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Title: Helps to Latin Translation at Sight

Author: Edmund Luce

Release date: May 20, 2009 [eBook #28890]

Language: English

Credits: Produced by Louise Hope, Marcia Brooks, Steven Giacomelli
and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at (This file was produced from images
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Preservation Department Digital Library)


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Greek, usually in references to word derivation

ĀĒĪŌŪ āēīōūȳ

letters with macron or “long” mark

ĂĬŎŬ ăĕĭŏŭ

letters with breve or “short” mark

√ ∴ “root” and “therefore” symbols

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All brackets [ ] and braces { } are in the original.

Shorter Table of Contents
List of Passages for Translation

Transcriber’s Notes












‘Tu regere imperio populos, Romane, memento;

Hae tibi’erunt artes; pacisque imponere morem.

Parcere subiectis, et debellare superbos.’

Vergil, Aeneid, vi. 851 3

‘Fecisti patriam diversis gentibus unam,

Profuit iniustis te dominante capi.

Dumque offers victis proprii consortia iuris,

Urbem fecisti quod prius orbis erat.’

Rutilius, i. 63-6




All rights reserved



Whatever controversies may be astir as to the precise objects of a classical training, it will hardly be disputed that if that teaching has been successful the pupils will sooner or later be able to make out an ordinary passage of ‘unseen’ Latin or Greek. It is a test to which the purely linguistic teacher must obviously defer: while the master, who aims at imparting knowledge of the subject-matter must acknowledge, if his boys flounder helplessly in unprepared extracts, that they could have learnt about ancient life better through translations.

In, addition to the value of unseen translation, as a test of teaching it constitutes an admirable thinking exercise. But so numerous are the various books of extracts already published that I should have seen nothing to be gained from the appearance of a new one like the present volume were it not, as far as I know, different in two important respects from others. It contains six Demonstrations of how sentences are to be attacked: and further, the passages are chosen so that if a boy works through the book he can hardly fail to gain some outline knowledge of Roman Republican history.

As to the Demonstrations, their value will be evident if it is realised that failure in this sort of translation means failure to analyse: to split up, separate, distinguish the component parts of an apparently jumbled but really ordered sentence. A beginner must learn to trust the solvent with which we supply him; and the way to induce him to trust it is to show it to him at work. vi That is what a Demonstration will do if only the learner will give it a fair chance.

In regard to the historical teaching contained in the extracts, there can be little doubt that the present tendency of classical teaching is towards emphasising the subject-matter as well as the language. It is felt that as training in political principles the reading of Greek and Roman authors offers unique advantages, such as many English boys can appreciate, who are deaf to the literary appeal. The choice therefore of historical extracts in chronological order is an attempt to recognise both the two great aims of classical teaching at once. At any rate there is no reason to suppose that the linguistic exercise is in any way impaired by being combined with a little history.

I should like to direct attention also to the notes given on the extracts, and the purpose they are meant to serve. If no notes had been given some of the passages which are important or interesting historically would have been found too difficult for the boys for whom they are intended. Moreover, most of the notes concern the historical aspect of the extract to which they belong, and are part of the scheme by which the subject-matter of the passage is emphasised. Although the passages themselves are not strictly graduated, the help given in translation becomes less and less as the boy goes through the book; and it is obvious that those extracts which illustrate the later periods of Roman History will be found more difficult than the legends and stories which belong to an earlier age. In cases where no help at all is desired, the Miscellaneous Passages (which are without notes) may be used.


Eton: April 1908.



The aim of the present book is to help boys to translate at sight. Of the many books of unseen translation in general use few exhibit continuity of plan as regards the subject-matter, or give any help beyond a short heading. The average boy, unequal to the task before him, is forced to draw largely upon his own invention, and the master, in correcting written unseens, has seldom leisure to do more than mark mistakes—a method of correction almost useless to the boy, unless accompanied by full and careful explanation when the written work is given back.

Now that less time is available for Latin and Greek, new methods of teaching them must be adopted if they are to hold their own in our public schools. When Lord Dufferin could say, ‘I am quite determined, so far as care and forethought can prevent it, that the ten best years of my boy’s life shall not be spent (as mine were) in nominally learning two dead languages without being able to translate an ordinary paragraph from either without the aid of a dictionary;’ and Dr. Reid could write, ‘It is not too much to say that a large number of boys pass through our schools without ever dreaming that an ancient writer could pen three consecutive sentences with a connected meaning: chaos is felt to be natural to ancient literature: no search is made for sense, and the Latin or Greek book is looked upon as a more or less fortuitous concourse of words;’ when Dr. Rouse can assert, ‘The public schoolboy at nineteen is unable to read a simple Latin or Greek book with ease, or to express a simple series of thoughts without atrocious blunders: he has learnt from his classics neither accuracy viii nor love of beauty and truth’—it is obvious that, for the average boy, the system of perfunctorily prepared set-books and dashed-off unseens is a failure. The experience of every teacher who is also an examiner, and who has had to deal with public schoolboys, will confirm this; but during twenty-five years’ teaching and examining of boys in almost every stage, I have found that translation at sight, taught upon the plan of this book, not only produces a good result, but teaches a boy how to grapple with the bare text of a Latin author better than the habitual practice of translating at sight without any help at all. If the average boy is to be taught how to translate, his interest must be awakened and sustained, and the standard of routine work made as high as possible. The clever boys are, as a rule, well provided for; but, even for them, the methods of this book have been found to be the shortest road to accuracy and style in translation. Moreover by this means they have gained a firsthand acquaintance with Latin literature and the sources of Roman history.

It is impossible here to enter into ‘the question of the close and striking correspondence between the history, the literature, and the language of Rome. It was not until the history of Rome threw its mantle over her poetry that the dignity of the poet was recognised and acknowledged. . . . In the same way the life of the Roman people is closely bound up with the prose records, and the phenomena of the Roman Empire lend a human interest to all representative Roman writers.’1 Considerations of this kind form a sufficient justification of the method here adopted of employing the historical records of Rome as a basis of teaching.

In this book the Introduction (pp. 1-14) is written to teach a boy how to arrive at the meanings of words (Helps to Vocabulary, pp. 1-5); how to find out the thought of a sentence through analysis and a knowledge ix of the order of words in Latin (Helps to-Translation, pp. 5-12); how to reproduce in good English the exact meaning and characteristics of his author (Helps to Style, pp. 13-14).

In the Demonstrations (pp. 15-58) the boy is taught to notice all allusions that give him a clue to the sense of the passage, to grapple with the difficulties of construction, to break up sentences, and to distinguish between the principal and the subordinate thoughts both in prose and verse.

The Passages have been carefully selected, and contain accounts of nearly all the important events and illustrious men of the period of history to which they belong. They are chronologically arranged and divided into six periods, covering Roman history from B.C. 753 to B.C. 44, leaving the Augustan and subsequent period to be dealt with in a second volume. The translation help given in the notes is carefully graduated. The notes to Parts I., II., III. (marked D, pp. 60-107) are thus intended to help younger boys to deal with passages which would in some cases be too difficult for them; less help in translation is given in Parts IV. and V. (marked C, pp. 108-159); while the notes to Part VI. (marked B, pp. 160-236) are mainly concerned with historical explanation, illustration, or allusion.

The Miscellaneous Passages (pp. 238-271), chosen for me by my brother-in-law, Mr. A. M. Goodhart (Assistant Master at Eton College), are added to provide occasional passages in which no help is given. It is hoped that these, which deal with subjects of general interest, and include a somewhat wide range of authors, may give variety to the book, and supply more verse passages than the historical character of the rest would admit. For the sake of variety, or to economise time, some of the passages may be translated viva voce at the discretion of the master.

The Appendices (pp. 274-363) may be referred to when a boy finds himself in doubt about the value of x a Conjunction (I.), the force of a Prefix (II.), the meaning of a Suffix (III.), the Life and Times of his Author (VI.), or the historical significance of a date (VII.). In Appendix V. a Demonstration is given to show how a boy, after sufficient practice in translation by the help of analysis, may to some extent learn to think in Latin, and so to follow the Latin order in arriving at the thought.

The important question of what maps should accompany the book will be best solved by providing each boy with a copy of Murray’s Small Classical Atlas, edited by G. B. Grundy, which will be found to be admirably adapted to the purpose. By the kindness of Mr. John Murray, two plans (Dyrrachium and Pharsalus), not at present included in the Atlas, have been specially drawn to illustrate passages on pp. 216 and 218, and are placed opposite the text.

As far as possible I have acknowledged my indebtedness to the Editors whose editions of the classics have been consulted. For the historical explanations I am under special obligation to the histories of Ihne and Mommsen, to the ‘Life of Cicero’ by the Master of Balliol, and to the ‘Life of Caesar’ by Mr. Warde Fowler. I have also to thank Messrs. Macmillan for allowing me to quote from Dr. Potts’ ‘Aids to Latin Prose,’ and from Professor Postgate’s Sermo Latinus. For the prose passages the best texts have been consulted, while for Livy, Weissenborn’s text edited by Müller (1906) has been followed throughout. As regards the verse passages, the text adopted is, wherever possible, that of Professor Postgate’s recension of the Corpus Poetarum Latinorum. For the Short Lives I have found useful ‘The Student’s Companion to Latin Authors’ (Middleton and Mills), but I owe much more to the works of Teuffel, Cruttwell, Sellar, Tyrrell, and Mackail.

The Head Master of Eton, besides expressing his approval of the book, has kindly offered to write an Introductory Note. He has also given me an exceptional xi opportunity of testing more than half the historical passages by allowing them to be used in proof, until the book was ready, for the weekly unseen translation in the three blocks of fifth form, represented by the letters, B, C, D. The criticisms and suggestions made by Classical Masters at Eton, who have used the passages week by week, have been very valuable, and, in particular, my thanks are due to Mr. Impey, Mr. Tatham, Mr. Macnaghten, Mr. Wells, and Mr. Ramsay. My thanks are also due to the Lower Master, Mr. F. H. Rawlins, for kindly reading the MS. of the Introduction, Demonstrations, and Appendices I.-IV., and for giving me the benefit of his wide experience.

To my brother-in-law, Mr. A. M. Goodhart, I owe it that I undertook to write the book; without his advice it would never have seen the light, and he has given me most valuable help and encouragement at every stage.

As regards the choice of type and style of printing, I owe a special debt of thanks to Mr. W. Hacklett (manager of Messrs. Spottiswoode’s Eton branch), whose unceasing care and attention has been invaluable in seeing the book through the press. I must also acknowledge the patience and skill of Messrs. Spottiswoode’s London staff in carrying out the many alterations which I have found to be inseparable from the task of bringing each passage and its notes into the compass of a single page.

In conclusion I should like to say that it has been my aim throughout to adhere to what is best in Roman literature, and to omit passages the choice of which can only be justified by regarding their literary form apart from their moral value. Latin literature contains so much that is at once excellent in style and noble in thought that it seems a grave mistake to exalt the one at the expense of the other.

Maxima debetur puero reverentia.


Windsor: April 1908.

1. The late Professor Goodhart.



Introductory Note v
Editor’s Preface vii
List of Passages for Translation xv
Index of Authors xxiii
I. Helps to Vocabulary 1-5
II. Helps to Translation 5-12
III. Helps to Style 13-14
(1) Illustrating Roman History.

Part I.—Regal Period, B.C. 753-509


Part II.—Early Republic, B.C. 509-366


Part III.—The Conquest of Italy, B.C. 366-266


Part IV.—Contest with Carthage, B.C. 264-202


Part V.—Formation of Empire beyond Italy, in Europe and Africa, B.C. 200-133


Part VI.—Period of Civil Strife in Italy, and Foreign Wars, ending in Revolution, B.C. 133-44

(2) Miscellaneous Passages 237-271
I. List of Important Conjunctions 274-276
II. List of Important Prefixes 277-281
III. List of Important Suffixes 282-286
IV. Groups of Cognate Words 287-288
V. How to Think in Latin 289-292
VI. Short Lives of Roman Authors 293-345

Chronological Outlines of Roman History and Literature

INDEX 365-368

PLAN OF DYRRACHIUM opposite page 216
PLAN OF PHARSALUS opposite page 218


16 Fierce encounter with the Germans Caesar, B. G. i. 52
24 The Music of Arion Ovid, Fasti ii. 83
32 A rash promise rashly believed Livy xxv. 19
40 Rashness justly punished Livy xxv. 19
48 The Happy Life Vergil, Georg. ii. 490
54 The Tomb of Archimedes Cicero, Tusc. v. 23. 64
Part I.—The Regal Period, 753-509 B.C.
60 The Vision of Anchises Vergil, Aen. vi. 777
61 A. The Passing of Romulus Livy i. 16
B. The Mystery explained Ovid, Fasti ii. 379
62 A. The Gate of Janus Livy i. 19
B. „„ Vergil, Aen. vii. 607
63 The Sibylline Books A. Gellius i. 19
64 A. Sextus Tarquinius at Gabii Livy i. 54
B. The Fall of Gabii Ovid, Fasti ii. 543
65 The Position of Rome Cicero, de Rep. ii. 3
66 The Praise of Italy Vergil, Georg. ii. 136
Part II.—The Early Republic, 509-366 B.C.
67 A. Horatius Vergil, Aen. viii. 646
B. Livy ii. 10
68 Horatius Livy ii. 10
69 A. Mucius Scaevola Livy ii. 12
B. „„ Martial, i. 21
70 Battle of Lake Regillus Livy ii. 20
71 Tribunes of the People Livy ii. 32
72 Coriolanus Livy ii. 40
73 Destruction of the Fabii Ovid, Fasti ii. 175
74 A. Cincinnatus Florus i. 11. 12
B. ‘In the brave days of old’ Ovid, Fasti iii. 729
75 The Decemvirate. XII. Tables Livy iii. 32, 34
76 Verginia’s Death not in vain Livy iii. 49
77 Cossus wins the Spolia Opima Livy iv. 19
xvi 78 First Pay given to Citizen Soldiers Livy iv. 59
79 A. Lament over Veii Propertius v. 10. 27
B. The Rise of the Alban Lake Cicero, de Div. i. 44. 100
80 The Conquest of Veii Livy v. 21
81 The Battle of the Allia Livy v. 38
82 A. The Battle of the Allia Livy v. 38
B. July 18th, a Dies Nefastus Lucan, Phars. vii. 407
83 Roman Dignity and Courage Livy v. 41

A. Manlius Capitolinus and the Sacred Geese

Verg. Aen. viii. 652
B. The Fate of Manlius Val. Max. vi. de Sev.
85 Camillus, Parens Patriae Livy v. 49
86 A. Migration to Veii abandoned Livy v. 55
B. Juno forbids Rebuilding of Troy Horace, Od. iii. 3. 57
87 First Plebeian Consul Livy vi. 35
88 Origin of the Floralia Ovid, Fasti v. 237
Part III.—The Conquest of Italy, 366-266 B.C.
89 Manlius and his son Torquatus Cicero, de Off. iii. 112
90 An Important Epoch Livy vii. 29
91 Battle of Mt. Gaurus. M. Valerius Corvus Livy vii. 33
92 A. Self-sacrifice of Decius Mus Propertius, iii. 11. 63
B. The Dream of the Consuls Val. Max. i. de Somn.
93 The Battle of Mt. Vesuvius Livy viii. 10
94 The Dictator and his Master of the Horse Livy viii. 30
95 The Caudine Forks Livy ix. 2
96 „ „The Yoke Livy ix. 5
97 Rome repudiates the Treaty Cicero, de Off. iii. 109
98 Battle of Bovianum Livy ix. 44
99 Battle of Sentinum Livy x. 28
100 Aims of Pyrrhus. Battle of Heraclea Justinus xviii. 1
101 Fabricius the Just Cicero, de Off. iii. 86
102 Appius the Blind Cicero, de Sen. 16, 37
103 A. The Battle of Asculum Florus i. 18. 9
B. The Battle near Beneventum Florus i. 18. 11
104 In Praise of Pyrrhus Justinus xxv. 5
105 A. Manius Curius Dentatus Cicero, de Sen. 55
B. „„ „ Juvenal xi. 78
C. „„ „ Horace, Od. i. 12. 41
106 In Praise of Tarentum Horace, Od. ii. 6. 9
107 The Praise of Italy Vergil, Georg. ii. 155
Part IV.—The Contest with Carthage, 264-202 B.C.
108 The Vision of Anchises Vergil, Aen. vi. 836
109 The Foundation of Carthage Justinus, xviii. 5
110 Aeneas views the Building of Carthage Vergil, Aen. i. 419
111 Regulus, a Roman Martyr Cicero, de Off. iii. 99
xvii 112 A. Naval Victory near Mylae (Adapted)
B. Honour conferred on Duilius Cicero, de Sen. 44
113 Carthaginian Victory off Drepana Cicero, N. D. ii. 3. 7
114 A. Lutatius’ Victory off Aegates Insulae Nepos, Hamilcar i.
B. „ „„„„ Sil. Ital. vi. 653
115 A. Importance of Second Punic War Livy xxi. 1
B. Oath of the Boy Hannibal Livy xxi. 1
116 ‘The paths of glory lead but to the grave’ Juvenal x. 147
117 Character of Hannibal Livy xxi. 4
118 The Siege of Saguntum Livy xxi. 7
119 A. The Dream of Hannibal Cicero, de Div. i. 24. 49
B. The Interpretation Sil. Ital. iii. 198
120 From the Pyrenees to the Rhone Livy xxi. 28
121 From the Rhone to Italy Livy xxi. 30
122 The Descent of the Alps Livy xxi. 36
123 A. The Battle at the Trebia Frontinus, Strat. ii. 5. 23
B. The River bars the Retreat Sil. Ital. iv. 570
124 The Battle of Lake Trasimene Livy xxii. 4
125 „ „ „ Livy xxii. 5
126 The Death of Flaminius Sil. Ital. v. 644
127 Q. Fabius Maximus Cunctator Cicero, de Sen. 10
128 Fabius and his Master of the Horse Livy xxii. 29

Cannae. Destruction of the Roman Infantry

Livy xxii. 47
130 Cannae. ‘Paulus animae magnae prodigus’ Livy xxii. 49

A. Maharbal urges Hannibal to march on Rome

Livy xxii. 51

B. Scipio forbids Nobles to abandon Italy

Frontinus, Strat. iv. 7. 39
132 A. Rome’s Heroes Horace, Od. i. 12. 37
B. The Dream of Propertius Propertius iii. 3. 1
133 A. Capua aspires to rival Rome Horace, Epod. xvi. 1
B. Decius Magius defies Hannibal Livy xxiii. 10
134 A. ‘Capua became Hannibal’s Cannae’ Florus ii. 6. 21
B. The Punishment of Rebel Capua Livy xxvi. 16
135 Marcellus at Nola Livy xxiii. 16
136 Cicero’s Description of Syracuse Cicero, in Verr. ii. 4. 117
137 Engineering Skill of Archimedes Livy xxiv. 34
138 Marcellus laments over Syracuse Livy xxv. 24
139 The Death of Marcellus Livy xxvii. 27
140 Character of Scipio Africanus Maior Livy xxvi. 19
141 Scipio takes New Carthage Livy xxvi. 45
142 Nero’s March to the Metaurus Livy xxvii. 43
143 The Metaurus Horace, Od. iv. 4. 29
144 Hannibal leaves Italy Livy xxx. 19
145 Zama. Before the Battle Livy xxx. 31
146 Zama. The Order of Battle Frontinus, Strat. ii. 3. 16

Part V.—Formation of Empire beyond Italy, in Europe and Africa, 200-133 B.C.

147 Battle of Cynoscephalae Livy xxxiii. 9
148 Flamininus proclaims Freedom of Greece Livy xxxiii. 32
149 A. Battle of Thermopylae Frontinus, Strat. ii.
B. Battle of Magnesia Florus i. 24
150 Deaths of Three Great Men Livy xxxix. 51
151 M. Porcius Cato Nepos, Cato ii.
152 „„ Horace, Od. ii. 15
153 Pydna (Aemilius Paulus) Livy xliv. 41
154 „„ „ Livy xliv. 41
155 Destruction of Carthage Florus ii. 15. 11
156 Destruction of Corinth Vell. Paterc. i. 13
157 The Lusitanian Hannibal Florus ii. 17. 13
158 Destruction of Numantia Florus ii. 18. 11
159 Rome the Invincible Horace, Od. iv. 4. 49

Part VI.—Civil Strife in Italy, and Foreign Wars, ending in Revolution, 133-44 B.C.

160 The Gracchi Sallust, Iug. 42
161 A. On the Death of Tiberius Gracchus Cicero, de Off. i. 76
B. On Lex Frumentaria of C. Gracchus Cicero, Tusc. iii. 20. 48
C. On C. Gracchus as an Orator Cicero, Brutus 125
162 The Betrayal of Jugurtha Sallust, Iug. 113

A. Arpinum. Birthplace of Cicero and Marius

Juvenal viii. 237
B. Cicero on Marius Cicero, Marius
164 Teutones annihilated at Aquae Sextiae Florus iii. 3
165 A. Marius’ Flight from Sulla Lucan, Phars. ii. 67
B. Marius outlived his fame Juvenal x. 278
166 Cicero on Civil Strife Cicero, in Cat. iii. 10
167 Tribunate of M. Livius Drusus Vell. Paterc. ii. 13
168 A. Outbreak of the Social War at Asculum Florus iii. 18. 3

B. The Sabellian father’s advice to his sons

Juvenal xiv. 179
169 A. Defeat and Death of Rutilius Ovid, Fasti vi. 563
B. The Lex Plautia Papiria Cicero, pro Arch. iv. 7
C. Cicero’s first and only Campaign Cicero, Phil. xii. 11. 27
D. The Battle near Asculum Florus iii. 18. 14
170 Sulla’s Character and Bearing Sallust, Iug. 95
171 A. Mithridates’ Youth and Early Training Justinus xxxvii. 2
B. His Preparations for Conquest Justinus xxxvii. 3. 4
172 The Battle of Chaeronea Frontinus, Strat. ii. 3. 17
173 A. Capture of Athens and the Piraeus Vell. Paterc. ii. 23
B. Battle of Orchomenus Frontinus, Strat. ii. 8. 12
C. Peace of Dardanus Vell. Paterc. ii. 23

A. Battles of Sacriportus and the Colline Gate

Lucan, Phars. ii. 134
B. „ „ „ „ Vell. Paterc. ii. 27

A. Death of the Younger Marius. Sulla Felix

Vell. Paterc. ii. 27
B. The Sullan Proscriptions Lucan, Phars. ii.
xix 176 A. Sulla appointed Dictator Vell. Paterc. ii. 28
B. Sulla lays down his Dictatorship Suetonius, Iul. 77
C. Death of Sulla Val. Max. ix. 3. 8
177 A. Limitation of Tribune’s Right of Veto Cicero, de Leg. iii. 9. 22
B. Abolition of Corn Distributions Sallust, Hist., Or. M. Lep.

C. Judicial Functions restored to Senators

Vell. Paterc. ii. 32
D. A Sumptuary Law A. Gellius ii. 24. 11
178 Speech of Lepidus against Sulla Sallust, Hist., Or. M. Lep.
179 Sertorius and his Fawn A. Gellius, xv. 22
180 A. A New Hannibal Florus iii. 22. 2
B. The Death of Sertorius Vell. Paterc. ii. 30
181 Lucullus’ Character and Early Career Cicero, Acad. ii. 1
182 A. A Soldier of Lucullus Horace, Ep. ii. 2. 26
B. The Wealth of Lucullus Horace, Ep. i. 6. 40
183 Spartacus and his Gladiators Florus iii. 20. 3
184 Lucullus Ponticus Cicero, pro L. Man. 20
185 Pompeius’ Character and Career Cicero, pro L. Man. 29
186 The Man Caesar Suetonius, Iul. 45
187 Caesar and the Pirates Suetonius, Iul. 4
188 A Roman Citizen maltreated Cicero, in Verr. ii. 5. 62
189 The Lex Gabinia Vell. Paterc. ii. 31
190 Pompeius clears the Seas of Pirates Cicero, pro L. Man. 34

Pompeius subdues Mithridates and Tigranes

Vell. Paterc. ii. 37
192 A. Caesar Curule Aedile Suetonius, Iul. 10
B. Caesar Propraetor in Further Spain Suetonius, Iul. 18
193 Cicero declaims against Catiline Cicero, in Cat. i. 1
194 The End of Catiline Sallust, Cat. 61
195 Caesar forms First Triumvirate Vell. Paterc. ii. 44
196 ‘That day he overcame the Nervii’ Caesar, B. G. ii. 25
197 Naval Battle with the Veneti Caesar, B. G. iii. 14
198 Caesar’s Bridge across the Rhine Caesar, B. G. iv. 17
199 Cassivellaunus Caesar, B. G. v. 19
200 The Gallic uprising. Vercingetorix Caesar, B. G. vii. 14
201 Siege of Gergovia Caesar, B. G. vii. 50
202 Siege of Alesia Caesar, B. G. vii. 84
203 Cicero’s Banishment Vell. Paterc. ii. 45
204 Cicero’s Return Cicero, ad Att. iv. 1
205 In Praise of Caesar Cicero, de Prov. Cons. 33
206 ‘Quem deus vult perdere, prius dementat’ Florus iii. 11. 1
207 Carrhae: after the Battle Lucan, Phars. i. 98
„ „„ Horace, Od. iii. 5. 5
„ „„ Ovid, Fasti vi. 465
208 Cicero’s humane Administration Cicero, ad Att. v. 21
211 Caesar crosses the Rubicon Lucan, Phars. i. 213
212 Caesar’s defence before the Senate Caesar, B. C. i. 32
213 The Campaign round Lerida Lucan, Phars. iv. 167
214 A. Siege of Massilia Lucan, Phars. iii. 388
B. „ „ Caesar, B. C. ii. 14
215 The Death of Curio Lucan, Phars. iv. 799
xx 216 Dyrrachium Caesar, B. C. iii. 47
217 Eve of Pharsalus. Pompeius’ Dream Lucan, Phars. vii. 7
218 Pompeius ill-advised at Pharsalus Caesar, B. C. iii. 92
219 A. Pharsalus and Cannae compared Lucan, Phars. vii. 397

B. Battlefields of Pharsalus and Philippi

Vergil, Georg. i. 489
220 How Pompeius died Caesar, B. C. iii. 103
221 Cato’s Eulogy on Pompeius Lucan, Phars. ix. 190
222 The Grave of Pompeius Lucan, Phars. viii. 789
223 ‘Atrox Animus Catonis’ A. Pollio, B. Afr. 88
224 A. Cato Uticensis Vell. Paterc. ii. 35
B. „„ Lucan, Phars. ii. 374
225 Caesar dines with Cicero Cicero, ad Att. xiii. 52
226 The Death of Caesar Suetonius, Iul. 82
227 A. In Praise of Caesar Cicero, Phil. ii. 45
B. „„„ Lucan, Phars. i. 143
C. Apotheosis of Caesar Suetonius, Iul. 88
230 A. Peroration of Second Philippic Cicero, Phil. ii. 46
B. On the Murder of Cicero Martial, iii. 66
231 A. Cicero as Orator and Poet Juvenal x. 114
B. Cicero as Advocate Catullus xlix.
232 The Death of Cicero Livy, fr.
233 A. In Praise of Cicero Vell. Paterc. ii. 66
B. „„„ Livy fr.

234 Laus Italiae Propertius iii. 22
235 Laus Romae

Claudian, de Cons. Stil. iii. 150

236 ‘Quod cuncti gens una sumus’

Prudentius, c. Symm. ii. 583

Miscellaneous Passages.
238 A. Propempticon Vergilio Horace, Od. i. 3
B. „„ „ Horace, Od. i. 3
239 A. Propempticon Maecio Celeri Statius, Sil. ii. 2. 1
B. „„ „„ Statius, Sil. ii. 2. 42
240 A. Seneca Seneca, Ep. xv. 8
B. Seneca, Medea 920
241 A. Criticism of Poets Horace, Ep. ii. 1. 50
B. „„Terence Caesar, ap. Sueton.
C. Ovid on his Contemporaries Ovid, Tr. iv. 10. 41
242 A. A Storm at Sea Ovid, Tr. i. 2. 19
B. The Passing of Romulus Ovid, Fasti ii. 493
C. Thunder and Hail Pacuvius ap. Cic.
D. The Argo in a Gale Val. Fl. Arg. viii. 328
243 A. Lesbia’s Sparrow Catullus iii.
B. ‘My Parrot, an obtrusive bird’ Statius, Sil. ii. 4
C. The Lap-dog and its Portrait Martial i. 109
xxi 244 A. The Roman Satirists Quintilian x. 1. 93
B. A Criticism of Lucilius Horace, Sat. i. 4. 1
C. Why Juvenal wrote Satire Juvenal i. 19
D. Juvenal’s Subject Juvenal i. 81
245 A. Virtue defined Lucilius, fr.
B. Poor men of mighty deeds Juvenal xi. 90
C. Persius in praise of his Tutor Persius v. 19
246 A. Objections to a permanent Theatre Livy, Epit. 48
B. Scenic Arrangements Suetonius ap. Serv.
C. The Awnings Lucretius iv. 75
D. The Law of Otho Livy, Epit. 99
E. Usurpers of Equestrian Privileges Horace, Epod. iv. 11
247 A. The Web of Fate Catullus lxiv. 311
B. The Skill of Arachne Ovid, Met. vi. 19
C. The Pastime of Circe Vergil, Aen. vii. 10
248 A. The Monster approaches Andromeda Ovid, Met. iv. 671
B. How Perseus won his Bride Ovid, Met. iv. 721
249 A. Andromeda Manilius, Astr. v. 567
B. The Death of the Monster Manilius, Astr. v. 595
250 A. The School of Flavius Horace, Sat. i. 6. 71
B. Ovid at School Ovid. Tr. iv. 10. 15
C. The Schoolmaster’s Life Juvenal vii. 222
D. Early School Martial xiv. 223
E. Homogeneous Divisions Quintilian i. 2. 23
F. Plagosus Orbilius Martial ix. 68. 1
251 A. Books Ovid, Tr. i. 1. 1
B. Tibullus iii. 1. 9
C. Martial i. 2
252 A. Arethusa Ovid, Met. v. 585
B. Ovid, Met. v. 614
253 A. Hylas Propertius i. 20. 17
B. Val. Fl. Arg. iii. 581
254 The Portmanteau Fish Plautus, Rud. iv. 3. 58
255 A. ‘Humani nihil a me alienum puto’ Terence, Haut. i. 1. 15
B. Cicero on Terence Suetonius, vit. Ter. 34
C. Defence of Contaminatio Terence, Haut. prol. 16
256 A. The Song of the Nightingale Pliny, H. N. x. 81
B. A Corinthian Statuette Pliny, Ep. iii. 6
257 A. Helps to Style Pliny, Ep. vii. 9
B. Importance of Concentration Quintilian, Inst. Or. x. 3. 28
258 A. De Simonide Phaedrus iv. 23
B. Mons Parturiens Phaedrus iv. 24
C. Truth will out Phaedrus, App. 22
259 A. The Golden Age Tibullus i. 3. 35
B. Birthday Wishes Tibullus ii. 2

A. On the delights of Hunting with a Note-book

Pliny, Ep. i. 6
B. Oenone Paridi Ovid, Her. v. 17
C. The Hunting Party Vergil, Aen. iv. 129
xxii 261 A. A Roman Day Martial iv. 8
B. The Simple Life Horace, Sat. i. 6. 110
262 A. In Praise of Agricola Tacitus, Agr. 46
B. Britain: its Climate and Products Tacitus, Agr. 12
263 A. Trimalchio’s Supper Petronius 50
B. „ „ Petronius 51
I. Pronunciation: H
II. A Street Cry
III. K, Q, C
  IV. U
Quintilian i. 5. 20
Catullus lxxxiv.
Cicero, Div. ii. 40. 84
Ter. Maurus
Plautus, Men. 555
I. Proverbial Expressions
II. „ „
III. „ „
IV. „ „
V. „ „
VI. „ „
VII. „ „
VIII. „ „
IX. „ „
X. „ „
XI. „ „
XII. „ „
XIII. „ „
XIV. „ „
XV. „ „
XVI. „ „
Caesar, B. C. ii. 27
Cicero, Phil. xii. 5
Horace, Ep. i. 2. 40
Juvenal ii. 83
Livy xxi. 10
Lucretius ii. 79
Martial i. 32
Plautus, Bacch. i. 2. 36
Terence, Eun. prol. 41
Terence, Ph. ii. 4. 14
Pub. Syrus
Seneca, de Brev. Vit. i. 2
Tacitus, Agr. 30
Varro, de Re Rust. iii. 1
Vergil, Aen. vi. 95
Vergil, Aen. i. 461
266 A. ‘Whom the gods love die young’ Quintilian, Inst. Or. vi. 1. 9
B. Servius Sulpicius to Cicero. Cicero, ad Fam. iv. 5
267 A. Catullus at his Brother’s Grave Catullus ci.
B. To Calvus on his Wife’s Death Catullus xcvi.
C. Cornelia’s Plea to her Husband Propertius iv. 11. 1
D. Mors Tibulii Ovid, Am. iii. 9
268 Apophoreta Martial
269 Martial
270 Epitaphs and Inscriptions.
I. On Naevius
II. On Ennius
III. On Pacuvius
IV. On Plautus
V. On Tibullus
VI. In tumulo hominis felicis
VII. Thermopylae
Domitius Marsus
Ausonius, Epit. 36
Cicero, Tusc. i. 42. 101
271 Epilogue.
A. Horace Horace, Od. iii. 30
B. Ovid Ovid, Met. xv. 871
C. Martial Martial iv. 89


Asinius Pollio, 223

Aulus Gellius, 63, 177, 179

Ausonius, 270

Caesar, 16, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 212, 214, 216, 218, 220, 241, 265

Catullus, 231, 243, 247, 264, 267

Cicero, 54, 65, 79, 89, 97, 101, 102, 105, 111, 112, 113, 119, 127, 136, 161, 163, 166, 169, 177, 181, 184, 185, 188, 190, 193, 204, 205, 208, 225, 227, 230, 264, 265, 266, 270

Claudian, 235

Domitius Marsus, 270

Ennius, 270

Florus, 74, 103, 134, 149, 155, 157, 158, 164, 168, 169, 180, 183, 206

Frontinus, 123, 131, 146, 149, 172, 173

Horace, 86, 105, 106, 132, 133, 143, 152, 159, 182, 207, 238, 241, 244, 246, 250, 261, 265, 271

Justinus, 100, 104, 109, 171

Juvenal, 105, 116, 163, 165, 168, 231, 244, 246, 250, 265

Livy, 32, 40, 61, 62, 64, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 75, 76, 77, 78, 80, 81, 82, 83, 85, 86, 87, 90, 91, 93, 94, 95, 96, 98, 99, 115, 117, 118, 120, 121, 122, 124, 125, 128, 129, 130, 131, 133, 134, 135, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 144, 145, 147, 148, 150, 153, 154, 232, 233, 246, 265

Lucan, 82, 165, 174, 175, 207, 211, 213, 214, 215, 217, 219, 221, 222, 224, 227

Lucilius, 245

Lucretius, 246, 265

Manilius, 249

Martial, 69, 230, 243, 250, 251, 261, 265, 268, 269, 271

Naevius, 270

Nepos, 114, 151

Ovid, 24, 61, 64, 73, 74, 88, 169, 207, 241, 242, 247, 248, 250, 251, 252, 260, 267, 271

Pacuvius, 242, 270

Persius, 245

Petronius, 263

Phaedrus, 258

Plautus, 254, 264, 265

Pliny the Elder, 256

Pliny the Younger, 256, 257, 260

Propertius, 79, 92, 132, 234, 253, 267

Prudentius, 236

Publilius Syrus, 265

Quintilian, 244, 250, 257, 264, 266

Sallust, 160, 162, 170, 177, 178, 194

Seneca, 240, 265

Silius Italicus, 114, 119, 123, 126

Statius, 239, 243

Suetonius, 176, 186, 187, 192, 226, 227, 246, 255

Tacitus, 262, 265

Terence, 255, 265

Terentianus Maurus, 264

Tibullus, 251, 259

Valerius Flaccus, 242, 253

Valerius Maximus, 84, 92, 176

Varro, 265

Velleius Paterculus, 156, 167, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 180, 189, 191, 195, 203, 224, 233

Vergil, 48, 60, 62, 66, 67, 84, 107, 108, 110, 219, 247, 260, 265



1. Heading.—The selections in this book are in most cases intelligible apart from their context. In cases where this is not so, you will find it a valuable exercise to endeavour to arrive at the context for yourself. In all cases, however, you should pay attention to the Heading, which will give you a useful clue to the meaning of the passage,

2. Author.—When you see the author’s name, try to remember what you know about him. For example, Livy, the historian of Rome and friend of Augustus, the contemporary of Vergil and Ovid. The short Lives, pp. 293-345, will tell you the chief facts about the authors from whom the selections are taken, and will give you a brief summary of their chief works. Also, if you refer to Appendix VII., pp. 347-363, you will gain some idea of the time in which the authors lived and of their contemporaries.

3. Read the Passage through, carefully.—As you read—

(1) Notice all allusions and key-words that may help you to the sense of the passage.

(2) Pay special attention to the opening sentence. In translating a passage much depends on getting the first sentence right.

(3) Notice especially the connectives which introduce sentences and clauses marked off by commas. In this way you will be able to distinguish between a Principal Sentence and a Subordinate Clause.

(For List of Conjunctions see Appendix I. pp. 274-276.)


4. Through English Derivatives.—English derivatives, if used in the proper way, may give you valuable help in inferring meanings. The reason why you must generally not translate the Latin word by the derived English word is that, as 2 you probably know, many English derivatives have come from Latin words which had wholly or in part lost their earlier classical meaning, or from Latin words not found at all in classical Latin. Yet in such cases the English word may be far from useless. You must take care to let it suggest to you the original or root-meaning, leaving the correct meaning of the Latin, whether the same as the English word or not, to be determined by the context.

For example, sē-cūr-us does not mean secure, but (like secure in Shakespeare and Milton) care-less.

‘This happy night the Frenchmen are secure,

Having all day caroused and banqueted.’

Shakespeare, Hen. VI. Part 1. II. i. 11.

In-crēd-ib-il-is, on the other hand, often cannot be better translated than by incredible, and im-plācā-bilis by implacable.

Notice, too, how often in the case of verbs the supine stem will suggest to you the meaning of the Latin through some English derivative, which the present stem conceals.

For example:—

pingo pictum picture suggests to paint.
caveo cautum caution  „ beware.
colo cultum culture  „ till.
fallo falsum false  „ deceive.

5. Through French Derivatives.—Sometimes, when you cannot think of an English derivative, a French word that you know will help you to the meaning of the Latin.

For example:—

L. F.
pontem pont suggests bridge.
gustum goût taste.
prātum pré meadow.
tālem tel such.
bĭbĕre boire to drink.

But, in order to make French derivatives a real help to you, you must know something of the origin of the French language and of the chief rules that govern the pronunciation (and therefore the spelling) of French. Without going too much into detail, it may help you to remember that—


(1) French has taken many words from colloquial Latin, which in the days of Cicero was very different from classical Latin.

For example:—

Literary Latin. Popular Latin. French.
equus caballus cheval horse.
pugna batalia bataille battle.
os bucca bouche mouth.

(2) Unaccented syllables are usually dropped.

For example:—

cérv-um cerf stag.
bonitátem bonté goodness.

(3) The general tendency of French is towards smoothness and contraction.

For example:—

L. F.
bestiam bête beast.
fact-um fait deed.
spiss-um épais thick.
coll-um cou neck.

In fact, bearing in mind the caution given you, it is an excellent rule to try to think out the meaning of the Latin by the help of English and French derivatives.

6. Compound Words.—When you come to a word which you cannot translate, and in regard to which English and French derivatives do not help you, break up the word, if a compound, into its simple elements of Prefix, Stem, Suffix. Then from the meaning of its root or stem and from the force of the prefix and suffix, and by the help of the context, try to arrive at an English word to suit the sense.

In order to be able to do this you should have some knowledge of—

(1) A few simple rules for the vowel changes of verbs in composition. Thus:

a before two consonants (except ng) often changes to e.

E.g. sacr-o, con-secr-o; damn-o, con-demn-o.

a before one consonant and before ng often changes to i.

E.g. fac-io, ef-fic-io; căd-o, ac-cid-o; tang-o, con-ting-o.

But grăd-ior, ag-grĕd-ior.


a before l and another consonant changes to u.

E.g. salt-are, in-sult-are.

ĕ changes to ĭ (but not e before two consonants) and ae to i.

E.g. ten-ere, ob-tin-ere; quaer-ere, in-quir-ere.

au changes to u.

E.g. claud-ere, in-clud-ere.

(2) Prefixes:—To help you to detach the prefix more readily, notice these simple euphonic changes, all of which result in making the pronunciation smoother and easier. Thus:—

(i.) The last consonant of a Latin prefix is often made the same as, or similar to, the first consonant of the stem.

E.g. ad-fero = affero; ob-pono = op-pono; com(=cum)-tendo = con-tendo.

(ii.) The final consonant of a prefix is often dropped before two consonants.

E.g. ad-scendo = a-scendo.

Notice also that the prepositional prefixes to verbs express different ideas in different combinations.

Thus, sometimes the prefix has a somewhat literal prepositional force.

E.g. per-currere = to run through.

But sometimes an intensive force.

E.g. per-terrere = to thoroughly frighten.

In all such cases you must be partly guided by the context.

(For List of Important Prefixes, see Appendix II. pp. 277—281.)

(3) Suffixes (other than grammatical inflexions).

A knowledge of the most important suffixes will often help you to the correct meaning of a Latin word, the root of which is familiar to you.

Thus from the √ag = drive, move, we have—

by addition of -tor

(= agent or doer of an action), actor = a doer, agent.


(= acts or results of acts), agmen = a course, line of march, &c.


(= belonging to, able to), agilis = easily moved, agile.


(= forcible or repeated action), agito = put in action, agitate.

(For List of Important Suffixes, see Appendix III. pp. 282—286.)


(4) Cognates, that is, words related in meaning through a common root. You will find it very useful to make for yourself lists of cognate words.

Thus from the √gna, gno = know, we have—

gna-rus = knowing.

i-gnarus (= in + gnarus) = ignorant.

nos-co (= gno-sco) = to get a knowledge of.

i-gno-sco = not to know, pardon.

no-bilis (= gno-bilis) = that can be known, famous, noble.

no-men (= gno-men) = a name.

To group together in this manner words of common origin and words closely associated in meaning is one of the best ways in which you can increase your vocabulary.

(For additional Examples of Cognates, see Appendix IV. pp. 287-8.)


You have now read the passage through carefully, and thought out the vocabulary to the best of your ability. Begin then to translate the opening sentence, and pay great attention to these

7. General Rules.—(1) Underline the Principal Verb, Subject (if expressed), and Object (if any).

(2) If the sentence contains only one finite verb, all you have to do is to group round Subject, or Verb, or Object the words and phrases that belong to each of the three.

(3) Translate the sentence literally. Do this mentally, without writing it down.

(4) Then write down the best translation you can.

For example:—

At GERMANI celeriter, consuetudine sua phalange facta, IMPETUS gladiorum EXCEPERUNT.

But the Germans quickly formed into a phalanx, as was their custom, and received the attacks of the swords (i.e. of the Romans with drawn swords).

(5) If the sentence contains one or more subordinate clauses, consider each subordinate clause as if it were bracketed off separately, and then deal with each clause as if it were a principal sentence, finding out its Subject, Verb, Object, and adding to each its enlargements. Then return to the sentence as a whole, and group round its Subject, Predicate, and Object the various subordinate clauses which belong to each.


8. Help through Analysis.—Very often analysis will help you to find out the proper relation of the subordinate clauses to the three parts of the Principal Sentence. You need not always analyse on paper, but do it always in your mind. You will find an example of a simple method of analysis at the close of Demonstrations I and IV, pp. 23, 47.

When analysing, notice carefully that:—

(1) An enlargement of a Noun may be

(a) An adjective TERTIAM aciem.
(b) A noun in apposition Publius Crassus ADULESCENS.
(c) A dependent genitive impetus GLADIORUM.

(d) A participle or participial phrase

(e) An adjectival clause


(2) An enlargement of a Verb may be

(a) An adverb CELERITER exceperunt.

(b) A prepositional phrase


(c) An ablative absolute

PHALANGE FACTA exceperunt.

(d) An adverbial clause

ID CUM ANIMADVERTISSET, Publius Crassus misit.

9. Help through Punctuation.—Though only the full-stop was used by the ancients, the punctuation marks which are now used in all printed texts should be carefully noticed, especially in translating long and involved sentences.

Thus in Demonstrations III and IV notice how the subordinate clauses are for the most part enclosed in commas.

10. Help through Scansion and Metre.—A knowledge of this is indispensable in translating verse. To scan the lines will help you to determine the grammatical force of a word, and a knowledge of metre will enable you to grasp the poet’s meaning as conveyed by the position which he assigns to the various words, and the varying emphasis which results from variation of metre. For example:—

(1) A grammatical help.—You know that final -a is short in nom. and voc. sing. 1st Decl., and in neut. plural, and is long in abl. sing. 1st Decl. and 2nd Imperat. 1st Conj.

Thus in Demonstration II (p. 24) you can easily determine the grammatical form of finals in -a.


In Sentence IV agnă, in VI cervă, in VIII iunctă columbă, in IX Cynthiă are all short and nom. sing.

In Sentence V umbrā unā are long and abl. sing. in agreement.

(2) A help to the poet’s meaning.—The more you know of the principles of scansion, the better able you will be to understand and appreciate the skill with which a great poet varies his metre and chooses his words.

11. Help through a Study of the Period in Latin.—One great difference between English and Latin Prose is that, while modern English is to a great extent a language of short, detached sentences, Latin expresses the sense by the passage as a whole, and holds the climax in suspense until the delivery of the last word. ‘This mode of expression is called a PERIOD (a circuĭtus or ambĭtus verborum), because the reader, in order to collect together the words of the Principal Sentence, must make a circuit, so to say, round the inserted clauses,’2 ‘Latin possesses what English does not, a mode of expression by means of which, round one main idea are grouped all its accessory ideas, and there is thus formed a single harmonious whole, called the PERIOD.’3

A PERIOD then is a sentence containing only one main idea (the Principal Sentence) and several Subordinate Clauses. The Periodic style is generally used for History and Description, and is best seen in Cicero and Livy.

The following is a good example of the Period in Latin:—

4VOLSCI exiguam spem in armis, alia undique abscissa, cum tentassent, praeter cetera adversa loco quoque iniquo ad pugnam congressi, iniquiore ad fugam, cum ab omni parte caederentur, ad preces a certamine versi, dedito imperatore traditisque armis, sub iugum missi, cum singulis vestimentis ignominiae cladisque pleni DIMITTUNTUR.   The VOLSCIANS found that now they were severed from every other hope, there was but little in prolonging the conflict. In addition to other disadvantages they had engaged on a spot ill-adapted for fighting and worse for flight. Cut to pieces on every side they abandoned the contest and cried for quarter. After surrendering their commander and delivering up their arms, they passed under the yoke, and with one garment each WERE SENT to their homes covered with disgrace and defeat.

Notice here that

(1) There is only one main idea, that of the ignominious return of the Volscians to their homes.

(2) The rest describes the attendant circumstances of the surrender and of the causes that led to it.

(3) In English we should translate by at least four separate sentences.

(4) The Latin contains only forty-eight words, while the English contains eighty-one.

Professor Postgate (‘Sermo Latinus,’ p. 45) gives the following example of the way in which a Latin PERIOD may be built up:—

BALBUS vir optimus, dux clārissimus et multis mihi beneficiis carus, rogitantibus Arvernis ut populi Romani māiestātem ostentāret suīque simul imperi monumentum eis relinqueret, MŪRUM laterīcium, vīginti pedes lātum, sexāginta altitūdine et ita in immensum porrectum ut vix tuis ipse oculis crēderes tantum esse, nēdum aliis persuāderes, non sine adverso suo rūmore ut qui principātum adfectaret AEDIFICAVIT.   BALBUS, an excellent man and most distinguished commander, who had endeared himself to me by numerous kindnesses, was requested by the Arverni to make a display of the power and greatness of Rome, and at the same time to leave behind him a memorial of his own government. He accordingly BUILT a WALL of bricks, twenty feet wide, sixty high, and extending to such a prodigious length that you could hardly trust your own eyes that it was so large, still less induce others to believe it. But he did not escape the malign rumour that he had designs upon the imperial crown.

Here, as in the previous example,

(1) There is only one main idea,


(2) The rest consists of—

(a) Enlargements of BALBUSvir optimus . . . carus; placed, therefore, directly after BALBUS.

(b) Enlargements of MURUMlaterīcium . . . persuaderes; placed, therefore, directly after MURUM.


(c) Enlargements of AEDIFICAVIT

rogitantibus . . . relinqueret = the cause of the building of the wall.

(murum) non sine . . . adfectaret = the attendant circumstances of the building of the wall; placed, therefore, before AEDIFICAVIT.

(3) In English we must translate by at least three separate sentences, and, where necessary, translate participles as finite verbs, and change dependent clauses into independent sentences.

It has been well said: ‘An English sentence does not often exhibit the structure of the Period. It was imitated, sometimes with great skill and beauty, by many of the earlier writers of English prose; but its effect is better seen in poetry, as in the following passage:—

“High on a throne of royal state, which far

Outshone the wealth of Ormuz and of Ind,

Or where the gorgeous East with richest hand

Showers on her kings barbaric pearl and gold,

Satan exalted sat.”

Milton, Paradise Lost, ii. 1-5.

12. Help through a Knowledge of the Order of Words in Latin.—If you study the examples already given of the Period you will see that the Order of Words in English differs very much from the Order of Words in Latin.

Dr. Abbott writes as follows: ‘The main difference between English and Latin is that in English the meaning depends mainly on the order of words, and the emphasis mainly on the voice, while in Latin the meaning depends almost entirely on the inflexions, and the emphasis upon the order.’

Thus, if we take the English sentence, Caesar conquered the Gauls, we cannot invert the order of Caesar and Gauls without entirely changing the meaning. In Latin, however, we may write (since each Latin word has its own proper inflexion, serving almost as a label)

Caesar vicit Gallos: Gallos Caesar vicit: Caesar Gallos vicit, without any change of meaning except that of shifting the emphasis from one word to another.

The usual order of words in a Latin Prose Sentence may be said to be

(1) Particles, or phrases of connection (with some exceptions, e.g. vero, autem, quidem, enim, which stand second).


(2) Subject.

(3) Words, phrases, clauses, as enlargements of Subject.

(4) Adverbial enlargements of Predicate (though an Ablative Absolute must generally stand first).

(5) Indirect Object (if any) and its enlargements.

(6) Direct Object (if any) and its enlargements.

(7) The Principal Verb.

To take a simple example:—

5LIVIUS, imperator fortissimus, quamquam adventus hostium non ubi oportuit nuntiatus est, PERICULUM illa sua in rebus dubiis audacia facile EVASIT.   LIVIUS, a most excellent commander, although the enemy’s arrival was not reported when it should have been, easily ESCAPED the DANGER by his well-known daring in perilous positions.

To take another example:—

6Archimedis EGO quaestor ignoratum ab Syracusanis, cum esse omnino negarent, saeptum undique et vestitum vepribus et dumetis, INDAGAVI SEPULCRUM.   When I was Quaestor, I WAS ABLE TO TRACE OUT the TOMB of Archimedes, overgrown and hedged in with brambles and brushwood. The Syracusans knew nothing of it, and denied its existence.

Notice here the following special points of order:—

(1) The two most important positions in the sentence are the beginning and the end.

(2) Special emphasis is expressed by placing a word in an unusual or prominent position.

E.g. here, the unusual position of Archimedis and sepulcrum.

(3) In the middle of the sentence the arrangement is such that the words most closely connected in meaning stand nearest together.

E.g. here, ignoratum . . . dumetis is all logically connected with the object sepulcrum, which for the sake of emphasis is put in an unusual position at the end of the sentence.

13. Additional Hints.—(1) Remember that Latin is often concrete where English is abstract.



  ingeniosi (men of genius) = genius.
(learned men) = learning.

viri summo ingenio praediti, saepe invidia opprimuntur.

The most exalted genius is frequently overborne by envy.

omnes immemorem benefici oderunt.

The world regards ingratitude with hatred.

(2) The same Latin word may stand for different English words. Take, for example, the various uses of the word RES in the following passage of Livy, xlv. 19:—

7Ut RES docuit . . . animo gestienti REBUS secundis . . . speculator RERUM quae a fratre agerentur . . . REM prope prolapsam restituit . . . aliis alia regna crevisse REBUS dicendo.   As the FACT showed . . . spirits running riot from PROSPERITY . . . to watch the COURSE pursued by his brother . . . he restored what was almost a lost CAUSE . . . by saying that kingdoms grow by various MEANS.

In translating RES, avoid at all costs the word THING, or THINGS, and let the context guide you to the appropriate English word.

(3) You may often translate a Latin Active by an English Passive. Latin prefers the Active because it is more direct and vivid.

For example:—

Liberas aedes coniurati sumpserunt.

An empty house had been occupied by the conspirators.

(4) Use great care in translating Latin Participles, and make clear in your translation the relation of the participial enlargements to the action of the main Verb.

For example:—


Romani, non ROGATI, auxilium offerunt.

The Romans, though they were not asked, offer help.


Fortuna superbos interdum RUITURA levat.

Fortune sometimes raises the proud, only to dash them down.

12 causal:

S. Ahala Sp. Maelium regnum APPETENTEM interemit.

S. Ahala killed Sp. Maelius for aiming at the royal power.

Notice also:—

  Pontem captum incendit = He took and burned the bridge.

Nescio quem prope adstantem interrogavi.

I questioned someone who was standing by.

  Haec dixit moriens = He said this while dying.

  Nuntiata clades = The news of the disaster.

(5) In translating, try to bring out the exact force of the Ablative Absolute, by which a Latin writer shows the time or circumstances of the action expressed by the Predicate. The Ablative Absolute is an adverbial enlargement of the Predicate, and is not grammatically dependent on any word in the sentence. It is, therefore, called absolutus (i.e. freed from or unconnected). It should very seldom be translated literally. Your best plan will be to consider carefully what the Ablative Absolute seems to suggest about the action of the Principal Verb.

For example:—

Capta Troia, Graeci domum redierunt.

The Greeks returned home after the capture of Troy.

Regnante Romulo, Roma urbs erat parva.

When Romulus was reigning, Rome was a small city.

Exercitu collecto in hostes contenderunt.

They collected an army and marched against the enemy.

Nondum hieme confecta in fines Nerviorum contendit.

Though the winter was not yet over, he hastened to the territory of the Nervii.

  Tum salutato hostium duce, ad suos conversus, subditis equo calcaribus, Germanorum ordines praetervectus est, neque expectatis legatis, nec respondente ullo.

  Thereupon, after saluting the enemy’s general, he turned to his companions, and setting spurs to his horse, rode past the ranks of the Germans, without either waiting for his staff, or receiving an answer from anyone.



Though Style cannot perhaps be taught, it can certainly be formed and improved. There are several ways of improving your Style. For example:—

14. Through the Best English Literature.Read good Literature, the best English Authors in prose and verse. You will know something, perhaps, of Shakespeare and Scott, of Macaulay and Tennyson. Though you may not be able to attack the complete works of any great author, you ought not to have any difficulty in finding good books of selections from the English Classics.

15. Through good Translations.—Study a few good English Versions of passages from the best Latin writers. You may often have a good version of the passage you translate read to you in your Division after your mistakes have been pointed out to you, and to this you should pay great attention. You will thus learn eventually to suit your style to the Author you are translating, while at the same time you render the passage closely and accurately.

16. Be Clear.—Remember that the first characteristic of a good style is clearness—that is, to say what you mean and to mean what you say. Quintilian, the great critic, says that the aim of the translator should be, not that the reader may understand if he will, but that he must understand whether he will or not. The more you read the greatest Authors the more you will see that, as Coleridge says, ‘there is a reason assignable not only for every word, but for the position of every word.’

17. Be Simple.—With clearness goes simplicity—that is, use no word you do not understand, avoid fine epithets, and do not choose a phrase for its sound alone, but for its sense.

18. Avoid Paraphrase.—You are asked to translate, not to give a mere general idea of the sense. What you have to do is to think out the exact meaning of every word in the sentence, and to express this in as good and correct English as you can.

19. Pay attention to Metaphors.—The subject of Metaphor is of great importance in good translation. You will find that every language possesses its own special Metaphors in addition to those which are common to most European languages. As you become familiar with Latin Authors you 14 must try to distinguish the Metaphors common to English and Latin and those belonging only to English or to Latin.

For example:—

(1) Metaphors identical in Latin and English—

Progreditur res publica naturali quodam itinere et cursu.

The State advances in a natural path and progress.

(2) Metaphors differing in Latin and English—

cedant arma togae = let the sword yield to the pen.
ardet acerrime coniuratio = the conspiracy is at its height.
rex factus est = he ascended the throne.
conticuit = he held his peace.

20. Careful Translation a Help to Style.—In conclusion. Nothing will help your style more than to do your translations as well as you possibly can, and to avoid repeating the same mistakes. The Latins themselves knew the value of translation as a help to style.

For example, Pliny the Younger says:—

‘As useful as anything is the practice of translating either your Greek into Latin or your Latin into Greek. By practising this you will acquire propriety and dignity of expression, an abundant choice of the beauties of style, power in description, and gain in the imitation of the best models a facility of creating such models for yourself. Besides, what may escape you when you read, cannot escape you when you translate.’

2. Potts, Hints, p. 82.

3. Postgate, Sermo Latinus, p. 45.

4. Potts, Hints, p. 85.

5. Postgate, Sermo Latinus, p. 38.

6. Demonstration VI. Sent. 1. p. 55.

7. Postgate, Sermo Latinus, p. 34.




The use of a personal mode of address in the following Demonstrations is explained by the fact that they are written primarily for the use of boys. It is hoped, however, that they may be found useful to masters also, and that the fulness with which each passage is treated may supply some helpful suggestions.

Demonstration I.

Fierce encounter with the Germans.

(a) Reiectis pilis cominus gladiis pugnatum est. |II| At Germani celeriter, ex consuetudine sua, phalange facta, impetus gladiorum exceperunt. |III| Reperti sunt complures nostri milites, qui in phalangas insilirent, et scuta manibus revellerent, et desuper vulnerarent. |IV| Cum hostium acies a sinistro cornu pulsa atque in fugam conversa esset, a dextro cornu vehementer multitudine suorum nostram aciem premebant. |V| Id cum animadvertisset Publius Crassus adulescens, qui equitatui praeerat, quod expeditior erat quam hi qui inter aciem versabantur, tertiam aciem laborantibus nostris subsidio misit. |VI| Ita proelium restitutum est. ||


Fierce encounter with the Germans.

(b) Reiectis pilis cominus gladiis pugnatum est. II At Germani celeriter, ex consuetudine sua, phalange facta, impetus gladiorum exceperunt. III Reperti sunt complures nostri milites [qui in phalangas insilirent, et scuta manibus revellerent, et desuper vulnerarent.] IV [Cum hostium acies a sinistro cornu pulsa atque in fugam conversa esset,] a dextro cornu vehementer multitudine suorum nostram aciem premebant. V [Id cum animadvertisset Publius Crassus adulescens,] [qui equitatui praeerat,] [quod expeditior erat quam hi qui inter aciem versabantur,] tertiam aciem laborantibus nostris subsidio misit. VI Ita proelium restitutum est.


Demonstration I.

Caesar, B. G. i. 52. Reiectis pilis . . . restitutum est.

Heading and Author.—This tells you enough for working purposes, even if you do not remember the outline facts of Caesar’s campaign against Ariovistus, the chief of the Germans, called in by the Gauls in their domestic quarrels, who conquered and ruled them until he was himself crushed by the Romans.

Read through the passage carefully.—As you do this, notice all allusions and key-words that help you to the sense of the passage, e.g. Germani, nostri milites, Publius Crassus. The general sense of the passage should now be so plain (i.e. an incident in a battle between the Germans and the Romans) that you may begin to translate sentence by sentence.

I. Reiectis pilis cominus gladiis pugnatum est.

(i.) Vocabulary.

Reiectis = re + iacio = throw back or away. The context will tell you which is the better meaning for re-. Notice the force of all prefixes in composition, whether separate or inseparable as here. For re-, see pp. 280, 281.

pilis = the pīlum, the distinctively Roman missile weapon.

cominus = comminus: i.e. con (= cum) + manus = hand to hand. N.B.—In composition a often becomes i, cf. iacio, re-icio; and cf. e-minus = at a distance.

(ii.) Translation.

PUGNATUM EST. The only finite verb in the sentence, and the principal one. The form shows you it is a so-called impersonal verb, and therefore the subject must be sought from the verb itself in connection with the context. Here, clearly, you must translate the battle was fought.

cominus tells us how, i.e. hand to hand.

reiectis pilis. You will recognise this as an ablative absolute phrase. But do not translate this literally their javelins having been thrown away, for this is not English. Let the principal verb and the sense generally guide you to the force of the phrase. Thus you can see here that the Roman soldiers had no use for their javelins, and so threw them away as a useless 18 encumbrance. (The context tells us that the Roman soldiers had no time to hurl their javelins against the foe.) You can now translate the whole sentence—(and so) the Romans threw away their javelins and fought hand to hand with swords.

II. At Germani celeriter, ex consuetudine sua, phalange facta, impetus gladiorum exceperunt.

(i.) Vocabulary.

ex consuetudine sua = according to their custom. You will probably have met with consuetudo, or consuesco, or suesco. Our own word custom comes from it through the French coutume. For this use of ex cf. ex sententia, ex voluntate.

phalange = phalanx. If you learn Greek, you will readily think of the famous Macedonian phalanx.

impetus = attacks = in + peto (= aim at). Cf. our impetus, impetuous.

(ii.) Translation.—This sentence contains only one finite verb, the principal one.

EXCEPERUNT = (they) received. Who received? Clearly

GERMANI = the Germans. Received what?

IMPETUS = the attacks. impetūs must be Acc. Plur.

All you now have to do is to assign to their proper places the words and phrases that remain. Of these

1. celeriter
2. ex consuetudine sua
3. phalange facta

modify the action of exceperunt, telling us when and how they received, and

4. gladiorum belongs to impetūs.

Now translate the whole sentence. But the Germans quickly formed into a phalanx, as was their custom, and received the attacks of the swords (i.e. of the Romans with drawn swords).

III. Reperti sunt complures nostri milites, qui in phalangas insilirent, et scuta manibus revellerent, et desuper vulnerarent.

(i.) Vocabulary.

insilirent = in + salio = leap-on. And cf. our insult. Notice the usual phonetic change of vowel from a to i. (English derivatives will often help you to the meaning of a Latin word, 19 though, for reasons that are explained to you in the Introduction, pp. 1, 2, § 4, you must let them lead you up to the root-meaning of the Latin word rather than to an exact translation.)

revellerent = re + vello = pluck-away. If you forget the meaning of vello, the supine vulsum through some English derivative—e.g. re-vulsion, con-vulsion—will probably help you to the root-meaning.

(ii.) Translation.—This sentence contains four finite verbs. As you read it through, underline the principal verb, clearly REPERTI SUNT, and bracket qui to vulnerarent. You cannot doubt which verbs to include in your bracket, for qui, which is a subordinate conjunction as well as a relative pronoun, serves as a sure signpost. Also revellerent and vulnerarent are joined by et—et to insilirent, so your bracket includes all from qui to vulnerarent. The commas in the passage will often help you to the beginning and end of a subordinate clause. Now begin with the principal verb REPERTI SUNT and its subject complures nostri MILITES, many of our soldiers were found.

qui . . . vulnerarent. This subordinate clause describes, just as an adjective does, the character of these complures nostri, so that qui = tales ut—i.e. brave enough to leap upon the phalanxes, and pluck away the shields (of the Germans) and wound them from above.

IV. Cum hostium acies a sinistro cornu pulsa atque in fugam conversa esset, a dextro cornu vehementer multitudine suorum nostram aciem premebant.

(i.) Vocabulary.

ăcies = line of battle.

ac = sharp (cf. ācer), perhaps thought of as the edge of a sword.

cornu = horn; so, figuratively, the wing of an army.

(ii.) Translation.—This sentence contains three finite verbs. Underline PREMEBANT, clearly the principal verb, and bracket cum to conversa esset. Here the signpost is the subordinate conjunction cum. Next find the subject of premebant: obviously no word from a dextro to aciem can be the subject; it is implied in premebant—i.e. they, which as context shows = Germani. Now find the object = nostram aciem = our line.


Thus you have as the backbone of the whole sentence:—

They (the Germans) were pressing our line.

All the rest of the sentence will now take its proper place, as in some way modifying the action of premebant.


cum . . . conversa esset tells us when they were pressing.
a dextro cornu „   „ where  „ „
vehementer „   „ how  „ „
multitudine suorum „   „ how or why  „ „

N.B.—suorum, reflexive, must be identical with the subject of premebant.

Now translate

the enemy’s line had been routed and put to flight on their left wing,
on their right wing, owing to their great numbers, they were pressing hard upon our line.
V. Id cum animadvertisset Publius Crassus adulescens, qui equitatui praeerat, quod expeditior erat quam hi qui inter aciem versabantur, tertiam aciem laborantibus nostris subsidio misit.

(i.) Vocabulary.

animadvertisset = animum + ad + verto = to turn the mind to, to observe.

adulescens = here like our junior, to distinguish him from his father, Marcus Crassus the triumvir.

expeditior = more free (ex + pes = foot-free; so impeditus = hampered, hindered).

versabantur—(verso frequent. of verto) = turn this way and that; so verso-r dep. = turn oneself, engage in, be, according to the context.

(ii.) Translation.—This sentence is more involved, ‘periodic’8 in style. You will see on p. 23 how much help can be given by a more detailed analysis.

Now, as before, bracket the subordinate clauses thus:—

1. Id . . . adulescens

2. qui . . . praeerat

3. quod . . . versabantur

and then the only principal verb is MISIT. Underline this. Next underline the principal subject, clearly P. CRASSUS, 21 which is also the subject of clause 1. Then, outside the brackets, the only possible object is ACIEM: underline this.

Now analyse, as on p. 23.

(a) Write down CRASSUS, MISIT, ACIEM.

(b) Place alongside these their proper enlargements.

(c) If necessary, analyse separately all subordinate clauses—e.g. A1, A2, A3 in example on p. 23.

You should now be able to translate without any difficulty; only take care to arrange the enlargements so as to make the best sense and the best English. Thus: When Publius Crassus the younger, who was in command of the cavalry, had observed this, he sent the third line to the help of our men who were hard pressed, as he was more free to act than those who were engaged in action.

VI. Ita proelium restitutum est. In this way the battle was restored.

Final Hints.

Remember that one passage mastered is worth a great many hurriedly translated. So before you leave this passage notice carefully in the

I. Vocabulary.

(i.) Any words that are quite new to you. Look them out in the dictionary, and notice their derivation and use; if you do not do this you will find the same word new to you the next time you meet with it.

(ii.) English Derivatives.—As you have seen, these will often help you to the root-meaning of a word. Thus:—

reiectis = reject, throw away

insilirent = insult, jump on

and in the case of verbs, as these two examples show, derivatives are most easily found from the supine stem.

N.B.—This must be done very carefully, because many such English derivatives have come from Latin words after they had wholly, or in part, lost their classical meaning, or from Latin words not found at all in classical Latin.

A great many other English words are derived from the Latin of this passage—e.g. pugnacious, (with) celerity, fact, except, military, manual, super-sede, vulnerable, hostile, sinister, uni-corn, and many others.


(iii.) Prefixes.—Notice especially the force of prepositions and inseparable particles in composition, e.g.:—

re- in re-iectis, re-vellerent, restitutum.

in- in impetus, insilirent.

ex- in exceperunt, expeditior.

(iv.) Simple Phonetic Changes in Composition, e.g.:—

a to i in insilirent, cominus (con + manus).

(v.) Groups of Related Words.


aciesac = sharp, is related to ăc-er, sharp; ăc-ervus, a heap; ăc-utus, sharp, &c.

expeditiorped = tread, go, is related to pes, a foot; impedio = entangle; impedimentum = hindrance, etc.

II. Historical and other Allusions.

(i.) Read a summary of Caesar’s campaign against Ariovistus.

(ii.) Terms relating to War.—Thus notice:—

pilum, the distinctively Roman infantry weapon, and see a good illustration.

phalanx; cf. the Roman testudo.

tertiam aciemi.e. the line of reserves, kept for just such emergencies. Read, if necessary, some short account of the triplex acies, the usual Roman order of battle.

III. Some Authorities.

(i.) Caesar, Allen and Greenough, published by Ginn & Co. (an admirable edition).

(ii.) Froude’s Caesar, p. 50.

(iii.) Mommsen’s History of Rome, vol. iv. p. 295.

(iv.) Napoleon’s Caesar, vol. ii. cap. 4, and vol. ii. p. 405.

Demonstration I.

Caesar, B. G. i. 52: ‘Reiectis pilis . . . restitutum est.

Sentence Kind of Sentence Con­nective Subject Predicate Object
Simple Enlarged Simple Enlarged Simple Enlarged

A. Id cum animadvertisset Publius Crassus adulescens, qui equitatui praeerat, quod expeditior rat quam hi ui inter aciem versabantur, tertiam aciem laborantibus nostris subsidio misit

Principal (complex) CRASSUS

1. Publius

2. adules­cens

3. qui . . . praeerat


1. Id cum . . . adulescens (= when)

2. quod . . . versabantur (= why)

3. laborantibus . . . subsidio (= how)

ACIEM tertiam

A1. Id cum animad­vertisset Publius Crassus adules­cens

adverbial to MISIT in A
cum Crassus Publius



A2. qui equitatui praeerat

adjectival to CRASSUS in A
qui qui (= Crassus) praeerat equitatui

A3. quod expedi­tior erat quam hi qui inter aciem versa­bantur

adverbial to MISIT in A
quod (Crassus) erat expedi­tior quam . . . hi versa­bantur

8. See Introduction, pp. 7-9, § 11.

Demonstration II.

The Music of Arion.

(a) I

Quod mare non novit, quae nescit Ariona tellus?


Carmine currentes ille tenebat aquas.


Saepe, sequens agnam, lupus est a voce retentus;


Saepe avidum fugiens restitit agna lupum;


Saepe canes leporesque umbra cubuere sub una,


Et stetit in saxo proxima cerva leae:


Et sine lite loquax cum Palladis alite cornix


Sedit, || et accipitri iuncta columba fuit.


Cynthia saepe tuis fertur, vocalis Arion,

Tamquam fraternis obstupuisse modis.


The Music of Arion.

(b) I

Quod mare non novit, quae nescit Ariona tellus?


Carmine currentes ille tenebat aquas.


Saepe, sequens agnam, lupus est a voce retentus;


Saepe avidum fugiens restitit agna lupum;


Saepe canes leporesque umbra cubuere sub una,


Et stetit in saxo proxima cerva leae:


Et sine lite loquax cum Palladis alite cornix


Sedit, et accipitri iuncta columba fuit.


Cynthia saepe tuis fertur, vocalis Arion,

Tamquam fraternis obstupuisse modis.


Demonstration II.

Ovid, Fasti ii. 83-92 (Hallam’s Edition).

Heading and Author.—The heading will probably suggest to you the well-known story of Arion and the Dolphin, and the name of the author, Ovid, will lead you to expect a beautiful version of the legend.

Read the Passage carefully.—As you read, notice all allusions that help you to the sense of the passage. Thus the first line (which you can no doubt translate at once) tells of the fame of Arion, and the succeeding lines describe the charm of his music.

The Form of the Passage: Elegiac Verse.—Scan9 as you read, and mark the quantity in the verse of all finals in -a. You will see the value of this, as you translate.

You can now begin to translate, taking one complete sentence at a time.

I. Quod mare non nōvit, quae nescit Ărīŏnă tellūs?

(i.) Vocabulary.—You will know all the words here, but observe nōvit = knows, not knew, for nōvi means I have become acquainted with, I have learned, and [Symbol: therefore] I know; and notice also the important cognates from the √γνο-, γνω-, -gna, -gno, γι-γνώ-σκω = I learn to know, cf. our know, ken, can, conνό-ος (mind), -gna-rus = know-ing; no-sco (= gno-sco).

(ii.) Translation.—This sentence contains no subordinates; the two finite verbs, nōvit, nescit, are both principal.

Next, the form of the sentence, with the question-mark at the end, shows that mare must be the subject of nōvit, and tellus of nescit. (Ărīŏnă cannot be nominative, for the suffix -a is the usual Greek 3rd decl. Acc. Sing., where Latin has -em.) 26 Also quod and quae are clearly interrogative and adjectival; so translate:—

What sea does not know, what land is ignorant of Arion?

N.B.—Try to render this line a little more poetically.

II. Carmine currentes ille tenēbat aquās.

(i.) Vocabulary.—You will know all these simple words.

(ii.) Translation.—Here again there are no subordinates. The principal verb is tenebat, the subject ille, and the object aquas; so translate:—

He used to stay the running waters by his song.

N.B.—Notice force of Imperfect in tenebat.

III. Saepe, sequens agnam, lupus est a voce retentus;

(i.) Vocabulary.—All you need notice here is the force of re- in retentus = held back, cf. our re-tain.

(ii.) Translation.—Before you translate, notice Ovid’s frequent use of parataxis, i.e. placing one thought side by side with another thought, without any connective, even although one thought is, in sense, clearly subordinate to another. This is one of the ways in which all great poets heighten the effect of what they say, and many examples of it are to be found in Ovid’s best elegiac verse. As you look through this passage you will find:

(a) Lines 1, 2, 3, 4 each form a complete sentence.

(b) In the whole passage there is not one subordinate conjunction.

(c) The only expressed connective is the simplest link-word et.

The principal verb is retentus est, the subject lupus. Sequens agnam describes lupus, and saepe and a voce tell us when and why the wolf was stayed.

Often has the wolf in pursuit of the lamb been stayed at the sound.

(For this use of a or ab to express origin or source cf. Ovid, Fasti, v. 655: Pectora traiectus Lynceo Castor ab ense.)

IV. Saepe avidum fŭgiens restitit agnă lupum.

(i.) Vocabulary.

Restitit = stood still; re + si-st-o, i.e. from √sta-, strengthened by reduplication; cf. ἵ-στη-μι. Contrast carefully meaning of re-sto, = stand firm or be left.

(ii.) Translation.—Again a very simple sentence. The principal verb is restitit, the subject agnă; fugiens avidum lupum enlarges the subject ăgna, and saepe tells us when the lamb stood still.

Often has the lamb, when fleeing from the hungry wolf, stood still (stopped short in its flight).

N.B.—Notice the parallelism in this couplet, where the parallel lines express the same idea. This is a characteristic feature of Hebrew poetry, e.g.:

‘Seek ye the Lord while He may be found:

Call ye upon Him while He is near.’

Is. lv. 6.

and is frequently employed by Ovid.10

V. Saepe cănes lepŏresque umbrā cŭbuēre sub unā.

(i.) Vocabulary.

Lepŏres = hares. As this is closely connected by -que with cănes, you are not likely to confuse it with lĕpor (lepos; cf. λάμπω) = a charm, grace.

Cubuere = lay down. Cp. -cumbo in composition, and our recumbent, succumb, and cub-icle.

(ii.) Translation.—Another simple sentence about which there can be no doubt. The metre shows that umbrā must be taken with sub unā:—

Often have the dogs and the hares reclined beneath the same shade.

VI. Et stetit in saxo proximă cervă leae.

(i.) Vocabulary.

Leae = lioness. Lea (poetical form of leaena) suggests leo.

(ii.) Translation.—The metre shows proximă must be taken with cervă. But to translate the nearest stag (hind) makes 28 nonsense, and renders leae untrans­latable, while the hind very close to the lioness makes good sense.

And the hind has stood still on the crag close beside the lioness.

VII. Et sĭne līte lŏquax cum Palladis ālite cornix sēdit.

(i.) Vocabulary.

Līte = strife. To litigate = contest in law (lit + agere) may help you to the root-meaning.

Loquax = talkative, clearly connected with lŏq-uor, and loq-uacious. Alite = a bird, lit. winged; cf. āl-a, a wing.

Cornix = a crow, probably from √καρ; cf. our croak, and κόραξ, cor-vus, a raven.

Palladis. You have no doubt heard of Παλλὰς Ἀθήνη, the virgin goddess of war and of wisdom.

(ii.) Translation.—The force of the illustration lies in the strong contrast between the chattering, tale-bearing crow and the wise, silent owl sacred to the goddess of wisdom. Two such opposites, under the spell of Arion’s music, forget to quarrel, though for the time in close company.

And the chattering crow has without strife sat in company with the bird of Pallas.

VIII. Et accipitri iunctă cŏlumbă fuit.

(i.) Vocabulary.

Accipitri = hawk (a general name for birds of prey), probably from √πετ-, pet- = move quickly; cf. πέτ-ομαι = fly about; pĕt-o = fall upon, attack, seek.

So accipiter = ac + pĕt-, swift + flying; cf. ὠκύπτερος = swift-winged.

(ii.) Translation.—The metre shows that columbă and iunctă must be taken together:—

And the dove has-been-joined-to (has consorted with) the hawk.

IX. Cynthia saepe tuis fertur, vōcalis Ărīōn,
   Tamquam fraternis obstŭpuisse mŏdis.

(i.) Vocabulary.

Cynthia = Diana (Artemis), so called from Mt. Cynthus, in Delos, where she and Apollo were born.


Fertur = is said, asserted; cf. fĕrunt = they say.

Vōcalis = tuneful, clearly from same root as vox, vŏc-o, &c., of our vocal. For change of quantity cf. rex, rēgis, from rĕgo.

Obstŭpuisse = to have been spell-bound; stŭp-eo, stŭp-idus, and our stupefy, stupid will suggest the root-meaning.11

Mŏdis = measures, especially of verse, or, as here, of music.

(ii.) Translation.—You will remember that Apollo, the god who brings back light and sunshine in spring, is also the god of music and of poetry. Ovid skilfully implies that Arion’s playing was so beautiful that even Diana, Apollo’s own sister, mistakes Arion’s playing for her brother’s.

This sentence takes up a whole couplet, but is in form quite simple. Thus fertur is the incomplete predicate, and obstupuisse saepe tuis modis tamquam fraternis completes the predicate, i.e. tells us all that is said of the subject Cynthia.

Vōcalis Ărīon is clearly vocative, or nominative of address.

O tuneful Arion, often is Cynthia said to have been spell-bound by thy strains, as by those of her brother (Apollo).

Final Suggestions.

You have now learnt how to translate this passage, but you must do more before you can master it. Thus in these simple but beautiful lines notice:—

(i.) Vocabulary.—This is easy and familiar, but even if you know the meaning of the words study their cognatesi.e. related words—as pointed out to you in the vocabulary, e.g. under nōvit, p. 25, sentence I.

(ii.) English Derivatives.—Remember that often, where you cannot think of an English derivative, some very familiar French word will help you to the root-meaning of the Latin. Thus:—

Latin. French. English.
Carmine Charme Charm (Song)
Agnam Agneau Lamb
Lupus Loup Wolf
Cerva Cerf Stag (Hind)

and notice that where the English word, e.g. charm, differs in spelling from the Latin, it is because it comes to us through a French channel. Cf. feat from Fr. fait = L. factum.

(iii.) Allusions and Parallel Passages.—In verse these are often numerous and important. Poetry is naturally full of imagery, and borrows from many sources. Thus, for ll. 1-8, compare Hor. Od. I. xii. 5:

‘Aut in umbrosis Heliconis oris


Arte materna rapidos morantem

Fluminum lapsus . . .’

and Verg. G. iv. 510:

‘Mulcentem tigris et agentem carmine quercus.’

Shakesp. Hen. VIII. III. i.:

‘Orpheus with his lute made trees,

And the mountain-tops that freeze,

Bow themselves when he did sing’;

or read Tennyson’s poem ‘Amphion.’

Lines 5, 6.—Cf. Isaiah xi. 6: ‘The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; and a little child shall lead them.’

(iv.) Hints for Verses.—Ovid is the acknowledged master of elegiac verse. Therefore, whenever you have a passage of his elegiacs to translate, you should, if possible, learn it by heart. (The Arion story as told by Ovid is well worth a place in any collection of Ediscenda.) If you cannot do this, notice useful phrases and turns of expression, e.g.:—

Line 1.—A question, instead of a bare statement, where no answer is expected.

Cf. ‘Quod crimen dicis praeter amasse meum?’

(Dido to Aeneas, Ov. Her. vii. 164.)

Lines 3, 4.—Parataxis and repetition of idea.

Line 9.—Vocalis Arion, apostrophe.

Line 2.—Simplicity; alliteration.

(v.) The Poem as Literature.—Ovid here depicts in language purposely exaggerated the power of music over the hearts of 31 men, and even over nature, animate and inanimate. This gives point to the strong contrast in the lines which follow, where greed dominates all the feelings. Shakespeare refers to the love of music as a test of character:—

‘The man that hath no music in himself,

Nor is not moved with concord of sweet sounds,

Is fit for treasons, stratagems, and spoils.’

9. See Introduction, pp. 6, 7, § 10.

10. E.g.:

Plena fuit vobis omni concordia vita,

Et stetit ad finem longa tenaxque fides.

Amores ii. 6. 13-14.

11. Notice this word, which is often employed to express the ideas of entránce, enthrall, strike dumb, amaze.

Demonstration III.


A rash promise rashly believed.

Hannibali alia in his locis bene gerendae rei fortuna oblata est. |I| M. Centenius fuit cognomine Paenula, insignis inter primipili centuriones et magnitudine corporis et animo. |II| Is perfunctus militia, per P. Cornelium Sullam praetorem in senatum introductus, petit a Patribus, uti sibi quinque milia militum darentur: |III| se peritum et hostis et regionum, brevi operae pretium facturum et, quibus artibus ad id locorum nostri et duces et exercitus capti forent, iis adversus inventorem usurum. |IV| Id non promissum magis stolide, quam stolide creditum, tamquam eaedem militares et imperatoriae artes essent! |V| Data pro quinque octo milia militum; pars dimidia cives, pars socii. |VI| Et ipse aliquantum voluntariorum in itinere ex agris concivit, ac prope duplicato exercitu in Lucanos pervenit, ubi Hannibal, nequiquam secutus Claudium, substiterat. |VII|


A rash promise rashly believed.

Hannibali alia in his locis bene gerendae rei fortuna oblata est. I M. Centenius fuit cognomine Paenula, insignis inter primipili centuriones et magnitudine corporis et animo. II Is perfunctus militia, per P. Cornelium Sullam praetorem in senatum introductus, petit a Patribus, [uti sibi quinque milia militum darentur]. III Centenius dixit se peritum ethostis et regionum, brevi operae pretium facturum: et, [quibus artibus ad id locorum nostri et duces et exercitus capti forent], iis adversus inventorem usurum. IV Id non promissum magis stolide, quam stolide creditum: [tamquam eaedem militares et imperatoriae artes essent!] V Data pro quinque octo milia militum; pars dimidia cives, pars socii. VI Et ipse aliquantum voluntariorum in itinere ex agris concivit, ac prope duplicato exercitu, in Lucanos pervenit, [ubi Hannibal, nequiquam secutus Claudium, substiterat]. VII


Demonstration III.

Livy, xxv. 19.

Read the passage through carefully. As you read—

(i.) Make all the use you can of your previous knowledge of History, Geography, and Antiquities.

Thus, Hannibali suggests an episode in the Second Punic War.

M. Centenius is clearly the unfortunate subject of the episode.

in Lucanos . . . substiterat helps to fix the date as later than Cannae, 216 B.C.

(ii.) Observe carefully all phrases that will require special care in translating—e.g. bene gerendae reiinter primipili centurionesperfunctus militiaoperae pretiumad id locorum.

You will now have a sufficient general idea of the form and general sense of the passage, and may begin to translate sentence by sentence.

I. Hannibali alia in his locis bene gerendae rei fortuna oblata est.

(i.) Vocabulary.

oblata, cf. ob-lation = an offering and of-fer.

(ii.) Translation.

oblata est shows that the subject must be fortuna, with which alia must agree, and gerendae rei is dependent genitive. So you may at once translate literally Another fortune (chance) of carrying-on the matter well in these parts was offered to Hannibal. But you must not be satisfied with this, for though literally correct it is neither good History nor good English. So render: In this district Hannibal had another chance presented to him of achieving a success.

Here notice especially the use of the word res,12 a remarkable example of the tendency of Roman writers to employ the ordinary and simple vocabulary wherever possible instead of inventing a new word. As a writer well says, ‘Res is, so to say, a blank cheque, to be filled up from the context to the requisite 34 amount of meaning.’ Cf. ‘Consilium erat quo fortuna rem daret, eo inclinare vires,’ where res = victory.

II. M. Centenius fuit cognomine Paenula, insignis inter primipili centuriones et magnitudine corporis et animo.

(i.) Vocabulary.

primipili = the chief centurion of the triarii (the third, veteran line of the legion), the primipilus, or primus pilus. So Livy vii. 41, ‘primus centurio erat, quem nunc (centurionem) primi pili appellant.’

cognomine, i.e. co-nomen, a name added to the nomen, a title, epithet, e.g.:

Publius = the distinctive praenomen.
Scipio = nomen, designating his gens.
Africanus = cognomen.

