Shak.

3. To own with gratitude or as a benefit or an obligation; as, to acknowledge a favor, the receipt of a letter. They his gifts acknowledged none. Milton.

4. To own as genuine; to assent to, as a legal instrument, to give it validity; to avow or admit in legal form; as, to acknowledgea deed.

Syn. — To avow; proclaim; recognize; own; admit; allow; concede; confess. — Acknowledge, Recognize. Acknowledge is opposed to keep back, or conceal, and supposes that something had been previously known to us (though perhaps not to others) which we now feel bound to lay open or make public. Thus, a man acknowledges a secret marriage; one who has done wrong acknowledges his fault; and author acknowledges his obligation to those who have aided him; we acknowledge our ignorance. Recognize supposes that we have either forgotten or not had the evidence of a thing distinctly before our minds, but that now we know it (as it were) anew, or receive and admit in on the ground of the evidence it brings. Thus, we recognize a friend after a long absence. We recognize facts, principles, truths, etc., when their evidence is brought up fresh to the mind; as, bad men usually recognize the providence of God in seasons of danger. A foreign minister, consul, or agent, of any kind, is recognized on the ground of his producing satisfactory credentials. See also Confess.

Ac*knowl"edged*ly, adv.

Defn: Confessedly.

Ac*knowl"edg*er, n.

Defn: One who acknowledges.

Ac*knowl"edg*ment, n.

1. The act of acknowledging; admission; avowal; owning; confession. "An acknowledgment of fault." Froude.

2. The act of owning or recognized in a particular character or relationship; recognition as regards the existence, authority, truth, or genuineness. Immediately upon the acknowledgment of the Christian faith, the eunuch was baptized by Philip. Hooker.

3. The owning of a benefit received; courteous recognition; expression of thanks. Shak.

4. Something given or done in return for a favor, message, etc. Smollett.

5. A declaration or avowal of one's own act, to give it legal validity; as, the acknowledgment of a deed before a proper officer. Also, the certificate of the officer attesting such declaration. Acknowledgment money, in some parts of England, a sum paid by copyhold tenants, on the death of their landlords, as an acknowledgment of their new lords. Cowell.

Syn. — Confession; concession; recognition; admission; avowal; recognizance.

A*clin"ic, a. Etym: [Gr. (Physics.)

Defn: Without inclination or dipping; — said the magnetic needle balances itself horizontally, having no dip. The aclinic line is also termed the magnetic equator. Prof. August.

Ac"me, n. Etym: [Gr.

1. The top or highest point; the culmination.
The very acme and pitch of life for epic poetry. Pope.
The moment when a certain power reaches the acme of its supremacy. I.

2. (Med.)

Defn: The crisis or height of a disease.

3. Mature age; full bloom of life. B. Jonson.

Ac"ne, n. Etym: [NL., prob. a corruption of Gr. (Med.)

Defn: A pustular affection of the skin, due to changes in the sebaceous glands.

Ac*no"dal, a.

Defn: Pertaining to acnodes.

Ac"node, n. Etym: [L. acus needle + E. node.] (Geom.)

Defn: An isolated point not upon a curve, but whose coördinates satisfy the equation of the curve so that it is considered as belonging to the curve.

A*cock", adv. Etym: [Pref. a- + cock.]

Defn: In a cocked or turned up fashion.

ACOCKBILL A*cock"bill`, adv. Etym: [Prefix a- + cock + bill: with bills cocked up.] (Naut.) (a) Hanging at the cathead, ready to let go, as an anchor. (b) Topped up; having one yardarm higher than the other.

A*cold", a. Etym: [Prob. p. p. of OE. acolen to grow cold or cool,
AS. acolian to grow cold; pref. a- (cf. Goth. er-, orig. meaning out)
+ colian to cool. See Cool.]

Defn: Cold. [Obs.] "Poor Tom's acold." Shak.

Ac`o*log"ic, a.

Defn: Pertaining to acology.

A*col"o*gy, n. Etym: [Gr. -logy.]

Defn: Materia medica; the science of remedies.

A*col"o*thist, n.

Defn: See Acolythist.

Ac`o*lyc"tine, n. Etym: [From the name of the plant.] (Chem.)

Defn: An organic base, in the form of a white powder, obtained from
Aconitum lycoctonum. Eng. Cyc.

Ac`o*lyte, n. Etym: [LL. acolythus, acoluthus, Gr. acolyte.]

1. (Eccl.)

Defn: One who has received the highest of the four minor orders in the Catholic church, being ordained to carry the wine and water and the lights at the Mass.

2. One who attends; an assistant. "With such chiefs, and with James and John as acolytes." Motley.

Ac"o*lyth, n.

Defn: Same as Acolyte.

A*col"y*thist, n.

Defn: An acolyte. [Obs.]

A*cond"dy*lose`, A*con"dy*lous, a. Etym: [Gr. (Nat. Hist.)

Defn: Being without joints; jointless.

Ac`o*ni"tal, a.

Defn: Of the nature of aconite.

Ac"o*nite, n. Etym: [L. aconitum, Gr. aconit.]

1. (Bot.)

Defn: The herb wolfsbane, or monkshood; — applied to any plant of the genus Aconitum (tribe Hellebore), all the species of which are poisonous.

2. An extract or tincture obtained from Aconitum napellus, used as a poison and medicinally. Winter aconite, a plant (Eranthis hyemalis) allied to the aconites.

Ac`o*ni"ti*a, n. (Chem.)

Defn: Same as Aconitine.

Ac`o*nit"ic, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to aconite.

A*con"i*tine, n. (Chem.)

Defn: An intensely poisonous alkaloid, extracted from aconite.

Ac`o*ni"tum, n. Etym: [L. See Aconite.]

Defn: The poisonous herb aconite; also, an extract from it.
Strong As aconitum or rash gunpowder. Shak.

A*con"ti*a, n. pl. Etym: [NL., from Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Threadlike defensive organs, composed largely of nettling cells (cnidæ), thrown out of the mouth or special pores of certain Actiniæ when irritated.

A*con"ti*as, n. Etym: [NL., from Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Anciently, a snake, called dart snake; now, one of a genus of reptiles closely allied to the lizards.

A*cop"ic, a. Etym: [Gr. priv. + (Med.)

Defn: Relieving weariness; restorative.

ACORN A"corn, n. Etym: [AS. æcern, fr. æcer field, acre; akin to D. aker acorn, Ger. ecker, Icel. akarn, Dan. agern, Goth. akran fruit, akrs field; — orig. fruit of the field. See Acre.]

1. The fruit of the oak, being an oval nut growing in a woody cup or cupule.

2. (Naut.)

Defn: A cone-shaped piece of wood on the point of the spindle above the vane, on the mast-head.

3. (Zoöl.)

Defn: See Acorn-shell.

A"corn cup.

Defn: The involucre or cup in which the acorn is fixed.

A"corned, a.

1. Furnished or loaded with acorns.

2. Fed or filled with acorns. [R.] Shak.

A"corn-shell`, n. (Zoöl.)

Defn: One of the sessile cirripeds; a barnacle of the genus Balanus.
See Barnacle.

A*cos"mism, n. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: A denial of the existence of the universe as distinct from God.

A*cos"mist, n. Etym: [See Acosmism.]

Defn: One who denies the existence of the universe, or of a universe as distinct from God. G. H. Lewes.

A*cot`y*le"don (#; 277), n. Etym: [Gr. Cotyledon.] (Bot.)

Defn: A plant which has no cotyledons, as the dodder and all flowerless plants.

A*cot`y*led"on*ous (#; 277), a.

Defn: Having no seed lobes, as the dodder; also applied to plants which have no true seeds, as ferns, mosses, etc.

A*cou"chy, n. Etym: [F. acouchi, from the native name Guiana.]

Defn: A small species of agouti (Dasyprocta acouchy).

A*cou"me*ter, n. Etym: [Gr. -meter.] (Physics.)

Defn: An instrument for measuring the acuteness of the sense of hearing. Itard.

A*cou"me*try, n. Etym: [Gr. -metry.]

Defn: The measuring of the power or extent of hearing.

A*cous"tic (#; 277), a. Etym: [F. acoustique, Gr.

Defn: Pertaining to the sense of hearing, the organs of hearing, or the science of sounds; auditory. Acoustic duct, the auditory duct, or external passage of the ear. — Acoustic telegraph, a telegraph making audible signals; a telephone. — Acoustic vessels, brazen tubes or vessels, shaped like a bell, used in ancient theaters to propel the voices of the actors, so as to render them audible to a great distance.

A*cous"tic, n.

Defn: A medicine or agent to assist hearing.

A*cous"tic*al, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to acoustics.

A*cous"tic*al*ly, adv.

Defn: In relation to sound or to hearing. Tyndall.

Ac`ous*ti"cian, n.

Defn: One versed in acoustics. Tyndall.

ACOUSTICS A*cous"tics (#; 277), n. Etym: [Names of sciences in -ics, as, acoustics, mathematics, etc., are usually treated as singular. See - ics.] (Physics.)

Defn: The science of sounds, teaching their nature, phenomena, and
Acoustics, then, or the science of sound, is a very considerable
branch of physics. Sir J. Herschel.

Note: The science is, by some writers, divided, into diacoustics, which explains the properties of sounds coming directly from the ear; and catacoustica, which treats of reflected sounds or echoes.

Ac*quaint", a. Etym: [OF. acoint. See Acquaint, v. t.]

Defn: Acquainted. [Obs.]

ACQUAINT Ac*quaint", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Acquainted; p. pr. & vb. n. Acquainting.] Etym: [OE. aqueinten, acointen, OF. acointier, LL. adcognitare, fr. L. ad + cognitus, p. p. of cognoscere to know; con- + noscere to know. See Quaint, Know.]

1. To furnish or give experimental knowledge of; to make (one) to know; to make familiar; — followed by with. Before a man can speak on any subject, it is necessary to be acquainted with it. Locke. A man of sorrows and acquainted with grief. Isa. liii. 3.

2. To communicate notice to; to inform; to make cognizant; — followed by with (formerly, also, by of), or by that, introducing the intelligence; as, to acquaint a friend with the particulars of an act. Acquaint her here of my son Paris' love. Shak. I must acquaint you that I have received New dated letters from Northumberland. Shak.

3. To familiarize; to accustom. [Obs.] Evelyn. To be acquainted with, to be possessed of personal knowledge of; to be cognizant of; to be more or less familiar with; to be on terms of social intercourse with.

 — To inform; apprise; communicate; advise.

Ac*quaint"a*ble, a. Etym: [Cf. OF. acointable].

Defn: Easy to be acquainted with; affable. [Obs.] Rom. of R.

ACQUAINTANCE Ac*quaint"ance, n. Etym: [OE. aqueintance, OF. acointance, fr. acointier. See Acquaint.]

1. A state of being acquainted, or of having intimate, or more than slight or superficial, knowledge; personal knowledge gained by intercourse short of that of friendship or intimacy; as, I know the man; but have no acquaintance with him. Contract no friendship, or even acquaintance, with a guileful man. Sir W. Jones.

2. A person or persons with whom one is acquainted. Montgomery was an old acquaintance of Ferguson. Macaulay.

Note: In this sense the collective term acquaintance was formerly both singular and plural, but it is now commonly singular, and has the regular plural acquaintances. To be of acquaintance, to be intimate. — To take acquaintance of or with, to make the acquaintance of. [Obs.]

Syn. — Familiarity; intimacy; fellowship; knowledge. — Acquaintance, Familiarity, Intimacy. These words mark different degrees of closeness in social intercourse. Acquaintance arises from occasional intercourse; as, our acquaintance has been a brief one. We can speak of a slight or an intimate acquaintance. Familiarity is the result of continued acquaintance. It springs from persons being frequently together, so as to wear off all restraint and reserve; as, the familiarity of old companions. Intimacy is the result of close connection, and the freest interchange of thought; as, the intimacy of established friendship. Our admiration of a famous man lessens upon our nearer acquaintance with him. Addison. We contract at last such a familiarity with them as makes it difficult and irksome for us to call off our minds. Atterbury. It is in our power to confine our friendships and intimacies to men of virtue. Rogers.

Ac*quaint"ance*ship, n.

Defn: A state of being acquainted; acquaintance. Southey.

Ac*quaint"ant, n. Etym: [Cf. F. acointant, p. pr.]

Defn: An acquaintance. [R.] Swift.

Ac*quaint"ed, a.

Defn: Personally known; familiar. See To be acquainted with, under
Acquaint, v. t.

Ac*quaint"ed*ness, n.

Defn: State of being acquainted; degree of acquaintance. [R.] Boyle.

ACQUEST Ac*quest", n. Etym: [OF. aquest, F. acquêt, fr. LL. acquestum, acquisitum, for L. acquisitum, p. p. (used substantively) of acquirere to acquire. See Acquire.]

1. Acquisition; the thing gained. [R.] Bacon.

2. (Law)

Defn: Property acquired by purchase, gift, or otherwise than by inheritance. Bouvier.

Ac`qui*esce", v. i. [imp. & p. p. Acquiesced; p. pr. & vb. n.
Acquiescing] Etym: [L. acquiescere; ad + quiescere to be quiet, fr.
quies rest: cf. F. acquiescer. See Quiet.]

1. To rest satisfied, or apparently satisfied, or to rest without opposition and discontent (usually implying previous opposition or discontent); to accept or consent by silence or by omitting to object; — followed by in, formerly also by with and to. They were compelled to acquiesce in a government which they did not regard as just. De Quincey.

2. To concur upon conviction; as, to acquiesce in an opinion; to assent to; usually, to concur, not heartily but so far as to forbear opposition.

Syn. — To submit; comply; yield; assent; agree; consent; accede; concur; conform; accept tacitly.

Ac`qui*es"cence, n. Etym: [Cf. F. acquiescence.]

1. A silent or passive assent or submission, or a submission with apparent content; — distinguished from avowed consent on the one hand, and on the other, from opposition or open discontent; quiet satisfaction.

2. (Crim. Law) (a) Submission to an injury by the party injured. (b) Tacit concurrence in the action of another. Wharton. p. 17

Ac`qui*es"cen*cy, n.

Defn: The quality of being acquiescent; acquiescence.

Ac`qui*es"cent, a. Etym: [L. acquiescens, -; p. pr.]

Defn: Resting satisfied or submissive; disposed tacitly to submit; assentive; as, an acquiescent policy.

Ac`qui*es"cent*ly, adv.

Defn: In an acquiescent manner.

ACQUIET Ac*qui"et, v. t. Etym: [LL. acquietare; L. ad + quies rest. See Quiet and cf. Acquit.]

Defn: To quiet. [Obs.]
Acquiet his mind from stirring you against your own peace. Sir A.

Ac*quir"a*bil"i*ty, n.

Defn: The quality of being acquirable; attainableness. [R.] Paley.

Ac*quir"a*ble, a.

Defn: Capable of being acquired.

Ac*quire", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Acquired; p. pr. & vb. n. Acquiring.]
Etym: [L. acquirere, acquisitum; ad + quarere to seek for. In OE. was
a verb aqueren, fr. the same, through OF. aquerre. See Quest..]

Defn: To gain, usually by one's own exertions; to get as one's own; as, to acquire a title, riches, knowledge, skill, good or bad habits. No virtue is acquired in an instant, but step by step. Barrow. Descent is the title whereby a man, on the death of his ancestor, acquires his estate, by right of representation, as his heir at law. Blackstone.

 — To obtain; gain; attain; procure; win; earn; secure. See Obtain.

Ac*quire"ment, n.

Defn: The act of acquiring, or that which is acquired; attainment.
"Rules for the acquirement of a taste." Addison.
His acquirements by industry were . . . enriched and enlarged by many
excellent endowments of nature. Hayward.

Syn. — Acquisition, Acquirement. Acquirement is used in opposition to a natural gift or talent; as, eloquence, and skill in music and painting, are acquirements; genius is the gift or endowment of nature. It denotes especially personal attainments, in opposition to material or external things gained, which are more usually called acquisitions; but this distinction is not always observed.

Ac*quir"er, n.

Defn: A person who acquires.

Ac*quir"y, n.

Defn: Acquirement. [Obs.] Barrow.

Ac"qui*site, a. Etym: [L. acquisitus, p. p. of acquirere. See

Defn: Acquired. [Obs.] Burton.

ACQUISITION Ac`qui*si"tion, n. Etym: [L. acquisitio, fr. acquirere: cf. F. acquisition. See Acquire.]

1. The act or process of acquiring. The acquisition or loss of a province. Macaulay.

2. The thing acquired or gained; an acquirement; a gain; as, learning is an acquisition.

 — See Acquirement.

Ac*quis"i*tive, a.

1. Acquired. [Obs.] He died not in his acquisitive, but in his native soil. Wotton.

2. Able or disposed to make acquisitions; acquiring; as, an acquisitive person or disposition.

Ac*quis"i*tive*ly, adv.

Defn: In the way of acquisition.

Ac*quis"i*tive*ness, n.

1. The quality of being acquisitive; propensity to acquire property; desire of possession.

2. (Phren.)

Defn: The faculty to which the phrenologists attribute the desire of acquiring and possessing. Combe.

Ac*quis"i*tor, n.

Defn: One who acquires.

Ac*quist", n. Etym: [Cf. Acquest.]

Defn: Acquisition; gain. Milton.

Ac*quit", p. p.

Defn: Acquitted; set free; rid of. [Archaic] Shak.

Ac*quit", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Acquitted; p. pr. & vb. n. Acquitting.]
Etym: [OE. aquiten, OF. aquiter, F. acquitter; (L. ad) + OF. quiter,
F. quitter, to quit. See Quit, and cf. Acquiet.]

1. To discharge, as a claim or debt; to clear off; to pay off; to requite. A responsibility that can never be absolutely acquitted. I. Taylor.

2. To pay for; to atone for. [Obs.] Shak.

3. To set free, release or discharge from an obligation, duty, liability, burden, or from an accusation or charge; — now followed by of before the charge, formerly by from; as, the jury acquitted the prisoner; we acquit a man of evil intentions.

4. Reflexively: (a) To clear one's self.k. (b) To bear or conduct one's self; to perform one's part; as, the soldier acquitted himself well in battle; the orator acquitted himself very poorly.

Syn. — To absolve; clear; exonerate; exonerate; exculpate; release; discharge. See Absolve.

Ac*quit"ment, n. Etym: [Cf. OF. aquitement.]

Defn: Acquittal. [Obs.] Milton.

Ac*quit"tal, n.

1. The act of acquitting; discharge from debt or obligation; acquittance.

2. (Law)

Defn: A setting free, or deliverance from the charge of an offense, by verdict of a jury or sentence of a court. Bouvier.

Ac*quit"tance, n. Etym: [OF. aquitance, fr. aquiter. See Acquit.]

1. The clearing off of debt or obligation; a release or discharge from debt or other liability.

2. A writing which is evidence of a discharge; a receipt in full, which bars a further demand. You can produce acquittances For such a sum, from special officers. Shak.

Ac*quit"tance, v. t.

Defn: To acquit. [Obs.] Shak.

Ac*quit"ter, n.

Defn: One who acquits or releases.

A*cra"ni*a, n. Etym: [NL., from Gr.

1. (Physiol.)

Defn: Partial or total absence of the skull.

2. pl. (Zoöl.)

Defn: The lowest group of Vertebrata, including the amphioxus, in which no skull exists.

A*cra"ni*al, a.

Defn: Wanting a skull.

ACRASE; ACRAZE A*crase", A*craze", v. t. Etym: [Pref. a- + crase; or cf. F. écraser to crush. See Crase, Craze.]

1. To craze. [Obs.] Grafton.

2. To impair; to destroy. [Obs.] Hacket.

A*cra"si*a, Ac"ra*sy n. Etym: [Gr. akrasia.]

Defn: Excess; intemperance. [Obs. except in Med.] Farindon.

A*cras"pe*da, n. pl. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: A group of acalephs, including most of the larger jellyfishes; the Discophora.

A"cre, n. Etym: [OE. aker, AS. æcer; akin to OS. accar, OHG. achar,
Ger. acker, Icel. akr, Sw. åker, Dan. ager, Goth. akrs, L. ager, Gr.
ajra. *2, 206.]

1. Any field of arable or pasture land. [Obs.]

2. A piece of land, containing 160 square rods, or 4,840 square yards, or 43,560 square feet. This is the English statute acre. That of the United States is the same. The Scotch acre was about 1.26 of the English, and the Irish 1.62 of the English.

Note: The acre was limited to its present definite quantity by statutes of Edward I., Edward III., and Henry VIII. Broad acres, many acres, much landed estate. [Rhetorical] — God's acre, God's field; the churchyard. I like that ancient Saxon phrase, which calls The burial ground, God's acre. Longfellow.

A"cre*a*ble, a.

Defn: Of an acre; per acre; as, the acreable produce.

A"cre*age, n.

Defn: Acres collectively; as, the acreage of a farm or a country.

A"cred, a.

Defn: Possessing acres or landed property; — used in composition; as, large-acred men.

Ac"rid, a. Etym: [L. acer sharp; prob. assimilated in form to acid.
See Eager.]

1. Sharp and harsh, or bitter and not, to the taste; pungent; as, acrid salts.

2. Causing heat and irritation; corrosive; as, acrid secretions.

3. Caustic; bitter; bitterly irritating; as, acrid temper, mind, writing. Acrid poison, a poison which irritates, corrodes, or burns the parts to which it is applied.

A*crid"i*ty, Ac"rid*ness n.

Defn: The quality of being acrid or pungent; irritant bitterness; acrimony; as, the acridity of a plant, of a speech.

Ac"rid*ly, adv.

Defn: In an acid manner.

Ac"ri*mo"ni*ous, a. Etym: [Cf. LL. acrimonious, F. acrimonieux.]

1. Acrid; corrosive; as, acrimonious gall. [Archaic] Harvey.

2. Caustic; bitter-tempered' sarcastic; as, acrimonious dispute, language, temper.

Ac`ri*mo"ni*ous*ly, adv.

Defn: In an acrimonious manner.

Ac`ri*mo"ni*ous*ness, n.

Defn: The quality of being acrimonious; asperity; acrimony.

ACRIMONY Ac"ri*mo*ny, n.; pl. Acrimonies. Etym: [L. acrimonia, fr. acer, sharp: cf. F. acrimonie.]

1. A quality of bodies which corrodes or destroys others; also, a harsh or biting sharpness; as, the acrimony of the juices of certain plants. [Archaic] Bacon.

2. Sharpness or severity, as of language or temper; irritating bitterness of disposition or manners. John the Baptist set himself with much acrimony and indignation to baffle this senseless arrogant conceit of theirs. South.

Syn. — Acrimony, Asperity, Harshness, Tartness. These words express different degrees of angry feeling or language. Asperity and harshness arise from angry feelings, connected with a disregard for the feelings of others. Harshness usually denotes needless severity or an undue measure of severity. Acrimony is a biting sharpness produced by an imbittered spirit. Tartness denotes slight asperity and implies some degree of intellectual readiness. Tartness of reply; harshness of accusation; acrimony of invective. In his official letters he expressed, with great acrimony, his contempt for the king's character. Macaulay. It is no very cynical asperity not to confess obligations where no benefit has been received. Johnson. A just reverence of mankind prevents the growth of harshness and brutality. Shaftesbury.

A*cris"i*a, Ac"ri*sy, n. Etym: [LL. acrisia, Gr.

1. Inability to judge.

2. (Med.)

Defn: Undecided character of a disease. [Obs.]

Ac"ri*ta, n. pl. Etym: [NL., from Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: The lowest groups of animals, in which no nervous system has been observed.

Ac"ri*tan, a. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Of or pertaining to the Acrita.
 — n. An individual of the Acrita.

Ac"rite, a. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Acritan. Owen.

A*crit"ic*al, a. Etym: [Gr. (Med.)

Defn: Having no crisis; giving no indications of a crisis; as, acritical symptoms, an acritical abscess.

Ac`ri*to*chro"ma*cy, n. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Color blindness; achromatopsy.

Ac"ri*tude, n. Etym: [L. acritudo, from acer sharp.]

Defn: Acridity; pungency joined with heat. [Obs.]

Ac"ri*ty, n. Etym: [L. acritas, fr. acer sharp: cf. F. âcreté.]

Defn: Sharpness; keenness. [Obs.]

Ac`ro*a*mat"ic, Ac`ro*a*mat"ic*al, a. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Communicated orally; oral; — applied to the esoteric teachings of Aristotle, those intended for his genuine disciples, in distinction from his exoteric doctrines, which were adapted to outsiders or the public generally. Hence: Abstruse; profound.

Ac`ro*at"ic, a. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Same as Acroamatic.

Ac"ro*bat, n. Etym: [F. acrobate, fr. Gr.

Defn: One who practices rope dancing, high vaulting, or other daring gymnastic feats.

Ac`ro*bat"ic, a. Etym: [Cf. F. acrobatique.]

Defn: Pertaining to an acrobat.
 — Ac`ro*bat"ic*al*ly, adv.

Ac"ro*bat*ism, n.

Defn: Feats of the acrobat; daring gymnastic feats; high vaulting.

ACROCARPOUS Ac`ro*car"pous, a. Etym: [Gr. (Bot.) (a) Having a terminal fructification; having the fruit at the end of the stalk. (b) Having the fruit stalks at the end of a leafy stem, as in certain mosses.

Ac`ro*ce*phal"ic, a. Etym: [Gr. Cephalic.]

Defn: Characterized by a high skull.

Ac`ro*ceph"a*ly, n.

Defn: Loftiness of skull.

Ac`ro*ce*rau"ni*an, a. Etym: [L. acroceraunius, fr. Gr.

Defn: Of or pertaining to the high mountain range of "thunder- smitten" peaks (now Kimara), between Epirus and Macedonia. Shelley.

Ac`ro*dac"tyl*um, n. Etym: [NL., from Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: The upper surface of the toes, individually.

Ac"ro*dont, n. Etym: [Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: One of a group of lizards having the teeth immovably united to the top of the alveolar ridge. — a. Of or pertaining to the acrodonts.

Ac"ro*gen, n. Etym: [Gr. -gen.] (Bot.)

Defn: A plant of the highest class of cryptograms, including the ferns, etc. See Cryptogamia. The Age of Acrogens (Geol.), the age of coal plants, or the carboniferous era.

Ac*rog"e*nous, a. (Bot.)

Defn: Increasing by growth from the extremity; as, an acrogenous plant.

A*cro"le*in, n. Etym: [L. acer sharp + olere to smell.] (Chem.)

Defn: A limpid, colorless, highly volatile liquid, obtained by the dehydration of glycerin, or the destructive distillation of neutral fats containing glycerin. Its vapors are intensely irritating. Watts.

Ac"ro*lith, n. Etym: [L. acrolthus, Gr. with the ends made of stone;
(Arch. & Sculp.)

Defn: A statue whose extremities are of stone, the trunk being generally of wood. Elmes.

A*crol"i*than, Ac`ro*lith"ic, a.

Defn: Pertaining to, or like, an acrolith.

Ac`ro*meg"a*ly, n. Etym: [NL. acromegalia, fr. Gr. (Med.)

Defn: Chronic enlargement of the extremities and face.

A*cro"mi*al, a. Etym: [Cf. F. acromial.] (Anat.)

Defn: Of or pertaining to the acromion. Dunglison.

A*cro"mi*on, n. Etym: [Gr. acromion.] (Anat.)

Defn: The outer extremity of the shoulder blade.

Ac`ro*mon`o*gram*mat"ic, a. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Having each verse begin with the same letter as that with which the preceding verse ends.

A*cron"yc, A*cron"ych*al, a. Etym: [Gr. (Astron.)

Defn: Rising at sunset and setting at sunrise, as a star; — opposed to cosmical.

Note: The word is sometimes incorrectly written acronical, achronychal, acronichal, and acronical.

A*cron"yc*al*ly, adv.

Defn: In an acronycal manner as rising at the setting of the sun, and vise versâ.

Ac"ro*nyc"tous, a. Etym: [Gr. (Astron.)

Defn: Acronycal.

A*crook", adv.

Defn: Crookedly. [R.] Udall.

A*crop"e*tal, a. Etym: [Gr. petere to seek.] (Bot.)

Defn: Developing from below towards the apex, or from the circumference towards the center; centripetal; — said of certain inflorescence.

A*croph"o*ny, A*chroph"o*ny, n. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: The use of a picture symbol of an object to represent phonetically the initial sound of the name of the object.

A*croph"o*ny, n. [Gr. 'a`kros extreme + sound.]

Defn: The use of a picture symbol of an object to represent phonetically the initial sound of the name of the object.

Ac`ro*po"di*um, n. Etym: [Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: The entire upper surface of the foot.

A*crop"o*lis, n. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: The upper part, or the citadel, of a Grecian city; especially, the citadel of Athens.

Ac"ro*pol"i*tan, a.

Defn: Pertaining to an acropolis.

Ac"ro*spire, n. Etym: [Gr. (Bot.)

Defn: The sprout at the end of a seed when it begins to germinate; the plumule in germination; — so called from its spiral form.

Ac"ro*spire, v. i.

Defn: To put forth the first sprout.

Ac"ro*spore, n. Etym: [Gr. (Bot.)

Defn: A spore borne at the extremity of the cells of fructification in fungi.

Ac"ro*spor"ous, a.

Defn: Having acrospores.

A*cross" (#; 115), prep. Etym: [Pref. a- + cross: cf. F. en croix.
See Cross, n.]

Defn: From side to side; athwart; crosswise, or in a direction opposed to the length; quite over; as, a bridge laid across a river. Dryden. To come across, to come upon or meet incidentally. Freeman. — To go across the country, to go by a direct course across a region without following the roads.

A*cross", adv.

1. From side to side; crosswise; as, with arms folded across. Shak.

2. Obliquely; athwart; amiss; awry. [Obs.] The squint-eyed Pharisees look across at all the actions of Christ. Bp. Hall.

A*cros"tic, n. Etym: [Gr.

1. A composition, usually in verse, in which the first or the last letters of the lines, or certain other letters, taken in order, form a name, word, phrase, or motto.

2. A Hebrew poem in which the lines or stanzas begin with the letters of the alphabet in regular order (as Psalm cxix.). See Abecedarian. Double acrostic, a species of enigma, in which words are to be guessed whose initial and final letters form other words.

A*cros"tic, A*cros"ti*cal, n.

Defn: Pertaining to, or characterized by, acrostics.

A*cros"tic*al*ly, adv.

Defn: After the manner of an acrostic.

Ac`ro*tar"si*um, n. Etym: [NL., from Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: The instep or front of the tarsus.

Ac`ro*te*leu"tic, n. Etym: [Gr. (Eccles.)

Defn: The end of a verse or psalm, or something added thereto, to be sung by the people, by way of a response.

Ac"ro*ter, n. Etym: [F. acrotère. See Acroterium.] (Arch.)

Defn: Same as Acroterium.

Ac`ro*te"ri*al, a.

Defn: Pertaining to an acroterium; as, ornaments. P. Cyc.

ACROTERIUM Ac`ro*te`ri*um, n.; pl. Acrotplwia. Etym: [L., fr. Gr. (Arch.) (a) One of the small pedestals, for statues or other ornaments, placed on the apex and at the basal angles of a pediment. Acroteria are also sometimes placed upon the gables in Gothic architecture. J. H. Parker. (b) One of the pedestals, for vases or statues, forming a part roof balustrade.

A*crot"ic, a. Etym: [Gr. (Med.)

Defn: Pertaining to or affecting the surface.

Ac"ro*tism, n. Etym: [Gr. (Med.)

Defn: Lack or defect of pulsation.

A*crot"o*mous, a. Etym: [Gr. (Min.)

Defn: Having a cleavage parallel with the base.

A*cryl"ic, a. (Chem.)

Defn: Of or containing acryl, the hypothetical radical of which acrolein is the hydride; as, acrylic acid.

ACT Act, n. Etym: [L. actus, fr. agere to drive, do: cf. F. acte. See Agent.]

1. That which is done or doing; the exercise of power, or the effect, of which power exerted is the cause; a performance; a deed. That best portion of a good man's life, His little, nameless, unremembered acts Of kindness and of love. Wordsworth. Hence, in specific uses: (a) The result of public deliberation; the decision or determination of a legislative body, council, court of justice, etc.; a decree, edit, law, judgment, resolve, award; as, an act of Parliament, or of Congress. (b) A formal solemn writing, expressing that something has been done. Abbott. (c) A performance of part of a play; one of the principal divisions of a play or dramatic work in which a certain definite part of the action is completed. (d) A thesis maintained in public, in some English universities, by a candidate for a degree, or to show the proficiency of a student.

2. A state of reality or real existence as opposed to a possibility or possible existence. [Obs.] The seeds of plants are not at first in act, but in possibility, what they afterward grow to be. Hooker.

3. Process of doing; action. In act, in the very doing; on the point of (doing). "In act to shoot." Dryden. This woman was taken . . . in the very act. John viii. 4. Act of attainder. (Law) See Attainder. — Act of bankruptcy (Law), an act of a debtor which renders him liable to be adjudged a bankrupt. — Act of faith. (Ch. Hist.) See Auto-da-Fé. — Act of God (Law), an inevitable accident; such extraordinary interruption of the usual course of events as is not to be looked for in advance, and against which ordinary prudence could not guard. — Act of grace, an expression often used to designate an act declaring pardon or amnesty to numerous offenders, as at the beginning of a new reign. — Act of indemnity, a statute passed for the protection of those who have committed some illegal act subjecting them to penalties. Abbott. — Act in pais, a thing done out of court (anciently, in the country), and not a matter of record.

 — See Action.

ACT Act, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Acted; p. pr. & vb. n. Acting.] Etym: [L. actus, p. p. of agere to drive, lead, do; but influenced by E. act, n.]

1. To move to action; to actuate; to animate. [Obs.] Self-love, the spring of motion, acts the soul. Pope.

2. To perform; to execute; to do. [Archaic] That we act our temporal affairs with a desire no greater than our necessity. Jer. Taylor. Industry doth beget by producing good habits, and facility of acting things expedient for us to do. Barrow. Uplifted hands that at convenient times Could act extortion and the worst of crimes. Cowper.

3. To perform, as an actor; to represent dramatically on the stage.

4. To assume the office or character of; to play; to personate; as, to act the hero.

5. To feign or counterfeit; to simulate. With acted fear the villain thus pursued. Dryden. To act a part, to sustain the part of one of the characters in a play; hence, to simulate; to dissemble. — To act the part of, to take the character of; to fulfill the duties of.

ACT Act, v. i.

1. To exert power; to produce an effect; as, the stomach acts upon food.

2. To perform actions; to fulfill functions; to put forth energy; to move, as opposed to remaining at rest; to carry into effect a determination of the will. He hangs between, in doubt to act or rest. Pope.

3. To behave or conduct, as in morals, private duties, or public offices; to bear or deport one's self; as, we know not why he has acted so.

4. To perform on the stage; to represent a character. To show the world how Garrick did not act. Cowper. To act as or for, to do the work of; to serve as. — To act on, to regulate one's conduct according to. — To act up to, to equal in action; to fulfill in practice; as, he has acted up to his engagement or his advantages.

Act"a*ble, a.

Defn: Capable of being acted. Tennyson.

Ac"ti*nal, a. Etym: [Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Pertaining to the part of a radiate animal which contains the mouth. L. Agassiz.

Ac`ti*na"ri*a, n. pl. Etym: [NL., from Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: A large division of Anthozoa, including those which have simple tentacles and do not form stony corals. Sometimes, in a wider sense, applied to all the Anthozoa, expert the Alcyonaria, whether forming corals or not.

Act"ing, a.

1. Operating in any way.

2. Doing duty for another; officiating; as, an superintendent.

ACTINIA Ac*tin"i*a, n.; pl. L. Actiniæ, E. Actinias. Etym: [Latinized fr. Gr. (Zoöl.) (a) An animal of the class Anthozoa, and family Actinidæ. From a resemblance to flowers in form and color, they are often called animal flowers and sea anemones. [See Polyp.]. (b) A genus in the family Actinidæ.

Ac*tin"ic, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to actinism; as, actinic rays.

Ac*tin"i*form, a. Etym: [Gr. -form.]

Defn: Having a radiated form, like a sea anemone.

Ac"tin*ism, n. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: The property of radiant energy (found chiefly in solar or electric light) by which chemical changes are produced, as in photography.

Ac*tin"i*um, n. Etym: [Gr. (Chem.)

Defn: A supposed metal, said by Phipson to be contained in commercial zinc; — so called because certain of its compounds are darkened by exposure to light.

Ac`ti*no-chem"is*try, n.

Defn: Chemistry in its relations to actinism. Draper.

Ac*tin"o*gram, n. [Gr. , , ray + -gram.]

Defn: A record made by the actinograph.

Ac*tin"o*graph, n. Etym: [Gr. -graph.]

Defn: An instrument for measuring and recording the variations in the actinic or chemical force of rays of light. Nichol.

Ac"tin*oid, a. Etym: [Gr. -oid.]

Defn: Having the form of rays; radiated, as an actinia.

Ac*tin"o*lite, n. Etym: [Gr. -lite.] (Min.)

Defn: A bright green variety of amphibole occurring usually in fibrous or columnar masses.

Ac`tin*o*lit"ic, a. (Min.)

Defn: Of the nature of, or containing, actinolite.

Ac`ti*nol"o*gy, n. Etym: [Gr. -logy.]

Defn: The science which treats of rays of light, especially of the actinic or chemical rays.

Ac*tin"o*mere, n. Etym: [Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: One of the radial segments composing the body of one of the

ACTINOMETER Ac`ti*nom"e*ter, n. Etym: [Gr. -meter] (a) An instrument for measuring the direct heating power of the sun's rays. (b) An instrument for measuring the actinic effect of rays of light.

Ac`ti*no*met"ric, a.

Defn: Pertaining to the measurement of the intensity of the solar rays, either (a) heating, or (b) actinic.

Ac`ti*nom"e*try, n.

1. The measurement of the force of solar radiation. Maury.

2. The measurement of the chemical or actinic energy of light. Abney.

Ac`ti*no*my*co"sis, n. [NL.] (Med.)

Defn: A chronic infectious disease of cattle and man due to the presence of Actinomyces bovis. It causes local suppurating tumors, esp. about the jaw. Called also lumpy jaw or big jaw. — Ac`ti*no*my*cot"ic (#), a.

Ac*tin"o*phone, n. [Gr. , , ray + voice.] (Physics)

Defn: An apparatus for the production of sound by the action of the actinic, or ultraviolet, rays.

Ac*tin`o*phon"ic, a. (Physics)

Defn: Pertaining to, or causing the production of, sound by means of the actinic, or ultraviolet, rays; as, actinophonic phenomena.

Ac`ti*noph"o*rous, a. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Having straight projecting spines.

Ac*tin"o*some, n. Etym: [Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: The entire body of a coelenterate.

Ac"tin*ost, n. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: (Anat.) One of the bones at the base of a paired fin of a fish.

Ac*tin"o*stome, n. Etym: [Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: The mouth or anterior opening of a coelenterate animal.

Ac`ti*not"ro*cha, n. pl. Etym: [NL.; Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: A peculiar larval form of Phoronis, a genus of marine worms, having a circle of ciliated tentacles.

Ac"ti*no*zo"a, n. pl. Etym: [Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: A group of Coelenterata, comprising the Anthozoa Ctenophora.
The sea anemone, or actinia, is a familiar example.

Ac`ti*no*zo"al, a. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Of or pertaining to the Actinozoa.

Ac"ti*no*zo"ön, n. (Zoöl.)

Defn: One of the Actinozoa.

Ac*tin"u*la, n. pl. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: A kind of embryo of certain hydroids (Tubularia), having a stellate form.

Ac"tion, n. Etym: [OF. action, L. actio, fr. agere to do. See Act.]

1. A process or condition of acting or moving, as opposed to rest; the doing of something; exertion of power or force, as when one body acts on another; the effect of power exerted on one body by another; agency; activity; operation; as, the action of heat; a man of action. One wise in council, one in action brave. Pope.

2. An act; a thing done; a deed; an enterprise. (pl.): Habitual deeds; hence, conduct; behavior; demeanor. The Lord is a Good of knowledge, and by him actions are weighed. 1 Sam. ii. 3.

3. The event or connected series of events, either real or imaginary, forming the subject of a play, poem, or other composition; the unfolding of the drama of events.

4. Movement; as, the horse has a spirited action.

5. (Mech.)

Defn: Effective motion; also, mechanism; as, the breech action of a gun.

6. (Physiol.)

Defn: Any one of the active processes going on in an organism; the performance of a function; as, the action of the heart, the muscles, or the gastric juice.

7. (Orat.)

Defn: Gesticulation; the external deportment of the speaker, or the suiting of his attitude, voice, gestures, and countenance, to the subject, or to the feelings.

8. (Paint. & Sculp.)

Defn: The attitude or position of the several parts of the body as expressive of the sentiment or passion depicted.

9. (Law) (a) A suit or process, by which a demand is made of a right in a court of justice; in a broad sense, a judicial proceeding for the enforcement or protection of a right, the redress or prevention of a wrong, or the punishment of a public offense. (b) A right of action; as, the law gives an action for every claim.

10. (Com.)

Defn: A share in the capital stock of a joint-stock company, or in
the public funds; hence, in the plural, equivalent to stocks. [A
Gallicism] [Obs.]
The Euripus of funds and actions. Burke.

11. An engagement between troops in war, whether on land or water; a battle; a fight; as, a general action, a partial action.

12. (Music)

Defn: The mechanical contrivance by means of which the impulse of the player's finger is transmitted to the strings of a pianoforte or to the valve of an organ pipe. Grove. Chose in action. (Law) See Chose. — Quantity of action (Physics), the product of the mass of a body by the space it runs through, and its velocity.

Syn. — Action, Act. In many cases action and act are synonymous; but some distinction is observable. Action involves the mode or process of acting, and is usually viewed as occupying some time in doing. Act has more reference to the effect, or the operation as complete. To poke the fire is an act, to reconcile friends who have quarreled is a praiseworthy action. C. J. Smith.

Ac"tion*a*ble, a. Etym: [Cf. LL. actionabilis. See Action.]

Defn: That may be the subject of an action or suit at law; as, to call a man a thief is actionable.

Ac"tion*a*bly, adv.

Defn: In an actionable manner.

Ac"tion*a*ry, Ac"tion*ist, n. Etym: [Cf. F. actionnaire.] (Com.)

Defn: A shareholder in joint-stock company. [Obs.]

Ac"tion*less, a.

Defn: Void of action.

Ac"ti*vate, v. t.

Defn: To make active. [Obs.]

Ac"tive, a. Etym: [F. actif, L. activus, fr. agere to act.]

1. Having the power or quality of acting; causing change; communicating action or motion; acting; — opposed to Ant: passive, that receives; as, certain active principles; the powers of the mind.

2. Quick in physical movement; of an agile and vigorous body; nimble; as, an active child or animal. Active and nervous was his gait. Wordsworth.

3. In action; actually proceeding; working; in force; — opposed to quiescent, dormant, or extinct; as, active laws; active hostilities; an active volcano.

4. Given to action; constantly engaged in action; energetic; diligent; busy; — opposed to dull, sluggish, indolent, or inert; as, an active man of business; active mind; active zeal.

5. Requiring or implying action or exertion; — opposed to Ant: sedentary or to Ant: tranquil; as, active employment or service; active scenes.

6. Given to action rather than contemplation; practical; operative; - - opposed to Ant: speculative or Ant: theoretical; as, an active rather than a speculative statesman.

7. Brisk; lively; as, an active demand for corn.

8. Implying or producing rapid action; as, an active disease; an active remedy.

9. (Gram.) (a) Applied to a form of the verb; — opposed to Ant: passive. See Active voice, under Voice. (b) Applied to verbs which assert that the subject acts upon or affects something else; transitive. (c) Applied to all verbs that express action as distinct from mere existence or state. Active capital, Active wealth, money, or property that may readily be converted into money.

Syn. — Agile; alert; brisk; vigorous; nimble; lively; quick; sprightly; prompt; energetic.

Ac"tive*ly, adv.

1. In an active manner; nimbly; briskly; energetically; also, by one's own action; voluntarily, not passively.

2. (Gram.)

Defn: In an active signification; as, a word used actively.

Ac"tive*ness, n.

Defn: The quality of being active; nimbleness; quickness of motion; activity.

ACTIVITY Ac*tiv"i*ty, n.; pl. Activities. Etym: [Cf. F. activité, LL. activitas.]

Defn: The state or quality of being active; nimbleness; agility; vigorous action or operation; energy; active force; as, an increasing variety of human activities. "The activity of toil." Palfrey.

 — Liveliness; briskness; quickness.

Act"less, a.

Defn: Without action or spirit. [R.]

ACTON Ac"ton, n. Etym: [OF. aketon, auqueton, F. hoqueton, a quilted jacket, fr. Sp. alcoton, algodon, cotton. Cf. Cotton.]

Defn: A stuffed jacket worn under the mail, or (later) a jacket plated with mail. [Spelled also hacqueton.] [Obs.] Halliwell. Sir W. Scott.

Ac"tor, n. Etym: [L. actor, fr. agere to act.]

1. One who acts, or takes part in any affair; a doer.

2. A theatrical performer; a stageplayer. After a well graced actor leaves the stage. Shak.

3. (Law) (a) An advocate or proctor in civil courts or causes. Jacobs. (b) One who institutes a suit; plaintiff or complainant.

Ac`tress, n. Etym: [Cf. F. actrice.]

1. A female actor or doer. [Obs.] Cockeram.

2. A female stageplayer; a woman who acts a part.

ACTUAL Ac"tu*al (#; 135), a. Etym: [OE. actuel, F. actuel, L. actualis, fr. agere to do, act.]

1. Involving or comprising action; active. [Obs.] Her walking and other actual performances. Shak. Let your holy and pious intention be actual; that is . . . by a special prayer or action, . . . given to God. Jer. Taylor.

2. Existing in act or reality; really acted or acting; in fact; real; — opposed to potential, possible, virtual, speculative, coceivable, theoretical, or nominal; as, the actual cost of goods; the actual case under discussion.

3. In action at the time being; now exiting; present; as the actual situation of the country. Actual cautery. See under Cautery. — Actual sin (Theol.), that kind of sin which is done by ourselves in contradistinction to "original sin."

 — Real; genuine; positive; certain. See Real.

Ac"tu*al, n. (Finance)

Defn: Something actually received; real, as distinct from estimated,
receipts. [Cant]
The accounts of revenues supplied . . . were not real receipts: not,
in financial language, "actuals," but only Egyptian budget estimates.
Fortnightly Review.

Ac"tu*al*ist, n.

Defn: One who deals with or considers actually existing facts and conditions, rather than fancies or theories; — opposed to idealist. J. Grote.

Ac`tu*al"i*ty, n.; pl. Actualities.

Defn: The state of being actual; reality; as, the actuality of God's nature. South.

Ac`tu*al*i*za"tion, n.

Defn: A making actual or really existent. [R.] Emerson.

Ac"tu*al*ize, v. t.

Defn: To make actual; to realize in action. [R.] Coleridge.

Ac"tu*al*ly, adv.

1. Actively. [Obs.] "Neither actually . . . nor passively." Fuller.

2. In act or in fact; really; in truth; positively.

Ac"tu*al*ness, n.

Defn: Quality of being actual; actuality.

Ac`tu*a"ri*al, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to actuaries; as, the actuarial value of an annuity.

ACTUARY Ac"tu*a*ry, n.; pl. Actuaries. Etym: [L. actuarius copyist, clerk, fr. actus, p. p. of agere to do, act.]

1. (Law)

Defn: A registar or clerk; — used originally in courts of civil law jurisdiction, but in Europe used for a clerk or registar generally.

2. The computing official of an insurance company; one whose profession it is to calculate for insurance companies the risks and premiums for life, fire, and other insurances.

Ac"tu*ate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Actuated; p. pr. & vb. n. Actuating.]
Etym: [LL. actuatus, p. p. of actuare, fr. L. actus act.]

1. To put into action or motion; to move or incite to action; to influence actively; to move as motives do; — more commonly used of persons. Wings, which others were contriving to actuate by the perpetual motion. Johnson. Men of the greatest abilities are most fired with ambition; and, on the contrary, mean and narrow minds are the least actuated by it. Addison.

2. To carry out in practice; to perform. [Obs.] "To actuate what you command." Jer. Taylor.

 — To move; impel; incite; rouse; instigate; animate.

Ac"tu*ate, a. Etym: [LL. actuatus, p. p. of actuare.]

Defn: Put in action; actuated. [Obs.] South.

Ac`tu*a"tion, n. Etym: [Cf. LL. actuatio.]

Defn: A bringing into action; movement. Bp. Pearson.

Ac"tu*a`tor, n.

Defn: One who actuates, or puts into action. [R.] Melville.

Ac"tu*ose`, a. Etym: [L. actuosus.]

Defn: Very active. [Obs.]

Ac`tu*os"i*ty, n.

Defn: Abundant activity. [Obs.] Dr. H. More.

Ac"ture, n.

Defn: Action. [Obs.] Shak.

Ac*tu"ri*ence, n. Etym: [A desid. of L. agere, actum, to act.]

Defn: Tendency or impulse to act. [R.] Acturience, or desire of action, in one form or another, whether as restlessness, ennui, dissatisfaction, or the imagination of something desirable. J. Grote.

Ac"u*ate, v. t. Etym: [L. acus needle.]

Defn: To sharpen; to make pungent; to quicken. [Obs.] "[To] acuate the blood." Harvey.

Ac"u*ate, a.

Defn: Sharpened; sharp-pointed.

Ac`u*a"tion, n.

Defn: Act of sharpening. [R.]

ACUITION Ac`u*i"tion, n. Etym: [L. acutus, as if acuitus, p. p. of acuere to sharpen.]

Defn: The act of sharpening. [Obs.]

A*cu"i*ty, n. Etym: [LL. acuitas: cf. F. acuité.]

Defn: Sharpness or acuteness, as of a needle, wit, etc.

ACULEATE A*cu"le*ate, a. Etym: [L. aculeatus, fr. aculeus, dim. of acus needle.]

1. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Having a sting; covered with prickles; sharp like a prickle.

2. (Bot.)

Defn: Having prickles, or sharp points; beset with prickles.

3. Severe or stinging; incisive. [R.] Bacon.

A*cu"le*a`ted, a.

Defn: Having a sharp point; armed with prickles; prickly; aculeate.

A*cu"le*i*form, a.

Defn: Like a prickle.

A*cu"le*o*late, a. Etym: [L. aculeolus little needle.] (Bot.)

Defn: Having small prickles or sharp points. Gray.

A*cu"le*ous, a.

Defn: Aculeate. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

A*cu"le*us, n.; pl. Aculei. Etym: [L., dim. of acus needle.]

1. (Bot.)

Defn: A prickle growing on the bark, as in some brambles and roses.

2. (Zoöl.)

Defn: A sting.

A*cu"men, n. Etym: [L. acumen, fr. acuere to sharpen. Cf. Acute.]

Defn: Quickness of perception or discernment; penetration of mind; the faculty of nice discrimination. Selden.

 — Sharpness; sagacity; keenness; shrewdness; acuteness.

ACUMINATE A*cu"mi*nate, a. Etym: [L. acuminatus, p. p. of acuminare to sharpen, fr. acumen. See Acumen.]

Defn: Tapering to a point; pointed; as, acuminate leaves, teeth, etc.

A*cu"mi*nate, v. t.

Defn: To render sharp or keen. [R.] "To acuminate even despair."

A*cu"mi*nate, v. i.

Defn: To end in, or come to, a sharp point. "Acuminating in a cone of prelacy." Milton.

A*cu`mi*na"tion, n.

Defn: A sharpening; termination in a sharp point; a tapering point.
Bp. Pearson.

A*cu"mi*nose`, a.

Defn: Terminating in a flat, narrow end. Lindley.

A*cu"mi*nous, a.

Defn: Characterized by acumen; keen. Highmore.

ACUPRESSURE Ac`u*pres"sure, n. Etym: [L. acus needle + premere, pressum, to press.] (Surg.)

Defn: A mode of arresting hemorrhage resulting from wounds or surgical operations, by passing under the divided vessel a needle, the ends of which are left exposed externally on the cutaneous surface. Simpson.

Ac`u*punc`tu*ra"tion, n.

Defn: See Acupuncture.

ACUPUNCTURE Ac`u*punc"ture, n. Etym: [L. acus needle + punctura a pricking, fr. pungere to prick: cf. F. acuponcture.]

Defn: Pricking with a needle; a needle prick. Specifically (Med.):

Defn: The insertion of needles into the living tissues for remedial purposes.

Ac`u*punc"ture, v. t.

Defn: To treat with acupuncture.

A*cus"tum*aunce, n.

Defn: See Accustomance. [Obs.]

A*cut"an`gu*lar, a.

Defn: Acute-angled.

ACUTE A*cute", a. Etym: [L. acutus, p. p. of acuere to sharpen, fr. a root ak to be sharp. Cf. Ague, Cute, Edge.]

1. Sharp at the end; ending in a sharp point; pointed; — opposed to blunt or obtuse; as, an acute angle; an acute leaf.

2. Having nice discernment; perceiving or using minute distinctions; penetrating; clever; shrewd; — opposed to Ant: dull or Ant: stupid; as, an acute observer; acute remarks, or reasoning.

3. Having nice or quick sensibility; susceptible to slight impressions; acting keenly on the senses; sharp; keen; intense; as, a man of acute eyesight, hearing, or feeling; acute pain or pleasure.

4. High, or shrill, in respect to some other sound; — opposed to grave or low; as, an acute tone or accent.

5. (Med.)

Defn: Attended with symptoms of some degree of severity, and coming speedily to a crisis; — opposed to chronic; as, an acute disease. Acute angle (Geom.), an angle less than a right angle.

Syn. — Subtile; ingenious; sharp; keen; penetrating; sagacious; sharp- witted; shrewd; discerning; discriminating. See Subtile.

A*cute", v. t.

Defn: To give an acute sound to; as, he acutes his rising inflection too much. [R.] Walker.

A*cute"-*an`gled, a.

Defn: Having acute angles; as, an acute-angled triangle, a triangle with every one of its angles less than a right angle.

A*cute"ly, adv.

Defn: In an acute manner; sharply; keenly; with nice discrimination.

A*cute"ness, n.

1. The quality of being acute or pointed; sharpness; as, the acuteness of an angle.

2. The faculty of nice discernment or perception; acumen; keenness; sharpness; sensitiveness; — applied to the senses, or the understanding. By acuteness of feeling, we perceive small objects or slight impressions: by acuteness of intellect, we discern nice distinctions. Perhaps, also, he felt his professional acuteness interested in bringing it to a successful close. Sir W. Scott.

3. Shrillness; high pitch; — said of sounds.

4. (Med.)

Defn: Violence of a disease, which brings it speedily to a crisis.

Syn. — Penetration; sagacity; keenness; ingenuity; shrewdness; subtlety; sharp-wittedness.

A*cu`ti*fo"li*ate, a. Etym: [L. acutus sharp + folium leaf.] (Bot.)

Defn: Having sharp-pointed leaves.

A*cu`ti*lo"bate, a. Etym: [L. acutus sharp + E. lobe.] (Bot.)

Defn: Having acute lobes, as some leaves.

Ac`u*tor"sion, n. [L. acus needle + torsion.] (Med.)

Defn: The twisting of an artery with a needle to arrest hemorrhage.

A*cyc"lic, a. [Pref. a- not + cyclic.]

Defn: Not cyclic; not disposed in cycles or whorls; as: (a) (Bot.)

Defn: Of a flower, having its parts inserted spirally on the receptacle. (b) (Org. Chem.) Having an open-chain structure; aliphatic.

Ac"yl, n. [Acid + -yl.] (Org. Chem.)

Defn: An acid radical, as acetyl, malonyl, or benzoyl.

Ad-. Etym: [A Latin preposition, signifying to. See At.]

Defn: As a prefix ad- assumes the forms ac-, af-, ag-, al-, an-, ap-, ar-, as-, at-, assimilating the d with the first letter of the word to which ad- is prefixed. It remains unchanged before vowels, and before d, h, j, m, v. Examples: adduce, adhere, adjacent, admit, advent, accord, affect, aggregate, allude, annex, appear, etc. It becomes ac- before qu, as in acquiesce.

Ad*act", v. t. Etym: [L. adactus, p. p. of adigere.]

Defn: To compel; to drive. [Obs.] Fotherby.

ADACTYL; ADACTYLOUS A*dac"tyl, A*dac"tyl*ous, a. Etym: [Gr. (Zoöl.) (a) Without fingers or without toes. (b) Without claws on the feet (of crustaceous animals).

ADAGE Ad"age, n. Etym: [F. adage, fr. L. adagium; ad + the root of L. aio I say.]

Defn: An old saying, which has obtained credit by long use; a
Letting "I dare not" wait upon "I would," Like the poor cat i' the
adage. Shak.

 — Axiom; maxim; aphorism; proverb; saying; saw; apothegm. See

A*da"gi*al, a.

Defn: Pertaining to an adage; proverbial. "Adagial verse." Barrow.

ADAGIO A*da"gio, a. & adv. Etym: [It. adagio; ad (L. ad) at + agio convenience, leisure, ease. See Agio.] (Mus.)

Defn: Slow; slowly, leisurely, and gracefully. When repeated, adagio, adagio, it directs the movement to be very slow.

A*da"gio, n.

Defn: A piece of music in adagio time; a slow movement; as, an adagio of Haydn.

Ad"am, n.

1. The name given in the Bible to the first man, the progenitor of the human race.

2. (As a symbol)

Defn: "Original sin;" human frailty.
And whipped the offending Adam out of him. Shak.
Adam's ale, water. [Coll.] — Adam's apple.

1. (Bot.) (a) A species of banana (Musa paradisiaca). It attains a height of twenty feet or more. Paxton]. (b) A species of lime (Citris limetta).

2. The projection formed by the thyroid cartilage in the neck. It is particularly prominent in males, and is so called from a notion that it was caused by the forbidden fruit (an apple) sticking in the throat of our first parent. — Adam's flannel (Bot.), the mullein (Verbascum thapsus). — Adam's needle (Bot.), the popular name of a genus (Yucca) of liliaceous plants.

ADAMANT Ad"a*mant, n. Etym: [OE. adamaunt, adamant, diamond, magnet, OF. adamant, L. adamas, adamantis, the hardest metal, fr. Gr. adamare to love, be attached to, the word meant also magnet, as in OF. and LL. See Diamond, Tame.]

1. A stone imagined by some to be of impenetrable hardness; a name given to the diamond and other substance of extreme hardness; but in modern minerology it has no technical signification. It is now a rhetorical or poetical name for the embodiment of impenetrable hardness. Opposed the rocky orb Of tenfold adamant, his ample shield. Milton.

2. Lodestone; magnet. [Obs.] "A great adamant of acquaintance." Bacon. As true to thee as steel to adamant. Greene.

Ad`a*man*te"an, a. Etym: [L. adamanteus.]

Defn: Of adamant; hard as adamant. Milton.

Ad`a*man"tine, a. Etym: [L. adamantinus, Gr.

1. Made of adamant, or having the qualities of adamant; incapable of being broken, dissolved, or penetrated; as, adamantine bonds or chains.

2. (Min.)

Defn: Like the diamond in hardness or luster.

Ad`am*bu*la"cral, a. Etym: [L. ad + E. ambulacral.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: Next to the ambulacra; as, the adambulacral ossicles of the starfish.

A*dam"ic, A*dam"ic*al, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to Adam, or resembling him. Adamic earth, a name given to common red clay, from a notion that Adam means red earth.

Ad"am*ite, n. Etym: [From Adam.]

1. A descendant of Adam; a human being.

2. (Eccl. Hist.)

Defn: One of a sect of visionaries, who, professing to imitate the state of Adam, discarded the use of dress in their assemblies.

Ad"am's ap"ple.

Defn: See under Adam.

A*dance", adv.

Defn: Dancing. Lowell.

A*dan"gle, adv.

Defn: Dangling. Browning.

Ad`an*so"ni*a, n. Etym: [From Adanson, a French botanist.] (Bot.)

Defn: A genus of great trees related to the Bombax. There are two species, A. digitata, the baobab or monkey-bread of Africa and India, and A. Gregorii, the sour gourd or cream-of-tartar tree of Australia. Both have a trunk of moderate height, but of enormous diameter, and a wide-spreading head. The fruit is oblong, and filled with pleasantly acid pulp. The wood is very soft, and the bark is used by the natives for making ropes and cloth. D. C. Eaton.

A*dapt", a.

Defn: Fitted; suited. [Obs.] Swift.

A*dapt", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Adapted; p. pr. & vb. n. Adapting.]
Etym: [L. adaptare; ad + aptare to fit; cf. F. adapter. See Apt,

Defn: To make suitable; to fit, or suit; to adjust; to alter so as to
fit for a new use; — sometimes followed by to or for.
For nature, always in the right, To your decays adapts my sight.
Appeals adapted to his [man's] whole nature. Angus.
Streets ill adapted for the residence of wealthy persons. Macaulay.

A*dapt`a*bil"i*ty, A*dapt"a*ble*ness, n.

Defn: The quality of being adaptable; suitableness. "General adaptability for every purpose." Farrar.

A*dapt"a*ble, a.

Defn: Capable of being adapted.

Ad`ap*ta"tion, n. Etym: [Cf. F. adaptation, LL. adaptatio.]

1. The act or process of adapting, or fitting; or the state of being adapted or fitted; fitness. "Adaptation of the means to the end." Erskine.

2. The result of adapting; an adapted form.

A*dapt"a*tive, a.

Defn: Adaptive. Stubbs.

A*dapt"ed*ness, n.

Defn: The state or quality of being adapted; suitableness; special fitness.

A*dapt"er, n.

1. One who adapts.

2. (Chem.)

Defn: A connecting tube; an adopter.

A*dap"tion, n.

Defn: Adaptation. Cheyne.

A*dapt"ive, a.

Defn: Suited, given, or tending, to adaptation; characterized by adaptation; capable of adapting. Coleridge. — A*dapt"ive*ly, adv.

A*dapt"ive*ness, n.

Defn: The quality of being adaptive; capacity to adapt.

A*dapt"ly, adv.

Defn: In a suitable manner. [R.] Prior.

A*dapt"ness, n.

Defn: Adaptedness. [R.]

Ad`ap*to"ri*al, a.

Defn: Adaptive. [R.]

A"dar, n. Etym: [Heb. adär.]

Defn: The twelfth month of the Hebrew ecclesiastical year, and the sixth of the civil. It corresponded nearly with March.

A*dar"ce, n. Etym: [L. adarce, adarca, Gr.

Defn: A saltish concretion on reeds and grass in marshy grounds in Galatia. It is soft and porous, and was formerly used for cleansing the skin from freckles and tetters, and also in leprosy. Dana.

Ad"a*tis, n.

Defn: A fine cotton cloth of India.

ADAUNT A*daunt", v. t. Etym: [OE. adaunten to overpower, OF. adonter; à (L. ad) + donter, F. dompter. See Daunt.]

Defn: To daunt; to subdue; to mitigate. [Obs.] Skelton.

ADAW A*daw", v. t. Etym: [Cf. OE. adawe of dawe, AS. of dagum from days, i. e., from life, out of life.]

Defn: To subdue; to daunt. [Obs.]
The sight whereof did greatly him adaw. Spenser.

A*daw", v. t. & i. Etym: [OE. adawen to wake; pref. a- (cf. Goth. us-
, Ger. er-) + dawen, dagon, to dawn. See Daw.]

Defn: To awaken; to arouse. [Obs.]
A man that waketh of his sleep He may not suddenly well taken keep
Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Till that he be adawed verily.

ADAYS A*days", adv. Etym: [Pref. a- (for on) + day; the final s was orig. a genitive ending, afterwards forming adverbs.]

Defn: By day, or every day; in the daytime. [Obs.] Fielding.

Ad cap*tan"dum. Etym: [L., for catching.]

Defn: A phrase used adjectively sometimes of meretricious attempts to catch or win popular favor.

ADD Add, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Added; p. pr. & vb. n. Adding.] Etym: [L. addere; ad + dare to give, put. Cf. Date, Do.]

1. To give by way of increased possession (to any one); to bestow (on). The Lord shall add to me another son. Gen. xxx. 24.

2. To join or unite, as one thing to another, or as several particulars, so as to increase the number, augment the quantity, enlarge the magnitude, or so as to form into one aggregate. Hence: To sum up; to put together mentally; as, to add numbers; to add up a column. Back to thy punishment, False fugitive, and to thy speed add wings. Milton. As easily as he can add together the ideas of two days or two years. Locke.

3. To append, as a statement; to say further. He added that he would willingly consent to the entire abolition of the tax. Macaulay.

Syn. — To Add, Join, Annex, Unite, Coalesce. We add by bringing things together so as to form a whole. We join by putting one thing to another in close or continuos connection. We annex by attaching some adjunct to a larger body. We unite by bringing things together so that their parts adhere or intermingle. Things coalesce by coming together or mingling so as to form one organization. To add quantities; to join houses; to annex territory; to unite kingdoms; to make parties coalesce.

Add, v. i.

1. To make an addition. To add to, to augment; to increase; as, it adds to our anxiety. "I will add to your yoke." 1 Kings xii. 14.

2. To perform the arithmetical operation of addition; as, he adds rapidly.

Add"a*ble, a. Etym: [Add, v. + -able.]

Defn: Addible.

Ad"dax, n. Etym: [Native name.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: One of the largest African antelopes (Hippotragus, or Oryx, nasomaculatus).

Note: It is now believed to be the Strepsiceros (twisted horn) of the ancients. By some it is thought to be the pygarg of the Bible.

Ad*deem", v. t. Etym: [Pref. a- + deem.]

Defn: To award; to adjudge. [Obs.] "Unto him they did addeem the prise." Spenser.

Ad*den"dum, n.; pl. Addenda. Etym: [L., fr. addere to add.]

Defn: A thing to be added; an appendix or addition. Addendum circle
(Mech.), the circle which may be described around a circular spur
wheel or gear wheel, touching the crests or tips of the teeth.

Add"er, n. Etym: [See Add.]

Defn: One who, or that which, adds; esp., a machine for adding numbers.

ADDER Ad"der, n. Etym: [OE. addere, naddere, eddre, AS. nædre, adder, snake; akin to OS. nadra, OHG. natra, natara, Ger. natter, Goth. nadrs, Icel. nathr, masc., nathra, fem.: cf. W. neidr, Gorn. naddyr, Ir. nathair, L. natrix, water snake. An adder is for a nadder.]

1. A serpent. [Obs.] "The eddre seide to the woman." Wyclif. Gen. iii. 4. )

2. (Zoöl.) (a) A small venomous serpent of the genus Vipera. The common European adder is the Vipera (or Pelias) berus. The puff adders of Africa are species of Clotho. (b) In America, the term is commonly applied to several harmless snakes, as the milk adder, puffing adder, etc. (c) Same as Sea Adder.

Note: In the sculptures the appellation is given to several venomous serpents, — sometimes to the horned viper (Cerastles).

Ad"der fly.

Defn: A dragon fly.

ADDER'S-TONGUE Ad"der's-tongue`, n. (Bot.) (a) A genus of ferns (Ophioglossum), whose seeds are produced on a spike resembling a serpent's tongue. (b) The yellow dogtooth violet. Gray.

Ad"der*wort`, n. (Bot.)

Defn: The common bistort or snakeweed (Polygonum bistorta).

Add`i*bil"i*ty, n.

Defn: The quantity of being addible; capability of addition. Locke.

Add"i*ble, a.

Defn: Capable of being added. "Addible numbers." Locke.

Ad"dice, n.

Defn: See Adze. [Obs.] Moxon.

Ad*dict", p. p.

Defn: Addicted; devoted. [Obs.]

Ad*dict", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Addicted; p. pr. & vb. n. Addicting.]
Etym: [L. addictus, p. p. of addicere to adjudge, devote; ad + dicere
to say. See Diction.]

1. To apply habitually; to devote; to habituate; — with to. "They addict themselves to the civil law." Evelyn. He is addicted to his study. Beau. & Fl. That part of mankind that addict their minds to speculations. Adventurer. His genius addicted him to the study of antiquity. Fuller. A man gross . . . and addicted to low company. Macaulay.

2. To adapt; to make suitable; to fit. [Obs.] The land about is exceedingly addicted to wood, but the coldness of the place hinders the growth. Evelyn.

Syn. — Addict, Devote, Consecrate, Dedicate. Addict was formerly used in a good sense; as, addicted to letters; but is now mostly employed in a bad sense or an indifferent one; as, addicted to vice; addicted to sensual indulgence. "Addicted to staying at home." J. S. Mill. Devote is always taken in a good sense, expressing habitual earnestness in the pursuit of some favorite object; as, devoted to science. Consecrate and dedicate express devotion of a higher kind, involving religious sentiment; as, consecrated to the service of the church; dedicated to God.

Ad*dict"ed*ness, n.

Defn: The quality or state of being addicted; attachment.

Ad*dic"tion, n. Etym: [Cf. L. addictio an adjudging.]

Defn: The state of being addicted; devotion; inclination. "His addiction was to courses vain." Shak.

Ad"di*son's dis*ease". Etym: [Named from Thomas Addison, M. D., of
London, who first described it.] (Med.)

Defn: A morbid condition causing a peculiar brownish discoloration of the skin, and thought, at one time, to be due to disease of the suprarenal capsules (two flat triangular bodies covering the upper part of the kidneys), but now known not to be dependent upon this causes exclusively. It is usually fatal.

ADDITAMENT Ad*dit"a*ment, n. Etym: [L. additamentum, fr. additus, p. p. of addere to add.]

Defn: An addition, or a thing added. Fuller. My persuasion that the latter verses of the chapter were an additament of a later age. Coleridge.

Ad*di"tion, n. Etym: [F. addition, L. additio, fr. addere to add.]

1. The act of adding two or more things together; — opposed to subtraction or diminution. "This endless addition or addibility of numbers." Locke.

2. Anything added; increase; augmentation; as, a piazza is an addition to a building.

3. (Math.)

Defn: That part of arithmetic which treats of adding numbers.

4. (Mus.)

Defn: A dot at the right side of a note as an indication that its sound is to be lengthened one half. [R.]

5. (Law)

Defn: A title annexed to a man's name, to identify him more precisely; as, John Doe, Esq.; Richard Roe, Gent.; Robert Dale, Mason; Thomas Way, of New York; a mark of distinction; a title.

6. (Her.)

Defn: Something added to a coat of arms, as a mark of honor; — opposed to abatement. Vector addition (Geom.), that kind of addition of two lines, or vectors, AB and BC, by which their sum is regarded as the line, or vector, AC.

 — Increase; accession; augmentation; appendage; adjunct.

Ad*di"tion*al, a.

Defn: Added; supplemental; in the way of an addition.

Ad*di"tion*al, n.

Defn: Something added. [R.] Bacon.

Ad*di"tion*al*ly, adv.

Defn: By way of addition.

Ad*di"tion*a*ry, a.

Defn: Additional. [R.] Herbert.

Ad`di*ti"tious, a. Etym: [L. addititius, fr. addere.]

Defn: Additive. [R.] Sir J. Herschel.

Ad"di*tive, a. Etym: [L. additivus.] (Math.)

Defn: Proper to be added; positive; — opposed to subtractive.

Ad"di*to*ry, a.

Defn: Tending to add; making some addition. [R.] Arbuthnot.

Ad"dle, n. Etym: [OE. adel, AS. adela, mud.]

1. Liquid filth; mire. [Obs.]

2. Lees; dregs. [Prov. Eng.] Wright.

Ad"dle, a.

Defn: Having lost the power of development, and become rotten, as eggs; putrid. Hence: Unfruitful or confused, as brains; muddled. Dryden.

Ad"dle, v. t. & i. [imp. & p. p. Addled; p. pr. & vb. n. Addling.]

Defn: To make addle; to grow addle; to muddle; as, he addled his brain. "Their eggs were addled." Cowper.

Ad"dle, v. t. & i. Etym: [OE. adlen, adilen, to gain, acquire; prob.
fr. Icel. ö\'eblask to acquire property, akin to othal property. Cf.

1. To earn by labor. [Prov. Eng.] Forby.

2. To thrive or grow; to ripen. [Prov. Eng.] Kill ivy, else tree will addle no more. Tusser.

Ad"dle-brain`, Ad"dle-head`, Ad"dle-pate, n.

Defn: A foolish or dull-witted fellow. [Colloq.]

Ad"dle-brained`, Ad"dle-head`ed, Ad"dle-pa`ted, a.

Defn: Dull-witted; stupid. "The addle-brained Oberstein." Motley.
Dull and addle-pated. Dryden.

Ad"dle-pa`ted*ness, n.

Defn: Stupidity.

Ad"dlings, n. pl. Etym: [See Addle, to earn.]

Defn: Earnings. [Prov. Eng.] Wright.

Ad*doom", v. t. Etym: [Pref. a- + doom.]

Defn: To adjudge. [Obs.] Spenser.

Ad*dorsed", a. Etym: [L. ad + dorsum, back: cf. F. adossé.] (Her.)

Defn: Set or turned back to back.

ADDRESS Ad*dress", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Addressed; p. pr. & vb. n. Addressing.] Etym: [OE. adressen to raise erect, adorn, OF. adrecier, to straighten, address, F. adresser, fr. à (L. ad) + OF. drecier, F. dresser, to straighten, arrange. See Dress, v.]

1. To aim; to direct. [Obs.] Chaucer. And this good knight his way with me addrest. Spenser.

2. To prepare or make ready. [Obs.] His foe was soon addressed. Spenser. Turnus addressed his men to single fight. Dryden. The five foolish virgins addressed themselves at the noise of the bridegroom's coming. Jer. Taylor.

3. Reflexively: To prepare one's self; to apply one's skill or energies (to some object); to betake. These men addressed themselves to the task. Macaulay.

4. To clothe or array; to dress. [Archaic] Tecla . . . addressed herself in man's apparel. Jewel.

5. To direct, as words (to any one or any thing); to make, as a speech, petition, etc. (to any one, an audience). The young hero had addressed his players to him for his assistance. Dryden.

6. To direct speech to; to make a communication to, whether spoken or written; to apply to by words, as by a speech, petition, etc., to speak to; to accost. Are not your orders to address the senate Addison. The representatives of the nation addressed the king. Swift.

7. To direct in writing, as a letter; to superscribe, or to direct and transmit; as, he addressed a letter.

8. To make suit to as a lover; to court; to woo.

9. (Com.)

Defn: To consign or intrust to the care of another, as agent or factor; as, the ship was addressed to a merchant in Baltimore. To address one's self to. (a) To prepare one's self for; to apply one's self to. (b) To direct one's speech or discourse to.

Ad*dress", v. i.

1. To prepare one's self. [Obs.] "Let us address to tend on Hector's heels." Shak.

2. To direct speech. [Obs.] Young Turnus to the beauteous maid addrest. Dryden.

Note: The intransitive uses come from the dropping out of the reflexive pronoun.

Ad*dress, n. Etym: [Cf. F. adresse. See Address, v. t.]

1. Act of preparing one's self. [Obs.] Jer Taylor.

2. Act of addressing one's self to a person; verbal application.

3. A formal communication, either written or spoken; a discourse; a speech; a formal application to any one; a petition; a formal statement on some subject or special occasion; as, an address of thanks, an address to the voters.

4. Direction or superscription of a letter, or the name, title, and place of residence of the person addressed.

5. Manner of speaking to another; delivery; as, a man of pleasing or insinuating address.

6. Attention in the way one's addresses to a lady. Addison.

7. Skill; skillful management; dexterity; adroitness.

Syn. — Speech; discourse; harangue; oration; petition; lecture; readiness; ingenuity; tact; adroitness.

Ad`dress*ee", n.

Defn: One to whom anything is addressed.

Ad*dres"sion, n.

Defn: The act of addressing or directing one's course. [Rare & Obs.]

Ad*duce", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Adduced; p. pr. & vb. n. Adducing.]
Etym: [L. adducere, adductum, to lead or bring to; ad + ducere to
lead. See Duke, and cf. Adduct.]

Defn: To bring forward or offer, as an argument, passage, or
consideration which bears on a statement or case; to cite; to allege.
Reasons . . . were adduced on both sides. Macaulay.
Enough could not be adduced to satisfy the purpose of illustration.
De Quincey.

Syn. — To present; allege; advance; cite; quote; assign; urge; name; mention.

Ad*du"cent, a. Etym: [L. addunces, p. pr. of adducere.] (Physiol.)

Defn: Bringing together or towards a given point; — a word applied to those muscles of the body which pull one part towards another. Opposed to abducent.

Ad*du"cer, n.

Defn: One who adduces.

Ad*du"ci*ble, a.

Defn: Capable of being adduced. Proofs innumerable, and in every imaginable manner diversified, are adducible. I. Taylor.

Ad*duct", v. t. Etym: [L. adductus, p. p. of adducere. See Adduce.]

Defn: To draw towards a common center or a middle line. Huxley.

Ad*duc"tion, n. Etym: [Cf. F. adduction. See Adduce.]

1. The act of adducing or bringing forward. An adduction of facts gathered from various quarters. I. Taylor.

2. (Physiol.)

Defn: The action by which the parts of the body are drawn towards its axis]; — opposed to abduction. Dunglison.

Ad*duc"tive, a.

Defn: Adducing, or bringing towards or to something.

Ad*duc"tor, n. Etym: [L., fr. adducere.] (Anat.)

Defn: A muscle which draws a limb or part of the body toward the middle line of the body, or closes extended parts of the body; — opposed to abductor; as, the adductor of the eye, which turns the eye toward the nose. In the bivalve shells, the muscles which close the values of the shell are called adductor muscles. Verrill.

Ad*dulce", v. t. Etym: [Like F. adoucir; fr. L. ad. + dulcis sweet.]

Defn: To sweeten; to soothe. [Obs.] Bacon.

A*deem", v. t. Etym: [L. adimere. See Ademption.] (Law)

Defn: To revoke, as a legacy, grant, etc., or to satisfy it by some other gift.

A`de*lan`ta*dil"lo, n. Etym: [Sp.]

Defn: A Spanish red wine made of the first ripe grapes.

ADELANTADO A`de*lan*ta"do, n. Etym: [Sp., prop. p. of adelantar to advance, to promote.]

Defn: A governor of a province; a commander. Prescott.

Ad*e*las"ter, n. Etym: [Gr. (Bot.)

Defn: A provisional name for a plant which has not had its flowers botanically examined, and therefore has not been referred to its proper genus.

Ad"el*ing, n.

Defn: Same as Atheling.

A*del`o*co*don"ic, a. Etym: [Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Applied to sexual zooids of hydroids, that have a saclike form and do not become free; — opposed to phanerocodonic.

A*del"o*pod, n. Etym: [Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: An animal having feet that are not apparent.

A*del"phi*a, n. Etym: [Gr. (Bot.)

Defn: A "brotherhood," or collection of stamens in a bundle; — used in composition, as in the class names, Monadelphia, Diadelphia, etc.

A*del"phous, a. Etym: [Gr. (Bot.)

Defn: Having coalescent or clustered filaments; — said of stamens; as, adelphous stamens. Usually in composition; as, monadelphous. Gray.

A*dempt", p. p. Etym: [L. ademptus, p. p. of adimere to take away.]

Defn: Takes away. [Obs.]
Without any sinister suspicion of anything being added or adempt.

ADEMPTION A*demp"tion, n. Etym: [L. ademptio, fr. adimere, ademptum, to take away; ad + emere to buy, orig. to take.] (Law)

Defn: The revocation or taking away of a grant donation, legacy, or the like. Bouvier.

Aden- or Adeno-. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Combining forms of the Greek word for gland; — used in words relating to the structure, diseases, etc., of the glands.

Ad`e*nal"gi*a, Ad"e*nal`gy, n. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: (Med.) Pain in a gland.

A*den"i*form, a. Etym: [Aden- + -form.]

Defn: Shaped like a gland; adenoid. Dunglison.

Ad`e*ni"tis, n. Etym: [Aden- + -itis.] (Med.)

Defn: Glandular inflammation. Dunglison.

Ad`e*no*graph"ic, a.

Defn: Pertaining to adenography.

Ad`e*nog"ra*phy, n. Etym: [Adeno- + -graphy.]

Defn: That part of anatomy which describes the glands.

Ad"e*noid, Ad`e*noid"al a.

Defn: Glandlike; glandular.

Ad`e*no*log"ic*al, a.

Defn: Pertaining to adenology.

Ad`e*nol"o*gy, n. Etym: [Adeno- + -logy.]

Defn: The part of physiology that treats of the glands.

Ad`e*no"ma, n.; L. pl. -mata (#). [NL.; adeno- + -oma.] (Med.)

Defn: A benign tumor of a glandlike structure; morbid enlargement of a gland. — Ad`e*nom"a*tous, a.

Ad"e*nop"a*thy, n. [Adeno- + Gr. suffering, to suffer.] (Med.)

Defn: Disease of a gland.

Ad`e*noph"o*rous, a. Etym: [Adeno- + Gr. (Bot.)

Defn: Producing glands.

Ad`e*noph"yl*lous, a. Etym: [Adeno- + Gr. (Bot.)

Defn: Having glands on the leaves.

Ad"e*no*scle*ro"sis, n. [NL.; adeno- + sclerosis.] (Med.)

Defn: The hardening of a gland.

Ad"e*nose`, a.

Defn: Like a gland; full of glands; glandulous; adenous.

Ad`e*no*tom"ic, a.

Defn: Pertaining to adenotomy.

Ad`e*not"o*my, n. Etym: [Adeno- + Gr. (Anat.)

Defn: Dissection of, or incision into, a gland or glands.

Ad"e*nous, a.

Defn: Same as Adenose.

ADEN ULCER A"den ul"cer. [So named after Aden, a seaport in Southern Arabia, where it occurs.] (Med.)

Defn: A disease endemic in various parts of tropical Asia, due to a specific microörganism which produces chronic ulcers on the limbs. It is often fatal. Called also Cochin China ulcer, Persian ulcer, tropical ulcer, etc.

Ad"eps, n. Etym: [L.]

Defn: Animal fat; lard.

ADEPT A*dept", n. Etym: [L. adeptus obtained (sc. artem), adipsci to arrive ad + apisci to pursue. See Apt, and cf. Adapt.]

Defn: One fully skilled or well versed in anything; a proficient; as, adepts in philosophy.

A*dept", a.

Defn: Well skilled; completely versed; thoroughly proficient.
Beaus adept in everything profound. Cowper.

A*dep"tion, n. Etym: [L. adeptio. See Adept, a.]

Defn: An obtaining; attainment. [Obs.] In the wit and policy of the capitain consisteth the chief adeption of the victory. Grafton.

A*dept"ist, n.

Defn: A skilled alchemist. [Obs.]

A*dept"ness, n.

Defn: The quality of being adept; skill.

Ad"e*qua*cy, n. Etym: [See Adequate.]

Defn: The state or quality of being adequate, proportionate, or sufficient; a sufficiency for a particular purpose; as, the adequacy of supply to the expenditure.

ADEQUATE Ad"e*quate, a. Etym: [L. adaequatus, p. p. of adaequare to make equal to; ad + aequare to make equal, aequus equal. See Equal.]

Defn: Equal to some requirement; proportionate, or correspondent;
fully sufficient; as, powers adequate to a great work; an adequate
Ireland had no adequate champion. De Quincey.

Syn. — Proportionate; commensurate; sufficient; suitable; competent; capable.

Ad"e*quate, v. t. Etym: [See Adequate, a.]

1. To equalize; to make adequate. [R.] Fotherby.

2. To equal. [Obs.] It [is] an impossibility for any creature to adequate God in his eternity. Shelford.

Ad"e*quate*ly, adv.

Defn: In an adequate manner.

Ad"e*quate*ness, n.

Defn: The quality of being adequate; suitableness; sufficiency; adequacy.

Ad`e*qua"tion, n. Etym: [L. adaequatio.]

Defn: The act of equalizing; act or result of making adequate; an equivalent. [Obs.] Bp. Barlow.

A*des"my, n. Etym: [Gr. (Bot.)

Defn: The division or defective coherence of an organ that is usually entire.

ADESSENARIAN Ad*es`se*na"ri*an, n. Etym: [Formed fr. L. adesse to be present; ad + esse to be.] (Eccl. Hist.)

Defn: One who held the real presence of Christ's body in the eucharist, but not by transubstantiation.

Ad*fect"ed, a. Etym: [L. adfectus or affectus. See Affect, v.] (Alg.)

Defn: See Affected, 5.

Ad*fil"i*a`ted, a.

Defn: See Affiliated. [Obs.]

Ad*fil`i*a"tion, n.

Defn: See Affiliation. [Obs.]

Ad*flux"ion, n.

Defn: See Affluxion.

Ad*ha"mant, a. Etym: [From L. adhamare to catch; ad + hamus hook.]

Defn: Clinging, as by hooks.

Ad*here", v. i. [imp. & p. p. Adhered; p. pr. & vb. n. Adhering.]
Etym: [L. adhaerere, adhaesum; ad + haerere to stick: cf. F. adhérer.
See Aghast.]

1. To stick fast or cleave, as a glutinous substance does; to become joined or united; as, wax to the finger; the lungs sometimes adhere to the pleura.

2. To hold, be attached, or devoted; to remain fixed, either by personal union or conformity of faith, principle, or opinion; as, men adhere to a party, a cause, a leader, a church.

3. To be consistent or coherent; to be in accordance; to agree. "Nor time nor place did then adhere." Every thing adheres together." Shak.

