The Project Gutenberg eBook of The 2006 CIA World Factbook

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Title: The 2006 CIA World Factbook

Author: United States. Central Intelligence Agency

Release date: December 12, 2008 [eBook #27509]
Most recently updated: January 4, 2021

Language: English

*** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE 2006 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK ***

Produced by Al Haines

THE CIA WORLD FACTBOOK 2006

CONTENTS

Countries and Locations

Field Listings

Rank Orders

Appendixes

Notes and Definitions

History of The World Factbook

Contributors and Copyright Information

Purchasing Information

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

=====================================================================

What's New

- Country information has been updated as of 19 December 2006.

- There have been some significant changes to the latest edition of The World Factbook. The successful secession referendum held in Montenegro in May of 2006 allowed it to legally leave its union with Serbia the following month. These two Balkan countries have now been formally recognized and are listed separately in the Factbook.

- In the Government category, the 'Capital' entry has been greatly expanded and now contains up to four subfields, including significant new information having to do with time. The subfields consist of the name of the capital itself, its geographic coordinates, the time difference at the capital from coordinated universal time (UTC), and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.

- The Transnational issues category now has a "Trafficking in persons" entry. Human trafficking connotes modern-day slavery and this important new field will include information on the most egregious countries (Tier 2 Watch List and Tier 3) as listed in the US State Department's annual report.

- A new Appendix G lists Weights and Measures. The appendix includes information on mathematical notation and metric interrelationships, as well as over 400 examples of standard conversion factors.

- Revision of some individual country maps, first introduced in the 2001 edition, is continued in this edition. Several regional maps have also been updated to reflect boundary changes and place name spelling changes.

=====================================================================

The World Factbook (2006) - Country Listing

[Transcriber's note: To search on a country in this file, prefix the country's name with "@", e.g. "@Afghanistan". "Afghanistan" will find all occurrences; prefixing it with "@" will find the correct location.]

World

A

Afghanistan
Akrotiri
Albania
Algeria
American Samoa
Andorra
Angola
Anguilla
Antarctica
Antigua and Barbuda
Arctic Ocean
Argentina
Armenia
Aruba
Ashmore and Cartier Islands
Atlantic Ocean
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan

B

Bahamas, The
Bahrain
Baker Island
Bangladesh
Barbados
Bassas da India
Belarus
Belgium
Belize
Benin
Bermuda
Bhutan
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Bouvet Island
Brazil
British Indian Ocean Territory
British Virgin Islands
Brunei
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burma
Burundi

C

Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Cape Verde
Cayman Islands
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Christmas Island
Clipperton Island
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Colombia
Comoros
Congo, Democratic Republic of the
Congo, Republic of the
Cook Islands
Coral Sea Islands
Costa Rica
Cote d'Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Cyprus
Czech Republic

D

Denmark
Dhekelia
Djibouti
Dominica
Dominican Republic

E

East Timor
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Europa Island
European Union entry follows Taiwan

F

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Faroe Islands
Fiji
Finland
France
French Guiana
French Polynesia
French Southern and Antarctic Lands

G

Gabon
Gambia, The
Gaza Strip
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Gibraltar
Glorioso Islands
Greece
Greenland
Grenada
Guadeloupe
Guam
Guatemala
Guernsey
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Guyana

H

Haiti
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Holy See (Vatican City)
Honduras
Hong Kong
Howland Island
Hungary

I

Iceland
Iles Eparses
India
Indian Ocean
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Ireland
Isle of Man
Israel
Italy

J

Jamaica
Jan Mayen
Japan
Jarvis Island
Jersey
Johnston Atoll
Jordan
Juan de Nova Island

K

Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kingman Reef
Kiribati
Korea, North
Korea, South
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan

L

Laos
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Liechtenstein
Lithuania
Luxembourg

M

Macau
Macedonia
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Maldives
Mali
Malta
Marshall Islands
Martinique
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mayotte
Mexico
Micronesia, Federated States of
Midway Islands
Moldova
Monaco
Mongolia
Montenegro
Montserrat
Morocco
Mozambique

N

Namibia
Nauru
Navassa Island
Nepal
Netherlands
Netherlands Antilles
New Caledonia
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Niue
Norfolk Island
Northern Mariana Islands
Norway

O

Oman

P

Pacific Ocean
Pakistan
Palau
Palmyra Atoll
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paracel Islands
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Pitcairn Islands
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico

Q

Qatar

R

Reunion
Romania
Russia
Rwanda

S

Saint Helena
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Samoa
San Marino
Sao Tome and Principe
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovakia
Slovenia
Solomon Islands
Somalia
South Africa
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
Southern Ocean
Spain
Spratly Islands
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Suriname
Svalbard
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syria

T

Taiwan entry follows Zimbabwe
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Togo
Tokelau
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago
Tromelin Island
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Turks and Caicos Islands
Tuvalu

U

Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
United States Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges
Uruguay
Uzbekistan

V

Vanuatu
Venezuela
Vietnam
Virgin Islands

W

Wake Island
Wallis and Futuna
West Bank
Western Sahara

Y

Yemen

Z

Zambia
Zimbabwe

Taiwan
European Union

=====================================================================

Field Listings

[Transcriber's note: To search on a field code in this file, prefix the code number with "@", e.g. "@2001". "2001" will find all occurrences; prefixing it with "@" will find the correct location.]

Code Field Description

2001 GDP (purchasing power parity) 2002 Population growth rate (%) 2003 GDP - real growth rate (%) 2004 GDP - per capita (PPP) 2006 Dependency status 2007 Diplomatic representation from the US 2008 Transportation - note 2010 Age structure (%) 2011 Geographic coordinates 2012 GDP - composition by sector (%) 2013 Radio broadcast stations 2015 Television broadcast stations 2018 Sex ratio (male(s)/female) 2019 Heliports 2020 Elevation extremes (m) 2021 Natural hazards 2022 People - note 2023 Area - comparative 2024 Military service age and obligation (years of age) 2025 Manpower fit for military service 2026 Manpower reaching military service age annually 2028 Background 2030 Airports - with paved runways 2031 Airports - with unpaved runways 2032 Environment - current issues 2033 Environment - international agreements 2034 Military expenditures - percent of GDP (%) 2038 Electricity - production (kWh) 2042 Electricity - consumption (kWh) 2043 Electricity - imports (kWh) 2044 Electricity - exports (kWh) 2046 Population below poverty line (%) 2047 Household income or consumption by percentage share (%) 2048 Labor force - by occupation (%) 2049 Exports - commodities 2050 Exports - partners (%) 2051 Administrative divisions 2052 Agriculture - products 2053 Airports 2054 Birth rate (births/1,000 population) 2055 Military branches 2056 Budget 2057 Capital 2058 Imports - commodities 2059 Climate 2060 Coastline (km) 2061 Imports - partners (%) 2062 Economic aid - donor 2063 Constitution 2064 Economic aid - recipient 2065 Currency (code) 2066 Death rate (deaths/1,000 population) 2067 Military expenditures - dollar figure 2068 Dependent areas 2070 Disputes - international 2075 Ethnic groups (%) 2076 Exchange rates 2077 Executive branch 2078 Exports 2079 Debt - external 2080 Fiscal year 2081 Flag description 2085 Roadways (km) 2086 Illicit drugs 2087 Imports 2088 Independence 2089 Industrial production growth rate (%) 2090 Industries 2091 Infant mortality rate (deaths/1,000 live births) 2092 Inflation rate (consumer prices) (%) 2093 Waterways (km) 2094 Judicial branch 2095 Labor force 2096 Land boundaries (km) 2097 Land use (%) 2098 Languages (%) 2100 Legal system 2101 Legislative branch 2102 Life expectancy at birth (years) 2103 Literacy (%) 2105 Manpower available for military service 2106 Maritime claims 2107 International organization participation 2108 Merchant marine 2109 National holiday 2110 Nationality 2111 Natural resources 2112 Net migration rate (migrant(s)/1,000 population) 2113 Geography - note 2115 Political pressure groups and leaders 2116 Economy - overview 2117 Pipelines (km) 2118 Political parties and leaders 2119 Population 2120 Ports and terminals 2121 Railways (km) 2122 Religions (%) 2123 Suffrage 2124 Telephone system 2125 Terrain 2127 Total fertility rate (children born/woman) 2128 Government type 2129 Unemployment rate (%) 2137 Military - note 2138 Communications - note 2140 Government - note 2142 Country name 2144 Location 2145 Map references 2146 Irrigated land (sq km) 2147 Area (sq km) 2149 Diplomatic representation in the US 2150 Telephones - main lines in use 2151 Telephones - mobile cellular 2153 Internet users 2154 Internet country code 2155 HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%) 2156 HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 2157 HIV/AIDS - deaths 2172 Distribution of family income - Gini index 2173 Oil - production (bbl/day) 2174 Oil - consumption (bbl/day) 2175 Oil - imports (bbl/day) 2176 Oil - exports (bbl/day) 2177 Median age (years) 2178 Oil - proved reserves (bbl) 2179 Natural gas - proved reserves (cu m) 2180 Natural gas - production (cu m) 2181 Natural gas - consumption (cu m) 2182 Natural gas - imports (cu m) 2183 Natural gas - exports (cu m) 2184 Internet hosts 2185 Investment (gross fixed) (% of GDP) 2186 Public debt (% of GDP) 2187 Current account balance 2188 Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 2193 Major infectious diseases 2194 Refugees and internally displaced persons 2195 GDP (official exchange rate) 2196 Trafficking in persons

======================================================================

Rank Orders

[Transcriber's note: To search on a rank order in this file, prefix the rank's name with "@", e.g. "@Population". "Population" will find all occurrences; prefixing it with "@" will find the correct location.]

Guide to Rank Order Pages

Rank Order pages are presorted lists of data from selected Factbook data fields. Rank Order pages are generally given in descending order -highest to lowest - such as Population and Area. The two exceptions are Unemployment Rate and Inflation Rate, which are in ascending - lowest to highest - order. Rank Order pages are available for the following 47 fields in six of the nine Factbook categories.

Geography

Area - total

People

Population
Birth rate
Death rate
Infant mortality rate
Life expectancy at birth - total
Total fertility rate
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
HIV/AIDS - deaths

Economy

GDP (purchasing power parity)
GDP - real growth rate
GDP - per capita
Labor force
Unemployment rate
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
Investment (gross fixed)
Public debt
Industrial production growth rate
Electricity - production
Electricity - consumption
Oil - production
Oil - consumption
Oil - exports
Oil - imports
Oil - proved reserves
Natural Gas - production
Natural Gas - consumption
Natural Gas - exports
Natural Gas - imports
Natural Gas - proved reserves
Current account balance
Exports
Imports
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
Debt - external

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use
Telephones - mobile cellular
Internet hosts
Internet users

Transportation

Airports
Railways - total
Roadways - total
Waterways
Merchant marine - total

Military

Military expenditures - dollar figure
Military expenditures - percent of GDP

Factbook fields with Rank Order pages are easily identified with a small bar chart icon to the right of the data field title.

Not all Rank Order pages include the same number of entries because information for a particular field is not available for all countries. In addition, not all data fields are suitable for displaying as Rank Order pages, such as those containing textual information. Textual information is more readily viewed by clicking on the Field Listing icon next to the Data field title. The other icon next to the data field title provides the definition of the field.

All of the 'Rank Order' pages can be downloaded as tab-delimited data files and can be opened in other applications such as spreadsheets and databases. To save a Rank Order page in a spreadsheet, first click on the 'Download Datafile' choice above the Rank Order page you selected; then, at the top of your browser window, click on 'File' and 'Save As'. After saving the file, open the spreadsheet, find the saved file, and 'Open' it.

Additional Rank Order pages being considered for future updates of the Factbook Web site include:

Median age
Literacy
Population below the poverty line

This page was last updated on 4 April, 2006

=====================================================================

Appendixes

Appendix A - Abbreviations

Appendix B - International Organizations and Groups

Appendix C - Selected International Environmental Agreements

Appendix D - Cross-Reference list of Country Data Codes

Appendix E - Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Data Codes

Appendix F - Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names

Appendix G - Weights and Measures

======================================================================

Notes and Definitions

Along with regular information updates, The World Factbook features several new or revised fields. In the Economy category, the Factbook is now reporting national GDP figures in US dollars converted at Official Exchange Rates (OER) in addition to GDP at Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) rates, since both measures contain information useful to our readers. Traditionally, only PPP-converted GDP values had been reported. In the Transportation category, the former Highways entry is now Roadways, while Ports and harbors has been retitled Ports and terminals.

Abbreviations

This information is included in Appendix A: Abbreviations, which includes all abbreviations and acronyms used in the Factbook, with their expansions.

Acronyms

An acronym is an abbreviation coined from the initial letter of each successive word in a term or phrase. In general, an acronym made up solely from the first letter of the major words in the expanded form is rendered in all capital letters (NATO from North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an exception would be ASEAN for Association of Southeast Asian Nations). In general, an acronym made up of more than the first letter of the major words in the expanded form is rendered with only an initial capital letter (Comsat from Communications Satellite Corporation; an exception would be NAM from Nonaligned Movement). Hybrid forms are sometimes used to distinguish between initially identical terms (WTO: for World Trade Organization and WToO for World Tourism Organization.)

Administrative divisions

This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first- order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by BGN are noted.

Age structure

This entry provides the distribution of the population according to age. Information is included by sex and age group (0-14 years, 15-64 years, 65 years and over). The age structure of a population affects a nation's key socioeconomic issues. Countries with young populations (high percentage under age 15) need to invest more in schools, while countries with older populations (high percentage ages 65 and over) need to invest more in the health sector. The age structure can also be used to help predict potential political issues. For example, the rapid growth of a young adult population unable to find employment can lead to unrest.

Agriculture - products

This entry is an ordered listing of major crops and products starting with the most important.

Airports

This entry gives the total number of airports or airfields recognizable from the air. The runway(s) may be paved (concrete or asphalt surfaces) or unpaved (grass, earth, sand, or gravel surfaces) but may include closed or abandoned installations. Airports or airfields that are no longer recognizable (overgrown, no facilities, etc.) are not included. Note that not all airports have accomodations for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control.

Airports - with paved runways

This entry gives the total number of airports with paved runways (concrete or asphalt surfaces) by length. For airports with more than one runway, only the longest runway is included according to the following five groups - (1) over 3,047 m, (2) 2,438 to 3,047 m, (3) 1,524 to 2,437 m, (4) 914 to 1,523 m, and (5) under 914 m. Only airports with usable runways are included in this listing. Not all airports have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control.

Airports - with unpaved runways

This entry gives the total number of airports with unpaved runways (grass, dirt, sand, or gravel surfaces) by length. For airports with more than one runway, only the longest runway is included according to the following five groups - (1) over 3,047 m, (2) 2,438 to 3,047 m, (3) 1,524 to 2,437 m, (4) 914 to 1,523 m, and (5) under 914 m. Only airports with usable runways are included in this listing. Not all airports have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control.

Appendixes

This section includes Factbook-related material by topic.

Area

This entry includes three subfields. Total area is the sum of all land and water areas delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines. Land area is the aggregate of all surfaces delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines, excluding inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers). Water area is the sum of the surfaces of all inland water bodies, such as lakes, reservoirs, or rivers, as delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines.

Area - comparative

This entry provides an area comparison based on total area equivalents. Most entities are compared with the entire US or one of the 50 states based on area measurements (1990 revised) provided by the US Bureau of the Census. The smaller entities are compared with Washington, DC (178 sq km, 69 sq mi) or The Mall in Washington, DC (0.59 sq km, 0.23 sq mi, 146 acres).

Background

This entry usually highlights major historic events and current issues and may include a statement about one or two key future trends.

Birth rate

This entry gives the average annual number of births during a year per 1,000 persons in the population at midyear; also known as crude birth rate. The birth rate is usually the dominant factor in determining the rate of population growth. It depends on both the level of fertility and the age structure of the population.

Budget

This entry includes revenues, expenditures, and capital expenditures. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.

Capital

This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.

Climate

This entry includes a brief description of typical weather regimes throughout the year.

Coastline

This entry gives the total length of the boundary between the land area (including islands) and the sea.

Communications

This category deals with the means of exchanging information and includes the telephone, radio, television, and Internet host entries.

Communications - note

This entry includes miscellaneous communications information of significance not included elsewhere.

Constitution

This entry includes the dates of adoption, revisions, and major amendments.

Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)

UTC is the international atomic time scale that serves as the basis of timekeeping for most of the world. The hours, minutes, and seconds expressed by UTC represent the time of day at the Prime Meridian (0º longitude) located near Greenwich, England as reckoned from midnight. UTC is calculated by the Bureau International des Poids et Measures (BIPM) in Sevres, France. The BIPM averages data collected from more than 200 atomic time and frequency standards located at about 50 laboratories worldwide. UTC is the basis for all civil time with the Earth divided into time zones expressed as positive or negative differences from UTC. UTC is also referred to as "Zulu time." See the Standard Time Zones of the World map included with the Reference Maps.

Country data codes

see Data codes

Country map

Most versions of the Factbook provide a country map in color. The maps were produced from the best information available at the time of preparation. Names and/or boundaries may have changed subsequently.

Country name

This entry includes all forms of the country's name approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (Italy is used as an example): conventional long form (Italian Republic), conventional short form (Italy), local long form (Repubblica Italiana), local short form (Italia), former (Kingdom of Italy), as well as the abbreviation. Also see the Terminology note.

Crude oil

See entry for oil.

Currency (code)

This entry identifies the national medium of exchange and, in parenthesis, gives the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 4217 alphabetic currency code for each country.

Current account balance

This entry records a country's net trade in goods and services, plus net earnings from rents, interest, profits, and dividends, and net transfer payments (such as pension funds and worker remittances) to and from the rest of the world during the period specified. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.

Data codes

This information is presented in Appendix D: Cross-Reference List of
Country Data Codes and Appendix E: Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic
Data Codes.

Date of information

In general, information available as of 1 January 2006, was used in the preparation of this edition.

Daylight Saving Time (DST)

This entry is included for those entities that have adopted a policy of adjusting the official local time forward, usually one hour, from Standard Time during summer months. Such policies are most common in mid-latitude regions.

Death rate

This entry gives the average annual number of deaths during a year per 1,000 population at midyear; also known as crude death rate. The death rate, while only a rough indicator of the mortality situation in a country, accurately indicates the current mortality impact on population growth. This indicator is significantly affected by age distribution, and most countries will eventually show a rise in the overall death rate, in spite of continued decline in mortality at all ages, as declining fertility results in an aging population.

Debt - external

This entry gives the total public and private debt owed to nonresidents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.

Dependency status

This entry describes the formal relationship between a particular nonindependent entity and an independent state.

Dependent areas

This entry contains an alphabetical listing of all nonindependent entities associated in some way with a particular independent state.

Diplomatic representation

The US Government has diplomatic relations with 188 independent states, including 187 of the 192 UN members (excluded UN members are Bhutan, Cuba, Iran, North Korea, and the US itself). In addition, the US has diplomatic relations with 1 independent state that is not in the UN, the Holy See, as well as with the EU.

Diplomatic representation from the US

This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.

Diplomatic representation in the US

This entry includes the chief of mission, chancery, telephone, FAX, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.

Disputes - international

This entry includes a wide variety of situations that range from traditional bilateral boundary disputes to unilateral claims of one sort or another. Information regarding disputes over international terrestrial and maritime boundaries has been reviewed by the US Department of State. References to other situations involving borders or frontiers may also be included, such as resource disputes, geopolitical questions, or irredentist issues; however, inclusion does not necessarily constitute official acceptance or recognition by the US Government.

Distribution of family income - Gini index

This index measures the degree of inequality in the distribution of family income in a country. The index is calculated from the Lorenz curve, in which cumulative family income is plotted against the number of families arranged from the poorest to the richest. The index is the ratio of (a) the area between a country's Lorenz curve and the 45 degree helping line to (b) the entire triangular area under the 45 degree line. The more nearly equal a country's income distribution, the closer its Lorenz curve to the 45 degree line and the lower its Gini index, e.g., a Scandinavian country with an index of 25. The more unequal a country's income distribution, the farther its Lorenz curve from the 45 degree line and the higher its Gini index, e.g., a Sub- Saharan country with an index of 50. If income were distributed with perfect equality, the Lorenz curve would coincide with the 45 degree line and the index would be zero; if income were distributed with perfect inequality, the Lorenz curve would coincide with the horizontal axis and the right vertical axis and the index would be 100.

Economic aid - donor

This entry refers to net official development assistance (ODA) from Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) nations to developing countries and multilateral organizations. ODA is defined as financial assistance that is concessional in character, has the main objective to promote economic development and welfare of the less developed countries (LDCs), and contains a grant element of at least 25%. The entry does not cover other official flows (OOF) or private flows. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.

Economic aid - recipient

This entry, which is subject to major problems of definition and statistical coverage, refers to the net inflow of Official Development Finance (ODF) to recipient countries. The figure includes assistance from the World Bank, the IMF, and other international organizations and from individual nation donors. Formal commitments of aid are included in the data. Omitted from the data are grants by private organizations. Aid comes in various forms including outright grants and loans. The entry thus is the difference between new inflows and repayments. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.

Economy

This category includes the entries dealing with the size, development, and management of productive resources, i.e., land, labor, and capital.

Economy - overview

This entry briefly describes the type of economy, including the degree of market orientation, the level of economic development, the most important natural resources, and the unique areas of specialization. It also characterizes major economic events and policy changes in the most recent 12 months and may include a statement about one or two key future macroeconomic trends.

Electricity - consumption

This entry consists of total electricity generated annually plus imports and minus exports, expressed in kilowatt-hours. The discrepancy between the amount of electricity generated and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is accounted for as loss in transmission and distribution.

Electricity - exports

This entry is the total exported electricity in kilowatt-hours.

Electricity - imports

This entry is the total imported electricity in kilowatt-hours.

Electricity - production

This entry is the annual electricity generated expressed in kilowatt- hours. The discrepancy between the amount of electricity generated and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is accounted for as loss in transmission and distribution.

Elevation extremes

This entry includes both the highest point and the lowest point.

Entities

Some of the independent states, dependencies, areas of special sovereignty, and governments included in this publication are not independent, and others are not officially recognized by the US Government. "Independent state" refers to a people politically organized into a sovereign state with a definite territory. "Dependencies" and "areas of special sovereignty" refer to a broad category of political entities that are associated in some way with an independent state. "Country" names used in the table of contents or for page headings are usually the short-form names as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names and may include independent states, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty, or other geographic entities. There are a total of 272 separate geographic entities in The World Factbook that may be categorized as follows:

INDEPENDENT STATES

193 Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and
Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The
Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize,
Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil,
Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon,
Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China,
Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the
Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, East Timor,
Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia,
Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany,
Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana,
Haiti, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran,
Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan,
Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos,
Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali,
Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated
States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco,
Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger,
Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea,
Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia,
Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia,
Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia,
Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka,
Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan,
Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey,
Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay,
Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

OTHER

2 Taiwan, European Union

DEPENDENCIES AND AREAS OF SPECIAL SOVEREIGNTY

6 Australia - Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norfolk Island

2 China - Hong Kong, Macau

2 Denmark - Faroe Islands, Greenland

16 France - Bassas da India*, Clipperton Island, Europa Island*, French Guiana, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso Islands*, Guadeloupe, Juan de Nova Island*, Martinique, Mayotte, New Caledonia, Reunion, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Tromelin Island*, Wallis and Futuna (* consolidated in Iles Eparses entry)

2 Netherlands - Aruba, Netherlands Antilles

3 New Zealand - Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau

3 Norway - Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard

17 UK - Akrotiri, Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory,
British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Dhekelia, Falkland Islands,
Gibraltar, Guernsey, Jersey, Isle of Man, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands,
Saint Helena, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Turks and
Caicos Islands

14 US - American Samoa, Baker Island*, Guam, Howland Island*, Jarvis
Island*, Johnston Atoll*, Kingman Reef*, Midway Islands*, Navassa
Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palmyra Atoll*, Puerto Rico, Virgin
Islands, Wake Island (* consolidated in United States Pacific Island
Wildlife Refuges entry)

MISCELLANEOUS

6 Antarctica, Gaza Strip, Paracel Islands, Spratly Islands, West Bank, Western Sahara

OTHER ENTITIES

5 oceans - Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Southern Ocean

1 World

272 total

Environment - current issues

This entry lists the most pressing and important environmental problems. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry:

Acidification - the lowering of soil and water pH due to acid precipitation and deposition usually through precipitation; this process disrupts ecosystem nutrient flows and may kill freshwater fish and plants dependent on more neutral or alkaline conditions (see acid rain).