(ii.) Translation.—The form of this sentence is quite simple. The subject is M. Centenius, with which insignis agrees. There was a certain M. Centenius, by surname Penula, distinguished among the first-rank (or chief) centurions (of the Triarii) both for his great bodily size and courage.

III. Is perfunctus militia, per P. Cornelium Sullam praetorem in senatum introductus, petit a Patribus, uti sibi quinque milia militum darentur.

(i.) Vocabulary.

perfunctus, cf. function, and notice force of per = discharge completely.

(ii.) Translation.—The principal verb is clearly petit, and is is the only possible subject (= Centenius), with which introductus agrees. There is one subordinate clause, introduced by ut, telling us the object of his request.

Translate, first literally, He having discharged completely his military service, being introduced into the Senate by P. C. Sulla, the Praetor, asks the Fathers that 5000 soldiers should be given him. Now improve this: get rid at all costs of the having and being, which are not English, and change the asks into the past tense of narration. Thus:—

After he had completed his term of service, and had been introduced to the Senate by P. Corn. Sulla, the Praetor, 35 he petitioned the Fathers that 5000 soldiers should be given him.

IV. Se peritum et hostis et regionum, brevi operae pretium facturum: et, quibus artibus ad id locorum nostri et duces et exercitus capti forent, iis adversus inventorem usurum.

(i.) Vocabulary.

peritum, cf. ex-peri-enced. √par-, per-, pierce, go through; so, ex-per-ior, per-iculum, in sense of a trial.

operae pretium = lit. ‘what will pay for the trouble,’ i.e. worth while, i.e. worth the time (or labour) spent upon it.

artibus— = fit, join = skill in joining something, skill in producing; so, artist, artisan, artifice, etc.

ad id locorum13 = to that point of time. The ideas of place and time readily interchange; so, in loco = at the right place or time.

(ii.) Translation.—The form of the sentence shows that it is reported speech, and not the actual words of the speaker Centenius, who is still the principal subject, and dixit, understood, the principal verb, and se peritum . . . usurum the object of dixit. You should now be able to translate without any difficulty, and the logical common-sense rules for the conversion of Or. Recta into Or. Obliqua explain the mood of the verb capti forent in the subordinate clause introduced by quibus.

Literally: Centenius said that he, experienced in both the enemy and the districts, would soon make it worth (their) while: and that he would use against their inventor those arts by which up to that time both our leaders and our armies had been overcome. Notice that the long relative clause quibus artibus . . . forent is in Latin placed before the antecedent iis.

You will readily see that this must be improved in several points. Thus:—

(a) Use Oratio Recta—more graphic and better suited to our idiom.

(b) arts. Change this to some more suitable military term—e.g. tactics.

He was well acquainted (he said) both with the enemy and the country, and would shortly make it worth their while, and would 36 employ against their originator those very tactics by which both our leaders and our armies had up to that time been baffled.

V. Id non promissum magis stolide, quam stolide creditum: tamquam eaedem militares et imperatoriae artes essent!

(i.) Vocabulary.

stolide, cf. stolid = dull, foolish.

(ii.) Translation.—The finite copula est is, as often, omitted; the two principal verbs are promissum (est) and creditum (est) linked by the comparative particles magis—quam, and the subject is id; tamquam—essent! is a subordinate clause modifying the two principal verbs, and expressing contemptuous wonder.

Cf. ‘tamquam clausa sit Asia, sic nihil perfertur ad nos.’

You can now translate

Literally: That was promised not more foolishly than it was foolishly believed, just as if the arts of a soldier and of a general were the same.

Here you can make several improvements; avoid the repetition of foolishly, and use a better term than arts, and perhaps break up the sentence into two short ones. Thus:—

The folly of the promise was not greater than that of the credit it received. Just as though the qualities of a soldier and of a general were the same!

VI. Data pro quinque octo milia militum; pars dimidia cives, pars socii.

(i.) Vocabulary.

dimidiamed-, mid- = middle, so dimidius = dis + medius.

(ii.) Translation.—This sentence is very simple: notice that here, too, sunt and erant are omitted.

Eight thousand soldiers were given him instead of five: half were citizens, half allies.

VII. Et ipse aliquantum voluntariorum in itinere ex agris concivit, ac prope duplicate exercitu, in Lucanos pervenit, ubi Hannibal, nequiquam secutus Claudium, substiterat.

(i.) Vocabulary.

aliquantum = considerable, used in the neuter as a noun, with a partitive genitive voluntariorum. Cf. use of satis, parum, etc.


concivit = raised, lit. roused, stirred up. Cf. ci-eo, and our ex-cite, in-cite.

substiterat = had halted. si-st-o is only a form of sto strengthened by reduplication (cf. ἵστημι) with a causal force. Cf. restitit, p. 27, sentence iv.

(ii.) Translation.—The principal subject is clearly ipse; there are two principal verbs, concivit and pervenit, coupled by ac, and one subordinate clause, ubi . . . substiterat, introduced by ubi, and modifying pervenit.

The sense is so clear that you may translate at once into good English:—

Moreover he himself raised a considerable number of volunteers in the country during his march; and so, with his numbers nearly doubled, he reached Lucania, where Hannibal, after his fruitless chase of Claudius, had halted.

The following version was shown up by a boy of fifteen in a recent scholarship examination:

‘Hannibal in carrying on his successful campaign met with some different luck in this district. Marcus Centenius, whose cognomen was Penula, was famous among the centurions of the first rank for his huge limbs and great courage. This man, after having accomplished his years of military training, on being introduced into the Senate by the Prætor P. Cornelius Sulla, requested the Patricians to give him 5000 soldiers. He said that he was well acquainted both with the enemy’s tactics and the district round about, and in a short time would convert the engagement into a prize for the State: moreover, he added, I will employ the same tactics against the enemy as those by which our generals and troops have been captured in these parts. This was faithfully believed as it was faithfully promised: the tactics of the soldiers and of the commanders were so much alike! He received 8000 men instead of 5000: half of them were Roman citizens, half allies: moreover he himself got some volunteers while on the march in the country districts and so almost doubled his army: he thus reached the territory of the Lucani, where Hannibal after a fruitless pursuit after Claudius, had taken up his position.’

This version is neither bad nor good. The style is, on the whole fair, knowledge of vocabulary very fair, and the rendering generally accurate. It will, however, be of use 38 to you as an object lesson: so notice carefully the following points:—

I. Style.

Sentence IV.

(i.) The Oratio Obliqua of the original he renders partly as Reported Speech and partly as Oratio Recta. This is, of course, to be avoided. Contrast the rendering given under Sentence IV.

Sentence III.

(ii.) Is perfunctus . . . darentur. He uses too many participles. Contrast version under Sentence III.

Sentences VI., VII.

(iii.) He translates data pro quinque . . . substiterat by one long sentence, instead of breaking it up into two at least.

II. Vocabulary.

Sentence IV.

Se peritum . . . usurum. He confuses pretium with praemium, operae with rei publicae (?). He should have been familiar with the phrase operae pretium.

inventorem he renders by enemy; perhaps a careless mistake, as if the word were inimicum (which after all does not = hostem).

Sentence V.

stolide he renders by faithfully. A moment’s thought given to the English word stolid should have put him on the right track.

Sentence VII.

concivit he renders by got, vague and inappropriate. He fails to bring out the root-meaning of cieo = to stir up.

III. Construction.

Sentence I.

This is very bad. Analysis would at once have shown him that the logical order of the sentence was

Alia fortuna bene gerendae rei oblata est Hannibali in his locis,

though he might not see that in his locis must be closely connected with oblata est.


Sentence IV.

brevi operae pretium facturum. Very bad: due probably to not carefully weighing the meaning of each word.

You will now see that a strict attention to analysis and to the root-meanings of words really familiar would have enabled this candidate to send up a good version.

12. Cf. Introduction, p. 11.

13. Cf. Sallust, Jugurtha, 63 Tamen is ad id locorum talis vir = Such was his character up to this time.

Demonstration IV.


Rashness justly punished.

Haud dubia res est, quippe inter Hannibalem ducem et centurionem; exercitusque, alterum vincendo veteranum, alterum novum totum, magna ex parte etiam tumultuarium et semiermem. |I| Ut conspecta inter se agmina sunt, et neutra pars detrectavit pugnam, extemplo instructae acies. |II| Pugnatum tamen, ut in nulla pari re, duas amplius horas, concitata et, donec dux stetisset, Romana acie. |III| Postquam is non pro vetere fama solum, sed etiam metu futuri dedecoris, si sua temeritate contractae cladi superesset, obiectans se hostium telis cecidit, fusa extemplo est Romana acies. |IV| Sed adeo ne fugae quidem iter patuit omnibus viis ab equite insessis, ut ex tanta multitudine vix mille evaserint, ceteri passim alii alia peste absumpti sint. |V|


Rashness justly punished.

Haud dubia res est, [quippe inter Hannibalem ducem et centurionem; exercitusque, alterum vincendo veteranum, alterum novum totum, magna ex parte etiam tumultuarium et semiermem.] I [Ut conspecta inter se agmina sunt, et neutra pars detrectavit pugnam], extemplo instructae acies. II Pugnatum tamen, ut in nulla pari re, duas amplius horas, concitata et, [donec dux stetisset], Romana acie. III {Postquam is non pro vetere fama solum, sed etiam metu futuri dedecoris, [si sua temeritate contractae cladi superesset], obiectans se hostium telis cecidit}, fusa extemplo est Romana acies. IV Sed adeo ne fugae quidem iter patuit omnibus viis ab equite insessis, [ut ex tanta multitudine vix mille evaserint, ceteri passim alii alia peste absumpti sint]. V


Demonstration IV.

Livy, xxv. 19.

Read through the Passage carefully.—The context will be familiar to you, as this piece is a continuation of Demonstration III; but, none the less, read the passage through very carefully. Notice, for example, the use of quippe, the various uses and meanings of ut, alterum . . . alterum, alii alia.

You can now begin to translate.

I. Haud dubia res est, quippe inter Hannibalem ducem et centurionem; exercitusque, alterum vincendo veteranum, alterum novum totum, magna ex parte etiam tumultuarium et semiermem.

(i.) Vocabulary.

quippe = qui + pe. pe = a form of que (cf. nempe = nam-pe = indeed) = since of course.

alterum (comparative of al-ius), cf. alter, alternate, either, other.

In distributive clauses, alter—alter = the one, the other.

tumultuarium (cf. tumultus), used of troops brought hurriedly together; so, disorderly.

(ii.) Translation.—This sentence is quite simple, consisting of one main statement, Haud dubia res est, and an explanatory subordinate statement of fact introduced by quippe. Notice that the influence of inter extends over the whole of the subordinate clause.

Literally: ‘The affair was not doubtful, since, of course, it was between Hannibal as general and a centurion, and between armies, the one grown old in victory, the other wholly new, and for the most part also hurriedly raised and half-armed.’

There are several points in which this rendering must be improved. Thus:—

(a) Affair for res is too vague. You will remember what was said about res in Sentence I. of Part I. pp. 33, 34.


(b) You must try to express more strongly the contrast in generalship between Hannibal and a mere centurion. Thus:—

The result was not doubtful, considering that the contest was between a general such as Hannibal and a (mere) centurion; and between two armies, the one grown old in victory, the other consisting entirely of raw recruits, and for the most part undrilled and half-armed.

II. Ut conspecta inter se agmina sunt, et neutra pars detrectavit pugnam, extemplo instructae acies.

(i.) Vocabulary.

neuter = ne + uter (uter = eu-ter or quo-ter-us = comparative in form of quis), neither of two.

detrectavit = declined (de + traho, draw-off).

extemplo = immediately. Ex + templum (dimin. tempulum).

templumtem = cut; cf. τέμνω = prop. a section. So

(a) a space marked out, a consecrated place, a temple.

(b) a portion of time; cf. extempore.

(ii.) Translation.—This sentence again is quite simple (in form very similar to Sentence I.), consisting of one main statement, extemplo instructae acies, and an introductory subordinate statement of time introduced by ut = when.

‘When the armies came in sight of each other, and neither side declined battle, the ranks were at once drawn up in fighting order.’

14III. Pugnatum tamen, ut in nulla pari re, duas amplius horas, concitata et, donec dux stetisset, Romana acie.

(i.) Vocabulary.

concitata = stirred-up, roused. con + ci-eo; cf. ex-cite, incite, cĭ-tus = put in motion, swift, &c.

(ii.) Translation.—This sentence is not quite so simple and needs care. Notice—

(a) Pugnatum (est). The Impersonal Pass. serves as the principal subject and predicate.

(b) ut in nulla pari re. ut is here not a conjunction but a relative adverb of manner, referring the assertion pugnatum 43 duas amplius horas to the particular circumstance—i.e. of a battle fought under very unequal conditions. This use of ut = considering occurs frequently—e.g. consultissimus vir ut in illa quisquam esse aetate poterat (Livy). Cf. also p. 124, l. 19.

(c) concitata Romana acie is clearly ablative absolute. To make quite sure that you understand the logical connection of the thought conveyed by this sentence, you may consult the detailed analysis on page 47.

In spite of its being such an unequal match, the battle was maintained for more than two hours; the Roman army (as well as [et] the enemy’s) being roused (to great exertions) so long as their leader survived.

IV. Postquam is non pro vetere fama solum, sed etiam metu futuri dedecoris, si sua temeritate contractae cladi superesset, obiectans se hostium telis cecidit, fusa extemplo est Romana acies.

(i.) Vocabulary.

dedecoris = of dis-grace, for de in composition = separation, and so removal of the fundamental idea. Cf. un-, dis-, e.g. dis-par = un-equal.

contractae = brought on, caused. con + traho = bring about, cause.

(ii.) Translation.—The meaning of this sentence should be quite plain to you if you notice carefully that

(a) the principal verb is fusa est, and the principal subject Romana acies, and

(b) that Postquam . . . cecidit is a subordinate clause of time modifying the action of the principal verb fusa est.

It would perhaps be well to translate at first literally:—

After that he, not only out of regard for (pro) his old fame, but also from fear of future disgrace, if he should survive a disaster brought about by his own rashness, exposing himself to the weapons of the enemy fell, the Roman army was at once routed.

You will see that this rendering, though verbally correct, is not English, and must be considerably altered before it can be called a good translation. Thus:—


(a) It is too long. You can remedy this by taking postquam . . . cecidit as one complete sentence, and fusa . . . acies as another.

(b) Exposing himself. Better exposed himself to . . . and. Notice here the strictly accurate use of the Pres. participle in Latin.

(c) ‘future’ may be omitted, as tautological15 in English. Cf. our inexact idiom ‘he promised to come’ (Lat. ‘that he would come’).

At last, both for the sake of his old renown and from the fear of disgrace should he survive a disaster brought on by his own rashness, he threw himself among the enemy’s darts and was slain. The Roman army was routed in a moment. —Church and B.

V. Sed adeo ne fugae quidem iter patuit omnibus viis ab equite insessis, ut ex tanta multitudine vix mille evaserint, ceteri passim alii alia peste absumpti sint.

(i.) Vocabulary.

pătuit = was open. Cf. păte-facio = to make open; păt-ulus = open, spread out; păt-era = a broad, flat dish. English, patent.

insessis = occupied; in + sed-eo = sit upon—so, occupy.

passim = hither and thither, far and wide, formed from passus (pando), expand.

(ii.) Translation.—This sentence resembles in form Sentence IV., with one principal verb patuit, and a principal subject iter, and a subordinate clause of result, ut . . . absumpti sint, modifying the action of the principal verb patuit. You may conveniently break up this sentence into two, by beginning a new sentence with Ceteri. Thus:—

So completely closed against them was every chance of escape, all the roads being beset by cavalry, that out of so numerous a host hardly a thousand escaped. The rest perished as they fled, some by one death and some by another.

Before laying aside these two passages, you should pay attention to the following points:—

(i.) Vocabulary.—Besides carefully noticing new words, try to form groups of cognates (i.e. related words). One of the best ways to enlarge your vocabulary is to group together words of 45 common origin, and to add to each, where you can, derivative and cognate English words. To take a few examples from this passage:—

Word. Meaning. English Derivative.
ALIUS = another (of many).
ali-enus = that belong to another alien, alienate.
ali-quot = some, several aliquot (parts).
al-ter = other of two alter, alternate.
ali-bi = elsewhere alibi.
SENATUS = the Council of the Elders Senate.
sen-ex = old
sen-ior = older senior, sire, sir.
sen-ile = belonging to old people sen-ile.
sen-ectus = old age.
ITER = (i-tiner) = a going itin-erant.
amb-it-io = a going round, canvassing ambition.
comes (cum + eo) = a comrade. a Count (Fr. Comte).
in-it-ium = a going in, a beginning initial.
sed-it-io = a going apart, sedition sedition.

(ii.) Useful Phrases for Latin Prose.—You should try gradually to put together your own phrase-book. You will find this much more useful to you than any ready-made collection. A good and simple plan is to have a special note-book for this purpose. Mark in the text as you read useful phrases, and in your note-book write the Latin on the right-hand page and a good idiomatic rendering on the left. For example, from this passage you might collect the following:—

English. Latin.
A chance of achieving a success. fortuna bene gerendae rei.
After completing his term of service. perfunctus militia.
Would make it worth their while. operae pretium facturum.
Up to that time. ad id locorum.
The result was not doubtful. haud dubia res est.
Though the fight was so unequal. ut in nulla pari re.
Some by one death and some by another. alii alia peste.

(iii.) HANNIBAL.—Read some good short estimate of Hannibal as a patriot, statesman, and soldier—such as may be found in Mommsen’s or Ihne’s History of Rome. If you have time, you will find much to interest you in the Hannibal (‘Heroes of the Nations’) by O’Connor Morris.

Demonstration IV.
Sentence Kind of Sentence Con­nective Subject Predicate Object
Simple Enlarged Simple Enlarged Simple Enlarged
Sentence III.          

Pugnatum tamen, ut in nulla pari re, duas amplius horas; concitata et, donec dux stetisset, Romana acie.

Complex tamen (THE BATTLE) PUGNA­TUM (EST)

1. duas amplius horas (time)

2. ut in nulla pari re (manner)

3. concitata . . . Romana acie (manner)

Sentence IV.          

A. Postquam is non pro vetere fama solum, sed etiam metu futuri dedecoris, si sua temeritate contractae cladi superesset, obiectans se hostium telis cecidit, fusa extemplo est Romana acies.

Complex Post­quam ACIES Romana FUSA EST

1. extemplo (time)

2. Postquam is . . . cecidit (time)

A1. Postquam is . . . cecidit

adv. to FUSA EST in A
Post­quam is non pro vetere . . . OBIEC­TANS telis cecidit

A2. si sua . . . superesset

adv. to OBIEC­TANS in A1
si (he) superesset cladi sua temeri­tate con­trac­tae

14. Weissenborn and Müller read:—Pugnatum tamen, ut in nulla pari re, diu: duas amplius horas constitit pugna spe concitante, donec dux stetit, Romanam aciem.

15. i.e. needless repetition (ταὐτὸ λέγειν = to say the same thing).

Demonstration V.

The Happy Life.

(a) I

Felix, qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas,

Atque metus omnes et inexorabile fatum

Subiecit pedibus, strepitumque Acherontis avari! ||


Fortunatus et ille, deos qui novit agrestes,

Panaque, Silvanumque senem, Nymphasque sorores! ||


Illum non populi fasces, non purpura regum

Flexit et infidos agitans discordia fratres,

Aut coniurato descendens Dacus ab Histro,


Non res Romanae, perituraque regna; || neque ille

Aut doluit miserans inopem aut invidit habenti. ||


The Happy Life.

(b) I

Felix, (qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas,

Atque metus omnes et inexorabile fatum

Subiecit pedibus, strepitumque Acherontis avari!)


Fortunatus et ille, (deos qui novit agrestes,

Panaque, Silvanumque senem, Nymphasque sorores!)


Illum non populi fasces, non purpura regum

Flexit et infidos agitans discordia fratres,

Aut coniurato descendens Dacus ab Histro,


Non res Romanae, perituraque regna; neque ille

Aut doluit miserans inopem aut invidit habenti.


Demonstration V.

Vergil, Georg. ii. 490-499.

Read the Passage carefully.—Notice as you read the many allusions and key-words in the passage, e.g. Acherontis, Pana, Silvanum, Nymphas, Dacus ab Istro, res Romanae, rerum causas, and populi fasces. These, taken in connection with the main predicates felix, fortunatus, non flexit, neque doluit, aut invidit, will readily suggest to you the main thought of the passage:—

Happy is Nature’s bard who knows and fears not: happy he too who knows the gods of the country. He is not distressed by ambition, nor wars, nor pain, nor envy.

I. Felix, qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas,
Atque metus omnes et inexorabile fatum
Subiecit pedibus, strepitumque Acherontis avari!

(i.) Vocabulary.

inexorabile = relentless; lit. that cannot be moved by entreaty. in (not) + ex (easily) + orabilis (entreated).

For oro cf. ōs = mouth; orator = speaker; oratio = speech.

fatum = fate, i.e. of death, as the common lot of all men, the decree of nature.

fatum = that which is said, espec. prophetically. √fa, φα. Cf. for (fā-ri), speak; fā-ma, report; fā-bula, a story; in-fans, that cannot speak; fā-cundus, eloquent.

strepitum = roar; lit. a wild, confused noise, din of any kind; cf. obstreperous.

Acherontis = Acheron = (a) a river in the Lower World; (b) the Lower World itself. Perh. Acheron = ὁ ἄχεα ῥέων = the stream of woe; cf. Κωκυτός = Cocytus, river of wailing.

(ii.) Translation.— You cannot be in doubt about the principal subject and predicate. Felix is the only word outside the subordinate clause from qui . . . avari. The sense, too, of these lines is clear, so you may translate at once; but you must take special care to use dignified and appropriate language:—


Happy the man who has availed to know the causes of things, and so trampled under foot all fears and fate’s relentless decree, and the roar of insatiate Acheron.

II. Fortunatus et ille, deos qui novit agrestes,
 Panaque, Silvanumque senem, Nymphasque sorores!

(i.) Vocabulary.

agrestes = of the country; cf. ager (ἀγρός), agrarius, agrarian; peragro (per + ager), travel over. Perhaps to be traced to the same root as ag-o = drive, ager and ἀγρός being so named a pecore agendo (cf. Germ. trift = pasturage, treiben = drive).

Silvanum = Silvanus = Latin god of fields and woods (silva), sylvan.

(ii.) Translation.—This sentence closely resembles in form Sentence I, Ille Fortunatus being the principal subject and predicate.

He too is blest who knows the gods of the country, Pan, and old Silvanus, and the sisterhood of the Nymphs.

III. Illum non populi fasces, non purpura regum
   Flexit, et infidos agitans discordia fratres;
   Aut coniurato descendens Dacus ab Histro,
   Non res Romanae, perituraque regna;

(i.) Vocabulary.

fasces = fasces, i.e. honours; populi, i.e. conferred by the people.

fascis = a bundle, espec. of wood.

fasces = the lictors’ rods (rods + axe in certain cases) carried before the highest magistrates, as an emblem of authority.

purpura, i.e. the purple robe worn by kings and magistrates.

Cf. 16Purpura Pompeium summi velabit honoris.

Ov. Ex Ponto IV. iv. 25.

agitans = driving, i.e. moving, impelling.

discordia = discord. Notice force of dis- = separation, negation; cf. dis-crimen, dis-par.

coniurato = united by oath, sworn confederate.

Dacus, the Dacians, akin to the Thracians, N. of Danube, conquered by Trajan. Cf. modern Roumanians.

Histro = the Lower Danube.


(ii.) Translation.—You will see there is only one principal verb, flexit (or flexerunt), with several principal subjects, fasces, purpura, discordia, res Romanae, perituraque regna, and no subordinate clauses. You may therefore translate at once:—

(a) Him fasces of the people or purple of kings sway not, not maddening discord among treacherous brethren, nor the Dacians swarming down from the leagued Danube, not the Roman State, or realms destined to decay;


(b) He is not (1) moved by honours that the people confer, or the purple of empire, or civil feuds, that make (2) brothers swerve from brothers’ duty; or the Dacian coming down from the Hister, his sworn (2) ally; no, nor by the great Roman State and the death-throes of subject kingdoms.

N.B.—(b) is superior to (a) in—

(1) the use of Passive for Active;

(2) the predicative use of agitans, infidos, coniurato.

IV.      neque ille
  Aut doluit miserans inopem, aut invidit habenti.

(i.) Vocabulary.—You will probably know the meanings of the words in this sentence. Thus the meaning of—

doluit is suggested by dolor.
miserans „„ miser.   Cf. miser-able.
inopem „„ in + ops.   Cf. op-ulent.
invidit „„ invidia.   Cf. envy.

(ii.) Translation.—You have here two principal verbs, doluit, invidit, joined by aut, and a principal subject ille.

Notice that inopem must be the object of the participle miserans, and that habenti is used as a noun.

He never felt the pang of pity for the poor, or of envy for the rich.

Copy of a rendering shown up by a boy of fifteen in a recent scholarship examination:—

‘Happy is the man who is able to discern the reason of things, and controls under his feet all changes and inexorable destiny, and the groaning of greedy Acheron! |I| Blessed also is he who knows the rustic gods, Pan and old Silvanus, and those sisters, the nymphs! |II| He is not moved by the people’s 52 axes, nor by the regal purple, nor by discord that rouses brothers to distrust each other. He is not moved by Dacus, coming down from the sacred Danube, nor by the affairs of Rome, and the realms about to perish. |III| He neither grieves for nor pities the helpless, nor does he envy the rich.’ |IV|

The above version is fair, but notice the following points:—

Sentence I.

is able . . . and controls. The connection in thought is not shown: ‘He is happy because he knows and ∴ fears not.’

groaningi.e. gemitum; strepitum = roar, din.

Sentence III.

by the people’s axes. This suggests quite a wrong idea; contrast the version, ‘by the honours that the people confer.’

sacred. This is quite wrong. con-iurato = allied by oath.

the affairs of Rome. A very weak, and inadequate rendering.

Sentence IV.

grieves for nor pities. This quite obscures the point. Vergil says that a country life, with its absence of poverty, so commonly met with in a town, saves a man from the necessity of feeling a pang of pity for the poor.

Before you put aside this passage, try to avail yourself of some of the following suggestions. Thus:—

I. For the Poet Vergil17 (70 B.C.-19 B.C.).—The chief facts of his life and the subject of his great poems are clearly and shortly given in the Student’s Companion to Latin Authors (a useful and convenient book of reference).

II. For the Georgics, Poems on Husbandry. (The passage for translation is taken from Georgic II. lines 490-499.) See—

  (i.) Student’s Companion to Latin Authors, pp. 157-8.

 (ii.) Nettleship’s Vergil, pp. 37-45.

(iii.) Sellar’s Vergil, pp. 174-198.

Notice especially the political purpose of the Georgics—to help the policy of Augustus, which aimed at checking the depopulation of the country districts. Compare the alarming migration from the country to the towns in England at the present day.


III. Relation of Lucretius to the Georgics.

(i.) Sellar’s Vergil, pp. 199-243.

(ii.) Munro’s Lucretius, Notes on Book i. line 78, and Book iii. line 449.

Notice in this connection the opening lines of the passage, Felix qui potuit . . . Acherontis avari, which may be summarised as follows: ‘Happy he who knows the laws of Nature, and has therefore ceased to fear natural phenomena and has learnt to despise the fabled terrors of Hades.’ Munro says: ‘I feel that by his Felix qui Vergil does mean a poet-philosopher, who can only be Lucretius.’

Cf. also Lucretius, iii. 1-30. His address to Epicurus.

For the thought, cf. Wordsworth’s Happy Warrior

‘He therefore does not stoop, nor lie in wait

For wealth, or honours, or for worldly state.’

16. ‘The purple (the insignia) of the highest office shall clothe Pompeius.’

17. See Short Lives, p. 343.

Demonstration VI.

The Tomb of Archimedes.

I (a) Archimedis ego quaestor ignoratum ab Syracusanis, cum esse omnino negarent, saeptum undique et vestitum vepribus et dumetis, indagavi sepulcrum. |II| Tenebam enim quosdam senariolos, quos in eius monumento esse inscriptos acceperam: qui declarabant in summo sepulcro sphaeram esse positam cum cylindro. |III| Ego autem, cum omnia collustrarem oculis—est enim ad portas Agragantinas magna frequentia sepulcrorum—animadverti columellam non multum e dumis eminentem, in qua inerat sphaerae figura et cylindri. |IV| Atque ego statim Syracusanis—erant autem principes mecum—dixi me illud ipsum arbitrari esse quod quaererem. |V, VI| Immissi cum falcibus multi purgarunt locum. || Quo cum patefactus esset aditus, accessimus: |VII| apparebat in sepulcro epigramma, exesis posterioribus partibus versiculorum, dimidiatis fere. ||


The Tomb of Archimedes.

I (b) Archimedis ego quaestor ignoratum ab Syracusanis, [cum esse omnino negarent,] saeptum undique et vestitum vepribus et dumetis, indagavi sepulcrum. II Tenebam enim quosdam senariolos, [quos in eius monumento esse inscriptos acceperam]: [qui declarabant in summo sepulcro sphaeram esse positam cum cylindro.] III Ego autem, [cum omnia collustrarem oculis]—est enim ad portas Agragantinas magna frequentia sepulcrorum—animadverti columellam non multum e dumis eminentem, [in qua inerat sphaerae figura et cylindri]. IV Atque ego statim Syracusanis—erant autem principes mecum—dixi me illud ipsum arbitrari esse [quod quaererem]. V, VI Immissi cum falcibus multi purgarunt locum. [Quo cum patefactus esset aditus], accessimus: VII apparebat in sepulcro epigramma, exesis posterioribus partibus versiculorum, dimidiatis fere.


Demonstration VI.

Cicero, Tusc. v. 23. 64.

Read the Passage through carefully.—As you read you will notice many allusions and key-words, e.g. Archimedes, ego quaestor, Syracusanis, sepulcrum, etc. These, taken in connection with the heading and the author, will suggest to you the main subject of the passage—the finding of the Tomb of Archimedes by Cicero.

I. Archimedis ego quaestor ignoratum ab Syracusanis, cum esse omnino negarent, saeptum undique et vestitum vepribus et dumetis, indagavi sepulcrum.

(i.) Vocabulary.

Quaestor (contr. from quaesītorquaero), i.e. investigator, originally two main functions:—

(a) The preparation of evidence in public prosecutions (this about 240 B.C. transferred to the Tribunes).

(b) Treasurers of State. Of these the Quaestores urbani stayed at Rome, while the Quaestores provinciales or militares acted as financial assistants to the Consuls or Praetors for the provinces.

saeptum = hedged in; saepes = a hedge, fence.

vepribus = with bramble-bushes.

dumetis = with brushwood.

indagavi = I traced out. A metaphor from hunting. Cf.

‘Dum trepidant alae, saltusque indagine cingunt.’

Verg. Aen. iv. 121.

‘While the scouts (beaters) are all busy, and are encircling the coverts with nets.’

(ii.) Translation.—The form of the sentence is quite simple. The principal verb is indagavi, with subject ego quaestor, and object sepulcrum. From ignoratum . . . dumetis describes sepulcrum, and the subordinate clause cum . . . negarent emphasises ignoratum a Syracusanis. You may now translate

(a) literally: I, when Quaestor, traced out the tomb of Archimedes, not known of by the Syracusans, for they said it was not there at all, hedged in on all sides and covered with brambles and brushwood.


(b) A better rendering: When I was Quaestor I was able to trace the tomb of Archimedes, overgrown and hedged in with brambles and brushwood. The Syracusans knew nothing of it, and entirely denied its existence.

Notice here the improvement made by breaking up the one long sentence into two.

II. Tenebam enim quosdam senariolos, quos in eius monumento esse inscriptos acceperam: qui declarabant in summo sepulcro sphaeram esse positam cum cylindro.

(i.) Vocabulary.

senariolos = some lines, i.e. of poetry—dimin. of senarius (seni) = consisting of six each, especially of the iambic senarii.

sphaeram = a sphere, globeσφαῖρα.

cylindro = a cylinder. κύλινδρος.

(ii.) Translation.—The only principal verb is clearly tenebam (with subject contained in the verb), and the principal object senariolos (sc. versus). From quos . . . cylindro we have two subordinate adjectival clauses enlarging senariolos.

The fact is, I remembered some iambic lines which I had been told were inscribed on his monument, and which set forth that his tomb was surmounted by a sphere and a cylinder.

III. Ego autem, cum omnia collustrarem oculis—est enim ad portas Agragantinas magna frequentia sepulcrorum—animadverti columellam non multum e dumis eminentem, in qua inerat sphaerae figura et cylindri.

(i.) Vocabulary.

collustrarem = I was surveying on all sides; con (cum) + lustro.

lustro, perhaps akin to luc-eo, lu-men; so, il-lustris = lighted up, illustrious.

frequentia = a large number; cf. frequens, √φρακ, farc; cf. φράγ-μα = a fence, farc-io = pack close together; so, con-fer-tus = crowded, freq-uens = repeated, frequent.

columellam = a small column, dimin. of columen, √cel; cf. cel-sus = lofty; cf. ex-cello, col-umen (= cul-men) = the summit; cf. culminate.

(ii.) Translation.—This sentence is apparently not quite so simple, but if you carefully bracket the subordinate clauses you will see that the only principal verb is animadverti, with subject ego and object columellam. Notice next that—


(a) cum . . . oculis modifies the principal verb animadverti and is an adverbial clause of time.

(b) The parenthetical clause est enim . . . sepulcrorum explains collustrarem.

(c) in qua . . . cylindri is an adjectival clause enlarging columellam.

You may now translate into your best English, following closely the thought and the order of the Latin:—

Well, as I was surveying the whole place (there is a large number of tombs at18 the Agrigentine gate) I perceived a small column just showing above the undergrowth, on which appeared the figure of a sphere and a cylinder.

IV. Atque ego statim Syracusanis—erant autem principes mecum—dixi me illud ipsum arbitrari esse, quod quaererem.

(i.) Vocabulary.—The words of this sentence present no difficulty.

(ii.) Translation.—With the practice you have now had, you may translate at once; but notice carefully that—

(a) the parenthetical clause erant . . . mecum enlarges Syracusanis; and

(b) quod quaererem describes illud ipsum.

So I immediately said to the Syracusans who were with me (some people of importance) that I thought that was the very thing I was looking for.

V. Immissi cum falcibus multi purgarunt locum.

(i.) Vocabulary.

falcibus = with bill-hooks; falx perh. akin to flect-o = bend, from its shape. Cf. falcon (from its hooked claws).

purgarunt = cleared; purgo, contr. from pur-igo = purum + ago = purge. Cf. pur-us.

(ii.) Translation.

Some men sent in with bill-hooks cleared out the space.

VI. Quo cum patefactus esset aditus, accessimus.

(i.) Vocabulary.

patefactus = laid open: pateo + facio. Cf. patent.

(ii.) Translation.

As soon as the way was open, we went up to it.

VII. Apparebat in sepulcro epigramma, exesis posterioribus partibus versiculorum, dimidiatis fere.

(i.) Vocabulary.

epigramma = inscription. Cf. epi-gram.

exesis = lit. ‘eaten out’; ex + edo. Cf. ed-ible.

dimidiatis = halved = dis + medius, i.e. divided into halves.

(ii.) Translation.There was the inscription on the tomb: the latter part of each line was gone, nearly half the verse.

Note.—Notice here the rendering of the Lat. abl. absol., an idiom foreign to our language except for example in the so-called nom. absol. of Milton. Cf. Introduction, p. 12 (5).

Cicero adds the following reflection:—‘Ita nobilissima Graeciae civitas, quondam vero etiam doctissima, sui civis unius acutissimi monumentum ignorasset, nisi ab hoimine Arpinate didicisset.

Thus it was that one of the most renowned of Greek cities, and in ancient times one of the most enlightened, would have remained ignorant of the monument of the greatest genius it ever produced, if it had not learnt it from a man born at Arpinum.19

Some Suggestions and Authorities.

Before you leave this passage, try to notice some of the following points, and if possible consult some of these authorities:—

(i.) Read (e.g. in Church and Brodribb’s translation) Livy’s account of the siege of Syracuse by Marcellus, 214-212 B.C., Book xxiv. cap. 34; Book xxv. caps. 23-31.

(ii.) Freeman’s History of Sicily. Notice especially the admirable plan of Syracuse illustrating the siege by Nicias.

Or Sicily—‘Story of the Nations’ Series.

(iii.) Some good Life of Archimedes. The Encyclopaedia Britannica supplies a good short life and refers to Cicero’s finding the Tomb of Archimedes, and to the still extant work of Archimedes on the Sphere and the Cylinder.

(iv.) For Cicero’s Quaestorship in Sicily, 75 B.C., consult some Life of Cicero, e.g. Forsyth’s, pp. 38-58, where reference is made to this incident.

(v.) For the Tusculanae Disputationes (conversations between Cicero and a friend at his Tusculan villa, the subject of which is the chief essentials of happiness) consult the admirable introduction to the edition by T. W. Dougan, Camb. Press.

18. Var. lect. ad portas Achradinas.

19. Also the birthplace of Marius. Cf. p. 163.



In the original text, lines were numbered continuously on each page. For this e-text, verse selections have been renumbered to match the actual line numbers as cited in the text. Selections from the Hallam edition of Ovid’s Fasti are numbered from 1 within each passage.

Line numbers in prose have been retained for completeness, except that markings of line 1 have been omitted. Since your browser’s line breaks will not correspond to line breaks in the printed book, words mentioned in the linenotes have also been underlined.

In the “Miscellaneous Passages” section, which has no linenotes, line numbers were omitted in all prose and in the shorter verse passages. Longer verse passages have been renumbered as elsewhere.


REGAL PERIOD, 753-509 B.C.


The Vision of Anchises.—The Kings that are to be.

Quin et avo comitem sese Mavortius addet

Romulus, Assaraci quem sanguinis Ilia mater

Educet. Viden’ ut geminae stant vertice cristae,


Et pater ipse suo superum iam signat honore?

En huius, nate, auspiciis illa incluta Roma

Imperium terris, animos aequabit Olympo,

Septemque una sibi muro circumdabit arces,

Felix prole virum.

. . .. . ..

Quis procul ille autem ramis insignis olivae

Sacra ferens? Nosco crines incanaque menta


Regis Romani; primam qui legibus urbem

Fundabit, Curibus parvis et paupere terra

Missus in imperium magnum. Cui deinde subibit,

Otia qui rumpet patriae residesque movebit

Tullus in arma viros et iam desueta triumphis


Agmina. Quem iuxta sequitur iactantior Ancus,

Nunc quoque iam nimium gaudens popularibus auris.

Vis et Tarquinios reges animamque superbam

Ultoris Bruti fascesque videre receptos?

Vergil, Aen. vi. 777-784, 808-818.

777 Avo = grandsire, i.e. Numitor, the father of the Vestal Rhea or Ilia.

Mavortius = child of Mavors, old and poetic name for Mars.

778 Assaraci: King of Phrygia and grandfather of Anchises.

779 geminae cristae. The double-crested helm, a distinction of Mars.

780 superum = for the world above, i.e. as a god. Acc. Sing.

808 ille = Numa Pompilius (716-673 B.C.), a native of Cures (12) in Sabine country, whom the Romans regarded as the founder (fundabit, 12) of their religious and legal institutions.

813 qui = Tullus Hostilius (673-640 B.C.), a man of war, destroyed Alba.

resides = sluggish, lazy (re + sedeo).

815 Ancus Martius (640-616 B.C.), conqueror of the Latins.

817 Tarquinios reges = (i.) Tarquinius Priscus (616-578 B.C.) of Tarquinii in Etruria; (ii.) Tarquinius Superbus (534-509 B.C.), expelled by Brutus. Vergil omits Servius Tullius (578-534 B.C.).

817-818 animamque . . . receptos. Brutus, nephew of T. Superbus, roused Rome to expel the Tarquins and found the Republic: and thus the fasces (the sign of power) were recovered (receptos) by the people.—Sidgwick.



ROMULUS, 753-716 B.C.
A. The Passing of Romulus.

His immortalibus editis operibus cum ad exercitum recensendum contionem in campo ad Caprae paludem haberet, subito coorta tempestas cum magno fragore tonitribusque tam denso regem operuit nimbo, ut conspectum eius contioni abstulerit; nec 5 deinde in terris Romulus fuit. Romana pubes, sedato tandem pavore, postquam ex tam turbido die serena et tranquilla lux rediit, ubi vacuam sedem regiam vidit, etsi satis credebat patribus, qui proxumi steterant, sublimem raptum procella, tamen velut 10 orbitatis metu icta maestum aliquamdiu silentium obtinuit. Deinde a paucis initio facto deum deo natum, regem parentemque urbis Romanae salvere universi Romulum iubent; pacem precibus exposcunt, uti volens propitius suam semper sospitet progeniem. 15

Livy, i. 16.

2-3 ad Caprae paludem = near the Goat’s pool.

4 operuit = enveloped (ob + pario = get for, put upon, cover), cf. opposite a-per-io = get from, uncover.

5 abstulerit = auferret. The event is regarded simply as past, without reference to other past events.

5-6 nec deinde . . . fuit, cf. ‘Quirinus | Martis equis Acheronta fugit.’ Hor. Od. iii. 3. 15.

7 sēdato = settled, calmed. Sēd-o = cause to sit, cf. sēd-es, and our seat, settle.

11 orbitatis = of orphanhood; cf. orb-us = bereaved, and our orphan.

15 volens propitius, an ellipse of et, cf. optimus maximus.

sospitet = he may keep safe, preserve, cf. sospes = safe.

B. The Mystery explained.

Pulcher et humano maior trabeaque decorus

Romulus in media visus adesse via,

Et dixisse simul: ‘Prohibe lugere Quirites,


Nec violent lacrimis numina nostra suis.

Tura ferant placentque novum pia turba Quirinum,

Et patrias artes militiamque colant.’

Ovid, Fasti, ii. 379-384. H.

1-6 Romulus appears as a god to Proculus Julius, an honourable man, bidding him tell his people not to mourn for him, but to worship him as Quirinus, and practise valour and all warlike virtues.

1 trabea = in the (striped) robe of state.

3-5 Quirites (cf. Quirinus = the deified Romulus) = lit. spearmen. Connected with Cures and curis (Sabine word for a spear), used of Roman citizens as opposed to Roman soldiers.



The Gate of Janus, open in war but shut in peace.

A. Qui regno ita potitus urbem novam, conditam vi et armis, iure eam legibusque ac moribus de integro condere parat. Quibus cum inter bella adsuescere videret non posse, quippe efferari militia animos, mitigandum ferocem populum armorum 5 desuetudine ratus Ianum ad infimum Argiletum indicem pacis bellique fecit, apertus ut in armis esse civitatem, clausus pacatos circa omnes populos significaret.

Livy, i. 19.

1 Qui = Numa Pompilius, the second king of Rome.

4-5 quippe . . . animos = since (he thought that) men’s tempers were made savage (brutalised) by warfare. efferari = orat. obl. part of Numa’s thoughts.

6 desuetudine = by disuse, i.e. by a cessation from the use of. Cf. de-docēre = unteach.

Ianum . . . Argiletum = (a temple of) Janus at the foot of the Argiletum, a slope to the N.E. of the Forum. (Prob. = the clayey ground, from argilla = white clay.)

8 clausus. It was closed for a short time, circ. 238 B.C., and again by Augustus 29-25 B.C.


Sunt geminae Belli portae, sic nomine dicunt,

Religione sacrae et saevi formidine Martis:

Centum aerei claudunt vectes aeternaque ferri


Robora, nec custos absistit limine Ianus.

Has, ubi certa sedet patribus sententia pugnae,

Ipse Quirinali trabea cinctuque Gabino

Insignis reserat stridentia limina Consul;

Ipse vocat pugnas; sequitur tum cetera pubes,


Aereaque adsensu conspirant cornua rauco.

Vergil, Aen. vii. 607-615.

609 vectes = bolts or bars, prob. from √veh = carry. Cf. vect-īgal.

612 Quir. trabea = in the state robe of Romulus, i.e. the striped robe of state, purple, with white stripes across.

cinctu Gabino = with the Gabine girdle, formed by girding the toga tight round the body by one of its loose ends.

613 reserat = un-bars. For sĕro = join, cf. our series.

Parallel Passages. Ovid, F. i. 115-132. Cf. Hor. Od. iv. 15. 9. Verg. Aen. i. 293-4.

Numa Pompilius. ‘The name of Numa is significant, and denotes an organiser or lawgiver. (For Numa cf. numerus, nummus, νόμος.) As Romulus was the founder of the State and of political and military order, so the legend regards Numa as the founder of the national religion.’—Ihne.



The Purchase of the Sibylline Books.

In antiquis annalibus memoria super libris Sibyllinis haec prodita est. Anus hospita atque incognita ad Tarquinium Superbum regem adiit, novem libros ferens, quos esse dicebat divina oracula: eos velle venundare. Tarquinius pretium percontatus 5 est: mulier nimium immensum poposcit. Rex, quasi anus aetate desiperet, derisit. Tum illa foculum coram eo cum igne apposuit, et tres libros ex novem deussit; et, ecquid reliquos sex eodem pretio emere vellet, regem interrogavit. Sed enim 10 Tarquinius id multo risit magis dixitque anum iam procul dubio delirare. Mulier ibidem statim tres libros alios exussit; atque id ipsum denuo placide interrogavit, an tres reliquos eodem pretio emat. Tarquinius ore iam serio, atque attentiore animo fit; eam 15 constantiam confidentiamque non insuper habendam intelligit: libros tres reliquos mercatur nihilo minore pretio, quam quod erat petitum pro omnibus. . . . Libri tres in sacrarium conditi Sibyllini appellati. Ad eos, quasi ad oraculum, quindecimviri 20 adeunt, cum dii immortales publice consulendi sunt.

Aulus Gellius (fl. 143 A.D.), i. 19.

1, 2 libris Sibyllinis, i.e. a collection of prophecies uttered by the legendary prophetess who lived at Cumae, near Naples.

5 venundare = to sell. Cf. ven-eo (= venum + eo), ven-do, and our vendor.

12 delirare = to be out of her mind. Lit. to make a crooked furrow in ploughing; de + lira (a furrow).

19 sacrarium = the place for the keeping of holy things, i.e. the Capitol. The original Sibylline Books were burnt in the fire on the Capitol, 82 B.C., but a fresh collection was made by Augustus, and deposited in the temple of Apollo on the Palatine.

20 quindecimviri (sacris faciundis), i.e. a college of priests who had charge of the Sibylline Books.

Parallel Passages. Verg. Aen. vi., espec. ll. 42-101, for the Cumaean Sibyl.

The Sibylline Books. ‘There existed also Etruscan libri fatales (Books of Fate), and these, together with the Sibylline Books, were kept in the Temple of Capitoline Jupiter. Nothing seemed more natural than to suppose that Tarquin, who built that temple, purchased also the sacred books of the Sibyl.’—Ihne.



A. Sextus Tarquinius at Gabii.

Inde in consilia publica adhiberi. . . . Ita cum sensim ad rebellandum primores Gabinorum incitaret, ipse cum promptissimis iuvenum praedatum atque in expeditiones iret, et dictis factisque omnibus ad fallendum instructis vana accresceret fides, dux ad 5 ultimum belli legitur. Ibi cum inscia multitudine, quid ageretur, proelia parva inter Romam Gabiosque fierent, quibus plerumque Gabina res superior esset, tum certatim summi infimique Gabinorum Sex. Tarquinium dono deum sibi missum ducem credere. 10 Apud milites vero obeundo pericula ac labores pariter, praedam munifice largiendo tanta caritate esse, ut non pater Tarquinius potentior Bomae quam filius Gabiis esset.

Livy, i. 54.

1 Inde, i.e. after the tale he told of his father’s cruelty had gained credit with the men of Gabii.

adhiberi = he was admitted. Historic Infin.

2 ad rebellandum = to renew the war.

4-5 ad fallendum instructis = were framed to deceive.

8 Gabina res = the cause of Gabii. For res cf. p. 11 (2).

11 obeundo pariter = by facing alike . . .

B. The Sequel: the Fall of Gabii.

Iamque potens misso genitorem appellat amico,

Perdendi Gabios quod sibi monstret iter.

Hortus odoratis suberat cultissimus herbis,


Sectus humum rivo lene sonantis aquae.

Illic Tarquinius mandata latentia nati

Accipit, et virga lilia summa metit.

Nuntius ut rediit, decussaque lilia dixit,


Filius ‘Agnosco iussa parentis’ ait.

Nec mora: principibus caesis ex urbe Gabina,

Traduntur ducibus moenia nuda suis.

Ovid, Fasti, ii. 543-552. H.

1 genitorem appellat . . . = he calls on his father (to tell him) . . .

6 virga = with a switch.

summa = the tallest.

10 ducibus suis, abl., after nuda = deprived of.

Reference. Hor. Ep. ii. 1. 23-27. Horace refers to the treaty made by Tarquinius with Gabii.

Historic Parallel. Compare the extraordinary self-sacrifice of Zōpy̆rus, which enabled him to betray Babylon to his master Darius. Herod, iii. 153-158.



The Position of Rome, the future Mistress of the World.

Urbi autem locum Romulus incredibili opportunitate delegit. Neque enim ad mare admovit—quod ei fuit illa manu copiisque facillimum, ut in agrum Rutulorum Aboriginumve procederet, aut in ostio Tiberino, quem in locum multis post annis rex 5 Ancus coloniam deduxit, urbem ipse conderet,—sed hoc vir excellenti providentia sensit ac vidit, non esse opportunissimos situs maritimos urbibus eis quae ad spem diuturnitatis conderentur atque imperi. Itaque urbem perennis amnis et aequabilis et 10 in mare late influentis posuit in ripa, quo posset urbs et accipere ex mari, quo egeret, et reddere, quo redundaret: ut mihi iam tum divinasse ille videatur, hanc urbem sedem aliquando et domum summo esse imperio praebituram: nam hanc rerum tantam 15 potentiam non ferme facilius alia in parte Italiae posita urbs tenere potuisset. Urbis autem ipsius is est tractus ductusque muri cum Romuli tum etiam reliquorum regum sapientia definitus ex omni parte arduis praeruptisque montibus. Locumque delegit 20 et fontibus abundantem et in regione pestilenti salubrem.

Cicero, De Rep. ii. 3. 5, 6 (selected).

3-6 quod ei fuit . . . = lit. which he might very easily have done with that band (of men) and those forces, so that . . .

4 Rutulorum. S. of Rome. Turnus their King. Capital, Ardea.

6 coloniam, i.e. Ostia, the harbour of Rome and chief naval station.

7-8 non esse opportunissimos, e.g. as exposed to sudden attacks, and likely to contain a too large foreign element.

12-13 quo redundaret = its own superabundance.

17-18 is tractus ductusque = the plan and direction.

19 definitus = bounded.

20 arduis praeruptisque montibus. ‘The amphitheatre of seven hills which encloses the meadows (afterwards the Campus Martius) in the bend of the Tiber, varying from 120 to 180 feet above the stream, offered heights sufficiently elevated and abrupt for fortification, yet without difficulties for the builder or cultivator.’

N.B.—In this passage be careful to translate Cicero’s long, periodic sentences by two or more separate sentences in English.

The Position of Rome. ‘There was no place better fitted for an emporium of the Tiber and sea traffic, and for a maritime frontier fortress than Rome. It combined the advantages of a strong position and of immediate vicinity to the river.’ Mommsen.



‘Salve, magna parens frugum, Saturnia tellus.’

Sed neque Medorum silvae ditissima terra,

Nec pulcher Ganges atque auro turbidus Hermus

Laudibus Italiae certent, non Bactra, neque Indi

Totaque turiferis Panchaia pinguis harenis.


Haec loca non tauri spirantes naribus ignem

Invertere satis immanis dentibus hydri,

Nec galeis densisque virum seges horruit hastis;

Sed gravidae fruges et Bacchi Massicus umor

Implevere; tenent oleae armentaque laeta.


Hinc bellator equus campo sese arduus infert;

Hinc albi, Clitumne, greges, et maxima taurus

Victima, saepe tuo perfusi flumine sacro,

Romanos ad templa deum duxere triumphos.

Hic ver assiduum atque alienis mensibus aestas;


Bis gravidae pecudes, bis pomis utilis arbor.

At rabidae tigres absunt et saeva leonum

Semina, nec miseros fallunt aconita legentes,

Nec rapit immensos orbis per humum, neque tanto

Squameus in spiram tractu se colligit anguis.

Vergil, Georg. ii, 136-154.

136 silvae ditissima = most rich in forests.—Sidgwick.

137 Hermus, auriferous river of Lydia, cf. the R. Pactolus.

138 Bactra, modern Balk, N. of Afghanistan.

139 Panchaia, i.e. Arabia, the Eldorado of the Old World.

141 satis . . . hydri = where the enormous dragon’s teeth were sown. hydri (ὕδρος), lit. a water-snake.

143 Massicus umor = Massic juice, i.e. of Mt. Massicus in N.W. Campania, famous for its wine, espec. the Falernian.

144 implevere (sc. haec loca) = fill it all.

146 Clitumne. R. of Umbria, famous for its white cattle.*

146-148 White cattle were required for the sacrifices of the Triumphs.

149 alienis mensibus = in months not her own, i.e. in months properly belonging to winter.

150 bis gravidae pecudes = twice the cattle give increase, Conington.

151, 152 saeva leonum semina = the fierce lion-brood.—Mackail.

aconita, a deadly poison—monkshood.

153, 154 neque—anguis = nor with so vast a sweep gather himself into a coil, i.e. the snakes in Italy are not so large as elsewhere.

R. Clitumnus. Compare Pliny’s beautiful letter (viii. 8) describing its source.

* Cf. the Chillingham ‘Wild Cattle.’




‘How well Horatius kept the Bridge
In the brave days of old.’

Nec non Tarquinium eiectum Porsenna iubebat

Accipere, ingentique urbem obsidione premebat;

Aeneadae in ferrum pro libertate ruebant.

Illum indignanti similem, similemque minanti


Aspiceres, pontem auderet quia vellere Cocles,

Et fluvium vinclis innaret Cloelia ruptis.

Vergil, Aen. viii. 646-651.

Venus brings Aeneas his new armour: he gazes at the shield whereon were wrought scenes of the story of Rome to be.

646 Porsenna.

‘Lars Porsena of Clusium

By the nine gods he swore

That the great house of Tarquin

Should suffer wrong no more.’—Macaulay.

648 in ferrum ruebant = were flinging themselves on the sword. C.

651 Cloelia, a Roman hostage, who escaped by swimming the Tiber.

B. Pons sublicius iter paene hostibus dedit, ni unus vir fuisset, Horatius Cocles. . . . Qui positus forte in statione pontis, cum captum repentino impetu Ianiculum atque inde citatos decurrere hostes vidisset, 10 trepidamque turbam suorum arma ordinesque relinquere, reprehensans singulos, obsistens obtestansque deum et hominum fidem testabatur nequiquam deserto praesidio eos fugere; si transitum pontem a tergo reliquissent, iam plus hostium in Palatio 15 Capitolioque quam in Ianiculo fore. Itaque monere, praedicere, ut pontem ferro, igni, quacunque vi possint, interrumpant; se impetum hostium, quantum corpore uno posset obsisti, excepturum. Vadit inde in primum aditum pontis, insignisque inter 20 conspecta cedentium pugnae terga, obversis cominus ad ineundum proelium armis, ipso miraculo audaciae obstupefecit hostes.

Livy, ii. 10.

7 Pons sublicius = the pile-bridge, built by Ancus Marcius to connect Rome proper with the Janiculum-hill, or ridge.

8 Cocles = the one-eyed, from loss of an eye in battle.

10 citatos = at full speed. Adj. use of participle; cf. citato equo.

11 trepidamque turbam = panic-stricken and in disorder.

12 reprehensans = seizing them by the arm one after another.

14-15 si transitum . . . reliquissent = if they left the bridge free for the enemy to cross by. transitum = noun, in appos. to pontem.

21-22 obversis armis = as he faced about.



‘How well Horatius kept the Bridge
In the brave days of old.’

Duos tamen cum eo pudor tenuit, Sp. Larcium ac T. Herminium, ambos claros genere factisque. Cum his primam periculi procellam et quod tumultuosissimum pugnae erat, parumper sustinuit; deinde eos quoque ipsos, exigua parte pontis relicta, revocantibus, 5 qui rescindebant, cedere in tutum coegit. Circumferens inde truces minaciter oculos ad proceres Etruscorum nunc singulos provocare, nunc increpare omnes: servitia regum superborum, suae libertatis immemores alienam oppugnatum venire. 10 Cunctati aliquamdiu sunt, dum alius alium, ut proelium incipiant, circumspectant. Pudor deinde commovit aciem, et clamore sublato undique in unum hostem tela coniciunt. Quae cum in obiecto cuncta scuto haesissent, neque ille minus obstinatus ingenti 15 pontem obtineret gradu, iam impetu conabantur detrudere virum, cum simul fragor rupti pontis, simul clamor Romanorum alacritate perfecti operis sublatus, pavore subito impetum sustinuit. Tum Cocles ‘Tiberine pater,’ inquit, ‘te sancte precor, haec arma 20 et hunc militem propitio flumine accipias.’ Ita sic armatus in Tiberim desiluit, multisque superincidentibus telis incolumis ad suos tranavit, rem ausus plus famae habituram ad posteros quam fidei.

Livy, ii. 10.

7 ad proceres = on the chiefs. For prŏcer cf. procērus = tall.

8-9 provocare . . . increpare. Historic Infinitives = Indic.

9 servitia = the slaves = servos. Abstract for concrete, freq. in Livy. Cf. Hor. Od. ii. 8. 18. (servitus = servi.)

14 obiecto = presented, i.e. to the enemy.

15-16 ingenti gradu = with mighty (heroic) stand. Cf. ‘firm as a rock.’

18 alacritate perfecti operis = from joy at the completion of the work.

24 plus famae . . . fidei = destined to win more fame than credit with posterity.

‘Oh Tiber! father Tiber!

To whom the Romans pray,

A Roman’s life, a Roman’s arms,

Take thou in charge this day!’

So he spake, and speaking sheathed

The good sword by his side,

And with his harness on his back,

Plunged headlong in the tide.—Macaulay.



How C. Mucius lost his Hand, but won a Name.

A. Obsidio erat nihilo minus et frumenti cum summa caritate inopia, sedendoque expugnaturum se urbem spem Porsena habebat, cum C. Mucius, adulescens nobilis, . . . primo sua sponte penetrare in hostium castra constituit; dein metuens, ne, si consulum 5 iniussu et ignaris omnibus iret, forte deprehensus a custodibus Romanis retraheretur ut transfuga, fortuna tum urbis crimen affirmante, senatum adit. ‘Transire Tiberim,’ inquit, ‘patres, et intrare, si possim, castra hostium volo, non praedo nec populationum 10 in vicem ultor; maius, si di iuvant, in animo est facinus.’ Approbant patres; abdito intra vestem ferro proficiscitur. Ubi eo venit, in confertissima turba prope regium tribunal constitit.

Livy, ii. 12.

1 cum summa caritate = involving (cum) a very high price.

2 sedendo = by sitting down before, of a besieging army.

3 Mucius. From this incident surnamed Scaevola = the left-handed. After his time, a frequent surname in the Gens Mucia.

7-8 fortunā . . . affirmante = (a charge which) the present condition of the city would confirm (substantiate).

10-11 non praedo . . . ultor = not to plunder nor to retaliate on (lit. ‘an avenger in turn on’) our plunderers.


Cum peteret regem decepta satellite dextra

Ingessit sacris se peritura focis.

Sed tam saeva pius miracula non tulit hostis


Et raptum flammis iussit abire virum.

Urere quam potuit contempto Mucius igne,

Hanc spectare manum Porsena non potuit.

Maior deceptae fama est et gloria dextrae:


Si non errasset, fecerat illa minus.

Martial, Ep. I. xxi.

1 sătellite = the attendant, i.e. the scribe or secretary of Porsena.

2 ingessit = thrust into (in + gero).

3 tam saeva miracula = such a miracle of stern fortitude.—S.

pius = feeling, as opposed to unnatural.

7-8 i.e. to have killed Porsena would have been less glorious than to display such heroism.—Stephenson.

Porsena. Livy tells us that Mucius, in gratitude for the magnanimity of Porsena, revealed to him that 300 Roman youths had sworn to attempt the same deed that he had undertaken. Whereupon Porsena feared to distress the Romans any longer, and made peace with them.



The Dictator and his Master of the Horse.

Ibi alia inter proceres coorta pugna. Imperator Latinus, ubi cohortem exulum a dictatore Romano prope circumventam vidit, ex subsidiariis manipulos aliquot in primam aciem secum rapit. Hos agmine venientes T. Herminius legatus conspicatus, interque 5 eos insignem veste armisque Mamilium noscitans, tanto vi maiore, quam paulo ante magister equitum, cum hostium duce proelium iniit, ut et uno ictu transfixum per latus occiderit Mamilium, et ipse inter spoliandum corpus hostis veruto percussus, 10 cum victor in castra esset relatus, inter primam curationem exspiraverit. Tum ad equites dictator advolat obtestans, ut fesso iam pedite descendant ex equis et pugnam capessant. Dicto paruere; desiliunt ex equis, provolant in primum, et pro antesignanis 15 parmas obiciunt. Recipit extemplo animum pedestris acies, postquam iuventutis proceres aequato genere pugnae secum partem periculi sustinentes vidit. Tum demum impulsi Latini, perculsaque inclinavit acies. 20

Livy, ii. 20.

1 inter proceres. The Battle of Lake Regillus was, in the main, a Homeric battle of single combats between the opposing chiefs.

1-2 Imperator Latinus, i.e. Mamilius of Tusculum, son-in-law of Tarquin.

5 T. Herminius, one of ‘the dauntless Three,’ who kept the bridge.

7 magister equitum, i.e. T. Aebutius. The Master of the Horse, the second in command, was nominated by the Dictator.

10 veruto = with a javelin, cf. veru = a spit.

11-12 inter primam curationem = at the first attempt to dress his wound.—Rawlins.

13 dictator, i.e. Aulus Postumius. The Dictator (magister populi = master of the army) was appointed by one of the two Consuls (= colleagues) in a time of national danger to avoid the possible want of unity between the two consuls in time of war.

15 in primum = in primam aciem.

antesignanis, i.e. the first line fighting in front of the standards.

17 iuventutis proceres = the young noblemen, i.e. the cavalry are not only the younger men (in Livy often = iuvenes) but also patricians.

Reference. Macaulay, The Battle of Lake Regillus.



The Fable of the Belly and the Members.
Tribunes of the People.

Pavor ingens in urbe, metuque mutuo suspensa erant omnia. . . . Placuit igitur oratorem ad plebem mitti Menenium Agrippam, facundum virum et, quod inde oriundus erat, plebi carum. Is intromissus in castra prisco illo dicendi et horrido modo nihil 5 aliud quam hoc narrasse fertur: Tempore, quo in homine non, ut nunc, omnia in unum consentientia, sed singulis membris suum cuique consilium, suus sermo fuerit, indignatas reliquas partes sua cura, suo labore ac ministerio ventri omnia quaeri, ventrem in 10 medio quietum nihil aliud quam datis voluptatibus frui; conspirasse inde, ne manus ad os cibum ferrent, nec os acciperet datum, nec dentes conficerent. Hac ira dum ventrem fame domare vellent, ipsa una membra totumque corpus ad extremam tabem 15 venisse. Inde apparuisse ventris quoque haud segne ministerium esse, nec magis ali quam alere eum, reddentem in omnes corporis partes hunc, quo vivimus vigemusque, divisum pariter in venas, maturum confecto cibo sanguinem. Comparando hinc, quam 20 intestina corporis seditio similis esset irae plebis in patres, flexisse mentes hominum. Agi deinde de concordia coeptum concessumque in condiciones, ut plebi sui magistratus essent sacrosancti, quibus auxili latio adversus consules esset, neve cui patrum capere 25 eum magistratum liceret. Ita tribuni plebei creati duo, C. Licinius et L. Albinus.

Livy, ii. 32, 33.

1-2 Pavor ingens . . . omnia. One of the Roman armies (mainly recruited from Plebeians) refused to obey orders, entrenched itself on Mons Sacer, and threatened to secede from Rome altogether.

2 oratorem (i.e. legatum) = spokesman, charged with a verbal message.

4 inde, i.e. from the Plebs.

10-11 ventrem . . . quietum = whereas the belly resting calmly in their midst.—Rawlins.

13 conficerent = grind, and so aid digestion. Cf. confecto l. 20.

19-20 maturum confecto cibo = brought to perfection only when the food is digested.—R.

24 sacrosancti = consecrated and inviolable.

24-25 quibus . . . esset, i.e. as official protectors of the Plebs, by their right of veto on the official actions of all other magistrates.

For the Fable, cf. Seneca de Ira ii. 31, and 1 Corinthians, xii. 12-27.



Veturia and her son Coriolanus.

Coriolanus prope ut amens consternatus ab sede sua cum ferret matri obviae complexum, mulier in iram ex precibus versa ‘Sine, priusquam complexum accipio, sciam’ inquit, ‘ad hostem an ad filium venerim, captiva mater-ne in castris tuis sim. In 5 hoc me longa vita et infelix senecta traxit, ut exulem te, deinde hostem viderem? Potuisti populari hanc terram, quae te genuit atque aluit? Non tibi, quamvis infesto animo et minaci perveneras, ingredienti fines ira cecidit? Non, cum in conspectu 10 Roma fuit, succurrit: Intra illa moenia domus ac penates mei sunt, mater, coniunx liberique? Ergo ego nisi peperissem, Roma non oppugnaretur; nisi filium haberem, libera in libera patria mortua essem.’ . . . Uxor deinde ac liberi amplexi, fletusque ab 15 omni turba mulierum ortus et conploratio sui patriaeque fregere tandem virum. Complexus inde suos dimittit; ipse retro ab urbe castra movit. Abductis deinde legionibus ex agro Romano invidia rei oppressum perisse tradunt alii alio leto. 20

Livy, ii. 40.

1 Coriolanus. Gaius Marcius received the cognomen of Coriolanus for his bravery at the capture of the Volscian town of Corioli (S.E. of Rome). After this, in a time of famine at Rome, C. advised that the corn obtained elsewhere should not be distributed, unless the Plebeians would give up their Tribunes. For this he was impeached and went into voluntary exile among the Volsci.

consternatus = in strong emotion—lit. ‘stretched on the ground.’

7 potuisti = had you the heart to—question indicated by tone of the voice.

10-11 non . . . succurrit = did it not occur to you?

19-20 invidia rei oppressum = overwhelmed by the unpopularity of his action.

20 alii alio leto, e.g. i. by a voluntary death; ii. put to death by the Volscians; iii. lived to old age in exile.

References. Cic. Brutus x. (compared to Themistocles). Plutarch, Coriolanus.

‘The germ from which the whole legend sprang is the story of the filial love of Coriolanus, and of the great authority exercised in olden times by Roman matrons over their sons and husbands.’ Ihne.

Shakespeare, Coriolanus, V. iii.



WAR WITH VEII, 483-474 B.C.
The Destruction of the Fabii at the Cremera, 477 B.C.

Campus erat, campi claudebant ultima colles

Silvaque montanas occulere apta feras.

In medio paucos armentaque rara relinquunt,


Cetera virgultis abdita turba latet.

Ecce velut torrens undis pluvialibus auctus

Aut nive, quae Zephyro victa tepente fluit,

Per sata perque vias fertur, nec, ut ante solebat,


Riparum clausas margine finit aquas:

Sic Fabii vallem latis discursibus implent,

Quodque vident sternunt, nec metus alter inest.

Quo ruitis, generosa domus? male creditis hosti:


Simplex nobilitas, perfida tela cave.

Fraude perit virtus. In apertos undique campos

Prosiliunt hostes, et latus omne tenent.

Quid faciant panci contra tot millia fortes?


Quidve, quod in misero tempore restet, adest?

Sicut aper longe silvis Laurentibus actus

Fulmineo celeres dissipat ore canes,

Mox tamen ipse perit: sic non moriuntur inulti


Vulneraque alterna dantque feruntque manu.

Una dies Fabios ad bellum miserat omnes;

Ad bellum missos perdidit una dies.

Ovid, Fasti, ii. 175-196, H.

Context. To protect their territory from the constant raids of the Veientines, the noble house of the Fabii offered to undertake the war themselves. The consul Kaeso Fabius marched out of the city at the head of his clan, followed by the blessings and good wishes of the admiring people. He erected a fortified camp near the R. Cremera (a tributary of the Tiber), and from this spot plundered Veientine territory.

1 campus. ‘Ovid here paints from fancy: there are, however, deep hollows admirably calculated to conceal an ambushed foe.’—Ramsay.

9 discursibus = runnings to and fro, of soldiers dispersing to plunder.

10 metus alter = fear of a second enemy, i.e. of one in ambush.

17 silvis Laurentibus. Laurentum on the coast of Latium between Ostia and Ardea. Wild boars are still found in the swampy thickets.

18 Fulmineo ore = with flashing tusk.—Hallam.

Parallel Passage. Livy, ii. 48, 49.

‘The story probably came from the Chronicles of the Fabian Clan, perhaps through Fabius Pictor, the first Roman annalist.’ Rawlins, Cf. Ihne, vol. i. cap. vi.



A. Cincinnatus called from the Plough.

Sed Aequos praecipue Quinctius Cincinnatus domuit, ille dictator ab aratro, qui obsessa et paene iam capta L. Minuci consulis castra egregia victoria recuperavit. Medium erat tempus forte sementis, cum patricium virum innixum aratro suo lictor in 5 ipso opere deprehendit. Inde in aciem profectus, ne quid a rustici operis imitatione cessaret, more pecudum victos sub iugum misit. Sic expeditione finita redit ad boves rursus triumphalis agricola. Intra quindecim dies coeptum peractumque bellum, 10 prorsus ut festinasse, dictator ad relictum opus videretur.

Florus, I. xi. 12-15.

1 Aequos, mountaineers (closely allied to the Sabines) who lived in the mountains forming the E. boundary of Latium.

Cincinnatus. ‘The true type of primeval virtue, abstinence, and patriotism.’—Ihne.

2-4 qui . . . recuperavit. The Aequian general, Gracchus Cloelius, had defeated the consul, L. Minucius, and blockaded him in his camp on Mt. Algidus, the E. spur of the Alban range. Cincinnatus makes a wonderful night march from Rome of 20 miles, blockades in turn the investing Aequian force, and compels an unconditional surrender.

4 sementis = of the seed-time. Formed from semen, cf. sero.

B. ‘In the brave days of old.’

Restat, ut inveniam, quare toga libera detur


Lucifero pueris, candide Bacche, tuo.


An quia, cum colerent prisci studiosius agros,


Et patrio faceret rure senator opus,

Et caperet fasces a curvo consul aratro,

Nec crimen duras esset habere manus,

Rusticus ad ludos populus veniebat in urbem:


Sed dis, non studiis, ille dabatur honor.

Ovid, Fasti, iii. 729-742, H.

1 toga libera (or virilis), the man’s dress of unornamented white wool. Lībera (līber), free from the restraints of boyhood.

2 lucifero = lit. morning-star. Here poet. for die.

5 consul, e.g. Cincinnatus, who was called to be Dictator.

8 sed . . . honor, i.e. in ‘the good old days’ worship, not amusement, was the chief object of the visit to Rome.

3-8 Ovid says one reason why the toga libera was assumed at the Liberalia (the Feast of Bacchus—the vintage, festival) was because it was the most crowded festival of the year.

References. Livy, iii. 26-28. Ihne, vol. i. cap. v.




Iam redierant legati cum Atticis legibus. Eo intentius instabant tribuni, ut tandem scribendarum legum initium fieret. Placet creari decemviros sine provocatione, et ne quis eo anno alius magistratus esset . . . Tum legibus condendis opera dabatur; 5 ingentique hominum expectatione propositis decem tabulis populum ad contionem advocaverunt et, quod bonum, faustum felixque rei publicae, ipsis liberisque eorum esset, ire et legere leges propositas iussere. Se, quantum decem hominum ingeniis provideri 10 potuerit, omnibus, summis infimisque, iura aequasse; plus pollere multorum ingenia consiliaque. Versarent in animis secum unamquamque rem, agitarent deinde sermonibus atque in medium, quid in quaque re plus minusve esset, conferrent. . . . Cum ad 15 rumores hominum de unoquoque legum capite editos satis correctae viderentur, centuriatis comitiis decem tabularum leges perlatae sunt, qui nunc quoque in hoc immenso aliarum super alias acervatarum legum cumulo, fons omnis publici privatique 20 est iuris.

Livy, iii. 32, 34.

1 cum Atticis legibus, i.e. with a copy of the Laws of Solon (the great Athenian Lawgiver, 594 B.C.).

1-3 Eo intentius . . . fieret, because up to this time the knowledge of law and its interpretation was confined to the Patricians (cf. the Scribes of the N.T.). This could only be remedied by writng the laws down and making them public.

3-4 sine provocatione = without appeal. Lit. ‘challenging.’

4-5 ne quis . . . esset. The Decemvirs were to supersede temporarily both Consuls and Tribunes.

14-15 quid . . . conferrent = ‘Should point out in the interest of all (lit. should contribute to the public good) any faults of excess or defect in the several articles.’—Stephenson.

15-17 ad rumores hominum = in accordance with (ad) public opinion.

17 centuriatis comitiis. Servius Tullius divided the people into five classes, according to the value of their property. The people (Patricians and Plebeians alike) voted by centuries; but as 98 centuries (and ∴ 98 votes) were allotted to the richest class and only 95 to the other four classes, the influence of wealth was decisive in the elections.

Parallel Passages. Cic. De Republica ii. 33-37, and De Legibus ii. 23.

The Twelve Tables. ‘They were essentially only a written embodiment of the existing public and private law.’—Mommsen. Cf. Magna Carta.



The Death of Verginia not in vain.

Concitatur multitudo partim atrocitate sceleris, partim spe per occasionem repetendae libertatis. In contionem Appius escendit; sequuntur Horatius Valeriusque. Eos contio audit; decemviro obstrepitur. Iam pro imperio Valerius discedere a privato 5 lictores iubebat, cum fractis animis Appius vitae metuens in domum se propinquam foro insciis adversariis capite obvoluto recipit. M. Duillius deinde tribunus plebis plebem rogavit plebesque scivit, qui plebem sine tribunis reliquisset quique magistratum 10 sine provocatione creasset, tergo ac capite puniretur. Haec omnia ut invitis, ita non adversantibus patriciis transacta, quia nondum in quemquam unum saeviebatur. Fundata deinde et potestate tribunicia et plebis libertate tum tribuni aggredi singulos tutum 15 maturumque iam rati accusatorem primum Verginium et Appium reum deligunt. Spe incisa, priusquam prodicta dies adesset, Appius mortem sibi conscivit. M. Claudius assertor Verginiae, die dicta damnatus ipso remittente Verginio ultimam poenam 20 dimissus Tibur exulatum abiit; manesque Verginiae, mortuae quam vivae felicioris, per tot domos ad petendas poenas vagati nullo relicto sonte tandem quieverunt.

Livy, iii. 49, 55, 56, 58 (sel.)

Context. Verginius, seeing no way of saving his daughter from disgrace and dishonour at the hands of Appius Claudius, killed her before the judgment-seat of the tyrant and before the eyes of the people.

2 per occasionem = by such a favourable opportunity.—Rawlins.

3 In contionem = to the rostra (the platform for speakers).

3-4 Horatius Valeriusque. The first Consuls after the abolition of the Decemvirate in 449 B.C.

5 pro imperio, i.e. usurping the authority of a magistrate.

9 plebesque scivit (scisco) = and the people approved (i.e. voted for) it.

11 provocatione = right of appeal.

18 prodicta = adjourned, from the first hearing.—R.

19 assertor V. = who claimed V. as his slave.

Results of the Secession. ‘The Valerian Laws, by the second of which it was ordained that in criminal trials, when the life of a citizen was at stake, the sentence of the Consul should be subject to an appeal to the people. This Valerian Law of Appeal was the Roman Habeas Corpus Act.’—Ihne.



Cossus wins the Spolia Opima, 437 B.C.

Erat tum inter equites tribunus militum A. Cornelius Cossus, eximia pulchritudine corporis, animo ac viribus par memorque generis, quod amplissimum acceptum maius auctiusque reliquit posteris. Is cum ad impetum Tolumni, quacumque se intendisset, 5 trepidantes Romanas videret turmas insignemque eum regio habitu volitantem tota acie cognosset, ‘Hicine est’ inquit ‘ruptor foederis humani violatorque gentium iuris? Iam ego hanc mactatam victimam, si modo sancti quicquam in terris esse di 10 volunt, legatorum manibus dabo.’ Calcaribus subditis infesta cuspide in unum fertur hostem; quem cum ictum equo deiecisset, confestim et ipse hasta innixus se in pedes excepit. Adsurgentem ibi regem umbone resupinat repetitumque saepius cuspide 15 ad terram affixit. Tum exsangui detracta spolia, caputque abscisum victor spiculo gerens terrore caesi regis hostes perfudit. Ita equitum quoque fusa acies, quae una fecerat anceps certamen. Dictator legionibus fugatis instat et ad castra compulsos 20 caedit.

Livy, iv. 19.

3 par = equally distinguished by, equal, that is, to his beauty.—S.

5 Tolumni = Lars Tolumnius, King of the Veientos, in alliance with Fidenae (about 5 miles N.E. of Rome).

quacumque se intendisset = wherever he directed his charge.

8-11 Hicine . . . manibus dabo. Fidenae had frequently been colonised by Rome, and had as frequently revolted. When the Romans sent four ambassadors to Fidenae to demand satisfaction for this last revolt, the people of Fidenae murdered them. Tolumnius is associated with their crime.

12 infesta cuspide = with couched lance.

13-14 hasta . . . excepit = with the help of his spear leapt to the ground. Lit. ‘resting on his spear caught himself on his feet.’—Stephenson.

15 umbone resupinat = he throws him back with the boss of his shield.

repetitum = piercing him again and again.—S.

19 Dictator = Mamercus Aemilius, a man of energy and ability.

The spolia opima (spoils of honour) were the arms taken on the field of battle by the victorious from the vanquished general. They were won on only three occasions:—

i. by Romulus, ii. by Cossus, iii. by Marcellus (the Conqueror of Syracuse), who in his first consulship, 222 B.C., slew with his own hand Viridomarus, King of the Insubrian Gauls. Cf. Prop. V. x.



THE WAR WITH VEII, 405-396 B.C. (1)
First Pay given to Citizen Soldiers, 406 B.C.

Additum deinde omnium maxime tempestivo principum in multitudinem munere, ut ante mentionem ullam plebis tribunorumve decerneret senatus, ut stipendium miles de publico acciperet, cum ante id tempus de suo quisque functus eo munere esset. 5 Nihil acceptum umquam a plebe tanto gaudio traditur. Concursum itaque ad curiam esse prensatasque exeuntium manus et patres vere appellatos, effectum esse fatentibus, ut nemo pro tam munifica patria, donec quicquam virium superesset, corpori 10 aut sanguini suo parceret. Cum commoditas iuvaret, rem familiarem saltem acquiescere eo tempore, quo corpus addictum atque operatum rei publicae esset, tum quod ultro sibi oblatum esset, non a tribunis plebis agitatum, non suis sermonibus efflagitatum, 15 id efficiebat multiplex gaudium cumulatioremque gratiam rei. . . . Et lege perlata de indicendo Veientibus bello exercitum magna ex parte voluntarium novi tribuni militum consulari potestate Veios duxere. 20

Livy, iv. 59, 60.

1 tempestivo = seasonable (timely), in view of the coming struggle with Veii, and the necessity for winter campaigns.

2 munere. Livy tells us (cap. 60) that the Senate did not provide the pay as a present, but simply paid punctually their proper share of the war-tax (tributum) in accordance with their assessment (cum senatus summa fide ex censu contulisset).

4 de publico = out of the Public Treasury.

9 fatentibus = while men admitted.—R.

11-12 Cum . . . acquiescere = While the comfortable thought (commoditas = lit. advantage) pleased them (namely) that their private property at least was undisturbed— i.e. that they paid no war-tax while they were in the field.—Rawlins.

12-13 quo corpus . . . esset = when they were impressed (devoted to) and actively employed in the public service.—S. addictus, properly of an insolvent debtor made over to his creditor = a bondman.

16-17 id . . . gratiam rei in apposition to quod . . . efflagitatum.

19 tribuni . . . potestate. Military tribunes with consular power instead of Consuls were elected occasionally from 444 to 367 B.C.

20 Veios. The capture of Veii by Camillus (396 B.C.), in consequence of the introduction of military pay, was enormously important to Rome.

Reference. Ihne, Hist. vol. i. pp. 243-4.



THE WAR WITH VEII, 405-396 B.C. (2)
A. Lament over Veii.

Heu, Veii veteres, et vos tum regna fuistis,


Et vestro posita est aurea sella foro:

Nunc intra muros pastoris bucina lenti

Cantat, et in vestris ossibus arva metunt.

Propertius, IV. (V.) x. 27-30.

27 Veii (Isola Farnese) on R. Cremera, about 12 miles N.W. of Rome.

28 aurea sella, i.e. the official seat of the King. Cf. the Sella Curulis at Rome, introduced from Etruria.

29 bucina = horn.

30 et . . . metunt = and reapers gather the harvests from fields (metunt arva) enriched by the bones of your buried heroes (in ossibus vestris).

B. The Rise of the Alban Lake.

Quid, quod in annalibus habemus, Veienti 5 bello, cum lacus Albanus praeter modum crevisset, Veientem quemdam ad nos hominem nobilem profugisse, eumque dixisse, ex fatis, quae Veientes scripta haberent, Veios capi non posse, dum lacus is redundaret: et, si lacus emissus lapsu et cursu suo ad 10 mare profluxisset, perniciosum populo Romano: sin autem ita esset eductus, ut ad mare pervenire non posset, tum salutare nostris fore? Ex quo illa admirabilis a maioribus Albanae aquae facta deductio est. Cum autem Veientes bello fessi legatos ad 15 senatum misissent, tum ex his quidam dixisse dicitur, non omnia illum transfugam ausum esse senatu dicere: in iisdem enim fatis scriptum Veientes habere, ‘Fore ut brevi a Gallis Roma caperetur:’ quod quidem sexennio post Veios captos esse factum 20 videmus.

Cicero, de Divinatione, I. xliv. 100.

5 in annalibus, e.g. in Livy, v. 15.

6 crevisset, perh. partly due to the excessive snows of the preceding winter, 397 B.C.

7 profugisse. Livy says he was treacherously made prisoner.

8-9 ex fatis . . . haberent, i.e. the Etruscan Libri fatales, Books of fate, cf. the Libri Sibyllini = the Roman Books of fate.

10 lapsu et cursu suo = in its natural course and stream.

14 deductio = draining (lit. a leading off). The tunnel then cut still carries off the superfluous waters of the lake.

20 sexennio post = six years after, i.e. 390 B.C. For the 10 years’ siege of Veii, cf. the Trojan War.

Reference. Plutarch, Camillus, iii.-v. Livy, v. 15.



THE WAR WITH VEII, 405-396 B.C. (3)
The Conquest of Veii.

Veientes ignari se iam a suis vatibus, iam ab externis oraculis proditos, iam in partem praedae suae vocatos deos, alios votis ex urbe sua evocatos hostium templa novasque sedes spectare, seque ultimum illum diem agere, nihil minus timentes 5 quam subrutis cuniculo moenibus arcem iam plenam hostium esse, in muros pro se quisque armati discurrunt mirantes, quidnam id esset, quod, cum tot per dies nemo se ab stationibus Romanus movisset, tum velut repentino icti furore improvidi currerent ad 10 muros. . . . Cuniculus delectis militibus eo tempore plenus in aedem Iunonis, quae in Veientana arce erat, armatos repente edidit, et pars aversos in muris invadunt hostes, pars claustra portarum revellunt, pars, cum ex tectis saxa tegulaeque a mulieribus ac 15 servitiis iacerentur, inferunt ignes. Clamor omnia variis terrentium ac paventium vocibus mixto mulierum ac puerorum ploratu complet. Momento temporis deiectis ex muro undique armatis patefactisque portis cum alii agmine irruerent, alii 20 desertos scanderent muros, urbs hostibus impletur; omnibus locis pugnatur; deinde multa iam edita caede senescit pugna, et dictator praecones edicere iubet, ut ab inermi abstineatur.

Livy, V. 21.

1 a suis vatibus, i.e. by the captured Etruscan soothsayer (haruspex).

1-2 ab externis oraculis, i.e. by the Delphic Oracle.

2-3 iam in partem . . . (alios) deos. Camillus had vowed to give to Apollo the tenth part of the spoils of Veii.

3-4 alios . . . spectare, i.e. Juno. ‘It was a Roman practice to invite the patron deity of a place or country to leave it, and to promise a more honourable worship at Rome.’—Whibley.

5-6 subrutis cunīculo = undermined. Camillus had a tunnel (cuniculum—rabbit-burrow, cf. cony) cut from the Roman camp under the wall to the Temple of Juno on the citadel of Veii.

7 discurrunt = run every man to his post, cf. ad arma discurritur.

15 tēgulae = tiles, roof-tiles (tĕgo).

23 senescit = abates, lit. grows old, becomes exhausted.