 — To attach; stick; cleave; cling; hold

Ad*her"ence, n. Etym: [Cf. F. adhérence, LL. adhaerentia.]

1. The quality or state of adhering.

2. The state of being fixed in attachment; fidelity; steady attachment; adhesion; as, adherence to a party or to opinions.

Syn. — Adherence, Adhesion. These words, which were once freely interchanged, are now almost entirely separated. Adherence is no longer used to denote physical union, but is applied, to mental states or habits; as, a strict adherence to one's duty; close adherence to the argument, etc. Adhesion is now confined chiefly to the physical sense, except in the phrase "To give in one's adhesion to a cause or a party."

Ad*her"en*cy, n.

1. The state or quality of being adherent; adherence. [R.]

2. That which adheres. [Obs.] Dr. H. More.

Ad*her"ent, a. Etym: [L. adhaerens, -entis, p. pr.: cf. F. adhérent.]

1. Sticking; clinging; adhering. Pope.

2. Attached as an attribute or circumstance.

3. (Bot.)

Defn: Congenitally united with an organ of another kind, as calyx with ovary, or stamens with petals.

Ad*her"ent, n.

1. One who adheres; one who adheres; one who follows a leader, party, or profession; a follower, or partisan; a believer in a particular faith or church.

2. That which adheres; an appendage. [R.] Milton.

Syn. — Follower; partisan; upholder; disciple; supporter; dependent; ally; backer.

Ad*her"ent*ly, adv.

Defn: In an adherent manner.

Ad*her"er, n.

Defn: One who adheres; an adherent.

Ad*he"sion, n. Etym: [L. adhaesio, fr. adhaerere: cf. F. adhésion.]

1. The action of sticking; the state of being attached; intimate union; as the adhesion of glue, or of parts united by growth, cement, or the like.

2. Adherence; steady or firm attachment; fidelity; as, to error, to a policy. His adhesion to the Tories was bounded by his approbation of their foreign policy. De Quincey.

3. Agreement to adhere; concurrence; assent. To that treaty Spain and England gave in their adhesion. Macaulay.

4. (Physics)

Defn: The molecular attraction exerted between bodies in contact. See

5. (Med.)

Defn: Union of surface, normally separate, by the formation of new tissue resulting from an inflammatory process.

6. (Bot.)

Defn: The union of parts which are separate in other plants, or in younger states of the same plant.

 — Adherence; union. See Adherence.

Ad*he"sive, a. Etym: [Cf. F. adhésif.]

1. Sticky; tenacious, as glutinous substances.

2. Apt or tending to adhere; clinging. Thomson. Adhesive attraction. (Physics) See Attraction. — Adhesive inflammation (Surg.), that kind of inflammation which terminates in the reunion of divided parts without suppuration. — Adhesive plaster, a sticking; a plaster containing resin, wax, litharge, and olive oil.

Ad*he"sive*ly, adv.

Defn: In an adhesive manner.

Ad*he"sive*ness, n.

1. The quality of sticking or adhering; stickiness; tenacity of union.

2. (Phren.)

Defn: Propensity to form and maintain attachments to persons, and to promote social intercourse.

ADHIBIT Ad*hib"it, v. t. Etym: [L. adhibitus, p. p. of adhibere to hold to; ad + habere to have.]

1. To admit, as a person or thing; to take in. Muirhead.

2. To use or apply; to administer. Camden.

3. To attach; to affix. Alison.

Ad`hi*bi"tion, n. Etym: [L. adhibitio.]

Defn: The act of adhibiting; application; use. Whitaker.

Ad hom"i*nem. Etym: [L., to the man.]

Defn: ` phrase applied to an appeal or argument addressed to the principles, interests, or passions of a man.

Ad*hort", v. t. Etym: [L. adhortari. See Adhortation.]

Defn: To exhort; to advise. [Obs.] Feltham.

ADHORTATION Ad`hor*ta"tion, n. Etym: [L. adhortatio, fr. adhortari to advise; ad + hortari to exhort.]

Defn: Advice; exhortation. [Obs.] Peacham.

Ad*hor"ta*to*ry, a.

Defn: Containing counsel or warning; hortatory; advisory. [Obs.]

Ad`i*a*bat"ic, a. Etym: [Gr. (Physics)

Defn: Not giving out or receiving heat. — Ad`i*a*bat`ic*al*ly, adv. Adiabatic line or curve, a curve exhibiting the variations of pressure and volume of a fluid when it expands without either receiving or giving out heat. Rankine.

Ad`i*ac*tin"ic, a. Etym: [Pref. a- not + diactinic.] (Chem.)

Defn: Not transmitting the actinic rays.

Ad`i*an"tum, n. Etym: [L., fr. Gr. (Bot.)

Defn: A genus of ferns, the leaves of which shed water; maidenhair.
Also, the black maidenhair, a species of spleenwort.

Ad`i*aph"o*rism, n.

Defn: Religious indifference.

Ad`i*aph"o*rist, n. Etym: [See Adiaphorous.] (Eccl. Hist.)

Defn: One of the German Protestants who, with Melanchthon, held some opinions and ceremonies to be indifferent or nonessential, which Luther condemned as sinful or heretical. Murdock.

Ad`i*aph`o*ris"tic, a.

Defn: Pertaining to matters indifferent in faith and practice.

Ad`i*aph"o*rite, n.

Defn: Same as Adiaphorist.

Ad`i*aph"o*rous, a. Etym: [Gr.

1. Indifferent or neutral. Jer. Taylor.

2. (Med.)

Defn: Incapable of doing either harm or good, as some medicines.

Ad`i*aph"o*ry, n. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Indifference. [Obs.]

Ad`i*a*ther"mic, a. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Not pervious to heat.

ADIEU A*dieu", interj. & adv. Etym: [OE. also adew, adewe, adue, F. dieu, fr. L. ad to + deus God.]

Defn: Good-by; farewell; an expression of kind wishes at parting.

A*dieu", n.; pl. Adieus.

Defn: A farewell; commendation to the care of God at parting. Shak.

ADIGHT A*dight", v. t. [p. p. Adight.] Etym: [Pref. a- (intensive) + OE. dihten. See Dight.]

Defn: To set in order; to array; to attire; to deck, to dress. [Obs.]

Ad in`fi*ni"tum. Etym: [L., to infinity.]

Defn: Without limit; endlessly.

Ad in"ter*imEtym: [L.]

Defn: Meanwhile; temporary.

A`dios", interj. [Sp., fr. L. ad to + deus god. Cf. Adieu.]

Defn: Adieu; farewell; good-by; — chiefly used among Spanish- speaking people.

 This word is often pronounced å*de"os, but the Spanish accent,
though weak, is on the final syllable.

Ad`i*pes"cent, a. Etym: [L. adeps, adipis, fat + -escent.]

Defn: Becoming fatty.

A*dip"ic, a. Etym: [L. adeps, adipis, fat.] (Chem.)

Defn: Pertaining to, or derived from, fatty or oily substances; — applied to certain acids obtained from fats by the action of nitric acid.

Ad`i*poc"er*ate, v. t.

Defn: To convert adipocere.

Ad`i*poc`er*a"tion, n.

Defn: The act or process of changing into adipocere.

ADIPOCERE Ad"i*po*cere`, n. Etym: [L. adeps, adipis, fat + cera wax: cf. F. adipocere.]

Defn: A soft, unctuous, or waxy substance, of a light brown color, into which the fat and muscle tissue of dead bodies sometimes are converted, by long immersion in water or by burial in moist places. It is a result of fatty degeneration.

Ad`i*po*cer"i*form, a. Etym: [Adipocere + -form.]

Defn: Having the form or appearance of adipocere; as, an adipoceriform tumor.

Ad`i*poc"er*ous, a.

Defn: Like adipocere.

Ad`i*pog"e*nous, a. [See Adipose; -genous.] (Med.)

Defn: Producing fat.

Ad`i*pol"y*sis, n. [NL.; L. adeps, adipis, fat + Gr. a loosing.]

Defn: The digestion of fats.

Ad`i*po*lyt"ic, a. [L. adeps, adipis, fat + Gr. to loose.] (Chem.)

Defn: Hydrolyzing fats; converting neutral fats into glycerin and free fatty acids, esp. by the action of an enzyme; as, adipolytic action.

Ad`i*po"ma, n.; L. pl. -mata (#). [NL. See Adipose; -oma.] (Med.)

Defn: A mass of fat found internally; also, a fatty tumor. —
Ad`i*pom"a*tous, a.

Ad"i*pose`, a. Etym: [L. adeps, adipis, fat, grease.]

Defn: Of or pertaining to animal fat; fatty. Adipose fin (Zoöl.), a
soft boneless fin.
 — Adipose tissue (Anat.), that form of animal tissue which forms or
contains fat.

Ad"i*pose`ness, Ad`i*pos"i*ty, n.

Defn: The state of being fat; fatness.

Ad"i*pous, a.

Defn: Fatty; adipose. [R.]

A*dip"sous, a. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Quenching thirst, as certain fruits.

Ad"ip*sy, n. Etym: [Gr. (Med.)

Defn: Absence of thirst.

Ad"it, n. Etym: [L. aditus, fr. adire, , to go to; ad + ire to go.]

1. An entrance or passage. Specifically: The nearly horizontal opening by which a mine is entered, or by which water and ores are carried away; — called also drift and tunnel.

2. Admission; approach; access. [R.] Yourself and yours shall have Free adit. Tennyson.

Ad"ja"cence, Ad*ja"cen*cy,Etym: [Cf. LL. adjacentia.]

1. The state of being adjacent or contiguous; contiguity; as, the adjacency of lands or buildings.

2. That which is adjacent.[R.] Sir T. Browne.

ADJACENT Ad*ja"cent, a. Etym: [L. adjacens, -centis, p. pr. of adjacere to lie near; ad + jac to lie: cf. F. adjacent.]

Defn: Lying near, close, or contiguous; neighboring; bordering on; as, a field adjacent to the highway. "The adjacent forest." B. Jonson. Adjacent or contiguous angle. (Geom.) See Angle.

Syn. — Adjoining; contiguous; near. — Adjacent, Adjoining, Contiguous. Things are adjacent when they lie close each other, not necessary in actual contact; as, adjacent fields, adjacent villages, etc. I find that all Europe with her adjacent isles is peopled with Christians. Howell. Things are adjoining when they meet at some line or point of junction; as, adjoining farms, an adjoining highway. What is spoken of as contiguous should touch with some extent of one side or the whole of it; as, a row of contiguous buildings; a wood contiguous to a plain.

Ad*ja"cent, n.

Defn: That which is adjacent. [R.] Locke.

Ad*ja"cent*ly, adv.

Defn: So as to be adjacent.

ADJECT Ad*ject", v. t. Etym: [L. adjectus, p. p. of adjicere to throw to, to add to; ad + ac to throw. See Jet a shooting forth.]

Defn: To add or annex; to join. Leland.

Ad*jec"tion, n. Etym: [L. adjectio, fr. adjicere: cf. F. adjection.
See Adject.]

Defn: The act or mode of adding; also, the thing added. [R.] B.

Ad*jec"tion*al, a.

Defn: Pertaining to adjection; that is, or may be, annexed. [R.]

Ad`jec*ti"tious, Etym: [L. adjectitius.]

Defn: Added; additional. Parkhurst.

Ad`jec*ti"val, a.

Defn: Of or relating to the relating to the adjective; of the nature of an adjective; adjective. W. Taylor (1797)

Ad`jec*ti"val*ly, adv.

Defn: As, or in the manner of, an adjective; adjectively.

Ad"jec*tive, a. Etym: [See Adjective, n.]

1. Added to a substantive as an attribute; of the nature of an adjunct; as, an word sentence.

2. Not standing by itself; dependent. Adjective color, a color which requires to be fixed by some mordant or base to give it permanency.

3. Relating to procedure. "The whole English law, substantive and adjective." Macaulay.

ADJECTIVE Ad"jec*tive, n. Etym: [L. adjectivum (sc. nomen), neut. of adjectivus that is added, fr. adjicere: cf. F. adjectif. See Adject.]

1. (Gram.)

Defn: A word used with a noun, or substantive, to express a quality of the thing named, or something attributed to it, or to limit or define it, or to specify or describe a thing, as distinct from something else. Thus, in phrase, "a wise ruler," wise is the adjective, expressing a property of ruler.

2. A dependent; an accessory. Fuller.

Ad"jec*tive, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Adjectived; p. pr. & vb. n.

Defn: To make an adjective of; to form or change into an adjective. [R.] Language has as much occasion to adjective the distinct signification of the verb, and to adjective also the mood, as it has to adjective time. It has . . . adjectived all three. Tooke.

Ad"jec*tive*ly, adv.

Defn: In the manner of an adjective; as, a word used adjectively.

Ad*join", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Adjoined; p. pr. & vb. n. Adjoining.]
Etym: [OE. ajoinen, OF. ajoindre, F. adjoindre, fr. L. adjungere; ad
+ jungere to join. See Join, and cf. Adjunct.]

Defn: To join or unite to; to lie contiguous to; to be in contact
with; to attach; to append.
Corrections . . . should be, as remarks, adjoined by way of note.

Ad*join", v. i.

1. To lie or be next, or in contact; to be contiguous; as, the houses adjoin. When one man's land adjoins to another's. Blackstone.

Note: The construction with to, on, or with is obsolete or obsolescent.

2. To join one's self. [Obs.] She lightly unto him adjoined side to side. Spenser.

Ad*join"ant, a.

Defn: Contiguous. [Obs.] Carew.

Ad*join"ing, a.

Defn: Joining to; contiguous; adjacent; as, an adjoining room. "The adjoining fane." Dryden. Upon the hills adjoining to the city. Shak.

 — Adjacent; contiguous; near; neighboring; abutting; bordering. See

Ad"joint, n.

Defn: An adjunct; a helper. [Obs.]

ADJOURN Ad*journ, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Adjourned; p. pr. & vb. n. Adjourning.] Etym: [OE. ajornen, OF. ajoiner, ajurner, F. ajourner; OF. a (L. ad) + jor, jur, jorn, F. jour, day, fr. L. diurnus belonging to the day, fr. dies day. Cf. Journal, Journey.]

Defn: To put off or defer to another day, or indefinitely; to
postpone; to close or suspend for the day; — commonly said of the
meeting, or the action, of convened body; as, to adjourn the meeting;
to adjourn a debate.
It is a common practice to adjourn the reformation of their lives to
a further time. Barrow.
'Tis a needful fitness That we adjourn this court till further day.

Syn. — To delay; defer; postpone; put off; suspend. — To Adjourn, Prorogue, Dissolve. These words are used in respect to public bodies when they lay aside business and separate. Adjourn, both in Great Britain and this country, is applied to all cases in which such bodies separate for a brief period, with a view to meet again. Prorogue is applied in Great Britain to that act of the executive government, as the sovereign, which brings a session of Parliament to a close. The word is not used in this country, but a legislative body is said, in such a case, to adjourn sine die. To dissolve is to annul the corporate existence of a body. In order to exist again the body must be reconstituted.

Ad*journ", v. i.

Defn: To suspend business for a time, as from one day to another, or for a longer period, or indefinitely; usually, to suspend public business, as of legislatures and courts, or other convened bodies; as, congress adjourned at four o'clock; the court adjourned without day.

Ad*journ"al, n.

Defn: Adjournment; postponement. [R.] "An adjournal of the Diet." Sir
W. Scott.

Ad*journ"ment, n. Etym: [Cf. f. adjournement, OF. ajornement. See

1. The act of adjourning; the putting off till another day or time specified, or without day.

2. The time or interval during which a public body adjourns its sittings or postpones business.

Ad*judge", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Adjudged; p. pr. & vb. n. Adjudging.]
Etym: [OE. ajugen, OF. ajugier, fr. L. adjudicare; ad + judicare to
judge. See Judge, and cf. Adjudicate.]

1. To award judicially in the case of a controverted question; as, the prize was adjudged to the victor.

2. To determine in the exercise of judicial power; to decide or award judicially; to adjudicate; as, the case was adjudged in the November term.

3. To sentence; to condemn. Without reprieve, adjudged to death For want of well pronouncing Shibboleth. Milton.

4. To regard or hold; to judge; to deem. He adjudged him unworthy of his friendship. Knolles.

 — To decree; award; determine; adjudicate; ordain; assign.

Ad*judg"er, n.

Defn: One who adjudges.

Ad*judg"ment, n.

Defn: The act of adjudging; judicial decision; adjudication. Sir W.

Ad*ju"di*cate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Adjudicated; p. pr. & vb. n.
Adjudicating] Etym: [L. adjudicatus, p. p. of adjudicare. See

Defn: To adjudge; to try and determine, as a court; to settle by judicial decree.

Ad*ju"di*cate, v. i.

Defn: To come to a judicial decision; as, the court adjudicated upon the case.

Ad*ju`di*ca"tion, n. Etym: [L. adjudicatio: cf. F. adjudication.]

1. The act of adjudicating; the act or process of trying and determining judicially.

2. A deliberate determination by the judicial power; a judicial decision or sentence. "An adjudication in favor of natural rights." Burke.

3. (Bankruptcy practice)

Defn: The decision upon the question whether the debtor is a bankrupt. Abbott.

4. (Scots Law)

Defn: A process by which land is attached security or in satisfaction of a debt.

Ad*ju"di*ca*tive, a.

Defn: Adjudicating.

Ad*ju"di*ca`tor, n.

Defn: One who adjudicates.

Ad*ju"di*ca*ture, n.

Defn: Adjudication.

ADJUGATE Ad"ju*gate, v. t. Etym: [L. adjugatus, p. p. of adjugare; ad + jugum a yoke.]

Defn: To yoke to. [Obs.]

ADJUMENT Ad"ju*ment, n. Etym: [L. adjumentum, for adjuvamentum, fr. adjuvare to help; ad + juvare to help.]

Defn: Help; support; also, a helper. [Obs.] Waterhouse.

Ad"junct`, a. Etym: [L. adjunctus, p. p. of adjungere. See Adjoin.]

Defn: Conjoined; attending; consequent.
Though that my death were adjunct to my act. Shak.
Adjunct notes (Mus.), short notes between those essential to the
harmony; auxiliary notes; passing notes.

Ad"junct`, n.

1. Something joined or added to another thing, but not essentially a part of it. Learning is but an adjunct to our self. Shak.

2. A person joined to another in some duty or service; a colleague; an associate. Wotton.

3. (Gram.)

Defn: A word or words added to quality or amplify the force of other words; as, the History of the American Revolution, where the words in italics are the adjunct or adjuncts of "History."

4. (Metaph.)

Defn: A quality or property of the body or the mind, whether natural or acquired; as, color, in the body, judgment in the mind.

5. (Mus.)

Defn: A key or scale closely related to another as principal; a relative or attendant key. [R.] See Attendant keys, under Attendant, a.

ADJUNCTION Ad*junc"tion, n. Etym: [L. adjunctio, fr. adjungere: cf. F. adjonction, and see Adjunct.]

Defn: The act of joining; the thing joined or added.

Ad*junc"tive, a. Etym: [L. adjunctivus, fr. adjungere. See Adjunct.]

Defn: Joining; having the quality of joining; forming an adjunct.

Ad*junc"tive, n.

Defn: One who, or that which, is joined.

Ad*junc"tive*ly, adv.

Defn: In an adjunctive manner.

Ad*junct"ly, adv.

Defn: By way of addition or adjunct; in connection with.

ADJURATION Ad`ju*ra"tion, n. Etym: [L. adjuratio, fr. adjurare: cf. F. adjuration. See Adjure.]

1. The act of adjuring; a solemn charging on oath, or under the penalty of a curse; an earnest appeal. What an accusation could not effect, an adjuration shall. Bp. Hall.

2. The form of oath or appeal. Persons who . . . made use of prayer and adjurations. Addison.

Ad*ju"ra*to*ry, a. Etym: [L. adjuratorius.]

Defn: Containing an adjuration.

Ad*jure", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Adjured; p. pr. & vb. n. Adjuring].
Etym: [L. adjurare, adjurdium, to swear to; later, to adjure: cf. F.
adjurer. See Jury.]

Defn: To charge, bind, or command, solemnly, as if under oath, or under the penalty of a curse; to appeal to in the most solemn or impressive manner; to entreat earnestly. Joshua adjured them at that time, saying, Cursed be the man before the Lord, that riseth up and buildeth this city Jericho. Josh. vi. 26. The high priest . . . said . . . I adjure thee by the living God, that thou tell us whether thou be the Christ. Matt. xxvi. 63. The commissioners adjured them not to let pass so favorable an opportunity of securing their liberties. Marshall.

Ad*jur"er, n.

Defn: One who adjures.

ADJUST Ad*just", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Adjusted; p. pr. & vb. n. Adjusting.] Etym: [OF. ajuster, ajoster (whence F. ajouter to add), LL. adjuxtare to fit; fr. L. ad + juxta near; confused later with L. ad and justus just, right, whence F. ajuster to adjust. See Just, v. t. and cf. Adjute.]

1. To make exact; to fit; to make correspondent or conformable; to bring into proper relations; as, to adjust a garment to the body, or things to a standard.

2. To put in order; to regulate, or reduce to system. Adjusting the orthography. Johnson.

3. To settle or bring to a satisfactory state, so that parties are agreed in the result; as, to adjust accounts; the differences are adjusted.

4. To bring to a true relative position, as the parts of an instrument; to regulate for use; as, to adjust a telescope or microscope.

Syn. — To adapt; suit; arrange; regulate; accommodate; set right; rectify; settle.

Ad*just"a*ble, a.

Defn: Capable of being adjusted.

Ad*just"age, n. Etym: [Cf. Ajutage.]

Defn: Adjustment. [R.]

Ad*just"er, n.

Defn: One who, or that which, adjusts.

Adjusting plane or surface. (Aëronautics)

Defn: A small plane or surface, usually capable of adjustment but not of manipulation, for preserving lateral balance in an aëroplane or flying machine.

Ad*just"ive, a.

Defn: Tending to adjust. [R.]

Ad*just"ment, n. Etym: [Cf. F. ajustement. See Adjust.]

1. The act of adjusting, or condition of being adjusted; act of bringing into proper relations; regulation. Success depends on the nicest and minutest adjustment of the parts concerned. Paley.

2. (Law)

Defn: Settlement of claims; an equitable arrangement of conflicting claims, as in set-off, contribution, exoneration, subrogation, and marshaling. Bispham.

3. The operation of bringing all the parts of an instrument, as a microscope or telescope, into their proper relative position for use; the condition of being thus adjusted; as, to get a good adjustment; to be in or out of adjustment.

Syn. — Suiting; fitting; arrangement; regulation; settlement; adaptation; disposition.

Ad"ju*tage, n.

Defn: Same as Ajutage.

Ad"ju*tan*cy, n. Etym: [See Adjutant.]

1. The office of an adjutant.

2. Skillful arrangement in aid; assistance. It was, no doubt, disposed with all the adjutancy of definition and division. Burke.

Ad"ju*tant, n. Etym: [L. adjutans, p. pr. of adjutare to help. See

1. A helper; an assistant.

2. (Mil.)

Defn: A regimental staff officer, who assists the colonel, or commanding officer of a garrison or regiment, in the details of regimental and garrison duty. Adjutant general (a) (Mil.), the principal staff officer of an army, through whom the commanding general receives communications and issues military orders. In the U. S. army he is brigadier general. (b) (Among the Jesuits), one of a select number of fathers, who resided with the general of the order, each of whom had a province or country assigned to his care.

3. (Zoöl.)

Defn: A species of very large stork (Ciconia argala), a native of India; — called also the gigantic crane, and by the native name argala. It is noted for its serpent-destroying habits.

Ad"ju*ta`tor, n. (Eng. Hist.)

Defn: A corruption of Agitator.

Ad*jute", v. t. Etym: [F. ajouter; confused with L. adjutare.]

Defn: To add. [Obs.]

Ad*ju"tor, n. Etym: [L., fr. adjuvare. See Aid.]

Defn: A helper or assistant. [Archaic] Drayton.

Ad*ju"to*ry, a. Etym: [L. adjutorius.]

Defn: Serving to help or assist; helping. [Obs.]

Ad*ju"trix, n. Etym: [L. See Adjutor.]

Defn: A female helper or assistant. [R.]

ADJUVANT Ad"ju*vant, a. Etym: [L. adjuvans, p. pr. of adjuvare to aid: cf. F. adjuvant. See Aid.]

Defn: Helping; helpful; assisting. [R.] "Adjuvant causes." Howell.

Ad"ju*vant, n.

1. An assistant. [R.] Yelverton.

2. (Med.)

Defn: An ingredient, in a prescription, which aids or modifies the action of the principal ingredient.

ADLEGATION Ad`le*ga"tion, n. Etym: [L. adlegatio, allegatio, a sending away; fr. adlegare, allegare, to send away with a commission; ad in addition + legare to send as ambassador. Cf. Allegation.]

Defn: A right formerly claimed by the states of the German Empire of joining their own ministers with those of the emperor in public treaties and negotiations to the common interest of the empire. Encyc. Brit.

Ad lib"i*tum

Defn: . At one's pleasure; as one wishes.

Ad`lo*cu"tion, n.

Defn: See Allocution. [Obs.]

Ad*mar"gin*ate, v. t. Etym: [Pref. ad- + margin.]

Defn: To write in the margin. [R.] Coleridge.

Ad*max"il*la*ry, a. Etym: [Pref. ad- + maxillary.] (Anat.)

Defn: Near to the maxilla or jawbone.

Ad*meas"ure, v. t. Etym: [Cf. OF. amesurer, LL. admensurare. See

1. To measure.

2. (Law)

Defn: To determine the proper share of, or the proper apportionment; as, to admeasure dower; to admeasure common of pasture. Blackstone.

2. The measure of a thing; dimensions; size.

3. (Law)

Defn: Formerly, the adjustment of proportion, or ascertainment of shares, as of dower or pasture held in common. This was by writ of admeasurement, directed to the sheriff.

Ad*meas"ur*er, n.

Defn: One who admeasures.

ADMENSURATION Ad*men`su*ra"tion, n. Etym: [LL. admensuratio; L. ad + mensurare to measure. See Mensuration.]

Defn: Same as Admeasurement.

ADMINICLE Ad*min"i*cle, n. Etym: [L. adminculum support, orig., that on which the hand rests; ad + manus hand + dim. ending -culym.]

1. Help or support; an auxiliary. Grote.

2. (Law)

Defn: Corroborative or explanatory proof.

Note: In Scots law, any writing tending to establish the existence or terms of a lost deed. Bell.

Ad`mi*nic"u*lar, a.

Defn: Supplying help; auxiliary; corroborative; explanatory; as, adminicular evidence. H. Spencer.

Ad`mi*nic"u*la*ry, a.

Defn: Adminicular.

Ad*min"is*ter, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Administered; p. pr. & vb. n.
Administering.] Etym: [OE. aministren, OF. aministrer, F. administer,
fr. L. administrare; ad + ministrare to serve. See Minister.]

1. To manage or conduct, as public affairs; to direct or superintend the execution, application, or conduct of; as, to administer the government or the state. For forms of government let fools contest: Whate'er is best administered is best. Pope.

2. To dispense; to serve out; to supply; execute; as, to administer relief, to administer the sacrament. [Let zephyrs] administer their tepid, genial airs. Philips. Justice was administered with an exactness and purity not before known. Macaulay.

3. To apply, as medicine or a remedy; to give, as a dose or something beneficial or suitable. Extended to a blow, a reproof, etc. A noxious drug had been administered to him. Macaulay.

4. To tender, as an oath. Swear . . . to keep the oath that we administer. Shak.

5. (Law)

Defn: To settle, as the estate of one who dies without a will, or whose will fails of an executor.

Syn. — To manage; conduct; minister; supply; dispense; give out; distribute; furnish.

Ad*min"is*ter, v. i.

1. To contribute; to bring aid or supplies; to conduce; to minister. A fountain . . . administers to the pleasure as well as the plenty of the place. Spectator.

2. (Law)

Defn: To perform the office of administrator; to act officially; as,
A administers upon the estate of B.

Ad*min"is*ter, n.

Defn: Administrator. [Obs.] Bacon.

Ad*min`is*te"ri*al, a.

Defn: Pertaining to administration, or to the executive part of government.

Ad*min"is*tra*ble, a.

Defn: Capable of being administered; as, an administrable law.

Ad*min"is*trant, a. Etym: [F., p. pr. of administrer. See

Defn: Executive; acting; managing affairs.
 — n.

Defn: One who administers.

ADMINISTRATE Ad*min"is*trate, v. t. Etym: [L. administratus, p. p. of administrare.]

Defn: To administer. [R.] Milman.

ADMINISTRATION Ad*min`is*tra"tion, n. Etym: [OE. administracioun, L. administratio: cf. F. administration.]

1. The act of administering; government of public affairs; the service rendered, or duties assumed, in conducting affairs; the conducting of any office or employment; direction; management. His financial administration was of a piece with his military administration. Macaulay.

2. The executive part of government; the persons collectively who are intrusted with the execution of laws and the superintendence of public affairs; the chief magistrate and his cabinet or council; or the council, or ministry, alone, as in Great Britain. A mild and popular administration. Macaulay. The administration has been opposed in parliament. Johnson.

3. The act of administering, or tendering something to another; dispensation; as, the administration of a medicine, of an oath, of justice, or of the sacrament.

4. (Law) (a) The management and disposal, under legal authority, of the estate of an intestate, or of a testator having no competent executor. (b) The management of an estate of a deceased person by an executor, the strictly corresponding term execution not being in use. Administration with the will annexed, administration granted where the testator has appointed no executor, or where his appointment of an executor for any cause has failed, as by death, incompetency, refusal to act, etc.

Syn. — Conduct; management; direction; regulation; execution; dispensation; distribution.

ADMINISTRATIVE Ad*min"is*tra`tive, a. Etym: [L. administrativus: cf. F. administratif.]

Defn: Pertaining to administration; administering; executive; as, an administrative body, ability, or energy. — Ad*min"is*tra`tive*ly, adv.

Ad*min`is*tra"tor, n. Etym: [L.]

1. One who administers affairs; one who directs, manages, executes, or dispenses, whether in civil, judicial, political, or ecclesiastical affairs; a manager.

2. (Law)

Defn: A man who manages or settles the estate of an intestate, or of a testator when there is no competent executor; one to whom the right of administration has been committed by competent authority.

Ad*min`is*tra"tor*ship, n.

Defn: The position or office of an administrator.

Ad*min`is*tra"trix, n. Etym: [NL.]

Defn: A woman who administers; esp., one who administers the estate of an intestate, or to whom letters of administration have been granted; a female administrator.

Ad`mi*ra*bil"i*ty, n. Etym: [L. admirabilitac.]

Defn: Admirableness. [R.] Johnson.

Ad"mi*ra*ble, a. Etym: [L. admirabilis: cf. F. admirable.]

1. Fitted to excite wonder; wonderful; marvelous. [Obs.] In man there is nothing admirable but his ignorance and weakness. Jer. Taylor.

2. Having qualities to excite wonder united with approbation; deserving the highest praise; most excellent; — used of persons or things. "An admirable machine." "Admirable fortitude." Macaulay.

Syn. — Wonderful; marvelous; surprising; excellent; delightful; praiseworthy.

Ad"mi*ra*ble*ness, n.

Defn: The quality of being admirable; wonderful excellence.

Ad"mi*ra*bly, adv.

Defn: In an admirable manner.

ADMIRAL Ad"mi*ral, n. Etym: [OE. amiral, admiral, OF. amiral, ultimately fr. Ar. amir-al-bahr commander of the sea; Ar. amir is commander, al is the Ar. article, and amir-al, heard in different titles, was taken as one word. Early forms of the word show confusion with L. admirabilis admirable, fr. admirari to admire. It is said to have been introduced into Europe by the Genoese or Venetians, in the 12th or 13th century. Cf. Ameer, Emir.]

1. A naval officer of the highest rank; a naval officer of high rank, of which there are different grades. The chief gradations in rank are admiral, vice admiral, and rear admiral. The admiral is the commander in chief of a fleet or of fleets.

2. The ship which carries the admiral; also, the most considerable ship of a fleet. Like some mighty admiral, dark and terrible, bearing down upon his antagonist with all his canvas straining to the wind, and all his thunders roaring from his broadsides. E. Everett.

3. (Zoöl.)

Defn: A handsome butterfly (Pyrameis Atalanta) of Europe and America. The larva feeds on nettles. Admiral shell (Zoöl.), the popular name of an ornamental cone shell (Conus admiralis). Lord High Admiral, a great officer of state, who (when this rare dignity is conferred) is at the head of the naval administration of Great Britain.

Ad"mi*ral*ship, n.

Defn: The office or position oaf an admiral; also, the naval skill of an admiral.

ADMIRALTY Ad"mi*ral*ty, n.; pl. Admiralties. Etym: [F. amirauté, for an older amiralté, office of admiral, fr. LL. admiralitas. See Admiral.]

1. The office or jurisdiction of an admiral. Prescott.

2. The department or officers having authority over naval affairs generally.

3. The court which has jurisdiction of maritime questions and offenses.

Note: In England, admiralty jurisdiction was formerly vested in the High Court of Admiralty, which was held before the Lord High Admiral, or his deputy, styled the Judge of the Admiralty; but admiralty jurisdiction is now vested in the probate, divorce, and admiralty division of the High Justice. In America, there are no admiralty courts distinct from others, but admiralty jurisdiction is vested in the district courts of the United States, subject to revision by the circuit courts and the Supreme Court of the United States. Admiralty jurisprudence has cognizance of maritime contracts and torts, collisions at sea, cases of prize in war, etc., and in America, admiralty jurisdiction is extended to such matters, arising out of the navigation of any of the public waters, as the Great Lakes and rivers.

4. The system of jurisprudence of admiralty courts.

5. The building in which the lords of the admiralty, in England, transact business.

Ad*mir"ance, n. Etym: [Cf. OF. admirance.]

Defn: Admiration. [Obs.] Spenser.

Ad`mi*ra"tion, n. Etym: [F., fr. L. admiratio. See Admire.]

1. Wonder; astonishment. [Obs.] Season your admiration for a while. Shak.

2. Wonder mingled with approbation or delight; an emotion excited by a person or thing possessed of wonderful or high excellence; as, admiration of a beautiful woman, of a landscape, of virtue.

3. Cause of admiration; something to excite wonder, or pleased
surprise; a prodigy.
Now, good Lafeu, bring in the admiration. Shak.
Note of admiration, the mark (!), called also exclamation point.

 — Wonder; approval; appreciation; adoration; reverence; worship.

Ad*mir"a*tive, a.

Defn: Relating to or expressing admiration or wonder. [R.] Earle.

Ad*mire", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Admired; p. pr. & vb. n. Admiring.]
Etym: [F. admirer, fr. L. admirari; ad + mirari to wonder, for
smirari, akin to Gr. smi, and E. smile.]

1. To regard with wonder or astonishment; to view with surprise; to marvel at. [Archaic] Examples rather to be admired than imitated. Fuller.

2. To regard with wonder and delight; to look upon with an elevated feeling of pleasure, as something which calls out approbation, esteem, love, or reverence; to estimate or prize highly; as, to admire a person of high moral worth, to admire a landscape. Admired as heroes and as gods obeyed. Pope.

Note: Admire followed by the infinitive is obsolete or colloquial; as, I admire to see a man consistent in his conduct.

 — To esteem; approve; delight in.

Ad*mire", v. i.

Defn: To wonder; to marvel; to be affected with surprise; —
sometimes with at.
To wonder at Pharaoh, and even admire at myself. Fuller.

Ad*mired", a.

1. Regarded with wonder and delight; highly prized; as, an admired poem.

2. Wonderful; also, admirable. [Obs.] "Admired disorder." " Admired Miranda." Shak.

Ad*mir"er, n.

Defn: One who admires; one who esteems or loves greatly. Cowper.

Ad*mir"ing, a.

Defn: Expressing admiration; as, an admiring glance.
 — Ad*mir"ing*ly, adv. Shak.

Ad*mis`si*bil"i*ty, n. Etym: [Cf. F. admissibilité.]

Defn: The quality of being admissible; admissibleness; as, the admissibility of evidence.

Ad*mis"si*ble, a. Etym: [F. admissible, LL. admissibilis. See Admit.]

Defn: Entitled to be admitted, or worthy of being admitted; that may
be allowed or conceded; allowable; as, the supposition is hardly
 — Ad*mis"si*ble*ness, n.
 — Ad*mis"si*bly, adv.

Ad*mis"sion, n. Etym: [L. admissio: cf. F. admission. See Admit.]

1. The act or practice of admitting.

2. Power or permission to enter; admittance; entrance; access; power to approach. What numbers groan for sad admission there! Young.

3. The granting of an argument or position not fully proved; the act of acknowledging something The too easy admission of doctrines. Macaulay.

4. (Law)

Defn: Acquiescence or concurrence in a statement made by another, and distinguishable from a confession in that an admission presupposes prior inquiry by another, but a confession may be made without such inquiry.

5. A fact, point, or statement admitted; as, admission made out of court are received in evidence.

6. (Eng. Eccl. Law)

Defn: Declaration of the bishop that he approves of the presentee as a fit person to serve the cure of the church to which he is presented. Shipley.

 — Admittance; concession; acknowledgment; concurrence; allowance.
See Admittance.

Ad*mis"sive, a.

Defn: Implying an admission; tending to admit. [R.] Lamb.

Ad*mis"so*ry, a.

Defn: Pertaining to admission.

Ad*mit", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Admitted; p. pr. & vb. n. Admitting.]
Etym: [OE. amitten, L. admittere, admissum; ad + mittere to send: cf.
F. admettre, OF. admettre, OF. ametre. See Missile.]

1. To suffer to enter; to grant entrance, whether into a place, or into the mind, or consideration; to receive; to take; as, they were into his house; to admit a serious thought into the mind; to admit evidence in the trial of a cause.

2. To give a right of entrance; as, a ticket one into a playhouse.

3. To allow (one) to enter on an office or to enjoy a privilege; to recognize as qualified for a franchise; as, to admit an attorney to practice law; the prisoner was admitted to bail.

4. To concede as true; to acknowledge or assent to, as an allegation which it is impossible to deny; to own or confess; as, the argument or fact is admitted; he admitted his guilt.

5. To be capable of; to permit; as, the words do not admit such a construction. In this sense, of may be used after the verb, or may be omitted. Both Houses declared that they could admit of no treaty with the king. Hume.

Ad*mit"ta*ble, a.

Defn: Admissible. Sir T. Browne.

Ad*mit"tance, n.

1. The act of admitting.

2. Permission to enter; the power or right of entrance; also, actual
entrance; reception.
To gain admittance into the house. South.
He desires admittance to the king. Dryden.
To give admittance to a thought of fear. Shak.

3. Concession; admission; allowance; as, the admittance of an argument. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

4. Admissibility. [Obs.] Shak.

5. (Eng. Law)

Defn: The act of giving possession of a copyhold estate. Bouvier.

Syn. — Admission; access; entrance; initiation. — Admittance, Admission. These words are, to some extent, in a state of transition and change. Admittance is now chiefly confined to its primary sense of access into some locality or building. Thus we see on the doors of factories, shops, etc. "No admittance." Its secondary or moral sense, as "admittance to the church," is almost entirely laid aside. Admission has taken to itself the secondary or figurative senses; as, admission to the rights of citizenship; admission to the church; the admissions made by one of the parties in a dispute. And even when used in its primary sense, it is not identical with admittance. Thus, we speak of admission into a country, territory, and other larger localities, etc., where admittance could not be used. So, when we speak of admission to a concert or other public assembly, the meaning is not perhaps exactly that of admittance, viz., access within the walls of the building, but rather a reception into the audience, or access to the performances. But the lines of distinction on this subject are one definitely drawn.

Ad`mit*ta"tur, n. Etym: [L., let him be admitted.]

Defn: The certificate of admission given in some American colleges.

Ad*mit"ted, a.

Defn: Received as true or valid; acknowledged.
 — Ad*mit"ted*ly adv.

Defn: Confessedly.

Ad*mit"ter, n.

Defn: One who admits.

ADMIX Ad*mix", v. t. Etym: [Pref. ad- + mix: cf. L. admixtus, p. p. of admiscere. See Mix.]

Defn: To mingle with something else; to mix. [R.]

Ad*mix"tion, n. Etym: [L. admixtio.]

Defn: A mingling of different things; admixture. Glanvill.

ADMIXTURE Ad*mix"ture, n. Etym: [L. admiscere, admixtum, to admix; ad + miscere to mix. See Mix.]

1. The act of mixing; mixture.

2. The compound formed by mixing different substances together.

3. That which is mixed with anything.

ADMONISH Ad*mon"ish, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Admonished; p. pr. & vb. n. Admonishing.] Etym: [OE. amonesten, OF. amonester, F. admonester, fr. a supposed LL. admonesstrare, fr. L. admonere to remind, warn; ad + monere to warn. See Monition.]

1. To warn or notify of a fault; to reprove gently or kindly, but seriously; to exhort. "Admonish him as a brother." 2 Thess. iii. 15.

2. To counsel against wrong practices; to cation or advise; to warn against danger or an offense; — followed by of, against, or a subordinate clause. Admonishing one another in psalms and hymns. Col. iii. 16. I warned thee, I admonished thee, foretold The danger, and the lurking enemy. Milton.

3. To instruct or direct; to inform; to notify. Moses was admonished of God, when he was about to make the tabernacle. Heb. viii. 5.

Ad*mon"ish*er, n.

Defn: One who admonishes.

Ad*mon"ish*ment, n. Etym: [Cf. OF. amonestement, admonestement.]

Defn: Admonition. [R.] Shak.

ADMONITION Ad`mo*ni"tion, n. Etym: [OE. amonicioun, OF. amonition, F. admonition, fr. L. admonitio, fr. admonere. See Admonish.]

Defn: Gentle or friendly reproof; counseling against a fault or error; expression of authoritative advice; friendly caution or warning.

Syn. — Admonition, Reprehension, Reproof. Admonition is prospective, and relates to moral delinquencies; its object is to prevent further transgression. Reprehension and reproof are retrospective, the former being milder than the latter. A person of any age or station may be liable to reprehension in case of wrong conduct; but reproof is the act of a superior. It is authoritative fault-finding or censure addressed to children or to inferiors.

Ad`mo*ni"tion*er, n.

Defn: Admonisher. [Obs.]

Ad*mon"i*tive, a.

Defn: Admonitory. [R.] Barrow.
 — Ad*mon"i*tive*ly, adv.

Ad*mon"i*tor, n. Etym: [L.]

Defn: Admonisher; monitor.
Conscience is at most times a very faithful and prudent admonitor.

Ad*mon`i*to"ri*al, a.

Defn: Admonitory. [R.] "An admonitorial tone." Dickens.

Ad*mon"i*to*ry, a. Etym: [LL. admonitorius.]

Defn: That conveys admonition; warning or reproving; as, an
admonitory glance.
 — Ad*mon"i*to*ri*ly,, adv.

Ad*mon"i*trix, n. Etym: [L.]

Defn: A female admonitor.

Ad*mor`ti*za"tion, n. Etym: [LL. admortizatio. Cf. Amortization.]

Defn: The reducing or lands or tenements to mortmain. See Mortmain.

Ad*move", v. t. Etym: [L. admovere. See Move.]

Defn: To move or conduct to or toward. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

ADNASCENT Ad*nas"cent, a. Etym: [L. adnascens, p. pr. of adnasci to be born, grow.]

Defn: Growing to or on something else. "An adnascent plant." Evelyn.

ADNATE Ad"nate, a. Etym: [L. adnatus, p. p. of adnasci. See Adnascent, and cf. Agnate.]

1. (Physiol.)

Defn: Grown to congenitally.

2. (Bot.)

Defn: Growing together; — said only of organic cohesion of unlike
An anther is adnate when fixed by its whole length to the filament.

3. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Growing with one side adherent to a stem; — a term applied to the lateral zooids of corals and other compound animals.

Ad*na"tion, n. (Bot.)

Defn: The adhesion or cohesion of different floral verticils or sets of organs.

Ad*nom"i*nal, a. Etym: [L. ad + nomen noun.] (Gram.)

Defn: Pertaining to an adnoun; adjectival; attached to a noun. Gibbs.
 — Ad*nom"i*nal*ly, adv.

Ad"noun`, n. Etym: [Pref. ad- + noun.] (Gram.)

Defn: An adjective, or attribute. [R.] Coleridge.

Ad*nu"bi*la`ted, a. Etym: [L. adnubilatus, p. p. of adnubilare.]

Defn: Clouded; obscured. [R.]

A*do", (1) v. inf., (2) n. Etym: [OE. at do, northern form for to do.
Cf. Affair.]

1. To do; in doing; as, there is nothing. "What is here ado" J. Newton.

2. Doing; trouble; difficulty; troublesome business; fuss; bustle; as, to make a great ado about trifles. With much ado, he partly kept awake. Dryden. Let's follow to see the end of this ado. Shak.

A*do"be, n. Etym: [Sp.]

Defn: An unburnt brick dried in the sun; also used as an adjective, as, an adobe house, in Texas or New Mexico.

Ad`o*les"cence, n. Etym: [Fr., fr. L. adolescentia.]

Defn: The state of growing up from childhood to manhood or womanhood; youth, or the period of life between puberty and maturity, generally considered to be, in the male sex, from fourteen to twenty-one. Sometimes used with reference to the lower animals.

Ad`o*les"cen*cy, n.

Defn: The quality of being adolescent; youthfulness.

Ad`o*les"cent, a. Etym: [L. adolescens, p. pr. of adolescere to grow
up to; ad + the inchoative olescere to grow: cf. F. adolescent. See

Defn: Growing; advancing from childhood to maturity. Schools, unless discipline were doubly strong, Detain their adolescent charge too long. Cowper.

Ad`o*les"cent, n.

Defn: A youth.

Ad`o*na"i, n. [Heb. adonai, lit., my lord.]

Defn: A Hebrew name for God, usually translated in the Old Testament by the word "Lord".

 The later Jews used its vowel points to fill out the tetragrammaton
Yhvh, or Ihvh, "the incommunicable name," and in reading substituted

Ad`o*ne"an, a. Etym: [L. Adon.]

Defn: Pertaining to Adonis; Adonic. "Fair Adonean Venus." Faber.

A*don"ic, a. Etym: [F. adonique: cf. L. Adonius.]

Defn: Relating to Adonis, famed for his beauty.
 — n.

Defn: An Adonic verse. Adonic verse, a verse consisting of a dactyl and spondee.

A*do"nis, n. Etym: [L., gr. Gr.

1. (Gr. Myth.)

Defn: A youth beloved by Venus for his beauty. He was killed in the chase by a wild boar.

2. A preëminently beautiful young man; a dandy.

3. (Bot.)

Defn: A genus of plants of the family Ranunculaceæ, containing the pheasaut's eye (Adonis autumnalis); — named from Adonis, whose blood was fabled to have stained the flower.

A*do"nist, n. Etym: [Heb. my Lords.]

Defn: One who maintains that points of the Hebrew word translated
"Jehovah" are really the vowel points of the word "Adonai." See

Ad"o*nize, v. t. Etym: [Cf. F. adoniser, fr. Adonis.]

Defn: To beautify; to dandify. I employed three good hours at least in adjusting and adonozing myself. Smollett.

A*door, A*doors,

Defn: At the door; of the door; as, out adoors. Shak.
I took him in adoors. Vicar's Virgil (1630).

A*dopt", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Adopted; p. pr. & vb. n. Adopting.]
Etym: [L. adoptare; ad + optare to choose, desire: cf. F. adopter.
See Option.]

1. To take by choice into relationship, as, child, heir, friend, citizen, etc. ; esp. to take voluntarily (a child of other parents) to be in the place of, or as, one's own child.

2. To take or receive as one's own what is not so naturally; to select and take or approve; as, to adopt the view or policy of another; these resolutions were adopted.

A*dopt"a*ble, a.

Defn: Capable of being adopted.

A*dopt"ed, a.

Defn: Taken by adoption; taken up as one's own; as, an adopted son, citizen, country, word. — A*dopt"ed*ly, adv.

A*dopt"er, n.

1. One who adopts.

2. (Chem.)

Defn: A receiver, with two necks, opposite to each other, one of which admits the neck of a retort, and the other is joined to another receiver. It is used in distillations, to give more space to elastic vapors, to increase the length of the neck of a retort, or to unite two vessels whose openings have different diameters. [Written also adapter.]

ADOPTION A*dop"tion, n. Etym: [L. adoptio, allied to adoptare to adopt: cf. F. adoption.]

1. The act of adopting, or state of being adopted; voluntary acceptance of a child of other parents to be the same as one's own child.

2. Admission to a more intimate relation; reception; as, the adoption of persons into hospitals or monasteries, or of one society into another.

3. The choosing and making that to be one's own which originally was not so; acceptance; as, the adoption of opinions. Jer. Taylor.

A*dop"tion*ist, n. (Eccl. Hist.)

Defn: One of a sect which maintained that Christ was the Son of God not by nature but by adoption.

A*dop"tious, a.

Defn: Adopted. [Obs.]

A*dopt"ive, a. Etym: [L. adoptivus: cf. F. adoptif.]

Defn: Pertaining to adoption; made or acquired by adoption; fitted to adopt; as, an adoptive father, an child; an adoptive language. — A*dopt"ive*ly, adv.

A*dor`a*bil"i*ty, n.

Defn: Adorableness.

A*dor"a*ble, a. Etym: [L. adorabilis, fr. adorare: cf. F. adorable.]

1. Deserving to be adored; worthy of divine honors. The adorable Author of Christianity. Cheyne.

2. Worthy of the utmost love or respect.

A*dor"a*ble*ness, n.

Defn: The quality of being adorable, or worthy of adoration. Johnson.

A*dor"a*bly, adv.

Defn: In an adorable manner.

Ad`o*ra"tion, n. Etym: [L. adoratio, fr. adorare: cf. F. adoration.]

1. The act of playing honor to a divine being; the worship paid to God; the act of addressing as a god. The more immediate objects of popular adoration amongst the heathens were deified human beings. Farmer.

2. Homage paid to one in high esteem; profound veneration; intense regard and love; fervent devotion.

3. A method of electing a pope by the expression of homage from two thirds of the conclave. [Pole] might have been chosen on the spot by adoration. Froude.

ADORE A*dore", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Adored; p. pr. & vb. n. Adoring.] Etym: [OE. aouren, anouren, adoren, OF. aorer, adorer, F. adorer, fr. L. adorare; ad + orare to speak, pray, os, oris, mouth. In OE. confused with honor, the French prefix a- being confused with OE. a, an, on. See Oral.]

1. To worship with profound reverence; to pay divine honors to; to honor as deity or as divine. Bishops and priests, . . . bearing the host, which he [James adored. Smollett.

2. To love in the highest degree; to regard with the utmost esteem
and affection; to idolize.
The great mass of the population abhorred Popery and adored Montouth.

A*dore", v. t.

Defn: To adorn. [Obs.]
Congealed little drops which do the morn adore. Spenser.

A*dore"ment, n.

Defn: The act of adoring; adoration. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

A*dor"er, n.

Defn: One who adores; a worshiper; one who admires or loves greatly; an ardent admirer. "An adorer of truth." Clarendon. I profess myself her adorer, not her friend. Shak.

A*dor"ing*ly, adv.

Defn: With adoration.

A*dorn", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Adorned; p. pr. & vb. n. Adorning.]
Etym: [OE. aournen, anournen, adornen, OF. aorner, fr. L. aaornare;
ad + ornare to furnish, embellish. See Adore, Ornate.]

Defn: To deck or dress with ornaments; to embellish; to set off to advantage; to render pleasing or attractive. As a bride adorneth herself with her jewels. Isa. lxi. 10. At church, with meek and unaffected grace, His looks adorned the venerable place. Goldsmith.

Syn. — To deck; decorate; embellish; ornament; beautify; grace; dignify; exalt; honor. — To Adorn, Ornament, Decorate, Embellish. We decorate and ornament by putting on some adjunct which is attractive or beautiful, and which serves to heighten the general effect. Thus, a lady's head- dress may be ornament or decorated with flowers or jewelry; a hall may be decorated or ornament with carving or gilding, with wreaths of flowers, or with hangings. Ornament is used in a wider sense than decorate. To embellish is to beautify or ornament richly, not so much by mere additions or details as by modifying the thing itself as a whole. It sometimes means gaudy and artificial decoration. We embellish a book with rich engravings; a style is embellished with rich and beautiful imagery; a shopkeeper embellishes his front window to attract attention. Adorn is sometimes identical with decorate, as when we say, a lady was adorned with jewels. In other cases, it seems to imply something more. Thus, we speak of a gallery of paintings as adorned with the works of some of the great masters, or adorned with noble statuary and columns. Here decorated and ornamented would hardly be appropriate. There is a value in these works of genius beyond mere show and ornament. Adorn may be used of what is purely moral; as, a character adorned with every Christian grace. Here neither decorate, nor ornament, nor embellish is proper.

A*dorn", n.

Defn: Adornment. [Obs.] Spenser.

A*dorn", a.

Defn: Adorned; decorated. [Obs.] Milton.

Ad`or*na"tion, n.

Defn: Adornment. [Obs.]

A*dorn"er, n.

Defn: He who, or that which, adorns; a beautifier.

A*dorn"ing*ly, adv.

Defn: By adorning; decoratively.

A*dorn"ment, n. Etym: [Cf. OF. adornement. See Adorn.]

Defn: An adorning; an ornament; a decoration.

Ad*os"cu*la"tion, n. Etym: [L. adosculari, adosculatum, to kiss. See
Osculate.] (Biol.)

Defn: Impregnation by external contact, without intromission.

ADOWN A*down", adv. Etym: [OE. adun, adoun, adune. AS. of dune off the hill. See Down.]

Defn: From a higher to a lower situation; downward; down, to or on the ground. [Archaic] "Thrice did she sink adown." Spenser.

A*down", prep.

Defn: Down. [Archaic & Poetic]
Her hair adown her shoulders loosely lay displayed. Prior.

Ad*press", v. t. Etym: [L. adpressus, p. p. of adprimere.]

Defn: See Appressed.
 — Ad*pressed",, a.

A*drad", p. a. Etym: [P. p. of adread.]

Defn: Put in dread; afraid. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Ad"ra*gant, n. Etym: [F., a corruption of tragacanth.]

Defn: Gum tragacanth. Brande & C.

ADREAD A*dread", v. t. & i. Etym: [AS. andrædan, ondræ; pref. a- (for and against) + dræden to dread. See Dread.]

Defn: To dread. [Obs.] Sir P. Sidney.

A*dreamed", p. p.

Defn: Visited by a dream; — used in the phrase, To be adreamed, to dream. [Obs.]

Ad*re"nal, a. Etym: [Pref. ad- + renal.] (Anat.)

Defn: Suprarenal.

Ad*re"nal*ine, n. Also Ad*re"nal*in. (Physiol. Chem.)

Defn: A crystalline substance, C9H13O3N, obtained from suprarenal extract, of which it is regarded as the active principle. It is used in medicine as a stimulant and hemostatic.

A"dri*an, a. Etym: [L. Hadrianus.]

Defn: Pertaining to the Adriatic Sea; as, Adrian billows.

A`dri*at"ic, a. Etym: [L. Adriaticus, Hadriaticus, fr. Adria or
Hadria, a town of the Veneti.]

Defn: Of or pertaining to a sea so named, the northwestern part of which is known as the Gulf of Venice.

A*drift", adv. & a. Etym: [Pref. a- (for on) + drift.]

Defn: Floating at random; in a drifting condition; at the mercy of
wind and waves. Also fig.
So on the sea shall be set adrift. Dryden.
Were from their daily labor turned adrift. Wordsworth.

A*drip", adv. & a. Etym: [Pref. a- in + drip.]

Defn: In a dripping state; as, leaves all adrip. D. G. Mitchell.

Ad"ro*gate, v. t. Etym: [See Arrogate.] (Rom. Law)

Defn: To adopt (a person who is his own master).

Ad`ro*ga"tion, n. Etym: [L. adrogatio, arrogatio, fr. adrogare. See
Arrogate.] (Rom. Law)

Defn: A kind of adoption in ancient Rome. See Arrogation.

A*droit", a. Etym: [F. adroit; à (L. ad) = droit straight, right, fr.
L. directus, p. p. of dirigere. See Direct.]

Defn: Dexterous in the use of the hands or in the exercise of the mental faculties; exhibiting skill and readiness in avoiding danger or escaping difficulty; ready in invention or execution; — applied to persons and to acts; as, an adroit mechanic, an adroit reply. "Adroit in the application of the telescope and quadrant." Horsley. "He was adroit in intrigue." Macaulay.

Syn. — Dexterous; skillful; expert; ready; clever; deft; ingenious; cunning; ready-witted.

A*droit"ly, adv.

Defn: In an adroit manner.

A*droit"ness, n.

Defn: The quality of being adroit; skill and readiness; dexterity.
Adroitness was as requisite as courage. Motley.

 — See Skill.

A*dry", a. Etym: [Pref. a- (for on) + dry.]

Defn: In a dry or thirsty condition. "A man that is adry." Burton.

ADSCITITIOUS Ad`sci*ti"tious, a. Etym: [L. adscitus, p. p. of adsciscere, asciscere, to take knowingly; ad + sciscere to seek to know, approve, scire to know.]

Defn: Supplemental; additional; adventitious; ascititious.
"Adscititious evidence." Bowring.
 — Ad`sci*ti"tious*ly, adv.

Ad"script, a. Etym: [L. adscriptus, p. p. of adscribere to enroll.
See Ascribe.]

Defn: Held to service as attached to the soil; — said of feudal serfs.

Ad"script, n.

Defn: One held to service as attached to the glebe or estate; a feudal serf. Bancroft.

Ad*scrip"tive, a.Etym: [L. adscriptivus. See Adscript.]

Defn: Attached or annexed to the glebe or estate and transferable with it. Brougham.

Ad*sig`ni*fi*ca"tion, n.

Defn: Additional signification. [R.] Tooke.

Ad*sig"ni*fy, v. t. Etym: [L. adsignificare to show.]

Defn: To denote additionally. [R.] Tooke.

Ad*strict", v. t.
 — Ad*stric"tion, n.

Defn: See Astrict, and Astriction.

Ad*stric"to*ry, a.

Defn: See Astrictory.

Ad*strin"gent, a.

Defn: See Astringent.

Ad*su"ki bean. [Jap. adzuki.]

Defn: A cultivated variety of the Asiatic gram, now introduced into the United States.

ADULARIA Ad`u*la"ri*a, n. Etym: [From Adula, a mountain peak in Switzerland, where fine specimens are found.] (Min.)

Defn: A transparent or translucent variety of common feldspar, or orthoclase, which often shows pearly opalescent reflections; — called by lapidaries moonstone.

Ad"u*late, v. t. Etym: [L. adulatus, p. p. of adulari.]

Defn: To flatter in a servile way. Byron.

ADULATION Ad`u*la"tion, n. Etym: [F. adulation, fr. L. adulatio, fr. adulari, adulatum, to flatter.]

Defn: Servile flattery; praise in excess, or beyond what is merited. Think'st thou the fiery fever will go out With titles blown from adulation Shak.

Syn. — Sycophancy; cringing; fawning; obsequiousness; blandishment. — Adulation, Flattery, Compliment. Men deal in compliments from a desire to please; they use flattery either from undue admiration, or a wish to gratify vanity; they practice adulation from sordid motives, and with a mingled spirit of falsehood and hypocrisy. Compliment may be a sincere expression of due respect and esteem, or it may be unmeaning; flattery is apt to become gross; adulation is always servile, and usually fulsome.

Ad"u*la`tor, n. Etym: [L., fr. adulari: cf. F. adulateur.]

Defn: A servile or hypocritical flatterer. Carlyle.

ADULATORY Ad"u*la*to*ry, a. Etym: [L. adulatorius, fr. adulari: cf. OF. adulatoire.]

Defn: Containing excessive praise or compliment; servilely praising; flattering; as, an adulatory address. A mere rant of adulatory freedom. Burke.

Ad"u*la`tress, n.

Defn: A woman who flatters with servility.

ADULT A*dult", a. Etym: [L. adultus, p. p. of adolescere, akin to alere to nourish: cf. F. adulte. See Adolescent, Old.]

Defn: Having arrived at maturity, or to full size and strength; matured; as, an adult person or plant; an adult ape; an adult age.

A*dult", n.

Defn: A person, animal, or plant grown to full size and strength; one who has reached maturity.

Note: In the common law, the term is applied to a person who has attained full age or legal majority; in the civil law, to males after the age of fourteen, and to females after twelve.

A*dul"ter, v. i. Etym: [L. adulterare.]

Defn: To commit adultery; to pollute. [Obs.] B. Jonson.

A*dul"ter*ant, n. Etym: [L. adulterans, p. pr. of adulterare.]

Defn: That which is used to adulterate anything.
 — a. Adulterating; as, adulterant agents and processes.

ADULTERATE A*dul"ter*ate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Adulterated; p. pr. & vb. n Adulterating.] Etym: [L. adulteratus, p. p. of adulterare, fr. adulter adulterer, prob. fr. ad + alter other, properly one who approaches another on account of unlawful love. Cf. Advoutry.]

1. To defile by adultery. [Obs.] Milton.

2. To corrupt, debase, or make impure by an admixture of a foreign or a baser substance; as, to adulterate food, drink, drugs, coin, etc. The present war has . . . adulterated our tongue with strange words. Spectator.

 — To corrupt; defile; debase; contaminate; vitiate; sophisticate.

A*dul"ter*ate, v. i.

Defn: To commit adultery. [Obs.]

A*dul"ter*ate, a.

1. Tainted with adultery.

2. Debased by the admixture of a foreign substance; adulterated;
 — A*dul"ter*ate*ly, adv.
 — A*dul"ter*ate*ness, n.

A*dul`ter*a"tion, n. Etym: [L. adulteratio.]

1. The act of adulterating; corruption, or debasement (esp. of food or drink) by foreign mixture. The shameless adulteration of the coin. Prescott.

2. An adulterated state or product.

A*dul"ter*a`tor, n. Etym: [L.]

Defn: One who adulterates or corrupts. [R.] Cudworth.

ADULTERER A*dul"ter*er, n. Etym: [Formed fr. the verb adulter, with the E. ending -er. See Advoutrer.]

1. A man who commits adultery; a married man who has sexual intercourse with a woman not his wife.

2. (Script.)

Defn: A man who violates his religious covenant. Jer. ix. 2.

A*dul"ter*ess, n. Etym: [Fem. from L. adulter. Cf. Advoutress.]

1. A woman who commits adultery.

2. (Script.)

Defn: A woman who violates her religious engagements. James iv. 4.

A*dul"ter*ine, a.Etym: [L. adulterinus, fr. adulter.]

Defn: Proceeding from adulterous intercourse. Hence: Spurious; without the support of law; illegal. When any particular class of artificers or traders thought proper to act as a corporation without a charter, such were called adulterine guilds. Adam Smith.

A*dul"ter*ine, n.

Defn: An illegitimate child. [R.]

A*dul"ter*ize, v. i.

Defn: To commit adultery. Milton.

A*dul"ter*ous, a.

1. Guilty of, or given to, adultery; pertaining to adultery; illicit. Dryden.

2. Characterized by adulteration; spurious. "An adulterous mixture." [Obs.] Smollett.

A*dul"ter*ous*ly, adv.

Defn: In an adulterous manner.

A*dul"ter*y, n.; pl. Adulteries(#). Etym: [L. adulterium. See

1. The unfaithfulness of a married person to the marriage bed; sexual intercourse by a married man with another than his wife, or voluntary sexual intercourse by a married woman with another than her husband.

Note: It is adultery on the part of the married wrongdoer. The word has also been used to characterize the act of an unmarried participator, the other being married. In the United States the definition varies with the local statutes. Unlawful intercourse between two married persons is sometimes called double adultery; between a married and an unmarried person, single adultery.

2. Adulteration; corruption. [Obs.] B. Jonson.

3. (Script.) (a) Lewdness or unchastity of thought as well as act, as forbidden by the seventh commandment. (b) Faithlessness in religion. Jer. iii. 9.

4. (Old Law)

Defn: The fine and penalty imposed for the offense of adultery.

5. (Eccl.)

Defn: The intrusion of a person into a bishopric during the life of the bishop.

6. Injury; degradation; ruin. [Obs.] You might wrest the caduceus out of my hand to the adultery and spoil of nature. B. Jonson.

A*dult"ness, n.

Defn: The state of being adult.

Ad*um"brant, a. Etym: [L. adumbrans, p. pr. of adumbrare.]

Defn: Giving a faint shadow, or slight resemblance; shadowing forth.

ADUMBRATE Ad*um"brate, v. t. Etym: [L. adumbratus, p. p. of adumbrare; ad + umbrare to shade; umbra shadow.]

1. To give a faint shadow or slight representation of; to outline; to shadow forth. Both in the vastness and the richness of the visible universe the invisible God is adumbrated. L. Taylor.

2. To overshadow; to shade.

Ad`um*bra"tion, n. Etym: [L. adumbratio.]

1. The act of adumbrating, or shadowing forth.

2. A faint sketch; an outline; an imperfect portrayal or representation of a thing. Elegant adumbrations of sacred truth. Bp. Horsley.

3. (Her.)

Defn: The shadow or outlines of a figure.

Ad*um"bra*tive, a.

Defn: Faintly representing; typical. Carlyle.

Ad`u*na"tion, n. Etym: [L. adunatio; ad + unus one.]

Defn: A uniting; union. Jer. Taylor.

A*dunc", A*dunque", a. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Hooked; as, a parrot has an adunc bill.

A*dun"ci*ty, n. Etym: [L. aduncitas. See Aduncous.]

Defn: Curvature inwards; hookedness.
The aduncity of the beaks of hawks. Pope.

A*dun"cous, a. Etym: [L. aduncus; ad + uncus hooked, hook.]

Defn: Curved inwards; hooked.

A*dure", v. t. Etym: [L. adurere; ad + urere to burn.]

Defn: To burn up. [Obs.] Bacon.

Ad"u*rol, n. (Photog.)

Defn: Either of two compounds, a chlorine derivative and bromine derivative, of hydroquinone, used as developers.

A*dust", a. Etym: [L. adustus, p. p. of adurere: cf. F. aduste.]

1. Inflamed or scorched; fiery. "The Libyan air adust." Milton.

2. Looking as if or scorched; sunburnt. A tall, thin man, of an adust complexion. Sir W. Scott.

3. (Med.)

Defn: Having much heat in the constitution and little serum in the blood. [Obs.] Hence: Atrabilious; sallow; gloomy.

A*dust"ed, a.

Defn: Burnt; adust. [Obs.] Howell.

A*dust"i*ble, a.

Defn: That may be burnt. [Obs.]

ADUSTION A*dus"tion, n. Etym: [L. adustio, fr. adurere, adustum: cf. F. adustion.]

1. The act of burning, or heating to dryness; the state of being thus heated or dried. [Obs.] Harvey.

2. (Surg.)

Defn: Cauterization. Buchanan.

Ad va*lo"rem. Etym: [L., according to the value.] (Com.)

Defn: A term used to denote a duty or charge laid upon goods, at a certain rate per cent upon their value, as stated in their invoice, - - in opposition to a specific sum upon a given quantity or number; as, an ad valorem duty of twenty per cent.

ADVANCE Ad*vance", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Advanced; p. pr. & vb. n. Advancing(#).] Etym: [OE. avancen, avauncen, F. avancer, fr. a supposed LL. abantiare; ab + ante (F. avant) before. The spelling with d was a mistake, a- being supposed to be fr. L. ad. See Avaunt.]

1. To bring forward; to move towards the van or front; to make to go on.

2. To raise; to elevate. [Archaic] They . . . advanced their eyelids. Shak.

3. To raise to a higher rank; to promote. Ahasueres . . . advanced him, and set his seat above all the princes. Esther iii. 1.

4. To accelerate the growth or progress; to further; to forward; to help on; to aid; to heighten; as, to advance the ripening of fruit; to advance one's interests.

5. To bring to view or notice; to offer or propose; to show; as, to advance an argument. Some ne'er advance a judgment of their own. Pope.

6. To make earlier, as an event or date; to hasten.

7. To furnish, as money or other value, before it becomes due, or in aid of an enterprise; to supply beforehand; as, a merchant advances money on a contract or on goods consigned to him.

8. To raise to a higher point; to enhance; to raise in rate; as, to advance the price of goods.

9. To extol; to laud. [Obs.] Greatly advancing his gay chivalry. Spenser.

Syn. — To raise; elevate; exalt; aggrandize; improve; heighten; accelerate; allege; adduce; assign.

Ad*vance", v. i.

1. To move or go forward; to proceed; as, he advanced to greet me.

2. To increase or make progress in any respect; as, to advance in knowledge, in stature, in years, in price.

3. To rise in rank, office, or consequence; to be preferred or promoted. Advanced to a level with ancient peers. Prescott.

Ad*vance", n. Etym: [Cf. F. avance, fr. avancer. See Advance, v.]

1. The act of advancing or moving forward or upward; progress.

2. Improvement or progression, physically, mentally, morally, or socially; as, an advance in health, knowledge, or religion; an advance in rank or office.

3. An addition to the price; rise in price or value; as, an advance on the prime cost of goods.

4. The first step towards the attainment of a result; approach made to gain favor, to form an acquaintance, to adjust a difference, etc.; an overture; a tender; an offer; — usually in the plural. [He] made the like advances to the dissenters. Swift.

5. A furnishing of something before an equivalent is received (as money or goods), towards a capital or stock, or on loan; payment beforehand; the money or goods thus furnished; money or value supplied beforehand. I shall, with pleasure, make the necessary advances. Jay. The account was made up with intent to show what advances had been made. Kent. In advance (a) In front; before. (b) Beforehand; before an equivalent is received. (c) In the state of having advanced money on account; as, A is advance to B a thousand dollars or pounds.

Ad*vance", a.

Defn: Before in place, or beforehand in time; — used for advanced; as, an advance guard, or that before the main guard or body of an army; advance payment, or that made before it is due; advance proofs, advance sheets, pages of a forthcoming volume, received in advance of the time of publication.

Ad*vanced", a.

1. In the van or front.

2. In the front or before others, as regards progress or ideas; as, advanced opinions, advanced thinkers.

3. Far on in life or time. A gentleman advanced in years, with a hard experience written in his wrinkles. Hawthorne. Advanced guard, a detachment of troops which precedes the march of the main body.

ADVANCEMENT Ad*vance"ment, n. Etym: [OE. avancement, F. avancement. See Advance, v. t.]

1. The act of advancing, or the state of being advanced; progression; improvement; furtherance; promotion to a higher place or dignity; as, the advancement of learning. In heaven . . . every one (so well they love each other) rejoiceth and hath his part in each other's advancement. Sir T. More. True religion . . . proposes for its end the joint advancement of the virtue and happiness of the people. Horsley.

2. An advance of money or value; payment in advance. See Advance, 5.

3. (Law)

Defn: Property given, usually by a parent to a child, in advance of a future distribution.

4. Settlement on a wife, or jointure. [Obs.] Bacon.

Ad*van"cer, n.

1. One who advances; a promoter.

2. A second branch of a buck's antler. Howell.

Ad*van"cing edge. (Aëronautics)

Defn: The front edge (in direction of motion) of a supporting surface; — contr. with following edge, which is the rear edge.

Ad*van"cing sur"face. (Aëronautics)

Defn: The first of two or more surfaces arranged in tandem; — contr. with following surface, which is the rear surface.

Ad*van"cive, a.

Defn: Tending to advance. [R.]

ADVANTAGE Ad*van"tage, n. Etym: [OE. avantage, avauntage, F. avantage, fr. avant before. See Advance, and cf. Vantage.]

1. Any condition, circumstance, opportunity, or means, particularly favorable to success, or to any desired end; benefit; as, the enemy had the advantage of a more elevated position. Give me advantage of some brief discourse. Shak. The advantages of a close alliance. Macaulay.

2. Superiority; mastery; — with of or over. Lest Satan should get an advantage of us. 2 Cor. ii. 11.

3. Superiority of state, or that which gives it; benefit; gain; profit; as, the advantage of a good constitution.

4. Interest of money; increase; overplus (as the thirteenth in the baker's dozen). [Obs.] And with advantage means to pay thy love. Shak. Advantage ground, vantage ground. [R.] Clarendon. — To have the advantage of (any one), to have a personal knowledge of one who does not have a reciprocal knowledge. "You have the advantage of me; I don't remember ever to have had the honor." Sheridan. — To take advantage of, to profit by; (often used in a bad sense) to overreach, to outwit.

Syn. — Advantage, Advantageous, Benefit, Beneficial. We speak of a thing as a benefit, or as beneficial, when it is simply productive of good; as, the benefits of early discipline; the beneficial effects of adversity. We speak of a thing as an advantage, or as advantageous, when it affords us the means of getting forward, and places us on a "vantage ground" for further effort. Hence, there is a difference between the benefits and the advantages of early education; between a beneficial and an advantageous investment of money.

Ad*van"tage, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Advantaged; p. pr. & vb. n.
Advantaging.] Etym: [F. avantager, fr. avantage. See Advance.]

Defn: To give an advantage to; to further; to promote; to benefit; to
The truth is, the archbishop's own stiffness and averseness to comply
with the court designs, advantaged his adversaries against him.
What is a man advantaged, if he gain the whole world, and lose
himself, or be cast away Luke ix. 25.
To advantage one's self of, to avail one's self of. [Obs.]

Ad*van"tage*a*ble, a.

Defn: Advantageous. [Obs.]

Ad`van*ta"geous, a. Etym: [F. avantageux, fr. avantage.]

Defn: Being of advantage; conferring advantage; gainful; profitable; useful; beneficial; as, an advantageous position; trade is advantageous to a nation. Advabtageous comparison with any other country. Prescott. You see . . . of what use a good reputation is, and how swift and advantageous a harbinger it is, wherever one goes. Chesterfield.

Ad`van*ta"geous*ly, adv.

Defn: Profitably; with advantage.

Ad`van*ta"geous*ness, n.

Defn: Profitableness.

ADVENE Ad*vene", v. i. Etym: [L. advenire; ad + venire to come: cf. F. avenir, advenir. See Come.]

Defn: To accede, or come (to); to be added to something or become a part of it, though not essential. [R.] Where no act of the will advenes as a coefficient. Coleridge.

Ad*ven"ient, a. Etym: [L. adviens, p. pr.]

Defn: Coming from outward causes; superadded. [Obs.]

Ad`vent, n. Etym: [L. adventus, fr. advenire, adventum: cf. F. avent.
See Advene.]

1. (Eccl.)

Defn: The period including the four Sundays before Christmas. Advent
Sunday (Eccl.), the first Sunday in the season of Advent, being
always the nearest Sunday to the feast of St. Andrew (Now. 30).

2. The first or the expected second coming of Christ.

3. Coming; any important arrival; approach. Death's dreadful advent. Young. Expecting still his advent home. Tennyson.

Ad"vent*ist, n.

Defn: One of a religious body, embracing several branches, who look for the proximate personal coming of Christ; — called also Second Adventists. Schaff-Herzog Encyc.

Ad`ven*ti"tious, a. Etym: [L. adventitius.]

1. Added extrinsically; not essentially inherent; accidental or causal; additional; supervenient; foreign. To things of great dimensions, if we annex an adventitious idea of terror, they become without comparison greater. Burke.

2. (Nat. Hist.)

Defn: Out of the proper or usual place; as, adventitious buds or roots.

3. (Bot.)

Defn: Accidentally or sparingly spontaneous in a country or district; not fully naturalized; adventive; — applied to foreign plants.

4. (Med.)

Defn: Acquired, as diseases; accidental.
 — Ad`ven*ti"tious*ly, adv.
 — Ad`ven*ti"tious*ness, n.

Ad*ven"tive, a.

1. Accidental.

2. (Bot.)

Defn: Adventitious. Gray.

Ad*ven"tive, n.

Defn: A thing or person coming from without; an immigrant. [R.]

Ad*ven"tu*al, a.

Defn: Relating to the season of advent. Sanderson.

Ad*ven"ture, n. Etym: [OE. aventure, aunter, anter, F. aventure, fr.
LL. adventura, fr. L. advenire, adventum, to arrive, which in the
Romance languages took the sense of "to happen, befall." See Advene.]

1. That which happens without design; chance; hazard; hap; hence, chance of danger or loss. Nay, a far less good to man it will be found, if she must, at all adventures, be fastened upon him individually. Milton.

2. Risk; danger; peril. [Obs.] He was in great adventure of his life. Berners.

3. The encountering of risks; hazardous and striking enterprise; a bold undertaking, in which hazards are to be encountered, and the issue is staked upon unforeseen events; a daring feat. He loved excitement and adventure. Macaulay.

4. A remarkable occurrence; a striking event; a stirring incident; as, the adventures of one's life. Bacon.

5. A mercantile or speculative enterprise of hazard; a venture; a shipment by a merchant on his own account. A bill of adventure (Com.), a writing setting forth that the goods shipped are at the owner's risk.

 — Undertaking; enterprise; venture; event.

Ad*ven"ture, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Adventured; p. pr. & vb. n.
Adventuring.] Etym: [OE. aventuren, auntren, F. aventurer, fr.
aventure. See Adventure, n.]

1. To risk, or hazard; jeopard; to venture. He would not adventure himself into the theater. Acts xix. 31.

2. To venture upon; to run the risk of; to dare. Yet they adventured to go back. Bunyan, Discriminations might be adventured. J. Taylor.

Ad*ven"ture, v. i.

Defn: To try the chance; to take the risk.
I would adventure for such merchandise. Shak.

Ad*ven"ture*ful, a.

Defn: Given to adventure.

Ad*ven"tur*er, n. Etym: [Cf. F. aventurier.]

1. One who adventures; as, the merchant adventurers; one who seeks his fortune in new and hazardous or perilous enterprises.

2. A social pretender on the lookout for advancement.

Ad*ven"ture*some, a.

Defn: Full of risk; adventurous; venturesome.
 — Ad*ven"ture*some*ness, n.

Ad*ven"tur*ess, n.

Defn: A female adventurer; a woman who tries to gain position by equivocal means.

Ad*ven"tur*ous, a. Etym: [OE. aventurous, aunterous, OF. aventuros,
F. aventureux, fr. aventure. See Adventure, n.]

1. Inclined to adventure; willing to incur hazard; prone to embark in hazardous enterprise; rashly daring; — applied to persons. Bold deed thou hast presumed, adventurous Eve. Milton.

2. Full of hazard; attended with risk; exposing to danger; requiring courage; rash; — applied to acts; as, an adventurous undertaking, deed, song.

Syn. — Rash; foolhardy; presumptuous; enterprising; daring; hazardous; venturesome. See Rash.

Ad*ven"tur*ous*ly, adv.

Defn: In an adventurous manner; venturesomely; boldly; daringly.

Ad*ven"tur*ous*ness, n.

Defn: The quality or state of being adventurous; daring; venturesomeness.

ADVERB Ad"verb, n. Etym: [L. adverbium; ad + verbum word, verb: cf. F. adverbe.] (Gram.)

Defn: A word used to modify the sense of a verb, participle, adjective, or other adverb, and usually placed near it; as, he writes well; paper extremely white.

Ad*ver"bi*al, a. Etym: [L. adverbialis: cf. F. adverbial.]

Defn: Of or pertaining to an adverb; of the nature of an adverb; as, an adverbial phrase or form.

Ad*ver`bi*al"i*ty, n.

Defn: The quality of being adverbial. Earle.

Ad*ver"bi*al*ize, v. t.

Defn: To give the force or form of an adverb to.

Ad*ver"bi*al*ly, adv.

Defn: In the manner of an adverb.

ADVERSARIA Ad`ver*sa"ri*a, n. pl. Etym: [L. adversaria (sc. scripta), neut. pl. of adversarius.]

Defn: A miscellaneous collection of notes, remarks, or selections; a
commonplace book; also, commentaries or notes.
These parchments are supposed to have been St. Paul's adversaria. Bp.

Ad`ver*sa"ri*ous, a.

Defn: Hostile. [R.] Southey.

ADVERSARY Ad`ver*sa*ry, n.; pl. Adversaries. Etym: [OE. adversarie, direct fr. the Latin, and adversaire, fr. OF. adversier, aversier, fr. L. adversarius (a.) turned toward, (n.) an adversary. See Adverse.]

Defn: One who is turned against another or others with a design to oppose

or resist them; a member of an opposing or hostile party; an opponent; an antagonist; an enemy; a foe. His ancient knot of dangerous adversaries. Shak. Agree with thine adversary quickly. Matt. v. 25. It may be thought that to vindicate the permanency of truth is to dispute without an adversary. Beattie. The Adversary, The Satan, or the Devil.

Syn. — Adversary, Enemy, Opponent, Antagonist. Enemy is the only one of these words which necessarily implies a state of personal hostility. Men may be adversaries, antagonists, or opponents to each other in certain respects, and yet have no feelings of general animosity. An adversary may be simply one who is placed for a time in a hostile position, as in a lawsuit, an argument, in chess playing, or at fence. An opponent is one who is ranged against another (perhaps passively) on the opposing side; as a political opponent, an opponent in debate. An antagonist is one who struggles against another with active effort, either in a literal fight or in verbal debate.

Ad"ver*sa*ry, a.

1. Opposed; opposite; adverse; antagonistic. [Archaic] Bp. King.

2. (Law)

Defn: Having an opposing party; not unopposed; as, an adversary suit.

Ad*ver"sa*tive, a. Etym: [L. adversativus, fr. adversari.]

Defn: Expressing contrariety, opposition, or antithesis; as, an
adversative conjunction (but, however, yet, etc. ); an adversative
 — Ad*ver"sa*tive*ly, adv.

Ad*ver"sa*tive, n.

Defn: An adversative word. Harris.

ADVERSE Ad"verse, a. Etym: [OE. advers, OF. avers, advers, fr. L. adversus, p. p. advertere to turn to. See Advert.]

1. Acting against, or in a contrary direction; opposed; contrary; opposite; conflicting; as, adverse winds; an adverse party; a spirit adverse to distinctions of caste.

2. Opposite. "Calpe's adverse height." Byron.

3. In hostile opposition to; unfavorable; unpropitious; contrary to one's wishes; unfortunate; calamitous; afflictive; hurtful; as, adverse fates, adverse circumstances, things adverse. Happy were it for us all if we bore prosperity as well and wisely as we endure an adverse fortune. Southey. Adverse possession (Law), a possession of real property avowedly contrary to some claim of title in another person. Abbott.

 — Averse; reluctant; unwilling. See Averse.

Ad*verse", v. t. Etym: [L. adversari: cf. OF. averser.]

Defn: To oppose; to resist. [Obs.] Gower.

Ad"verse*ly (277), adv.

Defn: In an adverse manner; inimically; unfortunately; contrariwise.

Ad"verse*ness, n.

Defn: The quality or state of being adverse; opposition.

ADVERSIFOLIATE; ADVERSIFOLIOUS Ad*ver`si*fo"li*ate, Ad*ver`si*fo"li*ous a. Etym: [L. adver + folium leaf.] (Bot.)

Defn: Having opposite leaves, as plants which have the leaves so arranged on the stem.

Ad*ver"sion, n.Etym: [L. adversio]

Defn: A turning towards; attention. [Obs.] Dr. H. More.

ADVERSITY Ad*ver"si*ty, n.; pl. Adversities(#). Etym: [OE. adversite, F. adversité, fr. L. adversitas.]

1. Opposition; contrariety. [Obs.] Wyclif. Adversity is not without comforts and hopes. Bacon.

Syn. — Affliction; distress; misery; disaster; trouble; suffering; trial.

Ad*vert", v. i. [imp. & p. p. Adverted; p. pr. & vb. n. Adverting.]
Etym: [L. advertere, v. t., to turn to; ad + vertere to turn: cf. F.
avertir. See Advertise.]

Defn: To turn the mind or attention; to refer; to take heed or notice; — with to; as, he adverted to what was said. I may again advert to the distinction. Owen.

Syn.- To refer; allude; regard. See Refer.

ADVERTENCE; ADVERTENCY Ad*vert"ence, Ad*vert"en*cy,Etym: [OF. advertence, avertence, LL. advertentia, fr. L. advertens. See Advertent.]

Defn: The act of adverting, of the quality of being advertent; attention; notice; regard; heedfulness. To this difference it is right that advertence should be had in regulating taxation. J. S. Mill.

Ad*vert"ent, a. Etym: [L. advertens, -entis, p. pr. of advertere. See

Defn: Attentive; heedful; regardful. Sir M. Hale.
 — Ad*vert"ent*ly, adv.

ADVERTISE Ad`ver*tise", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Advertised; p. pr. & vb. n. Advertising.] Etym: [F. avertir, formerly also spelt advertir, to warn, give notice to, L. advertere to turn to. The ending was probably influenced by the noun advertisement. See Advert.]

Defn: To give notice to; to inform or apprise; to notify; to make known; hence, to warn; — often followed by of before the subject of information; as, to advertise a man of his loss. [Archaic] I will advertise thee what this people shall do. Num. xxiv. 14.

4. To give public notice of; to announce publicly, esp. by a printed notice; as, to advertise goods for sale, a lost article, the sailing day of a vessel, a political meeting.

Syn. — To apprise; inform; make known; notify; announce; proclaim; promulgate; publish.