Acid rain - characterized as containing harmful levels of sulfur dioxide or nitrogen oxide; acid rain is damaging and potentially deadly to the earth's fragile ecosystems; acidity is measured using the pH scale where 7 is neutral, values greater than 7 are considered alkaline, and values below 5.6 are considered acid precipitation; note - a pH of 2.4 (the acidity of vinegar) has been measured in rainfall in New England.

Aerosol - a collection of airborne particles dispersed in a gas, smoke, or fog.

Afforestation - converting a bare or agricultural space by planting trees and plants; reforestation involves replanting trees on areas that have been cut or destroyed by fire.

Asbestos - a naturally occurring soft fibrous mineral commonly used in fireproofing materials and considered to be highly carcinogenic in particulate form.

Biodiversity - also biological diversity; the relative number of species, diverse in form and function, at the genetic, organism, community, and ecosystem level; loss of biodiversity reduces an ecosystem's ability to recover from natural or man-induced disruption.

Bio-indicators - a plant or animal species whose presence, abundance, and health reveal the general condition of its habitat.

Biomass - the total weight or volume of living matter in a given area or volume.

Carbon cycle - the term used to describe the exchange of carbon (in various forms, e.g., as carbon dioxide) between the atmosphere, ocean, terrestrial biosphere, and geological deposits.

Catchments - assemblages used to capture and retain rainwater and runoff; an important water management technique in areas with limited freshwater resources, such as Gibraltar.

DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane) - a colorless, odorless insecticide that has toxic effects on most animals; the use of DDT was banned in the US in 1972.

Defoliants - chemicals which cause plants to lose their leaves artificially; often used in agricultural practices for weed control, and may have detrimental impacts on human and ecosystem health.

Deforestation - the destruction of vast areas of forest (e.g., unsustainable forestry practices, agricultural and range land clearing, and the over exploitation of wood products for use as fuel) without planting new growth.

Desertification - the spread of desert-like conditions in arid or semi- arid areas, due to overgrazing, loss of agriculturally productive soils, or climate change.

Dredging - the practice of deepening an existing waterway; also, a technique used for collecting bottom-dwelling marine organisms (e.g., shellfish) or harvesting coral, often causing significant destruction of reef and ocean-floor ecosystems.

Drift-net fishing - done with a net, miles in extent, that is generally anchored to a boat and left to float with the tide; often results in an over harvesting and waste of large populations of non-commercial marine species (by-catch) by its effect of "sweeping the ocean clean".

Ecosystems - ecological units comprised of complex communities of organisms and their specific environments.

Effluents - waste materials, such as smoke, sewage, or industrial waste which are released into the environment, subsequently polluting it.

Endangered species - a species that is threatened with extinction either by direct hunting or habitat destruction.

Freshwater - water with very low soluble mineral content; sources include lakes, streams, rivers, glaciers, and underground aquifers.

Greenhouse gas - a gas that "traps" infrared radiation in the lower atmosphere causing surface warming; water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons, and ozone are the primary greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere.

Groundwater - water sources found below the surface of the earth often in naturally occurring reservoirs in permeable rock strata; the source for wells and natural springs.

Highlands Water Project - a series of dams constructed jointly by Lesotho and South Africa to redirect Lesotho's abundant water supply into a rapidly growing area in South Africa; while it is the largest infrastructure project in southern Africa, it is also the most costly and controversial; objections to the project include claims that it forces people from their homes, submerges farmlands, and squanders economic resources.

Inuit Circumpolar Conference (ICC) - represents the 145,000 Inuits of Russia, Alaska, Canada, and Greenland in international environmental issues; a General Assembly convenes every three years to determine the focus of the ICC; the most current concerns are long-range transport of pollutants, sustainable development, and climate change.

Metallurgical plants - industries which specialize in the science, technology, and processing of metals; these plants produce highly concentrated and toxic wastes which can contribute to pollution of ground water and air when not properly disposed.

Noxious substances - injurious, very harmful to living beings.

Overgrazing - the grazing of animals on plant material faster than it can naturally regrow leading to the permanent loss of plant cover, a common effect of too many animals grazing limited range land.

Ozone shield - a layer of the atmosphere composed of ozone gas (O3) that resides approximately 25 miles above the Earth's surface and absorbs solar ultraviolet radiation that can be harmful to living organisms.

Poaching - the illegal killing of animals or fish, a great concern with respect to endangered or threatened species.

Pollution - the contamination of a healthy environment by man-made waste.

Potable water - water that is drinkable, safe to be consumed.

Salination - the process through which fresh (drinkable) water becomes salt (undrinkable) water; hence, desalination is the reverse process; also involves the accumulation of salts in topsoil caused by evaporation of excessive irrigation water, a process that can eventually render soil incapable of supporting crops.

Siltation - occurs when water channels and reservoirs become clotted with silt and mud, a side effect of deforestation and soil erosion.

Slash-and-burn agriculture - a rotating cultivation technique in which trees are cut down and burned in order to clear land for temporary agriculture; the land is used until its productivity declines at which point a new plot is selected and the process repeats; this practice is sustainable while population levels are low and time is permitted for regrowth of natural vegetation; conversely, where these conditions do not exist, the practice can have disastrous consequences for the environment .

Soil degradation - damage to the land's productive capacity because of poor agricultural practices such as the excessive use of pesticides or fertilizers, soil compaction from heavy equipment, or erosion of topsoil, eventually resulting in reduced ability to produce agricultural products.

Soil erosion - the removal of soil by the action of water or wind, compounded by poor agricultural practices, deforestation, overgrazing, and desertification.

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation - a portion of the electromagnetic energy emitted by the sun and naturally filtered in the upper atmosphere by the ozone layer; UV radiation can be harmful to living organisms and has been linked to increasing rates of skin cancer in humans.

Water-born diseases - those in which bacteria survive in, and are transmitted through, water; always a serious threat in areas with an untreated water supply.

Environment - international agreements

This entry separates country participation in international environmental agreements into two levels - party to and signed, but not ratified. Agreements are listed in alphabetical order by the abbreviated form of the full name.

Environmental agreements

This information is presented in Appendix C: Selected International Environmental Agreements, which includes the name, abbreviation, date opened for signature, date entered into force, objective, and parties by category.

Ethnic groups

This entry provides an ordered listing of ethnic groups starting with the largest and normally includes the percent of total population.

Exchange rates

This entry provides the official value of a country's monetary unit at a given date or over a given period of time, as expressed in units of local currency per US dollar and as determined by international market forces or official fiat.

Executive branch

This entry includes several subfields. Chief of state includes the name and title of the titular leader of the country who represents the state at official and ceremonial functions but may not be involved with the day-to-day activities of the government. Head of government includes the name and title of the top administrative leader who is designated to manage the day-to-day activities of the government. For example, in the UK, the monarch is the chief of state, and the prime minister is the head of government. In the US, the president is both the chief of state and the head of government. Cabinet includes the official name for this body of high-ranking advisers and the method for selection of members. Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election. Election results includes the percent of vote for each candidate in the last election.

Exports

This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.

Exports - commodities

This entry provides a rank ordering of exported products starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.

Exports - partners

This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.

Fiscal year

This entry identifies the beginning and ending months for a country's accounting period of 12 months, which often is the calendar year but which may begin in any month. All yearly references are for the calendar year (CY) unless indicated as a noncalendar fiscal year (FY).

Flag description

This entry provides a written flag description produced from actual flags or the best information available at the time the entry was written. The flags of independent states are used by their dependencies unless there is an officially recognized local flag. Some disputed and other areas do not have flags.

Flag graphic

Most versions of the Factbook include a color flag at the beginning of the country profile. The flag graphics were produced from actual flags or the best information available at the time of preparation. The flags of independent states are used by their dependencies unless there is an officially recognized local flag. Some disputed and other areas do not have flags.

GDP (official exchange rate)

This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at offical exchange rates (OER) is the home-currency-denominated annual GDP figure divided by the bilateral average US exchange rate with that country in that year. The measure is simple to compute and gives a precise measure of the value of output. Many economists prefer this measure when gauging the economic power an economy maintains vis- à-vis its neighbors, judging that an exchange rate captures the purchasing power a nation enjoys in the international marketplace. Official exchange rates, however, can be artifically fixed and/or subject to manipulation - resulting in claims of the country having an under- or over-valued currency - and are not necessarily the equivalent of a market-determined exchange rate. Moreover, even if the official exchange rate is market-determined, market exchange rates are frequently established by a relatively small set of goods and services (the ones the country trades) and may not capture the value of the larger set of goods the country produces. Furthermore, OER-converted GDP is not well suited to comparing domestic GDP over time, since appreciation/depreciation from one year to the next will make the OER GDP value rise/fall regardless of whether home-currency-denominated GDP changed.

GDP (purchasing power parity)

This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller.

GDP - composition by sector

This entry gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP. The distribution will total less than 100 percent if the data are incomplete.

GDP - per capita (PPP)

This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year.

GDP - real growth rate

This entry gives GDP growth on an annual basis adjusted for inflation and expressed as a percent.

GDP methodology

In the Economy category, GDP dollar estimates for countries are reported both on an official exchange rate (OER) and a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis. Both measures contain information that is useful to the reader. The PPP method involves the use of standardized international dollar price weights, which are applied to the quantities of final goods and services produced in a given economy. The data derived from the PPP method probably provides the best available starting point for comparisons of economic strength and well-being between countries. In contrast, the currency exchange rate method involves a variety of international and domestic financial forces that may not capture the value of domestic output. Furthermore, exchange rates may suddenly go up or down by 10% or more because of market forces or official fiat whereas real output has remained unchanged. On 12 January 1994, for example, the 14 countries of the African Financial Community (whose currencies are tied to the French franc) devalued their currencies by 50%. This move, of course, did not cut the real output of these countries by half. Whereas PPP estimates for OECD countries are quite reliable, PPP estimates for developing countries are often rough approximations. In developing countries with weak currencies, the exchange rate estimate of GDP in dollars is typically one-fourth to one-half the PPP estimate. Most of the GDP estimates for developing countries are based on extrapolation of PPP numbers published by the UN International Comparison Program (UNICP) and by Professors Robert Summers and Alan Heston of the University of Pennsylvania and their colleagues. GDP derived using the OER method should be used for the purpose of calculating the share of items such as exports, imports, military expenditures, external debt, or the current account balance, because the dollar values presented in the Factbook for these items have been converted at official exchange rates, not at PPP. One should use the OER GDP figure to calculate the proportion of, say, Chinese defense expenditures in GDP, because that share will be the same as one calculated in local currency units. Comparison of OER GDP with PPP GDP may also indicate whether a currency is over- or under-valued. If OER GDP is smaller than PPP GDP, the official exchange rate may be undervalued, and vice versa. However, there is no strong historical evidence that market exchange rates move in the direction implied by the PPP rate, at least not in the short- or medium-term. Note: the numbers for GDP and other economic data should not be chained together from successive volumes of the Factbook because of changes in the US dollar measuring rod, revisions of data by statistical agencies, use of new or different sources of information, and changes in national statistical methods and practices.

GNP

Gross national product (GNP) is the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year, plus income earned by its citizens abroad, minus income earned by foreigners from domestic production. The Factbook, following current practice, uses GDP rather than GNP to measure national production. However, the user must realize that in certain countries net remittances from citizens working abroad may be important to national well-being.

GWP

This entry gives the gross world product (GWP) or aggregate value of all final goods and services produced worldwide in a given year.

Geographic coordinates

This entry includes rounded latitude and longitude figures for the purpose of finding the approximate geographic center of an entity and is based on the Gazetteer of Conventional Names, Third Edition, August 1988, US Board on Geographic Names and on other sources.

Geographic names

This information is presented in Appendix F: Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names. It includes a listing of various alternate names, former names, local names, and regional names referenced to one or more related Factbook entries. Spellings are normally, but not always, those approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Alternate names and additional information are included in parentheses.

Geography

This category includes the entries dealing with the natural environment and the effects of human activity.

Geography - note

This entry includes miscellaneous geographic information of significance not included elsewhere.

Gini index

See entry for Distribution of family income - Gini index

Government

This category includes the entries dealing with the system for the adoption and administration of public policy.

Government - note

This entry includes miscellaneous government information of significance not included elsewhere.

Government type

This entry gives the basic form of government. Definitions of the major governmental terms are as follows:

Anarchy - a condition of lawlessness or political disorder brought about by the absence of governmental authority.

Commonwealth - a nation, state, or other political entity founded on law and united by a compact of the people for the common good.

Communism - a system of government in which the state plans and controls the economy and a single - often authoritarian - party holds power; state controls are imposed with the elimination of private ownership of property or capital while claiming to make progress toward a higher social order in which all goods are equally shared by the people (i.e., a classless society).

Confederacy (Confederation) - a union by compact or treaty between states, provinces, or territories, that creates a central government with limited powers; the constituent entities retain supreme authority over all matters except those delegated to the central government.

Constitutional - a government by or operating under an authoritative document (constitution) that sets forth the system of fundamental laws and principles that determines the nature, functions, and limits of that government.

Constitutional democracy - a form of government in which the sovereign power of the people is spelled out in a governing constitution.

Constitutional monarchy - a system of government in which a monarch is guided by a constitution whereby his/her rights, duties, and responsibilities are spelled out in written law or by custom.

Democracy - a form of government in which the supreme power is retained by the people, but which is usually exercised indirectly through a system of representation and delegated authority periodically renewed.

Democratic republic - a state in which the supreme power rests in the body of citizens entitled to vote for officers and representatives responsible to them.

Dictatorship - a form of government in which a ruler or small clique wield absolute power (not restricted by a constitution or laws).

Ecclesiastical - a government administrated by a church.

Emirate - similar to a monarchy or sultanate, but a government in which the supreme power is in the hands of an emir (the ruler of a Muslim state); the emir may be an absolute overlord or a sovereign with constitutionally limited authority.

Federal (Federative) - a form of government in which sovereign power is formally divided - usually by means of a constitution - between a central authority and a number of constituent regions (states, colonies, or provinces) so that each region retains some management of its internal affairs; differs from a confederacy in that the central government exerts influence directly upon both individuals as well as upon the regional units.

Federal republic - a state in which the powers of the central government are restricted and in which the component parts (states, colonies, or provinces) retain a degree of self-government; ultimate sovereign power rests with the voters who chose their governmental representatives.

Islamic republic - a particular form of government adoped by some Muslim states; although such a state is, in theory, a theocracy, it remains a republic, but its laws are required to be compatible with the laws of Islam.

Maoism - the theory and practice of Marxism-Leninism developed in China by Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung), which states that a continuous revolution is necessary if the leaders of a communist state are to keep in touch with the people.

Marxism - the political, economic, and social principles espoused by 19th century economist Karl Marx; he viewed the struggle of workers as a progression of historical forces that would proceed from a class struggle of the proletariat (workers) exploited by capitalists (business owners), to a socialist "dictatorship of the proletariat," to, finally, a classless society - Communism.

Marxism-Leninism - an expanded form of communism developed by Lenin from doctrines of Karl Marx; Lenin saw imperialism as the final stage of capitalism and shifted the focus of workers' struggle from developed to underdeveloped countries.

Monarchy - a government in which the supreme power is lodged in the hands of a monarch who reigns over a state or territory, usually for life and by hereditary right; the monarch may be either a sole absolute ruler or a sovereign - such as a king, queen, or prince - with constitutionally limited authority.

Oligarchy - a government in which control is exercised by a small group of individuals whose authority generally is based on wealth or power.

Parliamentary democracy - a political system in which the legislature (parliament) selects the government - a prime minister, premier, or chancellor along with the cabinet ministers - according to party strength as expressed in elections; by this system, the government acquires a dual responsibility: to the people as well as to the parliament.

Parliamentary government (Cabinet-Parliamentary government) - a government in which members of an executive branch (the cabinet and its leader - a prime minister, premier, or chancellor) are nominated to their positions by a legislature or parliament, and are directly responsible to it; this type of government can be dissolved at will by the parliament (legislature) by means of a no confidence vote or the leader of the cabinet may dissolve the parliament if it can no longer function.

Parliamentary monarchy - a state headed by a monarch who is not actively involved in policy formation or implementation (i.e., the exercise of sovereign powers by a monarch in a ceremonial capacity); true governmental leadership is carried out by a cabinet and its head - a prime minister, premier, or chancellor - who are drawn from a legislature (parliament).

Republic - a representative democracy in which the people's elected deputies (representatives), not the people themselves, vote on legislation.

Socialism - a government in which the means of planning, producing, and distributing goods is controlled by a central government that theoretically seeks a more just and equitable distribution of property and labor; in actuality, most socialist governments have ended up being no more than dictatorships over workers by a ruling elite.

Sultanate - similar to a monarchy, but a government in which the supreme power is in the hands of a sultan (the head of a Muslim state); the sultan may be an absolute ruler or a sovereign with constitutionally limited authority.

Theocracy - a form of government in which a Deity is recognized as the supreme civil ruler, but the Deity's laws are interpreted by ecclesiastical authorities (bishops, mullahs, etc.); a government subject to religious authority.

Totalitarian - a government that seeks to subordinate the individual to the state by controlling not only all political and economic matters, but also the attitudes, values, and beliefs of its population.

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)

The mean solar time at the Greenwich Meridian, Greenwich, England, with the hours and days, since 1925, reckoned from midnight. GMT is now a historical term having been replaced by UTC on 1 January 1972. See Coordinated Universal Time.

Gross domestic product

see GDP

Gross national product

see GNP

Gross world product

see GWP

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

This entry gives an estimate of the percentage of adults (aged 15-49) living with HIV/AIDS. The adult prevalence rate is calculated by dividing the estimated number of adults living with HIV/AIDS at yearend by the total adult population at yearend.

HIV/AIDS - deaths

This entry gives an estimate of the number of adults and children who died of AIDS during a given calendar year.

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

This entry gives an estimate of all people (adults and children) alive at yearend with HIV infection, whether or not they have developed symptoms of AIDS.

Heliports

This entry gives the total number of heliports with hard-surface runways, helipads, or landing areas that support routine sustained helicopter operations exclusively and have support facilities including one or more of the following facilities: lighting, fuel, passenger handling, or maintenance. It includes former airports used exclusively for helicopter operations but excludes heliports limited to day operations and natural clearings that could support helicopter landings and takeoffs.

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Data on household income or consumption come from household surveys, the results adjusted for household size. Nations use different standards and procedures in collecting and adjusting the data. Surveys based on income will normally show a more unequal distribution than surveys based on consumption. The quality of surveys is improving with time, yet caution is still necessary in making inter-country comparisons.

Hydrographic data codes

see Data codes

Illicit drugs

This entry gives information on the five categories of illicit drugs - narcotics, stimulants, depressants (sedatives), hallucinogens, and cannabis. These categories include many drugs legally produced and prescribed by doctors as well as those illegally produced and sold outside of medical channels.

Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) is the common hemp plant, which provides hallucinogens with some sedative properties, and includes marijuana (pot, Acapulco gold, grass, reefer), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, Marinol), hashish (hash), and hashish oil (hash oil).

Coca (mostly Erythroxylum coca) is a bush with leaves that contain the stimulant used to make cocaine. Coca is not to be confused with cocoa, which comes from cacao seeds and is used in making chocolate, cocoa, and cocoa butter.

Cocaine is a stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca bush.

Depressants (sedatives) are drugs that reduce tension and anxiety and include chloral hydrate, barbiturates (Amytal, Nembutal, Seconal, phenobarbital), benzodiazepines (Librium, Valium), methaqualone (Quaalude), glutethimide (Doriden), and others (Equanil, Placidyl, Valmid).

Drugs are any chemical substances that effect a physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral change in an individual.

Drug abuse is the use of any licit or illicit chemical substance that results in physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral impairment in an individual.

Hallucinogens are drugs that affect sensation, thinking, self- awareness, and emotion. Hallucinogens include LSD (acid, microdot), mescaline and peyote (mexc, buttons, cactus), amphetamine variants (PMA, STP, DOB), phencyclidine (PCP, angel dust, hog), phencyclidine analogues (PCE, PCPy, TCP), and others (psilocybin, psilocyn).

Hashish is the resinous exudate of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa).

Heroin is a semisynthetic derivative of morphine.

Mandrax is a trade name for methaqualone, a pharmaceutical depressant.

Marijuana is the dried leaf of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa).

Methaqualone is a pharmaceutical depressant, referred to as mandrax in
Southwest Asia and Africa.

Narcotics are drugs that relieve pain, often induce sleep, and refer to opium, opium derivatives, and synthetic substitutes. Natural narcotics include opium (paregoric, parepectolin), morphine (MS-Contin, Roxanol), codeine (Tylenol with codeine, Empirin with codeine, Robitussan AC), and thebaine. Semisynthetic narcotics include heroin (horse, smack), and hydromorphone (Dilaudid). Synthetic narcotics include meperidine or Pethidine (Demerol, Mepergan), methadone (Dolophine, Methadose), and others (Darvon, Lomotil).

Opium is the brown, gummy exudate of the incised, unripe seedpod of the opium poppy.

Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is the source for the natural and semisynthetic narcotics.

Poppy straw is the entire cut and dried opium poppy-plant material, other than the seeds. Opium is extracted from poppy straw in commercial operations that produce the drug for medical use.

Qat (kat, khat) is a stimulant from the buds or leaves of Catha edulis that is chewed or drunk as tea.

Quaaludes is the North American slang term for methaqualone, a pharmaceutical depressant.

Stimulants are drugs that relieve mild depression, increase energy and
activity, and include cocaine (coke, snow, crack), amphetamines
(Desoxyn, Dexedrine), ephedrine, ecstasy (clarity, essence, doctor,
Adam), phenmetrazine (Preludin), methylphenidate (Ritalin), and others
(Cylert, Sanorex, Tenuate).

Imports

This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.

Imports - commodities

This entry provides a rank ordering of imported products starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.

Imports - partners

This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.

Independence

For most countries, this entry gives the date that sovereignty was achieved and from which nation, empire, or trusteeship. For the other countries, the date given may not represent "independence" in the strict sense, but rather some significant nationhood event such as the traditional founding date or the date of unification, federation, confederation, establishment, fundamental change in the form of government, or state succession. Dependent areas include the notation "none" followed by the nature of their dependency status. Also see the Terminology note.

Industrial production growth rate

This entry gives the annual percentage increase in industrial production (includes manufacturing, mining, and construction).

Industries

This entry provides a rank ordering of industries starting with the largest by value of annual output.

Infant mortality rate

This entry gives the number of deaths of infants under one year old in a given year per 1,000 live births in the same year; included is the total death rate, and deaths by sex, male and female. This rate is often used as an indicator of the level of health in a country.

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

This entry furnishes the annual percent change in consumer prices compared with the previous year's consumer prices.

International disputes

see Disputes - international

International organization participation

This entry lists in alphabetical order by abbreviation those international organizations in which the subject country is a member or participates in some other way.

International organizations

This information is presented in Appendix B: International Organizations and Groups which includes the name, abbreviation, date established, aim, and members by category.

Internet country code

This entry includes the two-letter codes maintained by the
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in the ISO 3166
Alpha-2 list and used by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)
to establish country-coded top-level domains (ccTLDs).

Internet hosts

This entry lists the number of Internet hosts available within a country. An Internet host is a computer connected directly to the Internet; normally an Internet Service Provider's (ISP) computer is a host. Internet users may use either a hard-wired terminal, at an institution with a mainframe computer connected directly to the Internet, or may connect remotely by way of a modem via telephone line, cable, or satellite to the Internet Service Provider's host computer. The number of hosts is one indicator of the extent of Internet connectivity.