Results of the War. ‘By the Conquest of Veii, Rome’s territory, wealth, and population were largely increased. Rome was now emerging from the position of a federal capital of the Latins to become the mistress of a large country, when she was suddenly and unexpectedly overtaken by a disaster (the Invasion of the Gauls) which threatened not only her growth but her life.’—Ihne.



The Battle of the Allia.

Ibi tribuni militum non loco castris ante capto, non praemunito vallo, quo receptus esset, non deorum saltem, si non hominum, memores, nec auspicato nec litato instruunt aciem diductam in cornua, ne circumveniri multitudine hostium possent; 5 nec tamen aequari frontes poterant, cum extenuando infirmam et vix cohaerentem mediam aciem haberent. Paulum erat ab dextera editi loci, quem subsidiariis repleri placuit; eaque res ut initium pavoris ac fugae, sic una salus fugientibus fuit. Nam Brennus, regulus 10 Gallorum, in paucitate hostium artem maxime timens, ratus ad id captum superiorem locum, ut, ubi Galli cum acie legionum recta fronte concurrissent, subsidia in aversos transversosque impetum darent, ad subsidiarios signa convertit, si eos loco depulisset, 15 haud dubius facilem in aequo campi tantum superanti multitudine victoriam fore; adeo non fortuna modo sed ratio etiam cum barbaris stabat. In altera acie nihil simile Romanis, non apud duces, non apud milites erat. Pavor fugaque occupaverat animos et 20 tanta omnium oblivio, ut multo maior pars Veios, in hostium urbem, cum Tiberis arceret, quam recto itinere Romam ad coniuges ac liberos fugerent.

Livy, V. 38.

4 nec litato = without obtaining favourable omens (= καλλιερεῖν).

4-5 diductam in cornua = extended (drawn out) towards the wings.

6-7 cum . . . haberent = though they made, concessive subjunctive.

8 Paulum . . . editi loci = lit. a little piece of rising ground.

10 Brennus = lit. King of the army. Cf. the Saxon Heretoga.

13 recta fronte = front to front.—Whibley.

14 in aversos transversosque = on their rear and flank.

16-17 superanti multitudine = i. (the victory) would be (easy) to him superior (superanti) in point of numbers, or ii. abl, of cause—as he was so much superior in numbers.

21-22 Veios, in hostium urbem. An exaggeration as Veii was in ruins.

22 cum T. arceret = though the Tiber stood in their way.

The Invasion of the Gauls. ‘The most advanced tribe of the Gauls were the Senones who had settled on the Adriatic to the E. of Central Etruria. While the Romans reduced S. Etruria to a state of subjection, these Gauls suddenly crossed the Apennines, threatened Clusium, and then marched on Rome. Thus for the first time the Gallic race was brought to the knowledge of the civilised world. The two armies met on July 18 at the small R. Allia, only 15 miles from Rome.’—Ihne.



A. The Battle of the Allia (cont.)

Parumper subsidiarios tutatus est locus; in reliqua acie simul est clamor proximis ab latere, ultimis ab tergo auditus, ignotum hostem prius paene quam viderent, non modo non temptato certamine sed ne clamore quidem reddito integri intactique 5 fugerunt; nec ulla caedes pugnantium fuit; terga caesa suomet ipsorum certamine in turba impedientium fugam. Circa ripam Tiberis, quo armis abiectis totum sinistrum cornu refugit, magna strages facta est, multosque imperitos nandi aut invalidos, 10 graves loricis aliisque tegminibus, hausere gurgites. Maxima tamen pars incolumis Veios perfugit, unde non modo praesidii quicquam, sed ne nuntius quidem cladis Romam est missus. Ab dextro cornu, quod procul a flumine et magis sub monte steterat, 15 Romam omnes petiere et ne clausis quidem portis urbis in arcem confugerunt.

Livy, v. 38.

2-3 simul (= simul ac) . . . auditus = as soon as the shout was heard, by those nearest on the flank, by the most distant in the rear.

 ‘Proximi denotes the Romans on the right wing, who were the first to be attacked; the Gauls after routing them pressed on to the rear of the Romans and attacked the centre and left wing (ultimi) from behind.’—Whibley.

7-8 suomet . . . fugam = as they hindered their own flight by their struggling with one another in the crush.

11 graves = weighed down with, equivalent to a pass. partic.

hausere gurgites = the currents sucked down.—W

15 sub monte, i.e. the Colles Crustumini, which run parallel to the South bank of the Tiber.

B. July 18th, a Dies Nefastus.

   Pharsalia tanti

Causa mali. Cedant feralia nomina Cannae,

Et damnata diu Romanis Allia fastis.

Lucan, Phars. vii. 407-9.

407 Pharsalia, Battle of, 48 B.C. Caesar signally defeated Pompey.

408 feralia = fatal (= funesta).

409 fastis, i.e. Fasti consulares, the registers of the higher magistrates. Cf. the Saxon Chronicle

The Battle. ‘The defeat of the Allia was never forgotten by the Romans. The panic (due to the strange appearance of the barbarians and their unwonted method of fighting) which alone had caused the defeat, struck so deep into their minds that for centuries afterwards the name and the sight of Gauls inspired them with terror.’—Ihne.



Roman Dignity and Courage.

Romae interim satis iam omnibus ut in tali re ad tuendam arcem compositis turba seniorum domos regressi adventum hostium obstinato ad mortem animo exspectabant. Qui eorum curules gesserant magistratus, ut in fortunae pristinae honorumque ac 5 virtutis insignibus morerentur, quae augustissima vestis est tensas ducentibus triumphantibusve, ea vestiti medio aedium eburneis sellis sedere. Galli autem ingressi postero die urbem patente Collina porta in forum perveniunt; ubi eos plebis aedificiis 10 obseratis, patentibus atriis principum, maior prope cunctatio tenebat aperta quam clausa invadendi; adeo haud secus quam venerabundi intuebantur in aedium vestibulis sedentes viros, praeter ornatum habitumque humano augustiorem maiestate etiam, 15 quam vultus gravitasque oris prae se ferebat, simillimos dis. Ad eos velut ad simulacra versi cum starent, M. Papirius, unus ex eis, dicitur Gallo barbam suam, ut tum omnibus promissa erat, permulcenti scipione eburneo in caput incusso iram 20 movisse, atque ab eo initium caedis ortum, ceteros in sedibus suis trucidatos; post principum caedem nulli deinde mortalium parci, diripi tecta, exhaustis inici ignes.

Livy, v. 41 (sel.)

1 ut in tali re = considering the circumstances.

3 obstinato ad = firmly resolved on. . .—Rawlins.

4-5 curules magistratus = curule magistracies, i.e. of Dictator, Censor, Consul, Praetor, Curule Aedile, who possessed the right of using sellae curules (the ivory chairs of State), originally an emblem of kingly power.

5-6 in fortunae . . . insignibus = in the emblems of their old rank (fortunae) and office (honorum) and prowess (virtutis i.e. prizes for valour; e.g. phalerae = bosses, coronae = crowns).

7 tensas = state cars in which the statues of the gods were drawn in solemn procession to the Circensian games.

11 obseratis = shut up, lit. barred, ob + sera, cf. sĕro = join.

14 vestibulis = entrance-courts, only found in large houses.

14-15 praeter ornatum habitumque = not only in their garb and bearing.—Whibley.

19 ut tum . . . erat = worn long (promissa) as was then the custom with all, or worn long in accordance with the fashion of the time.—R.

20 scipione eburneo = the ivory staff, one of the insignia of the triumphator.

23 exhaustis (sc. aedibus) = when completely pillaged.

Reference. Plutarch, Camillus, xxi. xxii.



A. Manlius Capitolinus and the Sacred Geese.

In summo custos Tarpeiae Manlius arcis

Stabat pro templo et Capitolia celsa tenebat,

Romuleoque recens horrebat regia culmo.


Atque his auratis volitans argenteus anser

Porticibus Gallos in limine adesse canebat;

Galli per dumos aderant, arcemque tenebant,

Defensi tenebris et dono noctis opacae;

Aurea caesaries ollis, atque aurea vestis;


Virgatis lucent sagulis; tum lactea colla

Auro innectuntur; duo quisque Alpina coruscant

Gaesa manu, scutis protecti corpora longis.

Vergil, Aen. viii. 652-662.

Context. Venus brings Aeneas his new armour: he gazes at the shield whereon were wrought scenes of the story of Rome to be.

652 in summo (sc. clipeo), on the top of the shield, as held in position.

654 Romuleoque . . . culmo = lit. and the palace was stiff freshly covered (recens) with the thatch of Romulus.

655-656 auratis . . . porticibus = the gilded colonnades of the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus of Vergil’s day, restored 69 B.C.

660 virgatis sagulis = with striped cloaksvirgatus = with bands or bars like shoots (virgae)—an effect produced by inlaying. C.

661-662 Alpina gaesa = Alpine (i.e. native) javelins.

B. The Fate of Manlius, 384 B.C.

M. Manlius, unde Gallos depulerat, inde ipse praecipitatus est, quia fortiter defensam libertatem nefarie opprimere conatus fuerat. Cuius iustae ultionis nimirum haec praefatio fuit: ‘Manlius eras 15 mihi, cum praecipites agebas Senones; postquam imitari coepisti, unus factus es ex Senonibus.’ Huius supplicio aeternae memoriae nota inserta est: propter illum enim lege sanciri placuit ne quis patricius in arce aut Capitolio habitaret, quia domum eo loco 20 habuerat, ubi nunc aedem Monetae videmus.

Valerius Maximus, vi. De Severitate.

13-14 quia . . . fuerat. Manlius in reality fell a victim to his sympathies with the Plebeians. Cf. the fate of Sp. Cassius 485 B.C.

18 nota = a mark (brand) of infamy.

20-21 quia . . . habuerat. His house on the Capitol was razed to the ground.

21 aedem Monetae, a surname of Juno, in whose temple on the Arx money was coined. Cf. our Mint.

‘Thus ended the life of Manlius, the deliverer of Rome, the humane friend of an oppressed people, condemned by this very people to die the death of a traitor.’—Ihne.



Camillus, Parens Patriae.

Sed diique et homines prohibuere redemptos vivere Romanos. Nam forte quadam, priusquam infanda merces perficeretur, per altercationem nondum omni auro appenso dictator intervenit auferrique aurum de medio et Gallos submoveri iubet. Cum 5 illi renitentes pactos dicerent sese, negat eam pactionem ratam esse, quae, postquam ipse dictator creatus esset, iniussu suo ab inferioris iuris magistratu facta esset, denuntiatque Gallis, ut se ad proelium expediant . . . Instruit deinde aciem, ut 10 loci natura patiebatur, in semirutae solo urbis et natura inaequali, et omnia, quae arte belli secunda suis eligi praepararive poterant, providit. Galli nova re trepidi arma capiunt, iraque magis quam consilio in Romanos incurrunt. Primo concursu haud 15 maiore momento fusi Galli sunt, quam ad Alliam vicerant. Iustiore altero deinde proelio ad octavum lapidem Gabina via, quo se ex fuga contulerant, eiusdem ductu auspicioque Camilli vincuntur. Ibi caedes omnia obtinuit; castra capiuntur, et ne 20 nuntius quidem cladis relictus. Dictator recuperata ex hostibus patria triumphans in urbem redit, interque iocos militares, quos inconditos iaciunt, Romulus ac parens patriae conditorque alter urbis haud vanis laudibus appellabatur. 25

Livy, v. 49 (sel.)

Context. The Romans on the Capitol, despairing of outside help, agreed with Brennus that Rome should be redeemed by a ransom of 1000 pounds of gold. Nondum omnni auro appenso, Camillus appeared at the head of his troops.

3 per altercationem = owing to the dispute. When the Consular Tribune Sulpicius complained that the Gauls used unjust weights, Brennus in derision threw his sword into the scale and said Vae victis!

13-14 nova re = at the change in their fortunes.—Whibley.

15-16 haud maiore momento = with no greater difficulty (effort).

17 Iustiore altero proelio = in a second and more regular engagement.— W.

23 incondītos = rough, unpolished.

‘The Gaul shall come against thee

From the land of snow and night:

Thou shalt give his fair-haired armies

To the raven and the kite.’—Macaulay.



A. The Migration to Veii abandoned.

Movisse eos Camillus cum alia oratione tum ea, quae ad religiones pertinebat, maxime dicitur; sed rem dubiam decrevit vox opportune missa, quod, cum senatus post paulo de his rebus in curia Hostilia haberetur, cohortesque ex praesidiis revertentes forte 5 agmine forum transirent, centurio in comitio exclamavit: ‘Signifer, statue signum; hic manebimus optime.’ Qua voce audita et senatus accipere se omen ex curia egressus conclamavit, et plebs circumfusa approbavit. Antiquata deinde lege promiscue 10 urbs aedificari coepta.

Livy, v. 55.

1 cum alia tum = especially

ea = ea parte orationis.

3 vox opportune missa = a phrase seasonably let fall.

10 Antiquata deinde lege (= rogatione) = the proposed law was then rejected, antiquare = to leave in its former state.

B. Juno forbids the Rebuilding of Troy.

‘Sed bellicosis fata Quiritibus

Hac lege dico, ne nimium pii

Rebusque fidentes avitae


Tecta velint reparare Troiae.

‘Troiae renascens alite lugubri

Fortuna tristi clade iterabitur,

Ducente victrices catervas


Coniuge me Iovis et sorore.’

Horace, Odes, III. iii. 57-64.

58 hac lege = on this condition, i.e. that Rome should always be the capital.

nimium pii = too dutiful to their mother-city Troy.

58-60 ne . . . reparare Troiae. There was a rumour, even in Caesar’s time (v. Suet. Iul. Caes. 79) that he meant to migrate to Alexandria or Ilium. Horace, prob. with the sanction of Augustus, sets himself to discourage it. Cf. the Speech of Camillus, Livy, v. 51-54.

61-62 Troiae . . . iterabitur = the fortunes of Troy, if with evil omen it is called to life again (renascens), shall be repeated in an overthrow as sad as before.—Wickham.

‘The Burning of Rome by the Gauls involved the destruction of all the existing records, and great loss of property. Yet in spite of all the damage done, the Romans set to work to establish the state anew, to rebuild the City, and to reassert their commanding position among their allies and neighbours.’—Ihne.

The Speech of Camillus. Its object was to show the growth of Rome under the guidance of Providence. Cf. the purpose of the Aeneid.



THE LICINIAN LAWS, 376-366 B.C. (1)
First Plebeian Consul, 366 B.C.

Occasio videbatur rerum novandarum propter ingentem vim aeris alieni, cuius levamen mali plebes nisi suis in summo imperio locatis, nullum speraret: accingendum ad eam cogitationem esse; conando agendoque iam eo gradum fecisse plebeios, unde, 5 si porro annitantur, pervenire ad summa et patribus aequari tam honore quam virtute possent. In praesentia tribunes plebis fieri placuit, quo in magistratu sibimet ipsi viam ad ceteros honores aperirent. Creatique tribuni C. Licinius et L. Sextius promulgavere 10 leges omnes adversus opes patriciorum et pro commodis plebis, unam de aere alieno, ut deducto eo de capite, quod usuris pernumeratum esset, id, quod superesset, triennio aequis pensionibus persolveretur; alteram de modo agrorum, ne quis plus quingenta 15 iugera agri possideret; tertiam, ne tribunorum militum comitia fierent, consulumque utique alter ex plebe crearetur; cuncta ingentia et quae sine certamine maximo obtineri non possent. . . . Ita ab diutina ira tandem in concordiam redacti sunt ordines. 20

Livy, vi. 35.

1 Occasio. This, so Livy tells us, was the jealousy between the Fabian sisters, the one married to the patrician Sulpicius, the other to the plebeian Licinius Stolo.

1-2 propter . . . alieni. The old Roman law of debt was very harsh and severe.

3 in summo imperio, i.e. the Consulate.

4 accingendum . . . esse = they must brace themselves to the execution of that idea.—R. accingendum, reflexive here.

5 iam eo, i.e. to the office of Consular Tribune, created 444 B.C.

6 si porro annitantur = if they now make a further effort. This use of Pres. Subj. in Or. Obl. frequent in Livy.

7 tam honore quam virtute = in official rank as (they were already) in merit.—Rawlins.

12-14 ut deducto . . . persolveretur = ‘after deducting from the amount of the loan (capite = principal) what had been paid in interest, the balance should be paid in three equal instalments.’—Cluer and Matheson.

15 de modo agrorum = relating to the limitation of land-holding.

16-17 tribunorum militum (sc. cum consulari potestate) created 444 B.C., but no plebeian obtained that honour till 400 B.C., and only two after that date.

17 utique = one at any rate.

Result. ‘The principle was established that Patricians and Plebeians were both citizens of the State, and equally eligible to the honours and dignities of the Republic.’—Ihne.



THE LICINIAN LAWS, 376-366 B.C. (2)
The Origin of the Floralia, 238 B.C.

‘Dic, dea,’ respondi, ‘ludorum quae sit origo.’

Vix bene desieram; rettulit illa mihi:

‘Cetera luxuriae nondum instrumenta vigebant:


Aut pecus, aut latam dives habebat humum;

Hinc etiam locuples, hinc ipsa pecunia dicta est.

Sed iam de vetito quisque parabat opes.

Venerat in morem populi depascere saltus;


Idque diu licuit, poenaque nulla fuit.

Vindice servabat nullo sua publica vulgus;

Iamque in privato pascere inertis erat.

Plebis ad aediles perducta licentia talis


Publicios: animus defuit ante viris.

Rem populus recipit: multam subiere nocentes:

Vindicibus laudi publica cura fuit.

Multa data est ex parte mihi, magnoque favore


Victores ludos instituere novos.

Parte locant Clivum, qui tunc erat ardua rupes:

Utile nunc iter est. Publiciumque vocant.’

Ovid, Fasti, v. 237-254, H.

2 illa, i.e. Flora, the Roman goddess of Flowers and Spring.

3 luxuriae instrumenta = appliance of luxury.

5 locuples (locus + plenus) = rich in lands.

pecunia from pecus, cattle being in olden time the chief form of wealth and the chief medium of exchange. For pecus, cf. fee, fief, feudal.

7 Venerat . . . saltus = it had grown into a custom to feed (cattle) on the public forest-pastures. (Cf. the ager publicus.) H.

9 sua publica = their common property, i.e. their interest in the public land.

vulgus here = the commons, not the plebs as opposed to the populus.

10 inertis erat = it was the mark of a man wanting in spirit.

12 Publicios. L. and M. Publicius Malleolus,* plebeian aediles, B.C. 241.

animus . . . viris, i.e. information had before been given but no aedile dared to act upon it.

13 recipit = takes up the charge at the Comitia.

multam = a fine. Cf. to mulct = to fine.

14 publica cura = their public spirit.—H.

15 multa . . . mihi, i.e. a new Temple was built to Flora near the Circus Maximus.

16 ludos novos = the Floralia.

17 Parte locant (sc. muniendum) Clivum = with the (other) part they contract for (the making of) the Clivus, a sloping road, called the Clivus Publicius, which led up to the Aventine.

* For Malleolus, cf. Charles Martel of France, ‘The Hammer’ circ. 689-741 A.D.




Manlius and his son Torquatus.

L. Manlio, cum dictator fuisset, M. Pomponius tribunus plebis diem dixit, quod is paucos sibi dies ad dictaturam gerendam addidisset; criminabatur etiam, quod Titum filium, qui postea est Torquatus appellatus, ab hominibus relegasset et ruri habitare 5 iussisset. Quod cum audivisset adulescens filius negotium exhiberi patri, accurrisse Romam et cum prima luce Pomponii domum venisse dicitur. Cui cum esset nuntiatum, qui illum iratum allaturum ad se aliquid contra patrem arbitraretur, surrexit e 10 lectulo remotisque arbitris ad se adulescentem iussit venire. At ille, ut ingressus est, confestim gladium destrinxit iuravitque se illum statim interfecturum, nisi ius iurandum sibi dedisset se patrem missum esse facturum. Iuravit hoc terrore coactus Pomponius; 15 rem ad populum detulit, docuit cur sibi causa desistere necesse esset, Manlium missum fecit. Tantum temporibus illis ius iurandum valebat. Atque hic T. Manlius is est, qui ad Anienem Galli, quem ab eo provocatus occiderat, torque detracto cognomen 20 invenit, cuius tertio consulatu Latini ad Veserim fusi et fugati.

Cicero, de Officiis, iii. § 112.

1 L. Manlio, i.e. L. Manlius Capitolinus Imperiosus, appointed Dictator 363 B.C. ‘to drive in a nail (clavi figendi causa) on the right side of the Temple of Jupiter, to mark the number of the year, because written documents were rare in those times.’

2 diem dixit = named a day (for his trial before the Comitia).

4-6 quod Titum filium . . . iussisset. Livy, vii. 4, says ‘And for what offence? Because he was a little slow of speech and not ready with his tongue.’

4 Torquatus, Dictator 353 and 349 B.C., and three times Consul.

6 negotium exhiberi patri = lit. that trouble was being brought upon his father, i.e. that his father was in trouble.

9-10 qui arbitraretur = inasmuch as he thought. Adject. causal clause.—Holden.

11 remotis arbitris = when he had put out of the room all witnesses.—H. arbiter* = (ar = ad + bito = eo) = spectator, umpire

14-15 missum facturum = would set at liberty.

19 ad Anienem Galli. On this, their second invasion, the Gauls advanced as far as the Anio. Livy tells us that after the death of their champion the Gauls fled under cover of night.

21-22 cuius . . . fugati, i.e. the great battle of Vesuvius fought 340 B.C. by the Veseris, a R. in Campania near Mount Vesuvius, which established for ever the supremacy of Rome over Latium.

Parallel Passage. Livy, vii. 4, 5, 9, 10.

* Cf. arbiter pugnae, bibendi, Horace.



FIRST SAMNITE WAR, 343-341 B.C. (1)
An Important Epoch in Roman History.

Maiora iam hinc bella et viribus hostium et longinquitate vel regionum vel temporum, quibus bellatum est, dicentur. Namque eo anno adversus Samnites, gentem opibus armisque validam, mota arma; Samnitium bellum ancipiti Marte gestum 5 Pyrrhus hostis, Pyrrhum Poeni secuti. Quanta rerum moles! quoties in extrema periculoram ventum, ut in hanc magnitudinem, quae vix sustinetur, erigi imperium posset! Belli autem causa cum Samnitibus Romanis, cum societate amicitiaque iuncti essent, 10 extrinsecus venit, non orta inter ipsos est. Samnites Sidicinis iniusta arma, quia viribus plus poterant, cum intulissent, coacti inopes ad opulentiorum auxilium confugere Campanis sese coniungunt. Campani magis nomen ad praesidium sociorum quam 15 vires cum attulissent, fluentes luxu ab duratis usu armorum in Sidicino pulsi agro, in se deinde molem omnem belli verterunt. Namque Samnites, omissis Sidicinis ipsam arcem finitimorum Campanos adorti, unde aeque facilis victoria, praedae atque gloriae 20 plus esset, Tifata, imminentes Capuae colles, cum praesidio firmo occupassent, descendunt inde quadrato agmine in planitiem, quae Capuam Tifataque interiacet. Ibi rursus acie dimicatum; adversoque proelio Campani intra moenia compulsi, cum robore iuventutis 25 suae acciso nulla propinqua spes esset, coacti sunt ab Romanis petere auxilium.

Livy, vii. 29.

1 iam hinc, i.e. 343-266 B.C.

2 longinquitate . . . temporum = the distance of the theatre of war (regionum) and the length of the campaign (temporum).—Rawlins.

6-7 quanta rerum moles = What stupendous exertions!—R.

8 in hanc magnitudinem, i.e. in the reign of Augustus.

10 cum societate, i.e. from 354 B.C.

12 Sidicinis, a Sabellian people N.W. of Campania, on the Samnite border.

16 fluentes (luxu) = enervated (lit. relaxed) by luxury.

21 Tifāta (neut. Plur.), a mountain range N.E. of Capua.

22-23 quadrato agmine = in regular order of battle, so that the whole army formed a parallelogram.

The Cause of the War. ‘The interference of Rome was a breach of the Treaty with the Samnites. Livy admits this, but asserts that Capua had formally surrendered to Rome, and as a subject state claimed her protection. The story is confessedly false, for Capua remained, what it had always been, an independent town.’—R.



FIRST SAMNITE WAR, 343-341 B.C. (2)
Battle of Mt. Gaurus.
M. Valerius Corvus.

Non alias militi familiarior dux fuit, omnia inter infimos militum haud gravate munia obeundo. In ludo praeterea militari, cum velocitatis viriumque inter se aequales certamina ineunt, comiter facilis; vincere ac vinci vultu eodem, nec quemquam aspernari 5 parem, qui se offerret; factis benignus pro re, dictis haud minus libertatis alienae quam suae dignitatis memor, et, quo nihil popularius est, quibus artibus petierat magistratus, iisdem gerebat. Itaque universus exercitus incredibili alacritate adhortationem 10 prosecutus ducis castris egreditur. . . . Primus omnium consul invadit hostem et, cum quo forte contulit gradum, obtruncat. Hoc spectaculo accensi dextra laevaque ante se quisque memorandum proelium ciet; stant obnixi Samnites, quamquam 15 plura accipiunt quam inferunt vulnera. Aliquamdiu iam pugnatum erat, atrox caedes circa signa Samnitium, fuga ab nulladum parte erat; adeo morte sola vinci destinaverant animis. Itaque Romani, cum et fluere iam lassitudine vires sentirent et diei 20 haud multum superesse, accensi ira concitant se in hostem. Tum primum referri pedem atque inclinari rem in fugam apparuit; tum capi, occidi Samnis; nec superfuissent multi, ni nox victoriam magis quam proelium diremisset. 25

Livy, vii. 33.

1 familiarior = on better terms with.—Cluer and Matheson.

2 haud gravate = without reluctance (ungrudgingly). Compare Sallust’s description of Marius and Sulla.

4 aequales = competitors, lit. well-matched.

comiter facilis = he was courteously good-natured.

6-7 pro re = to suit the occasion.

9 artibus iisdem = in the same spirit.—Weissenborn.

11 prosecutus = welcoming, lit. attending.

12-13 cum . . . gradum = with whom he happened to engage. Cf. collato pede = fighting foot to foot.

15 stant obnixi = stand their ground firmly. obnixus (ob + nitor, strive + against), resolute.

23 Samnis, nom. sing.

capi, occidi, Historic Infinitives.

25 diremisset = had broken off. dirimo (dis + emo) = take apart.

The Battle of Mt. Gaurus. The battle was fought on the volcanic range of mountains between Cumae and Neapolis. The Consul in command, M. Valerius, obtained the surname of Corvus (Raven), because when serving as a military Tribune under Camillus in 349 B.C., he defeated the Gallic champion by the aid of a raven. See next page, A. l. 4.



THE LATIN WAR, 340-338 B.C. (1)
Self-Sacrifice of Decius Mus, 340 B.C.
A. Rome’s Empire safe in the keeping of Augustus.

Curtius expletis statuit monimenta lacunis;


At Decius misso proelia rupit equo;

Coclitis abscissos testatur semita pontes:

Est cui cognomen corvus habere dedit.

Haec di condiderunt, haec di quoque moenia servant:


Vix timeat, salvo Caesare, Roma Iovem.

Propertius, III. (IV.) xi. (x.) 63-68.

63 Curtius . . . lacunis, in allusion to the spot called Lacus Curtius (marked by a circular pavement) in the Forum which served as a memorial (monimenta) of his heroic sacrifice. Livy, vii. 6.

lacuna (cf. lacus) = a hole, pool, chasm.

65 semita (sed + meo = go + aside) = a path, road. Cocles, apparently, gave his name to the street running up from the bridge which he ‘kept so well.’—Ramsay.

66 cui, i.e. M. Valerius Corvus, the hero of Mt. Gaurus. See p. 91.

67-68 i.e. with Caesar (Augustus) safe, Rome has none to fear, nay, scarce Jove himself. Flattery can go no further than this!

B. The Dream of the Consuls on the Eve of Battle.

Illud etiam somnium et magnae admirationis et clari exitus, quod eadem nocte duo consules P. Decius Mus et T. Manlius Torquatus Latino bello gravi ac periculoso non procul a Vesuvi montis radicibus 10 positis castris viderunt. Utrique enim quaedam per quietem species praedixit ex altera acie imperatorem, ex altera exercitum dis Manibus matrique Terrae deberi; utrius autem dux copias hostium superque eas sese ipsum devovisset, victricem abituram. Id 15 luce proxima consulibus sacrificio vel expiaturis, si posset averti, vel, si certum deorum etiam monitu visum foret, exsecuturis, hostiarum exta somnio congruerunt, convenitque inter eos, cuius cornu prius laborare coepisset, ut is capite suo fata patriae lueret. 20 Quae neutro reformidante Decium depoposcerunt.

Valerius Maximus, i. De Somniis.

13 Dis Manibus = the deified souls of the dead, usually looked upon as beneficent spirits.

15 victricem, sc. aciem.

17 deorum etiam monitu = by the warning of the gods also, i.e. by the auspices as well as by the dream.

19-20 cuius cornu . . . coepisset. The left wing led by Decius was repulsed by the Latins, and Decius accordingly devoted himself to death.

Parallel Passage. Livy, viii. 6. 9.



THE LATIN WAR, 340-338 B.C. (2)
The Battle of Mt. Vesuvius, 340 B.C.

Procedente deinde certamine cum aliis partibus multitudo superaret Latinorum, Manlius consul audito eventu collegae paulisper addubitavit, an consurgendi iam triariis tempus esset; deinde melius ratus integros eos ad ultimum discrimen servari, 5 Accensos ab novissima acie ante signa procedere iubet. Qui ubi subiere, extemplo Latini, tamquam idem adversarii fecissent, triarios suos excitaverunt; qui aliquamdiu pugna atroci cum et semet ipsi fatigassent et hastas aut praefregissent aut hebetassent, 10 pellerent vi tamen hostem, debellatum iam rati perventumque ad extremam aciem, tum consul triariis ‘Consurgite nunc’ inquit ‘integri adversus fessos, memores patriae parentumque et coniugum ac liberorum, memores consulis pro vestra victoria 15 morte occubantis.’ Ubi triarii consurrexerunt, integri, refulgentibus armis, nova ex improviso exorta acies, receptis in intervalla ordinum antepilanis, clamore sublato principia Latinorum perturbant hastisque ora fodientes primo robore virorum caeso per alios manipulos 20 velut inermes prope intacti evasere tantaque caede perrupere cuneos, ut vix quartam partem relinquerent hostium.

Livy, viii. 10.

3-4 an consurgendi . . . esset. Livy says ‘The Triarii were posted crouching by the standards, their left leg extended forwards, holding their shields resting on their shoulders, and their spears fixed in the ground with the points erect, so that their line bristled as if enclosed by a rampart.’

6 Accensos. The Accensi (ad + censeo), originally supernumeraries to take the place of those who fell in battle, = levis armatura.

ante signa, i.e. of the Hastati and Principes.

8 excitaverunt = surgere iusserunt.—Weissenborn.

10 hebetassent = had blunted.

18 antepilanis = prop. both the Hastati and Principes who were drawn up before the Pilani or Triarii who formed the third line.

19 principia = the front line, now the Triarii of the Latins.

22 cuneos = columns (lit. wedges), i.e. a body of soldiers drawn up in the shape of a wedge. Livy uses it of the phalanx.

The Cause of the War. The war was almost a civil one. The dispute was chiefly about a right to share in the privileges of the full Roman citizenship (espec. the right to vote and to hold office).

Result of the War. Rome broke up the Latin Confederation by making separate treaties with the Latin towns, and by prohibiting commercial intercourse between them.



SECOND SAMNITE WAR, 326-304 B.C. (1)
The Dictator and his Master of the Horse.

Ea fortuna pugnae fuit, ut nihil relictum sit, quo, si adfuisset Dictator, res melius geri potuerit; non dux militi, non miles duci defuit. Eques etiam, auctore L. Cominio tribuno militum, qui aliquotiens impetu capto perrumpere non poterat hostium agmen, 5 detraxit frenos equis atque ita concitatos calcaribus permisit, ut sustinere eos nulla vis posset; per arma, per viros late stragem dedere; secutus pedes impetum equitum turbatis hostibus intulit signa. Viginti milia hostium caesa eo die traduntur. Magister equitum, 10 ut ex tanta caede, multis potitus spoliis congesta in ingentem acervum hostilia arma subdito igne concremavit, seu votum id deorum cuiquam fuit, seu credere libet Fabio auctori eo factum, ne suae gloriae fructum Dictator caperet nomenque ibi scriberet aut 15 spolia in triumpho ferret. Litterae quoque de re prospere gesta ad senatum, non ad Dictatorem missae argumentum fuere minima cum eo communicantis laudes. Ita certe Dictator id factum accepit, ut laetis aliis victoria parta prae se ferret iram tristitiamque. 20

Livy, viii, 30.

2 Dictator = L. Papirius Cursor, noted for the strictness of his military discipline. At this time he had gone to Rome to take the auspices anew (ad auspicium repetendum) and had given strict orders to his Master of the Horse, Q. Fabius Rullianus, to avoid all collision with the enemy during his absence.

7 permisit = gave them their heads. Cf. immittere habenas.

9 turbatis . . . signa = attacked the enemy (dative) when in confusion.

11 spoliis, i.e. the arms taken from the fallen.

13-14 seu credere . . . factum = lit. or whether one prefer to credit the authority of Fabius that it was done on this account (eo) . . . Fabius Pictor, the earliest Roman historian, wrote in Greek and served in the 2nd Punic War.

15 ibi (sc. hostilia arma) = on them. These, set up as a trophy with the victor’s name inscribed, would have been borne in the triumphal procession.

19 Ita certe . . . accepit = so (ita) no doubt the Dictator interpreted his (Fabius’) action.

The Cause of the War. The actual casus belli was a dispute between Rome and the Samnites for the possession of Palaeopolis (= old city) near Neapolis (= new city). Cf. the First Punic War, 241 B.C., due to the struggle for the possession of Messana, and the war with Pyrrhus, 281 B.C., for the possession of Tarentum.

Historic Parallel. Fabius Cunctator and Minucius.—Livy, xxii. 24-30.



SECOND SAMNITE WAR, 326-304 B.C. (2)
The Caudine Forks, 321 B.C.

Duae ad Luceriam ferebant viae, altera praeter oram superi maris, patens apertaque, sed quanto tutior, tanto fere longior, altera per Furculas Caudinas, brevior; sed ita natus locus est. Saltus duo alti, angusti silvosique sunt, montibus circa perpetuis 5 inter se iuncti. Iacet inter eos satis patens, clausus in medio, campus herbidus aquosusque, per quem medium iter est; sed antequam venias ad eum, intrandae primae angustiae sunt, et aut eadem, qua te insinuaveris, retro via repetenda, aut, si ire 10 porro pergas, per alium saltum, artiorem impeditioremque, evadendum. In eum campum via alia per cavam rupem Romani demisso agmine cum ad alias angustias protinus pergerent, saeptas deiectu arborum saxorumque ingentium obiacente mole 15 invenere. Cum fraus hostilis apparuisset, praesidium etiam in summo saltu conspicitur. Citati inde retro, qua venerant, pergunt repetere viam; eam quoque clausam sua obice armisque inveniunt. Sistunt inde gradum sine ullius imperio, intuentesque alii alios 20 diu immobiles silent.

Livy, ix. 2.

1 ad Luceriam = in the direction of Luceria, a town in Apulia on the borders of Samnium, and now threatened by the Samnites.

1-2 praeter . . . maris = along the coast of the upper sea, i.e. the Adriatic. Taking this route, they would go N. of Samnium, through the Peligni, and S. through the Frentani into Apulia.

3 fere = just.

3-4 Furculas Caudinas, two fork-shaped defiles near Caudium, the capital of the Caudine Samnites, between Beneventum and Capua on what was afterwards the Via Appia.

5-6 montibus . . . iuncti = united by a continuous ring (perpetuis circa) of mountains.

10 insinuaveris = lit. have wound your way.

11-12 artiorem impeditioremque = more narrow and more difficult (i.e. steeper).

13 per cavam rupem = through an overhanging rocky defile.

demisso agmine = with their troops led down (the descent).

14 protinus = straightforward.

14-15 deiectu . . . mole = lit. ‘a barrier lying in the way (formed) by the throwing down of trees and large pieces of rock.’

mole = an abattis (a knocking down, felling).—Rawlins.

16 cum fraus . . . = no sooner had . . . when . . .

17 citati = hurriedly (in hot haste). Partic. used adverbially.—Stephenson.

19 sua obice = with a barrier of its own (i.e. specially prepared).



SECOND SAMNITE WAR, 326-304 B.C. (3)
The Caudine Forks.
The Yoke.

Alii alios intueri, contemplari arma mox tradenda et inermes futuras dextras obnoxiaque corpora hosti; proponere sibimet ipsi ante oculos iugum hostile et ludibria victoris et vultus superbos et per armatos inermium iter, inde foedi agminis miserabilem viam 5 per sociorum urbes, reditum in patriam ad parentes, quo saepe ipsi maioresque eorum triumphantes venissent: se solos sine vulnere, sine ferro, sine acie victos: sibi non stringere licuisse gladios, non manum cum hoste conferre; sibi nequicquam animos datos. 10 Haec frementibus hora fatalis ignominiae advenit, omnia tristiora experiundo factura, quam quae praeceperant animis. Iam primum cum singulis vestimentis inermes extra vallum exire iussi, et primi traditi obsides atque in custodiam abducti. Primi 15 consules prope seminudi sub iugum missi; tum ut quisque gradu proximus erat, ita ignominiae obiectus; tum deinceps singulae legiones. Ita traducti sub iugum et, quod paene gravius erat, per hostium oculos, cum e saltu evasissent, etsi velut ab inferis 20 extracti tum primum lucem aspicere visi sunt, tamen ipsa lux ita deforme intuentibus agmen omni morte tristior fuit.

Livy, ix. 5, 6.

1-10 intueri; contemplari . . . = There they are looking one on another. . . . By a string of infinitives the picture of a series of actions is put before the reader without the actions being thought of singly.—Lee Warner.

2 obnoxia = at the mercy of . . .—Rawlins.

6 per sociorum urbes, e.g. Capua.

11 fatalis ignominiae = destined for their disgrace.

12 experiundo = by experience; praeceperant = they had anticipated.

16 seminudi = with only their tunics on.

17 gradu = in rank.

18 traducti, ‘always used in this sense of disgraceful exhibition or parade.’—Stephenson.

22-23 ipsa lux . . . fuit = the very light was to them as they gazed on so hideous a line of march more gloomy than any form of death.

The Caudine Forks. Other writers state that the Romans were entrapped only after a severe defeat.

‘By the side of those names (the Allia and Cannae) there was yet a third in the list of evil days—the name of the Caudine Pass.’—Ihne. Cf. p. 82, B.

Historic Parallels. Livy’s account of Trasimene. The Kyber Pass, 1842. The Capitulation of Metz, 1870.



SECOND SAMNITE WAR, 326-304 B.C. (4)
Rome repudiates the Treaty.

At vero T. Veturius et Sp. Postumius, cum iterum consules assent, quia, cum male pugnatum apud Caudium esset, legionibus nostris sub iugum missis pacem cum Samnitibus fecerant, dediti sunt eis; iniussu enim populi senatusque fecerant. Eodemque 5 tempore Ti. Numicius, Q. Maelius, qui tum tribuni plebis erant, quod eorum auctoritate pax erat facta, dediti sunt, ut pax Samnitium repudiaretur. Atque huius deditionis ipse Postumius, qui dedebatur, suasor et auctor fuit. Quod idem multis annis post 10 C. Mancinus, qui ut Numantinis, quibuscum sine senatus auctoritate foedus fecerat, dederetur, rogationem suasit eam, quam L. Furius, Sex. Atilius ex senatus consulto ferebant: qua accepta est hostibus deditus. Honestius hic quam Q. Pompeius, quo, 15 cum in eadem causa esset, deprecante accepta lex non est. Hic ea, quae videbatur utilitas, plus valuit quam honestas, apud superiores utilitatis species falsa ab honestatis auctoritate superata est.

Cicero, De Officiis, iii. 109.

4 pacem . . . fecerant, i.e. a military convention, by which Rome and Samnium were to acknowledge each other as free peoples with equal rights and privileges, and Rome was to give up her conquests and colonies on Samnite territory.

5 iniussu . . . senatusque. ‘The Senate considered it in the light of a sponsio, a convention made on personal responsibility, rather than a pactio or foedus, a public treaty.’—Holden.

6 tribuni plebis, prob. only tribunes-elect (= designati), for the tribunes could not leave Rome even for one night.

11 C. Mancinus commanded against Numantia in Spain, 137 B.C.

15 Q. Pompeius commanded against Numantia, 140 B.C.

16 cum in eadem causa esset = though he was in the same case, as Mancinus, i.e. had made a degrading peace with the Numantines.—H.

15-17 quo . . . deprecante . . . non est = through his begging to be let off, the law (i.e. for delivering him up to the enemy) was not passed.

17 Hic = in this case, i.e. that of Pompeius.

18 apud superiores, i.e. Veturius, Postumius, and Mancinus.

18-19 utilitatis species falsa = the false semblance of expediency.

The Repudiation of the Treaty. ‘It is clear that Postumius and his brother officers could not bind the Roman Senate and people by the promise they had made in Caudium; but it is equally clear that they were bound by their promise to do what was in their power to cause the treaty to be ratified.’—Ihne.



SECOND SAMNITE WAR, 326-304 B.C. (5)
Battle of Bovianum, 305 B.C. Peace made, 304 B.C.

Eodem anno in campum Stellatem agri Campani Samnitium incursiones factae. Itaque ambo consules in Samnium missi cum diversas regiones, Tifernum Postumius, Bovianum Minucius petisset, Postumii prius ductu ad Tifernum pugnatum. Alii 5 haud dubie Samnites victos ac viginti milia hominum capta tradunt, alii Marte aequo discessum, et Postumium, metum simulantem, nocturno itinere clam in montes copias abduxisse, hostes secutos duo milia inde locis munitis et ipsos consedisse. Consul ut 10 stativa tuta copiosaque petisse videretur, postquam et munimentis castra firmavit et omni apparatu rerum utilium instruxit, relicto firmo praesidio de vigilia tertia, qua* proxime potest, expeditas legiones ad collegam, et ipsum adversus alios sedentem, ducit. 15 Ibi auctore Postumio Minucius cum hostibus signa confert, et, cum anceps proelium in multum diei processisset, tum Postumius integris legionibus defessam iam aciem hostium improviso invadit. Itaque cum lassitudo ac vulnera fugam quoque praepedissent, 20 occidione occisi hostes, signa unum et viginti capta.

Livy, ix. 44.

* qua duci proxime potest.—W. and M.

1 In campum Stellatem. Stellas, a part of the Campanian plain, N. of Mt. Tifata (E. of Capua).

4 Tifernum, E. of Bovianum on the R. Tifernus.

Postumius . . . Minucius, Consuls 305 B.C.

Bovianum, in Samnium, W. of Luceria (in Apulia).

11 stativa tuta = safe quarters. Cf. stativa castra = a stationary camp.

15 et ipsum . . . sedentem = also lying encamped (sedentem) in the face of another army.—Stephenson.

20 praepedissent = hampered, lit. to entangle the feet (prae + pes).

21 occidione occisi. This has the force of a superlative by the repetition, a common idiom in Oriental† languages.—S.

† E.g. in Hebrew, Delivering I will deliver = I will surely deliver.

Results of the Second Samnite War. Roman influence became supreme in Campania and Apulia, and the Samnites were confined to their own mountains. In 304 B.C. the Romans renewed their ancient Treaty with the Samnites (as Livy tells us) by which they were left in possession of their independence.

Why the Romans conquered. (1) Their conduct of the war was more systematic. (2) By their plan of fortified colonies (e.g. Cales, Fregellae, Luceria) they retained their hold on the conquered territory. (3) The diplomatic skill of the Senate secured the friendship of the neighbours of the Samnites (e.g. the Apulians and Lucanians).



Battle of Sentinum, 295 B.C. ‘Novum pugnae genus.’

Ferocior Decius et aetate et vigore animi quantumcunque virium habuit certamine primo effudit. Et quia lentior videbatur pedestris pugna, equitatum in pugnam concitat et ipse fortissimae iuvenum turmae immixtus orat proceres iuventutis, in hostem 5 ut secum impetum faciant: duplicem illorum gloriam fore, si ab laevo cornu et ab equite victoria incipiat. Bis avertere Gallicum equitatum; iterum longius evectos et iam inter media peditum agmina proelium cientes novum pugnae conterruit genus: essedis 10 carrisque superstans armatus hostis ingenti sonitu equorum rotarumque advenit et insolitos eius tumultus Romanorum conterruit eqnos. Ita victorem equitatum velut lymphaticus pavor dissipat; sternit inde ruentes equos virosque improvida fuga, 15 turbata hinc etiam signa legionum multique impetu equorum ac vehiculorum raptorum per agmen obtriti antesignani; et insecuta, simul territos hostes vidit, Gallica acies nullum spatium respirandi recipiendique se dedit. 20

Livy, x. 28.

1 Decius. P. Decius Mus, Consul with Q. Fabius Maximus Rullianus, commanded the left wing at the Battle of Sentinum, where he was opposed to the Gauls, and when his troops began to give way before the Gaulish chariots (essedae) he, like his father at the Battle of Vesuvius, 340 B.C., devoted* himself with the hostile army ‘to the gods of earth and of the grave.’

5 proceres iuventutis = the flower of the young men.

8 avertere (= se avertere) = to retire (lit. turn away).

10 essedis = war-chariots, on two wheels, open in front, but closed behind, and drawn by two horses; used also by the Britons.

14 lymphaticus = mad, frenzied.

16 turbata . . . signa legionum = the ranks of the legions were thrown into disorder. Signa is frequently used of military movement, as the most noticeable feature in an army.

* Cf. pp. 92, 93.

The Cause of the Third Samnite War. The democratic party among the Lucanians made overtures to the Samnites. The Romans peremptorily ordered the Samnites not to interfere in Lucania, an arrogant command which the Samnites declined to obey, and war broke out anew.

Results of the War. After an obstinate struggle peace was concluded in 290 B.C., the Samnites retaining their independence.



The Aims of Pyrrhus.
Battle of Heraclea, 280 B.C.

Pyrrhus rex Epiri cum iterata Tarentinorum legatione additis Samnitium et Lucanorum precibus, fatigaretur, non tam supplicum precibus quam spe invadendi Italiae imperii inductus venturum se cum exercitu pollicetur. In quam rem inclinatum semel 5 animum praecipitem agere coeperant exempla maiorum, ne aut inferior patruo suo Alexandro videretur, quo defensore idem Tarentini adversus Bruttios usi fuerant, aut minores animos magno Alexandro habuisse, qui tam longa a domo militia Orientem subegerat. 10 Igitur relicto custode regni Ptolemaeo filio annos xv nato exercitum in portu Tarentino exponit. Cuius audito adventu consul Romanus Valerius Laevinus festinans, ut prius cum eo congrederetur, quam auxilia sociorum convenirent, exercitum in 15 aciem educit. Nec rex, tametsi numero militum inferior esset, certamini moram fecit. Sed Romanos vincentes iam inusitata ante elephantorum forma stupere primo, mox cedere proelio coegit, victoresque iam nova Macedonum repente monstra vicerunt. 20 Nec hostibus incruenta victoria fuit. Nam et Pyrrhus ipse graviter vulneratus est, et magna pars militum eius caesa, maioremque gloriam eius victoriae quam laetitiam habuit.

Justinus, xviii. 1.

1 iterata legatione = by a second embassy.

3 fatigaretur = was importuned.

3-4 non tam . . . inductus. Pyrrhus aimed at founding a western Grecian Empire in Italy and Sicily.

7-9 patruo suo Alexandro . . . fuerant. Alexander of Epirus had almost succeeded in uniting the whole of Magna Graecia (332-326 B.C.) when he was cut off by the hand of an assassin.

9 magno Alexandro. Pyrrhus was acknowledged to be the first general of the school of Alexander, and Hannibal (so Plutarch tells us) considered him the greatest military genius.

18 inusitata ante . . . forma = the unfamiliar appearance of.

22-23 magna pars militum. Pyrrhus is said to have lost 4000 men, ‘a serious matter to him in a foreign country, where he could not easily replace the loss of his tried old warriors.’—Ihne.

Cause of the War. By 282 B.C. Rome had taken possession of Magna Graecia, with the exception of Tarentum. In 282 B.C. (in defiance of the treaty of 301 B.C.) a Roman fleet appeared before the Harbour of Tarentum. A naval battle ensued in which the Tarentines were victorious, and the war began.



Fabricius the Just.
Honesty before Expediency.

Cum rex Pyrrhus populo Romano bellum ultro intulisset, cumque de imperio certamen esset cum rege generoso ac potenti, perfuga ab eo venit in castra Fabricii eique est pollicitus, si praemium sibi proposuisset, se, ut clam venisset, sic clam in Pyrrhi 5 castra rediturum et eum veneno necaturum. Hunc Fabricius reducendum curavit ad Pyrrhum idque eius factum laudatum a senatu est. Atqui, si speciem utilitatis opinionemque quaerimus, magnum illud bellum perfuga unus et gravem adversarium imperi 10 sustulisset, sed magnum dedecus et flagitium, quicum laudis certamen fuisset, eum non virtute sed scelere superatum. Utrum igitur utilius vel Fabricio, qui talis in hac urbe qualis Aristides Athenis fuit, vel senatui nostro, qui numquam utilitatem a dignitate 15 seiunxit, armis cum hoste certare an venenis? Si gloriae causa imperium expetendum est, scelus absit, in quo non potest esse gloria: sin ipsae opes expetuntur quoquo modo, non poterunt utiles esse cum infamia. 20

Cicero, De Officiis, iii. 86, 87.

1-2 bellum ultro intulisset = had begun an aggressive (ultro) war.

ultro = lit. to a place beyond, hence = beyond expectation, unprovoked.

2 de imperio = uter imperaret.—Holden.

3 perfuga = a deserter. Aulus Gellius says the traitor was Nicias, a friend of Pyrrhus; Florus and Eutropius, a physician of Pyrrhus.

8 atqui = and yet, a more emphatic at.

8-9 speciem utilitatis opinionemque (sc. utilitatis) = the semblance and (popular) opinion of expediency.—H.

11-13 sed magnum . . . superatum = but it would have been a lasting disgrace and scandal for a general, with whom the struggle lay for glory, to have been overcome by an act of wickedness and not by valour.—H.

14 Aristides Athenis. Aristides the Just. ‘Sans Peur et sans Reproche.’

19 quoquo modo = in any way. Cf. quacumque ratione.—H.

Parallel Passage. Eutropius ii. 7. 8. 14: Tum Pyrrhus admiratus eum dixisse fertur: ‘Ille est Fabricius, qui difficilius ab honestate quam sol a cursu suo averti potest.’

Fabricius, like Cincinnatus and M’. Curius Dentatus, is the representative of the purity and honesty of the good old times.



Appius the Blind, 280 B.C.

Ad Appi Claudi senectutem accedebat etiam ut caecus esset; tamen is, cum sententia senatus inclinaret ad pacem cum Pyrrho foedusque faciendum, non dubitavit dicere illa, quae versibus persecutus est Ennius: 5

Quo vobis mentes, rectae quae stare solebant

Antehac, dementis sese flexere viai?

ceteraque gravissime, notum enim vobis carmen est, et tamen ipsius Appi exstat oratio. Atque haec ille egit septemdecim annis post alterum consulatum, 10 cum inter duos consulatus anni decem interfuissent censorque ante superiorem consulatum fuisset, ex quo intelligitur Pyrrhi bello grandem sane fuisse. . . . Quattuor robustos filios, quinque filias, tantam domum, tantas clientelas Appius regebat et caecus 15 et senex; intentum enim animum tamquam arcum habebat nec languescens succumbebat senectuti. Tenebat non modo auctoritatem, sed etiam imperium in suos: metuebant servi, verebantur liberi, carum omnes habebant; vigebat in illo animus 20 patrius et disciplina.

Cicero, De Senectute, §§ 16, 37.

1 Appi Claudi. This was the Appius Claudius whose Censorship, 312 B.C., was famous for his great public works, the Via Appia, the great South road of Rome, and the Aqua Appia, an aqueduct which brought water to Rome a distance of eight miles; and also for his measure (corre­sponding to a Parliamentary Reform Bill) admitting freedmen as full citizens by enrolling them in Tribes.

2-9 tamen is . . . exstat oratio. When the Senate was about to yield to the persuasive eloquence of Cineas, the envoy of Pyrrhus, he had himself led into the Senate-house to make the speech which turned the scale against the invader.

4 versibus persecutus est = has followed out in the lines. J. S. R.

7 viai (= viae old genit.) = i. quo viae, cf. ubi terrarum, or ii. sese flexere viae, a Greek genitive.

9-10 haec ille egit = he made this speech.

14-15 tantam . . . clientelas = a large household, a large number of dependents; clientelas = clientes.

16 intentum (in + tendo) = on the stretch. Cf. opposite remissus.

19-21 metuebant . . . disciplina = his slaves feared him, his children stood in awe of him, yet all held him dear; in him ancestral spirit and principles (disciplina) were strong.—J. S. Reid.

The Speech of Appius Claudius. For the substance of the Speech, see Plutarch, Pyrrhus, xi.



A. The Battle of Asculum, 279 B.C.

In Apulia deinde apud Asculum melius dimicatum est Curio Fabricioque consulibus. Iam quippe terror* beluarum exoleverat, et Gaius Numicius quartae legionis hastatus unius proboscide abscisa mori posse beluas ostenderat. Itaque in ipsas pila congesta sunt 5 et in turres vibratae faces tota hostium agmina ardentibus ruinis operuerunt. Nec alius cladi finis fuit quam nox dirimeret, postremusque fugientium rex ipse a satellitibus umero saucius in armis suis referretur. 10

* Cf. p. 100, ll. 17-20.

1 Asculum, a town in Apulia on the borders of Samnium, between Beneventum and Canusium.

3 exoleverat = had grown less (lit. had grown out of use).

6 in turres vibratae faces = firebrands hurled against their towers.

8 dirimeret = separated (the combatants).

The Battle of Asculum. It is clear that Pyrrhus was again victorious, but the Romans were able to retire into their fortified camp, and so lost fewer men than at Heraclea.

B. The Battle near Beneventum, 275 B.C.

Lucaniae suprema pugna sub Arusinis, quos vocant, campis ducibus isdem quibus superius; sed tum tota victoria. Exitum, quem datura virtus fuit, casus dedit. Nam provectis in primam aciem rursus elephantis unum ex his pullum adacti in caput teli 15 gravis ictus avertit; qui cum per stragem suorum recurrens stridore quereretur, mater agnovit et quasi vindicaret exsiluit, tum omnia circa quasi hostilia gravi mole permiscuit. Ac sic eaedem ferae, quae primam victoriam abstulerunt, secundam parem 20 fecerunt, tertiam sine controversia tradiderunt.

Florus, I. xviii. 9-13.

11-12 Lucaniae . . . campis. The Battle was fought near Beneventum (orig. Male-ventum, perhaps from male + ventus on account of its unwholesome air) in Samnium on the Via Appia, E. of Capua.

15-16 unum ex his . . . avertit = the heavy stroke of a weapon driven home (adacti) into the head of a young elephant (pullum) made it turn aside.

19 gravi mole = with her unwieldy bulk.

The Battle of Beneventum. Pyrrhus, in his attempt to storm the entrenched camp of Curius Dentatus, was obliged to fight on unfavourable ground. The result was a total defeat, and no choice was left him but to give up the unequal contest.



Death of Pyrrhus, 272 B.C.
In praise of a great General.

Repulsus ab Spartanis Pyrrhus Argos petit: ibi, dum Antigonum in urbe clausum expugnare conatur, inter confertissimos violentissime dimicans, saxo de muris ictus occiditur. Caput eius Antigono refertur, qui victoria mitius usus filium eius Helenum 5 cum Epirotis sibi deditum in regnum remisit, eique insepulti patris ossa in patriam referenda tradidit.

Satis constans inter omnes auctores fama est, nullum nec eius nec superioris aetatis regem comparandum Pyrrho fuisse, raroque non inter reges 10 tantum, verum etiam inter illustres viros, aut vitae sanctioris aut iustitiae probatioris visum fuisse: scientiam certe rei militaris in illo viro tantam fuisse, ut cum adversus Lysimachum, Demetrium, Antigonum, tantos reges, bella gesserit, invictus 15 semper fuerit: Illyriorum quoque, Siculorum Romanorumque et Carthaginiensium bellis numquam inferior, plerumque etiam victor exstiterit; qui patriam certe suam angustam ignobilemque fama rerum gestarum et claritate nominis sui toto orbe 20 illustrem reddiderit.

Justinus, xxv. 5.

1-4 Repulsus ab Spartanis . . . occiditur. At the invitation of Cleonymus, who had been excluded from the throne of Sparta, Pyrrhus undertook and failed in a desperate attack on the city. He then turned against Argos, to wrest it from Antigonus Gonatas of Macedonia, and was hit by a tile thrown from a roof by a woman.* As he lay helpless on the ground he was recognised and murdered.

8 Satis constans fama = a tolerably unanimous opinion.

12 iustitiae probatioris = of more eminent (lit. tested) justice.

14 Lysimachum, one of Alexander’s generals. About 286 B.C. King of Macedonia and Asia Minor.

Demetrium, surnamed Poliorcetes (stormer of cities), son of Antigonus, King of Asia (one of Alexander’s generals).

16-17 Siculorum bellis. During the years 280-276 B.C. Pyrrhus made himself master of all Sicily with the exception of the Carthaginian stronghold of Lilybaeum.

* Cf. the death of Abimelech before Thebez, Judges ix. 53.

Character of Pyrrhus. ‘He was not only one of the ablest generals and princes, but amiable also as a man, and worthy of our sympathy and respect.’—Ihne.

Why he failed. ‘From lack of accurate information he wholly underestimated the power of Rome. Here was the great error in his calculation, an error for which he can hardly be held responsible.’—Ihne.

Reference. Plutarch, Pyrrhus.



Manius Curius Dentatus, an old-time Roman.

A. Possum persequi permulta oblectamenta rerum rusticarum, sed ea ipsa quae dixi sentio fuisse longiora. Ignoscetis autem, nam et studio rerum rusticarum provectus sum, et senectus est natura loquacior, ne ab omnibus eam vitiis videar vindicare. 5 Ergo in hac vita M’. Curius, cum de Samnitibus, de Sabinis, de Pyrrho triumphavisset, consumpsit extremum tempus aetatis; cuius quidem ego villam contemplans, abest enim non longe a me, admirari satis non possum vel hominis ipsius continentiam 10 vel temporum disciplinam. Curio ad focum sedenti magnum auri pondus Samnites cum attulissent, repudiati sunt: non enim aurum habere praeclarum sibi videri dixit, sed eis qui haberent aurum imperare.

Cicero, De Senectute, §§ 55-56.

Context. The speaker is Cato the Censor, 184 B.C., the founder of Latin Prose, whose manual of Agriculture, de Re Rustica, is still extant.

1 Possum persequi = I might follow out.

oblectamenta = amusements (cf. de-lecto, delight).

4 provectus sum = I have been carried away.—J. S. Reid.

8 extremum tempus aetatis = the closing season of his life.

9 a me (= a mea villa) = from my country-house.

11 disciplinam = morals (lit. teaching).

11-13 After the close of the war Curius had become patronus of the Samnites, and they were bringing the customary offering of clientes.—J. S. R.


Curius parvo quae legerat horto

Ipse focis brevibus ponebat holuscula.

Juvenal, xi. 78-79.

78-79 Plutarch, Cato 2, tells the story. Curius was one of Milton’s

‘Men so poor | who could do mighty things.’—Duff.

79 holuscula (dimin. of hŏlus) = small herbs or vegetables.


Hunc et incomptis Curium capillis

Utilem bello tulit et Camillum

Saeva paupertas et avitus apto


Cum lare fundus.

Horace, Odes, I. xii. 41-44.

41 Hunc = Fabricius.

42 paupertas = frugality, not poverty (= egestas).

43-44 apto cum lare = with its cottage home to match (apto).—W.

‘Hurrah! for Manius Curius

The bravest son of Rome,

Thrice in utmost need sent forth,

Thrice drawn in triumph home.’—Macaulay.



In Praise of Tarentum.

Unde si Parcae prohibent iniquae,

Dulce pellītis ovibus Galaesi

Flumen et regnata petam Laconi


Rura Phalantho.

Ille terrarum mihi praeter omnes

Angulus ridēt, ubi non Hymetto

Mella decedunt viridique certat


Baca Venafro,

Ver ubi longum tepidasque praebet

Iuppiter brumas et amicus Aulon

Fertili Baccho minimum Falernis


Invidet uvis.

Ille te mecum locus et beatae

Postulant arces, ibi tu calentem

Debita sparges lacrima favillam


Vatis amici.

Horace, Odes, II. vi. 9-end.

Subject. ‘Septimius, my dear friend who would accompany me to the ends of the earth, let me spend the close of my life at Tibur (Tivoli), or if not there, then at Tarentum. Let us go there together, and live there till I die.’—Wickham.

9 unde = from this place, i.e. from Tibur.

10 dulce pellitis ovibus = dear to the skin-clad (pellitis) sheep, so clad to keep their fleeces clean.—Gow.

10-11 Galaesi flumen, flows into the Gulf of Tarentum, near the city.

12 Phalantho, an exile from Sparta, founded Tarentum, 708 B.C.

13, 21, 22 Ille (13) . . . ille (21) . . . ibi (22) = Tarentum, emphatic guiding words. Cf. te mecum (21) . . . tu amici (22, 24) = Septimius and Horace.

14-15 ubi non . . . decedunt = where the honey does not give way to (is not inferior to) that of Hymettus.

15-16 viridi Venafro = with the green (olive-groves of) Venafrum (N. of Campania).

16 Baca = the olive, the noblest of berries.—Gow.

18 Aulon = (the grapes of) Aulon, a hill and valley near Tarentum.

19 Fertili = who makes the vines fertile.

22-24 ibi tu . . . vatis amici.

‘There when life shall end,

Your tear shall dew my yet warm pyre,

Your bard and friend.’—Conington.

Reference. Polybius, x. 1. In 272 B.C. Milo with his garrison of Epirots marched out of Tarentum with all the honours of war.

Rome now ruled supreme over the whole of Italy from Ariminum in the North to the Sicilian Straits.



‘Salve, magna parens frugum, Saturnia tellus,
Magna virum.’

Adde tot egregias urbes operumque laborem,

Tot congesta manu praeruptis oppida saxis,

Fluminaque antiquos subterlabentia muros.

An mare, quod supra, memorem, quodque alluit infra?

Anne lacus tantos? Te, Lari maxime, teque,


Fluctibus et fremitu adsurgens Benace marino?



Haec eadem argenti rivos aerisque metalla

Ostendit venis atque auro plurima fluxit.

Haec genus acre virum, Marsos pubemque Sabellam,

Adsuetumque malo Ligurem, Volscosque verutos

Extulit: haec Decios, Marios, magnosque Camillos,


Scipiadas duros bello, et te, maxime Caesar,

Qui nunc extremis Asiae iam victor in oris

Imbellem avertis Romanis arcibus Indum.

Salve, magna parens frugum, Saturnia tellus,

Magna virum: tibi res antiquae laudis et artis


Ingredior, sanctos ausus recludere fontes,

Ascraeumque cano Romana per oppida carmen.

Vergil, Georg. ii. 155-176.

158 mare quod supra alluit = the mare superum = the Adriatic.

mare quod infra alluit = the mare inferum = the Tuscan or Tyrrhenian (Τυρῥηνός = Tuscan) sea.

159 Lari = Lake Larius (= Como), N. of Milan.

160 Benace = Lake Benacus (= Garda), W. of Verona.

fremitu marino = with roar as of the sea.

168 adsuetum malo = trained in hardship.—Mackail.

Volscosque verutos = and the Volscian spearmen (light infantry). verutos = armed with the verutum (or veru = lit. a spit), a javelin.

170 Scipiadas, Greek patronymic form = Lat. Scīpĭōnēs.

maxime Caesar = Augustus.

171-172 After Actium, 31 B.C., Augustus spent more than a year in reducing and settling the East (imbellem Indum) whose forces had been wielded by Antony.—Sidgwick.

173 Saturnia tellus, in allusion to Saturn’s reign in Latium in the age of gold.

174-175 tibi res . . . fontes = for thee I enter on themes of ancient glory and skill (i.e. in agriculture) and dare to unseal (recludere) the sacred springs; res laudis, the theme of the Aeneid, res artis, of the Georgics.

176 Ascraeum carmen = the song of Ascra, i.e. the Georgics, because Hesiod (author of Works and Days to which Vergil is much indebted) was born at Ascra, near Helicon, in Boeotia.—S.




The Vision of Anchises.—Rome’s Heroes.

‘Ille triumphata Capitolia ad alta Corintho

Victor aget currum, caesis insignis Achivis.

Eruet ille Argos Agamemnoniasque Mycenas,

Ipsumque Aeaciden, genus armipotentis Achilli,


Ultus avos Troiae, templa et temerata Minervae.

Quis te, magne Cato, tacitum, aut te, Cosse, relinquat?

Quis Gracchi genus, aut geminos, duo fulmina belli,

Scipiadas, cladem Libyae, parvoque potentem

Fabricium, vel te sulco, Serrane, serentem?


Quo fessum rapitis, Fabii? Tu Maximus ille es,

Unus qui nobis cunctando restituis rem.’



‘Aspice, ut insignis spoliis Marcellus opimis

Ingreditur, victorque viros supereminet omnes!

Hic rem Romanam, magno turbante tumultu,

Sistet, eques sternet Poenos Gallumque rebellem,

Tertiaque arma patri suspendet capta Quirino.’

Vergil, Aen. vi. 836-846, 855-859.

836 Ille = L. Mummius Achaicus, destroyed Corinth, 146 B.C.

838 Ille = L. Aemilius Paullus, crushed Perseus (= Aeaciden l. 839) at Pydna, 168 B.C.

841 Cosse = Cornelius Cossus, won Spolia Opima a second time, 428 B.C.

842 Gracchi genus, e.g. (i.) Tib. Sempronius Gracchus, twice Consul 215, 212 B.C., in 2nd Punic War; (ii.) T. S. G. distinguished in Spain; (iii.) the two great Tribunes, Tiberius and Gaius.

843 Scipiadas = (i.) Scipio Africanus Maior, victor at Zama, 202 B.C.; (ii.) Scipio Africanus Minor, destroyed Carthage, 146 B.C.

844 Fabricium, Consul 282 and 278 B.C. in war with Pyrrhus. Proof against bribes.

Serrane = Regulus, victor at Ecnomus, 256 B.C., a prisoner, 255 B.C. True to his word.

845 Maximus = Q. Fabius M. Cunctator, Dictator after Cannae. The Shield of Rome.

846 From the Annals of Ennius (239-169 B.C.), often quoted.

855 Marcellus, five times Consul. Took Syracuse 212 B.C. The Sword of Rome.

857 magno . . . tumultu = when a great upheaving shakes it.—Page.

Tumultus (as Cic. tells us) is specially used of a rising in Italy or in Gaul, as it was close to Italy. (Elsewhere = bellum.)

858 Sistet, . . . sternet. Notice the antithesis and alliteration (assonance).

The Vision of Anchises is the imperishable record of the national life, where the poet ‘sums up in lines like bars of gold the hero-roll of the Eternal City.’—Myers.



The Foundation of Carthage, 878 B.C.

Pygmalion, cognita sororis fuga, cum impio bello fugientem persequi pararet, aegre precibus matris deorumque minis victus quievit. . . . Itaque Elissa delata in Africae sinum incolas eius loci adventu peregrinorum mutuarumque rerum commercio 5 gaudentes in amicitiam sollicitat. Dein empto loco, qui corio bovis tegi posset, in quo fessos longa navigatione socios, quoad proficisceretur, reficere posset, corium in tenuissimas partes secari iubet atque ita maius loci spatium, quam petierat, occupat: unde 10 postea ei loco Byrsae nomen fuit. Confluentibus deinde vicinis locorum, qui spe lucri multa hospitibus venalia inferebant, sedesque ibi statuentibus ex frequentia hominum velut instar civitatis effectum. est. . . . Itaque consentientibus omnibus Carthago 15 conditur, statuto annuo vectigali pro solo urbis. In primis fundamentis caput bubulum inventum est, quod auspicium fructuosae quidem, sed laboriosae perpetuoque servae urbis fuit; propter quod in alium locum urbs translata. Ibi quoque equi caput repertum, 20 bellicosum potentemque populum futurum significans, urbi auspicatam sedem dedit. Tunc ad opinionem novae urbis concurrentibus gentibus brevi et populus et civitas magna facta.

Justinus, xviii. 5.

1 Pygmalion, King of Tyre, murdered Sychaeus, husband of Elissa (Dido).

4 sinum = Gulf of Tunis. (See Murray’s Classical Atlas.)

5 peregrinorum = of strangers. per + ager. Cf. pilgrim. Fr. pèlerin.

mutuarum rerum commercio = barter.

11 Byrsae, i.e., later, the Citadel quarter, as if from βύρσα = a hide, prob. corrupted from Phoen. Bozra (= a fort). So Carthage = Kirjath (city); cp. Kirjath-Arba (Hebron), and Hannibal (= Hanniel) = the grace of Baal.

14 velut instar c. = as if the semblance of a state; cf. ‘instar montis equus,’ Verg.—Post.

17 bubulum = of an ox, adj. from bos.

22 auspicatam = auspicious, in active sense.

Parallel Passages. Verg. Aen. i. 336-368, 418-438, and Aen. iv. 21-22.

References. Bosworth Smith, Carthage and the Carthaginians.—Ihne, Hist. of Rome, vol. ii. pp. 3-21.



Aeneas views the Building of Carthage, circ. 878 B.C.

Iamque ascendebant collem, qui plurimus urbi


Imminet adversasque aspectat desuper arces.

Miratur molem Aeneas, magalia quondam,

Miratur portas strepitumque et strata viarum.

Instant ardentes Tyrii pars ducere muros

Molirique arcem et manibus subvolvere saxa,


Pars optare locum tecto et concludere sulco;

Iura magistratusque legunt sanctumque senatum;

Hic portus alii effodiunt; hinc lata theatris

Fundamenta locant alii, immanesque columnas

Rupibus excidunt, scaenis decora alta futuris.


Qualis apes aestate nova per florea rura

Exercet sub sole labor, cum gentis adultos

Educunt fetus, aut cum līquentia mella

Stipant et dulci distendunt nectare cellas,

Aut onera accipiunt venientum, aut agmine facto


Ignavum fucos pecus a praesepibus arcent:

Fervet opus, redolentque thymo fragrantia mella.

‘O fortunati, quorum iam moenia surgunt!’

Aeneas ait, et fastigia suspicit urbis.

Vergil, Aen. i. 419-438.

419 plurimus = in huge mass, with the predicate imminet.

421 magalia = huts, a Carthaginian (Phoenician) word. Cf. μέγαρον.

422 strata viarum = stratas vias = the paved roads.—Sidgwick.

423, 424, 425 ducere . . . moliri . . . subvolvere . . . optare . . . concludere, dependent on the idea of eagerness or striving in instant.—S.

426 Vergil is thinking, as often, of Roman institutions, and not of what was appropriate to heroic times. Cf. Aen. i. 507-8.

430-436 This simile is a reproduction of Georg. iv. 162-169. Cf. Milton, Par. Lost, i. 768:

      ‘As bees

In springtime, when the sun with Taurus rides,

Pour forth their populous youth about the hive.’

432 līquentia = liquid, from līquor, dep. Elsewhere Vergil uses lĭquens from lĭqueo.

433 Stipant = pack, the notion of pushing and tightness being given in the very sound of the heavy overhanging spondees in this line.—S.

435 Ignavum . . . arcent = drive the drones, a slothful herd, from the enclosure. Notice the order.—Page.

437 ‘The want of a city is the key-note of the Aeneid.’—Conington.



A Roman Martyr.
Country before Expediency.

M. Atilius Regulus, cum consul iterum in Africa ex insidiis captus esset duce Xanthippo Lacedaemonio, iuratus missus est ad senatum, ut, nisi redditi essent Poenis captivi nobiles quidam, rediret ipse Carthaginem. Is cum Romam venisset, utilitatis 5 speciem videbat, sed eam, ut res declarat, falsam iudicavit: quae erat talis: manere in patria, esse domui suae cum uxore, cum liberis, quam calamitatem accepisset in bello, communem fortunae bellicae iudicantem tenere consularis dignitatis 10 gradum. . . . Itaque quid fecit? In senatum venit, mandata exposuit, sententiam ne diceret recusavit: quam diu iure iurando hostium teneretur, non esse se senatorem. . . . Cuius cum valuisset auctoritas, captivi retenti sunt, ipse Carthaginem 15 rediit neque eum caritas patriae retinuit nec suorum, . . . ‘At stulte, qui non modo non censuerit captivos remittendos, verum etiam dissuaserit.’ Quo modo stulte? etiamne, si reipublicae conducebat? potest autem, quod inutile reipublicae sit, id cuiquam 20 civi utile esse?

Cicero, De Officiis, iii. 99, 100.

1 consul. Regulus was Consul 261 and 256 B.C., and Proconsul in Africa 255 B.C., when he was defeated and taken prisoner by Xanthippus.

6 speciem = the specious (plausible) appearance (semblance).

12, 13 sententiam . . . recusavit = declined to give his own opinion on the case.

13 iure iurando (sc. dato) = by the oath sworn to his enemies.

17 ‘At stulte’ (sc. fecit) = ‘But, it may he said, he acted like a fool.

19 etiamne (sc. stulte fecit) = What, how did he act like a fool, if . . .—Holden.

20, 21 potest autem . . . utile esse. Cf. Ὅ τῇ πόλει οὐκ ἔστι βλαβερὸν οὐδὲ τὸν πολίτην βλάπτει = that which is not harmful (βλαβερόν = inutile) to the State is not harmful to the citizen.

Parallel Passages. Polybius, i. 31-36 (he makes no mention of the embassy of Regulus); Pliny, Ep. vii. 2 (interesting letter on the death of Regulus); and espec. Hor. Od. III. v. 13-end.

‘With counsel thus, ne’er else aread [advised],

He nerved the Fathers’ weak intent,

And, girt by friends that mourn’d him, sped

Into illustrious banishment.’—C.



A. First Roman Naval Victory near Mylae, 260 B.C.

C. Duilius, primo Punico bello a Romanis dux contra Carthaginienses missus, cum videret eos multum mari valere, classem magis validam quam decoram aedificavit, et manus ferreas, quas corvos vocabant, instituit. His, quas ante pugnam hostes 5 valde deriserant, in pugna ipsa ad Liparas insulas commissa naves hostium comprehendit, easque partim cepit, partim demersit. Dux classis Punicae Carthaginem fugit, et ex senatu quaesivit quid faceret. Omnibus ut pugnaret succlamantibus: 10 ‘Feci,’ inquit, ‘et victus sum.’ Sic poenam crucis effugit, nam hac poena dux, re male gesta, apud Poenos afficiebatur. Duilius autem victor primum triumphum maritimum Romae egit, et ad memoriam victoriae columna rostrata in foro posita est. 15

(Adapted) Cf. Florus, I. xviii. 7-10.

4 corvos = crows (the κόρακες of Polybius), boarding-bridges. A broad movable ladder, fastened to the foremast, and held in position by a rope. When the rope was let go, the iron hook at the upper end of the ladder penetrated the deck of an enemy’s ship.

6 ad Liparas insulas = Aeoliae Insulae (Lipari Islands), N.E. of Sicily. Mylae was on a promontory S.E. of these Islands.

8 Dux, i.e. Hannibal, the defender of Agrigentum 262 B.C.

B. Unique honour conferred on Duilius.

C. Duilium, qui Poenos classe primus devicerat, redeuntem a cena senem saepe videbam puer; delectabatur cereo funali et tibicine, quae sibi nullo exemplo privatus sumpserat: tantum licentiae dabat gloria.

Cicero, De Senectute, xiii. § 44.

18 cereo funali,* i.e. torchlight.

nullo exemplo = without any precedent.

18-19 sibi . . . sumpserat. Cicero is wrong: more probably the honour was conferred on Duilius by a vote of the Comitia Tributa.

19 dabat = excused; lit. granted, allowed.— J. S. Reid.

* The funale was a torch composed of twigs twisted into a rope (funis) and dipped in pitch or oil.—J. S. R.

References. Polybius, i. 22, for a description of the corvi, κόρακες. Sir Andrew Barton (Percy’s Reliques). Lord Howard says:—

‘Were twenty shippes, and he but one,

I swear by kirke and bower and hall,

He would overcome them every one

If once his beames they do down fall.’



Carthaginian Victory off Drepana, 249 B.C.
Rashness of Claudius.

Praedictiones vero et praesensiones rerum futurarum quid aliud declarant nisi hominibus ea ostendi, monstrari, portendi, praedici? Ex quo illa ostenta, monstra, portenta, prodigia dicuntur. Quod si ea ficta credimus licentia fabularum, Mopsum, Tiresiam, 5 Amphiaraum, Calchantem, Helenum, quos tamen augures ne ipsae quidem fabulae adscivissent, si res omnino repudiaret, ne domesticis quidem exemplis docti numen deorum conprobabimus? Nihil nos P. Claudi bello Punico primo temeritas movebit, qui 10 etiam per iocum deos irridens, cum cavea literati pulli non pascerentur, mergi eos in aquam iussit, ut biberent, quoniam esse nollent? Qui risus, classe devicta, multas ipsi lacrimas, magnam populo Romano cladem attulit. Quid? Collega eius Iunius 15 eodem bello nonne tempestate classem amisit, cum auspiciis non paruisset? Itaque Claudius a populo condemnatus est, Iunius necem sibi ipse conscivit.

Cicero, De Nat. Deorum, II. 3. 7-8.

3 ostenta . . . dicuntur = are called in Latinostenta,’ ‘monstra,’ etc.—Walford.

4 prodigium for prodicium = pro + √dic- δεικ- = point out.

5 Mopsum, etc. = all those stories about Mopsus, etc., in apposition to ea: poetical construction.

Mopsum, the prophet who accompanied the Argonauts.

Tiresiam, the blind prophet of Thebes.

6 Amphiaraum, the seer of Argos. One of the Seven against Thebes.

Helenus, son of Priam. A seer of the Iliad and the Aeneid.

10 P. Claudi temeritas. P. Cl. Pulcher (son of Appius Claudius, the blind Censor) defeated by Adherbal off Drepana (N.W. corner of Sicily, between Eryx and Lilybaeum).

15 Iunius. L. J. Pullus, consul 249 B.C. His fleet was destroyed by a storm off Pachynus (C. Passaro) the same year.

Parallel Passage. Florus ii. 2 says that ‘Claudius was overthrown, not by the enemy, but by the gods themselves, whose auspices he had despised.’

The Defeat off Drepana. ‘The reason of the defeat lay in the superiority of the Carthaginian admiral and seamen, and the inexperience of Claudius and of his crews, consisting mainly of landsmen who knew nothing of the sea. This disaster and the destruction of the fleet of Junius crowned the series of misfortunes which befell the Romans in the year 249 B.C., the most dismal time of the whole war.’—Ihne.



Victory of Lutatius off the Aegates Insulae, 241 B.C.
Peace with Carthage.

A. Interim Carthaginienses classe apud insulas Aegates a C. Lutatio, consule Romanorum, superati statuerunt belli facere finem, eamque rem arbitrio permiserunt Hamilcaris. Ille, etsi flagrabat bellandi cupiditate, tamen paci serviendum putavit, quod 5 patriam, exhaustam sumptibus, diutius calamitates belli ferre non posse intellegebat, sed ita, ut statim mente agitaret, si paulum modo res essent refectae, bellum renovare Romanosque armis persequi, donicum aut virtute vicissent aut victi manus dedissent. 10

Corn. Nepos, Hamilcar, i.

1 apud insulas Aegates, the Goat Islands, off the W. Coast of Sicily, between Drepana and Lilybaeum (Marsala).

3 statuerunt belli facere finem. This victory led to the close of the First Punic War.

5 paci serviendum = to devote himself to (obtaining) peace.

9 donicum (= donec), lit. ‘at the time of day when ——

10 virtute vicissent = they (the Romans) should have conquered by (superior) prowess.


Hic dum stagnosi spectat templumque domosque

Literni ductor, varia splendentia cernit


Pictura belli patribus monumenta prioris

Exhausti: nam porticibus signata manebant,

Quis inerat longus rerum et spectabilis ordo.


Addiderant geminas medio consurgere fluctu


Aegates: lacerae circum fragmenta videres

Classis et effusos fluitare in gurgite Poenos.

Possessor pelagi pronaque Lutatius aura

Captivas puppes ad litora victor agebat.

Silius Italicus, vi. 653-657, 684-688.

653-654 stagnosi Literni. Town and River on the coast of Campania, N. of Cumae. The River flows through a marsh = Literna palus.

654 ductor = Hannibal.

654-657 Silius (who closely imitates Vergil) makes Hannibal view the sculptured memorials of the First Punic War, just as Aeneas sees carved the tale of Troy. Verg. Aen. i. 445-493.

Parallel Passage. Polybius, i. caps. 59-63.

Terms of Peace. Carthage engaged to evacuate Sicily; not to make war upon Hiero of Syracuse; to give up all Roman prisoners without ransom, and to pay 2200 talents in twenty years.

Sicily the first Roman Province.



A. Great Importance of the Second Punic War.

In parte operis mei licet mihi praefari bellum maxime omnium memorabile, quae unquam gesta sint, me scripturum, quod Hannibale duce Carthaginienses cum populo Romano gessere. Nam neque validiores opibus ullae inter se civitates gentesque contulerunt 5 arma, neque his ipsis tantum unquam virium aut roboris fuit, et haud ignotas belli artes inter sese, sed expertas primo Punico conferebant bello, et adeo varia fortuna belli ancepsque Mars fuit, ut propius periculum fuerint, qui vicerunt. Odiis etiam prope 10 maioribus certarunt quam viribus, Romanis indignantibus quod victoribus victi ultro inferrent arma, Poenis, quod superbe avareque crederent imperitatum victis esse.

3 Hannibale duce. Polybius called the war of which Hannibal was the life and soul the ‘Hannibalian War.’

6 his ipsis, sc. Romanis Poenisque, with validiores.

6-7 virium aut roboris = offensive or defensive strength.—R.

8 expertas = tested, in a passive sense.

9 ut propius . . . vicerunt, e.g. after Cannae, 216 B.C.

12 ultro inferrent arma = should presume to attack.—Dimsdale.

13 Poenis, sc. indignantibus.

superbe avareque. ‘When the war of the mercenaries broke out in Africa (241-238 B.C.) Rome availed herself of the distress of Carthage to extort the cession of Sardinia, and raised the war indemnity by 1200 talents.’—Ihne.

B. The Oath of the Boy Hannibal.

Fama est etiam, Hannibalem annorum ferme 15 novem, pueriliter blandientem patri Hamilcari, ut duceretur in Hispaniam, cum, perfecto Africo bello, exercitum eo traiecturus sacrificaret, altaribus admotum, tactis sacris, iure iurando adactum, se, cum primum posset, hostem fore populo Romano. 20

Livy, xxi. 1.

16 blandientem = coaxingly entreating.—D.

17 perfecto Africo bello, i.e. between Carthage and her mutinous mercenaries, 241-237 B.C.

Parallel Passage. For Hannibal’s Oath, Livy xxxv. 19.

Importance of the War. ‘It was a struggle for existence, for supremacy or destruction. It was to decide whether the Graeco-Roman civilisation of the West or the Semitic (Carthaginian) civilisation of the East was to be established in Europe, and to determine its history for all future time.’—Ihne.



‘The paths of glory lead but to the grave.’

Expende Hannibalem: quot libras in duce summo



Additur imperiis Hispania, Pyrenaeum

Transilit. Opposuit natura Alpemque nivemque:

Diducit scopulos et montem rumpit aceto.

Iam tenet Italiam, tamen ultra pergere tendit:


‘Actum,’ inquit, ‘nihil est, nisi Poeno milite portas

Frangimus et media vexillum pono Subura.’

O qualis facies et quali digna tabella,

Cum Gaetula ducem portaret belua luscum!

Exitus ergo quis est? O gloria! vincitur idem


Nempe et in exilium praeceps fugit, atque ibi magnus

Mirandusque cliens sedet ad praetoria regis,

Donec Bithyno libeat vigilare tyranno.

Finem animae, quae res humanas miscuit olim,

Non gladii, non saxa dabunt, nec tela, sed ille


Cannarum vindex et tanti sanguinis ultor,

Anulus. I, demens, et saevas curre per Alpes,

Ut pueris placeas et declamatio fias.

Juvenal, Sat. x. 147-167.

147-148 Expende . . . invenies = if you lay (lit. ‘weigh’) Hannibal in the scale, how many pounds will you find in the greatest of commanders?—Duff. Cf. Ov. Met. xii. 615:

Iam cinis est: et de tam magno restat Achille

Nescio quid parvam quod non bene compleat urnam.

156 media Subura, i.e. in the heart of Rome. The Subura was one of the busiest and most populous quarters of Rome.

157 O qualis facies . . . tabella = what a sight and how fit for caricature! lit. ‘worthy of what a picture’ i.e. how ridiculous a picture it would have made.—Hardy.