ADVERTISEMENT Ad*ver"tise*ment, n. Etym: [F.avertisement, formerly also spelled advertissement, a warning, giving notice, fr. avertir.]

1. The act of informing or notifying; notification. [Archaic] An advertisement of danger. Bp. Burnet.

2. Admonition; advice; warning. [Obs.] Therefore give me no counsel: My griefs cry louder than advertisement. Shak.

3. A public notice, especially a paid notice in some public print; anything that advertises; as, a newspaper containing many advertisement.

Ad`ver*tis"er, n.

Defn: One who, or that which, advertises.

ADVICE Ad*vice", n. Etym: [OE. avis, F. avis; + OF. vis, fr. L. visum seemed, seen; really p. p. of videre to see, so that vis meant that which has seemed best. See Vision, and cf. Avise, Advise.]

1. An opinion recommended or offered, as worthy to be followed; counsel. We may give advice, but we can not give conduct. Franklin.

2. Deliberate consideration; knowledge. [Obs.] How shall I dote on her with more advice, That thus without advice begin to love her Shak.

3. Information or notice given; intelligence; as, late advices from France; — commonly in the plural.

Note: In commercial language, advice usually means information communicated by letter; — used chiefly in reference to drafts or bills of exchange; as, a letter of advice. McElrath.

4. (Crim. Law)

Defn: Counseling to perform a specific illegal act. Wharton. Advice boat, a vessel employed to carry dispatches or to reconnoiter; a dispatch boat. — To take advice. (a) To accept advice. (b) To consult with another or others.

Syn. — Counsel; suggestion; recommendation; admonition; exhortation; information; notice.

Ad*vis`a*bil"i*ty, n.

Defn: The quality of being advisable; advisableness.

Ad*vis"a*ble, a.

1. Proper to be advised or to be done; expedient; prudent. Some judge it advisable for a man to account with his heart every day. South.

2. Ready to receive advice. [R.] South.

 — Expedient; proper; desirable; befitting.

Ad*vis"a*ble-ness, n.

Defn: The quality of being advisable or expedient; expediency; advisability.

Ad*vis"a*bly, adv.

Defn: With advice; wisely.

Ad*vise", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Advised; p. pr. & vb. n. Advising.]
Etym: [OE. avisen to perceive, consider, inform, F. aviser, fr. LL.
advisare. advisare; ad + visare, fr. L. videre, visum, to see. See
Advice, and cf. Avise.]

1. To give advice to; to offer an opinion, as worthy or expedient to be followed; to counsel; to warn. "I shall no more advise thee." Milton.

2. To give information or notice to; to inform; — with of before the thing communicated; as, we were advised of the risk. To advise one's self, to bethink one's self; to take counsel with one's self; to reflect; to consider. [Obs.] Bid thy master well advise himself. Shak.

 — To counsel; admonish; apprise; acquaint.

Ad*vise", v. t.

1. To consider; to deliberate. [Obs.] Advise if this be worth attempting. Milton.

2. To take counsel; to consult; — followed by with; as, to advise with friends.

Ad*vis"ed*ly, adv.

1. Circumspectly; deliberately; leisurely. [Obs.] Shak.

2. With deliberate purpose; purposely; by design. "Advisedly undertaken." Suckling.

Ad*vis"ed*ness n.

Defn: Deliberate consideration; prudent procedure; caution.

Ad*vise"ment, n. Etym: [OE. avisement, F. avisement, fr. aviser. See
Advise, and cf. Avisement.]

1. Counsel; advise; information. [Archaic] And mused awhile, waking advisement takes of what had passed in sleep. Daniel.

2. Consideration; deliberation; consultation. Tempering the passion with advisement slow. Spenser.

Ad*vis"er, n.

Defn: One who advises.

Ad*vis"er*ship, n.

Defn: The office of an adviser. [R.]

Ad*vi"so, n. Etym: [Cf. Sp. aviso. See Advice.]

Defn: Advice; counsel; suggestion; also, a dispatch or advice boat.
[Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

Ad*vi"so*ry, a.

Defn: Having power to advise; containing advice; as, an advisory council; their opinion is merely advisory. The General Association has a general advisory superintendence over all the ministers and churches. Trumbull.

Ad"vo*ca*cy, n. Etym: [OF. advocatie, LL. advocatia. See Advocate.]

Defn: The act of pleading for or supporting; work of advocating; intercession.

ADVOCATE Ad"vo*cate, n. Etym: [OE. avocat, avocet, OF. avocat, fr. L. advocatus, one summoned or called to another; properly the p. p. of advocare to call to, call to one's aid; ad + vocare to call. See Advowee, Avowee, Vocal.]

1. One who pleads the cause of another. Specifically: One who pleads the cause of another before a tribunal or judicial court; a counselor.

Note: In the English and American Law, advocate is the same as "counsel," "counselor," or "barrister." In the civil and ecclesiastical courts, the term signifies the same as "counsel" at the common law.

2. One who defends, vindicates, or espouses any cause by argument; a pleader; as, an advocate of free trade, an advocate of truth.

3. Christ, considered as an intercessor.
We have an Advocate with the Father. 1 John ii. 1.
Faculty of advocates (Scot.), the Scottish bar in Edinburgh.
 — Lord advocate (Scot.), the public prosecutor of crimes, and
principal crown lawyer.
 — Judge advocate. See under Judge.

Ad"vo*cate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Advocated; p. pr. & vb. n.
Advocating.] Etym: [See Advocate, n., Advoke, Avow.]

Defn: To plead in favor of; to defend by argument, before a tribunal
or the public; to support, vindicate, or recommend publicly.
To advocate the cause of thy client. Bp. Sanderson (1624).
This is the only thing distinct and sensible, that has been
advocated. Burke.
Eminent orators were engaged to advocate his cause. Mitford.

Ad"vo*cate, v. i.

Defn: To act as advocate. [Obs.] Fuller.

Ad"vo*cate*ship, n.

Defn: Office or duty of an advocate.

Ad`vo*ca"tion, n. Etym: [L. advocatio: cf. OF. avocation. See

1. The act of advocating or pleading; plea; advocacy. [Archaic] The holy Jesus . . . sits in heaven in a perpetual advocation for us. Jer. Taylor.

2. Advowson. [Obs.] The donations or advocations of church livings. Sanderson.

3. (Scots Law)

Defn: The process of removing a cause from an inferior court to the supreme court. Bell.

Ad"vo*ca*to*ry, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to an advocate. [R.]

Ad*voke", v. t. Etym: [L. advocare. See Advocate.]

Defn: To summon; to call. [Obs.] Queen Katharine had privately prevailed with the pope to advoke the cause to Rome. Fuller.

Ad`vo*lu"tion, n. Etym: [L. advolvere, advolutum, to roll to.]

Defn: A rolling toward something. [R.]

Ad*vou"trer, n. Etym: [OF. avoutre, avoltre, fr. L. adulter. Cf.

Defn: An adulterer. [Obs.]

Ad*vou"tress, n.

Defn: An adulteress. [Obs.] Bacon.

Ad*vou"try, Ad*vow"try, n. Etym: [OE. avoutrie, avouterie, advoutrie,
OF. avoutrie, avulterie, fr. L. adulterium. Cf. Adultery.]

Defn: Adultery. [Obs.] Bacon.

Ad*vow*ee", n. Etym: [OE. avowe, F. avoué, fr. L. advocatus. See
Advocate, Avowee, Avoyer.]

Defn: One who has an advowson. Cowell.

Ad*vow"son, n. Etym: [OE. avoweisoun, OF. avoëson, fr. L. advocatio.
Cf. Advocation.] (Eng. Law)

Defn: The right of presenting to a vacant benefice or living in the church. [Originally, the relation of a patron (advocatus) or protector of a benefice, and thus privileged to nominate or present to it.]

Note: The benefices of the Church of England are in every case subjects of presentation. They are nearly 12,000 in number; the advowson of more than half of them belongs to private persons, and of the remainder to the crown, bishops, deans and chapters, universities, and colleges. Amer. Cyc.

Ad*voy"er, n.

Defn: See Avoyer. [Obs.]

Ad*ward", n.

Defn: Award. [Obs.] Spenser.

Ad`y*na"mi*a, n. Etym: [NL. adynamia, fr. Gr. (Med.)

Defn: Considerable debility of the vital powers, as in typhoid fever.

Ad`y*nam"ic, a. Etym: [Cf. F. adynamique. See Adynamy.]

1. (Med.)

Defn: Pertaining to, or characterized by, debility of the vital powers; weak.

2. (Physics)

Defn: Characterized by the absence of power or force. Adynamic fevers, malignant or putrid fevers attended with great muscular debility.

A*dyn"a*my, n.

Defn: Adynamia. [R.] Morin.

Ad"y*tum, n. Adyta. Etym: [L., fr. Gr.

Defn: The innermost sanctuary or shrine in ancient temples, whence oracles were given. Hence: A private chamber; a sanctum.

Adz, v. t.

Defn: To cut with an adz. [R.] Carlyle.

ADZ; ADZE Adz, Adze, n. Etym: [OE. adese, adis, adse, AS. adesa, adese, ax, hatchet.]

Defn: A carpenter's or cooper's tool, formed with a thin arching blade set at right angles to the handle. It is used for chipping or slicing away the surface of wood.

Æ or Ae.

Defn: A diphthong in the Latin language; used also by the Saxon writers. It answers to the Gr. æ was generally replaced by a, the long e or ee. In derivatives from Latin words with ae, it is mostly superseded by e. For most words found with this initial combination, the reader will therefore search under the letter E.

Æ*cid"i*um, n.; pl. Æcidia. Etym: [NL., dim. of Gr. (Bot.)

Defn: A form of fruit in the cycle of development of the Rusts or
Brands, an order of fungi, formerly considered independent plants.

Æ"dile, n. Etym: [L. aedilis, fr. aedes temple, public building. Cf.

Defn: A magistrate in ancient Rome, who had the superintendence of public buildings, highways, shows, etc.; hence, a municipal officer.

Æ"dile*ship, n.

Defn: The office of an ædile. T. Arnold.

Æ*ge"an, a. Etym: [L. Aegeus; Gr.

Defn: Of or pertaining to the sea, or arm of the Mediterranean sea, east of Greece. See Archipelago.

Æ`gi*cra"ni*a, n. pl. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. (Arch.)

Defn: Sculptured ornaments, used in classical architecture, representing rams' heads or skulls.

Æg"i*lops, n. Etym: [L. aegilopis, Gr.

1. (Med.)

Defn: An ulcer or fistula in the inner corner of the eye.

2. (Bot.) (a) The great wild-oat grass or other cornfield weed. Crabb. (b) A genus of plants, called also hardgrass.

Æ"gis, n. Etym: [L. aegis, fr. Gr.

Defn: A shield or protective armor; — applied in mythology to the shield of Jupiter which he gave to Minerva. Also fig.: A shield; a protection.

Æ*goph"o*ny, n.

Defn: Same as Egophony.

Æ*gro"tat, n. Etym: [L., he is sick.] (Camb. Univ.)

Defn: A medical certificate that a student is ill.

Æ*ne"id, n. Etym: [L. Aeneis, Aeneidis, or -dos: cf. F. .]

Defn: The great epic poem of Virgil, of which the hero is Æneas.

A*ë"ne*ous, a. Etym: [L. aëneus.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: Colored like bronze.

Æ*o"li*an, a. Etym: [L. Aeolius, Gr.

1. Of or pertaining to Æolia or Æolis, in Asia Minor, colonized by the Greeks, or to its inhabitants; æolic; as, the Æolian dialect.

2. Pertaining to Æolus, the mythic god of the winds; pertaining to, or produced by, the wind; aërial. Viewless forms the æolian organ play. Campbell. Æolian attachment, a contrivance often attached to a pianoforte, which prolongs the vibrations, increases the

volume of sound, etc., by forcing a stream of air upon the strings. Moore. — Æolian harp, Æolian lyre, a musical instrument consisting of a box, on or in which are stretched strings, on which the wind acts to produce the notes; — usually placed at an open window. Moore. — Æolian mode (Mus.), one of the ancient Greek and early ecclesiastical modes.

Æ*ol"ic, a. Etym: [L. Aeolicus; Gr.

Defn: Æolian, 1; as, the Æolic dialect; the Æolic mode.

AEOLIPILE; AEOLIPYLE Æ*ol"i*pile, Æ*ol"i*pyle, n. Etym: [L. aeolipilae; Aeolus god of the winds + pila a ball, or Gr. i. e., doorway of Æolus); cf. F. éolipyle.]

Defn: An apparatus consisting chiefly of a closed vessel (as a globe or cylinder) with one or more projecting bent tubes, through which steam is made to pass from the vessel, causing it to revolve. [Written also eolipile.]

Note: Such an apparatus was first described by Hero of Alexandria about 200 years b. c. It has often been called the first steam engine.

Æ`o*lo*trop"ic, a. Etym: [Gr. (Physics)

Defn: Exhibiting differences of quality or property in different directions; not isotropic. Sir W. Thomson.

Æ`o*lot"ro*py, n. (Physics)

Defn: Difference of quality or property in different directions.

Æ"o*lus, n. Etym: [L., fr. Gr. (Gr. & Rom. Myth.)

Defn: The god of the winds.

Æ"on, n.

Defn: A period of immeasurable duration; also, an emanation of the
Deity. See Eon.

Æ*o"ni*an, a. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Eternal; everlasting. "Æonian hills." Tennyson.

Æ`py*or"nis, n. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: A gigantic bird found fossil in Madagascar.

AERATE A"ër*ate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. A; p. pr. & vb. n. A.] Etym: [Cf. F. aérer. See Air,v. t.]

1. To combine or charge with gas; usually with carbonic acid gas,
formerly called fixed air.
His sparkling sallies bubbled up as from aërated natural fountains.

2. To supply or impregnate with common air; as, to aërate soil; to aërate water.

3. (Physiol.)

Defn: To expose to the chemical action of air; to oxygenate (the blood) by respiration; to arterialize. Aërated bread, bread raised by charging dough with carbonic acid gas, instead of generating the gas in the dough by fermentation.

A`ër*a"tion, n. Etym: [Cf. F. aération.]

1. Exposure to the free action of the air; airing; as, aëration of soil, of spawn, etc.

2. (Physiol.)

Defn: A change produced in the blood by exposure to the air in respiration; oxygenation of the blood in respiration; arterialization.

3. The act or preparation of charging with carbonic acid gas or with oxygen.

A"ër*a`tor, n.

Defn: That which supplies with air; esp. an apparatus used for charging mineral waters with gas and in making soda water.

{ A"ër*en`chym, A`ër*en"chy*ma }, n. [NL. aërenchyma. See Aëro-;
Enchyma.] (Bot.)

Defn: A secondary respiratory tissue or modified periderm, found in many aquatic plants and distinguished by the large intercellular spaces.

A*ë"ri*al, a. Etym: [L. aërius. See Air.]

1. Of or pertaining to the air, or atmosphere; inhabiting or frequenting the air; produced by or found in the air; performed in the air; as, aërial regions or currents. "Aërial spirits." Milton. "Aërial voyages." Darwin.

2. Consisting of air; resembling, or partaking of the nature of air. Hence: Unsubstantial; unreal.

3. Rising aloft in air; high; lofty; as, aërial spires.

4. Growing, forming, or existing in the air, as opposed to growing or existing in earth or water, or underground; as, aërial rootlets, aërial plants. Gray.

5. Light as air; ethereal. Aërial acid, carbonic acid. [Obs.] Ure.
 — Aërial perspective. See Perspective.

A*ë`ri*al"i*ty, n.

Defn: The state of being aërial; [R.] De Quincey.

A*ë"ri*al*ly, adv.

Defn: Like, or from, the air; in an aërial manner. "A murmur heard aërially." Tennyson.

AERIAL RAILWAY A*ë`ri*al rail"way`. (a) A stretched wire or rope elevated above the ground and forming a way along which a trolley may travel, for conveying a load suspended from the trolley. (b) An elevated cableway.

A*ë"ri*al sick"ness.

Defn: A sickness felt by aëronauts due to high speed of flights and rapidity in changing altitudes, combining some symptoms of mountain sickness and some of seasickness.

AERIE Ae"rie, n. Etym: [OE. aire, eire, air, nest, also origin, descent, OF. aire, LL. area, aera, nest of a bird of prey, perh. fr. L. area an open space (for birds of prey like to build their nests on flat and open spaces on the top of high rocks). Cf. Area.]

Defn: The nest of a bird of prey, as of an eagle or hawk; also a brood of such birds; eyrie. Shak. Also fig.: A human residence or resting place perched like an eagle's nest.

A`ër*if"er*ous, a. Etym: [L. aër air + -ferous: cf. F. aérifère.]

Defn: Conveying or containing air; air-bearing; as, the windpipe is an aëriferous tube.

A`ër*i*fi*ca"tion, n. Etym: [Cf. F. aérification. See A.]

1. The act of combining air with another substance, or the state of being filled with air.

2. The act of becoming aërified, or of changing from a solid or liquid form into an aëriform state; the state of being aëriform.

A"ër*i*form, a. Etym: [L. aër air + -form: cf. F. aériforme.]

Defn: Having the form or nature of air, or of an elastic fluid; gaseous. Hence fig.: Unreal.

A"ër*i*fy, v. t. Etym: [L. aër air + -fly.]

1. To infuse air into; to combine air with.

2. To change into an aëriform state.

A"ër*o-. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: The combining form of the Greek word meaning air.

A`ër*o"bic, a. (Biol.)

Defn: Growing or thriving only in the presence of oxygen; also, pertaining to, or induced by, aërobies; as, aërobic fermentation. — A`ër*o"bic*al*ly (#), adv.

A"ër*o*bies, n. pl. Etym: [Aëro- + Gr. (Biol.)

Defn: Microörganisms which live in contact with the air and need oxygen for their growth; as the microbacteria which form on the surface of putrefactive fluids.

A`ër*o*bi*ot"ic, a. (Biol.)

Defn: Related to, or of the nature of, aërobies; as, aërobiotic plants, which live only when supplied with free oxygen.

A"ër*o*boat`, n. [Aëro- + boat.]

Defn: A form of hydro-aëroplane; a flying boat.

A"ër*o*bus`, n. [Aëro-+ bus.]

Defn: An aëroplane or airship designed to carry passengers.

A"ër*o*club`, n. [Aëro- + club.]

Defn: A club or association of persons interested in aëronautics.

A"ër*o*curve`, n. [Aëro- + curve.] (Aëronautics)

Defn: A modification of the aëroplane, having curved surfaces, the advantages of which were first demonstrated by Lilienthal.

A"ër*o*cyst, n. Etym: [Aëro- + cyst.] (Bot.)

Defn: One of the air cells of algals.

A"ër*o*cyst, n. [Aëro-+ cyst.] (Bot.)

Defn: One of the air cells of algals.

A`ë*ro*do*net"ics, n. [Aëro- + Gr. shaken, to shake.] (Aëronautics)

Defn: The science of gliding and soaring flight.

AERODROME A"ë*ro*drome`, n. [Aëro- + Gr. a running.] (Aëronautics) (a) A shed for housing an airship or aëroplane. (b) A ground or field, esp. one equipped with housing and other facilities, used for flying purposes. — A`ër*o*drom"ic (#), a.

A"ër*o*dy*nam"ic, a.

Defn: Pertaining to the force of air in motion.

A`ër*o*dy*nam"ics, n. Etym: [Aëro- + dynamics: cf. F. aérodynamique.]

Defn: The science which treats of the air and other gaseous bodies under the action of force, and of their mechanical effects.

A"ër*o*foil`, n. [Aëro- + foil.]

Defn: A plane or arched surface for sustaining bodies by its movement through the air; a spread wing, as of a bird.

A`ër*og"no*sy, n. Etym: [Aëro- + Gr. aérognosie.]

Defn: The science which treats of the properties of the air, and of the part it plays in nature. Craig.

A`ër*og"ra*pher, n.

Defn: One versed in aëography: an aërologist.

A`ër*o*graph"ic, A`ër*o*graph"ic*al, a.

Defn: Pertaining to aërography; aërological.

A`ër*og"ra*phy, n. Etym: [Aëro- + -graphy: cf. F. aérographie.]

Defn: A description of the air or atmosphere; aërology.

A"ër*o*gun`, n. [Aëro-+ gun.]

Defn: A cannon capable of being trained at very high angles for use against aircraft.

A`ër*o*hy`dro*dy*nam"ic, a. Etym: [Aëro- + hydrodynamic.]

Defn: Acting by the force of air and water; as, an aërohydrodynamic wheel.

A"ër*o*lite, n. Etym: [Aëro- + -lite: cf. F. aérolithe.] (Meteor.)

Defn: A stone, or metallic mass, which has fallen to the earth from distant space; a meteorite; a meteoric stone.

Note: Some writers limit the word to stony meteorites.

A"ër*o*lith, n.

Defn: Same as A.

A`ër*o*li*thol"o*gy, n. Etym: [Aëro- + lithology.]

Defn: The science of aërolites.

A`ër*o*lit"ic, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to aërolites; meteoric; as, aërolitic iron.

A`ër*o*log"ic, A`ër*o*log"ic*al, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to aërology.

A`ër*ol"o*gist, n.

Defn: One versed in aërology.

A`ër*ol"o*gy, n. Etym: [Aëro- + -logy: cf. F. aérologie.]

Defn: That department of physics which treats of the atmosphere.

A"ër*o*man`cy, n. Etym: [Aëro- + -mancy: cf. F. aéromancie.]

Defn: Divination from the state of the air or from atmospheric substances; also, forecasting changes in the weather.

A`ër*o*me*chan"ic, A`ër*o*me*chan"ical, a.

Defn: Of or pert. to aëromechanics.

A`ër*o*me*chan"ic, n.

Defn: A mechanic or mechanician expert in the art and practice of aëronautics.

A`ër*o*me*chan"ics, n.

Defn: The science of equilibrium and motion of air or an aëriform fluid, including aërodynamics and aërostatics.

A`ër*om"e*ter, n. Etym: [Aëro- + -meter: cf. F. éromètre.]

Defn: An instrument for ascertaining the weight or density of air and gases.

A`ër*o*met"ric, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to aërometry; as, aërometric investigations.

A`ër*om"e*try, n. Etym: [Aëro- + -metry: cf. F. érométrie.]

Defn: The science of measuring the air, including the doctrine of its pressure, elasticity, rarefaction, and condensation; pneumatics.

A"ër*o*nat`, n. [F. aéronat. See Aëro-; Natation.]

Defn: A dirigible balloon.

A"ër*o*naut, n. Etym: [F. aéronaute, fr. Gr. Nautical.]

Defn: An aërial navigator; a balloonist.

A`ër*o*naut"ic, A`ër*o*naut"ic*al, a. Etym: [Cf. F. aéronauitique.]

Defn: Pertaining to aëronautics, or aërial sailing.

A`ër*o*naut"ics, n.

Defn: The science or art of ascending and sailing in the air, as by means of a balloon; aërial navigation; ballooning.

A"ër*o*nef`, n. [F. aéronef.]

Defn: A power-driven, heavier-than-air flying machine.

A`ër*o*pho"bi*a, A`ër*oph"o*by, n. Etym: [Aëro- + Gr. aérophobie.]

Defn: Dread of a current of air.

AEROPHONE A"ër*o*phone`, n. [Aëro- + Gr. voice.] (a) A form of combined speaking and ear trumpet. (b) An instrument, proposed by Edison, for greatly intensifying speech. It consists of a phonograph diaphragm so arranged that its action opens and closes valves, producing synchronous air blasts sufficient to operate a larger diaphragm with greater amplitude of vibration.

A"ër*o*phyte (, n. Etym: [Aëro- + Gr. aérophyte.] (Bot.)

Defn: A plant growing entirely in the air, and receiving its nourishment from it; an air plant or epiphyte.

A"ër*o*plane` (, n. Etym: [Aëro- + plane.]

Defn: A flying machine, or a small plane for experiments on flying, which floats in the air only when propelled through it.

A"ër*o*plan`ist, n.

Defn: One who flies in an aëroplane.

A"ër*o*scope (, n. Etym: [Aëro- + Gr. (Biol.)

Defn: An apparatus designed for collecting spores, germs, bacteria, etc., suspended in the air.

A`ër*os"co*py (, n. Etym: [Aëro- + Gr.

Defn: The observation of the state and variations of the atmosphere.

Æ*rose" (, a. Etym: [L. aerosus, fr. aes, aeris, brass, copper.]

Defn: Of the nature of, or like, copper; brassy. [R.]

A`ër*o*sid"er*ite (, n. Etym: [Aëro- + siderite.] (Meteor.)

Defn: A mass of meteoric iron.

A"ër*o*sphere (, n. Etym: [Aëro- + sphere: cf. F. aérosphère.]

Defn: The atmosphere. [R.]

A"ër*o*stat (, n. Etym: [F. aérostat, fr. Gr. Statics.]

1. A balloon.

2. A balloonist; an aëronaut.

AEROSTATIC; AEROSTATICAL A`ër*o*stat"ic (, A`ër*o*stat"ic*al (, a. Etym: [Aëro- + Gr. aérostatique. See Statical, Statics.]

1. Of or pertaining to aërostatics; pneumatic.

2. Aëronautic; as, an aërostatic voyage.

A`ër*o*stat"ics (, n.

Defn: The science that treats of the equilibrium of elastic fluids, or that of bodies sustained in them. Hence it includes aëronautics.

AEROSTATION A`ër*os*ta"tion (, n. Etym: [Cf. F. aérostation the art of using aërostats.]

1. Aërial navigation; the art of raising and guiding balloons in the air.

2. The science of weighing air; aërostatics. [Obs.]

A"ër*o*tax`is, n. [NL. See Aëro-; Taxis.] (Bacteriology)

Defn: The positive or negative stimulus exerted by oxygen on aërobic and anaërobic bacteria. — A`ër*o*tac"tic (#), a.

A`ër*o*ther`a*pen"tics, n. [Aëro- + therapeutics.] (Med.)

Defn: Treatment of disease by the use of air or other gases.

A"ër*o*yacht`, n. [Aëro- + yacht.]

Defn: A form of hydro-aëroplane; a flying boat.

AERUGINOUS Æ*ru"gi*nous (, a. Etym: [L. aeruginosus, fr. aerugo rust of copper, fr. aes copper: cf. F. érugineux.]

Defn: Of the nature or color of verdigris, or the rust of copper.

Æ*ru"go (, n. Etym: [L. aes brass, copper.]

Defn: The rust of any metal, esp. of brass or copper; verdigris.

Ae"ry (, n.

Defn: An aerie.

A"ër*y (, a. Etym: [See Air.]

Defn: Aërial; ethereal; incorporeal; visionary. [Poetic] M. Arnold.

Æs`cu*la"pi*an (, a.

Defn: Pertaining to Æsculapius or to the healing art; medical; medicinal.

Æs`cu*la"pi*us (, n. Etym: [L. Aesculapius, Gr. (Myth.)

Defn: The god of medicine. Hence, a physician.

Æs"cu*lin (, n.

Defn: Same as Esculin.

Æ"sir, n. pl. [Icel., pl. of ass god.]

Defn: In the old Norse mythology, the gods Odin, Thor, Loki, Balder,
Frigg, and the others. Their home was called Asgard.

Æ*so"pi*an, E*so"pi*an (, a. Etym: [L. Aesopius, from Gr. (.]

Defn: Of or pertaining to Æsop, or in his manner.

Æ*sop"ic, E*sop"ic (, a. Etym: [L. Aesopicus, Gr.

Defn: Same as Æsopian.

Æs*the"si*a (, n. Etym: [Gr. (Physiol.)

Defn: Perception by the senses; feeling; — the opposite of anæsthesia.

AESTHESIOMETER; ESTHESIOMETER Æs*the`si*om"e*ter, Es*the`si*om"e*ter (, n. Etym: [Gr. Æsthesia) + - meter.]

Defn: An instrument to measure the degree of sensation, by determining at how short a distance two impressions upon the skin can be distinguished, and thus to determine whether the condition of tactile sensibility is normal or altered.

Æs*the""sis (, n. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Sensuous perception. [R.] Ruskin.

Æs`the*sod"ic (, a. Etym: [Gr. esthésodique.] (Physiol.)

Defn: Conveying sensory or afferent impulses; — said of nerves.

Æs"thete (, n. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: One who makes much or overmuch of æsthetics. [Recent]

Æs*thet"ic (, Æs*thet"ic*al (, a.

Defn: Of or Pertaining to æsthetics; versed in æsthetics; as, æsthetic studies, emotions, ideas, persons, etc. — Æs*thet"ic*al*ly, adv.

Æs`the*ti"can, n.

Defn: One versed in æsthetics.

Æs*thet"i*cism, n.

Defn: The doctrine of æsthetics; æsthetic principles; devotion to the beautiful in nature and art. Lowell.

Æs*thet"ics, Es*thet"ics (, n. Etym: [Gr. ästhetik, F. esthétique.]

Defn: The theory or philosophy of taste; the science of the beautiful in nature and art; esp. that which treats of the expression and embodiment of beauty by art.

Æs`tho-phys`i*ol"o*gy(#), n. Etym: [Gr. physiology.]

Defn: The science of sensation in relation to nervous action. H.

Æs"ti*val, a. Etym: [L. aestivalis, aestivus, fr. aestas summer.]

Defn: Of or belonging to the summer; as, æstival diseases. [Spelt also estival.]

Æs"ti*vate, v. i. Etym: [L. aestivare, aestivatum.]

1. To spend the summer.

2. (Zoöl.)

Defn: To pass the summer in a state of torpor. [Spelt also estivate.]

Æs`ti*va"tion, n.

1. (Zoöl.)

Defn: The state of torpidity induced by the heat and dryness of summer, as in certain snails; — opposed to hibernation.

2. (Bot.)

Defn: The arrangement of the petals in a flower bud, as to folding, overlapping, etc.; prefloration. Gray. [Spelt also estivation.]

Æs"tu*a*ry, n. & a.

Defn: See Estuary.

Æs"tu*ous, a. Etym: [L. aestuosus, fr. aestus fire, glow.]

Defn: Glowing; agitated, as with heat.

A*ë`the*og"a*mous, a. Etym: [Gr. (Bot.)

Defn: Propagated in an unusual way; cryptogamous.

Æ"ther, n.

Defn: See Ether.

Æ"thi*ops min"er*al. (Chem.)

Defn: Same as Ethiops mineral. [Obs.]

Æth"o*gen, n. Etym: [Gr. -gen.] (Chem.)

Defn: A compound of nitrogen and boro

Æ"thri*o*scope, n. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: An instrument consisting in part of a differential thermometer. It is used for measuring changes of temperature produced by different conditions of the sky, as when clear or clouded.

Æ`ti*o*log"ic*al, a.

Defn: Pertaining to ætiology; assigning a cause.
 — Æ`ti*o*log"ic*al*ly, adv.

Æ`ti*ol"o*gy, n. Etym: [L. aetologia, Gr. étiologie.]

1. The science, doctrine, or demonstration of causes; esp., the investigation of the causes of any disease; the science of the origin and development of things.

2. The assignment of a cause.

A`ë*ti"tes, n. Etym: [L., fr. Gr.

Defn: See Eaglestone.

A*far", adv. Etym: [Pref. a-.(for on or of) + far.]

Defn: At, to, or from a great distance; far away; — often used with
from preceding, or off following; as, he was seen from afar; I saw
him afar off.
The steep where Fame's proud temple shines afar. Beattie.

A*feard", p. a. Etym: [OE. afered, AS. af, p. p. of af to frighten;
a- (cf. Goth. us-, Ger. er-, orig. meaning out) + fran to frighten.
See Fear.]

Defn: Afraid. [Obs.]
Be not afeard; the isle is full of noises. Shak.

A"fer, n. Etym: [L.]

Defn: The southwest wind. Milton.

Af`fa*bil"i*ty, n. Etym: [L. affabilitas: cf. F. affabilité.]

Defn: The quality of being affable; readiness to converse;
courteousness in receiving others and in conversation; complaisant
Affability is of a wonderful efficacy or power in procuring love.

AFFABLE Af"fa*ble, a. Etym: [F. affable, L. affabilis, fr. affari to speak to; ad + fari to speak. See Fable.]

1. Easy to be spoken to or addressed; receiving others kindly and conversing with them in a free and friendly manner; courteous; sociable. An affable and courteous gentleman. Shak. His manners polite and affable. Macaulay.

2. Gracious; mild; benign. A serene and affable countenance. Tatler.

Syn. — Courteous; civil; complaisant; accessible; mild; benign; condescending.

Af"fa*ble*ness, n.

Defn: Affability.

Af"fa*bly, adv.

Defn: In an affable manner; courteously.

Af"fa*brous, a. Etym: [L. affaber workmanlike; ad + faber.]

Defn: Executed in a workmanlike manner; ingeniously made. [R.]

AFFAIR Af*fair", n. Etym: [OE. afere, affere, OF. afaire, F. affaire, fr. a faire to do; L.. ad + facere to do. See Fact, and cf. Ado.]

1. That which is done or is to be done; matter; concern; as, a difficult affair to manage; business of any kind, commercial, professional, or public; — often in the plural. "At the head of affairs." Junius. "A talent for affairs." Prescott.

2. Any proceeding or action which it is wished to refer to or characterize vaguely; as, an affair of honor, i. e., a duel; an affair of love, i. e., an intrigue.

3. (Mil.)

Defn: An action or engagement not of sufficient magnitude to be called a battle.

4. Action; endeavor. [Obs.] And with his best affair Obeyed the pleasure of the Sun. Chapman.

5. A material object (vaguely designated). A certain affair of fine red cloth much worn and faded. Hawthorne.

Af*fam"ish, v. t. & i. Etym: [F. affamer, fr. L. ad + fames hunger.
See Famish.]

Defn: To afflict with, or perish from, hunger. [Obs.] Spenser.

Af*fam"ish*ment, n.

Defn: Starvation. Bp. Hall.

Af*fat"u*ate, v. t. Etym: [L. ad + fatuus foolish.]

Defn: To infatuate. [Obs.] Milton.

Af*fear", v. t. Etym: [OE. aferen, AS. af. See Afeard.]

Defn: To frighten. [Obs.] Spenser.

Af*fect", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Affected; p. pr. & vb. n. Affecting.]
Etym: [L. affectus, p. p. of afficere to affect by active agency; ad
+ facere to make: cf. F. affectere, L. affectare, freq. of afficere.
See Fact.]

1. To act upon; to produce an effect or change upon. As might affect the earth with cold heat. Milton. The climate affected their health and spirits. Macaulay.

2. To influence or move, as the feelings or passions; to touch. A consideration of the rationale of our passions seems to me very necessary for all who would affect them upon solid and pure principles.

3. To love; to regard with affection. [Obs.] As for Queen Katharine, he rather respected than affected, rather honored than loved, her. Fuller.

4. To show a fondness for; to like to use or practice; to choose; hence, to frequent habitually. For he does neither affect company, nor is he fit for Shak. Do not affect the society of your inferiors in rank, nor court that of the great. Hazlitt.

5. To dispose or incline. Men whom they thought best affected to religion and their country's liberty. Milton.

6. To aim at; to aspire; to covet. [Obs.] This proud man affects imperial Dryden.

7. To tend to by affinity or disposition. The drops of every fluid affect a round figure. Newton.

8. To make a show of; to put on a pretense of; to feign; to assume; as, to affect ignorance. Careless she is with artful care, Affecting to seem unaffected. Congreve. Thou dost affect my manners. Shak.

9. To assign; to appoint. [R.] One of the domestics was affected to his special service. Thackeray.

Syn. — To influence; operate; act on; concern; move; melt; soften; subdue; overcome; pretend; assume.

Af*fect", n. Etym: [L. affectus.]

Defn: Affection; inclination; passion; feeling; disposition. [Obs.]

Af`fec*ta"tion, n. Etym: [L. affectatio: cf. F. affectation.]

1. An attempt to assume or exhibit what is not natural or real; false display; artificial show. "An affectation of contempt." Macaulay. Affectation is an awkward and forced imitation of what should be genuine and easy, wanting the beauty that accompanies what is natural what is natural. Locke.

2. A striving after. [Obs.] Bp. Pearson.

3. Fondness; affection. [Obs.] Hooker.

Af`fec*ta"tion*ist, n.

Defn: One who exhibits affectation. [R.] Fitzed. Hall.

Af*fect"ed, p. p. & a.

1. Regarded with affection; beloved. [Obs.] His affected Hercules. Chapman.

2. Inclined; disposed; attached. How stand you affected his wish Shak.

3. Given to false show; assuming or pretending to posses what is not natural or real. He is . . . too spruce, too affected, too odd. Shak.

4. Assumed artificially; not natural. Affected coldness and indifference. Addison.

5. (Alg.)

Defn: Made up of terms involving different powers of the unknown quantity; adfected; as, an affected equation.

Af*fect"ed*ly, adv.

1. In an affected manner; hypocritically; with more show than reality.

2. Lovingly; with tender care. [Obs.] Shak.

Af*fect"ed*ness, n.

Defn: Affectation.

Af*fect"er, n.

Defn: One who affects, assumes, pretends, or strives after.
"Affecters of wit." Abp. Secker.

Af*fect`i*bil"i*ty, n.

Defn: The quality or state of being affectible. [R.]

Af*fect"i*ble, a.

Defn: That may be affected. [R.] Lay aside the absolute, and, by union with the creaturely, become affectible. Coleridge.

Af*fect"ing, a.

1. Moving the emotions; fitted to excite the emotions; pathetic; touching; as, an affecting address; an affecting sight. The most affecting music is generally the most simple.

2. Affected; given to false show. [Obs.] A drawling; affecting rouge. Shak.

Af*fect"ing*ly, adv.

Defn: In an affecting manner; is a manner to excite emotions.

Af*fec"tion, n. Etym: [F. affection, L. affectio, fr. afficere. See

1. The act of affecting or acting upon; the state of being affected.

2. An attribute; a quality or property; a condition; a bodily state; as, figure, weight, etc. , are affections of bodies. "The affections of quantity." Boyle. And, truly, waking dreams were, more or less, An old and strange affection of the house. Tennyson.

3. Bent of mind; a feeling or natural impulse or natural impulse acting upon and swaying the mind; any emotion; as, the benevolent affections, esteem, gratitude, etc. ; the malevolent affections, hatred, envy, etc.; inclination; disposition; propensity; tendency. Affection is applicable to an unpleasant as well as a pleasant state of the mind, when impressed by any object or quality. Cogan.

4. A settled good will; kind feeling; love; zealous or tender attachment; — often in the pl. Formerly followed by to, but now more generally by for or towards; as, filial, social, or conjugal affections; to have an affection for or towards children. All his affections are set on his own country. Macaulay.

5. Prejudice; bias. [Obs.] Bp. Aylmer.

6. (Med.)

Defn: Disease; morbid symptom; malady; as, a pulmonary affection.

7. The lively representation of any emotion. Wotton.

8. Affectation. [Obs.] "Spruce affection." Shak.

9. Passion; violent emotion. [Obs.] Most wretched man, That to affections does the bridle lend. Spenser.

Syn. — Attachment; passion; tenderness; fondness; kindness; love; good will. See Attachment; Disease.

Af*fec"tion*al, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to the affections; as, affectional impulses; an affectional nature.

Af*fec"tion*ate, a. Etym: [Cf. F. affectionné.]

1. Having affection or warm regard; loving; fond; as, an affectionate brother.

2. Kindly inclined; zealous. [Obs.] Johson. Man, in his love God, and desire to please him, can never be too affectionate. Sprat.

3. Proceeding from affection; indicating love; tender; as, the affectionate care of a parent; affectionate countenance, message, language.

4. Strongly inclined; — with to. [Obs.] Bacon.

 — Tender; attached; loving; devoted; warm; fond; earnest; ardent.

Af*fec"tion*a`ted, a.

Defn: Disposed; inclined. [Obs.]
Affectionated to the people. Holinshed.

Af*fec"tion*ate*ly, adv.

Defn: With affection; lovingly; fondly; tenderly; kindly.

Af*fec"tion*ate*ness, n.

Defn: The quality of being affectionate; fondness; affection.

Af*fec"tioned, a.

1. Disposed. [Archaic] Be kindly affectioned one to another. Rom. xii. 10.

2. Affected; conceited. [Obs.] Shak.

Af*fec"tive, a. Etym: [Cf. F. affectif.]

1. Tending to affect; affecting. [Obs.] Burnet.

2. Pertaining to or exciting emotion; affectional; emotional. Rogers.

Af*fec"tive*ly, adv.

Defn: In an affective manner; impressively; emotionally.

Af*fec"tu*ous, a. Etym: [L. affectuous: cf. F. affectueux. See

Defn: Full of passion or emotion; earnest. [Obs.] —
Af*fec"tu*ous*ly, adv. [Obs.] Fabyan.

AFFEER Af*feer", v. t. Etym: [OF. aforer, afeurer, to tax, appraise, assess, fr. L. ad + forum market, court of justice, in LL. also meaning pri.]

1. To confirm; to assure. [Obs.] "The title is affeered." Shak.

2. (Old Law)

Defn: To assess or reduce, as an arbitrary penalty or amercement, to a certain and reasonable sum. Amercements . . . were affeered by the judges. Blackstone.

Af*feer"er, Af*feer"or, n. Etym: [OF. aforeur, LL. afforator.] (Old

Defn: One who affeers. Cowell.

Af*feer"ment, n. Etym: [Cf. OF. aforement.] (Old Law)

Defn: The act of affeering. Blackstone.

AFFERENT Af"fer*ent, a. Etym: [L. afferens, p. pr. of afferre; ad + ferre to bear.] (Physiol.)

Defn: Bearing or conducting inwards to a part or organ; — opposed to efferent; as, afferent vessels; afferent nerves, which convey sensations from the external organs to the brain.

Af*fet`tu*o"so, adv. Etym: [It.] (Mus.)

Defn: With feeling.

AFFIANCE Af*fi"ance, n. Etym: [OE. afiaunce trust, confidence, OF. afiance, fr. afier to trust, fr. LL. affidare to trust; ad + fidare to trust, fr. L. fides faith. See Faith, and cf. Affidavit, Affy, Confidence.]

1. Plighted faith; marriage contract or promise.

2. Trust; reliance; faith; confidence. Such feelings promptly yielded to his habitual affiance in the divine love. Sir J. Stephen. Lancelot, my Lancelot, thou in whom I have Most joy and most affiance. Tennyson.

AFFIANCE Af*fi"ance, v. t. [imp. Affianced; p. pr. Affiancing.] Etym: [Cf. OF. afiancier, fr. afiance.]

1. To betroth; to pledge one's faith to for marriage, or solemnly promise (one's self or another) in marriage. To me, sad maid, he was affianced. Spenser.

2. To assure by promise. [Obs.] Pope.

Af*fi"an*cer, n.

Defn: One who makes a contract of marriage between two persons.

Af*fi"ant, n. Etym: [From p. pr. of OF. afier, LL. affidare. See
Affidavit.] (Law)

Defn: One who makes an affidavit. [U. S.] Burrill.

 — Deponent. See Deponent.

Af`fiche", n. [F., fr. afficher to affix.]

Defn: A written or printed notice to be posted, as on a wall; a poster; a placard.

AFFIDAVIT Af`fi*da"vit, n. Etym: [LL. affidavit he has made oath, perfect tense of affidare. See Affiance, Affy.] (Law)

Defn: A sworn statement in writing; a declaration in writing, signed and made upon oath before an authorized magistrate. Bouvier. Burrill.

Note: It is always made ex parte, and without cross-examination, and in this differs from a deposition. It is also applied to written statements made on affirmation.

 — Deposition. See Deposition.

AFFILE Af*file", v. t. Etym: [OF. afiler, F. affiler, to sharpen; a (L. ad) + fil thread, edge.]

Defn: To polish. [Obs.]

Af*fil"i*a*ble, a.

Defn: Capable of being affiliated to or on, or connected with in origin.

Af*fil"i*ate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Affiliated; p. pr. & vb. n.
Affiliating.] Etym: [LL. adfiliare, affiliare, to adopt as son; ad +
filius son: cf. F. affilier.]

1. To adopt; to receive into a family as a son; hence, to bring or receive into close connection; to ally. Is the soul affiliated to God, or is it estranged and in rebellion I. Taylor.

2. To fix the paternity of; — said of an illegitimate child; as, to affiliate the child to (or on or upon) one man rather than another.

3. To connect in the way of descent; to trace origin to. How do these facts tend to affiliate the faculty of hearing upon the aboriginal vegetative processes H. Spencer.

4. To attach (to) or unite (with); to receive into a society as a member, and initiate into its mysteries, plans, etc.; — followed by to or with. Affiliated societies, societies connected with a central society, or with each other.

Af*fil"i*ate, v. i.

Defn: To connect or associate one's self; — followed by with; as, they affiliate with no party.

Af*fil`i*a"tion, n. Etym: [F. affiliation, LL. affiliatio.]

1. Adoption; association or reception as a member in or of the same family or society.

2. (Law)

Defn: The establishment or ascertaining of parentage; the assignment of a child, as a bastard, to its father; filiation.

3. Connection in the way of descent. H. Spencer.

Af*fi"nal, a. Etym: [L. affinis.]

Defn: Related by marriage; from the same source.

Af*fine", v. t. Etym: [F. affiner to refine; (L. ad) + fin fine. See

Defn: To refine. [Obs.] Holland.

AFFINED Af*fined", a. Etym: [OF. afiné related, p. p., fr. LL. affinare to join, fr. L. affinis neighboring, related to; ad + finis boundary, limit.]

Defn: Joined in affinity or by any tie. [Obs.] "All affined and kin."

Af*fin"i*ta*tive, a.

Defn: Of the nature of affinity.
 — Af*fin"i*ta*tive*ly, adv.

Af*fin"i*tive, a.

Defn: Closely connected, as by affinity.

Af*fin"i*ty, n.; pl. Affinities(#). Etym: [OF. afinité, F. affinité,
L. affinites, fr. affinis. See Affined.]

1. Relationship by marriage (as between a husband and his wife's blood relations, or between a wife and her husband's blood relations); — in contradistinction to consanguinity, or relationship by blood; — followed by with, to, or between. Solomon made affinity with Pharaoh. 1 Kings iii. 1.

2. Kinship generally; close agreement; relation; conformity; resemblance; connection; as, the affinity of sounds, of colors, or of languages. There is a close affinity between imposture and credulity. Sir G. C. Lewis.

2. Companionship; acquaintance. [Obs.] About forty years past, I began a happy affinity with William Cranmer. Burton.

4. (Chem.)

Defn: That attraction which takes place, at an insensible distance, between the heterogeneous particles of bodies, and unites them to form chemical compounds; chemism; chemical or elective affinity or attraction.

5. (Nat. Hist.)

Defn: A relation between species or highe

6. (Spiritualism)

Defn: A superior spiritual relationship or attraction held to exist sometimes between persons, esp. persons of the opposite sex; also, the man or woman who exerts such psychical or spiritual attraction.

Af*firm", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Affirmed; p. pr. & vb. n. Affirming.]
Etym: [OE. affermen, OF. afermer, F. affirmer, affermir, fr. L.
affirmare; ad + firmare to make firm, firmus firm. See Firm.]

1. To make firm; to confirm, or ratify; esp. (Law),

Defn: to assert or confirm, as a judgment, decree, or order, brought before an appelate court for review.

2. To assert positively; to tell with confidence; to aver; to maintain as true; — opposed to deny. Jesus, . . . whom Paul affirmed to be alive. Acts xxv. 19.

3. (Law)

Defn: To declare, as a fact, solemnly, under judicial sanction. See
Affirmation, 4.

Syn. — To assert; aver; declare; asseverate; assure; pronounce; protest; avouch; confirm; establish; ratify. — To Affirm, Asseverate, Aver, Protest. We affirm when we declare a thing as a fact or a proposition. We asseverate it in a peculiarly earnest manner, or with increased positiveness as what can not be disputed. We aver it, or formally declare it to be true, when we have positive knowledge of it. We protest in a more public manner and with the energy of perfect sincerity. People asseverate in order to produce a conviction of their veracity; they aver when they are peculiarly desirous to be believed; they protest when they wish to free themselves from imputations, or to produce a conviction of their innocence.

Af*firm", v. i.

1. To declare or assert positively. Not that I so affirm, though so it seem To thee, who hast thy dwelling here on earth. Milton.

2. (Law)

Defn: To make a solemn declaration, before an authorized magistrate or tribunal, under the penalties of perjury; to testify by affirmation.

Af*firm"a*ble, a.

Defn: Capable of being affirmed, asserted, or declared; — followed by of; as, an attribute affirmable of every just man.

Af*firm"ance, n. Etym: [Cf. OF. afermance.]

1. Confirmation; ratification; confirmation of a voidable act. This statute . . . in affirmance of the common law. Bacon.

2. A strong declaration; affirmation. Cowper.

Af*firm"ant, n. Etym: [L. affirmans, -antis, p. pr. See Affirm.]

1. One who affirms or asserts.

2. (Law)

Defn: One who affirms of taking an oath.

Af`fir*ma"tion, n. Etym: [L. affirmatio: cf. F. affirmation.]

1. Confirmation of anything established; ratification; as, the affirmation of a law. Hooker.

2. The act of affirming or asserting as true; assertion; — opposed to negation or denial.

3. That which is asserted; an assertion; a positive as, an affirmation, by the vender, of title to property sold, or of its quality.

4. (Law)

Defn: A solemn declaration made under the penalties of perjury, by persons who conscientiously decline taking an oath, which declaration is in law equivalent to an oath. Bouvier.

Af*firm"a*tive, a. Etym: [L. affirmativus: cf. F. affirmatif.]

1. Confirmative; ratifying; as, an act affirmative of common law.

2. That affirms; asserting that the fact is so; declaratory of what exists; answering "yes" to a question; — opposed to negative; as, an affirmative answer; an affirmative vote.

3. Positive; dogmatic. [Obs.] J. Taylor. Lysicles was a little by the affirmative air of Crito. Berkeley.

4. (logic)

Defn: Expressing the agreement of the two terms of a proposition.

5. (Alg.)

Defn: Positive; — a term applied to quantities which are to be added, and opposed to negative, or such as are to be subtracted.

Af*firm"a*tive, n.

1. That which affirms as opposed to that which denies; an affirmative proposition; that side of question which affirms or maintains the proposition stated; — opposed to Ant: negative; as, there were forty votes in the affirmative, and ten in the negative. Whether there are such beings or not, 't is sufficient for my purpose that many have believed the affirmative. Dryden.

2. A word or phrase expressing affirmation or assent; as, yes, that is so, etc.

Af*firm"a*tive*ly, adv.

Defn: In an affirmative manner; on the affirmative side of a question; in the affirmative; — opposed to negatively.

Af*firm"a*to*ry, a.

Defn: Giving affirmation; assertive; affirmative. Massey.

Af*firm"er, n.

Defn: One who affirms.

AFFIX Af*fix", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Affixed; p. pr. & vb. n. Affixing.] Etym: [LL. affixare, L. affixus, p. p. of affigere to fasten to; ad + figere to fasten: cf. OE. affichen, F. afficher, ultimately fr. L. affigere. See Fix.]

1. To subjoin, annex, or add at the close or end; to append to; to fix to any part of; as, to affix a syllable to a word; to affix a seal to an instrument; to affix one's name to a writing.

2. To fix or fasten in any way; to attach physically. Should they [caterpillars] affix them to the leaves of a plant improper for their food. Ray.

3. To attach, unite, or connect with; as, names affixed to ideas, or ideas affixed to things; to affix a stigma to a person; to affix ridicule or blame to any one.

4. To fix or fasten figuratively; — with on or upon; as, eyes affixed upon the ground. [Obs.] Spenser.

 — To attach; subjoin; connect; annex; unite.

AFFIX Af"fix, n.; pl. Affixes. Etym: [L. affixus, p. p. of affigere: cf. F. affixe.]

Defn: That which is affixed; an appendage; esp. one or more letters or syllables added at the end of a word; a suffix; a postfix.

Af*fix"ion, n. Etym: [L. affixio, fr. affigere.]

Defn: Affixture. [Obs.] T. Adams.

Af*fix"ture, n.

Defn: The act of affixing, or the state of being affixed; attachment.

AFFLATION Af*fla"tion, n. Etym: [L. afflatus, p. p. of afflare to blow or breathe on; ad + flare to blow.]

Defn: A blowing or breathing on; inspiration.

Af*fla"tus, n. Etym: [L., fr. afflare. See Afflation.]

1. A breath or blast of wind.

2. A divine impartation of knowledge; supernatural impulse; inspiration. A poet writing against his genius will be like a prophet without his afflatus. Spence.

Af*flict", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Afflicted; p. pr. & vb. n.
Afflicting.] Etym: [L. afflictus, p. p. of affigere to cast down,
deject; ad + fligere to strike: cf. OF. aflit, afflict, p. p. Cf.

1. To strike or cast down; to overthrow. [Obs.] "Reassembling our afflicted powers." Milton.

2. To inflict some great injury or hurt upon, causing continued pain or mental distress; to trouble grievously; to torment. They did set over them taskmasters to afflict them with their burdens. Exod. i. 11. That which was the worst now least afflicts me. Milton.

3. To make low or humble. [Obs.] Spenser. Men are apt to prefer a prosperous error before an afflicted truth. Jer. Taylor.

 — To trouble; grieve; pain; distress; harass; torment; wound; hurt.

Af*flict", p. p. & a. Etym: [L. afflictus, p. p.]

Defn: Afflicted. [Obs.] Becon.

Af*flict"ed*ness, n.

Defn: The state of being afflicted; affliction. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.

Af*flict"er, n.

Defn: One who afflicts.

Af*flict"ing, a.

Defn: Grievously painful; distressing; afflictive; as, an afflicting
 — Af*flict"ing*ly, adv.

Af*flic"tion, n. Etym: [F. affliction, L. afflictio, fr. affligere.]

1. The cause of continued pain of body or mind, as sickness, losses, etc.; an instance of grievous distress; a pain or grief. To repay that money will be a biting affliction. Shak.

2. The state of being afflicted; a state of pain, distress, or grief. Some virtues are seen only in affliction. Addison.

Syn. — Calamity; sorrow; distress; grief; pain; adversity; misery; wretchedness; misfortune; trouble; hardship. — Affliction, Sorrow, Grief, Distress. Affliction and sorrow are terms of wide and general application; grief and distress have reference to particular cases. Affliction is the stronger term. The suffering lies deeper in the soul, and usually arises from some powerful cause, such as the loss of what is most dear — friends, health, etc. We do not speak of mere sickness or pain as "an affliction," though one who suffers from either is said to be afflicted; but deprivations of every kind, such as deafness, blindness, loss of limbs, etc., are called afflictions, showing that term applies particularly to prolonged sources of suffering. Sorrow and grief are much alike in meaning, but grief is the stronger term of the two, usually denoting poignant mental suffering for some definite cause, as, grief for the death of a dear friend; sorrow is more reflective, and is tinged with regret, as, the misconduct of a child is looked upon with sorrow. Grief is often violent and demonstrative; sorrow deep and brooding. Distress implies extreme suffering, either bodily or mental. In its higher stages, it denotes pain of a restless, agitating kind, and almost always supposes some struggle of mind or body. Affliction is allayed, grief subsides, sorrow is soothed, distress is mitigated.

Af*flic"tion*less, a.

Defn: Free from affliction.

Af*flic"tive, a. Etym: [Cf. F. afflictif.]

Defn: Giving pain; causing continued or repeated pain or grief; distressing. "Jove's afflictive hand." Pope. Spreads slow disease, and darts afflictive pain. Prior.

Af*flic"tive*ly, adv.

Defn: In an afflictive manner.

AFFLUENCE Af"flu*ence, n. Etym: [F. affluence, L. affluentia, fr. affluens, p. pr. of affluere to flow to; ad + fluere to flow. See Flux.]

1. A flowing to or towards; a concourse; an influx. The affluence of young nobles from hence into Spain. Wotton. There is an unusual affluence of strangers this year. Carlyle.

2. An abundant supply, as of thought, words, feelings, etc.; profusion; also, abundance of property; wealth. And old age of elegance, affluence, and ease. Coldsmith.

Syn. — Abundance; riches; profusion; exuberance; plenty; wealth; opulence.

Af"flu*en*cy, n.

Defn: Affluence. [Obs.] Addison.

Af"flu*ent, a. Etym: [Cf. F. affluent, L. affluens, -entis, p. pr.
See Affluence.]

1. Flowing to; flowing abundantly. "Affluent blood." Harvey.

2. Abundant; copious; plenteous; hence, wealthy; abounding in goods or riches. Language . . . affluent in expression. H. Reed. Loaded and blest with all the affluent store, Which human vows at smoking shrines implore. Prior.

Af"flu*ent, n.

Defn: A stream or river flowing into a larger river or into a lake; a tributary stream.

Af"flu*ent*ly, adv.

Defn: Abundantly; copiously.

Af*flu*ent*ness, n.

Defn: Great plenty. [R.]

Af"flux`, n. Etym: [L. affluxum, p. p. of affluere: cf. F. afflux.
See Affluence.]

Defn: A flowing towards; that which flows to; as, an afflux of blood to the head.

Af*flux"ion, n.

Defn: The act of flowing towards; afflux. Sir T. Browne.

Af"fo*dill, n.

Defn: Asphodel. [Obs.]

AFFORCE Af*force", v. t. Etym: [OF. afforcier, LL. affortiare; ad + fortiare, fr. L. fortis strong.]

Defn: To reënforce; to strengthen. Hallam.

Af*force"ment, n. Etym: [OF.]

1. A fortress; a fortification for defense. [Obs.] Bailey.

2. A reënforcement; a strengthening. Hallam.

Af*for"ci*a*ment, n.

Defn: See Afforcement. [Obs.]

Af*ford", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Afforded; p. pr. & vb. n. Affording.]
Etym: [OE. aforthen, AS. gefor, for, to further, accomplish, afford,
fr. for forth, forward. The prefix ge- has no well defined sense. See

1. To give forth; to supply, yield, or produce as the natural result, fruit, or issue; as, grapes afford wine; olives afford oil; the earth affords fruit; the sea affords an abundant supply of fish.

2. To give, grant, or confer, with a remoter reference to its being the natural result; to provide; to furnish; as, a good life affords consolation in old age. His tuneful Muse affords the sweetest numbers. Addison. The quiet lanes . . . afford calmer retreats. Gilpin.

3. To offer, provide, or supply, as in selling, granting, expending, with profit, or without loss or too great injury; as, A affords his goods cheaper than B; a man can afford a sum yearly in charity.

4. To incur, stand, or bear without serious detriment, as an act which might under other circumstances be injurious; — with an auxiliary, as can, could, might, etc.; to be able or rich enough. The merchant can afford to trade for smaller profits. Hamilton. He could afford to suffer With those whom he saw suffer. Wordsworth.

Af*ford"a*ble, a.

Defn: That may be afforded.

Af*ford"ment, n.

Defn: Anything given as a help; bestowal. [Obs.]

Af*for"est, v. t. Etym: [LL. afforestare; ad + forestare. See

Defn: To convert into a forest; as, to afforest a tract of country.

Af*for`es*ta"tion, n.

Defn: The act of converting into forest or woodland. Blackstone.

Af*form"a*tive, n.

Defn: An affix.

Af*fran"chise, v. t. Etym: [F. affranchir; (L. ad) + franc free. See
Franchise and Frank.]

Defn: To make free; to enfranchise. Johnson.

Af*fran"chise*ment, n. Etym: [Cf. F. affranchissement.]

Defn: The act of making free; enfranchisement. [R.]

AFFRAP Af*frap", v. t. & i. Etym: [Cf. It. affrappare, frappare, to cut, mince, F. frapper to strike. See Frap.]

Defn: To strike, or strike down. [Obs.] Spenser.

AFFRAY Af*fray", v. t. [p. p. Affrayed.] Etym: [OE. afraien, affraien, OF. effreer, esfreer, F. effrayer, orig. to disquiet, put out of peace, fr. L. ex + OHG. fridu peace (akin to E. free). Cf. Afraid, Fray, Frith inclosure.] [Archaic]

1. To startle from quiet; to alarm. Smale foules a great heap That had afrayed [affrayed] me out of my sleep. Chaucer.

2. To frighten; to scare; to frighten away. That voice doth us affray. Shak.

AFFRAY Af*fray", n. Etym: [OE. afrai, affrai, OF. esfrei, F. effroi, fr. OF. esfreer. See Affray, v. t.]

1. The act of suddenly disturbing any one; an assault or attack. [Obs.]

2. Alarm; terror; fright. [Obs.] Spenser.

3. A tumultuous assault or quarrel; a brawl; a fray. "In the very midst of the affray." Motley.

4. (Law)

Defn: The fighting of two or more persons, in a public place, to the terror of others. Blackstone.

Note: A fighting in private is not, in a legal sense, an affray.

Syn. — Quarrel; brawl; scuffle; encounter; fight; contest; feud; tumult; disturbance.

Af*fray"er, n.

Defn: One engaged in an affray.

Af*fray"ment, n.

Defn: Affray. [Obs.] Spenser.

Af*freight", v. t. Etym: [Pref. ad- + freight: cf. F. affréter. See

Defn: To hire, as a ship, for the transportation of goods or freight.

Af*freight"er, n.

Defn: One who hires or charters a ship to convey goods.

Af*freight"ment, n. Etym: [Cf. F. affrétement.]

Defn: The act of hiring, or the contract for the use of, a vessel, or some part of it, to convey cargo.

Af*fret", n. Etym: [Cf. It. affrettare to hasten, fretta haste.]

Defn: A furious onset or attack. [Obs.] Spenser.

AFFRICATE Af"fri*cate, n. [L. affricatus, p. p. of affricare to rub against; af- = ad- + fricare to rub.] (Phon.)

Defn: A combination of a stop, or explosive, with an immediately following fricative or spirant of corresponding organic position, as pf in german Pfeffer, pepper, z (= ts) in German Zeit, time.

Af*fric"tion, n. Etym: [L. affricare to rub on. See Friction.]

Defn: The act of rubbing against. [Obs.]

Af*friend"ed, p. p.

Defn: Made friends; reconciled. [Obs.] "Deadly foes . . . affriended." Spenser.

AFFRIGHT Af*fright", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Affrighted; p. pr. & vb. n. Affrighting.] Etym: [Orig. p. p.; OE. afright, AS. afyrhtan to terrify; a- (cf. Goth. us-, Ger. er-, orig. meaning out) + fyrhto fright. See Fright.]

Defn: To impress with sudden fear; to frighten; to alarm.
Dreams affright our souls. Shak.
A drear and dying sound Affrights the flamens at their service
quaint. Milton.

Syn. — To terrify; frighten; alarm; dismay; appall; scare; startle; daunt; intimidate.

Af*fright", p. a.

Defn: Affrighted. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Af*fright", n.

1. Sudden and great fear; terror. It expresses a stronger impression than fear, or apprehension, perhaps less than terror. He looks behind him with affright, and forward with despair. Goldsmith.

2. The act of frightening; also, a cause of terror; an object of dread. B. Jonson.

Af*fright"ed*ly, adv.

Defn: With fright. Drayton.

Af*fright"en, v. t.

Defn: To frighten. [Archaic] "Fit tales . . . to affrighten babes."

Af*fright"er, n.

Defn: One who frightens. [Archaic]

Af*fright"ful, a.

Defn: Terrifying; frightful.
 — Af*fright"ful*ly, adv. [Archaic]
Bugbears or affrightful apparitions. Cudworth.

Af*fright"ment, n.

Defn: Affright; the state of being frightened; sudden fear or alarm.
Passionate words or blows . . . fill the child's mind with terror and
affrightment. Locke.

Af*front", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Affronted; p. pr. & vb. n.
Affronting.] Etym: [OF. afronter, F. affronter, to confront, LL.
affrontare to strike against, fr. L. ad + frons forehead, front. See

1. To front; to face in position; to meet or encounter face to face.
All the sea-coasts do affront the Levant. Holland.
That he, as 't were by accident, may here Affront Ophelia. Shak.

2. To face in defiance; to confront; as, to confront; as, to affront death; hence, to meet in hostile encounter. [Archaic]

3. To offend by some manifestation of disrespect; to insult to the face by demeanor or language; to treat with marked incivility. How can any one imagine that the fathers would have dared to affront the wife of Aurelius Addison.

Syn. — TO insult; abuse; outrage; wound; illtreat; slight; defy; offend; provoke; pique; nettle.

Af*front", n. Etym: [Cf. F. affront, fr. affronter.]

1. An encounter either friendly or hostile. [Obs.] I walked about, admired of all, and dreaded On hostile ground, none daring my affront. Milton.

2. Contemptuous or rude treatment which excites or justifies resentment; marked disrespect; a purposed indignity; insult. Offering an affront to our understanding. Addison.

3. An offense to one's self-respect; shame. Arbuthnot.

Syn. — Affront, Insult, Outrage. An affront is a designed mark of disrespect, usually in the presence of others. An insult is a personal attack either by words or actions, designed to humiliate or degrade. An outrage is an act of extreme and violent insult or abuse. An affront piques and mortifies; an insult irritates and provokes; an outrage wounds and injures. Captious persons construe every innocent freedom into an affront. When people are in a state of animosity, they seek opportunities of offering each other insults. Intoxication or violent passion impels men to the commission of outrages. Crabb.

Af*fron*té", a. Etym: [F. affronté, p. p.] (Her.)

Defn: Face to face, or front to front; facing.

Af*front"ed*ly, adv.

Defn: Shamelessly. [Obs.] Bacon.

Af*fron*tee", n.

Defn: One who receives an affront. Lytton.

Af*front"er, n.

Defn: One who affronts, or insults to the face.

Af*front"ing*ly, adv.

Defn: In an affronting manner.

Af*front"ive, a.

Defn: Tending to affront or offend; offensive; abusive.
How affrontive it is to despise mercy. South.

Af*front"ive*ness, n.

Defn: The quality that gives an affront or offense. [R.] Bailey.

Af*fuse", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Affused; p. pr. & vb. n. Affusing.]
Etym: [L. affusus, p. p. of affundere to pour to; ad + fundere. See

Defn: To pour out or upon. [R.]
I first affused water upon the compressed beans. Boyle.

Af*fu"sion, n. Etym: [Cf. F. affusion.]

Defn: The act of pouring upon, or sprinkling with a liquid, as water upon a child in baptism. Specifically: (Med)

Defn: The act of pouring water or other fluid on the whole or a part of the body, as a remedy in disease. Dunglison.

AFFY Af*fy", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Affied; p. pr. Affying.] Etym: [OF. afier, LL. affidare. Cf. Affiance.]

1. To confide (one's self to, or in); to trust. [Obs.]

2. To betroth or espouse; to affiance. [Obs.] Shak.

3. To bind in faith. [Obs.] Bp. Montagu.

Af*fy", v. i.

Defn: To trust or confide. [Obs.] Shak.

Af"ghan, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to Afghanistan.

Af"ghan, n.

1. A native of Afghanistan.

2. A kind of worsted blanket or wrap.

A*field", adv. Etym: [Pref. a- + field.]

1. To, in, or on the field. "We drove afield." Milton. How jocund did they drive their team afield! Gray.

2. Out of the way; astray. Why should he wander afield at the age of fifty-five! Trollope.

A*fire", adv. & a. Etym: [Pref. a- + fire.]

Defn: On fire.

A*flame", adv. & a. Etym: [Pref. a- + flame.]

Defn: Inflames; glowing with light or passion; ablaze. G. Eliot.

A*flat", adv. Etym: [Pref. a- + flat.]

Defn: Level with the ground; flat. [Obs.] Bacon.

A*flaunt", adv. & a. Etym: [Pref. a- + flaunt.]

Defn: In a flaunting state or position. Copley.

A*flick"er, adv. & a. Etym: [Pref. a- + flicker.]

Defn: In a flickering state.

A*float", adv. & a. Etym: [Pref. a- + float.]

1. Borne on the water; floating; on board ship. On such a full sea are we now afloat. Shak.

2. Moving; passing from place to place; in general circulation; as, a rumor is afloat.

3. Unfixed; moving without guide or control; adrift; as, our affairs are all afloat.

A*flow", adv. & a. Etym: [Pref. a- + flow.]

Defn: Flowing.
Their founts aflow with tears. R. Browning.

A*flush", adv. & a. Etym: [Pref. a- + flush, n.]

Defn: In a flushed or blushing state.

A*flush", adv. & a. Etym: [Pref. a- + flush, a.]

Defn: On a level.
The bank is . . . aflush with the sea. Swinburne.

A*flut"ter, adv. & a. Etym: [Pref. a- + flutter.]

Defn: In a flutter; agitated.

A*foam", adv. & a. Etym: [Pref. a- + foam.]

Defn: In a foaming state; as, the sea is all afoam.

A. F. OF L.
A. F. of L. (Abbrev.)

Defn: American Federation of Labor.

A*foot", adv. Etym: [Pref. a- + foot.]

1. On foot. We 'll walk afoot a while. Shak.

2. Fig.: In motion; in action; astir; in progress. The matter being afoot. Shak.

AFORE A*fore", adv. Etym: [OE. afore, aforn, AS. onforan or ætforan; pref. a- + fore.]

1. Before. [Obs.] If he have never drunk wine afore. Shak.

2. (Naut.)

Defn: In the fore part of a vessel.

A*fore", prep.

1. Before (in all its senses). [Archaic]

2. (Naut.)

Defn: Before; in front of; farther forward than; as, afore the windlass. Afore the mast, among the common sailors; — a phrase used to distinguish the ship's crew from the officers.

A*fore"cit`ed, a.

Defn: Named or quoted before.

A*fore"go`ing, a.

Defn: Going before; foregoing.

A*fore"hand` adv.

Defn: Beforehand; in anticipation. [Archaic or Dial.]
She is come aforehand to anoint my body. Mark xiv. 8.

A*fore"hand`, a.

Defn: Prepared; previously provided; — opposed to behindhand.
[Archaic or Dial.]
Aforehand in all matters of power. Bacon.

A*fore"men`tioned, a.

Defn: Previously mentioned; before-mentioned. Addison.

A*fore"named`, a.

Defn: Named before. Peacham.

A*fore"said`, a.

Defn: Said before, or in a preceding part; already described or identified.

A*fore"thought`, a.

Defn: Premeditated; prepense; previously in mind; designed; as, malice aforethought, which is required to constitute murder. Bouvier.

A*fore"thought`, n.

Defn: Premeditation.

A*fore"time`, adv.

Defn: In time past; formerly. "He prayed . . . as he did aforetime."
Dan. vi. 10.

A for`ti*o"ri. Etym: [L.] (Logic & Math.)

Defn: With stronger reason.

A*foul", adv. & a. Etym: [Pref. a- + foul.]

Defn: In collision; entangled. Totten. To run afoul of, to run against or come into collision with, especially so as to become entangled or to cause injury.

AFRAID A*fraid", p. a. Etym: [OE. afrayed, affraide, p. p. of afraien to affray. See Affray, and cf. Afeard.]

Defn: Impressed with fear or apprehension; in fear; apprehensive. [Afraid comes after the noun it limits.] "Back they recoiled, afraid." Milton.

Note: This word expresses a less degree of fear than terrified or frightened. It is followed by of before the object of fear, or by the infinitive, or by a dependent clause; as, to be afraid of death. "I am afraid to die." "I am afraid he will chastise me." "Be not afraid that I your hand should take." Shak. I am afraid is sometimes used colloquially to soften a statement; as, I am afraid I can not help you in this matter.

 — Fearful; timid; timorous; alarmed; anxious.

Af"reet, n.

Defn: Same as Afrit.

A*fresh", adv. Etym: [Pref. a- + fresh.]

Defn: Anew; again; once more; newly.
They crucify . . . the Son of God afresh. Heb. vi. 6.

Af"ric, a.

Defn: African.
 — n.

Defn: Africa. [Poetic]

Af"ri*can, a. Etym: [L. Africus, Africanus, fr. Afer African.]

Defn: Of or pertaining to Africa. African hemp, a fiber prerared from
the leaves of the Sanseviera Guineensis, a plant found in Africa and
 — African marigold, a tropical American plant (Tagetes erecta).
 — African oak or African teak, a timber furnished by Oldfieldia
Africana, used in ship building. African violet African-American, a
United States citizen of African descent.

Af"ri*can, n.

Defn: A native of Africa; also one ethnologically belonging to an
African race.

Af`ri*can"der, n.

Defn: One born in Africa, the offspring of a white father and a "colored" mother. Also, and now commonly in Southern Africa, a native born of European settlers.

Af"ri*can*ism, n.

Defn: A word, phrase, idiom, or custom peculiar to Africa or
Africans. "The knotty Africanisms . . . of the fathers." Milton.

Af"ri*can*ize, v. t.

Defn: To place under the domination of Africans or negroes. [Amer.]

Af"rit, Af"rite(#), Af"reet(#), n. Etym: [Arab. 'ifrit.] (Moham.

Defn: A powerful evil jinnee, demon, or monstrous giant.

A*front", adv. Etym: [Pref. a- + front.]

Defn: In front; face to face.
 — prep. In front of. Shak.

Aft, adv. & a. Etym: [AS. æftan behind; orig. superl. of of, off. See
After.] (Naut.)

Defn: Near or towards the stern of a vessel; astern; abaft.

AFTER Aft"er, a. Etym: [AS. æfter after, behind; akin to Goth. aftaro, aftra, backwards, Icel. aptr, Sw. and Dan. efter, OHG. aftar behind, Dutch and LG. achter, Gr. -ter is an old comparative suffix, in E. generally -ther (as in other), and after is a compar. of of, off. Of; cf. Aft.]

1. Next; later in time; subsequent; succeeding; as, an after period of life. Marshall.

Note: In this sense the word is sometimes needlessly combined with the following noun, by means of a hyphen, as, after-ages, after-act, after-days, after-life. For the most part the words are properly kept separate when after has this meaning.

2. Hinder; nearer the rear. (Naut.)

Defn: To ward the stern of the ship; — applied to any object in the rear part of a vessel; as the after cabin, after hatchway.

Note: It is often combined with its noun; as, after-bowlines, after- braces, after-sails, after-yards, those on the mainmasts and mizzenmasts. After body (Naut.), the part of a ship abaft the dead flat, or middle part.

Aft"er, prep.

1. Behind in place; as, men in line one after another. "Shut doors after you." Shak.

2. Below in rank; next to in order. Shak. Codrus after PhDryden.

3. Later in time; subsequent; as, after supper, after three days. It often precedes a clause. Formerly that was interposed between it and the clause. After I am risen again, I will go before you into Galilee. Matt. xxvi. 32.

4. Subsequent to and in consequence of; as, after what you have said, I shall be careful.

5. Subsequent to and notwithstanding; as, after all our advice, you took that course.

6. Moving toward from behind; following, in search of; in pursuit of. Ye shall not go after other gods. Deut. vi. 14. After whom is the king of Israel come out 1 Sam. xxiv. 14.

7. Denoting the aim or object; concerning; in relation to; as, to look after workmen; to inquire after a friend; to thirst after righteousness.

8. In imitation of; in conformity with; after the manner of; as, to make a thing after a model; a picture after Rubens; the boy takes after his father. To name or call after, to name like and reference to. Our eldest son was named George after his uncle. Goldsmith.

9. According to; in accordance with; in conformity with the nature of; as, he acted after his kind. He shall not judge after the sight of his eyes. Isa. xi. 3. They that are after the flesh do mind the things of the flesh. Rom. viii. 5.

10. According to the direction and influence of; in proportion to; befitting. [Archaic] He takes greatness of kingdoms according to bulk and currency, and not after their intrinsic value. Bacon. After all, when everything has been considered; upon the whole. — After (with the same noun preceding and following), as, wave after wave, day after day, several or many (waves, etc.) successively. — One after another, successively. — To be after, to be in pursuit of in order to reach or get; as, he is after money.

Aft"er, adv.

Defn: Subsequently in time or place; behind; afterward; as, he
follows after.
It was about the space of three hours after. Acts. v. 7.

Note: After is prefixed to many words, forming compounds, but retaining its usual signification. The prefix may be adverbial, prepositional, or adjectival; as in after- described, after-dinner, after-part. The hyphen is sometimes needlessly used to connect the adjective after with its noun. See Note under After, a., 1.

Aft"er*birth`, n. (Med.)

Defn: The placenta and membranes with which the fetus is connected, and which come away after delivery.

Aft"er*cast`, n.

Defn: A throw of dice after the game in ended; hence, anything done too late. Gower.

Aft"er*clap`, n.

Defn: An unexpected subsequent event; something disagreeable happening after an affair is supposed to be at an end. Spenser.

Aft"er*crop`, n.

Defn: A second crop or harvest in the same year. Mortimer.

Aft"er damp`.

Defn: An irrespirable gas, remaining after an explosion of fire damp in mines; choke damp. See Carbonic acid.

Aft"er-din`ner(#), n.

Defn: The time just after dinner. "An after-dinner's sleep." Shak.
[Obs.] — a.

Defn: Following dinner; post-prandial; as, an after-dinner nap.

Aft"er-eat`age(#), n.

Defn: Aftergrass.

Aft"er*eye`, v. t.

Defn: To look after. [Poetic] Shak.

Aft"er*game`, n.

Defn: A second game; hence, a subsequent scheme or expedient. Wotton. Aftergame at Irish, an ancient game very nearly resembling backgammon. Beau. & Fl.

Aft"er-glow(#), n.

Defn: A glow of refulgence in the western sky after sunset.

Aft"er*grass`, n.

Defn: The grass that grows after the first crop has been mown; aftermath.

Aft"er*growth`, n.

Defn: A second growth or crop, or (metaphorically) development. J. S.

Aft"er*guard`, n. (Naut.)

Defn: The seaman or seamen stationed on the poop or after part of the ship, to attend the after-sails. Totten.

Aft"er-im`age(#), n.

Defn: The impression of a vivid sensation retained by the retina of the eye after the cause has been removed; also extended to impressions left of tones, smells, etc.

Aft"er*ings, n. pl.

Defn: The last milk drawn in milking; strokings. [Obs.] Grose.

Aft"er*math, n. Etym: [After + math. See Math.]

Defn: A second moving; the grass which grows after the first crop of hay in the same season; rowen. Holland.

Aft"er-men`tioned(#), a.

Defn: Mentioned afterwards; as, persons after-mentioned (in a writing).

Aft"er*most, a. superl. Etym: [OE. eftemest, AS. æftemest,akin to
Gothic aftumist and aftuma, the last, orig. a superlative of of, with
the superlative endings -te, -me, -st.]

1. Hindmost; — opposed to foremost.

2. (Naut.)

Defn: Nearest the stern; most aft.

Aft"er*noon", n.

Defn: The part of the day which follows noon, between noon and evening.

Aft"er-note`(#), n. (Mus.)

Defn: One of the small notes occur on the unaccented parts of the measure, taking their time from the preceding note.

Aft"er*pains`, n. pl. (Med.)

Defn: The pains which succeed childbirth, as in expelling the afterbirth.

Aft"er*piece`, n.

1. A piece performed after a play, usually a farce or other small entertainment.

2. (Naut.)

Defn: The heel of a rudder.

Aft"er-sails`(#), n. pl. (Naut.)

Defn: The sails on the mizzenmast, or on the stays between the mainmast and mizzenmast. Totten.

Aft"er*sen*sa`tion, n. (Psychol.)

Defn: A sensation or sense impression following the removal of a stimulus producing a primary sensation, and reproducing the primary sensation in positive, negative, or complementary form. The aftersensation may be continuous with the primary sensation or follow it after an interval.

Aft"er*shaft`, n. (Zoöl.)

Defn: The hypoptilum.

Aft"er*taste`, n.

Defn: A taste which remains in the mouth after eating or drinking.

Aft"er*thought`, n.

Defn: Reflection after an act; later or subsequent thought or expedient.

Aft"er*wards, Aft"er*ward, adv. Etym: [AS. æfteweard, a., behind. See
Aft, and -ward (suffix). The final s in afterwards is adverbial,
orig. a genitive ending.]

Defn: At a later or succeeding time.

Aft"er*wise`, a.

Defn: Wise after the event; wise or knowing, when it is too late.

Aft"er-wit`, n.

Defn: Wisdom or perception that comes after it can be of use. "After- wit comes too late when the mischief is done." L'Estrange.

Aft"er-wit`ted, a.

Defn: Characterized by afterwit; slow-witted. Tyndale.

Aft"most, a. (Naut.)

Defn: Nearest the stern.

Aft"ward, adv. (Naut.)

Defn: Toward the stern.

A*ga" or A*gha", n. Etym: [Turk. adha a great lord, chief master.]

Defn: In Turkey, a commander or chief officer. It is used also as a title of respect.

A*gain", adv. Etym: [OE. agein, agayn, AS. ongegn, ongeán, against,
again; on + geán, akin to Ger. gegewn against, Icel. gegn. Cf.

1. In return, back; as, bring us word again.

2. Another time; once more; anew. If a man die, shall he live again Job xiv. 14.

3. Once repeated; — of quantity; as, as large again, half as much again.

4. In any other place. [Archaic] Bacon.

5. On the other hand. "The one is my sovereign . . . the other again is my kinsman." Shak.

6. Moreover; besides; further.
Again, it is of great consequence to avoid, etc. Hersche
Again and again, more than once; often; repeatedly.
 — Now and again, now and then; occasionally.
 — To and again, to and fro. [Obs.] De Foe.

Note: Again was formerly used in many verbal combinations, as, again- witness, to witness against; again-ride, to ride against; again-come, to come against, to encounter; again-bring, to bring back, etc.

A*gain", A*gains", prep.

Defn: Against; also, towards (in order to meet). [Obs.]
Albeit that it is again his kind. Chaucer.

A*gain"buy`, v. t.

Defn: To redeem. [Obs.] Wyclif.

A*gain"say`, v. t.

Defn: To gainsay. [Obs.] Wyclif.

AGAINST A*gainst", prep. Etym: [OE. agens, ageynes, AS. ongegn. The s is adverbial, orig. a genitive ending. See Again.]

1. Abreast; opposite to; facing; towards; as, against the mouth of a river; — in this sense often preceded by over. Jacob saw the angels of God come against him. Tyndale.

2. From an opposite direction so as to strike or come in contact with; in contact with; upon; as, hail beats against the roof.

3. In opposition to, whether the opposition is of sentiment or of action; on the other side; counter to; in contrariety to; hence, adverse to; as, against reason; against law; to run a race against time. The gate would have been shut against her. Fielding. An argument against the use of steam. Tyndale.

4. By of before the time that; in preparation for; so as to be ready for the time when. [Archaic or Dial.] Urijah the priest made it, against King Ahaz came from Damascus. 2 Kings xvi. 11. Against the sun, in a direction contrary to that in which the sun appears to move.

A*gain"stand`, v. t.

Defn: To withstand. [Obs.]

A*gain"ward, adv.

Defn: Back again. [Obs.]

Ag`a*lac"ti*a, Ag"a*lax`y, n. Etym: [Gr. (Med.)

Defn: Failure of the due secretion of milk after childbirth.

Ag`a*lac"tous, a.

Defn: Lacking milk to suckle with.

A`gal-a"gal, n.

Defn: Same as Agar-agar.

Ag"al*loch, A*gal"lo*chum, n. Etym: [Gr. aguru, Heb. pl. ahalim.]

Defn: A soft, resinous wood (Aquilaria Agallocha) of highly aromatic smell, burnt by the orientals as a perfume. It is called also agalwood and aloes wood. The name is also given to some other species.

Ag`al*mat"o*lite, n. Etym: [Gr. -lite: cf. F. agalmatolithe.] (Min.)

Defn: A soft, compact stone, of a grayish, greenish, or yellowish color, carved into images by the Chinese, and hence called figure stone, and pagodite. It is probably a variety of pinite.

AGAMA Ag"a*ma, n.; pl. Agamas. Etym: [From the Caribbean name of a species of lizard.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: A genus of lizards, one of the few which feed upon vegetable substances; also, one of these lizards.

Ag"a*mi, n.; pl. Agamis. Etym: [F. agex, fr. the native name.]

Defn: A South American bird (Psophia crepitans), allied to the cranes, and easily domesticated; — called also the gold-breasted trumpeter. Its body is about the size of the pheasant. See Trumpeter.

AGAMIC A*gam"ic, a. Etym: [Agamous.] (a) (Biol.) Produced without sexual union; as, agamic or unfertilized eggs. (b) Not having visible organs of reproduction, as flowerless plants; agamous.

A*gam"ic*al*ly, adv.

Defn: In an agamic manner.

Ag"a*mist, n. Etym: [See Agamous.]

Defn: An unmarried person; also, one opposed to marriage. Foxe.

Ag`a*mo*gen"e*sis, n. Etym: [Gr. (Biol.)

Defn: Reproduction without the union of parents of distinct sexes: asexual reproduction.

Ag`a*mo*ge*net"ic, n. (Biol.)

Defn: Reproducing or produced without sexual union.
 — Ag`a*mo*ge*net"ic*al*ly, adv.
All known agamogenetic processes end in a complete return to the
primitive stock. Huxley.

Ag"a*mous, a. Etym: [Gr. (Biol.)

Defn: Having no visible sexual organs; asexual. In Bot., cryptogamous.

A*gan`gli*o"nic, a. Etym: [Pref. a- not + ganglionic.] (Physiol.)

Defn: Without ganglia.

A*gape", adv. & a. Etym: [Pref. a- + gape.]