Internet users

This entry gives the number of users within a country that access the Internet. Statistics vary from country to country and may include users who access the Internet at least several times a week to those who access it only once within a period of several months.

Introduction

This category includes one entry, Background.

Investment (gross fixed)

This entry records total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes invesment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital.

Irrigated land

This entry gives the number of square kilometers of land area that is artificially supplied with water.

Judicial branch

This entry contains the name(s) of the highest court(s) and a brief description of the selection process for members.

Labor force

This entry contains the total labor force figure.

Labor force - by occupation

This entry lists the percentage distribution of the labor force by occupation. The distribution will total less than 100 percent if the data are incomplete.

Land boundaries

This entry contains the total length of all land boundaries and the individual lengths for each of the contiguous border countries. When available, official lengths published by national statistical agencies are used. Because surveying methods may differ, country border lengths reported by contiguous countries may differ.

Land use

This entry contains the percentage shares of total land area for three different types of land use: arable land - land cultivated for crops like wheat, maize, and rice that are replanted after each harvest; permanent crops - land cultivated for crops like citrus, coffee, and rubber that are not replanted after each harvest; includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber; other - any land not arable or under permanent crops; includes permanent meadows and pastures, forests and woodlands, built-on areas, roads, barren land, etc.

Languages

This entry provides a rank ordering of languages starting with the largest and sometimes includes the percent of total population speaking that language.

Legal system

This entry contains a brief description of the legal system's historical roots, role in government, and acceptance of International Court of Justice (ICJ) jurisdiction.

Legislative branch

This entry contains information on the structure (unicameral, bicameral, tricameral), formal name, number of seats, and term of office. Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election. Election results includes the percent of vote and/or number of seats held by each party in the last election.

Life expectancy at birth

This entry contains the average number of years to be lived by a group of people born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in the future. The entry includes total population as well as the male and female components. Life expectancy at birth is also a measure of overall quality of life in a country and summarizes the mortality at all ages. It can also be thought of as indicating the potential return on investment in human capital and is necessary for the calculation of various actuarial measures.

Literacy

This entry includes a definition of literacy and Census Bureau percentages for the total population, males, and females. There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless otherwise specified, all rates are based on the most common definition - the ability to read and write at a specified age. Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess the ability to read and write is beyond the scope of the Factbook. Information on literacy, while not a perfect measure of educational results, is probably the most easily available and valid for international comparisons. Low levels of literacy, and education in general, can impede the economic development of a country in the current rapidly changing, technology-driven world.

Location

This entry identifies the country's regional location, neighboring countries, and adjacent bodies of water.

Major infectious diseases

This entry lists major infectious diseases likely to be encountered in countries where the risk of such diseases is assessed to be very high as compared to the United States. These infectious diseases represent risks to US government personnel traveling to the specified country for a period of less than three years. The degree of risk is assessed by considering the foreign nature of these infectious diseases, their severity, and the probability of being affected by the diseases present. The diseases listed do not necessarily represent the total disease burden experienced by the local population.

The risk to an individual traveler varies considerably by the specific location, visit duration, type of activities, type of accommodations, time of year, and other factors. Consultation with a travel medicine physician is needed to evaluate individual risk and recommend appropriate preventive measures such as vaccines.

Diseases are organized into the following six exposure categories shown in italics and listed in typical descending order of risk. Note - The sequence of exposure categories listed in individual country entries may vary according to local conditions.

food or waterborne diseases acquired through eating or drinking on the local economy:

Hepatitis A - viral disease that interferes with the functioning of the liver; spread through consumption of food or water contaminated with fecal matter, principally in areas of poor sanitation; victims exhibit fever, jaundice, and diarrhea; 15% of victims will experience prolonged symptoms over 6-9 months; vaccine available.

Hepatitis E - water-borne viral disease that interferes with the functioning of the liver; most commonly spread through fecal contamination of drinking water; victims exhibit jaundice, fatigue, abdominal pain, and dark colored urine.

Typhoid fever - bacterial disease spread through contact with food or water contaminated by fecal matter or sewage; victims exhibit sustained high fevers; left untreated, mortality rates can reach 20%.

vectorborne diseases acquired through the bite of an infected arthropod:

Malaria - caused by single-cell parasitic protozoa Plasmodium; transmitted to humans via the bite of the female Anopheles mosquito; parasites multiply in the liver attacking red blood cells resulting in cycles of fever, chills, and sweats accompanied by anemia; death due to damage to vital organs and interruption of blood supply to the brain; endemic in 100, mostly tropical, countries with 90% of cases and the majority of 1.5-2.5 million estimated annual deaths occurring in sub- Saharan Africa.

Dengue fever - mosquito-borne (Aedes aegypti) viral disease associated with urban environments; manifests as sudden onset of fever and severe headache; occasionally produces shock and hemorrhage leading to death in 5% of cases.

Yellow fever - mosquito-borne viral disease; severity ranges from influenza-like symptoms to severe hepatitis and hemorrhagic fever; occurs only in tropical South America and sub-Saharan Africa, where most cases are reported; fatality rate is less than 20%.

Japanese Encephalitis - mosquito-borne (Culex tritaeniorhynchus) viral disease associated with rural areas in Asia; acute encephalitis can progress to paralysis, coma, and death; fatality rates 30%.

African Trypanosomiasis - caused by the parasitic protozoa Trypanosoma; transmitted to humans via the bite of bloodsucking Tsetse flies; infection leads to malaise and irregular fevers and, in advanced cases when the parasites invade the central nervous system, coma and death; endemic in 36 countries of sub-Saharan Africa; cattle and wild animals act as reservoir hosts for the parasites.

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis - caused by the parasitic protozoa leishmania; transmitted to humans via the bite of sandflies; results in skin lesions that may become chronic; endemic in 88 countries; 90% of cases occur in Iran, Afghanistan, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Brazil, and Peru; wild and domesticated animals as well as humans can act as reservoirs of infection.

Plague - bacterial disease transmitted by fleas normally associated with rats; person-to-person airborne transmission also possible; recent plague epidemics occurred in areas of Asia, Africa, and South America associated with rural areas or small towns and villages; manifests as fever, headache, and painfully swollen lymph nodes; disease progresses rapidly and without antibiotic treatment leads to pneumonic form with a death rate in excess of 50%.

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever - tick-borne viral disease; infection may also result from exposure to infected animal blood or tissue; geographic distribution includes Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe; sudden onset of fever, headache, and muscle aches followed by hemorrhaging in the bowels, urine, nose, and gums; mortality rate is approximately 30%.

Rift Valley fever - viral disease affecting domesticated animals and humans; transmission is by mosquito and other biting insects; infection may also occur through handling of infected meat or contact with blood; geographic distribution includes eastern and southern Africa where cattle and sheep are raised; symptoms are generally mild with fever and some liver abnormalities, but the disease may progress to hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis, or ocular disease; fatality rates are low at about 1% of cases.

Chikungunya - mosquito-borne (Aedes aegypti) viral disease associated with urban environments, similar to Dengue Fever; characterized by sudden onset of fever, rash, and severe joint pain usually lasting 3-7 days, some cases result in persistent arthritis.

water contact diseases acquired through swimming or wading in freshwater lakes, streams, and rivers:

Leptospirosis - bacterial disease that affects animals and humans; infection occurs through contact with water, food, or soil contaminated by animal urine; symptoms include high fever, severe headache, vomiting, jaundice, and diarrhea; untreated, the disease can result in kidney damage, liver failure, meningitis, or respiratory distress; fatality rates are low but left untreated recovery can take months.

Schistosomiasis - caused by parasitic trematode flatworm Schistosoma; fresh water snails act as intermediate host and release larval form of parasite that penetrates the skin of people exposed to contaminated water; worms mature and reproduce in the blood vessels, liver, kidneys, and intestines releasing eggs, which become trapped in tissues triggering an immune response; may manifest as either urinary or intestinal disease resulting in decreased work or learning capacity; mortality, while generally low, may occur in advanced cases usually due to bladder cancer; endemic in 74 developing countries with 80% of infected people living in sub-Saharan Africa; humans act as the reservoir for this parasite.

aerosolized dust or soil contact disease acquired through inhalation of aerosols contaminated with rodent urine:

Lassa fever - viral disease carried by rats of the genus Mastomys; endemic in portions of West Africa; infection occurs through direct contact with or consumption of food contaminated by rodent urine or fecal matter containing virus particles; fatality rate can reach 50% in epidemic outbreaks.

respiratory disease acquired through close contact with an infectious person:

Meningococcal meningitis - bacterial disease causing an inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord; one of the most important bacterial pathogens is Neisseria meningitidis because of its potential to cause epidemics; symptoms include stiff neck, high fever, headaches, and vomiting; bacteria are transmitted from person to person by respiratory droplets and facilitated by close and prolonged contact resulting from crowded living conditions, often with a seasonal distribution; death occurs in 5-15% of cases, typically within 24-48 hours of onset of symptoms; highest burden of meningococcal disease occurs in the hyperendemic region of sub-Saharan Africa known as the "Meningitis Belt" which stretches from Senegal east to Ethiopia.

animal contact disease acquired through direct contact with local animals:

Rabies - viral disease of mammals usually transmitted through the bite of an infected animal, most commonly dogs; virus affects the central nervous system causing brain alteration and death; symptoms initially are non-specific fever and headache progressing to neurological symptoms; death occurs within days of the onset of symptoms.

Manpower available for military service

This entry gives the number of males and females falling in the military age range for the country and assumes that every individual is fit to serve.

Manpower fit for military service

This entry gives the number of males and females falling in the military age range for the country and who are not otherwise disqualified for health reasons; accounts for the health situation in the country and provides a more realistic estimate of the actual number fit to serve.

Manpower reaching military service age annually

This entry gives the number of draft-age males and females entering the military manpower pool in any given year and is a measure of the availability of draft-age young adults.

Map references

This entry includes the name of the Factbook reference map on which a country may be found. The entry on Geographic coordinates may be helpful in finding some smaller countries.

Maritime claims

This entry includes the following claims, the definitions of which are excerpted from the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which alone contains the full and definitive descriptions:

territorial sea - the sovereignty of a coastal state extends beyond its land territory and internal waters to an adjacent belt of sea, described as the territorial sea in the UNCLOS (Part II); this sovereignty extends to the air space over the territorial sea as well as its underlying seabed and subsoil; every state has the right to establish the breadth of its territorial sea up to a limit not exceeding 12 nautical miles; the normal baseline for measuring the breadth of the territorial sea is the low-water line along the coast as marked on large-scale charts officially recognized by the coastal state; the UNCLOS describes specific rules for archipelagic states.

contiguous zone - according to the UNCLOS (Article 33), this is a zone contiguous to a coastal state's territorial sea, over which it may exercise the control necessary to: prevent infringement of its customs, fiscal, immigration, or sanitary laws and regulations within its territory or territorial sea; punish infringement of the above laws and regulations committed within its territory or territorial sea; the contiguous zone may not extend beyond 24 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured (e.g. the US has claimed a 12-nautical mile contiguous zone in addition to its 12-nautical mile territorial sea).

exclusive economic zone (EEZ) - the UNCLOS (Part V) defines the EEZ as a zone beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea in which a coastal state has: sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring and exploiting, conserving and managing the natural resources, whether living or non-living, of the waters superjacent to the seabed and of the seabed and its subsoil, and with regard to other activities for the economic exploitation and exploration of the zone, such as the production of energy from the water, currents, and winds; jurisdiction with regard to the establishment and use of artificial islands, installations, and structures; marine scientific research; the protection and preservation of the marine environment; the outer limit of the exclusive economic zone shall not exceed 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured.

continental shelf - the UNCLOS (Article 76) defines the continental shelf of a coastal state as comprising the seabed and subsoil of the submarine areas that extend beyond its territorial sea throughout the natural prolongation of its land territory to the outer edge of the continental margin, or to a distance of 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured where the outer edge of the continental margin does not extend up to that distance; the continental margin comprises the submerged prolongation of the landmass of the coastal state, and consists of the seabed and subsoil of the shelf, the slope and the rise; wherever the continental margin extends beyond 200 nautical miles from the baseline, coastal states may extend their claim to a distance not to exceed 350 nautical miles from the baseline or 100 nautical miles from the 2500 meter isobath; it does not include the deep ocean floor with its oceanic ridges or the subsoil thereof.

exclusive fishing zone - while this term is not used in the UNCLOS, some states (e.g., the United Kingdom) have chosen not to claim an EEZ, but rather to claim jurisdiction over the living resources off their coast; in such cases, the term exclusive fishing zone is often used; the breadth of this zone is normally the same as the EEZ or 200 nautical miles.

Median age

This entry is the age that divides a population into two numerically equal groups; that is, half the people are younger than this age and half are older. It is a single index that summarizes the age distribution of a population. Currently, the median age ranges from a low of about 15 in Uganda and Gaza Strip to 40 or more in several European countries and Japan. See the entry for "Age structure" for the importance of a young versus an older age structure and, by implication, a low versus a higher median age.

Merchant marine

Merchant marine may be defined as all ships engaged in the carriage of goods; or all commercial vessels (as opposed to all nonmilitary ships), which excludes tugs, fishing vessels, offshore oil rigs, etc. This entry contains information in four fields - total, ships by type, foreign-owned, and registered in other countries.

Total includes the number of ships (1,000 GRT or over), total DWT for those ships, and total GRT for those ships. DWT or dead weight tonnage is the total weight of cargo, plus bunkers, stores, etc., that a ship can carry when immersed to the appropriate load line. GRT or gross register tonnage is a figure obtained by measuring the entire sheltered volume of a ship available for cargo and passengers and converting it to tons on the basis of 100 cubic feet per ton; there is no stable relationship between GRT and DWT.

Ships by type includes a listing of barge carriers, bulk cargo ships, cargo ships, chemical tankers, combination bulk carriers, combination ore/oil carriers, container ships, liquefied gas tankers, livestock carriers, multifunctional large-load carriers, petroleum tankers, passenger ships, passenger/cargo ships, railcar carriers, refrigerated cargo ships, roll-on/roll-off cargo ships, short-sea passenger ships, specialized tankers, and vehicle carriers.

Foreign-owned are ships that fly the flag of one country but belong to owners in another.

Registered in other countries are ships that belong to owners in one country but fly the flag of another.

Military

This category includes the entries dealing with a country's military structure, manpower, and expenditures.

Military - note

This entry includes miscellaneous military information of significance not included elsewhere.

Military branches

This entry lists the service branches subordinate to defense ministries or the equivalent (typically ground, naval, air, and marine forces).

Military expenditures - dollar figure

This entry gives spending on defense programs in US dollars for the most recent year available; dollar figures for military expenditures should be treated with caution because of different price patterns and accounting methods among nations, as well as wide variations in the strength of different currencies.

Military expenditures - percent of GDP

This entry gives spending on defense programs for the most recent year available as a percent of gross domestic product (GDP); the GDP is calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP).

Military service age and obligation

This entry gives the required ages for voluntary or conscript military service and the length of sevice obligation.

Money figures

All money figures are expressed in contemporaneous US dollars unless otherwise indicated.

National holiday

This entry gives the primary national day of celebration - usually independence day.

Nationality

This entry provides the identifying terms for citizens - noun and adjective.

Natural gas - consumption

This entry is the total natural gas consumed in cubic meters (cu m). The discrepancy between the amount of natural gas produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes and other complicating factors.

Natural gas - exports

This entry is the total natural gas exported in cubic meters (cu m).

Natural gas - imports

This entry is the total natural gas imported in cubic meters (cu m).

Natural gas - production

This entry is the total natural gas produced in cubic meters (cu m). The discrepancy between the amount of natural gas produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes and other complicating factors.

Natural gas - proved reserves

This entry is the stock of proved reserves of natural gas in cubic meters (cu m). Proved reserves are those quantities of natural gas, which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions.

Natural hazards

This entry lists potential natural disasters.

Natural resources

This entry lists a country's mineral, petroleum, hydropower, and other resources of commercial importance.

Net migration rate

This entry includes the figure for the difference between the number of persons entering and leaving a country during the year per 1,000 persons (based on midyear population). An excess of persons entering the country is referred to as net immigration (e.g., 3.56 migrants/1,000 population); an excess of persons leaving the country as net emigration (e.g., -9.26 migrants/1,000 population). The net migration rate indicates the contribution of migration to the overall level of population change. High levels of migration can cause problems such as increasing unemployment and potential ethnic strife (if people are coming in) or a reduction in the labor force, perhaps in certain key sectors (if people are leaving).

Oil - consumption

This entry is the total oil consumed in barrels per day (bbl/day). The discrepancy between the amount of oil produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes, refinery gains, and other complicating factors.

Oil - exports

This entry is the total oil exported in barrels per day (bbl/day), including both crude oil and oil products.

Oil - imports

This entry is the total oil imported in barrels per day (bbl/day), including both crude oil and oil products.

Oil - production

This entry is the total oil produced in barrels per day (bbl/day). The discrepancy between the amount of oil produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes, refinery gains, and other complicating factors.

Oil - proved reserves

This entry is the stock of proved reserves of crude oil in barrels (bbl). Proved reserves are those quantities of petroleum which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions.

People

This category includes the entries dealing with the characteristics of the people and their society.

People - note

This entry includes miscellaneous demographic information of significance not included elsewhere.

Personal Names - Capitalization

The Factbook capitalizes the surname or family name of individuals for the convenience of our users who are faced with a world of different cultures and naming conventions. The need for capitalization, bold type, underlining, italics, or some other indicator of the individual's surname is apparent in the following examples: MAO Zedong, Fidel CASTRO Ruz, George W. BUSH, and TUNKU SALAHUDDIN Abdul Aziz Shah ibni Al- Marhum Sultan Hisammuddin Alam Shah. By knowing the surname, a short form without all capital letters can be used with confidence as in President Castro, Chairman Mao, President Bush, or Sultan Tunku Salahuddin. The same system of capitalization is extended to the names of leaders with surnames that are not commonly used such as Queen ELIZABETH II. For Vietnamese names, the given name is capitalized because officials are referred to by their given name rather than by their surname. For example, the president of Vietnam is Tran Duc LUONG. His surname is Tran, but he is referred to by his given name - President LUONG.

Personal Names - Spelling

The romanization of personal names in the Factbook normally follows the same transliteration system used by the US Board on Geographic Names for spelling place names. At times, however, a foreign leader expressly indicates a preference for, or the media or official documents regularly use, a romanized spelling that differs from the transliteration derived from the US Government standard. In such cases, the Factbook uses the alternative spelling.

Personal Names - Titles

The Factbook capitalizes any valid title (or short form of it) immediately preceding a person's name. A title standing alone is not capitalized. Examples: President PUTIN and President BUSH are chiefs of state. In Russia, the president is chief of state and the premier is the head of the government, while in the US, the president is both chief of state and head of government.

Petroleum

See entries under Oil.

Petroleum products

See entries under Oil.

Pipelines

This entry gives the lengths and types of pipelines for transporting products like natural gas, crude oil, or petroleum products.

Political parties and leaders

This entry includes a listing of significant political organizations and their leaders.

Political pressure groups and leaders

This entry includes a listing of organizations with leaders involved in politics, but not standing for legislative election.

Population

This entry gives an estimate from the US Bureau of the Census based on statistics from population censuses, vital statistics registration systems, or sample surveys pertaining to the recent past and on assumptions about future trends. The total population presents one overall measure of the potential impact of the country on the world and within its region. Note: starting with the 1993 Factbook, demographic estimates for some countries (mostly African) have explicitly taken into account the effects of the growing impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. These countries are currently: The Bahamas, Benin, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

Population below poverty line

National estimates of the percentage of the population falling below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group. Definitions of poverty vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations.

Population growth rate

The average annual percent change in the population, resulting from a surplus (or deficit) of births over deaths and the balance of migrants entering and leaving a country. The rate may be positive or negative. The growth rate is a factor in determining how great a burden would be imposed on a country by the changing needs of its people for infrastructure (e.g., schools, hospitals, housing, roads), resources (e.g., food, water, electricity), and jobs. Rapid population growth can be seen as threatening by neighboring countries.

Ports and terminals

This entry lists major ports and terminals primarily on the basis of the amount of cargo tonnage shipped through the facilities on an annual basis. In some instances, the number of containers handled or ship visits were also considered.

Public debt

This entry records the cumulatiive total of all government borrowings less repayments that are denominated in a country's home currency. Public debt should not be confused with external debt, which reflects the foreign currency liabilities of both the private and public sector and must be financed out of foreign exchange earnings.

Radio broadcast stations

This entry includes the total number of AM, FM, and shortwave broadcast stations.

Railways

This entry states the total route length of the railway network and of its component parts by gauge: broad, standard, narrow, and dual. Other gauges are listed under note.

Reference maps

This section includes world and regional maps.

Refugees and internally displaced persons

This entry includes those persons residing in a country as refugees or internally displaced persons (IDPs). The definition of a refugee according to a United Nations Convention is "a person who is outside his/her country of nationality or habitual residence; has a well- founded fear of persecution because of his/her race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group or political opinion; and is unable or unwilling to avail himself/herself of the protection of that country, or to return there, for fear of persecution." The UN established the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in 1950 to handle refugee matters worldwide. The UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) has a different, operational definition for a Palestinian refugee: "a person whose normal place of residence was Palestine during the period 1 June 1946 to 15 May 1948 and who lost both home and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 conflict." However, UNHCR also assists some 400,000 Palestinian refugees not covered under the UNRWA definition. The term "internally displaced person" is not specifically covered in the UN Convention; it is used to describe people who have fled their homes for reasons similar to refugees, but who remain within their own national territory and are subject to the laws of that state.

Religions

This entry is an ordered listing of religions by adherents starting with the largest group and sometimes includes the percent of total population.

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

This entry gives the dollar value for the stock of all financial assets that are available to the central monetary authority for use in meeting a country's balance of payments needs as of the end-date of the period specified. This category includes not only foreign currency and gold, but also a country's holdings of Special Drawing Rights in the International Monetary Fund, and its reserve position in the Fund.

Roadways

This entry gives the total length of the road network and includes the length of the paved and unpaved portions.

Sex ratio

This entry includes the number of males for each female in five age groups - at birth, under 15 years, 15-64 years, 65 years and over, and for the total population. Sex ratio at birth has recently emerged as an indicator of certain kinds of sex discrimination in some countries. For instance, high sex ratios at birth in some Asian countries are now attributed to sex-selective abortion and infanticide due to a strong preference for sons. This will affect future marriage patterns and fertility patterns. Eventually, it could cause unrest among young adult males who are unable to find partners.

Suffrage

This entry gives the age at enfranchisement and whether the right to vote is universal or restricted.

Telephone numbers

All telephone numbers in The World Factbook consist of the country code in brackets, the city or area code (where required) in parentheses, and the local number. The one component that is not presented is the international access code, which varies from country to country. For example, an international direct dial telephone call placed from the US to Madrid, Spain, would be as follows: 011 [34] (1) 577-xxxx, where 011 is the international access code for station-to-station calls; 01 is for calls other than station-to-station calls, [34] is the country code for Spain, (1) is the city code for Madrid, 577 is the local exchange, and xxxx is the local telephone number. An international direct dial telephone call placed from another country to the US would be as follows: international access code + [1] (202) 939-xxxx, where [ 1] is the country code for the US, (202) is the area code for Washington, DC, 939 is the local exchange, and xxxx is the local telephone number.

Telephone system

This entry includes a brief general assessment of the system with details on the domestic and international components. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry:

Arabsat - Arab Satellite Communications Organization (Riyadh, Saudi
Arabia).

Autodin - Automatic Digital Network (US Department of Defense).

CB - citizen's band mobile radio communications.

Cellular telephone system - the telephones in this system are radio transceivers, with each instrument having its own private radio frequency and sufficient radiated power to reach the booster station in its area (cell), from which the telephone signal is fed to a telephone exchange.