158 luscum = one-eyed. Hannibal lost an eye from disease, while marching through the country flooded by the Arno, 217 B.C.

160 in exilium, i.e. first to Antiochus of Syria, and then to Prusias of Bithynia.

166 anulus. Hannibal took poison which he carried about in a ring (anulus) 183 B.C., aged 76.

167 ut . . . fias = to suit the taste of schoolboys, and become the subject of their speeches.—Duff.

For the thought, cf. Shak. Ham. V. i. 232:

Imperious Caesar, dead and turned to clay,

Might stop a hole to keep the wind away:

O, that that earth, which kept the world in awe

Should patch a wall to expel the winter’s flaw!



Character of Hannibal.

Nunquam ingenium idem ad res diversissimas, parendum atque imperandum, habilius fuit. Itaque haud facile discerneres, utrum imperatori an exercitui carior esset; neque Hasdrubal alium quemquam praeficere malle, ubi quid fortiter ac strenue agendum 5 esset, neque milites alio duce plus confidere aut audere. Plurimum audaciae ad pericula capessenda, plurimum consilii inter ipsa pericula erat. Nullo labore aut corpus fatigari aut animus vinci poterat. Caloris ac frigoris patientia par; cibi potionisque 10 desiderio naturali, non voluptate modus finitus; vigiliarum somnique nec die nec nocte discriminata tempora: id, quod gerendis rebus superesset, quieti datum; ea neque molli strato neque silentio accersita; multi saepe militari sagulo opertum humi iacentem 15 inter custodias stationesque militum conspexerunt. Vestitus nihil inter aequales excellens; arma atque equi conspiciebantur. Equitum peditumque idem longe primus erat; princeps in proelium ibat, ultimus conserto proelio excedebat. Has tantas viri virtutes 20 ingentia vitia aequabant, inhumana crudelitas, perfidia plus quam Punica, nihil veri, nihil sancti, nullus deum metus, nullum ius iurandum, nulla religio.

Livy, xxi. 4.

2 habilius = better adapted, lit. ‘more easily handled’; cf. our handy.

7 ad pericula capessenda = in incurring peril.

12 discriminata = regulated, lit. ‘divided off’; cf. dis-cerno, dis-crimen.

14 accersita (= arcessita) = wooed.

15 sagulo = in his military cloak: diminutive of sagum.

21 inhumana crudelitas. Polybius says that many of his alleged cruelties were to be set down to his namesake H. Monomachus.

21-23 perfidia plus quam Punica. ‘This does not seem to have been anything worse than a consummate adroitness in laying traps for his enemies.’—Church and Brodribb. Cf. ‘Perfidious Albion.’

23 nulla religio = no scruples, i.e. no force binding (re + ligare) or restraining from wrong-doing, no conscience.

Parallel Passages. Livy xxvi. 41 of Scipio Africanus Minor—Sallust Cat. 5 of Catiline—Polybius ix. 22-26 (important).

‘Bitterly as the Romans hated, reviled, and persecuted Carthage, the most deadly poison of their hatred they poured upon Hannibal; they did not hesitate to blacken his memory by the most revolting accusations.’—Ihne.



The Siege of Saguntum, 219 B.C.

Angulus muri erat in planiorem patentioremque quam cetera circa vallem vergens; adversus eum vineas agere instituit, per quas aries moenibus admoveri posset. Sed ut locus procul muro satis aequus agendis vineis fuit, ita haudquaquam prospere, 5 postquam ad effectum operis ventum est, coeptis succedebat. Et turris ingens imminebat, et murus, ut in suspecto loco, supra ceterae modum altitudinis emunitus erat, et iuventus delecta, ubi plurimum periculi ac timoris ostendebatur, ibi vi maiore obsistebant. 10 Ac primo missilibus summovere hostem nec quicquam satis tutum munientibus pati; deinde iam non pro moenibus modo atque turri tela micare, sed ad erumpendum etiam in stationes operaque hostium animus erat; quibus tumultuariis certaminibus 15 haud ferme plures Saguntini cadebant quam Poeni. Ut vero Hannibal ipse, dum murum incautius subit, adversum femur tragula graviter ictus cecidit, tanta circa fuga ac trepidatio fuit, ut non multum abesset, quin opera ac vineae desererentur. 20

Livy, xxi. 7.

2 quam cetera (sc. loca) circa = than the neighbouring country.

4-5 ut . . . ita = lit. as . . . so, i.e. although . . . yet . . .

6 postquam . . . ventum est = when they came to attack the wall in earnest. Effectum (verbal noun in us) = the completion of the work, i.e. the bringing up of the ram.—Dimsdale.

8 ut in suspecto loco = as (was natural) in a suspected (i.e. weak) spot.—Capes.

11-12 nec quicquam . . . pati = they allowed those engaged on the works no sort of safety, lit. not (even) moderate safety.—D.

18 adversum femur = in the front of the thigh.

SAGUNTUM (Murviedro = muri veteres) in Hispania Tarraconensis (about 20 miles S. of Valencia) was supposed to have been founded by Greek colonists from Zacynthos (Zante). In 226 B.C. Rome made an alliance with Saguntum and Hasdrubal was informed of the fact. Hannibal attacked the city ostensibly on the ground of its having molested subject-allies of Carthage, but really because he was unwilling to leave a strong city in his rear, and wished to obtain funds. After an eight months’ siege and a heroic defence, characteristic of Spanish towns, it was taken by storm 219 B.C.

Nec pavet hic populus (Massilia) pro libertate subire

Obsessum Poeno gessit quod Marte Saguntum.

Lucan, Phars. iii. 349-50.

Cf. also Juv. Sat. xv. 113-14, and the siege of Saragossa, 1808 A.D.



A. The Dream of Hannibal.

Hannibalem Coelius scribit, cum cepisset Saguntum, visum esse in somnis a Iove in deorum concilium vocari; quo cum venisset, Iovem imperasse ut Italiae bellum inferret, ducemque ei unum e concilio datum: quo illum utentem cum exercitu progredi 5 coepisse; tum ei ducem illum praecepisse ne respiceret; illum autem id diutius facere non potuisse elatumque cupiditate respexisse: tum visam belluam vastam et immanem, circumplicatam serpentibus, quacunque incederet, omnia arbusta, virgulta, tecta 10 pervertere.

Cicero, De Divinatione, i. 24, 49.

1 Coelius, i.e. L. Coelius Antipater (a contemporary of C. Gracchus 123 B.C.), wrote Annales, which contained a valuable account of the Second Punic War. Livy borrows largely from his narrative.

7 id . . . non potuisse. Cf. Livy ‘temperare oculis nequivisse = he could not restrain his eyes.’

8 cupiditate = from curiosity. Cf. Livy ‘cura ingeni humani = with the natural curiosity of the human mind.’

8-11 visam belluam . . . pervertere = he thought he saw a monster overthrowing.

B. The Interpretation—Vastitatem esse Italiae.

Hoc trepidus monstro . . . ardua quae sit,

Scitatur, pestis, terrasque urgentia membra

Quo ferat et quosnam populos deposcat hiatu.

Cui gelidis almae Cyllenes editus antris:

‘Bella vides optata tibi: te maxima bella,


Te strages nemorum, te moto turbida caelo

Tempestas, caedesque virum, magnaeque ruinae

Idaei generis, lacrimosaque fata sequuntur.

Quantus per campos populatis montibus actus

Contorquet silvas squalenti tergore serpens,


Et late umectat terras spumante veneno:

Tantus, perdomitis decurrens Alpibus atro

Involves bello Italiam, tantoque fragore

Eruta convulsis prosternes oppida muris.’

Silius Italicus, iii. 198-213.

202 hiatu = with its wide-open mouth.

203 Cyllenes, i.e. Mt. Cyllene (Zyria), the highest point in the Peloponnesus, on the borders of Arcadia and Achaia, where Hermes is said to have been born: hence styled Cyllenius.

209 tergore = tergo. poet. and post-Augustian.

Parallel Passage. Livy xxi. 22, and cf. Polybius iii. 47.



From the Pyrenees to the Rhone.
Passage of the Elephants.

Elephantorum traiciendorum varia consilia fuisse credo, certe variat memoria actae rei. . . . Ceterum magis constat ratibus traiectos esse elephantos. Ratem unam ducentos longam pedes quinquaginta latam a terra in amnem porrexerunt, quam, ne 5 secunda aqua deferretur, pluribus validis retinaculis parte superiore ripae religatam pontis in modum humo iniecta constraverunt, ut beluae audacter velut per solum ingrederentur. Altera ratis aeque lata, longa pedes centum, ad traiciendum flumen apta, 10 huic copulata est; tum elephanti per stabilem ratem tamquam viam praegredientibus feminis acti ubi in minorem applicatam transgressi sunt, extemplo resolutis, quibus leviter annexa erat, vinculis ab actuariis aliquot navibus ad alteram ripam pertrahitur. Ita 15 primis expositis alii deinde repetiti ac traiecti sunt. Nihil sane trepidabant, donec continenti velut ponte agerentur; primus erat pavor, cum soluta ab ceteris rate in altum raperentur. Ibi urgentes inter se cedentibus extremis ab aqua trepidationis aliquantum 20 edebant, donec quietem ipse timor circumspectantibus aquam fecisset. Excidere etiam saevientes quidam in flumen; sed pondere ipso stabilis deiectis rectoribus quaerendis pedetemptim vadis in terram evasere. 25

Livy, xxi. 28.

2 variat . . . rei = the accounts of what was done differ.—Dimsdale.

7 parte superiore . . . pontis = fastened to the upper part of the bank, i.e. to the bank at a point higher up stream.—D.

9 per solum = on firm ground.

14 ab actuariis = by some light craft, lit. ‘Easily moved’ (ago).

17-18 donec . . . agerentur = So long as they were being driven on what seemed a bridge connected with the land.—C. and B. Agebantur would be more usual, but agerentur may give the reason of nihil trepidabant. Cf. donec—fecisset ll. 21-22.

19 in altum = into mid stream, usu. of the Sea.—D.

inter se = one on another, alii alios.

24 quaerendis pedetemptim vadis = feeling their way into shallow water. pedetemptim = step by step, lit. ‘stretching out the feet’ (pes + tendo). Cf. paulatim, sensim.

Reference. Polybius, iii. 46. Both Polybius and Livy thought that elephants could not swim.



From the Rhone to Italy.
Hannibal encourages his Soldiers.

Itaque Hannibal, postquam ipsi sententia stetit pergere ire atque Italiam petere, advocata contione varie militum versat animos castigando adhortandoque: mirari se, quinam pectora semper impavida repens terror invaserit. . . . Alpes quidem habitari, coli, 5 gignere atque alere animantes; pervias fauces esse exercitibus. Eos ipsos, quos cernant, legatos non pinnis sublime elatos Alpes transgressos. Ne maiores quidem eorum indigenas, sed advenas Italiae cultores has ipsas Alpes ingentibus saepe agminibus cum 10 liberis ac coniugibus migrantium modo tuto transmisisse. Militi quidem armato nihil secum praeter instrumenta belli portanti quid invium aut inexsuperabile esse? Saguntum ut caperetur, quid per octo menses periculi, quid laboris exhaustum esse! 15 Romam, caput orbis terrarum, petentibus quicquam adeo asperum atque arduum videri, quod inceptum moretur? Cepisse quondam Gallos ea, quae adiri posse Poenus desperet. Proinde aut cederent animo atque virtute genti per eos dies totiens ab se victae, 20 aut itineris finem sperent campum interiacentem Tiberi ac moenibus Romanis.

Livy, xxi. 30.

2-3 varie . . . versat = works on their minds by different methods, i.e. castigando adhortandoque.—Dimsdale.

4-5 repens terror. Livy says that H.’s soldiers dreaded the Romans (victorious in the 1st Punic War), but still more the exaggerated and unknown terrors of the Alps.

7 Eos ipsos legatos, i.e. of the Boii (Insubrian Gauls), long settled in Gallia Cisalpina (round Mediolanum = Milan).

9 advenas Italiae cultores = foreign settlers in Italy. advenas = adj. here.—D.

11 migrantium modo = as immigrants.

16 Romam caput orbis. A rhetorical exaggeration, for Rome was not yet mistress even of all Italy (e.g. the Boii not subdued until 191 B.C.).

18 Cepisse Gallos. The Gauls sacked Rome 390 B.C.

20 genti . . . victae, e.g. at the Passage of the Rhone.

21 campum, i.e. the Campus Martius, N.W. of Rome, where the Tiber makes a wide curve. For the thought cf. p. 116, ll. 7, 8.

The Speeches of Livy. ‘He does not intend in them to reproduce the substance of words actually spoken, or even to imitate the tone of the time in which the speech is laid. He uses them as a vivid and dramatic method of portraying character and motive.’—Mackail.



From the Rhone to Italy.
The Descent of the Alps.

Natura locus iam ante praeceps recenti lapsu terrae in pedum mille admodum altitudinem abruptus erat. . . . Tandem nequiquam iumentis atque hominibus fatigatis castra in iugo posita, aegerrime ad id ipsum loco purgato: tantum nivis fodiendum atque 5 egerendum fuit. Inde ad rupem muniendam, per quam unam via esse poterat, milites ducti, cum caedendum esset saxum, arboribus circa immanibus deiectis detruncatisque struem ingentem lignorum faciunt, eamque, cum et vis venti apta faciendo igni 10 coorta esset, succendunt ardentiaque saxa infuso aceto putrefaciunt. Ita torridam incendio rupem ferro pandunt, molliuntque anfractibus modicis clivos, ut non iumenta solum sed elephanti etiam deduci possent. Quadriduum circa rupem consumptum 15 iumentis prope fame absumptis; nuda enim fere cacumina sunt, et, si quid est pabuli, obruunt nives. Inferiora valles apricosque quosdam colles habent rivosque prope silvas et iam humano cultu digniora loca. Ibi iumenta in pabulum missa, et quies 20 muniendo fessis hominibus data. Triduo inde ad planum descensum iam et locis mollioribus et accolarum ingeniis.

Livy, xxi. 36, 37.

Context. At a short distance from the summit of the Pass (prob. the Little St. Bernard) Hannibal finds his passage barred by a break in the road, caused by a landslip or avalanche.

2-3 in pedum . . . abruptus erat. Polybius says that the precipice at the side of the road (leaving only a narrow ledge) extended for about 1000 ft. in length. Livy in mistake converts this into 1000 ft. in depth.

3-4 Tandem . . . fatigatis, i.e. after H.’s attempt to pass by a side-way over a glacier failed.

4 in iugo, i.e. on the higher level where the road was broken away.

6 ad rupem muniendam = to cut a way through the rock. Munire (cf. moenia) = lit. ‘to wall,’ ‘to build.’ So munire viam = to make a road. Hannibal widened the narrow ledge of road by making a sort of terrace.

9 detruncatis = trimmed, (lit. ‘lopped off’), i.e. cleared of branches.

11-12 infuso aceto. Limestone rock might be softened by vinegar, which the posca, the soldiers’ regular drink of vinegar and water, would supply. Polybius does not mention this.

13-14 molliuntque . . . clivos = relieve the steepness of the descent by gently-sloping zigzag paths. Anfractus, from ambi + frango.

References. Polybius, iii. 54-56; Ihne, i. 171-179.



A. The Battle at the R. Trebia, 218 B.C.

Hannibal, cum ad Trebiam in conspectu haberet Semproni Longi consulis castra, medio amne interfluente, saevissima hieme Magonem et electos in insidiis posuit. Deinde Numidas equites ad eliciendam Semproni credulitatem adequitare vallo eius 5 iussit, quibus praeceperat, ut ad primum nostrorum incursum per nota refugerent vada. Hos consul et adortus temere et secutus ieiunum exercitum in maximo frigore transitu fluminis rigefecit: mox torpore et inedia adfectis Hannibal suum militem 10 opposuit, quem ad id ignibus oleoque et cibo foverat; nec defuit partibus Mago, quin terga hostium in hoc ordinatus caederet.

Frontinus, Strategemata, ii. 5. 23.

1 ad Trebiam, a small tributary S. of the Padus, which it joins 2 miles W. of Placentia (Piacenza).

2 castra. Ti. Sempronius Longus, with his army from Sicily, effected a junction with his colleague, Scipio, in his fortified camp on the W. or left bank of the Trebia.

8-9 ieiunum . . . rigefecit, i.e. Sempronius made stiff (rigefecit) with wading breast-high across the icy river his men faint with hunger (ieiunum).

11 oleoque, i.e. ut mollirent artus = to make their limbs supple.

12-13 nec defuit . . . caederet. The Romans kept their ground with the utmost courage till Mago burst out from his ambush and attacked them in rear.

B. The River bars the Retreat.

Et iam, dispersis Romana per agmina signis,

Palantes agit, ad ripas, miserabile! Poenus

Impellens trepidos, fluvioque immergere certat.

Tum Trebia infausto nova proelia gurgite fessis

Incohat, ac precibus Iunonis suscitat undas.


Haurit subsidens fugientum corpora tellus,

Infidaque soli frustrata voragine sorbet.

Nec niti lentoque datur convellere limo

Mersa pedum penitus vestigia: labe tenaci

Haerent devincti gressus, resolutaque ripa


Implicat aut caeca prosternit fraude paludis.

Silius Italicus, iv. 570-580.

574 precibus . . . undas. The poet, in his imitation of Vergil, makes Juno the devoted ally of Hannibal.

576 soli frustrata = prevented from reaching firm ground.

577 lento = sticky.

579 resoluta = crumbling.

References. Livy, xxi. 52-56; Ihne, ii. 187-191.



The Battle of Lake Trasimene, 217 B.C. (1)

Flaminius cum pridie solis occasu ad lacum pervenisset, inexplorato postero die vixdum satis certa luce angustiis superatis, postquam in patentiorem campum pandi agmen coepit, id tantum hostium, quod ex adverso erat, conspexit; ab tergo ac super 5 caput haud* detectae insidiae. Poenus ubi, id quod petierat, clausum lacu ac montibus et circumfusum suis copiis habuit hostem, signum omnibus dat simul invadendi. Qui ubi, qua cuique proximum fuit, decucurrerunt, eo magis Romanis subita atque improvisa 10 res fuit, quod orta ex lacu nebula campo quam montibus densior sederat, agminaque hostium ex pluribus collibus ipsa inter se satis conspecta eoque magis pariter decucurrerant. Romanus clamore prius undique orto, quam satis cerneret, se circumventum 15 esse sensit, et ante in frontem lateraque pugnari coeptum est, quam satis instrueretur acies aut expediri arma stringique gladii possent. Consul perculsis omnibus ipse satis, ut† in re trepida, impavidus turbatos ordines, vertente se quoque ad dissonos 20 clamores, instruit, ut tempus locusque patitur, et, quacunque adire audirique potest, adhortatur ac stare ac pugnare iubet. 25

Livy, xxii. 4, 5.

* Var. lect. decepere.
† For this qualifying use of ut cf. p. 42, iii. (b) and p. 83 line 1.

1 Flaminius (Gaius), the chief of the popular party at Rome. Consul 223 B.C., conquered the Insubrian Gauls, Censor 220 B.C. Connected Picenum with Rome by the Via Flaminia. Consul (a second time) 217 B.C., defeated and killed at Trasimene.

2 inexplorato = without reconnoitring. ‘This word expresses the whole blame attaching to Flaminius, and it is great.’—Dimsdale.

4 pandi (= se pandere) = to deploy.

13 ipsa . . . conspecta = were sufficiently visible to each other.

15 prius quam satis cerneret = before he could clearly distinguish anything.—D.

19 ut in re trepida = considering the confusion of the moment.—D.

The Scene of the Battle. At the N.W. end of the Lake the mountains of Cortona come right down to the lake, but a little further E. the pass expands and forms between the mountains and the lake a narrow plain from ½ to 1½ miles in width and about 4 miles in length. At the E. end of the plain the mountains again close down upon the lake. Here Hannibal encamped with his Africans and Spaniards; posted his light-armed troops behind the crests of the hills which bounded the plain on the N., and his cavalry at the entrance to the pass on the W. to cut off the Roman retreat.



The Battle of Lake Trasimene, 217 B.C. (2)

Ceterum prae strepitu ac tumultu nec consilium nec imperium accipi poterat, tantumque aberat, ut sua signa atque ordines et locum noscerent, ut vix ad arma capienda aptandaque pugnae competeret animus, opprimerenturque quidam onerati magis iis 5 quam tecti. Et erat in tanta caligine maior usus aurium quam oculorum. Ad gemitus vulneratorum ictusque corporum aut armorum et mixtos strepentium* paventiumque clamores circumferebant ora oculosque. Alii fugientes pugnantium globo illati 10 haerebant; alios redeuntes in pugnam avertebat fugientium agmen. Deinde, ubi in omnes partes nequiquam impetus capti, et ab lateribus montes ac lacus, a fronte et ab tergo hostium acies claudebant, apparuitque nullam nisi in dextera ferroque salutis 15 spem esse, tum sibi quisque dux adhortatorque factus ad rem gerendam et nova de integro exorta pugna est, non illa ordinata per principes hastatosque ac triarios, nec ut pro signis antesignani, post signa alia pugnaret acies; fors conglobabat et animus suus 20 cuique ante aut post pugnandi ordinem dabat; tantusque fuit ardor animorum, adeo intentus pugnae animus, ut eum motum terrae, qui multarum urbium Italiae magnas partes prostravit, nemo pugnantium senserit. 25

Livy, xxii. 5.

* Var. lect. terrentium = of those causing fear.

4 ad arma capienda aptandaque = to seize and put on for the battle their arms.—Dimsdale.

5 onerati: i.e. most were cut down in their full marching equipment.

8-9 mixtos . . . clamores = the mingled shouts of noisy triumph (strepentium) or dismay.

10 pugnantium . . . haerebant = rushed upon a knot (globo) of combatants, and became entangled with it.—Jebb.

14 a fronte, i.e. by Hannibal’s African and Spanish infantry.

ab tergo, i.e. by Hannibal’s cavalry and the Gauls.

18-19 non illa . . . triarios = not in that well-known (illa) mode of fighting (sc. pugna) arranged according to. . . . Livy refers to the old mode of formation (said to have been introduced by Camillus) of i. hastati, of young men, ii. principes, of men at their prime, iii. triarii, of middle-aged men.

References: Polybius, iii. 82-84; Ihne, Hist. vol, i. pp. 204-10.



The Battle of Lake Trasimene, 217 B.C. (3)
The Death of Flaminius.

Dumque ea commemorat densosque obit obvius hostes,


Advolat ora ferus mentemque Ducarius. Acri

Nomen erat gentile viro, fusisque catervis

Boiorum quondam patriis, antiqua gerebat

Vulnera barbaricae mentis, noscensque superbi

Victoris vultus, ‘Tune, inquit, maximus ille


Boiorum terror? libet hoc cognoscere telo,

Corporis an tanti manet de vulnere sanguis.

Nec vos poeniteat, populares, fortibus umbris

Hoc mactare caput: nostros hic curribus egit

Insistens victos alta ad Capitolia patres.


Ultrix hora vocat.’ Pariter tunc undique fusis

Obruitur telis, nimboque mente per auras

Contectus nulli dextra iactare reliquit

Flaminium cecidisse sua. Nec pugna perempto

Ulterior ductore fuit; namque agmine denso


Primores iuvenum, laeva ob discrimina Martis

Infensi superis dextrisque, et cernere Poenum

Victorem plus morte rati, super ocius omnes

Membra ducis stratosque artus certamine magno

Telaque corporaque et non fausto Marte cruentas


Iniecere manus. Sic densi caedis acervo

Ceu tumulo, texere virum.

Silius Italicus, v. 644-666.

644 Dum . . . hostes, i.e. after Flaminius’ vain attempt to rally and form his men, and his consequent resolve to atone for his fault (inexplorato* angustiis superatis) with his life.

645 Ducarius—Livy, ‘an Insubrian (Lombard) trooper.’

651 mānet = will flow. Cf. emanate.

652 populares = fellow-countrymen, but of Romans usu. civis.

658-666 Livy says more simply ‘He (Ducarius) was trying to despoil the corpse, when some veterans screened it with their shields.’

660 laeva = unfavourable, lit. ‘on the left side.’ Cf. sinister.

* See p. 124, l. 2, note.

Parallel Passages.—Livy, xxii. 6; Polyb. iii. 84.

Character of Flaminius. ‘The party feelings which have so coloured the language of the ancient writers (e.g. Livy, Polybius) respecting him need not be shared by a modern historian. Flaminius was indeed an unequal antagonist to Hannibal; but, in his previous life, as Consul and as Censor, he had served his country well; and if the defile of Trasimene witnessed his rashness, it also contains his honourable grave.’ Arnold, Hist. Rome, iii. 110.



Quintus Fabus Maximus Cunctator.

Ego Q. Maximum, eum qui Tarentum recepit, senem adulescens ita dilexi, ut aequalem. Erat enim in illo viro comitate condita gravitas, nec senectus mores mutaverat. . . . Hic et bella gerebat ut adulescens, cum plane grandis esset, et Hannibalem 5 iuveniliter exsultantem patientia sua molliebat; de quo praeclare familiaris noster Ennius:

Unus homo nobis cunctando restituit rem;

Noenum rumores ponebat ante salutem;


Ergo plusque magisque viri nunc gloria claret.

Nec vero in armis praestantior quam in toga; qui consul iterum, Sp. Carvilio collega quiescente, C. Flaminio tribuno plebis, quoad potuit, restitit agrum Picentem et Gallicum viritim contra senatus auctoritatem dividenti. . . . Multa in eo viro praeclara 15 cognovi, sed nihil admirabilius quam quo modo ille mortem fili tulit, clari viri et consularis. Est in manibus laudatio, quam eum legimus, quem philosophum non contemnimus? Nec vero ille in luce modo atque in oculis civium magnus, sed intus 20 domique praestantior.

Cicero, De Senectute, §§ 10-12.

1 Ego, i.e. M. Porcius Cato, the famous Censor of 184 B.C.

eum qui Tarentum recepit. Tarentum was betrayed to Hannibal 212 B.C. and recovered by Fabius 209 B.C.

2-3 Erat . . . gravitas = that hero possessed dignity tempered by courtesy.—J. S. R. condita (condio) = lit. seasoned.

5 grandis, sc. natu. He was consul for a first time in 233 B.C.

6 iuveniliter. Hannibal was 29 when he crossed the Alps.

exsultantem = wildly roaming, of a horse galloping at will.

7 noster Ennius, circ. 239-169 B.C., famous espec. for his Annales in Hexameter verse. He was the first Latin writer to use this metre.

9 Noenum (ne + oinum = not one thing) = non. Cf. nihil = ne + hilum = not a whit, nothing.

12-14 Flaminius, when tribune 232 B.C., by a vote of the Comitia Tributa (i.e. by a plebiscitum) and against the expressed wish of the Senate (contra senatus auctoritatem) carried an agrarian law for the division of public land in Picenum amongst Roman citizens.

18 laudatio, sc. funebris, the funeral speech.

19-20 in luce . . . civium = in public and under the gaze of his fellow-countrymen.—J. S. R.

References. Polybius, iii. 89, 90; Livy, xxii. 12; Plutarch, Fabius, vi.



Fabius and his Master of the Horse, 217 B.C.

Ita per variam fortunam diei maiore parte exacta cum in castra reditum esset, Minucius convocatis militibus ‘Saepe ego’ inquit ‘audivi, milites, eum primum esse virum, qui ipse consulat, quid in rem sit, secundum eum, qui bene monenti oboediat; qui 5 nec ipse consulere nec alteri parere sciat, eum extremi ingenii esse. Nobis quoniam prima animi ingeniique negata sors est, secundam ac mediam teneamus et, dum imperare discimus, parere prudenti in animum inducamus. Castra cum Fabio iungamus; ad praetorium 10 eius signa cum tulerimus, ubi ego eum parentem appellavero, quod beneficio erga nos ac maiestate eius dignum est, vos, milites, eos, quorum vos modo arma ac dexterae texerunt, patronos salutabitis, et, si nihil aliud, gratorum certe nobis 15 animorum gloriam dies hic dederit.’ Signo dato conclamatur inde, ut colligantur vasa. Profecti et agmine incedentes ad dictatoris castra in admirationem et ipsum et omnes, qui circa erant, converterunt. 20

Livy, xxii. 29, 30.

Context. Fabius’ policy of ‘masterly inactivity’ had become so unpopular at Rome that the command of the army was divided between Fabius and Minucius, who risked a battle, and was only saved from a destruction as complete as that of the Trebia by the timely aid of Fabius. Minucius publicly and fully atones for his rashness.

4 consulat = can give counsel—so consulere l. 6.

6-7 extremi ingenii = has the meanest capacity. gen. of quality.

7-8 prima . . . sors est = the highest rank in the scale of spirit and intellect.—Dimsdale.

14 patronos = as the authors of your freedom. Patronus = legal title used by a freed slave (libertus) of his former master. The soldiers of Minucius are to think of themselves as liberti, owing their freedom to those of Fabius, who are thus their patroni.

17 ut colligantur vasa, i.e. impedimenta. Cf. signa movere.

Fabius Cunctator. ‘Fabius had to create a new army, to accustom it to war, and to inspire it with courage. He did this skilfully and persistently, and thus he rendered the most essential service that any general could at that time render to the State. It was probably at this time that the Senate voted him a crown of grass (corona graminea), the highest distinction which was awarded to a general who had saved a besieged town.’—Ihne.



SECOND PUNIC WAR, 218-202 B.C. CANNAE, 218 B.C. (1)
The Destruction of the Roman Infantry.

Sub equestris finem certaminis coorta est peditum pugna, primo et viribus et animis par, dum constabant ordines Gallis Hispanisque; tandem Romani, diu ac saepe conisi, obliqua fronte acieque densa impulere hostium cuneum nimis tenuem eoque parum 5 validum a cetera prominentem acie. Impulsis deinde ac trepide referentibus pedem institere ac tenore uno per praeceps pavore fugientium agmen in mediam primum aciem illati, postremo nullo resistente ad subsidia Afrorum pervenerunt, qui utrimque reductis 10 alis constiterant media, qua Galli Hispanique steterant, aliquantum prominente acie. Qui cuneus ut pulsus aequavit frontem primum, dein cedendo etiam sinum in medio dedit, Afri circa iam cornua fecerant irruentibusque incaute in medium Romanis circumdedere 15 alas; mox cornua extendendo clausere et ab tergo hostis. Hinc Romani, defuncti nequiquam proelio uno, omissis Gallis Hispanisque, quorum terga ceciderant, adversus Afros integram pugnam ineunt non tantum eo iniquam, quod inclusi adversus 20 circumfusos, sed etiam quod fessi cum recentibus ac vegetis pugnabant.

Livy, xxii. 47.

1 Sub . . . certaminis, i.e. at the close of (sub) the first stage in the battle, in which the Roman cavalry were defeated.

2-3 constabant . . . Hispanisque. These formed Hannibal’s centre, the convex of his semicircular formation of his infantry, with the African troops on the horns of the semicircle to the right and left, but at some distance behind.

4 obliqua fronte, perh. = concave, so as to surround the projecting part of the enemy’s line (a cetera prominentem acie).

5 cuneum: here = the convex formation of the Gauls and Spaniards.

8-9 in mediam aciem = the centre of the line, i.e. of the Gauls and Spaniards, who were intended to engage with the Romans first.

10 subsidia = reserves, i.e. the Africans, on the right and left.

14-16 Afri circa . . . alas. Hannibal’s formation is now reversed.* The horns (cornua) of the semicircle (the Africans) are now advanced, and outflanked (circumdedere alas) the Romans, who rushed heedlessly into the intervening space (in medium, i.e. the concave part of H.’s line formed by the retirement of the Gauls and Spaniards).

21-22 recentibus ac vegetis = fresh in body and mind.

* i.e. the Africans now formed the horns of a crescent in relation to their centre, while it formed the concave part of the crescent.—D.

Results of the Battle. Hannibal becomes master of Magna Graecia, and the Romans lose (including 23,000 taken prisoners) about 70,000 men.



SECOND PUNIC WAR, 218-202 B.C. CANNAE, 216 B.C. (2)
‘Paulus animae magnae prodigus.’

Cn. Lentulus tribunus militum cum praetervehens equo sedentem in saxo cruore oppletum consulem vidisset, ‘L. Aemili’ inquit, ‘quem unum insontem culpae cladis hodiernae dei respicere debent, cape hunc equum, dum et tibi virium aliquid superest, 5 et comes ego te tollere possum ac protegere. Ne funestam hanc pugnam morte consulis feceris; etiam sine hoc lacrimarum satis luctusque est.’ Ad ea consul: ‘Tu quidem, Cn. Corneli, macte virtute esto; sed cave frustra miserando exiguum tempus e 10 manibus hostium evadendi absumas. Abi, nuntia publice patribus, urbem Romanam muniant ac, priusquam victor hostis advenit, praesidiis firment; privatim Q. Fabio L. Aemilium praeceptorum eius memorem et vixisse adhuc et mori. Memet in hac 15 strage militum meorum patere exspirare, ne aut reus iterum e consulatu sim aut accusator oollegae existam, ut alieno crimine innocentiam meam protegam.’ Haec eos agentes prius turba fugientium civium, deinde hostes oppressere; consulem ignorantes, 20 quis esset, obruere telis, Lentulum inter tumultum arripuit equus. Tum undique effuse fugiunt.

Livy, xxii. 49.

1 praetervehens equo = riding by. praetervehor used here as a deponent.—Dimsdale.

2 oppletum (= perfusum) = covered (lit. filled up), or drenched.

4 respicere = to look on with favour.—D.

9 macte virtute esto = lit. go on and prosper in your courage.

mactus = i. magis + auctus = increased, glorified, or more prob. ii. = old partic. of obsolete mago (= augeo), from √μακ, e.g. in μάκ-αρ. Vocative used as nominative.

14 praeceptorum. His self-sacrifice was not in vain. The tactics of Fabius were again adopted after his death.

15 et vixisse adhuc et mori = died as he had ever lived.—D.

17 reus iterum e consulatu = a second time to stand on my defence in consequence of my consulship, i.e. on a charge that grew out of his acts as Consul (219 B.C.) with M. Livius Salinator of misappropriation of the spoils at the close of the Illyrian War.

18-19 ut . . . protegam. The two Consuls had the chief command of the army on alternate days. Varro was in command at Cannae.

‘The overthrow of Cannae was so complete that every other nation but the Romans would have given up the idea of further resistance.’—Ihne.



SECOND PUNIC WAR, 218-202 B.C. CANNAE, 216 B.C. (3)
A. Maharbal urges Hannibal to march on Rome.

Hannibali victori cum ceteri circumfusi gratularentur suaderentque, ut tanto perfunctus bello diei quod reliquum esset noctisque insequentis quietem et ipse sibi sumeret et fessis daret militibus, Maharbal praefectus equitum, minime cessandum ratus, ‘Immo 5 ut, quid hac pugna sit actum, scias, die quinto’ inquit ‘victor in Capitolio epulaberis. Sequere: cum equite, ut prius venisse quam venturum sciant, praecedam.’ Hannibali nimis laeta res est visa maiorque, quam ut eam statim capere animo posset. Itaque voluntatem 10 se laudare Maharbalis ait; ad consilium pensandum temporis opus esse. Tum Maharbal: ‘Non omnia nimirum eidem di dedere; vincere scis, Hannibal, victoria uti nescis.’ Mora eius diei satis creditur saluti fuisse urbi atque imperio. 15

Livy, xxii. 51.

2-4 diei . . . sumeret = he should take what remained of that day and the following night for rest.—Church and Brodribb.

8 venisse, sc. te, suggested by sequere.—Dimsdale.

9 res = the idea, i.e. of such a rapid termination to the war.—D.

Hannibal was too far off (11 days’ march) to take Rome by storm. Its population contained as many soldiers as his army, and the city was strongly fortified by its situation and by art.

B. Scipio forbids the Nobles to abandon Italy.

Post Cannensem cladem perculsis ita Romanorum animis, ut pars magna reliquiarum nobilissimis auctoribus deserendae Italiae iniret consilium, P. Scipio adulescens admodum impetu facto, in eo ipso in quo talia agitabantur coetu pronuntiavit manu se 20 sua interfecturum, nisi qui iurasset non esse sibi mentem destituendae rei publicae: cumque ipse se primus religione tali obligasset, stricto gladio mortem uni ex proximis minatus, nisi acciperet sacramentum, illum metu, ceteros etiam exemplo coegit ad iurandum. 25

Frontinus, Strat. iv. 7. 39.

18 P. Scipio adulescens, i.e. P. Corn. Scipio Africanns Maior, fatalis dux huiusce belli, the predestined champion in this war.

Parallel Passage. Livy, xxii. 53, and cf. Livy, v. 50-55, where Camillus dissuades the commons from migrating to Veii.



A. Rome’s Heroes.

Regulum et Scauros animaeque magnae

Prodigum Paulum superante Poeno

Gratus insigni referam Camena



Hunc et incomptis Curium capillis

Utilem bello tulit et Camillum

Saeva paupertas et avitus apto


Cum lare fundus.

Crescit occulto velut arbor aevo

Fama Marcelli; micat inter omnes

Iulium sidus velut inter ignes


Luna minores.

Horace, Odes, I. xii. 37-48.

37 Scauros* (= Scaurum) = such men as Scaurus. Censor, 100 B.C.

40 Fabricium, who despised the bribes of Pyrrhus. Censor 275 B.C. See p. 101, Fabricius the Just.

43-44 apto cum lare = with homestead to match.—Gow.

* Cf. in French, Les Vergiles.

B. The Dream of Propertius.

Visus eram molli recubans Heliconis in umbra,

Bellerophontei qua fluit umor equi,

Reges, Alba, tuos et regum facta tuorum,


Tantum operis, nervis hiscere posse meis;

Parvaque tam magnis admoram fontibus ora,

Unde pater sitiens Ennius ante bibit,

Et cecini Curios fratres et Horatia pila,


Regiaque Aemilia vecta tropaea rate,

Victricesque moras Fabii pugnamque sinistram

Cannensem et versos ad pia vota deos,

Hannibalemque Lares Romana sede fugantes,


Anseris et tutum voce fuisse Iovem.

Propertius, III. (IV.) iii. (ii.) 1-12.

Subject:—Propertius had tremblingly touched the mighty fount with his lips (l. 5): he dreamed that he essayed, in consequence, to follow the example of Ennius.

2 i.e. the Spring of Pirene near Corinth, where Pegasus was caught by Bellerophon. Its waters possessed inspiring properties.

4 nervis . . . meis = that I had strength to gasp forth.—Ramsay.

7 Curios = Curiatios.

Horatia pila: see pp. 67-68.

8 Aemilia, i.e. of L. Aemilius Paullus (son of the hero of Cannae), victor at Pydna 168 B.C. over Perseus of Macedon.

10 versos . . . deos, i.e. the solemn ordinances decreed by Fabius, Dictator after Trasimene, to which the gods turned a ready ear (versos).

12 fuisse, dependent on cecini l. 7.

Iovem, i.e. Iovis Capitolini templum. See p. 84.



The Revolt of Capua, 216-211 B.C. (1)
A. Capua aspires to rival Rome.

Altera iam teritur bellis civilibus aetas,

Suis et ipsa Roma viribus ruit.

Quam neque finitimi valuerunt perdere Marsi,


Minacis aut Etrusca Porsenae manus,

Aemula nec virtus Capuae nec Spartacus acer

Novisque rebus infidelis Allobrox,

Nec fera caerulea domuit Germania pube


Parentibusque abominatus Hannibal:

Impia perdemus devoti sanguinis aetas,

Ferisque rursus occupabitur solum.

Horace, Epod. xvi. 1-10.

5 Aemula virtus Capuae. In 216 B.C. Capua was, after Rome, the richest and most powerful city in Italy. As the result of Cannae she aspired to dominion over Italy.

Spartacus acer, leader of the Servile War, 73-71 B.C.

6 novis rebus infidelis = faithless to revolution, because they assisted in betraying Catiline’s plot 63 B.C.—Wickham.

9 impia . . . aetas = we an impious generation whose blood is foredoomed (i.e. there is a curse on us) shall destroy (Rome).

B. Decius Magius defies Hannibal.

Egressus curia Hannibal in templo magistratuum consedit, comprehendique Decium Magium atque ante pedes destitutum causam dicere iussit. Qui cum manente ferocia animi negaret lege foederis id cogi posse, tum iniectae catenae, ducique ante lictorem 15 in castra est iussus. Quoad capite aperto est ductus, contionabundus incessit ad circumfusam undique multitudinem vociferans: ‘Habetis libertatem, Campani, quam petistis: foro medio, luce clara, videntibus vobis nulli Campanorum secundus vinctus ad mortem 20 rapior. Quid violentius capta Capua fieret? Ite obviam Hannibali, exornate urbem diemque adventus eius consecrate, ut hunc triumphum de cive vestro spectetis.’

Livy, xxiii. 10.

Context. After the Revolt of Capua, when Hannibal made a public entry into the city, the whole population, with the exception of Decius Magius and his son, poured out to meet him.

11 in templo magistratuum = on the magistrates’ bench, (or tribunal).

12 Decium Magium, one of the few Capuan nobles faithful to Rome.

14-15 negaret . . . posse = urged that by the terms of the treaty (i.e. between the Capuans and H.) this could not be insisted on.—Church and Brodribb.



The Revolt of Capua, 216-211 B.C. (2)
A. ‘Capua,’ it is said, ‘became Hannibal’s Cannae.’

Cum victoria Hannibal posset uti, frui maluit relictaque Roma Campaniam Tarentumque peragrare, ubi mox et ipse et exercitus ardor elanguit adeo ut vere dictum sit Capuam Hannibali Cannas fuisse. Si quidem invictum Alpibus, indomitum armis Campani—quis 5 crederet?—soles et tepentes fontibus Baiae subegerunt.

Florus, II. vi. 21-22.

2 Campaniam Tarentumque, once the two most fertile districts in Italy.

4 Capuam . . . fuisse. Ihne says: ‘Whatever may have been the pleasures and indulgences of Hannibal’s troops in Capua, their military qualities cannot have suffered by them, as the subsequent history of the war sufficiently demonstrates.’

7-8 tepentes fontibus Baiae, on a small bay west of Naples and opposite Puteoli, abounded in warm mineral springs.

B. The Punishment of Rebel Capua, 211 B.C.

Ad septuaginta principes senatus interfecti, trecenti ferme nobiles Campani in carcerem conditi; alii per sociorum Latini nominis urbes in custodias 10 dati variis casibus interierunt; multitudo alia civium Campanorum venum data. De urbe agroque reliqua consultatio fuit, quibusdam delendam censentibus urbem praevalidam, propinquam, inimicam. Ceterum praesens utilitas vicit; nam propter agrum, quem 15 omni fertilitate terrae satis constabat primum in Italia esse, urbs servata est, ut esset aliqua aratorum sedes. Urbi frequentandae multitudo incolarum libertinorumque et institorum opificumque retenta; ager omnis et tecta publica populi Romani facta. 20

Livy, xxvi. 16.

10 sociorum Latini nominis = sociorum ac Latini nominis, which includes all the Italian allies. ‘The Nomen Latinum were the members of the old Latin league whose rights were reduced in 338 B.C. after the Latin War.’—Rawlins.

13 delendam. Cf. Cato’s Delenda est Carthago.

15-17 agrum . . . in Italia esse. Cf. Verg. Georg. ii. 224-5: ‘Such is the tilth of wealthy Capua and the coast that borders the Vesuvian ridge.’—Mackail.

18 frequentandae = for the purpose of peopling.

19 institorum = pedlars or dealers. Cf. our ‘commercial travellers.’ 

20 publica . . . facta = confiscated. ‘This ager publicus was leased by the censors to farmers (aratores) who paid rent (vectigal) for it.’—R.



Marcellus at Nola, 216 B.C.

Ad tres portas in hostes versas Marcellus tripertito exercitum instruxit. . . . Ita instructi intra portas stabant. Hannibali sub signis, id quod per aliquot dies fecerat, ad multum diei in acie stanti primo miraculo esse, quod nec exercitus Romanus 5 porta egrederetur nec armatus quisquam in muris essent. Ratus deinde, prodita colloquia esse, metuque resides factos, partem militum in castra remittit iussos propere apparatum omnem oppugnandae urbis in primam aciem afferre, satis fidens, si cunctantibus 10 instaret, tumultum aliquem in urbe plebem moturam. Dum in sua quisque ministeria discursu trepidat ad prima signa succeditque ad muros acies, patefacta repente porta Marcellus signa canere clamoremque tolli ac pedites primum, deinde equites, quanto 15 maximo possent impetu, in hostem erumpere iubet. Satis terroris tumultusque in aciem mediam intulerant, cum duabus circa portis P. Valerius Flaccus et C. Aurelius in cornua hostium erupere. . . . Ingens victoria eo die res ac nescio an maxima illo bello gesta 20 est; non vinci enim ab Hannibale tunc diffcilius fuit quam postea vincere.

Livy, xxiii. 16.

Context. The plebs in Nola (as in Capua) was in favour of joining Hannibal, and it was with difficulty that the nobles (who here, as elsewhere, favoured Rome) delayed the decision, thus gaining time to inform Marcellus, who was then stationed at Casilinum, of the danger of a revolt. Marcellus immediately hastened to Nola, and occupied the town with a strong garrison.

3-5 Hannibali . . . primo miraculo esse = Hannibal, who . . . had his troops under arms till a late hour, was first of all astonished that.—Church and Brodribb.

7 colloquia esse, i.e. his communications (colloquia) with the Carthaginian party in Nola.

8 resĭdes = inactive, lit. that remains sitting (re + sedeo).

10 si cunctantibus instaret = if he met hesitation with prompt action.—Church and Brodribb. Lit. if he pressed upon those hesitating.

12 in sua . . . ministeria = to their several posts.

19-21 Ingens . . . gesta est = a great victory, the greatest, perhaps throughout the war, was achieved that day.

Nola, an important town in Campania, S.E. of Capua. It remained faithful to the Romans, even after Cannae, when the other Campanian towns revolted to Hannibal.

Marcellus at Nola. ‘It was the merit of Marcellus that he saved Nola from being taken.’—Ihne.



Cicero’s Description of Syracuse.

Urbem Syracusas maximam esse Graecarum urbium pulcherrimamque omnium saepe audistis, Est, indices, ita, ut dicitur: nam et situ est cum munito, tum ex omni aditu vel terra vel mari praeclaro ad aspectum: et portus habet prope in aedificatione 5 aspectuque urbis inclusos: qui cum diversos inter se aditus habeant, in exitu coniunguntur et confluunt. Eorum coniunctione pars oppidi, quae appellatur Insula, mari disiuncta angusto, ponte rursum adiungitur et continetur. Ea tanta est urbs, ut ex 10 quattuor urbibus maximis constare dicatur: quarum una est ea, quam dixi, Insula: quae duobus portubus cincta, in utriusque portus ostium aditumque proiecta est: in qua domus est, quae Hieronis regis fuit, qua praetores uti solent. Altera autem est urbs 15 Syracusis, cui nomen Achradina est: in qua forum maximum, pulcherrimae porticus, ornatissimum prytaneum, amplissima est curia, templumque egregium Iovis Olympii. Tertia est urbs, quae, quod in ea parte Fortunae fanum antiquum fuit, 20 Tycha nominata est, in qua et gymnasium amplissimum est et complures aedes sacrae: coliturque ea pars et habitatur frequentissime. Quarta autem est urbs, quae quia postrema coaedificata est, Neapolis nominatur: quam ad summam theatrum est maximum. 25

Cicero, In Verrem, ii. 4. 117-119.

5-6 prope . . . inclusos, a special feature of Syracuse, because many ancient cities were built at some distance from the sea, with a harbour detached from them (e.g. Ostia, the port of Rome), though sometimes joined by long walls, as at Athens.

7 in exitu = at their outlet, i.e. the narrow channel between Ortygia (= Insula) and the mainland which connected the two harbours.

9 disiuncta = separated from the rest (dis—).

12 Insula, i.e. Ortygia, the only part now inhabited.

14 Hieronis regis, King of Syracuse, 270-216 B.C., distinguished by his military ability and the wise policy of his reign. From 263 B.C. till his death, the faithful friend and ally of Rome.

16 Achradina, the mainland N. of Ortygia. At the time of the famous siege of Syracuse by the Athenians, 415-413 B.C., the city consisted only of Ortygia and Achradina.

18 prytaneum = town-hall (πρυτανεῖον = the presidents’ hall).

25 theatrum est maximum, capable of holding 25,000 people. Of all the buildings described by Cicero as existing in Neapolis, the Theatre alone remains.

Reference. Freeman’s History of Sicily.



Engineering Skill of Archimedes.

Adversus hunc navalem apparatum Archimedes variae magnitudinis tormenta in muria disposuit. In eas, quae procul erant, naves saxa ingenti pondere emittebat, propiores levioribus eoque magis crebris petebat telis; postremo, ut sui vulnere intacti tela 5 in hostem ingererent, murum ab imo ad summum crebris cubitalibus fere cavis aperuit, per quae cava pars sagittis pars scorpionibus modicis ex occulto petebant hostem. Quae propius quaedam subibant naves, quo interiores ictibus tormentorum essent, in 10 eas tollenone super murum eminente ferrea manus, firmae catenae illigata, cum iniecta prorae esset gravique libramento plumbi recelleret ad solum, suspensa prora navem in puppim statuebat; dein remissa subito velut ex muro cadentem navem cum 15 ingenti trepidatione nautarum ita undae affligebat, ut, etiam si recta reciderat, aliquantum aquae acciperet, Ita maritima oppugnatio est elusa omnisque spes eo versa, ut totis viribus terra aggrederentur. Sed ea quoque pars eodem omni apparatu tormehtorum instructa 20 erat Hieronis impensis curaque per multos annos, Archimedis unica arte.

Livy, xxiv, 34.

1 adversus . . . apparatum, i.e. to oppose the elaborate naval attack by Marcellus on the seaward defences of Achradina.

7 cubitalibus fere cavis = with holes (fr. cavum = noun) about 1½ feet square, cubitalibus (cubitum) = a cubit long. Polybius has a palm long, about 3 inches. This is more probable.

8 scorpionibus = crossbows or manuballistae.

10 quo interiores . . . essent = so as to be too close in to be hit by (intertores ictibus) the engines.

10-12 in eas (sc. proras) iniecta = on their bows was dropped . . .

11 tollenone = from a swing beam, supported at the centre of gravity by a strong fixed fulcrum.

12-13 cum (ferrea manus) gravique . . . ad solum = lit. when (the grappling-iron) swung back (recelleret) to the ground by a heavyweight of lead. ‘This is incorrect; it was not the grappling-iron, but the other (inland) end of the lever which was brought down to the ground.’—Rawlins.

15 remissa (sc. ferrea manus) = the grappling-hook was (then) suddenly let go.

16 ita undae affligebat = was dashed with such violence on the disturbed water (undae).

Cause of the War. Soon after the death of Hiero in 216 B.C., his whole family was murdered, and the supreme power in Syracuse fell into the hands of the two brothers, Hippocrates and Epicydes, Hannibal’s agents.



Marcellus laments over Syracuse.

Marcellus ut moenia ingressus ex superioribus locis urbem omnium ferme ilia tempestate pulcherrimam subiectam oculis vidit, illacrimasse dicitur partim gaudio tantae perpetratae rei, partim vetusta gloria urbis. Atheniensium classes demersae et duo 5 ingentes exercitus cum duobus clarissimis ducibus deleti occurrebant et tot bella cum Carthaginiensibus tanto cum discrimine gesta>, tot tam opulenti tyranni regesque, praeter ceteros Hiero cum recentissimae memoriae rex, tum ante omnia, quae virtus ei fortunaque 10 sua dederat, beneficiis in populum Romanum insignis. Ea cum universa occurrerent animo subiretque cogitatio, iam illa momento horae arsura omnia et ad cineres reditura, priusquam signa Achradinam admoveret, praemittit Syracusanos, 15 qui intra praesidia Romana fuerant, ut alloquio leni impellerent hostes ad dedendam urbem. . . . Achradina diripienda militi data est. Cum multa irae, multa avaritiae foeda exempla ederentur, Archimeden memoriae proditum est in tanto tumultu, quantum 20 pavor captae urbis in discursu diripientium militum ciere poterat, intentum formis, quas in pulvere descripserat, ab ignaro milite, quis esset, interfectum; aegre id Marcellum tulisse sepulturaeque curam habitam, et propinquis etiam inquisitis honori praesidioque 25 nomen ac memoriam eius fuisse.

Livy, xxv. 24, 31.

1-2 ex superioribus locis, i.e. from the heights of Epipolae, which he had taken by a night attack, when the Syracusans were celebrating a three days’ festival of Artemis.

6 ducibus, e.g. Lamachus, Eurymedon, Demosthenes.

7-8 tot bella . . . gesta, e.g. at Himera, 480 B.C., on the same day as Salamis.

8-9 tot tam . . . regesque, e.g. Gelo, 485 B.C.; Dionysius the Elder, 406 B.C.; Hiero II., the friend and ally of Rome, King of Syracuse, 270-216 B.C.

8 tyranni, i.e. absolute rulers, despots, with reference rather to the irregular way in which the power was gained, than the way in which it was exercised.

16 qui . . . fuerant, i.e. Syracusan deserters who kept up communication with the republican (pro-Roman) party in Syracuse.

22 formis = diagrams.

24 sepulturae. Cf. Demonstration VI, page 54.

The Treatment of Syracuse. It would have been the undying glory of Marcellus if, on obtaining possession, he had shielded the unhappy city from further miseries. The art-treasures of Syracuse were sent to Rome, a prece­dent afterwards followed.



The Death of Marcellus, 208 B.C.

Exiguum campi ante castra erat; inde in collem aperta undique et conspecta ferebat via. Numidis speculator, nequaquam in spem tantae rei positus, sed si quos vagos pabuli aut lignorum causa longius a castris progressos possent excipere, signum dat, ut 5 pariter ab suis quisque latebris exorerentur. Non ante apparuere, quibus obviis ab iugo ipso consurgendum erat, quam circumiere, qui ab tergo intercluderent viam. Tum undique omnes exorti et clamore sublato impetum fecere. Cum in ea valle 10 consules essent, ut neque evadere possent in iugum occupatum ab hoste nec receptum ab tergo circumventi haberent, extrahi tamen diutius certamen potuisset, ni coepta ab Etruscis fuga pavorem ceteris 15 iniecisset. Non tamen omisere pugnam deserti ab Etruscis Fregellani, donec integri consules hortando ipsique ex parte pugnando rem sustinebant; sed postquam vulneratos ambo consules, Marcellum etiam transfixum lancea prolabentem ex equo moribundum 20 videre, tum et ipsi—perpauci autem supererant—cum Crispino consule duobus iaculis ieto et Marcello adolescente saucio et ipso effugerunt.

Livy, xxvii. 27.

Context. Marcellus was Consul for a fifth time in 208 B.C. After the attempt to retake Locri (S.E. of Bruttium) was frustrated by Hannibal, Marcellus and his colleague Crispinus faced H. near Venusia in Apulia. Hannibal hoped to bring on a decisive action, but Marcellus adopted Fabian tactics, and himself headed a cavalry reconnaissance to explore the country between the Roman and the Carthaginian camps.

2-3 Numidis speculator. A wooded hill lay between the two camps: H. had posted here in ambush some Numidian horsemen.

4-5 si quos possent excipere = on the chance of their being able to intercept.—Stephenson.

6-8 Non ante . . . circumiere = those who were to spring on the enemy (lit. those to whom it was necessary to rise in a mass confronting the enemy obviis) from the hill itself did not show themselves until a detachment had made their way round (circumiere).—S.

10 valle = a hollow, i.e. a depression on the Roman side of the hill.

16 Fregellani. Fregellae, a town of the Volsci, on the Via Latina between Rome and Campania, colonised 328 B.C.

17 ipsique ex parte pugnando = taking their share in fighting. S.

Character of Marcellus. ‘He was a brave soldier, a firm intrepid patriot, and an unflinching enemy of the enemies of Rome, but as a general no match for Hannibal.’—Ihne.



Character of Scipio Africanus Maior.

Fuit enim Scipio non veris tantum virtutibus mirabilis, sed arte quoque quadam ab iuventa in ostentationem earum compositus, pleraque apud multitudinem aut ut per nocturnas visa species aut velut divinitus mente monita agens, sive et ipse capti 5 quadam superstitione animi, sive ut imperia consiliaque velut sorte oraculi missa sine cunctatione exsequerentur. Ad hoc iam inde ab initio praeparans animos, ex quo togam virilem sumpsit, nullo die prius ullam publicam privatamque rem egit, quam 10 in Capitolium iret, ingressusque aedem consideret et plerumque solus in secreto ibi tempus tereret. Hic mos, quem per omnem vitam servabat, seu consulto seu temere vulgatae opinioni fidem apud quosdam fecit, stirpis eum divinae virum esse. Multa alia 15 eiusdem generis, alia vera, alia assimulata, admirationis humanae in eo iuvene excesserant modum; quibus freta tunc civitas aetati haudquaquam maturae tantam rerum molem tantumque imperium permisit.

Livy, xxvi. 19.

2-3 in ostentationem earum compositus = he made a study (compositus) of displaying them, implying artificiality.—R.

3-5 pleraque . . . agens = in most of his dealings (pleraque agens) with the mob (representing his plans) as inspired (visa) by visions in the night or as matters of inspiration (divinitus mente monita).

7 sorte = by an oracular response (which was often written on a little tablet or lot, sors).

11 aedem, i.e. the cella (chapel, the part enclosed within the four side-walls) of the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus.

13-14 seu consulto seu temere vulgatae = whether designedly or undesignedly spread abroad.

17 humanae = which one has for a mere man.—Rawlins.

19 tantam rerum molem = so stupendous a task.—R. In 212 or 211 B.C. the two brothers, Publius and Gnaeus Scipio, were totally defeated by Hasdrubal and fell at the head of their troops. Scipio, son of this P. Scipio, was in 210 B.C. sent to Spain, at the age of 27, as proconsul in command of a reinforcement of 11,000 men.

Character of Scipio. ‘He was a man far above the average of his contemporaries, and possessed a greatness of mind which could not fail to rivet attention. He differed from the majority of generals by not only daring to conceive bold plans, but by contriving to carry them out.’—Ihne.



Scipio takes New Carthage, 210 B.C.

Scipio ipse, ut ei nuntiatum est aestum decedere, quod per piscatores Tarraconenses nunc levibus cymbis, nunc, ubi eae siderent, vadis pervagatos stagnum compertum habebat, facilem pedibus ad murum transitum dari, eo secum armatos quingentos 5 duxit. Ubi urbem sine certamine intravere, pergunt inde, quanto maximo cursu poterant, ad eam portam, circa quam omne contractum certamen erat. In quod adeo intenti omnium non animi solum fuere, sed etiam oculi auresque pugnantium spectantiumque 10 et adhortantium pugnantes, ut nemo ante ab tergo senserit captam urbem, quam tela in aversos inciderunt et utrimque ancipitem hostem habebant. Tunc turbatis defensoribus metu et moenia capta, et porta intus forisque pariter refringi coepta; et mox 15 caedendo confectis ac distractis, ne iter impediretur, foribus armati impetum fecerunt. . . . Quoad dedita arx est, caedes tota urbe passim factae, nec ulli puberum qui obvius fuit parcebatur; tum signo dato caedibus finis factus; ad praedam victores versi, 20 quae ingens omnis generis fuit.

Livy, xxvi. 45, 46 (sel.)

3 vadis pervagatos stagnum = made their way through the pool by wading (vadis).

8 contractum = concentrated (confined).

13 ancipitem = double, twofold, on two opposite sides.

15 intus forisque = both within and without.

foris, adv. (an abl. form from an obsolete nom. fora) = out of doors, without. Cf. foras = out through the doors, forth.

16-17 caedendo . . . distractis foribus = when the doors were destroyed and broken up by blows.

Carthago Nova (Carthagena) was founded by Hasdrubal (the uncle of Hannibal) 243 B.C. The city is situated on a promontory running out into the sea, and possesses one of the finest harbours in the world, protected by an island as by a natural breakwater. But it had a weak side, and this had been betrayed by fishermen to Scipio. During ebb-tide the water of the shallow pool W. of the town fell so much that it was fordable and the bottom was firm. Of this Scipio took advantage. He first made a feint attack on the N. wall and then led 500 men across the ford, who scaled the W. wall and opened the nearest gate from the inside.

Result of its Capture. ‘New Carthage, the key of Spain, the basis of operations against Italy, and the Carthaginian arsenal, was taken, thus determining the issue of the Spanish War.’—Ihne.



Nero’s famous March to the Metaurus, 207 B.C.

Praemissi (nuntii) per agrum Larinatem Marrucinum Frentanum Praetutianum, qua exercitum ducturus erat, ut omnes ex agris urbibusque commeatus paratos militi ad vescendum in viam deferrent, equos iumentaque alia producerent, ut 5 vehiculorum fessis copia esset. Ipse de toto exercitu civium sociorumque quod roboris erat delegit, sex milia peditum, mille equites. . . . Et hercule per instructa omnia ordinibus virorum mulierumque undique ex agris effusorum, inter vota ac preces et 10 laudes ibant: illos praesidia rei publicae, vindices urbis Romanae imperiique appellabant; in illorum armis dextrisque suam liberorumque suorum salutem ac libertatem repositam esse. Deos omnes deasque precabantur, ut illis faustum iter, felix pugna, matura 15 ex hostibus victoria esset, damnarenturque ipsi votorum, quae pro iis suscepissent, ut, quem ad modum nunc solliciti prosequerentur eos, ita paucos post dies laeti ovantibus victoria obviam irent. Invitare inde pro se quisque et offerre et fatigare 20 precibus, ut quae ipsis iumentisque usui essent, ab se potissimum sumerent; benigne omnia cumulata dare. Modestia certare milites, ne quid ultra usum necessarium sumerent; nihil morari, nec abscedere ab signis nec subsistere nisi cibum capientes: diem 25 ac noctem ire; vix quod satis ad naturale desiderium corporum esset, quieti dare.

Livy, xxvii. 43, 45 (sel.)

Context. Nero, on hearing from the captured Numidian horsemen of Hasdrubal’s march and plans—to meet Hannibal in Umbria and then to march on Narnia and Rome—with 6000 picked foot and 1000 horse withdrew secretly from his camp before Hannibal at Canusium, and by a forced march joined his colleague Livius at the Metaurus.

1-2 Larinatem, etc., districts lying between Apulia and Umbria, but not given in their geographical order.

15 faustum (for favostus, fav-eo) = that which is done under the blessing of the gods: felix = that which succeeds in consequence of having this blessing upon it.—Stephenson.

16-17 damnarentur . . . votorum = condemned (to pay) their vows. Cf. Verg. Voti reus = bound to my vow, i.e. bound to fulfilment.

23 Modestia certare (sc. cum iis) . . . sumerent = the soldiers were as moderate as they were pressing, refusing to take anything . . .—S.

‘Nero showed a resolution and a strategic ability which far surpassed the average qualifications of Roman generals.’—Ihne.



The Metaurus, 207 B.C.

Fortes creantur fortibus et bonis;

Est in iuvencis, est in equis patrum

Virtus, neque imbellem feroces


Progenerant aquilae columbam;

Doctrina sed vim promovet insitam,

Rectique cultus pectora roborant;

Utcumque defecere mores,


Indecorant bene nata culpae.

Quid debeas, o Roma, Neronibus,

Testis Metaurum flumen et Hasdrubal

Devictus et pulcher fugatis


Ille dies Latio tenebris,

Qui primus alma risit adorea,

Dirus per urbes Afer ut Italas

Ceu flamma per taedas vel Eurus


Per Siculas equitavit undas.

Post hoc secundis usque laboribus

Romana pubes crevit, et impio

Vastata Poenorum tumultu


Fana deos habuere rectos.

Horace, Odes, IV. iv. 29-48.

29-36 The thought is: ‘It is true that scions of a good stock must be good in men as well as in animals, but yet education (doctrina = training l. 33) brings out the innate force.’

29 fortibus et bonis. For the combined epithets cf. καλὸς κἀγαθός.

36 Indecorant . . . culpae = faults disfigure (indecorant = dedecorant) scions of an honourable stock (bene nata).

37 Neronibus, e.g. M. Claudius Nero (the hero of Metaurus), and the brothers Drusus and Tiberius (afterwards Emperor), stepsons of Augustus.

41 alma adorea = with kindly (refreshing) success.

43 ceu flamma per taedas = like fire through a pine-forest.—W.

44 equitavit = galloped, careered, used of Hannibal, and, by zeugma, with flamma and Eurus.

46-47 impio tumultu = by the sacrilegious invasion (or riot, outrage), possibly with reference to Livy’s story (xxvi. 11) of the plundering of the Temple of Feronia.

48 rectos = upright, i.e. of the images supposed to have been thrown down by Hannibal, and not set on their pedestals again.

Results of the Battle. ‘The war in Italy was to all appearances finished, and it was on the Metaurus that the Romans conquered Spain.’—Ihne. When Hannibal recognised the head of his brother Hasdrubal, he foresaw the doom of Carthage:—

‘Lost, lost is all:

A nation’s hope, a nation’s name,

They died with dying Hasdrubal.’

C. (Hor. Od. IV. iv. 70-73).



Hannibal leaves Italy, 203 B.C.

Nihil certe ultra rei in Italia ab Hannibale gestum. Nam ad eum quoque legati ab Carthagine vocantes in Africam eis forte diebus, quibus ad Magonem, venerunt. Frendens gemensque ac vix lacrimis temperans dicitur legatorum verba audisse. 5 Postquam edita sunt mandata, ‘Iam non perplexe,’ inquit, ‘sed palam revocant, qui vetando supplementum et pecuniam mitti iam pridem trahebant. Vicit ergo Hannibalem non populus Romanus totiens caesus fugatusque, sed senatus Carthaginiensis 10 obtrectatione atque invidia; neque hac deformitate reditus mei tam P. Scipio exsultabit atque efferet sese quam Hanno, qui domum nostram, quando alia re non potuit, ruina Carthaginis oppressit.’ Iam hoc ipsum praesagiens animo praeparaverat 15 ante naves. Itaque inutili militum turba praesidii specie in oppida Bruttii agri, quae pauca magis metu quam fide continebantur, dimissa, quod roboris in exercitu erat in Africam transvexit. Raro quemquam alium, patriam exilii causa relinquentem, 20 tam maestum abisse ferunt quam Hannibalem, hostium terra excedentem.

Livy, xxx. 19, 20.

Context. Scipio (204 B.C.) landed in Africa and won such decisive victories over the Carthaginians under Hasdrubal, the son of Gisco, that ii was necessary in 203 B.C. to recall both Mago and Hannibal.

3-4 ad Magonem. Mago, H.’s youngest brother, had in 205 B.C. been despatched from Carthage with considerable reinforcements for H. He took Genoa, again roused the Gauls against Rome, and in 203 B.C. fought an indecisive action with the Romans. Mago was severely wounded, and died at sea before he reached Africa.

6 Iam non perplexe = now in no veiled manner (lit. not obscurely).

8 iam pridem trahebant = began long ago to try to pull me back.—Rawlins.

11 obtrectatione = by disparagement.

13 Hanno, the leader of the aristocratic (peace) party at Carthage, and the persistent opponent of Hamilcar Barca and his sons.

Hannibal’s Speech. ll. 6-15. This is purely imaginary and illustrates the bitter hatred of the Romans for H. They alleged that H. was personally responsible for the war, and that he undertook it for selfish and party ends. Also that Carthage, unable to prevent the war, withheld supplies and reinforcements. Ihne says ‘The whole course of the war is a sufficient refutation of these charges.’



Zama, 202 B.C. (1) Before the Battle.

Ita infecta pace ex colloquio ad suos cum se recepissent, frustra verba praelata renuntiant: armis decernendum esse habendamque eam fortunam, quam dei dedissent. In castra ut est ventum, pronuntiant ambo, arma expedirent milites animosque ad 5 supremum certamen, non in unum diem sed in perpetuum, si felicitas adesset, victores. Roma an Carthago iura gentibus daret, ante crastinam noctem scituros; neque enim Africam aut Italiam, sed orbem terrarum victoriae praemium fore; par 10 periculum praemio, quibus adversa pugnae fortuna fuisset. Nam neque Romanis effugium ullum patebat in aliena ignotaque terra et Carthagini supremo auxilio effuso adesse videbatur praesens excidium. Ad hoc discrimen procedunt postero die duorum 15 opulentissimorum populorum duo longe clarissimi duces, duo fortissimi exercitus, multa ante parta decora aut cumulaturi eo die aut eversuri. Anceps igitur spes et metus miscebant animos; contemplantibus modo suam modo hostium aciem, cum non oculis 20 magis quam ratione pensarent vires, simul laeta simul tristia obversabantur.

Livy, xxx. 31, 32.

1-2 Ita infecta pace . . . renuntiant, referring to Livy’s picturesque account of the personal interview between Scipio and Hannibal, and the fruitless negotiations for peace.

7-10 Roma an Carthago . . . praemium fore. ‘By the victory of Zama it was decided that the states of the ancient world should be welded into one great empire, and that this empire should be founded by Rome and not by Carthage.’—Ihne.

14 effuso = dispersed, i.e. defeated.

15 discrimen = decisive point, decision.

18 aut cumulaturi aut eversuri = either to augment (lit. heap up) or overthrow.

21 pensarent vires = they estimated (weighed) their strength.

The Battle of Zama. ‘Here, too, the elephants proved disastrous to their own side. Some ran down the spaces between the Roman maniples (see C 39, B. note), and were of no further use; while others, driven aside by the Roman skirmishers, threw H.’s Carthaginian cavalry into such disorder that they were unable to resist the attack of Scipio’s horse. The first Roman line threw H.’s mercenaries back upon their reserves of the second line, and in the confusion that ensued Scipio advanced with his second and third lines. The combat raged long and fiercely until Scipio’s Roman and Numidian cavalry, returning from their pursuit of H.’s horse, fell upon the enemy’s rear and decided the battle.’—Ihne.



Zama, 202 B.C. (2)
The Order of Battle.

A. Hannibal adversus Scipionem, post elephantos lxxx, qui in prima fronte positi hostium turbarent aciem, auxiliares Gallos et Ligures et Baliares Maurosque posuit, ut neque fugere possent Poenis a tergo stantibus et hostem oppositi, si non infestarent, 5 at certe fatigarent: tum suis et Macedonibus, qui iam fessos Romanos integri exciperent, in secunda acie collocatis, novissimos Italicos constituit, quorum et timebat fidem et segnitiam verebatur, quoniam plerosque eorum ab Italia invitos extraxerat. 10

Hannibal’s Army. It consisted broadly of five classes:

1. His veteran army of Italy, on which he could thoroughly rely, partly Carthaginian, partly Italian (mostly Bruttians).

These he placed in his third line.

2. A newly raised force of Carthaginian and Libyan militia.

These he placed in his second line.

3. Mercenaries, consisting of Moors, Gauls, Ligurians, the Balearic contingent, and the Spaniards.

These he placed in his first line.

4. Carthaginian and Numidian cavalry.

These he placed on his wings.

5. 80 elephants. These he placed on his front, to open the attack.

B. Scipio adversus hanc formam robur legionis triplici acie in fronte ordinatum per hastatos et principes et triarios opposuit: nec continuas construxit cohortes, sed manipulis inter se distantibus spatium dedit, per quod elephanti ab hostibus acti 15 facile transmitti sine perturbatione ordinum possent. Ea ipsa intervalla expeditis velitibus implevit, ne interluceret acies, dato his praecepto, ut ad impetum elephantorum vel retro vel in latera concederent. Equitatum deinde in cornua divisit et dextro Romanis 20 equitibus Laelium, sinistro Numidis Masinissam praeposuit: quae tam prudens ordinatio non dubie causa victoriae fuit.

Frontinus, Strategemata, ii. 3. 16.

Scipio’s order of battle. Instead of drawing up his manipuli like the black squares of a chessboard—the usual order, so that, in advancing, the manipuli of the three lines could form one unbroken line—he placed them one behind the other, like the rounds of a ladder, so as to leave spaces in the lines, through which the elephants might pass without trampling down or throwing into confusion the infantry battalions, e.g.:

not  ***
but  ***



Battle of Cynoscephalae, 197 B.C.

Non dubia res fuit; extemplo terga vertere Macedones, terrore primo bestiarum aversi. Et ceteri quidem hos pulsos sequebantur; unus e tribunis militum, ex tempore capto consilio, cum viginti signorum militibus, relicta ea parte suorum, quae 5 haud dubie vincebat, brevi circuitu dextrum cornu hostium aversum invadit. Nullam aciem ab tergo adortus non turbasset; ceterum ad communem omnium in tali re trepidationem accessit, quod phalanx Macedonum, gravis atque immobilis, nec 10 circumagere se poterat, nec hoc, qui a fronte, paulo ante pedem referentes, tunc ultro territis instabant, patiebantur. Ad hoc loco etiam premebantur, quia iugum, ex quo pugnaverant, dum per proclive pulsos insequuntur, tradiderant hosti ad terga sua circumducto. 15 Paulisper in medio caesi, deinde omissis plerique armis capessunt fugam. Philippus cum paucis peditum equitumque primo tumulum altiorem inter ceteros cepit, ut specularetur, quae in laeva parte suorum fortuna esset; deinde, postquam fugam 20 effusam animadvertit et omnia circa iuga signis atque armis fulgere, tum et ipse acie excessit.

Livy, xxxiii. 9, 10.

Context. Philip V, King of Macedon, had made a treaty with Hannibal in 215 B.C., and provoked the first Macedonian War (214-205 B.C.) by an attack on Apollonia in Illyria, and the capture of the port of Oricum in Epirus. The Romans now resolved to make Philip suffer for the trouble he had caused them by interfering in the war with Hannibal. A casus belli was soon found in the Athenian Embassy to Rome (201 B.C.) asking for help against Philip.

3-4 unus . . . militum. Ihne says ‘He seized the favourable opportunity to shape the battle which had begun without plan into a brilliant victory for Rome.’

5 signorum (= manipulorum) = companies, i.e. with some 3500 men.

13 loco premebantur = they (i.e. the phalanx) began to feel the disadvantage of position.—Rawlins.

16 in medio caesi = cut down from both sides.—R.

Cynoscephalae (Dog’s Heads), a low chain of hills between Pherae and Scotussa in Thessaly.

Results of the Battle. ‘The Romans lost only 700 men. That was the price paid for a victory which laid the Monarchy of Alexander the Great in the dust.’—Ihne.

Terms of Peace, 196 B.C. Macedonia to remain an independent state, but, like Carthage, to lose all her foreign possessions, and to be sunk to the level of a vassal state.



Flamininus proclaims the Freedom of Greece, 196 B.C.

Isthmiorum statum ludicrum aderat, semper quidem et alias frequens cum propter spectaculi studium insitum genti, quo certamina omnis generis artium viriumque et pernicitatis visuntur, tum quia propter opportunitatem loci, per duo diversa maria 5 omnium rerum usus ministrantis humano generi, concilium Asiae Graeciaeque is mercatus erat; tum vero non ad solitos modo usus undique convenerant, sed exspectatione erecti, qui deinde status futurus Graeciae, quae sua fortuna esset. Ad spectaculum 10 consederant, et praeco cum tubicine, ut mos est, in mediam aream, unde sollemni carmine ludicrum indici solet, processit et, tuba silentio facto, ita pronuntiat: ‘Senatus Romanus et T. Quinctius imperator, Philippo rege Macedonibusque devictis, 15 liberos, immunes, suis legibus esse iubet Corinthios, Phocenses, Locrensesque omnes et insulam Euboeam et Magnetas, Thessalos, Perrhaebos, Achaeos Phthiotas.’ . . . Esse aliquam in terris gentem, quae sua impensa, suo labore ac periculo bella gerat pro 20 libertate aliorum. Una voce praeconis liberatas omnes Graeciae atque Asiae urbes; hoc spe concipere audacis animi fuisse, ad effectum adducere et virtutis et fortunae ingentis.

Livy, xxxiii. 32, 33 (sel.)

1 Isthmiorum statum ludicrum = time fixed (statum) for the Isthmian Games (celebrated at Corinth every two years).

3-4 quo certamina . . . visuntur = which makes them go to see contests of every kind of artistic performance (artium) and of feats of strength and agility.—Rawlins.

7 concilium is mercatus erat . . . = that gathering was the general rendezvous (mercatus) of . . . mercatus = i. trade, or mart; ii. a festival assemblage (πανήγυρις).

11 in mediam aream = into the centre of the open space (of the stadium).

17 Locrensesque omnes, i.e. E. & W. Locris.

18 Perrhaebos, N. of Thessaly.

Achaeos Phthiotas = the Achaeans who inhabited Phthiotis (S.E. of Thessaly).

19-24 Esse aliquam . . . ingentis: in these words the Greeks express their astonishment and gratitude at the greatness of the boon conferred upon them.

The Freedom of Greece. ‘The Greeks believed with a childlike simplicity that the Romans really cared for their freedom, and that they had crossed the sea with no other object than to deliver Greece from a foreign yoke. . . . Flamininus was a skilful diplomatist, and particularly qualified to sift and settle the affairs of Greece; for he understood the Greek character, and was not inaccessible, like so many other Romans, to Greek views and opinions.’—Ihne.



A. Battle of Thermopylae, 191 B.C. Victory due to Cato.

Acilius Glabrio consul adversus Antiochi regis aciem, quam is in Achaia pro angustiis Thermopylarum direxerat, iniquitatibus loci non irritus tantum, sed cum iactura qnoque repulsus esset, nisi circummissus ab eo Porcius Cato, qui tum, iam 5 consularis, tribunus militum a populo factus in exercitu erat, deiectis iugis Callidromi mentis Aetolis, qui praesidio ea tenebant, super imminentem castris regiis collem a tergo subitus apparuisset: quo facto perturbatis Antiochi copiis utrimque irrupere Romani 10 et fusis fugatisque castra ceperunt.

Frontinus, Strategemata, ii. 4. 4.

Context. In 192 B.C. Antiochus the Great, king of Syria, accepted the invitation of the Aetolians, who, since the Peace of 196 B.C., had been snubbed by the Romans, to come to liberate Greece from the tyranny of Rome.

B. Battle of Magnesia, 190 B.C.

Tum consule Scipione, cui frater, ille modo victor Carthaginis Africanus, aderat voluntaria legatione, debellari regem placet. Et iam toto cesserat mari, sed nos imus ulterius. Maeandrum 15 ad amnem montemque Sipylum castra ponuntur. Hic rex, incredibile dictu quibus auxiliis, quibus copiis, consederat. Trecenta milia peditum, equitum falcatorumque curruum non minor numerus. Elephantis ad hoc immensae magnitudinis, auro purpura 20 argento et suo ebore fulgentibus aciem utrimque vallaverat. Sed haec omnia praepedita magnitudine sua, ad hoc imbre, qui subito superfusus mira felicitate Persicos arcus corruperat. Primum trepidatio, mox fuga, deinde triumphus fuerunt. 25

Florus, i. 24. 14-18.

Context. In 190 B.C. Lucius Scipio was appointed to carry the war into Asia. Scipio Africanus, who accompanied his brother as Chief of Staff, fell ill at Elaea, the port of Pergamum. His place was taken by Cn. Domitius, an experienced officer.

14-15 Et iam toto cesserat mari, as the result of the decisive defeat, in 190 B.C., of the Syrian fleet off Myonnesus.

15-16 Maeandrum . . . ponuntur. The battle was fought near Magnesia (N.W. of Lydia) at the foot of Mt. Sipylus.

Parallel Passage. Livy, xxxvii. 39-44, ‘The Battle of Magnesia decided the fate of the Syrian Empire, as the battles of Zama and Cynoscephalae had decided the fate of Carthage and Macedonia.’—Ihne.



Deaths of Three Great Men, 183 B.C.

Hannibal, postquam est nuntiatum milites regios in vestibulo esse, postico fugere conatus, ut id quoque occursu militum obsaeptum sensit et omnia circa clausa custodiis dispositis esse, venenum, quod multo ante praeparatum ad tales habebat casus, 5 poposcit. ‘Liberemus,’ inquit, ‘diuturna cura populum Romanum, quando mortem senis exspectare longum censent. Nec magnam nec memorabilem ex inermi proditoque Flamininus victoriam feret.’ Exsecratus deinde in caput regnumque 10 Prusiae, et hospitales deos violatae ab eo fidei testes invocans, poculum exhausit. . . . Trium clarissimorum suae cuiusque gentis virorum non tempore magis congruente comparabilis mors videtur esse, quam quod nemo eorum satis dignum splendore 15 vitae exitum habuit. Nam primum omnes non in patrio solo mortui nec sepulti sunt. Veneno absumpti Hannibal et Philopoemen; exsul Hannibal, proditus ab hospite, captus Philopoemen in carcere et in vinculis exspiravit. Scipio etsi non exsul neque 20 damnatus, die tamen dicta, ad quam non adfuerat reus, absens citatus, voluntarium non sibimet ipse solum sed etiam funeri suo exsilium indixit.

Livy, xxxix, 51, 52 (sel.)

Context. After Zama Hannibal held the highest office (Suffete = L. praetura) at Carthage, and effected useful democratic reforms. However, his political enemies denounced him to Rome as making plans for a new war, and in 195 B.C. he was forced to flee from Carthage and took refuge with Antiochus. After Magnesia, H. found for seven years a safe asylum with Prusias, king of Bithynia; but the Romans could not be at ease so long as H. lived, and Flamininus the Liberator of Greece undertook the inglorious quest of demanding the surrender of Hannibal.

13-15 non tempore magis congruente quam = not so much in coincidence of (congruente, lit. agreeing with) date as.—R.

18 Philopoemen, the heroic chief of the Achaean League, was taken prisoner by Dinocrates, imprisoned in a dungeon at Messene (in carcere, l. 19), and compelled to drink poison.

20-23 Scipio was accused, at the instigation of Cato, by the tribune Naevius (185 B.C.) of having been bribed by Antiochus to procure for him favourable conditions of peace. Too proud to defend himself against such a charge, Scipio retired to his country-seat at Liternum, where by a voluntary act he consigned both himself and his grave to exile (voluntarium . . . indixit).

Ingrata patria, ne ossa quidem mea habes.

Epitaph of Scipio, written by himself.



M. Porcius Cato, 234-149 B.C. (1)

At Cato, censor cum L. Valerio Flacco, severe praefuit ei potestati. Nam et in complures nobiles animadvertit et multas res novas in edictum addidit, qua re luxuria reprimeretur, quae iam tum incipiebat pullulare. Circiter annos octoginta, usque ad extremam 5 aetatem ab adolescentia, rei publicae causa suscipere inimicitias non destitit. A multis tentatus non modo nullum detrimentum existimationis fecit, sed, quoad vixit, virtutum laude crevit.

In omnibus rebus singulari fuit industria: nam 10 et agricola sollers et peritus iuris consultus et magnus imperator et probabilis orator et cupidissimus litterarum fuit. Quarum studium etsi senior arripuerat, tamen tantum progressum fecit, ut non facile reperiri posset neque de Graecis neque de 15 Italicis rebus, quod ei fuerit incognitum. Ab adulescentia confecit orationes. Senex historias scribere instituit. Earum sunt libri vii. Primus continet res gestas regum populi Romani, secundus et tertius unde quaeque civitas orta sit Italica, ob quam rem omnes 20 Origines videtur appellasse.

Nepos, Cato, ii., iii.

1 Censor, 184 B.C., with L. Valerius Flaccus, his great friend and patron, by whom he was introduced to political life.

3 in edictum. The Censors, on their entrance upon office, issued a proclamation or edict, setting forth the principles upon which they intended to act. Cato set forth in his edict that he intended to use his power for the suppression of luxury.

5 pullulare = to spread, increase; lit. to put forth, of plants and animals. Cf. pull-us (our pullet), pu-er, πῶλος (= a foal).

octoginta. This is an exaggeration. He was only eighty-five when he died 149 B.C.

6-7 rei publicae . . . non destitit. Seneca says: Scipio cum hostibus nostris bellum, Cato cum moribus gessit.

7-9 Cato was accused no less than 44 times, but each time acquitted.

11 iuris consultus = lawyer.

12 magnus imperator, e.g. in the 2nd Punic War, and the decisive victory at Thermopylae (191 B.C.) was mainly due to Cato.

probabilis orator = a tolerable, acceptable orator. Oscar Browning.

17-21 His two great works were his treatise De Re Rustica (or De Agri Cultura), the earliest extant work in Latin prose, and his Origines, or accounts of the rise and growth of the Italian nation, the earliest history in Latin prose. ‘It was Cato’s great merit that he asserted the rights of his native language for literary prose composition.’—Ihne.

Cato the Censor. ‘He deserves our highest respect for the defiant and manly spirit that animated him in his untiring contest with the vices of the age.’—Ihne.



M. Porcius Cato. (2)

Iam pauca aratro iugera regiae

Moles relinquent, undique latius

Extenta visentur Lucrino


Stagna lacu platanusque caelebs

Evincet ulmos: tum violaria et

Myrtus et omnis copia narium

Spargent olivetis odorem


Fertilibus domino priori;

Tum spissa ramis laurea fervidos

Excludet ictus. Non ita Romuli

Praescriptum et intonsi Catonis


Auspiciis veterumque norma.

Privatus illis census erat brevis,

Commune magnum: nulla decempedis

Metata privatis opacam


Porticus excipiebat Arcton.