Defn: Gaping, as with wonder, expectation, or eager attention.
Dazzles the crowd and sets them all agape. Milton.

Ag"a*pe, n.; pl. Agapæ. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: The love feast of the primitive Christians, being a meal partaken of in connection with the communion.

A`gar-a"gar, n. Etym: [Ceylonese local name.]

Defn: A fucus or seaweed much used in the East for soups and jellies;
Ceylon moss (Gracilaria lichenoides).

Ag"a*ric, n. Etym: [L. agaricum, Gr. Agara, a town in Sarmatia.]

1. (Bot.)

Defn: A fungus of the genus Agaricus, of many species, of which the common mushroom is an example.

2. An old name for severwal species of Polyporus, corky fungi growing on decaying wood.

Note: The "female agaric" (Polyporus officinalic) was renowned as a cathartic; the "male agaric" (Polyporus igniarius) is used for preparing touchwood, called punk of German tinder. Agaric mineral, a light, chalky deposit of carbonate of lime, sometimes called rock milk, formed in caverns or fissures of limestone.

A*gasp", adv. & a. Etym: [. a- + gasp.]

Defn: In a state of gasping. Coleridge.

A*gast", p. p. & a.

Defn: See Aghast.

A*gast" or A*ghast", v. t.

Defn: To affright; to terrify. [Obs.] Chaucer. Spenser.

A*gas"tric, a. Etym: [Gr. (Physiol.)

Defn: Having to stomach, or distinct digestive canal, as the tapeworm.

A*gate", adv. Etym: [Pref. a- on + gate way.]

Defn: On the way; agoing; as, to be agate; to set the bells agate.
[Obs.] Cotgrave.

Ag"ate, n. Etym: [F. agate, It. agata, L. achates, fr. Gr.

1. (Min.)

Defn: A semipellucid, uncrystallized variety of quartz, presenting various tints in the same specimen. Its colors are delicately arranged in stripes or bands, or blended in clouds.

Note: The fortification agate, or Scotch pebble, the moss agate, the clouded agate, etc., are familiar varieties.

2. (Print.)

Defn: A kind of type, larger than pearl and smaller than nonpareil; in England called ruby.

Note: This line is printed in the type called agate.

3. A diminutive person; so called in allusion to the small figures cut in agate for rings and seals. [Obs.] Shak.

4. A tool used by gold-wire drawers, bookbinders, etc.; — so called from the agate fixed in it for burnishing.

Ag`a*tif"er*ous, a. Etym: [Agate + -ferous.]

Defn: Containing or producing agates. Craig.

Ag"a*tine, a.

Defn: Pertaining to, or like, agate.

Ag"a*tize, v. t. Etym: [Usually p. p. Agatized(#).]

Defn: To convert into agate; to make resemble agate. Dana.

Ag"a*ty, a.

Defn: Of the nature of agate, or containing agate.

A*ga"ve, n. Etym: [L. Agave, prop. name, fr. Gr. (bot.)

Defn: A genus of plants (order Amaryllidaceæ) of which the chief species is the maguey or century plant (A. Americana), wrongly called Aloe. It is from ten to seventy years, according to climate, in attaining maturity, when it produces a gigantic flower stem, sometimes forty feet in height, and perishes. The fermented juice is the pulque of the Mexicans; distilled, it yields mescal. A strong thread and a tough paper are made from the leaves, and the wood has many uses.

A*gazed", p. p. Etym: [Only in p. p.; another spelling for aghast.]

Defn: Gazing with astonishment; amazed. [Obs.]
The whole army stood agazed on him. Shak.

AGE Age, n. Etym: [OF. aage, eage, F. âge, fr. L. aetas through a supposed LL. aetaticum. L. aetas is contracted fr. aevitas, fr. aevum lifetime, age; akin to E. aye ever. Cf. Each.]

1. The whole duration of a being, whether animal, vegetable, or other kind; lifetime. Mine age is as nothing before thee. Ps. xxxix. 5.

2. That part of the duration of a being or a thing which is between its beginning and any given time; as, what is the present age of a man, or of the earth

3. The latter part of life; an advanced period of life; seniority; state of being old. Nor wrong mine age with this indignity. Shak.

4. One of the stages of life; as, the age of infancy, of youth, etc. Shak.

5. Mature age; especially, the time of life at which one attains full personal rights and capacities; as, to come of age; he (or she) is of age. Abbott.

Note: In the United States, both males and females are of age when twenty-one years old.

6. The time of life at which some particular power or capacity is understood to become vested; as, the age of consent; the age of discretion. Abbott.

7. A particular period of time in history, as distinguished from others; as, the golden age, the age of Pericles. "The spirit of the age." Prescott. Truth, in some age or other, will find her witness. Milton. Archeological ages are designated as three: The Stone age (the early and the later stone age, called paleolithic and neolithic), the Bronze age, and the Iron age. During the Age of Stone man is supposed to have employed stone for weapons and implements. See Augustan, Brazen, Golden, Heroic, Middle.

8. A great period in the history of the Earth.

Note: The geologic ages are as follows: 1. The Archæan, including the time when was no life and the time of the earliest and simplest forms of life. 2. The age of Invertebrates, or the Silurian, when the life on the globe consisted distinctively of invertebrates. 3. The age of Fishes, or the Devonian, when fishes were the dominant race. 4. The age of Coal Plants, or Acrogens, or the Carboniferous age. 5. The Mesozoic or Secondary age, or age of Reptiles, when reptiles prevailed in great numbers and of vast size. 6. The Tertiary age, or age of Mammals, when the mammalia, or quadrupeds, abounded, and were the dominant race. 7. The Quaternary age, or age of Man, or the modern era. Dana.

9. A century; the period of one hundred years. Fleury . . . apologizes for these five ages. Hallam.

10. The people who live at a particular period; hence, a generation. "Ages yet unborn." Pope. The way which the age follows. J. H. Newman. Lo! where the stage, the poor, degraded stage, Holds its warped mirror to a gaping age. C. Sprague.

11. A long time. [Colloq.] "He made minutes an age." Tennyson. Age of a tide, the time from the origin of a tide in the South Pacific Ocean to its arrival at a given place. — Moon's age, the time that has elapsed since the last preceding conjunction of the sun and moon.

Note: Age is used to form the first part of many compounds; as, agelasting, age-adorning, age-worn, age-enfeebled, agelong.

 — Time; period; generation; date; era; epoch.

Age, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Aged; p. pr. & vb. n. Aging.]

Defn: To grow aged; to become old; to show marks of age; as, he grew
fat as he aged.
They live one hundred and thirty years, and never age for all that.
I am aging; that is, I have a whitish, or rather a light-colored,
hair here and there. Landor.

Age, v. t.

Defn: To cause to grow old; to impart the characteristics of age to; as, grief ages us.

A"ged, a.

1. Old; having lived long; having lived almost to or beyond the usual time allotted to that species of being; as, an aged man; an aged oak.

2. Belonging to old age. "Aged cramps." Shak.

3. Having a certain age; at the age of; having lived; as, a man aged forty years.

A"ged*ly, adv.

Defn: In the manner of an aged person.

A"ged*ness, n.

Defn: The quality of being aged; oldness.
Custom without truth is but agedness of error. Milton.

Age"less, a.

Defn: Without old age limits of duration; as, fountains of ageless youth.

A*gen", adv. & prep.

Defn: See Again. [Obs.]

AGENCY A"gen*cy, n.; pl. Agencies. Etym: [agentia, fr. L. agens, agentis: cf. F. agence. See Agent.]

1. The faculty of acting or of exerting power; the state of being in action; action; instrumentality. The superintendence and agency of Providence in the natural world. Woodward.

2. The office of an agent, or factor; the relation between a principal and his agent; business of one intrusted with the concerns of another.

3. The place of business of am agent.

 — Action; operation; efficiency; management.

A"gend, n.

Defn: See Agendum. [Obs.]

AGENDUM A*gen"dum, n.; pl. Agenda. Etym: [L., neut. of the gerundive of agere to act.]

1. Something to be done; in the pl., a memorandum book.

2. A church service; a ritual or liturgy. [In this sense, usually Agenda.]

Ag`e*nes"ic, a. Etym: [See Agensis.] (Physiol.)

Defn: Characterized by sterility; infecund.

A*gen"e*sis, n. Etym: [Gr. (Physiol.)

Defn: Any imperfect development of the body, or any anomaly of organization.

Ag`en*ne"sis, n. Etym: [Gr. (Physiol.)

Defn: Impotence; sterility.

A"gent, a. Etym: [L. agens, agentis, p. pr. of agere to act; akin to
Gr. aka to drive, Skr. aj.

Defn: Actingpatient, or sustaining, action. [Archaic] "The body agent." Bacon.

A"gent, n.

1. One who exerts power, or has the power to act; an actor. Heaven made us agents, free to good or ill. Dryden.

2. One who acts for, or in the place of, another, by authority from him; one intrusted with the business of another; a substitute; a deputy; a factor.

3. An active power or cause; that which has the power to produce an effect; as, a physical, chemical, or medicinal agent; as, heat is a powerful agent.

A*gen"tial, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to an agent or an agency. Fitzed. Hall.

A"gent*ship, n.

Defn: Agency. Beau. & Fl.

A*ger"a*tum, n. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. (Bot.)

Defn: A genus of plants, one species of which (A. Mexicanum) has lavender-blue flowers in dense clusters.

Ag*gen`er*a"tion, n. Etym: [L. aggenerare to beget in addition. See

Defn: The act of producing in addition. [Obs.] T. Stanley.

AGGER Ag"ger, n. Etym: [L., a mound, fr. aggerere to bear to a place, heap up; ad + gerere to bear.]

Defn: An earthwork; a mound; a raised work. [Obs.] Hearne.

Ag"ger*ate, v. t. Etym: [L. aggeratus, p. p. of aggerare. See Agger.]

Defn: To heap up. [Obs.] Foxe.

Ag`ger*a"tion, n. Etym: [L. aggeratio.]

Defn: A heaping up; accumulation; as, aggerations of sand. [R.]

Ag`ger*ose", a.

Defn: In heaps; full of heaps.

Ag*gest", v. t. Etym: [L. aggestus, p. p. of aggerere. See Agger.]

Defn: To heap up. [Obs.]
The violence of the waters aggested the earth. Fuller.

Ag*glom"er*ate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Agglomerated; p. pr. & vb. n.
Agglomerating.] Etym: [L. agglomeratus, p. p. of agglomerare; ad +
glomerare to form into a ball. See Glomerate.]

Defn: To wind or collect into a ball; hence, to gather into a mass or
anything like a mass.
Where he builds the agglomerated pile. Cowper.

Ag*glom"er*ate, v. i.

Defn: To collect in a mass.

Ag*glom"er*ate, n.

1. A collection or mass.

2. (Geol.)

Defn: A mass of angular volcanic fragments united by heat; — distinguished from conglomerate.

Ag*glom"er*ate, Ag*glom"er*a`ted, a.

1. Collected into a ball, heap, or mass.

2. (Bot.)

Defn: Collected into a rounded head of flowers.

Ag*glom`er*a"tion, n. Etym: [Cf. F. agglomération.]

1. The act or process of collecting in a mass; a heaping together. An excessive agglomeration of turrets. Warton.

2. State of being collected in a mass; a mass; cluster.

Ag*glom"er*a*tive, a.

Defn: Having a tendency to gather together, or to make collections. Taylor is eminently discursive, accumulative, and (to use one of his own words) agglomerative. Coleridge.

AGGLUTINANT Ag*glu"ti*nant, a. Etym: [L. agglutinans, -antis, p. pr. of agglutinare.]

Defn: Uniting, as glue; causing, or tending to cause, adhesion. — n.

Defn: Any viscous substance which causes bodies or parts to adhere.

Ag*glu"ti*nate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Agglutinated; p. pr. & vb. n.
Agglutinating.] Etym: [L. agglutinatus, p. p. of agglutinare to glue
or cement to a thing; ad + glutinare to glue; gluten glue. See Glue.]

Defn: To unite, or cause to adhere, as with glue or other viscous substance; to unite by causing an adhesion of substances.

Ag*glu"ti*nate, a.

1. United with glue or as with glue; cemented together.

2. (physiol.)

Defn: Consisting of root words combined but not materially altered as to form or meaning; as, agglutinate forms, languages, etc. See Agglutination, 2.

Ag*glu`ti*na"tion, n. Etym: [Cf. F. agglutination.]

1. The act of uniting by glue or other tenacious substance; the state of being thus united; adhesion of parts.

2. (Physiol.)

Defn: Combination in which root words are united with little or no change of form or loss of meaning. See Agglutinative, 2.

Ag*glu"ti*na*tive, a. Etym: [Cf. F. agglutinatif.]

1. Pertaining to agglutination; tending to unite, or having power to cause adhesion; adhesive.

2. (Philol.)

Defn: Formed or characterized by agglutination, as a language or a
In agglutinative languages the union of words may be compared to
mechanical compounds, in inflective languages to chemical compounds.
R. Morris.
Cf. man-kind, heir-loom, war-like, which are agglutinative compounds.
The Finnish, Hungarian, Turkish, the Tamul, etc., are agglutinative
languages. R. Morris.
Agglutinative languages preserve the consciousness of their roots.
Max Müller.

AGGRACE Ag*grace", v. t. Etym: [Pref. a- + grace: cf. It. aggraziare, LL. aggratiare. See Grace.]

Defn: To favor; to grace. [Obs.] "That knight so much aggraced."

Ag*grace", n.

Defn: Grace; favor. [Obs.] Spenser.

Ag*grade", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Aggraded; p. pr. & vb. n. Aggrading.]
(Phys. Geog.)

Defn: To bring, or tend to bring, to a uniform grade, or slope, by addition of material; as, streams aggrade their beds by depositing sediment.

Ag"gran*di"za*ble, a.

Defn: Capable of being aggrandized.

Ag*gran`di*za"tion, n.

Defn: Aggrandizement. [Obs.] Waterhouse.

Ag"gran*dize, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Aggrandized; p. pr. & vb. n.
Aggrandizing.] Etym: [F. agrandir; à (L. ad) + grandir to increase,
L. grandire, fr. grandis great. See Grand, and cf. Finish.]

1. To make great; to enlarge; to increase; as, to aggrandize our conceptions, authority, distress.

2. To make great or greater in power, rank, honor, or wealth; — applied to persons, countries, etc. His scheme for aggrandizing his son. Prescott.

3. To make appear great or greater; to exalt. Lamb.

 — To augment; exalt; promote; advance.

Ag"gran*dize, v. i.

Defn: To increase or become great. [Obs.]
Follies, continued till old age, do aggrandize. J. Hall.

Ag*gran"dize*ment, n. Etym: [Cf. F. agrandissement.]

Defn: The act of aggrandizing, or the state of being aggrandized or exalted in power, rank, honor, or wealth; exaltation; enlargement; as, the emperor seeks only the aggrandizement of his own family.

Syn. — Augmentation; exaltation; enlargement; advancement; promotion; preferment.

Ag"gran*di`zer, n.

Defn: One who aggrandizes, or makes great.

Ag*grate", v. t. Etym: [It. aggratare, fr. L. ad + gratus pleasing.
See Grate, a.]

Defn: To please. [Obs.]
Each one sought his lady to aggrate. Spenser.

Ag"gra*vate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Aggravated; p. pr. & vb. n.
Aggravating.] Etym: [L. aggravatus, p. p. of aggravare. See

1. To make heavy or heavier; to add to; to increase. [Obs.] "To aggravate thy store." Shak.

2. To make worse, or more severe; to render less tolerable or less excusable; to make more offensive; to enhance; to intensify. "To aggravate my woes." Pope. To aggravate the horrors of the scene. Prescott. The defense made by the prisioner's counsel did rather aggravate than extenuate his crime. Addison.

3. To give coloring to in description; to exaggerate; as, to aggravate circumstances. Paley.

4. To exasperate; to provoke; to irritate. [Colloq.] If both were to aggravate her parents, as my brother and sister do mine. Richardson (Clarissa).

Syn. — To heighten; intensify; increase; magnify; exaggerate; provoke; irritate; exasperate.

Ag"gra*va`ting, a.

1. Making worse or more heinous; as, aggravating circumstances.

2. Exasperating; provoking; irritating. [Colloq.] A thing at once ridiculous and aggravating. J. Ingelow.

Ag"gra*va`ting*ly, adv.

Defn: In an aggravating manner.

Ag`gra*va"tion, n. Etym: [LL. aggravatio: cf. F. aggravation.]

1. The act of aggravating, or making worse; — used of evils, natural or moral; the act of increasing in severity or heinousness; something additional to a crime or wrong and enhancing its guilt or injurious consequences.

2. Exaggerated representation. By a little aggravation of the features changed it into the Saracen's head. Addison.

3. An extrinsic circumstance or accident which increases the guilt of a crime or the misery of a calamity.

4. Provocation; irritation. [Colloq.] Dickens.

Ag"gra*va*tive, a.

Defn: Tending to aggravate. Ag*gres"sive*ly, adv.
 — Ag*gres"sive*ness, n.
No aggressive movement was made. Macaulay.

Ag"gre*gate, a. [L. aggregatus, p. p.]

1. Formed by a collection of particulars into a whole mass or sum; collective.

The aggregate testimony of many hundreds.
Sir T. Browne.

2. (Anat.) Formed into clusters or groups of lobules; as, aggregate glands.

3. (Bot.) Composed of several florets within a common involucre, as in the daisy; or of several carpels formed from one flower, as in the raspberry.

4. (Min. & Geol.) Having the several component parts adherent to each other only to such a degree as to be separable by mechanical means.

5. (Zoöl.) United into a common organized mass; — said of certain compound animals.

Corporation aggregate. (Law) See under Corporation.

Ag"gre*gate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Aggregated; p. pr. & vb. n.
Aggregating.] [L. aggregatus, p. p. of aggregare to lead to a flock
or herd; ad + gregare to collect into a flock, grex flock, herd. See

1. To bring together; to collect into a mass or sum. "The aggregated soil." Milton.

2. To add or unite, as, a person, to an association.

It is many times hard to discern to which of the two sorts, the good or the bad, a man ought to be aggregated. Wollaston.

3. To amount in the aggregate to; as, ten loads, aggregating five hundred bushels. [Colloq.]

Syn. — To heap up; accumulate; pile; collect.

Ag"gre*gate, n.

1. A mass, assemblage, or sum of particulars; as, a house is an aggregate of stone, brick, timber, etc.

 In an aggregate the particulars are less intimately mixed than in a

2. (Physics) A mass formed by the union of homogeneous particles; — in distinction from a compound, formed by the union of heterogeneous particles.

In the aggregate, collectively; together.

Ag"gre*gate*ly, adv.

Defn: Collectively; in mass.

Ag`gre*ga"tion, n. [Cf. LL. aggregatio, F. agrégation.]

Defn: The act of aggregating, or the state of being aggregated; collection into a mass or sum; a collection of particulars; an aggregate.

Each genus is made up by aggregation of species.

A nation is not an idea only of local extent and individual momentary aggregation, but . . . of continuity, which extends in time as well as in numbers, and in space. Burke.

Ag"gre*ga*tive, a. [Cf. Fr. agrégatif.]

1. Taken together; collective.

2. Gregarious; social. [R.] Carlyle.

Ag"gre*ga`tor, n.

Defn: One who aggregates.

Ag*grege", v. t. [OF. agreger. See Aggravate.]

Defn: To make heavy; to aggravate. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Ag*gress", v. i. [imp. & p. p. Aggressed; p. pr. & vb. n.
Aggressing.] [L. aggressus, p. p. of aggredi to go to, approach; ad +
gradi to step, go, gradus step: cf. OF. aggresser. See Grade.]

Defn: To commit the first act of hostility or offense; to begin a quarrel or controversy; to make an attack; — with on.

Ag*gress", n. [L. aggressus.]

Defn: Aggression. [Obs.]

Their military aggresses on others.
Sir M. Hale.

Ag*gress", v. t.

Defn: To set upon; to attack. [R.]

Ag*gres"sion, n. [L. aggressio, fr. aggredi: cf. F. agression.]

Defn: The first attack, or act of hostility; the first act of injury, or first act leading to a war or a controversy; unprovoked attack; assault; as, a war of aggression. "Aggressions of power." Hallam

Syn. — Attack; offense; intrusion; provocation.

Ag*gres"sive, a. [Cf. F. agressif.]

Defn: Tending or disposed to aggress; characterized by aggression; making assaults; unjustly attacking; as, an aggressive policy, war, person, nation. — Ag*gres"sive*ly, adv. — Ag*gres"sive*ness, n.

No aggressive movement was made.

Ag*gres"sor, n. Etym: [L.: cf. F. agresseur.]

Defn: The person who first attacks or makes an aggression; he who begins hostility or a quarrel; an assailant. The insolence of the aggressor is usually proportioned to the tameness of the sufferer. Ames.

Ag*griev"ance, n. Etym: [OF. agrevance, fr. agrever. See Aggrieve.]

Defn: Oppression; hardship; injury; grievance. [Archaic]

Ag*grieve", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Aggrieved; p. pr. & vb. n.
Aggrieving.] Etym: [OE. agreven, OF. agrever; a (L. ad) + grever to
burden, injure, L. gravare to weigh down, fr. gravis heavy. See
Grieve, and cf. Aggravate.]

Defn: To give pain or sorrow to; to afflict; hence, to oppress or injure in one's rights; to bear heavily upon; — now commonly used in the passive TO be aggrieved. Aggrieved by oppression and extortion. Macaulay.

Ag*grieve", v. i.

Defn: To grieve; to lament. [Obs.]

Ag*group", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Aggrouped; p. pr. & vb. n.
Aggrouping.] Etym: [F. agrouper; à (L. ad) + groupe group. See

Defn: To bring together in a group; to group. Dryden.

Ag*group"ment, n.

Defn: Arrangement in a group or in groups; grouping.

Ag"gry, Ag"gri, a.

Defn: Applied to a kind of variegated glass beads of ancient manufacture; as, aggry beads are found in Ashantee and Fantee in Africa.

A*ghast", v. t.

Defn: See Agast, v. t. [Obs.]

AGHAST A*ghast", a & p. p. Etym: [OE. agast, agasted, p. p. of agasten to terrify, fr. AS. pref. a- (cf. Goth. us-, G. er-, orig. meaning out) + g to terrify, torment: cf. Goth. usgaisjan to terrify, primitively to fix, to root to the spot with terror; akin to L. haerere to stick fast, cling. See Gaze, Hesitate.]

Defn: Terrified; struck with amazement; showing signs of terror or
Aghast he waked; and, starting from his bed, Cold sweat in clammy
drops his limbs o'erspread. Dryden.
The commissioners read and stood aghast. Macaulay.

Ag"i*ble, a. Etym: [Cf. LL. agibilis, fr. L. agere to move, do.]

Defn: Possible to be done; practicable. [Obs.] "Fit for agible things." Sir A. Sherley.

Ag"ile, a. Etym: [F. agile, L. agilis, fr. agere to move. See Agent.]

Defn: Having the faculty of quick motion in the limbs; apt or ready to move; nimble; active; as, an agile boy; an agile tongue. Shaking it with agile hand. Cowper.

 — Active; alert; nimble; brisk; lively; quick.

Ag"ile*ly, adv.

Defn: In an agile manner; nimbly.

Ag"ile*ness, n.

Defn: Agility; nimbleness. [R.]

A*gil"i*ty, n. Etym: [F. agilié, L. agilitas, fr. agilis.]

1. The quality of being agile; the power of moving the limbs quickly and easily; nimbleness; activity; quickness of motion; as, strength and agility of body. They . . . trust to the agility of their wit. Bacon. Wheeling with the agility of a hawk. Sir W. Scott.

2. Activity; powerful agency. [Obs.] The agility of the sun's fiery heat. Holland.

AGIO Ag"i*o, n.; pl. Agios. Etym: [It. aggio exchange, discount, premium, the same word as agio ease. See Ease.] (Com.)

Defn: The premium or percentage on a better sort of money when it is given in exchange for an inferior sort. The premium or discount on foreign bills of exchange is sometimes called agio.

AGIOTAGE Ag"i*o*tage, n. Etym: [F. agiotage, fr. agioter to practice stockjobbing, fr. agio.]

Defn: Exchange business; also, stockjobbing; the maneuvers of speculators to raise or lower the price of stocks or public funds. Vanity and agiotage are to a Parisian the oxygen and hydrogen of life. Landor.

AGIST A*gist", v. t. Etym: [OF. agister; à (L. ad) + gister to assign a lodging, fr. giste lodging, abode, F. gîte, LL. gistum, gista, fr. L. jacitum, p. p. of jac to lie: cf. LL. agistare, adgistare. See Gist.] (Law)

Defn: To take to graze or pasture, at a certain sum; — used originally of the feeding of cattle in the king's forests, and collecting the money for the same. Blackstone.

Ag`is*ta"tor, n. Etym: [LL.]

Defn: See Agister.

AGISTER; AGISTOR A*gist"er, A*gist"or, n. Etym: [Anglo-Norman agistour.] (Law) (a) Formerly, an officer of the king's forest, who had the care of cattle agisted, and collected the money for the same; — hence called gisttaker, which in England is corrupted into guest-taker. (b) Now, one who agists or takes in cattle to pasture at a certain rate; a pasturer. Mozley & W.

AGISTMENT A*gist"ment, n. Etym: [OF. agistement. See Agist.] (Law) (a) Formerly, the taking and feeding of other men's cattle in the king's forests. (b) The taking in by any one of other men's cattle to graze at a certain rate. Mozley & W. (c) The price paid for such feeding. (d) A charge or rate against lands; as, an agistment of sea banks, i. e., charge for banks or dikes.

Ag"i*ta*ble, a. Etym: [L. agitabilis: cf. F. agitable.]

Defn: Capable of being agitated, or easily moved. [R.]

Ag"i*tate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Agitated; p. pr. & vb. n. Agitating.]
Etym: [L. agitatus, p. p. of agitare to put in motion, fr. agere to
move: cf. F. agiter. See Act, Agent.]

1. To move with a violent, irregular action; as, the wind agitates the sea; to agitate water in a vessel. "Winds . . . agitate the air." Cowper.

2. To move or actuate. [R.] Thomson.

3. To stir up; to disturb or excite; to perturb; as, he was greatly agitated. The mind of man is agitated by various passions. Johnson.

4. To discuss with great earnestness; to debate; as, a controversy hotly agitated. Boyle.

5. To revolve in the mind, or view in all its aspects; to contrive busily; to devise; to plot; as, politicians agitate desperate designs.

Syn. — To move; shake; excite; rouse; disturb; distract; revolve; discuss; debate; canvass.

Ag"i*ta`ted*ly, adv.

Defn: In an agitated manner.

Ag`i*ta"tion, n. Etym: [L. agitatio: cf. F. agitation.]

1. The act of agitating, or the state of being agitated; the state of being moved with violence, or with irregular action; commotion; as, the sea after a storm is in agitation.

2. A stirring up or arousing; disturbance of tranquillity; disturbance of mind which shows itself by physical excitement; perturbation; as, to cause any one agitation.

3. Excitement of public feeling by discussion, appeals, etc.; as, the antislavery agitation; labor agitation. "Religious agitations." Prescott.

4. Examination or consideration of a subject in controversy, or of a plan proposed for adoption; earnest discussion; debate. A logical agitation of the matter. L'Estrange. The project now in agitation. Swift.

Syn. — Emotion; commotion; excitement; trepidation; tremor; perturbation. See Emotion.

Ag"i*ta*tive, a.

Defn: Tending to agitate.

A`gi*ta"to, a. Etym: [It., agitated.] (Med.)

Defn: Sung or played in a restless, hurried, and spasmodic manner.

Ag"i*ta`tor, n. Etym: [L.]

1. One who agitates; one who stirs up or excites others; as, political reformers and agitators.

2. (Eng. Hist.)

Defn: One of a body of men appointed by the army, in Cromwell's time, to look after their interests; — called also adjutators. Clarendon.

3. An implement for shaking or mixing.

A*gleam", adv. & a. Etym: [Pref. a- + gleam.]

Defn: Gleaming; as, faces agleam. Lowell.

AGLET; AIGLET Ag"let, Aig"let, n. Etym: [F. aiguillette point, tagged point, dim. of aiguilee needle, fr. LL. acucula for acicula, dim. of L. acus needle, pinagleter to hook on. See Acute, and cf. Aiguillette.]

1. A tag of a lace or of the points, braids, or cords formerly used in dress. They were sometimes formed into small images. Hence, "aglet baby" (Shak.), an aglet image.

2. (Haberdashery)

Defn: A round white staylace. Beck.

A*gley", adv.

Defn: Aside; askew. [Scotch] Burns.

A*glim"mer, adv. & a. Etym: [Pref. a- + glimmer.]

Defn: In a glimmering state. Hawthorne.

A*glit"ter, adv. & a. Etym: [Pref. a- + glitter.]

Defn: Clittering; in a glitter.

A*glos"sal, a. Etym: [Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Without tongue; tongueless.

A*glow", adv. & a. Etym: [Pref. a- + glow.]

Defn: In a glow; glowing; as, cheeks aglow; the landscape all aglow.

Ag`lu*ti"tion, n. Etym: [Pref. a- not + L. glutire to swallow.]

Defn: Inability to swallow.

Ag"mi*nal, a. Etym: [L. agminalis; agmen, agminis, a train.]

Defn: Pertaining to an army marching, or to a train. [R.]

AGMINATE; AGMINATED Ag"mi*nate, Ag"mi*na`ted, a. Etym: [L. agmen, agminis, a train, crowd.] (Physiol.)

Defn: Grouped together; as, the agminated glands of Peyer in the small intestine.

Ag"nail, n. Etym: [AS. angnægl; ange vexation, trouble + nægel nail.
Cf. Hangnail.]

1. A corn on the toe or foot. [Obs.]

2. An inflammation or sore under or around the nail; also, a hangnail.

AGNATE Ag"nate, a. Etym: [L. agnatus, p. p. of agnasci to be born in addition to; ad + nasci (for gnasci) to be born. Cf. Adnate.]

1. Related or akin by the father's side; also, sprung from the same male ancestor.

2. Allied; akin. "Agnate words." Pownall. Assume more or less of a fictitious character, but congenial and agnate with the former. Landor.

Ag"nate, n. Etym: [Cf. F. agnat.] (Civil Law)

Defn: A relative whose relationship can be traced exclusively through males.

Ag*nat"ic, a. Etym: [Cf. F. agnatique.]

Defn: Pertaining to descent by the male line of ancestors. "The agnatic succession." Blackstone.

Ag*na"tion, n. Etym: [L. agnatio: cf. F. agnation.]

1. (Civil Law)

Defn: Consanguinity by a line of males only, as distinguished from cognation. Bouvier.

Ag*ni"tion, n. Etym: [L. agnitio, fr. agnoscere. See Notion.]

Defn: Acknowledgment. [Obs.] Grafton.

Ag*nize", v. t. Etym: [Formed like recognize, fr. L. agnoscere.]

Defn: To recognize; to acknowledge. [Archaic]
I do agnize a natural and prompt alacrity. Shak.

Ag`noi*ol"o*gy, n. Etym: [Gr. -logy.] (Metaph.)

Defn: The doctrine concerning those things of which we are necessarily ignorant.

Ag*no"men, n. Etym: [L.; ad + nomen name.]

1. An additional or fourth name given by the Romans, or account of some remarkable exploit or event; as, Publius Caius Scipio Africanus.

2. An additional name, or an epithet appended to a name; as, Aristides the Just.

Ag*nom"i*nate, v. t.

Defn: To name. [Obs.]

Ag*nom`i*na"tion, n. Etym: [L. agnominatio. See Agnomen.]

1. A surname. [R.] Minsheu.

2. Paronomasia; also, alliteration; annomination.

Ag*nos"tic, a. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Professing ignorance; involving no dogmatic; pertaining to or
involving agnosticism.
 — Ag*nos"tic*al*ly, adv.

Ag*nos"tic, n.

Defn: One who professes ignorance, or denies that we have any knowledge, save of phenomena; one who supports agnosticism, neither affirming nor denying the existence of a personal Deity, a future life, etc.

Ag*nos"ti*cism, n.

Defn: That doctrine which, professing ignorance, neither asserts nor denies. Specifically: (Theol.)

Defn: The doctrine that the existence of a personal Deity, an unseen world, etc., can be neither proved nor disproved, because of the necessary limits of the human mind (as sometimes charged upon Hamilton and Mansel), or because of the insufficiency of the evidence furnished by physical and physical data, to warrant a positive conclusion (as taught by the school of Herbert Spencer); — opposed alike dogmatic skepticism and to dogmatic theism.

Ag"nus, n.; pl. E. Agnuses; L. Agni. Etym: [L., a lamb.]

Defn: Agnus Dei.

Ag"nus cas"tus. Etym: [Gr. (Bot.)

Defn: A species of Vitex (V. agnus castus); the chaste tree. Loudon.
And wreaths of agnus castus others bore. Dryden.

AGNUS DEI Ag"nus De"i. Etym: [L., lamb of God.] (R. C. Ch.) (a) A figure of a lamb bearing a cross or flag. (b) A cake of wax stamped with such a figure. It is made from the remains of the paschal candles and blessed by the Pope. (c) A triple prayer in the sacrifice of the Mass, beginning with the words "Agnus Dei."

Ag"nus Scyth"i*cus. [L., Scythian lamb.] (Bot.)

Defn: The Scythian lamb, a kind of woolly-skinned rootstock. See

AGO A*go", a. & adv. Etym: [OE. ago, agon, p. p. of agon to go away, pass by, AS. agan to pass away; a- (cf. Goth. us-, Ger. er-, orig. meaning out) + gan to go. See Go.]

Defn: Past; gone by; since; as, ten years ago; gone long ago.

A*gog", a. & adv. Etym: [Cf. F. gogue fun, perhaps of Celtic origin.]

Defn: In eager desire; eager; astir.
All agog to dash through thick and thin. Cowper.

A*go"ing, adv. Etym: [Pref. a- + p. pr. of go.]

Defn: In motion; in the act of going; as, to set a mill agoing.

Ag"on, n.; pl. Agones. Etym: [Gr. (Gr. Antiq.)

Defn: A contest for a prize at the public games.

A*gone", a. & adv.

Defn: Ago. [Archaic. & Poet.]
Three days agone I fell sick. 1 Sam. xxx. 13.

A"gone, n. Etym: [See Agonic.]

Defn: Agonic line.

A*gon"ic, a. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Not forming an angle. Agonic line (Physics), an imaginary line on the earth's surface passing through those places where the magnetic needle points to the true north; the line of no magnetic variation. There is one such line in the Western hemisphere, and another in the Eastern hemisphere.

Ag"o*nism, n. Etym: [Gr. Agon.]

Defn: Contention for a prize; a contest. [Obs.] Blount.

Ag"o*nist, n. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: One who contends for the prize in public games. [R.]

Ag`o*nis"tic, Ag`o*nis"tic*al, a. Etym: [Gr. Agonism.]

Defn: Pertaining to violent contests, bodily or mental; pertaining to athletic or polemic feats; athletic; combative; hence, strained; unnatural. As a scholar, he [Dr. Parr] was brilliant, but he consumed his power in agonistic displays. De Quincey.

Ag`o*nis"tic*al*ly, adv.

Defn: In an agonistic manner.

Ag`o*nis"tics, n.

Defn: The science of athletic combats, or contests in public games.

Ag"o*nize, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Agonized; p. pr. & vb. n. Agonizing.]
Etym: [F. agoniser, LL. agonizare, fr. Gr. Agony.]

1. To writhe with agony; to suffer violent anguish. To smart and agonize at every pore. Pope.

2. To struggle; to wrestle; to strive desperately.

Ag"o*nize, v. t.

Defn: To cause to suffer agony; to subject to extreme pain; to
He agonized his mother by his behavior. Thackeray.

Ag"o*ni`zing*ly, adv.

Defn: With extreme anguish or desperate struggles.

Ag"o*no*thete`, n. Etym: [Gr. [Antiq.]

Defn: An officer who presided over the great public games in Greece.

Ag`o*no*thet"ic, a. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Pertaining to the office of an agonothete.

Ag"o*ny, n.; pl. Agonies. Etym: [L. agonia, Gr. agonie. See

1. Violent contest or striving. The world is convulsed by the agonies of great nations. Macaulay.

2. Pain so extreme as to cause writhing or contortions of the body, similar to those made in the athletic contests in Greece; and hence, extreme pain of mind or body; anguish; paroxysm of grief; specifically, the sufferings of Christ in the garden of Gethsemane. Being in an agony he prayed more earnestly. Luke xxii. 44.

3. Paroxysm of joy; keen emotion. With cries and agonies of wild delight. Pope.

4. The last struggle of life; death struggle.

Syn. — Anguish; torment; throe; distress; pangs; suffering. — Agony, Anguish, Pang. These words agree in expressing extreme pain of body or mind. Agony denotes acute and permanent pain, usually of the whole system., and often producing contortions. Anguish denotes severe pressure, and, considered as bodily suffering, is more commonly local (as anguish of a wound), thus differing from agony. A pang is a paroxysm of excruciating pain. It is severe and transient. The agonies or pangs of remorse; the anguish of a wounded conscience. "Oh, sharp convulsive pangs of agonizing pride!" Dryden.

A-good(#), adv. Etym: [Pref. a- + good.]

Defn: In earnest; heartily. [Obs.] "I made her weep agood." Shak.

A*good(a*good"), adv. [Pref. a-+ good.]

Defn: In earnest; heartily. [Obs.] "I made her weep agood." Shak.

Ag"o*ra, n. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: An assembly; hence, the place of assembly, especially the market place, in an ancient Greek city.

A*gou"a*ra, n. Etym: [Native name.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: The crab-eating raccoon (Procyon cancrivorus), found in the tropical parts of America.

A*gou"ta, n. Etym: [Native name.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: A small insectivorous mammal (Solenodon paradoxus), allied to the moles, found only in Hayti.

AGOUTI; AGOUTY A*gou"ti, A*gou"ty, n. Etym: [F. agouti, acouti, Sp. aguti, fr. native name.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: A rodent of the genus Dasyprocta, about the size of a rabbit, peculiar to South America and the West Indies. The most common species is the Dasyprocta agouti.

A*grace", n. & v.

Defn: See Aggrace. [Obs.]

A*graffe", n. Etym: [F. agrafe, formerly agraffe, OF. agrappe. See

1. A hook or clasp. The feather of an ostrich, fastened in her turban by an agraffe set with brilliants. Sir W. Scott.

2. A hook, eyelet, or other device by which a piano wire is so held as to limit the vibration.

A*gram"ma*tist, n. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: A illiterate person. [Obs.] Bailey.

A*graph"i*a, n. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: The absence or loss of the power of expressing ideas by written signs. It is one form of aphasia.

A*graph"ic, a.

Defn: Characterized by agraphia.

A*grappes", n. pl. Etym: [OF. agrappe, F. agrafe; a + grappe (see
Grape) fr. OHG. krapfo hook.]

Defn: Hooks and eyes for armor, etc. Fairholt.

A*gra"ri*an, a. Etym: [L. agrarius, fr. ager field.]

1. Pertaining to fields, or lands, or their tenure; esp., relating to am equal or equitable division of lands; as, the agrarian laws of Rome, which distributed the conquered and other public lands among citizens. His Grace's landed possessions are irresistibly inviting to an agrarian experiment. Burke.

2. (Bot.)

Defn: Wild; — said of plants growing in the fields.

A*gra"ri*an, n.

1. One in favor of an equal division of landed property.

2. An agrarian law. [R.] An equal agrarian is perpetual law. Harrington.

A*gra"ri*an*ism, n.

Defn: An equal or equitable division of landed property; the principles or acts of those who favor a redistribution of land.

A*gra"ri*an*ize, v. t.

Defn: To distribute according to, or to imbue with, the principles of agrarianism.

A*gre", A*gree", adv. Etym: [F. à gré. See Agree.]

Defn: In good part; kindly. [Obs.] Rom. of R.

A*gree", v. i. [imp. & p. p. Agreed; p. pr. & vb. n. Agreeing.] Etym:
[F. agréer to accept or receive kindly, fr. à gré; à (L. ad) + gré
good will, consent, liking, fr. L. gratus pleasing, agreeable. See

1. To harmonize in opinion, statement, or action; to be in unison or concord; to be or become united or consistent; to concur; as, all parties agree in the expediency of the law. If music and sweet poetry agree. Shak. Their witness agreed not together. Mark xiv. 56. The more you agree together, the less hurt can your enemies do you. Sir T. Browne.

2. To yield assent; to accede; — followed by to; as, to agree to an offer, or to opinion.

3. To make a stipulation by way of settling differences or determining a price; to exchange promises; to come to terms or to a common resolve; to promise. Agree with thine adversary quickly. Matt. v. 25. Didst not thou agree with me for a penny Matt. xx. 13.

4. To be conformable; to resemble; to coincide; to correspond; as, the picture does not agree with the original; the two scales agree exactly.

5. To suit or be adapted in its effects; to do well; as, the same food does not agree with every constitution.

6. (Gram.)

Defn: To correspond in gender, number, case, or person.

Note: The auxiliary forms of to be are often employed with the participle agreed. "The jury were agreed." Macaulay. "Can two walk together, except they be agreed " Amos iii. 3. The principal intransitive uses were probably derived from the transitive verb used reflexively. "I agree me well to your desire." Ld. Berners.

Syn. — To assent; concur; consent; acquiesce; accede; engage; promise; stipulate; contract; bargain; correspond; harmonize; fit; tally; coincide; comport.

A*gree", v. t.

1. To make harmonious; to reconcile or make friends. [Obs.] Spenser.

2. To admit, or come to one mind concerning; to settle; to arrange; as, to agree the fact; to agree differences. [Obs.]

A*gree`a*bil"i*ty, n. Etym: [OF. agreablete.]

1. Easiness of disposition. [Obs.] Chaucer.

2. The quality of being, or making one's self, agreeable; agreeableness. Thackeray.

A*gree"a*ble, a. Etym: [F. agréable.]

1. Pleasing, either to the mind or senses; pleasant; grateful; as, agreeable manners or remarks; an agreeable person; fruit agreeable to the taste. A train of agreeable reveries. Goldsmith.

2. Willing; ready to agree or consent. [Colloq.] These Frenchmen give unto the said captain of Calais a great sum of money, so that he will be but content and agreeable that they may enter into the said town. Latimer.

3. Agreeing or suitable; conformable; correspondent; concordant; adapted; — followed by to, rarely by with. That which is agreeable to the nature of one thing, is many times contrary to the nature of another. L'Estrange.

4. In pursuance, conformity, or accordance; — in this sense used adverbially for agreeably; as, agreeable to the order of the day, the House took up the report.

 — Pleasing; pleasant; welcome; charming; acceptable; amiable. See

A*gree"a*ble*ness, n.

1. The quality of being agreeable or pleasing; that quality which gives satisfaction or moderate pleasure to the mind or senses. That author . . . has an agreeableness that charms us. Pope.

2. The quality of being agreeable or suitable; suitableness or conformity; consistency. The agreeableness of virtuous actions to human nature. Pearce.

3. Resemblance; concordance; harmony; — with to or between. [Obs.] The agreeableness between man and the other parts of the universe. Grew.

A*gree"a*bly, adv.

1. In an agreeably manner; in a manner to give pleasure; pleasingly. "Agreeably entertained." Goldsmith.

2. In accordance; suitably; consistently; conformably; — followed by to and rarely by with. See Agreeable, 4. The effect of which is, that marriages grow less frequent, agreeably to the maxim above laid down. Paley.

3. Alike; similarly. [Obs.] Both clad in shepherds' weeds agreeably. Spenser.

A*gree"ing*ly, adv.

Defn: In an agreeing manner (to); correspondingly; agreeably. [Obs.]

A*gree"ment, n. Etym: [Cf. F. agrément.]

1. State of agreeing; harmony of opinion, statement, action, or character; concurrence; concord; conformity; as, a good agreement subsists among the members of the council. What agreement hath the temple of God with idols 2 Cor. vi. 16. Expansion and duration have this further agreement. Locke.

2. (Gram.)

Defn: Concord or correspondence of one word with another in gender, number, case, or person.

3. (Law) (a) A concurrence in an engagement that something shall be done or omitted; an exchange of promises; mutual understanding, arrangement, or stipulation; a contract. (b) The language, oral or written, embodying reciprocal promises. Abbott. Brande & C.

 — Bargain; contract; compact; stipulation.

A*gre"er, n.

Defn: One who agrees.

A*gres"tic, a. Etym: [L. agrestis, fr. ager field.]

Defn: Pertaining to fields or the country, in opposition to the city; rural; rustic; unpolished; uncouth. "Agrestic behavior." Gregory.

A*gres"tic*al, a.

Defn: Agrestic. [Obs.]

A*gric`o*la"tion, n. Etym: [L., agricolatio.]

Defn: Agriculture. [Obs.] Bailey.

A*gric"o*list, n.

Defn: A cultivator of the soil; an agriculturist. Dodsley.

Ag"ri*cul`tor, n. Etym: [L., fr. ager field + cultor cultivator.]

Defn: An agriculturist; a farmer. [R.]

Ag`ri*cul"tur*al, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to agriculture; connected with, or engaged in, tillage; as, the agricultural class; agricultural implements, wages, etc. — Ag`ri*cul"tur*al*ly, adv. Agricultural ant (Zoöl.), a species of ant which gathers and stores seeds of grasses, for food. The remarkable species (Myrmica barbata) found in Texas clears circular areas and carefully cultivates its favorite grain, known as ant rice.

Ag`ri*cul"tur*al*ist, n.

Defn: An agriculturist (which is the preferred form.)

AGRICULTURE Ag"ri*cul`ture, n. Etym: [L. agricultura; ager field + cultura cultivation: cf. F. agriculture. See Acre and Culture.]

Defn: The art or science of cultivating the ground, including the harvesting of crops, and the rearing and management of live stock; tillage; husbandry; farming.

Ag`ri*cul"tur*ism, n.

Defn: Agriculture. [R.]

Ag`ri*cul"tur*ist, n.

Defn: One engaged or skilled in agriculture; a husbandman. The farmer is always a practitioner, the agriculturist may be a mere theorist. Crabb.

A*grief", adv. Etym: [Pref. a- + grief.]

Defn: In grief; amiss. [Obs.] Chaucer.

AGRIMONY Ag"ri*mo*ny, n. Etym: [OE. agremoyne, OF. aigremoine, L. agrimonia for argemonia, fr. Gr. (Bot.) (a) A genus of plants of the Rose family. (b) The name is also given to various other plants; as, hemp agrimony (Eupatorium cannabinum); water agrimony (Bidens).

Note: The Agrimonia eupatoria, or common agrimony, a perennial herb with a spike of yellow flowers, was once esteemed as a medical remedy, but is now seldom used.

A*grin", adv. & a. Etym: [Pref. a- + grin.]

Defn: In the act of grinning. "His visage all agrin." Tennyson.

Ag`ri*ol"o*gist, n.

Defn: One versed or engaged in agriology.

Ag`ri*ol"o*gy, n. Etym: [Gr. -logy.]

Defn: Description or comparative study of the customs of savage or uncivilized tribes.

A*grise", v. i. Etym: [AS. agrisan to dread; a- (cf. Goth. us-, Ger.
er-, orig. meaning out) + grisan, for gr (only in comp.), akin to
OHG. gr, G. grausen, to shudder. See Grisly.]

Defn: To shudder with terror; to tremble with fear. [Obs.] Chaucer.

A*grise", v. t.

1. To shudder at; to abhor; to dread; to loathe. [Obs.] Wyclif.

2. To terrify; to affright. [Obs.] His manly face that did his foes agrise. Spenser.

A"grom, n. Etym: [Native name.] (Med.)

Defn: A disease occurring in Bengal and other parts of the East
Indies, in which the tongue chaps and cleaves.

Ag`ro*nom"ic, Ag`ro*nom"ic*al, Etym: [Cf. F. agronomique.]

Defn: Pertaining to agronomy, of the management of farms.

Ag`ro*nom"ics, n.

Defn: The science of the distribution and management of land.

A*gron"o*mist, n.

Defn: One versed in agronomy; a student of agronomy.

A*gron"o*my, n. Etym: [Gr. agronomie.]

Defn: The management of land; rural economy; agriculture.

A*grope", adv. & a. Etym: [Pref. a- + grope.]

Defn: In the act of groping. Mrs. Browning.

A*gros"tis, n. Etym: [L., fr. Gr.

Defn: A genus of grasses, including species called in common language bent grass. Some of them, as redtop (Agrostis vulgaris), are valuable pasture grasses.

AGROSTOGRAPHIC; AGROSTOGRAPHICAL A*gros`to*graph"ic, A*gros`to*graph"ic*al, a. Etym: [Cf. F. agrostographique.]

Defn: Pertaining to agrostography.

Ag`ros*tog"ra*phy, n. Etym: [Gr. -graphy.]

Defn: A description of the grasses.

A*gros`to*log"ic, A*gros`to*log"ic*al, a.

Defn: Pertaining to agrostology.

Ag`ros*tol"o*gist, n.

Defn: One skilled in agrostology.

Ag`ros*tol"ogy, n. Etym: [Gr. -logy.]

Defn: That part of botany which treats of the grasses.

Ag"ro*tech`ny, n. [Gr. field, land + an art.]

Defn: That branch of agriculture dealing with the methods of conversion of agricultural products into manufactured articles; agricultural technology.

A*ground", adv. & a. Etym: [Pref. a- + ground.]

Defn: On the ground; stranded; — a nautical term applied to a ship when its bottom lodges on the ground. Totten.

A*group"ment, n.

Defn: See Aggroupment.

Ag`ryp*not"ic, n. Etym: [Gr. agrypnotique.]

Defn: Anything which prevents sleep, or produces wakefulness, as strong tea or coffee.

A`guar*di*en"te, n. Etym: [Sp., contr. of agua ardiente burning water
(L. aqua water + ardens burning).]

1. A inferior brandy of Spain and Portugal.

2. A strong alcoholic drink, especially pulque. [Mexico and Spanish America.]

A"gue, n. Etym: [OE. agu, ague, OF. agu, F. aigu, sharp, OF. fem.
ague, LL. (febris) acuta, a sharp, acute fever, fr. L. acutus sharp.
See Acute.]

1. An acute fever. [Obs.] "Brenning agues." P. Plowman.

2. (Med.)

Defn: An intermittent fever, attended by alternate cold and hot fits.

3. The cold fit or rigor of the intermittent fever; as, fever and ague.

4. A chill, or state of shaking, as with cold. Dryden. Ague cake, an enlargement of the spleen produced by ague. — Ague drop, a solution of the arsenite of potassa used for ague. — Ague fit, a fit of the ague. Shak. — Ague spell, a spell or charm against ague. Gay. — Ague tree, the sassafras, — sometimes so called from the use of its root formerly, in cases of ague. [Obs.]

A"gue, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Agued.]

Defn: To strike with an ague, or with a cold fit. Heywood.

A*guilt", v. t.

Defn: To be guilty of; to offend; to sin against; to wrong. [Obs.]

A*guise", n.

Defn: Dress. [Obs.] Dr. H. More.

A*guise", v. t. Etym: [Pref a- + guise.]

Defn: To dress; to attire; to adorn. [Obs.]
Above all knights ye goodly seem aguised. Spenser.

A"gu*ish, a.

1. Having the qualities of an ague; somewhat cold or shivering; chilly; shaky. Her aguish love now glows and burns. Granville.

2. Productive of, or affected by, ague; as, the aguish districts of England. T. Arnold. A"gu*ish*ness, n.

A*gush", adv. & a. Etym: [Pref. a- + gush.]

Defn: In a gushing state. Hawthorne.

Ag"y*nous, a. Etym: [Gr. (Bot.)

Defn: Without female organs; male.

Ah, interj. Etym: [OE. a: cf. OF. a, F. ah, L. ah, Gr. a, Icel. æ,
OHG. a, Lith. á, á\'a0.]

Defn: An exclamation, expressive of surprise, pity, complaint, entreaty, contempt, threatening, delight, triumph, etc., according to the manner of utterance.

A*ha", interj. Etym: [Ah, interj. + ha.]

Defn: An exclamation expressing, by different intonations, triumph, mixed with derision or irony, or simple surprise.

A*ha", n.

Defn: A sunk fence. See Ha-ha. Mason.

A*head", adv. Etym: [Pref. a- + head.]

1. In or to the front; in advance; onward. The island bore but a little ahead of us. Fielding.

2. Headlong; without restraint. [Obs.] L'Estrange. To go ahead. (a) To go in advance. (b) To go on onward. (c) To push on in an enterprise. [Colloq] — To get ahead of. (a) To get in advance of. (b) To surpass; to get the better of. [Colloq.]

A*heap", adv. Etym: [Pref. a- + heap.]

Defn: In a heap; huddled together. Hood.

A*height", adv. Etym: [Pref. a- + height.]

Defn: Aloft; on high. [Obs.] "Look up aheight." Shak.

A*hem", interj.

Defn: An exclamation to call one's attention; hem.

A*hey", interj.

Defn: Hey; ho.

A*high", adv.

Defn: On high. [Obs.] Shak.

A*hold", adv. Etym: [Pref. a- + hold.]

Defn: Near the wind; as, to lay a ship ahold. [Obs.] Shak.

A*horse"back, adv.

Defn: On horseback.
Two suspicious fellows ahorseback. Smollet.

A*hoy", interj. Etym: [OE. a, interj. + hoy.] (Naut.)

Defn: A term used in hailing; as, "Ship ahoy."

Ah"ri*man, n. Etym: [Per.]

Defn: The Evil Principle or Being of the ancient Persians; the Prince of Darkness as opposer to Ormuzd, the King of Light.

A"hu, n. Etym: [Native name.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: The Asiatic gazelle.

A*hull", adv. Etym: [Pref. a- + hull.] (Naut.)

Defn: With the sails furled, and the helm lashed alee; — applied to ships in a storm. See Hull, n.

A*hun"gered, a. Etym: [Pref. a- + hungered.]

Defn: Pinched with hunger; very hungry. C. Bronté.

AI A"i, n.; pl. Ais. Etym: [Braz. aï, haï, from the animal's cry: cf. F. aï.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: The three-toed sloth (Bradypus tridactylus) of South America.
See Sloth.

Ai"blins, A"blins, adv. Etym: [See Able.]

Defn: Perhaps; possibly. [Scotch] Burns.

Aich's met"al.

Defn: A kind of gun metal, containing copper, zinc, and iron, but no tin.

AID Aid, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Aided; p. pr. & vb. n. Aiding.] Etym: [F. aider, OF. aidier, fr. L. adjutare to help, freq. of adjuvare to help; ad + juvare to help. Cf. Adjutant.]

Defn: To support, either by furnishing strength or means in
coöperation to effect a purpose, or to prevent or to remove evil; to
help; to assist.
You speedy helpers . . . Appear and aid me in this enterprise. Shak.

Syn. — To help; assist; support; sustain; succor; relieve; befriend; coöperate; promote. See Help.

Aid, n. Etym: [F. aide, OF. aïde, aïe, fr. the verb. See Aid, v. t.]

1. Help; succor; assistance; relief. An unconstitutional mode of obtaining aid. Hallam.

2. The person or thing that promotes or helps in something done; a helper; an assistant. It is not good that man should be alone; let us make unto him an aid like unto himself. Tobit viii. 6.

3. (Eng. Hist.)

Defn: A subsidy granted to the king by Parliament; also, an exchequer loan.

4. (Feudal Law)

Defn: A pecuniary tribute paid by a vassal to his lord on special occasions. Blackstone.

5. An aid-de-camp, so called by abbreviation; as, a general's aid. Aid prayer (Law), a proceeding by which a defendant beseeches and claims assistance from some one who has a further or more permanent interest in the matter in suit. — To pray in aid, to beseech and claim such assistance.

Aid"ance, n. Etym: [Cf. OF. aidance.]

Defn: Aid. [R.]
Aidance 'gainst the enemy. Shak.

Aid"ant, a. Etym: [Cf. F. aidant, p. pr. of aider to help.]

Defn: Helping; helpful; supplying aid. Shak.

AID-DE-CAMP Aid"-de-camp`, n.; pl. Aids-de-camp.. Etym: [F. aide de camp (literally) camp assistant.] (Mil.)

Defn: An officer selected by a general to carry orders, also to assist or represent him in correspondence and in directing movements.

Aid"er, n.

Defn: One who, or that which, aids.

Aid"ful, a.

Defn: Helpful. [Archaic.] Bp. Hall.

Aid"less, a.

Defn: Helpless; without aid. Milton.

Aid"-ma`jor, n.

Defn: The adjutant of a regiment.

Ai"el, n.

Defn: See Ayle. [Obs.]

Aig"let, n.

Defn: Same as Aglet.

Ai"gre, a. Etym: [F. See Eager.]

Defn: Sour. [Obs.] Shak.

Ai"gre*more, n. Etym: [F. origin unknown.]

Defn: Charcoal prepared for making powder.

AIGRET; AIGRETTE Ai"gret, Ai*grette, n. Etym: [F., a sort of white heron, with a tuft of feathers on its head; a tuft of feathers; dim. of the same word as heron. See Heron, and cf. Egret, Egrette.]

1. (Zoöl.)

Defn: The small white European heron. See Egret.

2. A plume or tuft for the head composed of feathers, or of gems, etc. Prescott.

3. A tuft like that of the egret. (Bot.)

Defn: A feathery crown of seed; egret; as, the aigrette or down of the dandelion or the thistle.

Ai`guille", n. Etym: [F., a needle. See Aglet.]

1. A needle-shaped peak.

2. An instrument for boring holes, used in blasting.

Ai`guil*lette", n. Etym: [F. See Aglet.]

1. A point or tag at the end of a fringe or lace; an aglet.

2. One of the ornamental tags, cords, or loops on some military and naval uniforms.

Ai"gu*let, n.

Defn: See Aglet. Spenser.

AIL Ail, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ailed; p. pr. & vb. n. Ailing.] Etym: [OE. eilen, ailen, AS. eglan to trouble, pain; akin to Goth. us-agljan to distress, agls troublesome, irksome, aglo, aglitha, pain, and prob. to E. awe.

Defn: To affect with pain or uneasiness, either physical or mental; to trouble; to be the matter with; — used to express some uneasiness or affection, whose cause is unknown; as, what ails the man I know not what ails him. What aileth thee, Hagar Gen. xxi. 17.

Note: It is never used to express a specific disease. We do not say, a fever ails him; but, something ails him.

Ail, v. i.

Defn: To be affected with pain or uneasiness of any sort; to be ill or indisposed or in trouble. When he ails ever so little . . . he is so peevish. Richardson.

Ail, n.

Defn: Indisposition or morbid affection. Pope.

Ai*lan"thus, n.

Defn: Same as Ailantus.

AILANTUS Ai*lan"tus, n. Etym: [From aylanto, i. e., tree of heaven, the name of the tree in the Moluccas.] (Bot.)

Defn: A genus of beautiful trees, natives of the East Indies. The tree imperfectly di

Ai"le*ron, n. [F., dim. of aile wing.]


Defn: A half gable, as at the end of a penthouse or of the aisle of a church.

2. (Aëronautics) A small plane or surface capable of being manipulated by the pilot of a flying machine to preserve or destroy lateral balance; a hinged wing tip; a lateral stabilizing or balancing plane.

Ai*lette, n. Etym: [F. ailette, dim. of aile wing, L. ala.]

Defn: A small square shield, formerly worn on the shoulders of knights, — being the prototype of the modern epaulet. Fairholt.

Ail"ment, n.

Defn: Indisposition; morbid affection of the body; — not applied ordinarily to acute diseases. "Little ailments." Landsdowne.

Ai`lu*roid"e*a, n. pl. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. -oid.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: A group of the Carnivora, which includes the cats, civets, and hyenas.

AIM Aim, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Aimed; p. pr. & vb. n. Aiming.] Etym: [OE. amen, aimen, eimen, to guess at, to estimate, to aim, OF. esmer, asmer, fr. L. aestimare to estimate; or perh. fr. OF. aesmer; ad) + esmer. See Estimate.]

1. To point or direct a missile weapon, or a weapon which propels as missile, towards an object or spot with the intent of hitting it; as, to aim at a fox, or at a target.

2. To direct the indention or purpose; to attempt the accomplishment of a purpose; to try to gain; to endeavor; — followed by at, or by an infinitive; as, to aim at distinction; to aim to do well. Aim'st thou at princes Pope.

3. To guess or conjecture. [Obs.] Shak.

Aim, v. t.

Defn: To direct or point, as a weapon, at a particular object; to direct, as a missile, an act, or a proceeding, at, to, or against an object; as, to aim a musket or an arrow, the fist or a blow (at something); to aim a satire or a reflection (at some person or vice).

Aim, n. Etym: [Cf. OF. esme estimation, fr. esmer. See Aim, v. i.]

1. The pointing of a weapon, as a gun, a dart, or an arrow, in the line of direction with the object intended to be struck; the line of fire; the direction of anything, as a spear, a blow, a discourse, a remark, towards a particular point or object, with a view to strike or affect it. Each at the head leveled his deadly aim. Milton.

2. The point intended to be hit, or object intended to be attained or affected. To be the aim of every dangerous shot. Shak.

3. Intention; purpose; design; scheme. How oft ambitious aims are crossed! Pope.

4. Conjecture; guess. [Obs.] What you would work me to, I have some aim. Shak. To cry aim (Archery), to encourage. [Obs.] Shak.

Syn. — End; object; scope; drift; design; purpose; intention; scheme; tendency; aspiration.

Aim"er, n.

Defn: One who aims, directs, or points.

Aim"less, a.

Defn: Without aim or purpose; as, an aimless life.
 — Aim"less*ly, adv.
 — Aim"less*ness, n.

Ai"no, n. Etym: [Said to be the native name for man.]

Defn: One of a peculiar race inhabiting Yesso, the Kooril Islands etc., in the northern part of the empire of Japan, by some supposed to have been the progenitors of the Japanese. The Ainos are stout and short, with hairy bodies.


Defn: A contraction for are not and am not; also used for is not.
[Colloq. or llliterate speech]. See An't.

AIR Air, n. Etym: [OE. air, eir, F. air, L. aër, fr. Gr. wind. In sense 10 the French has taking a meaning fr. It. aria atmosphere, air, fr. the same Latin word; and in senses 11, 12, 13 the French meaning is either fr. L. aria, or due to confusion with F. aire, in an older sense of origin, descent. Cf. A, Debonair, Malaria, Wind.]

1. The fluid which we breathe, and which surrounds the earth; the atmosphere. It is invisible, inodorous, insipid, transparent, compressible, elastic, and ponderable.

Note: By the ancient philosophers, air was regarded as an element; but modern science has shown that it is essentially a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen, with a small amount of carbon dioxide, the average proportions being, by volume: oxygen, 20.96 per cent.; nitrogen, 79.00 per cent.; carbon dioxide, 0.04 per cent. These proportions are subject to a very slight variability. Air also always contains some vapor of water.

2. Symbolically: Something unsubstantial, light, or volatile. "Charm ache with air." Shak. He was still all air and fire. Macaulay . [Air and fire being the finer and quicker elements as opposed to earth and water.]

3. A particular state of the atmosphere, as respects heat, cold, moisture, etc., or as affecting the sensations; as, a smoky air, a damp air, the morning air, etc.

4. Any aëriform body; a gas; as, oxygen was formerly called vital air. [Obs.]

5. Air in motion; a light breeze; a gentle wind. Let vernal airs through trembling osiers play. Pope.

6. Odoriferous or contaminated air.

7. That which surrounds and influences. The keen, the wholesome air of poverty. Wordsworth.

8. Utterance abroad; publicity; vent. You gave it air before me. Dryden.

9. Intelligence; information. [Obs.] Bacon.

10. (Mus.) (a) A musical idea, or motive, rhythmically developed in consecutive single tones, so as to form a symmetrical and balanced whole, which may be sung by a single voice to the stanzas of a hymn or song, or even to plain prose, or played upon an instrument; a melody; a tune; an aria. (b) In harmonized chorals, psalmody, part songs, etc., the part which bears the tune or melody — in modern harmony usually the upper part — is sometimes called the air.

11. The peculiar look, appearance, and bearing of a person; mien; demeanor; as, the air of a youth; a heavy air; a lofty air. "His very air." Shak.

12. Peculiar appearance; apparent character; semblance; manner; style. It was communicated with the air of a secret. Pope.

12. pl.

Defn: An artificial or affected manner; show of pride or vanity; haughtiness; as, it is said of a person, he puts on airs. Thackeray.

14. (Paint.) (a) The representation or reproduction of the effect of the atmospheric medium through which every object in nature is viewed. New Am. Cyc. (b) Carriage; attitude; action; movement; as, the head of that portrait has a good air. Fairholt.

15. (Man.)

Defn: The artificial motion or carriage of a horse.

Note: Air is much used adjectively or as the first part of a compound term. In most cases it might be written indifferently, as a separate limiting word, or as the first element of the compound term, with or without the hyphen; as, air bladder, air-bladder, or airbladder; air cell, air-cell, or aircell; air-pump, or airpump. Air balloon. See Balloon. — Air bath. (a) An apparatus for the application of air to the body. (b) An arrangement for drying substances in air of any desired temperature. — Air castle. See Castle in the air, under Castle. — Air compressor, a machine for compressing air to be used as a motive power. — Air crossing, a passage for air in a mine. — Air cushion, an air-tight cushion which can be inflated; also, a device for arresting motion without shock by confined air. — Air fountain, a contrivance for producing a jet of water by the force of compressed air. — Air furnace, a furnace which depends on a natural draft and not on blast. — Air line, a straight line; a bee line. Hence Air-line, adj.; as, air-line road. — Air lock (Hydr. Engin.), an intermediate chamber between the outer air and the compressed-air chamber of a pneumatic caisson. Knight. — Air port (Nav.), a scuttle or porthole in a ship to admit air. — Air spring, a spring in which the elasticity of air is utilized. — Air thermometer, a form of thermometer in which the contraction and expansion of air is made to measure changes of temperature. — Air threads, gossamer. — Air trap, a contrivance for shutting off foul air or gas from drains, sewers, etc.; a stench trap. — Air trunk, a pipe or shaft for conducting foul or heated air from a room. — Air valve, a valve to regulate the admission or egress of air; esp. a valve which opens inwardly in a steam boiler and allows air to enter. — Air way, a passage for a current of air; as the air way of an air pump; an air way in a mine. — In the air. (a) Prevalent without traceable origin or authority, as rumors. (b) Not in a fixed or stable position; unsettled. (c) (Mil.) Unsupported and liable to be turned or taken in flank; as, the army had its wing in the air. — To take air, to be divulged; to be made public. — To take the air, to go abroad; to walk or ride out.

Air, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Aired; p. pr. & vb. n. Airing.] Etym: [See
Air, n., and cf. A.]

1. To expose to the air for the purpose of cooling, refreshing, or purifying; to ventilate; as, to air a room. It were good wisdom . . . that the jail were aired. Bacon. Were you but riding forth to air yourself. Shak.

2. To expose for the sake of public notice; to display ostentatiously; as, to air one's opinion. Airing a snowy hand and signet gem. Tennyson.

3. To expose to heat, for the purpose of expelling dampness, or of warming; as, to air linen; to air liquors.

Air" bed`.

Defn: A sack or matters inflated with air, and used as a bed.

Air" blad`der.

1. (Anat.)

Defn: An air sac, sometimes double or variously lobed, in the visceral cavity of many fishes. It originates in the same way as the lungs of air-breathing vertebrates, and in the adult may retain a tubular connection with the pharynx or esophagus.

2. A sac or bladder full of air in an animal or plant; also an air hole in a casting.

Air" brake`. (Mach.)

Defn: A railway brake operated by condensed air. Knight.

Air brush.

Defn: A kind of atomizer for applying liquid coloring matter in a spray by compressed air.

Air"-built`, a.

Defn: Erected in the air; having no solid foundation; chimerical; as, an air-built castle.

Air" cell`.

1. (Bot.)

Defn: A cavity in the cellular tissue of plants, containing air only.

2. (Anat.)

Defn: A receptacle of air in various parts of the system; as, a cell or minute cavity in the walls of the air tubes of the lungs; the air sac of birds; a dilatation of the air vessels in insects.

Air" cham`ber.

1. A chamber or cavity filled with air, in an animal or plant.

2. A cavity containing air to act as a spring for equalizing the flow of a liquid in a pump or other hydraulic machine.

Air" cock`.

Defn: A faucet to allow escape of air.

Air cooling.

Defn: In gasoline-engine motor vehicles, the cooling of the cylinder by increasing its radiating surface by means of ribs or radiators, and placing it so that it is exposed to a current of air. Cf. Water cooling. — Air"-cooled`, a.

Air"craft`, n. sing. & pl.

Defn: Any device, as a balloon, aëroplane, etc., for floating in, or flying through, the air.

Air"-drawn", a.

Defn: Drawn in air; imaginary.
This is the air-drawn dagger. Shak.

Air" drill`.

Defn: A drill driven by the elastic pressure of condensed air; a pneumatic drill. Knight.

Air" engine`.

Defn: An engine driven by heated or by compressed air. Knight.

Air"er, n.

1. One who exposes to the air.

2. A frame on which clothes are aired or dried.

Air gap. (Physics)

Defn: An air-filled gap in a magnetic or electric circuit; specif., in a dynamo or motor, the space between the field-magnet poles and the armature; clearance.

Air" gas`.

Defn: See under Gas.

Air" gun`.

Defn: A kind of gun in which the elastic force of condensed air is used to discharge the ball. The air is powerfully compressed into a reservoir attached to the gun, by a condensing pump, and is controlled by a valve actuated by the trigger.

Air" hole`.

1. A hole to admit or discharge air; specifically, a spot in the ice not frozen over.

2. (Founding)

Defn: A fault in a casting, produced by a bubble of air; a blowhole.

Air"i*ly, adv.

Defn: In an airy manner; lightly; gaily; jauntily; fippantly.

Air"i*ness, n.

1. The state or quality of being airy; openness or exposure to the air; as, the airiness of a country seat.

2. Lightness of spirits; gayety; levity; as, the airiness of young persons.

Air"ing, n.

1. A walk or a ride in the open air; a short excursion for health's sake.

2. An exposure to air, or to a fire, for warming, drying, etc.; as, the airing of linen, or of a room.

Air" jack`et.

Defn: A jacket having air-tight cells, or cavities which can be filled with air, to render persons buoyant in swimming.

Air"less, a.

Defn: Not open to a free current of air; wanting fresh air, or communication with the open air.

Air" lev`el.

Defn: Spirit level. See Level.

Air"like`, a.

Defn: Resembling air.

Air line.

Defn: A path through the air made easy for aërial navigation by steady winds.

Air"ling, n.

Defn: A thoughtless, gay person. [Obs.] "Slight airlings." B. Jonson.

Air"man, n.

Defn: A man who ascends or flies in an aircraft; a flying machine pilot.

Air"man*ship, n.

Defn: Art, skill, or ability in the practice of aërial navigation.

Air"ol, n. (Pharm.)

Defn: A grayish green antiseptic powder, consisting of a basic iodide and gallate of bismuth, sometimes used in place of iodoform. [A Trademark]

Air*om"e*ter, n. Etym: [Air + -meter.]

Defn: A hollow cylinder to contain air. It is closed above and open below, and has its open end plunged into water.

Air" pipe`.

Defn: A pipe for the passage of air; esp. a ventilating pipe.

Air" plant`. (Bot.)

Defn: A plant deriving its sustenance from the air alone; an aërophyte.

Note: The "Florida moss" (Tillandsia), many tropical orchids, and most mosses and lichens are air plants. Those which are lodged upon trees, but not parasitic on them, are epiphytes.

Air" poise`. Etym: [See Poise.]

Defn: A

Air" pump`.

1. (Physics)

Defn: A kind of pump for exhausting air from a vessel or closed space; also, a pump to condense air of force in into a closed space.

2. (Steam Engines)

Defn: A pump used to exhaust from a condenser the condensed steam, the water used for condensing, and any commingled air.

Air" sac`. (Anat.)

Defn: One of the spaces in different parts. of the bodies of birds, which are filled with air and connected with the air passages of the lungs; an air cell.

Air" shaft`.

Defn: A passage, usually vertical, for admitting fresh air into a mine or a tunnel.

Air`sick`, a.

Defn: Affected with aërial sickness. — Air"sick`ness, n.

Air"-slacked`, a.

Defn: Slacked, or pulverized, by exposure to the air; as, air-slacked lime.

Air" stove`.

Defn: A stove for heating a current of air which is directed against its surface by means of pipes, and then distributed through a building.

Air"-tight`, a.

Defn: So tight as to be impermeable to air; as, an air-tight cylinder.

Air"-tight`, n.

Defn: A stove the draft of which can be almost entirely shut off.
[Colloq. U. S.]

Air" ves`sel.

Defn: A vessel, cell, duct, or tube containing or conducting air; as the air vessels of insects, birds, plants, etc.; the air vessel of a pump, engine, etc. For the latter, see Air chamber. The air vessels of insects are called tracheæ, of plants spiral vessels.

Air"ward, Air"wards, adv.

Defn: Toward the air; upward. [R.] Keats.

Air"wom`an, n.

Defn: A woman who ascends or flies in an aircraft.

Air"y, a.

1. Consisting of air; as, an airy substance; the airy parts of bodies.

2. Relating or belonging to air; high in air; aërial; as, an airy flight. "The airy region." Milton.

3. Open to a free current of air; exposed to the air; breezy; as, an airy situation.

4. Resembling air; thin; unsubstantial; not material; airlike. "An airy spirit." Shak.

5. Relating to the spirit or soul; delicate; graceful; as, airy music.

6. Without reality; having no solid foundation; empty; trifling; visionary. "Airy fame." Shak. Empty sound, and airy notions. Roscommon.

7. Light of heart; vivacious; sprightly; flippant; superficial. "Merry and airy." Jer. Taylor.

8. Having an affected manner; being in the habit of putting on airs; affectedly grand. [Colloq.]

9. (Paint.)

Defn: Having the light and aërial tints true to nature. Elmes.

AISLE Aisle, n. Etym: [OF. ele, F. aile, wing, wing of a building, L. ala, contr. fr. axilla.] (Arch.) (a) A lateral division of a building, separated from the middle part, called the nave, by a row of columns or piers, which support the roof or an upper wall containing windows, called the clearstory wall. (b) Improperly used also for the have; — as in the phrases, a church with three aisles, the middle aisle. (c) Also (perhaps from confusion with alley), a passage into which the pews of a church open.

Aisled, a.

Defn: Furnished with an aisle or aisles.

Ais"less, a.

Defn: Without an aisle.

Ait, n. Etym: [AS. ieg, ig, island. See Eyot.]

Defn: An islet, or little isle, in a river or lake; an eyot.
The ait where the osiers grew. R. Hodges (1649).
Among green aits and meadows. Dickens.

Ait, n.

Defn: Oat. [Scot.] Burns.

Aitch, n.

Defn: The letter h or H.

Aitch"bone`, n. Etym: [For nachebone. For loss of n, cf. Adder. See

Defn: The bone of the rump; also, the cut of beef surrounding this bone. [Spelt also edgebone.]

Ai`ti*ol"o*gy, n.

Defn: See Ætiology.

AJAR A*jar", adv. Etym: [OE. on char ajar, on the turn; AS. cerr, cyrr, turn, akin to G. kehren to turn, and to D. akerre. See Char.]

Defn: Slightly turned or opened; as, the door was standing ajar.

A*jar", adv. Etym: [Pref. a- + jar.]

Defn: In a state of discord; out of harmony; as, he is ajar with the world.

Aj"a*va, n. (Bot.)

Defn: See Ajouan.

A*jog", adv. Etym: [Pref. a- + jog.]

Defn: On the jog.

Aj"ou*an Aj"ow*an, n. [Written also ajwain.] [Prob. native name.]

Defn: The fruit of Ammi Copticum, syn. Carum Ajowan, used both as a medicine and as a condiment. An oil containing thymol is extracted from it. Called also Javanee seed, Javanese seed, and ajava.

Aj"u*tage, n. Etym: [F. ajutage, for ajoutage, fr. ajouter to add,
LL. adjuxtare, fr. L. ad + juxta near to, nigh. Cf. Adjutage,
Adjustage, Adjust.]

Defn: A tube through which is water is discharged; an efflux tube; as, the ajutage of a fountain.

Ake, n. & v.

Defn: See Ache.

A*kene", n. (Bot.)

Defn: Same as Achene.

Ak"e*ton, n. [Obs.]

Defn: See Acton.

A*kim"bo, a. Etym: [Etymology unknown. Cf. Kimbo.]

Defn: With a crook or bend; with the hand on the hip and elbow turned outward. "With one arm akimbo." Irving.

A*kin", a. Etym: [Pref. a- (for of) + kin.]

1. Of the same kin; related by blood; — used of persons; as, the two families are near akin.

2. Allied by nature; partaking of the same properties; of the same kind. "A joy akin to rapture." Cowper. The literary character of the work is akin to its moral character. Jeffrey.

Note: This adjective is used only after the noun.

Ak`i*ne"si*a, n. Etym: [Gr. (Med.)

Defn: Paralysis of the motor nerves; loss of movement. Foster.

Ak`i*ne"sic, a. (med.)

Defn: Pertaining to akinesia.

A*knee", adv.

Defn: On the knee. [R.] Southey.


Defn: Earlier form of Acknow. [Obs.] To be aknow, to acknowledge; to confess. [Obs.]

Al, a.

Defn: All. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Al-. A prefix. (a) Etym: [AS. eal.]

Defn: All; wholly; completely; as, almighty,almost. (b) Etym: [L. ad.]

Defn: To; at; on; — in OF. shortened to a-. See Ad-. (c) The Arabic definite article answering to the English the; as, Alkoran, the Koran or the Book; alchemy, the chemistry.

Al. conj.

Defn: Although; if. [Obs.] See All, conj.

A"la, n.; pl. Alæ. Etym: [L., a wing.] (Biol.)

Defn: A winglike organ, or part.

Al`a*ba"ma pe"ri*od. (Geol.)

Defn: A period in the American eocene, the lowest in the tertiary age except the lignitic.

ALABASTER Al"a*bas"ter, n. Etym: [L. alabaster, Gr. Alabastron, the name of a town in Egypt, near which it was common: cf. OF. alabastre, F. albâtre.]

1. (Min.) (a) A compact variety or sulphate of lime, or gypsum, of fine texture, and usually white and translucent, but sometimes yellow, red, or gray. It is carved into vases, mantel ornaments, etc. (b) A hard, compact variety of carbonate of lime, somewhat translucent, or of banded shades of color; stalagmite. The name is used in this sense by Pliny. It is sometimes distinguished as oriental alabaster.

2. A box or vessel for holding odoriferous ointments, etc.; — so called from the stone of which it was originally made. Fosbroke.

Al`a*bas"tri*an, a.

Defn: Alabastrine.

Al`a*bas"trine, a.

Defn: Of, pertaining to, or like, alabaster; as alabastrine limbs.

Al`a*bas"trum, n.; pl. Alabastra. Etym: [NL.] (Bot.)

Defn: A flower bud. Gray.

ALACK A*lack", interj. Etym: [Prob. from ah! lack! OE. lak loss, failure, misfortune. See Lack.]

Defn: An exclamation expressive of sorrow. [Archaic. or Poet.] Shak.

A*lack"a*day`, interj. Etym: [For alack the day. Cf. Lackaday.]

Defn: An exclamation expressing sorrow.

Note: Shakespeare has "alack the day" and "alack the heavy day."
Compare "woe worth the day."

A*lac"ri*fy, v. t. Etym: [L. alacer, alacris, lively + -fly.]

Defn: To rouse to action; to inspirit.

A*lac"ri*ous, a. Etym: [L. alacer, alacris.]

Defn: Brisk; joyously active; lively.
'T were well if we were a little more alacrious. Hammond.

A*lac"ri*ous*ly, adv.

Defn: With alacrity; briskly.

A*lac"ri*ous*ness, n.

Defn: Alacrity. [Obs.] Hammond.

ALACRITY A*lac"ri*ty, n. Etym: [L. alacritas, fr. alacer lively, eager, prob. akin to Gr. aljan zeal.]

Defn: A cheerful readiness, willingness, or promptitude; joyous activity; briskness; sprightliness; as, the soldiers advanced with alacrity to meet the enemy. I have not that alacrity of spirit, Nor cheer of mind that I was wont to have. Shak.

ALADINIST A*lad"in*ist, n. Etym: [From Aladin, for Ala Eddin, i. e., height of religion, a learned divine under Mohammed II. and Bajazet II.]

Defn: One of a sect of freethinkers among the Mohammedans.

A*la"li*a, n. [NL., fr. Gr. priv. + a talking; cf. speechless.]

Defn: Inability to utter articulate sounds, due either to paralysis of the larynx or to that form of aphasia, called motor, or ataxis, aphasia, due to loss of control of the muscles of speech.

Al`a*lon"ga, or Al`i*lon"ghi, n. (Zoöl.)

Defn: The tunny. See Albicore.

ALAMIRE A`la*mi"re, n. Etym: [Compounded of a la mi re, names of notes in the musical scale.]

Defn: The lowest note but one in Guido Aretino's scale of music.

Al`a*mo*dal"i*ty, n.

Defn: The quality of being à la mode; conformity to the mode or fashion; fashionableness. [R.] Southey.

Al"a*mode`, adv. & a. Etym: [F. à la mode after the fashion.]

Defn: According to the fashion or prevailing mode. "Alamode beef shops." Macaulay.

Al"a*mode`, n.

Defn: A thin, black silk for hoods, scarfs, etc.; — often called simply mode. Buchanan.

Al`a*mort", a. Etym: [F. à la mort to the death. Cf. Amort.]

Defn: To the death; mortally.

A*lan", n. Etym: [OF. alan, alant; cf. Sp. alano.]

Defn: A wolfhound. [Obs.] Chaucer.

A*land", adv. Etym: [Pref. a- + land.]

Defn: On land; to the land; ashore. "Cast aland." Sir P. Sidney.

ALANINE Al"a*nine, n. Etym: [Aldehyde + the ending -ine. The -n- is a euphonic insertion.] (Chem.)

Defn: A white crystalline base, C3H7NO2, derived from aldehyde ammonia.

A*lan"tin, n. Etym: [G. alant elecampane, the Inula helenium of
Linnæus.] (Chem.)

Defn: See Inulin.

A"lar, a. Etym: [L. alarius, fr. ala wing: cf. F. alaire.]

1. Pertaining to, or having, wings.

2. (Bot.)

Defn: Axillary; in the fork or axil. Gray.

ALARM A*larm", n. Etym: [F. alarme, It. all' arme to arms ! fr. L. arma, pl., arms. See Arms, and cf. Alarum.]

1. A summons to arms, as on the approach of an enemy. Arming to answer in a night alarm. Shak.

2. Any sound or information intended to give notice of approaching danger; a warming sound to arouse attention; a warning of danger. Sound an alarm in my holy mountain. Joel ii. 1.

3. A sudden attack; disturbance; broil. [R.] "These home alarms." Shak. Thy palace fill with insults and alarms. Pope.

4. Sudden surprise with fear or terror excited by apprehension of danger; in the military use, commonly, sudden apprehension of being attacked by surprise. Alarm and resentment spread throughout the camp. Macaulay.

5. A mechanical contrivance for awaking persons from sleep, or rousing their attention; an alarum. Alarm bell, a bell that gives notice on danger. — Alarm clock or watch, a clock or watch which can be so set as to ring or strike loudly at a prearranged hour, to wake from sleep, or excite attention. — Alarm gauge, a contrivance attached to a steam boiler for showing when the pressure of steam is too high, or the water in the boiler too low. — Alarm post, a place to which troops are to repair in case of an alarm.

Syn. — Fright; affright; terror; trepidation; apprehension; consternation; dismay; agitation; disquiet; disquietude. — Alarm, Fright, Terror, Consternation. These words express different degrees of fear at the approach of danger. Fright is fear suddenly excited, producing confusion of the senses, and hence it is unreflecting. Alarm is the hurried agitation of feeling which springs from a sense of immediate and extreme exposure. Terror is agitating and excessive fear, which usually benumbs the faculties. Consternation is overwhelming fear, and carries a notion of powerlessness and amazement. Alarm agitates the feelings; terror disorders the understanding and affects the will; fright seizes on and confuses the sense; consternation takes possession of the soul, and subdues its faculties. See Apprehension.

A*larm", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Alarmed; p. pr. & vb. n. Alarming.]
Etym: [Alarm, n. Cf. F. alarmer.]

1. To call to arms for defense; to give notice to (any one) of approaching danger; to rouse to vigilance and action; to put on the alert.

2. To keep in excitement; to disturb.

3. To surprise with apprehension of danger; to fill with anxiety in regard to threatening evil; to excite with sudden fear. Alarmed by rumors of military preparation. Macaulay.

A*larm"a*ble, a.

Defn: Easily alarmed or disturbed.

A*larmed", a.

Defn: Aroused to vigilance; excited by fear of approaching danger; agitated; disturbed; as, an alarmed neighborhood; an alarmed modesty. The white pavilions rose and fell On the alarmed air. Longfellow.

A*larm"ed*ly, adv.

Defn: In an alarmed manner.

A*larm"ing, a.

Defn: Exciting, or calculated to excite, alarm; causing apprehension of danger; as, an alarming crisis or report. — A*larm"ing*ly, adv.

A*larm"ist, n. Etym: [Cf. F. alarmiste.]