Central American Microwave System - a trunk microwave radio relay system that links the countries of Central America and Mexico with each other.

Coaxial cable - a multichannel communication cable consisting of a central conducting wire, surrounded by and insulated from a cylindrical conducting shell; a large number of telephone channels can be made available within the insulated space by the use of a large number of carrier frequencies.

Comsat - Communications Satellite Corporation (US).

DSN - Defense Switched Network (formerly Automatic Voice Network or
Autovon); basic general-purpose, switched voice network of the Defense
Communications System (US Department of Defense).

Eutelsat - European Telecommunications Satellite Organization (Paris).

Fiber-optic cable - a multichannel communications cable using a thread of optical glass fibers as a transmission medium in which the signal (voice, video, etc.) is in the form of a coded pulse of light.

GSM - a global system for mobile (cellular) communications devised by the Groupe Special Mobile of the pan-European standardization organization, Conference Europeanne des Posts et Telecommunications (CEPT) in 1982.

HF - high frequency; any radio frequency in the 3,000- to 30,000-kHz range.

Inmarsat - International Maritime Satellite Organization (London); provider of global mobile satellite communications for commercial, distress, and safety applications at sea, in the air, and on land.

Intelsat - International Telecommunications Satellite Organization
(Washington, DC).

Intersputnik - International Organization of Space Communications
(Moscow); first established in the former Soviet Union and the East
European countries, it is now marketing its services worldwide with
earth stations in North America, Africa, and East Asia.

Landline - communication wire or cable of any sort that is installed on poles or buried in the ground.

Marecs - Maritime European Communications Satellite used in the
Inmarsat system on lease from the European Space Agency.

Marisat - satellites of the Comsat Corporation that participate in the
Inmarsat system.

Medarabtel - the Middle East Telecommunications Project of the
International Telecommunications Union (ITU) providing a modern
telecommunications network, primarily by microwave radio relay, linking
Algeria, Djibouti, Egypt, Jordan, Libya, Morocco, Saudi Arabia,
Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen; it was initially started in
Morocco in 1970 by the Arab Telecommunications Union (ATU) and was
known at that time as the Middle East Mediterranean Telecommunications
Network.

Microwave radio relay - transmission of long distance telephone calls and television programs by highly directional radio microwaves that are received and sent on from one booster station to another on an optical path.

NMT - Nordic Mobile Telephone; an analog cellular telephone system that was developed jointly by the national telecommunications authorities of the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden).

Orbita - a Russian television service; also the trade name of a packet- switched digital telephone network.

Radiotelephone communications - the two-way transmission and reception of sounds by broadcast radio on authorized frequencies using telephone handsets.

PanAmSat - PanAmSat Corporation (Greenwich, CT).

SAFE - South African Far East Cable

Satellite communication system - a communication system consisting of two or more earth stations and at least one satellite that provide long distance transmission of voice, data, and television; the system usually serves as a trunk connection between telephone exchanges; if the earth stations are in the same country, it is a domestic system.

Satellite earth station - a communications facility with a microwave radio transmitting and receiving antenna and required receiving and transmitting equipment for communicating with satellites.

Satellite link - a radio connection between a satellite and an earth station permitting communication between them, either one-way (down link from satellite to earth station - television receive-only transmission) or two-way (telephone channels).

SHF - super high frequency; any radio frequency in the 3,000- to 30,000-MHz range.

Shortwave - radio frequencies (from 1.605 to 30 MHz) that fall above the commercial broadcast band and are used for communication over long distances.

Solidaridad - geosynchronous satellites in Mexico's system of international telecommunications in the Western Hemisphere.

Statsionar - Russia's geostationary system for satellite telecommunications.

Submarine cable - a cable designed for service under water.

TAT - Trans-Atlantic Telephone; any of a number of high-capacity submarine coaxial telephone cables linking Europe with North America.

Telefax - facsimile service between subscriber stations via the public switched telephone network or the international Datel network.

Telegraph - a telecommunications system designed for unmodulated electric impulse transmission.

Telex - a communication service involving teletypewriters connected by wire through automatic exchanges.

Tropospheric scatter - a form of microwave radio transmission in which the troposphere is used to scatter and reflect a fraction of the incident radio waves back to earth; powerful, highly directional antennas are used to transmit and receive the microwave signals; reliable over-the-horizon communications are realized for distances up to 600 miles in a single hop; additional hops can extend the range of this system for very long distances.

Trunk network - a network of switching centers, connected by multichannel trunk lines.

UHF - ultra high frequency; any radio frequency in the 300- to 3,000-
MHz range.

VHF - very high frequency; any radio frequency in the 30- to 300-MHz range.

Telephones - main lines in use

This entry gives the total number of main telephone lines in use.

Telephones - mobile cellular

This entry gives the total number of mobile cellular telephone subscribers.

Television broadcast stations

This entry gives the total number of separate broadcast stations plus any repeater stations.

Terminology

Due to the highly structured nature of the Factbook database, some collective generic terms have to be used. For example, the word Country in the Country name entry refers to a wide variety of dependencies, areas of special sovereignty, uninhabited islands, and other entities in addition to the traditional countries or independent states. Military is also used as an umbrella term for various civil defense, security, and defense activities in many entries. The Independence entry includes the usual colonial independence dates and former ruling states as well as other significant nationhood dates such as the traditional founding date or the date of unification, federation, confederation, establishment, or state succession that are not strictly independence dates. Dependent areas have the nature of their dependency status noted in this same entry.

Terrain

This entry contains a brief description of the topography.

Time Difference

This entry is expressed in The World Factbook in two ways. First, it is stated as the difference in hours between the capital of an entity and Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) during Standard Time. Additionally, the difference in time between the capital of an entity and that observed in Washington, D.C. is also provided. Note that the time difference assumes both locations are simultaneously observing Standard Time or Daylight Saving Time.

Time zones

Ten countries (Australia, Brazil, Canada, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Mexico, New Zealand, Russia, Spain, and the United States) and the island of Greenland observe more than one official time depending on the number of designated time zones within their boundaries. An illustration of time zones throughout the world and within countries can be seen in the Standard Time Zones of the World map included in the Reference Maps section of The World Factbook.

Total fertility rate

This entry gives a figure for the average number of children that would be born per woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing years and bore children according to a given fertility rate at each age. The total fertility rate (TFR) is a more direct measure of the level of fertility than the crude birth rate, since it refers to births per woman. This indicator shows the potential for population change in the country. A rate of two children per woman is considered the replacement rate for a population, resulting in relative stability in terms of total numbers. Rates above two children indicate populations growing in size and whose median age is declining. Higher rates may also indicate difficulties for families, in some situations, to feed and educate their children and for women to enter the labor force. Rates below two children indicate populations decreasing in size and growing older. Global fertility rates are in general decline and this trend is most pronounced in industrialized countries, especially Western Europe, where populations are projected to decline dramatically over the next 50 years.

Trafficking in persons

Trafficking in persons is modern-day slavery, involving victims who are forced, defrauded, or coerced into labor or sexual exploitation. The International Labor Organization (ILO), the UN agency charged with addressing labor standards, employment, and social protection issues, estimates that 12.3 million people worldwide are enslaved in forced labor, bonded labor, forced child labor, sexual servitude, and involuntary servitude at any given time. Human trafficking is a multi- dimensional threat, depriving people of their human rights and freedoms, risking global health, promoting social breakdown, inhibiting development by depriving countries of their human capital, and helping fuel the growth of organized crime. In 2000, the US Congress passed the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA), reauthorized in 2003 and 2005, which provides tools for the US to combat trafficking in persons, both domestically and abroad. One of the law¿s key components is the creation of the US Department of State¿s annual Trafficking in Persons Report, which assesses the government response in some 150 countries with a significant number of victims trafficked across their borders who are recruited, harbored, transported, provided, or obtained for forced labor or sexual exploitation. Countries in the annual report are rated in three tiers, based on government efforts to combat trafficking. The countries identified in this entry are those listed in the 2006 Trafficking in Persons Report as Tier 2 Watch List or Tier 3 based on the following definitions:

Tier 2 Watch List countries do not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but are making significant efforts to do so, and meet one of the following criteria: 1. they display a high or significantly increasing number victims, 2. they have failed to provide evidence of increasing efforts to combat trafficking in persons, or, 3. they have committed to take action over the next year.

Tier 3 countries neither satisfy the minimum standards for the elimination of traffiking nor demonstrate a significant effort to do so. Countries in this tier are subject to potential non-humanitarian and non-trade sanctions.

Transnational issues

This category includes four entries - Disputes - international,
Refugees and internally displaced persons, Trafficking in persons, and
Illicit drugs - that deal with current issues going beyond national
boundaries.

Transportation

This category includes the entries dealing with the means for movement of people and goods.

Transportation - note

This entry includes miscellaneous transportation information of significance not included elsewhere.

UTC (Coordinated Universal Time)

See entry for Coordinated Universal Time.

Unemployment rate

This entry contains the percent of the labor force that is without jobs. Substantial underemployment might be noted.

Waterways

This entry gives the total length of navigable rivers, canals, and other inland bodies of water.

Weights and Measures

This information is presented in Appendix G: Weights and Measures and includes mathematical notations (mathematical powers and names), metric interrelationships (prefix; symbol; length, weight, or capacity; area; volume), and standard conversion factors.

Years

All year references are for the calendar year (CY) unless indicated as fiscal year (FY). The calendar year is an accounting period of 12 months from 1 January to 31 December. The fiscal year is an accounting period of 12 months other than 1 January to 31 December.

Note: Information for the US and US dependencies was compiled from material in the public domain and does not represent Intelligence Community estimates.

This page was last updated on 19 December 2006

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A Brief History of Basic Intelligence and The World Factbook

The Intelligence Cycle is the process by which information is acquired, converted into intelligence, and made available to policymakers.  Information is raw data from any source, data that may be fragmentary, contradictory, unreliable, ambiguous, deceptive, or wrong.  Intelligence is information that has been collected, integrated, evaluated, analyzed, and interpreted. Finished intelligence is the final product of the Intelligence Cycle ready to be delivered to the policymaker.

The three types of finished intelligence are: basic, current, and estimative. Basic intelligence provides the fundamental and factual reference material on a country or issue. Current intelligence reports on new developments. Estimative intelligence judges probable outcomes. The three are mutually supportive: basic intelligence is the foundation on which the other two are constructed; current intelligence continually updates the  inventory of knowledge; and estimative intelligence revises overall interpretations of country and issue prospects for guidance of basic and  current intelligence. The World Factbook, The President's Daily Brief, and the National Intelligence Estimates are examples of the three types of finished intelligence.

The United States has carried on foreign intelligence activities since the days of George Washington but only since World War II have they been coordinated on a government-wide basis. Three programs have highlighted the development of coordinated basic intelligence since that time: (1) the Joint Army Navy Intelligence Studies (JANIS), (2) the National Intelligence Survey (NIS), and (3) The World Factbook.

During World War II, intelligence consumers realized that the production of basic intelligence by different components of the US Government resulted in a great duplication of effort and conflicting information. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 brought home to leaders in Congress and the executive branch the need for integrating departmental reports to national policymakers. Detailed and coordinated information was needed not only on such major powers as Germany and Japan, but also on places of little previous interest. In the Pacific Theater, for example, the Navy and Marines had to launch amphibious operations against many islands about which information was unconfirmed or nonexistent. Intelligence authorities resolved that the United States should never again be caught unprepared.

In 1943, Gen. George B. Strong (G-2), Adm. H. C. Train (Office of Naval Intelligence - ONI), and Gen. William J. Donovan (Director of the Office of Strategic Services - OSS) decided that a joint effort should be initiated. A steering committee was appointed on 27 April 1943 that recommended the formation of a Joint Intelligence Study Publishing Board to assemble, edit, coordinate, and publish the Joint Army Navy Intelligence Studies (JANIS). JANIS was the first interdepartmental basic intelligence program to fulfill the needs of the US Government for an authoritative and coordinated appraisal of strategic basic intelligence. Between April 1943 and July 1947, the board published 34 JANIS studies. JANIS performed well in the war effort, and numerous letters of commendation were received, including a statement from Adm. Forrest Sherman, Chief of Staff, Pacific Ocean Areas, which said, "JANIS has become the indispensable reference work for the shore-based planners."

The need for more comprehensive basic intelligence in the postwar world was well expressed in 1946 by George S. Pettee, a noted author on national security. He wrote in The Future of American Secret Intelligence (Infantry Journal Press, 1946, page 46) that world leadership in peace requires even more elaborate intelligence than in war. "The conduct of peace involves all countries, all human activities - not just the enemy and his war production."

The Central Intelligence Agency was established on 26 July 1947 and officially began operating on 18 September 1947. Effective 1 October 1947, the Director of Central Intelligence assumed operational responsibility for JANIS. On 13 January 1948, the National Security Council issued Intelligence Directive (NSCID) No. 3, which authorized the National Intelligence Survey (NIS) program as a peacetime replacement for the wartime JANIS program. Before adequate NIS country sections could be produced, government agencies had to develop more comprehensive gazetteers and better maps. The US Board on Geographic Names (BGN) compiled the names; the Department of the Interior produced the gazetteers; and CIA produced the maps.

The Hoover Commission's Clark Committee, set up in 1954 to study the structure and administration of the CIA, reported to Congress in 1955 that: "The National Intelligence Survey is an invaluable publication which provides the essential elements of basic intelligence on all areas of the world. There will always be a continuing requirement for keeping the Survey up-to-date." The Factbook was created as an annual summary and update to the encyclopedic NIS studies. The first classified Factbook was published in August 1962, and the first unclassified version was published in June 1971. The NIS program was terminated in 1973 except for the Factbook, map, and gazetteer components. The 1975 Factbook was the first to be made available to the public with sales through the US Government Printing Office (GPO). The Factbook was first made available on the Internet in June 1997. The year 2006 marks the 59th anniversary of the establishment of the Central Intelligence Agency and the 63nd year of continuous basic intelligence support to the US Government by The World Factbook and its two predecessor programs.

This page was last updated on 28 November, 2006

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Contributors and Copyright Information

The World Factbook is prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency for the use of US Government officials, and the style, format, coverage, and content are designed to meet their specific requirements. Information is provided by Antarctic Information Program (National Science Foundation), Armed Forces Medical Intelligence Center (Department of Defense), Bureau of the Census (Department of Commerce), Bureau of Labor Statistics (Department of Labor), Central Intelligence Agency, Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs, Defense Intelligence Agency (Department of Defense), Department of Energy, Department of State, Fish and Wildlife Service (Department of the Interior), Maritime Administration (Department of Transportation), National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (Department of Defense), Naval Facilities Engineering Command (Department of Defense), Office of Insular Affairs (Department of the Interior), Office of Naval Intelligence (Department of Defense), US Board on Geographic Names (Department of the Interior), US Transportation Command (Department of Defense), Oil & Gas Journal, and other public and private sources.

The Factbook is in the public domain. Accordingly, it may be copied freely without permission of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The official seal of the CIA, however, may NOT be copied without permission as required by the CIA Act of 1949 (50 U.S.C. section 403m). Misuse of the official seal of the CIA could result in civil and criminal penalties.

Comments and queries are welcome and may be addressed to:

Central Intelligence Agency
Attn.: Office of Public Affairs
Washington, DC 20505
Hours: Monday-Friday 8:00 AM-4:30 PM Eastern Standard Time
Telephone: [1] (703) 482-0623
FAX: [1] (703) 482-1739

=====================================================================

Purchasing Information

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) publishes The World Factbook in printed and Internet versions. US Government officials may obtain information about availability of the Factbook from their organizations or through liaison channels to the CIA. Other users may obtain sales information about printed copies from the following:

  Superintendent of Documents
  P. O. Box 371954
  Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954
  Hours: Monday-Friday 7:30 AM-9:00 PM Eastern Standard Time (EST)
  Telephone: [1] (202) 512-1800; toll free: [1] (866) 512-1800
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National Technical Information Service 5285 Port Royal Road Springfield, VA 22161 Hours: Monday-Friday 8:00 AM-6:00 PM Eastern Standard Time (EST) Telephone: [1] (800) 553-6847 (only in the US); [1] (703) 605-6000 (for outside US) FAX: [1] (703) 605-6900 http://www.ntis.gov/

The World Factbook can be accessed on the Internet at: http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/index.html

This page was last updated on 23 March, 2006

=====================================================================

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

The World Factbook staff thanks you for your comments, suggestions, updates, kudos, and corrections over the past years. The willingness of readers from around the world to share their observations and specialized knowledge is very helpful as we try to produce the best possible publications. Please feel free to continue to write and e-mail e-mail us. When submitting corrections or updates to the Factbook, please include your source(s) of information. At least two Factbook staffers review every submitted item. The sheer volume of correspondence precludes detailed personal replies, but we sincerely appreciate your time and interest in the Factbook. If you include your e-mail address we will at least acknowledge your note. Thank you again.

Answers to many frequently asked questions (FAQs) are explained in the Notes and Definitions section in The World Factbook. Please review this section to see if your question is already answered there. In addition, we have compiled the following list of FAQs to answer other common questions. Select from the following categories to narrow your search:

General
Geography
Spelling and Pronunciation
Policies and Procedures
Technical

General

Can you provide additional information for a specific country?

The staff cannot provide data beyond what appears in The World Factbook. The format and information in the Factbook are tailored to the specific requirements of US Government officials and content is focused on their current and anticipated needs. The staff welcomes suggestions for new entries.

How often is The World Factbook updated?

Formerly our Web site (and the published Factbook) were only updated annually. Beginning in November 2001 we instituted a new system of more frequent online updates. The World Factbook is currently updated every two weeks.

The annual printed version of the Factbook is usually released about midyear. US Government officials may obtain information about Factbook availability from their own organizations or through liaison channels to the CIA. Other users may obtain sales information through the following channels:

Superintendent of Documents
P. O. Box 371954 Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954
Telephone: [1] (202) 512-1800
FAX: [1] (202) 512-2250
http://bookstore.gpo.gov

National Technical Information Service 5285 Port Royal Road Springfield, VA 22161 Telephone: [1] (800) 553-6847 (only in the US); [1] (703) 605-6000 (for outside US) FAX: [1] (703) 605-6900 http://www.ntis.gov

Can I use some or all of The World Factbook for my Web site (book, research project, homework, etc.)?

The World Factbook is in the public domain and may be used freely by anyone at anytime without seeking permission. However, US Code prohibits use of the CIA seal in a manner which implies that the CIA approved, endorsed, or authorized such use. If you have any questions about your intended use, you should consult with legal counsel. Further information on The World Factbook's use is described on the Contributors and Copyright Information page. As a courtesy, please cite The World Factbook when used.

Why doesn't The World Factbook include information on states, departments, provinces, etc., in the country format?

The World Factbook provides national-level information on countries, territories, and dependencies, but not subnational administrative units within a country. A good encyclopedia should provide state/province-level information.

Is it possible to access older editions of The World Factbook to do comparative research and trend analysis?

Only the current version is available for browsing on the CIA Web site. In the future, the staff hopes to post electronic versions of The World Factbook as far back as 1986. Hardcopy editions for earlier years are available from libraries.

Would it be possible to set up a partnership or collaboration between the producers of The World Factbook and other organizations or individuals?

The World Factbook does not partner with other organizations or individuals, but we do welcome comments and suggestions that such groups or persons choose to provide.

Geography

I can't find a geographic name for a particular country. Why not?

The World Factbook is not a gazetteer (a dictionary or index of places, usually with descriptive or statistical information) and cannot provide more than the names of the administrative divisions (in the Government category) and major cities/towns (on the country maps). Our expanded Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names, however, includes many of the world's major geographic features as well as historic (former) names of countries and cities mentioned in The World Factbook.

Why are Taiwan and the European Union listed out of alphabetical order at the end of the Factbook entries?

Taiwan is listed after the regular entries because even though the mainland People's Republic of China claims Taiwan, elected Taiwanese authorities de facto administer the island and reject mainland sovereignty claims. With the establishment of diplomatic relations with China on January 1, 1979, the US Government recognized the People's Republic of China as the sole legal government of China, acknowledging the Chinese position that there is only one China and that Taiwan is part of China.

The European Union (EU) is not a country, but it has taken on many nation-like attributes and these are likely to be expanded in the future. A more complete explanation on the inclusion of the EU into the Factbook may be found in the Preliminary statement.

Since we have an ambassador who represents the US at the Vatican, why is this entity not listed in the Factbook?

Vatican City is found under Holy See. The term "Holy See" refers to the authority, jurisdiction, and sovereignty vested in the Pope and his advisors to direct the worldwide Catholic Church. The Holy See has a legal personality that allows it to enter into treaties as the juridical equal of a state and to send and receive diplomatic representatives. Vatican City, created in 1929 to administer properties belonging to the Holy See in Rome, is recognized under international law as a sovereign state, but it does not send or receive diplomatic representatives. Consequently, Holy See is included as a Factbook entry, with Vatican City cross-referenced in the Geographic Names appendix.

Why is Palestine not listed in The World Factbook?

The areas that could potentially form a future Palestinian state — the West Bank and Gaza Strip — do appear in the Factbook. These areas are presently Israeli-occupied with current status subject to the Israeli-Palestinian 1995 Interim Agreement; their permanent status is to be determined through further negotiation.

Why are the Golan Heights not shown as part of Israel or Northern
Cyprus with Turkey?

Territorial occupations/annexations not recognized by the United
States Government are not shown on US Government maps.

Why don't you include information on entities such as Tibet,
Kashmir, or Kosovo?

The World Factbook provides information on the administrative divisions of a country as recommended by the United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN). The BGN is a component of the US Government that develops policies, principles, and procedures governing the spelling, use, and application of geographic names—domestic, foreign, Antarctic, and undersea. Its decisions enable all departments and agencies of the US Government to have access to uniform names of geographic features.

Also included in the Factbook are entries on parts of the world whose status has not yet been resolved (e.g., West Bank, Spratly Islands). Specific regions within a country or areas in dispute among countries are not covered.

What do you mean when you say that a country is "doubly landlocked"?

A doubly landlocked country is one that is separated from an ocean or an ocean-accessible sea by two intervening countries. Uzbekistan and Liechtenstein are the only countries that fit this definition.

Spelling and Pronunciation

Why is the spelling of proper names such as rulers, presidents, and prime ministers in The World Factbook different than their spelling in my country?

The Factbook staff applies the names and spellings from the Chiefs of State link on the CIA Web site. The World Factbook is prepared using the standard American English computer keyboard and does not use any special characters, symbols, or most diacritical markings in its spellings. Surnames are always spelled with capital letters; they may appear first in some cultures.

The spelling of geographic names, features, cities, administrative divisions, etc. in the Factbook differs from those used in my country. Why is this?

The United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN) recommends and approves names and spellings. The BGN is the component of the United States Government that develops policies, principles, and procedures governing the spelling, use, and application of geographic names—domestic, foreign, Antarctic, and undersea. Its decisions enable all departments and agencies of the US Government to use uniform names of geographic features. (A note is usually included where changes may have occurred but have not yet been approved by the BGN). The World Factbook is prepared using the standard American English computer keyboard and does not use any special characters, symbols, or most diacritical markings in its spellings.

Why doesn't The World Factbook include pronunciations of country or leader names?

There are too many variations in pronunciation among English-speaking countries, not to mention English renditions of non-English names, for pronunciations to be included. American English pronunciations are included for some countries like Qatar and Kiribati.

Why is the name of the Labour party misspelled?

When American and British spellings of common English words differ, The World Factbook always uses the American spelling, even when these common words form part of a proper name in British English.

Policies and Procedures

What is The World Factbook's source for a specific subject field?

The Factbook staff uses many different sources to publish what we judge are the most reliable and consistent data for any particular category. Space considerations preclude a listing of these various sources.

The names of some geographic features provided in the Factbook differ from those used in other publications. For example, in Asia the Factbook has Burma as the country name, but in other publications Myanmar is used; also, the Factbook uses Sea of Japan whereas other publications label it East Sea. What is your policy on naming geographic features?