Nec fortuitum spernere caespitem

Leges sinebant, oppida publico

Sumptu iubentes et deorum


Templa novo decorare saxo.

Horace, Odes, II. xv.

Argument. ‘Our palaces and fish-ponds and ornamental gardens are supplanting the cultivation of corn and vines and olives. This is not the spirit of Romulus or of Cato. Their rule was private thrift, public magnificence; private houses of turf, public buildings and temples of hewn stone.’—W.

1 Iam = presently.

1-2 regiae moles = princely piles. moles, lit. masses, of huge buildings.

2-4 undique . . . lacu = and fish-ponds (stagna) of wider extent than the L. lake will be sights to see (visentur).—Wickham.

4 platanus caelebs = the bachelor plane, so called because vines were not wedded to it (i.e. trained upon it).—Gow.

6 omnis copia narium = all that is sweet to smell. Lit. all the fulness of the nostrils.

10 ictus (sc. solis). The point is that formerly trees were stripped to admit the sun to the vines and olives: nowadays the sun is excluded.—Gow.

11 intonsi (= antiqui) = old-fashioned. Cf. Cic.’s use of barbatus.

13 census erat brevis = list of property was short.

14 commune (= τὸ κοινόν) = the common (public) stock.

14-15 decempedis metata privatis = measured with ten-foot rods for private owners. In old days the porticūs were always publicae.

17 fortuitum caespitem = the chance-cut (handy) turf.

20 novo saxo = with fresh-hewn stone, i.e. hewn on purpose.—W.

Parallel Passages. Livy xxxix. 6. 40. 41; Sallust, Catiline 12, 13.

‘Cato saw the greatness of Rome in the olden time, and he endeavoured without success to bring this old time back.’—Ihne.



Pydna (Aemilius Paulus), 168 B.C. (1)

Movebat imperii maiestas, gloria viri, ante omnia aetas, quod maior sexaginta annis iuvenum munia in parte praecipua laboris periculique capessebat. Intervallum, quod inter caetratos at phalanges erat, implevit legio, atque aciem hostium interrupit. A 5 tergo caetratis erat, frontem adversus clipeatos habebat: chalcaspides appellabantur. Secundam legionem L. Albinus consularis ducere adversus leucaspidem phalangem iussus; ea media acies hostium fuit. In dextrum cornu, unde circa fluvium 10 commissum proclium erat, elephantos inducit et alas sociorum; et hinc primum fuga Macedonum est orta. Nam sicut pleraque nova commenta mortalium in verbis vim habent, experiendo, cum agi, non quemadmodum agatur edisseri oportet, sine ullo 15 effectu evanescunt, ita tum elephantorum impetum sustinere non poterant, et commenta Macedonum nomen tantum sine usu fuerunt. Elephantorum impetum subsecuti sunt socii nominis Latini, pepuleruntque laevum cornu. 20

Livy, xliv. 41.

Context. Perseus, son of Philip, became King of Macedonia on the death of his father in 179 B.C. He did all he could to prepare for the inevitable struggle with Rome by strengthening Macedonia, posing as the Liberator of Greece, and forming marriage alliances with Seleucus of Syria (the successor of Antiochus), and Prusias of Bithynia. In 174 B.C., the Romans were informed that Perseus was secretly negotiating with Carthage, and after fruitless embassies war was declared. The Senate, after three years of unsuccessful warfare (171-168 B.C.), appointed L. Aemilius Paulus (son of the hero who died at Cannae) to the supreme command in Macedonia.

4 caetratos = Targeteers, armed with the small round shield.

5-7 A tergo . . . habebat (sc. legio prima) = the (first) Legion thus took the Targeteers in the rear, while it faced towards the Shieldmen.—Rawlins.

6 clipeatos = Shieldmen, armed with the large round shield.

7 chalcaspides = Brazen Shields, Right Division of phalanx.

9 leucaspidem = White Shields, Left Division of phalanx.

10 in dextrum cornu (sc. Romanum), i.e. nearest to the sea.

13-15 commenta . . . oportet = lit. the contrivances of men, though in theory (in verbis) they had some importance (vim) yet upon trial (experiendo) when there is need of action and not of discussion (edisseri) how to act. . . .

17 commenta Macedonum. Perh. with reference to Perseus’ contrivances (e.g. by the use of dummy elephants) to prepare his men and horses to make a stand against real elephants.



Pydna (Aemilius Paulus), 168 B.C. (2)

In medio secunda legio immissa dissipavit phalangem; neque ulla evidentior causa victoriae fuit, quam quod multa passim proelia erant, quae fluctuantem turbarunt primo, deinde disiecerunt phalangem, cuius confertae et intentis horrentes 5 hastis intolerabiles vires sunt; si carptim aggrediendo circumagere immobilem longitudine et gravitate hastam cogas, confusa strue implicantur: si vero aut ab latere aut ab tergo aliquid tumultus increpuit, ruinae modo turbantur. Sicut tum adversus catervatim 10 incurrentes Romanos et interrupta multifariam acie obviam ire cogebantur, et Romani, quacumque data intervalla essent, insinuabant ordines suos. . . . Diu phalanx a fronte, a lateribus, ab tergo caesa est; postremo, qui ex hostium manibus elapsi erant, 15 inermes ad mare fugientes, quidam aquam etiam ingressi, manus ad eos, qui in classe erant tendentes, suppliciter vitam orabant; et cum scaphas concurrere undique ab navibus cernerent, ad excipiendos sese venire rati, ut caperent potius quam occiderent, 20 longius in aquam, quidam etiam natantes, progressi sunt. Sed cum hostiliter e scaphis caederentur, retro, qui poterant, nando repetentes terram, in aliam foediorem pestem incidebant. Elephanti enim, ab rectoribus ad litus acti, exeuntes obterebant 25 elidebantque.

Livy, xliv. 41, 42.

1 In medio . . . immissa = On the centre the second legion charged (immissa), i.e. into the interstices of the phalanx, which was not preserving its usual close order.—Rawlins.

4-6 fluctuantem . . . vires sunt = first demoralised the phalanx so as to make it waver, (fluctuantem), and then shattered it. Its (aggressive) force, so long as it keeps close order and bristles with couched (intentis) spears, is irresistible (intolerabiles).

6 carptim aggrediendo = by repeated harassing attacks.

10 ruinae modo = in hopeless confusion.—R.

17 classe. The Roman fleet under Octavius was co-operating with the army.

Results of the Battle. Perseus was captured, and his kingdom was divided into four independent parts. The Macedonian phalanx had fought its last great battle.

Character of Paulus. ‘He was a model of the Roman of the best time. He was not, like his contemporary Cato, a onesided worshipper of everything old; but he was a Conservative in the best sense of the word, anxious to preserve old institutions, but at the same time to improve them.’—Ihne.



Destruction of Carthage, 146 B.C.

Manilio deinde consule terra marique fervebat obsidio. Operti portus, nudatus est primus et sequens, iam et tertius murus, cum tamen Byrsa, quod nomen arci fuit, quasi altera civitas resistebat. Quamvis profligato urbis excidio tamen fatale Africae nomen 5 Scipionum videbatur. Igitur in alium Scipionem conversa respublica finem belli reposcebat. Sed quem ad modum maxime mortiferi morsus solent esse morientium bestiarum, sic plus negoti fuit cum semiruta Carthagine quam cum integra. Compulsis 10 in unam arcem hostibus portum quoque mari Romanus obstruxerat. Illi alterum sibi portum ab alia urbis parte foderunt, nec ut fugerent; sed qua nemo illos nec evadere posse credebat, inde quasi enata subito classis erupit, cum interim iam diebus, 15 iam noctibus nova aliqua moles, nova machina, nova perditorum hominum manus quasi ex obruto incendio subita de cineribus flamma prodibat. Deploratis novissime rebus triginta sex milia virorum se dederunt quod minus credas—duce Hasdrubale. 20

Florus, II. xv. 11-17 (sel.).

Context. An Embassy was sent from Rome in 157 B.C. to inquire into the affairs of Africa. Among its members was M. Porcius Cato, who, astonished and alarmed at the flourishing condition of Carthage, returned to Rome with the firm conviction that Carthage must be destroyed—delenda est Carthago. A pretext was soon found in the war (151 B.C.) between Carthage and Masinissa, King of Numidia, the ally of Rome. Though the Carthaginians surrendered all their arms and munitions of war, Rome declared that they would have to leave their city and settle ten miles from the sea. The Carthaginians resolved to die rather than give up the sacred soil of their country.

5 profligato = almost finished.

6 in alium Scipionem, i.e. P. Corn. Scipio Aemilianus Africanus Minor, the younger son of Aemilius Paulus (of Pydna) and adopted by P. Scipio, the son of the conqueror of Hannibal.

12 alterum portum, i.e. they pierced the narrow strip of land separating the round naval port (Cothon) from the sea.

18 deploratis = was looked upon as lost, lit. wept for bitterly.

20 duce Hasdrubale: ‘Hasdrubal seems to have deserved the name of the last Carthaginian in the best sense of the word, as a representative of the intensity of the strength, endurance, and patriotism of his race.’—Ihne.

‘The plough was drawn over the site of destroyed Carthage, and a solemn curse was pronounced against anyone who should ever undertake to build a new town on that spot.’—Ihne.

Africa made a Roman Province.



Destruction of Corinth (L. Mummius Achaicus), 146 B.C.

Eodem anno, quo Carthago concidit, L. Mummius Corinthum post annos DCCCCLII, quam ab Alete Hippotis filio erat condita, funditus eruit. Uterque imperator devictae a se gentis nomine honoratus, alter Africanus, alter appellatus est Achaicus; nec 5 quisquam ex novis hominibus prior Mummio cognomen virtute partum vindicavit. Diversi imperatoribus mores, diversa fuere studia: quippe Scipio tam elegans liberalium studiorum omnisque doctrinae et auctor et admirator fuit, ut Polybium Panaetiumque, 10 praecellentes ingenio viros, domi militiaeque secum habuerit. Neque enim quisquam hoc Scipione elegantius intervalla negotiorum otio dispunxit semperque aut belli aut pacis serviit artibus: semper inter arma ac studia versatus aut corpus periculis 15 aut animum disciplinis exercuit. Mummius tam rudis fuit, ut capta Corintho cum maximorum artificum perfectas manibus tabulas ac statuas in Italiam portandas locaret, iuberet praedici conducentibus, si eas perdidissent, novas eos reddituros. 20

Velleius Paterculus, i. 13.

Context. In 149 B.C. an adventurer named Andriscus claimed to be Philip, the son of Perseus, and mastered Macedonia and part of Thessaly. He totally defeated the praetor Juventius, but in 148 B.C. his army was routed and himself taken prisoner by Q. Caecilius Metellus. The Romans, no longer needing the help of Greek troops, determined to break up the Achaean League. A last desperate struggle for freedom ensued, but the Greeks were easily defeated (146 B.C.) by L. Mummius on the Isthmus, and Corinth itself was plundered and destroyed.

2-3 quam . . . condita. Aletes, son of Hippotes and a descendant of Heracles, is said to have taken possession of Corinth by the help of the oracle of Zeus at Dodona, and therefore named the city Διὸς Κόρινθος.

10 Panaetium, a native of Rhodes and a celebrated Stoic philosopher, settled in Rome, where he became the intimate friend of Laelius and Scipio Africanus Minor.

13 dispunxit = he devoted, gave up (lit. marked off).

19 locaret = he hired (lit. place out, i.e. give out on contract).

conducentibus = to the contractors.

The Destruction of Corinth. ‘The flames which consumed Miletus (destroyed by the Persians 494 B.C.) and Athens (burnt by Xerxes 480 B.C.) were the signal for the great rising of the people, the dawn of a magnificent day of Greek splendour: after the fall of Corinth came the long dark night.’—Ihne.

Macedonia made a Roman Province. Greece placed under the control of the Roman governor of Macedonia.



The Lusitanian Hannibal.

Sed tota certaminum moles cum Lusitanis fuit et Numantinis. Quippe solis gentium Hispaniae duces contigerunt. Lusitanos Viriathus erexit, vir calliditatis acerrimae. Qui ex venatore latro, ex latrone subito dux atque imperator et, si fortuna 5 cessisset, Hispaniae Romulus, non contentus libertatem suorum defendere, per quattuordecim annos omnia citra ultraque Hiberum et Tagum igni ferroque populatus, castra etiam praetoria et praesidia aggressus Claudium Unimanum paene ad internecionem 10 exercitus cecidit et insignia trabeis et fascibus nostris quae ceperat in montibus suis tropaea fixit. Tandem eum iam Fabius Maximus consul oppresserat; sed a successore Popilio violata victoria est. Quippe qui conficiendae rei cupidus, fractum ducem et extrema 15 deditionis agitantem per fraudem et insidias et domesticos percussores aggressus hanc hosti gloriam dedit ut videretur aliter vinci non posse.

Florus, II. xvii. 13-17 (sel.).

Context. After the defeat of Perseus (168 B.C.) and before the outbreak of the third Punic War (149 B.C.) a suitable opportunity seemed to present itself to Rome for continuing the interrupted conquest of Spain; but ‘for eight long years Viriathus, although a barbarian and of humble origin, defied the armies of Rome, and thereby secured for himself a position in history almost equal to that of Hannibal and Mithridates.’ Ihne.

1 cum Lusitanis. The Lusitani (S. of the R. Tagus = mod. Portugal, and part of Estremadura and Toledo) were not finally subdued till after the capture of Numantia by Scipio in 133 B.C.

6 cessisset (= concessisset) = had permitted.

10-12 Claudium Unimanum . . . fixit, i.e. in 147 B.C. ‘The captured fasces of the lictors were exhibited, with other trophies (e.g. trabeis, l. 11), far and wide on the Spanish mountains.’—Ihne.

13 Fabius Maximus consul, i.e. Quintus Fabius Maximus Servilianus, who allowed himself to be decoyed into an ambush 141 B.C., and was compelled to grant an honourable peace, which Rome soon found a pretext for breaking.

17 percussores = assassins, lit. strikers (per + cutio = quatio). Cf. the fate of Sertorius, 72 B.C.

The War with Viriathus. ‘It was sad and disgraceful for the Roman arms, but in a far higher degree for Roman morals. It sowed, moreover, the seeds of the Numantine War, in which both the warlike ability and the moral virtues of the Roman nation appear more deteriorated than even in the war with Viriathus.’—Ihne.



Destruction of Numantia, 133 B.C.

Tanti esse exercitum quanti imperatorem vere proditum est. Sic redacto in disciplinam milite a Scipione commissa acies, quodque nemo visurum se umquam speraverat, factum ut fugientes Numantinos quisquam videret. Dedere etiam se volebant, 5 si toleranda viris imperarentur. Cum fossa atque lorica quattuorque castris circumdatos fames premeret, a duce orantes proelium, ut tamquam viros occideret, ubi non impetrabant, placuit eruptio. Sic conserta manu plurimi occisi, et cum urgueret 10 fames, novissime consilium fugae sedit; sed hoc quoque ruptis equorum cingulis uxores ademere, summo scelere per amorem. Itaque deplorato exitu in ultimam rabiem furoremque conversi, postremo Rhoecogene duce se suos patriam ferro veneno 15 subiecto igne undique peregerunt. Macte fortissimam et meo iudicio beatissimam in ipsis malis civitatem! Asseruit cum fide socios, populum orbis terrarum viribus fultum sua manu aetate tam longa sustinuit. Novissime maximo duce oppressa civitas nullum de 20 se gaudium hosti reliquit. Unus enim vir Numantinus non fuit qui in catenis duceretur; praeda, ut de pauperrimis, nulla: arma ipsa cremaverunt. Triumphus fuit tantum de nomine.

Florus, II. xviii. 11-17 (sel.).

Context. In 143 B.C. the Celtiberians (of Middle Spain), encouraged by the successes of the Lusitanians, took up arms once more. Their most important town was Numantia, situated near the sources of the R. Durius (Douro), strongly fortified by nature and by art. Consul after consul failed to take it, until in 134 B.C. Scipio Africanus Minor, the conqueror of Carthage, was sent out to Spain to reduce the stubborn city.

2-3 Sic redacto . . . a Scipione. ‘Scipio’s first task, when he arrived in Spain, was to accustom the army which he found there, once more to Roman discipline. Luxury and indulgence were rife, and cowardice—the most unroman of all vices—had begun to creep in.’—Ihne.

7 lorica = a breastwork, serving as a screen. Usu. = a cuirass.

11 sedit = was decided on, lit. settled.

16 Macte = a blessing on or hail to thee. Mactus prob. from √μακ, e.g. in μάκ-αρ = blessed, but cf. mag-nus.

18 Asseruit = it protected. assero (ad + sero) = lit. join-to.

Destruction of Numantia. Scipio, of his own accord, razed the town to the ground, and received the added surname of Numantinus.

Roman Province in Spain.



Rome the Invincible.

Dixitque tandem perfidus Hannibal:

‘Cervi, luporum praeda rapacium,

Sectamur ultro, quos opimus


Fallere et effugere est triumphus.

Gens, quae cremato fortis ab Ilio

Iactata Tuscis aequoribus sacra

Natosque maturosque patres


Pertulit Ausonias ad urbes,

Duris ut ilex tonsa bipennibus

Nigrae feraci frondis in Algido,

Per damna, per caedes ab ipso


Ducit opes animumque ferro

Non Hydra secto corpore firmior

Vinci dolentem crevit in Herculem,

Monstrumve submisere Colchi


Maius Echioniaeve Thebae.

Merses profundo: pulchrior evenit;

Luctere: multa proruet integrum

Cum laude victorem geretque


Proelia coniugibus loquenda.’

Horace, Odes, IV. iv. 49-68.

51 ultro = aggressively, needlessly.—Wickham.

51-52 opimus triumphus = a rare (lit. rich, noble) triumph. Cf. spolia opima.

53-56 ‘This stanza is a résumé of the story of the Aeneid.’—W.

53 gens (sc. illa), i.e. the Roman stock.

57-60 ‘The idea of this stanza is that their very calamities only gave them fresh heart and vigour. They rise like the Phoenix from its pyre.’—W.

58 frondis with feraci. Cf. fertilis frugum.

59-60 ab ipso . . . ferro = from the very edge of the steel itself, the holm-oak (= the Roman stock) draws fresh power and spirit.

61-62 Cf. the saying of Pyrrhus, recorded by Floras i. 18, ‘I see that I was born under the constellation of Hercules, since so many heads of enemies, that were cut off, arise upon me afresh out of their own blood, as if from the Lernaean serpent.’

63-64 i.e. of the armed warriors which sprang from the dragon’s teeth sown by Jason at Colchis or by Cadmus at Thebes.

63 submisere = produced, raised.

64 Echioniae Thebae. Echion was one of the five survivors of the Σπαρτοί (sown men). He helped Cadmus to found Thebes.

65 Merses (= si mersaris) = plunge it if you will.

evenit = it emerges (comes forth).

66-67 multa cum laude = amid loud applause, of a feat in a wrestling match.—W.

68 coniugibus = i. by Roman wives or ii. by Carthaginian widows. So Conington, ‘Whose story widow’d wives shall tell.’





Nam postquam Tiberius et C. Gracchus, quorum maiores Punico atque aliis bellis multum rei publicae addiderant, vindicare plebem in libertatem et paucorum celera patefacere coepere, nobilitas noxia atque eo perculsa, modo per socios et nomen Latinum, 5 interdum per equites Romanos, quos spes societatis a plebe dimoverat, Gracchorum actionibus obviam ierat, et primo Tiberium, dein paucos post annos eadem ingredientem Gaium, tribunum alterum, alterum triumvirum coloniis deducendis, cum 10 M. Fulvio Flacco ferro necaverat. Et sane Gracchis cupidine victoriae haud satis moderatus animus fuit. Sed bono vinci satius est quam malo more iniuriam vincere. Igitur ea victoria nobilitas ex lubidine sua usa multos mortales ferro aut fuga exstinxit plusque 15 in reliquum sibi timoris quam potentiae addidit. Quae res plerumque magnas civitates pessum dedit, dum alteri alteros vincere quovis modo et victos acerbius ulcisci volunt.

Sallust, Jugurtha, 42.

1-3 quorum maiores . . . addiderant, e.g. their grandfather P. Scipio Africanus Maior, and their father Tib. Sempronius Gracchus (in Spain and Sardinia).

3-4 paucorum scelera . . . coepere. (i) Tib. Gracchus by his Agrarian Law tried to counteract the selfish land-grabbing of the ruling class (in excess of the 500 iugera limit of the Licinian Laws, 367 B.C.). (ii) C. Gracchus exposed the corrupt Senatorian Courts, transferred their judicial power to the Equites, and carried the Sempronian Law, ‘one of the cornerstones of individual liberty.’

5 per socios . . . Latinum, by working on Roman jealousy against the Italians, for whom equality was claimed.

6 spes societatis, i.e. the hope of sharing with the nobility in office, and in provincial appointments.

10 triumvirum c. d., one of the three Commissioners for establishing Colonies of Roman citizens on the ager publicus.

11 Fulvio Flacco, slain with C. Gracchus, 121 B.C.

17 pessum dedit = has destroyed. pessum (prob.) = pedis + versum = towards the feet, to the ground, cf. pessum ire.

The aim of the Gracchi. ‘Their object was to reduce the excessive power of the nobility, and to make the sovereignty of the people, which had become merely nominal, a reality.’—Ihne.

Their political mistake. ‘Their error consisted in the belief that such a change was possible by returning to the simple forms of the old Comitia. They overlooked the necessity of remodelling the Roman people itself by giving the popular assemblies a form which would in reality make them represent the people.’—Ihne.



A. On the Death of Tiberius Gracchus, 133 B.C.

Nec plus Africanus, singularis et vir et imperator, in exscindenda Numantia rei publicae profuit quam eodem tempore P. Nasica privatus, cum Ti. Gracchum interemit.

De Off. i. 76.

2 Numantia, destroyed by P. Scipio Africanus Minor Numantinus, 133 B.C.

3 P. Nasīca, a partisan leader of the Senate. privatus = not in office. Cicero speaks very differently of the Gracchi when it suits his purpose, e.g. in de lege agraria, ii. § 10, duos (Gracchos) clarissimos, ingeniosissimos, amantissimos plebei Romanae viros . . . quorum consiliis, sapientia, legibus multas esse video partes constitutas.

B. On the Lex Frumentaria of C. Gracchus, 123 B.C.

Et quidem C. Gracchus, cum largitiones maximas 5 fecisset et effudisset aerarium, verbis tamen defendebat aerarium. Quid verba audiam, cum facta videam? L. Piso ille Frugi semper contra legem frumentariam dixerat. Is lege lata consularis ad frumentum accipiendum venerat. Animum advertit 10 Gracchus in contione Pisonem stantem: quaerit audiente populo Romano qui sibi constet, cum ea lege frumentum petat, quam dissuaserit. ‘Nolim’ inquit ‘mea bona, Gracche, tibi viritim dividere libeat, sed si facias, partem petam.’ Parumne declaravit vir 15 gravis et sapiens lege Sempronia patrimonium publicum dissipari? Lege orationes Gracchi, patronum aerari esse dices.

Tusc. Disput. iii. 20, 48.

8 L. Piso ille Frugi = L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi (the man of worth), a convinced and honourable opponent of C. Gracchus.

8-9 legem frumentariam, by which corn was sold to Roman citizens at about half the market price. ‘One of the worst measures ever proposed by a well-meaning statesman.’—Ihne.

12 qui = how, old abl. of qui.

C. On C. Gracchus as an Orator.

Sed ecce in manibus vir et praestantissimo ingenio et flagranti studio et doctus a puero, C. Gracchus. Noli enim putare quemquam. Brute, pleniorem et uberiorem ad dicendum fuisse.

Brutus, 125.

20 doctus a puero. Cornelia mater gracchorum (inscribed upon her statue erected by the Roman people), the daughter of the Conqueror of Zama, was mainly responsible for their training and education; so Cic. Brut. 104 Fuit Tib. Gracchus diligentia matris a puero doctus et Graecis literis eruditus. ‘From her they had received that sensitive nature and that sympathy with the weak and suffering, which animated their political action.’—Ihne.



The Betrayal of Jugurtha, 106 B.C.

Postea, tempore et loco constituto, in colloquium uti de pace veniretur, Bocchus Sullam modo, modo Iugurthae legatum appellare, benigne habere, idem ambobus polliceri. Illi pariter laeti ac spei bonae pleni esse. Sed nocte ea, quae proxuma fuit ante 5 diem colloquio decretum, Maurus, adhibitis amicis ac statim immutata voluntate remotis, dicitur secum ipse multa agitavisse, voltu et oculis pariter atque animo varius: quae scilicet tacente ipso occulta pectoris patefecisse. Tamen postremo Sullam accersi 10 iubet et ex illius sententia Numidae insidias tendit. Deinde ubi dies advenit et ei nuntiatum est Iugurtham haud procul abesse, cum paucis amicis et quaestore nostro quasi obvius honoris causa procedit in tumulum facillumum visu insidiantibus. Eodem 15 Numida cum plerisque necessariis suis inermis, uti dictum erat, accedit; ac statim signo dato undique simul ex insidiis invaditur. Ceteri obtruncati, Iugurtha Suilae vinctus traditur et ab eo ad Marium deductus est. 20

Sallust, Jugurtha, 113.

2 Bocchus, King of Mauretania, and father-in-law of Jugurtha, coveted the West of Numidia, and was ready to accept it either from the Romans or from Jugurtha, as the price of his alliance.

Sullam, appointed Quaestor 107 B.C. by Marius, who superseded Metellus in the conduct of the Jugurthine War.

9 quae scilicet . . . patefecisse, i.e. the external signs of his irresolution,—the calling and then dismissing his people (adhibitis . . . remotis, ll. 6, 7), and the changes of his countenance (voltu . . . varius, ll. 8, 9). Scilicet is here used with the Infinitive patefecisse, the verbal sense of the word (= scire + licet) being prominent.

10 accersi (= arcessiri), frequent in Sallust.

16 necessariis (necesse) = friends. Cf. ἀναγκαῖοι (ἀνάγκη).

19 Iugurtha Sullae . . . traditur. Sulla is said to have been so proud of this stratagem that he had the scene engraved upon a signet-ring, an act of vainglory which estranged Marius from him. (Plutarch, Sulla, 3.)

Jugurtha. ‘Having resisted the whole power of the great Republic for six years, having kept his ground against the best generals of the time, against a Metellus, a Marius, and a Sulla, he was deluded by treacherous promises of peace and betrayed by his own ally and father-in-law.’—Ihne.



A. Arpinum—Birthplace of Cicero and Marius.

Hic novus Arpinas, ignobilis et modo Romae

Municipalis eques, galeatum ponit ubique

Praesidium attonitis et in omni monte laborat.


.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  Sed Roma parentem,

Roma patrem patriae Ciceronem libera dixit.


Arpinas alius Volscorum in monte solebat

Poscere mercedes alieno lassus aratro,

Nodosam post haec frangebat vertice vitem,

Si lentus pigra muniret castra dolabra;

Hic tamen et Cimbros et summa pericula rerum


Excipit et solus trepidantem protegit urbem.

Juvenal, Sat. viii. 237-239, 243-250.

239 in omni monte, i.e. in every part of Rome, on each of the seven hills.

244 patrem patriae: under the Empire the title pater patriae became a formal one, always accorded to the new Emperor.

libera = while yet free, emphatic. The State was no longer free when Augustus received this title, 2 B.C.—Duff.

247 frangebat vertice vitem = he had the vine-switch (rattan) broken on his head, i.e. served as a common soldier.—D.

248 dolabra = half-hatchet for cutting stakes, and half-pickaxe for digging the fossa. For dolabra, cf. Dolabella.

249 Cimbros, annihilated by Marius and Catulus near Vercellae, 101 B.C.

250 Excipit = faced (lit. is ready to receive); metaphor from field-sports.—D.

B. From a poem by Cicero on his fellow-townsman Marius.

Hic Iovis altisoni subito pinnata satelles

Arboris e trunco serpentis saucia morsu

Surrigit ipsa feris transfigens unguibus anguem

Semianimum et varia graviter cervice micantem.


Hanc ubi praepetibus pennis lapsuque volantem

Conspexit Marius, divini numinis augur,

Faustaque signa suae laudis reditusque notavit,

Partibus intonuit caeli pater ipse sinistris:

Sic aquilae clarum firmavit Iuppiter omen.

1 Iovis pinnata satelles, i.e. the Eagle. Cf. Pindar, Pyth. i. 6: εὕδει δ’ ἀνὰ σκάπτῳ (= σκήπτρῳ) Διὸς αἰετός, and sleeps on the staff of Zeus his eagle.

3 Surrigit (= surgit) = raises up; very rare in this sense. The v.l. Sūbigit (for sŭbigit) = carries aloft.

Compare Plutarch’s story of the eagle’s nest, with seven young ones in it, which fell into the lap of Marius when a boy, predicting (so the diviners said) that Marius would be seven times Consul.



The Annihilation of the Teutones at Aquae Sextiae, 102 B.C.

Cimbri et Teutones ab extremis Germaniae profugi, cum terras eorum inundasset Oceanus, novas sedes toto orbe quaerebant, exclusique et Gallia et Hispania cum in Italiam demigrarent, misere legatos in castra Silani, inde ad Senatum 5 petentes ut populus Martius aliquid sibi terrae daret. Sed quas daret terras populus Romanus, agrariis legibus inter se dimicaturus? Repulsi igitur, quod nequiverant precibus, armis petere coeperunt. Sed nec primum impetum barbarorum Silanus, nec 10 secundum Mallius, nec tertium Caepio sustinere potuerunt: omnes fugati, exuti castris. Actum erat, nisi Marius illi saeculo contigisset. . . . Ille mira statim velocitate occupatis compendiis praevenit hostem, prioresque Teutones sub ipsis Alpium radicibus 15 adsecutus in loco quem Aquas Sextias vocant, proelio oppressit. Vallem fluviumque medium hostes tenebant, et nostris aquarum nulla erat copia. Consultone id egerit imperator an errorem in consilium verterit, dubium; certe necessitate acta virtus 20 victoriae causa fuit. Nam flagitante aquam exercitu, ‘Si viri estis’ inquit, ‘en, illic habetis.’ Itaque tanto ardore pugnatum est, ea caedes hostium fuit ut victor Romanus cruento flumine non plus aquae biberit quam sanguinis barbarorum. 25

Florus, III. iii. 1-9 (sel).

5 Silani = M. Junius Silanus, defeated by Cimbri, 109 B.C.

11 Mallius—Caepio, defeated by Cimbrians at Arausio, on the Rhone, 105 B.C.

 Plutarch, Lucullus 27, says: ‘The 6th Oct., on which day the battle was fought, was marked in the calendar as a black day, like the fatal day of the Allia, 390 B.C.

12 Actum erat, sc. de republica.

14 compendiis = short ways; cf. our compendium = an abridgement.

16 Aquas Sextias, founded by Sextius Calvinus 122 B.C. = Aix, 18 miles N. of Marseilles.

23 caedes hostium. 150,000 (Vell.) and 200,000 (Liv. Ep. lxviii.).

‘By the great victories of Aquae Sextiae and of Vercellae (over the Cimbri, 101 B.C.), the movement of the German races southward was for the present stopped. Rome was saved, and the saviour of Rome was Marius, the champion of the people.’—Ihne.

Parallel Passages. Propert. IV. iii. 41-44; Livy Ep. lxviii.

References. Plutarch, Marius, 15. Ihne, Hist. Rome, vol. v. pp. 98-105.



MARIUS, 157-86 B.C.
A. His Flight from Sulla: Consul for the 7th time.

Atque aliquis magno quaerens exempla timori,

‘Non alios,’ inquit, ‘motus tum fata parabant,

Cum post Teutonicos victor Libycosque triumphos


Exsul limosa Marius caput abdidit ulva.

Stagna avidi texere soli laxaeque paludes

Depositum, Fortuna, tuum: mox vincula ferri

Exedere senem longusque in carcere paedor.

Consul et eversa felix moriturus in urbe


Poenas ante dabat scelerum. Mors ipsa refugit

Saepe virum, frustraque hosti concessa potestas.

Sanguinis invisi: primo qui caedis in ictu*

Deriguit ferrumque manu torpente remisit;

Viderat immensum tenebroso in carcere lumen


Terribilesque deos scelerum Mariumque futurum

Audieratque pavens:Fas haec contingere non est

Colla tibi: debet multas his legibus aevi

Ante suam mortes: vanum depone furoremi.”

Si libet ulcisci deletae funera gentis,


Hunc, Cimbri, servate senem.’

Lucan, Pharsalia, ii. 67-85.

* Postgate, actu.

67 exempla timori = precedents to hear out his fears.—Haskins.

70 Exsul. 88-7 B.C. For details see Plut. Marius, caps. 38-40.

72 Fortuna, i.e. the evil destiny of Rome, protecting him because the gods were angry with Rome. Cf. 82-83 debet . . . mortes.

73 in carcere, i.e. at Minturnae, S.E. of Latium. There were extensive marshes in the neighbourhood.

paedor = filth.

82 legibus aevi = the laws that govern time = fatis.—H.

B. Marius outlived his fame.

   Quid illo cive tulisset

Natura in terris, quid Roma beatius umquam,


Si circumducto captivorum agmine et omni

Bellorum pompa animam exhalasset opimam,

Cum de Teutonico vellet descendere curru?

Juvenal, Sat. x. 278-282.

Marius outlived his powers and his reputation.

‘Had he now died, he would have gone down to posterity as one of the greatest men of his people, as a second Romulus or Camillus, unstained with any blood save that of foreign foes.’—Ihne.

Parallel Passages. Ov. P. Ep. iv. 3. 45-48; Juv. x. 276-278.

References. Plut. Marius, caps. 38-end. Ihne, vol. iv. pp. 336-7, vol. v. pp. 111-12.



Cicero on Civil Strife.

Etenim recordamini, Quirites, omnes civiles dissensiones, non solum eas quas audistis, sed et has quas vosmetipsi meministis atque vidistis. L. Sulla P. Sulpicium oppressit: ex Urbe eiecit C. Marium, custodem huius urbis, multosque fortes viros partim 5 eiecit ex civitate, partim interemit. Cn. Octavius consul armis ex Urbe collegam suum expulit: omnis his locus acervis corporum et civium sanguine redundavit. Superavit postea Cinna cum Mario: tum vero, clarissimis viris interfectis, lumina civitatis 10 exstincta sunt. Ultus est huius victoriae crudelitatem postea Sulla: ne dici quidem opus est, quanta deminutione civium et quanta calamitate reipublicae. . . . Atque illae tamen omnes dissensiones, quae non ad delendam, sed ad commutandam rempublicam 15 pertinebant—non illi nullam esse rempublicam, sed in ea quae esset se esse principes, neque hanc urbem conflagrare, sed se in hac urbe florere voluerunt—eius modi fuerunt, ut non reconciliatione concordiae, sed internecione civium diiudicatae sint. 20

Cicero, In Cat. iii. 10.

4 P. Sulpicium, distinguished orator, bought over by Marius. As Tribunus Plebis 88 B.C. carried the Leges Sulpiciae.

6 Cn. Octavius, one of Sulla’s chief supporters. Consul 87 B.C. Expelled his colleague Cinna. Murdered in his curule chair.

9-11 Superavit . . . exstincta sunt, i.e. 87-6 B.C. The Reign of Terror. Marius Consul for the 7th time. Cf. Vell. Pat. ii. 22 ‘Nihil illa victoria fuisset crudelius, nisi mox Sullana esset secuta.’

10 lumina civitatis, e.g. the Consuls Cn. Octavius and L. Merula; Q. Catulus, the conqueror (with Marius) in the Cimbric War; the orator M. Antonius; the brothers L. and C. Caesar.

11-13 The victims of the Sullanian proscriptions. Cf. Vell. Pat. ii. 28 ‘Primus ille (Sulla), et utinam ultimus, exemplum proscriptionis invenit.’

Parallel Passages. Horace, Epodes vii. and xvi. 1-14.

The Sullanian Proscriptions. Sulla was not like Marius swayed by feelings of revenge alone. His main object was the public good, which in his conviction was to be realised by a return to the older institutions of the republic. This he believed could be accomplished only by the utter annihilation of his opponents. The Proscriptions were not however intended to be an encouragement to indiscriminate murder, but rather a barrier against the rage of over-zealous partisans.



Tribunate of M. Livius Drusus, 91 B.C.

Deinde interiectis paucis annis tribunatum iniit M. Livius Drusus, vir nobilissimus, eloquentissimus, sanetissimus, meliore in omnia ingenio animoque quam fortuna usus. Qui cum senatui priscum restituere cuperet decus et indicia ab equitibus ad 5 eum transferre ordinem . . . in eis ipsis, quae pro senatu moliebatur, senatum habuit adversarium non intellegentem, si qua de plebis commodis ab eo agerentur, veluti illiciendae multitudinis causa fieri, ut minoribus perceptis maiora permitteret. Denique 10 ea fortuna Drusi fuit, ut malefacta collegarum quamvis optime ab ipso cogitatis senatus probaret magis. . . . Tum conversus Drusi animus, quando bene incepta male cedebant, ad dandam civitatem Italiae: quod cum moliens revertisset e foro, immensa 15 illa et incondita, quae eum semper comitabatur, cinctus multitudine in area domus suae cultello percussus, qui affixus lateri eius relictus est, intra paucas horas decessit. Sed cum ultimum redderet spiritum, intuens circumstantium macrentiumque 20 frequentiam, effudit vocem convenientissimam conscientiae suae: ecquandone, inquit, propinqui amicique, similem mei civem habebit res publica? Hunc finem clarissimus iuvenis vitae habuit.

Velleius Paterculus, ii. 13-14.

3-4 Drusus. ‘Generous and free from all selfishness and meanness, but without political experience, adroitness and knowledge of men, he aspired to a task which surpassed his strength.’—Ihne.

4-6 By the Sempronian Laws of C. Gracchus 123 B.C. exclusive judicial rights had been given to the Equites, as a counterpoise to the power of the Senate. The corruption of the Equites (as Judices) was flagrant, and Drusus proposed to transfer the judicial functions to a mixed body of 300 Senators and 300 Knights, the selected Knights to be included in the now attenuated ranks of the Senate.

14 ad dandam civitatem Italiae. The claims of the Italians to the franchise were just and pressing, but the overbearing pride and self-sufficiency of the Roman citizens proved too strong.

Parallel Passages. Cic. de Oratore iii. 1, and pro Cluent. 56, 153. Florus, iii. 18.

Reference. Ihne, Hist. vol. v. pp. 176-189.

‘Drusus was the Mirabeau of the social revolution of Rome, and had his measures been carried Rome might have been spared the most terrible of her civil wars.’



A. Cause and Outbreak of the War at Asculum.

Cum ius civitatis, quam viribus auxerant, socii iustissime postularent, quam in spem eos cupidine dominationis Drusus erexerat, postquam ille domestico scelere oppressus est, eadem fax, quae illum cremavit, socios in arma et in expugnationem urbis 5 accendit. . . . Primum fuit belli consilium ut in Albano monte festo die Latinarum Iulius Caesar et Marcius Philippus consules inter sacra et aras immolarentur. Postquam id nefas proditione discussum est, Asculo furor omnis erupit, in ipsa quidem ludorum 10 frequentia trucidatis qui tum aderant ab urbe legatis. Hoc fuit impii belli sacramentum. Inde iam passim ab omni parte Italiae duce et auctore belli discursante Poppaedio diversa per populos et urbes signa cecinere. 15

Florus, III. xviii. 3-10 (sel.).

2 iustissime. ‘The final issue of the war confirmed the justice and the wisdom of the reforms planned by the Gracchi and by Livius Drusus.’—Ihne.

7 Latinarum, sc. Feriarum, the solemn festival conducted by the Consuls on the Alban Mount.

10 Asculo. Asculum (Ascoli), chief town of Picenum. The opening and closing scene of the war.

B. Advice of the Sabellian father to his sons.

‘Vivite contenti casulis et collibus istis,


O pueri,’ Marsus dicebat et Hernicus olim

Vestinusque senex, ‘panem quaeramus aratro,

Qui satis est mensis: laudant hoc numina ruris,

Quorum ope et auxilio gratae post munus aristae

Contingunt homini veteris fastidia quercus.


Nil vetitum fecisse volet, quem non pudet alto

Per glaciem perone tegi, qui summovet Euros

Pellibus inversis; peregrina ignotaque nobis

Ad scelus atque nefas, quaecumque est, purpura ducit.’

Juvenal, Sat. xiv. 179-188.

179 collibus istis, i.e. in the central mountain range of Italy. The Federals chose Corfinium (E. of Lake Fucinus) to be the Italian rallying-point, and the seat of a new State.

180-181 Marsus . . . Hernicus . . . Vestinus, Sabellian peoples noted for their bravery and simplicity; the backbone of Rome’s army.

182 numina ruris, e.g. Ceres, Liber and Priapus.

185-186 alto perone = a high rustic boot of raw hide.

187 pellibus inversis = skins with the hair turned inwards.—Duff.



A. Defeat and Death of Rutilius.

Hanc tibi, ‘Quo properas’, memorant dixisse ‘Rutili?

Luce mea Marso consul ab hoste cades.’

Exitus accessit verbis, flumenque Toleni


Purpureum mixtis sanguine fluxit aquis.

Ovid, Fasti, vi. 563-566.

563 Hanc, sc. Leucothea, goddess of the sea and of harbours.

Rutili. Rutilius, consul 90 B.C., defeated and slain at the R. Tolenus (Turano) by the Marsian Vettius Scato.

B. The Lex Plautia Papiria of 89 B.C.

Data est civitas Silvani lege et Carbonis: si qui 5 foederatis civitatibus ascripti fuissent, si tum, cum lex ferebatur, in Italia domicilium habuissent et si sexaginta diebus apud praetorem essent professi.

Cicero, pro Archia, 4, 7.

5 lege, i.e. the Lex Plautia Papiria of the tribines M. Plautius Silvanus and C. Papirius Carbo. The Lex Julia of L. Julius Caesar 90 B.C., granting the civitas to the Latins and to all the other Italian States not in rebellion, had weakened the resistance. The Lex Plautia Papiria ‘scattered among the Italian ranks the seeds of discord and dissolution.’

C. Cicero’s first and only Campaign.

Memini colloquia et cum acerrimis hostibus et cum gravissime dissidentibus civibus. Cn. Pompeius, 10 consul me praesente, cum essem tiro in eius exercitu, cum P. Vettio Scatone, duce Marsorum, inter bina castra collocutus est. . . . Quem cum Scato salutasset, ‘quem te appellem?’ inquit: ‘voluntate hospitem, necessitate hostem.’ Erat in colloquio aequitas: 15 nullus timor, nulla suberat suspicio; mediocre etiam odium. Non enim, ut eriperent nobis socii civitatem, sed ut in eam reciperentur petebant.

Cicero, Phil. xii. 11, 27.

D. The battle near Asculum, and capture of the city.

Strabo vero Pompeius omnia flammis ferroque populatus non prius finem caedium fecit quam Asculi 20 eversione manibus tot exercituum consulum direptarumque urbium dis litaretur.

Florus, III. xviii. 14.

20 Asculi eversione. The siege was memorable for the desperate patriotism of the besieged under their leader Judacilius, cf. siege of Saguntum.

Reference. Ihne, Hist. vol. v. pp. 190-220.



His Character and Bearing.

Igitur Sulla gentis patriciae nobilis fuit, familia prope iam exstincta maiorum ignavia, litteris Graecis et Latinis iuxta atque doctissimi eruditus, animo ingenti, cupidus voluptatum sed gloriae cupidior: tamen ab negotiis numquam voluptas remorata; 5 facundus callidus et amicitia facilis, ad simulanda negotia altitudo ingeni incredibilis, multarum rerum ac maxumae pecuniae largitor. Atque illi, felicissumo omnium ante civilem victoriam, numquam super industriam fortuna fuit, multique dubitavere fortior 10 an felicior esset. Nam postea quae fecerit, incertum habeo pudeat an pigeat magis disserere. Igitur Sulla, uti supra dictum est, postquam in Africam atque in castra Mari cum equitatu venit, rudis antea et ignarus belli, solertissumus omnium in paucis 15 tempestatibus factus est. Ad hoc milites benigne appellare, multis rogantibus aliis per se ipse dare beneficia, invitus accipere, sed ea properantius quam aes mutuum reddere, ipse ab nullo repetere, magis id laborare ut illi quam plurimi deberent, ioca atque 20 seria cum humillumis agere, in operibus in agmine atque ad vigilias multus adesse neque interim, quod prava ambitio solet, consulis aut cuiusquam boni famam laedere, tantum modo neque consilio neque manu priorem alium pati, plerosque antevenire. 25

Sallust, Jug. 95, 96.

1 nobilis, i.e. of a patrician family which had held curule offices.

1-2 familia . . . exstincta. The Cornelii were a distinguished gens in early times and included 7 patrician families (e.g. the Lentuli and Scipios). Of these the Sullae were the least known.

2-3 litteris Graecis . . . eruditus. Contrast the proud boast of Marius:—‘I have learnt no Greek: in the knowledge, however, which is far the most important for the State, I am a master.’—Sall. Jug. 85.

9 ante civilem victoriam, i.e. before 81 B.C.

10-11 fortior an felicior. Sulla assumed the name Felix on the death of the younger Marius 82 B.C. Cf. Plut. Sulla, cap. vi.

11-12 Nam postea . . . disserere. Cf. Vell. Patere. II. xvii. 2: ‘Sulla vir qui neque ad finem victoriae satis laudari neque post victoriam abunde vituperari potest.’

20 illi more strictly sibi—‘a negligence not unfrequent.’—Merivale.

22 multus adesse = frequently visited, multus = saepe.

For character of Sulla cf. Plut. Sulla, and Mommsen, iv. pp. 139-142: ‘One of the most marvellous characters in history.’



A. His Youth and Early Training.

Huius futuram magnitudinem etiam caelestia ostenta praedixerant. Nam et eo, quo genitus est, anno, et eo, quo regnare primum coepit, stella cometes per utrumque tempus LXX diebus ita luxit, ut caelum omne conflagrare videretur. Puer tutorum insidias 5 passus est, qui eum fero equo impositum equitare iacularique cogebant: qui conatus cum eos fefellissent, supra aetatem regente equum Mithridate, veneno eum appetivere. Veritus deinde, ne inimici, quod veneno non potuerant, ferro peragerent, venandi 10 studium finxit, quo per septem annos neque urbano neque rustico tecto usus est, sed per silvas vagatus, diversis montium regionibus pernoctabat ignaris omnibus, quibus esset locis; adsuetus feras cursu aut fugere aut persequi, cum quibusdam etiam viribus 15 congredi. Quibus rebus et insidias vitavit, et corpus ad omnem virtutis patientiam duravit.

1 Huius. Mithridates (Mithras = Persian sun-god) ‘second only to Hannibal in inextinguishable, life-long hostility to Rome, as also in military genius.’ Ihne.

5 tutorum = (at the hands) of his guardians. Cf. tueor.

17 ad omnem virtutis patientiam = to all manly endurance.

B. His Preparations for Conquest.

Ad regni deinde administrationem cum accessisset, statim non de regendo, sed de augendo regno cogitavit. Itaque Scythas invictos antea ingenti 20 felicitate perdomuit. Hieme deinde appetente, non in convivio, sed in campo, nec in avocationibus, nec inter sodales, sed inter aequales, aut equo aut cursu aut viribus contendebat. Exercitum quoque suum ad parem laboris patientiam cotidiana exercitatione 25 durabat, atque ita invictus ipse inexpugnabilem exercitum fecerat.

Justinus, xxxvii. 2, 3, 4.

19 de augendo regno. He subdued all the coast districts of the Euxine, East, North and West, as far as the Hister (Danube).

22 avocationibus = in diversions (very rare).

24 exercitum. At the outbreak of the War with Rome, 88 B.C., he had collected a motley force of 250,000 foot and 40,000 horse.

Mithridates. ‘With one blow he overthrew the Roman dominion in Asia, carried the war into Europe, united almost the whole Eastern world in an attack on the Republic, and resisted for 25 years the first generals of his time,—a Sulla, a Lucullus, and a Pompeius.’—Ihne.

Historic Parallels. Alexander, Hannibal, Peter the Great.



The Battle of Chaeronea, 86 B.C.
Brilliant Tactics of Sulla.

Archelaus adversus L. Sullam in fronte ad perturbandum hostem falcatas quadrigas locavit, in secunda acie phalangem Macedonicam, in tertia Romanorum more armatos auxiliares, mixtis fugitivis Italicae gentis, quorum pervicaciae plurimum fidebat; 5 levem armaturam in ultimo statuit; in utroque deinde latere equitatum, cuius amplum numerum habebat, circumeundi hostis causa posuit. Contra haec Sulla fossas amplae latitudinis utroque latere duxit et capitibus earum castella communiit: qua 10 ratione, ne circuiretur ab hoste et peditum numero et maxime equitatu superante, consecutus est. Triplicem deinde peditum aciem ordinavit relictis intervallis per quae levem armaturam et equitem, quem in novissimo conlocaverat, cum res exegisset, emitteret. 15 Tum postsignanis qui in secunda acie erant imperavit ut densos numerososque palos firme in terram defigerent, intraque eos appropinquantibus quadrigis antesignanorum aciem recepit: tum demum sublato universorum clamore velites et levem armaturam 20 ingerere tela iussit. Quibus factis quadrigae hostium aut implicitae palis aut exterritae clamore telisque in suos conversae sunt turbaveruntque Macedonum structuram: qua cedente, cum Sulla instaret et Archelaus equitem opposuisset, Romani equites 25 subito emissi averterunt eos consummaverantque victoriam.

Frontinus, Strategemata, ii. 3. 17.

1 Archelaus (and his brother Neoptolemus) ‘trained in the traditions and experience of Greek and Macedonian masters.’

2 falcatas quadrigras. Archelaus had 60 of these chariots armed with scythes projecting. Cf. Livy xxxvii. 41.

5 pervicaciae = steadfastness (per + vic; cf. vinco).

11-12 qua ratione . . . consecutus est. Sulla had about 30,000 men (15,000 Romans only) against 120,000.

23 turbaverunt. ‘The war-chariots on this as on other occasions (e.g. at Magnesia) had not only proved a failure, but had actually led to a partial disaster.’—Ihne. Cf. use of war elephants, e.g. at Beneventum 275 B.C. and at Zama 202 B.C.

27 victoriam. It was a great victory, but the results were trifling, partly because Sulla had no fleet, and partly because his political enemies at Rome were bent on crippling him.

Historic Parallel. The Battle of Magnesia 190 B.C.



A. Capture of Athens and the Piraeus, 86 B.C.

Sulla interim cum Mithridatis praefectis circa Athenas ita dimicavit, ut et Athenas reciperet et plurimo circa multiplices Piraei portus munitiones labore expleto amplius CC milia hostium interficeret nec minus multa caperet. . . . Nam oppressi (Athenienses) 5 Mithridatis armis homines miserrimae condicionis cum ab inimicis tenerentur, oppugnabantur ab amicis et animos extra moenia, corpora necessitati servientes intra muros habebant.

Velleius Paterculus, ii. 23.

2 ut Athenas reciperet. Sulla reduced the city by starvation.

3 Piraei portus. This was strongly held by Archelaus, and was taken only after a most obstinate defence.

7 cum . . . tenerentur. The contemptible adventurer Aristion, with his bodyguard of 2000 men and the bribe of Delos and its treasure, had made himself master of Athens.

B. Battle of Orchomenus, 85 B.C.
Sulla restores the Fight.

L. Sulla, cedentibus iam legionibus exercitui 10 Mithridatico ductu Archelai, stricto gladio in primam aciem procucurrit appellansque milites dixit, si quis quaesisset, ubi imperatorem reliquissent, responderent pugnantem in Boeotia: cuius rei pudore universi eum secuti sunt. 15

Frontinus, Strategemata, ii. 8. 12.

10-15 = ‘The great victory at Orchomenus was the turning-point in the War.’—Ihne.

C. Peace of Dardanus.
End of the First Mithridatic War, 84 B.C.

Transgressus deinde in Asiam Sulla parentem ad omnia supplicemque Mithridatem invenit, quem multatum pecunia ac parte navium, Asia omnibusque aliis provinciis, quas armis occupaverat, decedere coegit, captivos recepit, in perfugas noxiosque 20 animadvertit, paternis, id est Ponticis finibus contentum esse iussit.

Velleius Paterculus, ii. 23.

16-22 The terms of peace were (i) Restoration of all conquests, (ii) Surrender of 80 ships and of all prisoners, (iii) Indemnity of 3000 talents. Florus says ‘Non fregit ea res Ponticos, sed incendit.’ Sulla was anxious to secure peace, because his presence was needed at Rome.

Sulla’s Conduct of the War. ‘No previous general had shown so great a mastery of the art of war and such care and interest for the welfare of the State, as distinguished from the success of a party.’—Ihne.



SECOND CIVIL WAR, 83-82 B.C. (1)
Battles of Sacriportus and the Colline Gate.

Iam quot apud Sacri cecidere cadavera Portum


Aut Collina tulit stratas quot porta catervas,

Tum cum, paene caput mundi rerumque potestas

Mutavit translata locum, Romanaque Samnis

Ultra Caudinas speravit volnera Furcas.

Lucan, Pharsalia, ii. 134-138.

134 apud Sacriportum, near Praeneste, where Sulla totally defeated the Marians, under the younger Marius, 82 B.C.

135 Collina Porta, i.e. N.E. gate of Rome near the Collis Quirinalis.

138 paene, with mutavit, l. 137.

B. At Pontius Telesinus, dux Samnitium, vir animi bellique fortissimus penitusque Romano nomini infestissimus, contractis circiter XL milibus fortissimae pertinacissimaeque in retinendis armis iuventutis Kal. Novembribus ita ad portam Collinam cum Sulla 10 dimicavit, ut ad summum discrimen et eum et rempublicam perduceret, quae non maius periculum adiit Hannibalis intra tertium miliarium conspicata castra, quam eo die, quo circumvolans ordines exercitus sui Telesinus dictitansque adesse Romanis ultimum 15 diem vociferabatur eruendam delendamque urbem, adiciens numquam deluturos raptores Italicae libertatis lupos, nisi silva, in quam refugere solerent, esset excisa. Post primam demum horam noctis et Romana acies respiravit et hostium cessit. Telesinus 20 postera die semianimis repertus est, victoris magis quam morientis vultum praeferens, cuius abscisum caput ferro figi gestarique circa Praeneste Sulla iussit.

Velleius Paterculus, ii. 27.

6 Pontius Telesinus, ‘a kinsman in name and temper of the hero of 321 B.C.

12-14 quae . . . castra. ‘As Hannibal had tried to relieve the closely pressed Capua by a direct attack on Rome, Pontius Telesinus thought to draw off the besieging army from Praeneste by threatening the Capital.’—Ihne.

20 Romana acies respiravit. Sulla, with the left wing, was driven back by the Samnites to the walls of Rome, but Crassus with the right wing was completely victorious, and to him the final victory was due.

‘The issue of the whole war, at least on Italian ground, was decided by the battle of the Colline Gate.’—Ihne.



SECOND CIVIL WAR, 83-82 B.C. (2)
A. Death of the Younger Marius.
Sulla Felix.

Tum demum desperatis rebus suis C. Marius adulescens per cuniculos, qui miro opere fabricati in diversas agrorum partes fuerunt, conatus erumpere, cum foramine e terra emersisset, a dispositis in id ipsum interemptus est. . . . De quo iuvene quid 5 existimaverit Sulla, in promptu est; occiso enim demum eo Felicis nomen adsumpsit, quod quidem usurpasset iustissime, si eundem et vincendi et vivendi finem habuisset.

Vell. Pat. ii. 27.

1 Tum, i.e. after Sulla’s victory at the Colline Gate, 82 B.C.

C. Marius. ‘He possessed his father’s martial spirit, courage and unyielding perseverance.’—Ihne.

2 per cuniculos = through subterranean passages.

B. The Sullan Proscriptions.

‘Sulla quoque immensis accessit cladibus ultor.

Ille quod exiguum restabat sanguinis urbi

Hausit: dumque nimis iam putria membra recidit,

Excessit medicina modum, nimiumque secuta est,


Qua morbi duxere, manus  .  .  .  .


Tum data libertas odiis, resolutaque legum

Frenis ira ruit. Non uni cuncta dabantur,

Sed fecit sibi quisque nefas: semel omnia victor

Iusserat  .  .  .


Hisne Salus rerum, Felix his Sulla vocari,

His meruit tumulum medio sibi tollere Campo?

Haec rursus patienda manent: hoc ordine belli


Ibitur: hic stabit civilibus exitus armis.’


....Sic maesta senectus

Praeteritique memor flebat metuensque futuri.

Lucan, Pharsalia, ii. 139-148, 221-224.

139 Sulla . . . ultor = Sulla too in his vengeance came to crown these fearful disasters.—Haskins.

141-143 dumque . . . manus. Sulla is compared to a surgeon who in too great haste to remove the mortified flesh cuts away the sound flesh also.

146 non uni . . . = all crimes were not committed for one man’s sake, i.e. to please Sulla.

223-224 hoc ordine belli ibitur = in this course of war events will move.—H. i.e. History will repeat itself.

232 sic maesta senectus. An old man, who had lived through the Marian and Sullan times, predicts similar horrors of the Civil War between Caesar and Pompey.

The Proscriptions. ‘They were the product not of passion or thirst of blood, but of a cool political calculation, and the conviction of its inevitable necessity.’—Ihne.



A. Sulla appointed Dictator, 81 B.C.

Dictator creatus (cuius honoris usurpatio per annos centum et viginti intermissa; nam proximus post annum quam Hannibal Italia excesserat, uti appareat populum Romanum usum dictatoris haud metu desiderasse tali quo timuisset potestatem) imperio, 5 quo priores ad vindicandum maximis periculis patriam usi erant, eo in immodicae crudelitatis licentiam usus est.

Velleius Paterculus, ii. 28.

1-2 cuius honoris . . . intermissa. The last real Dictator (M. Junius Pera) was appointed after Cannae 216 B.C.

5-8 imperio quo . . . usus est. ‘The Dictator of the first age of the Republic down to the Punic Wars had always a well-defined special duty to discharge in a given time. Sulla’s task was of a general nature and all-comprehensive range, and he had the most essential of all monarchical attributes, which is the unlimited duration of office.’—Ihne.

B. Sulla lays down his Dictatorship, 79 B.C.

Nec minoris impotentiae voces propalam edebat, ut Titus Ampius scribit, ‘Nihil esse rempublicam, 10 appellationem modo sine corpore ac specie. Sullam nescisse litteras, qui dictaturam deposuerit.’

Suetonius, Divus Iulius, 77.

9 impotentiae = arrogance (lack of self-restraint).

10 Ampius. Titus Ampius Balbus, a Pompeian general.

11-12 Sullam nescisse litteras = (i) S. had not profited by the teachings of History, or (ii) S. was without a liberal education.

C. Death of Sulla, 78 B.C.

Puteolis enim ardens indignatione, quod Granius, princeps eius coloniae pecuniam a decurionibus ad refectionem Capitolii promissam cunctantius daret, 15 animi concitatione nimia atque immoderato vocis impetu convulso pectore, spiritum cruore ac minis mixtum evomuit, nec senio iam prolapsus, utpote sexagesimum ingrediens annum, sed alita miseriis reipublicae inpotentia furens. Igitur in dubio est 20 Sullane prior an iracundia Sullae sit extincta.

Valerius Maximus, ix. 3. 8.

13 Granius, the chief magistrate of Puteoli, had kept back money destined for the building of the new temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. The old one was destroyed by fire 83 B.C. ‘It was Sulla’s great desire that his name should be recorded on the front of the new temple, for it was to be the symbol of the Republic, restored as he fondly hoped by him to its pristine purity.’—Ihne.



A. Limitation of the Tribune’s Right of Veto.

In ista quidem re vehementer Sullam probo, qui tribunis plebis sua lege iniuriae faciendae potestatem ademerit, auxili ferendi reliquerit.

Cicero, de Legibus, iii. 9. 22.

2 iniuriae faciendae, e.g. by their abuse of the right of veto.

3 auxili ferendi. ‘Sulla limited the office of tribune to the original functions for which it was established, the legal protection of the people from the abuse of magisterial power.’—Ihne.

B. Abolition of Corn Distributions.

Populus Romanus, paullo ante gentium moderator, exutus imperio gloria iure, agitandi inops despectusque ne servilia quidem alimenta relicua habet.

Sallust, Hist., Orat. M. Lepidi.

5 agitandi inops (i.e. vitam sustentandi) = without means of livelihood.

6 servilia alimenta = a slave’s allowance of food. Sulla abolished the largesses of corn.

C. Restoration of Judicial Functions to the Senators.

Iudicandi munus quod C. Gracchus ereptum senatui ad Equites, Sulla ab illis ad Senatum transtulerat.

Velleius Paterculus, ii. 32.

8-10 Sulla filled up the gaps in the Senate from the ranks of the Equites, and to the new Senate thus constituted he entrusted the administration of justice.

D. A Sumptuary Law, Limiting the Expense of the Table.

L. Sulla dictator, cum plerique in patrimoniis amplis eluerentur et familiam pecuniamque suam prandiorum conviviorumque gurgitibus proluissent, legem ad populam tulit, qua cautum est, ut Kalendis, Idibus, Nonis diebusque ludorum et feriis quibusdam 15 sollemnibus sestertios trecenos in cenam insumere ius potestasque esset, ceteris autem diebus omnibus non amplius tricenos.

Aulus Gellius, ii. 24, 11.

12 eluerentur = had squandered (lit. ‘washed away’).

Leges Corneliae. ‘Sulla’s legislation was an attempt to revive what was dead and gone. The time had arrived when the old republican institutions could last no longer. The transformation of the state into a monarchy was inevitable.’—Ihne.

The Sultan Constitution. It had as little endurance as that of Cromwell, and was finally destroyed in 70 B.C. during the consulship of Pompeius and Crassus.



Speech of Lepidus against Sulla, 78 B.C.

Nam praeter satellites commaculatos quis eadem volt? aut quis non omnia mutata praeter victorem? Scilicet milites, quorum sanguine Tarulae Scyrtoque, pessumis servorum, divitiae partae sunt! Itaque maxumam mihi fiduciam parit victor exercitus, cui 5 per tot volnera et labores nihil praeter tyrannum quaesitum est. Nisi forte tribuniciam potestatem evorsum profecti sunt, per arma conditam a maioribus suis, utique iura et iudicia sibimet extorquerent, egregia scilicet mercede, cum relegati in paludes et 10 silvam contumeliam atque invidiam suam, praemia penes paucos intellegerint. Quare igitur tanto agmine atque animis incedit? Quia secundae res mire sunt vitiis obtentui; quibus labefactis, quam formidatus est, tam contemnetur; nisi forte specie 15 concordiae et pacis, quae sceleri et parricidio suo nomina indidit; neque aliter rempublicam et belli finem ait, nisi maneat expulsa agris plebes, praeda civilis acerbissima, ius iudiciumque omnium rerum penes se, quod populi Romani fuit. Quae si vobis 20 pax et concordia intelleguntur, maxuma turbamenta reipublicae atque exitia probate, annuite legibus impositis, accipite otium cum servitio et tradite exemplum posteris ad populum Romanum suimet sanguinis mercede circumveniundum. 25

Sallust, Hist, Orat. M. Lepidi.

1 Nam, sc. ‘His luck is not so great as he supposes, for. . .’

7-8 tribuniciam . . . evorsum, i.e. by the Leges Corneliae 81 B.C.

9 iudicia. Sulla restored the judicial functions to the Senate (from the Equites).

10 relegati in paludes. Sulla established 120,000 soldiers in military colonies in different parts of Italy, but their roaming adventurous life had unfitted them for agricultural pursuits.

13-14 Quia . . . obtentui = because prosperity serves in a marvellous manner to cover a man’s faults of character.—Holden. For obtentui cf. draw a veil over.

16 parricidio = treason.

18 nisi . . . agris, i.e. Sulla’s confiscations of estates, especially of those Italians who had fought against him.

24-25 ad p. R. circumveniundum = for oppressing (enslaving) the people of Rome.

M. Aemillus Lepidus, Consul 78 B.C., a disappointed Optimate, jealous of Sulla’s power, but without Sulla’s ability. He posed as leader of the democratic party, took up arms against the State, but was defeated by Q. Catulus at the Milvian Bridge, 77 B.C.



Sertorius and his Fawn.

Huic Sertorio cerva alba eximiae pulchritudinis et vivacissimae celeritatis a Lusitano quodam dono data est. Hanc sibi oblatam divinitus, et instinctam Dianae numine colloqui secum, monereque, et docere, quae utilia factu essent, persuadere omnibus instituit: 5 ac, si quid durius videbatur, quod imperandum militibus foret, a cerva sese monitum tum praedicabat. Id cum dixerat, universi, tamquam si deo, libentes parebant. Ea cerva quodam die, cum incursio esset hostium nuntiata, festinatione ac tumultu consternata 10 in fugam se proripuit, atque in palude proxima delituit; et postea requisita perisse credita est. Neque multis diebus post inventam esse cervam Sertorio nuntiatur. Tum, qui nuntiaverat, iussit tacere: ac, ne cui palam diceret, interminatus est: 15 praecepitque, ut eam postero die repente in eum locum, in quo ipse cum amicis esset, immitteret: admissis deinde amicis postridie, visum sibi esse ait in quiete cervam, quae perisset, ad se reverti, et, ut prius consueverat, quod opus esset facto praedicare. 20 Tum servo, quod imperaverat, significat. Cerva emissa in cubiculum Sertorii introrupit; clamor factus et orta admiratio est: eaque hominum barbarorum credulitas Sertorio in magnis rebus magno usui fuit. 25

Gellius, Noctes Atticae, xv. 22.

1 alba = a dull white as opp. to ater = dull black. Cf. candidus = shining white as opp. to niger = shining black.

3 instinctam = fired, animated.

15 interminatus = he forbade with threats. inter + minor, freq. in Plautus and Terence.

23-25 ‘Sertorius did not disdain to turn to account the superstition of the ruder Spanish tribes, and to have his plans of war brought to him as commands of Diana by the white fawn of the goddess.’—M.

Character of Sertorius. ‘He was the only democratic (Marian) officer who knew how to prepare and to conduct war, and the only democratic statesman who opposed the furious doings of his party with statesmanlike energy. His Spanish soldiers called him the new Hannibal, and not merely because he had, like that hero, lost an eye in war. He in reality reminds us of the great Phoenician by his equally cunning and courageous strategy, and by the quickness of his ingenuity in turning to good account his victories and averting the consequences of his defeats.’—M.



A. A New Hannibal.

Sertorius, exsul et profugus feralis illius tabulae, vir summae quidem sed calamitosae virtutis, malis suis maria terrasque permiscuit; et iam Africae, iam Balearibus insulis fortunam expertus usque in Oceanum Fortunatasque insulas penetravit consiliis, 5 tandem Hispaniam armavit. Viro cum viris facile convenit. Nec alias magis apparuit Hispani militis vigor quam Romano duce. Quamquam ille non contentus Hispania ad Mithridatem quoque Ponticosque respexit regemque classe iuvit. Et quid futurum 10 fuit satis tanto hosti, cui uno imperatore resistere res Romana non potuit? Additus Metello Gnaeus Pompeius. Hi copias attrivere viri prope tota Hispania persecuti. Diu et ancipiti; semper acie pugnatum est nec tamen prius bello quam suorum scelere 15 et insidiis extinctus est.

Florus, III. xxii. 2-6. A.

1 feralis illius tabulae = from that fatal list, i.e. Sulla’s list of proscribed Marians 82 B.C.

9-10 ad Mithridatem . . . iuvit. In 75 B.C. he concluded a formal treaty of alliance with Mithridates, and sent him the propraetor M. Marius to lead his troops. Cf. alliance between Hannibal and Philip.

14-15 Diu et ancipiti semper acie pugnatum est, e.g. the defeat of Pompey near Lauro. (For a graphic account of the strategy by which the battle was won see Frontinus, Strat. ii. 5.)

B. The Death of Sertorius.

M. Perpenna praetorius e proscriptis, gentis clarioris quam animi, Sertorium inter cenam Oscae interemit Romanisque certam victoriam, partibus suis excidium, sibi turpissimam mortem pessimo 20 auctoravit facinore. Metellus et Pompeius ex Hispaniis triumphaverunt.

Vell. Paterc. ii. 30.

17 M. Perpenna praetorius (= ex-praetor), with the remnant of the army of Lepidus (defeated by Pompey in 77 B.C.) joined Sertorius in Spain. After serving under Sertorius for some years, through jealousy, he brought about his leader’s assassination.

21 auctoravit = he brought about. More usu. as auctorari = to hire oneself out for some service, e.g. of gladiators.

The Death of Sertorius. ‘So ended one of the greatest men that Rome had hitherto produced—a man who under more fortunate circumstances would perhaps have become the regenerator of his country.’—M.



Character and Early Career of Lucullus.

Magnum ingenium L. Luculli, magnumque optimarum artium studium, tum omnis liberalis et digna homine nobili ab eo percepta doctrina, quibus temporibus florere in foro maxime potuit, caruit omnino rebus urbanis. Ut enim admodum adolescens, 5 cum fratre pari pietate et industria praedito, paternas inimicitias magna cum gloria est persecutus, in Asiam quaestor profectus, ibi permultos annos admirabili quadam laude provinciae praefuit: deinde absens factus aedilis, continuo praetor: licebat 10 enim celerius legis praemio: post in Africam: inde ad consulatum: quem ita gessit ut diligentiam admirarentur omnes, ingenium cognoscerent. Post ad Mithridaticum bellum missus a senatu non modo opinionem vicit omnium quae de virtute eius erat, sed 15 etiam gloriam superiorum. Idque eo fuit mirabilius, quod ab eo laus imperatoria non admodum exspectabatur, qui adolescentiam in forensi opera, quaesturae diuturnum tempus, Murena bellum in Ponto gerente, in Asiae pace consumpserat. . . . 20 In eodem tanta prudentia fuit in constituendis temperandisque civitatibus, tanta aequitas, ut hodie stet Asia Luculli institutis servandis et quasi vestigiis persequendis.

Cicero, Academica, ii. 1.

1-3 ingenium, studium, doctrina, subjects of caruit.

3-5 quibus temporibus . . . urbanis = all this was divorced (caruit, lit. was cut off from) from the business of the capital, at the season when he might have had a specially brilliant career in the forum.—J. S. Reid.

6 paternas inimicitias = his father’s quarrel. The first appearance of Lucullus in public life was as the accuser of the Augur Servilius who had procured the banishment of his father.

7-9 in Asiam . . . praefuit, i.e. as Sulla’s quaestor in the first Mithridatic War, 88-84 B.C. and then till 80 B.C. in charge of the province of Asia (= orig. Kingdom of Pergamus, N.W. part of Asia Minor).

11 legis praemio = owing to a privilege conveyed by statute. J. S. R.

13-14 ad Mithridaticum bellum, i.e. the 3rd M. War, which he carried on for eight years (74-66 B.C.) with great success, until superseded by Pompeius in 66 B.C.

19-20 Murena . . . gerente. Lic. Murena, anxious for distinction, provoked the disastrous 2nd Mithridatic War, 83-81 B.C., when by the peremptory orders of Sulla the peace was renewed.

23 stet . . . servandis = persists in maintaining (lit. stands by) the ordinances of L.—J. S. R.

Reference. For Character of Lucullus, see Mommsen, vol. iv. pp. 337-8. Cf. also Vell. Paterc. ii. 32.



A. A Soldier of Lucullus.

Luculli miles collecta viatica multis

Aerumnis, lassus dum noctu stertit, ad assem

Perdiderat; post hoc vehemens lupus, et sibi et hosti

Iratus pariter, ieiunis dentibus acer,


Praesidium regale loco deiecit, ut aiunt,

Summe munito et multarum divite rerum.

Clarus ob id factum donis ornatur honestis,

Accipit et bis dena super sestertia nummum.

Forte sub hoc tempus castellum evertere praetor


Nescio quod cupiens hortari coepit eundem

Verbis, quae timido quoque possent addere mentem:

‘I, bone, quo virtus tua te vocat, i pede fausto,

Grandia laturus meritorum praemia. Quid stas?’

Post haec ille catus, quantumvis rusticus, ‘Ibit,


Ibit eo quo vis qui zonam perdidit,’ inquit.

Horace, Ep. II. ii. 26-40.

26 viatica = savings (cf. prize-money). viaticum = originally travelling-money.

28 vehemens lupus = a very wolf in his fury. Cf. Vergil’s simile for a forlorn hope—‘lupi ceu | Raptores.’—Wickham.

32 donis honestis = gifts of honour—i.e. the corona muralis, the mural crown, such as is worn by the goddess Cybele.

33 nummum (= nummorum) = in hard cash.

39 catus = shrewd, witty, a Sabine word, = acutus.

39-40 Ibit . . . quo vis, the original of Juvenal’s ad caelum, iusseris, ibit.

40 zonam = purse. The zona here was a broad belt made double or hollow to carry money in.

B. The Wealth of Lucullus.

  Chlamydes Lucullus, ut aiunt,

Si posset centum scaenae praebere rogatus,

‘Qui possum tot?’ ait; ‘tamen et quaeram, et quot habebo

Mittam’: post paulo scribit sibi milia quinque

Esse domi chlamydum; partem vel tolleret omnes.

Horace, Ep. I. vi. 40-44.

Subject. Horace says ‘I am like Lucullus’ soldier—when his pocket was empty he would volunteer for forlorn hopes; when it was full again he would do so no more. It was poverty that made me write verses.’—W.

40 Chlamydes. The Chlamys was the light short mantle of the Greeks, here wanted for a pageant on the stage.

44 tolleret. The subj. is the praetor or person giving the show.—W.

Reference. For the magnificence of his Villas at Tusculum and near Neapolis, see Cicero De Fin. ii. § 107, De Leg. iii. § 30, Pliny, N. H. ix. 170.



Spartacus and his Gladiators.

Spartacus, Crixus, Oenomaus effracto Lentuli ludo cum triginta aut amplius eiusdem fortunae viris erupere Capua; servisque ad vexillum vocatis cum statim decem amplius milia coissent, homines modo effugisse contenti iam et vindicari volebant. 5 Prima sedes velut rabidis beluis mons Vesuvius placuit. Ibi cum obsiderentur a Clodio Glabro, per fauces cavi montis vitineis delapsi vinculis ad imas eius descendere radices et exitu inviso nihil tale opinantis ducis subito impetu castra rapuerunt. Adfluentibus 10 in diem copiis cum iam esset iustus exercitus, e viminibus pecudumque tegumentis inconditos sibi clipeos et ferro ergastulorum recocto gladios ac tela fecerunt, Indo iam consulares quoque aggressus in Appennino Lentuli exercitum percecidit, apud 15 Mutinam Gai Cassi castra delevit. Tandem enim totis imperii viribus contra mirmillonem consurgunt, pudoremque Romanum Marcus Crassus asseruit: a quo pulsi fugatique hostes in extrema Italiae refugerunt. Ibi circa Bruttium angulum clusi cum 20 fugam in Siciliam pararent neque navigia suppeterent ratesque ex trabibus et dolia connexa virgultis rapidissimo freto frustra experirentur, tandem eruptione facta dignam viris obiere mortem, et quod sub gladiatore duce oportuit, sine missione 25 pugnatum est. Spartacus ipse in primo agmine fortissime dimicans quasi imperator occisus est.

Florus, III. xx. 3-14 (sel.).

1 Spartacus, by birth a Thracian, who had served among the Thracian auxiliaries in the Roman army, had deserted and become a chief of banditti. He was taken prisoner and sold to a trainer of gladiators.

Crixus, Oenomaus, the slave-names of two Celts.

1-2 effracto ludo = broke out of the gladiators’ school.

8 vitineis vinculis = by means of ropes made of vine-branches.

9 inviso = unknown, lit. unseen.

13 ergastulorum = from the slaves’ work-houses.

17 mirmillonem. The Mirmillones were a class of gladiators usually matched with the Thraces or the retiarii (net-fighters).

18 Marcus Crassus, the Triumvir of 60 B.C.

asseruit = maintained. Cf. our assert.

21 in Siciliam, where the slaves had risen in 133 and 104 B.C., and only waited an impulse to break out a third time.

25 sine missione = without quarter. Cf. missio = the discharge from service of soldiers and gladiators.



Lucullus Ponticus.

Quoniam de genere belli dixi, nunc de magnitudine pauca dicam. Atque ut omnes intellegant me L. Lucullo tantum impertire laudis, quantum forti viro et sapienti homini et magno imperatori debeatur, dico eius adventu maximas Mithridatis 5 copias omnibus rebus ornatas atque instructas fuisse urbemque Asiae clarissimam nobisque amicissimam, Cyzicenorum, obsessam esse ab ipso rege maxima multitudine et oppugnatam vehementissime, quam L. Lucullus virtute, assiduitate, consilio summis 10 obsidionis periculis liberavit: ab eodem imperatore classem magnam et ornatam, quae ducibus Sertorianis ad Italiam studio inflammata raperetur, superatam esse atque depressam; magnas hostium praeterea copias multis proeliis esse deletas patefactumque 15 nostris legionibus esse Pontum, qui antea populo Romano ex omni aditu clausus fuisset; Sinopen atque Amisum, quibus in oppidis erant domicilia regis, omnibus rebus ornatas atque refertas, ceterasque urbes Ponti et Cappadociae permultas uno 20 aditu adventuque esse captas; regem spoliatum regno patrio atque avito ad alios se reges atque ad alias gentes supplicem contulisse: atque haec omnia salvis populi Romani sociis atque integris vectigalibus esse gesta. 25

Cicero, pro Lege Manilia, 20, 21.

5-6 maximas . . . fuisse. M. had 140,000 well-trained men, Roman officers sent by Sertorius, 16,000 cavalry, a war-fleet of 400 ships, and abundance of stores.

7-11 urbemque . . . liberavit. The city of Cyzicus stood on the S. side of the island of the same name in the Propontis (Sea of Marmora), close to the shore of Mȳsia, to which it was joined by two bridges.

12-14 classem . . . depressam, i.e. probably the Battle of Tenedos 73 B.C., in which Marcus Marius and the ablest of the Roman emigrants met their death, and the whole Aegean fleet of Mithridates was annihilated.

15 multis proeliis, e.g. of Cabira, 72 B.C.; Tigranocerta, 69 B.C.

18 Sinopen. Sinope, on the W. headland of the great bay of which the delta of the R. Halys forms the E. headland, was the birthplace and residence (domicilia) of M.

22 ad alios reges, e.g. to his son-in-law, Tigranes of Armenia.

23-24 salvis . . . vectigalibus, i.e. without ruining the provincial by forced contributions and requisitions.

Reference. For Siege of Cyzicus, see Mommsen, vol. iv. pp. 326-328; Frontinus, Strat. ii. 13. 6.



His Character, and Career to 66 B.C.

Iam vero virtuti Cn. Pompei quae potest oratio par inveniri? Quid est quod quisquam aut illo dignum, aut vobis novum aut cuiquam inauditum possit adferre? Neque enim illae sunt solae virtutes imperatoriae, quae vulgo esistimantur, labor in 5 negotiis, fortitudo in periculis, industria in agendo, celeritas in conficiendo, consilium in providendo, quae tanta sunt in hoc uno, quanta in omnibus reliquis imperatoribus, quos aut vidimus aut audivimus, non fuerunt. Testis est Italia, quam ille ipse 10 victor L. Sulla huius virtute et subsidio confessus est liberatam: testis est Sicilia, quam multis undique cinctam periculis non terrore belli, sed consilii celeritate explicavit: testis est Africa, quae magnis oppressa hostium copiis eorum ipsorum sanguine 15 redundavit: testis est Gallia, per quam legionibus nostris iter in Hispaniam Gallorum internecione patefactum est: testis est Hispania, quae saepissime plurimos hostes ab hoc superatos prostratosque conspexit: testis est iterum et saepius Italia, quae 20 cum servili bello taetro periculosoque premeretur, ab hoc auxilium absente expetivit, quod bellum exspectatione eius attenuatum atque imminutum est, adventu sublatum ac sepultum: testes nunc vero iam omnes orae atque omnes exterae gentes ac nationes. 25

Cicero, pro Lege Manilia, 29-31.

10-12 Testis est Italia . . . liberatam. In 83 B.C. Pompeius, aged twenty-four, raised three legions in Picenum, gained several advantages over the Marian generals, and was saluted by Sulla as Imperator.

12-14 testis est Sicilia . . . explicavit. In 82 B.C. Pompeius, sent as propraetor to Sicily, quickly took possession of the island for Sulla.

14-16 testis est Africa . . . redundavit. In 81 B.C. Pompeius defeated at Utica the Marian Ahenobarbus (allied with Hiarbas of Numidia), and was, though a simple Roman eques, granted a triumph by Sulla and saluted as Magnus.

16-18 testis est Gallia . . . patefactum est. In 77 B.C., on his way to Spain as proconsul against Sertorius, he had to cut his way through the Transalpine Gauls, and laid out a new and shorter road over the Cottian Alps.

21 servili bello. On his return from Spain he cut to pieces the scattered remnants of the army of Spartacus.

21-23 ab hoc . . . imminutum est. Cic. assumes that the enemy was crippled even by the mere notion of sending for Pompeius.

References. Plutarch, Pompeius; Vell. Paterc. ii. 29.



The Man Caesar.

Fuisse traditur excelsa statura, colore candido, teretibus membris, ore paulo pleniore, nigris vegetisque oculis, valetudine prospera; nisi quod tempore extremo repente animo linqui atque etiam per somnum exterreri solebat. Armorum et equitandi 5 peritissimus, laboris ultra fidem patiens erat. In agmine nonnunquam equo, saepius pedibus anteibat, capite detecto, seu sol seu imber esset; longissimas vias incredibili celeritate confecit. In obeundis expeditionibus dubium cautior an audentior, 10 exercitum neque per insidiosa itinera duxit umquam nisi perspeculatus locorum situs. A Brundisio Dyrrachium inter oppositas classes hieme transmisit cessantibusque copiis, quas subsequi iusserat, cum ad accersendas frustra saepe misisset, 15 novissime ipse clam noctu parvulum navigium solus obvoluto capite conscendit, neque aut quis esset ante detexit aut gubernatorem cedere adversae tempestati passus est, quam paene obrutus fluctibus. Ne religione quidem ulla a quoquam incepto absterritus 20 umquam vel retardatus est. Cum immolanti aufugisset hostia, profectionem adversus Scipionem et Iubam non distulit. Prolapsus etiam in egressu navis, verso ad melius omine Teneo te, inquit, Africa.

Suetonius, Divus Iulius, 45, 57-59 (sel.)

4 animo linqui = he was subject to fainting-fits.

8 capite detecto, so Cyrus the Younger and Hannibal.

9 incredibili celeritate, cf. Cic. Ep. ad Att. viii. 9 hoc τέρας (= prodigy) horribili vigilantia, celeritate, diligentia est. Cf. also Napoleon the Great.

14 cessantibusque copiis = and when the troops delayed their coming. Caesar did not then know that Antonius had himself been attacked at Brundisium by a Pompeian fleet, and had shown great skill in baffling it, and forcing it to put to sea again. Once more Antonius set sail with 4 legions and 800 horsemen, and fortunately a strong S. wind carried him safely to the port of Lissus (N. of Dyrrachium).

18-19 gubernatorem . . . passus est.Quid times? Caesarem vehis!’ was Caesar’s famous exhortation to the pilot. (Florus.)

21-22 Cum . . . hostia: if the victim even tugged at the rope when being led to sacrifice, it was considered unfortunate, and hence a long slack rope was used. Cf. Juv. xii. 5 Sed procul extensum petulans (butting) quatit hostia funem.

24 According to Frontinus his words were ‘Teneo te, terra mater.’

The man Caesar. ‘We may picture him as a man the dignity of whose bodily presence was in due proportion to the greatness of his mental powers.’—Warde Fowler.



Captured by Pirates.
Studies Oratory at Rhodes, 76-75 B.C.

Composita seditione civili Cornelium Dolabellam consularem et triumphalem repetundarum postulavit; absolutoque Rhodum secedere statuit, et ad declinandam invidiam et ut per otium ac requiem Apollonio Moloni clarissimo tunc dicendi magistro 5 operam daret. Huc dum hibernis iam mensibus traicit, circa Pharmacussam insulam a praedonibus captus est, mansitque apud eos, non sine summa indignatione, prope quadraginta dies cum uno medico et cubicularis duobus. Nam comites servosque 10 ceteros initio statim ad expediendas pecunias, quibus redimeretur, dimiserat. Numeratis deinde quinquaginta talentis, expositus in litore non distulit quin e vestigio classe deducta persequeretur abeuntis, ac redactos in potestatem supplicio, quod saepe illis 15 minatus inter iocum fuerat, adficeret. Vastante regiones proximas Mithridate ne desidere in discrimine sociorum videretur, ab Rhodio quo pertenderat, transiit in Asiam, auxiliisque contractis et praefecto regis provincia expulso, nutantes ac dubias civitates 20 retinuit in fide.

Suetonius, Divus Iulius, 4.