Defn: One prone to sound or excite alarms, especially, needless alarms. Macaulay.

A*lar"um, n. Etym: [OE. alarom, the same word as alarm, n.]

Defn: See Alarm. [Now Poetic]

Note: The variant form alarum is now commonly restricted to an alarm signal or the mechanism to sound an alarm (as in an alarm clock.)

Al"a*ry, a. Etym: [L. alarius, fr. ala wing.]

Defn: Of or pertaining to wings; also, wing-shaped.
The alary system of insects. Wollaston.

A*las", interj. Etym: [OE. alas, allas, OF. alas, F. hélas; a interj.
(L. ah.) + las wretched (that I am), L. lassus weary, akin to E.
late. See Late.]

Defn: An exclamation expressive of sorrow, pity, or apprehension of evil; — in old writers, sometimes followed by day or white; alas the day, like alack a day, or alas the white.

A*late", adv. Etym: [Pref. a- + late.]

Defn: Lately; of late. [Archaic]
There hath been alate such tales spread abroad. Latimer.

A"late, A"la*ted, a. Etym: [L. alatus, from ala wing.]

Defn: Winged; having wings, or side appendages like wings.

Al"a*tern, Al`a*ter"nus, n. Etym: [L. ala wing + terni three each.]

Defn: An ornamental evergreen shrub (Rhamnus alaternus) belonging to the buckthorns.

A*la"tion, n. Etym: [F., fr. L. alatus winged.]

Defn: The state of being winged.

A*launt", n.

Defn: See Alan. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Alb, n. Etym: [OE. albe, LL. alba, fr. L. albus white. Cf. Album and

Defn: A vestment of white linen, reaching to the feet, an enveloping the person; — in the Roman Catholic church, worn by those in holy orders when officiating at mass. It was formerly worn, at least by clerics, in daily life.

Al"ba*core, n. (Zoöl.)

Defn: See Albicore.

Al"ban, n. Etym: [L. albus white.] (Chem.)

Defn: A white crystalline resinous substance extracted from gutta- percha by the action of alcohol or ether.

Al*ba"ni*an, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to Albania, a province of Turkey.
 — n.

Defn: A native of Albania.

ALBATA Al*ba"ta, n. Etym: [L. albatus, p. p. of albare to make white, fr. albus white.]

Defn: A white metallic alloy; which is made into spoons, forks, teapots, etc. British plate or German silver. See German silver, under German.

ALBATROSS Al"ba*tross, n. Etym: [Corrupt. fr. Pg. alcatraz cormorant, albatross, or Sp. alcatraz a pelican: cf. Pg. alcatruz, Sp. arcaduz, a bucket, fr. Ar. al-qadus the bucket, fr. Gr. ka`dos, a water vessel. So an Arabic term for pelican is water-carrier, as a bird carrying water in its pouch.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: A web-footed bird, of the genus Diomedea, of which there are several species. They are the largest of sea birds, capable of long- continued flight, and are often seen at great distances from the land. They are found chiefly in the southern hemisphere.

Al`be", Al`bee", conj. Etym: [See Albeit.]

Defn: Although; albeit. [Obs.]
Albe Clarissa were their chiefest founderess. Spenser.

Al*be"do, n. Etym: [L., fr. albus white.]

Defn: Whiteness. Specifically: (Astron.) The ratio which the light reflected from an unpolished surface bears to the total light falling upon that surface.

Al`be"it, conj. Etym: [OE. al be although it be, where al is our all.
Cf. Although.]

Defn: Even though; although; notwithstanding. Chaucer.
Albeit so masked, Madam, I love the truth. Tennyson.

Al"bert*ite, n. (Min.)

Defn: A bituminous mineral resembling asphaltum, found in the county of A.

Al"bert ware.

Defn: A soft ornamental terra-cotta pottery, sold in the biscuit state for decorating.

Al"ber*type, n. Etym: [From the name of the inventor, Albert, of

Defn: A picture printed from a kind of gelatine plate produced by means of a photographic negative.

Al*bes"cence, n.

Defn: The act of becoming white; whitishness.

ALBESCENT Al*bes"cent, a. Etym: [L. albescens, p. pr. of albescere to grow white, fr. albus white.]

Defn: Becoming white or whitish; moderately white.

ALBICANT Al"bi*cant, a. Etym: [L. albicans, p. pr. of albicare, albicatum, to be white, fr. albus white.]

Defn: Growing or becoming white.

Al`bi*ca"tion, n.

Defn: The process of becoming white, or developing white patches, or streaks.

ALBICORE Al"bi*core, n. Etym: [F. albicore (cf. Sp. albacora, Pg. albacor, albacora, albecora), fr. Ar. bakr, bekr, a young camel, young cow, heifer, and the article al: cf. Pg. bacoro a little pig.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: A name applied to several large fishes of the Mackerel family, esp. Orcynus alalonga. One species (Orcynus thynnus), common in the Mediterranean and Atlantic, is called in New England the horse mackerel; the tunny. [Written also albacore.]

ALBIFICATION Al`bi*fi*ca"tion, n. Etym: [Cf. F. albification: L. albus white + ficare (only in comp.), facere, to make.]

Defn: The act or process of making white. [Obs.]

ALBIGENSES; ALBIGEOIS Al`bi*gen"ses, Al`bi`geois", n. pl. Etym: [From Albi and Albigeois, a town and its district in the south of France, in which the sect abounded.] (Eccl. Hist.)

Defn: A sect of reformers opposed to the church of Rome in the 12th centuries.

Note: The Albigenses were a branch of the Catharists (the pure). They were exterminated by crusades and the Inquisition. They were distinct from the Waldenses.

Al`bi*gen"sian, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to the Albigenses.

Al*bi"ness, n.

Defn: A female albino. Holmes.

Al"bi*nism, n.

Defn: The state or condition of being an albino: abinoism; leucopathy.

Al`bi*nis"tic, a.

Defn: Affected with albinism.

ALBINO Al*bi"no, n.; pl. Albinos. Etym: [Sp. or Pg. albino, orig. whitish, fr. albo white, L. albus.]

Defn: A person, whether negro, Indian, or white, in whom by some defect of organization the substance which gives color to the skin, hair, and eyes is deficient or in a morbid state. An albino has a skin of a milky hue, with hair of the same color, and eyes with deep red pupil and pink or blue iris. The term is also used of the lower animals, as white mice, elephants, etc.; and of plants in a whitish condition from the absence of chlorophyll. Amer. Cyc.

Note: The term was originally applied by the Portuguese to negroes met with on the coast of Africa, who were mottled with white spots.

Al*bi"no*ism, n.

Defn: The state or condition of being an albino; albinism.

Al`bi*not"ic, a.

Defn: Affected with albinism.

ALBION Al"bi*on, n. Etym: [Prob. from the same root as Gael. alp a height or hill. "It may have been bestowed on the land lying behind the white cliffs visible from the coast of Gaul. Albany, the old name of Scotland, means probably the "hilly land." I. Taylor.]

Defn: An ancient name of England, still retained in poetry.
In that nook-shotten isle of Albion. Shak.

Al"bite, n. Etym: [L. albus white.] (Min.)

Defn: A mineral of the feldspar family, triclinic in crystallization, and in composition a silicate of alumina and soda. It is a common constituent of granite and of various igneous rocks. See Feldspar.

Al"bo*lith, n. Etym: [L. albus white + -lith.]

Defn: A kind of plastic cement, or artificial stone, consisting chiefly of magnesia and silica; — called also albolite.

Al"bo*rak, n. Etym: [Ar. al-buraq, fr. baraqa to flash, shine.]

Defn: The imaginary milk-white animal on which Mohammed was said to have been carried up to heaven; a white mule.

Alb Sunday. (Eccl.)

Defn: The first Sunday after Easter Sunday, properly Albless Sunday, because in the early church those who had been baptized on Easter eve laid aside on the following Saturday their white albs which had been put on after baptism.

Al`bu*gin"e*ous, a. Etym: [See Albugo.]

Defn: Of the nature of, or resembling, the white of the eye, or of an egg; albuminous; — a term applied to textures, humors, etc., which are perfectly white.

Al*bu"go, n.; pl. Albugines. Etym: [L., whiteness, fr. albus white.]

Defn: Same as Leucoma.

Al"bum, n. Etym: [L., neut. of albus white: cf. F. album. Cf. Alb.]

1. (Rom. Antiq.)

Defn: A white tablet on which anything was inscribed, as a list of names, etc.

2. A register for visitors' names; a visitors' book.

3. A blank book, in which to insert autographs sketches, memorial writing of friends, photographs, etc.

Al*bu"men, n. Etym: [L., fr. albus white.]

1. The white of an egg.

2. (Bot.)

Defn: Nourishing matter stored up within the integuments of the seed in many plants, but not incorporated in the embryo. It is the floury part in corn, wheat, and like grains, the oily part in poppy seeds, the fleshy part in the cocoanut, etc.

3. (Chem.)

Defn: Same as Albumin.

Al*bu"men*ize, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Albumenized; p. pr. & vb. n.

Defn: To cover or saturate with albumen; to coat or treat with an albuminous solution; as, to albuminize paper.

Al"bum Græ"cum. Etym: [L., Greek white.]

Defn: Dung of dogs or hyenas, which becomes white by exposure to air.
It is used in dressing leather, and was formerly used in medicine.

Al*bu"min, n. (Chem.)

Defn: A thick, viscous nitrogenous substance, which is the chief and characteristic constituent of white of eggs and of the serum of blood, and is found in other animal substances, both fluid and solid, also in many plants. It is soluble in water is coagulated by heat ad by certain chemical reagents. Acid albumin, a modification of albumin produced by the action of dilute acids. It is not coagulated by heat. — Alkali albumin, albumin as modified by the action of alkaline substances; — called also albuminate.

Al*bu"mi*nate, n. (Chem.)

Defn: A substance produced by the action of an alkali upon albumin, and resembling casein in its properties; also, a compound formed by the union of albumin with another substance.

Al*bu`mi*nif"er*ous, a. Etym: [L. albumen + -ferous.]

Defn: Supplying albumen.

ALBUMINIMETER Al*bu`mi*nim"e*ter, n. Etym: [L. albumen, albuminis + -meter: cf. F. albuminimètre.]

Defn: An instrument for ascertaining the quantity of albumen in a liquid.

Al*bu"mi*nin, n. (Chem.)

Defn: The substance of the cells which inclose the white of birds' eggs.

ALBUMINIPAROUS Al*bu`mi*nip"a*rous, a. Etym: [L. albumen + parere to bear, bring forth.]

Defn: Producing albumin.

Al*bu"mi*noid, a. Etym: [L. albumen + -oid.] (Chem.)

Defn: Resembling albumin.
 — n.

Defn: One of a class of organic principles (called also proteids) which form the main part of organized tissues. Brunton.

Al*bu`mi*noid"al, a. (Chem.)

Defn: Of the nature of an albuminoid.

Al*bu"mi*nose`, n. (Chem.)

Defn: A diffusible substance formed from albumin by the action of natural or artificial gastric juice. See Peptone.

Al*bu`mi*no"sis, n. [NL., fr. E. albumin.] (Med.)

Defn: A morbid condition due to excessive increase of albuminous elements in the blood.

Al*bu"mi*nous, Al*bu"mi*nose`, a. Etym: [Cf. F. albumineux.]

Defn: Pertaining to, or containing, albumen; having the properties of, or resembling, albumen or albumin. — Al*bu"mi*nous*ness, n.

Al*bu`mi*nu"ri*a, n. Etym: [NL., fr. L. albumen + Gr. (Med.)

Defn: A morbid condition in which albumin is present in the urine.

Al"bu*mose`, n. Etym: [From albumin.] (Chem.)

Defn: A compound or class of compounds formed from albumin by dilute acids or by an acid solution of pepsin. Used also in combination, as antialbumose, hemialbumose.

Al"burn, n. Etym: [L. alburnus, fr. L. albus white. Cf. Auburn.]

Defn: The bleak, a small European fish having scales of a peculiarly silvery color which are used in making artificial pearls.

Al*bur"nous, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to alburnum; of the alburnum; as, alburnous substances.

Al*bur"num, n. Etym: [L., fr. albus white.] (Bot.)

Defn: The white and softer part of wood, between the inner bark and the hard wood or duramen; sapwood.

Al"byn, n. Etym: [See Albion.]

Defn: Scotland; esp. the Highlands of Scotland. T. Cambell.

Al*cade", n.

Defn: Same as Alcaid.

Al"ca*hest, n.

Defn: Same as Alkahest.

Al*ca"ic, a. Etym: [L. Alcaïcus, Gr.

Defn: Pertaining to Alcæus, a lyric poet of Mitylene, about 6000 b. c. — n. A kind of verse, so called from Alcæus. One variety consists of five feet, a spondee or iambic, an iambic, a long syllable, and two dactyls.

ALCAID; ALCAYDE Al*caid", Al*cayde", n. Etym: [Sp. alcaide, fr. Ar. al-qa\'c6d governor, fr. qada to lead, govern.]

1. A commander of a castle or fortress among the Spaniards, Portuguese, and Moors.

2. The warden, or keeper of a jail.

ALCALDE Al*cal"de, n. Etym: [Sp. alcalde, fr. Ar. al-qadi judge, fr. qada to decide, judge. Hence, the cadi of the Turks. Cf. Cadi.]

Defn: A magistrate or judge in Spain and in Spanish America, etc.

Note: Sometimes confounded with Alcaid.

Al`cal*di"a, n. [Sp. Alcaldía.]

Defn: The jurisdiction or office of an alcalde; also, the building or chamber in which he conducts the business of his office.

Al`ca*lim"e*ter, n.

Defn: See Alkalimeter.

ALCANNA Al*can"na, n. Etym: [Sp. alcana, alhe, fr. Ar. al-hinna. See Henna, and cf. Alkanet.] (Bot.)

Defn: An oriental shrub (Lawsonia inermis) from which henna is obtained.

ALCARRAZA Al`car*ra"za, n.; pl. Alcarrazas. Etym: [Sp., from Ar. al-kurraz earthen vessel.]

Defn: A vessel of porous earthenware, used for cooling liquids by evaporation from the exterior surface.

Al*cayde", n.

Defn: Same as Alcaid.

Al*ca"zar, n. Etym: [ fr. Ar. al the + qacr (in pl.) a castle.]

Defn: A fortress; also, a royal palace. Prescott.

Al*ce"do, n. Etym: [L., equiv. to Gr. Halcyon.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: A genus of perching birds, including the European kingfisher
(Alcedo ispida). See Halcyon.

Al*chem"ic, Al*chem"ic*al, a. Etym: [Cf. F. alchimique.]

Defn: Of or relating to alchemy.

Al*chem"ic*al*ly, adv.

Defn: In the manner of alchemy.

Al"che*mist, n. Etym: [Cf. OF. alquemiste, F. alchimiste.]

Defn: One who practices alchemy.
You are alchemist; make gold. Shak.

Al`che*mis"tic, Al`che*mis"tic*al, a.

Defn: Relating to or practicing alchemy.
Metaphysical and alchemistical legislators. Burke.

Al"che*mis*try, n.

Defn: Alchemy. [Obs.]

Al"che*mize, v. t.

Defn: To change by alchemy; to transmute. Lovelace.

ALCHEMY Al"che*my, n. Etym: [OF. alkemie, arquemie, F. alchimie, Ar. al- kimia, fr. late Gr. alquimia, It. alchimia. Gr. fundere to pour, Goth. guitan, AS. geótan, to pour, and so to E. fuse. See Fuse, and cf. Chemistry.]

1. An imaginary art which aimed to transmute the baser metals into gold, to find the panacea, or universal remedy for diseases, etc. It led the way to modern chemistry.

2. A mixed metal composed mainly of brass, formerly used for various utensils; hence, a trumpet. [Obs.] Put to their mouths the sounding alchemy. Milton.

3. Miraculous power of transmuting something common into something precious. Kissing with golden face the meadows green, Gilding pale streams with heavenly alchemy. Shak.

Al*chym"ic, a., Al"chy*mist, n., Al`chy*mis"tic, a., Al"chy*my, n.

Defn: See Alchemic, Alchemist, Alchemistic, Alchemy.

Al"co, n.

Defn: A small South American dog, domesticated by the aborigines.

Al"co*ate, Al"co*hate, n.

Defn: Shortened forms of Alcoholate.

ALCOHOL Al"co*hol, n. Etym: [Cf. F. alcool, formerly written alcohol, Sp. alcohol alcohol, antimony, galena, OSp. alcofol; all fr. Ar. al-kohl a powder of antimony or galena, to paint the eyebrows with. The name was afterwards applied, on account of the fineness of this powder, to highly rectified spirits, a signification unknown in Arabia. The Sp. word has bot meanings. Cf. Alquifou.]

1. An impalpable powder. [Obs.]

2. The fluid essence or pure spirit obtained by distillation. [Obs.] Boyle.

3. Pure spirit of wine; pure or highly rectified spirit (called also ethyl alcohol); the spirituous or intoxicating element of fermented or distilled liquors, or more loosely a liquid containing it in considerable quantity. It is extracted by simple distillation from various vegetable juices and infusions of a saccharine nature, which have undergone vinous fermentation.

Note: As used in the U. S. "Pharmacopoeia, alcohol contains 91 per cent by weight of ethyl alcohol and 9 per cent of water; and diluted alcohol (proof spirit) contains 45.5 per cent by weight of ethyl alcohol and 54.5 per cent of water.

4. (Organic Chem.)

Defn: A class of compounds analogous to vinic alcohol in constitution. Chemically speaking, they are hydroxides of certain organic radicals; as, the radical ethyl forms common or ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH); methyl forms methyl alcohol (CH3.OH) or wood spirit; amyl forms amyl alcohol (C5H11.OH) or fusel oil, etc.

Al"co*hol*ate, n. Etym: [Cf. F. alcolaie.] (Chem.)

Defn: A crystallizable compound of a salt with alcohol, in which the latter plays a part analogous to that of water of crystallization. Graham.

Al`co*hol"a*ture, n. Etym: [Cf. F. alcoolature.] (Med.)

Defn: An alcoholic tincture prepared with fresh plants. New Eng.

Al`co*hol"ic, a. Etym: [Cf. F. alcolique.]

Defn: Of or pertaining to alcohol, or partaking of its qualities; derived from, or caused by, alcohol; containing alcohol; as, alcoholic mixtures; alcoholic gastritis; alcoholic odor.

Al`co*hol"ic, n.

1. A person given to the use of alcoholic liquors.

2. pl.

Defn: Alcoholic liquors.

Al"co*hol*ism, n. Etym: [Cf. F. alcoolisme.] (Med.)

Defn: A diseased condition of the system, brought about by the continued use of alcoholic liquors.

Al`co*hol`i*za"tion, n. Etym: [Cf. F. alcoolisation.]

1. The act of reducing a substance to a fine or impalpable powder. [Obs.] Johnson.

2. The act rectifying spirit.

3. Saturation with alcohol; putting the animal system under the influence of alcoholic liquor.

Al"co*hol*ize, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Alcoholized; p. pr. & vb. n.
Alcoholizing.] Etym: [Cf. F. alcooliser.]

1. To reduce to a fine powder. [Obs.] Johnson.

2. To convert into alcohol; to rectify; also, to saturate with alcohol.

Al`co*hol*om"e*ter, Al`co*hol"me*ter, n. Etym: [Alcohol + -meter.]

Defn: An instrument for determining the strength of spirits, with a scale graduated so as to indicate the percentage of pure alcohol, either by weight or volume. It is usually a form of hydrometer with a special scale.

Al`co*hol`o*met"ric, Al`co*hol`o*met"ric*al, Al`co*hol*met"ric*al, a.

Defn: Relating to the alcoholometer or alcoholometry.
The alcoholometrical strength of spirituous liquors. Ure.

Al`co*hol"om"e*try, n.

Defn: The process or method of ascertaining the proportion of pure alcohol which spirituous liquors contain.

Al`co*hom"e*ter, n., Al`co*ho*met"ric, a.

Defn: Same as Alcoholometer, Alcoholometric.

Al`co*öm"e*try, n.

Defn: See Alcoholometry.

Note: The chemists say alcomètre, alcoomètrie, doubtless by the suppression of a syllable in order to avoid a disagreeable sequence of sounds. (Cf. Idolatry.) Littré.

ALCORAN Al"co*ran, n. Etym: [alcoran, fr. Ar. al-qoran, orig. the reading, the book, fr. qaraa to read. Cf. Koran.]

Defn: The Mohammedan Scriptures; the Koran (now the usual form).
[Spelt also Alcoran.]

Al`co*ran"ic, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to the Koran.

Al`co*ran"ist, n.

Defn: One who adheres to the letter of the Koran, rejecting all traditions.

Al`cor*no"que, n. [Sp., cork tree.]

Defn: The bark of several trees, esp. of Bowdichia virgilioides of
Brazil, used as a remedy for consumption; of Byrsonima crassifolia,
used in tanning; of Alchornea latifolia, used medicinally; or of
Quercus ilex, the cork tree.

ALCOVE Al"cove, n. Etym: [F. alcôve, Sp. or Pg. alcoba, from Ar. al-quobbah arch, vault, tent.]

1. (Arch.)

Defn: A recessed portion of a room, or a small room opening into a larger one; especially, a recess to contain a bed; a lateral recess in a library.

2. A small ornamental building with seats, or an arched seat, in a pleasure ground; a garden bower. Cowper.

3. Any natural recess analogous to an alcove or recess in an apartment. The youthful wanderers found a wild alcove. Falconer.

Al"cy*on, n.

Defn: See Halcyon.

Al`cy*o*na"ce*a, n. pl. Etym: [NL.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: A group of soft-bodied Alcyonaria, of which Alcyonium is the type. See Illust. under Alcyonaria.

Al`cy*o*na"ri*a, n. pl. Etym: [NL.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: One of the orders of Anthozoa. It includes the Alcyonacea,
Pennatulacea, and Gorgonacea.

Al*cy"o*nes, n. pl. Etym: [L., pl. of Alcyon.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: The kingfishers.

Al`cy*on"ic, a. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Of or pertaining to the Alcyonaria.

Al`cy*o"ni*um, n. Etym: [Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: A genus of fleshy Alcyonaria, its polyps somewhat resembling flowers with eight fringed rays. The term was also formerly used for certain species of sponges.

Al"cy*o*noid, a. Etym: [Gr. -oid.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: Like or pertaining to the Alcyonaria.
 — n.

Defn: A zoöphyte of the order Alcyonaria.

Al"day, adv.

Defn: Continually. [Obs.] Chaucer.

ALDEBARAN Al*deb"a*ran, n. Etym: [Ar. al-debaran, fr. dabar to follow; so called because this star follows upon the Pleiades.] (Astron.)

Defn: A red star of the first magnitude, situated in the eye of
Taurus; the Bull's Eye. It is the bright star in the group called the
Now when Aldebaran was mounted high Above the shiny Cassiopeia's
chair. Spenser.

ALDEHYDE Al"de*hyde, n. Etym: [Abbrev. fr. alcohol dehydrogenatum, alcohol deprived of its hydrogen.] (Chem.)

Defn: A colorless, mobile, and very volatile liquid obtained from alcohol by certain of oxidation.

Note: The aldehydes are intermediate between the alcohols and acids, and differ from the alcohols in having two less hydrogen atoms in the molecule, as common aldehyde (called also acetic aldehyde or ethyl aldehyde), C2H4O; methyl aldehyde, CH2O. Aldehyde ammonia (Chem.), a compound formed by the union of aldehyde with ammonia.

Al`de*hy"dic, a. (Chem.)

Defn: Of or pertaining to aldehyde; as, aldehydic acid. Miller.

Al"der, n. Etym: [OE. aldir, aller, fr. AS. alr, aler, alor, akin to
D. els, G. erle, Icel. erlir, erli, Swed. al, Dan. elle, el, L.
alnus, and E. elm.] (Bot.)

Defn: A tree, usually growing in moist land, and belonging to the genus Alnus. The wood is used by turners, etc.; the bark by dyers and tanners. In the U. S. the species of alder are usually shrubs or small trees. Black alder. (a) A European shrub (Rhamnus frangula); Alder buckthorn. (b) An American species of holly (Ilex verticillata), bearing red berries.

ALDER; ALLER Al"der, Al"ler, a. Etym: [From ealra, alra, gen. pl. of AS. eal. The d is excrescent.]

Defn: Of all; — used in composition; as, alderbest, best of all, alderwisest, wisest of all. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Al"der fly.

1. Any of numerous neuropterous insects of the genus Sialis or allied genera. They have aquatic larvæ, which are used for bait.

2. (Angling) An artificial fly with brown mottled wings, body of peacock harl, and black legs.

Al`der-lief"est, a. Etym: [For allerliefest dearest of all. See

Defn: Most beloved. [Obs.] Shak.

ALDERMAN Al"der*man, n.; pl. Aldplwmen. Etym: [AS. aldormon, ealdorman; ealdor an elder + man. See Elder, n.]

1. A senior or superior; a person of rank or dignity. [Obs.]

Note: The title was applied, among the Anglo-Saxons, to princes, dukes, earls, senators, and presiding magistrates; also to archbishops and bishops, implying superior wisdom or authority. Thus Ethelstan, duke of the East-Anglians, was called Alderman of all England; and there were aldermen of cities, counties, and castles, who had jurisdiction within their respective districts.

3. One of a board or body of municipal officers next in order to the mayor and having a legislative function. They may, in some cases, individually exercise some magisterial and administrative functions.

Al"der*man*cy, n.

Defn: The office of an alderman.

Al"der*man"ic, a.

Defn: Relating to, becoming to, or like, an alderman; characteristic of an alderman.

Al`der*man"i*ty, n.

1. Aldermen collectively; the body of aldermen.

2. The state of being an alderman. [Jocular]

Al`der*man*like`, a.

Defn: Like or suited to an alderman.

Al"der*man*ly, a.

Defn: Pertaining to, or like, an alderman.

Al"der*man*ly, a.

Defn: Pertaining to, or like, an alderman. "An aldermanly discretion." Swift.

Al"der*man*ry, n.

1. The district or ward of an alderman.

2. The office or rank of an alderman. [R.] B. Jonson.

Al"der*man*ship, n.

Defn: The condition, position, or office of an alderman. Fabyan.

Al"dern, a.

Defn: Made of alder.

Al"der*ney, n.

Defn: One of a breed of cattle raised in Alderney, one of the Channel
Islands. Alderneys are of a dun or tawny color and are often called
Jersey cattle. See Jersey, 3.

Al"dine, a. (Bibliog.)

Defn: An epithet applied to editions (chiefly of the classics) which proceeded from the press of Aldus Manitius, and his family, of Venice, for the most part in the 16th century and known by the sign of the anchor and the dolphin. The term has also been applied to certain elegant editions of English works.

Al"dol, n. [Aldehyde + -ol as in alcohol.] (Chem.)

Defn: A colorless liquid, C4H8O2, obtained by condensation of two molecules of acetaldehyde: CH3CHO + CH3CHO = H3CH(OH)CH2CO; also, any of various derivatives of this. The same reaction has been applied, under the name of aldol condensation, to the production of many compounds.

ALE Ale, n. Etym: [AS. ealu, akin to Icel., Sw., and Dan. öl, Lith. alus a kind of beer, OSlav. ol beer. Cf. Ir. ol drink, drinking.]

1. An intoxicating liquor made from an infusion of malt by fermentation and the addition of a bitter, usually hops.

Note: The word ale, in England and the United States, usually designates a heavier kind of fermented liquor, and the word beer a lighter kind. The word beer is also in common use as the generic name for all malt liquors.

2. A festival in English country places, so called from the liquor drunk. "At wakes and ales." B. Jonson."On ember eves and holy ales." Shak.

A*leak", adv. & a. Etym: [Pref. a- + leak.]

Defn: In a leaking condition.

A"le*a*to*ry, a. Etym: [L. aleatorius, fr. alea chance, die.] (Law)

Defn: Depending on some uncertain contingency; as, an aleatory contract. Bouvier.

Ale"bench`, n.

Defn: A bench in or before an alehouse. Bunyan.

ALEBERRY Ale"ber`ry, n. Etym: [OE. alebery, alebrey; ale + bre broth, fr. AS. briw pottage.]

Defn: A beverage, formerly made by boiling ale with spice, sugar, and
sops of bread.
Their aleberries, caudles, possets. Beau. & Fl.

A*lec"i*thal, a. Etym: [Gr. (Biol.)

Defn: Applied to those ova which segment uniformly, and which have little or no food yelk embedded in their protoplasm. Balfour.

ALECONNER Ale"con`ner, n. Etym: [/Ale + con, OE. cunnen to test, AS. cunnian to test. See Con.]

Defn: Orig., an officer appointed to look to the goodness of ale and beer; also, one of the officers chosen by the liverymen of London to inspect the measures used in public houses. But the office is a sinecure. [Also called aletaster.] [Eng.]

Ale"cost`, n. Etym: [Ale + L. costus an aromatic plant: cf.
Costmary.] (Bot.)

Defn: The plant costmary, which was formerly much used for flavoring ale.

Al`ec*tor"i*des, n. pl. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: A group of birds including the common fowl and the pheasants.

A*lec`to*rom"a*chy, n. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Cockfighting.

A*lec"to*ro*man`cy, n.

Defn: See Alectryomancy.

A*lec`try*oma*chy, n. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Cockfighting.

A*lec"try*o*man`cy, n. Etym: [Gr. -mancy.]

Defn: Divination by means of a cock and grains of corn placed on the letters of the alphabet, the letters being put together in the order in which the grains were eaten. Amer. Cyc.

A*lee", adv. Etym: [Pref. a- + lee.] (Naut.)

Defn: On or toward the lee, or the side away from the wind; the opposite of aweather. The helm of a ship is alee when pressed close to the lee side. Hard alee, or Luff alee, an order to put the helm to the lee side.

Al"e*gar, n. Etym: [Ale + eager sour, F. aigre. Cf. Vinegar.]

Defn: Sour ale; vinegar made of ale. Cecil.

Al"e*ger, a. Etym: [F. allègre, earlier alègre, fr. L. alacer.]

Defn: Gay; cheerful; sprightly. [Obs.] Bacon.

A*legge", v. t. Etym: [OE. aleggen, alegen, OF. alegier, F. alléger,
fr. LL. alleviare, for L. allevare to lighten; ad + levis light. Cf.
Alleviate, Allay, Allege.]

Defn: To allay or alleviate; to lighten. [Obs.]
That shall alegge this bitter blast. Spenser.

ALEHOOF Ale"hoof`, n. Etym: [AS. h ground ivy; the first part is perh. a corruption: cf. OE. heyhowe hedgehove,

ground ivy, "in old MSS. heyhowe, heyoue, haihoue, halehoue." [Prior].

Defn: Ground ivy (Nepeta Glechoma).

Ale"house`, n.

Defn: A house where ale is retailed; hence, a tippling house.

Ale"-knight`, n.

Defn: A pot companion. [Obs.]

Al"em, n. [Turk. 'alem, fr. Ar. 'alam.] (Mil.)

Defn: The imperial standard of the Turkish Empire.

Al`e*man"nic, a.

Defn: Belonging to the Alemanni, a confederacy of warlike German tribes.

Al`e*man"nic, n.

Defn: The language of the Alemanni.
The Swabian dialect . . . is known as the Alemannic. Amer. Cyc.

ALEMBIC A*lem"bic, n. Etym: [F. alambic (cf. Sp. alambique), Ar. al-anbiq, fr. Gr. alembic proper. Cf. Limbec.]

Defn: An apparatus formerly used in distillation, usually made of
glass or metal. It has mostly given place to the retort and worm
Used also metaphorically. The alembic of a great poet's imagination.

A*lem"broth, n. Etym: [Origin uncertain.]

Defn: The salt of wisdom of the alchemists, a double salt composed of the chlorides of ammonium and mercury. It was formerly used as a stimulant. Brande & C.

A`len`con" lace".

Defn: See under Lace.

A*length", adv. Etym: [Pref. a- + length.]

Defn: At full length; lenghtwise. Chaucer.

A*lep"i*dote, a. Etym: [Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Not having scales.
 — n.

Defn: A fish without scales.

Ale"pole`, n.

Defn: A pole set up as the sign of an alehouse. [Obs.]

A*lep"po boil, button, or evil. (Med.)

Defn: A chronic skin affection terminating in an ulcer, most commonly of the face. It is endemic along the Mediterranean, and is probably due to a specific bacillus. Called also Aleppo ulcer, Biskara boil, Delhi boil, Oriental sore, etc.

Aleppo grass. (Bot.)

Defn: One of the cultivated forms of Andropogon Halepensis (syn.
Sorghum Halepense). See Andropogon, below.

ALERT A*lert", a. Etym: [F. alerte, earlier à l'erte on the watch, fr. It. all' erta on the watch, prop. (standing) on a height, where one can look around; erta a declivity, steep, erto steep, p. p. of ergere, erigere, to erect, raise, L. erigere. See Erect.]

1. Watchful; vigilant; active in vigilance.

2. Brisk; nimble; moving with celerity. An alert young fellow. Addison.

 — Active; agile; lively; quick; prompt.

A*lert", n. (Mil.)

Defn: An alarm from a real or threatened attack; a sudden attack; also, a bugle sound to give warning. "We have had an alert." Farrow. On the alert, on the lookout or watch against attack or danger; ready to act.

A*lert"ly, adv.

Defn: In an alert manner; nimbly.

A*lert"ness, n.

Defn: The quality of being alert or on the alert; briskness; nimbleness; activity.

Ale" sil`ver.

Defn: A duty payable to the lord mayor of London by the sellers of ale within the city.

Ale"stake, n.

Defn: A stake or pole projecting from, or set up before, an alehouse, as a sign; an alepole. At the end was commonly suspended a garland, a bunch of leaves, or a "bush." [Obs.] Chaucer.

Ale"tast`er, n.

Defn: See Aleconner. [Eng.]

A*le`thi*ol"o*gy, n. Etym: [Gr. -logy.]

Defn: The science which treats of the nature of truth and evidence.
Sir W. Hamilton.

A*leth"o*scope, n. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: An instrument for viewing pictures by means of a lens, so as to present them in their natural proportions and relations.

A*leu"ro*man`cy, n. Etym: [Gr. -mancy: cf. F. aleuromancie.]

Defn: Divination by means of flour. Encyc. Brit.

Al`eu*rom"e*ter, n. Etym: [Gr. -meter.]

Defn: An instrument for determining the expansive properties, or quality, of gluten in flour. Knight.

A*leu"ro*nat, n. [See Aleurone.]

Defn: Flour made of aleurone, used as a substitute for ordinary flour in preparing bread for diabetic persons.

A*leu"rone, n. Etym: [Gr. (Bot.)

Defn: An albuminoid substance which occurs in minute grains ("protein granules") in maturing seeds and tubers; — supposed to be a modification of protoplasm.

Al`eu*ron"ic, a. (Bot.)

Defn: Having the nature of aleurone. D. C. Eaton.

ALEUTIAN; ALEUTIC A*leu"tian, A*leu"tic, a. Etym: [Said to be from the Russ. aleut a bold rock.]

Defn: Of or pertaining to a chain of islands between Alaska and
Kamtchatka; also, designating these islands.

ALEVIN Al"e*vin, n. Etym: [F. alevin, OF. alever to rear, fr. L. ad + levare to raise.]

Defn: Young fish; fry.

A*lew", n.

Defn: Halloo. [Obs.] Spenser.

Ale"wife`, n.; pl. Alewives.

Defn: A woman who keeps an alehouse. Gay.

Ale"wife`, n.; pl. Alewives. Etym: [This word is properly aloof, the
Indian name of a fish. See Winthrop on the culture of maize in
America, "Phil Trans." No. 142, p. 1065, and Baddam's "Memoirs," vol.
ii. p. 131.]Etym: (Zoöl.)

Defn: A North American fish (Clupea vernalis) of the Herring family. It is called also ellwife, ellwhop, branch herring. The name is locally applied to other related species.

ALEXANDERS; ALISANDERS Al`ex*an"ders, Al`i*san"ders, n. Etym: [OE. alisaundre, OF. alissandere, fr. Alexander or Alexandria.] (Bot)

Defn: A name given to two species of the genus Smyrnium, formerly cultivated and used as celery now is; — called also horse parsely.

Al`ex*an"dri*an, a.

1. Of or pertaining to Alexandria in Egypt; as, the Alexandrian library.

2. Applied to a kind of heroic verse. See Alexandrine, n.

Al`ex*an"drine, a.

Defn: Belonging to Alexandria; Alexandrian. Bancroft.

Al`ex*an"drine, n. Etym: [F. alexandrin.]

Defn: A kind of verse consisting in English of twelve syllables. The needless Alexandrine ends the song, That, like a wounded snake, drags its slow length along. Pope.

ALEXIA A*lex"i*a, n. [NL.; a- not + Gr. speech, fr. to speak, confused with L. legere to read.] (Med.) (a) As used by some, inability to read aloud, due to brain disease. (b) More commonly, inability, due to brain disease, to understand written or printed symbols although they can be seen, as in case of word blindness.

A*lex`i*phar"mac, A*lex`i*phar"ma*cal, a. & n. Etym: [See

Defn: Alexipharmic. [Obs.]

A*lex`i*phar"mic, n. (Med.)

Defn: An antidote against poison or infection; a counterpoison.

A*lex`i*phar"mic, A*lex`i*phar"mic*al, a. Etym: [Gr. alexipharmaque.]

Defn: Expelling or counteracting poison; antidotal.

A*lex`i*py*ret"ic, a. Etym: [Gr. (Med.)

Defn: Serving to drive off fever; antifebrile.
 — n.

Defn: A febrifuge.

A*lex`i*ter"ic, n. Etym: [Gr. alexitère, LL. alexiterium.] (Med.)

Defn: A preservative against contagious and infectious diseases, and the effects of poison in general. Brande & C.

A*lex`i*ter"ic, A*lex`i*ter"ic*al, a. Etym: [Gr. alexitère.] (med.)

Defn: Resisting poison; obviating the effects of venom; alexipharmic.

Al"fa or Al"fa grass", n.

Defn: A plant (Macrochloa tenacissima) of North Africa; also, its fiber, used in paper making.

Al*fal"fa, n. Etym: [Sp.] (Bot.)

Defn: The lucern (Medicago sativa); — so called in California,
Texas, etc.

Al"fe*nide, n. (Metal.)

Defn: An alloy of nickel and silver electroplated with silver.

Al*fe"res, n. Etym: [Sp., fr. Ar. al-fars knight.]

Defn: An ensign; a standard bearer. [Obs.] J. Fletcher.

ALFET Al"fet, n. Etym: [LL. alfetum, fr. AS. alfæt a pot to boil in; al burning + fæt vat.]

Defn: A caldron of boiling water into which an accused person plunged his forearm as a test of innocence or guilt.

Al*fil`a*ri"a, n. (Bot.)

Defn: The pin grass (Erodium cicutarium), a weed in California.

Al*fil`e*ri"a, Al*fil`e*ril"la, n. [Mex. Sp., fr. Sp. alfiler pin.]

Defn: Same as Alfilaria.

Al`fi*o"ne, n. (Zoöl.)

Defn: An edible marine fish of California (Rhacochilus toxotes).

Al*for"ja, n. [Also alfarga, alforge.] [Sp.]

Defn: A saddlebag. [Sp. Amer.]

Al*fres"co, adv. & a. Etym: [It. al fresco in or on the fresh.]

Defn: In the open-air. Smollett.

Al"ga, n.; pl. Algæ. Etym: [L., seaweed.] (Bot.)

Defn: A kind of seaweed; pl. the class of cellular cryptogamic plants which includes the black, red, and green seaweeds, as kelp, dulse, sea lettuce, also marine and fresh water confervæ, etc.

Al"gal, a., (Bot.)

Defn: Pertaining to, or like, algæ.

ALGAROBA Al`ga*ro"ba, n. Etym: [Sp. algarroba, fr. Ar. al-kharr. Cf. Carob.] (Bot.) (a) The Carob, a leguminous tree of the Mediterranean region; also, its edible beans or pods, called St. John's bread. (b) The Honey mesquite (Prosopis juliflora), a small tree found from California to Buenos Ayres; also, its sweet, pulpy pods. A valuable gum, resembling gum arabic, is collected from the tree in Texas and Mexico.

ALGAROT; ALGAROTH Al"ga*rot, Al"ga*roth, n. Etym: [F. algaroth, fr. the name of the inventor, Algarotti.] (Med.)

Defn: A term used for the Powder of Algaroth, a white powder which is a compound of trichloride and trioxide of antimony. It was formerly used in medicine as an emetic, purgative, and diaphoretic.

Al`ga*ro*vil"la, n.

Defn: The agglutinated seeds and husks of the legumes of a South American tree (Inga Marthæ). It is valuable for tanning leather, and as a dye.

ALGATE; ALGATES Al"gate, Al"gates, adv. Etym: [All + gate way. The s is an adverbial ending. See Gate.]

1. Always; wholly; everywhere. [Obs.] Ulna now he algates must forego. Spenser.

Note: Still used in the north of England in the sense of "everywhere."

2. By any or means; at all events. [Obs.] Fairfax.

3. Notwithstanding; yet. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Al"ga*zel`, n. Etym: [Ar. al the + ghazal.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: The true gazelle.

ALGEBRA Al"ge*bra, n. Etym: [LL. algebra, fr. Ar. al-jebr reduction of parts to a whole, or fractions to whole numbers, fr. jabara to bind together, consolidate; al-jebr w'almuqabalah reduction and comparison (by equations): cf. F. algèbre, It. & Sp. algebra.]

1. (Math.)

Defn: That branch of mathematics which treats of the relations and properties of quantity by means of letters and other symbols. It is applicable to those relations that are true of every kind of magnitude.

2. A treatise on this science.

Al`ge*bra"ic, Al`ge*bra"ic*al, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to algebra; containing an operation of algebra, or deduced from such operation; as, algebraic characters; algebraical writings. Algebraic curve, a curve such that the equation which expresses the relation between the coördinates of its points involves only the ordinary operations of algebra; — opposed to a transcendental curve.

Al`ge*bra"ic*al*ly, adv.

Defn: By algebraic process.

Al"ge*bra`ist, n.

Defn: One versed in algebra.

Al"ge*bra*ize, v. t.

Defn: To perform by algebra; to reduce to algebraic form.

Al*ge"ri*an, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to Algeria.
 — n.

Defn: A native of Algeria.

Al`ge*rine", a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to Algiers or Algeria.

Al`ge*rine", n.

Defn: A native or one of the people of Algiers or Algeria. Also, a pirate.

ALGID Al"gid, a. Etym: [L. algidus cold, fr. algere to be cold: cf. F. algide.]

Defn: Cold; chilly. Bailey. Algid cholera (Med.), Asiatic cholera.

Al*gid"i*ty, n.

Defn: Chilliness; coldness; especially (Med.),

Defn: coldness and collapse.

Al"gid*ness, n.

Defn: Algidity. [Obs.]

Al*gif"ic, a. Etym: [L. algificus, fr. algus cold + facere to make.]

Defn: Producing cold.

Al"gin, n. (Chem.)

Defn: A nitrogenous substance resembling gelatin, obtained from certain algæ.

Al"goid, a. Etym: [L. alga + -oid.]

Defn: Of the nature of, or resembling, an alga.

ALGOL Al"gol, n. Etym: [Ar. al-gh destruction, calamity, fr. ghala to take suddenly, destroy.] (Astron.)

Defn: A fixed star, in Medusa's head, in the constellation Perseus, remarkable for its periodic variation in brightness.

Al`go*log"ic*al, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to algology; as, algological specimens.

Al*gol"o*gist, n.

Defn: One learned about algæ; a student of algology.

Al*gol"o*gy, n. Etym: [L. alga seaweed + -logy.] (Bot.)

Defn: The study or science of algæ or seaweeds.

Al*gom"e*ter, n. [Gr. pain + -meter.] (Psychol.)

Defn: An instrument for measuring sensations of pain due to pressure. It has a piston rod with a blunted tip which is pressed against the skin. — Al*gom"e*try (#), n. — Al`go*met"ric (#), *met"ric*al (#), a. —Al`go*met"ric*al*ly, adv.

Al*gon"ki*an, a.

1. Var. of Algonquian.

2. (Geol.) Pertaining to or designating a period or era recognized by the United States Geological Survey and some other authorities, between the Archæan and the Paleozoic, from both of which it is generally separated in the record by unconformities. Algonkian rocks are both sedimentary and igneous. Although fossils are rare, life certainly existed in this period. — n.

Defn: The Algonkian period or era, or system or group of systems.

Al*gon"qui*an, a.

Defn: Pertaining to or designating the most extensive of the linguistic families of North American Indians, their territory formerly including practically all of Canada east of the 115th meridian and south of Hudson's Bay and the part of the United States east of the Mississippi and north of Tennessee and Virginia, with the exception of the territory occupied by the northern Iroquoian tribes. There are nearly 100,000 Indians of the Algonquian tribes, of which the strongest are the Ojibwas (Chippewas), Ottawas, Crees, Algonquins, Micmacs, and Blackfeet. — n.

Defn: An Algonquian Indian.

Al*gon"quin, Al*gon"kin, n.

Defn: One of a widely spread family of Indians, including many distinct tribes, which formerly occupied most of the northern and eastern part of North America. The name was originally applied to a group of Indian tribes north of the River St. Lawrence.

Al"gor, n. Etym: [L.] (Med.)

Defn: Cold; chilliness.

ALGORISM; ALGORITHM Al"go*rism, Al"go*rithm, n. Etym: [OE. algorism, algrim, augrim, OF. algorisme, F. algorithme (cf. Sp. algoritmo, OSp. alguarismo, LL. algorismus), fr. the Ar. al-Khowarezmi of Khowarezm, the modern Khiwa, surname of Abu Ja'far Mohammed ben Musa, author of a work on arithmetic early in the 9th century, which was translated into Latin, such books bearing the name algorismus. The spelling with th is due to a supposed connection with Gr.

1. The art of calculating by nine figures and zero.

2. The art of calculating with any species of notation; as, the algorithms of fractions, proportions, surds, etc.

Al"gous, a. Etym: [L. algosus, fr. alga seaweed.]

Defn: Of or pertaining to the algæ, or seaweeds; abounding with, or like, seaweed.

Al`gua*zil", n. Etym: [Sp. alguacil, fr. Ar. alwazir the vizier. Cf.

Defn: An inferior officer of justice in Spain; a warrant officer; a constable. Prescott.

Al"gum, n.

Defn: Same as Almug (and etymologically preferable). 2 Chron. ii. 8.

ALHAMBRA Al*ham"bra, n. Etym: [Ultimately fr. Ar. al the + hamra red; i. e., the red (sc. house).]

Defn: The palace of the Moorish kings at Granada.

Al`ham*bra"ic, Al`ham*bresque", a.

Defn: Made or decorated after the fanciful style of the ornamentation in the Alhambra, which affords an unusually fine exhibition of Saracenic or Arabesque architecture.

Al*hen"na, n.

Defn: See Henna.

ALIAS A"li*as, adv. Etym: [L., fr. alius. See Else.] (Law) (a) Otherwise; otherwise called; — a term used in legal proceedings to connect the different names of any one who has gone by two or more, and whose true name is for any cause doubtful; as, Smith, alias Simpson. (b) At another time.

ALIAS A"li*as, n.; pl. Aliases. Etym: [L., otherwise, at another time.]Etym: (Law) (a) A second or further writ which is issued after a first writ has expired without effect. (b) Another name; an assumed name.

Al"i*bi, n. Etym: [L., elsewhere, at another place. See Alias.] (Law)

Defn: The plea or mode of defense under which a person on trial for a crime proves or attempts to prove that he was in another place when the alleged act was committed; as, to set up an alibi; to prove an alibi.

Al`i*bil"i*ty, n.

Defn: Quality of being alible.

Al"i*ble, a. Etym: [L. alibilis, fr. alere to nourish.]

Defn: Nutritive; nourishing.

Al"i*cant, n.

Defn: A kind of wine, formerly much esteemed; — said to have been made near Alicant, in Spain. J. Fletcher.

ALIDADE Al"i*dade, n. Etym: [LL. alidada, alhidada, fr. Ar. al-'idada a sort of rule: cf. F. alidade.]

Defn: The portion of a graduated instrument, as a quadrant or astrolabe, carrying the sights or telescope, and showing the degrees cut off on the arc of the instrument Whewell.

ALIEN Al"ien, a. Etym: [OF. alien, L. alienus, fr. alius another; properly, therefore, belonging to another. See Else.]

1. Not belonging to the same country, land, or government, or to the citizens or subjects thereof; foreign; as, alien subjects, enemies, property, shores.

2. Wholly different in nature; foreign; adverse; inconsistent (with); incongruous; — followed by from or sometimes by to; as, principles alien from our religion. An alien sound of melancholy. Wordsworth. Alien enemy (Law), one who owes allegiance to a government at war with ours. Abbott.

Al"ien, n.

1. A foreigner; one owing allegiance, or belonging, to another country; a foreign-born resident of a country in which he does not posses the privileges of a citizen. Hence, a stranger. See Alienage.

2. One excluded from certain privileges; one alienated or estranged; as, aliens from God's mercies. Aliens from the common wealth of Israel. Ephes. ii. 12.

Al"ien, v. t. Etym: [F. aliéner, L. alienare.]

Defn: To alienate; to estrange; to transfer, as property or ownership. [R.] "It the son alien lands." Sir M. Hale. The prince was totally aliened from all thoughts of . . . the marriage. Clarendon.

Al`ien*a*bil"i*ty, n.

Defn: Capability of being alienated. "The alienability of the domain." Burke.

Al"ien*a*ble, a. Etym: [Cf. F. aliénable.]

Defn: Capable of being alienated, sold, or transferred to another; as, land is alienable according to the laws of the state.

Al"ien*age, n. Etym: [Cf. OF. aliénage.]

1. The state or legal condition of being an alien.

Note: The disabilities of alienage are removable by naturalization or
by special license from the State of residence, and in some of the
United States by declaration of intention of naturalization. Kent.
Estates forfeitable on account of alienage. Story.

2. The state of being alienated or transferred to another. Brougham.

Al"ien*ate, a. Etym: [L. alienatus, p. p. of alienare, fr. alienus.
See Alien, and cf. Aliene.]

Defn: Estranged; withdrawn in affection; foreign; — with from.
O alienate from God. Milton.

Al"ien*ate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Alienated; p. pr. & vb. n.

1. To convey or transfer to another, as title, property, or right; to part voluntarily with ownership of.

2. To withdraw, as the affections; to make indifferent of averse, where love or friendship before subsisted; to estrange; to wean; — with from. The errors which . . . alienated a loyal gentry and priesthood from the House of Stuart. Macaulay. The recollection of his former life is a dream that only the more alienates him from the realities of the present. I. Taylor.

Al"ien*ate, n.

Defn: A stranger; an alien. [Obs.]

ALIENATION Al`ien*a"tion, n. Etym: [F. aliénation, L. alienatio, fr. alienare, fr. alienare. See Alienate.]

1. The act of alienating, or the state of being alienated.

2. (Law)

Defn: A transfer of title, or a legal conveyance of property to another.

3. A withdrawing or estrangement, as of the affections. The alienation of his heart from the king. Bacon.

4. Mental alienation; derangement of the mental faculties; insanity; as, alienation of mind.

Syn. — Insanity; lunacy; madness; derangement; aberration; mania; delirium; frenzy; dementia; monomania. See Insanity.

Al"ien*a"tor, n.

Defn: One who alienates.

Al*iene, v. t.

Defn: To alien or alienate; to transfer, as title or property; as, to aliene an estate.

Al"ien*ee", n. (Law)

Defn: One to whom the title of property is transferred; — opposed to
It the alienee enters and keeps possession. Blackstone.

Al"ien*ism, n.

1. The status or legal condition of an alien; alienage. The law was very gentle in the construction of the disability of alienism. Kent.

2. The study or treatment of diseases of the mind.

Al"ien*ist, n. Etym: [F. aliéniste.]

Defn: One who treats diseases of the mind. Ed. Rev.

Al`ien*or", n. Etym: [OF. aliéneur.]

Defn: One who alienates or transfers property to another. Blackstone.

ALIETHMOID; ALIETHMOIDAL Al`i*eth"moid, Al`i*eth*moid"al, a. Etym: [L. ala wing + E. ethomoid.] (Anat.)

Defn: Pertaining to expansions of the ethmoid bone or

A*life", adv. Etym: [Cf. lief dear.]

Defn: On my life; dearly. [Obs.] "I love that sport alife." Beau. &

A*lif"er*ous, a. Etym: [L. ala wing + -ferous.]

Defn: Having wings, winged; aligerous. [R.]

Al"i*form, a. Etym: [L. ala wing + -form.]

Defn: Wing-shaped; winglike.

A*lig"er*ous, a. Etym: [L. aliger; ala wing + gerere to carry.]

Defn: Having wings; winged. [R.]

ALIGHT A*light", v. i. [imp. & p. p. Alighted sometimes Alit; p. pr. & vb. n. Alighting.] Etym: [OE. alihten, fr. AS. alihtan; pref. a- (cf. Goth. us-, G. er-, orig. meaning out) + lihtan, to alight, orig. to render light, to remove a burden from, fr. liht, leoht, light. See Light, v. i.]

1. To spring down, get down, or descend, as from on horseback or from a carriage; to dismount.

2. To descend and settle, lodge, rest, or stop; as, a flying bird alights on a tree; snow alights on a roof.

3. To come or chance (upon). [R.]

A*light", a. Etym: [Pref. a- + light.]

Defn: Lighted; lighted up; in a flame. "The lamps were alight."

A*lign", v. t. Etym: [F. aligner; à (L. ad) + ligne (L. linea) line.
See Line, and cf. Allineate.]

Defn: To adjust or form to a line; to range or form in line; to bring into line; to aline.

A*lign", v. t.

Defn: To form in line; to fall into line.

A*lign"ment, n. Etym: [F. alignement.]

1. The act of adjusting to a line; arrangement in a line or lines; the state of being so adjusted; a formation in a straight line; also, the line of adjustment; esp., an imaginary line to regulate the formation of troops or of a squadron.

2. (Engin.)

Defn: The ground-plan of a railway or other road, in distinction from the grades or profile.

A*like", a. Etym: [AS. onlic, gelic; pref. a + like.]

Defn: Having resemblance or similitude; similar; without difference.
[Now used only predicatively.]
The darkness and the light are both alike to thee. Ps. cxxxix. 12.

A*like", adv. Etym: [AS. gelice, onlice.]

Defn: In the same manner, form, or degree; in common; equally; as, we are all alike concerne.

A*like"-mind`ed, a.

Defn: Like-minded. [Obs.]

Al"i*ment, n. Etym: [L. alimentum, fr. alere to nourish; akin to
Goth. alan to grow, Icel. ala to nourish: cf. F. aliment. See Old.]

1. That which nourishes; food; nutriment; anything which feeds or adds to a substance in natural growth. Hence: The necessaries of life generally: sustenance; means of support. Aliments of theiBacon.

2. An allowance for maintenance. [Scot.]

Al"i*ment, v. t.

1. To nourish; to support.

2. To provide for the maintenance of. [Scot.]

Al`i*men"tal, a.

Defn: Supplying food; having the quality of nourishing; furnishing the materials for natural growth; as, alimental sap.

A`li*men"tal*ly, adv.

Defn: So as to serve for nourishment or food; nourishing quality. Sir
T. Browne.

Al`i*men"ta*ri*ness, n.

Defn: The quality of being alimentary; nourishing quality. [R.]

ALIMENTARY Al`i*men"ta*ry, a. Etym: [L. alimentarius, fr. alimentum: cf. F. alimentaire.]

Defn: Pertaining to aliment or food, or to the function of nutrition; nutritious; alimental; as, alimentary substances. Alimentary canal, the entire channel, extending from the mouth to the anus, by which aliments are conveyed through the body, and the useless parts ejected.

Al`i*men*ta"tion, n. Etym: [Cf. F. alimentation, LL. alimentatio.]

1. The act or process of affording nutriment; the function of the alimentary canal.

2. State or mode of being nourished. Bacon.

Al`i*men"tive*ness, n.

Defn: The instinct or faculty of appetite for food. [Chiefly in

Al`i*mo"ni*ous, a.

Defn: Affording food; nourishing. [R.] "Alimonious humors." Harvey.

ALIMONY Al"i*mo*ny, n. Etym: [L. alimonia, alimonium, nourishment, sustenance, fr. alere to nourish.]

1. Maintenance; means of living.

2. (Law)

Defn: An allowance made to a wife out of her husband's estate or income for her support, upon her divorce or legal separation from him, or during a suit for the same. Wharton. Burrill.

Al`i*na"sal, a. Etym: [L. ala wing + E. nasal.] (Anat.)

Defn: Pertaining to expansions of the nasal bone or cartilage.

A*line", v. t.

Defn: To range or place in a line; to bring into line; to align.

A*lin`e*a"tion, n.

Defn: See Allineation.

A*line"ment, n.

Defn: Same as Alignment.

Note: [The Eng. form alinement is preferable to alignment, a bad spelling of the French]. New Eng. Dict. (Murray).

A*lin"er, n.

Defn: One who adjusts things to a line or lines or brings them into line. Evelyn.

Al"i*oth, n. Etym: [Ar. alyat the tail of a fat sheep.] (Astron.)

Defn: A star in the tail of the Great Bear, the one next the bowl in the Dipper.

ALIPED Al"i*ped, a. Etym: [L. alipes; ala wing + pes, pedis, foot: cf. F. alipède.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: Wing-footed, as the bat.
 — n.

Defn: An animal whose toes are connected by a membrane, serving for a wing, as the bat.

Al`i*phat"ic, a. [Gr. , , oil, fat.] (Org. Chem.)

Defn: Of, pertaining to, or derived from, fat; fatty; — applied to compounds having an openc-hain structure. The aliphatic compounds thus include not only the fatty acids and other derivatives of the paraffin hydrocarbons, but also unsaturated compounds, as the ethylene and acetylene series.

ALIQUANT Al"i*quant, a. Etym: [L. aliquantus some, moderate; alius other + quantus how great: cf. F. aliquante.] (Math.)

Defn: An aliquant part of a number or quantity is one which does not divide it without leaving a remainder; thus, 5 is an aliquant part of 16. Opposed to aliquot.

ALIQUOT Al"i*quot, a. Etym: [L. aliquot some, several; alius other + quot how many: cf. F. aliquote.] (Math.)

Defn: An aliquot part of a number or quantity is one which will divide it without a remainder; thus, 5 is an aliquot part of 15. Opposed to aliquant.

Al`i*sep"tal, a. Etym: [L. ala wing + E. septal.] (Anat.)

Defn: Relating to expansions of the nasal septum.

Al"ish, a.

Defn: Like ale; as, an alish taste.

Al`i*sphe"noid, n. (Anat.)

Defn: The alisphenoid bone.

ALISPHENOID; ALISPHENOIDAL Al`i*sphe"noid, Al`i*sphe*noid"al, a. Etym: [L. ala wing + E. sphenoid.] (Anat.)

Defn: Pertaining to or forming the wing of the sphenoid; relating to a bone in the base of the skull, which in the adult is often consolidated with the sphenoid; as, alisphenoid bone; alisphenoid canal.

Al"i*trunk, n. Etym: [L. ala wing + truncus trunk.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: The segment of the body of an insect to which the wings are attached; the thorax. Kirby.

Al`i*tur"gic*al, a. Etym: [Pref. a- + liturgical.] (Eccl.)

Defn: Applied to those days when the holy sacrifice is not offered.

A`li*un"de, adv. & a. Etym: [L.] (Law)

Defn: From another source; from elsewhere; as, a case proved aliunde; evidence aliunde.

ALIVE A*live", a. Etym: [OE. on live, AS. on life in life; life being dat. of lif life. See Life, and cf. Live, a.]

1. Having life, in opposition to dead; living; being in a state in which the organs perform their functions; as, an animal or a plant which is alive.

2. In a state of action; in force or operation; unextinguished; unexpired; existent; as, to keep the fire alive; to keep the affections alive.

3. Exhibiting the activity and motion of many living beings; swarming; thronged. The Boyne, for a quarter of a mile, was alive with muskets and green boughs. Macaulay.

4. Sprightly; lively; brisk. Richardson.

5. Having susceptibility; easily impressed; having lively feelings, as opposed to apathy; sensitive. Tremblingly alive to nature's laws. Falconer.

6. Of all living (by way of emphasis). Northumberland was the proudest man alive. Clarendon.

Note: Used colloquially as an intensive; as, man alive!

Note: Alive always follows the noun which it qualifies.

ALIZARI A`li*za"ri, n. Etym: [Perh. fr. Ar. 'a juice extracted from a plant, fr. 'a to press.] (Com.)

Defn: The madder of the Levant. Brande & C.

A*liz"a*rin, n. Etym: [F. alizarine, fr. alizari.] (Chem.)

Defn: A coloring principle, C14H6O2(OH)2, found in madder, and now produced artificially from anthracene. It produces the Turkish reds.

Al"ka*hest, n. Etym: [LL. alchahest, F. alcahest, a word that has an
Arabic appearance, but was probably arbitrarily formed by

Defn: The fabled "universal solvent" of the alchemists; a menstruum capable of dissolving all bodies. — Al`ka*hes"tic, a.

Al`kal*am"ide, n. Etym: [Alkali + amide.] (Chem.)

Defn: One of a series of compounds that may be regarded as ammonia in which a part of the hydrogen has been replaced by basic, and another part by acid, atoms or radicals.

Al`ka*les`cence, Al`ka*les"cen*cy, n.

Defn: A tendency to become alkaline; or the state of a substance in which alkaline properties begin to be developed, or to predominant. Ure.

Al`ka*les"cent, a. Etym: [Cf. F. alcalescent.]

Defn: Tending to the properties of an alkali; slightly alkaline.

ALKALI Al"ka*li, n.; pl. Alkalis or Alkalies. Etym: [F. alcali, ultimately fr. Ar. alqali ashes of the plant saltwort, fr. qalay to roast in a pan, fry.]

1. Soda ash; caustic soda, caustic potash, etc.

2. (Chem.)

Defn: One of a class of caustic bases, such as soda, potash, ammoma, and lithia, whose distinguishing peculiarities are solubility in alcohol and water, uniting with oils and fats to form soap, neutralizing and forming salts with acids, turning to brown several vegetable yellows, and changing reddened litmus to blue. Fixed alkalies, potash and soda. — Vegetable alkalies. Same as Alkaloids. — Volatile alkali, ammonia, so called in distinction from the fixed alkalies.

Al"ka*li*fi`a*ble, a. Etym: [Cf. F. alcalifiable.]

Defn: Capable of being alkalified, or converted into an alkali.

Alkali flat.

Defn: A sterile plain, containing an excess of alkali, at the bottom of an undrained basin in an arid region; a playa.

Al"ka*li*fy, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Alkalified; p. pr. & vb. n.
Alkalifying.] Etym: [Alkali + -fly: cf. F. alcalifier.]

Defn: To convert into an alkali; to give alkaline properties to.

Al"ka*li*fy, v. i.

Defn: To become changed into an alkali.

Al`ka*lim"e*ter, n. Etym: [Alkali + -meter. cf. F. alcalimètre.]

Defn: An instrument to ascertain the strength of alkalies, or the quantity of alkali in a mixture.

Al`ka*li*met"ric, Al`ka*li*met"ric*al, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to alkalimetry.

Al`ka*lim"e*try, n. Etym: [Cf. F. alcalimètrie.] (Chem.)

Defn: The art or process of ascertaining the strength of alkalies, or the quantity present in alkaline mixtures.

Al"ka*line, a. Etym: [Cf. F. alcalin.]

Defn: Of or pertaining to an alkali or to alkalies; having the properties of an alkali. Alkaline earths, certain substances, as lime, baryta, strontia, and magnesia, possessing some of the qualities of alkalies. — Alkaline metals, potassium, sodium, cæsium, lithium, rubidium. — Alkaline reaction, a reaction indicating alkalinity, as by the action on limits, turmeric, etc.

Al`ka*lin"i*ty, n.

Defn: The quality which constitutes an alkali; alkaline property.

Al*ka"li*ous, a.

Defn: Alkaline. [Obs.]

Alkali soil.

Defn: Any one of various soils found in arid and semiarid regions, containing an unusual amount of soluble mineral salts which effloresce in the form of a powder or crust (usually white) in dry weather following rains or irrigation. The basis of these salts is mainly soda with a smaller amount of potash, and usually a little lime and magnesia. Two main classes of alkali are commonly distinguished: black alkali, which may be any alkaline carbonate, but which practically consists of sodium carbonate (sal soda), which is highly corrosive and destructive to vegetation; and white alkali, characterized by the presence of sodium sulphate (Glauber's salt), which is less injurious to vegetation. Black alkali is so called because water containing it dissolves humus, forming a dark-colored solution which, when it collects in puddles and evaporates, produces characteristic black spots.

Alkali waste.

Defn: Waste material from the manufacture of alkali; specif., soda waste.

Al"ka*li*zate, a.

Defn: Alkaline. [Obs.] Boyle.

Al"ka*li**zate, v. t.

Defn: To alkalizate. [R.] Johnson.

Al`ka*li*za"tion, n. Etym: [Cf. F. alcalisation.]

Defn: The act rendering alkaline by impregnating with an alkali; a conferring of alkaline qualities.

Al"ka*lize, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Alkalized; p. pr. & vb. n.
Alkalizing.] Etym: [Cf. F. alcaliser.]

Defn: To render alkaline; to communicate the properties of an alkali to.

Al"ka*loid, n. (Chem.)

Defn: An organic base, especially one of a class of substances occurring ready formed in the tissues of plants and the bodies of animals.

Note: Alcaloids all contain nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen, and many of them also contain oxygen. They include many of the active principles in plants; thus, morphine and narcotine are alkaloids found in opium.

ALKALOID; ALKALOIDAL Al"ka*loid, Al`ka*loid"al, a. Etym: [Alkali + -oid: cf. F. alcaloïde.]

Defn: Pertaining to, resembling, or containing, alkali.

ALKANET Al"ka*net, n. Etym: [Dim. of Sp. alcana, alhe, in which al is the Ar. article. See Henna, and cf. Orchanet.]

1. (Chem.)

Defn: A dyeing matter extracted from the roots of Alkanna tinctoria, which gives a fine deep red color.

2. (Bot.) (a) A boraginaceous herb (Alkanna tinctoria) yielding the dye; orchanet. (b) The similar plant Anchusa officinalis; bugloss; also, the American puccoon.

Al*kar"gen, n. Etym: [Alkarsin + oxygen.] (Chem.)

Defn: Same as Cacodylic acid.

Al*kar"sin, n. Etym: [Alkali + arsenic + -in.] (Chem.)

Defn: A spontaneously inflammable liquid, having a repulsive odor, and consisting of cacodyl and its oxidation products; — called also Cadel's fuming liquid.


Defn: See Alcazar.

ALKEKENGI Al`ke*ken"gi, n. Etym: [Cf. F. alkékenge, Sp. alquequenje, ultimately fr. Ar. al-kakanj a kind of resin from Herat.] (Bot.)

Defn: An herbaceous plant of the nightshade family (Physalis alkekengi) and its fruit, which is a well flavored berry, the size of a cherry, loosely inclosed in a enlarged leafy calyx; — also called winter cherry, ground cherry, and strawberry tomato. D. C. Eaton.

Al*ker"mes, n. Etym: [Ar. al-qirmiz kermes. See Kermes.] (Old

Defn: A compound cordial, in the form of a confection, deriving its name from the kermes insect, its principal ingredient.

Al"ko*ran, n.

Defn: The Mohammedan Scriptures. Same as Alcoran and Koran.

Al`ko*ran"ic, a.

Defn: Same as Alcoranic.

Al`ko*ran"ist, n.

Defn: Same as Alcoranist.

All, a. Etym: [OE. al, pl. alle, AS. eal, pl. ealle, Northumbrian
alle, akin to D. & OHG. al, Ger. all, Icel. allr. Dan. al, Sw. all,
Goth. alls; and perh. to Ir. and Gael. uile, W. oll.]

1. The whole quantity, extent, duration, amount, quality, or degree of; the whole; the whole number of; any whatever; every; as, all the wheat; all the land; all the year; all the strength; all happiness; all abundance; loss of all power; beyond all doubt; you will see us all (or all of us). Prove all things: hold fast that which is good. 1 Thess. v. 21.

2. Any. [Obs.] "Without all remedy." Shak.

Note: When the definite article "the," or a possessive or a demonstrative pronoun, is joined to the noun that all qualifies, all precedes the article or the pronoun; as, all the cattle; all my labor; all his wealth; all our families; all your citizens; all their property; all other joys.

Note: This word, not only in popular language, but in the Scriptures, often signifies, indefinitely, a large portion or number, or a great part. Thus, all the cattle in Egypt died, all Judea and all the region round about Jordan, all men held John as a prophet, are not to be understood in a literal sense, but as including a large part, or very great numbers.

3. Only; alone; nothing but.
I was born to speak all mirth and no matter. Shak.
All the whole, the whole (emphatically). [Obs.] "All the whole army."

All, adv.

1. Wholly; completely; altogether; entirely; quite; very; as, all bedewed; my friend is all for amusement. "And cheeks all pale." Byron.

Note: In the ancient phrases, all too dear, all too much, all so long, etc., this word retains its appropriate sense or becomes intensive.

2. Even; just. (Often a mere intensive adjunct.) [Obs. or Poet.] All as his straying flock he fed. Spenser. A damsel lay deploring All on a rock reclined. Gay. All to, or All-to. In such phrases as "all to rent," "all to break," "all-to frozen," etc., which are of frequent occurrence in our old authors, the all and the to have commonly been regarded as forming a compound adverb, equivalent in meaning to entirely, completely, altogether. But the sense of entireness lies wholly in the word all (as it does in "all forlorn," and similar expressions), and the to properly belongs to the following word, being a kind of intensive prefix (orig. meaning asunder and answering to the LG. ter-, HG. zer- ). It is frequently to be met with in old books, used without the all. Thus Wyclif says, "The vail of the temple was to rent:" and of Judas, "He was hanged and to-burst the middle:" i. e., burst in two, or asunder. — All along. See under Along. — All and some, individually and collectively, one and all. [Obs.] "Displeased all and some." Fairfax. — All but. (a) Scarcely; not even. [Obs.] Shak. (b) Almost; nearly. "The fine arts were all but proscribed." Macaulay. — All hollow, entirely, completely; as, to beat any one all hollow. [Low] — All one, the same thing in effect; that is, wholly the same thing. — All over, over the whole extent; thoroughly; wholly; as, she is her mother all over. [Colloq.] — All the better, wholly the better; that is, better by the whole difference. — All the same, nevertheless. "There they [certain phenomena] remain rooted all the same, whether we recognize them or not." J. C. Shairp. "But Rugby is a very nice place all the same." T. Arnold. — See also under All, n.

All, n.

Defn: The whole number, quantity, or amount; the entire thing; everything included or concerned; the aggregate; the whole; totality; everything or every person; as, our all is at stake. Death, as the Psalmist saith, is certain to all. Shak. All that thou seest is mine. Gen. xxxi. 43.

Note: All is used with of, like a partitive; as, all of a thing, all of us. After all, after considering everything to the contrary; nevertheless. — All in all, a phrase which signifies all things to a person, or everything desired; (also adverbially) wholly; altogether. Thou shalt be all in all, and I in thee, Forever. Milton. Trust me not at all, or all in all. Tennyson. — All in the wind (Naut.), a phrase denoting that the sails are parallel with the course of the wind, so as to shake. — All told, all counted; in all. — And all, and the rest; and everything connected. "Bring our crown and all." Shak. — At all. (a) In every respect; wholly; thoroughly. [Obs.] "She is a shrew at al(l)." Chaucer. (b) A phrase much used by way of enforcement or emphasis, usually in negative or interrogative sentences, and signifying in any way or respect; in the least degree or to the least extent; in the least; under any circumstances; as, he has no ambition at all; has he any property at all "Nothing at all. " Shak. "It thy father at all miss me." 1 Sam. xx. 6. — Over all, everywhere. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Note: All is much used in composition to enlarge the meaning, or add force to a word. In some instances, it is completely incorporated into words, and its final consonant is dropped, as in almighty, already, always: but, in most instances, it is an adverb prefixed to adjectives or participles, but usually with a hyphen, as, all- bountiful, all-glorious, allimportant, all-surrounding, etc. In others it is an adjective; as, allpower, all-giver. Anciently many words, as, alabout, alaground, etc., were compounded with all, which are now written separately.

ALL All, conj. Etym: [Orig. all, adv., wholly: used with though or if, which being dropped before the subjunctive left all as if in the sense although.]

Defn: Although; albeit. [Obs.]
All they were wondrous loth. Spenser.

Al`la bre"ve. Etym: [It., according to the breve.] (Old Church Music)

Defn: With one breve, or four minims, to measure, and sung faster like four crotchets; in quick common time; — indicated in the time signature by

Al"lah, n. Etym: [ contr. fr. the article al the + ilah God.]

Defn: The name of the Supreme Being, in use among the Arabs and the
Mohammedans generally.

All`-a-mort", a.

Defn: See Alamort.

ALLANITE Al"lan*ite, n. Etym: [From T. Allan, who first distinguished it as a species.] (min.)

Defn: A silicate containing a large amount of cerium. It is usually black in color, opaque, and is related to epidote in form and composition.

Al`lan*to"ic, a. Etym: [Cf. F. allantoïque.]

Defn: Pertaining to, or contained in, the allantois. Allantoic acid.
(Chem.) See Allantoin.

Al*lan"toid, Al`lan*toid"al, a. Etym: [Gr. (Anat.)

Defn: Of or pertaining to the allantois.

Al`lan*toid"e*a, n. pl. Etym: [NL.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: The division of Vertebrata in which the embryo develops an allantois. It includes reptiles, birds, and mammals.

Al*lan"to*in, n. (Chem.)

Defn: A crystalline, transparent, colorless substance found in the allantoic liquid of the fetal calf; — formerly called allantoic acid and amniotic acid.

Al*lan"to*is, Al*lan"toid, } n.. (Anat.)

Defn: A membranous appendage of the embryos of mammals, birds, and reptiles, — in mammals serving to connect the fetus with the parent; the urinary vesicle.

Al"la*trate, v. i. Etym: [L. allatrare. See Latrate.]

Defn: To bark as a dog. [Obs.] Stubbes.

ALLAY Al*lay", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Allayed; p. pr. & vb. n. Allaying.] Etym: [OE. alaien, aleggen, to lay down, put down, humble, put an end to, AS. alecgan; a- (cf. Goth. us-, G. er-, orig. meaning out) + lecgan to lay; but confused with old forms of allege, alloy, alegge. See Lay.]

1. To make quiet or put at rest; to pacify or appease; to quell; to calm; as, to allay popular excitement; to allay the tumult of the passions.

2. To alleviate; to abate; to mitigate; as, to allay the severity of affliction or the bitterness of adversity. It would allay the burning quality of that fell poison. Shak.

Syn. — To alleviate; check; repress; assuage; appease; abate; subdue; destroy; compose; soothe; calm; quiet. See Alleviate.

Al*lay", v. t.

Defn: To diminish in strength; to abate; to subside. "When the rage allays." Shak.

Al*lay", n.

Defn: Alleviation; abatement; check. [Obs.]

Al*lay", n.

Defn: Alloy. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Al*lay", v. t.

Defn: To mix (metals); to mix with a baser metal; to alloy; to deteriorate. [Archaic] Fuller.

Al*lay"er, n.

Defn: One who, or that which, allays.

Al*lay"ment, n.

Defn: An allaying; that which allays; mitigation. [Obs.]
The like allayment could I give my grief. Shak.

Al"le*cret, n. Etym: [OF. alecret, halecret, hallecret.]

Defn: A kind of light armor used in the sixteenth century, esp. by the Swiss. Fairholt.

Al*lect", v. t. Etym: [L. allectare, freq. of allicere, allectum.]

Defn: To allure; to entice. [Obs.]

Al`lec*ta"tion, n. Etym: [L. allectatio.]

Defn: Enticement; allurement. [Obs.] Bailey.

Al*lec"tive, a. Etym: [LL. allectivus.]

Defn: Alluring. [Obs.]

Al*lec"tive, n.

Defn: Allurement. [Obs.] Jer. Taylor.

Al*ledge", v. t.

Defn: See Allege. [Obs.]

Note: This spelling, corresponding to abridge, was once the prevailing one.

ALLEGATION Al`le*ga"tion, n. Etym: [L. allegatio, fr. allegare, allegatum, to send a message, cite; later, to free by giving reasons; ad + legare to send, commission. Cf. Allege and Adlegation.]

1. The act of alleging or positively asserting.

2. That which is alleged, asserted, or declared; positive assertion; formal averment I thought their allegation but reasonable. Steele.

3. (Law)

Defn: A statement by a party of what he undertakes to prove, — usually applied to each separate averment; the charge or matter undertaken to be proved.

ALLEGE Al*lege", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Alleged; p. pr. & vb. n. Alleging.] Etym: [OE. aleggen to bring forward as evidence, OF. esligier to buy, prop. to free from legal difficulties, fr. an assumed LL. exlitigare; L. ex + litigare to quarrel, sue (see Litigate). The word was confused with L. allegare (see Allegation), and lex law. Cf. Allay.]

1. To bring forward with positiveness; to declare; to affirm; to assert; as, to allege a fact.

2. To cite or quote; as, to allege the authority of a judge. [Archaic]

3. To produce or urge as a reason, plea, or excuse; as, he refused to lend, alleging a resolution against lending.

Syn. — To bring forward; adduce; advance; assign; produce; declare; affirm; assert; aver; predicate.

Al*lege", v. t. Etym: [See Allay.]

Defn: To alleviate; to lighten, as a burden or a trouble. [Obs.]

Al*lege"a*ble, a.

Defn: Capable of being alleged or affirmed.
The most authentic examples allegeable in the case. South.

Al*lege"ance, n.

Defn: Allegation. [Obs.]

Al*lege"ment, n.

Defn: Allegation. [Obs.]
With many complaints and allegements. Bp. Sanderson.

Al*leg"er, n.

Defn: One who affirms or declares.

Al*legge", v. t.

Defn: See Alegge and Allay. [Obs.]

Al`le*ghe"ni*an, a. Also Al`le*gha"ni*an. (Biogeography)

Defn: Pertaining to or designating the humid division of the
Transition zone extending across the northern United States from New
England to eastern Dakota, and including also most of Pennsylvania
and the mountainous region as far south as northern Georgia.

Al"le*ghe`ny, a.

1. Of or pertaining to the Allegheny Mountains, or the region where they are situated. Also Al"le*gha`ny.

2. [From the Allegheny River, Pennsylvania.] (Geol.) Pertaining to or designating a subdivision of the Pennsylvanian coal measure.

Al*le"giance, n. Etym: [OE. alegeaunce; pref. a- + OF. lige, liege.
The meaning was influenced by L. ligare to bind, and even by lex,
legis, law. See Liege, Ligeance.]

1. The tie or obligation, implied or expressed, which a subject owes to his sovereign or government; the duty of fidelity to one's king, government, or state.

2. Devotion; loyalty; as, allegiance to science.

Syn. — Loyalty; fealty. — Allegiance, Loyalty. These words agree in expressing the general idea of fidelity and attachment to the "powers that be." Allegiance is an obligation to a ruling power. Loyalty is a feeling or sentiment towards such power. Allegiance may exist under any form of government, and, in a republic, we generally speak of allegiance to the government, to the state, etc. In well conducted monarchies, loyalty is a warm-hearted feeling of fidelity and obedience to the sovereign. It is personal in its nature; and hence we speak of the loyalty of a wife to her husband, not of her allegiance. In cases where we personify, loyalty is more commonly the word used; as, loyalty to the constitution; loyalty to the cause of virtue; loyalty to truth and religion, etc. Hear me, recreant, on thine allegiance hear me! Shak. So spake the Seraph Abdiel, faithful found, . . . Unshaken, unseduced, unterrified, His loyalty he kept, his love, his zeal. Milton.

Al*le"giant, a.

Defn: Loyal. Shak.

ALLEGORIC; ALLEGORICAL Al`le*gor"ic, Al`le*gor"ic*al, a. Etym: [F. allégorique, L. allegorius, fr. Gr. Allegory.]

Defn: Belonging to, or consisting of, allegory; of the nature of an allegory; describing by resemblances; figurative. "An allegoric tale." Falconer. "An allegorical application." Pope. Allegorical being . . . that kind of language which says one thing, but means another. Max Miller. Al`le*gor"ic*al*ly, adv. — Al`le*gor"ic*al*ness, n.

Al"le*go*rist, n. Etym: [Cf. F. allegoriste.]

Defn: One who allegorizes; a writer of allegory. Hume.

Al`le*gor"i*za"tion, n.

Defn: The act of turning into allegory, or of understanding in an allegorical sense.

Al"le*go*rize, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Allegorized; p. pr. & vb. n.
Allegorizing.] Etym: [Cf. F. allégoriser, fr. L. allegorizare.]

1. To form or turn into allegory; as, to allegorize the history of a people.

2. To treat as allegorical; to understand in an allegorical sense; as, when a passage in a writer may understood literally or figuratively, he who gives it a figurative sense is said to allegorize it.

Al"le*go*rize, v. t.

Defn: To use allegory. Holland.

Al"le*go*ri`zer, n.

Defn: One who allegorizes, or turns things into allegory; an allegorist.

Al"le*go*ry, n.; pl. Allegories. Etym: [L. allegoria, Gr. allégorie.]

1. A figurative sentence or discourse, in which the principal subject is described by another subject resembling it in its properties and circumstances. The real subject is thus kept out of view, and we are left to collect the intentions of the writer or speaker by the resemblance of the secondary to the primary subject.

2. Anything which represents by suggestive resemblance; an emblem.

3. (Paint. & Sculpt.)

Defn: A figure representation which has a meaning beyond notion directly conveyed by the object painted or sculptured.

Syn. — Metaphor; fable. — Allegory, Parable. "An allegory differs both from fable and parable, in that the properties of persons are fictitiously represented as attached to things, to which they are as it were transferred. . . . A figure of Peace and Victory crowning some historical personage is an allegory. "I am the Vine, ye are the branches" [John xv. 1-6] is a spoken allegory. In the parable there is no transference of properties. The parable of the sower [Matt. xiii. 3-23] represents all things as according to their proper nature. In the allegory quoted above the properties of the vine and the relation of the branches are transferred to the person of Christ and His apostles and disciples." C. J. Smith.

Note: An allegory is a prolonged metaphor. Bunyan's "Pilgrim's Progress" and Spenser's "Faërie Queene" are celebrated examples of the allegory.

Al`le`gresse", n. Etym: [F. allégresse, fr. L. alacer sprightly.]

Defn: Joy; gladsomeness.

Al`le*gret"to, a. Etym: [It., dim. of allegro.] (Mus.)

Defn: Quicker than andante, but not so quick as allegro.
 — n.

Defn: A movement in this time.

Al*le"gro, a. Etym: [It., merry, gay, fr. L. alacer lively. Cf.
Aleger.] (Mus.)

Defn: Brisk, lively.
 — n.

Defn: An allegro movement; a quick, sprightly strain or piece.

Al*le"lo*morph, n. [Gr. of one another + Gr. form.] (Biol.)

Defn: One of the pure unit characters commonly existing singly or in pairs in the germ cells of Mendelian hybrids, and exhibited in varying proportion among the organisms themselves. Allelomorphs which under certain circumstances are themselves compound are called hypallelomorphs. See Mendel's law. — Al*le`lo*mor"phic (#), a.

As we know that the several unit characters are of such a nature that any one of them is capable of independently displacing or being displaced by one or more alternative characters taken singly, we may recognize this fact by naming such characters allelomorphs. Bateson.

Al`le*lu"ia, Al`le*lu"iah, n. Etym: [L. alleluia, Gr. hall-yah. See

Defn: An exclamation signifying Praise ye Jehovah. Hence: A song of
praise to God. See Hallelujah, the commoner form.
I heard a great voice of much people in heaven, saying, Alleluia.
Rev. xix. 1.

Al"le*mande", n. Etym: [F., fr. allemand German.]

1. (Mus.)

Defn: A dance in moderate twofold time, invented by the French in the reign of Louis XIV.; — now mostly found in suites of pieces, like those of Bach and Handel.

2. A figure in dancing.

Al`le*man"nic, a.

Defn: See Alemannic.

Al*len"ar*ly, adv. Etym: [All + anerly singly, fr. ane one.]

Defn: Solely; only. [Scot.] Sir W. Scott.

Al"ler, a. Etym: [For ealra, the AS. gen. pl. of eal all.]

Defn: Same as Alder, of all. [Obs.] Chaucer.

ALLERION Al*le"ri*on, n. Etym: [F. alérion, LL. alario a sort of eagle; of uncertain origin.] (Her.)

Defn: Am eagle without beak or feet, with expanded wings. Burke.

Al*le"vi*ate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Alleviated; p. pr. & vb. n.
Alleviating.] Etym: [LL. alleviare, fr. L. ad + levis light. See
Alegge, Levity.]

1. To lighten or lessen the force or weight of. [Obs.] Should no others join capable to alleviate the expense. Evelyn. Those large bladders . . . conduce much to the alleviating of the body [of flying birds]. Ray.