The Factbook staff follows the guidance of the United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN). The BGN is the component of the United States Government that develops policies, principles, and procedures governing the spelling, use, and application of geographic names—domestic, foreign, Antarctic, and undersea. Its decisions enable all departments and agencies of the US Government to have access to uniform names of geographic features. The position of the BGN is that the names Burma and Sea of Japan be used in official US Government maps and publications.

Why is most of the statistical information in the Factbook given in metric units, rather than the units standard to US measure?

US Federal agencies are required by the Metric Conversion Act of 1975 (Public Law 94-168) and by Executive Order 12770 of July 1991 to use the International System of Units, commonly referred to as the metric system or SI. In addition, the metric system is used by over 95 percent of the world's population.

Why don't you include information on minimum and maximum temperature extremes?

The Factbook staff judges that this information would only be useful for some (generally smaller) countries. Larger countries can have large temperature extremes that do not represent the landmass as a whole. In the future, such a category may be adopted listing the extremes, but also adding a normal temperature range found throughout most of a country's territory.

What information sources are used for the country flags?

Flag designs used in The World Factbook are those recognized by the protocol office of the US Department of State.

Why do your GDP (Gross Domestic Product) statistics differ from other sources?

We have two sets of GDP dollar estimates in The World Factbook , one derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations and the other derived using official exchange rates (OER). Other sources probably use one of the two. See the Notes and Definitions section on GDP and GDP methodology for more information.

On the CIA Web site, Chiefs of State is updated weekly, but the last update for the Factbook was an earlier date. Why the discrepancy?

Although Chiefs of State and The World Factbook both appear on the CIA Web site, they are produced and updated by separate staffs. Chiefs of State includes fewer countries but more leaders, and is updated more frequently than The World Factbook, which has a much larger database, and includes all countries.

Some percentage distributions do not add to 100. Why not?

Because of rounding, percentage distributions do not always add precisely to 100%. Rounding of numbers always results in a loss of precision—i.e., error. This error becomes apparent when percentage data are totaled, as the following two examples show:

Original Data Rounded to whole integer

  Example 1 43.2 43
                          30.4 30
                          26.4 26
                          —— —
                         100.0 99

  Example 2 42.8 43
                          31.6 32
                          25.6 26
                          —— —
                         100.0 101

When this occurs, we do not force the numbers to add exactly to 100, because doing so would introduce additional error into the distribution.

What rounding convention does The World Factbook use?

In deciding on the number of digits to present, the Factbook staff assesses the accuracy of the original data and the needs of US Government officials. All of the economic data are processed by computer—either at the source or by the Factbook staff. The economic data presented in The Factbook, therefore, follow the rounding convention used by virtually all numerical software applications, namely, any digit followed by a "5" is rounded up to the next higher digit, no matter whether the original digit is even or odd. Thus, for example, when rounded to the nearest integer, 2.5 becomes 3, rather than 2, as occurred in some pre-computer rounding systems.

Why do you list "Independence" dates for countries like France,
Germany, and the United Kingdom?

For most countries, this entry presents the date that sovereignty was achieved and from which nation, empire, or trusteeship. For other countries, the date may be some other significant nationhood event such as the traditional founding date or the date of unification, federation, confederation, establishment, or state succession and so may not strictly be an "Independence" date. Dependent entities have the nature of their dependency status noted in this same entry.

Technical

Does The World Factbook comply with Section 508 of the
Rehabilitation Act regarding accessibility of Web pages?

The World Factbook home page has a link entitled "Text/Low Bandwidth Version." The country data in the text version is fully accessible. We believe The World Factbook is compliant with the Section 508 law in both fact and spirit. If you are experiencing difficulty, please use our comment form to provide us details of the specific problem you are experiencing and the assistive software and/or hardware that you are using so that we can work with our technical support staff to find and implement a solution. We welcome visitors' suggestions to improve accessibility of The World Factbook and the CIA Web site.

I am using the Factbook online and it is not working. What is wrong?

Hundreds of "Factbook" look-alikes exist on the Internet. The
Factbook site at: www.cia.gov is the only official site.

When I attempt to download a PDF (Portable Document Format) map file (or some other map) the file has no image. Can you fix this?

Some of the files on The World Factbook Web site are large and could take several minutes to download on a dial-up connection. The screen might be blank during the download process.

When I open a map on The World Factbook site, it is fuzzy or granular, or too big or too small. Why?

Adjusting the resolution setting on your monitor should correct this problem.

Is The World Factbook country data available in machine-readable format? All I can find is HTML, but I'm looking for simple tabular data.

The Factbook Web site now features "Rank Order" pages for selected Factbook entries. "Rank Order" pages are available for those data fields identified with a small bar chart icon located next to the title of the data entry. In addition, all of the "Rank Order" pages can be downloaded as tab-delimited data files that can be opened in other applications such as spreadsheets and databases.

This page was last updated on 23 August, 2006

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@Afghanistan

Introduction Afghanistan

Background:
  Ahmad Shah DURRANI unified the Pashtun tribes and founded
  Afghanistan in 1747. The country served as a buffer between the
  British and Russian empires until it won independence from notional
  British control in 1919. A brief experiment in democracy ended in a
  1973 coup and a 1978 Communist counter-coup. The Soviet Union
  invaded in 1979 to support the tottering Afghan Communist regime,
  but withdrew 10 years later under relentless pressure by
  internationally supported anti-Communist mujahedin rebels. A civil
  war between mujahedin factions erupted following the 1992 fall of
  the Communist regime. The Taliban, a hardline Pakistani-sponsored
  movement that emerged in 1994 to end the country's civil war and
  anarchy, seized Kabul in 1996 and most of the country outside of
  opposition Northern Alliance strongholds by 1998. Following the 11
  September 2001 terrorist attacks, a US, Allied, and Northern
  Alliance military action toppled the Taliban for sheltering Osama
  BIN LADIN. In late 2001, a conference in Bonn, Germany, established
  a process for political reconstruction that included the adoption of
  a new constitution and a presidential election in 2004, and National
  Assembly elections in 2005. On 7 December 2004, Hamid KARZAI became
  the first democratically elected president of Afghanistan. The
  National Assembly was inaugurated on 19 December 2005.

Geography Afghanistan

Location:
  Southern Asia, north and west of Pakistan, east of Iran

Geographic coordinates:
  33 00 N, 65 00 E

Map references:
  Asia

Area:
  total: 647,500 sq km
  land: 647,500 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 5,529 km
  border countries: China 76 km, Iran 936 km, Pakistan 2,430 km,
  Tajikistan 1,206 km, Turkmenistan 744 km, Uzbekistan 137 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers

Terrain:
  mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Amu Darya 258 m
  highest point: Nowshak 7,485 m

Natural resources:
  natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, chromite, talc, barites,
  sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones

Land use: arable land: 12.13% permanent crops: 0.21% other: 87.66% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  27,200 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains; flooding;
  droughts

Environment - current issues:
  limited natural fresh water resources; inadequate supplies of
  potable water; soil degradation; overgrazing; deforestation (much of
  the remaining forests are being cut down for fuel and building
  materials); desertification; air and water pollution

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping
  signed, but not ratified: Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
  Life Conservation

Geography - note:
  landlocked; the Hindu Kush mountains that run northeast to
  southwest divide the northern provinces from the rest of the
  country; the highest peaks are in the northern Vakhan (Wakhan
  Corridor)

People Afghanistan

Population:
  31,056,997 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 44.6% (male 7,095,117/female 6,763,759)
  15-64 years: 53% (male 8,436,716/female 8,008,463)
  65 years and over: 2.4% (male 366,642/female 386,300) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 17.6 years
  male: 17.6 years
  female: 17.6 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  2.67% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  46.6 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  20.34 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.95 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 160.23 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 164.77 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 155.45 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 43.34 years
  male: 43.16 years
  female: 43.53 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  6.69 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.01% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Major infectious diseases: degree of risk: high food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever vectorborne disease: malaria is a high risk countrywide below 2,000 meters from March through November animal contact disease: rabies (2005)

Nationality:
  noun: Afghan(s)
  adjective: Afghan

Ethnic groups:
  Pashtun 42%, Tajik 27%, Hazara 9%, Uzbek 9%, Aimak 4%, Turkmen 3%,
  Baloch 2%, other 4%

Religions:
  Sunni Muslim 80%, Shi'a Muslim 19%, other 1%

Languages:
  Afghan Persian or Dari (official) 50%, Pashtu (official) 35%,
  Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor
  languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 36%
  male: 51%
  female: 21% (1999 est.)

People - note:
  of the estimated 4 million refugees in October 2001, 2.3 million
  have returned

Government Afghanistan

Country name:
  conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
  conventional short form: Afghanistan
  local long form: Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Afghanestan
  local short form: Afghanestan
  former: Republic of Afghanistan

Government type:
  Islamic republic

Capital:
  name: Kabul
  geographic coordinates: 34 31 N, 69 12 E
  time difference: UTC+4.5 (9.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
  34 provinces (velayat, singular - velayat); Badakhshan, Badghis,
  Baghlan, Balkh, Bamian, Daykondi, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghowr,
  Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabol, Kandahar, Kapisa, Khowst, Konar,
  Kondoz, Laghman, Lowgar, Nangarhar, Nimruz, Nurestan, Oruzgan,
  Paktia, Paktika, Panjshir, Parvan, Samangan, Sar-e Pol, Takhar,
  Vardak, Zabol

Independence:
  19 August 1919 (from UK control over Afghan foreign affairs)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 19 August (1919)

Constitution:
  new constitution drafted 14 December 2003-4 January 2004; signed 16
  January 2004

Legal system:
  according to the new constitution, no law should be "contrary to
  Islam"; the state is obliged to create a prosperous and progressive
  society based on social justice, protection of human dignity,
  protection of human rights, realization of democracy, and to ensure
  national unity and equality among all ethnic groups and tribes; the
  state shall abide by the UN charter, international treaties,
  international conventions that Afghanistan signed, and the Universal
  Declaration of Human Rights

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
  Hamid KARZAI (since 7 December 2004); Vice Presidents Ahmad Zia
  MASOOD and Abdul Karim KHALILI (since 7 December 2004); note - the
  president is both the chief of state and head of government; former
  King ZAHIR Shah holds the honorific, "Father of the Country," and
  presides symbolically over certain occasions, but lacks any
  governing authority; the honorific is not hereditary
  head of government: President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
  Hamid KARZAI (since 7 December 2004); Vice Presidents Ahmad Zia
  MASOOD and Abdul Karim KHALILI (since 7 December 2004); note - the
  president is both chief of state and head of government
  cabinet: 27 ministers; note - under the new constitution, ministers
  are appointed by the president and approved by the National Assembly
  elections: the president and two vice presidents are elected by
  direct vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); if no
  candidate receives 50% or more of the vote in the first round of
  voting, the two candidates with the most votes will participate in a
  second round; a president can only be elected for two terms;
  election last held 9 October 2004 (next to be held in 2009)
  election results: Hamid KARZAI elected president; percent of vote -
  Hamid KARZAI 55.4%, Yunus QANOONI 16.3%, Ustad Mohammad MOHAQQEQ
  11.6%, Abdul Rashid DOSTAM 10.0%, Abdul Latif PEDRAM 1.4%, Masooda
  JALAL 1.2%

Legislative branch:
  the bicameral National Assembly consists of the Wolesi Jirga or
  House of People (no more than 249 seats), directly elected for
  five-year terms, and the Meshrano Jirga or House of Elders (102
  seats, one-third elected from provincial councils for four-year
  terms, one-third elected from local district councils for three-year
  terms - provincial councils elected temporary members to fill these
  seats until district councils are formed, and one-third presidential
  appointees for five-year terms; the presidential appointees will
  include 2 representatives of Kuchis and 2 representatives of the
  disabled; half of the presidential appointees will be women)
  note: on rare occasions the government may convene a Loya Jirga
  (Grand Council) on issues of independence, national sovereignty, and
  territorial integrity; it can amend the provisions of the
  constitution and prosecute the president; it is made up of members
  of the National Assembly and chairpersons of the provincial and
  district councils
  elections: last held 18 September 2005 (next to be held for the
  Wolesi Jirga by September 2009; next to be held for the provincial
  councils to the Meshrano Jirga by September 2008)
  election results: the single non-transferable vote (SNTV) system
  used in the election did not make use of political party slates;
  most candidates ran as independents

Judicial branch:
  the constitution establishes a nine-member Stera Mahkama or Supreme
  Court (its nine justices are appointed for 10-year terms by the
  president with approval of the Wolesi Jirga) and subordinate High
  Courts and Appeals Courts (note - nine supreme court justices were
  appointed in the interim in January 2005 pending National Assembly
  selection of the constitutionally mandated justices); there is also
  a minister of justice; a separate Afghan Independent Human Rights
  Commission established by the Bonn Agreement is charged with
  investigating human rights abuses and war crimes

Political parties and leaders:
  note - includes only political parties approved by the Ministry of
  Justice: Afghan Millat [Anwarul Haq AHADI]; De Afghanistan De Solay
  Ghorzang Gond [Shahnawaz TANAI]; De Afghanistan De Solay Mili Islami
  Gond [Shah Mahmood Polal ZAI]; Harakat-e-Islami Afghanistan
  [Mohammad Asif MOHSINEE]; Hezb-e-Aarman-e-Mardum-e-Afghanistan
  [Iihaj Saraj-u-din ZAFAREE]; Hezb-e-Aazadee Afghanistan [Abdul
  MALIK]; Hezb-e-Adalat-e-Islami Afghanistan [Mohammad Kabeer
  MARZBAN]; Hezb-e-Afghanistan-e-Wahid [Mohammad Wasil RAHEEMEE];
  Hezb-e-Afghan Watan Islami Gond; Hezb-e-Congra-e-Mili Afghanistan
  [Latif PEDRAM]; Hezb-e-Falah-e-Mardum-e-Afghanistan [Mohammad
  ZAREEF]; Hezb-e-Hambastagee Mili Jawanan-e-Afghanistan [Mohammad
  Jamil KARZAI]; Hezb-e-Hamnbatagee-e-Afghanistan [Abdul Khaleq
  NEMAT]; Hezb-e-Harakat-e-Mili Wahdat-e-Afghanistan [Mohammad Nadir
  AATASH]; Hezb-e-Harak-e-Islami Mardum-e-Afghanistan [Ilhaj Said
  Hssain ANWARY]; Hezb-e-Ifazat Az Uqoq-e-Bashar Wa
  Inkishaf-e-Afghanistan [Baryalai NASRATEE];
  Hezb-e-Istiqlal-e-Afghanistan [Dr. Gh. Farooq NIJZRABEE];
  Hezb-e-Jamhoree Khwahan [Sibghatullah SANJAR]; Hezb-e-Kar Wa
  Tawsiha-e-Afghanistan [Zulfiar OMID]; Hezb-e-Libral-e-Aazadee
  Khwa-e-Mardum-e-Afghanistan [Ajmal SOHAIL]; Hezb-e-Mili Afghanistan
  [Abdul Rasheed AARYAN]; Hezb-e-Mili Wahdat-e-Aqwam-e-Islami
  Afghanistan [Mohammad Shah KHOGYANEE]; Hezb-e-Nuhzhat-e-Mili
  Afghanistan [Ahmad Wali MASOUD]; Hezb-e-Paiwand-e-Mili Afghanistan
  [Said Mansoor NADIRI]; Hezb-e-Rastakhaiz-e-Islami
  Mardum-e-Afghanistan [Said ZAHIR];
  Hezb-e-Refah-e-Mardum-e-Afghanistan [Mia Gul WASEEQ];
  Hezb-e-Risalat-e-Mardum-e-Afghanistan [Noor Aqa ROEEN];
  Hezb-e-Sahadat-e-Mardum-e-Afghanistan [Mohammad Zubair PAIROZ];
  Hezb-e-Sahadat-e-Mili Wa Islami Afghanistan [Mohammad Usman
  SALIGZADA]; Hezb-e-Sulh-e-Mili Islami Aqwam-e-Afghanistan [Abdul
  Qahir SHARYATEE]; Hezb-e-Sulh Wa Wahdat-e-Mili Afghanistan [Abdul
  Qadir IMAMEE]; Hezb-e-Tafahum-e-Wa Democracy Afghanistan [Ahamad
  SHAHEEN]; Hezb-e-Wahdat-e-Islami Afghanistan [Mohammad Karim
  KHALILI]; Hezb-e-Wahdat-e-Islami Mardum-e-Afghanistan [Ustad
  Mohammad MOHAQQEQ]; Hezb-e-Wahdat-e-Mili Afghanistan [Abdul Rasheed
  JALILI]; Jamahat-ul-Dahwat ilal Qurhan-wa-Sunat-ul-Afghanistan
  [Mawlawee Samiullah NAJEEBEE]; Jombesh-e Milli [Abdul Rashid
  DOSTAM]; Mahaz-e-Mili Islami Afghanistan [Said Ahmad GAILANEE];
  Majmah-e-Mili Fahaleen-e-Sulh-e-Afghanistan [Shams ul Haq Noor
  SHAMS]; Nuhzat-e-Aazadee Wa Democracy Afghanistan [Abdul Raqeeb
  Jawid KUHISTANEE]; Nuhzat-e-Hambastagee Mili Afghanistan [Peer Said
  Ishaq GAILANEE]; Sazman-e-Islami Afghanistan-e-Jawan [Siad Jawad
  HUSSAINEE]; Tahreek Wahdat-e-Mili [Sultan Mahmood DHAZI] (30 Sep
  2004)

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Jamiat-e Islami (Society of Islam) [former President Burhanuddin
  RABBANI]; Ittihad-e Islami (Islamic Union for the Liberation of
  Afghanistan) [Abdul Rasul SAYYAF]; there are also small monarchist,
  communist, and democratic groups

International organization participation:
  AsDB, CP, ECO, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB,
  IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent),
  ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE (partner), SACEP, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Said Tayeb JAWAD
  chancery: 2341 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] 202-483-6410
  FAX: [1] 202-483-6488
  consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Ronald E. NEUMANN
  embassy: The Great Masood Road, Kabul
  mailing address: 6180 Kabul Place, Dulles, VA 20189-6180
  telephone: [00 93] (20) 230-0436
  FAX: [00 93] (20) 230-1364

Flag description:
  three equal vertical bands of black (hoist), red, and green, with a
  gold emblem centered on the red band; the emblem features a
  temple-like structure encircled by a wreath on the left and right
  and by a bold Islamic inscription above

Economy Afghanistan

Economy - overview:
  Afghanistan's economic outlook has improved significantly since the
  fall of the Taliban regime in 2001 because of the infusion of over
  $8 billion in international assistance, recovery of the agricultural
  sector and growth of the service sector, and the reestablishment of
  market institutions. Real GDP growth is estimated to have slowed in
  the last fiscal year primarily because adverse weather conditions
  cut agricultural production, but is expected to rebound over 2005-06
  because of foreign donor reconstruction and service sector growth.
  Despite the progress of the past few years, Afghanistan remains
  extremely poor, landlocked, and highly dependent on foreign aid,
  farming, and trade with neighboring countries. It will probably take
  the remainder of the decade and continuing donor aid and attention
  to significantly raise Afghanistan's living standards from its
  current status, among the lowest in the world. Much of the
  population continues to suffer from shortages of housing, clean
  water, electricity, medical care, and jobs, but the Afghan
  government and international donors remain committed to improving
  access to these basic necessities by prioritizing infrastructure
  development, education, housing development, jobs programs, and
  economic reform over the next year. Growing political stability and
  continued international commitment to Afghan reconstruction create
  an optimistic outlook for continuing improvements in the Afghan
  economy in 2006. Expanding poppy cultivation and a growing opium
  trade may account for one-third of GDP and looms as one of Kabul's
  most serious policy challenges. Other long-term challenges include:
  boosting the supply of skilled labor, reducing vulnerability to
  severe natural disasters, expanding health services, and rebuilding
  a war torn infrastructure.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $21.5 billion (2004 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $7.095 billion

GDP - real growth rate:
  14% (2005 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $800 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 38% industry: 24% services: 38% note: data exclude opium production (2005 est.)

Labor force: 15 million (2004 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 80% industry: 10% services: 10% (2004 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  40% (2005 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  53% (2003)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  16.3% (2005 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $269 million
  expenditures: $561 million; including capital expenditures of $41.7
  million
  note: Afghanistan has also received $273 million from the
  Reconstruction Trust Fund and $63 million from the Law and Order
  Trust Fund (FY04-05 budget est.)

Agriculture - products:
  opium, wheat, fruits, nuts; wool, mutton, sheepskins, lambskins

Industries:
  small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture, shoes,
  fertilizer, cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, coal, copper

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA%

Electricity - production:
  905 million kWh (2003)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 36.3% hydro: 63.7% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  1.042 billion kWh (2003)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2003)

Electricity - imports:
  200 million kWh (2003)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2003)

Oil - consumption:
  5,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day

Oil - proved reserves:
  0 bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  50 million cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  50 million cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  99.96 billion cu m (1 January 2002)

Exports:
  $471 million; note - not including illicit exports or reexports
  (2005 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  opium, fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides and
  pelts, precious and semi-precious gems

Exports - partners:
  US 25.3%, Pakistan 20.9%, India 20.8%, Finland 4% (2005)

Imports:
  $3.87 billion (2005 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  capital goods, food, textiles, petroleum products

Imports - partners:
  Pakistan 23.9%, US 11.8%, Germany 6.8%, India 6.5%, Turkey 5.1%,
  Turkmenistan 5%, Russia 4.7%, Kenya 4.4% (2005)

Debt - external:
  $8 billion in bilateral debt, mostly to Russia; Afghanistan has
  $500 million in debt to Multilateral Development Banks (2004)

Economic aid - recipient:
  international pledges made by more than 60 countries and
  international financial institutions at the Berlin Donors Conference
  for Afghan reconstruction in March 2004 reached $8.9 billion for
  2004-09

Currency (code):
  afghani (AFA)

Currency code:
  AFA

Exchange rates:
  afghanis per US dollar - 541 (2005), 48 (2004), 49 (2003), 41
  (2002), 66 (2001)
  note: in 2002, the afghani was revalued and the currency stabilized
  at about 50 afghanis to the dollar; before 2002, the market rate
  varied widely from the official rate

Fiscal year:
  21 March - 20 March

Communications Afghanistan

Telephones - main lines in use:
  100,000 (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  1.2 million (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: very limited telephone and telegraph service
  domestic: telephone service is improving with the licensing of four
  wireless telephone service providers by 2005; approximately 4 in 100
  Afghans own a wireless telephone; telephone main lines remain
  limited.
  international: country code - 93; five VSAT's installed in Kabul,
  Herat, Mazar-e-Sharif, Kandahar, and Jalalabad provide international
  and domestic voice and data connectivity

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 21, FM 23, shortwave 1 (broadcasts in Pashtu, Afghan Persian
  (Dari), Urdu, and English) (2003)

Radios:
  167,000 (1999)

Television broadcast stations: at least 10 (one government-run central television station in Kabul and regional stations in nine of the 34 provinces; the regional stations operate on a reduced schedule; also, in 1997, there was a station in Mazar-e-Sharif reaching four northern Afghanistan provinces) (1998)

Televisions:
  100,000 (1999)

Internet country code:
  .af

Internet hosts:
  22 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Internet users:
  30,000 (2005)

Communications - note:
  in March 2003, 'af' was established as Afghanistan's domain name;
  Internet access is growing through Internet cafes as well as public
  "telekiosks" in Kabul (2002)

Transportation Afghanistan

Airports: 46 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 11
  over 3,047 m: 3
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
  914 to 1,523 m: 1
  under 914 m: 1 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 35
  over 3,047 m: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
  914 to 1,523 m: 4
  under 914 m: 9 (2006)

Heliports:
  9 (2006)

Pipelines:
  gas 466 km (2006)

Roadways:
  total: 34,789 km
  paved: 8,231 km
  unpaved: 26,558 km (2003)

Waterways:
  1,200 km (chiefly Amu Darya, which handles vessels up to 500 DWT)
  (2005)

Ports and terminals:
  Kheyrabad, Shir Khan

Military Afghanistan

Military branches:
  Afghan National Army (includes Afghan Air Force) (2006)

Military service age and obligation:
  22 years of age; inductees are contracted into service for a 4-year
  term (2005)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 22-49: 4,952,812
  females age 22-49: 4,663,963 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 22-49: 2,662,946
  females age 22-49: 2,508,574 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 275,362
  females age 22-49: 259,935 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $122.4 million (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.7% (2005 est.)