1 Composita seditione civili, i.e. after the abortive attempt of Lepidus to make himself master of the state 77 B.C.

C. Dolabellam, impeached for illegal extortion during his government of Macedonia.

Repetundarum (sc. pecuniarum), post-Aug. for de repetundis (pecuniis), used i. of money extorted by an official and to be returned, ii. of money extorted as a bribe. Caesar lost his case, but succeeded in showing that Sulla’s senatorial judges were corrupt.

4 Apollonio Moloni, the famous rhetorician, whose pupil Cicero was both at Rome and at Rhodes. Very possibly Caesar took this step by the advice of Cicero.

7 circa Pharmacussam insulam: S.W. of Miletus (= mod. Farmako).

8-9 non sine summa indignatione: Plutarch, Caes. gives a picturesque account of his adventures as their prisoner.

10 cubicularis (cubiculum) = lit. chamber-servants.

11 pecunias . . . Velleius says that Caesar’s ransom was paid out of public funds.

14 e vestigio (= statim) = immediately.

Caesar at Rhodes. ‘Caesar, from what we know of his taste and character, could hardly have found the same delight as Cicero in his studies at Rhodes. He nevertheless became one of the greatest orators of his day, and according to some accounts, second only to Cicero. It is characteristic of Caesar, but unfortunate for us, that he never took any pains to collect and preserve his speeches.’—Warde Fowler.



A Roman Citizen maltreated.

Quid ego de P. Gavio, Consano municipe, dicam, indices? Aut qua vi vocis, qua gravitate verborum, quo dolore animi dicam? Quod crimen eius modi est ut, cum primum ad me delatum est, usurum me illo non putarem; tametsi enim verissimum esse 5 intellegebam, tamen credibile fore non arbitrabar. Quid nunc agam? Rem in medio ponam: quae tantum habet ipsa gravitatis ut neque mea, quae nulla est, neque cuiusquam ad inflammandos vestros animos eloquentia requiratur. 10

Caedebatur virgis in medio foro Messanae civis Romanus, iudices; cum interea nullus gemitus, nulla vox alia illius miseri inter dolorem crepitumque plagarum audiebatur, nisi haec, Civis Romanus sum. Hac se commemoratione civitatis omnia verbera 15 depulsurum, cruciatum a corpore deiecturum arbitrabatur. Is non modo hoc non perfecit ut virgarum vim deprecaretur, sed cum imploraret saepius usurparetque nomen civitatis, crux, crux, inquam, infelici et aerumnoso comparabatur. 20

O nomen dulce libertatis! O ius eximium nostrae civitatis! O lex Porcia legesque Semproniae! O graviter desiderata et aliquando reddita plebi Romanae tribunicia potestas! Hucine tandem omnia reciderunt ut civis Romanus in provincia populi Romani, 25 in oppido foederatorum, ab eo qui beneficio populi Romani fasces et secures haberet deligatus in foro virgis caederetur?

Cicero, in Verrem, ii. 5. 62.

1 Consano municipe = a burgess of Consa, on the borders of Lucania.

22 Lex Porcia. Passed by M. Porcius Cato, 197 B.C., forbade the execution or scourging of a Roman citizen.

Leges Semproniae, a code of laws passed by C. Sempronius Gracchus, 123 B.C. One of these declared it to be the sole right of the people to decide capital cases.

22-24 O graviter desiderata . . . potestas! Sulla (Dictator 82-79 B.C.) took from the tribunes the right of proposing laws, and left them only their original right of Intercessio or veto. In 70 B.C. Pompeius, who had formally accepted the democratic programme, gave back to the tribunes the power to initiate legislation.

The Orationes In Verrem. Cicero, as patronus of the Sicilians, undertook the prosecution of the Senator C. Verres for his gross misconduct as governor of Sicily, 73-71 B.C.



The Lex Gabinia, 67 B.C.

Converterat Cn. Pompei persona totum in se terrarum orbem et per omnia maior cive habebatur. Qui cum consul perquam laudabiliter iurasset se in nullam provinciam ex eo magistratu iturum idque servasset, post biennium A. Gabinius tribunus 5 legem tulit, ut cum belli more, non latrociniorum, orbem classibus iam, non furtivis expeditionibus, piratae terrerent, quasdamque etiam Italiae urbis diripuissent, Cn. Pompeius ad eos opprimendos mitteretur essetque ei imperium aequum in omnibus 10 provinciis cum proconsulibus usque ad quinquagesimum miliarium a mari. Quo decreto paene totius terrarum orbis imperium uni viro deferebatur; sed tamen idem hoc ante biennium in M. Antoni praetura decretum erat. Sed interdum persona ut exemplo 15 nocet, ita invidiam auget aut levat: in Antonio homines aequo animo passi erant; raro enim invidetur eorum honoribus, quorum vis non timetur: contra in iis homines extraordinaria reformidant, qui ea suo arbitrio aut deposituri aut retenturi videntur 20 et modum in voluntate habent. Dissuadebant optimates, sed consilia impetu victa sunt.

Velleius Paterculus, ii. 31.

3-5 Qui cum consul . . . servasset. Pompeius, consul with Crassus in 71-70 B.C., thought it beneath his dignity to accept a consular province, and waited in Rome as a simple citizen until an opportunity should be offered him to play an extraordinary part.

5 A. Gabinius, a client of Pompeius, a man ruined in finances and character, but a dexterous negotiator, a bold orator, and a brave soldier. In 57 B.C. did excellent service as proconsul of Syria.

6-9 ut cum belli more . . . diripuissent. ‘For twenty years the sea had been rendered unsafe by these curses of human society.’ The commerce of the whole Mediterranean was in their power.

13-15 sed tamen . . . decretum erat. In 74 B.C. M. Antonius, son of the orator and father of the triumvir, was entrusted by the Senate with the task of clearing the seas from the corsairs. In spite of his extensive powers, the utter incapacity of Antonius, and the mismanagement of the Senate, caused the expedition to end in failure and disgrace.

Result. ‘The Gabinio-Manilian proposals terminated the struggle between the senate and the popular party, which the Sempronian laws (133-123 B.C.) had begun. As the Sempronian laws first constituted the revolutionary party into a political opposition, the Gabinio-Manilian first converted it from an opposition into a government.’—M.



Pompeius clears the Seas of Pirates, 67 B.C.

Quis enim umquam aut obeundi negoti aut consequendi quaestus studio tam brevi tempore tot loca adire, tantos cursus conficere potuit, quam celeriter Cn. Pompeio duce tanti belli impetus navigavit? Qui nondum tempestivo ad navigandum mari Siciliam 5 adiit, Africam exploravit, in Sardiniam cum classe venit, atque haec tria frumentaria subsidia rei publicae firmissimis praesidiis classibusque munivit. Inde cum se in Italiam recepisset, duabus Hispaniis et Gallia transalpina praesidiis ac navibus confirmata, 10 missis item in oram Illyrici maris et in Achaiam omnemque Graeciam navibus Italiae duo maria maximis classibus firmissimisque praesidiis adornavit, ipse autem, ut Brundisio profectus est, undequinquagesimo die totam ad imperium populi Romani 15 Ciliciam adiunxit: omnes, qui ubique praedones fuerant, partim capti interfectique sunt, partim unius huius se imperio ac potestati dediderunt. Ita tantum bellum, tam diuturnum, tam longe lateque dispersum, quo bello omnes gentes ac nationes 20 premebantur, Cn. Pompeius extrema hieme adparavit, ineunte vere suscepit, media aestate confecit.

Cicero, pro Lege Manilia, 34, 35.

4 tanti belli impetus, fig. for an attacking fleet of such force, which from its size would ordinarily sail slowly.—Wilkins.

5-8 Qui . . . munivit. Early in the year (nondum tempestivo ad navigandum) Pompeius cleared of pirates the Sicilian, African, and Sardinian waters, so re-establish the supply of grain from these provinces to Italy.

14-18 undequagesimo . . . dediderunt. The bold Cilician seakings alone ventured to face the Roman fleet in the offing of Coracesium (at the W. frontier of Cilicia), but were completely defeated. Forty-nine days (undequinquagesimo) after Pompeius had appeared in the Eastern seas, Cilicia was subdued, and the war at an end. ‘In all about 1300 piratical vessels are said to have been destroyed: besides which the richly filled arsenals and magazines of the buccaneers were burnt. Of the pirates, about 10,000 perished (interfecti); upwards of 20,000 fell alive (partim capti—partim se dediderunt) into the hands of the victor.’—M.

22 ineunte vere . . . confecit. ‘In the summer of 67 B.C., three months after the beginning of the campaign, commerce resumed its wonted course, and instead of the former famine abundance prevailed in Italy.’—M.

This was the first trial of rule centralised in a single hand, and Pompeius fully justified the confidence that was placed in him.



Pompeius subdues Mithridates and Tigranes.

Pompeius interea memorabile adversus Mithridaten, qui post Luculli profectionem magnas novi exercitus vires reparaverat, bellum gessit. At rex fusus fugatusque et omnibus exutus copiis Armeniam Tigranenque generum petit, regem eius temporis, 5 nisi qua Luculli armis erat infractus, potentissimum. Simul itaque duos persecutus Pompeius intravit Armeniam. Prior filius Tigranis, sed discors patri, pervenit ad Pompeium: mox ipse supplex et praesens se regnumque dicioni eius permisit, 10 praefatus neminem alium neque Romanum neque ullius gentis virum futurum fuisse, cuius se societate commissurus foret, quam Pompeium; non esse turpe ab eo vinci, quem vincere esset nefas, neque inhoneste aliquem summitti huic, quem fortuna super 15 omnes extulisset. Servatus regi honos imperi, sed multato ingenti pecunia, quae omnis, sicuti Pompeio moris erat, redacta in quaestoris potestatem ac publicis descripta litteris. Syria aliaeque, quas occupaverat, provinciae ereptae, et aliae restitutae populo 20 Romano, aliae tum primum in eius potestatem redactae, ut Syria, quae tum primum facta est stipendiaria. Finis imperi regi terminatus Armenia.

Velleius Paterculus, ii. 37.

Context. In 66 B.C. Lucullus, of whom Mommsen says ‘hardly any other Roman general accomplished so much with so trifling means,’ was superseded by Pompeius. By the Lex Manilia Pompeius obtained, in addition to the extensive powers conferred upon him by the Lex Gabinia 67 B.C., the military administration of Asia as far as Armenia. ‘Never since Rome stood had such power been united in the hands of a single man.’—M.

3-4 rex fusus . . . copiis, i.e. in Lesser Armenia, on S. bank of R. Lycus, where Pompeius afterwards founded Nicopolis.

5 Tigranenque generum petit. Tigranes had married Cleopatra, the daughter of Mithridates.

17-19 quae omnis . . . litteris, i.e. paid into the Roman treasury. Cf. Lucan ix. 197 Immodicas possedit opes, sed plura retentis | Intulit sc. in aerarium.

The End of Mithridates. After his defeat at Nicopolis the aged king took refuge in his Northern capital of Panticapaeum (on the Cimmerian Bosporus). Here, when all turned against him, he took poison, 63 B.C. ‘In him a great enemy was borne to the tomb, a greater than had ever yet withstood the Romans in the indolent East.’—M.

Syria made a Roman Province, 65 B.C.



A. Curule Aedile, 65 B.C.

Aedilis praeter comitium ac forum basilicasque etiam Capitolium ornavit porticibus ad tempus exstructis, in quibus abundante rerum copia pars apparatus exponeretur. Venationes autem ludosque et cum collega et separatim edidit, quo factum est, 5 ut communium quoque impensarum solus gratiam caperet, nec dissimularet collega eius Marcus Bibulus evenisse sibi quod Polluci: ut enim geminis fratribus aedes in foro constituta tantum Castoris vocaretur, ita suam Caesarisque munificentiam unius Caesaris 10 dici.

Suetonius, Divus Iulius, 10.

1 Aedilis. As curule-aedile Caesar exceeded all previous expenditure. This was meant to secure the favour of the democracy, and gain the position of its leader, which was in fact vacant; for Crassus was never popular, and Pompeius was absent in the East.

basilicas (βασιλική sc. οἰκία and στοά: regia) = halls.

2 porticibus: these acted as booths, in a grand fair, as we should say.

4 Venationes, here of the combats with wild beasts.

7 M. Bibulus, also Caesar’s colleague in his first consulship, 59 B.C.

B. Propraetor in Further Spain, 61 B.C.

Ex praetura ulteriorem sortitus Hispaniam, retinentes creditores interventu sponsorum removit, ac neque more neque iure, ante quam provinciae ornarentur, profectus est; pacataque provincia, pari 15 festinatione, non expectato successore, ad triumphum simul consulatumque decessit. Sed cum, edictis iam comitiis, ratio eius haberi non posset nisi privatus introisset urbem, et ambienti ut legibus solveretur multi contradicerent, coactus est triumphum, 20 ne consulatu excluderetur, dimittere.

Suetonius, Divus Iulius, 18.

Context. In 69 B.C. Caesar was elected to a Quaestorship (the lowest step in the ladder of official life) and discharged his judicial duties in Further Spain with tact and industry.

13 retinentes . . . removit = freed himself from his creditors, who were for detaining him, by the help of sureties. Caesar is said to have borrowed from Crassus 830 talents.

14-15 ante quam provinciae ornarentur: a regular phrase used of supplying the newly chosen magistrate with money, arms, attendants, etc.

18 ratio . . . posset = his candidature could not be considered.

Propraetor in F. Spain. ‘His governorship enabled him partly to rid himself of his debts partly to lay the foundation for his military repute.’—M.



Cicero declaims against the Audacity of Catiline.

Quo usque tandem abutere, Catilina, patientia nostra? Quam diu etiam furor iste tuus nos eludet? Quem ad finem sese effrenata iactabit audacia? Nihilne te nocturnum praesidium Palati, nihil urbis vigiliae, nihil timor populi, nihil concursus bonorum 5 omnium, nihil hic munitissimus habendi senatus locus, nihil horum ora voltusque moverunt? Patere tua consilia non sentis? Constrictam iam horum omnium scientia teneri coniurationem tuam non vides? Quid proxima, quid superiore nocte egeris, 10 ubi fueris, quos convocaveris, quid consilii ceperis, quem nostrum ignorare arbitraris? O tempora! O mores! Senatus haec intellegit; consul videt: hic tamen vivit. Vivit? immo vero etiam in senatum venit: fit publici consilii particeps; notat at designat 15 oculis ad caedem unum quemque nostrum. . . . Castra sunt in Italia contra rem publicam in Etruriae faucibus collocata: crescit in dies singulos hostium numerus; eorum autem castrorum imperatorem ducemque hostium intra moenia atque 20 adeo in senatu videmus intestinam aliquam cotidie perniciem rei publicae molientem. Si te iam, Catilina, eomprehendi, si interfici iussero, credo, erit verendum mihi ne non hoc potius omnes boni serius a me quam quisquam crudelius factum esse dicat. 25

Cicero, in Catilinam, i. §§ 1, 2, 5.

1 Quo usque tandem abutere = how long, pray, will you presume upon? Catiline had been declared hostis patriae, and yet dared to appear in the Senate.

4 praesidium Palati: in the case of any threatening danger the Mons Palatinus was occupied as one of the most important military points in the city.

6-7 senatus locus, i.e. the temple of Jupiter Stator, on the N. slope of the Palatine, chosen as the safest meeting-place, and near Cicero’s house.

17-18 castra . . . collocata, the camp of Manlius (one of the veteran centurions of Sulla) was planted at Faesulae (Fiesole), a rocky fastness three miles N.E. of Florence.

19 imperatorem: ironical, as though Catiline were the legally appointed general of the Republic.

In L. Catilinam Oratio i. ‘This splendid oration, in its fiery vigour and mastery of invective, is unsurpassed except by the Second Philippic.’—Cruttwell.

Its effect on Catiline. Tum ille furibundus ‘quoniam quidem circumventus’ inquit ‘ab inimicis praeceps agor, incendium meum ruina restinguam.’ Sall. Catil. 31. That night Catiline left Rome for the camp of Manlius.



The End of Catiline.

Sed confecto proelio tum vero cerneres, quanta audacia quantaque vis animi fuisset in exercitu Catilinae. Nam fere, quem quisque vivus pugnando locum ceperat, eum, amissa anima, corpore tegebat. Pauci autem, quos medios cohors praetoria disiecerat, 5 paulo divorsius, sed omnes tamen advorsis volneribus conciderant. Catilina vero longe a suis inter hostium cadavera repertus est, paululum etiam spirans ferociamque animi, quam habuerat vivus, in voltu retinens. Postremo ex omni copia neque in 10 proelio neque in fuga quisquam civis ingenuus captus est. Ita cuncti suae hostiumque vitae iuxta pepercerant. Neque tamen exercitus populi Romani laetam aut incruentam victoriam adeptus erat; nam strenuissumus quisque aut occiderat in proelio, aut 15 graviter volneratus discesserat. Multi autem, qui de castris visundi aut spoliandi gratia processerant, volventes hostilia cadavera, amicum alii, pars hospitem aut cognatum reperiebant; fuere item, qui inimicos suos cognoscerent. Ita varie per omnem 20 exercitum laetitia, maeror, luctus atque gaudia agitabantur.

Sallust, Bellum Catilinae, 61.

5 cohors praetoria: a corps d’élite, specially organised as a bodyguard of the general (praetor = praeitor, prae + eo), dating from the time when the praetores was the older name of the consuls (= colleagues).

8 etiam (= adhuc) = still. Cf. Verg. Aen. vi. 485 etiam currus etiam arma tenentem.

11 civis ingenuus, i.e. a free citizen born of free citizens.

12 Ita cuncti . . . pepercerant = so unsparing had they all been alike of their own and their opponents’ lives.—Pollard.

21 laetitia = joy manifested, gaudia = joy felt.

luctus = grief shown by outward signs, e.g. by dress.

maeror = grief shown by inward signs, e.g. by tears, or a sad face.

The Battle of Pistoria (Pistoia, N.W. of Faesulae). ‘Catiline showed on this day that nature had destined him for no ordinary things, and that he knew at once how to command and how to fight as a soldier. At length Petreius, with his bodyguard, broke the centre of the enemy, and then attacked the two wings from within. This decided the day.’—M.

The character of Catiline. ‘He was one of the most wicked men in that wicked age. He possessed in a high degree the qualities which are required in the leader of a band of ruined and desperate men—the faculty of enjoying all pleasures and of bearing all privations, courage, military talent, knowledge of men, indomitable energy.’—M. Cf. Sall. Catil. 5.



Forms the First Triumvirate: Consul, 60-59 B.C.

Hoc igitur consule inter eum et Cn. Pompeium et M. Crassum inita potentiae societas, quae urbi orbique terrarum nec minus diverso quoque tempore ipsis exitiabilis fuit. Hoc consilium sequendi Pompeius causam habuerat, ut tandem acta in 5 transmarinis provinciis, quibus, ut praediximus, multi obtrectabant, per Caesarem confirmarentur consulem, Caesar autem, quod animadvertebat se cedendo Pompei gloriae aucturum suam et invidia communis potentiae in illum relegata confirmaturum 10 vires suas, Crassus, ut quem principatum solus adsequi non poterat, auctoritate Pompei, viribus teneret Caesaris. Adfinitas etiam inter Caesarem Pompeiumque contracta nuptiis, quippe Iuliam, filiam C. Caesaris, Cn. Magnus duxit uxorem. In 15 hoc consulatu Caesar legem tulit, ut ager Campanus plebei divideretur, suasore legis Pompeio: ita circiter XX milia civium eo deducta et ius urbis restitutum post annos circiter CLII quam bello Punico ab Romanis Capua in formam praefecturae 20 redacta erat. Bibulus, collega Caesaris, cum actiones eius magis vellet impedire quam posset, maiore parte anni domi se tenuit: quo facto dum augere vult invidiam collegae, auxit potentiam. Tum Caesari decretae in quinquennium Galliae. 25

Vell. Pat. ii. 44.

1-2 inter eum . . . societas, the famous First Triumvirate. ‘It was at first an expedient to secure, as we should say, a working majority for a vigorous democratic policy, but the bitterness of its enemies transformed the coalition itself from an honourable union into the semblance of a three-headed tyranny.’—Warde Fowler.

4-7 The ultra-senatorial party (after Pompeius’ great act of renunciation, when he dismissed his victorious veterans in 62 B.C.) had checked and worried Pompeius by refusing to ratify his arrangements in the East, and by criticising and opposing his plans for rewarding his veterans. Thus they deliberately drove him once more into the arms of Caesar and the democracy.

10 relegata = attributed, imputed, lit. removed (re + lēgo).

21 Bibulus, collega Caesaris: cf. Suet. Divus Iulius 20:

Non Bibulo quicquam, nuper sed Caesare factum est:

Nam Bibulo fieri consule nil memini.

Caesar’s First Consulship. Among his other acts was the famous Lex Iulia de pecuniis repetundis (against official extortion in the provinces), which won strong praise even from Cicero himself.



THE GALLIC WAR, 58-50 B.C. (1)
‘That day he overcame the Nervii,’ 57 B.C.

Caesar ab decimae legionis cohortatione ad dextrum cornu profectus, ubi suos urgeri signisque in unum locum collatis duodecimae legionis confertos milites sibi ipsos ad pugnam esse impedimento vidit—quartae cohortis omnibus centurionibus occisis, 5 signifero interfecto, signo amisso, reliquarum cohortium omnibus fere centurionibus aut vulneratis aut occisis, in his primipilo P. Sextio Baculo, fortissimo viro, multis gravibusque volneribus confecto, ut iam se sustinere non posset; reliquos esse tardiores et nonnullos 10 ab novissimis deserto proelio excedere ac tela vitare, hostes neque a fronte ex inferiore loco subeuntes intermittere et ab utroque latere instare, et rem esse in angusto vidit neque ullum esse subsidium quod submitti posset, scuto ab novissimis 15 militi detracto, quod ipse eo sine scuto venerat, in primam aciem processit; centurionibusque nominatim appellatis reliquos cohortatus milites signa inferre et manipulos laxare iussit, quo facilius gladiis uti possent. Cuius adventu spe illata militibus ac 20 redintegrato animo, cum pro se quisque in conspectu imperatoris etiam in extremis suis rebus operam navare cuperet, paulum hostium impetus tardatus est.

Caesar, de B. G. ii. 25.

Context. The Nervii, the bravest of the Belgae, surprised Caesar’s men while at work on their camp. There was no time to think: they took station where they could. The 9th and 10th legions on the left broke and pursued the enemy in front of them, and the two legions in the centre stood firm. But on the right there was a gap, and the Nervii were rapidly surrounding the two legions huddled together here, and the fight threatened every moment to become a second Cannae, when Caesar restored the fight. Labienus sent back the victorious 10th, who took the enemy in their rear, and the cavalry completed the victory.

14-15 neque ullum . . . posset: the rear guard, the 13th and 14th legions, had not yet come up.

18-19 signa . . . laxare = to charge and (thus) open out the ranks.

22-23 operam navare = to do their very best. navo (orig. gnavo; cf. γνώσκω) = lit. to make known, to exhibit.

The Battle of the Sambre. One of the most desperate that Caesar ever fought. The memory of it lived in Caesar’s mind so vividly that he seems to fight the battle over again as he describes it, in language for him unusually strong and intense.—W. F.

Result of the Battle, the submission of North West Gaul.



THE GALLIC WAR, 58-50 B.C. (2)
Naval Battle with the Veneti, 56 B.C.

Una erat magno usui res praeparata a nostris,—falces praeacutae insertae affixaeque longuriis non absimili forma muralium falcium. His cum funes qui antemnas ad malos destinabant comprehensi adductique essent, navigio remis incitato praerumpebantur. 5 Quibus abscisis antemnae necessario concidebant; ut, cum omnis Gallicis spes in velis armamentisque consisteret, his ereptis omnis usus navium uno tempore eriperetur. Reliquum erat certamen positum in virtute, qua nostri milites facile 10 superabant atque eo magis, quod in conspectu Caesaris atque omnis exercitus res gerebatur, ut nullum paulo fortius factum latere posset; omnes enim colles ac loca superiora, unde erat propinquus despectus in mare, ab exercitu tenebantur. Disiectis, ut diximus, 15 antemnis, cum singulas binae ac ternae naves circumsteterant, milites summa vi transcendere in hostium naves contendebant. Quod postquam barbari fieri animadverterunt, expugnatis compluribus navibus, cum ei rei nullum reperiretur auxilium, fuga 20 salutem petere contenderunt. Ac iam conversis in eam partem navibus quo ventus ferebat, tanta subito malacia ac tranquillitas exstitit ut se ex loco movere non possent. Quae quidem res ad negotium conficiendum maxime fuit opportuna; nam singulas 25 nostri consectati expugnaverunt, ut perpaucae ex omni numero noctis interventu ad terram pervenerint, cum ab hora fere quarta usque ad solis occasum pugnaretur.

Caesar, de B. G. iii. 14, 15.

Context. In the winter of 57-6 Roman officers, who came to levy requisitions of grain, were detained by the Veneti. Caesar’s attack on their coast-towns failed to reduce them to submission: so he determined to wait for his fleet. This he entrusted to Decimus Brutus, an able and devoted officer. At first the Roman galleys were powerless against the high-decked strong sailing-vessels of the Veneti, but the use of the murales falces, and the opportune calm, enabled Brutus to annihilate their fleet.

11-12 quod . . . gerebatur. Napoleon (Caesar, vol. ii. p. 6) thinks that Caesar was encamped on the heights of Saint Gildas overlooking Quiberon Bay.

23 malacia = a calm, but μαλακία = softness, L. mollities.

Result of the Victory—the surrender of the Veneti and of all Brittany. The earliest historical naval battle fought on the Atlantic Ocean.—M.



THE GALLIC WAR, 58-50 B.C. (3)
Caesar’s Bridge across the Rhine, 55 B.C.

Rationem pontis hanc instituit. Tigna bina sesquipedalia paulum ab imo praeacuta, dimensa ad altitudinem fluminis, intervallo pedum duorum inter se iungebat. Haec cum machinationibus immissa in flumen defixerat fistucisque adegerat—non sublicae 5 modo derecte ad perpendiculum, sed prone ac fastigate, ut secundum naturam fluminis procumberent—eis item contraria duo ad eundem modum iuncta intervallo pedum quadragenum ab inferiore parte contra vim atque impetum fluminis conversa statuebat. 10 Haec utraque insuper bipedalibus trabibus immissis, quantum eorum tignorum iunctura distabat, binis utrimque fibulis ab extrema parte distinebantur; quibus disclusis atque in contrariam partem revinctis, tanta erat operis firmitudo atque 15 ea rerum natura ut, quo maior vis aquae se incitavisset, hoc artius illigata tenerentur. Haec derecta materia iniecta contexebantur ac longuriis cratibusque consternebantur; ac nihilo setius sublicae et ad inferiorem partem fluminis oblique agebantur, quae 20 pro ariete subiectae et cum omni opere coniunctae vim fluminis exciperent; et aliae item supra pontem mediocri spatio, ut, si arborum trunci sive naves deiciendi operis essent a barbaris immissae, his defensoribus earum rerum vis minueretur, neu ponti 25 nocerent.

Caesar, de B. G. iv. 17.

Context. The year 55 B.C. appears to have been marked by a general movement in the migration of the German tribes. An advance, consisting of two tribes, the Usipetes and Tenctri, crowded forward by the more powerful Suevi, crossed the Lower Rhine into N. Gaul. Caesar drove them back across the Rhine, bridged the river, followed them up into their own territories, and fully established the supremacy of the Roman arms.—Allen and Greenough.

5 fistucisque adegerat = and had driven them home (ad-) with rammers. For Plan of Bridge see Allen’s Caesar, p. 103.

11-14 Haec . . . distinebantur = these two sets were held apart by two-feet timbers laid on above, equal (in thickness) to the interval left by the fastening of the piles (quantum . . . distabat), with a pair of ties (fibulis) at each end.—A. & G.

17-18 Haec . . . contexebantur = these (i.e. the framework of timber) were covered over by boards (materia) laid lengthwise.

longuriis = with long poles.

The Bridge (prob. near Bonn). ‘With extraordinary speed (in ten days) the bridge was completed. It was a triumph of engineering and industry.’—W. F.



THE GALLIC WAR, 58-50 B.C. (4)
Second Invasion of Britain, 54 B.C.

Cassivellaunus, omni deposita spe contentionis, dimissis amplioribus copiis, milibus circiter quattuor essedariorum relictis itinera nostra servabat: paulumque ex via excedebat locisque impeditis ac silvestribus sese occultabat, atque eis regionibus quibus 5 nos iter facturos cognoverat pecora atque homines ex agris in silvas compellebat; et cum equitatus noster liberius praedandi vastandique causa se in agros eiecerat, omnibus viis semitisque essedarios ex silvis emittebat; et magno cum periculo nostrorum 10 equitum cum eis confligebat atque hoc metu latius vagari prohibebat. Relinquebatur ut neque longius ab agmine legionum discedi Caesar pateretur, et tantum in agris vastandis incendiisque faciendis hostibus noceretur quantum in labore atque itinere 15 legionarii milites efficere poterant. . . . Cassivellaunus hoc proelio nuntiato, tot detrimentis acceptis, vastatis finibus, maxime etiam permotus defectione civitatum, legatos per Atrebatem Commium de deditione ad Caesarem mittit. 20

Caesar, de B. G. v. 19, 22.

Context. The First Invasion of Britain (55 B.C.) was only a visit of exploration; but in the Second Invasion (54 B.C.) Caesar aimed at a partial conquest. He had been hearing of Britain ever since he came to Gaul, and knew it to be a refuge for his Celtic enemies and a secret source of their strength. He set sail from the Portus Ittius (mod. Wissant, some twelve miles W. of Calais) and after drifting some way to the N.E., made his way to his former landing-place, probably near Romney. Some severe fighting followed, till at length Caesar crossed the Thames (apparently between Kingston and Brentford) and entered the country of Cassivellaunus, who gave Caesar much trouble by his guerilla tactics. Deserted by his allies, Cassivellaunus offered his submission, which Caesar gladly accepted.

1 Contentionis, i.e. of a general engagement with Caesar.

12 Relinquebatur ut = the consequence was that . . .

17 hoc proelio, i.e. the storming by Caesar of his fortified camp, perh. St. Albans.

18-19 defectione civitatum, espec. of the Trinobantes (chief place Camulodunum, later Colonia castrum = Colchester).

19 Commium, Caesar had made him King of the Atrebates (N.W. Gaul).

Caesar In Britain. ‘What he tells us of the geography and inhabitants of the Island comprises almost all we know, except from coins, down to the time of its final conquest by Clodius 51 A.D.’—W. F.



THE GALLIC WAR, 58-50 B.C. (5)
The Gallic uprising.
Fabian tactics of Vercingetorix, 52 B.C.

Vercingetorix tot continuis incommodis acceptis suos ad concilium convocat. Docet ‘longe alia ratione esse bellum gerendum atque antea gestum sit; omnibus modis huic rei studendum ut pabulatione et commeatu Romani prohibeantur: id esse 5 facile, quod equitatu ipsi abundent et quod anni tempore subleventur; pabulum secari non posse; necessario dispersos hostes ex aedificiis petere; hos omnes cotidie ab equitibus deleri posse. Praeterea, salutis causa rei familiaris commoda neglegenda; 10 vicos atque aedificia incendi oportere hoc spatio quoqueversus, quo pabulandi causa adire posse videantur. Harum ipsis rerum copiam suppetere, quod quorum in finibus bellum geratur eorum opibus subleventur: Romanos aut inopiam non laturos aut 15 magno cum periculo longius a castris processuros; neque interesse ipsosne interficiant an impedimentis exuant, quibus amissis bellum geri non possit. Praeterea, oppida incendi oportere quae non munitione et loci natura ab omni sint periculo tuta; ne 20 suis sint ad detrectandam militiam receptacula, neu Romanis proposita ad copiam commeatus praedamque tollendam. Haec si gravia aut acerba videantur, multo illa gravius aestimari debere, liberos, coniuges in servitutem abstrahi, ipsos interfici; 25 quae sit necesse accidere victis.’

Caesar, de B. G. vii. 14.

Context. On his return from Britain, Caesar found the N. Gauls in open revolt. The division of Sabinus (at Aduatuca, near Liège) was annihilated by Ambiorix, and Caesar was only just in time to relieve Q. Cicero at Charleroi. To prevent all further support to the Gauls from the Germans across the Rhine, Caesar again made a military demonstration across the river, and put an end to all the hopes of the Germans of breaking through this boundary. In the winter of 53-2 B.C., during his absence in Cisalpine Gaul, a general uprising of the S. and Central Gauls took place under the Arvernian Vercingetorix, the hero of the whole Gallic race.

6-7 anni tempore, i.e. scarcely yet spring, when no crops could be got off the land.

11-12 hoc spatio quoqueversus, quo = so far in every direction as.

19 oppida incendi: only Avaricum (Bourges) was to be spared.

22 proposita = offered to be captured by the Romans.

The tactics of Vercingetorix. ‘He adopted a system of warfare similar to that by which Cassivellaunus had saved the Celts of Britain.’—M.



THE GALLIC WAR, 58-50 B.C. (6)
Siege of Gergovia.
Petronius dies to save his men, 52 B.C.

Cum acerrime comminus pugnaretur, hostes loco et numero, nostri virtute confiderent, subito sunt Aedui visi ab latere nostris aperto, quos Caesar ab dextra parte alio ascensu manus distinendae causa miserat. Hi similitudine armorum vehementer 5 nostros perterruerunt. Eodem tempore L. Fabius centurio quique una murum ascenderant circumventi atque interfecti de muro praecipitabantur. M. Petronius, eiusdem legionis centurio, cum portas excidere conatus esset, a multitudine oppressus ac sibi desperans, 10 multis iam volneribus acceptis, manipularibus suis qui illum secuti erant, ‘Quoniam,’ inquit, ‘me una vobiscum servare non possum, vestrae quidem certe vitae prospiciam, quos cupiditate gloriae adductus in periculum deduxi. Vos data facultate vobis consulite.’ 15 Simul in niedios hostes irrupit, duobusque interfectis reliquos a porta paulum submovit. Conantibus auxiliari suis, ‘Frustra,’ inquit, ‘meae vitae subvenire conamini, quem iam sanguis viresque deficiunt. Proinde abite dum est facultas vosque ad 20 legionem recipite.’ Ita pugnans post paulum concidit ac suis saluti fuit.

Caesar, de B. G. vii. 50.

Context. With a half-starved army Caesar stormed Avaricum after a most obstinate defence, and then laid siege to the Arvernian capital of Gergovia, in hope of destroying Vercingetorix and ending the war. As the town was too strong to be taken by storm, he resolved to try a blockade, but he failed, as at Dyrrachium in 49 B.C., from want of sufficient troops.

A last desperate attack on the town was repulsed, and Caesar, defeated for the first time, was forced to raise the siege.

3 ab latere nostris aperto: as a soldier carries his shield on the left arm, leaving the sword hand free, this (right) side is called latus apertum.—Compton.

4 manus distinendae causa = for the purpose of diverting (distinendae, lit. hold off) the enemy’s force.

6 perterruerunt: this was all the more natural, as the Aeduan contingent was only awaiting the result of the blockade, to openly join the insurgents.

9 excidere = to cut away, hew down, i.e. from within.

Gergovia, 4 miles S. of Clermont. This famous stronghold consists of a rectangular plateau nearly a mile in length, and some 1300 feet above the plain through which the Allier flows, and descending steeply on all sides but one to the ground.

Caesar’s failure. ‘The fact was that chiefly owing to the nature of the ground and their own ardour, Caesar’s men were not well in hand.’—W. F.



THE GALLIC WAR, 58-50 B.C. (7)
Siege of Alesia.
The Last Fight of Vercingetorix, 52 B.C.

Vercingetorix ex arce Alesiae suos conspicatus ex oppido egreditur: crates, longurios, musculos, fasces, reliquaque quae eruptionis causa paraverat profert. Pugnatur uno tempore omnibus locis atque omnia temptantur; quae minime visa pars firma est huc 5 concurritur. Romanorum manus tantis munitionibus distinetur nec facile pluribus locis occurrit. . . . Labienus, postquam neque aggeres neque fossae vim hostium sustinere poterant, coactis XI cohortibus, quas ex proximis praesidiis deductas fors obtulit, 10 Caesarem per nuntios facit certiorem quid faciendum existimet. Accelerat Caesar ut proelio intersit. Eius adventu ex colore vestitus cognito (quo insigni in proeliis uti consuerat), turmisque equitum et cohortibus visis quas se sequi iusserat, ut de locis 15 superioribus haec declivia et devexa cemebantur, hostes proelium committunt. Utrimque clamore sublato excipit rursus ex vallo atque omnibus munitionibus clamor. Nostri omissis pilis gladiis rem gerunt. Repente post tergum equitatus cernitur: 20 cohortes aliae appropinquant. Hostes terga vertunt; fugientibus equites occurrunt: fit magna caedes: pauci ex tanto numero se incolumes in castra recipiunt.

Caesar, de B. G. vii. 84, 87, 88.

Context. After his successful defence of Gergovia, Vercingetorix allowed his judgment to be overruled, and attacked Caesar’s army (now united to the division of Labienus) on the march. Caesar shook off the enemy with the help of his German cavalry, and turned their retreat into a rout. V. then threw himself with all his forces into Alesia. Caesar constructed an inner line of investment and an outer line of defence, and was thus able to wear out the besieged and beat back the relieving host of the Gauls.

1 suos, i.e. the host (some 250,000) of the relieving army of Gauls.

2 musculos (dimin. of mus) = pent-houses or sheds.

4 omnibus locis, i.e. along the whole length of Caesar’s outer line of defence, where it ran along the slope of Mont Réa, to the N.W. of Alesia. This, as the relieving Gauls were quick to see, was the weakest point of the whole line.

13 ex colore vestitus, i.e. the purple or scarlet paludamentum.

Vercingetorix. The Celtic officers delivered up V. to Caesar, to be led in triumph five years later, and beheaded as a traitor. In 1865 a statue was erected on the summit of Alesia, in honour of the heroic Gaul.

The fall of Alesia decided the fate of Gaul.



CICERO IN EXILE, March 58 B.C.-August 57 B.C. (1)
His Banishment.

Per idem tempus P. Clodius, homo nobilis, disertus, audax, quique dicendi neque faciendi ullum nisi quem vellet nosset modum, malorum propositorum exsecutor acerrimus, cum graves inimicitias cum M. Cicerone exerceret (quid enim inter tam 5 dissimilis amicum esse poterat?) et a patribus ad plebem transisset, legem in tribunatu tulit, qui civem Romanum non damnatum interemisset, ei aqua et igni interdiceretur: cuius verbis etsi non nominabatur Cicero, tamen solus petebatur. Ita vir optime 10 meritus de re publica conservatae patriae pretium calamitatem exili tulit. Non caruerunt suspicione oppressi Ciceronis Caesar et Pompeius. Hoc sibi contraxisse videbatur Cicero, quod inter xx viros dividendo agro Campano esse noluisset. Idem intra 15 biennium sera Cn. Pompei cura, verum ut coepit intenta, votisque Italiae ac decretis senatus, virtute atque actione Anni Milonis tribuni pl. dignitati patriaeque restitutus est. Neque post Numidici exilium ac reditum quisquam aut expulsus invidiosius 20 aut receptus est laetius: cuius domus quam infeste a Clodio disiecta erat, tam speciose a senatu restituta est.

Velleius Paterculus, ii. 45.

6-7 a patribus . . . transisset. When Cicero refused to throw in his lot with the Triumvirs, Publius Clodius was (by the aid of Caesar as Pontifex Maximus) hurriedly transferred from a patrician to a plebeian gens, and then chosen a tribune of the people for the year 58 B.C. Clodius was thus enabled to satisfy his private hatred of Cicero, and Caesar was enabled to get rid of the man who persisted in opposing him.

7-8 qui . . . interemisset: aimed at Cicero for his share in the summary execution of the Catilinarians 63 B.C. Mommsen calls it a judicial murder. Undoubtedly the Senate had not the power of sentencing citizens to death. But Cicero argues that the legal effect of the Senatus consultum ultimum was to disenfranchise Lentulus and his associates, and to place them in the position of outlaws.

12-13 Non caruerunt . . . Pompeius: Caesar having in vain tried to win him over abandoned him to his fate, and Pompeius basely deserted him.

15 dividendo agro Campano, i.e. by Caesar’s Agrarian Law of 59 B.C., to provide for Pompey’s veterans.

18 Anni Milonis: the bravoes of Milo protected from disturbance the voters engaged in sanctioning the decree for the recall of Cicero.

19 Numidici, i.e. Q. Caecilius Metellus, general against Jugurtha, superseded by Marius and forced to retire to Rhodes.



CICERO IN EXILE, March 58 B.C.-August 57 B.C. (2)
His Return.

Pr. Nonas Sextiles Dyrrachio sum profectus, ipso illo die, quo lex est lata de nobis; Brundisium veni Nonis Sextilibus: ibi mihi Tulliola mea fuit praesto natali suo ipso die, qui casu idem natalis erat et Brundisinae coloniae et tuae vicinae Salutis; quae 5 res animadversa a multitudine summa Brundisinorum gratulatione celebrata est. Ante diem vi Idus Sextiles cognovi, cum Brundisii essem, litteris Quinti, mirifico studio omnium aetatum atque ordinum, incredibili concursu Italiae legem comitiis 10 centuriatis esse perlatam: inde a Brundisinis honestissimis ornatus iter ita feci, ut undique ad me cum gratulatione legati convenerint. Ad urbem ita veni, ut nemo ullius ordinis homo nomenclatori notus fuerit, qui mihi obviam non venerit, praeter eos 15 inimicos, quibus id ipsum, se inimicos esse, non liceret aut dissimulare aut negare. Cum venissem ad portam Capenam, gradus templorum ab infima plebe completi erant, a qua plausu maximo cum esset mihi gratulatio significata, similis et frequentia 20 et plausus me usque ad Capitolium celebravit, in foroque et in ipso Capitolio miranda multitudo fuit. Postridie in senatu, qui fuit dies Nonarum Septembr., senatui gratias egimus.

Cicero, Ep. ad Att. iv. 1.

1 Dyrrachio (formerly Epidamnus, mod. Durazzo), a town in Illyria, on a peninsula in the Adriatic. It was the usual port of landing and departure from and for Brundisium (distant about 100 miles).

3 Tulliola, Cicero’s dearly-loved daughter Tullia, the only one of his family of whose conduct he never complains, and his tender and sympathising companion in all his pursuits.

4-5 qui casu . . . coloniae. Brundisium was founded 244 B.C. The Via Appia terminated here.

5 tuae vicinae Salutis, the Temple of Salus on the Quirinal was near the house of Atticus.

9 Quinti (sc. Ciceronis): Cicero’s only brother, a gallant soldier (e.g. as legatus to Caesar in Gaul), but a man of violent temper. Proscribed by the Triumvirs, and put to death in 43 B.C.

11-12 a Brundisinis . . . ornatus = having received attentions from the most respectable men of Brundisium.

13 legati = deputations, i.e. from the various towns en route.

14 nomenclatori (= lit. one who calls by name, cf. καλ-έω, Cal-endae): a confidential slave who attended his master in canvassing, and on similar occasions, and told him the names of the people he met.

18 ad portam Capenam (Porta S. Sebastiano), by which the Via Appia led to Capua. ‘Cicero, perhaps for effect, followed the line of triumphal procession.’—Impey.



In praise of Caesar.

Itaque cum acerrimis nationibus et maximis Germanorum et Helvetiorum proeliis felicissime decertavit: ceteras conterruit, compulit, domuit, imperio populi Romani parere assuefecit, et quas regiones, quasque gentes nullae nobis antea litterae, 5 nulla vox, nulla fama notas fecerat, has noster imperator nosterque exercitus et populi Romani arma peragrarunt. Semitam tantum Galliae tenebamus antea, patres conscripti; ceterae partes a gentibus aut inimicis huic imperio, aut infidis, aut 10 incognitis, aut certe immanibus et barbaris et bellicosis tenebantur; quas nationes, nemo umquam fuit, quin frangi domarique cuperet; nemo sapienter de republica nostra cogitavit iam inde a principio huius imperi, quin Galliam maxime timendam huic 15 imperio putaret; sed propter vim ac multitudinem gentium illarum numquam est antea cum omnibus dimicatum. Restitimus semper lacessiti. Nunc denique est perfectum, ut imperii nostri terrarumque illarum idem esset extremum. 20

Cicero, de Provinciis Consularibus, § 33.

3 compulit = checked, usu. = to constrain.

5 nullae litterae = no book.

8 Semitam tantum Galliae = it was but a strip of Gaul.—W. F. Semita (se + mi = go aside, cf. meo, trames) = lit. a narrow way, path.

13-14 nemo . . . cogitavit = there never has been a prudent statesman.—W. F.

17 cum omnibus, i.e. with the Gauls as a nation.

19-20 ut imperi . . . extremum, i.e. that our Empire extends to the utmost limits of that land.

Cicero’s Recantation (παλινῳδία). The time for the struggle between the Senatorial party (the Optimates) and the Triumvirs, weakened by their mutual jealousy, seemed to have come. Accordingly Cicero proposed in a full house to reconsider Caesar’s Agrarian Law (of 59 B.C.) for the allotment of lands in Campania; while Domitius Ahenobarbus (candidate for next year’s Consulship) openly declared his intention to propose Caesar’s recall. Caesar acted with his usual promptness, and the Conference at Luca restored an understanding between the three regents. Pompeius then crossed to Sardinia, and informed Q. Cicero that he would be held reponsible for any act of hostility on the part of his brother. Cicero had no choice but to submit, and delivered in the Senate his oration de Provinciis Consularibus, a political manifesto on behalf of Caesar and Pompeius—the Recantation alluded to in Ep. ad Att. iv. 5, and elaborately explained in Ep. ad Fam. i. 9 (to Lentulus Spinther).



CARRHAE, 53 B.C. (1)
‘Quem deus vult perdere, prius dementat.’

Dum Gallos per Caesarem in septentrione debellat, ipse interim ad orientem grave volnus a Parthis populus Romanus accepit. Nec de fortuna queri possumus; caret solacio clades. Adversis et dis et hominibus cupiditas consulis Crassi, dum Parthico 5 inhiat auro, undecim strage legionum et ipsius capite multata est. Primum enim, qui solus et subvehere commeatus et munire poterat a tergo, relictus Euphrates, dum simulato transfugae cuidam Mazzarae Syro creditur. Tum in mediam camporum 10 vastitatem eodem duce ductus exercitus, ut undique hosti exponeretur. Itaque vixdum venerat Carrhas cum undique praefecti regis Silaces et Surenas ostendere signa auro sericisque vexillis vibrantia. Tunc sine mora circumfusi undique equitatus in 15 modum grandinis atque nimborum densa pariter tela fuderunt. Sic miserabili strage deletus exercitus. Ipse in colloquium sollicitatus signo dato vivus in hostium manus incidisset, nisi tribunis reluctantibus fugam ducis barbari ferro occupassent. Filium 20 ducis paene in conspectu patris eisdem telis operuerunt. Reliquiae infelicis exercitus, quo quemque rapuit fuga, in Armeniam Ciliciam Syriamque distractae vix nuntium cladis rettulerunt.

Florus, III. xi. 1-10 (sel.)

Context. By the conference of the Triumvirs at Luca, it was arranged to secure the succession of Crassus to the government of Syria, in order to make war on the growing strength of the Parthian Empire beyond the Euphrates. Consul with Pompeius in 55 B.C. he set out for his province even before the expiration of his consulship ‘eager to gather in the treasures of the East in addition to those of the West.’

7-14 Primum enim . . . vibrantia. The Arab prince Abgarus induced Crassus to leave the Euphrates, and cross the great Mesopotamian desert to the Tigris. When at length the enemy offered battle some 30 miles to the S. of Carrhae (Harran, not far from Edessa), by the side of the Parthian vizier stood prince Abgarus with his Bedouins.

15-17 Tunc sine mora . . . exercitus. The Roman weapons of close combat, and the Roman system of concentration yielded for the first time to cavalry and distant warfare (the bow).

20-21 Filium ducis: his young and brave son Publius, who had served with the greatest distinction under Caesar in Gaul.

22 Reliquiae: out of 40,000 Roman legionaries, who had crossed the Euphrates, not a fourth part returned: 20,000 fell, and 10,000 were taken prisoners.

Carrhae. ‘The day of Carrhae takes its place side by side with the days of the Allia, and of Cannae.’—M.



CARRHAE, 53 B.C. (2)
After the Battle.

Temporis angusti mansit concordia discors,

Paxque fuit non sponte ducum; nam sola futuri


Crassus erat belli medius mora. Qualiter undas

Qui secat et geminum gracilis mare separat Isthmos

Nec patitur conferre fretum: si terra recedat,

Ionium Aegaeo frangat mare: sic, ubi saeva

Arma ducum dirimens miserando funere Crassus


Assyrias Latio maculavit sanguine Carrhas,

Parthica Romanos solverunt damna furores.

Plus illa vobis acie quam creditis actum est,

Arsacidae: bellum victis civile dedistis.

Lucan, Pharsalia, i. 98-108.

98 Temporis . . . discors = the short-lived concord endured, but it was a jarring (discors) concord.—Haskins.

101 Isthmos, sc. of Corinth: Caesar planned to cut it, and thus to secure a direct route by sea, connecting Italy and the East.

102 Nec patitur . . . fretum = and suffers it (mare, l. 101) not to join its waters, i.e. the Corinthian and Saronic gulfs.


Milesne Crassi coniuge barbara

Turpis maritus vixit, et hostium

(Pro curia inversique mores!)


Consenuit socerorum in armis

Sub rege Medo Marsus et Apulus,

Anciliorum et nominis et togae

Oblitus aeternaeque Vestae,


Incolumi Iove et urbe Roma?

Horace, Odes III. v. 5-12.

Nearly 10,000 Roman prisoners were settled by the victors in the oasis of Merv, as bondsmen compelled after the Parthian fashion to render military service (in armis, l. 8).

8 Consenuit: Carrhae (53 B.C.) was fought 26 years before this Ode was written (27 B.C.).

10-11 Anciliorum, aeternae Vestae, pledges of the immortality of Rome.

10 togae, i.e. the Roman people, the gens togata.

12 Iove, Jove’s temple on the Capitol.


Crassus ad Euphraten aquilas natumque suosque

Perdidit, et leto est ultimus ipse datus.

“Parthe, quid exsultas?” dixit dea, “signa remittes,


Quique necem Crassi vindicet, ultor erit.”

Ovid, Fasti, vi. 465-468.

467-468 During the last few months of his life, Caesar was occupied with the preparations for his expedition against the Parthians. In 36 B.C. Antonius carried on a disastrous campaign against Phraates, King of Parthia, but in 20 B.C. Augustus received from the King the Eagles (signa, l. 467) and prisoners captured at Carrhae.



His humane Administration.

Ipse in Asiam profectus sum Tarso Nonis Ianuariis, non mehercule dici potest, qua admiratione Ciliciae civitatum maximeque Tarsensium; postea vero quam Taurum transgressus sum, mirifica exspectatio Asiae nostrarum dioecesium, quae sex 5 mensibus imperii mei nullas meas acceperat litteras, numquam hospitem viderat. Illud autem tempus quotannis ante me fuerat in hoc quaestu; civitates locupletes, ne in hiberna milites reciperent, magnas pecunias dabant, Cyprii talenta Attica CC, qua ex 10 insula—non ὑπερβολικῶς, sed verissime loquor—nummus nullus me obtinente erogabatur. Ob haec beneficia, quibus illi obstupescunt, nullos honores mihi nisi verborum decerni sino; statuas, fana, τέθριππα prohibeo, nec sum in ulla re alia molestus 15 civitatibus, sed fortasse tibi, qui haec praedicem de me. Perifer, si me amas; tu enim me haec facere voluisti. Iter igitur ita per Asiam feci, ut etiam fames, qua nihil miserius est, quae tum erat in hac mea Asia—messis enim nulla fuerat—, mihi optanda 20 fuerit: quacumque iter feci, nulla vi, nullo iudicio, nulla contumelia auctoritate et cohortatione perfeci, ut et Graeci et cives Romani, qui frumentum compresserant, magnum numerum populis pollicerentur.

Cicero, Ep. ad Atticum, v. 21.

1 in Asiam, i.e. to the districts N. of the Taurus range, which belonged geographically to Asia in the Roman sense, but were politically attached to Cilicia.—Watson.

Tarso = on the R. Cydnus, about twelve miles above its mouth. Pompeius made Tarsus the capital of the new province of Cilicia, 66 B.C.

6-7 nullas meas . . . viderat = had never received demands (litteras) from me, never seen a man billeted on them. The hospites = soldiers or public officials.

8 fuerat in hoc quaestu = had been devoted to gain in the following fashion.—Tyrrell.

9 ne in hiberna milites reciperent: Mommsen says ‘A town suffered nearly to the same extent when a Roman army took up winter quarters in it as when an enemy took it by storm.’

15 τέθριππα = statues in chariots drawn by four horses.

20-21 mihi optanda fuerit: i.e. because it gave him the opportunity of showing the effect of his personal influence.—T.

23 compresserant = had stowed away; lit. kept back, rare.

Cicero as Governor. His administration seems to have been just, considerate and popular.

For Cicero’s Ideal of a Roman Governor, see Ep. ad Q. F. i. 1 (Q. Cicero governed Asia as Propraetor 62-58 B.C.)

Nec quemquam iam ferre potest Caesarve priorem
Pompeiusve parem.   Lucan.

56 B.C. By the Conference at Luca it was arranged:—

(i) to give Caesar a new term of five years’ government in which to complete his work in Gaul (until March 1, 49);

(ii) to give Pompeius the government of the two Spains, and Crassus that of Syria, for five years also.

It was further agreed that Pompeius and Crassus should have the consulship for 55 B.C.

52 B.C. Pompeius Sole Consul. So things continued until 52 B.C., when the constant rioting (Clodius v. Milo), and utter lawlessness prevailing in Rome gave Pompeius his opportunity. The Senate in their distress caused Pompeius to be nominated sole Consul, with supreme power to meet the crisis. The death of Julia in 54 and of Crassus in 53 had removed the two strongest influences for peace, and from 52 onwards the breach between Pompeius and Caesar began to widen.

During Caesar’s long absence from Rome his opponents, with Cato at their head, were waiting their chance to impeach him for numerous acts in his province, as soon as he appeared in Rome for the consular elections. He would then be merely a private citizen, and as such amenable to prosecution. Now Caesar’s proconsulship of Gaul was to terminate on March 1, 49, and the consular elections would take place at the earliest in the following summer. There would therefore be an interval between the two offices, and Caesar would be exposed to the utmost peril, if he gave up province and army on March 1, 49. Caesar had long foreseen this. When the law was passed in 55, which added a fresh term of five years to his government, Pompeius seems to have inserted in it (doubtless in accordance with a previous promise to Caesar) a clause prohibiting the discussion of a successor before March 1, 50. Caesar therefore could not be superseded except by the consuls of 49, and these would not be able to succeed him (as proconsuls) till Jan. 1, 48. He would thus be able to retain his army and government throughout the year 49.


Caesar’s canvass for the Consulship. As the law stood, he would have to come in person to Rome. But early in 52 a decree was promulgated, with the support of Pompeius, which relieved him from the necessity of canvassing in person. Caesar might now feel himself safe: he would retain both army and provinces throughout 49, and would not be forced to return to Rome until he was safe from prosecution as Consul.

Lex Pompeia de iure magistratuum. But this did not suit Caesar’s enemies. Pompeius and the Senate combined to alter the whole legal machinery for appointing provincial governors. There was to be an interval of five years between a consulship and a proconsulship, which would prevent Caesar, even if he were duly elected Consul in 49, from obtaining a fresh provincial governorship until five years from the end of 48. When the bill became law (as it did in 51) there would be an interval of some years before any consuls would be qualified under it for provinces: and to fill up the governorships during the interval, the Senate was authorised to appoint any person of consular rank who had not as yet proceeded to a proconsulship. Thus Caesar’s resignation both of his army and his province could be demanded on March 1, 49.

50 B.C. Caesar’s overtures for peace. Caesar let it be known to the Senate through Curio that he was willing to resign his army and provinces if Pompeius would simultaneously do the same: and the Senate voted a resolution in this sense by a majority of 370 to 22. The presiding Consul, Gaius Marcellus, broke up the meeting in anger, and with the two Consuls elected for 49 (Claudius Marcellus and Lentulus Crus) requested Pompeius to put himself at the head of the two legions stationed at Capua and to call the Italian militia to arms.

Caesar had completely attained the object of devolving the initiative of Civil War on his opponents. He had, while himself keeping on legal ground, compelled Pompeius to declare war, and to declare it not as the representative of the legitimate authority, but as general of a revolutionary minority of the Senate, which overawed the majority.—Adapted from Long, Mommsen, and Warde Fowler.



CIVIL WAR, 49-45 B.C. (1)
Caesar crosses the Rubicon, 49 B.C.

Fonte cadit modico parvisque impellitur undis

Puniceus Rubicon cum fervida canduit aestas,


Perque imas serpit valles et Gallica certus

Limes ab Ausoniis disterminat arva colonis.

Tunc vires praebebat hiemps atque auxerat undas

Tertia iam gravido pluvialis Cynthia cornu

Et madidis Euri resolutae flatibus Alpes.


Primus in obliquum sonipes opponitur amnem

Excepturus aquas; molli tum cetera rumpit

Turba vado faciles iam fracti fluminis undas.

Caesar, ut adversam superato gurgite ripam

Attigit Hesperiae vetitis et constitit arvis,


‘Hic’ ait ‘hic pacem temerataque iura relinquo;

Te, Fortuna, sequor; procul hinc iam foedora sunto,

Credidimus fatis, utendum est iudice bello.’

Sic fatus noctis tenebris rapit agmina ductor

Impiger; it torto Balearis verbere fundae


Ocior et missa Parthi post terga sagitta

Vicinumque minax invadit Ariminum, et ignes

Solis lucifero fugiebant astra relicto.

Iamque dies primos belli visura tumultus

Exoritur; seu sponte deum, seu turbidus Auster


Impulerat, maestam tenuerunt nubila lucem.

Lucan, Pharsalia, i. 213-235.

Context. On Lentulus Crus and Claudius Marcellus, the Consuls for 49 B.C., must rest the immediate blame of the Civil War. On Jan. 1st Caesar’s tribune Curio once more presented proposals from Caesar, which startle us by their marvellous moderation (cf. Suet. Caesar, 29, 30), but Lentulus would not allow them to be considered. On Jan. 7th the Senatus consultum ultimum was decreed, and a state of war declared. Caesar crossed the Rubicon, the narrow brook which separated his province from Italy, to pass which at the head of an army was high treason to the State.—W. F.

214 puniceus = dark red: Rubicon, as if from ruber.

216 limes, i.e. until the time of Augustus, by whom Italy was extended to the R. Varus, the boundary between Gallia Narbonensis and Italy.

218 I.e. prob. the third night after the change of moon; gravido = surcharged with rain.—Haskins.

219 Alpes = mountains, not the Alps.

225 temerata, i.e. by Pompeius and the senatorial party.

229 verbere = the thong, i.e. of the sling (fundae).

231 Ariminum (Rimini), at this period the frontier town of Italy.

The Passage of the Rubicon. ‘When after nine years’ absence he trod once more the soil of his native land, he trod at the same time the path of revolution. Alea iacta est.’—M.



CIVIL WAR, 49-45 B.C. (2)
Caesar defends himself before the Senate, April 49 B.C.

His rebus confectis Caesar, ut reliquum tempus a labore intermitteretur, milites in proxima municipia deducit; ipse ad urbem proficiscitur. Coacto senatu iniurias inimicorum commemorat. Docet se nullum extraordinarium honorem appetisse, sed exspectato 5 legitimo tempore consulatus eo fuisse contentum, quod omnibus civibus pateret. Latum ab x tribunis plebis contradicentibus inimicis, Catone vero acerrime repugnante et pristina consuetudine dicendi mora dies extrahente, ut sui ratio absentis haberetur, ipso 10 consule Pompeio; qui si improbasset, cur ferri passus esset? qui si improbassetA, cur se uti populi beneficio prohibuisset? Patientiam proponit suam, cum de exercitibus dimittendis ultro postulavisset; in quo iacturam dignitatis atque honoris ipse facturus 15 esset. Acerbitatem inimicorum docet, qui, quod ab altero postularent, in se recusarent atque omnia permisceri mallent, quam imperium exercitusque dimittere. Iniuriam in eripiendis legionibus praedicat, crudelitatem et insolentiam in circumscribendis 20 tribunis plebis; condiciones a se latas, expetita colloquia et denegata commemorat. Pro quibus rebus hortatur ac postulat, ut rem publicam suscipiant atque una secum administrent.

Caesar, de B. C. i. 32.

Context. After his passage of the Rubicon, Caesar quickly made himself master of Italy. Town after town opened its gates to him. Corfinium (held in force by Domitius for Pompeius) surrendered, and the captured troops enlisted in his ranks. An attempt to blockade Pompeius in Brundisium was skilfully foiled. On the last day of March Caesar arrived at Rome. The Senate was legally summoned by the tribunes Antonius and Cassius, and was invited to unite with him in carrying on the government.

2 municipia, i.e. Brundisium, Tarentum, Hydruntum (Otranto).

10 ut sui . . . haberetur, i.e. allowing him to stand for the consulship in his absence.

15 iacturam dignitatis = sacrifice of prestige.—Long.

19 eripiendis legionibus, i.e. in 50 B.C. Caesar was required to send home a legion he had borrowed of Pompeius, and contribute another himself, ostensibly for the Parthian War; but the legions were detained by Pompeius in Italy, and the Parthian War was quietly dropped.

Caesar in Rome. All Caesar’s acts after the crossing of the Rubicon were entirely unconstitutional. But when he told the senators that he was prepared to take the government on himself, he was justified to himself by the past, and to posterity by the result.—W. F.



CIVIL WAR, 49-45 B.C. (3)
The Campaign round Lerida: the Soldiers fraternise, 49 B.C.

Dixit et ad montes tendentem praevenit hostem.

Illic exiguo paulum distantia vallo

Castra locant. Postquam spatio languentia nullo


Mutua conspicuos habuerunt lumina voltus,

Et fratres natosque sues videre, patresque;

Deprensum est civile nefas. Tenuere parumper

Ora metu, tantum nutu motoque salutant

Ense suos; mox ut stimulis maioribus ardens


Rupit amor leges, audet transcendere vallum

Miles, in amplexus effusas tendere palmas.

Hospitis ille ciet nomen, vocat ille propinquum,

Admonet hunc studiis consors puerilibus aetas;


Nec Romanus erat, qui non agnoverat hostem.


Pax erat, et miles castris permixtus utrisque

Errabat; duro concordes caespite mensas

Instituunt et permixto libamina Baccho;

Graminei luxere foci, iunctoque cubili


Extrahit insomnes bellorum fabula noctes,

Quo primum steterint campo, qua lancea dextrum

Exierit. Dum quae gesserunt fortia iactant,

Et dum multa negant, quod solum fata petebant,

Est miseris renovata fides, atque omne futurum


Crevit amore nefas.

Lucan, iv. 167-179, 196-205.

Context. On leaving Rome Caesar set out for Spain to encounter the veteran army of Pompeius under his legati Afranius and Petreius. If this were crushed, he felt he would be free to take the offensive against Pompeius in the East. Round Lerida (Ilerda) on the R. Segres (a tributary of the Ebro) he fought the most brilliant campaign of all his military life. After severe losses and hardships, Caesar outmanœuvred the Pompeians, cut them off from their base on the Ebro, and forced a surrender on most generous terms.

167 Dixit, sc. Caesar.

ad montes, i.e. the rocky hills through which the retreating Pompeians had to pass before they could reach the Ebro valley. Caesar, by a wonderful march, outstrips (praevenit) them and blocks the way.

169 spatio (sc. interposito) languentia nullo = not failing (languentia) owing to the distance, i.e. they were so near they could not fail to recognise one another.—Haskins.

173 metu, i.e. of their leaders.

175 Rupit leges = burst the bonds of discipline.—H.

178 Admonet . . . aetas = one is reminded of his friend by the time passed together in boyhood’s pursuits.—H.

200 Extrahit = whiles away.

Result of the Campaign. The whole of the western half of the Empire was now in Caesar’s power, with the single exception of Massilia.



CIVIL WAR, 49-45 B.C. (4)
Siege of Massilia.
A Treacherous Sortie, 49 B.C.

Iam satis hoc Graiae memorandum contigit urbi

Aeternumque decus, quod non impulsa nec ipso


Strata metu tenuit flagrantis in omnia belli

Praecipitem cursum, raptisque a Caesare cunctis

Vincitur una mora. Quantum est quod fata tenentur,

Quodque virum toti properans imponere mundo

Hos perdit fortuna, dies!

Lucan, iii. 388-394.

Context. Caesar’s appeal to the leading citizens to espouse his cause was at first successful, but the arrival of Domitius (whom he had treated so generously at Corfinium) with a fleet caused the Massiliots to change their mind. Unable to remain himself, Caesar entrusted the siege to Trebonius, supported by Dec. Brutus with the fleet. He has, however, left us a detailed account of their skill and energy, and of the heroic defence of the citizens, marred by a treacherous sortie under a truce. He returned to receive its final submission, and left the city unharmed, as a tribute ‘rather to its ancient renown than to any claim it had on himself.’

389 non impulsa = not urged by others, i.e. by Pompeius and his adherents. But cf. Caesar, de B. C. i. 34.

391 raptis = speedily won.—H.

B. At hostes sine fide tempus atque occasionem fraudis ac doli quaerunt; interiectisque aliquot diebus, nostris languentibus atque animo remissis, 10 subito meridiano tempore, cum alius discessisset, alius ex diutino labore in ipsis operibus quieti se dedisset, arma vero omnia reposita contectaque essent, portis se foras erumpunt, secundo magnoque vento ignem operibus inferunt. Hunc sic distulit 15 ventus, uti uno tempore agger, plutei, testudo, turris, tormenta flammam conciperent, et prius haec omnia consumerentur, quam quem ad modum accidisset animadverti posset. Nostri repentina fortuna permoti arma, quae possunt, arripiunt; alii ex castris 20 sese incitant. Fit in hostes impetus eorum, sed muro sagittis tormentisque fugientes persequi prohibentur. Illi sub murum se recipiunt, ibique musculum turrimque latericiam libere incendunt. Ita multorum mensium labor hostium perfidia et vi 25 tempestatis puncto temporis interiit.

Caesar, de Bello Civili, ii. 14.

13 contecta: i.e. the shield kept in a leather casing.

16 plutei = screens or mantlets of hurdles covered with raw hides.

17 tormenta (torqu + mentum) = artillery, engines for throwing missiles by twisted ropes; e.g. the ballista, catapulta.

24 musculum = sapping-shed.

turrim latericiam = brick tower.

25 multorum mensium, i.e. from May to August 49 B.C.



CIVIL WAR, 49-45 B.C. (5)
 ‘Nothing in his life
Became him like the leaving it.’

Quid nunc rostra tibi prosunt turbata forumque


Unde tribunicia plebeius signifer arce

Arma dabas populis? Quid prodita iura senatus

Et gener atque socer bello concurrere iussi?

Ante iaces quam dira duces Pharsalia confert,


Spectandumque tibi bellum civile negatum est.

   Libycas en nobile corpus


Pascit aves nullo contectus Curio busto.

At tibi nos, quando non proderit ista silere

A quibus omne aevi senium sua fama repellit,

Digna damus, iuvenis, meritae praeconia vitae.

Haud alium tanta civem tulit indole Roma,


Aut cui plus leges deberent recta sequenti.

Perdita nunc urbi nocuerunt saecula, postquam

Ambitus et luxus et opum metuenda facultas

Transverso mentem dubiam torrente tulerunt;

Momentumque fuit mutatus Curio rerum


Gallorum captus spoliis et Caesaris auro.

Ius licet in iugulos nostros sibi fecerit ense

Sulla potens Mariusque ferox et Cinna cruentus

Caesareaeque domus series; cui tanta potestas

Concessa est? Emere omnes, hic vendidit urbem.

Lucan, Pharsalia, iv. 799-804, 809-end.

Context. In 49 B.C. Curio was sent by Caesar to wrest the corn-province of Africa from the Pompeians. He won a signal success over Varus (allied with Juba) at Utica, but allowed himself to be surprised on the plain of the Bagradas, and, when all was lost, died sword in hand.

800 tribunicia arce = from the citadel of the tribune, i.e. the inviolability of the office and the right of veto. As tribune Curio played an all-important part in the crisis of 50 B.C.

801 prodita iura senatus, i.e. of the right of the senators to appoint governors of the provinces.—Haskins.

802 gener atque socer: by the early death of Julia (54 B.C.)—a beloved wife and daughter—the personal relation between Pompeius and Caesar was broken up.

812 senium (senex) = decay (of lapse of time).

813 digna . . . vitae = such a panegyric (praeconia) as thy life deserves.—H.

815-818 As tribune Curio for a time played the part of an independent republican, till his talent induced Caesar to buy him up.

819 momentum (= movi + mentum) rerum = that which turned the scale of history.—H.

824 vendidit: perh. referred to by Verg. Aen. vi. 621-2:

Vendidit hic auro patriam dominumque potentem

Imposuit; fixit leges pretio atque refixit.



CIVIL WAR, 49-45 B.C. (6)
Caesar’s line of circumvallation, 48 B.C.

Erat nova et inusitata belli ratio cum tot castellorum numero tantoque spatio et tantis munitionibus et toto obsidionis genere, tum etiam reliquis rebus. Nam quicumque alterum obsidere conati sunt, perculsos atque infirmos hostes adorti aut proelio superatos 5 aut aliqua offensione permotos continuerunt, cum ipsi numero equitum militumque praestarent; causa autem obsidionis haec fere esse consuevit, ut frumento hostes prohiberent. At tum integras atque incolumes copias Caesar inferiore militum 10 numero continebat, cum illi omnium rerum copia abundarent; cotidie enim magnus undique navium numerus conveniebat, quae commeatum supportarent, neque ullus flare ventus poterat, quin aliqua ex parte secundum cursum haberent. Ipse autem consumptis 15 omnibus longe lateque frumentis summis erat in angustiis. Sed tamen haec singulari patientia milites ferebant. Recordabantur enim eadem se superiore anno in Hispania perpessos labore et patientia maximum bellum confecisse, meminerant ad 20 Alesiam magnam se inopiam perpessos, multo etiam maiorem ad Avaricum maximarum se gentium victores discessisse.

Caesar, de B. C. iii. 47.

Context. In Jan. (48 B.C.) Caesar set sail from Brundisium and landed safely in Epirus. After a junction with Antonius, who followed him from Brundisium with reinforcements, Caesar established himself close to Dyrrachium (Durazzo), the key of the whole military situation. Pompeius refused to fight, and encamped on a hill close to the sea at Petra, a short distance S. of Dyrrachium, where his fleets could bring him supplies. Caesar now determined to hem him in by a line of circumvallation.

2 tanto spatio: eventually the whole circuit of circumvallation covered at the least 16 miles: to this was afterwards added, just as before Alesia, an outer line of defence.

6 aut aliqua offensione permotos = or demoralised by some other mishap (offensione, lit. stumbling, and so failure).

12-15 Pompeius still had undisputed command of the sea.

Caesar’s lines broken. Pompeius was informed by Celtic deserters that Caesar had not yet secured by a cross wall the beach between his two chains of entrenchment on his left (200 yards apart), leaving it possible to land troops from the sea into the unprotected space. Troops were landed by night: Caesar’s outer line of defence was carried, and his lines broken through. ‘Like Wellington at Burgos in 1812, Caesar failed from want of a sufficient force. In each case the only safe course was a retreat: in each case the retreat was conducted with admirable skill.’—W. F.

see caption

Dyrrachium.   [To face p. 216.



CIVIL WAR, 49-45 B.C. (7)
The Eve of Pharsalus.
Dream of Pompeius.

At nox, felicis Magno pars ultima vitae,

Sollicitos vana decepit imagine somnos.

Nam Pompeiani visus sibi sede theatri


Innumeram effigiem Romanae cernere plebis,

Attollique suum laetis ad sidera nomen

Vocibus, et plausu cuneos certare sonantes.

Qualis erat populi facies clamorque faventis,

Olim cum iuvenis primique aetata triumphi


Post domitas gentes quas torrens ambit Hiberus,

Et quaecumque fugax Sertorius impulit arma,

Vespere pacato, pura venerabilis aeque

Quam currus ornante toga, plaudente senatu,

Sedit adhuc Romanus eques: seu fine bonorum


Anxia venturis ad tempora laeta refugit,

Sive per ambages solitas contraria visis

Vaticinata quies magni tulit omina planctus,

Seu vetito patrias ultra tibi cernere sedes

Sic Romam fortuna dedit. Ne rumpite somnos.


Castrorum vigiles, nullas tuba verberet aures.

Crastina dira quies et imagine maesta diurna

Undique funestas acies feret undique bellum.

Unde pares somnos populi noctemque beatam?

O felix, si te vel sic tua Roma videret.

Lucan, Pharsalia, vii. 7-29.

9 Pompeiani theatri. Pompeius built the first stone theatre at Rome, near the Campus Martius, capable of holding 40,000 people.

10 Innumeram . . . plebis = the image of the countless Roman people. innumeram which belongs to plebis is transferred to effigiem.—Haskins.

14 Olim . . . triumphi, i.e. over Africa 79 B.C. when only 24, and adhuc Romanus eques (l. 19). It was not until 71 B.C. that he triumphed over Spain, after the murder of Sertorius. Lucan confuses the two triumphs.

16 impulit = set in motion (lit. drive forward).

17-18 pura venerabilis . . . toga = no less worshipful in pure white gown than (he would have been) in that which usually adorns the car of triumph, i.e. the toga picta.—H.

20 anxia (sc. quies) = his repose full of anxiety for the future.—H.

21-22 solitas . . . vaticinata = foretelling the opposite of his visions i.e. by the plausus of which he dreamed, the planctus which was in store for him was foreshadowed.—H.

25 nullas = at all. Cf. Cic. Ep.: nullus venit = he never came.

26 Crastina . . . diurna = to-morrow’s night of horror haunted by the sad image of the day’s events.—H.

29 sic, i.e. in dreams.

The Dream of Pompeius. Macaulay says ‘I hardly know an instance of so great an effect produced by means so simple.’



CIVIL WAR, 49-45 B.C. (8)
Pompeius ill-advised at Pharsalus, 48 B.C.

Inter duas acies tantum erat relictum spatii, ut satis esset ad concursum utriusque exercitus. Sed Pompeius suis praedixerat, ut Caesaris impetum exciperent neve se loco moverent aciemque eius distrahi paterentur; idque admonitu C. Triarii 5 fecisse dicebatur, ut primus excursus visque militum infringeretur aciesque distenderetur atque in suis ordinibus dispositi dispersos adorirentur; leviusque casura pila sperabat in loco retentis militibus, quam si ipsi immissis telis occucurrissent, simul fore, ut 10 duplicato cursu Caesaris milites exanimarentur et lassitudine conficerentur. Quod nobis quidem nulla ratione factum a Pompeio videtur, propterea quod est quaedam animi incitatio atque alacritas naturaliter innata omnibus, quae studio pugnae incenditur. 15 Hanc non reprimere, sed augere imperatores debent; neque frustra antiquitus institutum est, ut signa undique concinerent clamoremque universi tollerent: quibus rebus et hostes terreri et suos incitari existimaverunt. 20

Caesar, de Bello Civili, iii. 92.

Context. Caesar made for Apollonia, where he left his wounded, and then marched S.E. into Thessaly, where he joined Domitius Calvinus. (He had been sent with two legions E. into Macedonia, to stop reinforcements for Pompeius under Scipio, Pompeius’ father-in-law.) Pompeius followed Caesar, and encamped on the slope of a hill facing Caesar’s position near Pharsalus. Here he offered battle, his better judgment overruled by the clamorous Senators in his camp.

4-5 aciem . . . paterentur = so as to allow their (advancing) line to become disorganised (distrahi), by the force of its onset.

7 in suis . . . dispositi = by maintaining their proper distances.

Scene of the Fight. The battle was fought near the town of Pharsalus, while the territory of the town was named Pharsalia. Cf. Catull. lxiv. 37:

Pharsalum coeunt, Pharsalia late frequentant.

The Battle. Pompeius had 47,000 infantry and 7000 cavalry against Caesar’s 22,000 infantry and 1000 cavalry. Pompeius stationed his cavalry and archers on his left, and confidently expected to outflank his enemy’s right. But Caesar, foreseeing the defeat of his cavalry, had stationed behind it in reserve 2000 of his best legionaries. When Caesar’s cavalry fell back outnumbered, this reserve ran forward at the charge, not discharging their pila, but using them as spears, and driving them against man and horse. Taken aback by so unusual an infantry attack, the Pompeian cavalry wavered and fled. Caesar’s third line (forming a rear-guard) was now sent forward to support the two front lines, and this decided the battle.—Result. Submission of the East to Caesar.

see caption

Pharsalus.   [To face p. 218.



CIVIL WAR, 49-45 B.C. (9)
A. Pharsalus and Cannae compared.

Non aetas haec carpsit edax monimentaque rerum

Putria destituit: crimen civile videmus

Tot vacuas urbes. Generis quo turba redacta est


Humani? Toto populi qui nascimur orbe

Nec muros implere viris nec possumus agros;

Urbs nos una capit. Vincto fossore coluntur

Hesperiae segetes, stat tectis putris avitis

In nullos ruitura domus, nulloque frequentem


Cive suo Romam, sed mundi faece repletam

Cladis eo dedimus, ne tanto in tempore bellum

Iam posset civile geri. Pharsalia tanti

Causa mali. Cedant feralia nomina Cannae

Et damnata diu Romanis Allia fastis.


Tempora signavit leviorum Roma malorum:

Hunc voluit nescire diem.

Lucan, Pharsalia, vii. 397-411.

397-398 monimentaque . . . destituit = and has abandoned to decay the monuments of the past.—Haskins.

402 vincto fossore = by a chained digger (delver), in consequence of the dearth of free labour. Cf. Juv. xi. 80 squalidus in magna . . . compede fossor.

404 in nullos ruitura = ready to fall, but on the heads of none.—H.

405 faece = dregs. Cf. Juv. iii. 60, 61 Non possum ferre Quirites | Graecam urbem (a Greek Rome); quamvis (and yet) quota portio (how small a fraction) faecis Achaei?

406-407 ne tanto . . . geri = lit. so that during the long time since, it is impossible to wage civil war, i.e. from the dearth of genuine Roman soldiers.

409 Allia: 390 B.C. Cf. Vergil. Aeneid, vii. 717 quosque secans infaustum interluit Allia nomen.

411 nescire = to ignore.

B. The Battlefields of Pharsalus and Philippi.

Ergo inter sese paribus concurrere telis


Romanas acies iterum videre Philippi;

Nec fuit indignum superis, bis sanguine nostro

Emathiam et latos Haemi pinguescere campos.

Scilicet et tempus veniet, cum finibus illis

Agricola, incurvo terram molitus aratro,


Exesa inveniet scabra robigine pila,

Aut gravibus rastris galeas pulsabit inanes,

Grandiaque effossis mirabitur ossa sepulchris.

Vergil, Georg. i. 489-497.

489 Ergo = therefore, in fulfilment of the terrible warnings at the death of Caesar.

490 iterum, i.e. at Philippi 42 B.C.; the first time at Pharsalus.



CIVIL WAR, 49-45 B.C. (10)
How Pompeius died, 48 B.C.

Pompeius, deposito adeundae Syriae consilio, et aeris magno pondere ad militarem usum in naves imposito, duobusque milibus hominum armatis, Pelusium pervenit. Ibi casu rex erat Ptolemaeus, puer aetate, magnis copiis cum sorore Cleopatra 5 bellum gerens, quam paucis ante mensibus per suos propinquos atque amicos regno expulerat; castraque Cleopatrae non longo spatio ab eius castris distabant. Ad eum Pompeius misit, ut pro hospitio atque amicitia patris Alexandria reciperetur atque illius opibus in 10 calamitate tegeretur. Sed, qui ab eo missi erant, confecto legationis officio, liberius cum militibus regis colloqui coeperant eosque hortari, ut suum officium Pompeio praestarent, neve eius fortunam despicerent. His tunc cognitis rebus amici regis, 15 qui propter aetatem eius in procuratione erant regni, sive timore adducti, ne Pompeius Alexandriam Aegyptunique occuparet, sive despecta eius fortuna, iis, qui erant ab eo missi, palam liberaliter responderunt eumque ad regem venire iusserunt: ipsi, 20 clam consilio inito, Achillan, praefectum regium, singulari hominem audacia, et L. Septimium, tribunum militum, ad interficiendum Pompeium miserunt. Ab his liberaliter ipse appellatus naviculam parvulam conscendit cum paucis suis, et ibi 25 ab Achilla et Septimio interficitur.

Caesar, de Bello Civili, iii. 103, 104 (sel.)

Context. After the battle of Pharsalus, Pompeius, closely pursued by Caesar, had thoughts of going to Parthia and trying to form alliances there. While in Cyprus he heard that Antioch (in Syria) had declared for Caesar and that the route to the Parthians was no longer open. So he altered his plan and sailed to Egypt, where a number of his old soldiers served in the Egyptian army.

4 Pelusium, on the E. side of the easternmost mouth of the Nile.

5 cum sorore Cleopatra. By his father’s will, Ptolemy ruled jointly with his sister for three years, 51-48 B.C., when he expelled her. Cleopatra raised an army in Syria and invaded Egypt. The two armies were encamped opposite each other when Pompeius landed to seek the help of Ptolemy.

15 amici regis, e.g. Achillas, l. 21, and espec. Ptolemy’s guardian Pothinus, the de facto ruler of Egypt.

‘On the same day (28 Sept.) on which he had triumphed over Mithridates (61 B.C.) Pompeius died on the desert sands of the inhospitable Casian shore by the hands of one of his old soldiers (Septimius).’—M.



CN. POMPEIUS MAGNUS, 106-48 B.C. (11)
Cato’s Eulogy on Pompeius.

‘Civis obit,’ inquit, ‘multum maioribus impar

Nosse modum iuris sed in hoc tamen utilis aevo,

Cui non ulla fuit iusti reverentia; salva

Libertate potens, et solus plebe parata

Privatus servire sibi, rectorque senatus,


Sed regnantis, erat. Nil belli iure poposcit,

Quaeque dari voluit, voluit sibi posse negari.

Immodicas possedit opes, sed plura retentis

Intulit: invasit ferrum, sed ponere norat;

Praetulit arma togae, sed pacem armatus amavit;


Iuvit sumpta ducem, iuvit dimissa potestas.

Casta domus luxuque carens corruptaque numquam

Fortuna domini. Clarum et venerabile nomen

Gentibus, et multum nostrae quod proderat urbi.



O felix, cui summa dies fuit obvia victo,

Et cui quaerendos Pharium scelus obtulit enses!

Forsitan in soceri potuisses vivere regno.


Scire mori sors prima viris sed proxima cogi.’


Vocibus his maior, quam si Romana sonarent

Rostra ducis laudes, generosam venit ad umbram

Mortis honos.

Lucan, Pharsalia, ix. 190-217.

190-191 multum . . . iuris = far inferior to our ancestors in recognising the due bounds of power.—Haskins.

193 solus (sc. ex proceribus) . . . servire sibi = alone (of the chief men of the State) acting the private citizen when the populace were ready to be his slaves, i.e. acting unlike Sulla or Caesar.—H.

195 sed regnantis. ‘Pompeius came forward as the duly installed general of the Senate against the Imperator of the street, once more to save his country.’—M.

198 Intulit, sc. in aerarium. Cf. Shaksp. Jul. C. III. ii. (Mark Antony of Caesar) ‘He hath brought many captives home to Rome | Whose ransoms did the general coffers fill.’ ‘Caesar devoted the proceeds of the confiscations (the property of defeated opponents) entirely to the benefit of the State.’—M.

208 cui summa dies . . . victo = whom the day of death met when he was vanquished, i.e. without his having to seek it himself.—H.

209 Pharium = Egyptian, lit. of Pharos (= Faro), an island near Alexandria, famous for its lighthouse.

211 One of Lucan’s famous sententiae (γνῶμαι, maxims).

Pompeius. ‘Even in his own age he would have had a clearly defined and respectable position, had he contented himself with being the general of the Senate, for which he was from the outset destined.’—M.



CIVIL WAR, 49-45 B.C. (12)
The Grave of Pompeius.
His Roll of Fame.

  Tunc ne levis aura retectos


Auferret cineres, saxo compressit harenam:

Nautaque ne bustum religato fune moveret,

Inscripsit sacrum semiusto stipite nomen:



Quod si tam sacro dignaris nomine saxum,

Adde actus tantos monimentaque maxima rerum,

Adde truces Lepidi motus Alpinaque bella

Armaque Sertori revocato consule victa,


Et currus quos egit eques, commercia tuta

Gentibus et pavidos Cilicas maris: adde subactam

Barbariem gentesque vagas et quidquid in Euro

Regnorum Boreaque iacet. Die semper ab armis

Civilem repetisse togam, ter curribus actis


Contentum patriae multos donasse triumphos.

Quis capit haec tumulus? Surgit miserabile bustum

Non ullis plenum titulis, non ordine tanto

Fastorum, solitumque legi super alta deorum

Culmina et exstructos spoliis hostilibus arcus


Haud procul est ima Pompei nomen harena,

Depressum tumulo, quod non legat advena rectus,

Quod nisi monstratum Romanus transeat hospes.