2. To lighten or lessen (physical or mental troubles); to mitigate, or make easier to be endured; as, to alleviate sorrow, pain, care, etc. ; — opposed to aggravate. The calamity of the want of the sense of hearing is much alleviated by giving the use of letters. Bp. Horsley.

3. To extenuate; to palliate. [R.] He alleviates his fault by an excuse. Johnson.

Syn. — To lessen; diminish; soften; mitigate; assuage; abate; relieve; nullify; allay. — To Alleviate, Mitigate, Assuage, Allay. These words have in common the idea of relief from some painful state; and being all figurative, they differ in their application, according to the image under which this idea is presented. Alleviate supposes a load which is lightened or taken off; as, to alleviate one's cares. Mitigate supposes something fierce which is made mild; as, to mitigate one's anguish. Assuage supposes something violent which is quieted; as, to assuage one's sorrow. Allay supposes something previously excited, but now brought down; as, to allay one's suffering or one's thirst. To alleviate the distresses of life; to mitigate the fierceness of passion or the violence of grief; to assuage angry feeling; to allay wounded sensibility.

Al*le`vi*a"tion, n. Etym: [LL. alleviatio.]

1. The act of alleviating; a lightening of weight or severity; mitigation; relief.

2. That which mitigates, or makes more tolerable. I have not wanted such alleviations of life as friendship could supply. Johnson.

Al*le"vi*a*tive, a.

Defn: Tending to alleviate.
 — n.

Defn: That which alleviates.

Al*le"vi*a`tor, n.

Defn: One who, or that which, alleviaties.

Al*le"vi*a*to*ry, a.

Defn: Alleviative. Carlyle.

ALLEY Al"ley, n.; pl. Alleys. Etym: [OE. aley, alley, OF. alée, F. allée, a going, passage, fr. OE. aler, F. aller, to go; of uncertain origin: cf. Prov. anar, It. andare, Sp. andar.]

1. A narrow passage; especially a walk or passage in a garden or park, bordered by rows of trees or bushes; a bordered way. I know each lane and every alley green. Milton.

2. A narrow passage or way in a city, as distinct from a public street. Gay.

3. A passageway between rows of pews in a church.

4. (Persp.)

Defn: Any passage having the entrance represented as wider than the exit, so as to give the appearance of length.

5. The space between two rows of compositors' stands in a printing office.

ALLEY Al"ley, n.; pl. Alleys. Etym: [A contraction of alabaster, of which it was originally made.]

Defn: A choice taw or marble. Dickens.

Al"leyed, a.

Defn: Furnished with alleys; forming an alley. "An alleyed walk." Sir
W. Scott.

Al"ley*way` n.

Defn: An alley.

All" Fools' Day`.

Defn: The first day of April, a day on which sportive impositions are
The first of April, some do say, Is set apart for All Fools' Day.
Poor Robin's Almanack (1760).

All`fours". Etym: [All + four (cards).]

Defn: A game at cards, called "High, Low, Jack, and the Game."

All` fours" Etym: [formerly, All` four".]

Defn: All four legs of a quadruped; or the two legs and two arms of a person. To be, go, or run, on all fours (Fig.), to be on the same footing; to correspond (with) exactly; to be alike in all the circumstances to be considered. "This example is on all fours with the other." "No simile can go on all fours." Macaulay.

All` hail". Etym: [All + hail, interj.]

Defn: All health; — a phrase of salutation or welcome.

All`-hail", v. t.

Defn: To salute; to greet. [Poet.] Whiles I stood rapt in the wonder of it, came missives from the king, who all-hailed me "Thane of Cawdor." Shak.

All`hal"lond, n.

Defn: Allhallows. [Obs.] Shak.


Defn: The evening before Allhallows. See Halloween.

All`hal"low, All`hal"lows, n.

1. All the saints (in heaven). [Obs.]

2. All Saints' Day, November 1st. [Archaic]

All`hal"low eve` (ev`).

Defn: The evening before Allhallows. See Halloween.

All`hal"low*mas, n.

Defn: The feast of All Saints.

All`hal"lown, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to the time of Allhallows. [Obs.] "Allhallown summer." Shak. (i. e., late summer; "Indian Summer").

All`hal"low*tide`, n. Etym: [AS. tid time.]

Defn: The time at or near All Saints, or November 1st.

All"heal, n.

Defn: A name popularly given to the officinal valerian, and to some other plants.

Al*li"a*ble, a.

Defn: Able to enter into alliance.

Al`li*a"ceous, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to the genus Allium, or garlic, onions, leeks, etc.; having the smell or taste of garlic or onions.

ALLIANCE Al*li"ance, n. Etym: [OE. aliaunce, OF. aliance, F. alliance, fr. OF. alier, F. allier. See Ally, and cf. LL. alligantia.]

1. The state of being allied; the act of allying or uniting; a union or connection of interests between families, states, parties, etc., especially between families by marriage and states by compact, treaty, or league; as, matrimonial alliances; an alliance between church and state; an alliance between France and England.

2. Any union resembling that of families or states; union by relationship in qualities; affinity. The alliance of the principles of the world with those of the gospel. C. J. Smith. The alliance . . . between logic and metaphysics. Mansel.

3. The persons or parties allied. Udall.

Syn. — Connection; affinity; union; confederacy; confederation; league; coalition.

Al*li"ance, v. t.

Defn: To connect by alliance; to ally. [Obs.]

Al*li"ant, n. Etym: [Cf. F. alliant, p. pr.]

Defn: An ally; a confederate. [Obs. & R.] Sir H. Wotton.

Al"lice, Al"lis, n. (Zoöl.)

Defn: The European shad (Clupea vulgaris); allice shad. See Alose.

Al*li"cien*cy, n.

Defn: Attractive power; attractiveness. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

ALLICIENT Al*li"cient, a. Etym: [L. alliciens, p. pr. of allicere to allure; ad + lacere to entice.]

Defn: That attracts; attracting. — n.

Defn: That attracts. [Rare or Obs.]

Al*lied", a.

Defn: United; joined; leagued; akin; related. See Ally.

Al*li*gate, v. t. Etym: [L. alligatus, p. p. of alligare. See Ally.]

Defn: To tie; to unite by some tie.
Instincts alligated to their nature. Sir M. Hale.

Al`li*ga"tion, n. Etym: [L. alligatio.]

1. The act of tying together or attaching by some bond, or the state of being attached. [R.]

2. (Arith.)

Defn: A rule relating to the solution of questions concerning the compounding or mixing of different ingredients, or ingredients of different qualities or values.

Note: The rule is named from the method of connecting together the terms by certain ligature-like signs. Alligation is of two kinds, medial and alternate; medial teaching the method of finding the price or quality of a mixture of several simple ingredients whose prices and qualities are known; alternate, teaching the amount of each of several simple ingredients whose prices or qualities are known, which will be required to make a mixture of given price or quality.

Al"li*ga`tor, n. Etym: [Sp. el lagarto the lizard (el lagarto de
Indias, the cayman or American crocodile), fr. L. lacertus, lacerta,
lizard. See Lizard.]

1. (Zoöl.)

Defn: A large carnivorous reptile of the Crocodile family, peculiar to America. It has a shorter and broader snout than the crocodile, and the large teeth of the lower jaw shut into pits in the upper jaw, which has no marginal notches. Besides the common species of the southern United States, there are allied species in South America.

2. (Mech.)

Defn: Any machine with strong jaws, one of which opens like the movable jaw of an alligator; as, (a) (Metal Working)

Defn: a form of squeezer for the puddle ball; (b) (Mining) a rock breaker; (c) (Printing) a kind of job press, called also alligator press. Alligator apple (Bot.), the fruit of the Anona palustris, a West Indian tree. It is said to be narcotic in its properties. Loudon. — Alligator fish (Zoöl.), a marine fish of northwestern America (Podothecus acipenserinus). — Alligator gar (Zoöl.), one of the gar pikes (Lepidosteus spatula) found in the southern rivers of the United States. The name is also applied to other species of gar pikes. — Alligator pear (Bot.), a corruption of Avocado pear. See Avocado. — Alligator snapper, Alligator tortoise, Alligator turtle (Zoöl.), a very large and voracious turtle (Macrochelys lacertina) in habiting the rivers of the southern United States. It sometimes reaches the weight of two hundred pounds. Unlike the common snapping turtle, to which the name is sometimes erroneously applied, it has a scaly head and many small scales beneath the tail. This name is sometimes given to other turtles, as to species of Trionyx. — Alligator wood, the timber of a tree of the West Indies (Guarea Swartzii).

Al"li*ga`tor wrench. (Mech.)

Defn: A kind of pipe wrench having a flaring jaw with teeth on one side.

Al*lign"ment, n.

Defn: See Alignment.

ALLINEATE Al*lin"e*ate, v. t. Etym: [L. ad + lineatus, p. p. of lineare to draw a line.]

Defn: To align. [R.] Herschel.

Al*lin`e*a"tion, A*line`e*a"tion, n.

Defn: Alignment; position in a straight line, as of two planets with
the sun. Whewell.
The allineation of the two planets. C. A. Young.

ALLISION Al*li"sion, n. Etym: [L. allisio, fr. allidere, to strike or dash against; ad + laedere to dash against.]

Defn: The act of dashing against, or striking upon.
The boisterous allision of the sea. Woodward.

Al*lit"er*al, a.

Defn: Pertaining to, or characterized by alliteration.

Al*lit"er*ate, v. t.

Defn: To employ or place so as to make alliteration. Skeat.

Al*lit"er*ate, v. i.

Defn: To compose alliteratively; also, to constitute alliteration.

Al*lit`er*a"tion, n. Etym: [L. ad + litera letter. See Letter.]

Defn: The repetition of the same letter at the beginning of two or
more words immediately succeeding each other, or at short intervals;
as in the following lines: -
Behemoth, biggest born of earth, upheaved His vastness. Milton.
Fly o'er waste fens and windy fields. Tennyson.

Note: The recurrence of the same letter in accented parts of words is also called alliteration. Anglo-Saxon poetry is characterized by alliterative meter of this sort. Later poets also employed it. In a somer seson whan soft was the sonne, I shope me in shroudes as I a shepe were. P. Plowman.

Al*lit"er*a*tive, a.

Defn: Pertaining to, or characterized by, alliteration; as,
alliterative poetry.
 — Al*lit"er*a*tive*ly, adv.
 — Al*lit"er*a*tive*ness, n.

Al*lit"er*a`tor, n.

Defn: One who alliterates.

Al"li*um, n. Etym: [L., garlic.] (bot.)

Defn: A genus of plants, including the onion, garlic, leek, chive, etc.

All"mouth`, n. (Zoöl.)

Defn: The angler.

All"ness, n.

Defn: Totality; completeness. [R.] The allness of God, including his absolute spirituality, supremacy, and eternity. R. Turnbull.

All"night`, n.

Defn: Light, fuel, or food for the whole night. [Obs.] Bacon.

ALLOCATE Al"lo*cate, v. t. Etym: [LL. allocatus, p. p. of allocare, fr. L. ad + locare to place. See Allow.]

1. To distribute or assign; to allot. Burke.

2. To localize. [R.]

Al`lo*ca"tion, n. Etym: [LL. allocatio: cf. F. allocation.]

1. The act of putting one thing to another; a placing; disposition; arrangement. Hallam.

2. An allotment or apportionment; as, an allocation of shares in a company. The allocation of the particular portions of Palestine to its successive inhabitants. A. R. Stanley.

3. The admission of an item in an account, or an allowance made upon an account; — a term used in the English exchequer.

Al`lo*ca"tur, n. Etym: [LL., it is allowed, fr. allocare to allow.]

Defn: "Allowed." The word allocatur expresses the allowance of a proceeding, writ, order, etc., by a court, judge, or judicial officer.

Al`lo*chro"ic, a.

Defn: Changeable in color.

Al*loch"ro*ite, n. (Min.)

Defn: See Garnet.

Al*loch"ro*ous, a. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Changing color.

ALLOCUTION Al`lo*cu"tion, n. Etym: [L. allocuto, fr. alloqui to speak to; ad + loqui to speak: cf. F. allocution.]

1. The act or manner of speaking to, or of addressing in words.

2. An address; a hortatory or authoritative address as of a pope to his clergy. Addison.

Al"lod, n.

Defn: See Allodium.

Al*lo"di*al, a. Etym: [LL. allodialis, fr. allodium: cf. F. allodial.
See Allodium.] (Law)

Defn: Pertaining to allodium; freehold; free of rent or service; held independent of a lord paramount; — opposed to feudal; as, allodial lands; allodial system. Blackstone.

Al*lo"di*al, a.

Defn: Anything held allodially. W. Coxe.

Al*lo"di*al*ism, n.

Defn: The allodial system.

Al*lo"di*al*ist, n.

Defn: One who holds allodial land.

Al*lo"di*al*ly, adv.

Defn: By allodial tenure.

Al*lo"di*a*ry, n.

Defn: One who holds an allodium.

Al*lo"di*um, n. Etym: [LL. allodium, alodium, alodis, alaudis, of
Ger. origin; cf. OHG. al all, and (AS. ead) possession, property. It
means, therefore, entirely one's property.] (Law)

Defn: Freehold estate; land which is the absolute property of the owner; real estate held in absolute independence, without being subject to any rent, service, or acknowledgment to a superior. It is thus opposed to feud. Blackstone. Bouvier.

Al*log"a*mous, a. (Bot.)

Defn: Characterized by allogamy.

Al*log"a*my n. Etym: [Gr. (Bot.)

Defn: Fertilization of the pistil of a plant by pollen from another of the same species; cross-fertilization.

Al`lo*ge"ne*ous, a. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Different in nature or kind. [R.]

Al"lo*graph, n. Etym: [Gr. -graph.]

Defn: A writing or signature made by some person other than any of the parties thereto; — opposed to autograph.

Al*lom"er*ism, n. Etym: [Gr. (Chem.)

Defn: Variability in chemical constitution without variation in crystalline form.

Al*lom"er*ous, a. (Chem.)

Defn: Characterized by allomerism.

ALLOMORPH Al"lo*morph, n. Etym: [Gr. (Min.) (a) Any one of two or more distinct crystalline forms of the same substance; or the substance having such forms; — as, carbonate of lime occurs in the allomorphs calcite and aragonite. (b) A variety of pseudomorph which has undergone partial or complete change or substitution of material; — thus limonite is frequently an allomorph after pyrite. G. H. Williams.

Al`lo*mor"phic, a. (Min.)

Defn: Of or pertaining to allomorphism.

Al`lo*mor"phism, n. (Min.)

Defn: The property which constitutes an allomorph; the change involved in becoming an allomorph.

Al*longe", n. Etym: [F. allonge, earlier alonge, a lengthening. See
Allonge, v., and cf. Lunge.]

1. (Fencing)

Defn: A thrust or pass; a lunge.

2. A slip of paper attached to a bill of exchange for receiving indorsements, when the back of the bill itself is already full; a rider. [A French usage] Abbott.

ALLONGE Al*longe", v. i. Etym: [F. allonger; à (L. ad) + long (L. longus) long.]

Defn: To thrust with a sword; to lunge.

Al"lo*nym, n. Etym: [F. allonyme, fr. Gr.

1. The name of another person assumed by the author of a work.

2. A work published under the name of some one other than the author.

Al*lon"y*mous, a.

Defn: Published under the name of some one other than the author.

Al*loo", v. t. or i. Etym: [See Halloo.]

Defn: To incite dogs by a call; to halloo. [Obs.]

Al"lo*path, n. Etym: [Cf. F. allopathe.]

Defn: An allopathist. Ed. Rev.

Al`lo*path"ic, a. Etym: [Cf. F. allopathique.]

Defn: Of or pertaining to allopathy.

Al`lo*path"ic*al*ly, adv.

Defn: In a manner conformable to allopathy; by allopathic methods.

Al*lop"a*thist, n.

Defn: One who practices allopathy; one who professes allopathy.

Al*lop"a*thy, n. Etym: [Gr. allopathie, F. allopathie. See Pathos.]

Defn: That system of medical practice which aims to combat disease by the use of remedies which produce effects different from those produced by the special disease treated; — a term invented by Hahnemann to designate the ordinary practice, as opposed to homeopathy.

Al`lo*phyl"ic, Al`lo*phyl"i*an, a. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Pertaining to a race or a language neither Aryan nor Semitic.
J. Prichard.

Al"lo*quy, n. Etym: [L. alloquim, fr. alloqui.]

Defn: A speaking to another; an address. [Obs.]

Al*lot", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Allotted; p. pr. & vb. n. Allotting.]
Etym: [OF. aloter, F. allotir; a (L. ad) + lot lot. See Lot.]

1. To distribute by lot.

2. To distribute, or parcel out in parts or portions; or to distribute to each individual concerned; to assign as a share or lot; to set apart as one's share; to bestow on; to grant; to appoint; as, let every man be contented with that which Providence allots him. Ten years I will allot to the attainment of knowledge. Johnson.

Al"lo*the*ism, n. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: The worship of strange gods. Jer. Taylor.

Al*lot"ment, n. Etym: [Cf. OF. alotement, F. allotement.]

1. The act of allotting; assignment.

2. That which is allotted; a share, part, or portion granted or distributed; that which is assigned by lot, or by the act of God; anything set apart for a special use or to a distinct party. The alloments of God and nature. L'Estrange. A vineyard and an allotment for olives and herbs. Broome.

3. (law)

Defn: The allowance of a specific amount of scrip or of a particular thing to a particular person. Cottage allotment, an allotment of a small portion of land to a country laborer for garden cultivation. [Eng.]

Al`lo*tri*oph"a*gy, n. Etym: [Gr. allotriophagie.] (Med.)

Defn: A depraved appetite; a desire for improper food.

ALLOTROPHIC Al`lo*troph"ic, a. [Gr. other + trophic.] (a) (Physiol.) Changed or modified in nutritive power by the process of digestion. (b) (Plant Physiol.) Dependent upon other organisms for nutrition; heterotrophic; — said of plants unable to perform photosynthesis, as all saprophytes; — opposed to autotrophic.

Al`lo*trop"ic, Al`lo*trop"ic*al, a. Etym: [Cf. F. allotropique.]

Defn: Of or pertaining to allotropism. — Al`lo*trop"ic*al*ly, adv. Allotropic state, the several conditions which occur in a case of allotropism.

Al*lot`ro*pic"i*ty, n.

Defn: Allotropic property or nature.

Al*lot"ro*pism, Al*lot"ro*py, n. Etym: [Gr. allotropie.] (Chem.)

Defn: The property of existing in two or more conditions which are distinct in their physical or chemical relations.

Note: Thus, carbon occurs crystallized in octahedrons and other related forms, in a state of extreme hardness, in the diamond; it occurs in hexagonal forms, and of little hardness, in black lead; and again occurs in a third form, with entire softness, in lampblack and charcoal. In some cases, one of these is peculiarly an active state, and the other a passive one. Thus, ozone is an active state of oxygen, and is distinct from ordinary oxygen, which is the element in its passive state.

Al*lot"ro*pize, v. t.

Defn: To change in physical properties but not in substance. [R.]

Al*lot"ta*ble, a.

Defn: Capable of being allotted.

Al*lot`tee", n.

Defn: One to whom anything is allotted; one to whom an allotment is made.

Al*lot"ter, n.

Defn: One who allots.

Al*lot"ter*y, n.

Defn: Allotment. [Obs.] Shak.

ALLOW Al*low", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Allowed; p. pr. & vb. n. Allowing.] Etym: [OE. alouen, OF. alouer, aloer, aluer, F. allouer, fr. LL. allocare to admit as proved, to place, use; confused with OF. aloer, fr. L. allaudare to extol; ad + laudare to praise. See Local, and cf. Allocate, Laud.]

1. To praise; to approve of; hence, to sanction. [Obs. or Archaic] Ye allow the deeds of your fathers. Luke xi. 48. We commend his pains, condemn his pride, allow his life, approve his learning. Fuller.

2. To like; to be suited or pleased with. [Obs.] How allow you the model of these clothes Massinger.

3. To sanction; to invest; to intrust. [Obs.] Thou shalt be . . . allowed with absolute power. Shak.

4. To grant, give, admit, accord, afford, or yield; to let one have; as, to allow a servant his liberty; to allow a free passage; to allow one day for rest. He was allowed about three hundred pounds a year. Macaulay.

5. To own or acknowledge; to accept as true; to concede; to accede to an opinion; as, to allow a right; to allow a claim; to allow the truth of a proposition. I allow, with Mrs. Grundy and most moralists, that Miss Newcome's conduct . . . was highly reprehensible. Thackeray.

6. To grant (something) as a deduction or an addition; esp. to abate or deduct; as, to allow a sum for leakage.

7. To grant license to; to permit; to consent to; as, to allow a son to be absent.

Syn. — To allot; assign; bestow; concede; admit; permit; suffer; tolerate. See Permit.

Al*low", v. i.

Defn: To admit; to concede; to make allowance or abatement.
Allowing still for the different ways of making it. Addison.
To allow of, to permit; to admit. Shak.

Al*low"a*ble, a. Etym: [F. allouable.]

1. Praiseworthy; laudable. [Obs.] Hacket.

2. Proper to be, or capable of being, allowed; permissible; admissible; not forbidden; not unlawful or improper; as, a certain degree of freedom is allowable among friends.

Al*low"a*ble*ness, n.

Defn: The quality of being allowable; permissibleness; lawfulness; exemption from prohibition or impropriety. South.

Al*low"a*bly, adv.

Defn: In an allowable manner.

Al*low"ance, n. Etym: [OF. alouance.]

1. Approval; approbation. [Obs.] Crabbe.

2. The act of allowing, granting, conceding, or admitting; authorization; permission; sanction; tolerance. Without the king's will or the state's allowance. Shak.

3. Acknowledgment. The censure of the which one must in your allowance o'erweigh a whole theater of others. Shak.

4. License; indulgence. [Obs.] Locke.

5. That which is allowed; a share or portion allotted or granted; a sum granted as a reimbursement, a bounty, or as appropriate for any purpose; a stated quantity, as of food or drink; hence, a limited quantity of meat and drink, when provisions fall short. I can give the boy a handsome allowance. Thackeray.

6. Abatement; deduction; the taking into account of mitigating circumstances; as, to make allowance for the inexperience of youth. After making the largest allowance for fraud. Macaulay.

7. (com.)

Defn: A customary deduction from the gross weight of goods, different in different countries, such as tare and tret.

ALLOWANCE Al*low"ance, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Allowancing.] Etym: [See Allowance, n.]

Defn: To put upon a fixed allowance (esp. of provisions and drink); to supply in a fixed and limited quantity; as, the captain was obliged to allowance his crew; our provisions were allowanced.

Al*low"ed*ly adv.

Defn: By allowance; admittedly. Shenstone.

Al*low"er, n.

1. An approver or abettor. [Obs.]

2. One who allows or permits.

ALLOXAN Al*lox"an, n. Etym: [Allantoin + oxalic, as containing the elements of allantion and oxalic acid.] (Chem.)

Defn: An oxidation product of uric acid. It is of a pale reddish color, readily soluble in water or alcohol.

Al*lox"a*nate, n. (Chem.)

Defn: A combination of alloxanic acid and a base or base or positive radical.

Al`lox*an"ic, a. (Chem.)

Defn: Of or pertaining to alloxan; — applied to an acid obtained by the action of soluble alkalies on alloxan.

Al`lox*an"tin, n. (Chem.)

Defn: A substance produced by acting upon uric with warm and very dilute nitric acid.

ALLOY Al*loy", n. Etym: [OE. alai, OF. alei, F. aloyer, to alloy, alier to ally. See Alloy, v. t.]

1. Any combination or compound of metals fused together; a mixture of metals; for example, brass, which is an alloy of copper and zinc. But when mercury is one of the metals, the compound is called an amalgam.

2. The quality, or comparative purity, of gold or silver; fineness.

3. A baser metal mixed with a finer. Fine silver is silver without the mixture of any baser metal. Alloy is baser metal mixed with it. Locke.

4. Admixture of anything which lessens the value or detracts from; as, no happiness is without alloy. "Pure English without Latin alloy." F. Harrison.

Al*loy", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Alloyed; p. pr. & vb. n. Alloying.]
Etym: [F. aloyer, OF. alier, allier, later allayer, fr. L. aligare.
See Alloy, n., Ally, v.t., and cf. Allay.]

1. To reduce the purity of by mixing with a less valuable substance; as, to alloy gold with silver or copper, or silver with copper.

2. To mix, as metals, so as to form a compound.

3. To abate, impair, or debase by mixture; to allay; as, to alloy pleasure with misfortunes.

Al*loy", v. t.

Defn: To form a metallic compound.
Gold and iron alloy with ease. Ure.

Al*loy"age, n. Etym: [F. aloyage.]

Defn: The act or art of alloying metals; also, the combination or alloy.

Al"loy steel.

Defn: Any steel containing a notable quantity of some other metal alloyed with the iron, usually chromium, nickel, manganese, tungsten, or vanadium.

All`-pos*sessed", a.

Defn: Controlled by an evil spirit or by evil passions; wild.

All" Saints`, All" Saints',

Defn: The first day of November, called, also, Allhallows or Hallowmas; a feast day kept in honor of all the saints; also, the season of this festival.

All" Souls' Day`.

Defn: The second day of November; a feast day of the Roman Catholic church, on which supplications are made for the souls of the faithful dead.

All"spice`, n.

Defn: The berry of the pimento (Eugenia pimenta), a tree of the West Indies; a spice of a mildly pungent taste, and agreeably aromatic; Jamaica pepper; pimento. It has been supposed to combine the flavor of cinnamon, nutmegs, and cloves; and hence the name. The name is also given to other aromatic shrubs; as, the Carolina allspice (Calycanthus floridus); wild allspice (Lindera benzoin), called also spicebush, spicewood, and feverbush.

All`thing`, adv. Etym: [For in all (= every) thing.]

Defn: Altogether. [Obs.] Shak.

Al*lude", v. i. [imp. & p. p. Alluded; p. pr. & vb. n. Alluding.]
Etym: [L. alludere to play with, to allude; ad + ludere to play.]

Defn: To refer to something indirectly or by suggestion; to have reference to a subject not specifically and plainly mentioned; — followed by to; as, the story alludes to a recent transaction. These speeches . . . do seem to allude unto such ministerial garments as were then in use. Hooker.

Syn. — To refer; point; indicate; hint; suggest; intimate; signify; insinuate; advert. See Refer.

Al*lude", v. t.

Defn: To compare allusively; to refer (something) as applicable.
[Obs.] Wither.

Al`lu`mette, n. Etym: [F., from allumer to light.]

Defn: A match for lighting candles, lamps, etc.

Al*lu"mi*nor, n. Etym: [OF. alumineor, fr. L. ad + liminare. See

Defn: An illuminator of manuscripts and books; a limner. [Obs.]

Al*lur"ance, n.

Defn: Allurement. [R.]

Al*lure", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Alluded; p. pr. & vb. n. Alluring.]
Etym: [OF. aleurrer, alurer, fr. a (L. ad) + leurre lure. See Lure.]

Defn: To attempt to draw; to tempt by a lure or bait, that is, by the offer of some good, real or apparent; to invite by something flattering or acceptable; to entice; to attract. With promised joys allured them on. Falconer. The golden sun in splendor likest Heaven Allured his eye. Milton.

Syn. — To attract; entice; tempt; decoy; seduce. — To Allure, Entice, Decoy, Seduce. These words agree in the idea of acting upon the mind by some strong controlling influence, and differ according to the image under which is presented. They are all used in a bad sense, except allure, which has sometimes (though rarely) a good one. We are allured by the prospect or offer (usually deceptive) of some future good. We are commonly enticed into evil by appeals to our passions. We are decoyed into danger by false appearances or representations. We are seduced when drawn aside from the path of rectitude. What allures draws by gentle means; what entices leads us by promises and persuasions; what decoys betrays us, as it were, into a snare or net; what seduces deceives us by artful appeals to the passions.

Al*lure", n.

Defn: Allurement. [R.] Hayward.

Al`lure", n. Etym: [F.; aller to go.]

Defn: Gait; bearing.
The swing, the gait, the pose, the allure of these men. Harper's Mag.

Al*lure"ment, n.

1. The act alluring; temptation; enticement. Though Adam by his wife's allurement fell. Milton.

2. That which allures; any real or apparent good held forth, or operating, as a motive to action; as, the allurements of pleasure, or of honor.

Al*lur"er, n.

Defn: One who, or that which, allures.

Al*lur"ing, a.

Defn: That allures; attracting; charming; tempting.
 — Al*lur"ing*ly, adv.
 — Al*lur"ing*ness, n.

ALLUSION Al*lu"sion, n. Etym: [L. allusio, fr. alludere to allude: cf. F. allusion.]

1. A figurative or symbolical reference. [Obs.]

2. A reference to something supposed to be known, but not explicitly mentioned; a covert indication; indirect reference; a hint.

Al*lu"sive, a.

1. Figurative; symbolical.

2. Having reference to something not fully expressed; containing an allusion.

Al*lu"sive*ly, adv.

Defn: Figuratively [Obs.]; by way of allusion; by implication, suggestion, or insinuation.

Al*lu"sive*ness, n.

Defn: The quality of being allusive.

Al*lu"so*ry, a.

Defn: Allusive. [R.] Warburton.

Al*lu"vi*al, a. Etym: [Cf. F. alluvial. See Alluvion.]

Defn: Pertaining to, contained in, or composed of, alluvium; relating to the deposits made by flowing water; washed away from one place and deposited in another; as, alluvial soil, mud, accumulations, deposits.

ALLUVION Al*lu"vi*on, n. Etym: [F. alluvion, L. alluvio, fr. alluere to wash against; ad + luere, equiv. to lavare, to wash. See Lave.]

1. Wash or flow of water against the shore or bank.

2. An overflowing; an inundation; a flood. Lyell.

3. Matter deposited by an inundation or the action of flowing water; alluvium. The golden alluvions are there [in California and Australia] spread over a far wider space: they are found not only on the banks of rivers, and in their beds, but are scattered over the surface of vast plains. R. Cobden.

4. (Law)

Defn: An accession of land gradually washed to the shore or bank by the flowing of water. See Accretion.

Al*lu"vi*ous, n. Etym: [L. alluvius. See Alluvion.]

Defn: Alluvial. [R.] Johnson.

ALLUVIUM Al*lu"vi*um, n.; pl. E. Alluviums, L. Alluvia. Etym: [L., neut. of alluvius. See Alluvious.] (Geol.)

Defn: Deposits of earth, sand, gravel, and other transported matter, made by rivers, floods, or other causes, upon land not permanently submerged beneath the waters of lakes or seas. Lyell.

All"where`, adv.

Defn: Everywhere. [Archaic]

All"work`, n.

Defn: Domestic or other work of all kinds; as, a maid of allwork, that is, a general servant.

Al*ly", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Allied; p. pr. & vb. n. Allying.] Etym:
[OE. alien, OF. alier, F. alier, fr. L. alligare to bind to; ad +
ligare to bind. Cf. Alligate, Alloy, Allay, Ligament.]

1. To unite, or form a connection between, as between families by marriage, or between princes and states by treaty, league, or confederacy; — often followed by to or with. O chief! in blood, and now in arms allied. Pope.

2. To connect or form a relation between by similitude, resemblance, friendship, or love. These three did love each other dearly well, And with so firm affection were allied. Spenser. The virtue nearest to our vice allied. Pope.

Note: Ally is generally used in the passive form or reflexively.

Al*ly", n.; pl. Allies. Etym: [See Ally, v.]

1. A relative; a kinsman. [Obs.] Shak.

2. One united to another by treaty or league; — usually applied to sovereigns or states; a confederate. The English soldiers and their French allies. Macaulay.

3. Anything associated with another as a helper; an auxiliary. Science, instead of being the enemy of religion, becomes its ally. Buckle.

4. Anything akin to another by structure, etc.

Al"ly, n.

Defn: See Alley, a marble or taw.

Al"lyl, n. Etym: [L. allium garlic + -yl.] (Chem.)

Defn: An organic radical, C3H5, existing especially in oils of garlic and mustard.

Al"ly*lene, n. (Chem.)

Defn: A gaseous hydrocarbon, C3H4, homologous with acetylene; propine. CH3.C.CH

Al"ma, Al"mah, n.

Defn: Same as Alme.

ALMACANTAR Al`ma*can"tar, n. (Astron.) (a) Same as Almucantar. (b) A recently invented instrument for observing the heavenly bodies as they cross a given almacantar circle. See Almucantar.

ALMADIA; ALMADIE Al`ma*di"a, Al"ma*die, n. Etym: [F. almadie (cf. Sp. & Pg. almadia), fr. Ar. alma'diyah a raft, float.] (Naut.) (a) A bark canoe used by the Africans. (b) A boat used at Calicut, in India, about eighty feet long, and six or seven broad.

ALMAGEST Al"ma*gest, n. Etym: [F. almageste, LL. almageste, Ar. al-majisti, fr. Gr.

Defn: The celebrated work of Ptolemy of Alexandria, which contains nearly all that is known of the astronomical observations and theories of the ancients. The name was extended to other similar works.

ALMAGRA Al*ma"gra, n. Etym: [Sp. almagra, almagre, fr. Ar. al-maghrah red clay or earth.]

Defn: A fine, deep red ocher, somewhat purplish, found in Spain. It is the sil atticum of the ancients. Under the name of Indian red it is used for polishing glass and silver.

Al"main, Al"mayne, Al"man, n. Etym: [OF. Aleman, F. Allemand, fr. L.
Alemanni, ancient Ger. tribes.] [Obs.]

1. A German. Also adj.,

Defn: German. Shak.

2. The German language. J. Foxe.

3. A kind of dance. See Allemande. Almain rivets, Almayne rivets, or Alman rivets, a sort of light armor from Germany, characterized by overlapping plates, arranged to slide on rivets, and thus afford great flexibility.

Al"ma Ma"ter. Etym: [L., fostering mother.]

Defn: A college or seminary where one is educated.

ALMANAC Al"ma*nac, n. Etym: [LL. almanac, almanach: cf. F. almanach, Sp. almanaque, It. almanacco, all of uncertain origin.]

Defn: A book or table, containing a calendar of days, and months, to which astronomical data and various statistics are often added, such as the times of the rising and setting of the sun and moon, eclipses, hours of full tide, stated festivals of churches, terms of courts, etc. Nautical almanac, an almanac, or year book, containing astronomical calculations (lunar, stellar, etc.), and other information useful to mariners.

ALMANDINE Al"man*dine, n. Etym: [LL. almandina, alamandina, for L. alabandina a precious stone, named after Alabanda, a town in Caria, where it was first and chiefly found: cf. F. almandine.] (Min.)

Defn: The common red variety of garnet.

ALME; ALMEH Al"me, Al"meh, n. Etym: [Ar. 'almah (fem.) learned, fr. 'alama to know: cf. F. almée.]

Defn: An Egyptian dancing girl; an Alma.
The Almehs lift their arms in dance. Bayard Taylor.

Al`men*dron", n. Etym: [Sp., fr. almendra almond.]

Defn: The lofty Brazil-nut tree.

Al"mer*y, n.

Defn: See Ambry. [Obs.]

Alm"esse, n.

Defn: See Alms. [Obs.]

Al*might"ful, Al*might"i*ful, a.

Defn: All-powerful; almighty. [Obs.] Udall.

Al*might"i*ly, adv.

Defn: With almighty power.

Al*might"i*ness, n.

Defn: Omnipotence; infinite or boundless power; unlimited might. Jer.

ALMIGHTY Al*might"y, a. Etym: [AS. ealmihtig, ælmihtig; eal (OE. al) ail + mihtig mighty.]

1. Unlimited in might; omnipotent; all-powerful; irresistible. I am the Almighty God. Gen. xvii. 1.

2. Great; extreme; terrible. [Slang] Poor Aroar can not live, and can not die, — so that he is in an almighty fix. De Quincey. The Almighty, the omnipotent God. Rev. i. 8.

Alm"ner, n.

Defn: An almoner. [Obs.] Spenser.

ALMOND Alm"ond, n. Etym: [OE. almande, almaunde, alemaunde, F. amande, L. amygdala, fr. Gr. almendra. Cf. Amygdalate.]

1. The fruit of the almond tree.

Note: The different kinds, as bitter, sweet, thin-shelled, thick- shelled almonds, and Jordan almonds, are the products of different varieties of the one species, Amygdalus communis, a native of the Mediterranean region and western Asia.

2. The tree bears the fruit; almond tree.

3. Anything shaped like an almond. Specifically: (Anat.)

Defn: One of the tonsils. Almond oil, fixed oil expressed from sweet
or bitter almonds.
 — Oil of bitter almonds, a poisonous volatile oil obtained from
bitter almonds by maceration and distillation; benzoic aldehyde.
 — Imitation oil of bitter almonds, nitrobenzene.
 — Almond tree (Bot.), the tree bearing the almond.
 — Almond willow (Bot.), a willow which has leaves that are of a
light green on both sides; almond-leaved willow (Salix amygdalina).

Al"mond fur`nace. Etym: [Prob. a corruption of Almain furnace, i. e.,
German furnace. See Almain.]

Defn: A kind of furnace used in refining, to separate the metal from cinders and other foreign matter. Chambers.

Al"mon*dine, n.

Defn: See Almandine

Al"mon*er, n. Etym: [OE. aumener, aulmener, OF. almosnier, aumosnier,
F. aumônier, fr. OF. almosne, alms, L. eleemosyna. See Alms.]

Defn: One who distributes alms, esp. the doles and alms of religious houses, almshouses, etc.; also, one who dispenses alms for another, as the almoner of a prince, bishop, etc.

Al"mon*er*ship, n.

Defn: The office of an almoner.

ALMONRY Al"mon*ry, n.; pl. Almonries. Etym: [OF. aumosnerie, F. aumônerie, fr. OF. aumosnier. See Almoner.]

Defn: The place where an almoner resides, or where alms are distributed.

Al"mose, n.

Defn: Alms. [Obs.] Cheke.

ALMOST Al"most, adv. Etym: [AS. ealmæst, ælmæst, quite the most, almost all; eal (OE. al) all + m most.]

Defn: Nearly; well nigh; all but; for the greatest part.
Almost thou persuadest me to be a Christian. Acts xxvi. 28.
Almost never, scarcely ever.
 — Almost nothing, scarcely anything.

Alm"ry, n.

Defn: See Almonry. [Obs.]

ALMS Alms, n. sing. & pl. Etym: [OE. almes, almesse, AS. ælmysse, fr. L. eleemosyna, Gr. Almonry, Eleemosynary.]

Defn: Anything given gratuitously to relieve the poor, as money,
food, or clothing; a gift of charity.
A devout man . . . which gave much alms to the people. Acts x. 2.
Alms are but the vehicles of prayer. Dryden.
Tenure by free alms. See Frankalmoign. Blackstone.

Note: This word alms is singular in its form (almesse), and is sometimes so used; as, "asked an alms." Acts iii. 3."Received an alms." Shak. It is now, however, commonly a collective or plural noun. It is much used in composition, as almsgiver, almsgiving, alms bag, alms chest, etc.

Alms"deed`, n.

Defn: An act of charity. Acts ix. 36.

Alms"folk`, n.

Defn: Persons supported by alms; almsmen. [Archaic] Holinshed.

Alms"giv`er, n.

Defn: A giver of alms.

Alms"giv`ing, n.

Defn: The giving of alms.

Alms"house`, n.

Defn: A house appropriated for the use of the poor; a poorhouse.

Alms"man, n.; fem. Almswoman.

1. A recipient of alms. Shak.

2. A giver of alms. [R.] Halliwell.

ALMUCANTAR Al`mu*can"tar, n. Etym: [F. almucantarat, almicantarat, ultimately fr. Ar. al-muqantarat, pl., fr. qantara to bend, arch.] (Astron.)

Defn: A small circle of the sphere parallel to the horizon; a circle or parallel of altitude. Two stars which have the same almucantar have the same altitude. See Almacantar. [Archaic] Almucanter staff, an ancient instrument, having an arc of fifteen degrees, formerly used at sea to take observations of the sun's amplitude at the time of its rising or setting, to find the variation of the compass.

Al"muce, n.

Defn: Same as Amice, a hood or cape.

ALMUDE Al*mude", n. Etym: [Pg. almude, or Sp. almud, a measure of grain or dry fruit, fr. Ar. al-mudd a dry measure.]

Defn: A measure for liquids in several countries. In Portugal the
Lisbon almude is about 4.4, and the Oporto almude about 6.6, gallons
U. S. measure. In Turkey the "almud" is about 1.4 gallons.

ALMUG; ALGUM Al"mug, Al"gum, n. Etym: [Heb., perh. borrowed fr. Skr. valguka sandalwood.] (Script.)

Defn: A tree or wood of the Bible (2 Chron. ii. 8; 1 K. x. 11).

Note: Most writers at the present day follow Celsius, who takes it to be the red sandalwood of China and the Indian Archipelago. W. Smith.

Al"nage, n., Etym: [OF. alnage, aulnage, F. aunage, fr. OF. alne ell,
of Ger. origin: cf. OHG. elina, Goth. aleina, cubit. See Ell.] (O.
Eng. Law)

Defn: Measurement (of cloth) by the ell; also, a duty for such measurement.

Al"na*ger, n. Etym: [See Alnage.]

Defn: A measure by the ell; formerly a sworn officer in England, whose duty was to inspect act measure woolen cloth, and fix upon it a seal.

Al"oe, n.; pl. Aloes. Etym: [L. aloë, Gr. aloe, F. aloès.]

1. pl.

Defn: The wood of the agalloch. [Obs.] Wyclif.

2. (Bot.)

Defn: A genus of succulent plants, some classed as trees, others as shrubs, but the greater number having the habit and appearance of evergreen herbaceous plants; from some of which are prepared articles for medicine and the arts. They are natives of warm countries.

3. pl. (Med.)

Defn: The inspissated juice of several species of aloe, used as a purgative. [Plural in form but syntactically singular.] American aloe, Century aloe, the agave. See Agave.

Al"oes wood`.

Defn: See Agalloch.

Al`o*et"ic, a. Etym: [Cf. F. aloétique.]

Defn: Consisting chiefly of aloes; of the nature of aloes.

Al`o*et"ic, n.

Defn: A medicine containing chiefly aloes.

A*loft", adv. Etym: [Pref. a- + loft, which properly meant air. See

1. On high; in the air; high above the ground. "He steers his flight aloft." Milton.

2. (Naut.)

Defn: In the top; at the mast head, or on the higher yards or rigging; overhead; hence (Fig. and Colloq.), in or to heaven.

A*loft", prep.

Defn: Above; on top of. [Obs.]
Fresh waters run aloft the sea. Holland.

A*lo"gi*an, n. Etym: [LL. Alogiani, Alogii, fr. Gr. (Eccl.)

Defn: One of an ancient sect who rejected St. John's Gospel and the
Apocalypse, which speak of Christ as the Logos. Shipley.

Al"o*gy, n. Etym: [L. alogia, Gr.

Defn: Unreasonableness; absurdity. [Obs.]

Al"o*in, n. (Chem.)

Defn: A bitter purgative principle in aloes.

Al"o*man`cy, n. Etym: [Gr. -mancy: cf. F. alomancie, halomancie.]

Defn: Divination by means of salt. [Spelt also halomancy.] Morin.

ALONE A*lone", a. Etym: [All + one. OE. al one all allone, AS. an one, alone. See All, One, Lone.]

1. Quite by one's self; apart from, or exclusive of, others; single; solitary; — applied to a person or thing. Alone on a wide, wide sea. Coleridge. It is not good that the man should be alone. Gen. ii. 18.

2. Of or by itself; by themselves; without any thing more or any one else; without a sharer; only. Man shall not live by bread alone. Luke iv. 4. The citizens alone should be at the expense. Franklin.

3. Sole; only; exclusive. [R.] God, by whose alone power and conversation we all live, and move, and have our being. Bentley.

4. Hence; Unique; rare; matchless. Shak.

Note: The adjective alone commonly follows its noun. To let or leave alone, to abstain from interfering with or molesting; to suffer to remain in its present state.

A*lone", adv.

Defn: Solely; simply; exclusively.

A*lone"ly, adv.

Defn: Only; merely; singly. [Obs.] This said spirit was not given alonely unto him, but unto all his heirs and posterity. Latimer.

A*lone"ly, a.

Defn: Exclusive. [Obs.] Fabyan.

A*lone"ness, n.

Defn: A state of being alone, or without company; solitariness. [R.]
Bp. Montagu.

A*long", adv. Etym: [OE. along, anlong, AS. andlang, along; pref.
and- (akin to OFris. ond-, OHG. ant-, Ger. ent-, Goth. and-, anda-,
L. ante, Gr. anti, over against) + lang long. See Long.]

1. By the length; in a line with the length; lengthwise. Some laid along . . . on spokes of wheels are hung. Dryden.

2. In a line, or with a progressive motion; onward; forward.
We will go along by the king's highway. Numb. xxi. 22.
He struck with his o'ertaking wings, And chased us south along.

3. In company; together. He to England shall along with you. Shak. All along, all trough the course of; during the whole time; throughout. "I have all along declared this to be a neutral paper." Addison. — To get along, to get on; to make progress, as in business. "She 'll get along in heaven better than you or I." Mrs. Stowe.

A*long", prep.

Defn: By the length of, as distinguished from across. "Along the
lowly lands." Dryden.
The kine . . . went along the highway. 1 Sam. vi. 12.

A*long". Etym: [AS. gelang owing to.]

Defn: (Now heard only in the prep. phrase along of.) Along of, Along on, often shortened to Long of, prep. phr., owing to; on account of. [Obs. or Low. Eng.] "On me is not along thin evil fare." Chaucer. "And all this is long of you." Shak. "This increase of price is all along of the foreigners." London Punch.

A*long"shore`, adv.

Defn: Along the shore or coast.

A*long"shore`man, n.

Defn: See Longshoreman.

A*long"side`, adv.

Defn: Along or by the side; side by side with; — often with of; as, bring the boat alongside; alongside of him; alongside of the tree.

ALONGST A*longst", prep. & adv. Etym: [Formed fr. along, like amongst fr. among.]

Defn: Along. [Obs.]

A*loof", n. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Same as Alewife.

ALOOF A*loof", adv. Etym: [Pref. a- + loof, fr. D. loef luff, and so meaning, as a nautical word, to the windward. See Loof, Luff.]

1. At or from a distance, but within view, or at a small distance; apart; away. Our palace stood aloof from streets. Dryden.

2. Without sympathy; unfavorably. To make the Bible as from the hand of God, and then to look at it aloof and with caution, is the worst of all impieties. I. Taylor.

A*loof", prep.

Defn: Away from; clear from. [Obs.] Rivetus . . . would fain work himself aloof these rocks and quicksands. Milton.

A*loof"ness, n.

Defn: State of being aloof. Rogers (1642).
The . . . aloofness of his dim forest life. Thoreau.

Al`o*pe"ci*a, A*lop"e*cy, n. Etym: [L. alopecia, Gr. (med.)

Defn: Loss of the hair; baldness.

A*lop"e*cist, n.

Defn: A practitioner who tries to prevent or cure baldness.

A*lose", v. t. Etym: [OE. aloser.]

Defn: To praise. [Obs.]

A"lose, n. Etym: [F., fr. L. alosa or alausa.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: The European shad (Clupea alosa); — called also allice shad or allis shad. The name is sometimes applied to the American shad (Clupea sapidissima). See Shad.

Al`ou*atte", n. Etym: [Of uncertain origin.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: One of the several species of howling monkeys of South America.
See Howler, 2.

A*loud", adv. Etym: [Pref. a- + loud.]

Defn: With a loud voice, or great noise; loudly; audibly.
Cry aloud, spare not, lift up thy voice. Isa. lviii. 1.

A*low", adv. Etym: [Pref. a- + low.]

Defn: Below; in a lower part. "Aloft, and then alow." Dryden.

Alp, n. Etym: [L. Alpes the Alps, said to be of Celtic origin; cf.
Gael. alp a high mountain, Ir. ailp any huge mass or lump: cf. F.

1. A very high mountain. Specifically, in the plural, the highest chain of mountains in Europe, containing the lofty mountains of Switzerland, etc. Nor breath of vernal air from snowy alp. Milton. Hills peep o'er hills, and alps on alps arise. Pope.

2. Fig.: Something lofty, or massive, or very hard to be surmounted.

Note: The plural form Alps is sometimes used as a singular. "The Alps doth spit." Shak.

Alp, n.

Defn: A bullfinch. Rom. of R.

ALPACA Al*pac"a, n. Etym: [Sp. alpaca, fr. the original Peruvian name of the animal. Cf. Paco.]

1. (Zoöl.)

Defn: An animal of Peru (Lama paco), having long, fine, wooly hair, supposed by some to be a domesticated variety of the llama.

2. Wool of the alpaca.

3. A thin kind of cloth made of the wooly hair of the alpaca, often mixed with silk or with cotton.

Al"pen, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to the Alps. [R.] "The Alpen snow." J.

Al"pen*glow`, n.

Defn: A reddish glow seen near sunset or sunrise on the summits of mountains; specif., a reillumination sometimes observed after the summits have passed into shadow, supposed to be due to a curving downward (refraction) of the light rays from the west resulting from the cooling of the air.

{ Al"pen*horn`, Alp"horn` }, n. [G. Alpenhorn.]

Defn: A curved wooden horn about three feet long, with a cupped mouthpiece and a bell, used by the Swiss to sound the ranz des vaches and other melodies. Its notes are open harmonics of the tube.

Al"pen*stock`, n. Etym: [G.; Alp, gen. pl. Alpen + stock stick.]

Defn: A long staff, pointed with iron, used in climbing the Alps.

Al*pes"trine, a. Etym: [L. Alpestris.]

Defn: Pertaining to the Alps, or other high mountains; as, Alpestrine diseases, etc.

ALPHA Al"pha, n. Etym: [L. alpha, Gr. 'a`lfa, from Heb. aleph, name of the first letter in the alphabet, also meaning ox.]

Defn: The first letter in the Greek alphabet, answering to A, and hence used to denote the beginning. In am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, the first and the last. Rev. xxii. 13.

Note: Formerly used also denote the chief; as, Plato was the alpha of the wits.

Note: In cataloguing stars, the brightest star of a constellation in designated by Alpha (a); as, a Lyræ.

ALPHABET Al"pha*bet, n. Etym: [L. alphabetum, fr. Gr. aleph and beth: cf. F. alphabet.]

1. The letters of a language arranged in the customary order; the series of letters or signs which form the elements of written language.

2. The simplest rudiments; elements. The very alphabet of our law. Macaulay. Deaf and dumb alphabet. See Dactylology.

Al"pha*bet, v. t.

Defn: To designate by the letters of the alphabet; to arrange alphabetically. [R.]

Al`pha*bet*a"ri*an, n.

Defn: A learner of the alphabet; an abecedarian. Abp. Sancroft.

Al`pha*bet"ic, Al`pha*bet"ic*al, a. Etym: [Cf. F. alphabétique.]

1. Pertaining to, furnished with, expressed by, or in the order of, the letters of the alphabet; as, alphabetic characters, writing, languages, arrangement.

2. Literal. [Obs.] "Alphabetical servility." Milton.

Al`pha*bet"ic*al*ly, adv.

Defn: In an alphabetic manner; in the customary order of the letters.

Al`pha*bet"ics, n.

Defn: The science of representing spoken sounds by letters.

Al"pha*bet*ism, n.

Defn: The expression of spoken sounds by an alphabet. Encyc. Brit.

Al"pha*bet*ize, v. t.

1. To arrange alphabetically; as, to alphabetize a list of words.

2. To furnish with an alphabet.

Al"pha pa"per. (Photog.)

Defn: A sensitized paper for obtaining positives by artificial light.
It is coated with gelatin containing silver bromide and chloride.

Alpha rays. (Physics & Chem.)

Defn: Rays of relatively low penetrating power emitted by radium and other radioactive substances, and shown to consist of positively charged particles (perhaps particles of helium) having enormous velocities but small masses. They are slightly deflected by a strong magnetic or electric field.

Al-phit"o*man`cy, n. Etym: [Gr. mancy: cf. F. alphitomancie.]

Defn: Divination by means of barley meal. Knowles.

Al"phol, n. [Alpha- + -ol as in alcohol.] (Pharm.)

Defn: A crystalline derivative of salicylic acid, used as an antiseptic and antirheumatic.

Al*phon"sine, a.

Defn: Of or relating to Alphonso X., the Wise, King of Castile (1252- 1284). Alphonsine tables, astronomical tables prepared under the patronage of Alphonso the Wise. Whewell.

Al"pi*gene, a. Etym: [L. Alpes Alps + -gen.]

Defn: Growing in Alpine regions.

Al"pine, a. Etym: [L. Alpinus, fr. Alpes the Alps: cf. F. Alpin.]

1. Of or pertaining to the Alps, or to any lofty mountain; as, Alpine snows; Alpine plants.

2. Like the Alps; lofty. "Gazing up an Alpine height." Tennyson.

Al"pin*ist, n.

Defn: A climber of the Alps.

Al"pist, Al"pi*a, n. Etym: [F.: cf. Sp. & Pg. alpiste.]

Defn: The seed of canary grass (Phalaris Canariensis), used for feeding cage birds.

ALQUIFOU Al"qui*fou, n. Etym: [Equiv. to arquifoux, F. alquifoux, Sp. alquifól, fr. the same Arabic word as alcohol. See Alcohol.]

Defn: A lead ore found in Cornwall, England, and used by potters to give a green glaze to their wares; potter's ore.

Al*read"y, adv. Etym: [All (OE. al) + ready.]

Defn: Prior to some specified time, either past, present, or future; by this time; previously. "Joseph was in Egypt already." Exod. i. 5. I say unto you, that Elias is come already. Matt. xvii. 12.

Note: It has reference to past time, but may be used for a future past; as, when you shall arrive, the business will be already completed, or will have been already completed.

Als, adv.

1. Also. [Obs.] Chaucer.

2. As. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Al*sa"tian, a.

Defn: Pertaining to Alsatia.

Al*sa"tian, n.

Defn: An inhabitant of Alsatia or Alsace in Germany, or of Alsatia or
White Friars (a resort of debtors and criminals) in London.

Al` se"gno. Etym: [It., to the mark or sign.](Mus.)

Defn: A direction for the performer to return and recommence from the sign

Al"sike, n. Etym: [From Alsike, in Sweden.]

Defn: A species of clover with pinkish or white flowers; Trifolium hybridum.

ALSO Al"so, adv. & conj. Etym: [All + so. OE. al so, AS. ealswa, alsw, ælswæ; eal, al, æl, all + swa so. See All, So, As.]

1. In like manner; likewise. [Obs.]

2. In addition; besides; as well; further; too. Lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven . . . for where your treasure is, there will your heart be also. Matt. vi. 20.

3. Even as; as; so. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Syn. — Also, Likewise, Too. These words are used by way of transition, in leaving one thought and passing to another. Also is the widest term. It denotes that what follows is all so, or entirely like that which preceded, or may be affirmed with the same truth; as, "If you were there, I was there also;" "If our situation has some discomforts, it has also many sources of enjoyment." Too is simply less formal and pointed than also; it marks the transition with a lighter touch; as, "I was there too;" "a courtier yet a patriot too." Pope. Likewise denotes literally "in like manner," and hence has been thought by some to be more specific than also. "It implies," says Whately, "some connection or agreement between the words it unites. We may say, ` He is a poet, and likewise a musician; ' but we should not say, ` He is a prince, and likewise a musician,' because there is no natural connection between these qualities." This distinction, however, is often disregarded.

Alt, a. & n. Etym: [See Alto.] (Mus.)

Defn: The higher part of the scale. See Alto. To be in alt, to be in an exalted state of mind.

Al*ta"ian, Al*ta"ic, a. Etym: [Cf. F. altaïque.]

Defn: Of or pertaining to the Altai, a mountain chain in Central

ALTAR Al"tar, n. Etym: [OE. alter, auter, autier, fr. L. altare, pl. altaria, altar, prob. fr. altus high: cf. OF. alter, autier, F. autel. Cf. Altitude.]

1. A raised structure (as a square or oblong erection of stone or wood) on which sacrifices are offered or incense burned to a deity. Noah builded an altar unto the Lord. Gen. viii. 20.

2. In the Christian church, a construction of stone, wood, or other material for the celebration of the Holy Eucharist; the communion table.

Note: Altar is much used adjectively, or as the first part of a
compound; as, altar bread or altar-bread. Altar cloth or Altar-cloth,
the cover for an altar in a Christian church, usually richly
 — Altar cushion, a cushion laid upon the altar in a Christian
church to support the service book.
 — Altar frontal. See Frontal.
 — Altar rail, the railing in front of the altar or communion table.
 — Altar screen, a wall or partition built behind an altar to
protect it from approach in the rear.
 — Altar tomb, a tomb resembling an altar in shape, etc.
 — Family altar, place of family devotions.
 — To lead (as a bride) to the altar, to marry; — said of a woman.

Al"tar*age, n. Etym: [Cf. OF. auterage, autelage.]

1. The offerings made upon the altar, or to a church.

2. The profit which accrues to the priest, by reason of the altar, from the small tithes. Shipley.

ALTARIST Al"tar*ist, n. Etym: [Cf. LL. altarista, F. altariste.] (Old Law) (a) A chaplain. (b) A vicar of a church.

Al"tar*piece`, n.

Defn: The painting or piece of sculpture above and behind the altar; reredos.

Al"tar*wise`, adv.

Defn: In the proper position of an altar, that is, at the east of a church with its ends towards the north and south. Shipley.

Alt*az"i*muth, n. Etym: [Alltude + azimuth.] (Astron.)

Defn: An instrument for taking azimuths and altitudes simultaneously.

Al"ter, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Altered; p. pr. & vb. n. Altering.] Etym:
[F. altérer, LL. alterare, fr. L. alter other, alius other. Cf. Else,

1. To make otherwise; to change in some respect, either partially or wholly; to vary; to modify. "To alter the king's course." "To alter the condition of a man." "No power in Venice can alter a decree." Shak. It gilds all objects, but it alters none. Pope. My covenant will I not break, nor alter the thing that is gone out of my lips. Ps. lxxxix. 34.

2. To agitate; to affect mentally. [Obs.] Milton.

3. To geld. [Colloq.]

Syn. — Change, Alter. Change is generic and the stronger term. It may express a loss of identity, or the substitution of one thing in place of another; alter commonly expresses a partial change, or a change in form or details without destroying identity.

Al"ter, v. i.

Defn: To become, in some respects, different; to vary; to change; as, the weather alters almost daily; rocks or minerals alter by exposure. "The law of the Medes and Persians, which altereth not." Dan. vi. 8.

Al`ter*a*bil"i*ty, n. Etym: [Cf. F. altérabilité.]

Defn: The quality of being alterable; alterableness.

Al"ter*a*ble, a. Etym: [Cf. F. altérable.]

Defn: Capable of being altered. Our condition in this world is mutable and uncertain, alterable by a thousand accidents. Rogers.

Al"ter*a*ble*ness, n.

Defn: The quality of being alterable; variableness; alterability.

Al"ter*a*bly, adv.

Defn: In an alterable manner.

Al"ter*ant, a. Etym: [LL. alterans, p. pr.: cf. F. altérant.]

Defn: Altering; gradually changing. Bacon.

Al"ter*ant, n.

Defn: An alterative. [R.] Chambers.

Al`ter*a"tion, n. Etym: [Cf. F. altération.]

1. The act of altering or making different. Alteration, though it be from worse to better, hath in it incoveniences. Hooker.

2. The state of being altered; a change made in the form or nature of a thing; changed condition. Ere long might perceive Strange alteration in me. Milton. Appius Claudius admitted to the senate the sons of those who had been slaves; by which, and succeeding alterations, that council degenerated into a most corrupt. Swift.

Al"ter*a*tive, a. Etym: [L. alterativus: cf. F. altératif.]

Defn: Causing ateration. Specifically:

Defn: Gradually changing, or tending to change, a morbid state of the functions into one of health. Burton.

Al"ter*a*tive, n.

Defn: A medicine or treatment which gradually induces a change, and restores healthy functions without sensible evacuations.

Al"ter*cate, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Altercated; p. pr. & vb. n.
Altercating.] Etym: [L. altercatus, p. p. of altercare, altercari,
fr. alter another. See Alter.]

Defn: The contend in words; to dispute with zeal, heat, or anger; to wrangle.

Al`ter*ca"tion, n. Etym: [F. altercation, fr. L. altercatio.]

Defn: Warm contention in words; dispute carried on with heat or anger; controversy; wrangle; wordy contest. "Stormy altercations." Macaulay.

Syn. — Altercation, Dispute, Wrangle. The term dispute is in most cases, but not necessarily, applied to a verbal contest; as, a dispute on the lawfulness of war. An altercation is an angry dispute between two parties, involving an interchange of severe language. A wrangle is a confused and noisy altercation. Their whole life was little else than a perpetual wrangling and altercation. Hakewill.

Al"ter*ca*tive, a.

Defn: Characterized by wrangling; scolding. [R.] Fielding.

Al*ter"i*ty, n. Etym: [F. altérité.]

Defn: The state or quality of being other; a being otherwise. [R.] For outness is but the feeling of otherness (alterity) rendered intuitive, or alterity visually represented. Coleridge.

Al"tern, a. Etym: [L. alternus, fr. alter another: cf. F. alterne.]

Defn: Acting by turns; alternate. Milton. Altern base (Trig.), a second side made base, in distinction from a side previously regarded as base.

Al*ter"na*cy, n.

Defn: Alternateness; alternation. [R.] Mitford.

Al*ter"nant, a. Etym: [L. alternans, p. pr.: cf. F. alternant. See
Alternate, v. t.] (Geol.)

Defn: Composed of alternate layers, as some rocks.

Al`ter`nat", n. [F.]

Defn: A usage, among diplomats, of rotation in precedence among representatives of equal rank, sometimes determined by lot and at other times in regular order. The practice obtains in the signing of treaties and conventions between nations.

ALTERNATE Al*ter"nate, a. Etym: [L. alternatus, p. p. of alternate, fr. alternus. See Altern, Alter.]

1. Being or succeeding by turns; one following the other in succession of time or place; by turns first one and then the other; hence, reciprocal. And bid alternate passions fall and rise. Pope.

2. Designating the members in a series, which regularly intervene between the members of another series, as the odd or even numbers of the numerals; every other; every second; as, the alternate members 1, 3, 5, 7, etc. ; read every alternate line.

3. (Bot.)

Defn: Distributed, as leaves, singly at different heights of the stem, and at equal intervals as respects angular divergence. Gray. Alternate alligation. See Alligation. — Alternate angles (Geom.), the internal and angles made by two lines with a third, on opposite sides of it. It the parallels AB, CD, are cut by the line EF, the angles AGH, GHD, as also the angles BGH and GHC, are called alternate angles. — Alternate generation. (Biol.) See under Generation.

Al*ter"nate, n.

1. That which alternates with something else; vicissitude. [R.] Grateful alternates of substantial. Prior.

2. A substitute; one designated to take the place of another, if necessary, in performing some duty.

3. (Math.)

Defn: A proportion derived from another proportion by interchanging the means.

Al"ter*nate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Alternated; p. pr. & vb. n.
Alternating.] Etym: [L. alternatus, p. p. of alternare. See Altern.]

Defn: To perform by turns, or in succession; to cause to succeed by turns; to interchange regularly. The most high God, in all things appertaining unto this life, for sundry wise ends alternates the disposition of good and evil. Grew.

Al"ter*nate, v. i.

1. To happen, succeed, or act by turns; to follow reciprocally in place or time; — followed by with; as, the flood and ebb tides alternate with each other. Rage, shame, and grief alternate in his breast. J. Philips. Different species alternating with each other. Kirwan.

2. To vary by turns; as, the land alternates between rocky hills and sandy plains.

Al*ter"nate*ly, adv.

1. In reciprocal succession; succeeding by turns; in alternate order.

2. (Math.)

Defn: By alternation; when, in a proportion, the antecedent term is compared with antecedent, and consequent.

Al*ter"nate*ness, n.

Defn: The quality of being alternate, or of following by turns.

Al"ter*nat`ing cur"rent. (Elec.)

Defn: A current which periodically changes or reverses its direction of flow.

Al`ter*na"tion, n. Etym: [L. alternatio: cf. F. alternation.]

1. The reciprocal succession of things in time or place; the act of following and being followed by turns; alternate succession, performance, or occurrence; as, the alternation of day and night, cold and heat, summer and winter, hope and fear.

2. (Math.)

Defn: Permutation.

3. The response of the congregation speaking alternately with the minister. Mason. Alternation of generation. See under Generation.

Al*ter"na*tive, a. Etym: [Cf. F. alternatif.]

1. Offering a choice of two things.

2. Disjunctive; as, an alternative conjunction.

3. Alternate; reciprocal. [Obs.] Holland.

Al*ter"na*tive, n. Etym: [Cf. F. alternative, LL. alternativa.]

1. An offer of two things, one of which may be chosen, but not both; a choice between two things, so that if one is taken, the other must be left. There is something else than the mere alternative of absolute destruction or unreformed existence. Burke.

2. Either of two things or propositions offered to one's choice. Thus when two things offer a choice of one only, the two things are called alternatives. Having to choose between two alternatives, safety and war, you obstinately prefer the worse. Jowett (Thucyd. ).

3. The course of action or the thing offered in place of another. If this demand is refused the alternative is war. Lewis. With no alternative but death. Longfellow.

4. A choice between more than two things; one of several things
offered to choose among.
My decided preference is for the fourth and last of thalternatives.

Al*ter"na*tive*ly, adv.

Defn: In the manner of alternatives, or that admits the choice of one out of two things.

Al*ter"na*tive*ness, n.

Defn: The quality of being alternative, or of offering a choice between two.

Al"ter*na`tor, n. (Elec.)

Defn: An electric generator or dynamo for producing alternating currents.

Al*ter"ni*ty, n. Etym: [LL. alternitas.]

Defn: Succession by turns; alternation. [R.] Sir T. Browne.

ALTHAEA; ALTHEA Al*thæ"a, Al*the"a, n. Etym: [althaea, Gr. (Bot.) (a) A genus of plants of the Mallow family. It includes the officinal marsh mallow, and the garden hollyhocks. (b) An ornamental shrub (Hibiscus Syriacus) of the Mallow family.

Al*the"ine, n. (Chem.)

Defn: Asparagine.

ALTHING Al"thing, n. [Icel. (modern) alping, earlier alpingi; allr all + ping assembly. See All, and Thing.]

Defn: The national assembly or parliament of Iceland. See Thing, n., 8.

Al*tho", conj.

Defn: Although. [Reformed spelling] Alt"horn`, n. Etym: [Alt + horn.]

Defn: An instrument of the saxhorn family, used exclusively in military music, often replacing the French horn. Grove.

Alt"horn`, n. [Alt + horn.] (Mus.)

Defn: An instrument of the saxhorn family, used exclusively in military music, often replacing the French horn. Grove.

Al*though", conj. Etym: [All + though; OE. al thagh.]

Defn: Grant all this; be it that; supposing that; notwithstanding;
Although all shall be offended, yet will no I. Mark xiv. 29.

Syn. — Although, Though. Although, which originally was perhaps more emphatic than though, is now interchangeable with it in the sense given above. Euphonic consideration determines the choice.

Al*til"o*quence, n.

Defn: Lofty speech; pompous language. [R.] Bailey.

ALTILOQUENT Al*til"o*quent, a. Etym: [L. altus (adv. alte) high + loquens, p. pr. of loqui to speak.]

Defn: High-sounding; pompous in speech. [R.] Bailey.

ALTIMETER Al*tim"e*ter, n. Etym: [LL. altimeter; altus high + metrum, Gr. altimètre.]

Defn: An instrument for taking altitudes, as a quadrant, sextant, etc. Knight.

Al*tim"e*try, n. Etym: [Cf. F. altimétrie.]

Defn: The art of measuring altitudes, or heights.

Al*tin"car, n.

Defn: See Tincal.

Al"ti*scope, n. Etym: [L. altus high + Gr.

Defn: An arrangement of lenses and mirrors which enables a person to see an object in spite of intervening objects.

ALTISONANT Al*tis"o*nant, a. Etym: [L. altus high + sonans, p. pr. of sonare to sound.]

Defn: High-sounding; lofty or pompous. Skelton.

Al*tis"o*nous, a. Etym: [L. altisonus.]

Defn: Altisonant.

Al*tis"si*mo, n. Etym: [It.; superl. of alto.] (Mus.)

Defn: The part or notes situated above F in alt.

Al"ti*tude, n. Etym: [L. altitudo, fr. altus high. Cf. Altar,
Haughty, Enhance.]

1. Space extended upward; height; the perpendicular elevation of an object above its foundation, above the ground, or above a given level, or of one object above another; as, the altitude of a mountain, or of a bird above the top of a tree.

2. (Astron.)

Defn: The elevation of a point, or star, or other celestial object, above the horizon, measured by the arc of a vertical circle intercepted between such point and the horizon. It is either true or apparent; true when measured from the rational or real horizon, apparent when from the sensible or apparent horizon.

3. (Geom.)

Defn: The perpendicular distance from the base of a figure to the summit, or to the side parallel to the base; as, the altitude of a triangle, pyramid, parallelogram, frustum, etc.

4. Height of degree; highest point or degree. He is [proud] even to the altitude of his virtue. Shak.

5. Height of rank or excellence; superiority. Swift.

6. pl.

Defn: Elevation of spirits; heroics; haughty airs. [Colloq.]
The man of law began to get into his altitude. Sir W. Scott.
Meridian altitude, an arc of the meridian intercepted between the
south point on the horizon and any point on the meridian. See
Meridian, 3.

Al`ti*tu"di*nal, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to height; as, altitudinal measurements.

Al`ti*tu`di*na"ri*an, a.

Defn: Lofty in doctrine, aims, etc. [R.] Coleridge.

Al*tiv"o*lant, a. Etym: [L. altivolans. See Volant.]

Defn: Flying high. [Obs.] Blount.

Al"to, n.; pl. Altos. Etym: [It. alto high, fr. L. altus. Cf. Alt.]

1. (Mus.)

Defn: Formerly the part sung by the highest male, or counter-tenor, voices; now the part sung by the lowest female, or contralto, voices, between in tenor and soprano. In instrumental music it now signifies the tenor.

2. An alto singer. Alto clef (Mus.) the counter-tenor clef, or the C clef, placed so that the two strokes include the middle line of the staff. Moore.

Al`to-cu"mu*lus, n. [L. altus high + L. & E. cumulus.] (Meteor.)

Defn: A fleecy cloud formation consisting of large whitish or grayish globular cloudlets with shaded portions, often grouped in flocks or rows.

ALTOGETHER Al`to*geth"er, adv. Etym: [OE. altogedere; al all + togedere together. See Together.]

1. All together; conjointly. [Obs.] Altogether they wenChaucer.

2. Without exception; wholly; completely. Every man at his best state is altogether vanity. Ps. xxxix. 5.

Al*tom"e*ter, n. Etym: [L. altus high + -meter.]

Defn: A theodolite. Knight.

Al"to-re*lie"vo, n.

Defn: Alto-rilievo.

Al"to-ri*lie*vo, n.; pl. Alto-rilievos. Etym: [It.] (Sculp.)

Defn: High relief; sculptured work in which the figures project more than half their thickness; as, this figure is an alto-rilievo or in alto-rilievo.

Note: When the figure stands only half out, it is called mezzo- rilievo, demi-rilievo, or medium relief; when its projection is less than one half, basso-rilievo, bas-relief, or low relief.

Al`to-stra"tus, n. [L. altus high + L. & E. stratus.] (Meteor.)

Defn: A cloud formation similar to cirro-stratus, but heavier and at a lower level.

Al"tri*cal, a. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Like the articles.

Al*tri"ces, n. pl. Etym: [L., nourishes, pl. of altrix.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: Nursers, — a term applied to those birds whose young are hatched in a very immature and helpless condition, so as to require the care of their parents for some time; — opposed to præcoces.

ALTRUISM Al"tru*ism, n. Etym: [F. altruisme (a word of Comte's), It. altrui of or to others, fr. L. alter another.]

Defn: Regard for others, both natural and moral; devotion to the interests of others; brotherly kindness; — opposed to egoism or selfishness. [Recent] J. S. Mill.

Al"tru*ist, n.

Defn: One imbued with altruism; — opposed to egoist.

Al`tru*is"tic, a. Etym: [Cf. F. altruiste, a. See Altruism..]

Defn: Regardful of others; beneficent; unselfish; — opposed to Ant: egoistic or Ant: selfish. Bain. — Al`tru*is"tic*al*ly, adv.

Al"u*del, n. Etym: [F. & Sp. aludel, fr. Ar. aluthal.] (Chem.)

Defn: One of the pear-shaped pots open at both ends, and so formed as to be fitted together, the neck of one into the bottom of another in succession; — used in the process of sublimation. Ure.

Al"u*la, n. Etym: [NL., dim. of L. ala a wing.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: A false or bastard wing. See under Bastard.

Al"u*lar, a. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Pertaining to the alula.

ALUM Al"um, n. Etym: [OE. alum, alom, OF. alum, F. alun, fr. L. alumen alum.] (Chem.)

Defn: A double sulphate formed of aluminium and some other element (esp. an alkali metal) or of aluminium. It has twenty-four molecules of water of crystallization.

Note: Common alum is the double sulphate of aluminium and potassium. It is white, transparent, very astringent, and crystallizes easily in octahedrons. The term is extended so as to include other double sulphates similar to alum in formula.

Al"um, v. t.

Defn: To steep in, or otherwise impregnate with, a solution of alum; to treat with alum. Ure.

A*lu"men, n. Etym: [L.] (Chem.)

Defn: Alum.

A*lu"mi*na, n. Etym: [L. alumen, aluminis. See Alum.] (Chem.)

Defn: One of the earths, consisting of two parts of aluminium and three of oxygen, Al2O3.

Note: It is the oxide of the metal aluminium, the base of aluminous salts, a constituent of a large part of the earthy siliceous minerals, as the feldspars, micas, scapolites, etc., and the characterizing ingredient of common clay, in which it exists as an impure silicate with water, resulting from the decomposition of other aluminous minerals. In its natural state, it is the mineral corundum.

A*lu`mi*nate, n. (Chem.)

Defn: A compound formed from the hydrate of aluminium by the substitution of a metal for the hydrogen.

A*lu"mi*na`ted. a.

Defn: Combined with alumina.

Al"u*mine, n. Etym: [F.]

Defn: Alumina. Davy.

Al`u*min"ic, a.

Defn: Of or containing aluminium; as, aluminic phosphate.

ALUMINIFEROUS A*lu`mi*nif"er*ous, a. Etym: [L. alumen alum + -ferous: cf. F. aluminifère.]

Defn: Containing alum.

A*lu"mi*ni*form, a. Etym: [L. alumen + -form.]

Defn: pertaining the form of alumina.

Al`u*min"i*um, n. Etym: [L. alumen. See Alum.] (Chem.)

Defn: The metallic base of alumina. This metal is white, but with a bluish tinge, and is remarkable for its resistance to oxidation, and for its lightness, pertaining a specific gravity of about 2.6. Atomic weight 27.08. Symbol Al. Aluminium bronze or gold, a pale gold- colored alloy of aluminium and copper, used for journal bearings, etc.

A*lu"mi*nize, v. t.

Defn: To treat impregnate with alum; to alum.

A*lu`mi*nog"ra*phy, n. [Alumin-ium + -graphy.]

Defn: Art or process of producing, and printing from, aluminium plates, after the manner of ordinary lithography. — A*lu`mi*no*graph"ic (#), a.

ALUMINOUS A*lu"mi*nous, a. Etym: [L. aluminosus, fr. alumen alum: cf. F. alumineux.]

Defn: Pertaining to or containing alum, or alumina; as, aluminous minerals, aluminous solution.

A*lu"mi*num, n.

Defn: See Aluminium.

Al"um*ish, a.

Defn: Somewhat like alum.

A*lum"na, n. fem.; pl. Alumnæ . Etym: [L. See Alumnus.]

Defn: A female pupil; especially, a graduate of a school or college.

A*lum"nus, n.; pl. Alumni. Etym: [L., fr. alere to nourish.]

Defn: A pupil; especially, a graduate of a college or other seminary of learning.

Al"um root`. (Bot.)

Defn: A North American herb (Heuchera Americana) of the Saxifrage family, whose root has astringent properties.

Al"um schist", Al"um shale", (Min.)

Defn: A variety of shale or clay slate, containing iron pyrites, the decomposition of which leads to the formation of alum, which often effloresces on the rock.

Al"um stone`. (Min.)

Defn: A subsulphate of alumina and potash; alunite.

Al"u*nite, n. (Min.)

Defn: Alum stone.

A*lu"no*gen, n. Etym: [F. alun alum + -gen.] (Min.)

Defn: A white fibrous mineral frequently found on the walls of mines and quarries, chiefly hydrous sulphate of alumina; — also called feather alum, and hair salt.

ALURE Al"ure, n. Etym: [OF. alure, aleure, walk, gait, fr. aler (F. aller) to go.]

Defn: A walk or passage; — applied to passages of various kinds.
The sides of every street were covered with fresh alures of marble.
T. Warton.

Al"u*ta"ceous, a. Etym: [L. alutacius, fr. aluta soft leather.]

1. Leathery.

2. Of a pale brown color; leather-yellow. Brande.

Al`u*ta"tion, n. Etym: [See Alutaceous.]

Defn: The tanning or dressing of leather. [Obs.] Blount.

ALVEARY Al"ve*a*ry, n.; pl. Alvearies. Etym: [L. alvearium, alveare, beehive, fr. alveus a hollow vessel, beehive, from alvus belly, beehive.]

1. A beehive, or something resembling a beehive. Barret.

2. (Anat.)

Defn: The hollow of the external ear. Quincy.

Al"ve*a`ted, a. Etym: [L. alveatus hollowed out.]

Defn: Formed or vaulted like a beehive.

ALVEOLAR Al"ve*o*lar, a. Etym: [L. alveolus a small hollow or cavity: cf. F. alvéolaire.] (Anat.)

Defn: Of, pertaining to, or resembling, alveoli or little cells, sacs, or sockets. Alveolar processes, the processes of the maxillary bones, containing the sockets of the teeth.

Al"ve*o*la*ry, a.

Defn: Alveolar. [R.]

Al"ve*o*late, a. Etym: [L. alveolatus, fr. alveolus.] (Bot.)

Defn: Deeply pitted, like a honeycomb.

Al"ve*ole, n.

Defn: Same as Alveolus.

Al*ve"o*li*form, a. Etym: [L. alvelous + -form.]

Defn: Having the form of alveoli, or little sockets, cells, or cavities.

ALVEOLUS Al*ve"o*lus, n.; pl. Alveoli. Etym: [L., a small hollow or cavity, dim. of alveus: cf. F. alvéole. See Alveary.]

1. A cell in a honeycomb.

2. (Zoöl.)

Defn: A small cavity in a coral, shell, or fossil

3. (Anat.)

Defn: A small depression, sac, or vesicle, as the socket of a tooth, the air cells of the lungs, the ultimate saccules of glands, etc.

Al"ve*us, n.; pl. Alvei. Etym: [L.]

Defn: The channel of a river. Weate.

Al"vine, a. Etym: [L. alvus belly: cf. F. alvin.]

Defn: Of, from, in, or pertaining to, the belly or the intestines; as, alvine discharges; alvine concretions.

Al"way, adv.

Defn: Always. [Archaic or Poetic]
I would not live alway. Job vii. 16.

ALWAYS Al"ways, adv. Etym: [All + way. The s is an adverbial (orig. a genitive) ending.]

1. At all times; ever; perpetually; throughout all time; continually; as, God is always the same. Even in Heaven his [Mammon's] looks and thoughts. Milton.

2. Constancy during a certain period, or regularly at stated intervals; invariably; uniformly; — opposed to sometimes or occasionally. He always rides a black galloway. Bulwer.

A*lys"sum, n. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. (Bot.)

Defn: A genus of cruciferous plants; madwort. The sweet alyssum (A. maritimum), cultivated for bouquets, bears small, white, sweet- scented flowers.

Am. Etym: [AS. am, eom, akin to Gothic im, Icel. em, Olr. am, Lith.
esmi, L. sum., Gr. ahmi, Skr. asmi, fr. a root as to be. Are, and cf.
Be, Was.]

Defn: The first person singular of the verb be, in the indicative mode, present tense. See Be. God said unto Moses, I am that am. Exod. iii. 14.

Am`a*bil"i*ty, n. Etym: [L. amabilitas.]

Defn: Lovableness. Jer. Taylor.

Note: The New English Dictionary (Murray) says this word is "usefully distinct from Amiability."

Am`a*crat"ic, a. Etym: [Gr. (Photog.)

Defn: Amasthenic. Sir J. Herschel.

AMADAVAT Am`a*da*vat", n. Etym: [Indian name. From Ahmedabad, a city from which it was imported to Europe.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: The strawberry finch, a small Indian song bird (Estrelda amandava), commonly caged and kept for fighting. The female is olive brown; the male, in summer, mostly crimson; — called also red waxbill. [Written also amaduvad and avadavat.]

AMADOU Am"a*dou, n. Etym: [F. amadou tinder, prop. lure, bait, fr. amadouer to allure, caress, perh. fr. Icel. mata to feed, which is akin to E. meat.]

Defn: A spongy, combustible substance, prepared from fungus (Boletus and Polyporus) which grows on old trees; German tinder; punk. It has been employed as a styptic by surgeons, but its common use is as tinder, for which purpose it is prepared by soaking it in a strong solution of niter. Ure.

A*main", adv. Etym: [Pref. a- + main. See 2d Main, n.]

1. With might; with full force; vigorously; violently; exceedingly. They on the hill, which were not yet come to blows, perceiving the fewness of their enemies, came down amain. Milton. That striping giant, ill-bred and scoffing, shouts amain. T. Parker.

2. At full speed; in great haste; also, at once. "They fled amain." Holinshed.

A*main", v. t. Etym: [F. amener. See Amenable.] (Naut.)

Defn: To lower, as a sail, a yard, etc.

A*main", v. i. (Naut.)

Defn: To lower the topsail, in token of surrender; to yield.

A*mal"gam, n. Etym: [F. amalgame, prob. fr. L. malagma, Gr.

1. An alloy of mercury with another metal or metals; as, an amalgam of tin, bismuth, etc.

Note: Medalists apply the term to soft alloys generally.

2. A mixture or compound of different things.

3. (Min.)

Defn: A native compound of mercury and silver.

A*mal"gam, v. t. Etym: [Cf. F. amalgamer]

Defn: To amalgamate. Boyle. B. Jonson.

A*mal"ga*ma, n.

Defn: Same as Amalgam. They divided this their amalgama into a number of incoherent republics. Burke.

A*mal"ga*mate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Amalgamated; p. pr. & vb. n.

1. To compound or mix, as quicksilver, with another metal; to unite, combine, or alloy with mercury.

2. To mix, so as to make a uniform compound; to unite or combine; as, to amalgamate two races; to amalgamate one race with another. Ingratitude is indeed their four cardinal virtues compacted and amalgamated into one. Burke.

A*mal"ga*mate, v. i.

1. To unite in an amalgam; to blend with another metal, as quicksilver.

2. To coalesce, as a result of growth; to combine into a uniform whole; to blend; as, two organs or parts amalgamate.

A*mal"ga*mate, A*mal"ga*ma`ted, a.

Defn: Coalesced; united; combined.

A*mal`ga*ma"tion, n. Etym: [Cf. F. amalgamation.]

1. The act or operation of compounding mercury with another metal; — applied particularly to the process of separating gold and silver from their ores by mixing them with mercury. Ure.

2. The mixing or blending of different elements, races, societies, etc.; also, the result of such combination or blending; a homogeneous union. Macaulay.

A*mal"ga*ma*tive, a.

Defn: Characterized by amalgamation.

A*mal"ga*ma`tor, n.

Defn: One who, or that which, amalgamates. Specifically: A machine for separating precious metals from earthy particles by bringing them in contact with a body of mercury with which they form an amalgam.

A*mal"ga*mize, v. t.

Defn: To amalgamate. [R.]

A*man"dine, n. Etym: [F. amande almond. See Almond.]

1. The vegetable casein of almonds.

2. A kind of cold cream prepared from almonds, for chapped hands, etc.

Am`a*ni"ta, n. [NL. See Amanitine.] (Bot.)

Defn: A genus of poisonous fungi of the family Agaricaceæ, characterized by having a volva, an annulus, and white spores. The species resemble edible mushrooms, and are frequently mistaken for them. Amanita muscaria, syn. Agaricus muscarius, is the fly amanita, or fly agaric; and A. phalloides is the death cup.

A*man"i*tine, n. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: The poisonous principle of some fungi.

AMANUENSIS A*man`u*en"sis, n.; pl. Amanuenses. Etym: [L., fr. a, ab + manus hand.]

Defn: A person whose employment is to write what another dictates, or to copy what another has written.

A*mar"a*cus, n. Etym: [L., fr. Gr.

Defn: A fragrant flower. Tennyson.

Am"a*rant, n.

Defn: Amaranth, 1. [Obs.] Milton.

Am`a*ran*ta"ceous, a. (Bot.)

Defn: Of, pertaining to, or resembling, the family of plants of which the amaranth is the type.

AMARANTH Am"a*ranth, n. Etym: [L. amarantus, Gr. mortal; — so called because its flowers do not soon wither: cf. F. amarante. The spelling with th seems to be due to confusion with Gr.