Transnational Issues Afghanistan

Disputes - international:
  most Afghan refugees in Pakistan have been repatriated, but
  thousands still remain in Iran, many at their own choosing;
  Coalition and Pakistani forces continue to patrol remote tribal
  areas to control the borders and stem organized terrorist and other
  illegal cross-border activities; regular meetings between Pakistani
  and Coalition allies aim to resolve periodic claims of boundary
  encroachments; regional conflicts over water-sharing arrangements
  with Amu Darya and Helmand River states

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  IDPs: 200,000-300,000 (mostly Pashtuns and Kuchis displaced in
  south and west due to drought and instability) (2005)

Illicit drugs:
  world's largest producer of opium; cultivation dropped 48% to
  107,400 hectares in 2005; better weather and lack of widespread
  disease returned opium yields to normal levels, meaning potential
  opium production declined by only 10% to 4,475 metric tons; if the
  entire poppy crop were processed, it is estimated that 526 metric
  tons of heroin could be processed; source of hashish; many
  narcotics-processing labs throughout the country; drug trade source
  of instability and some antigovernment groups profit from the trade;
  80-90% of the heroin consumed in Europe comes from Afghan opium;
  vulnerable to narcotics money laundering through informal financial
  networks

This page was last updated on 19 December, 2006

======================================================================

@Akrotiri

Introduction Akrotiri

Background:
  By terms of the 1960 Treaty of Establishment that created the
  independent Republic of Cyprus, the UK retained full sovereignty and
  jurisdiction over two areas of almost 254 square kilometers -
  Akrotiri and Dhekelia. The southernmost and smallest of these is the
  Akrotiri Sovereign Base Area, which is also referred to as the
  Western Sovereign Base Area.

Geography Akrotiri

Location:
  peninsula on the southwest coast of Cyprus

Geographic coordinates:
  34 37 N, 32 58 E

Map references:
  Middle East

Area:
  total: 123 sq km
  note: includes a salt lake and wetlands

Area - comparative:
  about 0.7 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: total: 47.4 km border countries: Cyprus 47.4 km

Coastline:
  56.3 km

Climate:
  temperate; Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool winters

Environment - current issues:
  shooting around the salt lake; note - breeding place for loggerhead
  and green turtles; only remaining colony of griffon vultures is on
  the base

Geography - note:
  British extraterritorial rights also extended to several small
  off-post sites scattered across Cyprus

People Akrotiri

Population:
  no indigenous inhabitants
  note: approximately 1,300 military personnel are on the base; there
  are another 5,000 British citizens who are families of military
  personnel or civilian staff on both Akrotiri and Dhekelia; Cyprus
  citizens work on the base, but do not live there

Languages:
  English, Greek

Government Akrotiri

Country name:
  conventional long form: Akrotiri Sovereign Base Area
  conventional short form: Akrotiri

Dependency status:
  overseas territory of UK; administered by an administrator who is
  also the Commander, British Forces Cyprus

Capital:
  name: Episkopi Cantonment; also serves as capital of Dhekelia
  geographic coordinates: 34 40 N, 32 51 E
  time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)
  daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last
  Sunday in October

Constitution:
  Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia Order in Council
  1960, effective 16 August 1960

Legal system:
  the laws of the UK, where applicable, apply

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
  head of government: Administrator Air Vice-Marshal Richard LACEY
  (since 26 April 2006); note - reports to the British Ministry of
  Defence
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the administrator is
  appointed by the monarch

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Flag description:
  the flag of the UK is used

Economy Akrotiri

Economy - overview:
  Economic activity is limited to providing services to the military
  and their families located in Akrotiri. All food and manufactured
  goods must be imported.

Communications Akrotiri

Radio broadcast stations:
  FM 1
  note: British Forces Broadcasting Service (BFBS) provides Radio 1
  and Radio 2 service to Akrotiri, Dhekelia, and Nicosia (2006)

Television broadcast stations:
  British Forces Broadcasting Service (BFBS) provides multi-channel
  satellite service to Akrotiri, Dhekelia, and Nicosia (2006)

Military Akrotiri

Military - note:
  Akrotiri has a full RAF base, Headquarters for British Forces on
  Cyprus, and Episkopi Support Unit

This page was last updated on 19 December, 2006

======================================================================

@Albania

Introduction Albania

Background:
  Between 1990 and 1992 Albania ended 46 years of xenophobic
  Communist rule and established a multiparty democracy. The
  transition has proven challenging as successive governments have
  tried to deal with high unemployment, widespread corruption, a
  dilapidated physical infrastructure, powerful organized crime
  networks, and combative political opponents. Albania has made
  progress in its democratic development since first holding
  multiparty elections in 1991, but deficiencies remain. International
  observers judged elections to be largely free and fair since the
  restoration of political stability following the collapse of pyramid
  schemes in 1997. In the 2005 general elections, the Democratic Party
  and its allies won a decisive victory on pledges of reducing crime
  and corruption, promoting economic growth, and decreasing the size
  of government. The election, and particularly the orderly transition
  of power, was considered an important step forward. Although
  Albania's economy continues to grow, the country is still one of the
  poorest in Europe, hampered by a large informal economy and an
  inadequate energy and transportation infrastructure. Albania has
  played a largely helpful role in managing inter-ethnic tensions in
  southeastern Europe, and is continuing to work toward joining NATO
  and the EU. Albania, with troops in Iraq and Afghanistan, has been a
  strong supporter of the global war on terrorism.

Geography Albania

Location:
  Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Ionian Sea,
  between Greece and Serbia and Montenegro

Geographic coordinates:
  41 00 N, 20 00 E

Map references:
  Europe

Area:
  total: 28,748 sq km
  land: 27,398 sq km
  water: 1,350 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
  total: 720 km
  border countries: Greece 282 km, Macedonia 151 km, Montenegro 172
  km, Serbia 115 km

Coastline:
  362 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate:
  mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers;
  interior is cooler and wetter

Terrain:
  mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
  highest point: Maja e Korabit (Golem Korab) 2,764 m

Natural resources:
  petroleum, natural gas, coal, bauxite, chromite, copper, iron ore,
  nickel, salt, timber, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 20.1% permanent crops: 4.21% other: 75.69% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  3,530 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  destructive earthquakes; tsunamis occur along southwestern coast;
  floods; drought

Environment - current issues:
  deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution from industrial and
  domestic effluents

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection,
  Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to
  Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)

People Albania

Population:
  3,581,655 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 24.8% (male 464,954/female 423,003)
  15-64 years: 66.3% (male 1,214,942/female 1,158,562)
  65 years and over: 8.9% (male 148,028/female 172,166) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 28.9 years
  male: 28.3 years
  female: 29.5 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.52% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  15.11 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  5.22 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -4.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.1 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 20.75 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 21.2 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 20.27 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 77.43 years
  male: 74.78 years
  female: 80.34 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.03 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Albanian(s)
  adjective: Albanian

Ethnic groups:
  Albanian 95%, Greek 3%, other 2% (Vlach, Roma (Gypsy), Serb,
  Macedonian, Bulgarian) (1989 est.)
  note: in 1989, other estimates of the Greek population ranged from
  1% (official Albanian statistics) to 12% (from a Greek organization)

Religions:
  Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10%
  note: percentages are estimates; there are no available current
  statistics on religious affiliation; all mosques and churches were
  closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; in November
  1990, Albania began allowing private religious practice

Languages:
  Albanian (official - derived from Tosk dialect), Greek, Vlach,
  Romani, Slavic dialects

Literacy:
  definition: age 9 and over can read and write
  total population: 86.5%
  male: 93.3%
  female: 79.5% (2003 est.)

Government Albania

Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Albania
  conventional short form: Albania
  local long form: Republika e Shqiperise
  local short form: Shqiperia
  former: People's Socialist Republic of Albania

Government type:
  emerging democracy

Capital:
  name: Tirana (Tirane)
  geographic coordinates: 41 20 N, 19 50 E
  time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)
  daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last
  Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
  12 counties (qarqe, singular - qark); Qarku i Beratit, Qarku i
  Dibres, Qarku i Durresit, Qarku i Elbasanit, Qarku i Fierit, Qarku i
  Gjirokastres, Qarku i Korces, Qarku i Kukesit, Qarku i Lezhes, Qarku
  i Shkodres, Qarku i Tiranes, Qarku i Vlores

Independence:
  28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 28 November (1912)

Constitution:
  adopted by popular referendum on 28 November 1998

Legal system:
  has a civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
  jurisdiction; has accepted jurisdiction of the International
  Criminal Court for its citizens

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President of the Republic Alfred MOISIU (since 24
  July 2002)
  head of government: Prime Minister Sali BERISHA (since 10 September
  2005)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister,
  nominated by the president, and approved by parliament
  elections: president elected by the People's Assembly for a
  five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 24
  June 2002 (next to be held June 2007); prime minister appointed by
  the president
  election results: Alfred MOISIU elected president; People's Assembly
  vote by number - total votes 116, for 97, against 19

Legislative branch:
  unicameral Assembly or Kuvendi (140 seats; 100 are elected by
  direct popular vote and 40 by proportional vote for four-year terms)
  elections: last held 3 July 2005 (next to be held in 2009)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PD
  56, PS 42, PR 11, PSD 7, LSI 5, other 19

Judicial branch:
  Constitutional Court, Supreme Court (chairman is elected by the
  People's Assembly for a four-year term), and multiple appeals and
  district courts

Political parties and leaders:
  Agrarian Environmentalist Party or PAA [Lufter XHUVELI]; Christian
  Democratic Party or PDK [Nikolle LESI]; Communist Party of Albania
  or PKSH [Hysni MILLOSHI]; Democratic Alliance Party or DAP [Neritan
  CEKA]; Democratic Party or PD [Sali BERISHA]; Legality Movement
  Party or PLL [Ekrem SPAHIU]; Liberal Union Party or PBL [Arjan
  STAROVA]; National Front Party (Balli Kombetar) or BNK [Adriatik
  ALIMADHI]; New Democratic Party or PDR [Genc POLLO]; Party of
  National Unity or PUK [Idajet BEQIRI]; Renewed Democratic Party or
  PDRN [Dashamir SHEHI]; Republican Party or PR [Fatmir MEDIU]; Social
  Democracy Party or PDS [Paskal MILO]; Social Democratic Party or PSD
  [Skender GJINUSHI]; Socialist Movement for Integration or LSI [Ilir
  META]; Socialist Party or PS [Edi RAMA]; Union for Human Rights
  Party or PBDNj [Vangjel DULE]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Citizens Advocacy Office [Kreshnik SPAHIU]; Confederation of Trade
  Unions of Albania or KSSH [Kastriot MUCO]; Front for Albanian
  National Unification or FBKSH [Gafur ADILI]; Mjaft Movement [Erion
  VELIAJ]; Omonia [Jani JANI]; Union of Independent Trade Unions of
  Albania or BSPSH [Gezim KALAJA]

International organization participation:
  BSEC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU,
  ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM,
  IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, OIC, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PFP,
  SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMIG, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
  WMO, WToO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Aleksander SALLABANDA
  chancery: 2100 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 223-4942
  FAX: [1] (202) 628-7342

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Marcie B. RIES
  embassy: Rruga e Elbasanit, Labinoti #103, Tirana
  mailing address: US Department of State, 9510 Tirana Place, Dulles,
  VA 20189-9510
  telephone: [355] (4) 247285
  FAX: [355] (4) 232222

Flag description:
  red with a black two-headed eagle in the center

Economy Albania

Economy - overview:
  Lagging behind its Balkan neighbors, Albania is making the
  difficult transition to a more modern open-market economy. The
  government has taken measures to curb violent crime and to spur
  economic activity and trade. The economy is bolstered by annual
  remittances from abroad of $600-$800 million, mostly from Greece and
  Italy; this helps offset the towering trade deficit. Agriculture,
  which accounts for about one-quarter of GDP, is held back because of
  frequent drought and the need to modernize equipment, to clarify
  property rights, and to consolidate small plots of land. Energy
  shortages and antiquated and inadequate infrastructure contribute to
  Albania's poor business environment, which make it difficult to
  attract and sustain foreign investment. The planned construction of
  a new thermal power plant near Vlore and improved transmission and
  distribution facilities will help relieve the energy shortages.
  Also, the government is moving slowly to improve the poor national
  road and rail network, a long-standing barrier to sustained economic
  growth. On the positive side: growth was strong in 2003-05 and
  inflation is not a problem.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $18.87 billion
  note: Albania has a large gray economy that may be as large as 50%
  of official GDP (2005 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $8.657 billion (2005 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  5.5% (2005 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $5,300 (2005 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 23.2% industry: 18.8% services: 57.9% (2005 est.)

Labor force: 1.09 million (not including 352,000 emigrant workers) (2004 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 58% industry: 19% services: 23% (2004 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  14.3% official rate, but may exceed 30% (2005 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  25% (2004 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  28.2 (2002)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.4% (2005 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  22.4% of GDP (2005 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $1.96 billion
  expenditures: $2.377 billion; including capital expenditures of $500
  million (2005 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  wheat, corn, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, sugar beets, grapes;
  meat, dairy products

Industries:
  food processing, textiles and clothing; lumber, oil, cement,
  chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower

Industrial production growth rate:
  3.1% (2004 est.)

Electricity - production:
  5.68 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 2.9% hydro: 97.1% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  6.76 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  200 million kWh (2003)

Electricity - imports:
  1.08 billion kWh (2004 est.)

Oil - production:
  3,600 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  25,200 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil - exports:
  0 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil - imports:
  21,600 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil - proved reserves:
  185.5 million bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  30 million cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  30 million cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  2.832 billion cu m (1 January 2002)

Current account balance:
  $-416 million (2005 est.)

Exports:
  $650.1 million f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  textiles and footwear; asphalt, metals and metallic ores, crude
  oil; vegetables, fruits, tobacco

Exports - partners:
  Italy 72.4%, Greece 10.5%, Serbia and Montenegro 5% (2005)

Imports:
  $2.473 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, chemicals

Imports - partners:
  Italy 29.3%, Greece 16.4%, Turkey 7.5%, China 6.6%, Germany 5.4%,
  Russia 4% (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $1.461 billion (2005 est.)

Debt - external:
  $1.55 billion (2004)

Economic aid - recipient:
  ODA: $366 million (top donors were Italy, EU, Germany) (2003 est.)

Currency (code):
  lek (ALL)

Currency code:
  ALL

Exchange rates:
  leke per US dollar - 102.649 (2005), 102.78 (2004), 121.863 (2003),
  140.155 (2002), 143.485 (2001)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Albania

Telephones - main lines in use:
  255,000 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  1.259 million (2004)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: despite new investment in fixed lines, the
  density of main lines remains the lowest in Europe with roughly
  seven lines per 100 people; however, cellular telephone use is
  widespread and generally effective
  domestic: offsetting the shortage of fixed line capacity, mobile
  phone service has been available since 1996; by 2003 two companies
  were providing mobile services at a greater density than some of
  Albania's Balkan neighbors
  international: country code - 355; inadequate fixed main lines;
  adequate cellular connections; international traffic carried by
  fiber optic cable and, when necessary, by microwave radio relay from
  the Tirana exchange to Italy and Greece (2003)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 13, FM 46 (3 national, 62 local), shortwave 1 (2005)

Radios:
  1 million (2001)

Television broadcast stations:
  65 (3 national, 62 local); note - 2 cable networks (2005)

Televisions:
  700,000 (2001)

Internet country code:
  .al

Internet hosts:
  430 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  10 (2001)

Internet users:
  75,000 (2005)

Transportation Albania

Airports: 11 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 3 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 8 over 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 4 (2006)

Heliports:
  1 (2006)

Pipelines:
  gas 339 km; oil 207 km (2006)

Railways: total: 447 km standard gauge: 447 km 1.435-m gauge (2005)

Roadways: total: 18,000 km paved: 7,020 km unpaved: 10,980 km (2002)

Waterways:
  43 km (2006)

Merchant marine:
  total: 24 ships (1000 GRT or over) 52,987 GRT/79,863 DWT
  by type: cargo 23, roll on/roll off 1
  foreign-owned: 1 (Turkey 1)
  registered in other countries: 1 (Georgia 1) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Durres, Sarande, Shengjin, Vlore

Military Albania

Military branches:
  General Staff Headquarters, Land Forces Command (Army), Naval
  Forces Command, Air Defense Command, Logistics Command, Training and
  Doctrine Command

Military service age and obligation:
  19 years of age (2004)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 19-49: 809,524
  females age 19-49: 784,199 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 19-49: 668,526
  females age 19-49: 648,334 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 37,407
  females age 19-49: 34,587 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $56.5 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.49% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Albania

Disputes - international:
  the Albanian Government calls for the protection of the rights of
  ethnic Albanians in neighboring countries, and the peaceful
  resolution of interethnic disputes; some ethnic Albanian groups in
  neighboring countries advocate for a "greater Albania," but the idea
  has little appeal among Albanian nationals; thousands of unemployed
  Albanians emigrate annually to nearby Italy and other developed
  countries

Illicit drugs:
  increasingly active transshipment point for Southwest Asian
  opiates, hashish, and cannabis transiting the Balkan route and - to
  a far lesser extent - cocaine from South America destined for
  Western Europe; limited opium and growing cannabis production;
  ethnic Albanian narcotrafficking organizations active and expanding
  in Europe; vulnerable to money laundering associated with regional
  trafficking in narcotics, arms, contraband, and illegal aliens

This page was last updated on 19 December, 2006

======================================================================

@Algeria

Introduction Algeria

Background:
  After more than a century of rule by France, Algerians fought
  through much of the 1950s to achieve independence in 1962. Algeria's
  primary political party, the National Liberation Front (FLN), has
  dominated politics ever since. Many Algerians in the subsequent
  generation were not satisfied, however, and moved to counter the
  FLN's centrality in Algerian politics. The surprising first round
  success of the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) in the December 1991
  balloting spurred the Algerian army to intervene and postpone the
  second round of elections to prevent what the secular elite feared
  would be an extremist-led government from assuming power. The army
  began a crack down on the FIS that spurred FIS supporters to begin
  attacking government targets. The government later allowed elections
  featuring pro-government and moderate religious-based parties, but
  did not appease the activists who progressively widened their
  attacks. The fighting escalated into an insurgency, which saw
  intense fighting between 1992-98 and which resulted in over 100,000
  deaths - many attributed to indiscriminate massacres of villagers by
  extremists. The government gained the upper hand by the late-1990s
  and FIS's armed wing, the Islamic Salvation Army, disbanded in
  January 2000. However, small numbers of armed militants persist in
  confronting government forces and conducting ambushes and occasional
  attacks on villages. The army placed Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA in the
  presidency in 1999 in a fraudulent election but claimed neutrality
  in his 2004 landslide reelection victory. Longstanding problems
  continue to face BOUTEFLIKA in his second term, including the ethnic
  minority Berbers' ongoing autonomy campaign, large-scale
  unemployment, a shortage of housing, unreliable electrical and water
  supplies, government inefficiencies and corruption, and the
  continuing - although significantly degraded - activities of
  extremist militants. Algeria must also diversify its petroleum-based
  economy, which has yielded a large cash reserve but which has not
  been used to redress Algeria's many social and infrastructure
  problems.

Geography Algeria

Location:
  Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco
  and Tunisia

Geographic coordinates:
  28 00 N, 3 00 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 2,381,740 sq km
  land: 2,381,740 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 6,343 km
  border countries: Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km,
  Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km, Western Sahara 42 km

Coastline:
  998 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  exclusive fishing zone: 32-52 nm

Climate:
  arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along
  coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau;
  sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer

Terrain:
  mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow,
  discontinuous coastal plain

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Chott Melrhir -40 m
  highest point: Tahat 3,003 m

Natural resources:
  petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc

Land use: arable land: 3.17% permanent crops: 0.28% other: 96.55% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  5,690 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; mudslides and
  floods in rainy season

Environment - current issues:
  soil erosion from overgrazing and other poor farming practices;
  desertification; dumping of raw sewage, petroleum refining wastes,
  and other industrial effluents is leading to the pollution of rivers
  and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, in particular, becoming
  polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and fertilizer runoff;
  inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)

People Algeria

Population:
  32,930,091 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 28.1% (male 4,722,076/female 4,539,713)
  15-64 years: 67.1% (male 11,133,802/female 10,964,502)
  65 years and over: 4.8% (male 735,444/female 834,554) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 24.9 years
  male: 24.7 years
  female: 25.1 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  1.22% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  17.14 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  4.61 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -0.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 29.87 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 33.62 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 25.94 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 73.26 years
  male: 71.68 years
  female: 74.92 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.89 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.1% ; note - no country specific models provided (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  9,100 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 500 (2003 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
  degree of risk: intermediate
  food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and
  typhoid fever
  vectorborne disease: cutaneous leishmaniasis is a high risk in some
  locations (2005)

Nationality:
  noun: Algerian(s)
  adjective: Algerian

Ethnic groups:
  Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%
  note: almost all Algerians are Berber in origin, not Arab; the
  minority who identify themselves as Berber live mostly in the
  mountainous region of Kabylie east of Algiers; the Berbers are also
  Muslim but identify with their Berber rather than Arab cultural
  heritage; Berbers have long agitated, sometimes violently, for
  autonomy; the government is unlikely to grant autonomy but has
  offered to begin sponsoring teaching Berber language in schools

Religions:
  Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1%

Languages:
  Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 70%
  male: 78.8%
  female: 61% (2003 est.)