Lucan, Pharsalia, viii. 789-793, 806-822.

Subject. Cordus, whom Lucan calls infaustus Magni comes (or according to Plutarch Philippus the faithful freedman of Pompeius), finds the cast-up body of Pompeius and gives it honourable burial.

793 HIC SITUS EST = ἔνθαδε κεῖται, the regular inscription on a tombstone.

808 truces Lepidi motus. Cf. page 178, last note on page.

809 revocato consule, i.e. Metellus. Cf. page 180, A., l. 12.

811 pavidos Cilicas maris = the Cilicians scared from the sea.—Jebb. Pompeius effecit ut piratae timerent maria quibus ipsi ante grassabantur (= they sailed at will).—Schol.

813-814 dic semper . . . togam, e.g. after his triumph over Spain 71 B.C., and over Mithridates and the East in 61 B.C.

814-815 ter curribus . . . triumphos = (tell how) content with thrice driving the (triumphal) car he made a present to his fatherland of many triumphs, i.e. he did not claim them when he might have done so.

817-818 Non ordine tanto Fastorum = storied with no majestic annals.—Jebb.

819 arcus = triumphal arches, orig. temporary structures of wood, but under the Empire built of marble, e.g. of Septimius Severus.

821 Depressum . . . rectus = sunk low upon a tomb, which the stranger cannot read without stooping (rectus).—Haskins.



CIVIL WAR, 49-45 B.C. (13)
Atrox Animus Catonis, 46 B.C.

Complures interim ex fuga Uticam perveniunt. Quos omnes Cato convocatos una cum trecentis, qui pecuniam Scipioni ad bellum faciendum contulerant, hortatur, ut servitia manumitterent, oppidumque defenderent. Quorum cum partem assentire, partem 5 animum mentemque perterritam atque in fugam destinatam habere intellexisset, amplius de ea re agere destitit, navesque eis attribuit, ut in quas quisque partes vellet proficisceretur. Ipse, omnibus rebus diligentissime constitutis, liberis suis L. Caesari, 10 qui tum ei pro quaestore fuerat, commendatis et sine suspicione, vultu atque sermone, quo superiore tempore usus fuerat, cum dormitum isset, ferrum intro clam in cubiculum tulit, atque ita se traiecit. Qui cum anima nondum exspirata concidisset, et, 15 impetu facto in cubiculum ex suspicione, medicus familiaresque continere atque vulnus obligare coepissent, ipse suis manibus vulnus crudelissime divellit, atque animo praesenti se interemit.

Asinius Pollio, de B. Africo, 88.

Context. After Pharsalus and the flight of Pompeius, we finally part company with Caesar as an author. The Bellum Alexandrinum (Caesar’s perils in Egypt and his settlement of the East 48-47 B.C.), the B. Africum (Thapsus 46 B.C.), the B. Hispaniense (Munda 45 B.C.), are the work of eyewitnesses and officers of his army. After a delay of fifteen precious months Caesar landed in Africa (Jan. 46), and by investing Thapsus tempted Scipio (Pompeius’ father-in-law) to try to save the city by a battle. His troops were quickly arranged as at Pharsalus, and by a single impetuous charge won a complete victory. The slaughter was terrible: the survivors fled to Utica, where Cato in vain tried to organise a defence and to restore order, and then in despair died by his own sword.

1 Uticam: second in importance to Carthage.

19 animo praesenti = deliberately.

After Thapsus. ‘Caesar left Africa in June 46 B.C., and celebrated a magnificent triumph, not over Roman citizens, but over Gauls and Egyptians, Pharnaces and Juba. As Dictator he remained in Rome several months, in which more permanently valuable work was done than was ever achieved in the same space of time, unless it were by Cromwell in 1653-4. The senseless outbreak of the Pompeian party in Spain under Labienus and the two sons of Pompeius took him away from Rome: but the victory of Munda (45 B.C.) closed the civil strife. Caesar returned to Rome in September, and six months more of life was all that was left to him.’—W. F.



CIVIL WAR, 49-45 B.C. (14)
Cato Uticensis, 46 B.C.

A. Hic genitus proavo M. Catone, principe illo familiae Porciae, homo Virtuti simillimus et per omnia ingenio diis quam hominibus propior, qui nunquam recte fecit, ut facere videretur, sed quia aliter facere non potuerat, cuique id solum visum 5 est rationem habere, quod haberet iustitiae, omnibus humanis vitiis immunis semper fortunam in sua potestate habuit.

Vell. Paterc. ii. 35.

1 M. Catone, the famous Censor of 184 B.C.

principe = founder.


Ut primum tolli feralia viderat arma,


Intonsos rigidam in frontem descendere canos

Passus erat maestamque genis increscere barbam:

Uni quippe vacat studiis odiisque carenti

Humanum lugere genus . . .


 Hi mores, haec duri immota Catonis

Secta fuit, servare modum finemque tenere

Naturamque sequi patriaeque impendere vitam

Nec sibi sed toti genitum se credere mundo.

Huic epulae, vicisse famem; magnique penates,


Summovisse hiemem tecto; pretiosaque vestis,

Hirtam membra super Romani more Quiritis

Induxisse togam . . .


Iustitiae cultor, rigidi servator honesti,

In commune bonus: nullosque Catonis in actus

Subrepsit partemque tulit sibi nata voluptas.

Lucan, Pharsalia, ii. 374-391 (sel.)

377 uni (sc. Catoni), as the only true representative of the wise man of the Stoics.—Haskins.

381 secta (sc. via, lit. a beaten way) here = disciplina = principles.

381-383 servare modum . . . mundo. These expressions are Stoic maxims. Lucan (the nephew of Seneca) depicts the Stoic idea of virtue in the character of Cato.

382-383 patriaeque . . . mundo. Cato’s aim is patriae impendere vitam. His devotion to the service of humanity is complete; it is his part toti genitum se credere mundo. But this humanity includes Rome in the first place, the rest of the world in a quite secondary sense.—H.

386-387 hirtam togam = a coarse (lit. hairy) toga.

389 honesti = τοῦ καλοῦ. Cicero defines honestum as aut ipsa virtus, aut res gesta virtute.

Cato Uticensis. ‘He was like Caesar alone in this, that he had clear political convictions and acted on them not only with consistency but with justice and humanity. It is “his vain faith and courage” that alone lights up the dark hours of the falling Commonwealth:—

’Victrix causa deis placuit, sed victa Catoni.’—W. F.



Caesar dines with Cicero, Dec. 19, 45 B.C.

O hospitem mihi tam gravem ἀμεταμέλητον! fuit enim periucunde. Sed cum secundis Saturnalibus ad Philippum vesperi venisset, villa ita completa militibus est, ut vix triclinium, ubi cenaturus ipse Caesar esset, vacaret; quippe hominum ⅭⅠↃ ⅭⅠↃ. 5 Sane sum commotus, quid futurum esset postridie; at mihi Barba Cassius subvenit: custodes dedit. Castra in agro, villa defensa est. Ille tertiis Saturnalibus apud Philippum ad h. VII, nec quemquam admisit: rationes opinor cum Balbo. Inde ambulavit 10 in litore; post h. viii in balneum; unctus est, accubuit. Et edit et bibit ἀδεῶς et iucunde, opipare sane et apparate, nec id solum, sed

     bene cocto,


condito, sermone bono et, si quaeri’, libenter.

Praeterea tribus tricliniis accepti οἱ περὶ αὐτὸν valde copiose. Libertis minus lautis servisque nihil defuit: nam lautiores eleganter accepti. Quid multa? homines visi sumus. Hospes tamen non is, cui diceres: ‘amabo te, eodem ad me, cum revertere’: semel 20 satis est. Σπουδαῖον οὐδὲν in sermone, φιλόλογα multa. Quid quaeris? delectatus est et libenter fuit. Puteolis se aiebat unum diem fore, alterum ad Baias. Habes hospitium sive ἐπισταθμείαν, odiosam mihi, dixi, non molestam. 25

Cicero, Ep. ad Att. xiii. 52.

Subject. We here catch a glimpse of Caesar as he really was. He had spent a night near Puteoli (where Cicero also had a villa) with Philippus, the step-father of Octavianus. The Dictator proposed a visit, and Cicero in this memorable letter describes to Atticus what happened.

1 O hospitem . . . ἀμεταμέλητον! = Oh, what a formidable guest to have had, and yet I have had no reason to repent of it (ἀμεταμέλητον).

10 rationes (sc. conferebat) . . . Balbo = he was settling accounts with Balbus, I suppose. L. Cornelius Balbus, a native of Gades (Cadiz), was Caesar’s confidential secretary and faithful friend. He was the first enfranchised foreigner who attained to the highest magistracy (Consul 40 B.C.).


   ‘Though the cook was good,

’Twas Attic salt (sermone bono) that flavoured most the food.’—Jeans.

18-19 homines visi sumus = I showed myself a man of taste, i.e. as host.

21 Σπουδαῖον οὐδὲν = lit. nothing serious, i.e. nothing political. φιλόλογα = literary chat.

24-25 ἐπισταθμείαν = billeting, as Caesar’s offer to dine with Cicero was equivalent to a command.

odiosam . . . molestam = unwelcome, though not disagreeable.



The Death of Caesar, 44 B.C.

Assidentem conspirati specie officii circumsteterunt; ilicoque Cimber Tillius, qui primas partes susceperat, quasi aliquid rogaturus propius accessit, renuentique et gestu in aliud tempus differenti ab utroque umero togam apprehendit; deinde clamantem: 5 Ista quidem vis est, alter e Cascis aversum vulnerat, paulum infra iugulum. Caesar Cascae brachium arreptum graphio traiecit, conatusque prosilire alio vulnere tardatus est; utque animadvertit undique se strictis pugionibus peti, toga caput 10 obvolvit, simul sinistra manu sinum ad ima crura deduxit, quo honestius caderet etiam inferiore corporis parte velata. Atque ita tribus et viginti plagis confossus est, uno modo ad primum ictum gemitu sine voce edito; etsi tradiderunt quidam 15 Marco Bruto irruenti dixisse: Καὶ σὺ τέκνον; Exanimis, diffugientibus cunctis, aliquamdiu iacuit, donec lecticae impositum, dependente brachio, tres servoli domum rettulerunt. Nec in tot vulneribus, ut Antistius medicus existimabat, letale ullum 20 repertum est, nisi quod secundo loco in pectore acceperat.

Suetonius, Divus Iulius, 82.

Context. After his return from Spain (Sept. 45 B.C.), Caesar was busy with the reconstruction of the Senate, the completion of his vast buildings in Rome, and with other far-reaching projects. But during these months the clouds of ill-will were gathering and threatening him on every side. A conspiracy was formed, of which C. Cassius, ‘a lean and hungry man,’ of a bitter and jealous disposition, seems to have been the real instigator. He persuaded Brutus, a student of life chiefly in books, that liberty could only be gained by murder, and at last it was resolved that the deed should be done on the Ides (15th) of March.

8 graphio (γραφίον = scriptorium) = a writing-style.

12 quo honestius caderet, cf. Ovid, Fasti ii. 833 (of Lucretia):

Tunc quoque iam moriens ne non procumbat honeste

Respicit, haec etiam cura cadentis erat.

16 Καὶ σὺ τέκνον; there seems to be no authority for attributing the words Et tu Brute? to Caesar. Shakespeare found them in an earlier play.

The Murder of Caesar. ‘It is the most brutal and the most pathetic scene that profane history has to record; it was, as Goethe has said, the most senseless deed that ever was done. It was wholly useless, for it did not and could not save Rome from monarchy. The deed was done by a handful of men, who, pursuing a phantom liberty and following the lead of a personal hatred, slew the one man who saw the truth of things.’—W. F.



‘There may be many Caesars
Ere such another Julius.’—Cymbeline.

A. Fuit in illo ingenium, ratio, memoria, litterae, cura, cogitatio, diligentia; res bello gesserat quamvis rei publicae calamitosas, at tamen magnas; multos annos regnare meditatus magno labore multis periculis quod cogitarat effecerat; muneribus, monumentis, 5 congiariis, epulis multitudinem imperitam delenierat: suos praemiis, adversarios clementiae specie devinxerat.

Cicero, Philippica, ii. 45.

4 regnare meditatus. For Caesar monarchy meant the liberation of the Empire.

5-6 muneribus (sc. gladiatoriis) = gladiatorial shows.

monumentis = public buildings, e.g. his forum, amphitheatre, Temple of Venus Genetrix, and other public works begun (e.g. the Curia Iulia) and planned.

6 congiariis (sc. donis), orig. a gift of wine (a congius = about 6 pints), then = wine-money (Ger. Trinkgeld), and so of any largess.

7-8 clementiae specie. Cic. himself refutes this ungrateful taunt in his pro Marcello: Recte igitur unus invictus est, a quo etiam ipsius victoriae condicio visque devicta est.


  Sed non in Caesare tantum

Nomen erat nec fama ducis, sed nescia virtus


Stare loco, solusque pudor non vincere bello.

Acer et indomitus, quo spes quoque ira vocasset,

Ferre manum et numquam temerando parcere ferro.

Successus urguere suos, instare favori

Numinis, impellens quidquid sibi summa petenti


Obstaret, gaudensque viam fecisse ruina.

Lucan, Pharsalia, i. 143-150.

143-144 tantum nomen = not a mere name alone, in contrast to Pompeius:—Stat magni nominis umbra.— Haskins.

147 temerando parcere ferro = shrink from dyeing his sword (in blood).—H.

Apotheosis of Caesar.

C. Periit sexto et quinquagesimo aetatis anno atque in deorum numerum relatus est, non ore modo decernentium sed et persuasione volgi. Si quidem ludis, quos primos consecrato ei heres Augustus edebat, 20 stella crinita per septem continuos dies fulsit, exoriens circa undecimam horam, creditumque est animam esse Caesaris in caelum recepti; et hac de causa simulacro eius in vertice additur stella.

Suet. Div. Iul. 88.

21 stella crinita (= κομήτης); cf. Verg. Georg. iv. 466-8:

Ille (= the sun) etiam exstincto miseratus Caesare Romam

Cum caput obscura nitidum ferrugine (= gloom) texit,

Impiaque aeternam timuerunt saecula noctem.


Caesar was the sole creative genius produced by Rome, and the last produced by the ancient world, which accordingly moved on in the path that he marked out for it until its sun went down.

Whatever he undertook and achieved was pervaded and guided by the cool sobriety which constitutes the most marked peculiarity of his genius. To this he owed the power of living energetically in the present, undisturbed either by recollection or by expectation: to this he owed the capacity of acting at any moment with collected vigour, and of applying his whole genius even to the smallest and most incidental enterprise. Gifts such as these could not fail to produce a statesman.

Caesar as a statesman.—From early youth Caesar was a statesman in the deepest sense of the term, and his aim was the political, military, intellectual, and moral regeneration of his own deeply decayed nation, and of the still more deeply decayed Hellenic nation intimately akin to his own. According to his original plan, he had proposed to reach his object, like Pericles and Gaius Gracchus, without force of arms, until, reluctantly convinced of the necessity for a military support, he, when already forty years of age, put himself at the head of an army.

His talent for organisation was marvellous.—No statesman has ever compelled alliances, no general has ever collected an army out of unyielding and refractory elements with such decision, and kept them together with such firmness, as Caesar displayed in constraining and upholding his coalitions and his legions; never did regent judge his instruments and assign each to the place appropriate for him with so accurate an eye.

He was monarch; but he never played the king.—‘I am no king, but Caesar.’ Even when absolute lord of Rome, he retained the deportment of the party-leader; perfectly pliant and smooth, easy and charming in conversation, complaisant towards 229 everyone, it seemed as if he wished io be nothing but the first among his peers.

Caesar ruled as king of Rome for five years and a half, not half as long as Alexander: in the intervals of seven great campaigns, which allowed him to stay not more than fifteen months altogether in the capital of his empire, he regulated the destinies of the world for the present and the future. The outlines were laid down, and thereby the new State was defined for all coming time: the boundless future alone could complete the structure. But precisely because the building was an endless one, the master so long as he lived restlessly added stone to stone, with always the same dexterity and always the same elasticity busy at work. Thus he worked and created as never did any man before or after him: and as a worker and creator he still, after well-nigh two thousand years, lives in the memory of the nations—the first and withal unique Imperator Caesar.




A. Peroration of the Second Philippic, 44 B.C.

Respice, quaeso, aliquando rem publicam, M. Antoni: quibus ortus sis, non quibuscum vivas considera: mecum, uti voles: redi cum re publica in gratiam. Sed de te tu videris: ego de me ipso profitebor. Defendi rem publicam adulescens, non 5 deseram senex: contempsi Catilinae gladios, non pertimescam tuos. Quin etiam corpus libenter obtulerim, si repraesentari morte mea libertas civitatis potest: ut aliquando dolor populi Romani pariat, quod iam diu parturit. Etenim si abhinc 10 annos prope viginti hoc ipso in templo negavi posse mortem immaturam esse consulari, quanto verius nunc negabo seni? Mihi vero, patres conscripti, iam etiam optanda mors est, perfuncto rebus eis quas adeptus sum quasque gessi. Duo modo haec 15 opto: unum, ut moriens populum Romanum liberum relinquam—hoc mihi maius ab dis immortalibus dari nihil potest,—alterum, ut ita cuique eveniat ut de re publica quisque mereatur.

Cicero, Phil. ii. 46.

2 quibus ortus sis: espec. his grandfather M. Antonius, the famous orator, whom Cicero held in great esteem.

5 adulescens, i.e. in 63 B.C., when he was in his 44th year.

8 repraesentari = be realised, won now and here.—Jebb.

11 templo, i.e. Concordiae. Cic. refers to In Catil. iv.

The Peroration. ‘Such a passage speaks to us with a living impression of unity and directness which we acknowledge without question. We admire and ask for nothing more.’—Nettleship.

B. On the Murder of Cicero, by order of Antonius.

Par scelus admisit Phariis Antonius armis:

Abscidit voltus ensis uterque sacros.

Illud, laurigeros ageres cum laeta triumphos,


Hoc tibi, Roma, caput, cum loquereris, erat.

Antoni tamen est peior quam causa Pothini:

Hic facinus domino praestitit, ille sibi.

Martial, Epig. III. lxvi.

1 Par Phariis armis = which matches (that committed by) the armed hand of an Egyptian, i.e. Pothinus (the guardian of the young king) who planned the murder of Pompeius, when he fled to Egypt 48 B.C.

sacros: consecrated to Rome from their public services.

3-4 Illud caput = Pompeius. hoc caput = Cicero. Cf. Epig. v. lxix: Quid gladium demens Romana stringis in ora?

6 domino, sc. Ptolemaeus, King of Egypt, jointly with Cleopatra.



A. Cicero as Orator and Poet.

Eloquium ac famam Demosthenis aut Ciceronis


Incipit optare et totis Quinquatribus optat

Quisquis adhuc uno parcam colit asse Minervam,

Quem sequitur custos angustae vernula capsae.

Eloquio sed uterque perit orator, utrumque

Largus et exundans leto dedit ingenii fons.


Ingenio manus est et cervix caesa, nec umquam

Sanguine causidici maduerunt rostra pusilli.

‘O fortunatam natam me consule Romam’:

Antoni gladios potuit contemnere, si sic

Omnia dixisset. Ridenda poemata malo


Quam te, conspicuae divina Philippica famae,

Volveris a prima quae proxima.

Juvenal, Satires, x. 114-126.

114-118 Boys at school long to be a Demosthenes or a Cicero.

115 totis Quinquatribus, i.e. during all the five days of the Quinquatria, an annual feast of Minerva, March 19-23: it was always a holiday time at schools, and the school year began at the close of it.

116 parcam Minervam = a cheap kind of learning, and uno asse = an entrance fee of one as. But Duff says as here = stips, i.e. the boy’s contribution to the goddess of wisdom, who can make him wise, and parcam (= economical), transferred from asse to Minervam.

117 vernula = a little home-born slave, capsa a circular box of beech-wood, used for the transport of books.

121 causidici pusilli = of a petty pleader, as opposed to orator.

122 From Cicero’s poem de suo consulatu. Another line quoted in the 2nd Philippic is Cedant arma togae, concedat laurea laudi.

124 Ridenda poemata malo, i.e. they are better as being safer. Juvenal himself refutes this argument:

Summum crede nefas animam praeferre pudori

Et propter vitam vivendi perdere causas.

B. Cicero as Advocate.

Disertissime Romuli nepotum,

Quot sunt quotque fuere, Marce Tulli,

Quotque post aliis erunt in annis,

Gratias tibi maximas Catullus


Agit pessimus omnium poeta,

Tanto pessimus omnium poeta

Quanto tu optimus omnium patronus.

Catullus, xlix.

2 Marce Tulli: the formal address suits the formal expression of thanks to a patronus (= advocate).

5 pessimus omnium poeta: the self-depreciation heightens the praise of the last line.—Merrill.



His Death, by order of Antonius, 43 B.C.

M. Cicero sub adventum triumvirorum urbe cesserat pro certo habens id quod erat, non magis se Antonio eripi quam Caesari Cassium et Brutum posse: primo in Tusculanum fugerat, inde transversis itineribus in Formianum ut ab Caieta navem 5 conscensurus proficiscitur. Unde aliquoties in altum provectum cum modo venti adversi retulissent, modo ipse iactationem navis caeco volvente fluctu pati non posset, taedium tandem eum et fugae et vitae cepit, regressusque ad superiorem villam, quae paulo 10 plus mille passibus a mari abest, ‘moriar,’ inquit, ‘in patria saepe servata.’ Satis constat servos fortiter fideliterque paratos fuisse ad dimicandum; ipsum deponi lecticam et quietos pati quod sors iniqua cogeret iussisse. Prominenti ex lectica praebentique 15 immotam cervicem caput praecisum est. Nec satis stolidae crudelitati militum fuit: manus quoque scripsisse aliquid in Antonium exprobrantes praeciderunt. Ita relatum caput ad Antonium iussuque eius inter duas manus in rostris positum, ubi 20 ille consul, ubi saepe consularis, ubi eo ipso anno adversus Antonium quanta nulla umquam humana vox cum admiratione eloquentiae auditus fuerat: vix attollentes prae lacrimis oculos homines intueri trucidati membra civis poterant. Vixit tres et sexaginta 25 annos, ut si vis afuisset, ne immatura quidem mors videri possit.

Livy, Fr. ap. Sen. Rh. Suas. vii.

1 triumvirorum, sc. Antonius, Octavianus, and Lepidus. These three allies (about the end of Oct. 43 B.C.) held their famous meeting on an island in the R. Rhenus (a tributary of the Padus) near Bononia (Bologna), at which they constituted themselves a commission of three with absolute powers for five years. This was followed by a proscription of their principal opponents, of whom seventeen, including Cicero (sacrificed to Antonius), were at once put to death.

4 in Tusculanum, i.e. to his villa at Tusculum, richly adorned with pictures and statues.

5 in Formianum, i.e. to his villa at Formiae, on the Appian Way, in the innermost corner of the beautiful Gulf of Caieta (Gaëta). Near this villa Cicero was murdered.

The Death of Cicero. Cicero’s work was over, and the tragedy of his death was the natural outcome of his splendid failure. The restoration of the Commonwealth of the Scipios was but a dream; still it was a beautiful dream, and Cicero gave his life for it.—Tyrrell.



In Praise of Cicero.

A. Nihil tamen egisti, M. Antoni, nihil, inquam, egisti mercedem caelestissimi oris et clarissimi capitis abscisi numerando, auctoramentoque funebri ad conservatoris quondam rei publicae tantique consulis irritando necem. Rapuisti tum Ciceroni lucem 5 sollicitam et aetatem senilem et vitam miseriorem te principe quam sub te triumviro mortem, famam vero gloriamque factorum atque dictorum adeo non abstulisti, ut auxeris. Vivit vivetque per omnem saeculorum memoriam, dumque hoc vel forte vel 10 providentia vel utcumque constitutum rerum naturae corpus, quod ille paene solus Romanorum animo vidit, ingenio complexus est, eloquentia illuminavit, manebit incolume, comitem aevi sui laudem Ciceronis trahet omnisque posteritas illius in te scripta mirabitur, 15 tuum in eum factum exsecrabitur citiusque e mundo genus hominum quam Ciceronis memoria cedet.

Velleius Paterculus, ii. 66.

3-4 auctoramentoque funebri irritando = lit. and by stimulating (provoking) by a fatal reward (auctoramento) the death. . . .

10-15 dumque . . . trahet, in reference to Cicero’s philosophical works, in which Cicero propounds no original scheme of philosophy, claiming only that he renders the conclusions of Greek thinkers accessible to his own countrymen.

B. Ingenium et operibus et praemiis operum felix; ipse fortunae diu prosperae et in longo tenore felicitatis 20 magnis interim ictus vulneribus, exilio, ruina partium pro quibus steterat, filiae exitu tam tristi tamque acerbo, omnium adversorum nihil ut viro dignum erat tulit praeter mortem, quae vere aestimanti minus indigna videri potuit, quod a victore 25 inimico nil crudelius passurus erat quam quod eiusdem fortunae compos victo fecisset. Si quis tamen virtutibus vitia pensaret, vir magnus ac memorabilis fuit, et in cuius laudes exsequendas Cicerone laudatore opus fuerit. 30

Livy, Fr. ap. Sen.

21-22 ruina . . . steterat, i.e. the restoration of the Commonwealth of the Scipios.

Cicero. ‘It happened many years after that Augustus once found one of his grandsons with a work of Cicero’s in his hands. The boy was frightened, and hid the book under his gown; but Caesar took it from him, and, standing there motionless, he read through a great part of the book; then he gave it back to the boy, and said “This was a great orator, my child; a great orator, and a man who loved his country well.”’—Plutarch, Cicero, 49.




Si te forte iuvant Helles Athamantidos urbes,

Nec desiderio, Tulle, movere meo,

Tu licet aspicias caelum omne Atlanta gerentem,


Sectaque Persea Phorcidos ora manu,

Geryonis stabula et luctantum in pulvere signa

Herculis Antaeique Hesperidumque choros,

Tuque tuo Colchum propellas remige Phasim,


Peliacaeque trabis totum iter ipse legas,

Qua rudis Argoa natat inter saxa columba

In faciem prorae pinus adacta novae,

Et siqua Ortygii visenda est ora Caystri,


Et quae septenas temperat unda vias;

Omnia Romanae cedent miracula terrae;

Natura his posuit, quicquid ubique fuit.

Armis apta magis tellus, quam commoda noxae:


Famam, Roma, tuae non pudet historiae.

Nam quantum ferro, tantum pietate potentes

Stamus: victrices temperat illa manus.

Hic Anio Tiburne fluis, Clitumnus ab Umbro


Tramite, et aeternum Marcius umor opus,

Albanus lacus et foliis Nemorensis abundans,


Potaque Pollucis lympha salubris equo.


Haec tibi, Tulle, parens, haec est pulcherrima sedes;

Hic tibi pro digna gente petendus honos;

Hic tibi ad eloquium cives, hic ampla nepotum


Spes et venturae coniugis aptus amor.

Propertius, III. (IV.) xxii. 5-26, 39-42.

Subject. Go where thou wilt, my Tullus, know that all the sights and marvels of all lands, from West to East, are outdone by those of thine own Italy. A truly famous land! A land ever victorious, ever merciful; full of fair lakes and streams. Here, Tullus, is thy true abode: here seek a life of honour and a home.

8 Phorcidos ora = the head of Medusa, the daughter of Phorcus.

15 Ortygii Caystri. Ortygia, an old name for Ephesus, near the mouth of the R. Cayster: the haunt of quails (Ortygia, ὄρτυξ).

16 temperat septenas vias = moderates its seven channels, of the delta of the Nile.—Ramsay.

19-22 Cf. Verg. Aen. vi. 853 Parcere subiectis et debellare superbos.

19 commoda noxae = disposed to harm.—North Pinder.

24 Marcius umor, i.e. the aqueduct of Q. Marcius Rex; built 145 B.C.

25 The Alban and Arician Lakes (Nemorensis = mod. Nemi) are close together.

26 i.e. the well Iuturna in the Forum (‘the well that springs by Vesta’s fane’) at which the Dioscuri washed their horses after their hot ride from Lake Regillus.

41 ad eloquium cives = citizens to hear and profit by your eloquence.—N. P.




Haec est in gremium victos quae sola recepit

Humanumque genus communi nomine fovit

Matris, non dominae ritu: civesque vocavit

Quos domuit, nexuque pio longinqua revinxit.

Huius pacificis debemus moribus omnes


Quod veluti patriis regionibus utitur hospes:

Quod sedem mutare licet: quod cernere Thulen

Lusus, et horrendos quondam penetrare recessus:

Quod bibimus passim Rhodanum, potamus Orontem;

Quod cuncti gens una sumus. Nec terminus unquam


Romanae dicionis erit. Nam cetera regna

Luxuries vitiis odiisque superbia vertit.

Sic male sublimes fregit Spartanus Athenas

Atque idem Thebas cecidit. Sic Medus ademit

Assyrio, Medoque tulit moderamina Perses:


Subiecit Macedo Persen, cessurus et ipse

Romanis. Haec auguriis firmata Sibyllae,

Haec sacris animata Numae: huic fulmina vibrat

Iuppiter: hanc tota Tritonia Gorgone velat.

Arcanas huc Vesta faces, huc orgia Bacchus


Transtulit, et Phrygios genetrix turrita leones.

Huc defensurus morbos Epidaurius hospes

Reptavit placido tractu, vectumque per undas

Insula Paeonium texit Tiberina draconem.

Claudian, de Consulatu Stilichonis, iii. 150-173.

153 nexuque . . . revinxit = and has linked far places in a bond of love.—Jebb.

156 Thulen: cf. Vergil’s ultima Thule, of the northernmost island known, variously identified with the Shetlands, Iceland, or Norway.

158 Orontem: the largest river of Syria, whence Juvenal, iii. 62, uses it of the Syrian people—

Iam pridem Syrus in Tiberim defluxit Orontes.

159 Quod cuncti . . . sumus = that the whole earth is one people.

164 moderamina = the reins of power; lit. a means of managing.

168 hanc tota . . . velat = she it is above whom Pallas spreads the whole shadow of the aegis (tota Gorgone). Cf. Verg. Aen. viii. 435-8:

Aegidaque horriferam, turbatae Palladis arma,

Certatim squamis serpentum auroque polibant,

Connexosque angues ipsamque in pectore divae

Gorgona, desecto vertentem lumina collo.

170 genetrix turrita, i.e. Cybele, the goddess of settled life.

171 Epidaurius hospes, i.e. Asclepius (Aesculapius), who had a famous temple at Epidaurus (in Argolis), whence his worship was introduced into Rome to avert a pestilence 293 B.C.

172 reptavit placido tractu = came gently gliding on his voyage. Jebb.—For reptavit cf. repo, ἕρπω, and our creep.

173 Paeonium draconem = the serpent of the healer. Cf. Παιών.




Vis dicam, quae causa tuos, Romane, labores

In tantum extulerit, quis gloria fotibus aucta


Sic cluat, impositis ut mundum frenet habenis?

Discordes linguis populos et dissona cultu

Regna volens sociare Dens, subiungier uni

Imperio, quidquid tractabile moribus esset,

Concordique iugo retinacula mollia ferre


Constituit, quo corda hominum coniuncta teneret

Relligionis amor: nec enim fit copula Christo


Digna, nisi implicitas societ mens unica gentes.


Ius fecit commune pares et nomine eodem

Nexuit et domitos fraterna in vincla redegit.

Vivitur omnigenis in partibus, haud secus ac si

Cives congenitos concludat moenibus unis


Urbs patria atque omnes lare conciliemur avito.


En ades omnipotens, concordibus influe terris:

Iam mundus te, Christe, capit, quem congrege nexu

Pax et Roma tenent: capita haec et culmina rerum

Esse iubes, nec Roma tibi sine pace probatur:

Et pax ut placeat, facit excellentia Romae,

Quae motus varios simul et dicione coercet


Et terrore premit.

Prudentius, contra Symmachum, ii. 583-640 (sel.).

Subject. In a remarkable passage, Prudentius (circ. 400 A.D.) views the victorious empire of Rome as preparing the way for the coming of Christ. The triumphs of the Romans were not, he says, the gifts of false gods, grateful for sacrifices, but were designed by Providence to break down the barriers between the jarring nationalities of the world, and familiarise them with a common yoke, by way of disciplining them for a common Christianity. An “universal peace is struck through sea and land,” and Law, Art, Commerce, and Marriage constitute the world one city and one family. Thus the way was paved for the coming of Christ by the unity of the empire and the civilisation of the individual subject.—North Pinder.

584 fotibus (cf. fotum, foveo) = cherishings, supports, post-classical.

585 sic cluat = is so famed, for cluo (ante and post-class.) cf. κλέος.

590-591 quo (sc. iugo) . . . amor, i.e. hearts once knit together by a common yoke would best be held together by a common faith.—N. P.

609 fraterna in vincla = in the bonds of brotherhood, not those of slavery, as domitos would naturally suggest.

634 concordibus = now they are in harmony and peace, emphatic.

635 capit = is fit to receive thee.



The Perils of the Deep.

Sic te diva potens Cypri,

Sic fratres Helenae, lucida sidera,

Ventorumque regat pater


Obstrictis aliis praeter Iapyga,

Navis, quae tibi creditum

Debes Vergilium, finibus Atticis

Reddas incolumem precor


Et serves animae dimidium meae.

Illi robur et aes triplex

Circa pectus erat, qui fragilem truci

Commisit pelago ratem


Primus, nec timuit praecipitem Africum

Decertantem Aquilonibus

Nec tristes Hyadas nec rabiem Noti,

Quo non arbiter Hadriae


Maior, tollere seu ponere vult freta.

Quem mortis timuit gradum,

Qui siccis oculis monstra natantia,

Qui vidit mare turbidum et


Infames scopulos Acroceraunia?

Nequiquam deus abscidit

Prudens Oceano dissociabili

Terras, si tamen impiae


Non tangenda rates transiliunt vada.

* A ‘God-speed’ to Vergil’s ship.

‘Nought is there for man too high.’

Audax omnia perpeti

Gens humana ruit per vetitum nefas:

Audax Iapeti genus


Ignem fraude mala gentibus intulit;

Post ignem aetheria domo

Subductum macies et nova febrium

Terris incubuit cohors


Semotique prius tarda necessitas

Leti corripuit gradum.

Expertus vacuum Daedalus aera.

Pinnis non homini datis;


Perrupit Acheronta Herculeus labor.

Nil mortalibus arduist;

Caelum ipsum petimus stultitia neque

Per nostrum patimur scelus


Iracunda Iovem ponere fulmina.

Horace, Od. I. iii.

A Prayer for his friend’s safety.

Di, quibus audaces amor est servare carinas

Saevaque ventosi mulcere pericula ponti,

Sternite molle fretum placidumque advertite votis

Concilium, et lenis non obstrepat unda precanti:


Grande tuo rarumque damus, Neptune, profundo

Depositum. Iuvenis dubio committitur alto

Maecius atque animae partem super aequora nostrae

Maiorem transferre parat. Proferte benigna

Sidera et antemnae gemino considite cornu,


Oebalii fratres; vobis pontusque polusque

Luceat; Iliacae longe nimbosa sororis

Astra fugate, precor, totoque excludite caelo.

Vos quoque caeruleum ponti, Nereides, agmen

Quis honor ei regni cessit fortuna secundi,


Dicere quae magni fas sit mihi sidera ponti,

Surgite de vitreis spumosae Doridos antris

Baianosque sinus et feta tepentibus undis

Litora tranquillo certatim ambite natatu,

Quaerentes ubi celsa ratis, quam scandere gaudet


Nobilis Ausoniae Celer armipotentis alumnus. . . .

His Prayer is heard.
Man’s audacity.

Et pater, Aeolio frangit qui carcere ventos

Cui varii flatus omnisque per aequora mundi

Spiritus atque hiemes nimbosaque nubila parent,


Artius obiecto Borean Eurumque Notumque

Monte premat: soli Zephyro sit copia caeli,

Solus agat puppes summasque supernatet undas

Assiduus pelago; donec tua turbine nullo

Laeta Paraetoniis assignet carbasa ripis. . . .


Audimur. Vocat ipse ratem nautasque morantes

Increpat. Ecce meum timido iam frigore pectus

Labitur et nequeo, quamvis movet ominis horror,

Claudere suspensos oculorum in margine fletus. . . .


Quis rude et abscissum miseris animantibus aequor

Fecit iter solidaeque pios telluris alumnos

Expulit in fluctus pelagoque immisit hianti

Audax ingenii? nec enim temeraria virtus


Illa magis, summae gelidum quae Pelion Ossae

Iunxit anhelantemque iugis bis pressit Olympum.

Statius, Silvae, III. ii. 1-20, 42-53, 61-66.

For those ‘qui corporis cura mentem obruerunt.’

A. Stulta est enim, mi Lucili, et minime conveniens litterato viro occupatio exercendi lacertos et dilatandi cervicem, ac latera firmandi. Cum tibi feliciter sagina cesserit, et tori creverint: nec vires unquam opimi bovis, nec pondus aequabis. Adice nunc, quod maiore corporis sarcina animus eliditur, et minus agilis est. Itaque, quantum potes circumscribe corpus tuum, et animo locum laxa. Multa sequuntur incommoda huic deditos curae. Primum exercitationes, quarum labor spiritum exhaurit, et inhabilem intentioni ac studiis acrioribus reddit; deinde copia ciborum subtilitas animi impeditur. Accedunt pessimae notae, mancipia in magisterium recepta, homines inter oleum et vinum occupati: quibus ad votum dies est actus, si bene desudaverunt, si in locum eius quod effluxit, multum potionis altius ieiuno gutture regesserunt. Bibere et sudare, vita cardiaci est. Sunt exercitationes et faciles et breves, quae corpus et sine mora laxent, et tempori parcant: cuius praecipua ratio habenda est. Cursus, et cum aliquo pondere manus motae, et saltus, vel ille qui corpus in altum levat, vel ille qui in longum mittit, vel ille (ut ita dicam) saliaris, aut (ut contumeliosius dicam) fullonius. Quodlibet ex his elige, usu fit facile. Neque ego te iubeo semper imminere libro, aut pugillaribus. Dandum et aliquod intervallum animo: ita tamen ut non resolvatur, sed remittatur.

Seneca, Ep. xv. 8.

‘They needs must die.’

Incognitum istud facinus, ac dirum nefas

A me quoque absit. Quod scelus miseri luent?

Scelus est Iason genitor, et maius scelus

Medea mater. Occidant: non sunt mei.

Pereant? mei sunt. Crimine et culpa carent.

Sunt innocentes, fateor: et frater fuit.

Quid, anime, titubas? ora quid lacrimae rigant?

Variamque nunc huc ira nunc illuc amor

Diducit? anceps aestus incertam rapit.

Seneca, Medea, 920.

An Estimate of early Roman Dramatists.

Ennius, et sapiens et fortis et alter Homerus,


Ut critici dicunt, leviter curare videtur,

Quo promissa cadant et somnia Pythagorea.

Naevius in manibus non est et mentibus haeret

Paene recens? Adeo sanctum est vetus omne poema.


Ambigitur quotiens uter utro sit prior, aufert

Pacuvius docti famam senis, Accius alti,

Dicitur Afrani toga convenisse Menandro,

Plautus ad exemplar Siculi properare Epicharmi,

Vincere Caecilius gravitate, Terentius arte.


Hos ediscit et hos arto stipata theatro

Spectat Roma potens, habet hos numeratque poetas

Ad nostrum tempus Livi scriptoris ab aevo.

Hor. Ep. II. i. 50-62.

‘Teréntio non símilem dices quémpiam.’

Tu quoque tu in summis, o dimidiate Menander,

Poneris, et merito, puri sermonis amator.

Lenibus atque utinam scriptis adiuncta foret vis,

Comica ut aequato virtus polleret honore

Cum Graecis neve hac despectus parte iaceres!

Unum hoc maceror ac doleo tibi deesse, Terenti.

Caesar, ap. Sueton. vit. Ter.

Ovid on his Contemporaries.

Temporis illius colui fovique poetas,

Quotque aderant vates, rebar adesse deos.

Saepe suas volucres legit mihi grandior aevo,


Quaeque nocet serpens, quae iuvat herba, Macer.

Saepe suos solitus recitare Propertius ignes,

Iure sodalicio qui mihi iunctus erat.

Ponticus heroo, Bassus quoque clarus iambis


Dulcia convictus membra fuere mei;

Et tenuit nostras numerosus Horatius aures,

Dum ferit Ausonia carmina culta lyra.

Vergilium vidi tantum: nec amara Tibullo


Tempus amicitiae fata dedere meae.

Successor fuit hic tibi, Galle, Propertius illi;

Quartus ab his serie temporis ipse fui:

Utque ego maiores, sic me coluere minores,


Notaque non tarde facta Thalia mea est.

Ovid, Tr. IV. x. 41-56.

Cf. Ovid, Am. I. xv. 9-30; Am. III. ix. 38-68; Rem. Am. 65-388; Quint. X. i. 85-90.

Ovid describes a Storm at Sea.

Me miserum, quanti montes volvuntur aquarum!


Iam iam tacturos sidera summa putes.

Quantae diducto subsidunt aequore valles!

Iam iam tacturas Tartara nigra putes.

Quocumque aspicio, nihil est nisi pontus et aer,


Fluctibus hic tumidus, nubibus ille minax.

Inter utrumque fremunt inmani murmure venti:

Nescit, cui domino pareat, unda maris.

Nam modo purpureo vires capit Eurus ab ortu,


Nunc Zephyrus sero vespere missus adest,

Nunc sicca gelidus Boreas bacchatur ab Arcto,

Nunc Notus adversa proelia fronte gerit.

Rector in incerto est nec quid fugiatve petatve


Invenit: ambiguis ars stupet ipsa malis.

Ovid, Tr. I. ii. 19-32.

The passing of Romulus.

Sol fugit, et removent subeuntia nubila caelum,

Et gravis effusis decidet imber aquis.

Hinc tonat, hinc missis abrumpitur ignibus aether,

Fit fuga, rex patriis astra petebat equis.

Ovid, Fast. ii. 493-496.

Thunder and Hail.

Ínterea prope iam óccidente sóle inhorrescít mare,

Ténebrae conduplicántur, noctisque ét nimbum occaecát nigror,

Flámma inter nubés coruscat, caélum tonitru cóntremit,

Grándo mixta imbri largifico súbita praecipitáns cadit,

Úndique omnes vénti erumpunt, saévi existunt túrbines,

Férvit aestu pélagus.

Pacuvius ap. Cic. De Div. I. xiv. 24.

The Argo in a Gale.

Tollitur atque intra Minyas Argoaque vela

Styrus adest: vasto rursus desidit hiatu

Abrupta revolutus aqua. Iamque omnis in astra

Itque reditque ratis, lapsoque reciproca fluctu

Descendit. Vorat hos vertex, hos agmine toto


Gurges agit. Simul in voltus micat undique terror;

Crebra ruina poli caelestia limina laxat.

Val. Fl. Argon. viii. 328-334.

Cf. Verg. Aen. i. 81-123, Aen. iv, 160-168; Stat. Theb. i. 336-363.

Lesbia’s Sparrow.

Lugete, o Veneres Cupidinesque,

Et quantumst hominum venustiorum.

Passer mortuus est meae puellae,

Passer, deliciae meae puellae,


Quem plus illa oculis suis amabat.

Nam mellitus erat suamque norat

Ipsam tam bene quam puella matrem;

Nec sese a gremio illius movebat,

Sed circumsiliens modo huc modo illuc


Ad solam dominam usque pipiabat.

Qui nunc it per iter tenebricosum

Illuc, unde negant redire quemquam.

At vobis male sit, malae tenebrae

Orci, quae omnia bella devoratis:


Tam bellum mihi passerem abstulistis.

Vae factum male! vae miselle passer!

Tua nunc opera meae puellae

Flendo turgiduli rubent ocelli.

Catullus, iii.

‘My Parrot an obtrusive bird.’

Psittace, dux volucrum, domini facunda voluptas,

Humanae sollers imitator, psittace, linguae,

Quis tua tam subito praeclusit murmura fato?

Statius, Silv. ii. 4

The Lap-dog and its Portrait.

Issa est passere nequior Catulli,

Issa est purior osculo columbae,

Issa est blandior omnibus puellis,

Issa est carior Indicis lapillis,


Issa est deliciae catella Publi.

Hanc tu, si queritur, loqui putabis;

Sentit tristitiamque gaudiumque.

Collo nixa cubat capitque somnos,

Ut suspiria nulla sentiantur.


Hanc ne lux rapiat suprema totam,

Picta Publius exprimit tabella,

In qua tam similem videbis Issam,

Ut sit tam similis sibi nec ipsa.

Issam denique pone cum tabella:


Aut utramque putabis esse veram,

Aut utramque putabis esse pictam.

Martial, I. cix.

Cf. Catull. ii.; Ovid, Am. ii. 6.


A. Satura quidem tota nostra est, in qua primus insignem laudem adeptus Lucilius quosdam ita deditos sibi adhuc habet amatores, ut eum non eiusdem modo operis auctoribus, sed omnibus poetis praeferre non dubitent. Ego quantum ab illis tantum ab Horatio dissentio, qui Lucilium fluere lutulentum et esse aliquid, quod tollere possis, putat. Nam et eruditio in eo mira et libertas atque inde acerbitas, et abunde salis. Multum eo est tersior ac purus magis Horatius, et, nisi labor eius amore, praecipuus. Multum et verae gloriae, quamvis uno libro, Persius meruit.

Quint. X. i. 93.

A Criticism of Lucilius.

Eupolis atque Cratinus Aristophanesque poetae

Atque alii, quorum comoedia prisca virorum est,

Siquis erat dignus describi, quod malus ac fur,

Quod moechus foret aut sicarius aut alioqui


Famosus, multa cum libertate notabant.

Hinc omnis pendet Lucilius, hosce secutus

Mutatis tantum pedibus numerisque, facetus,

Emunctae naris, durus componere versus.

Nam fuit hoc vitiosus: in hora saepe ducentos,


Ut magnum, versus dictabat stans pede in uno;

Cum flueret lutulentus, erat quod tollere velles;

Garrulus atque piger scribendi ferre laborem.

Horace, Sat. I. iv. 1-12.

Juvenal’s Reasons for Writing Satire.

Cur tamen hoc potius libeat decurrere campo,

Per quem magnus equos Auruncae flexit alumnus,


Si vacat ac placidi rationem admittitis, edam.


Cum pars Niliacae plebis, cum verna Canopi

Crispinus Tyrias umero revocante lacernas

Ventilet aestivum digitis sudantibus aurum

Nec sufferre queat maioris pondera gemmae,


Difficile est saturam non scribere.

Juvenal, Sat. i. 19-21, 26-30.

His Subject.

Ex quo Deucalion, nimbis tollentibus aequor,

Navigio montem ascendit sortesque poposcit,

Paulatimque anima caluerunt mollia saxa,


Quidquid agunt homines, votum, timor, ira, voluptas,

Gaudia, discursus, nostri farrago libelli est.

Juvenal, Sat. i. 81-86.

Virtue defined.

Virtus, Albine, est pretium persolvere verum

Quis in versamur, quis vivimus rebus potesse:

Virtus est homini scire id quo quaeque habeat res.

Virtus scire homini rectum, utile, quid sit honestum;


Quae bona, quae mala item, quid inutile, turpe, inhonestum;

Virtus quaerendae finem rei scire modumque:

Virtus divitiis pretium persolvere posse:

Virtus, id dare, quod re ipsa debetur, honori;

Hostem esse atque inimicum hominum morumque malorum,


Contra defensorem hominum morumque bonorum;

Hos magni facere, his bene velle, his vivere amicum;

Commoda praeterea patriai prima putare,

Deinde parentum, tertia iam postremaque nostra.

Lucilius, Sat. Frag.

 ‘The names of men so poor
Who could do mighty deeds.’

Cum tremerent autem Fabios durumque Catonem


Et Scauros et Fabricium rigidique severos

Censoris mores etiam collega timeret,

Nemo inter curas et seria duxit habendum

Qualis in Oceani fluctu testudo nataret


Clarum Troiugenis factura et nobile fulcrum,

Sed nudo latere et parvis frons aerea lectis

Vile coronati caput ostendebat aselli,

Ad quod lascivi ludebant ruris alumni.

Tales ergo cibi qualis domus atque supellex.

Juvenal, Sat. xi. 90-99.

Persius in Praise of his Tutor, Cornutus.

Cum primum pavido custos mihi purpura cessit


Bullaque succinctis Laribus donata pependit;

Cum blandi comites totaque inpune Subura

Permisit sparsisse oculos iam candidus umbo,

Cumque iter ambiguum est et vitae nescius error


Deducit trepidas ramosa in compita mentes,

Me tibi supposui. Teneros tu suscipis annos

Socratico, Cornute, sinu; tum fallere sollers

Apposita intortos extendit regula mores,

Et premitur ratione animus vincique laborat


Artificemque tuo ducit sub pollice vultum.

Persius, Sat. v. 19-25, 30-40.

Objections to a Permanent Theatre, 151 B.C.

A. Cum locatum a censoribus theatrum exstrueretur, P. Cornelio Nasica auctore tamquam inutile et nociturum publicis moribus ex senatus consulto destructum est, populusque aliquamdiu stans ludos spectavit.

Livy, Epit. 48.

Scenic Arrangements.

B. Apud maiores theatri gradus tantum fuerunt. Nam scena de lignotantum ad tempus fiebat, unde hodieque permansit consuetudo, ut componantur pegmata a ludorum theatralium editoribus. Scena autem, quae fiebat, aut versilis erat aut ductilis. Versilis tunc erat, cum subito tota machinis quibusdam convertebantur, et aliam picturae faciem ostendebat. Ductilis tunc, cum tractis tabulatis hac atque illac species picturae nudabatur interior. Unde perite utrumque tetigit, dicens, ‘Versis discedat frontibus’: singula singulis complectens sermonibus. Quod Varro et Suetonius commemorant.

Suet. ap. Serv. Georg. iii. 24.

The Awnings.

Et vulgo faciunt id lutea russaque vela


Et ferrugina, cum magnis intenta theatris

Per malos volgata trabesque trementia flutant;

Namque ibi consessam caveai subter et omnem

Scaenai speciem, patrum coetumque decorum


Inficiunt coguntque suo fluitare colore.

Lucretius, iv. 75-80.

The Law of Otho, 67 B.C.

D. L. Roscius Otho tribunus plebis legem tulit, ut equitibus Romanis in theatro quattuordecim gradus proximi adsignarentur.

Livy, Epit. 99.

Usurpers of Equestrian Privileges.

‘Sectus flagellis hic triumviralibus


Praeconis ad fastidium

Arat Falerni mille fundi iugera

Et Appiam mannis terit

Sedilibusque magnus in primis eques


Othone contempto sedet.’

Horace, Epod. iv. 11-16.

The Parcae spin the Web of Fate.

Laeva colum molli lana retinebat amictum,

Dextera tum leviter deducens fila supinis

Formabat digitis, tum prono in pollice torquens

Libratum tereti versabat turbine fusum,


Atque ita decerpens aequabat semper opus dens,

Laneaque aridulis haerebant morsa labellis,

Quae prius in levi fuerant extantia filo:

Ante pedes autem candentis mollia lanae

Vellera virgati custodibant calathisci.


Haec tum clarisona pellentes vellera voce

Talia divino fuderunt carmine fata,

Carmine perfidiae quod post nulla arguet aetas.

‘O decus eximium magnis virtutibus augens,

Emathiae tutamen opis, clarissime nato,


Accipe, quod laeta tibi pandunt luce sorores,

Veridicum oraclum—sed vos quae fata secuntur

Currite ducentes subtemina, currite fusi.’

Catullus, lxiv. 311-327.

The Skill of Arachne.
Her Contest with Pallas.

Sive rudem primos lanam glomerabat in orbes,


Seu digitis subigebat opus repetitaque longo

Vellera mollibat nebulas aequantia tractu

Sive levi teretem versabat pollice fusum,

Seu pingebat acu scires a Pallade doctam.



Haud mora constituunt diversis partibus ambae

Et gracili geminas intendunt stamine telas.


Tela iugo vincta est, stamen secernit harundo,

Inseritur medium radiis subtemen acutis

Quod digiti expediunt, atque inter stamina ductum

Percusso paviunt insecti pectine dentes.

Utraque festinant cinctaeque ad pectora vestes


Bracchia docta movent, studio fallente laborem.

Ovid, Met. vi. 19-23, 53-60.

The Pastime of Circe.

Proxima Circaeae raduntur litora terrae

Dives inaccessos ubi Solis filia lucos

Assiduo resonat cantu, tectisque superbis

Urit odoratam nocturna in lumina cedrum,

Arguto tenues percurrens pectine telas.

Verg. Aen. vii. 10-14.

Cf. Ovid, Met. iv. 220-229; Fasti, iii. 815-20.

The Approach of the Monster.

Andromedan poenas immitis iusserat Ammon.

Quam simul ad duras religatam bracchia cautes

Vidit Abantiades, nisi quod levis aura capillos

Moverat et tepido manabant lumina fletu,


Marmoreum ratus esset opus. Trahit inscius ignes

Et stupet et visae correptus imagine formae

Paene suas quatere est oblitus in aere pennas. . . .


Ecce velut navis praefixo concita rostro

Sulcat aquas, iuvenum sudantibus acta lacertis,

Sic fera dimotis inpulsu pectoris undis

Tantum aberat scopulis, quantum Balearica torto


Funda potest plumbo medii transmittere caeli;

Cum subito iuvenis pedibus tellure repulsa

Arduus in nubes abiit. Ut in aequore summo

Umbra viri visa est, visam fera saevit in umbram.

Utque Iovis praepes, vacuo cum vidit in arvo


Praebentem Phoebo liventia terga draconem,

Occupat aversum, neu saeva retorqueat ora,

Squamigeris avidos figit cervicibus ungues,

Sic celeri missus praeceps per inane volatu

Terga ferae pressit dextroque frementis in armo


Inachides ferrum curvo tenus abdidit hamo.

How Perseus won his Bride.

Vulnere laesa gravi modo se sublimis in auras

Attollit, modo subdit aquis, modo more ferocis

Versat apri, quem turba canum circumsona terret.

Ille avidos morsus velocibus effugit alis;


Quaque patet, nunc terga cavis super obsita conchis,

Nunc laterum costas, nunc qua tenuissima cauda

Desinit in piscem, falcato vulnerat ense.

Belua puniceo mixtos cum sanguine fluctus

Ore vomit; maduere graves adspergine pennae.


Nec bibulis ultra Perseus talaribus ausus

Credere, conspexit scopulum, qui vertice summo

Stantibus extat aquis, operitur ab aequore moto.

Nixus eo rupisque tenens iuga prima sinistra

Ter quater exegit repetita per ilia ferrum.


Litora cum plausu clamor superasque deorum

Inplevere domos; gaudent generumque salutant

Auxiliumque domus servatoremque fatentur

Cassiope Cepheusque pater, resoluta catenis

Incedit virgo, pretiumque et causa laboris.

Ovid, Met. iv. 671-677, 706-720, 721-739.

‘From afar, unknowing, I marked thee,
Shining, a snow-white cross on the dark-green walls of the sea-cliff.’ Kingsley.

Tandem Gorgonei victorem Persea monstri

Felix illa dies redeuntem ad litora duxit.

Isque ubi pendentem vidit de rupe puellam,


Deriguit facie, quam non stupefecerat hostis;

Vixque manu spolium tenuit; victorque Medusae

Victus in Andromeda est. Iam cautibus invidet ipsis

Felicesque vocat, teneant quae membra, catenas.

Et postquam poenae causam cognovit ab ipsa,


Destinat in thalamos per bellum vadere ponti,

Altera si Gorgo veniat, non territus ira.

Concitat aerios cursus flentesque parentes

Promissu vitae recreat pactusque maritam

Ad litus remeat. Gravidus nam surgere pontus


Coeperat, et longo fugiebant agmine fluctus

Impellentis onus monstri. Caput eminet undis

Scindentis pelagusque movet. Circumsonat aequor

Dentibus, inque ipso rapidum mare navigat ore.

The Death of the Monster.

Illa* subit contra versoque a gurgite frontem


Erigit et tortis innitens orbibus alte

Emicat ac toto sublimis corpore fertur.

Sed quantum illa subit semet iaculata profundo,

In tantum revolat laxumque per aethera ludit


Perseus et ceti subeuntis verberat ora.

Nec cedit tamen illa viro, sed saevit in auras

Morsibus, et vani crepitant sine vulnere dentes;

Efflat et in caelum pelagus mergitque volantem

Sanguineis undis pontumque extollit in astra.


Spectabat pugnam pugnandi causa puella;

Iamque oblita sui, metuit pro vindice tali

Suspirans, animoque magis quam corpore pendet.

Tandem confossis subsedit belua membris

Plena maris summasque iterum remeavit ad undas


Et magnum vasto contexit corpore pontum,

Tunc quoque terribilis nec virginis ore videnda.

Perfundit liquido Perseus in marmore corpus

Maior et ex undis ad cautes pervolat alto

Solvitque haerentem vinclis de rupe puellam


Desponsam pugna, nupturam dote mariti.

Manilius, Astronomica, v. 667-583, 595-615.

* illa = belua.

The School of Flavius, at Venusia.

Causa fuit pater his, qui macro pauper agello

Noluit in Flavi ludum me mittere, magni

Quo pueri magnis e centurionibus orti,

Laevo suspensi loculos tabulamque lacerto,


Ibant octonos refererentes Idibus aeris.

Hor. Sat. I. vi. 71-75.

Ovid and his Brother educated at Rome.

Protinus excolimur teneri, curaque parentis

Imus ad insignes Urbis ab arte viros.

Frater ad eloquium viridi tendebat ab aevo,

Fortia verbosi natus ad arma fori.

At mihi iam puero caelestia sacra placebant,


Inque suum furtim Musa trahebat opus.

Ovid, Tristia, IV. x. 15-20.

The Schoolmaster’s life a hard one.

Dummodo non pereat, mediae quod noctis ab hora

Sedisti, qua nemo faber, qua nemo sederet,

Qui docet obliquo lanam deducere ferro;


Dummodo non pereat, totidem olfecisse lucernas,

Quot stabant pueri, cum totus decolor esset

Flaccus, et haereret nigro fuligo Maroni.

Juvenal, vii. 222-227.

Early School.

Surgite: iam vendit pueris ientacula pistor,

Cristataeque sonant undique lucis aves.

Martial, XIV. ccxxiii.

Homogeneous Divisions.

E. Non inutilem scio servatum esse a praeceptoribus meis morem, qui, cum pueros in classes distribuerent, ordinem discendi secundum vires ingeni dabant.

Quintil. I. ii. 23.

Plagosus Orbilius.

Quid tibi nobiscum est, ludi scelerate magister,

Invisum pueris virginibusque caput?

Nondum cristati rupere silentia galli:

Murmure iam saevo verberibusque tonas.

Martial, IX. lxviii. 1-4.

Cf. Juv. x. 114-7; Martial, X. lxii.; Hor. Ep. II. i. 69-71.


Parve (nec invideo) sine me, liber, ibis in urbem:

Ei mihi, quod domino non licet ire tuo.

Vade, sed incultus, qualem decet exsulis esse:


Infelix habitum temporis huius habe.

Nec te purpureo velent vaccinia fuco:

Non est conveniens luctibus ille color:

Nec titulus minio nec cedro charta notetur,


Candida nec nigra cornua fronte geras.

Felices ornent haec instrumenta libellos:

Fortunae memorem te decet esse meae.

Nec fragili geminae poliantur pumice frontes,


Hirsutus sparsis ut videare comis.

Neve liturarum pudeat. Qui viderit illas

De lacrimis factas sentiat esse meis.

Vade, liber, verbisque meis loca grata saluta:


Contingam certe quo licet illa pede.

Ovid, Trist. I. i. 1-16.


Lutea sed niveum involvat membrana libellum,

Pumex et canas tondeat ante comas

Summaque praetexat tenuis fastigia chartae


Indicet ut nomen littera facta meum,

Atque inter geminas pingantur cornua frontes:

Sic etenim comptum mittere oportet opus.

Tibullus, III. i. 9-14.


Qui tecum cupis esse meos ubicumque libellos

Et comites longae quaeris habere viae,

Hos eme, quos artat brevibus membrana tabellis:


Scrinia da magnis, me manus una capit.

Ne tamen ignores ubi sim venalis et erres

Urbe vagus tota, me duce certus eris:

Libertum docti Lucensis quaere Secundum


Limina post Pacis Palladiumque forum.

Martial, I. ii.

Cf. Hor. Epist. I. xx.; Catull. xxii, 4-8; Statius, Silvae, IV. ix.

‘As an eagle pursuing
A dove to its ruin
  Down the streams of the cloudy wind.’ Shelley.

Lassa revertebar (memini) Stymphalide silva;


Aestus erat, magnumque labor geminaverat aestum.

Invenio sine vertice aquas, sine murmure euntes,

Perspicuas ad humum, per quas numerabilis alte


Calculus omnis erat, quas tu vix ire putares. . . .


Nescioquod medio sensi sub gurgite murmur

Territaque insisto propioris margine fontis.

‘Quo properas Arethusa?’ suis Alpheos ab undis,


‘Quo properas?’ iterum rauco mihi dixerat ore. . . .


Sic ego currebam, sic me ferus ille premebat,

Ut fugere accipitrem penna trepidante columbae,

Ut solet accipiter trepidas urguere columbas.

Usque sub Orchomenon Psophidaque Cyllenenque

Maenaliosque sinus gelidumque Erymanthon et Elin

Currere sustinui; nec me velocior ille.


Sed tolerare diu cursus ego, viribus inpar,

Non poteram; longi patiens erat ille laboris.

Per tamen et campos, per opertos arbore montes,

Saxa quoque et rupes et qua via nulla, cucurri.

‘Alpheum fama est huc Elidis amnem  
Occultas egisse vias subter mare, qui nunc  
 Ore, Arethusa, tuo Siculis confunditur undis.’ Vergil.

Sol erat a tergo: vidi praecedere longam


Ante pedes umbram, nisi si timor illa videbat,

Sed certe sonitusque pedum terrebat et ingens

Crinales vittas afflabat anhelitus oris.

Fessa labore fugae ‘fer opem, deprendimur,’ inquam,

‘Armigerae, Diana, tuae, cui saepe dedisti


Ferre tuos arcus inclusaque tela pharetra.’

Mota dea est spissisque ferens e nubibus unam

Me super iniecit. lustrat caligine tectam

Amnis et ignarus circum cava nubila quaerit.

Bisque locum, quo me dea texerat, inscius ambit


Et bis ‘io Arethusa, io Arethusa’ vocavit. . . .


In latices mutor, sed enim cognoscit amatas

Amnis aquas, positoque viri, quod sumpserat, ore

Vertitur in proprias, ut se mihi misceat, undas.

Delia rupit humum, caecisque ego mersa cavernis


Advehor Ortygiam, quae me cognomine divae

Grata meae superas eduxit prima sub auras.

Ovid, Met. v. 586-641 (sel.).

Οὕτω μὲν κάλλιστος Ὕλας μακάρων ἀριθμεῖται.

Namque ferunt olim Pagasae navalibus Argon

Egressam longe Phasidis isse viam,

Et iam praeteritis labentem Athamantidos undis


Mysorum scopulis applicuisse ratem.

Hic manus heroum, placidis ut constitit oris,

Mollia composita litora fronde tegit.

At comes invicti iuvenis processerat ultra,


Sacram sepositi quaerere fontis aquam.


Hanc circum irriguo surgebant lilia prato

Candida purpureis mixta papaveribus.

Quae modo decerpens tenero pueriliter ungui


Proposito florem praetulit officio,

Ex modo formosis incumbens nescius undis

Errorem blandis tardat imaginibus.

Tandem haurire parat demissis flumina palmis


Innixus dextro plena trahens umero.

Cuius ut accensae Hydriades candore puellae

Miratae solitos destituere choros.

Prolapsum leviter facili traxere liquore:


Tum sonitum rapto corpore fecit Hylas.

Propertius, I. xx. 17-24, 37-48.

Litus ‘Hyla Hyla’ omne sonabat.

Continuo, volucri ceu pectora tactus asilo

Emicuit Calabria taurus per confraga saeptis

Obvia quaque ruens, tali se concitat ardens

In iuga senta fuga: pavet omnis conscia late


Silva, pavent montes, luctu succensus acerbo

Quid struat Alcides tantaque quid apparet ira.

Ille, velut refugi quem contigit improba Mauri

Lancea sanguineus vasto leo murmure fertur,

Frangit et absentem vacuis sub dentibus hostem,


Sic furiis accensa gerens Tirynthius ora

Fertur et intento decurrit montibus arcu.

Heu miserae quibus ille ferae, quibus incidit usquam

Immeritis per lustra viris! volat ordine nullo

Cuncta petens; nunc ad ripas deiectaque saxis


Flumina, nunc notas nemorum procurrit ad umbras.

Rursus Hylan et rursus Hylan per longa reclamat

Avia: responsant silvae et vaga certat imago.

Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica, iii. 581-597.

Cf. Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica, i. 1224-1239.

The Portmanteau Fish.



    Quid ais, impudens?

Ausu’s etiam comparare vidulum cum piscibus?

Eadem tandem res videtur? Gr. In manu non est mea:

Ubi demisi rete atque hamum, quidquid haesit extraho


Meum quod rete atque bami nancti sunt, meum potissimumst.


Immo hercle haud est, siquidem quod vas excepisti.




Sed tu, enunquam piscatorem vidisti, venefice,

Vidulum piscem cepisse aut protulisse ullum in forum?

Non enim tu hic quidem occupabis omnes quaestus quos voles:


Et vitorem et piscatorem te esse, impure, postulas.

Vel te mihi monstrare oportet piscis qui sit vidulus:

Vel quod in mari non natumst neque habet squamas ne feras.


Quid tu? nunquam audisti antehac vidulum esse piscem? Tr. Scelus,

Nullus est. Gr. Immost profecto: ego qui sum piscator scio.


Verum rare capitur: nullus minus saepe ad terram venit.


Nil agis: dare verba speras mihi te posse, furcifer.

Quo colorest? Gr. Hoc colore capiuntur pauxilluli:

Sunt alii puniceo corio, magni autem, atque atri.



Tu hercle, opino, in vidulum piscem te convortes, nisi caves:


Fiet tibi puniceum corium, postea atrum denuo.

Rudens, IV. iii. 58-77.

‘Humani nil a me alienum puto.’




Numquam tam mane egredior neque tam vesperi

Domum revortor, quin te in fundo conspicer

Fodere aut arare aut aliquid ferre. Denique

Nullum remittis tempus neque te respicis.


Haec non voluptati tibi esse satis certo scio.

‘Enim,’ dices, ‘quantum hic operis fiat poenitet.’

Quod in opere faciundo operae consumis tuae,

Si sumas in illis exercendis, plus agas.


Chremes, tantumne ab re tuast oti tibi,


Aliena ut cures ea quae nil ad te attinent?


Homo sum: humani nil a me alienum puto.

Vel me monere hoc vel percontari puta:

Rectumst, ego ut faciam; non est, te ut deterream.


Mihi sic est usus: tibi ut opus factost, face.


An quoiquamst usus homini, se ut cruciet?




Siquid laborist, nollem: sed quid istuc malist?

Quaeso, quid de te tantum commeruisti?




Ne lacruma, atque istuc, quidquid est, fac me ut sciam;

Ne retice, ne verere, crede inquam mihi:


Aut consolando aut consilio aut re iuvero.

Hautont. I. i. 15-34.

Cicero on Terence.

‘Tu quoque, qui solus lecto sermone, Terenti,

Conversum expressumque Latina voce Menandrum

In medium nobis sedatis vocibus effers,

Quiddam come loquens, atque omnia dulcia miscens.’

Sueton. Vit. Ter. p. 34.

Terence defends his use of ‘Contaminatio.’*

Nam quod rumores distulerunt malivoli

Multas contaminasse Graecas, dum facit

Paucas Latinas: factum id esse hic non negat,

Neque se pigere et deinde facturum autumat.


Habet bonorum exemplum, quo exemplo sibi

Licere id facere quod illi fecerunt putat.

Hautont. Prol. 16-21.

* Contaminatio = the blending of the parts of different comedies into one whole—e.g. the Andria of Terence, an adaptation of Menander’s Andria and Perinthia.

The Song of the Nightingale.

A. Lusciniis diebus ac noctibus continuis xv garrulus sine intermissu cantus densante se frondium germine, non in novissimum digna miratu ave. Primum tanta vox tam parvo in corpusculo, tam pertinax spiritus; deinde in una perfecta musica scientia: modulatus editur sonus, et nunc continuo spiritu trahitur in longum, nunc variatur inflexo, nunc distinguitur conciso, copulatur intorto, promittitur revocato, infuscatur ex inopinato interdum et secum ipse murmurat, plenus, gravis, acutus, creber, extentus, ubi visum est, vibrans, summus, medius, imus; breviterque omnia tam parvulis in faucibus quae tot exquisitis tibiarum tormentis ars hominum excogitavit, ut non sit dubium hanc suavitatem praemonstratam efficaci auspicio, cum in ore Stesichori cecinit infantis. Ac ne quis dubitet artis esse, plures singulis sunt cantus, nec iidem omnibus, sed sui cuique. Certant inter se, palamque animosa contentio est: victa morte finit saepe vitam, spiritu prius deficiente quam captu. Meditantur iuveniores versusque quos imitentur accipiunt: audit discipula intentione magna et reddit vicibusque reticent; intelligitur emendatae correptio et in docente quaedam reprehensio.

Hist. Nat. x. 81.

A Corinthian Statuette.

B. Ex hereditate, quae mihi obvenit, emi proxime Corinthium signum, modicum quidem, sed festivum et expressum, quantum ego sapio, qui fortasse in omni re, in hac certe perquam exiguum sapio: hoc tamen signum ego quoque intellego. Est enim nudum, nec aut vitia, si qua sunt, celat, aut laudes parum ostentat. Effingit senem stantem: ossa, musculi, nervi, venae, rugae etiam ut spirantis apparent: rari et cedentes capilli, lata frons, contracta facies, exile collum. Aes ipsum, quantum verus color indicat, vetus et antiquum. Talia denique omnia, ut possint artificum oculos tenere, delectare imperitorum. Quod me, quamquam tirunculum, solicitavit ad emendum. Emi autem, non at haberem domi, verum ut in patria nostri celebri loco ponerem; ac potissimum in Iovis templo. Videtur enim dignum templo, dignum deo donum.

Ep. iii. 6.

Helps to Style.

A. Quaeris, quemadmodum in secessu, quo iam diu frueris, putem te studere oportere. Utile in primis, et multi praecipiunt, vel ex Graeco in Latinum, vel ex Latino vertere in Graecum: quo genere exercitationis proprietas splendorque verborum, copia figurarum, vis explicandi, praeterea imitatione optimorum similia inveniendi facultas paratur; simul quae legentem fefellissent transferentem fugere non possunt. Intelligentia ex hoc et iudicium adquiritur. Nihil obfuerit, quae legeris hactenus, ut rem argumentumque teneas, quasi aemulum scribere lectisque conferre, ac sedulo pensitare quid tu, quid ille commodius. Magna gratulatio, si non nulla tu; magnus pudor, si cuncta ille melius. Licebit interdum et notissima eligere, et certare cum electis. Poteris et, quae dixeris, post oblivionem retractare, multa retinere, plura transire, alia interscribere, alia rescribere. Laboriosum istud et taedio plenum sed difficultate ipsa fructuosum, recalescere ex integro, et resumere impetum fractum omissumque, postremo nova velut membra peracto corpori intexere, nec tamen priora turbare. Fas est et carmine remitti, non dico continuo et longo (id enim perfici nisi in otio non potest), sed hoc arguto et brevi, quod apte quantaslibet occupationes curasque distinguit.

Pliny the Younger, Ep. vii. 9 (sel.)

Importance of Concentration.

B. Sed silentium et secessus et undique liber animus ut sunt maxime optanda, ita non semper possunt contingere, ideoque non statim, si quid obstrepet, abiciendi codices erunt et deplorandus dies, verum incommodis repugnandum et hic faciendus usus, ut omnia quae impedient vincat intentio: quam si tota mente in opus ipsum direxeris, nihil eorum, quae oculis vel auribus incursant, ad animum perveniet. An vero frequenter etiam fortuita hoc cogitatio praestat, ut obvios non videamus et itinere deerremus; non consequemur, si et voluerimus? Non est indulgendum causis desidiae. Nam si nonnisi refecti, nonnisi hilares, nonnisi omnibus aliis curis vacantes studendum existimaverimus, semper erit propter quod nobis ignoscamus.

Quintilian, Inst. Or. X. iii. 28.

De Simonide.

Homo doctus in se semper divitias habet.

Simonides, qui scripsit egregium melos,

Quo paupertatem sustineret facilius,

Circum ire coepit urbes Asiae nobiles,


Mercede accepta laudem victorum canens.

Hoc genere quaestus postquam locuples factus est,

Revenire in patriam voluit cursu pelagio;

Erat autem, ut aiunt, natus in Chia insula.

Ascendit navem, quam tempestas horrida


Simul et vetustas medio dissolvit mari.

Hi zonas, illi res pretiosas colligunt,

Subsidium vitae. Quidam curiosior:

‘Simonide, tu ex opibus nil sumis tuis?’

‘Mecum,’ inquit, ‘mea sunt cuncta.’* Tunc pauci enatant,


Quia plures onere degravati perierant.

Praedones adsunt, rapiunt quod quisque extulit,

Nudos relinquunt. Forte Clazomenae prope

Antiqua fuit urbs; quam petierunt naufragi.

Hic litterarum quidam studio deditus,


Simondis qui saepe versus legerat

Eratque absentis admirator maximus,

Sermone ab ipso cognitum cupidissime

Ad se recepit; veste, nummis, familia

Hominem exornavit. Ceteri tabulam suam


Portant rogantes victum. Quos casu obvios

Simonides ut vidit, ‘Dixi’ inquit ‘mea

Mecum esse cuncta: vos quod habuistis, perit.’

iv. 23.

* Cf. ‘Omnia bona mea mecum sunt.’—Seneca, Ep. 9.

Mons Parturiens.

Mons parturibat, gemitus immanes ciens,

Eratque in terris maxima expectatio.

At ille murem peperit. Hoc scriptum est tibi,

Qui, magna cum minaris, extricas nihil.

iv. 24.

Nihil ita occultum esse quod non reveletur.

Pastor capellae cornu baculo fregerat:

Rogare coepit, ne se domino proderet . . .

‘Quamvis indigne laesa, reticebo tamen;

Sed res clamabit ipsa quid deliqueris.’

Appendix, 22.

The Golden Age.

Quam bene Saturno vivebant rege, priusquam


Tellus in longas est patefacta vias!

Nondum caeruleas pinus contempserat undas,

Effusum ventis praebueratque sinum,

Nec vagus ignotis repetens compendia terris


Presserat externa navita merce ratem.

Illo non validus subiit iuga tempore taurus,

Non domito frenos ore momordit equus,

Non domus ulla fores habuit, non fixus in agris


Qui regeret certis finibus arva, lapis.

Ipsae mella dabant quercus, ultroque ferebant

Obvia securis ubera lactis oves.

Non acies, non ira fuit, non bella, nec ensem


Immiti saevus duxerat arte faber.

Nunc Iove sub domino caedes et vulnera semper,

Nunc mare, nunc leti mille repente viae.

I. iii. 35-50.

Cf. Catullus, lxiv.; Vergil, Ecl. iv.

Birthday Wishes.

Dicamus bona verba: venit natalis ad aras:

Quisquis ades, lingua, vir mulierque fave.

Urantur pia tura focis, urantur odores,


Quos tener e terra divite mittit Arabs.

Ipse suos Genius adsit visurus honores,

Cui decorent sanctas mollia serta comas.

Illius puro destillent tempora nardo,


Atque satur libo sit madeatque mero,

Adnuat et, Cornute, tibi quodcumque rogabis.

En age, quid cessas? adnuit ille: roga.

Auguror, uxoris fidos optabis amores;


Iam reor hoc ipsos edidicisse deos.

Nec tibi malueris, totum quaecumque per orbem

Fortis arat valido rusticus arva bove,

Nec tibi, gemmarum quidquid felicibus Indis


Nascitur, Eoi qua maris unda rubet.

Vota cadunt: utinam strepitantibus advolet alis

Flavaque coniugio vincula portet Amor,

Vincula, quae maneant semper, dum tarda senectus


Inducat rugas inficiatque comas.

Hic veniat natalis avis prolemque ministret,

Ludat et ante tuos turba novella pedes.

II. ii.

Cf. Tibull. I. vii. 49-54; Persius, ii. 1-4.

On the delights of hunting with a note-book.

A. Ridebis, et licet rideas. Ego ille, quem nosti apros tres, et quidem pulcherrimos, cepi. Ipse? inquis. Ipse; non tamen ut omnino ab inertia mea et quiete discederem. Ad retia sedebam: erat in proximo, non venabulum aut lancea, sed stilus et pugillares. Meditabar aliquid enotabamque, ut, si manus vacuas, plenas tamen ceras reportarem. Non est, quod contemnas hoc studendi genus. Mirum est ut animus agitatione motuque corporis excitetur. Iam undique silvae et solitudo, ipsumque illud silentium, quod venationi datur, magna cogitationis incitamenta sunt. Proinde cum venabere, licebit auctore me ut panarium et lagunculam sic etiam pugillares feras. Experieris non Dianam magis montibus, quam Minervam inerrare. Vale.

Pliny, Ep. i. 6.

Oenone Paridi.

Quis tibi monstrabat saltus venatibus aptos

Et tegeret catulos qua fera rupe suos?

Retia saepe comes maculis distincta tetendi;

Saepi cites egi per iuga longa canes.

Ovid, Her. v. 17-20.

The Hunting Party.

Oceanum interea surgens Aurora reliquit.


It portis iubare exorto delecta iuventus;

Retia rara, plagae, lato venabula ferro,

Massylique ruunt equites et odora canum vis.

Reginam thalamo cunctantem ad limina primi

Poenorum exspectant, ostroque insignis et auro


Stat sonipes ac frena ferox spumantia mandit.



Postquam altos ventum in montes atque invia lustra

Ecce ferae, saxi deiectae vertice, caprae

Decurrere iugis; alia de parte patentes

Transmittunt cursu campos atque agmina cervi


Pulverulenta fuga glomerant montisque relinquunt.

At puer Ascanius mediis in vallibus acri

Gaudet equo, iamque hos cursu, iam praeterit illos

Spumantemque dari pecora inter inertia votis

Optat aprum aut fulvum descendere monte leonem.

Verg. Aen. iv. 129-135, 151-159.

Its Duties and Amusements.

Prima salutantes atque altera conterit hora;

Exercet raucos tertia causidicos;

In quintam varies extendit Roma labores;


Sexta quies lassis; septima finis erit;

Sufficit in nonam nitidis octava palaestris;

Imperat exstructos frangere nona toros;

Hora libellorum decima est, Eupheme, meorum,


Temperat ambrosias cum tua cura dapes

Et bonus aetherio laxatur nectare Caesar

Ingentique tenet pocula parca manu.

Tunc admitte iocos: gressu timet ire licenti


Ad matutinum nostra Thalia Iovem.

Martial, IV. viii.

The Simple Life.
How Horace spent his day.
B. 110

Hoc ego commodius quam tu praeclare senator,

Milibus atque aliis vivo. Quacunque libido est

Incedo solus, percontor quanti holus ac far,

Fallacem circum vespertinumque pererro

Saepe forum, adsisto divinis. Inde domum me


Ad porri et ciceris refero laganique catinum;

Cena ministratur pueris tribus, et lapis albus

Pocula cum cyatho duo sustinet, astat echinus

Vilis, cum patera guttus, Campana supellex.

Deinde eo dormitum, non sollicitus, mihi quod cras


Surgendum sit mane, obeundus Marsya, qui se

Voltum ferre negat Noviorum posse minoris.

Ad quartam iaceo; post hanc vagor, aut ego, lecto

Aut scripto quod me tacitum iuvet, unguor olivo,

Non quo fraudatis immundus Natta lucernis.


Ast ubi me fessum sol acrior ire lavatum

Admonuit, fugio campum lusumque trigonem.

Pransus non avide quantum interpellet inani

Ventre diem durare, domesticus otior. Haec est

Vita solutorum misera ambitione gravique.


His me consolor victurum suavius, ac si

Quaestor avus pater atque meus patruusque fuisset.

Horace, Sat. I. vi. 110-131.

Cf. Cic. ad Fam. ix. 20; Lucr. ii. 14-33; Verg. Georg. ii. 458-474; Hor. Od. III, i.

‘Lives of great men all remind us,
We can make our lives sublime.’

A. Si quis piorum manibus locus, si, ut sapientibus placet, non cum corpore extinguuntur magnae animae, placide quiescas, nosque domum tuam ab inferno desiderio et muliebribus lamentis ad contemplationem virtutum tuarum voces, quas neque lugeri neque plangi fas est. Admiratione te potius et immortalibus laudibus et, si natura suppeditet, similitudine colamus: is verus honos, ea coniunctissimi cuiusque pietas. Id filiae quoque uxorique praeceperim, sic patris, sic mariti memoriam venerari, ut omnia facta dictaque eius secum revolvant, formamque ac figuram animi magis quam corporis complectantur, non quia intercedendum putem imaginibus quae marmore aut aere finguntur, sed, ut vultus hominum, ita simulacra vultus imbecilla ac mortalia sunt, forma mentis aeterna, quam tenere et exprimere non per alienam materiam et artem, sed tuis ipse moribus possis. Quidquid ex Agricola amavimus, quidquid mirati sumus, manet mansurumque est in animis hominum, in aeternitate temporum, in fama rerum; nam multos veterum velut inglorios et ignobilis oblivio obruet: Agricola posteritati narratus et traditus superstes erit.

Agricola 46.

The Climate and Products of Britain.

B. Caelum crebris imbribus ac nebulis foedum; asperitas frigorum abest. Dierum spatia ultra nostri orbis mensuram; nox clara et extrema Britanniae parte brevis, ut finem atque initium lucis exiguo discrimine internoscas. Quod si nubes non officiunt, aspici per noctem solis fulgorem, nec occidere et exsurgere, sed transire affirmant. Scilicet extrema et plana terrarum humili umbra non erigunt tenebras, infraque caelum et sidera nox cadit. Solum praeter oleam vitemque et cetera calidioribus terris oriri sueta patiens frugum, fecundum: tarde mitescunt, cito proveniunt; eademque utriusque rei causa, multus umor terrarum caelique. Fert Britannia aurum et argentum et alia metalla, pretium victoriae. Gignit et oceanus margarita, sed subfusca ac liventia.

Agricola 12.

Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme.
An Ignorant Connoisseur.

A. Plausum post hoc automatum familia dedit, et ‘Gaio feliciter!’ conclamavit: nec non cocus potione oneratus est, et argentea corona poculumque in lance accepit Corinthia. Quam cum Agamemnon propius consideraret, ait Trimalchio: ‘Solus sum, qui vera Corinthea habeam.’ Exspectabam, ut pro reliqua insolentia diceret sibi vasa Corintho afferri. Sed ille melius: ‘Et forsitan,’ inquit, ‘quaeris, quare solus Corinthea vera possideam? Quia scilicet aerarius, a quo emo, Corinthus vocatur; quid est autem Corintheum, nisi quis Corinthum habeat? Et ne me putetis nesapium esse, valde bene scio, unde primum Corinthea nata sint. Cum Ilium captum est, Hannibal, homo vafer, et magnus stelio, omnes statuas aeneas, et aureas, et argenteas in unum rogum congessit, et eas incendit; factae sunt in unum aera miscellanea. Ita ex hac massa fabri sustulerunt, et fecerunt catilla et paropsides et statuncula. Sic Corinthea nata sunt, ex omnibus in unum, nec hoc, nec illud.’

Petronius Arbiter, 50.

The Glass Bowl, and its Maker.

B. ‘Ignoscetis mihi,’ inquit Trimalchio, ‘quod dixero: ego malo mihi vitrea; certe non olunt. Quod si non frangerentur, mallem mihi, quam aurum; nunc autem vilia sunt. Fuit tamen faber, qui fecit phialam vitream, quae non frangebatur. Admissus ergo Caesarem est cum suo munere; deinde fecit se porrigere Caesari, et illam in pavimentum proiecit. Caesar non pote validius, quam expavit. At ille sustulit phialam de terra: collisa erat, tanquam vasum aeneum. Deinde marceolum de sinu protulit, et phialam otio belle correxit. Hoc facto putabat se solium Iovis tenere, utique, postquam illi dixit: Numquid alius scit hanc condituram vitreorum? Vide modo. Postquam negavit, iussit illum Caesar decollari; quia enim, si scitum esset, aurum pro luto haberemus.’

Petronius Arbiter, 51.


I. Diu deinde servatum ne consonantibus (veteres) adspirarent, ut in Graccis et in triumpis. Erupit brevi tempore nimius usus, ut choronae, chenturiones, praechones adhuc quibusdam in inscriptionibus maneant, qua de re Catulli nobile epigramma est.

Quint. i. 5. 20.

Chommoda dicebat, si quando commoda vellet

Dicere, et insidias Arrius hinsidias,

Et tum mirifice sperabat se esse locutum,

Cum quantum poterat dixerat hinsidias.