1. An imaginary flower supposed never to fade. [Poetic]

2. (Bot.)

Defn: A genus of ornamental annual plants (Amaranthus) of many species, with green, purplish, or crimson flowers.

2. A color inclining to purple.

Am`a*ran"thine, a.

1. Of or pertaining to amaranth. "Amaranthine bowers." Pope.

2. Unfading, as the poetic amaranth; undying. They only amaranthine flower on earth Is virtue. Cowper.

3. Of a purplish color. Buchanan.

Am`a*ran"thus, Am`a*ran"tus, n.

Defn: Same as Amaranth.

Am"a*rine, n. Etym: [L. amarus bitter.] (Chem.)

Defn: A characteristic crystalline substance, obtained from oil of bitter almonds.

AMARITUDE A*mar"i*tude, n. Etym: [L. amaritudo, fr. amarus bitter: cf. OF. amaritude.]

Defn: Bitterness. [R.]

Am`a*ryl`li*da"ceous, Am`a*ryl*lid"e*ous, a. (Bot.)

Defn: Of, pertaining to, or resembling, an order of plants differing from the lily family chiefly in having the ovary below the

Am`a*ryl"lis, n. Etym: [L. Amaryllis, Gr.

1. A pastoral sweetheart. To sport with Amaryllis in the shade. Milton.

2. (bot.) (a) A family of plants much esteemed for their beauty, including the narcissus, jonquil, daffodil, agave, and others. (b) A genus of the same family, including the Belladonna lily.

A*mass", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Amassed; p. pr. & vb. n. Amassing.]
Etym: [F. ambusher, LL. amassare; L. ad + massa lump, mass. See

Defn: To collect into a mass or heap; to gather a great quantity of; to accumulate; as, to amass a treasure or a fortune; to amass words or phrases. The life Homer has been written by amassing all the traditions and hints the writers could meet with. Pope.

 — To accumulate; heap up; pile.

A*mass", n. Etym: [OF. amasse, fr. ambusher.]

Defn: A mass; a heap. [Obs.] Sir H. Wotton.

A*mass"a*ble, a.

Defn: Capable of being amassed.

A*mass"er, n.

Defn: One who amasses.

A`mas`sette", n. Etym: [F. See Amass.]

Defn: An instrument of horn used for collecting painters' colors on the stone in the process of grinding.

A*mass"ment, n. Etym: [Cf. OF. amassement.]

Defn: An amassing; a heap collected; a large quantity or number brought together; an accumulation. An amassment of imaginary conceptions. Glanvill.

Am`as*then"ic, a. Etym: [Gr. (Photog.)

Defn: Uniting the chemical rays of light into one focus, as a certain kind of lens; amacratic.

A*mate", v. t. Etym: [OF. amater, amatir.]

Defn: To dismay; to dishearten; to daunt. [Obs. or Archaic] The Silures, to amate the new general, rumored the overthrow greater than was true. Milton.

A*mate", v. t. Etym: [Pref. a- + mate.]

Defn: To be a mate to; to match. [Obs.] Spenser.

Am`a*teur", n. Etym: [F., fr. L. amator lover, fr. amare to love.]

Defn: A person attached to a particular pursuit, study, or science as to music or painting; esp. one who cultivates any study or art, from taste or attachment, without pursuing it professionally.

Am`a*teur"ish, a.

Defn: In the style of an amateur; superficial or defective like the
work of an amateur.
 — Am`a*teur"ish*ly, adv.
 — Am`a*teur"ish*ness, n.

Am"a*teur*ism, n.

Defn: The practice, habit, or work of an amateur.

Am"a*teur`ship, n.

Defn: The quality or character of an amateur.

Am"a*tive, a. Etym: [L. amatus, p. p. of amare to love.]

Defn: Full of love; amatory.

Am"a*tive*ness, n. (Phren.)

Defn: The faculty supposed to influence sexual desire; propensity to love. Combe.

Am`a*to"ri*al, a. Etym: [See Amatorious.]

Defn: Of or pertaining to a lover or to love making; amatory; as, amatorial verses.

Am`a*to"ri*al*ly, adv.

Defn: In an amatorial manner.

Am`a*to"ri*an, a.

Defn: Amatory. [R.] Johnson.

Am`a*to"ri*ous, a. Etym: [L. amatorius, fr. amare to love.]

Defn: Amatory. [Obs.] "Amatorious poem." Milton.

Am"a*to*ry, a.

Defn: Pertaining to, producing, or expressing, sexual love; as, amatory potions.

Am`au*ro"sis, n. Etym: [Gr. (Med.)

Defn: A loss or decay of sight, from loss of power in the optic nerve, without any perceptible external change in the eye; — called also gutta serena, the "drop serene" of Milton.

Am`au*rot"ic, a.

Defn: Affected with amaurosis; having the characteristics of amaurosis.

A*maze", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Amazed; p. pr. & vb. n. Amazing.] Etym:
[Pref. a- + maze.]

1. To bewilder; to stupefy; to bring into a maze. [Obs.] A labyrinth to amaze his foes. Shak.

2. To confound, as by fear, wonder, extreme surprise; to overwhelm with wonder; to astound; to astonish greatly. "Amazing Europe with her wit." Goldsmith. And all the people were amazed, and said, Is not this the son of David Matt. xii. 23.

Syn. — To astonish; astound; confound; bewilder; perplex; surprise. — Amaze, Astonish. Amazement includes the notion of bewilderment of difficulty accompanied by surprise. It expresses a state in which one does not know what to do, or to say, or to think. Hence we are amazed at what we can not in the least account for. Astonishment also implies surprise. It expresses a state in which one is stunned by the vastness or greatness of something, or struck with some degree of horror, as when one is overpowered by the

A*maze", v. i.

Defn: To be astounded. [Archaic] B. Taylor.

A*maze", v. t.

Defn: Bewilderment, arising from fear, surprise, or wonder; amazement. [Chiefly poetic] The wild, bewildered Of one to stone converted by amaze. Byron.

A*maz"ed*ly, adv.

Defn: In amazement; with confusion or astonishment. Shak.

A*maz"ed*ness, n.

Defn: The state of being amazed, or confounded with fear, surprise, or wonder. Bp. Hall.

A*maze"ful, a.

Defn: Full of amazement. [R.]

A*maze"ment, n.

1. The condition of being amazed; bewilderment [Obs.]; overwhelming wonder, as from surprise, sudden fear, horror, or admiration. His words impression left Of much amazement. Milton.

2. Frenzy; madness. [Obs.] Webster (1661).

A*maz"ing, a.

Defn: Causing amazement; very wonderful; as, amazing grace.
 — A*maz"ing*ly, adv.

Am"a*zon, n. Etym: [L., fr. Gr.

1. One of a fabulous race of female warriors in Scythia; hence, a female warrior.

2. A tall, strong, masculine woman; a virago.

3. (Zoöl.)

Defn: A name numerous species of South American parrots of the genus Chrysotis Amazon ant (Zoöl.), a species of ant (Polyergus rufescens), of Europe and America. They seize by conquest the larvæ and nymphs other species and make slaves of them in their own nests.

Am`a*zo"ni*an, a.

1. Pertaining to or resembling an Amazon; of masculine manners; warlike. Shak.

2. Of or pertaining to the river Amazon in South America, or to its valley.

Am"a*zon*ite, Am"a*zon stone`, n. Etym: [Named from the river
Amazon.] (Min.)

Defn: A variety of feldspar, having a verdigris-green color.

Amb-, Am*bi-. Etym: [L. prefix ambi-, amb-, akin to Gr. abhi, AS.
embe, emb, OHG. umbi, umpi, G. um, and also L. ambo both. Cf. Amphi-,
Both, By.]

Defn: A prefix meaning about, around; — used in words derived from the Latin.

AMBAGES Am*ba"ges, n. pl. Etym: [L. (usually in pl.); pref. ambi-, amb- + agere to drive: cf. F. ambage.]

Defn: A circuit; a winding. Hence: Circuitous way or proceeding;
quibble; circumlocution; indirect mode of speech.
After many ambages, perspicuously define what this melancholy is.

Am*bag"i*nous, a.

Defn: Ambagious. [R.]

Am*ba"gious, a. Etym: [L. ambagiosus.]

Defn: Circumlocutory; circuitous. [R.]

Am*bag"i*to*ry, a.

Defn: Ambagious. [R.]

Am*ba"ry, n., or Ambary hemp. [Hind. ambara, ambari.]

Defn: A valuable East Indian fiber plant (Hibiscus cannabinus), or its fiber, which is used throughout India for making ropes, cordage, and a coarse canvas and sackcloth; —called also brown Indian hemp.

Am"bas*sade, Em"bas*sade, n. Etym: [F. ambassade. See Embassy.]

1. The mission of an ambassador. [Obs.] Carew.

2. An embassy. [Obs.] Strype.

Am*bas"sa*dor, Em*bas"sa*dor, n. Etym: [See Embassador.]

1. A minister of the highest rank sent a foreign court to represent there his sovereign or country.

Note: Ambassador are either ordinary [or resident] or extraordinary, that is, sent upon some special or unusual occasion or errand. Abbott.

2. An official messenger and representative.

Am*bas`sa*do"ri*al, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to an ambassador. H. Walpole.

Am*bas`sa*dor*ship, n.

Defn: The state, office, or functions of an ambassador.

Am*bas"sa*dress, n.

Defn: A female ambassador; also, the wife of an ambassador. Prescott.

Am"bas*sage, n.

Defn: Same as Embassage. [Obs. or R.] Luke xiv. 32.

Am"bas*sy, n.

Defn: See Embassy, the usual spelling. Helps.

AMBER Am"ber, n. Etym: [OE. aumbre, F. ambre, Sp. ámbar, and with the Ar. article, alámbar, fr. Ar. 'anbar ambergris.]

1. (Min.)

Defn: A yellowish translucent resin resembling copal, found as a fossil in alluvial soils, with beds of lignite, or on the seashore in many places. It takes a fine polish, and is used for pipe mouthpieces, beads, etc., and as a basis for a fine varnish. By friction, it becomes strongly electric.

2. Amber color, or anything amber-colored; a clear light yellow; as, the amber of the sky.

3. Ambergris. [Obs.] You that smell of amber at my charge. Beau. & Fl.

4. The balsam, liquidambar. Black amber, and old and popular name for jet.

Am"ber, a.

1. Consisting of amber; made of amber. "Amber bracelets." Shak.

2. Resembling amber, especially in color; amber-colored. "The amber morn." Tennyson.

Am"ber, v. t. [p. p. & p. a. Ambered .]

1. To scent or flavor with ambergris; as, ambered wine.

2. To preserve in amber; as, an ambered fly.

Am"ber fish. (Zoöl.)

Defn: A fish of the southern Atlantic coast (Seriola Carolinensis.)

Am"ber*grease, n.

Defn: See Ambergris.

Am"ber*gris, n. Etym: [F. ambre gris, i. e., gray amber; F. gris
gray, which is of German origin: cf. OS. grîs, G. greis, gray-haired.
See Amber.]

Defn: A substance of the consistence of wax, found floating in the Indian Ocean and other parts of the tropics, and also as a morbid secretion in the intestines of the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), which is believed to be in all cases its true origin. In color it is white, ash-gray, yellow, or black, and often variegated like marble. The floating masses are sometimes from sixty to two hundred and twenty-five pounds in weight. It is wholly volatilized as a white vapor at 212º Fahrenheit, and is highly valued in perfumery. Dana.

Am"ber room

Defn: A room formerly in the Czar's Summer Palace in Russia, which was richly decorated with walls and fixtures made from amber. The amber was removed by occupying German troops during the Second World War and has, as of 1997, never been recovered. The room is being recreated from old photographs by Russian artisans. PJC

Am"ber seed`.

Defn: Seed of the Hibiscus abelmoschus, somewhat resembling millet, brought from Egypt and the West Indies, and having a flavor like that of musk; musk seed. Chambers.

Am"ber tree`.

Defn: A species of Anthospermum, a shrub with evergreen leaves, which, when bruised, emit a fragrant odor.

Ambes"-as, n.

Defn: Ambs-ace. [Obs.] Chaucer.

AMBIDEXTER Am"bi*dex"ter, a. Etym: [LL., fr. L. ambo both + dexter right, dextra (sc. manus) the right hand.]

Defn: Using both hands with equal ease. Smollett.

Am`bi*dex"ter, n.

1. A person who uses both hands with equal facility.

2. Hence; A double-dealer; one equally ready to act on either side in party disputes. The rest are hypocrites, ambidexters, so many turning pictures — a lion on one side, a lamb on the other. Burton.

3. (Law)

Defn: A juror who takes money from both parties for giving his verdict. Cowell.

Am"bi*dex*ter"i*ty, n.

1. The quality of being ambidexas, ambidexterity of argumentation. Sterne. Ignorant I was of the human frame, and of its latent powers, as regarded speed, force, and ambidexterity. De Quincey.

2. Double-dealing. (Law)

Defn: A juror's taking of money from the both parties for a verdict.

Am`bi*dex"tral, a.

Defn: Pertaining equally to the right-hand side and the left-hand side. Earle.

Am`bi*dex"trous, a.

1. Pertaining the faculty of using both hands with equal ease. Sir T. Browne.

2. Practicing or siding with both parties. All false, shuffling, and ambidextrous dealings. L'Estrange.

Am"bi*dex"trous*ly, adv.

Defn: In an ambidextrous manner; cunningly.

Am`bi*dex"trous*ness, n.

Defn: The quality of being ambidextrous; ambidexterity.

AMBIENT Am"bi*ent, a. Etym: [L. ambiens, p. pr. of ambire to go around; amb- + ire to go.]

Defn: Encompassing on all sides; circumfused; investing. "Ambient air." Milton. "Ambient clouds." Pope.

Am"bi*ent, n.

Defn: Something that surrounds or invests; as, air . . . being a perpetual ambient. Sir H. Wotton.

Am*big"e*nous, a. Etym: [L. ambo both + genus kind.]

Defn: Of two kinds. (Bot.)

Defn: Partaking of two natures, as the perianth of some endogenous plants, where the outer surface is calycine, and the inner petaloid.

Am"bi*gu, n. Etym: [F., fr. ambigu doubtful, L. ambiquus. See

Defn: An entertainment at which a medley of dishes is set on at the same time.

AMBIGUITY Am`bi*gu"i*ty, n.; pl. Ambiguities. Etym: [L. ambiguitas, fr. ambiguus: cf. F. ambiguité.]

Defn: The quality or state of being ambiguous; doubtfulness or uncertainty, particularly as to the signification of language, arising from its admitting of more than one meaning; an equivocal word or expression. No shadow of ambiguity can rest upon the course to be pursued. I. Taylor. The words are of single signification, without any ambiguity. South.

AMBIGUOUS Am*big"u*ous, a. Etym: [L. ambiguus, fr. ambigere to wander about, waver; amb- + agere to drive.]

Defn: Doubtful or uncertain, particularly in respect to signification; capable of being understood in either of two or more possible senses; equivocal; as, an ambiguous course; an ambiguous expression. What have been thy answers What but dark, Ambiguous, and with double sense deluding Milton.

Syn. — Doubtful; dubious; uncertain; unsettled; indistinct; indeterminate; indefinite. See Equivocal.

Am*big"u*ous*ly, adv.

Defn: In an ambiguous manner; with doubtful meaning.

Am*big"u*ous*ness, n.

Defn: Ambiguity.

Am`bi*le"vous, a. Etym: [L. ambo both + laevus left.]

Defn: Left-handed on both sides; clumsy; — opposed to ambidexter.
[R.] Sir T. Browne.

Am*bil"o*quy, n.

Defn: Doubtful or ambiguous language. [Obs.] Bailey.

Am*bip"a*rous, a. Etym: [L. ambo both + parere to bring forth.]

Defn: Characterized by containing the rudiments of both flowers and leaves; — applied to a bud.

Am"bit, n. Etym: [L. ambitus circuit, fr. ambire to go around. See

Defn: Circuit or compass.
His great parts did not live within a small ambit. Milward.

AMBITION Am*bi"tion, n. Etym: [F. ambition, L. ambitio a going around, especially of candidates for office is Rome, to solicit votes (hence, desire for office or honorambire to go around. See Ambient, Issue.]

1. The act of going about to solicit or obtain an office, or any other object of desire; canvassing. [Obs.] [I] used no ambition to commend my deeds. Milton.

2. An eager, and sometimes an inordinate, desire for preferment, honor, superiority, power, or the attainment of something. Cromwell, I charge thee, fling a way ambition: By that sin fell the angels. Shak. The pitiful ambition of possessing five or six thousand more acres. Burke.

Am*bi"tion, v. t. Etym: [Cf. F. ambitionner.]

Defn: To seek after ambitiously or eagerly; to covet. [R.]
Pausanias, ambitioning the sovereignty of Greece, bargains with
Xerxes for his daughter in marriage. Trumbull.

Am*bi"tion*ist, n.

Defn: One excessively ambitious. [R.]

Am*bi"tion*less, a.

Defn: Devoid of ambition. Pollok.

Am*bi"tious, a. Etym: [L. ambitiosus: cf. F. ambitieux. See

1. Possessing, or controlled by, ambition; greatly or inordinately desirous of power, honor, office, superiority, or distinction. Yet Brutus says he was ambitious, And Brutus is an honorable man. Shak.

2. Strongly desirous; — followed by of or the infinitive; as, ambitious to be or to do something. I was not ambitious of seeing this ceremony. Evelyn. Studious of song, and yet ambitious not to sing in vain. Cowper.

3. Springing from, characterized by, or indicating, ambition; showy; aspiring; as, an ambitious style. A giant statue . . . Pushed by a wild and artless race, From off wide, ambitious base. Collins.

Am*bi"tious*ly, adv.

Defn: In an ambitious manner.

Am*bi"tious*ness, n.

Defn: The quality of being ambitious; ambition; pretentiousness.

Am"bi*tus, n. Etym: [L. See Ambit, Ambition.]

1. The exterior edge or border of a thing, as the border of a leaf, or the outline of a bivalve shell.

2. (Rom. Antiq.)

Defn: A canvassing for votes.

Am"ble, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Ambled; p. pr. & vb. n. Ambling.] Etym:
[F. ambler to amble, fr. L. ambulare to walk, in LL., to amble, perh.
fr. amb-, ambi-, and a root meaning to go: cf. Gr. base. Cf.

1. To go at the easy gait called an amble; — applied to the horse or to its rider.

2. To move somewhat like an ambling horse; to go easily or without
hard shocks.
The skipping king, he ambled up and down. Shak.
Sir, your wit ambles well; it goes easily. Shak.

Am"ble, n.

1. A peculiar gait of a horse, in which both legs on the same side are moved at the same time, alternating with the legs on the other side. "A fine easy amble." B. Jonson.

2. A movement like the amble of a horse.

Am"bler, n.

Defn: A horse or a person that ambles.

Am"bling*ly, adv.

Defn: With an ambling gait.

Am*blot"ic, a. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Tending to cause abortion.

Am"bly*gon, n. Etym: [Gr. amblygone.] (Geom.)

Defn: An obtuse-angled figure, esp. and obtuse-angled triangle.

Am*blyg"o*nal, a.

Defn: Obtuse-angled. [Obs.] Hutton.

Am`bly*o"pi*a, Am"bly*o`py, n. Etym: [Gr. amblyopie.] (Med.)

Defn: Weakness of sight, without and opacity of the cornea, or of the interior of the eye; the first degree of amaurosis.

Am"bly*op"ic, a. (Med.)

Defn: Of or pertaining to amblyopy. Quain.

Am*blyp"o*da, n. pl. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. (Paleon.)

Defn: A group of large, extinct, herbivorous mammals, common in the
Tertiary formation of the United States.

Am"bo, n.; pl. Ambos. Etym: [LL. ambo, Gr. ambon.]

Defn: A large pulpit or reading desk, in the early Christian churches. Gwilt.

Am"bon, n.

Defn: Same as Ambo.

Am*boy"na but"ton. (Med.)

Defn: A chronic contagious affection of the skin, prevalent in the tropics.

Amboyna pine. (Bot.)

Defn: The resiniferous tree Agathis Dammara, of the Moluccas.

Am*boy"na wood.

Defn: A beautiful mottled and curled wood, used in cabinetwork. It is obtained from the Pterocarpus Indicus of Amboyna, Borneo, etc.

Am"bre*ate, n. (Chem.)

Defn: A salt formed by the combination of ambreic acid with a base or positive radical.

Am*bre"ic, a. (Chem.)

Defn: Of or pertaining to ambrein; — said of a certain acid produced by digesting ambrein in nitric acid.

Am"bre*in, n. Etym: [Cf. F. ambréine. See Amber.] (Chem.)

Defn: A fragrant substance which is the chief constituent of ambergris.

Am"brite, n. Etym: [From amber.]

Defn: A fossil resin occurring in large masses in New Zealand.

Am"brose, n.

Defn: A sweet-scented herb; ambrosia. See Ambrosia, 3. Turner.

AMBROSIA Am*bro"sia, n. Etym: [L. ambrosia, Gr. mrita, L. mortuus, dead, and to E. mortal.]

1. (Myth.) (a) The fabled food of the gods (as nectar was their drink), which conferred immortality upon those who partook of it. (b) An unguent of the gods. His dewy locks distilled ambrosia. Milton.

2. A perfumed unguent, salve, or draught; something very pleasing to the taste or smell. Spenser.

3. Formerly, a kind of fragrant plant; now (Bot.), a genus of plants, including some coarse and worthless weeds, called ragweed, hogweed, etc.

Ambrosia beetle. (Zoöl.)

Defn: A bark beetle that feeds on ambrosia.

Am"bro"si*ac, a. Etym: [L. ambrosiacus: cf. F. ambrosiaque.]

Defn: Having the qualities of ambrosia; delicious. [R.]"Ambrosiac odors." B. Jonson.

Am*bro"sial, a. Etym: [L. ambrosius, Gr.

1. Consisting of, or partaking of the nature of, ambrosia; delighting the taste or smell; delicious. "Ambrosial food." "Ambrosial fragrance." Milton.

2. Divinely excellent or beautiful. "Shakes his ambrosial curls." Pope.

Am*bro"sial*ly, adv.

Defn: After the manner of ambrosia; delightfully. "Smelt ambrosially." Tennyson.

Am*bro"sian, a.

Defn: Ambrosial. [R.] . Jonson.

Am*bro"sian, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to St. Ambrose; as, the Ambrosian office, or ritual, a formula of worship in the church of Milan, instituted by St. Ambrose. Ambrosian chant, the mode of signing or chanting introduced by St. Ambrose in the 4th century.

Am"bro*sin, n. Etym: [LL. Ambrosinus nummus.]

Defn: An early coin struck by the dukes of Milan, and bearing the figure of St. Ambrose on horseback.

Am"bro*type, n. Etym: [Gr. -type.] (Photog.)

Defn: A picture taken on a place of prepared glass, in which the lights are represented in silver, and the shades are produced by a dark background visible through the unsilvered portions of the glass.

AMBRY Am"bry, n.; pl. Ambries. Etym: [OE. aumbry, almery, OF. almarie, armarie, aumaire, F. armoire, LL. armarium chest, cupboard, orig. a repository for arms, fr. L. arama arms. The word has been confused with almonry. See Armory.]

1. In churches, a kind of closet, niche, cupboard, or locker for utensils, vestments, etc.

2. A store closet, as a pantry, cupboard, etc.

3. Almonry. [Improperly so used]

Ambs"-ace, n. Etym: [OF. ambesas; ambes both (fr. L. ambo) + as ace.
See Ace.]

Defn: Double aces, the lowest throw of all at dice. Hence: Bad luck; anything of no account or value.

Am`bu*la"cral, a. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Of or pertaining to ambulacra; avenuelike; as, the ambulacral ossicles, plates, spines, and suckers of echinoderms.

Am`bu*la"cri*form, a. Etym: [Ambulacrum + -form] (Zoöl.)

Defn: Having the form of ambulacra.

AMBULACRUM Am`bu*la"crum, n.; pl. Ambulacra. Etym: [L., an alley or covered way.] (Zoöl.) (a) One of the radical zones of echinoderms, along which run the principal nerves, blood vessels, and water tubes. These zones usually bear rows of locomotive suckers or tentacles, which protrude from regular pores. In star fishes they occupy the grooves along the under side of the rays. (b) One of the suckers on the feet of mites.

AMBULANCE Am"bu*lance, n. Etym: [F. ambulance, hôpital ambulant, fr. L. ambulare to walk. See Amble.] (Mil.) (a) A field hospital, so organized as to follow an army in its movements, and intended to succor the wounded as soon as possible. Often used adjectively; as, an ambulance wagon; ambulance stretcher; ambulance corps. (b) An ambulance wagon or cart for conveying the wounded from the field, or to a hospital.

AMBULANT Am"bu*lant, a. Etym: [L. ambulans, p. pr. of ambulare to walk: cf. F. ambulant.]

Defn: Walking; moving from place to place. Gayton.

Am"bu*late, v. i. Etym: [L. ambulare to walk. See Amble.]

Defn: To walk; to move about. [R.] Southey.

Am`bu*la"tion, n. Etym: [L. ambulatio.]

Defn: The act of walking. Sir T. Browne.

Am"bu*la*tive, a.

Defn: Walking. [R.]

Am"bu*la`tor, n.

1. One who walks about; a walker.

2. (Zoöl.) (a) A beetle of the genus Lamia. (b) A genus of birds, or one of this genus.

3. An instrument for measuring distances; — called also perambulator. Knight.

Am`bu*la*to"ri*al, a.

Defn: Ambulatory; fitted for walking. Verrill.

Am"bu*la*to*ry, a. Etym: [L. ambulatorius.]

1. Of or pertaining to walking; having the faculty of walking; formed or fitted for walking; as, an ambulatory animal.

2. Accustomed to move from place to place; not stationary; movable; as, an ambulatory court, which exercises its jurisdiction in different places. The priesthood . . . before was very ambulatory, and dispersed into all families. Jer. Taylor.

3. Pertaining to a walk. [R.] The princess of whom his majesty had an ambulatory view in his travels. Sir H. Wotton.

4. (Law)

Defn: Not yet fixed legally, or settled past alteration; alterable; as, the dispositions of a will are ambulatory until the death of the testator.

Am"bu*la*to*ry, n.; pl. Ambulatories. Etym: [Cf. LL. ambulatorium.]

Defn: A place to walk in, whether in the open air, as the gallery of a cloister, or within a building.

Am"bur*ry, n.

Defn: Same as Anbury.

AMBUSCADE Am`bus*cade", n. Etym: [F. embuscade, fr. It. imboscata, or Sp. emboscada, fr. emboscar to ambush, fr. LL. imboscare. See Ambush, v. t.]

1. A lying in a wood, concealed, for the purpose of attacking an enemy by surprise. Hence: A lying in wait, and concealed in any situation, for a like purpose; a snare laid for an enemy; an ambush.

2. A place in which troops lie hid, to attack an enemy unexpectedly. [R.] Dryden.

3. (Mil.)

Defn: The body of troops lying in ambush.

Am`bus*cade", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ambuscaded; p. pr. & vb. n.

1. To post or conceal in ambush; to ambush.

2. To lie in wait for, or to attack from a covert or lurking place; to waylay.

Am`bus*cade", v. i.

Defn: To lie in ambush.

Am`bus*ca"do, n.

Defn: Ambuscade. [Obs.] Shak.

Am`bus*ca"doed, p. p.

Defn: Posted in ambush; ambuscaded. [Obs.]

Am"bush, n. Etym: [F. embûche, fr. the verb. See Ambush, v. t.]

1. A disposition or arrangement of troops for attacking an enemy unexpectedly from a concealed station. Hence: Unseen peril; a device to entrap; a snare. Heaven, whose high walls fear no assault or siege Or ambush from the deep. Milton.

2. A concealed station, where troops or enemies lie in wait to attack by surprise. Bold in close ambush, base in open field. Dryden.

3. The troops posted in a concealed place, for attacking by surprise;
liers in wait. [Obs.]
The ambush arose quickly out of their place. Josh. viii. 19.
To lay an ambush, to post a force in ambush.

AMBUSH Am"bush, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ambushed; p. pr. & vb. n. Ambushing.] Etym: [OE. enbussen, enbushen, OF. embushier, embuissier, F. embûcher, embusquer, fr. LL. imboscare; in + LL. boscus, buscus, a wood; akin to G. bush, E. bush. See Ambuscade, Bu.]

1. To station in ambush with a view to surprise an enemy. By ambushed men behind their temple Dryden.

2. To attack by ambush; to waylay.

Am"bush, v. i.

Defn: To lie in wait, for the purpose of attacking by surprise; to
Nor saw the snake that ambushed for his prey. Trumbull.

Am"bush*er, n.

Defn: One lying in ambush.

Am"bush*ment, n. Etym: [OF. embuschement. See Ambush, v. t.]

Defn: An ambush. [Obs.] 2 Chron. xiii. 13.

Am*bus"tion, n. Etym: [L. ambustio.] (Med.)

Defn: A burn or scald. Blount.

Am`e*be"an, a. (Zoöl.)

Defn: See Am.

A*meer", A*mir", n. Etym: [See Emir.]

1. Emir. [Obs.]

2. One of the Mohammedan nobility of Afghanistan and Scinde.

AMEL Am"el, n. Etym: [OE. amell, OF. esmail, F. émail, of German origin; cf. OHG. smelzi, G. schmelz. See Smelt, v. t.]

Defn: Enamel. [Obs.] Boyle.

AMEL Am"el, v. t. Etym: [OE. amellen, OF. esmailler, F. émailler, OF. esmail, F. émail.]

Defn: To enamel. [Obs.]
Enlightened all with stars, And richly ameled. Chapman.

Am"el*corn`, n. Etym: [Ger. amelkorn: cf. MHG. amel, amer, spelt, and
L. amylum starch, Gr.

Defn: A variety of wheat from which starch is produced; — called also French rice.

A*mel"io*ra*ble, a.

Defn: Capable of being ameliorated.

A*mel"io*rate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ameliorated; p. pr. & vb. n.
Ameliorating.] Etym: [L. ad + meliorare to make better: cf. F.
améliorer. See Meliorate.]

Defn: To make better; to improve; to meliorate.
In every human being there is a wish to ameliorate his own condition.

A*mel"io*rate, v. i.

Defn: To grow better; to meliorate; as, wine ameliorates by age.

A*mel`io*ra"tion, n. Etym: [Cf. F. amélioration.]

Defn: The act of ameliorating, or the state of being ameliorated; making or becoming better; improvement; melioration. "Amelioration of human affairs." J. S. Mill.

A*mel"io*ra*tive, a.

Defn: Tending to ameliorate; producing amelioration or improvement; as, ameliorative remedies, efforts.

A*mel"io*ra`tor, n.

Defn: One who ameliorates.

A`men", interj., adv., & n. Etym: [L. amen, Gr. am certainly, truly.]

Defn: An expression used at the end of prayers, and meaning, So be it. At the end of a creed, it is a solemn asseveration of belief. When it introduces a declaration, it is equivalent to truly, verily. It is used as a noun, to demote: (a) concurrence in belief, or in a statement; assent; (b) the final word or act; (c) Christ as being one who is true and faithful. And let all the people say, Amen. Ps. cvi. 48. Amen, amen, I say to thee, except a man be born again, he can not see the kingdom of God. John ii. 3. Rhemish Trans. To say amen to, to approve warmly; to concur in heartily or emphatically; to ratify; as, I say Amen to all.

A`men", v. t.

Defn: To say Amen to; to sanction fully.

A*me`na*bil"i*ty, n.

Defn: The quality of being amenable; amenableness. Coleridge.

AMENABLE A*me"na*ble, a. Etym: [F. amener to lead; ad) = mener to lead, fr. L. minare to drive animals (properly by threatening cries), in LL. to lead; L. minari, to threaten, minae threats. See Menace.]

1. (Old Law)

Defn: Easy to be led; governable, as a woman by her husband. [Obs.]

2. Liable to be brought to account or punishment; answerable; responsible; accountable; as, amenable to law. Nor is man too diminutive . . . to be amenable to the divine government. I. Taylor.

3. Liable to punishment, a charge, a claim, etc.

4. Willing to yield or submit; responsive; tractable. Sterling . . . always was amenable enough to counsel. Carlyle.

A*me"na*ble*ness, n.

Defn: The quality or state of being amenable; liability to answer charges; answerableness.

A*me"na*bly, adv.

Defn: In an amenable manner.

Am"e*nage, v. t. Etym: [OF. amesnagier. See Manage.]

Defn: To manage. [Obs.] Spenser.

Am"e*nance, n. Etym: [OF. See Amenable.]

Defn: Behavior; bearing. [Obs.] Spenser.

A*mend", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Amended; p. pr. & vb. n. Amending.]
Etym: [F. amender, L. emendare; e(ex) + mendum, menda, fault, akin to
Skr. minda personal defect. Cf. Emend, Mend.]

Defn: To change or modify in any way for the better; as, (a) by simply removing what is erroneous, corrupt, superfluous, faulty, and the like; (b) by supplying deficiencies; (c) by substituting something else in the place of what is removed; to rectify. Mar not the thing that can not be amended. Shak. An instant emergency, granting no possibility for revision, or opening for amended thought. De Quincey. We shall cheer her sorrows, and amend her blood, by wedding her to a Norman. Sir W. Scott. To amend a bill, to make some change in the details or provisions of a bill or measure while on its passage, professedly for its improvement.

Syn. — To Amend, Emend, Correct, Reform, Rectify. These words agree in the idea of bringing things into a more perfect state. We correct (literally, make straight) when we conform things to some standard or rule; as, to correct proof sheets. We amend by removing blemishes, faults, or errors, and thus rendering a thing more a nearly perfect; as, to amend our ways, to amend a text, the draft of a bill, etc. Emend is only another form of amend, and is applied chiefly to editions of books, etc. To reform is literally to form over again, or put into a new and better form; as, to reform one's life. To rectify is to make right; as, to rectify a mistake, to rectify abuses, inadvertencies, etc.

A*mend", v. i.

Defn: To grow better by rectifying something wrong in manners or morals; to improve. "My fortune . . . amends." Sir P. Sidney.

A*mend"a*ble, a.

Defn: Capable of being amended; as, an amendable writ or error.
 — A*mend"a*ble*ness, n.

A*mend"a*to*ry, a.

Defn: Supplying amendment; corrective; emendatory. Bancroft.

A`mende", n. Etym: [F. See Amend.]

Defn: A pecuniary punishment or fine; a reparation or recantation. Amende honorable(#). (Old French Law) A species of infamous punishment in which the offender, being led into court with a rope about his neck, and a lighted torch in his hand, begged pardon of his God, the court, etc. In popular language, the phrase now denotes a public apology or recantation, and reparation to an injured party, for improper language or treatment.

A*mend"er, n.

Defn: One who amends.

A*mend"ful, a.

Defn: Much improving. [Obs.]

A*mend"ment, n. Etym: [F. amendement, LL. amendamentum.]

1. An alteration or change for the better; correction of a fault or of faults; reformation of life by quitting vices.

2. In public bodies; Any alternation made or proposed to be made in a bill or motion by adding, changing, substituting, or omitting.

3. (Law)

Defn: Correction of an error in a writ or process.

 — Improvement; reformation; emendation.

A*mends", n. sing. & pl. Etym: [F. amendes, pl. of amende. Cf.

Defn: Compensation for a loss or injury; recompense; reparation. [Now const. with sing. verb.] "An honorable amends." Addison. Yet thus far fortune maketh us amends. Shak.

AMENITY A*men"i*ty, n.; pl. Amenities. Etym: [F. aménité, L. amoenitas, fr. amoenus pleasant.]

Defn: The quality of being pleasant or agreeable, whether in respect to situation, climate, manners, or disposition; pleasantness; civility; suavity; gentleness. A sweetness and amenity of temper. Buckle. This climate has not seduced by its amenities. W. Howitt.

A*men`or*rhoe"a, n. Etym: [Gr. aménorrhée.] (Med.)

Defn: Retention or suppression of the menstrual discharge.

A*men`or*rhoe"al, a.

Defn: Pertaining to amenorrhoea.

A men"sa et tho"ro. Etym: [L., from board and bed.] (Law)

Defn: A kind of divorce which does not dissolve the marriage bond, but merely authorizes a separate life of the husband and wife. Abbott.

Am"ent, n. Etym: [L. amentum thong or strap.] (Bot.)

Defn: A species of inflorescence; a catkin.
The globular ament of a buttonwood. Coues.

AMENTACEOUS Am`en*ta"ceous, a. Etym: [LL. amentaceus.] (Bot.) (a) Resembling, or consisting of, an ament or aments; as, the chestnut has an amentaceous inflorescence. (b) Bearing aments; having flowers arranged in aments; as, amentaceous plants.

A*men"ti*a, n. Etym: [L.] (Med.)

Defn: Imbecility; total want of understanding.

Am`en*tif"er*ous, a. Etym: [L. amentum + -ferous.] (Bot.)

Defn: Bearing catkins. Balfour.

A*men"ti*form, a. Etym: [L. amentum + -form.] (Bot.)

Defn: Shaped like a catkin.

A*men"tum, n.; pl. Amenta.

Defn: Same as Ament.

Am"e*nuse, v. t. Etym: [OF. amenuisier. See Minute.]

Defn: To lessen. [Obs.] Chaucer.

A*merce", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Amerced; p. pr. & vb. n. Amercing.]
Etym: [OF. amercier, fr. a merci at the mercy of, liable to a
punishment. See Mercy.]

1. To punish by a pecuniary penalty, the amount of which is not fixed by law, but left to the discretion of the court; as, the amerced the criminal in the sum on the hundred dollars.

Note: The penalty of fine may be expressed without a preposition, or it may be introduced by in, with, or of.

2. To punish, in general; to mulct. Millions of spirits for his fault amerced Of Heaven. Milton. Shall by him be amerced with penance due. Spenser.

A*merce"a*ble, a.

Defn: Liable to be amerced.

A*merce"ment, n. Etym: [OF. amerciment.]

Defn: The infliction of a penalty at the discretion of the court; also, a mulct or penalty thus imposed. It differs from a fine,in that the latter is, or was originally, a fixed and certain sum prescribed by statue for an offense; but an amercement is arbitrary. Hence, the act or practice of affeering. [See Affeer.] Blackstone.

Note: This word, in old books, is written amerciament. Amercement royal, a penalty imposed on an officer for a misdemeanor in his office. Jacobs.

A*mer"cer, n.

Defn: One who amerces.

A*mer"cia*ment, n. Etym: [LL. amerciamentum.]

Defn: Same as Amercement. Mozley & W.

A*mer"i*can, a. Etym: [Named from Americus Vespucius.]

1. Of or pertaining to America; as, the American continent: American Indians.

2. Of or pertaining to the United States. "A young officer of the American navy." Lyell. American ivy. See Virginia creeper. — American Party (U. S. Politics), a party, about 1854, which opposed the influence of foreign-born citizens, and those supposed to owe allegiance to a foreign power. — Native american Party (U. S. Politics), a party of principles similar to those of the American party. It arose about 1843, but soon died out.

A*mer"i*can, n.

Defn: A native of America; — originally applied to the aboriginal
inhabitants, but now applied to the descendants of Europeans born in
America, and especially to the citizens of the United States.
The name American must always exalt the pride of patriotism.

A*mer"i*can*ism, n.

1. Attachment to the United States.

2. A custom peculiar to the United States or to America; an American characteristic or idea.

3. A word or phrase peculiar to the United States.

A*mer`i*can*i*za"tion, n.

Defn: The process of Americanizing.

A*mer"i*can*ize, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Americanizer; p. pr. & vb. n.

Defn: To render American; to assimilate to the Americans in customs, ideas, etc.; to stamp with American characteristics.

A*mer"i*can plan.

Defn: In hotels, aplan upon which guests pay for both room and board by the day, week, or other convenient period; — contrasted with European plan.

A*mer"i*can Pro*tect"ive As*so`ci*a"tion.

Defn: A secret organization in the United States, formed in Iowa in 1887, ostensibly for the protection of American institutions by keeping Roman Catholics out of public office. Abbrev. commonly to A. P .A.

Ames"-ace, n.

Defn: Same as Ambs-ace.

Am"ess, n. (Eccl.)

Defn: Amice, a hood or cape. See 2d Amice.

Am`e*tab"o*la, n. pl. Etym: [NL.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: A group of insects which do not undergo any metamorphosis.
[Written also Ametabolia.]

A*met`a*bo"li*an, a. Etym: [Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Of or pertaining to insects that do undergo any metamorphosis.

A*met`a*bol"ic, Am`e*tab"o*lous, a. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Not undergoing any metamorphosis; as, ametabolic insects.

A*meth"o*dist, n. Etym: [Pref. a- not + methodist.]

Defn: One without method; a quack. [Obs.]

AMETHYST Am"e*thyst, Etym: [F. ametiste, amatiste, F. améthyste, L. amethystus, fr. Gr. Mead.]

1. (Min.)

Defn: A variety of crystallized quartz, of a purple or bluish violet color, of different shades. It is much used as a jeweler's stone. Oriental amethyst, the violet-blue variety of transparent crystallized corundum or sapphire.

2. (Her.)

Defn: A purple color in a nobleman's escutcheon, or coat of arms.

Am`e*thys"tine, a. Etym: [L. amethystinus, Gr.

1. Resembling amethyst, especially in color; bluish violet.

2. Composed of, or containing, amethyst.

Am`e*tro"pi*a, n. Etym: [Gr. (Med.)

Defn: Any abnormal condition of the refracting powers of the eye.
 — Am`e*trop"ic, a.

Am*har"ic, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to Amhara, a division of Abyssinia; as, the Amharic language is closely allied to the Ethiopic. — n.

Defn: The Amharic language (now the chief language of Abyssinia).

Am"i*a, n. Etym: [L., fr. Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: A genus of fresh-water ganoid fishes, exclusively confined to North America; called bowfin in Lake Champlain, dogfish in Lake Erie, and mudfish in South Carolina, etc. See Bowfin.

A`mi*a*bil"i*ty, n.

Defn: The quality of being amiable; amiableness; sweetness of
Every excellency is a degree of amiability. Jer. Taylor.

AMIABLE A"mi*a*ble, a. Etym: [F. amiable, L. amicabilis friendly, fr. amicus friend, fr. amare to love. The meaning has been influenced by F. aimable, L. amabilis lovable, fr. amare to love. Cf. Amicable, Amorous, Amability.]

1. Lovable; lovely; pleasing. [Obs. or R.] So amiable a prospect. Sir T. Herbert.

2. Friendly; kindly; sweet; gracious; as, an amiable temper or mood; amiable ideas.

3. Possessing sweetness of disposition; having sweetness of temper, kind-heartedness, etc., which causes one to be liked; as, an amiable woman.

4. Done out of love. [Obs.] Lay an amiable siege to the honesty of this Ford's wife. Shak.

A`mi*a*ble*ness, n.

Defn: The quality of being amiable; amiability.

A"mi*a*bly, adv.

Defn: In an amiable manner.

Am"i*anth, n.

Defn: See Amianthus. [Poetic]

Am`i*an"thi*form, a. Etym: [Amianthus + -form.]

Defn: Resembling amianthus in form.

Am`i*an"thoid, a. Etym: [Amianthus + -oid: cf. F. amiantoïde.]

Defn: Resembling amianthus.

Am`i*an"thus, n. Etym: [L. amiantus, Gr. (Min.)

Defn: Earth flax, or mountain flax; a soft silky variety of asbestus.

Am"ic, a. Etym: [L. ammonia + -ic.] (Chem.)

Defn: Related to, or derived, ammonia; — used chiefly as a suffix; as, amic acid; phosphamic acid. Amic acid (Chem.), one of a class of nitrogenized acids somewhat resembling amides.

Am`i*ca*bil"i*ty, n.

Defn: The quality of being amicable; friendliness; amicableness. Ash.

AMICABLE Am"i*ca*ble, a. Etym: [L. amicabilis, fr. amicus friend, fr. amare to love. See Amiable.]

Defn: Friendly; proceeding from, or exhibiting, friendliness; after the manner of friends; peaceable; as, an amicable disposition, or arrangement. That which was most remarkable in this contest was . . . the amicable manner in which it was managed. Prideoux. Amicable action (Law.), an action commenced and prosecuted by amicable consent of the parties, for the purpose of obtaining a decision of the court on some matter of law involved in it. Bouvier. Burrill. — Amicable numbers (Math.), two numbers, each of which is equal to the sum of all the aliquot parts of the other.

Syn. — Friendly; peaceable; kind; harmonious. — Amicable, Friendly. Neither of these words denotes any great warmth of affection, since friendly has by no means the same strength as its noun friendship. It does, however, imply something of real cordiality; while amicable supposes very little more than that the parties referred to are not disposed to quarrel. Hence, we speak of amicable relations between two countries, an amicable adjustment of difficulties. "Those who entertain friendly feelings toward each other can live amicably together."

Am"i*ca*ble*ness, n.

Defn: The quality of being amicable; amicability.

Am"i*ca*bly, adv.

Defn: In an amicable manner.

AMICE Am"ice, n. Etym: [OE. amyse, prob. for amyt, OF. amit, ameit, fr. L. amictus cloak, the word being confused with amice, almuce, a hood or cape. See next word.]

Defn: A square of white linen worn at first on the head, but now about the neck and shoulders, by priests of the Roman Catholic Church while saying Mass.

Am"ice, n. Etym: [OE. amuce, amisse, OF. almuce, aumuce, F. aumusse,
LL. almucium, almucia, aumucia: of unknown origin; cf. G. mütze cap,
prob. of the same origin. Cf. Mozetta.] (Eccl.)

Defn: A hood, or cape with a hood, made of lined with gray fur, formerly worn by the clergy; — written also amess, amyss, and almuce.

A*mid", prep.

Defn: See Amidst.

Am"ide, n. Etym: [Ammonia + -ide.] (Chem.)

Defn: A compound formed by the union of amidogen with an acid element or radical. It may also be regarded as ammonia in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by an acid atom or radical. Acid amide, a neutral compound formed by the substitution of the amido group for hydroxyl in an acid.

Am"i*din, n. Etym: [Cf. F. amidine, fr. amido starch, fr. L. amylum,
Gr. Meal.] (Chem.)

Defn: Start modified by heat so as to become a transparent mass, like horn. It is soluble in cold water.

A*mi"do, a. Etym: [From Amide.] (Chem.)

Defn: Containing, or derived from, amidogen. Amido acid, an acid in which a portion of the nonacid hydrogen has been replaced by the amido group. The amido acids are both basic and acid. — Amido group, amidogen, NH2.

A*mid"o*gen, n. Etym: [Amide + -gen.] (Chem.)

Defn: A compound radical, NH2, not yet obtained in a separate state, which may be regarded as ammonia from the molecule of which one of its hydrogen atoms has been removed; — called also the amido group, and in composition represented by the form amido.

Am"i*dol, n. [Amide + -ol as in alcohol.] (Photog. & Chem.)

Defn: A salt of a diamino phenol, C6H3(OH)(NH2)2, used as a developer.

A*mid"ships, adv. (Naut.)

Defn: In the middle of a ship, with regard to her length, and sometimes also her breadth. Totten.

AMIDST; AMID A*midst", A*mid", prep. Etym: [OE. amidde, amiddes, on midden, AS. on middan, in the middle, fr. midde the middle. The s is an adverbial ending, originally marking the genitive; the t is a later addition, as in whilst, amongst, alongst. See Mid.]

Defn: In the midst or middle of; surrounded or encompassed by; among. "This fair tree amidst the garden." "Unseen amid the throng." "Amidst thick clouds." Milton. "Amidst acclamations." "Amidst the splendor and festivity of a court." Macaulay. But rather famish them amid their plenty. Shak.

Syn. — Amidst, Among. These words differ to some extent from each other, as will be seen from their etymology. Amidst denotes in the midst or middle of, and hence surrounded by; as, this work was written amidst many interruptions. Among denotes a mingling or intermixing with distinct or separable objects; as, "He fell among thieves." "Blessed art thou among women." Hence, we say, among the moderns, among the ancients, among the thickest of trees, among these considerations, among the reasons I have to offer. Amid and amidst are commonly used when the idea of separate or distinguishable objects is not prominent. Hence, we say, they kept on amidst the storm, amidst the gloom, he was sinking amidst the waves, he persevered amidst many difficulties; in none of which cases could among be used. In like manner, Milton speaks of Abdiel, — The seraph Abdiel, faithful found; Among the faithless faithful only he, because he was then considered as one of the angels. But when the poet adds, — From amidst them forth he passed, we have rather the idea of the angels as a collective body. Those squalid cabins and uncleared woods amidst which he was born. Macaulay.

A*mi"go, n.; pl. Amigos (#). [Sp., fr. L. amicus.]

Defn: A friend; — a Spanish term applied in the Philippine Islands to friendly natives.

Am"ine, n. Etym: [Ammonia + -ine.] (Chem.)

Defn: One of a class of strongly basic substances derived from ammonia by replacement of one or more hydrogen atoms by a basic atom or radical.

Am"i*nol, n. [From amine.] (Pharm.)

Defn: A colorless liquid prepared from herring brine and containing amines, used as a local antiseptic.

Am"i*oid, a. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Like or pertaining to the Amioidei.
 — n.

Defn: One of the Amioidei.

Am`i*oi"de*i, n. pl. Etym: [NL., fr. Amia + -oid.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: An order of ganoid fishes of which Amis is type. See Bowfin and

A*mir", n.

Defn: Same as Ameer.

Am"ish, n. pl. [Written also Omish.] (Eccl. Hist.)

Defn: The Amish Mennonites.

Am"ish, a. [Written also Omish.] (Eccl. Hist.)

Defn: Of, pertaining to, or designating, the followers of Jacob Amman, a strict Mennonite of the 17th century, who even proscribed the use of buttons and shaving as "worldly conformity". There are several branches of Amish Mennonites in the United States.

A*miss", adv. Etym: [Pref. a- + miss.]

Defn: Astray; faultily; improperly; wrongly; ill. What error drives our eyes and ears amiss Shak. Ye ask and receive not, because ye ask amiss. James iv. 3. To take (an act, thing) amiss, to impute a wrong motive to (an act or thing); to take offense at' to take unkindly; as, you must not take these questions amiss.

A*miss", a.

Defn: Wrong; faulty; out of order; improper; as, it may not be amiss to ask advice.

Note: [Used only in the predicate.] Dryden. His wisdom and virtue can not always rectify that which is amiss in himself or his circumstances. Wollaston.

A*miss", n.

Defn: A fault, wrong, or mistake. [Obs.]
Each toy seems prologue to some great amiss. Shak.

A*mis`si*bil"i*ty, Etym: [Cf. F. amissibilité. See Amit.]

Defn: The quality of being amissible; possibility of being lost. [R.] Notions of popular rights and the amissibility of sovereign power for misconduct were alternately broached by the two great religious parties of Europe. Hallam.

A*mis"si*ble, a. Etym: [L. amissibilis: cf. F. amissible.]

Defn: Liable to be lost. [R.]

A*mis"sion, n. Etym: [L. amissio: cf. F. amission.]

Defn: Deprivation; loss. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

AMIT A*mit", v. t. Etym: [L. amittere, amissum, to lose; a (ab) + mittere to send. See Missile.]

Defn: To lose. [Obs.]
A lodestone fired doth presently amit its proper virtue. Sir T.

Am`i*to"sis, n. [NL. See A-not, and Mitosis.] (Biol.)

Defn: Cell division in which there is first a simple cleavage of the nucleus without change in its structure (such as the formation of chromosomes), followed by the division of the cytoplasm; direct cell division; — opposed to mitosis. It is not the usual mode of division, and is believed by many to occur chiefly in highly specialized cells which are incapable of long-continued multiplication, in transitory structures, and in those in early stages of degeneration.

Am`i*tot"ic, a. (Biol.)

Defn: Of or pertaining to amitosis; karyostenotic; — opposed to mitotic.

Am"i*ty, n.; pl. Amities. Etym: [F. amitié, OF. amistié, amisté, fr.
an assumed LL. amisitas, fr. L. amicus friendly, from amare to love.
See Amiable.]

Defn: Friendship, in a general sense, between individuals, societies, or nations; friendly relations; good understanding; as, a treaty of amity and commerce; the amity of the Whigs and Tories. To live on terms of amity with vice. Cowper.

 — Harmony; friendliness; friendship; affection; good will; peace.

AMMA Am"ma, n. Etym: [LL. amma, prob. of interjectional or imitative origin: cf. Sp. ama, G. amme, nurse, Basque ama mother, Heb. , Ar. immun, ummun.]

Defn: An abbes or spiritual mother.

Am"me*ter, n. (Physics)

Defn: A contraction of amperometer or ampèremeter.

Am"mi*ral, n.

Defn: An obsolete form of admiral. "The mast of some great ammiral."

Am"mite, n. Etym: [Gr. (Geol.)

Defn: Oölite or roestone; — written also hammite. [Obs.]

AMMODYTE Am"mo*dyte, n. Etym: [L. ammodytes, Gr. (Zoöl.) (a) One of a genus of fishes; the sand eel. (b) A kind of viper in southern Europe. [Obs.]

Am"mo*nal`, n. [Ammonium + aluminium.]

Defn: An explosive consisting of a mixture of powdered aluminium and nitrate of ammonium.

Am*mo"ni*a, n. Etym: [From sal ammoniac, which was first obtaining
near the temple of Jupiter Ammon, by burning camel's dung. See
Ammoniac.] (Chem.)

Defn: A gaseous compound of hydrogen and nitrogen, NH3, with a pungent smell and taste: — often called volatile alkali, and spirits of hartshorn.

Am*mo"ni*ac, Am`mo*ni"a*cal, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to ammonia, or possessing its properties; as, an ammoniac salt; ammoniacal gas. Ammoniacal engine, an engine in which the vapor of ammonia is used as the motive force. — Sal ammoniac Etym: [L. sal ammoniacus], the salt usually called chloride of ammonium, and formerly muriate of ammonia.

Am*mo"ni*ac ([or] Gum` am*mo"ni*ac , n. Etym: [L. Ammoniacum, Gr.
Ammon; cf. F. ammoniac. See Ammonite.] (Med.)

Defn: The concrete juice (gum resin) of an umbelliferous plant, the Dorema ammoniacum. It is brought chiefly from Persia in the form of yellowish tears, which occur singly, or are aggregated into masses. It has a peculiar smell, and a nauseous, sweet taste, followed by a bitter one. It is inflammable, partially soluble in water and in spirit of wine, and is used in medicine as an expectorant and resolvent, and for the formation of certain plasters.

Am`mo*ni"a*cal fer`men*ta"tion.

Defn: Any fermentation process by which ammonia is formed, as that by which urea is converted into ammonium carbonate when urine is exposed to the air.

Am*mo"ni*a`ted, a. (Chem.)

Defn: Combined or impregnated with ammonia.

Am*mo"nic, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to ammonia.

Am"mon*ite, n. Etym: [L. cornu Ammonis born of Ammon; L. Ammon, Gr.
Amun.] (Paleon.)

Defn: A fossil cephalopod shell related to the nautilus. There are many genera and species, and all are extinct, the typical forms having existed only in the Mesozoic age, when they were exceedingly numerous. They differ from the nautili in having the margins of the septa very much lobed or plaited, and the siphuncle dorsal. Also called serpent stone, snake stone, and cornu Ammonis.

Am`mon*i*tif"er*ous, a. Etym: [Ammonite + -ferous.]

Defn: Containing fossil ammonites.

Am*mon`i*toid"e*a, n. pl. Etym: [NL., fr. Ammonite + -oid.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: An extensive group of fossil cephalopods often very abundant in
Mesozoic rocks. See Ammonite.

Am*mo"ni*um, n. Etym: [See Ammonia.] (Chem.)

Defn: A compound radical, NH4, having the chemical relations of a strongly basic element like the alkali metals.

AMMUNITION Am`mu*ni"tion, n. Etym: [F. amunition, for munition, prob. caused by taking la munition as l'amunition. See Munition.]

1. Military stores, or provisions of all kinds for attack or defense. [Obs.]

2. Articles used in charging firearms and ordnance of all kinds; as powder, balls, shot, shells, percussion caps, rockets, etc.

3. Any stock of missiles, literal or figurative. Ammunition bread, shoes, etc., such as are contracted for by government, and supplied to the soldiers. [Eng.]

Am`mu*ni"tion, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ammunitioned; p pr. & vb. n.

Defn: To provide with ammunition.

Am*ne"si*a, n. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. (Med.)

Defn: Forgetfulness; also, a defect of speech, from cerebral disease, in which the patient substitutes wrong words or names in the place of those he wishes to employ. Quian.

Am*ne"sic, a. (Med.)

Defn: Of or pertaining to amnesia. "Amnesic or coördinate defects."

Am*nes"tic, a.

Defn: Causing loss of memory.

Am"nes*ty, n. Etym: [L. amnestia, Gr. amnistie, earlier amnestie. See
Mean, v.]

1. Forgetfulness; cessation of remembrance of wrong; oblivion.

2. An act of the sovereign power granting oblivion, or a general pardon, for a past offense, as to subjects concerned in an insurrection.

Am"nes*ty, v. t. [imp. p. p. Amnestied; p. pr. & vb. n. Amnestying.]

Defn: To grant amnesty to.

AMNICOLIST Am*nic"o*list, n. Etym: [L. amnicola, amnis a river + colere to dwell.]

Defn: One who lives near a river. [Obs.] Bailey.

AMNIGENOUS Am*nig"e*nous, a. Etym: [L. amnigena; amnis a river + root gen of gignere to beget.]

Defn: Born or bred in, of, or near a river. [Obs.] Bailey.

Am"ni*on, n. Etym: [Gr. (Anat.)

Defn: A thin membrane surrounding the embryos of mammals, birds, and reptiles.

Am"ni*os, n.

Defn: Same as Amnion.

Am`ni*o"ta, n. pl. Etym: [NL. See Amnion.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: That group of vertebrates which develops in its embryonic life the envelope called the amnion. It comprises the reptiles, the birds, and the mammals.

Am`ni*ot"ic, a. Etym: [Cf. F. amniotique.] (Anat.)

Defn: Of or pertaining to the amnion; characterized by an amnion; as, the amniotic fluid; the amniotic sac. Amniotic acid. (Chem.) [R.] See Allantoin.

A*moe"ba, n; pl. L. Amoebæ; E. Amoebas. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: A rhizopod. common in fresh water, capable of undergoing many changes of form at will. See Rhizopoda.

Am`oe*bæ"um, n. Etym: [L. amoebaeus, Gr. amoebaeum carmen, Gr.

Defn: A poem in which persons are represented at speaking alternately; as the third and seventh eclogues of Virgil.

Am`oe*be"a, n. pl. Etym: [NL.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: That division of the Rhizopoda which includes the amoeba and similar forms.

Am`oe*be"an, a.

Defn: Alternately answering.

A*moe"bi*an, n. (Zoöl.)

Defn: One of the Amoebea.

A*moe"bi*form, A*moe"boid, a. Etym: [Amoeba + -form or -oid.] (Biol.)

Defn: Resembling an amoeba; amoeba-shaped; changing in shape like an amoeba. Amoeboid movement, movement produced, as in the amoeba, by successive processes of prolongation and retraction.

A*moe"bous, a.

Defn: Like an amoeba in structure.

A*mo"le, n. [Mex.] (Bot.)

Defn: Any detergent plant, or the part of it used as a detergent, as the roots of Agave Americana, Chlorogalum pomeridianum, etc. [Sp. Amer. & Mex.]

AMOLITION Am`o*li"tion, n. Etym: [L. amolitio, fr. amoliri to remove; a (ab) + moliri to put in motion.]

Defn: Removal; a putting away. [Obs.] Bp. Ward (1673).

A*mo"mum, n. Etym: [L., fr. Gr. (Bot.)

Defn: A genus of aromatic plants. It includes species which bear cardamoms, and grains of paradise.

A*mon"este, v. t.

Defn: To admonish. [Obs.]

AMONG; AMONGST A*mong", A*mongst", prep. Etym: [OE. amongist, amonges, amonge, among, AS. onmang, ongemang, gemang, in a crowd or mixture. For the ending -st see Amidst. See Mingle.]

1. Mixed or mingled; surrounded by. They heard, And from his presence hid themselves among The thickest trees. Milton.

2. Conjoined, or associated with, or making part of the number of; in the number or class of. Blessed art thou among women. Luke i. 28.

3. Expressing a relation of dispersion, distribution, etc.; also, a relation of reciprocal action. What news among the merchants Shak. Human sacrifices were practiced among them. Hume. Divide that gold amongst you. Marlowe. Whether they quarreled among themselves, or with their neighbors. Addison.

 — Amidst; between. See Amidst, Between.

A*mon`til*la"do, n. Etym: [Sp.]

Defn: A dry kind of cherry, of a light color. Simmonds.

Am"o*ret, n. Etym: [OF. amorette, F. amourette, dim. of amour.]

1. An amorous girl or woman; a wanton. [Obs.] J. Warton.

2. A love knot, love token, or love song. (pl.) Love glances or love tricks. [Obs.]

3. A petty love affair or amour. [Obs.]

Am"o*rette", n.

Defn: An amoret. [Obs.] Rom. of R.

Am"o*rist, n. Etym: [L. armor love. See Amorous.]

Defn: A lover; a gallant. [R.] Milton. It was the custom for an amorist to impress the name of his mistress in the dust, or upon the damp earth, with letters fixed upon his shoe. Southey.

A-morn"ings, adv. Etym: [See Amorwe. The -s is a genitival ending.
See -wards.]

Defn: In the morning; every morning. [Obs.]
And have such pleasant walks into the woods A-mornings. J. Fletcher.

Am`o*ro"sa, n. Etym: [It. amoroso, fem. amorosa.]

Defn: A wanton woman; a courtesan. Sir T. Herbert.

Am`o*ros"i*ty, n.

Defn: The quality of being amorous; lovingness. [R.] Galt.

Am`o*ro"so, n. Etym: [It. amoroso, LL. amorosus.]

Defn: A lover; a man enamored.

Am`o*ro"so, adv. Etym: [It.] (Mus.)

Defn: In a soft, tender, amatory style.

AMOROUS Am"o*rous, a. Etym: [OF. amoros, F. amoreux, LL. amorosus, fr. L. amor love, fr. amare to love.]

1. Inclined to love; having a propensity to love, or to sexual enjoyment; loving; fond; affectionate; as, an amorous disposition.

2. Affected with love; in love; enamored; — usually with of;
formerly with on.
Thy roses amorous of the moon. Keats.
High nature amorous of the good. Tennyson.
Sure my brother is amorous on Hero. Shak.

3. Of or relating to, or produced by, love. "Amorous delight." Milton. "Amorous airs." Waller.

 — Loving; fond; tender; passionate; affectionate; devoted; ardent.

Am"o*rous*ly, adv.

Defn: In an amorous manner; fondly.

Am"o*rous*ness, n.

Defn: The quality of being amorous, or inclined to sexual love; lovingness.

A*mor"pha, n.; pl. Amorphas. Etym: [Gr. (Bot.)

Defn: A genus of leguminous shrubs, having long clusters of purple flowers; false or bastard indigo. Longfellow.

A*mor"phism, n. Etym: [See Amorphous.]

Defn: A state of being amorphous; esp. a state of being without crystallization even in the minutest particles, as in glass, opal, etc.

Note: There are stony substances which, when fused, may cool as glass or as stone; the glass state is spoken of as a state of amorphism.

A*mor"phous, a. Etym: [Gr.

1. Having no determinate form; of irregular; shapeless. Kirwan.

2. Without crystallization in the ultimate texture of a solid substance; uncrystallized.

3. Of no particular kind or character; anomalous.
Scientific treatises . . . are not seldom rude and amorphous in
style. Hare.
— A*mor"phous*ly, adv.
 — A*mor"phous*ness, n.

A*mor`pho*zo"a, n. pl. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Animals without a mouth or regular internal organs, as the sponges.

A*mor`pho*zo"ic, a. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Of or pertaining to the Amorphozoa.

A*mor"phy, n. Etym: [Gr. amorphie. See Amorphous.]

Defn: Shapelessness. [Obs.] Swift.

AMORT A*mort", a. Etym: [Pref. a- + F. mort death, dead; all amort is for alamort.]

Defn: As if dead; lifeless; spiritless; dejected; depressed. Shak.

A*mor"tise, v., A*mor`ti*sa"tion, n., A*mor"tis*a*ble, a.,
A*mor"tise*ment, n.

Defn: Same as Amortize, Amortization, etc.

A*mor"tiz*a*ble, a. Etym: [Cf. F. amortissable.]

Defn: Capable of being cleared off, as a debt.

A*mor`ti*za"tion, n. Etym: [LL. amortisatio, admortizatio. See
Amortize, and cf. Admortization.]

1. (Law)

Defn: The act or right of alienating lands to a corporation, which was considered formerly as transferring them to dead hands, or in mortmain.

2. The extinction of a debt, usually by means of a sinking fund; also, the money thus paid. Simmonds.

A*mor"tize, v. t. Etym: [OE. amortisen, LL. amortisare, admortizare,
F. amortir to sell in mortmain, to extinguish; L. ad + mors death.
See Mortmain].

1. To make as if dead; to destroy. [Obs.] Chaucer.

2. (Law)

Defn: To alienate in mortmain, that is, to convey to a corporation.
See Mortmain.

3. To clear off or extinguish, as a debt, usually by means of a sinking fund.

A*mor"tize*ment, n. Etym: [F. amortissement.]

Defn: Same as Amortization.

A*mor"we, adv. Etym: [Pref. a- on + OE. morwe. See Morrow.]

1. In the morning. [Obs.] Chaucer.

2. On the following morning. [Obs.] Chaucer.

A*mo"tion, n. Etym: [L. amotio. See Amove.]

1. Removal; ousting; especially, the removal of a corporate officer from his office.

2. Deprivation of possession.

A*mo"tus, a. Etym: [L., withdrawn (from it (Zoöl.)

Defn: Elevated, — as a toe, when raised so high that the tip does not touch the ground.

A*mount", v. i. [imp. & p. p. Amounted; p. pr. & vb. n. Amounting.]
Etym: [OF. amonter to increase, advance, ascend, fr. amont (equiv. to
L. ad montem to the mountain) upward, F. amont up the river. See
Mount, n.]

1. To go up; to ascend. [Obs.] So up he rose, and thence amounted straight. Spenser.

2. To rise or reach by an accumulation of particular sums or quantities; to come (to) in the aggregate or whole; — with to or unto.

3. To rise, reach, or extend in effect, substance, or influence; to be equivalent; to come practically (to); as, the testimony amounts to very little.

A*mount", v. t.

Defn: To signify; to amount to. [Obs.]

A*mount", n.

1. The sum total of two or more sums or quantities; the aggregate; the whole quantity; a totality; as, the amount of 7 and 9 is 16; the amount of a bill; the amount of this year's revenue.

2. The effect, substance, value, significance, or result; the sum; as, the amount of the testimony is this. The whole amount of that enormous fame. Pope.

A*mour", n. Etym: [F., fr. L. amor love.]

1. Love; affection. [Obs.]

2. Love making; a love affair; usually, an unlawful connection in love; a love intrigue; an illicit love affair. In amours with, in love with. [Obs.]

A"mour` pro"pre. Etym: [F.]

Defn: Self-love; self-esteem.

A*mov`a*bil"i*ty, n.

Defn: Liability to be removed or dismissed from office. [R.] T.

A*mov"a*ble, a. Etym: [Cf. F. amovible.]

Defn: Removable.

AMOVE A*move", v. t. Etym: [L. amovere; a- (ab) + movere to move: cf. OF. amover.]

1. To remove, as a person or thing, from a position. [Obs.] Dr. H. More.

2. (Law)

Defn: To dismiss from an office or station.

AMOVE A*move", v. t. & i. Etym: [OE. amovir, L. admovere to move to, to excite; ad + movere.]

Defn: To move or be moved; to excite. [Obs.] Spenser.

Am"pe*lite, n. Etym: [L. ampelitis, Gr. (Min.)

Defn: An earth abounding in pyrites, used by the ancients to kill insects, etc., on vines; — applied by Brongniart to a carbonaceous alum schist.

AMPELOPSIS Am`pe*lop"sis (am`pe*lop"sis), n. [NL., fr. Gr. 'a`mpelos vine + 'o`psis appearance.] (Bot.)

Defn: A genus formerly including the Virginia creeper.

Am*per"age, n. (Elec.)

Defn: The strength of a current of electricity carried by a conductor or generated by a machine, measured in ampères.

Am`père", Am*pere", n. Etym: [From the name of a French electrician.]

Defn: The unit of electric current; — defined by the International Electrical Congress in 1893 and by U. S. Statute as, one tenth of the unit of current of the C. G. S. system of electro-magnetic units, or the practical equivalent of the unvarying current which, when passed through a standard solution of nitrate of silver in water, deposits silver at the rate of 0.001118 grams per second. Called also the international ampère.

Am`père" foot. (Elec.)

Defn: A unit, employed in calculating fall of pressure in distributing mains, equivalent to a current of one ampère flowing through one foot of conductor.

Ampère hour. (Elec.)

Defn: The quantity of electricity delivered in one hour by a current whose average strength is one ampère. It is used as a unit of quantity, and is equal to 3600 coulombs. The terms Ampère minute and Ampère second are sometimes similarly used.

Am`père"me`ter, Am`pe*rom"e*ter, n. Etym: [Ampère + meter.] (Physics)

Defn: An instrument for measuring the strength of an electrical current in ampères.

Ampère turn. (Elec.)

Defn: A unit equal to the product of one complete convolution (of a coiled conductor) into one ampère of current; thus, a conductor having five convolutions and carrying a current of half an ampère is said to have 2½ ampère turns. The magnetizing effect of a coil is proportional to the number of its ampère turns.

AMPERSAND Am"per*sand, n. Etym: [A corruption of and, per se and, i. e., & by itself makes and.]

Defn: A word used to describe the character Halliwell.

Am*phi-. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: A prefix in words of Greek origin, signifying both, of both kinds, on both sides, about, around.

Am`phi*ar*thro"di*al, a. Etym: [Pref. amphi- + arthrodial.]

Defn: Characterized by amphiarthrosis.

Am`phi*ar*thro"sis, n. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. (Anat.)

Defn: A form of articulation in which the bones are connected by intervening substance admitting slight motion; symphysis.

Am"phi*as`ter, n. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. (Biol.)

Defn: The achromatic figure, formed in mitotic cell-division, consisting of two asters connected by a spindle-shaped bundle of rodlike fibers diverging from each aster, and called the spindle.

Am*phib"i*a, n. pl. Etym: [See Amphibium.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: One of the classes of vertebrates.

Note: The Amphibia are distinguished by having usually no scales, by having eggs and embryos similar to those of fishes, and by undergoing a complete metamorphosis, the young having gills. There are three living orders: (1) The tailless, as the frogs (Anura); (2) The tailed (Urodela), as the salamanders, and the siren group (Sirenoidea), which retain the gills of the young state (hence called Perennibranchiata) through the adult state, among which are the siren, proteus, etc.; (3) The Coecilians, or serpentlike Amphibia (Ophiomorpha or Gymnophiona), with minute scales and without limbs. The extinct Labyrinthodonts also belonged to this class. The term is sometimes loosely applied to both reptiles and amphibians collectively.

Am*phib"i*al (-al), a. & n.

Defn: Amphibian. [R.]

Am*phib"i*an (-an), a. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Of or pertaining to the Amphibia; as, amphibian reptiles.

Am*phib"i*an, n. (Zoöl.)

Defn: One of the Amphibia.

Am*phib`i*o*log"ic*al, a.

Defn: Pertaining to amphibiology.

Am*phib`i*ol"o*gy, n. Etym: [Gr. -logy: cf. F. amphibiologie.]

Defn: A treatise on amphibious animals; the department of natural history which treats of the Amphibia.

Am*phib`i*ot"i*ca, n. pl. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: A division of insects having aquatic larvæ.

Am*phib"i*ous, a. Etym: [Gr. i. e., both on land in water;

1. Having the ability to live both on land and in water, as frogs, crocodiles, beavers, and some plants.

2. Pertaining to, adapted for, or connected with, both land and water. The amphibious character of the Greeks was already determined: they were to be lords of land and sea. Hare.

3. Of a mixed nature; partaking of two natures. Not in free and common socage, but in this amphibious subordinate class of villein socage. Blackstone.

Am*phib"i*ous*ly, adv.

Defn: Like an amphibious being.

Am*phib"i*um, n.; pl. L. Amphibia; E. Amphibiums. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr.

Defn: An amphibian.

Am`phi*blas"tic, a. Etym: [Gr. (Biol.)

Defn: Segmenting unequally; — said of telolecithal ova with complete segmentation.

Am"phi*bole, n. Etym: [Gr. amphibole. Haüy so named the genus from
the great variety of color and composition assumed by the mineral.]

Defn: A common mineral embracing many varieties varying in color and in composition. It occurs in monoclinic crystals; also massive, generally with fibrous or columnar structure. The color varies from white to gray, green, brown, and black. It is a silicate of magnesium and calcium, with usually aluminium and iron. Some common varieties are tremolite, actinolite, asbestus, edenite, hornblende (the last name being also used as a general term for the whole species). Amphibole is a constituent of many crystalline rocks, as syenite, diorite, most varieties of trachyte, etc. See Hornblende.

Am`phi*bol"ic, a.

1. Of or pertaining to amphiboly; ambiguous; equivocal.

2. Of or resembling the mineral amphibole.

Am*phib`o*log"ic*al, a.

Defn: Of doubtful meaning; ambiguous. "Amphibological expressions."
Jer. Taylor.
 — Am*phib`o*log"ic*al*ly, adv.

AMPHIBOLOGY Am`phi*bol"o*gy, n.; pl. Amphibologies. Etym: [L. amphibologia, for amphibolia, fr. Gr. logia as if fr. Gr. amphibologie. See Amphiboly.]

Defn: A phrase, discourse, or proposition, susceptible of two interpretations; and hence, of uncertain meaning. It differs from equivocation, which arises from the twofold sense of a single term.

Am*phib"o*lous, a. Etym: [L. amphibolus, Gr. Amphibole.]

1. Ambiguous; doubtful. [Obs.] Never was there such an amphibolous quarrel — both parties declaring themselves for the king. Howell.

2. (Logic)

Defn: Capable of two meanings. An amphibolous sentence is one that is capable of two meanings, not from the double sense of any of the words, but from its admitting of a double construction; e. g., "The duke yet lives that Henry shall depose." Whately.

AMPHIBOLY Am*phib"o*ly, n.; pl. Amphibolies. Etym: [L. amphibolia, Gr. amphibolie. See Amphibolous.]

Defn: Ambiguous discourse; amphibology. If it oracle contrary to our interest or humor, we will create an amphiboly, a double meaning where there is none. Whitlock.

Am"phi*brach, n. Etym: [L. (Anc. Pros.)

Defn: A foot of three syllables, the middle one long, the first and last short (as, h. In modern prosody the accented syllable takes the place of the long and the unaccented of the short; as, pro-phet''ic.

Am`phi*car"pic, Am`phi*car"pous, a. Etym: [Gr. (Bot.)

Defn: Producing fruit of two kinds, either as to form or time of ripening.

Am`phi*chro"ic, a. Etym: [Gr. (Chem.)

Defn: Exhibiting or producing two colors, as substances which in the color test may change red litmus to blue and blue litmus to red.

Am`phi*coe"li*an, Am`phi*coe"lous, a. Etym: [Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Having both ends concave; biconcave; — said of vertebræ.

Am"phi*come, n. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: A kind of figured stone, rugged and beset with eminences, anciently used in divination. [Obs.] Encyc. Brit.

Am*phic`ty*on"ic, a. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Of or pertaining to the Amphictyons or their League or Council; as, an Amphictyonic town or state; the Amphictyonic body. W. Smith.

Am*phic"ty*ons, n. pl. Etym: [L. Amphictyones, Gr. (Grecian Hist.)

Defn: Deputies from the confederated states of ancient Greece to a congress or council. They considered both political and religious matters.

Am*phic"ty*o*ny, n.; pl. Amphictyonies. Etym: [Gr. (Grecian Hist.)

Defn: A league of states of ancient Greece; esp. the celebrated confederation known as the Amphictyonic Council. Its object was to maintain the common interests of Greece.

Am"phid, n. Etym: [Gr. amphide.] (Chem.)

Defn: A salt of the class formed by the combination of an acid and a base, or by the union of two oxides, two sulphides, selenides, or tellurides, as distinguished from a haloid compound. [R.] Berzelius.

Am"phi*disc, n. Etym: [Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: A peculiar small siliceous spicule having a denticulated wheel at each end; — found in freshwater sponges.

Am`phi*drom"ic*al, a. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Pertaining to an Attic festival at the naming of a child; — so called because the friends of the parents carried the child around the hearth and then named it.

Am*phig"a*mous, a. Etym: [Gr. (Bot.)

Defn: Having a structure entirely cellular, and no distinct sexual organs; — a term applied by De Candolle to the lowest order of plants.

Am`phi*ge"an, a. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Extending over all the zones, from the tropics to the polar zones inclusive.

Am"phi*gen, n. Etym: [Gr. -gen: cf. F. amphigène.] (Chem.)

Defn: An element that in combination produces amphid salt; — applied by Berzelius to oxygen, sulphur, selenium, and tellurium. [R.]

Am"phi*gene, n. (Min.)

Defn: Leucite.

Am`phi*gen"e*sis, n. Etym: [Gr. (Biol.)

Defn: Sexual generation; amphigony.

Am*phig"e*nous, a. (Bot.)

Defn: Increasing in size by growth on all sides, as the lichens.

Am`phi*gon"ic, a.

Defn: Pertaining to amphigony; sexual; as, amphigonic propagation.

Am*phig"o*nous, a. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Relating to both parents. [R.]

Am*phig"o*ny, n.

Defn: Sexual propagation. [R.]

Am`phi*gor"ic, a. Etym: [See Amphigory.]

Defn: Nonsensical; absurd; pertaining to an amphigory.

AMPHIGORY Am"phi*go*ry, n. Etym: [F. amphigouri, of uncertain derivation; perh. fr. Gr.

Defn: A nonsense verse; a rigmarole, with apparent meaning, which on further attention proves to be meaningless. [Written also amphigouri.]

Am*phil"o*gism, Am*phil"o*gy, n. Etym: [Gr. -logy.]

Defn: Ambiguity of speech; equivocation. [R.]

Am*phim"a*cer, n. Etym: [L. amphimacru, Gr. (Anc. Pros.)

Defn: A foot of three syllables, the middle one short and the others long, as in cast. Andrews.

Am`phi*neu"ra, n. pl. Etym: [NL., fr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: A division of Mollusca remarkable for the bilateral symmetry of the organs and the arrangement of the nerves.

Am`phi*ox"us, n. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: A fishlike creature (Amphioxus lanceolatus), two or three inches long, found in temperature seas; — also called the lancelet. Its body is pointed at both ends. It is the lowest and most generalized of the vertebrates, having neither brain, skull, vertebræ, nor red blood. It forms the type of the group Acrania, Leptocardia, etc.

Am*phip"neust, n. Etym: [Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: One of a tribe of Amphibia, which have both lungs and gills at the same time, as the proteus and siren.

Am"phi*pod, n. (Zoöl.)

Defn: One of the Amphipoda.

Am"phi*pod, Am*phip"o*dan, a. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Of or pertaining to the Amphipoda.

Am*phip"o*da, n. pl. Etym: [NL., FR. Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: A numerous group of fourteen — footed Crustacea, inhabiting both fresh and salt water. The body is usually compressed laterally, and the anterior pairs or legs are directed downward and forward, but the posterior legs are usually turned upward and backward. The beach flea is an example. See Tetradecapoda and Arthrostraca.

Am*phip"o*dous, a. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Of or pertaining to the Amphipoda.

Am*phip"ro*style, a. Etym: [L. amphiprostylos, Gr. amphiprostyle. See
Prostyle.] (Arch.)

Defn: Doubly prostyle; having columns at each end, but not at the sides. — n.

Defn: An amphiprostyle temple or edifice.

Am`phi*rhi"na, n. pl. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: A name applied to the elasmobranch fishes, because the nasal sac is double.

Am`phis*bæ"na, n. Etym: [L., fr. Gr.

1. A fabled serpent with a head at each end, moving either way. Milton.

2. (Zoöl.)

Defn: A genus of harmless lizards, serpentlike in form, without legs, and with both ends so much alike that they appear to have a head at each, and ability to move either way. See Illustration in Appendix.

Note: The Gordius aquaticus, or hairworm, has been called an amphisbæna; but it belongs among the worms.

Am`phis*bæ"noid, a. Etym: [NL., fr. L. amphisbaena + -oid.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: Like or pertaining to the lizards of the genus Amphisbæna.

Am*phis"ci*i, Am*phis"cians, n. pl. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: The inhabitants of the tropic, whose shadows in one part of the year are cast to the north, and in the other to the south, according as the sun is south or north of their zenith.

Am*phis"to*mous, a. Etym: [Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Having a sucker at each extremity, as certain entozoa, by means of which they adhere.

Am`phi*sty"lic, a. Etym: [Gr. (Anat.)

Defn: Having the mandibular arch articulated with the hyoid arch and the cranium, as in the cestraciont sharks; — said of a skull.

Am`phi*the"a*ter, Am`phi*the"a*tre,, n. Etym: [L. amphitheatrum, fr.
Gr. amphithé\'83tre. See Theater.]

1. An oval or circular building with rising tiers of seats about an open space called the arena.

Note: The Romans first constructed amphitheaters for combats of gladiators and wild beasts.

2. Anything resembling an amphitheater in form; as, a level surrounded by rising slopes or hills, or a rising gallery in a theater.

AMPHITHEATRAL Am`phi*the"a*tral, a. Etym: [L. amphitheatralis: cf. F. amphithé\'83tral.]

Defn: Amphitheatrical; resembling an amphitheater.

AMPHITHEATRIC; AMPHITHEATRICAL Am`phi*the*at"ric, Am`phi*the*at"ric*al, a. Etym: [L. amphitheatricus.]

Defn: Of, pertaining to, exhibited in, or resembling, an amphitheater.

Am`phi*the*at"ric*al*ly, adv.

Defn: In the form or manner of an amphitheater.

Am*phit"ro*cha, n. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: A kind of annelid larva having both a dorsal and a ventral circle of special cilia.

Am*phit"ro*pal, Am*phit"ro*pous, a. Etym: [Gr. (Bot.)

Defn: Having the ovule inverted, but with the attachment near the middle of one side; half anatropous.

Am`phi*u"ma, n. (Zoöl.)

Defn: A genus of amphibians, inhabiting the Southern United States, having a serpentlike form, but with four minute limbs and two persistent gill openings; the Congo snake.

Am`pho*pep"tone, n. Etym: [Gr. peptone.] (Physiol.)

Defn: A product of gastric digestion, a mixture of hemipeptone and antipeptone.

Am"pho*ra, n.; pl. Amophoræ. Etym: [L., fr. Gr. Ampul.]

Defn: Among the ancients, a two-handled vessel, tapering at the bottom, used for holding wine, oil, etc.

Am"pho*ral, a. Etym: [L. amphoralis.]

Defn: Pertaining to, or resembling, an amphora.

Am*phor"ic, a. (Med.)

Defn: Produced by, or indicating, a cavity in the lungs, not filled, and giving a sound like that produced by blowing into an empty decanter; as, amphoric respiration or resonance.

Am`pho*ter"ic, a. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Partly one and partly the other; neither acid nor alkaline; neutral. [R.] Smart.

AMPLE Am"ple, a. Etym: [F. ample, L. amplus, prob. for ambiplus full on both sides, the last syllable akin to L. plenus full. See Full, and cf. Double.]

Defn: Large; great in size, extent, capacity, or bulk; spacious;
roomy; widely extended.
All the people in that ample house Did to that image bow their humble
knees. Spenser.

2. Fully sufficient; abundant; liberal; copious; as, an ample fortune; ample justice.

3. Not contracted of brief; not concise; extended; diffusive; as, an ample narrative. Johnson.

Syn. — Full; spacious; extensive; wide; capacious; abundant; plentiful; plenteous; copious; bountiful; rich; liberal; munificent. — Ample, Copious, Abundant, Plenteous. These words agree in representing a thing as large, but under different relations, according to the image which is used. Ample implies largeness, producing a sufficiency or fullness of supply for every want; as, ample stores or resources, ample provision. Copious carries with it the idea of flow, or of collection at a single point; as, a copious supply of materials. "Copious matter of my song." Milton. Abundant and plenteous refer to largeness of quantity; as, abundant stores; plenteous harvests.

Am*plec"tant, a. Etym: [L. amplecti to embrace.] (Bot.)

Defn: Clasping a support; as, amplectant tendrils. Gray.

Am"ple*ness, n.

Defn: The state or quality of being ample; largeness; fullness; completeness.

Am`plex*a"tion, n. Etym: [L. amplexari to embrace.]

Defn: An embrace. [Obs.]
An humble amplexation of those sacred feet. Bp. Hall.

AMPLEXICAUL Am*plex"i*caul, a. Etym: [L. amplexus, p. p. of amplecti to encircle, to embrace + caulis stem: cf. F. amplexicaule.] (Bot.)

Defn: Clasping or embracing a stem, as the base of some leaves. Gray.

AMPLIATE Am"pli*ate, v. t. Etym: [L. ampliatus, p. p. of ampliare to make wider, fr. amplus. See Ample.]

Defn: To enlarge. [R.]
To maintain and ampliate the external possessions of your empire.

Am"pli*ate, a. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Having the outer edge prominent; said of the wings of insects.

Am`pli*a"tion, n. Etym: [L. ampliatio: cf. F. ampliation.]

1. Enlargement; amplification. [R.]

2. (Civil Law)

Defn: A postponement of the decision of a cause, for further consideration or re-argument.

Am"pli*a*tive, a. (Logic)

Defn: Enlarging a conception by adding to that which is already known or received. "All bodies possess power of attraction" is an ampliative judgment; because we can think of bodies without thinking of attraction as one of their immediate primary attribute. Abp. W. Thomson.

Am*plif"i*cate, v. t. Etym: [L. amplificatus, p. p. of amplificare.]

Defn: To amplify. [Obs.] Bailey.

Am`pli*fi*ca"tion, n. Etym: [L. amplificatio.]

1. The act of amplifying or enlarging in dimensions; enlargement; extension.

2. (Rhet.)

Defn: The enlarging of a simple statement by particularity of description, the use of epithets, etc., for rhetorical effect; diffuse narrative or description, or a dilating upon all the particulars of a subject. Exaggeration is a species of amplification. Brande & C. I shall summarily, without any amplification at all, show in what manner defects have been supplied. Sir J. Davies.

3. The matter by which a statement is amplified; as, the subject was presented without amplifications.

Am*plif"i*ca*tive, a.

Defn: Amplificatory.

Am*plif"i*ca*to*ry, a.

Defn: Serving to amplify or enlarge; amplificative. Morell.

Am"pli*fi`er, n.

Defn: One who or that which amplifies.

Am"pli*fy, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Amplified; p. pr. & vb. n.
Amplifying.] Etym: [F. amplifier, L. amplificare. See Ample, -fy.]

1. To render larger, more extended, or more intense, and the like; — used especially of telescopes, microscopes, etc.

2. (Rhet.)

Defn: To enlarge by addition or discussion; to treat copiously by adding particulars, illustrations, etc.; to expand; to make much of. Troilus and Cressida was written by a Lombard author, but much amplified by our English translator. Dryden.

Am"pli*fy, v. i.

1. To become larger. [Obs.] Strait was the way at first, withouten light, But further in did further amplify. Fairfax.

2. To speak largely or copiously; to be diffuse in argument or description; to dilate; to expatiate; — often with on or upon. Watts. He must often enlarge and amplify upon the subject he handles. South.

Am"pli*tude, n. Etym: [L. amplitudo, fr. amplus: cf. F. amplitude.
See Ample.]

1. State of being ample; extent of surface or space; largeness of dimensions; size. The cathedral of Lincoln . . . is a magnificent structure, proportionable to the amplitude of the diocese. Fuller.

2. Largeness, in a figurative sense; breadth; abundance; fullness. (a) Of extent of capacity or intellectual powers. "Amplitude of mind." Milton. "Amplitude of comprehension." Macaulay. (b) Of extent of means or resources. "Amplitude of reward." Bacon.

3. (Astron.) (a) The arc of the horizon between the true east or west point and the center of the sun, or a star, at its rising or setting. At the rising, the amplitude is eastern or ortive: at the setting, it is western, occiduous, or occasive. It is also northern or southern, when north or south of the equator. (b) The arc of the horizon between the true east or west point and the foot of the vertical circle passing through any star or object.

4. (Gun.)

Defn: The horizontal line which measures the distance to which a projectile is thrown; the range.

5. (Physics)

Defn: The extent of a movement measured from the starting point or position of equilibrium; — applied especially to vibratory movements.

6. (math.)

Defn: An angle upon which the value of some function depends; — a term used more especially in connection with elliptic functions. Magnetic amplitude, the angular distance of a heavenly body, when on the horizon, from the magnetic east or west point as indicated by the compass. The difference between the magnetic and the true or astronomical amplitude (see 3 above) is the "variation of the compass."

Am"ply, adv.

Defn: In an ample manner.

Am"pul, n. Etym: [AS. ampella, ampolla, L. ampulla: cf. OF. ampolle,
F. ampoule.]

Defn: Same as Ampulla, 2.

Am*pul"la, n.; pl. Ampullæ. Etym: [L. ]

1. (Rom. Antiq.)

Defn: A narrow-necked vessel having two handles and bellying out like a jug.

2. (Eccl.) (a) A cruet for the wine and water at Mass. (b) The vase in which the holy oil for chrism, unction, or coronation is kept. Shipley.

3. (Biol.)

Defn: Any membranous bag shaped like a leathern bottle, as the dilated end of a vessel or duct; especially the dilations of the semicircular canals of the ear.

Am`pul*la"ceous, a. Etym: [L. ampullaceus, fr. ampulla.]

Defn: Like a bottle or inflated bladder; bottle-shaped; swelling. Kirby. Ampullaceous sac (Zoöl.), one of the peculiar cavities in the tissues of sponges, containing the zooidal cells.

Am"pul*lar, Am`pul*la*ry, a.

Defn: Resembling an ampulla.

Am"pul*late, Am"pul*la`ted a.

Defn: Having an ampulla; flask-shaped; bellied.

Am*pul"li*form, a. Etym: [Ampulla + -form.]

Defn: Flask-shaped; dilated.

Am"pu*tate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Amputated; p. pr. & vb. n.
Amputating.] Etym: [L. amputatus, p. p. of amputare: amb- + putare to
prune, putus clean, akin to E. pure. See Putative.]

1. To prune or lop off, as branches or tendrils.

2. (Surg.)

Defn: To cut off (a limb or projecting part (of the body). Wiseman.

Am`pu*ta"tion, n. Etym: [L. amputatio: cf. F. amputation.]

Defn: The act amputating; esp. the operation of cutting of a limb or projecting part of the body.

Am"pu*ta"tor, n.

Defn: One who amputates.

Am"pyx, n. Etym: [Gr. (Greek Antiq.)

Defn: A woman's headband (sometimes of metal), for binding the front hair.

Am*ri"ta, n. Etym: [Skr. amrita.] (Hind. Myth.)

Defn: Immorality; also, the nectar conferring immortality.
 — a. Ambrosial; immortal.

Am"sel, Am"zel, n. Etym: [Ger. See Ousel.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: The European ring ousel (Turdus torquatus).

Amt, n.; pl. Amter (#), E. Amts (#). [Dan. & Norw., fr. G.]

Defn: An administrative territorial division in Denmark and Norway.

Each of the provinces [of Denmark] is divided into several amts, answering . . . to the English hundreds. Encyc. Brit.

A*muck", a. & adv. Etym: [Malay amoq furious.]

Defn: In a frenzied and reckless. To run amuck, to rush out in a state of frenzy, as the Malays sometimes do under the influence of "bhang," and attack every one that comes in the way; to assail recklessly and indiscriminately. Satire's my weapon, but I'm too discreet To run amuck, and tilt at all I meet. Pope.

Am"u*let, n. Etym: [L. amuletum: cf. F. amulette.]

Defn: An ornament, gem, or scroll, or a package containing a relic, etc., worn as a charm or preservative against evils or mischief, such as diseases and witchcraft, and generally inscribed with mystic forms or characters.

Note: [Also used figuratively.]

Am`u*let"ic, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to an amulet; operating as a charm.

A*mur"cous, a. Etym: [LL. amurcous, L. amurca the dregs of olives,

Defn: Full off dregs; foul. [R.] Knowles.

A*mus"a*ble, a. Etym: [Cf. F. amusable.]

Defn: Capable of being amused.

A*muse", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Amused; p. pr. & vb. n. Amusing.] Etym:
[F. amuser to make stay, to detain, to amuse, ad) + OF. muser. See
Muse, v.]

1. To occupy or engage the attention of; to lose in deep thought; to absorb; also, to distract; to bewilder. [Obs.] Camillus set upon the Gauls when they were amused in receiving their gold. Holland. Being amused with grief, fear, and fright, he could not find the house. Fuller.

2. To entertain or occupy in a pleasant manner; to stir with pleasing or mirthful emotions; to divert. A group children amusing themselves with pushing stones from the top [of the cliff], and watching as they plunged into the lake. Gilpin.

3. To keep in extraction; to beguile; to delude. He amused his followers with idle promises. Johnson.

Syn. — To entertain; gratify; please; divert; beguile; deceive; occupy. — To Amuse, Divert, Entertain. We are amused by that which occupies us lightly and pleasantly. We are entertained by that which brings our minds into agreeable contact with others, as conversation, or a book. We are diverted by that which turns off our thoughts to something of livelier interest, especially of a sportive nature, as a humorous story, or a laughable incident. Whatever amuses serves to kill time, to lull the faculties, and to banish reflection. Whatever entertains usually a wakens the understanding or gratifies the fancy. Whatever diverts is lively in its nature, and sometimes tumultuous in its effects. Crabb.

A*muse", v. i.

Defn: To muse; to mediate. [Obs.]

A*mused", a.

1. Diverted.

2. Expressing amusement; as, an amused look.

A*muse"ment, n. Etym: [Cf. F. amusement.]

1. Deep thought; muse. [Obs.] Here I . . . fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in my mind, with great perplexity, the amazing change of our affairs. Fleetwood.

2. The state of being amused; pleasurable excitement; that which amuses; diversion. His favorite amusements were architecture and gardening. Macaulay.

 — Diversion; entertainment; recreation; relaxation; pastime; sport.

A*mus"er, n.

Defn: One who amuses.

Am`u*sette", n. Etym: [F.]

Defn: A light field cannon, or stocked gun mounted on a swivel.

A*mus"ing, a.

Defn: Giving amusement; diverting; as, an amusing story.
 — A*mus"ing*ly, adv.

A*mu"sive, a.

Defn: Having power to amuse or entertain the mind; fitted to excite mirth. [R.] — A*mu"sive*ly, adv. — A*mu"sive*ness, n.

Am"vis, n. [Ammonium (nitrate) + L. vis strength, force.]

Defn: An explosive consisting of ammonium nitrate, a derivative of nitrobenzene, chlorated napthalene, and wood meal.

A*my", n. Etym: [F. ami, fr. L. amicus.]

Defn: A friend. [Obs.] Chaucer.

A*my"e*lous, a. Etym: [Gr. (Med.)

Defn: Wanting the spinal cord.

AMYGDALA A*myg"da*la (a*mig"da*la), n.; pl. -læ (-le). [L., an almond, fr. Gr. 'amygda`lh. See Almond.]

1. An almond.

2. (Anat.)
 (a) One of the tonsils of the pharynx.
 (b) One of the rounded prominences of the lower surface of the
lateral hemispheres of the cerebellum, each side of the vallecula.

A*myg`da*la"ceous, a. (Bot.)

Defn: Akin to, or derived from, the almond.

A*myg"da*late, a. Etym: [L. amygdala, amygdalum, almond, Gr. Almond.]

Defn: Pertaining to, resembling, or made of, almonds.

A*myg"da*late, n.

1. (Med.)

Defn: An emulsion made of almonds; milk of almonds. Bailey. Coxe.

2. (Chem.)

Defn: A salt amygdalic acid.

Am`yg*dal"ic, a. (Chem.)

Defn: Of or pertaining to almonds; derived from amygdalin; as, amygdalic acid.

A*myg`da*lif"er*ous, a. Etym: [L. amygdalum almond + -ferous.]

Defn: Almond-bearing.

A*myg"da*lin, n. (Chem.)

Defn: A glucoside extracted from bitter almonds as a white, crystalline substance.

A*myg"da*line, a. Etym: [L. amygdalinus.]

Defn: Of, pertaining to, or resembling, almonds.

A*myg"da*loid, n. Etym: [Gr. -oid: cf. F. amygdaloïde.] (Min.)

Defn: A variety of trap or basaltic rock, containing small cavities, occupied, wholly or in part, by nodules or geodes of different minerals, esp. agates, quartz, calcite, and the zeolites. When the imbedded minerals are detached or removed by decomposition, it is porous, like lava.

A*myg"da*loid, A*myg`da*loid"al, a.

1. Almond-shaped.

2. Pertaining to, or having the nature of, the rock amygdaloid.

Am"yl, n. Etym: [L. amylum starch + -yl. Cf. Amidin.] (Chem.)

Defn: A hydrocarbon radical, C5H11, of the paraffine series found in amyl alcohol or fusel oil, etc.

Am`y*la"ceous, a. Etym: [L. amylum starch, Gr. Amidin.]

Defn: Pertaining to starch; of the nature of starch; starchy.

Am"yl al"co*hol. (Org. Chem.)

Defn: Any of eight isomeric liquid compounds, C5H11OH; ordinarily, a mixture of two of these forming a colorless liquid with a peculiar cough-exciting odor and burning taste, the chief constituent of fusel oil. It is used as a source of amyl compounds, such as amyl acetate, amyl nitrite, etc.

Am"y*late, n. (Chem.)

Defn: A compound of the radical amyl with oxygen and a positive atom or radical.

Am"y*lene, n. (Chem.)

Defn: One of a group of metameric hydrocarbons, C5H10, of the ethylene series. The colorless, volatile, mobile liquid commonly called amylene is a mixture of different members of the group.

A*myl"ic, a. (Chem.)

Defn: Pertaining to, or derived from, amyl; as, amylic ether. Amylic alcohol (Chem.), one of the series of alcohols, a transparent, colorless liquid, having a peculiar odor. It is the hydroxide of amyl. — Amylic fermentation (Chem.), a process of fermentation in starch or sugar in which amylic alcohol is produced. Gregory.

Amyl nitrite.

Defn: A yellowish oily volatile liquid, C5H11NO2, used in medicine as a heart stimulant and a vasodilator. The inhalation of its vapor instantly produces flushing of the face.

Am`y*lo*bac"ter, n. Etym: [L. amylum starch + NL. bacterium. See
Bacterium.] (Biol.)

Defn: A microörganism (Bacillus amylobacter) which develops in vegetable tissue during putrefaction. Sternberg.

A*myl"o*gen, n. [Amylum + -gen.] (Chem.)

Defn: That part of the starch granule or granulose which is soluble in water.

Am`y*lo*gen"e*sis, n. [Amylum + genesis.]

Defn: The formation of starch.

Am`y*lo*gen"ic, a.

1. Of or pert. to amylogen.

2. Forming starch; — applied specif. to leucoplasts.

Am"y*loid, n.

1. A non-nitrogenous starchy food; a starchlike substance.

2. (Med.)

Defn: The substance deposited in the organs in amyloid degeneration.

Am"y*loid, Am`y*loid"al, a. Etym: [L. amylum starch + -oid.]

Defn: Resembling or containing amyl; starchlike. Amyloid degeneration (Med.), a diseased condition of various organs of the body, produced by the deposit of an albuminous substance, giving a blue color with iodine and sulphuric acid; — called also waxy or lardaceous degeneration.

Am`y*lol"y*sis, n. [Amylum + Gr. a loosing.] (Chem.)

Defn: The conversion of starch into soluble products, as dextrins and sugar, esp. by the action of enzymes. — Am`y*lo*lyt"ic (#), a.

Am`y*lo*ly"tic, a. Etym: [Gr. (Physiol.)

Defn: Effecting the conversion of starch into soluble dextrin and sugar; as, an amylolytic ferment. Foster.

Am`y*lom"e*ter, n. [Amylum + -meter.]

Defn: Instrument for determining the amount of starch in a substance.

Am`y*lo*plas"tic, a. [Amylum + -plastic.]

Defn: Starch-forming; amylogenic.

Am`y*lop"sin, n. [Amylum + Gr. appearance.] (Physiol. Chem.)

Defn: The diastase of the pancreatic juice.

Am`y*lose", n. (Chem.)

Defn: One of the starch group (C6H10O5)n of the carbohydrates; as, starch, arabin, dextrin, cellulose, etc.

Am"y*ous, a. Etym: [Gr. (Med.)

Defn: Wanting in muscle; without flesh.

Am"yss, n.

Defn: Same as Amice, a hood or cape.

An. Etym: [AS. an one, the same word as the numeral. See One, and cf.

Defn: This word is properly an adjective, but is commonly called the indefinite article. It is used before nouns of the singular number only, and signifies one, or any, but somewhat less emphatically. In such expressions as "twice an hour," "once an age," a shilling an ounce (see 2d A, 2), it has a distributive force, and is equivalent to each, every.

Note: An is used before a word beginning with a vowel sound; as, an enemy, an hour. It in also often used before h sounded, when the accent of the word falls on the second syllable; as, an historian, an hyena, an heroic deed. Many writers use a before h in such positions. Anciently an was used before consonants as well as vowels.

AN An, conj. Etym: [Shortened fr. and, OE. an., and, sometimes and if, in introducing conditional clauses, like Icel. enda if, the same word as and. Prob. and was originally pleonastic before the conditional clause.]

Defn: If; — a word used by old English authors. Shak.
Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe. B. Jonson.
An if, and if; if.

An"a-. Etym: [/Gr. in comp., on, up, upwards.]

Defn: A prefix in words from the Greek, denoting up, upward, throughout, backward, back, again, anew.

A"na, adv. Etym: [Gr. (Med.)

Defn: Of each; an equal quantity; as, wine and honey, ana (or, contracted, aa), ., that is, of wine and honey, each, two ounces. An apothecary with a . . . long bill of anas. Dryden.

ANA *a"na. Etym: [The neut. pl. ending of Latin adjectives in -anus.]

Defn: A suffix to names of persons or places, used to denote a collection of notable sayings, literary gossip, anecdotes, etc. Thus, Scaligerana is a book containing the sayings of Scaliger, Johnsoniana of Johnson, etc.

Note: Used also as a substantive; as, the French anas. It has been said that the table-talk of Selden is worth all the ana of the Continent. Hallam.

-ANA -a"na. [The neut. pl. ending of Latin adjectives in -anus.]

Defn: A suffix to names of persons or places, used to denote a collection of notable sayings, literary gossip, anecdotes, etc. Thus, Scaligerana is a book containing the sayings of Scaliger, Johnsoniana of Johnson, etc.

Used also as a substantive; as, the French anas.

It has been said that the table-talk of Selden is worth all the ana
of the Continent.

An`a*bap"tism, n. Etym: [L. anabaptismus, Gr. anabaptisme. See

Defn: The doctrine of the Anabaptists.

ANABAPTIST An`a*bap"tist, n. Etym: [LL. anabaptista, fr. Gr. as if : cf. F. anabaptiste.]

Defn: A name sometimes applied to a member of any sect holding that rebaptism is necessary for those baptized in infancy.

Note: In church history, the name Anabaptists usually designates a sect of fanatics who greatly disturbed the peace of Germany, the Netherlands, etc., in the Reformation period. In more modern times the name has been applied to those who do not regard infant baptism as real and valid baptism.

An`a*bap*tis"tic, An`a*bap*tis"tic*al, a.

Defn: Relating or attributed to the Anabaptists, or their doctrines.
Milton. Bp. Bull.

An`a*bap"tist*ry, n.

Defn: The doctrine, system, or practice, of Anabaptists. [R.]
Thus died this imaginary king; and Anabaptistry was suppressed in
Munster. Pagitt.

An`a*bap*tize", v. t. Etym: [Gr. Baptize.]

Defn: To rebaptize; to rechristen; also, to rename. [R.] Whitlock.

An"a*bas, n. Etym: [Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: A genus of fishes, remarkable for their power of living long out of water, and of making their way on land for considerable distances, and for climbing trees; the climbing fishes.

A*nab"a*sis, n. Etym: [Gr.

1. A journey or expedition up from the coast, like that of the younger Cyrus into Central Asia, described by Xenophon in his work called "The Anabasis." The anabasis of Napoleon. De Quincey.

2. (Med.)

Defn: The first period, or increase, of a disease; augmentation.

An`a*bat"ic, a. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Pertaining to anabasis; as, an anabatic fever. [Obs.]

An`a*bol"ic, a. Etym: [Gr. (Physiol.)

Defn: Pertaining to anabolism; an anabolic changes, or processes, more or less constructive in their nature.

A*nab"o*lism, n. (Physiol.)

Defn: The constructive metabolism of the body, as distinguished from katabolism.

An"a*branch, n. [Anastomosing + branch.]

Defn: A branch of a river that reënters, or anastomoses with, the main stream; also, less properly, a branch which loses itself in sandy soil. [Australia]

Such branches of a river as after separation reunite, I would term anastomosing branches; or, if a word might be coined, anabranches, and the islands they form branch islands. Col. Jackson.

An`a*camp"tic, a. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Reflecting of reflected; as, an anacamptic sound (and echo).

Note: The word was formerly applied to that part of optics which treats of reflection; the same as what is now called catoptric. See Catoptrics.

An`a*camp"tic*al*ly, adv.

Defn: By reflection; as, echoes are sound produced anacamptically.

An`a*camp"tics, n.

1. The science of reflected light, now called catoptrics.

2. The science of reflected sounds.

An`a*can"thi*ni, An"a*canths, n. pl. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: A group of teleostean fishes destitute of spiny fin-rays, as the cod.

An`a*can"thous, a.

Defn: Spineless, as certain fishes.

An`a*car"di*a"ceous, a. (Bot.)

Defn: Belonging to, or resembling, a family, or order, of plants of which the cashew tree is the type, and the species of sumac are well known examples.

An`a*car"dic, a.

Defn: Pertaining to, or derived from, the cashew nut; as, anacardic acid.

An`a*car"di*um, n. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. (Bot.)

Defn: A genus of plants including the cashew tree. See Cashew.

An`a*ca*thar"tic, a. Etym: [Gr. i. e., by vomiting; Cathartic.]

Defn: Producing vomiting or expectoration.
 — n.

Defn: An anacatharic medicine; an expectorant or an emetic.

An*ach"a*ris, n. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. (Bot.)

Defn: A fresh-water weed of the frog's-bit family (Hydrocharidaceæ), native to America. Transferred to England it became an obstruction to navigation. Called also waterweed and water thyme.

An*ach"o*ret, n. An*ach`o*ret"ic*al, a.

Defn: See Anchoret, Anchoretic. [Obs.]

An*ach"o*rism, n. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: An error in regard to the place of an event or a thing; a referring something to a wrong place. [R.]

An`a*chron"ic, An`a*chron"ic*al, a.

Defn: Characterized by, or involving, anachronism; anachronistic.

An*ach"ro*nism, n. Etym: [Gr. anachronisme.]

Defn: A misplacing or error in the order of time; an error in chronology by which events are misplaced in regard to each other, esp. one by which an event is placed too early; falsification of chronological relation.

An*ach`ro*nis"tic, a.

Defn: Erroneous in date; containing an anachronism. T. Warton.

An*ach"ro*nize, v. t. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: To refer to, or put into, a wrong time. [R.] Lowell.

An*ach"ro*nous, a.

Defn: Containing an anachronism; anachronistic.
 — An*ach"ro*nous*ly, adv.

An`a*clas"tic, a. Etym: [Gr.

1. (Opt.)

Defn: Produced by the refraction of light, as seen through water; as, anaclastic curves.

2. Springing back, as the bottom of an anaclastic glass. Anaclastic glass, a glass or phial, shaped like an inverted funnel, and with a very thin convex bottom. By sucking out a little air, the bottom springs into a concave form with a smart crack; and by breathing or blowing gently into the orifice, the bottom, with a like noise, springs into its former convex form.

An`a*clas"tics, n. (Opt.)

Defn: That part of optics which treats of the refraction of light; — commonly called dioptrics. Encyc. Brit.

An`a*coe*no"sis, n. Etym: [Gr. (Rhet.)

Defn: A figure by which a speaker appeals to his hearers or opponents for their opinion on the point in debate. Walker.

An`a*co*lu"thic, a.

Defn: Lacking grammatical sequence.
 — An`a*co*lu"thic*al*ly, adv.

An`a*co*lu"thon, n. Etym: [Gr. (Gram.)

Defn: A want of grammatical sequence or coherence in a sentence; an instance of a change of construction in a sentence so that the latter part does not syntactically correspond with the first part.

An`a*con"da, n. Etym: [Of Ceylonese origin] (Zoöl.)

Defn: A large South American snake of the Boa family (Eunectes murinus), which lives near rivers, and preys on birds and small mammals. The name is also applied to a similar large serpent (Python tigris) of Ceylon.

A*nac`re*on"tic, a. Etym: [L. Anacreonticus.]

Defn: Pertaining to, after the manner of, or in the meter of, the
Greek poet Anacreon; amatory and convivial. De Quincey.

A*nac`re*on"tic, n.

Defn: A poem after the manner of Anacreon; a sprightly little poem in praise of love and wine.

An`a*crot"ic, a. (Physiol.)

Defn: Pertaining to anachronism.

A*nac"ro*tism, n. Etym: [Gr. (Physiol.)

Defn: A secondary notch in the pulse curve, obtained in a sphygmographic tracing.

An`a*cru"sis, n. Etym: [Gr. (Pros.)

Defn: A prefix of one or two unaccented syllables to a verse properly beginning with an accented syllable.

An"a*dem, n. Etym: [L. anadema, Gr.

Defn: A garland or fillet; a chaplet or wreath. Drayton. Tennyson.

An`a*di*plo"sis, n. Etym: [L., fr. Gr. (Rhet.)

Defn: A repetition of the last word or any prominent word in a sentence or clause, at the beginning of the next, with an adjunct idea; as, "He retained his virtues amidst all his misfortunes — misfortunes which no prudence could foresee or prevent."

An"a*drom, n. Etym: [Cf. F. anadrome.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: A fish that leaves the sea and ascends rivers.

A*nad"ro*mous, a. Etym: [Gr.

1. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Ascending rivers from the sea, at certain seasons, for breeding, as the salmon, shad, etc.

2. (Bot.)

Defn: Tending upwards; — said of terns in which the lowest secondary segments are on the upper side of the branch of the central stem. D. C. Eaton.

A*næ"mi*a, a. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. (Med.)

Defn: A morbid condition in which the blood is deficient in quality or in quantity.

A*næm"ic, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to anæmia.

An*a`ër*o"bi*a, An*a"ër*obes, n. pl. [NL. anaerobia; an-not + aëro- +
Gr. life.] (Bacteriol.)

Defn: Anaërobic bacteria. They are called facultative anaërobia when able to live either in the presence or absence of free oxygen; obligate, or obligatory, anaërobia when they thrive only in its absence.

An*a`ë*rob"ic, a. (Biol.)

Defn: Relating to, or like, anaërobies; araërobiotic.

An*a"ër*o*bies, n. pl. Etym: [Gr. (Biol.)

Defn: Microörganisms which do not require oxygen, but are killed by it. Sternberg.

An*a`ër*o*bi*ot"ic, a. (Anat.)

Defn: Related to, or of the nature of, anaërobies.

An`æs*the"si*a, n. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. anesthésie. See Æsthetics.]

Defn: Entire or partial loss or absence of feeling or sensation; a state of general or local insensibility produced by disease or by the inhalation or application of an anæsthetic.

An`æs*the"sis, n.

Defn: See Anæsthesia.

ANAESTHETIC An`æs*thet"ic, a. (Med.) (a) Capable of rendering insensible; as, anæsthetic agents. (b) Characterized by, or connected with, insensibility; as, an anæsthetic effect or operation.

An`æs*thet"ic, n. (Med.)

Defn: That which produces insensibility to pain, as chloroform, ether, etc.

An*æs`the*ti*za"tion, n.

Defn: The process of anæsthetizing; also, the condition of the nervous system induced by anæsthetics.

An*æs"the*tize, v. t. (Med.)

Defn: To render insensible by an anæsthetic. Encyc. Brit.

An"a*glyph, n. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Any sculptured, chased, or embossed ornament worked in low relief, as a cameo.

An`a*glyph"ic, n.

Defn: Work chased or embossed relief.

An`a*glyph"ic, An`a*glyph"ic*al, a.

Defn: Pertaining to the art of chasing or embossing in relief; anaglyptic; — opposed to diaglyptic or sunk work.

An`a*glyp"tic, a. Etym: [L. anaglypticus, Gr. Anaglyph.]

Defn: Relating to the art of carving, enchasing, or embossing in low relief.

An`a*glyp"tics, n.

Defn: The art of carving in low relief, embossing, etc.

An`a*glyp"to*graph, n. Etym: [Gr. -graph.]

Defn: An instrument by which a correct engraving of any embossed object, such as a medal or cameo, can be executed. Brande & C.

An`a*glyp`to*graph"ic, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to anaglyptography; as, analyptographic engraving.

An`a*glyp*tog"ra*phy, n. Etym: [Gr. -graphy.]

Defn: The art of copying works in relief, or of engraving as to give the subject an embossed or raised appearance; — used in representing coins, bas-reliefs, etc.

An`ag*nor"i*sis, n. Etym: [Latinized fr. Gr.

Defn: The unfolding or dénouement. [R.] De Quincey.

An`a*go"ge, n. Etym: [Gr.

1. An elevation of mind to things celestial.

2. The spiritual meaning or application; esp. the application of the types and allegories of the Old Testament to subjects of the New.

An`a*gog"ic, An`a*gog"ic*al, a.

Defn: Mystical; having a secondary spiritual meaning; as, the rest of the Sabbath, in an anagogical sense, signifies the repose of the saints in heaven; an anagogical explication. — An`a*gog"ic*al*ly, adv.

An`a*gog"ics, n. pl.

Defn: Mystical interpretations or studies, esp. of the Scriptures. L.

An"a*go`gy, n.

Defn: Same as Anagoge.

An"a*gram, n. Etym: [F. anagramme, LL. anagramma, fr. Gr. Graphic.]

Defn: Literally, the letters of a word read backwards, but in its usual wider sense, the change or one word or phrase into another by the transposition of its letters. Thus Galenus becomes angelus; William Noy (attorney-general to Charles I., and a laborious man) may be turned into I moyl in law.

An"a*gram, v. t.

Defn: To anagrammatize.
Some of these anagramed his name, Benlowes, into Benevolus.

ANAGRAMMATIC; ANAGRAMMATICAL An`a*gram*mat"ic, An`a*gram*mat"ic*al, a. Etym: [Cf. F. anagramtique.]

Defn: Pertaining to, containing, or making, anagram.
 — An`a*gram*mat"ic*al*ly, adv.

An`a*gram"ma*tism, n. Etym: [Gr. anagrammatisme.]

Defn: The act or practice of making anagrams. Camden.

An`a*gram"ma*tist, n. Etym: [Cf. F. anagrammatiste.]

Defn: A maker anagrams.

An`a*gram"ma*tize, v. t. Etym: [Gr. anagrammatiser.]

Defn: To transpose, as the letters of a word, so as to form an anagram. Cudworth.

An"a*graph, n. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: An inventory; a record. [Obs.] Knowles.

An"a*kim, A"naks, n. pl. Etym: [Heb.] (Bibl.)

Defn: A race of giants living in Palestine.

A"nal, a. Etym: [From Anus.] (Anat.)

Defn: Pertaining to, or situated near, the anus; as, the anal fin or glands.

A*nal"cime, n. Etym: [Gr. analcime.] (Min.)

Defn: A white or flesh-red mineral, of the zeolite, occurring in isometric crystals. By friction, it acquires a weak electricity; hence its name.

A*nal"cite, n. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Analcime.

An`a*lec"tic, a.

Defn: Relating to analects; made up of selections; as, an analectic magazine.

An"a*lects, An`a*lec"ta, n. pl. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: A collection of literary fragments.

ANALEMMA An`a*lem"ma, n. Etym: [L. analemma a sun dial on a pedestal, showing the latitude and meridian of a place, Gr.

1. (Chem.)

Defn: An orthographic projection of the sphere on the plane of the meridian, the eye being supposed at an infinite distance, and in the east or west point of the horizon.

2. An instrument of wood or brass, on which this projection of the sphere is made, having a movable horizon or cursor; — formerly much used in solving some common astronomical problems.

3. A scale of the sun's declination for each day of the year, drawn across the torrid zone on an artificial terrestrial globe.

ANALEPSIS; ANALEPSY An"a*lep"sis, An"a*lep"sy, Etym: [Gr. Analemma.] (Med.) (a) Recovery of strength after sickness. (b) A species of epileptic attack, originating from gastric disorder.

An"a*lep"tic, a. Etym: [Gr. analeptique. See Analepsis.] (Med.)

Defn: Restorative; giving strength after disease.
 — n.

Defn: A restorative.

An*al"gen, An*al"gene, n. [Gr. painless.]

Defn: A crystalline compound used as an antipyretic and analgesic, employed chiefly in rheumatism and neuralgia. It is a complex derivative of quinoline.

An`al*ge"si*a, n. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. (Med.)

Defn: Absence of sensibility to pain. Quain.

An`al*lag*mat"ic, a. Etym: [Gr. (Math.)

Defn: Not changed in form by inversion. Anallagmatic curves, a class of curves of the fourth degree which have certain peculiar relations to circles; — sometimes called bicircular quartics. — Anallagmatic surfaces, a certain class of surfaces of the fourth degree.

An`al*lan*to"ic, a. (Anat.)

Defn: Without, or not developing, an allantois.

An`al*lan*toid"e*a, n. pl. Etym: [Gr. allantoidea.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: The division of Vertebrata in which no allantois is developed.
It includes amphibians, fishes, and lower forms.

A*nal"o*gal, a.

Defn: Analogous. [Obs.] Donne.

An`a*log"ic, a. Etym: [See Analogous.]

Defn: Of or belonging to analogy. Geo. Eliot.

An`a*log"ic*al, a.

1. Founded on, or of the nature of, analogy; expressing or implying analogy. When a country which has sent out colonies is termed the mother country, the expression is analogical. J. S. Mill.

2. Having analogy; analogous. Sir M. Hale.

An`a*log"ic*al*ly, adv.

Defn: In an analogical sense; in accordance with analogy; by way of
A prince is analogically styled a pilot, being to the state as a
pilot is to the vessel. Berkeley.

An`a*log"ic*al*ness, n.

Defn: Quality of being analogical.

A*nal"o*gism, n. Etym: [Gr.

1. Logic

Defn: an argument from the cause to the effect; an a priori argument.

2. Investigation of things by the analogy they bear to each other. Crabb.

A*nal"o*gist, n.

Defn: One who reasons from analogy, or represent, by analogy. Cheyne.

A*nal"o*gize, v. i.

Defn: To employ, or reason by, analogy.

A*nal"o*gon, n. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Analogue.

A*nal"o*gous, a. Etym: [L. analogous, Gr. Logic.]

Defn: Having analogy; corresponding to something else; bearing some resemblance or proportion; — often followed by to. Analogous tendencies in arts and manners. De Quincey. Decay of public spirit, which may be considered analogous to natural death. J. H. Newman. nalogous pole (Pyroelect.), that pole of a crystal which becomes positively electrified when heated.

 — Correspondent; similar; like.
 — A*nal"o gous*ly, adv.
 — A*nal"o*gous*ness, n.

An"a*logue, n. Etym: [F.

1. That which is analogous to, or corresponds with, some other thing. The vexatious tyranny of the individual despot meets its analogue in the insolent tyranny of the many. I. Taylor.

2. (Philol.)

Defn: A word in one language corresponding with one in another; an analogous term; as, the Latin "pater" is the analogue of the English "father."

3. (Nat. Hist.) (a) An organ which is equivalent in its functions to a different organ in another species or group, or even in the same group; as, the gill of a fish is the analogue of a lung in a quadruped, although the two are not of like structural relations. (b) A species in one genus or group having its characters parallel, one by one, with those of another group. (c) A species or genus in one country closely related to a species of the same genus, or a genus of the same group, in another: such species are often called representative species, and such genera, representative genera. Dana.

A*nal"o*gy, n.; pl. Analogies. Etym: [L. analogia, Gr. analogie. See

1. A resemblance of relations; an agreement or likeness between things in some circumstances or effects, when the things are otherwise entirely different. Thus, learning enlightens the mind, because it is to the mind what light is to the eye, enabling it to discover things before hidden.

Note: Followed by between, to, or with; as, there is an analogy between these objects, or one thing has an analogy to or with another.

Note: Analogy is very commonly used to denote similarity or essential resemblance; but its specific meaning is a similarity of relations, and in this consists the difference between the argument from example and that from analogy. In the former, we argue from the mere similarity of two things; in the latter, from the similarity of their relations. Karslake.

2. (Biol.)

Defn: A relation or correspondence in function, between organs or parts which are decidedly different.

3. (Geom.)

Defn: Proportion; equality of ratios.

4. (Gram.)

Defn: Conformity of words to the genius, structure, or general rules of a language; similarity of origin, inflection, or principle of pronunciation, and the like, as opposed to pl. analogies. Johnson.

An"a*lyse, v., An"a*ly`ser, n., etc.

Defn: Same as Analyze, Analyzer, etc.

A*nal"y*sis, n.; pl. Analyses. Etym: [Gr. Loose.]

1. A resolution of anything, whether an object of the senses or of the intellect, into its constituent or original elements; an examination of the component parts of a subject, each separately, as the words which compose a sentence, the tones of a tune, or the simple propositions which enter into an argument. It is opposed to synthesis.

2. (Chem.)

Defn: The separation of a compound substance, by chemical processes, into its constituents, with a view to ascertain either (a) what elements it contains, or (b) how much of each element is present. The former is called qualitative, and the latter quantitative analysis.

3. (Logic)

Defn: The tracing of things to their source, and the resolving of knowledge into its original principles.

4. (Math.)

Defn: The resolving of problems by reducing the conditions that are in them to equations.

5. (a) A syllabus, or table of the principal heads of a discourse, disposed in their natural order. (b) A brief, methodical illustration of the principles of a science. In this sense it is nearly synonymous with synopsis.

6. (Nat. Hist.)

Defn: The process of ascertaining the name of a species, or its place in a system of classification, by means of an analytical table or key. Ultimate, Proximate, Qualitative, Quantitative, and Volumetric analysis. (Chem.) See under Ultimate, Proximate, Qualitative, etc.

An"a*lyst, n. Etym: [F. analyste. See Analysis.]

Defn: One who analyzes; formerly, one skilled in algebraical geometry; now commonly, one skilled in chemical analysis.

An`a*lyt"ic, An`a*lyt"ic*al, a. Etym: [Gr. analytique. See Analysis.]

Defn: Of or pertaining to analysis; resolving into elements or constituent parts; as, an analytical experiment; analytic reasoning; — opposed to synthetic. Analytical or coördinate geometry. See under Geometry. — Analytic language, a noninflectional language or one not characterized by grammatical endings. — Analytical table (Nat. Hist.), a table in which the characteristics of the species or other groups are arranged so as to facilitate the determination of their names.

An`a*lyt"ic*al*ly, adv.

Defn: In an analytical manner.

An`a*lyt"ics, n.

Defn: The science of analysis.

An"a*ly`za*ble, a.

Defn: That may be analyzed.

An`a*ly*za"tion, n.

Defn: The act of analyzing, or separating into constituent parts; analysis.

An"a*lyze, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Analyzed; p. pr. & vb. n. Analyzing.]
Etym: [Cf. F. analyser. See Analysis.]

Defn: To subject to analysis; to resolve (anything complex) into its elements; to separate into the constituent parts, for the purpose of an examination of each separately; to examine in such a manner as to ascertain the elements or nature of the thing examined; as, to analyze a fossil substance; to analyze a sentence or a word; to analyze an action to ascertain its morality. No one, I presume, can analyze the sensations of pleasure or pain. Darwin.

An"a*ly`zer, n.

1. One who, or that which, analyzes.

2. (Opt.)

Defn: The part of a polariscope which receives the light after polarization, and exhibits its properties.

An`a*mese", a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to Anam, to southeastern Asia.
 — n.

Defn: A native of Anam.

An`am*ne"sis, n. Etym: [Gr. (Rhet.)

Defn: A recalling to mind; recollection.

An`am*nes"tic, a. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Aiding the memory; as, anamnestic remedies.

An*am`ni*ot"ic, a. (Anat.)

Defn: Without, or not developing, an amnion.

An`a*mor"phism, n. Etym: [Gr.

1. A distorted image.

2. (Biol.)

Defn: A gradual progression from one type to another, generally ascending. Huxley.

An`a*mor"pho*scope, n. [Anamorphosis + -scope.]

Defn: An instrument for restoring a picture or image distorted by anamorphosis to its normal proportions. It usually consists of a cylindrical mirror.

An`a*mor"pho*sis, n. Etym: [Gr.

1. (Persp.)

Defn: A distorted or monstrous projection or representation of an image on a plane or curved surface, which, when viewed from a certain point, or as reflected from a curved mirror or through a polyhedron, appears regular and in proportion; a deformation of an image.

2. (Biol.)

Defn: Same as Anamorphism, 2.

3. (Bot.)

Defn: A morbid or monstrous development, or change of form, or degeneration.

An`a*mor"pho*sy, n.

Defn: Same as Anamorphosis.

A*nan", interj. Etym: [See Anon.]

Defn: An expression equivalent to What did you say Sir Eh [Obs.]

A*na"nas, n. Etym: [Sp. ananas, from the native American name.]

Defn: The pineapple (Ananassa sativa).

An*an"drous, a. Etym: [Gr. (Bot.)

Defn: Destitute of stamen

An*an"gu*lar, a. Etym: [Gr. angular.]

Defn: Containing no angle. [R.]

An*an"ther*ous, a. Etym: [Gr. anther.] (Bot.)

Defn: Destitute of anthers. Gray.

An*an"thous, a. Etym: [Gr. (Bot.)

Defn: Destitute of flowers; flowerless.

An`a*pæst, An`a*pæs"tic.

Defn: Same as Anapest, Anapestic.

ANAPEST An"a*pest, n. Etym: [L. anapaestus, Gr. i.e., a dactyl reserved, or, as it were, struck back; fr.

1. (Pros.)

Defn: A metrical foot consisting of three syllables, the first two short, or unaccented, the last long, or accented; the reverse of the dactyl. In Latin d, and in English in-ter-vene, are examples of anapests.

2. A verse composed of such feet.

An`a*pes"tic, a. Etym: [L. anapaesticus, Gr.

Defn: Pertaining to an anapest; consisting of an anapests; as, an anapestic meter, foot, verse. — n.

Defn: Anapestic measure or verse.

An`a*pes"tic*al, a.

Defn: Anapestic.

A*naph"o*ra, n. Etym: [L., fr. Gr. (Rhet.)

Defn: A repetition of a word or of words at the beginning of two or more successive clauses.

An*aph`ro*dis"i*a, n. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. (Med.)

Defn: Absence of sexual appetite.

An*aph`ro*dis"i*ac, a. & n. Etym: [Gr. (Med.)

Defn: Same as Antaphrodisiac. Dunglison.

An*aph`ro*dit"ic, a. Etym: [Gr. (Biol.)

Defn: Produced without concourse of sexes.

An`a*plas"tic, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to anaplasty.

An`a*plas`ty, n. Etym: [Gr. anaplastie.] (Surg.)

Defn: The art of operation of restoring lost parts or the normal shape by the use of healthy tissue.

An`a*ple*rot"ic, a. Etym: [L. anapleroticus, fr. Gr. (Med.)

Defn: Filling up; promoting granulation of wounds or ulcers.
 — n.

Defn: A remedy which promotes such granulation.

A*nap"no*graph, n. Etym: [Gr. -graph.]

Defn: A form of spirometer.

An`ap*no"ic, a. Etym: [Gr. (Med.)

Defn: Relating to respiration.

An*ap`o*deic"tic, a. Etym: [Gr. Apodeictic.]

Defn: Not apodeictic; undemonstrable. [R.]

An`a*poph"y*sis, n. Etym: [Gr. (Anat.)

Defn: An accessory process in many lumbar vertebræ.

An`ap*tot"ic, a. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Having lost, or tending to lose, inflections by phonetic decay; as, anaptotic languages.

An*ap"ty*chus, n.; pl. Anaptichi. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. (Paleon.)

Defn: One of a pair of shelly plates found in some cephalopods, as the ammonites.

An"arch, n. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: The author of anarchy; one who excites revolt. Milton.
Imperial anarchs doubling human woes. Byron.

A*nar"chal, a.

Defn: Lawless; anarchical. [R.] We are in the habit of calling those bodies of men anarchal which are in a state of effervescence. Landor.

A*nar"chic, A*nar"chic*al, a. Etym: [Cf. F. anarchique.]

Defn: Pertaining to anarchy; without rule or government; in political confusion; tending to produce anarchy; as, anarchic despotism; anarchical opinions.

An"arch*ism, n. Etym: [Cf. F. anarchisme.]

Defn: The doctrine or practice of anarchists.

An"arch*ist, n. Etym: [Cf. F. anarchiste.]

Defn: An anarch; one who advocates anarchy of aims at the overthrow of civil government.

An"arch*ize, v. t.

Defn: To reduce to anarchy.

An"arch*y, n. Etym: [Gr. anarchie. See Anarch.]

1. Absence of government; the state of society where there is no law or supreme power; a state of lawlessness; political confusion. Spread anarchy and terror all around. Cowper.

2. Hence, confusion or disorder, in general. There being then . . . an anarchy, as I may term it, in authors and their reFuller.

An`ar*throp"o*da, n. pl. Etym: [NL., from Gr. -poda. See Anarthrous.]

Defn: One of the divisions of Articulata in which there are no jointed legs, as the annelids; — opposed to Arthropoda.

An`ar*throp"o*dous, a. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Having no jointed legs; pertaining to Anarthropoda.

An*ar"throus, a. Etym: [Gr.

1. (Gr. Gram.)

Defn: Used without the article; as, an anarthrous substantive.

2. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Without joints, or having the joints indistinct, as some insects.

A"nas, n. Etym: [L., duck.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: A genus of water fowls, of the order Anseres, including certain species of fresh-water ducks.

An`a*sar"ca, n. Etym: [NL., from Gr. (Med.)

Defn: Dropsy of the subcutaneous cellular tissue; an effusion of serum into the cellular substance, occasioning a soft, pale, inelastic swelling of the skin.

An`a*sar"cous, a.

Defn: Belonging, or affected by, anasarca, or dropsy; dropsical.

An`a*seis"mic, a. [Cf. Gr. a shaking up and down.]

Defn: Moving up and down; — said of earthquake shocks.

An`a*stal"tic, a. & n. Etym: [Gr. fitted for checking, fr. (Med.)

Defn: Styptic. [Obs.] Coxe.

An"a*state, n. Etym: [Gr. (Physiol.)

Defn: One of a series of substances formed, in secreting cells, by constructive or anabolic processes, in the production of protoplasm; — opposed to katastate. Foster.

An`a*stat"ic, a. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Pertaining to a process or a style of printing from characters in relief on zinc plates.

Note: In this process the letterpress, engraving, or design of any kind is transferred to a zinc plate; the parts not covered with ink are eaten out, leaving a facsimile in relief to be printed from.

An*as`tig*mat"ic, a. [Pref. an-not + astigmatic.] (Optics)

Defn: Not astigmatic; —said esp. of a lens system which consists of a converging lens and a diverging lens of equal and opposite astigmatism but different focal lengths, and sensibly free from astigmatism.

A*nas"to*mose, v. i. [imp. p. p. Anastomozed; p. pr. Anastomosing.]
Etym: [Cf. F. anastomoser, fr. anastomose. See Anastomosis.] (Anat. &

Defn: To inosculate; to intercommunicate by anastomosis, as the
arteries and veins.
The ribbing of the leaf, and the anastomosing network of its vessels.
I. Taylor.

ANASTOMOSIS A*nas`to*mo"sis, n.; pl. Anastomoses. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. anastomose.] (Anat. & Bot.)

Defn: The inosculation of vessels, or intercommunication between two or more vessels or nerves, as the cross communication between arteries or veins.

A*nas`to*mot"ic, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to anastomosis.

A*nas"tro*phe, n. Etym: [Gr. (Rhet. & Gram.)

Defn: An inversion of the natural order of words; as, echoed the hills, for, the hills echoed.

A*nath"e*ma, n.; pl. Anathemas. Etym: [L. anath, fr. Gr. anath, fr.
Gr. Thesis.]

1. A ban or curse pronounced with religious solemnity by ecclesiastical authority, and accompanied by excommunication. Hence: Denunciation of anything as accursed. [They] denounce anathemas against unbelievers. Priestley.

2. An imprecation; a curse; a malediction. Finally she fled to London followed by the anathemas of both [families]. Thackeray.

3. Any person or thing anathematized, or cursed by ecclesiastical authority. The Jewish nation were an anathema destined to destruction. St. Paul . . . says he could wish, to save them from it, to become an anathema, and be destroyed himself. Locke. Anathema Maranatha Etym: (see 1 Cor. xvi. 22), an expression commonly considered as a highly intensified form of anathema. Maran atha is now considered as a separate sentence, meaning, "Our Lord cometh."

A*nath`e*mat"ic, A*nath`e*mat"ic*al, a.

Defn: Pertaining to, or having the nature of, an anathema.
 — A*nath`e*mat"ic*al*ly, adv.

A*nath"e*ma*tism, n. Etym: [Gr. anathématisme.]

Defn: Anathematization. [Obs.] We find a law of Justinian forbidding anathematisms to be pronounced against the Jewish Hellenists. J. Taylor.

A*nath`e*ma*ti*za"tion, n. Etym: [LL. anathematisatio.]

Defn: The act of anathematizing, or denouncing as accursed; imprecation. Barrow.

A*nath"e*ma*tize, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Anathematized; p. pr. & vb. n.
Anathematizing.] Etym: [L. anathematizare, Gr. anathématiser.]

Defn: To pronounce an anathema against; to curse. Hence: To condemn publicly as something accursed. Milton.

A*nath"e*ma*ti`zer, n.

Defn: One who pronounces an anathema. Hammond.

A*nat"i*fa, n.; pl. Anatifæ. Etym: [NL., contr. fr. anatifera. See
Anatiferous.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: An animal of the barnacle tribe, of the genus Lepas, having a fleshy stem or peduncle; a goose barnacle. See Cirripedia.

Note: The term Anatifæ, in the plural, is often used for the whole group of pedunculated cirripeds.

A*nat"i*fer,, n. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Same as Anatifa.

An`a*tif"er*ous, a. Etym: [L. anas, anatis, a duck + -ferous.]

Defn: Producing ducks; — applied to Anatifæ, under the absurd notion of their turning into ducks or geese. See Barnacle.

An"a*tine, a. Etym: [L. anatinus, fr. anas, anatis, a duck.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: Of or pertaining to the ducks; ducklike.

A*nat"o*cism, n. Etym: [L. anatocismus, Gr. (Law)

Defn: Compound interest. [R.] Bouvier.

An`a*tom"ic, An`a*tom"ic*al, a. Etym: [L. anatomicus, Gr. anatomique.
See Anatomy.]

Defn: Of or relating to anatomy or dissection; as, the anatomic art; anatomical observations. Hume.

An`a*tom"ic*al*ly, adv.

Defn: In an anatomical manner; by means of dissection.

A*nat"o*mism, n. Etym: [Cf. F. anatomisme.]

1. The application of the principles of anatomy, as in art. The stretched and vivid anatomism of their [i. e., the French] great figure painters. The London Spectator.

2. The doctrine that the anatomical structure explains all the phenomena of the organism or of animal life.

A*nat"o*mist, n. Etym: [Cf. F. anatomiste.]

Defn: One who is skilled in the art of anatomy, or dissection.

A*nat`o*mi*za"tion, n.

Defn: The act of anatomizing.

A*nat"o*mize, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Anatomized; p. pr. & vb. n.
Anatomizing.] Etym: [Cf. F. anatomiser.]

1. To dissect; to cut in pieces, as an animal vegetable body, for the purpose of displaying or examining the structure and use of the several parts.

2. To discriminate minutely or carefully; to analyze. If we anatomize all other reasonings of this nature, we shall find that they are founded on the relation of cause and effect. Hume.

A*nat"o*mi`zer, n.

Defn: A dissector.

A*nat"o*my, n.; pl. Anatomies. Etym: [F. anatomie, L. anatomia, Gr.

1. The art of dissecting, or artificially separating the different parts of any organized body, to discover their situation, structure, and economy; dissection.

2. The science which treats of the structure of organic bodies; anatomical structure or organization. Let the muscles be well inserted and bound together, according to the knowledge of them which is given us by anatomy. Dryden.

Note: "Animal anatomy" is sometimes called zomy; "vegetable anatomy," phytotomy; "human anatomy," anthropotomy. Comparative anatomy compares the structure of different kinds and classes of animals.

3. A treatise or book on anatomy.

4. The act of dividing anything, corporeal or intellectual, for the purpose of examining its parts; analysis; as, the anatomy of a discourse.

5. A skeleton; anything anatomized or dissected, or which has the appearance of being so. The anatomy of a little child, representing all parts thereof, is accounted a greater rarity than the skeleton of a man in full stature. Fuller. They brought one Pinch, a hungry, lean-faced villain, A mere anatomy. Shak.

An`a*trep"tic, a. Etym: [overturning, fr.

Defn: Overthrowing; defeating; — applied to Plato's refutative dialogues. Enfield.

ANATRON An"a*tron, n. Etym: [F. anatron, natron, Sp. anatron, natron, fr. Ar. al-natr. See Natron, Niter.] [Obs.]

1. Native carbonate of soda; natron.

2. Glass gall or sandiver.

3. Saltpeter. Coxe. Johnson.

A*nat"ro*pal, A*nat"ro*pous, a. Etym: [Gr. (Bot.)

Defn: Having the ovule inverted at an early period in its development, so that the chalaza is as the apparent apex; — opposed to orthotropous. Gray.

A*nat"to, n.

Defn: Same as Annotto.

ANBURY; AMBURY An"bur*y, Am"bur*y, n. Etym: [AS. ampre, ompre, a crooked swelling vein: cf. Prov. E. amper a tumor with inflammation. Cf. the first syllable in agnail, and berry a fruit.]

1. (Far.)

Defn: A soft tumor or bloody wart on horses or oxen.

2. A disease of the roots of turnips, etc.; — called also fingers and toes.

ANCE *ance. Etym: [F. -ance, fr. L. -antia and also fr. -entia.]

Defn: A suffix signifying action; also, quality or state; as, assistance, resistance, appearance, elegance. See -ancy.

Note: All recently adopted words of this class take either -ance or - ence, according to the Latin spelling.

-ANCE -ance. [F. -ance, fr. L. -antia and also fr. -entia.]

Defn: A suffix signifying action; also, quality or state; as, assistance, resistance, appearance, elegance. See -ancy.

 All recently adopted words of this class take either -ance or -ence,
according to the Latin spelling.

ANCESTOR An"ces*tor, n. Etym: [OE. ancestre, auncestre, also ancessour; the first forms fr. OF. ancestre, F. ancêtre, fr. the L. nom. antessor one who goes before; the last form fr. OF. ancessor, fr. L. acc. antecessorem, fr. antecedere to go before; ante before + cedere to go. See Cede, and cf. Antecessor.]

1. One from whom a person is descended, whether on the father's or mother's side, at any distance of time; a progenitor; a fore father.

2. (Biol.)

Defn: An earlier type; a progenitor; as, this fossil animal is regarded as the ancestor of the horse.

3. (Law)

Defn: One from whom an estate has descended; — the correlative of heir.

An`ces*to"ri*al, a.

Defn: Ancestral. Grote.

An`ces*to"ri*al*ly, adv.

Defn: With regard to ancestors.

An*ces"tral, a.

Defn: Of, pertaining to, derived from, or possessed by, an ancestor or ancestors; as, an ancestral estate. "Ancestral trees." Hemans.

An"ces*tress, n.

Defn: A female ancestor.

An"ces*try, n. Etym: [Cf. OF. ancesserie. See Ancestor.]

1. Condition as to ancestors; ancestral lineage; hence, birth or honorable descent. Title and ancestry render a good man more illustrious, but an ill one more contemptible. Addison.

2. A series of ancestors or progenitors; lineage, or those who compose the line of natural descent.

ANCHOR An"chor, n. Etym: [OE. anker, AS. ancor, oncer, L. ancora, sometimes spelt anchora, fr. Gr. angle: cf. F. ancre. See Angle, n.]

1. A iron instrument which is attached to a ship by a cable (rope or chain), and which, being cast overboard, lays hold of the earth by a fluke or hook and thus retains the ship in a particular station.

Note: The common anchor consists of a straight bar called a shank, having at one end a transverse bar called a stock, above which is a ring for the cable, and at the other end the crown, from which branch out two or more arms with flukes, forming with the shank a suitable angle to enter the ground.

Note: Formerly the largest and strongest anchor was the sheet anchor (hence, Fig., best hope or last refuge), called also waist anchor. Now the bower and the sheet anchor are usually alike. Then came the best bower and the small bower (so called from being carried on the bows). The stream anchor is one fourth the weight of the bower anchor. Kedges or kedge anchors are light anchors used in warping.

2. Any instrument or contrivance serving a purpose like that of a ship's anchor, as an arrangement of timber to hold a dam fast; a contrivance to hold the end of a bridge cable, or other similar part; a contrivance used by founders to hold the core of a mold in place.

3. Fig.: That which gives stability or security; that on which we place dependence for safety. Which hope we have as an anchor of the soul. Heb. vi. 19.

4. (Her.)

Defn: An emblem of hope.

5. (Arch.) (a) A metal tie holding adjoining parts of a building together. (b) Carved work, somewhat resembling an anchor or arrowhead; — a part of the ornaments of certain moldings. It is seen in the echinus, or egg-and-anchor (called also egg-and-dart, egg-and-tongue) ornament.

6. (Zoöl.)

Defn: One of the anchor-shaped spicules of certain sponges; also, one of the calcareous spinules of certain Holothurians, as in species of Synapta. Anchor ice. See under Ice. — Anchor ring. (Math.) Same as Annulus, 2 (b). — Anchor stock (Naut.), the crossbar at the top of the shank at right angles to the arms. — The anchor comes home, when it drags over the bottom as the ship drifts. — Foul anchor, the anchor when it hooks, or is entangled with, another anchor, or with a cable or wreck, or when the slack cable entangled. — The anchor is acockbill, when it is suspended perpendicularly from the cathead, ready to be let go. — The anchor is apeak, when the cable is drawn in do tight as to bring to ship directly over it. — The anchor is atrip, or aweigh, when it is lifted out of the ground. — The anchor is awash, when it is hove up to the surface of the water. — At anchor, anchored. — To back an anchor, to increase the holding power by laying down a small anchor ahead of that by which the ship rides, with the cable fastened to the crown of the latter to prevent its coming home. — To cast anchor, to drop or let go an anchor to keep a ship at rest. — To cat the anchor, to hoist the anchor to the cathead and pass the ring-stopper. — To fish the anchor, to hoist the flukes to their resting place (called the bill-boards), and pass the shank painter. — To weigh anchor, to heave or raise the anchor so as to sail away.

An"chor, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Anchored; p. pr. & vb. n. Anchoring.]
Etym: [Cf. F. ancrer.]

1. To place at anchor; to secure by an anchor; as, to anchor a ship.

2. To fix or fasten; to fix in a stable condition; as, to anchor the cables of a suspension bridge. Till that my nails were anchored in thine eyes. Shak.

An"chor, v. i.

1. To cast anchor; to come to anchor; as, our ship (or the captain) anchored in the stream.

2. To stop; to fix or rest. My invention . . . anchors on Isabel. Shak.

An"chor, n. Etym: [OE. anker, ancre, AS. ancra, fr. L. anachoreta.
See Anchoret.]

Defn: An anchoret. [Obs.] Shak.

An"chor*a*ble, a.

Defn: Fit for anchorage.

An"chor*age, n.

1. The act of anchoring, or the condition of lying at anchor.

2. A place suitable for anchoring or where ships anchor; a hold for an anchor.

3. The set of anchors belonging to a ship.

4. Something which holds like an anchor; a hold; as, the anchorages of the Brooklyn Bridge.

5. Something on which one may depend for security; ground of trust.

6. A toll for anchoring; anchorage duties. Johnson.

An"cho*rage, n.

Defn: Abode of an anchoret.

An"chor*ate, a.

Defn: Anchor-shaped.

An"chored, a.

1. Held by an anchor; at anchor; held safely; as, an anchored bark; also, shaped like an anchor; forked; as, an anchored tongue.

2. (Her.)

Defn: Having the extremities turned back, like the flukes of an anchor; as, an anchored cross. [Sometimes spelt ancred.]

An"chor es*cape"ment. (Horol.)
 (a) The common recoil escapement.
 (b) A variety of the lever escapement with a wide impulse pin.

An"cho*ress, n.

Defn: A female anchoret.
And there, a saintly anchoress, she dwelt. Wordsworth.

An"cho*ret, An"cho*rite, n. Etym: [F. anachorète, L. anachoreta, fr.
Gr. ha to leave. Cf. Anchor a hermit.]

Defn: One who renounces the world and secludes himself, usually for religious reasons; a hermit; a recluse. [Written by some authors anachoret.] Our Savior himself . . . did not choose an anchorite's or a monastic life, but a social and affable way of conversing with mortals. Boyle.

An`cho*ret"ic, An`cho*ret"ic*al, a. Etym: [Cf. Gr.

Defn: Pertaining to an anchoret or hermit; after the manner of an anchoret.

An"cho*ret`ish, a.

Defn: Hermitlike.

An"cho*ret*ism, n.

Defn: The practice or mode of life of an anchoret.

An"chor-hold`, n.

1. The hold or grip of an anchor, or that to which it holds.

2. Hence: Firm hold: security.

An"cho*rite, n.

Defn: Same as Anchoret.

An"cho*ri`tess, n.

Defn: An anchoress. [R.]

An"chor*less, a.

Defn: Without an anchor or stay. Hence: Drifting; unsettled.

Anchor light. (Naut.)

Defn: The lantern shown at night by a vessel at anchor. International rules of the road require vessels at anchor to carry from sunset to sunrise a single white light forward if under 150 feet in length, and if longer, two such lights, one near the stern and one forward.

Anchor shot. (Billiards)

Defn: A shot made with the object balls in an anchor space.

Anchor space. (Billiards)

Defn: In the balk-line game, any of eight spaces, 7 inches by 3½, lying along a cushion and bisected transversely by a balk line. Object balls in an anchor space are treated as in balk.

Anchor watch. (Naut.)

Defn: A detail of one or more men who keep watch on deck at night when a vessel is at anchor.

An*cho"vy, n. Etym: [Sp. anchoa, anchova, or Pg. anchova, prob. of
Iberian origin, and lit. a dried or pickled fish, fr. Bisc. antzua
dry: cf. D. anchovis, F. anchois.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: A small fish, about three inches in length, of the Herring family (Engraulis encrasicholus), caught in vast numbers in the Mediterranean, and pickled for exportation. The name is also applied to several allied species.

An*cho"vy pear`. (Bot.)

Defn: A West Indian fruit like the mango in taste, sometimes pickled; also, the tree (Grias cauliflora) bearing this fruit.

An"chu*sin, n. Etym: [L. anchusa the plant alkanet, Gr. (Chem.)

Defn: A resinoid coloring matter obtained from alkanet root.

An"chy*lose, v. t. & i. [imp. & p. p. Anchylosed; p. pr. & vb. n.
Anchylosing.] Etym: [Cf. F. ankyloser.]

Defn: To affect or be affected with anchylosis; to unite or consolidate so as to make a stiff joint; to grow together into one. [Spelt also ankylose.] Owen.

An`chy*lo"sis, An`ky*lo"sis, n. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. ankylose.]

1. (Med.)

Defn: Stiffness or fixation of a joint; formation of a stiff joint.

2. (Anat.)

Defn: The union of two or more separate bones to from a single bone; the close union of bones or other structures in various animals.

An`chy*lot"ic, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to anchylosis.

ANCIENT An"cient, a. Etym: [OE. auncien, F. ancien, LL. antianus, fr. L. ante before. See Ante-, pref.]

1. Old; that happened or existed in former times, usually at a great distance of time; belonging to times long past; specifically applied to the times before the fall of the Roman empire; — opposed to modern; as, ancient authors, literature, history; ancient days. Witness those ancient empires of the earth. Milton. Gildas Albanius . . . much ancienter than his namesake surnamed the Wise. Fuller.

2. Old; that has been of long duration; of long standing; of great age; as, an ancient forest; an ancient castle. "Our ancient bickerings." Shak. Remove not the ancient landmarks, which thy fathers have set. Prov. xxii. 28. An ancient man, strangely habited, asked for quarters. Scott.

3. Known for a long time, or from early times; — opposed to recent or new; as, the ancient continent. A friend, perhaps, or an ancient acquaintance. Barrow.

4. Dignified, like an aged man; magisterial; venerable. [Archaic] He wrought but some few hours of the day, and then would he seem very grave and ancient. Holland.

5. Experienced; versed. [Obs.] Though [he] was the youngest brother, yet he was the most ancient in the business of the realm. Berners.

6. Former; sometime. [Obs.] They mourned their ancient leader lost. Pope. Ancient demesne (Eng. Law), a tenure by which all manors belonging to the crown, in the reign of William the Conqueror, were held. The numbers, names, etc., of these were all entered in a book called Domesday Book. — Ancient lights (Law), windows and other openings which have been enjoined without molestation for more than twenty years. In England, and in some of the United States, they acquire a prescriptive right.

Syn. — Old; primitive; pristine; antique; antiquated; old-fashioned; obsolete. — Ancient, Antiquated, Obsolete, Antique, Antic, Old. — Ancient is opposed to modern, and has antiquity; as, an ancient family, ancient landmarks, ancient institutions, systems of thought, etc. Antiquated describes that which has gone out of use or fashion; as, antiquated furniture, antiquated laws, rules, etc. Obsolete is commonly used, instead of antiquated, in reference to language, customs, etc.; as, an obsolete word or phrase, an obsolete expression. Antique is applied, in present usage, either to that which has come down from the ancients; as, an antique cameo, bust, etc. ; or to that which is made to imitate some ancient work of art; as, an antique temple. In the days of Shakespeare, antique was often used for ancient; as, "an antique song," "an antique Roman;" and hence, from singularity often attached to what is ancient, it was used in the sense of grotesque; as, "an oak whose antique root peeps out; " and hence came our present word antic, denoting grotesque or ridiculous. We usually apply both ancient and old to things subject to gradual decay. We say, an old man, an ancient record; but never, the old stars, an old river or mountain. In general, however, ancient is opposed to modern, and old to new, fresh, or recent. When we speak of a thing that existed formerly, which has ceased to exist, we commonly use ancient; as, ancient republics, ancient heroes; and not old republics, old heroes. But when the thing which began or existed in former times is still in existence, we use either ancient or old; as, ancient statues or paintings, or old statues or paintings; ancient authors, or old authors, meaning books.

An"cient, n.

1. pl.

Defn: Those who lived in former ages, as opposed to the moderns.

2. An aged man; a patriarch. Hence: A governor; a ruler; a person of influence. The Lord will enter into judgment with the ancients of his people, and the princes thereof. Isa. iii. 14.

3. A senior; an elder; a predecessor. [Obs.] Junius and Andronicus . . . in Christianity . . . were his ancients. Hooker.

4. pl. (Eng. Law)

Defn: One of the senior members of the Inns of Court or of Chancery. Council of Ancients (French Hist.), one of the two assemblies composing the legislative bodies in 1795. Brande.

An"cient, n. Etym: [Corrupted from ensign.]

1. An ensign or flag. [Obs.] More dishonorable ragged than an old-faced ancient. Shak.

2. The bearer of a flag; an ensign. [Obs.] This is Othello's ancient, as I take it. Shak.

An"cient*ly, adv.

1. In ancient times.

2. In an ancient manner. [R.]

An"cient*ness, n.

Defn: The quality of being ancient; antiquity; existence from old times.

An"cient*ry, n.

1. Antiquity; what is ancient. They contain not word of ancientry. West.

2. Old age; also, old people. [R.] Wronging the ancientry. Shak.

3. Ancient lineage; ancestry; dignity of birth. A gentleman of more ancientry than estate. Fuller.

An"cient*y, n. Etym: [F. ancienneté, fr. ancien. See Ancient.]

1. Age; antiquity. [Obs.] Martin.

2. Seniority. [Obs.]

An*ci"le, n. Etym: [L.] (Rom. Antiq.)

Defn: The sacred shield of the Romans, said to have-fallen from heaven in the reign of Numa. It was the palladium of Rome.

An"cil*la*ry, a. Etym: [L. ancillaris, fr. ancilla a female servant.]

Defn: Subservient or subordinate, like a handmaid; auxiliary. The Convocation of York seems to have been always considered as inferior, and even ancillary, to the greater province. Hallam.

An"cil*la*ry ad*min`is*tra"tion. (Law)

Defn: An administration subordinate to, and in aid of, the primary or principal administration of an estate.

An*cille", n. Etym: [OF. ancelle, L. ancilla.]

Defn: A maidservant; a handmaid. [Obs.] Chaucer.

ANCIPITAL; ANCIPITOUS An*cip"i*tal, An*cip"i*tous, a. Etym: [L. anceps, ancipitis, two- headed, double; an- for amb- on both sides + caput head.] (Bot.)

Defn: Two-edged instead of round; — said of certain flattened stems, as those of blue grass, and rarely also of leaves.

An*cis"troid, a. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Hook-shaped.

An"cle, n.

Defn: See Ankle.

An"come, n. Etym: [AS. ancuman, oncuman, to come.]

Defn: A small ulcerous swelling, coming suddenly; also, a whitlow.
[Obs.] Boucher.

An"con, n.; L. pl. Ancones. Etym: [L., fr. Gr. (Anat.)

Defn: The olecranon, or the elbow. Ancon sheep (Zoöl.), a breed of sheep with short crooked legs and long back. It originated in Massachusetts in 1791; — called also the otter breed.

ANCON; ANCONE An"con, An"cone, n. Etym: [See Ancon, above.] (Arch.) (a) The corner or quoin of a wall, cross-beam, or rafter. [Obs.] Gwilt. (b) A bracket supporting a cornice; a console.

An"co*nal, An*co"ne*al, a. (Anat.)

Defn: Of or pertaining to the ancon or elbow. "The olecranon on anconeal process." Flower.

An*co"ne*us, n. Etym: [NL., fr. L. ancon elbow.] (Anat.)

Defn: A muscle of the elbow and forearm.

An"co*noid, a.

Defn: Elbowlike; anconal.

An"co*ny, n. Etym: [Origin unknown.] (Iron Work)

Defn: A piece of malleable iron, wrought into the shape of a bar in the middle, but unwrought at the ends.

-ANCY -an*cy. Etym: [L. -antia.-]

Defn: A suffix expressing more strongly than -ance the idea of quality or state; as, constancy, buoyancy, infancy.

AND And, conj. Etym: [AS. and; akin to OS. endi, Icel. enda, OHG. anti, enti, inti, unti, G. und, D. en, OD. ende. Cf, An if, Ante-.]

1. A particle which expresses the relation of connection or addition. It is used to conjoin a word with a word, a clause with a clause, or a sentence with a sentence.

Note: (a) It is sometimes used emphatically; as, "there are women and women," that is, two very different sorts of women. (b) By a rhetorical figure, notions, one of which is modificatory of the other, are connected by and; as, "the tediousness and process of my travel," that is, the tedious process, etc.; "thy fair and outward character," that is, thy outwardly fair character, Schmidt's Shak. Lex.

2. In order to; — used instead of the infinitival to, especially after try, come, go. At least to try and teach the erring soul. Milton.

3. It is sometimes, in old songs, a mere expletive. When that I was and a little tiny boy. Shak.

4. If; though. See An, conj. [Obs.] Chaucer. As they will set an house on fire, and it were but to roast their eggs. Bacon. And so forth, and others; and the rest; and similar things; and other things or ingredients. The abbreviation, etc. (et cetera), or &c., is usually read and so forth.

ANDABATISM An"da*ba*tism, n. Etym: [L. andabata a kind of Roman gladiator, who fought hoodwinked.]

Defn: Doubt; uncertainty. [Obs.] Shelford.

An`da*lu"site, n. (Min.)

Defn: A silicate of aluminium, occurring usually in thick rhombic prisms, nearly square, of a grayish or pale reddish tint. It was first discovered in Andalusia, Spain.

An*dan"te, a. Etym: [It. andante, p. pr. of andare to go.] (Mus.)

Defn: Moving moderately slow, but distinct and flowing; quicker than larghetto, and slower than allegretto. — n.

Defn: A movement or piece in andante time.

An`dan*ti"no, a. Etym: [It., dim. of andante.] (Mus.)

Defn: Rather quicker than andante; between that allegretto.

Note: Some, taking andante in its original sense of "going," and andantino as its diminutive, or "less going," define the latter as slower than andante.

An"da*rac, n. Etym: [A corruption of sandarac.]

Defn: Red orpiment. Coxe.

An*de"an, a.

Defn: Pertaining to the Andes.

An"des*ine, n. (Min.)

Defn: A kind of triclinic feldspar found in the Andes.

An"des*ite, n. (Min.)

Defn: An eruptive rock allied to trachyte, consisting essentially of a triclinic feldspar, with pyroxene, hornblende, or hypersthene.

An"dine, a.

Defn: Andean; as, Andine flora.

ANDIRON And"i`ron, n. Etym: [OE. anderne, aunderne, aundyre, OF. andier, F. landier, fr. LL. andena, andela, anderia, of unknown origin. The Eng. was prob. confused with brand-iron, AS. brand-isen.]

Defn: A utensil for supporting wood when burning in a fireplace, one being placed on each side; a firedog; as, a pair of andirons.

An`dra*nat"o*my, n. Etym: [Gr. andranatomie. See Anatomy, Androtomy.]

Defn: The dissection of a human body, especially of a male; androtomy. Coxe.

An`dro*ceph"a*lous, a. [Gr. , , man + head.]

Defn: Having a human head (upon an animal's body), as the Egyptian sphinx.

An`dro*di*o"cious, An`dro*di*e"cious, a. [Gr. , , man + E. diocious.]

Defn: Having perfect and staminate flowers on different plants. —
An`dro*di*o"cism, -di*e"cism (#), n.

An*droe"ci*um, n. Etym: [NL., from Gr. (bot.)

Defn: The stamens of a flower taken collectively.

An"dro*gyne, n.

1. An hermaphrodite.

2. (Bot.)

Defn: An androgynous plant. Whewell.

ANDROGYNOUS; ANDROGYNAL An*drog"y*nous, An*drog"y*nal, a. Etym: [L. androgynus, Gr. androgyne.]

1. Uniting both sexes in one, or having the characteristics of both; being in nature both male and female; hermaphroditic. Owen. The truth is, a great mind must be androgynous. Coleridge.

2. (Bot.)

Defn: Bearing both staminiferous and pistilliferous flowers in the same cluster.

An*drog"y*ny, An*drog"y*nism, n.

Defn: Union of both sexes in one individual; hermaphroditism.

An"droid, a.

Defn: Resembling a man.

An"droid, An*droi"des, n. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: A machine or automaton in the form of a human being.

An*drom"e*da, n. Etym: [L., fr. Gr.

1. (Astron.)

Defn: A northern constellation, supposed to represent the mythical

2. (bot.)

Defn: A genus of ericaceous flowering plants of northern climates, of which the original species was found growing on a rock surrounded by water.

An"dro*mede, An"dro*med, n. (Astron.)

Defn: A meteor appearing to radiate from a point in the constellation
Andromeda, — whence the name.

A shower of these meteors takes place every year on November 27th or 28th. The Andromedes are also called Bielids, as they are connected with Biela's comet and move in its orbit.

An"dron, n. Etym: [L. andron, Gr. (Gr. & Rom. Arch.)

Defn: The apartment appropriated for the males. This was in the lower part of the house.

An`dro*pet"al*ous, a. Etym: [Gr. (Bot.)

Defn: Produced by the conversion of the stamens into petals, as double flowers, like the garden ranunculus. Brande.

An*droph"a*gi, n. pl. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr.

Defn: Cannibals; man-eaters; anthropophagi. [R.]

An*droph"a*gous, a.

Defn: Anthropophagous.

An"dro*phore, n. Etym: [Gr.

1. (Bot.)

Defn: A support or column on which stamens are raised. Gray.

2. (Zoöl.)

Defn: The part which in some Siphonophora bears the male gonophores.

ANDROPOGON An`dro*po"gon, n. [NL.; Gr. 'anh`r, 'andro`s, man + pw`gwn the beard.] (Bot.)

Defn: A very large and important genus of grasses, found in nearly all parts of the world. It includes the lemon grass of Ceylon and the beard grass, or broom sedge, of the United States. The principal subgenus is Sorghum, including A. sorghum and A. halepensis, from which have been derived the Chinese sugar cane, the Johnson grass, the Aleppo grass, the broom corn, and the durra, or Indian millet. Several East Indian species, as A. nardus and A. schonanthus, yield fragrant oils, used in perfumery.

An"dro*sphinx, n. Etym: [Gr. (Egypt. Art.)

Defn: A man sphinx; a sphinx having the head of a man and the body of a lion.

An"dro*spore, n. Etym: [Gr. (Bot.)

Defn: A spore of some algæ, which has male functions.

An*drot"o*mous, a. (Bot.)

Defn: Having the filaments of the stamens divided into two parts.

An*drot"o*my, n. Etym: [Gr. Anatomy.]

Defn: Dissection of the human body, as distinguished from zoötomy; anthropotomy. [R.]

ANDROUS *an"drous. Etym: [Gr. (Bot.)

Defn: A terminal combining form: Having a stamen or stamens; staminate; as, monandrous, with one stamen; polyandrous, with many stamens.

A*near", prep. & adv. Etym: [Pref. a- + near.]

Defn: Near. [R.] "It did not come anear." Coleridge.
The measure of misery anear us. I. Taylor.

A*near", v. t. & i.

Defn: To near; to approach. [Archaic]

A*neath", prep. & adv. Etym: [Pref. a- + neath for beneath.]

Defn: Beneath. [Scot.]

An"ec*do`tage, n.

Defn: Anecdotes collectively; a collection of anecdotes. All history, therefore, being built partly, and some of it altogether, upon anecdotage, must be a tissue of lies. De Quincey.

An"ec*do`tal, a.

Defn: Pertaining to, or abounding with, anecdotes; as, anecdotal conversation.

An"ec*dote, n. Etym: [F. anecdote, fr. Gr. Dose, n.]

1. pl.

Defn: Unpublished narratives. Burke.

2. A particular or detached incident or fact of an interesting nature; a biographical incident or fragment; a single passage of private life.

An`ec*dot"ic, An`ec*dot"ic*al, a.

Defn: Pertaining to, consisting of, or addicted to, anecdotes.
"Anecdotical traditions." Bolingbroke.

An"ec*do"tist, n.

Defn: One who relates or collects anecdotes.

An"e*lace, n.

Defn: Same as Anlace.

A*nele", v. t. Etym: [OE. anelien; an on + AS. ele oil, L. oleum. See
Oil, Anoil.]

1. To anoint. Shipley.

2. To give extreme unction to. [Obs.] R. of Brunne.

An`e*lec"tric, a. Etym: [Gr. electric.] (Physics)

Defn: Not becoming electrified by friction; — opposed to idioelectric. — n.

Defn: A substance incapable of being electrified by friction.

An`e*lec"trode, n. Etym: [Gr. electrode.] (Elec.)

Defn: The positive pole of a voltaic battery.

An`e*lec*trot"o*nus, n. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. electrotonus.] (Physiol.)

Defn: The condition of decreased irritability of a nerve in the region of the positive electrode or anode on the passage of a current of electricity through it. Foster.

A*nem"o*gram, n. Etym: [Gr. -gram.]

Defn: A record made by an anemograph.

A*nem"o*graph, n. Etym: [Gr. -graph.]

Defn: An instrument for measuring and recording the direction and force of the wind. Knight.

A*nem`o*graph"ic, a.

Defn: Produced by an anemograph; of or pertaining to anemography.

An`e*mog"ra*phy, n. Etym: [Gr. -graphy.]

1. A description of the winds.

2. The art of recording the direction and force of the wind, as by means of an anemograph.

An`e*mol"o*gy, n. Etym: [Gr. -logy.]

Defn: The science of the wind.

An`e*mom"e*ter, n. Etym: [Gr. -meter.]

Defn: An instrument for measuring the force or velocity of the wind; a wind gauge.

An`e*mo*met"ric, An`e*mo*met"ric*al, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to anemometry.

An`e*mo*met"ro*graph, n. Etym: [Anemometer + -graph.]

Defn: An anemograph. Knight.

An`e*mom"e*try, n.

Defn: The act or process of ascertaining the force or velocity of the wind.

A*nem"o*ne, n. Etym: [L. anemone, Gr.

1. (Bot.)

Defn: A genus of plants of the Ranunculus or Crowfoot family; windflower. Some of the species are cultivated in gardens.

2. (Zoöl.)

Defn: The sea anemone. See Actinia, and Sea anemone.

Note: This word is sometimes pronounced , especially by classical scholars.

An`e*mon"ic, a. (Chem.)

Defn: An acrid, poisonous, crystallizable substance, obtained from, the anemone, or from anemonin.

A*nem"o*nin, n. (Chem.)

Defn: An acrid, poisonous, crystallizable substance, obtained from some species of anemone.

A*nem"o*ny, n.

Defn: See Anemone. Sandys.

An`e*morph"i*lous, a. Etym: [Gr. (Bot.)

Defn: Fertilized by the agency of the wind; — said of plants in which the pollen is carried to the stigma by the wind; wind- Fertilized. Lubbock.

A*nem"o*scope, n. Etym: [Gr. anémoscope.]

Defn: An instrument which shows the direction of the wind; a wind vane; a weathercock; — usually applied to a contrivance consisting of a vane above, connected in the building with a dial or index with pointers to show the changes of the wind.

An`e*mo"sis, n. [NL., fr. Gr. wind.]

Defn: A condition in the wood of some trees in which the rings are separated, as some suppose, by the action of high winds upon the trunk; wind shake.

An*en`ce*phal"ic, An`en*ceph"a*lous, a. Etym: [Gr. Encephalon.]

Defn: Without a brain; brainless. Todd & B.

ANENST; ANENT A*nenst", A*nent", prep. Etym: [OE. anent, anentis, anence, anens, anents, AS. onefen, onemn; an, on, on + efen even, equal; hence meaning, on an equality with, even with, beside. See Even, a.] [Scot. & Prov. Eng.]

1. Over against; as, he lives anent the church.

2. About; concerning; in respect; as, he said nothing anent this particular.

An*en"ter*ous, a. Etym: [Gr. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Destitute of a stomach or an intestine. Owen.

An*er"gi*a, An"er*gy, n. [NL. anergia, fr. Gr. - not + work.]

Defn: Lack of energy; inactivity. — An*er"gic (#), a.

An"e*roid, a. Etym: [Gr. -oid: cf. F. anéroïde.]

Defn: Containing no liquid; — said of kind of barometer. Aneroid barometer, a barometer the action of which depends on the varying pressure of the atmosphere upon the elastic top of a metallic box (shaped like a watch) from which the air has been exhausted. An index shows the variation of pressure.

An"e*roid, n.

Defn: An aneroid barometer.

Anes, adv.

Defn: Once. [Scot.] Sir W. Scott.

An`es*the"si*a, n., An`es*thet"ic, a.

Defn: Same as Anæsthesia, Anæsthetic.

An"et, n. Etym: [F. aneth, fr. L. anethum, Gr. Anise.]

Defn: The herb dill, or dillseed.

An"e*thol, n. Etym: [L. anethum (see Anise) + -ol.] (Chem.)

Defn: A substance obtained from the volatile oils of anise, fennel, etc., in the form of soft shining scales; — called also anise camphor. Watts.

A*net"ic, a. Etym: [L. aneticus, Gr. (Med.)

Defn: Soothing.

An"eu*rism, n. Etym: [Gr. (Med.)

Defn: A soft, pulsating, hollow tumor, containing blood, arising from the preternatural dilation or rupture of the coats of an artery. [Written also aneurysm.]

An`eu*ris"mal, a. (Med.)

Defn: Of or pertaining to an aneurism; as, an aneurismal tumor; aneurismal diathesis. [Written also aneurysmal.]

A*new", adv. Etym: [Pref. a- + new.]

Defn: Over again; another time; in a new form; afresh; as, to arm anew; to create anew. Dryden.

An*frac"tu*ose`, a. Etym: [See Anfractuous.]

Defn: Anfractuous; as, anfractuose anthers.

ANFRACTUOSITY An*frac`tu*os"i*ty, n.; l. Anfractuosities. Etym: [Cf. F. anfractuosité.]

1. A state of being anfractuous, or full of windings and turnings; sinuosity. The anfractuosities of his intellect and temper. Macaulay.

2. (Anat.)

Defn: A sinuous depression or sulcus like those separating the convolutions of the brain.

ANFRACTUOUS An*frac"tu*ous, a. Etym: [L. anfractuosus, fr. anfractus a turning, a winding, fr. the unused anfringere to wind, bend; an-, for amb- + fractus, p. p. of frangere to break: cf. F. anfractueux.]

Defn: Winding; full of windings and turnings; sinuous; tortuous; as, the anfractuous spires of a born. — An*frac"tu*ous*ness, n.

An*frac"ture, n.

Defn: A mazy winding.

ANGARIATION An*ga"ri*a"tion, n. Etym: [LL. angariatio, fr. L. angaria service to a lord, villenage, fr. anga, Gr.

Defn: Exaction of forced service; compulsion. [Obs.] Speed.

An`gei*ol"o*gy, n., An`gei*ot"o*my, etc.

Defn: Same as Angiology, Angiotomy, etc.

An"gel, n. Etym: [AS. æangel, engel, influenced by OF. angele, angle