Credo, sic mater, sic liber avonculus eius,

Sic maternus avos dixerat atque avia.

Hoc misso in Syriam requierant omnibus aures:

Audibant eadem haec leviter et leviter,

Nec sibi postilla metuebant talia verba,

Cum subito adfertur nuntius horribilis,

Ionios fluctus, postquam illuc Arrius isset,

Iam non Ionios esse, sed Hionios.

Catullus, lxxxiv.

* For further information see Dr. Postgate’s How to pronounce Latin (Bell & Sons).

A Street Cry.

II. Cum M. Crassus exercitum Brundisii imponeret, quidam in portu, caricas Cauno advectas vendens, Cauneas! clamitabat. Dicamus, si placet, monitum ab eo Crassum, caveret, ne iret (cau[e] n[e] eas = do not go): non fuisse periturum, si omini paruisset. Quae si suscipiamus, pedis offensio nobis et abruptio corrigiae et sternutamenta erunt observanda.

Cicero, Div. ii. 40. 84.

K. Q. C.

K perspicuum est littera quod vacare possit;

Et Q, similis, namque eadem vis in utraque est;

Quia qui locus est primitus unde exoritur C,

Quascunque deinceps libeat iugare voces,

Mutare necesse est sonitum quidem supremum,

Refert nihilum, K prior an Q siet an C.

Terentianus Maurus (circ. 300 A.D.).


Me. Egon’ dedi?

Pe.  Tu tu, istic, inquam! Vin’ adferri noctuam

Quae tu tu usque dicat tibi? Nam nos iam defessi sumus.

Plautus, Men. 553-6.


I. Nam quae volumus et credimus libenter.

Caes. B. Civ. ii. 27.

II. Cuiusvis hominis est errare; nullius nisi insipientis in errore perseverare. Posteriores enim cogitationes, ut aiunt, sapientiores solent esse.

Cic. Phil. xii. 5.

III. Dimidium facti qui coepit habet.

Hor. Ep. I. ii. 40.

IV. Nemo repente fuit turpissimus.

Juv. Sat. ii. 83.

V. Velut materiam igni praebentes.

Livy, xxi. 10.

VI. Et quasi cursores vitai lampada tradunt.

Lucr. ii. 79.


Non amo te, Sabidi, nec possum dicere quare:

Hoc tantum possum dicere, non amo te.

Martial, Ep. I. xxxii.


quem di diligunt

Adulescens moritur.

Plaut. Bacch. I. ii. 36.

IX. Nullumst iam dictum, quod non sit dictum prius.

Terence, Eun. Prol. 41.

X. Quot homines tot sententiae: suus cuique mos.

Ter. Phormio, II. iv. 14.

XI. Stultum facit fortuna, quem vult pedere.

Pub. Syrus.


Vita brevis est, longa ars.

Vita, si scias uti, longa est.

Sen. de Brevit. vitae, i. 2.

XIII. Omne ignotum pro magnifico.

Tac. Agric. 30.

XIV. Divina natura dedit agros, ars humana aedificavit urbes.

Varro, de Re Rust. iii. 1.


Tu ne cede malis, sed contra audentior ito

Quam tua te Fortuna sinet.

Verg. Aen. vi. 95.


 .  .  .  .  Sunt hic etiam sua praemia laudi;

Sunt lacrimae rerum, et mentem mortalia tangunt.

Verg. Aen. i. 461-2.

‘Whom the gods love die young.’

A. Una post haec Quintiliani mei spe ac voluptate nitebar: at poterat sufficere solatio. Non enim flosculos, sicut prior, sed iam decimum aetatis ingressus annum, certos ac deformatos fructus ostenderat. Iuro per mala mea, per infelicem conscientiam, per illos manes, numina mei doloris, has me in illo vidisse virtutes ingeni, non modo ad percipiendas disciplinas, quo nihil praestantius cognovi plurima expertus studiique iam tum non coacti (sciunt praeceptores), sed probitatis, pietatis, humanitatis, liberalitatis, ut prorsus posset hinc esse tanti fulminis metus, quod observatum fere est, celerius occidere festinatam maturitatem: et esse nescio quam quae spes tantas decerpat invidiam, ne videlicet ultra, quam homini datum est, nostra provehantur. Etiam illa fortuita aderant omnia, vocis iucunditas claritasque, oris suavitas, et in utracumque lingua, tanquam ad eam demum natus esset, expressa proprietas omnium litterarum. Sed haec spes adhuc: illa maiora, constantia, gravitas, contra dolores etiam ac metus robur. Nam quo ille animo, qua medicorum admiratione, mensium octo valetudinem tulit! ut me in supremis consolatus est! quam etiam deficiens, iamque non *noster, ipsum illum alienatae mentis errorem circa solas literas habuit!

Quintilian, Inst. Or. VI. i. 9.

* Cf. ‘Invalidasque tibi tendens, heu non tua, palmas.’—Verg. G. iv. 498.

Servius Sulpicius to Cicero.

B. Quae res mihi non mediocrem consolationem attulerit, volo tibi commemorare, si forte eadem res tibi dolorem minuere possit. *Ex Asia rediens, cum ab Aegina Megaram versus navigarem, coepi regiones circumcirca prospicere. Post me erat Aegina, ante me Megara, dextra Piraeeus, sinistra Corinthus: quae oppida quodam tempore florentissima fuerunt, nunc prostrata et diruta ante oculos iacent. Coepi egomet mecum sic cogitare: ‘Hem! nos homunculi indignamur, si quis nostrum interiit aut occisus est, quorum vita brevior esse debet, cum uno loco tot oppidum cadavera proiecta iacent? Visne tu te, Servi, cohibere et meminisse hominem te esse natum?’

Cicero, Ep. ad Fam. iv. 5.

* Cf. Byron, Childe Harold, iv. 44-5.

Catullus at the Grave of his Brother.

Multas per gentes et multa per aequora vectus

Advenio has miseras, frater, ad inferias,

Ut te postremo donarem munere mortis


Et mutam nequiquam alloquerer cinerem,

Quandoquidem fortuna mihi tete abstulit ipsum,

Heu miser indigne frater adempte mihi.

Nunc tamen interea haec prisco quae more parentum


Tradita sunt tristes munera ad inferias,

Accipe fraterno multum manantia fletu,

Atque in perpetuum, frater, ave atque vale.

Catullus, ci.

To Calvus on the Death of his Wife.

Si quicquam muteis gratum acceptumve sepulcris

Accidere a nostro, Calve, dolore potest,

Cum desiderio veteres renovamus amores

Atque olim amissas flemus amicitias,

Certe non tanto mors immatura dolori est

Quintiliae, quantum gaudet amore tuo.

Catullus, xcvi.

The Plea of Cornelia to her Husband.

Desine, Paule, meum lacrimis urgere sepulcrum:

Panditur ad nullas ianua nigra preces.

Cum semel infernas intrarunt funera leges,


Obserat umbrosos lurida porta locos. . . .


Nunc tibi commendo communia pignora natos:

Haec cura et cineri spirat inusta meo.

Te Lepide, et te, Paule, meum post fata levamen;


Condita sunt vestro lumina nostra sinu.

Fungere maternis vicibus, pater: illa meorum

Omnis erit collo turba ferenda tuo.

Oscula cum dederis tua flentibus, adice matris:


Tota domus coepit nunc onus esse tuum.

Propertius, IV. (V.) xi. 1-4, 73-80.

Mors Tibulli.

Memnona si mater, mater ploravit Achillem,

Et tangunt magnas tristia fata deas,

Flebilis indignos, Elegia, solve capillos:

A nimis ex vero nunc tibi nomen erit!

Ille tui vates operis, tua fama, Tibullus

Ardet in exstructo corpus inane rogo.

Ovid, Am. III. ix. (sel.)


Quo vis cumque loco potes hunc finire libellum:

Versibus explicitumst omne duobus opus.

Lemmata si quaeris cur sint adscripta, docebo,

Ut, si malueris, lemmata sola legas.

Chartae Epistulares.

Seu leviter noto seu caro missa sodali

Omnes ista solet charta vocare suos.

Theca Libraria.

Sortitus thecam calamis armare memento:

Cetera nos dedimus, tu leviora para.


Accipe quae nimios vincant umbracula soles:

Sit licet et ventus, te tua vela tegent.


Militiae decus hoc gratique erit omen honoris,

Arma tribunicium cingere digna latus.


Pax me certa ducis placidos curvavit in usus.

Agricolae nunc sum, militis ante fui.


Selectos nisi das mihi libellos,

Admittam tineas trucesque blattas.

Candelabrum Corinthium.

Nomina candelae nobis antiqua dederunt.

Non norat parcos uncta lucerna patres.

Pila Paganica.

Haec quae difficili turget paganica pluma,

Folle minus laxast et minus arta pila.

Pila Trigonalis.

Si me mobilibus scis expulsare sinistris,

Sum tua. Tu nescis? rustice, redde pilam.


Ite procul, iuvenes: mitis mihi convenit aetas:

Folle decet pueros ludere, folle senes.

* Apophoreta (ἀποφόρητα = to be carried away), Christmas presents which were interchanged at the Saturnalia.

Vergilius in membranis.

Quam brevis immensum cepit membrana Maronem!

Ipsius vultus prima tabella gerit.

Cicero in membranis.

Si comes ista tibi fuerit membrana, putato

Carpere te longas cum Cicerone vias.

Monobyblos Properti.

Cynthia, facundi carmen iuvenale Properti,

Accepit famam; non minus ipsa dedit.

Titus Livius in membranis.

Pellibus exiguis artatur Livius ingens,

Quem mea non totum bybliotheca capit.


Hic erit, ut perhibent doctorum corda virorum,

Primus Romana Crispus in historia.


Sunt quidam qui me dicunt non esse poetam:

Sed qui me vendit bybliopola putat.


Tantum magna suo debet Verona Catullo,

Quantum parva suo Mantua Vergilio.


Quid me corapactam ceris et harundine rides?

Quae primum structa est fistula talis erat.

Catella Gallicana

Delicias parvae si vis audire catellae

Narranti brevis est pagina tota mihi.

Minerva argentea.

Dic mihi, virgo ferox, cum sit tibi cassis et hasta

Quare non habeas aegida. ‘Caesar habet.’

Hercules fictilis.

Sum fragilis: sed tu, moneo, ne sperne sigillum:

Non pudet Alciden nomen habere meum.


‘Romanos rerum dominos gentemque togatam’

Ille facit, magno qui dedit astra patri.

On Naevius (by himself).

‘Immortales mortales si foret fas flere

Flerent divae Camenae Naevium poetam;

Itaque postquam est Orci traditus thesauro

Obliti sunt Romai loquier lingua Latina.’

On Ennius (by himself).

‘Aspicite, o cives, senis Enni imaginis formam:

Hic vestrum panxit maxima facta patrum.

Nemo me lacrumis decoret nec funera fletu

Faxit. Cur? Volito vivas per ora virum.’

On Pacuvius (by himself).

‘Adulescens, tametsi properas, te hoc saxum rogat,

Ut sese aspicias, deinde quod scriptum est, legas.

Hic sunt poetae Pacuvi Marci sita

Ossa. Hoc volebam nescius ne esses. Vale.’

On Plautus (by himself).

‘Postquam est mortem aptus Plautus, Comoedia luget,

Scena est deserta, ac dein Risus, Ludus, Iocusque,

Et Numeri innumeri simul omnes collacrumarunt.’

On Tibullus.

‘Te quoque Vergilio comitem non aequa, Tibulle,

Mors iuvenem campos misit ad Elysios,

Ne foret aut elegis molles qui fleret amores

Aut caneret forti regia bella pede.’

Domitius Marsus.

In tumulo hominis felicis.

‘Sparge mero cineres, bene olentis et unguine nardi,

Hospes, et adde rosis balsama puniceis.

Perpetuum mihi ver agit illacrimabilis urna

Et commutavi saecula, non obii.

Nulla mihi veteris perierunt gaudia vitae,

Seu meminisse putes omnia, sive nihil.’

Ausonius, Epit. 36.


Ὦ ξεῖν’, ἀγγέλλειν Λακεδαιμονίοις, ὅτι τῇδε

Κείμεθα, τοῖς κείνων ῥήμασι πειθόμενοι.

Simonides of Ceos.

‘Dic, hospes, Spartae, nos te vidisse iacentes,

Dum sanctis patriae legibus obsequimur.’

Transl. by Cicero, Tusc. i. 42. 101.


Exegi monumentum aere perennius

Regalique situ pyramidum altius,

Quod non imber edax, non Aquilo impotens

Possit diruere aut innumerabilis


Annorum series et fuga temporum.

Non omnis moriar, multaque pars mei

Vitabit Libitinam: usque ego postera

Crescam laude recens, dum Capitolium

Scandet cum tacita virgine pontifex.


Dicar, qua violens obstrepit Aufidus

Et qua pauper aquae Daunus agrestium

Regnavit populorum, ex humili potens

Princeps Aeolium carmen ad Italos

Deduxisse modos. Sume superbiam


Quaesitam meritis et mihi Delphica

Lauro cinge volens, Melpomene, comam.

Horace, Od. III. xxx.


Iamque opus exegi, quod nec Iovis ira nec ignis

Nec poterit ferrum nec edax abolere vetustas.

Cum volet, illa dies, quae nil nisi corporis huius

Ius habet, incerti spatium mihi finiat aevi;


Parte tamen meliore mei super alta perennis

Astra ferar nomenque erit indelebile nostrum.

Quaque patet domitis Romana potentia terris,

Ore legar populi perque omnia saecula fama,

Siquid habent veri vatum praesagia, vivam.

Ovid, Met. xv. 871-9.


Ohe, iam satis est, ohe, libelle,

Iam pervenimus usque ad umbilicos:

Tu procedere adhuc et ire quaeris,

Nec summa potes in schida teneri,


Sic tamquam tibi res peracta non sit,

Quae prima quoque pagina peracta est.

Iam lector queriturque deficitque;

Iam librarius hoc et ipse dicit

‘Ohe, iam satis est, ohe, libelle.’

Martial, Epig. IV. lxxxix.










I. CO-ORDINATE.—These conjunctions join sentences of equal grammatical rank (ordo), that is, each sentence is grammatically independent of the other.

They are generally divided into FIVE classes:—

(1) Copulative (link) conjunctions are those which connect both the sentences and the meaning.

et, -quĕ, ac, atque ... and.
et ... et, -que ... -que (poet.) ... both ... and.
ĕtĭam, quŏque ... also.

Divide et impera.
Divide and control.

(2) Disjunctive conjunctions join together the sentence but they disjoin or separate from each other the thoughts conveyed.

aut ... aut, vĕl ... vĕl (vĕ) ... either ... or.
sĭve (seu) ... seu ... whether ... or.
nĕc (nĕque) ... nec (neque) ... neither ... nor.

aut vincemus aut moriemur.
We will either conquer or die.

(3) Adversative conjunctions oppose two statements to each other.

sĕd, vērum, vērō, cētĕrum ... but.
autem, tămen ... however.
ăt ... but, on the other hand.

Ille quidem tardior: tu autem ingeniosus, sed in omni vita inconstans.
He is a little dull: while you are clever, but unstable in all your actions.


(4) Inferential.—The statement of one sentence brings in (infert) or proves the other.

Ergo, ĭgĭtur, ĭtăque ... therefore, accordingly.

Unus homo nobis cunctando restituit rem:
Ergo postque magisque viri nunc gloria claret.’


(5) Causal.

nam, namque, ĕnim, ĕtĕnim ... for.
quāpropter, quārē, quămobrem ... wherefore.

Ex.: ‘quamobrem, Quirites, celebratote illos dies cum coniugibus ac liberis vestris: nam multi saepe honores dis immortalibus iusti habiti sunt, sed profecto iustiores nunquam.’

II. SUBORDINATE.—These conjunctions attach to a sentence or clause another clause which holds (grammatically) a lower or subordinate position, qualifying the principal clause just as an adverb qualifies a verb.

Thus in ‘I will do this, if you do,’ the if clause is equivalent to the adverb conditionally.

They are generally divided into EIGHT classes:—

(1) Final introduce a clause expressing a purpose.

ŭt, quō ... that, in order to.
, quōmĭnus ... that not, lest.
qui ... who (= ut is ...).

Edo ut vivam.
Ne ignavum te putemus, fortiter pugna.
Pauci mihi sunt quos mittam.

(2) Consecutive introduce a clause expressing a consequence or result.

ŭt ... so that, so as to.
ŭt nōn, quīn ... so as not to.
qui ... who (of such a kind as to...).

Ex.: Tam fortis adest nemo ut solus muros ascendat.
  Tam fortis est ut hostes non timeat.
  Dignus erat qui rex fieret.

(3) Temporal.

cum, quandō ... when.
ŭbī̆, ŭt ... when, as.
sĭmŭl, sĭmŭl atque (ac) ... as soon as.
postquam ... after that.
276 dum, dōnec, quŏad ... until, as long as, while.
prĭus ... quam, antĕ ... quam ... before that.

Discedere prius noluit quam ducem vidisset.
Pompeius ut equitatum suum pulsum vidit, acie excessit.

(4) Conditional.

sī, nĭsī̆ (nī), si non, quod sī ... if, unless, if not, but if.
mŏdŏ, dummŏdo, si mŏdo ... if only, provided that.
dummŏdo nē (dum nē, mŏdo nē) ... provided only not.

Ne promiseris unquam nisi fidem praestare potes.
Never promise if you cannot keep your word.

(5) Comparative and Proportional.

ut, utī, sīcut, vĕlut ... just as, as.
tanquam, quăsĭ ... as if.
quo ... ĕo ... the more ... the more.

   Poenas dedit sicut meritus est.

E corpore velut e carcere, evolat animus.

The soul flies forth from the prison-house of the body.

   quo difficilius eo praeclarius.

(6) Concessive.

etsī, ĕtĭamsi, tămetsi ... even if.
quamquam ... although.
quamvīs, quamlĭbet ... however much.
lĭcet, ut, cum ... though, although.

Cum liber esse posset, servire maluit.

(7) Causal.

quĭă, quŏd, quŏnĭam, quandō ... because.
cum ... since.
proptĕrĕā ... quod ... for this reason ... that.
quandōquĭdem, quippe ... since indeed, inasmuch as.

Quae cum ita sint, ab urbe discedam.
Socrates accusatus est quod iuventutem corrumperet.

(8) Interrogative (with dependent clauses).

cūr, ūtrum ... ăn, num ... why, whether ... or, if.
quemadmŏdum, ut ... how.
ŭbī̆, quandō ... when.

Caesar utrum iure caesus fuerit, an nefarie necatus, dubitari potest.

Whether Caesar was rightfully put to death, or foully murdered, is open to question.




I. PREPOSITIONS.—In these compounds the Prepositions retain their original adverbial force.

A-, AB-, ABS-, = away, from (of the starting-place)

 (i) = separation.

abire = go away.
abscēdere = go away.
āvŏcare = call away.

(ii) = consumption.

absūmere = take away, consume.
ăbūti = use up.

AD-, AC-, A-, = to (of a person, place, or thing, as the goal of motion).

 (i) = to, at (local).

accēdere = approach.
adfāri = speak to.

(ii) = in addition.

acquīrere = get in addition.

ANTE = before (of place and time).

antecēdere = come before.
anteferre = prefer.

CIRCUM = around.

circumdăre = surround.


literally, and with secondary meaning, = cheat.

COM-, CON- (CUM), CO-, COL-, COR-, = together.

 (i) = collectively.

conclāmare = shout together.
commiscēre = mix together.

(ii) = completely (often apparently only pleonastic).

consectari = follow persistently.
confirmare = strengthen.


DE-, = down, from.

 (i) = down, down off, down to.

decĭdere = fall down, or off.
devĕnire = come to.

(ii) = off, away, aside.

dēcēdere = depart.
deflectere = turn aside.
deterrēre = frighten.

(iii) = completely.

depŏpŭlari = lay waste.
debellare = bring a war to an end.

(iv) = un- (negative).

despērare = despair.
deesse = be wanting.

E-, EX-, EC-, EF-, = out of.

 (i) = out, forth.

excēdere = go out.
effundere = pour forth.

(ii) = throughout, to the end, thoroughly.

explēre = fill to the brim.
exposcere = earnestly ask.

IN-, IM-, IR-, I-, = in, on, against.

 (i) = in, into, on.

inclūdere = shut in.
incĭdere = fall on.
invĭdere = look at (with ill intent),envy.

(ii) = intensive, almost pleonastic.

incĭpere = take up, begin.
implēre = fill.

INTER = between.

 (i) = between, among.

intercēdere = come between.
intellĕgere = pick among, perceive.

(ii) = breaking a continuity.

interclūdere = shut off, blockade.
interfĭcere = destroy (lit. put between).

OB-, OBS-, OC-, OF-, OP-, O-, = against, on account of.

 (i) = over against, before (as an obstruction).

offendere = strike against.
oblŏqui = speak against.


(ii) = towards, with the idea of favour or compliance.

oboedire = hearken to.
obsĕqui = follow compliantly.

PER-, = through, along.

 (i) = through, all over.

perrumpere = break through.
perspĭcēre = look through.

(ii) = thoroughly, to completion.

perdiscere = learn thoroughly.
perfungi = go through a duty, discharge.
permagnus = very large.

PRAE = in front.

 (i) = (of place) before, in front.

praefĭcere = put at the head of.
praeses (sĕdeo) = guardian.

(ii) = (of time) before, too soon.

praediscere = learn beforehand.
praevĕnire = outstrip.

(iii) = before others, in comparison, greatly.

praecellens = surpassing.

PRO-, PROD-, = before, in front of, forth.

prod-ire = come forth.
provĭdēre = look onwards or ahead.

SUB-, SUF-, SUM-, SUP-, SUR-, SU-, SUS-, = beneath, under.

 (i) = under.

subĭcere = throw under, subject.
supprĭmere = press under, suppress.

(ii) = up.

succingere = gird up.
sustĭnēre = hold up, check.

(iii) = to the help of, close to.

subvĕnire = come up to aid of.

(iv) = secretly.

subdūcere = withdraw secretly.

 (v) = slightly.

subrīdere = laugh somewhat, smile.
sublustris = giving some light.


SUPER = over, upon.

 (i) = over, upon (of place).

superpōnere = place upon or over.

(ii) = metaphorically.

sūperesse = remain, survive, abound.

TRANS-, TRA-, = across.

 (i) = across.

transgrĕdi = step across.

(ii) = a change or transference.

trādere = hand over, surrender.

(iii) = through to the end.

transĭgere = complete a business.

II. SEPARABLE PARTICLES, which do not appear as Prepositions in Latin.

AMB-, AM-, AN-, = around, on both sides.

ambīre = go around, canvass.
amplecti = fold oneself round, embrace.

DIS-, DI-, DIF-, DIR-, = in twain.

 (i) = asunder, apart.

discēdere = part asunder, depart.
discernere = separate, distinguish.
dīmittere = send in different directions.

(ii) = un- (negative).

displĭcēre = displease.
diffīdere = distrust.

(iii) = exceedingly.

differtus = crammed to bursting.

(iv) = individually, separately.

dīnŭmĕrare = count up (singly).

IN- (cf. ἀν-, ἀ-) = UN-, usually with adjectives.

ignoscere = not to know, forget, pardon.
innŏcens = not guilty, harmless.

PER- (cf. παρά) = in a sense of wrong or injury.

perdere = destroy.
perfĭdus = faithless.


RED-, RE-, = back.

 (i) = back, backwards.

rĕcumbere = lie down.
rĕflectere = bend back.

(ii) = in response, or return.

reddere = give in return.

(iii) = against, behind.

rĕpugnare = fight against.
rĕlinquere = leave behind.

(iv) = again.

rĕfĭcere = make again, repair.
rĕpĕrire = find again, discover.

(v) = intensive action.

rĕvellere = pluck by the roots.

(vi) = un- (negative).

rĕfīgere = unfix.

SED-, SE-, = apart.

sēcernere = sift away, separate.
sēcēdere = go aside, withdraw.
sēd-ĭtio = a going apart, secession.





(i.) TOR (-SOR), M.
Agent or doer of an action
ac-tor = doer, formed from ag = do.
auc-tor = maker  „ aug = increase.
vic-tor = conqueror  „ vic = conquer.
petī-tor = candidate  „ pet = seek.
ton-sor = barber  „ tem = cut.

(ii.) Abstract Nouns and Names of Actions.

-OR, -SUS (= -TUS), M.

-ĒS, -IA (-IES), -TIA (-TIES), -IŌ, -TIŌ,
-TĀS, -TŪS, -TŪDŌ, -DŌ, -GŌ, -NIA,


tĭm-or = fear formed from tĭm-ere = to fear.
sen-sus = feeling  „ sent-ire = to feel.
sēd-ēs = seat  „ sĕd-ēre = to sit.
audāc-ia = boldness  „ audax = bold.
segnĭt-ies = laziness  „ segnis = lazy.
tristĭ-tia = sadness  „ tristis = sad.
lĕg-io = a collecting
   a legion
 „ lĕg-ere = to collect.
sălūtā-tio = a greeting  „ salutare = to greet.
bŏnĭ-tas = goodness  „ bonus = good.
sĕnec-tūs = age  „ senex = old.
magni-tudo = greatness  „ magnus = great.
cupī-dō = desire  „ cupere = to desire.
vertī-go = a turning
 „ vertere = to turn.

= money (chattels)

 „ pecus = cattle.
gĕn-us = race, birth  „ gen = to be born.
283 auspĭc-ium = an omen  „ auspex = a soothsayer.
avis + spicio
gaud-ium = joy  „ gaudēre = to rejoice.
lā̆tro-cinium = robbery  „ latro = robber.
auxĭ-lium = help  „ augēre = to increase.

(iii.) Nouns denoting acts, or means and results of acts.


quĕri-monia = complaint, formed from quĕri = to complain.

ag-men = line of march

formed from agereag = to lead.

mŏnŭ-mentum = a memorial, formed from mon-ēre = to remind.

nō-men = a name formed from √gno = to know.

(iv.) Nouns denoting means or instrument.


stā-bulum = stall formed from stare = to stand.
vĕhĭ-cŭlum = wagon  „ vehere = to carry.
sĕpul-crum = tomb  „ sepelīre = to bury.
ărā-trum = plough  „ arāre = to plough.


(i.) Adjectives expressing diminution, and used as Diminutive Nouns.


rīv-ulus = a streamlet formed from rīvus = a brook.
fīlĭ-olus = a little son  „ filius = a son.
mūnus-culum = a little gift  „ munus = a gift.
cōdic-illi = writing tablets  „ codex = a block of wood.
lĭb-ellus = a little book  „ lĭber = a book.

(ii.) Patronymics, indicating descent or relationship.


-AS, -IS, -EIS, F.

Atlanti-adēs = Mercury
Atlant-idĕs = the Pleiads
formed from Atlas.
Tȳd-īdēs = Diomedes  „ Tydeus.
Cissē-is = Hecuba  „ Cisseus.

(iii.) Adjectives meaning full of, prone to.


form-ōsus = beautiful formed from forma = beauty.
pesti-lens = pestilent  „ pestis = plague.
vĭŏ-lentus = violent  „ vis = force.

(iv.) Adjectives meaning provided with.


fūnes-tus = deadly formed from funus (funer-) = death.
barb-ātus = bearded  „ barba = a beard.
turr-ītus = turreted  „ turris = a tower.
corn-ūtus = horned  „ cornu = a horn.

(v.) Adjectives meaning made of or belonging to, or pertaining to.


aur-eus = golden formed from aurum = gold.
patr-ius = paternal  „ pater = a father.
subterr-aneus = subterranean  „

sub terrā = under­ground.

dŏmes-ticus = domestic  „ domus = a house.
nātūr-ālis = natural  „ natura = nature.
pŏpŭl-aris = fellow-countryman  „ populus = a people.
vĕtĕr-ānus = veteran  „ vetus (veter-) = old.

= calm, of evening stillness

 „ serus = late.
dīv-īnus = divine  „ divus = god.
fŏr-ensis = of the forum  „

forum = a market-place.

lac-teus = milky  „ lac (lacti-) = milk.
subl-icius = resting on piles  „ sublica = a pile.
pălus-ter = marshy  „ palūs = a marsh.
silv-ester = woody  „ silva = a wood.
fīnĭ-timus = neighbouring  „ finis = a boundary.
ver-nus = vernal  „ vēr = spring.
dĭ-urnus = daily  „ dies = day.
diū-turnus = lasting  „ diū = long (time).

(vi.) Adjectives expressing the action of the Verb as a quality or tendency.


pugn-ax = pugnacious formed from pugnare = to fight.
cŭp-idus = eager  „ cupere = to desire.

= thirsty (of sand etc.)

 „ bibere = to drink.
nŏc-uus = hurtful  „ nocēre = to hurt.
cap-tivus = captive  „ capere = to take.

(vii.) Adjectives expressing passive qualities but occasionally active.


frăg-ilis = frail formed from frangerefrag = to break.
nō-bilis = well known  „ nosceregno = to know.
exĭm-ius = choice, rare  „ eximere = take out.
tex-tilis = woven  „ texere = to weave.

(viii.) Adjectives originally gerundives.



= second (the following)

formed from sequi = to follow.
mŏrĭ-bundus = dying  „ mori = to die.
fā-cundus = eloquent  „ fa-ri = to speak.


-ĀRIUS, denotes person employed about anything.
argent-ārius = silversmith, banker formed from argentum = silver.

-ĀRIUM, denotes place of a thing.
aer-arium = treasury formed from aes = copper.

-ĪLE denotes stall of an animal.

bŏv-īle = cattle-stall formed from bōs (bŏv-) = ox.
ŏv-īle = sheep-fold  „ ovis = sheep.

-ĒTUM denotes place where a tree or plant grows.
querc-ētum = oak-grove formed from quercus = an oak.


(i.) From Nouns and Adjectives.

stĭmŭlo, -āre = to goad, incite formed from stimulus = a goad.
nŏvo, -āre = to renew  „ novus = new.
286 vĭgĭlo, -āre = to watch  „ vigil = awake.
albeo, -ēre = to be white  „ albus = white.
mĕtuo, -ere = to fear  „ metus = fear.
ăcuo, -ere = to sharpen  „ acus = needle.
mōlior, -īri = to toil  „ moles = mass.
custōdio, -īre = to guard  „ custos (custod-) = guardian.

(ii.) Verbs from other Verbs.

-SCO denotes the beginning of an action. (Third Conjugation.)

lăbā-sco = begin to totter formed from labo = totter.
mītē-sco = grow mild  „ mītis = mild.

-TO, -ĬTO, (rarely -SŌ), -ESSO, denote forcible or repeated action.

iac-to, -ăre = hurl formed from iacio = throw.
quas-so, āre = shatter  „ quatio = shake.
făc-esso, -ĕre = do (with energy)  „ facio = do.

-TŬRIO (-SŬRIO) denotes longing or wishing.

par-turio, -īre = produce
to bring forth
formed from pario = bring forth.

ē-surio (= ed-turio) = to be hungry

 „ edo = to eat.



English derivative.
AC = sharp.
āc-er = sharp. eager (F. aigre).
ăc-erbus = harsh, cruel. acerbity (= harshness).
ăc-ervus = a heap.
ăc-ies = edge, keen look.
    army in battle array
Fr. acier (= steel).
ăc-idus = sour. acid.
ăc-uo = to sharpen.
ăc-utus = sharpened, sharp. acute (Fr. aigu).
ăc-umen = a point, acuteness. acumen.
ăc-us = a needle. Fr. aiguille.
AUG = be active, strong.
aug-eo = increase.
aug-mentum = an increase. augment.

= a sale by increase of bids,
an auction

auc-tor = a maker, producer. author.

= a producing, authority.

aug-ustus = majestic, august. august.
aux-ilium = aid, help. auxiliary.
CAP = take hold of, seize.
căp-io = take hold of. captive.
căp-ax = capacious. capacious.

= handle, hilt of a sword.

(ad + capio)
= take to, receive. accept.
(ex + capio)
= take up. exception.
(manus + capio)
= property, a slave. emancipate.
288 muni-cĭp-ium
(munia + capio)
= a free town. municipal.
(primus + capio)
= first, chief. principal.
GEN-, GNA- = beget, become, produce.
(= gi-gĕn-o)
= to beget. indigenous.
gĕn-i-tor = a father. (pro)genitor.
gen-s = clan, house, race. gentile.
in-gens = vast.
gĕn-us = birth, race. genus (Fr. genre).
in-gĕn-ium = innate quality, character.
in-gĕn-uus = native, free-born, frank. ingenuous.

= of good natural abilities.

pro-gĕn-ies = descent, descendants. progenitor.
gĕn-er = son-in-law.

= the innate superior nature,
(protecting) deity.

indi-gĕn-a = nature. indigenous.

= of noble birth, noble-minded

gĕn-ĕro = to beget, produce. generate.

= of or belonging to birth,

= gna-scor
= to be born. native.
nā-tūra = nature. nature.
nā-tio = birth, a race. nation.



Numbers in the left margin (Ia, Ib...) were added by the transcriber for use with the notes.

Flaminius atones for his rashness.44

|| Ia, Ib Tres ferme horas pugnatum est et ubique atrociter; circa consulem tamen acrior infestiorque pugna est. || IIa Eum et robora virorum sequebantur, et ipse, quacunque in parte premi ac laborare senserat suos, impigre ferebat opem; || IIb insignemque armis et hostes summa vi petebant et tuebantur cives, donec Insuber eques (Ducario nomen erat) facie quoque noscitans consulem, || IIc ‘En’ inquit ‘hic est’ popularibus suis, ‘qui legiones nostras cecidit agrosque et urbem est depopulatus. || III Iam ego hanc victimam manibus peremptorum foede civium dabo.’ || IVa Subditisque calcaribus equo per confertissimam hostium turbam impetum facit, obtruncatoque prius armigero, qui se infesto venienti obviam obiecerat, consulem lancea transfixit; || IVb spoliare cupientem triarii obiectis scutis arcuere.

Livy, xxii. 6.

The heading and the author will at once suggest the stirring incident in the Battle of Lake Trasimene, when Flaminius atoned for his rashness by his gallant example and death.

You have seen how Analysis helps you to arrive at the main thought of the sentence, and you are familiar with the principles that govern the order of words in Latin, and the important part played by the emphatic position of words. So you may now try to think in Latin; that is, to take the thought in the Latin order, without reference to analysis or the English order. You will do well to follow closely this advice of experienced teachers:—‘Read every word as if it were the last on the page, and you had to turn over without being able 290 to turn back. If, however, you are obliged to turn back, begin again at the beginning of the sentence and proceed as before. Let each word of the Latin suggest some conception gradually adding to and completing the meaning of the writer. If the form of the word gives several possibilities, hold them all in your mind, so far as may be, till something occurs in the progress of the sentence to settle the doubt.’

Ia 1. Tres ferme horas = for nearly three hours. This construction (Acc. of extent of time) will be familiar to you. Notice the emphatic position of the phrase.

pugnatum est = the battle was fought. This use of the so-called impersonal passive is very frequent, and is generally best translated by taking the root-idea of the verb as a subject.

et ubique atrociter = and everywhere fiercely.

Ib 2. circa consulem tamen = around the consul however.

acrior infestiorque pugna est = the battle is more keen and more vehement. This presents no difficulty; acrior and infestior must qualify pugna, which follows immediately.

IIa 3. eum = him, plainly consulem (i.e. Flaminius), for no one else has been mentioned. Notice the emphatic position of eum.

et robora virorum sequebantur = both the strongest of his troops followed. You may know that robur (lit. hard wood) is often used of the toughest troops, the flower of an army.

et ipse = and himself, i.e. the consul (Flaminius).

3-4. quacunque in parte = in whatever part.

4. premi ac laborare senserat suos = he had seen his men hard pressed and in distress. No other meaning is possible, nor does the order present any difficulty, but notice the emphatic position of suos.

4-5. impigre ferebat opem = actively he bore help.

IIb 5. insignemque armis = and distinguished by his arms, clearly referring to consulem (l. 2). Cf. eum (l. 3).

et hostes summa vi petebant = both the enemy with all their might attacked. et might, of course, = also (cf. et, l. 2), but the second et which immediately follows determines the meaning both.

6. et tuebantur cives = and his fellow-citizens (Romans) defended (him).


donec Insuber eques = until an Insubrian trooper. donec may mean while, but the context shows that until or at last is the right meaning here.

6-7. Ducario nomen erat = (his) name was Ducarius, i.e. ei nomen erat Ducario, where Ducario is possess. dat. in appos. to ei understood. It is, however, possible that the trooper’s name was Ducario, but cf. page 126, l. 2.

7. facie quoque noscitans consulem = by his face also (i.e. as well as by his armour) recognising the consul.

IIc 7-8. ‘En’ inquit ‘his est’ popularibus suis = See, said he, to his fellow-countrymen (comrades), this is the man.

8. qui legiones nostras cecīdit = who slaughtered our legions. There is a slight difficulty here, but a moment’s thought will remove it. It must be cecīdit, perf. of caedo, and not cecĭdit, perf. of cado, which is intransitive.

8-9. agrosque et urbem est depopulatus = and laid waste our fields and our city.

III 9-10. Iam ego hanc victimam mānibus peremptorum foede civium dabo = now I will give this victim to the shades of our countrymen foully slain. Mānibus cannot = hands (mănibus), for peremptorum civium, which immediately follows, fixes the right meaning.

IVa 10-11. subditisque calcaribus equo = and putting spurs to his horse. You will not attempt to translate this Abl. Absol. literally.

11-12. per confertissimam hostium turbam impetum facit = through the closely packed crowd of the enemy he makes his charge.

12. obtruncatoque prius armigero = and first cut down the armour-bearer (i.e. of Flaminius).

12-13. qui se infesto venienti obviam obiecerat = who had thrown himself in the way of him advancing at the charge.

infesto venienti is clearly dative with obviam.

13. consulem lancea transfixit = ran the Consul through with his lance.

IVb 13-14. spoliare cupientem = (him, i.e. Ducarius) wishing to spoil (the consul).

14. triarii obiectis scutis arcuere = the triarii (veterans) thrusting their shields in the way kept off.


This passage is quite simple, but it will serve to show you how you may with practice learn to take the thought in the Latin order, and to grasp the writer’s meaning. All that now remains for you to do is to write out a translation in good English, using short coordinate sentences, each complete in itself, in place of the more involved structure of the original. The following version by the late Professor Jebb will serve as a model:—

They fought for about three hours, and everywhere with desperation. Around the consul, however, the fight was peculiarly keen and vehement. He had the toughest troops with him; and he himself, whenever he saw that his men were hard pressed, was indefatigable in coming to the rescue. Distinguished by his equipment, he was a target for the enemy and a rallying-point for the Romans. At last a Lombard trooper, named Ducario, recognising the person as well as the guise of the consul, cried out to his people, ‘Here is the man who cut our legions to pieces and sacked our city—now I will give this victim to the shades of our murdered countrymen.’ Putting spurs to his horse, he dashed through the thick of the foe. First he cut down the armour-bearer, who had thrown himself in the way of the onset. Then he drove his lance through the consul. He was trying to despoil the corpse, when some veterans screened it with their shields.

44. Cf. p. 126.




1. Life.


Born at Burdigala (Bordeaux), and carefully educated. At the age of thirty appointed professor of rhetoric in his native University, where he became so famous that he was appointed tutor to Gratian, son of the Emperor Valentinian (364-375 A.D.), and was afterwards raised to the highest honours of the State (Consul, 379 A.D.). Theodosius (Emperor of the East, 378-395 A.D.) gave him leave to retire from court to his native country, where he closed his days in an honoured literary retirement.

2. Works.

A very voluminous writer both in prose and verse.

1. Prose: The only extant specimen is his Gratiarum Actio to Gratianus for the Consulship.

2. Verse: Of this we have much: it has little value as poetry, but in point of contents and diction it is interesting and valuable. Some of his Epigrammata and Epitaphia are worth preserving, but his claim to rank as a poet rests on his Mosella, a beautiful description of the R. Moselle, which is worthy to be compared with Pliny’s description of the R. Clitumnus (Ep. viii. 8).

‘In virtue of this poem Ausonius ranks not merely as the last, or all but the last, of Latin, but as the first of French poets.’—Mackail.

GAIUS JULIUS CAESAR, 102 (or 100?)-44 B.C.
1. Important Events in Caesar’s Life.


B.C. 102. Gaius Julius Caesar, nephew of Marius, born July 12th.

  „  83. Marries Cornelia, daughter of Cinna, the friend of Marius.


B.C. 81-78. Served with distinction in Asia.

  „ 76. Studies oratory at Rhodes.

  „ 68. Begins his political career as Quaestor, partly at Rome, partly in Spain.

  „ 65. Curule Aedile. Incurs enormous debts by his splendid shows.

  „ 61. Propraetor in Spain: conquers Lusitanians: amasses wealth.

  „ 60. Coalition of Pompeius, Caesar, and Crassus: First Triumvirate.

  „ 59. Consul. The Leges Iuliae.

  „ 58-50. Subjugation of Gaul and two invasions of Britain (55 and 54).

  „ 56. Meeting of Triumvirate at Luca.

  „ 50. The trouble with Pompeius begins.

  „ 49. Crosses the Rubicon. Civil war with Pompeius. Dictator a first time.

  „ 48. Pharsalus. Defeats Pompeius. Dictator a second time.

  „ 46. Thapsus. Defeats Scipio, Sulla, and Afranius. Declared Dictator for ten years.

  „ 45. Munda. Defeats Gn. Pompeius and Labienus. Dictator and Imperator for life.

  „ 44. Assassinated in the Senate House on the Ides of March.

2. Works.

(1) THE DE BELLO GALLICO.—This work describes Caesar’s operations in Gaul, Germany, and Britain during the years 58-52 B.C., the events of each year occupying a separate Book.

Book I. B.C. 58.

The Helvetii and Ariovistus the German defeated.

 „ II.  „  57.

The Nervii, the bravest Belgian tribe, almost exterminated.

 „ III.  „  56.

Conquest of the coast tribes of Brittany (Veneti, &c.) and of the South-West (Aquitani).

 „ IV.  „  55.

Inroad of Germans into Northern Gaul repulsed. Caesar crosses the Rhine a first time. First invasion of Britain.

295  „ V.  „  54.

Second invasion of Britain. Fresh risings of the Gauls put down by Labienus and Q. Cicero.

 „ VI.  „  53.

Caesar crosses the Rhine a second time. Northern Gaul reduced to peace.

 „ VII.  „  52.

Uprising of the Gauls under Vercingetorix. Siege and capture of Alesia. Surrender of Vercingetorix. He is taken in chains to Rome, to adorn Caesar’s triumph.

 „ VIII.  „  51 (added by Hirtius). Final subjugation of Gaul.

Caesar’s object was threefold:—

  (i) To provide materials for professed historians.

 (ii) To justify the conquest he describes.

(iii) To vindicate in the eyes of the world his opposition to the Senate and the Government.

(2) DE BELLO CIVILI.—This work, in three Books, is similar in plan to the De Bello Gallico. It describes the events of the Civil War during the years 49-48 B.C. Book III. ends abruptly with the words:

Haec initia belli Alexandrini fuerunt.

Book I. B.C. 49.

Caesar crosses the Rubicon. Follows Pompeius to Brundusium and conquers Afranius in Spain.

 „ II.  „  49.

Caesar takes Massilia. Submission of Varro in Further Spain. Defeat and death of Curio before Utica.

 „ III.  „  48.

Caesar follows Pompeius into Illyria. The lines of Dyrrachium and the Battle of Pharsalus. The beginning of the Alexandrine War.

(3) OTHER WORKS.—All Caesar’s other writings (Speeches, Poems, &c.) have been lost, with the exception of a few brief Letters to Cicero.

3. Style.

Remarkable for brevity, directness, and simplicity. The simplest facts told in the simplest way. Ars est celare artem.


‘Caesar’s Commentaries are worthy of all praise; they are unadorned, straightforward, and elegant, every ornament being stripped off as if it were a garment.’—Cicero.

1. Life.


For his military and political career, his Consulship (195 B.C.), his famous Censorship (184 B.C.), and his social reforms, see some good history, e.g. Mommsen, vol, iii.

2. Works.

His chief works are:—

(1) His treatise De Re Rustica or De Agri Cultura (his only extant work).—A series of terse and pointed directions following one on another, somewhat in the manner of Hesiod, and interesting ‘as showing the practical Latin style, and as giving the prose groundwork of Vergil’s stately and beautiful embroidery in the Georgics.’—Mackail.

(2) The Origines.—‘The oldest historical work written in Latin, and the first important prose work in Roman literature.’—Mommsen. Nepos, Cato, 3, summarises the contents of the seven books.

Cato struggled all his life against Greek influence in literature and in manners, which he felt would be fatal to his ideal of a Roman citizen. In a letter to his son Marcus he says Quandoque ista gens suas litteras dabit, omnia corrumpet. He was famous for his homely wisdom, which gained him the title of Sapiens, e.g. Rem tene: verba sequentur—‘Take care of the sense: the words will take care of themselves.’

1. Life.


Born at Verona, of a family of wealth and position, as is seen from his having estates at Sirmio:—

Salve, O venusta Sirmio, atque ero gaude (C. 31)

and near Tibur: O funde noster seu Sabine seu Tiburs (C. 44). His father was an intimate friend of Caesar. He went to Rome early, where he spent the greater part of his short life,


  Romae vivimus: illa domus,

Illa mihi sedes, illic mea carpitur aetas (C. 68),

with the exception of an official journey to Bithynia, 57 B.C. to better his fortunes: cf. Iam ver egelidos refert tepores ... Linquantur Phrygii, Catulle, campi (C. 46). After a life of poetic culture and free social enjoyment he died at the early age of thirty, ‘the young Catullus,’ hedera iuvenilia tempora cinctus (Ovid, Am. III. ix. 61).

2. Works.

116 poems written in various metres and on various subjects, Lyric, Elegiac, Epic.

‘The event which first revealed the full power of his genius, and which made both the supreme happiness and supreme misery of his life, was his love for Lesbia (Clodia).’—Sellar.

‘Catullus is one of the great poets of the world, not so much through vividness of imagination as through his singleness of nature, his vivid impressibility, and his keen perception. He received the gifts of the passing hour so happily that to produce pure and lasting poetry it was enough for him to utter in natural words something of the fulness of his heart. He says on every occasion exactly what he wanted to say, in clear, forcible, spontaneous language.’—Sellar.

‘The most attractive feature in the character of Catullus is the warmth of his affection. If to love warmly, constantly, and unselfishly be the best title to the love of others, few poets in any age or country deserve a kindlier place in the hearts of men than “the young Catullus.”’—Sellar.

1. Important Events in Cicero’s Life, and chief Works.


B.C. 106. Born at Arpinum. Birth of Pompeius.

  „ 102. Birth of Quintus Cicero, and of Caesar.

B.C. 91. Assumes the toga virilis. Q. Mucius Scaevola the augur becomes his tutor in civil law. Writes an heroic poem in praise of Marius.

  „ 89. Serves his first and only campaign under Pompeius Strabo.

  „ 87. Studies Rhetoric at Rome under Apollonius Molo of Rhodes.


  „ 81. Delivers his first speech (causa privata) Pro P. Quinctio.

  „ 80. Delivers his first speech (causa publica) Pro S. Roscio Amerino.

  „ 79-7. Studies at Athens and Rhodes. Marries Terentia.

  „ 75-4. Quaestor at Lilybaeum in Sicily.

  „ 70. The six speeches In C. Verrem.

  „ 69. Curule Aedile. The Pro Caecina.

  „ 68. Date of the earliest extant letter.

  „ 67. Praetor. The Lex Gabinia.

  „ 66. The De Imperio Cn. Pompeii (Pro Lege Manilia).

  „ 64. Birth of his son Marcus. Marriage of Tullia to C. Piso Frugi.

  „ 63. Consul. The four speeches In Catilinam. The Pro Murena.

  „ 62. Cicero hailed ‘pater patriae.’ The Pro Sulla and Pro Archia.

  „ 60. Poem ‘De consulatu meo.’

  „ 59. The First Triumvirate (Caesar, Pompeius, and Crassus). The Pro Valerio Flacco.

  „ 58-7. Cicero in Exile. The four speeches Post Reditum.

  „ 56. The Pro Sestio and De Provinciis Consularibus (his recantation).

  „ 55. The De Oratore and De temporibus meis.

  „ 52. The Pro Milone. The De Legibus: the De Republica.

  „ 51-50. Proconsul of Cilicia. Is granted a supplicatio.

  „ 49. Joins Pompeius at Dyrrachium.

  „ 47. Becomes reconciled to Caesar.

  „ 46. The Brutus and Orator.

  „ 45. Death of Tullia. The De Finibus and Academics.

  „ 44. The Tusculanae Disputationes: the De Natura Deorum: De Divinatione: De Amicitia: De Senectute: De Officiis.

     Philippics i-iv.

  „ 43. Philippics v-xiv. The Second Triumvirate (Antonius, Octavianus, and Lepidus). Murder of Cicero.

2. Works.

(1) Speeches.—We possess 57 speeches, and fragments of about 20 more, and we know of 33 others delivered by Cicero.

‘As a speaker and orator Cicero succeeded in gaining a place 299 beside Demosthenes. His strongest point is his style; there he is clear, concise and apt, perspicuous, elegant and brilliant. He commands all moods, from playful jest to tragic pathos, but is most successful in the imitation of conviction and feeling, to which he gave increased impression by his fiery delivery.’—Teuffel. Quintilian says of him that his eloquence combined the power of Demosthenes, the copiousness of Plato, and the sweetness of Isocrates.

(2) Philosophical Works.—The chief are the De Republica (closed by the Sommium Sciponis): the De Legibus: the De Finibus Bonorum et Malorum: the Academics: Tusculan Disputations with the De Divinatione: the De Senectute and De Amicitia: De natura Deorum, and the De Officiis.

As a philosopher Cicero had no pretensions to originality. He found the materials for most of these works in the writings of the Greek philosophers. ‘I have to supply little but the words,’ he writes, ‘and for these I am never at a loss.’ It was however no small achievement to mould the Latin tongue to be a vehicle for Greek philosophic thought, and thus to render the conclusions of Greek thinkers accessible to his own countrymen.

(3) Rhetorical treatises.—The chief are the De Oratore (in 3 Books), perhaps the most finished example of the Ciceronian style: the Brutus or De Claris Oratoribus, and the Orator (or De optime Genere Dicendi).

(4) Letters.—Besides 774 letters written by Cicero, we have 90 addressed to him by friends. The two largest collections of his Letters are the Epistulae ad Atticum (68-43 B.C.) and the Epistulae ad Familiares (62-43 B.C.).

These letters are of supreme importance for the history of Cicero’s time. ‘The quality which makes them most valuable is that they were not (like the letters of Pliny, and Seneca, and Madame de Sévigné) written to be published. We see in them Cicero as he was. We behold him in his strength and in his weakness—the bold advocate, and yet timid and vacillating statesman, the fond husband, the affectionate father, the kind master, the warm-hearted friend.’—Tyrrell.

The style of the Letters is colloquial but thoroughly accurate. ‘The art of letter-writing suddenly rose in Cicero’s hands to its full perfection.’—Mackail.

(5) Poems.—The fragments we possess show that verse-writing came easily to him, but he never could have been a great 300 poet, for he had not the divinus afflatus, so finely expressed by Ovid in the line Est Deus in nobis, agitante calescimus illo.

‘Cicero stands in prose like Vergil in poetry, as the bridge between the ancient and the modern world. Before his time Latin prose was, from a wide point of view, but one among many local ancient dialects. As it left his hands it had become a universal language, one which had definitely superseded all others, Greek included, as the type of civilised expression.’—Mackail.

1. Life.


Born probably at Alexandria, where he lived until, in the year of the death of Theodosius 395 A.D., he acquired the patronage of Stilicho, the great Vandal general, who, as guardian of the young Emperor Honorius, was practically ruler of the Western Empire. He remained attached to the Court at Milan, Rome and Ravenna, and died soon after the downfall of his patron Stilicho, 408 A.D.

2. Works.

In his historical epics he derived his subjects from his own age, praising his patrons Stilicho (On the Consulate of Stilicho) and Honorius (on the Consulate of Honorius), and inveighing against Rufinus and Eutropius, the rivals of Stilicho. Of poems on other subjects, ‘his three books of the unfinished Rape of Proserpine are among the finest examples of the purely literary epic.’—Mackail.

‘Claudian is the last of the Latin poets, forming the transitional link between the Classic and the Gothic mode of thought.’—Coleridge.

3. Style.

‘His faults belong almost as much to the age as to the writer. In description he is too copious and detailed: his poems abound with long speeches: his parade of varied learning, his partiality for abstruse mythology, are just the natural defects of a lettered but uninspired epoch.’—North Pinder.

1. Life.


He was born at Rudiae in Calabria (about 19 miles S. of Brundisium), a meeting-place of three different languages, that of common life (Oscan, cf. Opici), that of culture and education (Greek), that of military service (Latin). Here he lived for some twenty years, availing himself of those means of education which at this time were denied to Rome or Latium. We next hear of him serving as centurion in Sardinia, where he attracted the attention of Cato, then quaestor, and accompanied him to Rome, 204 B.C. Here for some fifteen years he lived plainly, supporting himself by teaching Greek, and making translations of Greek plays for the Roman stage, and so won the friendship of the elder Scipio. In 189 B.C. M. Fulvius Nobilior took Ennius with him in his campaign against the Aetolians, as a witness and herald of his deeds. His son obtained for Ennius the Roman citizenship (184 B.C.) by giving him a grant of land at Potentia in Picenum. Nos sumus Romani, qui fuimus ante Rudini. The rest of his life was spent mainly at Rome in cheerful simplicity and active literary work.

2. Works.

The chief are:—

(1) Tragedies.—Mainly translations, especially from Euripides. A few fragments only remain. ‘It was certainly due to Ennius that Roman Tragedy was first raised to that pitch of popular favour which it enjoyed till the age of Cicero.’—Sellar.

(2) Annales.—An Epic Hexameter poem, in 18 books, which dealt with the History of Rome from the landing of Aeneas in Italy down to the Third Macedonian War (Pydna, 168 B.C.). About 600 lines are extant.

‘In his Annals he unfolds a long gallery of national portraits. His heroes are men of one common aim—the advancement of Rome; animated with one sentiment, devotion to the State. All that was purely personal in them seems merged in the traditional pictures which express only the fortitude, dignity and sagacity of the Republic.’—Sellar.

3. Style.

For the first time Ennius succeeded in moulding the Latin language to the movement of the Greek hexameter. In spite of imperfections and roughness, his Annals remained the foremost and representative Roman poem till Vergil wrote the Aeneid. Lucretius, whom he influenced, and to whom Vergil owes so much, says of him:

Ennius ut noster cecinit, qui primus amoeno

Detulit ex Helicone perenni fronde coronam,

Per gentes Italas honinum quae clara clueret;

‘As sang our Ennius, the first who brought down from pleasant Helicon a chaplet of unfading leaf, the fame of which should ring out clear through the nations of Italy.’

And later, Quintilian, X. i. 88: ‘Ennium sicut sacros vetustate lucos adoremus, in quibus grandia et antiqua robora iam non tantam habent speciem quantam religionem: Let us venerate Ennius like the groves, sacred from their antiquity, in which the great and ancient oak-trees are invested, not so much with beauty, as with sacred associations.’—Sellar.

1. Life.


Very little is known of his life. He is said to have held the office of a secretary under Contanstine the Great (ob. 337 A.D.), and to have served under the Emperor Julian in his ill-fated expedition against the Persians, 363 A.D.

2. Works.

His only extant work is his

Breviarium Historiae Romanae.—A brief compendium of Roman History in ten books from the foundation of the city to the accession of Valens, 364 A.D., to whom it is inscribed.

3. Style.

His work is a compilation made from the best authorities, with good judgment and impartiality, and in a simple style. Its brevity and practical arrangement made it very popular.

FLORUS, circ. 120 (or 140?) A.D. (temp. Hadrian).
1. Life.


L. Julius (or Annaeus) Florus lived at Rome in the time of Trajan or Hadrian. Little else is known of his life.

2. Works.

An Epitome of the Wars of Livy, in two Books:—

Book I. treats of the good time of Rome, 753-133 B.C. (the Gracchi).

  „ II. treats of the decline of Rome, 133-29 B.C. (Temple of Janus closed).

3. Style.

A pretentious and smartly written work abounding in mistakes, contradictions, and misrepresentations of historical truth. It was, however, popular in the Middle Ages on account of its brevity and its rhetorical style. Florus is useful in giving us a short account of events in periods where we have no books of Livy to guide us.

S. JULIUS FRONTINUS, circ. 41-103 A.D.
1. Life.


He was praetor urbanus 70 A.D., and in 75 succeeded Cerealis as governor oi Britain, where, as Tacitus tells us, he distinguished himself by the conquest of the Silures: sustinuit molem Iulius Frontinus, vir magnus, quantum licebat, validamque et pugnacem Siturum gentem armis subegit: ‘Julius Frontinus was equal to the burden, a great man as far as greatness was then possible (i.e. under the jealous rule of Domitian), who subdued by his arms the powerful and warlike tribe of the Silures.’

In 97 he was nominated curator aquarum, administrator of the aqueducts of Rome: the closing years of his life were passed in studious retirement at his villa on the Bay of Naples. Cf. Mart. X. lviii.

2. Works.

Two works of his are extant:—

(1) De Aquis Urbis Romae.—A treatise on the Roman water-supply, published under Trajan, soon after the death of Nerva, 97 A.D.; a complete and valuable account.


(2) Strategemata.—A manual of strategy, in three books, consisting of historical examples derived chiefly from Sallust, Caesar, and Livy.

3. Style.

Simple and concise: ‘he shuns the conceits of the period and goes back to the republican authors, of whom (and especially of Caesar’s Commentaries) his language strongly reminds us.’—Cruttwell.

As a mark of his unaffected modesty, Pliny (Ep. ix. 19) tells us: vetuit exstrui monimentum: sed quibus verbis? ‘impensa monimenta supervacua est: memoria nostri durabit, si vita meruimus.’

AULUS GELLIUS, circ. 123-175 A.D.
1. Life.


All that is known about his life is gathered from occasional hints in his own writings. He seems to have spent his early years at Rome, studying under the most famous teachers, first at Rome and afterwards at Athens, and then to have returned to Rome, where he spent the remaining years of his life in literary pursuits and in the society of a large circle of friends.

2. Works.

The Noctes Atticae (so called because it was begun during the long nights of winter in a country house in Attica) in twenty books consists of numerous extracts from Greek and Roman writers on subjects connected with history, philosophy, philology, natural science and antiquities, illustrated by abundant criticisms and discussions. It is, in fact, a commonplace book, and the arrangement of the contents is merely casual, following the course of his reading of Greek and Latin authors. The work is, however, of special value to us from the very numerous quotations from ancient authors preserved by him alone.

3. Style.

His language is sober but full of archaisms, which he much affected (he gives, therefore, no quotations from post-Augustan writers). His style shows the defects of an age in which men had ceased to feel the full meaning of the words they used, and strove to hide the triviality of a subject under obscure phrases 305 and florid expression. Yet, on the whole, he is a very interesting writer, and the last that can in any way be called classical.

Vir elegantissimi eloquii et multae ac facundae scientiae.’—St. Augustine, 400 A.D.

1. Important Events in the Life of Horace.


B.C. 65. Born at Venusia (Venosa) on the confines of Apulia and Lucania.

B.C. 53-46. Educated at Rome under the famous plagosus Orbilius.

  „ 46-44. At the University of Athens.

  „ 44-42. Served under Brutus as tribunus militum: fought at Philippi.

  „ 42-39. Pardoned by Octavianus and allowed to return to Rome. His poverty compelled him to write verses, prob. Sat. I, ii. iii. iv., and some Epodes. Through these he obtained the notice of Varius and Vergil, who became his fast friends and

  „ 38. introduced him to Maecenas, the trusted minister of Augustus.

  „ 35. Satires, Book I published. (Journey to Brundisium described, Sat. I. v.)

  „ 33. Maecenas bestowed upon him a Sabine farm (about 15 miles N.E. of Tivoli). For fullest description see Epist. I. xvi.

  „ 31. Satires, Book II, and Epodes published.

  „ 23. Odes, Books I-III published.

  „ 20. Epistles, Book I published.

  „ 17. Carmen Saeculare written at the request of Augustus for the Ludi Saeculares.

  „ 13. Odes, Book IV published.

  „ 12. Epistles, Book II published.

  „   8. Died in the same year as his friend and patron Maecenas.

3. Works.

(1) Odes, in four books, and Epodes.—The words of Cicero (pro Archia 16) best describe the abiding value of the four Books of the Odes—Adolescentiam alunt (strengthen), senectutem oblectant, secundas res ornant, adversis perfugium ac 306 solacium praebent, delectant domi, non impediunt foris, pernoctant nobiscum, peregrinantur, rusticantur. In them we see a poet, as Quintilian says, verbis felicissime audax—most happily daring in his use of words and endowed, as Petronius says, with curiosa felicitas, a subtle happiness of expression—‘what oft was thought but ne’er so well express’d.’

(2) Satires (Sermones) in two Books.—Horace’s chief model is Lucilius, whom he wished to adapt to the Augustan age. To touch on political topics was impossible; Horace employed satire to display his own individuality and his own views on various subjects. Book I (his earliest effort) is marred by faults in execution and is often wanting in good taste; but in Book II ‘he uses the hexameter to exhibit the semi-dramatic form of easy dialogue, with a perfection as complete as that of Vergil in the stately and serious manner. In reading these Satires we all read our own minds and hearts.’—Mackail.

(3) The Epistles (Sermones) in two Books, and Ars Poetica (Ep. ad Pisones).—These represent his most mature production. As a poet Horace now stood without a rival. Life was still full of vivid interest for him, but years (fallentis semita vitae) had brought the philosophic mind. ‘To teach the true end and wise regulation of life, and to act on character from within, are the motives of the more formal and elaborate epistles.’—Sellar.

The Ars Poetica is a résumé of Greek criticism on the drama.

3. Style.

‘With the principal lyric metres, the Sapphic and Alcaic, Horace had done what Vergil had accomplished with the dactylic hexameter, carried them to the highest point of which the foreign Latin tongue was capable.’—Mackail.

‘As Vergil is the most idealising exponent of what was of permanent and universal significance in the time, Horace is the most complete exponent of its actual life and movement. He is at once the lyrical poet, with heart and imagination responsive to the deeper meaning and lighter amusements of life, and the satirist, the moralist, and the literary critic of the age.’—Sellar.

JUSTINUS, circ. 150 A.D. (temp. Antoninus Pius).
1. Life.


We know nothing positively about him, though probably he lived in the age of the Antonines. Teuffel says ‘Considering his correct mode of thinking and the 307 style of his preface, we should not like to put him much later than Florus, who epitomised Livy.’

2. Works.

Epitoma Historiarum Philippicarum Pompei Trogi, in forty-four Books.—An abridgment of the Universal History of Pompeius Trogus (temp. Livy). The title Historiae Philippicae was given to it by Trogus because its main object was to give the history of the Macedonian monarchy, with all its branches, but he allowed himself, like Herodotus, to indulge in such large digressions that it was regarded by many as a Universal History. It was arranged according to nations; it began with Ninus, the Nimrod of legend, and was brought down to about 9 A.D.

3. Style.

Justinus (as he tells us in his Preface) made it his business to form an attractive reading-book—breve veluti florum corpusculum feci (an anthology)—and his chief merit is that he seems to have been a faithful abbreviator.

1. Life.


Of Juvenal’s life very little is certainly known. Thirteen lives of him exist, which are confused and contradictory in detail. From the evidences of the Satires we learn that he lived from early youth at Rome, but went for holidays to Aquinum, a town of the Volscians (where perhaps he was born in the reign of Nero); that he had a small farm at Tibur, and a house in Rome, where he entertained his friends in a modest way; that he had been in Egypt; that he wrote Satires late in life; that he reached his eightieth year, and lived into the reign of Antoninus Pius. He complains frequently and bitterly of his poverty and of the hardships of a dependent’s life. In short, the circumstances of his life were very similar to those of Martial, who speaks of Juvenal as a very intimate friend.

The famous inscription at Aquinum—which Duff considers does not refer to the poet but to a wealthy kinsman of his—indicates that he had served in the army as commander of a Dalmatian cohort, and, as one of the chief men of the town, 308 was superintendent of the civic worship paid to Vespasian after his deification.

All the Lives assert that Juvenal was banished to Egypt—Juvenal himself never alludes to this—for offence given to an actor who was high in favour with the reigning Emperor (Hadrian according to Prof. Hardy), and that he died in exile.

2. Works.

Saturae, sixteen, grouped in five Books.

Books I-III (Satires 1-9) are sharply divided both in form and substance from Books IV-V (Satires 10-16), which are not satires at all, but moral essays, in the form of letters. The first nine satires present a wonderfully vivid picture of the seamy side of life at Rome at the end of the first century. We must, however, read side by side with them the contemporary Letters of Pliny, in which we find ourselves in a different world from that scourged by the satirist.

‘His chief literary qualities are his power of painting lifelike scenes, and his command of brilliant epigrammatic phrase.’—Duff. Nothing, for instance, could surpass his picture of the fall of Sejanus (Sat. x. 56-97). His power of coining phrases is seen in these sententiae: nemo repente fuit turpissimus—expende Hannibalem: quot libras in duce summo | invenies: maxima debetur puero reverentia: mens sana in corpora sano—which are familiar proverbs among educated men.

Juvenal tells us that he takes all life, all the world, for his text:

Quidquid agunt homines, Votum, Timor, Ira, Voluptas,

Gaudia, Discursus, nostri est farrago libelli

(the motley subject of my page).—Sat. i. 85-6.

1. Life.


Livy was born at Patavium (Padua) between the years 59 and 57 B.C. Little is known of his life, but his aristocratic sympathies, as seen in his writings, seem to suggest that he was of good family. Padua was a populous and busy place, where opportunities for public speaking were abundant and the public life vigorous; thus Livy was early trained in eloquence, and lived amid scenes of 309 human activity. About 30 B.C. he settled at Rome, where his literary talents secured the patronage and friendship of Augustus. But though a courtier he was no flatterer. ‘Titus Livius,’ says Tacitus (Ann. iv. 34), ‘pre-eminently famous for eloquence and truthfulness, extolled Cn. Pompeius in such a panegyric that Augustus called him Pompeianus, and yet this was no obstacle to their friendship.’ He returned to his native town before his death, 17 A.D., at the age of about 75.

2. Works.

History of Rome (Ab urbe condita Libri), a comprehensive account in 142 Books of the whole History of Rome from the foundation of the City to the death of Drusus, 9 A.D. It is probable that he intended to continue his work in 150 Books, down to the death of Augustus in 14 A.D., the point from which Tacitus starts. The number of Books now extant is 35, about one fourth of the whole number, but we possess summaries (Periochae or Argumenta) of nearly the whole work. The division of the History into decades (sets of ten Books), though merely conventional, is convenient. According to this arrangement the Books now extant are:

Books I-X, 754-293 B.C., to nearly the close of the Third Samnite War.

Books XXI-XXX, 219-201 B.C., the narrative of the Second Punic War.

Books XXXI-XLV, 201-167 B.C., describe the Wars in Greece and Macedonia, and end with the triumph of Aemilius Paulus after Pydna, 168 B.C.

3. Style.

His style is characterised by variety, liveliness, and picturesqueness. ‘As a master of style Livy is in the first rank of historians. He marks the highest point which the enlarged and enriched prose of the Augustan age reached just before it began to fall into decadence. . . . The periodic structure of Latin prose, which had been developed by Cicero, is carried by him to an even greater complexity and used with a greater daring and freedom. . . . His imagination never fails to kindle at great actions; it is he, more than any other author, who has impressed the great soldiers and statesmen of the Republic on the imagination of the world.’—Mackail.

4. The Speeches.

‘The spirit in which he writes History is well illustrated by the Speeches. These, in a way, set the tone of the whole work. He does not affect in them to reproduce the substance of words actually spoken, or even to imitate the colour of the time in which the speech is laid. He uses them rather as a vivid and dramatic method of portraying character and motive.’—Mackail. ‘Everything,’ says Quintilian (X. i. 101), ‘is perfectly adapted both to the circumstances and personages introduced.’

5. The Purpose of his History.

The first ten books of Livy were being written about the same time as the Aeneid; both Vergil and Livy had the same patriotic purpose, ‘to celebrate the growth, in accordance with a divine dispensation, of the Roman Empire and Roman civilisation.’—Nettleship. Livy, however, brought into greater prominence the moral causes which contributed to the growth of the Empire. In his preface to Book I, § 9, he asks his readers to consider what have been the life and habits of the Romans, by aid of what men and by what talents at home and in the field their Empire has been gained and extended. Only by virtue and manliness, justice and piety, was the dominion of the world achieved.

‘In ancient Rome he sees his ideal realised, and romanus hence signifies in his language all that is noble. He thus involuntarily appears partial to Rome, and unjust to her enemies, notably to the Samnites and Hannibal.’—Teuffel.

‘As the title of Gesta Populi Romani was given to the Aeneid on its appearance, so the Historiae ab Urbe Condita might be called, with no less truth, a funeral eulogy—consummatio totius vitae et quasi funebris laudatio (Sen. Suas. VI. 21)—delivered, by the most loving and most eloquent of her sons, over the grave of the great Republic.’—Mackail.

1. Life.


Important Events in the Life of Lucan.

A.D. 39. Born at Corduba (Cordova) on the R. Baetis (Guadalquivir).

A.D. 40. His father migrates with his family to Rome.

 „ 54-68. Nero Emperor.


 „ 55. Lucan under Cornutus, the tutor also of Persius.

 „ 57-9. At the University of Athens.

 „ 60. Wins the favour of Nero, who begins to hate Seneca.

 „ 61. Lucan quaestor: famous as a reciter and pleader.

 „ 62. Disgrace of Seneca. Pharsalia I.-III. published. Death of Persius.

 „ 63. Marries Polla Argentaria, a marriage of affection.

 „ 64. Nero, from jealousy, forbids Lucan to publish poems or to recite them.

 „ 65. Pisonian conspiracy discovered. Lucan compelled to die.

Lucan was a nephew of M. Annaeus Novatus (the Gallio of Acts xviii. 12-17), and of Seneca, the philosopher and tutor of Nero. ‘Rhetoric and Stoic dogma were the staple of his mental training. For a much-petted, quick-witted youth, plunged into such a society as that of Rome in the first century A.D., hardly any training could be more mischievous. Puffed up with presumed merits and the applause of the lecture-room and the salon, he became a shallow rhetorician, devoted to phrase-making and tinsel ornament, and ready to write and declaim on any subject in verse or prose at the shortest notice.’—Heitland. Silenced by Nero, in an enforced retirement—probably in the stately gardens spoken of by Juvenal vii. 79-80 contentus fama iaceat Lucanus in hortis Marmoreis—Lucan may repose in his park adorned with statues and find fame enough—he brooded over his wrongs, and despairing of any other way of restoration to public life, joined the ill-fated conspiracy of Piso.

2. Works.

The Pharsalia (or De Bello Civili), an epic poem in ten Books, from the beginning of the Civil War down to the point where Caesar is besieged in Alexandria, 49-48 B.C. His narrative thus runs parallel to Caesar’s De Bello Civili, but it contains some valuable additional matter and gives a faithful picture of the feeling general among the nobility of the day.

3. Style.

‘To Lucan’s rhetorical instincts and training, and the influence of the recitations which Juvenal Sat. iii. tells us were 312 so customary and such a nuisance in his day, are due the great defects of the Pharsalia. We see the sacrifice of the whole to the parts, neglect of the matter in an over-studious regard for the manner, a self-conscious tone appealing rather to an audience than to a reader, venting itself in apostrophes, digressions, hyperbole (over-drawn description), episodes and epigrams, an unhappy laboriousness that strains itself to be first-rate for a moment, but leaves the poem second-rate for ever.’—Heitland.

The general effect of Lucan’s verse is one of steady monotony, due to a want of variety in the pauses and in the ending of lines, and a too sparing use of elision, by which Vergil was able to regulate the movement of lines and make sound and sense agree.

‘In spite of its immaturity and bad taste the poem compels admiration by its elevation of thought and sustained brilliance of execution; it contains passages of lofty thought and real beauty, such as the dream of Pompeius, or the character which Cato gives of Pompeius, and is full of quotations which have become household words; such as, In se magna ruunt—Stat magni nominis umbra—Nil actum reputans si quid superesset agendum (a line which rivals Caesar’s energy).’—Mackail.

The brief and balanced judgment of Quintilian (Inst. Orat. X. i. 90) sums up Lucan in words which suggest at once his chief merits and defects as a poet: Lucanus ardens et concitatus et sententiis clarissimus et magis oratoribus quam poetis imitandus—Lucan has fire and point, is very famous for his maxims, and indeed is rather a model for orators than poets.

GAIUS LUCILIUS, circ. 170-103 B.C.
1. Life.


Lucilius was born in the Latin town of Suessa of the Aurunci, in Campania, of a well-to-do equestrian family. Velleius tells us that the sister of Lucilius was grandmother to Pompeius, and that Lucilius served in the cavalry under Scipio in the Numantine war, 134 B.C. Lucilius lived on very intimate terms with Scipio Africanus Minor and Laelius, and died at Naples (103 B.C.), where he was honoured with a public funeral.

2. Works.

Saturae in thirty Books, in various metres. Fragments only are extant.


‘After Terence he is the most distinguished and the most important in his literary influence among the friends of Scipio. The form of literature which he invented and popularised, that of familiar poetry, was one which proved singularly suited to the Latin genius. He speaks of his own works under the name of Sermones (talks)—a name which was retained by his great successor and imitator Horace; but the peculiar combination of metrical form with wide range of subject and the pedestrian style of ordinary prose received in popular usage the name Satura (mixture).’—Mackail.

Satura quidem tota nostra est, in qua primus insignem laudem adeptus Lucilius.—Quint. X. i. 93.

‘The chief social vices which Lucilius attacks are those which reappear in the pages of the later satirists. They are the two extremes to which the Roman temperament was most prone: rapacity and meanness in gaining money, vulgar ostentation and coarse sensuality in using it.’—Sellar.

Juvenal says of him (Sat. i. 165-7):

‘When old Lucilius seems to draw his sword and growls in burning ire, the hearer blushes for shame, his conscience is chilled for his offences, and his heart faints for secret sins.’

T. LUCRETIUS CARUS, circ. 99-55 B.C.
1. Life.


Very little is known of his life. The subiect of his poem prevented him from telling his own history as Catullus, Horace, and Ovid have done, and his contemporaries seldom refer to him. The name Lucretius suggests that he was descended from one of the most ancient patrician houses of Rome, famous in the early annals of the Republic. He was evidently a man of wealth and position, but he deliberately chose the life of contemplation, and lived apart from the ambitions and follies of his day. Donatus, in his life of Vergil, tells us that Lucretius died on the day on which Vergil assumed the toga virilis, Oct. 15, 55 B.C.

2. Works.

The De Rerum Natura, a didactic poem in hexameter verse in six Books. The poem was left unfinished at his death, and Munro supports the tradition that Cicero both corrected it and superintended its publication. The object of the poem is to 314 deliver men from the fear of death and the terrors of superstition by the new knowledge of Nature:

Hunc igitur terrorem animi tenebrasque necessest

Non radii solis neque lucida tela diei

Discutiant, sed naturae species ratioque.

This terror of the soul, therefore, and this darkness must be dispelled, not by the rays of the sun or the bright shafts of day, but by the outward aspect and harmonious plan of nature.—S.

The source of these terrors is traced to the general ignorance of certain facts in Nature—ignorance, namely, of the constitution and condition of our minds and bodies, of the means by which the world came into existence and is still maintained, and, lastly, of the causes of many natural phenomena. Thus:

Books I and II uphold the principles of the Atomic Theory as held by Epicurus (fl. 300 B.C.).

Book I states that the world consists of atoms and void. At line 694 is stated the important doctrine that the evidence of the senses alone is to be believed—sensus, unde omnia credita pendent, the senses on which rests all our belief.

Book II treats of the motions of atoms, including the curious doctrine of the swerve, which enables them to combine and makes freedom of will possible: then of their shapes and arrangement.

Book III shows the nature of mind (animus) and life (anima) to be material and therefore mortal. Therefore death is nothing to us:

Nil igitur mors est ad nos neque pertinet hilum,

Quandoquidem natura animi mortalis habetur.

Death therefore to us is nothing, concerns us not a jot,

Since the nature of the mind is proved to be mortal.—(M.)

Book IV gives Lucretius’ theory of vision and the nature of dreams and apparitions.

Book V explains the origin of the heavens, of the earth, of vegetable and animal life upon it, and the advance of human nature from a savage state to the arts and usages of civilisation.

Book VI describes and accounts for certain natural phenomena—thunderstorms, tempests, volcanoes, earthquakes, and the like. It concludes with a theory of disease, illustrated by a fine description of the plague at Athens.

Professor Tyrrell says: ‘It is interesting to point to places 315 in which Lucretius or his predecessors had really anticipated modern scientific research. Thus Lucretius recognises that in a vacuum every body, no matter what its weight, falls with equal swiftness; the circulation of the sap in the vegetable world is known to him, and he describes falling stars, aerolites, etc., as the unused material of the universe.’ The great truth that matter is not destroyed but only changes its form is very clearly stated by Lucretius, and his account (Book V) of the beginnings of life upon the earth, the evolution of man, and the progress of human society is interesting and valuable.

3. Style.

‘Notwithstanding the antique tinge (e.g. his use of archaism, assonance, and alliteration) which for poetical ends he has given to his poem, the best judges have always looked upon it as one of the purest models of the Latin idiom in the age of its greatest perfection.’—Munro.

‘The language of Lucretius, so bold, so genial, so powerful, and in its way so perfect.’—Nettleship.

Carmina sublimis tunc sunt peritura Lucreti,

Exitio terras cum dabit una dies.

Ovid. Am. I. xv. 23.

‘But till this cosmic order everywhere

Shattered into one earthquake in one day

Cracks all to pieces ... till that hour

My golden work shall stand.’

Tennyson, Lucretius.

1. Life.


Nothing is known of his life. That he was not of Roman birth (perhaps a native of N. Africa) is probable from the foreign colouring of his language at the outset, which in the later books becomes more smooth and fluent from increased practice.

2. Works.

The Astronomica in five Books of hexameter verse. The poem should rather be called Astrology, as Astronomy is treated only in Book I. He is proud of being the first writer on this subject in Latin literature. A close study of Lucretius is obvious from several passages: he often imitates Vergil, and in the legends (e.g. of Perseus and Andromeda) Ovid.

3. Style.

He is not a great poet; but he is a writer of real power both in thought and style. In his introductions to each Book, and in his digressions, he shows sincere feeling and poetical ability.

M. VALERIUS MARTIALIS, circ. 40-102 A.D.
1. Life.


He was born at Bilbilis in Hispania Tarraconensis (E. Spain), a town situated on a rocky height overlooking the R. Salo:

Municipes, Augusta mihi quos Bilbilis acri

Monte creat, rapidis quem Salo cingit aquis.

X. ciii. 1-2.

His father gave him a good education, and at the age of twenty-three (63 A.D.) he went to Rome. After living there for thirty-five years, patronised by Titus and Vespasian, he returned to Bilbilis soon after the accession of Trajan (98 A.D.), where he died circ. 102 A.D.

At Rome he for a time found powerful friends in his great countrymen of the house of Seneca (Lucan and Seneca were then at the height of their fame), and from 79 to 96 (temp. Trajan and Domitian) he received the patronage of the Court, and numbered among his friends Pliny the Younger, Quintilian, Juvenal, Valerius Flaccus, and Silius Italicus. His complaints of his poverty are incessant. It is true that he lived throughout the life of a dependent, but it is probable that Martial was a poor man who contrived to get through a good deal of money, and who mistook for poverty a capacity for spending more than he could get.

2. Works.

Epigrammata in fourteen Books (Books XIII and XIV, Xenia and Apophoreta, are two collections of inscriptions for presents at the Saturnalia); also a Liber Spectacu­lorum on the opening of the grand Flavian amphitheatre (the Coliseum) begun by Vespasian and completed by Titus.

3. Style.

‘Martial did not create the epigram. What he did was to differentiate the epigram and elaborate it. Adhering always to 317 what he considered the true type of the literary epigram, consisting of i. the preface, or description of the occasion of the epigram, rousing the curiosity to know what the poet has to say about it; and, ii. the explanation or commentary of the poet, commonly called the point—he employed his vast resources of satire, wit, observation, fancy, and pathos to produce the greatest number of varieties of epigram that the type admits of. . . . What Martial really stands convicted of on his own showing is of laughing at that which ought to have roused in him shame and indignation, and of making literary capital out of other men’s vices.’—Stephenson. Among his good points are his candour, his love of nature, and the loyalty of his friendships.

Pliny says of him: Audio Valerium Martialem decessisse et moleste fero. Erat homo ingeniosus, acutus, acer, et qui plurimum in scribendo et sltis haberet et fellis, nec candoris minus—I hear with regret that V. Martial is dead. He was a man of talent, acuteness, and spirit: with plenty of wit and gall, and as sincere as he was witty.—Pliny, Ep. iii. 21.

‘The greatest epigrammatist of the world, and one of its most disagreeable literary characters.’—Merrill.

CORNELIUS NEPOS, circ. 100-24 B.C.
1. Life.


Nepos was probably born at Ticinium on the R. Padus. He inherited an ample fortune, and was thereby enabled to keep aloof from public life and to devote himself to literature and to writing works of an historical nature. In earlier life he was one of the circle of Catullus, who dedicated a collection of poems to him (Catull. C. i.): ‘To whom am I to give my dainty, new-born little volume? To you, Cornelius.’ He was also a friend and contemporary of Cicero, and after Cicero’s death (43 B.C.) was one of the chief friends of Atticus.

2. Works.

Of his numerous writings on history, chronology, and grammar we possess only a fragment of his De Viris Illustribus (originally in sixteen Books), a collection of Roman and foreign biographies. Of this work there is extant one complete section, De Excellentibus Ducibus Exterarum Gentium, and two lives, 318 those of Atticus and Cato the Younger, from his De Historicis Latinis.

3. Style.

Nepos is a most untrustworthy historian, and his work possesses little independent value. But his style is clear, elegant, and lively, and he did much to make Greek learning popular among his fellow-citizens.

1. Life.


Ovid’s own writings (espec. Tr. IV. x.) supply nearly all the information we possess regarding his life. He was born at Sulmo, a town in the cold, moist hills of the Peligni, one of the Sabine clans, situated near Corfinium, and about ninety miles E. of Rome. He was of an ancient equestrian family, and together with his elder brother received a careful education at Rome, and studied also at Athens. He was trained for the Bar, but in spite of his father’s remonstrances preferred poetry to public life. ‘An easy fortune, a brilliant wit, an inexhaustible memory, and an unfailing social tact soon made him a prominent figure in society; and his genuine love of literature and admiration for genius made him the friend of the whole contemporary world of letters.’—Mackail. Up to his fiftieth year fortune smiled steadily upon Ovid: his works were universally popular, and he enjoyed the favour and patronage of the Emperor himself. But towards the end of 8 A.D. an imperial edict ordered him to leave Rome on a named day and take up his residence at the small barbarous town of Tomi, on the Black Sea, at the extreme outposts of civilisation. Augustus proved deaf to all entreaties to recall him, Tiberius remained alike inexorable, and Ovid died of a broken heart at the ago of sixty, in the tenth year of his banishment.

2. Works.

(1) Amores, in three Books, poems in elegiac verse, nearly all on Corinna, who was probably no real person, but only a name around which Ovid grouped his own fancies, and wrote as the poet of a fashionable, pleasure-loving society. The Mors Psittaci is pleasing and the Mors Tibulli is a noble tribute to a brother poet.


(2) Heroides, twenty letters in elegiac verse, feigned to have been written by ladies or chiefs of the heroic age to the absent objects of their love (15-20 are in pairs, e.g. Paris to Helen and Helen to Paris, and are probably spurious). ‘The Letters 1-14 are thoroughly modern: they express the feelings and speak the language of refined women in a refined age, and all exhibit an artificiality both in the substance and the manner of their pleading.’—Sellar.

(3) Ars Amatoria, in elegiac verse in three Books. This is an ironical form of didactic poetry in which Ovid teaches the art of lying quite as much as the art of loving.

(4) Remedia Amoris, in elegiac verse, while professing to be a recantation of the Ars Amatoria, shows, if possible, a worse taste.

(5) Metamorphoses, in hexameter verse in fifteen Books, containing versions of legends on transformations (mutatae formae) from Chaos down to Caesar’s transformation into a star. In some respects this is his greatest poem: Ovid himself makes for it as strong a claim to immortality as Horace does for his Odes:

Quaque patet domitis Romana potentia terris,

Ore legar populi perque omnia saecula fama,

Siquid habent veri vatum praesagia, vivam.

Met. XV. 877-end.

‘The attractiveness of this work lies in its descriptions; but the attempt to divest it of the character of a dictionary of mythology by interweaving stories, after the fashion of the Arabian Nights, is only partially successful.’—Tyrrell.

(6) Fasti, in elegiac verse in six Books, a poetical calendar of the Roman year. Each month has a Book allotted to it, and Ovid probably sketched out Books vii-xii, but his exile made it impossible for him to complete the work. It contains much valuable information on Roman customs and some exquisitely told stories (e.g.