Government Algeria

Country name:
  conventional long form: People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
  conventional short form: Algeria
  local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash
  Sha'biyah
  local short form: Al Jaza'ir

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  name: Algiers
  geographic coordinates: 36 47 N, 2 03 E
  time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
  48 provinces (wilayat, singular - wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain
  Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida,
  Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa,
  El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel,
  Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'Sila,
  Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi
  Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret,
  Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen

Independence:
  5 July 1962 (from France)

National holiday:
  Revolution Day, 1 November (1954)

Constitution:
  8 September 1963; revised 19 November 1976, effective 22 November
  1976; revised 3 November 1988, 23 February 1989, and 28 November 1996

Legal system:
  socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial review of
  legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of
  various public officials, including several Supreme Court justices;
  has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (since 28 April 1999)
  head of government: Prime Minister Abdelaziz BELKHADEM
  cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term
  (eligible for a second term); election last held 8 April 2004 (next
  to be held in April 2009); prime minister appointed by the president
  election results: Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA reelected president for
  second term; percent of vote - Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA 85%, Ali BENFLIS
  6.4%, Abdellah DJABALLAH 5%

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consisting of the National People's Assembly
  or Al-Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani (389 seats - formerly 380 seats;
  members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the
  Council of Nations (Senate) (144 seats; one-third of the members
  appointed by the president, two-thirds elected by indirect vote;
  members serve six-year terms; the constitution requires half the
  council to be renewed every three years)
  elections: National People's Assembly - last held 30 May 2002 (next
  to be held in 2007); Council of Nations (Senate) - last held 30
  December 2003 (next to be held in 2006)
  election results: National People's Assembly - percent of vote by
  party - NA; seats by party - FLN 199, RND 47, Islah 43, MSP 38, PT
  21, FNA 8, EnNahda 1, PRA 1, MEN 1, independents 30; Council of
  Nations - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party NA

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders:
  Algerian National Front or FNA [Moussa TOUATI]; National Democratic
  Rally (Rassemblement National Democratique) or RND [Ahmed OUYAHIA,
  secretary general]; Islamic Salvation Front or FIS (outlawed April
  1992) [Ali BELHADJ, Dr. Abassi MADANI, Rabeh KEBIR]; National
  Entente Movement or MEN [Ali BOUKHAZNA]; National Liberation Front
  or FLN [Abdelaziz BELKHADEM, secretary general]; National Reform
  Movement or Islah (formerly MRN) [Abdellah DJABALLAH]; National
  Renewal Party or PRA [Yacine TERKMANE]; Progressive Republican Party
  [Khadir DRISS]; Rally for Culture and Democracy or RCD [Said SADI];
  Renaissance Movement or EnNahda Movement [Fatah RABEI]; Socialist
  Forces Front or FFS [Hocine Ait AHMED, secretary general]; Social
  Liberal Party or PSL [Ahmed KHELIL]; Society of Peace Movement or
  MSP [Boudjerra SOLTANI]; Workers Party or PT [Louisa HANOUN]
  note: a law banning political parties based on religion was enacted
  in March 1997

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  The Algerian Human Rights League or LADH or LADDH [Yahia Ali
  ABDENOUR]; SOS Disparus [Nacera DUTOUR]; Somoud [Ali MERABET]

International organization participation:
  ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, AU, BIS, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA,
  IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
  IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, LAS,
  MIGA, MONUC, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, ONUB, OPCW, OPEC, OSCE
  (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WCO, WHO,
  WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Amine KHERBI chancery: 2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 265-2800 FAX: [1] (202) 667-2174

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Robert S. FORD embassy: 04 Chemin Cheikh Bachir Ibrahimi El-Biar 16030, Algiers mailing address: B. P. 408, Alger-Gare, 16030 Algiers telephone: [213] (021) 69-12-55 FAX: [213] (021) 69-39-79

Flag description:
  two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white; a red,
  five-pointed star within a red crescent centered over the two-color
  boundary; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional
  symbols of Islam (the state religion)

Economy Algeria

Economy - overview:
  The hydrocarbons sector is the backbone of the economy, accounting
  for roughly 60% of budget revenues, 30% of GDP, and over 95% of
  export earnings. Algeria has the seventh-largest reserves of natural
  gas in the world and is the second-largest gas exporter; it ranks
  14th in oil reserves. Sustained high oil prices in recent years,
  along with macroeconomic policy reforms supported by the IMF, have
  helped improve Algeria's financial and macroeconomic indicators.
  Algeria is running substantial trade surpluses and building up
  record foreign exchange reserves. Real GDP has risen due to higher
  oil output and increased government spending. The government's
  continued efforts to diversify the economy by attracting foreign and
  domestic investment outside the energy sector, however, has had
  little success in reducing high unemployment and improving living
  standards. The population is becoming increasingly restive due to
  the lack of jobs and housing and frequently stages protests, which
  have resulted in arrests and injuries, including some deaths as
  government forces intervened to restore order. Structural reform
  within the economy, such as development of the banking sector and
  the construction of infrastructure, moves ahead slowly hampered by
  corruption and bureaucratic resistance.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $235.5 billion (2005 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $85.31 billion (2005 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  5.5% (2005 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $7,200 (2005 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 10.1% industry: 60% services: 29.8% (2005 est.)

Labor force: 10.15 million (2005 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 14%, industry 13.4%, construction and public works 10%, trade 14.6%, government 32%, other 16% (2003 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  17.1% (2005 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  25% (2005 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.8% highest 10%: 26.8% (1995)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  35.3 (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  1.9% (2005 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  22.6% of GDP (2005 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $42.05 billion
  expenditures: $30.75 billion; including capital expenditures of $5.8
  billion (2005 est.)

Public debt:
  30.2% of GDP (2005 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits; sheep, cattle

Industries:
  petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining, electrical,
  petrochemical, food processing

Industrial production growth rate:
  8% (2005 est.)

Electricity - production:
  26.99 billion kWh (2003 est.)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 99.7% hydro: 0.3% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  24.9 billion kWh (2003 est.)

Electricity - exports:
  400 million kWh (2003 est.)

Electricity - imports:
  200 million kWh (2003 est.)

Oil - production:
  1.373 million bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  246,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - exports:
  1.127 million bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - imports:
  0 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - proved reserves:
  12.46 billion bbl (2005 est.)

Natural gas - production:
  82.4 billion cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  21.32 billion cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  57.98 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2005 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  4.531 trillion cu m (2005)

Current account balance:
  $18.79 billion (2005 est.)

Exports:
  $49.59 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum products 97%

Exports - partners:
  US 22.8%, Italy 16.2%, Spain 10.4%, France 10%, Canada 8%, Brazil
  6.1%, Belgium 4.4%, Germany 4.2% (2005)

Imports:
  $22.53 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  capital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods

Imports - partners:
  France 28.2%, Italy 7.8%, Spain 7.1%, China 6.6%, Germany 6.3%, US
  5.5% (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $56.58 billion (2005 est.)

Debt - external:
  $19.45 billion (2005 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $122.8 million (2002 est.)

Currency (code):
  Algerian dinar (DZD)

Currency code:
  DZD

Exchange rates:
  Algerian dinars per US dollar - 73.276 (2005), 72.061 (2004),
  77.395 (2003), 79.682 (2002), 77.215 (2001)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Algeria

Telephones - main lines in use:
  2.572 million (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  13.661 million (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: telephone density in Algeria is very low, not
  exceeding five telephones per 100 persons; the number of fixed main
  lines increased in the last few years to nearly 2.6 million, but
  only about two-thirds of these have subscribers; much of the
  infrastructure is outdated and inefficient
  domestic: good service in north but sparse in south; domestic
  satellite system with 12 earth stations (20 additional domestic
  earth stations are planned)
  international: country code - 213; submarine cables - 5; microwave
  radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial
  cable to Morocco and Tunisia; participant in Medarabtel; satellite
  earth stations - 51 (Intelsat, Intersputnik, and Arabsat) (2005)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 25, FM 1, shortwave 8 (1999)

Radios:
  7.1 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  46 (plus 216 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions:
  3.1 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .dz

Internet hosts:
  1,202 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  2 (2000)

Internet users:
  1.92 million (2005)

Transportation Algeria

Airports: 142 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 52 over 3,047 m: 10 2,438 to 3,047 m: 27 1,524 to 2,437 m: 10 914 to 1,523 m: 4 under 914 m: 1 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 90 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 26 914 to 1,523 m: 39 under 914 m: 23 (2006)

Heliports:
  1 (2006)

Pipelines:
  condensate 1,344 km; gas 85,946 km; liquid petroleum gas 2,213 km;
  oil 6,496 km (2005)

Railways:
  total: 3,973 km
  standard gauge: 2,888 km 1.435-m gauge (283 km electrified)
  narrow gauge: 1,085 km 1.055-m gauge (2005)

Roadways:
  total: 104,000 km
  paved: 71,656 km
  unpaved: 32,344 km (1999)

Merchant marine:
  total: 41 ships (1000 GRT or over) 744,406 GRT/766,764 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 7, cargo 10, chemical tanker 2, liquefied gas
  9, passenger/cargo 4, petroleum tanker 5, roll on/roll off 3,
  specialized tanker 1
  foreign-owned: 13 (UK 13) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Djendjene, Jijel, Mostaganem, Oran,
  Skikda

Military Algeria

Military branches:
  National Popular Army (ANP; includes Land Forces), Algerian
  National Navy (MRA), Air Force (QJJ), Territorial Air Defense Force
  (2005)

Military service age and obligation:
  19-30 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript
  service obligation - 18 months (6 months basic training, 12 months
  civil projects) (2006)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 19-49: 8,033,049
  females age 19-49: 7,926,351 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 19-49: 6,590,079
  females age 19-49: 6,711,285 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 374,639
  females age 19-49: 369,021 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $3 billion (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  3.2% (2005 est.)

Transnational Issues Algeria

Disputes - international:
  Algeria supports the exiled Sahrawi Polisario Front and rejects
  Moroccan administration of Western Sahara; most of the approximately
  102,000 Western Saharan Sahrawi refugees are sheltered in camps in
  Tindouf, Algeria; Algeria's border with Morocco remains an irritant
  to bilateral relations, each nation accusing the other of harboring
  militants and arms smuggling; in an attempt to improve relations,
  Morocco, in mid-2004, unilaterally lifted the requirement that
  Algerians visiting Morocco possess entry visas - a gesture not
  reciprocated by Algeria; Algeria remains concerned about armed
  bandits operating throughout the Sahel who sometimes destabilize
  southern Algerian towns; dormant disputes include Libyan claims of
  about 32,000 sq km still reflected on its maps of southeastern
  Algeria and the FLN's assertions of a claim to Chirac Pastures in
  southeastern Morocco

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  refugees (country of origin): 102,000 (Western Saharan Sahrawi,
  mostly living in Algerian-sponsored camps in the southwestern
  Algerian town of Tindouf)
  IDPs: 400,000-600,000 (conflict between government forces, Islamic
  insurgents) (2005)

Trafficking in persons:
  current situation: Algeria is a transit and destination country for
  men, women, and children from sub-Saharan Africa and Asia trafficked
  for forced labor and sexual exploitation; many victims willingly
  migrate to Algeria en route to European countries with the help of
  smugglers, where they are often forced into prostitution, labor, and
  begging to pay off their smuggling debt; armed militants reportedly
  traffic women for sexual exploitation and involuntary servitude, and
  children may be trafficked for forced labor as domestic servants or
  street vendors
  tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Algeria took no steps to assess the
  scope of trafficking in the country and reported no investigations
  or prosecutions for trafficking offenses this year

This page was last updated on 19 December, 2006

======================================================================

@American Samoa

Introduction American Samoa

Background:
  Settled as early as 1000 B.C., Samoa was "discovered" by European
  explorers in the 18th century. International rivalries in the latter
  half of the 19th century were settled by an 1899 treaty in which
  Germany and the US divided the Samoan archipelago. The US formally
  occupied its portion - a smaller group of eastern islands with the
  excellent harbor of Pago Pago - the following year.

Geography American Samoa

Location:
  Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about half
  way between Hawaii and New Zealand

Geographic coordinates:
  14 20 S, 170 00 W

Map references:
  Oceania

Area:
  total: 199 sq km
  land: 199 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  note: includes Rose Island and Swains Island

Area - comparative:
  slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  116 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual
  rainfall averages about 3 m; rainy season (November to April), dry
  season (May to October); little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain:
  five volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited coastal plains,
  two coral atolls (Rose Island, Swains Island)

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Lata Mountain 964 m

Natural resources:
  pumice, pumicite

Land use:
  arable land: 10%
  permanent crops: 15%
  other: 75% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  NA

Natural hazards:
  typhoons common from December to March

Environment - current issues:
  limited natural fresh water resources; the water division of the
  government has spent substantial funds in the past few years to
  improve water catchments and pipelines

Geography - note:
  Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater harbors in the
  South Pacific Ocean, sheltered by shape from rough seas and
  protected by peripheral mountains from high winds; strategic
  location in the South Pacific Ocean

People American Samoa

Population:
  57,794 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 34.7% (male 10,388/female 9,654)
  15-64 years: 62.4% (male 18,698/female 17,350)
  65 years and over: 2.9% (male 633/female 1,071) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 23.2 years
  male: 22.9 years
  female: 23.4 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  -0.19% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  22.46 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  3.27 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -21.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.59 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 9.07 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 9.66 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 8.45 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 76.05 years
  male: 72.48 years
  female: 79.82 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  3.16 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: American Samoan(s) (US nationals)
  adjective: American Samoan

Ethnic groups:
  native Pacific islander 92.9%, Asian 2.9%, white 1.2%, mixed 2.8%,
  other 0.2% (2000 census)

Religions:
  Christian Congregationalist 50%, Roman Catholic 20%, Protestant and
  other 30%

Languages:
  Samoan 90.6% (closely related to Hawaiian and other Polynesian
  languages), English 2.9%, Tongan 2.4%, other Pacific islander 2.1%,
  other 2%
  note: most people are bilingual (2000 census)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 97%
  male: 98%
  female: 97% (1980 est.)

Government American Samoa

Country name:
  conventional long form: Territory of American Samoa
  conventional short form: American Samoa
  abbreviation: AS

Dependency status:
  unincorporated and unorganized territory of the US; administered by
  the Office of Insular Affairs, US Department of the Interior

Government type:
  NA

Capital:
  name: Pago Pago
  geographic coordinates: 14 16 S, 170 42 W
  time difference: UTC-11 (6 hours behind Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
  none (territory of the US); there are no first-order administrative
  divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are three
  districts and two islands* at the second order; Eastern, Manu'a,
  Rose Island*, Swains Island*, Western

Independence:
  none (territory of the US)

National holiday:
  Flag Day, 17 April (1900)

Constitution:
  ratified 2 June 1966, effective 1 July 1967

Legal system:
  NA

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President George W. BUSH of the US (since 20
  January 2001); Vice President Richard B. CHENEY (since 20 January
  2001)
  head of government: Governor Togiola TULAFONO (since 7 April 2003)
  cabinet: Cabinet made up of 12 department directors
  elections: under the US Consitution, residents of unincorporated
  territories, such as American Samoa, do not vote in elections for US
  president and vice president; governor and lieutenant governor
  elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms
  (eligible for a second term); election last held 2 and 16 November
  2004 (next to be held November 2008)
  election results: Togiola TULAFONO elected governor; percent of vote
  - Togiola TULAFONO 55.7%, Afoa Moega LUTU 44.3%

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Fono or Legislative Assembly consists of the House of
  Representatives (21 seats - 20 of which are elected by popular vote
  and 1 is an appointed, nonvoting delegate from Swains Island;
  members serve two-year terms) and the Senate (18 seats; members are
  elected from local chiefs and serve four-year terms)
  elections: House of Representatives - last held 7 November 2006
  (next to be held November 2008); Senate - last held 2 November 2004
  (next to be held November 2008)
  election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by
  party - NA; seats by party - NA; Senate - percent of vote by party -
  NA; seats by party - independents 18
  note: American Samoa elects one nonvoting representative to the US
  House of Representatives; election last held 7 November 2006 (next
  to be held November 2008); results - Eni F. H. FALEOMAVAEGA
  (Democrat) reelected as delegate

Judicial branch:
  High Court (chief justice and associate justices are appointed by
  the US Secretary of the Interior)

Political parties and leaders:
  Democratic Party [Oreta M. TOGAFAU]; Republican Party [Tautai A. F.
  FAALEVAO]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  Interpol (subbureau), IOC, SPC, UPU

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (territory of the US)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (territory of the US)

Flag description:
  blue, with a white triangle edged in red that is based on the outer
  side and extends to the hoist side; a brown and white American bald
  eagle flying toward the hoist side is carrying two traditional
  Samoan symbols of authority, a staff and a war club

Economy American Samoa

Economy - overview:
  American Samoa has a traditional Polynesian economy in which more
  than 90% of the land is communally owned. Economic activity is
  strongly linked to the US with which American Samoa conducts most of
  its foreign trade. Tuna fishing and tuna processing plants are the
  backbone of the private sector, with canned tuna the primary export.
  Transfers from the US Government add substantially to American
  Samoa's economic well being. Attempts by the government to develop a
  larger and broader economy are restrained by Samoa's remote
  location, its limited transportation, and its devastating
  hurricanes. Tourism is a promising developing sector.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $510.1 million (2003 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $333.8 million

GDP - real growth rate:
  3% NA%

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $5,800 (2005 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Labor force: 17,630 (2005)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 34% industry: 33% services: 33% (1990)

Unemployment rate:
  29.8% (2005)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $121 million (37% in local revenue and 63% in US grants)
  expenditures: $127 million; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (FY96/97)

Agriculture - products:
  bananas, coconuts, vegetables, taro, breadfruit, yams, copra,
  pineapples, papayas; dairy products, livestock

Industries:
  tuna canneries (largely supplied by foreign fishing vessels),
  handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA%

Electricity - production:
  130 million kWh (2003)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  120.9 million kWh (2003)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2003)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2003)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2003)

Oil - consumption:
  4,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  0 cu m (2003 est.)

Exports:
  $445.6 million (FY04 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  canned tuna 93% (2004 est.)

Exports - partners:
  Indonesia 28.2%, India 22.3%, Australia 15.3%, Japan 11.2%, NZ 7.1%
  (2005)

Imports:
  $308.8 million (FY04 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  materials for canneries 56%, food 8%, petroleum products 7%,
  machinery and parts 6% (2004 est.)

Imports - partners:
  Australia 66%, Samoa 13.8%, NZ 10.8% (2005)

Debt - external:
  $NA

Economic aid - recipient:
  important financial support from the US, more than $40 million in
  1994

Currency (code):
  US dollar (USD)

Currency code:
  USD

Exchange rates:
  the US dollar is used

Fiscal year:
  1 October - 30 September

Communications American Samoa

Telephones - main lines in use:
  15,000 (2001)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  2,377 (1999)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: good telex, telegraph, facsimile and cellular telephone
  services; domestic satellite system with 1 Comsat earth station
  international: country code - 684; satellite earth station - 1
  (Intelsat-Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0 (2006)

Radios:
  57,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (Low Power TV); note - one cable TV station (2006)

Televisions:
  14,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .as

Internet hosts:
  1,456 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Internet users:
  NA

Transportation American Samoa

Airports: 3 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 2 over 3,047 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  under 914 m: 1 (2006)

Roadways:
  total: 185 km (2004)

Ports and terminals:
  Pago Pago

Military American Samoa

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US

Transnational Issues American Samoa

Disputes - international: none

This page was last updated on 19 December, 2006

======================================================================

@Andorra

Introduction Andorra

Background:
  For 715 years, from 1278 to 1993, Andorrans lived under a unique
  co-principality, ruled by French and Spanish leaders (from 1607
  onward, the French chief of state and the Spanish bishop of Urgel).
  In 1993, this feudal system was modified with the titular heads of
  state retained, but the government transformed into a parliamentary
  democracy. Long isolated and impoverished, mountainous Andorra
  achieved considerable prosperity since World War II through its
  tourist industry. Many immigrants (legal and illegal) are attracted
  to the thriving economy with its lack of income taxes.

Geography Andorra

Location:
  Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain

Geographic coordinates:
  42 30 N, 1 30 E

Map references:
  Europe

Area:
  total: 468 sq km
  land: 468 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: total: 120.3 km border countries: France 56.6 km, Spain 63.7 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers

Terrain:
  rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Riu Runer 840 m highest point: Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m

Natural resources: hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead

Land use: arable land: 2.13% permanent crops: 0% other: 97.87% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  NA

Natural hazards:
  avalanches

Environment - current issues:
  deforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows contributes to soil
  erosion; air pollution; wastewater treatment and solid waste disposal

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Hazardous Wastes
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  landlocked; straddles a number of important crossroads in the
  Pyrenees

People Andorra

Population:
  71,201 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 14.7% (male 5,456/female 4,994)
  15-64 years: 71.4% (male 26,632/female 24,172)
  65 years and over: 14% (male 4,918/female 5,029) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 40.9 years
  male: 41.2 years
  female: 40.7 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.89% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  8.71 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  6.25 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  6.47 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.98 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.08 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 4.04 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 4.38 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 3.68 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 83.51 years
  male: 80.61 years
  female: 86.61 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.3 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Andorran(s)
  adjective: Andorran

Ethnic groups:
  Spanish 43%, Andorran 33%, Portuguese 11%, French 7%, other 6%
  (1998)

Religions:
  Roman Catholic (predominant)

Languages:
  Catalan (official), French, Castilian, Portuguese

Literacy: definition: NA total population: 100% male: 100% female: 100%

Government Andorra

Country name:
  conventional long form: Principality of Andorra
  conventional short form: Andorra
  local long form: Principat d'Andorra
  local short form: Andorra

Government type:
  parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its
  chiefs of state a coprincipality; the two princes are the president
  of France and bishop of Seo de Urgel, Spain, who are represented
  locally by coprinces' representatives

Capital:
  name: Andorra la Vella
  geographic coordinates: 42 30 N, 1 30 E
  time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)
  daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last
  Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
  7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra la Vella,
  Canillo, Encamp, Escaldes-Engordany, La Massana, Ordino, Sant Julia
  de Loria

Independence:
  1278 (formed under the joint suzerainty of the French count of Foix
  and the Spanish bishop of Urgel)

National holiday:
  Our Lady of Meritxell Day, 8 September (1278)

Constitution:
  Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in 1991, approved
  by referendum 14 March 1993, effective 4 May 1993

Legal system:
  based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial review of
  legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: French Coprince Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995),
  represented by Philippe MASSONI (since 26 July 2002); Spanish
  Coprince Bishop Joan Enric VIVES i SICILIA (since 12 May 2003),
  represented by Nemesi MARQUES i OSTE (since NA)
  head of government: Executive Council President Albert PINTAT
  SANTOLARIA (since 27 May 2005)
  cabinet: Executive Council or Govern designated by the Executive
  Council president
  elections: Executive Council president elected by the General
  Council and formally appointed by the coprinces for a four-year
  term; election last held 24 April 2005 (next to be held April-May
  2009)
  election results: Albert PINTAT SANTOLARIA elected executive council
  president; percent of General Council vote - NA

Legislative branch:
  unicameral General Council of the Valleys or Consell General de las
  Valls (28 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote, 14 from
  a single national constituency and 14 to represent each of the seven
  parishes; members serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 24 April 2005 (next to be held March-April 2009)
  election results: percent of vote by party - PLA 41.2%, PS 38.1%,
  CDA-S21 11%, other 9.7%; seats by party - PLA 14, PS 12, CDA-S21 2

Judicial branch:
  Tribunal of Judges or Tribunal de Batlles; Tribunal of the Courts
  or Tribunal de Corts; Supreme Court of Justice of Andorra or
  Tribunal Superior de Justicia d'Andorra; Supreme Council of Justice
  or Consell Superior de la Justicia; Fiscal Ministry or Ministeri
  Fiscal; Constitutional Tribunal or Tribunal Constitucional

Political parties and leaders:
  Andorran Democratic Center Party or CDA (formerly Democratic Party
  or PD); Century 21 or S21 [Enric TARRADO]; Liberal Party of Andorra
  or PLA (formerly Liberal Union or UL) [Albert PINTAT]; Social
  Democratic Party or PS (formerly part of National Democratic Group
  or AND) [Jaume BARTUMEU CASSANY]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  CE, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IFRCS, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ITU, OIF, OIF
  (associate member), OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, WCO, WHO, WIPO,
  WToO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Jelena V.
  PIA-COMELLA
  chancery: 2 United Nations Plaza, 25th Floor, New York, NY 10017
  telephone: [1] (212) 750-8064
  FAX: [1] (212) 750-6630

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Andorra; the US Ambassador to Spain is accredited to Andorra; US interests in Andorra are represented by the Consulate General's office in Barcelona (Spain); mailing address: Paseo Reina Elisenda de Montcada, 23, 08034 Barcelona, Spain; telephone: [34] (3) 280-2227; FAX: [34] (3) 205-5206

Flag description:
  three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red
  with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the coat
  of arms features a quartered shield; similar to the flags of Chad
  and Romania, which do not have a national coat of arms in the
  center, and the flag of Moldova, which does bear a national emblem

Economy Andorra

Economy - overview:
  Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra's tiny, well-to-do economy,
  accounts for more than 80% of GDP. An estimated 11.6 million
  tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free status and
  by its summer and winter resorts. Andorra's comparative advantage
  has recently eroded as the economies of neighboring France and Spain
  have been opened up, providing broader availability of goods and
  lower tariffs. The banking sector, with its partial "tax haven"
  status, also contributes substantially to the economy. Agricultural
  production is limited - only 2% of the land is arable - and most
  food has to be imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep
  raising. Manufacturing output consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars,
  and furniture. Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union and is
  treated as an EU member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs)
  and as a non-EU member for agricultural products.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $1.84 billion (2004)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  NA

GDP - real growth rate:
  4% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $24,000 (2004)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Labor force: 48,740 (2004)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 0.34% industry: 19.63% services: 80.03% (2004)

Unemployment rate:
  0% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3.4% (2004)

Budget:
  revenues: $373.5 million
  expenditures: $373.5 million; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2004)

Agriculture - products:
  small quantities of rye, wheat, barley, oats, vegetables; sheep

Industries:
  tourism (particularly skiing), cattle raising, timber, banking

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA%

Electricity - production:
  NA kWh

Electricity - production by source:
  NA

Electricity - consumption:
  NA kWh

Electricity - exports:
  NA kWh

Electricity - imports:
  NA kWh; note - most electricity supplied by Spain and France;
  Andorra generates a small amount of hydropower

Exports:
  $145 million f.o.b. (2004)

Exports - commodities:
  tobacco products, furniture

Exports - partners:
  Spain 58%, France 34% (2004)

Imports:
  $1.077 billion (1998)

Imports - commodities:
  consumer goods, food, electricity

Imports - partners:
  Spain 51.5%, France 22.3%, US 0.3% (2004)

Debt - external:
  $NA

Economic aid - recipient:
  none

Currency (code):
  euro (EUR)

Currency code:
  EUR

Exchange rates:
  euros per US dollar - 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003),
  1.0626 (2002), 1.1175 (2001)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Andorra

Telephones - main lines in use:
  35,400 (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  64,600 (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: modern system with microwave radio relay connections
  between exchanges
  international: country code - 376; landline circuits to France and
  Spain

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 0, FM 15, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  16,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  0 (1997)

Televisions:
  27,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .ad

Internet hosts:
  14,944 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Internet users:
  21,900 (2005)

Transportation Andorra

Roadways: total: 269 km paved: 198 km unpaved: 71 km

Military Andorra

Military branches:
  no regular military forces, Police Service of Andorra

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 18,418 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 14,721 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 369 (2005 est.)

Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of France and Spain

Transnational Issues Andorra

Disputes - international: none

This page was last updated on 19 December, 2006

======================================================================

@Angola

Introduction Angola

Background:
  Angola is slowly rebuilding its country after the end of a 27-year
  civil war in 2002. Fighting between the Popular Movement for the
  Liberation of Angola (MPLA), led by Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS, and the
  National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), led by
  Jonas SAVIMBI, followed independence from Portugal in 1975. Peace
  seemed imminent in 1992 when Angola held national elections, but
  UNITA renewed fighting after being beaten by the MPLA at the polls.
  Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost - and 4 million people
  displaced - in the quarter century of fighting. SAVIMBI's death in
  2002 ended UNITA's insurgency and strengthened the MPLA's hold on
  power. DOS SANTOS has pledged to hold legislative elections in 2006.

Geography Angola

Location:
  Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between
  Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates:
  12 30 S, 18 30 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 1,246,700 sq km
  land: 1,246,700 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 5,198 km
  border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,511 km (of
  which 225 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province),
  Republic of the Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zambia 1,110 km

Coastline:
  1,600 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry
  season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)

Terrain:
  narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Morro de Moco 2,620 m

Natural resources:
  petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold,
  bauxite, uranium

Land use: arable land: 2.65% permanent crops: 0.23% other: 97.12% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  800 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau

Environment - current issues:
  overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to
  population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical
  rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical
  timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of
  biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and
  siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the
  Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  the province of Cabinda is an exclave, separated from the rest of
  the country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo

People Angola

Population:
  12,127,071 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 43.7% (male 2,678,185/female 2,625,933)
  15-64 years: 53.5% (male 3,291,954/female 3,195,688)
  65 years and over: 2.8% (male 148,944/female 186,367) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 18 years
  male: 18 years
  female: 18 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  2.45% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  45.11 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  24.2 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  3.55 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 185.36 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 197.56 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 172.54 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 38.62 years
  male: 37.47 years
  female: 39.83 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  6.35 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  3.9% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  240,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  21,000 (2003 est.)

Major infectious diseases: degree of risk: very high food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, typhoid fever vectorborne diseases: malaria, African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) are high risks in some locations respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2005)

Nationality:
  noun: Angolan(s)
  adjective: Angolan

Ethnic groups:
  Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European
  and native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%

Religions:
  indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% (1998
  est.)

Languages:
  Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 66.8%
  male: 82.1%
  female: 53.8% (2001 est.)

Government Angola

Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Angola
  conventional short form: Angola
  local long form: Republica de Angola
  local short form: Angola
  former: People's Republic of Angola

Government type:
  republic; multiparty presidential regime

Capital:
  name: Luanda
  geographic coordinates: 8 48 S, 13 14 E
  time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
  18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela,
  Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene,
  Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico,
  Namibe, Uige, Zaire

Independence:
  11 November 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 11 November (1975)

Constitution:
  11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11 August 1980, 6 March
  1991, and 26 August 1992; note - a new constitution will likely be
  passed following the next legislative election

Legal system:
  based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law; recently
  modified to accommodate political pluralism and increased use of
  free markets

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21
  September 1979); note - the president is both chief of state and
  head of government
  head of government: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21
  September 1979); note - the president is both chief of state and
  head of government; Fernando de Piedade Dias DOS SANTOS was
  appointed Prime Minister on 6 December 2002
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
  elections: president elected by universal ballot for a five-year
  term (eligible for a second consecutive or discontinuous term) under
  the 1992 constitution; President DOS SANTOS originally elected (in
  1979) without opposition under a one-party system and stood for
  reelection in Angola's first multiparty elections 29-30 September
  1992 (next to be held September 2006 or 2007)
  election results: Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS 49.6%, Jonas SAVIMBI
  40.1%, making a run-off election necessary; the run-off was not held
  and SAVIMBI's National Union for the Total Independence of Angola
  (UNITA) repudiated the results of the first election; the civil war
  resumed leaving DOS SANTOS in his current position as the president

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (220 seats;
  members elected by proportional vote to serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held September
  2006)
  election results: percent of vote by party - MPLA 54%, UNITA 34%,
  other 12%; seats by party - MPLA 129, UNITA 70, PRS 6, FNLA 5, PLD
  3, other 7

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court and separate provincial courts (judges are appointed
  by the president)

Political parties and leaders:
  Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Analia de Victoria PEREIRA];
  National Front for the Liberation of Angola or FNLA [disputed
  leadership: Lucas NGONDA, Holden ROBERTO]; National Union for the
  Total Independence of Angola or UNITA [Isaias SAMAKUVA] (largest
  opposition party); Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or
  MPLA [Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS] (ruling party in power since 1975);
  Social Renewal Party or PRS [disputed leadership: Eduardo KUANGANA,
  Antonio MUACHICUNGO]
  note: about a dozen minor parties participated in the 1992 elections
  but only won a few seats; they and the other 115 smaller parties
  have little influence in the National Assembly

Political pressure groups and leaders: Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita Henriques TIAGO, Antonio Bento BEMBE] note: FLEC's small-scale, highly factionalized armed struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province has largely ended

International organization participation:
  ACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt
  (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OAS
  (observer), SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO,
  WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Josefina Perpetua Pitra DIAKITI
  chancery: 2108 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
  telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156
  FAX: [1] (202) 785-1258
  consulate(s) general: Houston, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Cynthia EFIRD
  embassy: number 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne (in the Miramar area of
  Luanda), Luanda
  mailing address: international mail: Caixa Postal 6468, Luanda;
  pouch: US Embassy Luanda,US Department of State, 2550 Luanda Place,
  Washington, DC 20521-2550
  telephone: [244] (222) 64-1000
  FAX: [244] (222) 64-1232

Flag description:
  two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered
  yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a
  cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)

Economy Angola

Economy - overview:
  Angola's high growth rate is driven by its oil sector, with record
  oil prices and rising petroleum production. Oil production and its
  supporting activities contribute about half of GDP and 90% of
  exports. Increased oil production supported 12% growth in 2004 and
  19% growth in 2005. A postwar reconstruction boom and resettlement
  of displaced persons has led to high rates of growth in construction
  and agriculture as well. Much of the country's infrastructure is
  still damaged or undeveloped from the 27-year-long civil war.
  Remnants of the conflict such as widespread land mines still mar the
  countryside even though an apparently durable peace was established
  after the death of rebel leader Jonas SAVIMBI in February 2002.
  Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for half of the
  population, but half of the country's food must still be imported.
  In 2005, the government started using a $2 billion line of credit
  from China to rebuild Angola's public infrastructure, and several
  large-scale projects are scheduled for completion by 2006. The
  central bank in 2003 implemented an exchange rate stabilization
  program using foreign exchange reserves to buy kwanzas out of
  circulation, a policy that was more sustainable in 2005 because of
  strong oil export earnings, and has significantly reduced inflation.
  Consumer inflation declined from 325% in 2000 to about 18% in 2005,
  but the stabilization policy places pressure on international net
  liquidity. To fully take advantage of its rich national resources -
  gold, diamonds, extensive forests, Atlantic fisheries, and large oil
  deposits - Angola will need to continue reforming government
  policies and to reduce corruption. The government has made
  sufficient progress on reforms recommended by the IMF such as
  promoting greater transparency in government spending but continues
  to be without a formal monitoring agreement with the institution.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $45.32 billion (2005 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $24.35 billion (2005 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  19.9% (2005 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $3,800 (2005 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 9.6% industry: 65.8% services: 24.6% (2005 est.)

Labor force: 5.58 million (2005 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture: 85%
  industry and services: 15% (2003 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  extensive unemployment and underemployment affecting more than half
  the population (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  70% (2003 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  23% (2005 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  30.3% of GDP (2005 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $8.5 billion
  expenditures: $10 billion; including capital expenditures of $963
  million (2005 est.)

Public debt:
  38.3% of GDP (2005 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, manioc (tapioca),
  tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock; forest products; fish

Industries:
  petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite,
  uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing;
  food processing, brewing, tobacco products, sugar; textiles; ship
  repair

Industrial production growth rate:
  13.5% (2004)

Electricity - production:
  2.24 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 36.4% hydro: 63.6% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  1.9 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2003)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2003)

Oil - production:
  1.6 million bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  46,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day

Oil - proved reserves:
  25 billion bbl (2005 est.)

Natural gas - production:
  720 million cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  720 million cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  45.87 billion cu m (2005)

Current account balance:
  $4.054 billion (2005 est.)

Exports:
  $26.8 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  crude oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products, gas, coffee,
  sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton

Exports - partners:
  US 39.8%, China 29.6%, France 7.8%, Chile 5.4%, Taiwan 4.4% (2005)

Imports:
  $8.165 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and electrical equipment, vehicles and spare parts;
  medicines, food, textiles, military goods

Imports - partners:
  South Korea 20.8%, Portugal 13.6%, US 12.7%, South Africa 7.5%,
  Brazil 5.6%, France 5.3%, China 5.1% (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $3.197 billion (2005 est.)

Debt - external:
  $9.401 billion (2005 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $383.5 million (1999)

Currency (code):
  kwanza (AOA)

Currency code:
  AOA

Exchange rates:
  kwanza per US dollar - 88.6 (2005), 83.541 (2004), 74.606 (2003),
  43.53 (2002), 22.058 (2001)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Angola

Telephones - main lines in use:
  94,300 (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  1,094,100 (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: telephone service limited mostly to government
  and business use; HF radiotelephone used extensively for military
  links
  domestic: limited system of wire, microwave radio relay, and
  tropospheric scatter
  international: country code - 244; satellite earth stations - 29;
  fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC) provides connectivity to
  Europe and Asia (2005)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 21, FM 6, shortwave 7 (2000)

Radios:
  815,000 (2000)

Television broadcast stations:
  6 (2000)

Televisions:
  196,000 (2000)

Internet country code:
  .ao

Internet hosts:
  2,525 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Internet users:
  172,000 (2005)

Transportation Angola

Airports: 244 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 31
  over 3,047 m: 5
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
  914 to 1,523 m: 5
  under 914 m: 1 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 213
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 30
  914 to 1,523 m: 95
  under 914 m: 81 (2006)

Pipelines:
  gas 235 km; liquid petroleum gas 122 km; oil 867 km; oil/gas/water
  5 km (2006)

Railways:
  total: 2,761 km
  narrow gauge: 2,638 km 1.067-m gauge; 123 km 0.600-m gauge (2005)

Roadways: total: 51,429 km paved: 5,349 km unpaved: 46,080 km (2001)

Waterways:
  1,300 km (2005)

Merchant marine:
  total: 4 ships (1000 GRT or over) 4,343 GRT/4,643 DWT
  by type: cargo 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 1
  registered in other countries: 5 (Bahamas 5) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Cabinda, Luanda, Soyo

Military Angola

Military branches:
  Army, Navy (Marinha de Guerra, MdG), Air and Air Defense Forces
  (FANA) (2006)

Military service age and obligation:
  17 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service
  obligation - two years plus time for training (2001)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 17-49: 2,548,455
  females age 17-49: 2,462,601 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 17-49: 1,282,195
  females age 17-49: 1,256,390 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 126,694
  females age 17-49: 123,586 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $2 billion (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  8.8% (2005 est.)

Transnational Issues Angola

Disputes - international: many Cabinda exclave secessionists have sought shelter in neighboring states

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  refugees (country of origin): 13,510 (Democratic Republic of Congo)
  IDPs: 40,000-60,000 (27-year civil war ending in 2002; 4 million
  IDPs already have returned) (2005)

Illicit drugs:
  used as a transshipment point for cocaine destined for Western
  Europe and other African states

This page was last updated on 19 December, 2006

======================================================================

@Anguilla

Introduction Anguilla

Background:
  Colonized by English settlers from Saint Kitts in 1650, Anguilla
  was administered by Great Britain until the early 19th century, when
  the island - against the wishes of the inhabitants - was
  incorporated into a single British dependency, along with Saint
  Kitts and Nevis. Several attempts at separation failed. In 1971, two
  years after a revolt, Anguilla was finally allowed to secede; this
  arrangement was formally recognized in 1980, with Anguilla becoming
  a separate British dependency.

Geography Anguilla

Location:
  Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic
  Ocean, east of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates:
  18 15 N, 63 10 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 102 sq km
  land: 102 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about half the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  61 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 3 nm exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds

Terrain:
  flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Crocus Hill 65 m

Natural resources:
  salt, fish, lobster

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 100% (mostly rock with sparse scrub oak, few trees, some
  commercial salt ponds) (2005)

Irrigated land:
  NA

Natural hazards:
  frequent hurricanes and other tropical storms (July to October)

Environment - current issues: supplies of potable water sometimes cannot meet increasing demand largely because of poor distribution system

Geography - note: the most northerly of the Leeward Islands in the Lesser Antilles

People Anguilla

Population:
  13,477 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 22.8% (male 1,557/female 1,510)
  15-64 years: 70.4% (male 4,878/female 4,608)
  65 years and over: 6.9% (male 412/female 512) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 31.2 years
  male: 31.2 years
  female: 31.1 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  1.57% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  14.17 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  5.34 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  6.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 20.32 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 26.67 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 13.79 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 77.28 years
  male: 74.35 years
  female: 80.3 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.73 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Anguillan(s)
  adjective: Anguillan

Ethnic groups:
  black (predominant) 90.1%, mixed, mulatto 4.6%, white 3.7%, other
  1.5% (2001 Census)

Religions:
  Anglican 29%, Methodist 23.9%, other Protestant 30.2%, Roman
  Catholic 5.7%, other Christian 1.7%, other 5.2%, none or unspecified
  4.3% (2001 Census)

Languages:
  English (official)

Literacy:
  definition: age 12 and over can read and write
  total population: 95%
  male: 95%
  female: 95% (1984 est.)

Government Anguilla

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Anguilla

Dependency status:
  overseas territory of the UK

Government type:
  NA

Capital:
  name: The Valley
  geographic coordinates: 18 13 N, 63 04 W
  time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Independence:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday:
  Anguilla Day, 30 May

Constitution:
  Anguilla Constitutional Order 1 April 1982; amended 1990

Legal system:
  based on English common law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);
  represented by Governor Andrew N. GEORGE (since 10 July 2006)
  head of government: Chief Minister Osbourne FLEMING (since 3 March
  2000)
  cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from among the
  elected members of the House of Assembly
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by
  the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the
  majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually
  appointed chief minister by the governor

Legislative branch:
  unicameral House of Assembly (11 seats total, 7 elected by direct
  popular vote, 2 ex officio members, and 2 appointed; members serve
  five-year terms)
  elections: last held 21 February 2005 (next to be held 2010)
  election results: percent of vote by party - AUF 38.9%, ANSA 19.2%,
  AUM 19.4%, APP 9.5%, independents 13%; seats by party - AUF 4, ANSA
  2, AUM 1

Judicial branch:
  High Court (judge provided by Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court)

Political parties and leaders:
  Anguilla United Movement or AUM [Hubert HUGHES]; The Anguilla
  United Front or AUF [Osbourne FLEMING, Victor BANKS], a coalition of
  the Anguilla Democratic Party or ADP and the Anguilla National
  Alliance or ANA; Anguilla Progressive Party or APP [Roy ROGERS];
  Anguilla Strategic Alternative or ANSA [Edison BAIRD]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  Caricom (associate), CDB, Interpol (subbureau), OECS (associate),
  UPU

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Flag description:
  blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and
  the Anguillan coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag;
  the coat of arms depicts three orange dolphins in an interlocking
  circular design on a white background with blue wavy water below

Economy Anguilla

Economy - overview:
  Anguilla has few natural resources, and the economy depends heavily
  on luxury tourism, offshore banking, lobster fishing, and
  remittances from emigrants. Increased activity in the tourism
  industry, which has spurred the growth of the construction sector,
  has contributed to economic growth. Anguillan officials have put
  substantial effort into developing the offshore financial sector,
  which is small, but growing. In the medium term, prospects for the
  economy will depend largely on the tourism sector and, therefore, on
  revived income growth in the industrialized nations as well as on
  favorable weather conditions.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $108.9 million (2004 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $108.9 million

GDP - real growth rate:
  10.2% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $8,800 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 4% industry: 18% services: 78% (2002 est.)

Labor force: 6,049 (2001)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture/fishing/forestry/mining 4%, manufacturing 3%, construction 18%, transportation and utilities 10%, commerce 36%, services 29% (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  8% (2002)

Population below poverty line:
  23% (2002)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  5.3%

Budget:
  revenues: $22.8 million
  expenditures: $22.5 million; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2000 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  small quantities of tobacco, vegetables; cattle raising

Industries:
  tourism, boat building, offshore financial services

Industrial production growth rate:
  3.1% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production:
  NA kWh

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: NA hydro: NA nuclear: NA other: NA

Electricity - consumption:
  42.6 million kWh

Current account balance:
  $-42.87 million

Exports:
  $14.56 million (2005 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  lobster, fish, livestock, salt, concrete blocks, rum

Exports - partners:
  UK, US, Puerto Rico, Saint-Martin (2004)

Imports:
  $129.9 million (2005 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  fuels, foodstuffs, manufactures, chemicals, trucks, textiles

Imports - partners:
  US, Puerto Rico, UK (2004)

Debt - external:
  $8.8 million (1998)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $9 million (2004 est.)

Currency (code):
  East Caribbean dollar (XCD)

Currency code:
  XCD

Exchange rates:
  East Caribbean dollars per US dollar - 2.7 (2005), 2.7 (2004), 2.7
  (2003), 2.7 (2002), 2.7 (2001)
  note: fixed rate since 1976

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Anguilla

Telephones - main lines in use:
  6,200 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  1,800 (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: modern internal telephone system
  international: country code - 1-264; microwave radio relay to island
  of Saint Martin (Guadeloupe and Netherlands Antilles)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 7, shortwave 0 (2004)

Radios:
  3,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (1997)

Televisions:
  1,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .ai

Internet hosts:
  403 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  16 (2000)

Internet users:
  3,000 (2002)

Transportation Anguilla

Airports: 3 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 2
  under 914 m: 2 (2006)

Roadways: total: 105 km paved: 65 km unpaved: 40 km (2002)

Merchant marine:
  registered in other countries: 1 (Panama 1) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Blowing Point, Road Bay

Military Anguilla

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 3,614 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 2,986 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 120 (2005 est.)

Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues Anguilla

Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  transshipment point for South American narcotics destined for the
  US and Europe

This page was last updated on 19 December, 2006

======================================================================

@Antarctica

Introduction Antarctica

Background:
  Speculation over the existence of a "southern land" was not
  confirmed until the early 1820s when British and American commercial
  operators and British and Russian national expeditions began
  exploring the Antarctic Peninsula region and other areas south of
  the Antarctic Circle. Not until 1840 was it established that
  Antarctica was indeed a continent and not just a group of islands.
  Several exploration "firsts" were achieved in the early 20th
  century. Following World War II, there was an upsurge in scientific
  research on the continent. A number of countries have set up
  year-round research stations on Antarctica. Seven have made
  territorial claims, but not all countries recognize these claims. In
  order to form a legal framework for the activities of nations on the
  continent, an Antarctic Treaty was negotiated that neither denies
  nor gives recognition to existing territorial claims; signed in
  1959, it entered into force in 1961.

Geography Antarctica

Location:
  continent mostly south of the Antarctic Circle

Geographic coordinates:
  90 00 S, 0 00 E

Map references:
  Antarctic Region

Area:
  total: 14 million sq km
  land: 14 million sq km (280,000 sq km ice-free, 13.72 million sq km
  ice-covered) (est.)
  note: fifth-largest continent, following Asia, Africa, North
  America, and South America, but larger than Australia and the
  subcontinent of Europe

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US

Land boundaries: 0 km note: see entry on Disputes - international

Coastline:
  17,968 km

Maritime claims:
  Australia, Chile, and Argentina claim Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)
  rights or similar over 200 nm extensions seaward from their
  continental claims, but like the claims themselves, these zones are
  not accepted by other countries; 21 of 28 Antarctic consultative
  nations have made no claims to Antarctic territory (although Russia
  and the US have reserved the right to do so) and do not recognize
  the claims of the other nations; also see the Disputes -
  international entry

Climate:
  severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and distance
  from the ocean; East Antarctica is colder than West Antarctica
  because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has the most
  moderate climate; higher temperatures occur in January along the
  coast and average slightly below freezing

Terrain:
  about 98% thick continental ice sheet and 2% barren rock, with
  average elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain ranges
  up to nearly 5,000 meters; ice-free coastal areas include parts of
  southern Victoria Land, Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsula area,
  and parts of Ross Island on McMurdo Sound; glaciers form ice shelves
  along about half of the coastline, and floating ice shelves
  constitute 11% of the area of the continent

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Bentley Subglacial Trench -2,555 m
  highest point: Vinson Massif 4,897 m
  note: the lowest known land point in Antarctica is hidden in the
  Bentley Subglacial Trench; at its surface is the deepest ice yet
  discovered and the world's lowest elevation not under seawater

Natural resources:
  iron ore, chromium, copper, gold, nickel, platinum and other
  minerals, and coal and hydrocarbons have been found in small
  uncommercial quantities; none presently exploited; krill, finfish,
  and crab have been taken by commercial fisheries

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 100% (ice 98%, barren rock 2%) (2005)

Natural hazards:
  katabatic (gravity-driven) winds blow coastward from the high
  interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot of the plateau;
  cyclonic storms form over the ocean and move clockwise along the
  coast; volcanism on Deception Island and isolated areas of West
  Antarctica; other seismic activity rare and weak; large icebergs may
  calve from ice shelf

Environment - current issues:
  in 1998, NASA satellite data showed that the Antarctic ozone hole
  was the largest on record, covering 27 million square kilometers;
  researchers in 1997 found that increased ultraviolet light passing
  through the hole damages the DNA of icefish, an Antarctic fish
  lacking hemoglobin; ozone depletion earlier was shown to harm
  one-celled Antarctic marine plants; in 2002, significant areas of
  ice shelves disintegrated in response to regional warming

Geography - note:
  the coldest, windiest, highest (on average), and driest continent;
  during summer, more solar radiation reaches the surface at the South
  Pole than is received at the Equator in an equivalent period; mostly
  uninhabitable

People Antarctica

Population:
  no indigenous inhabitants, but there are both permanent and
  summer-only staffed research stations
  note: 26 nations, all signatory to the Antarctic Treaty, operate
  through their National Antarctic Program a number of seasonal-only
  (summer) and year-round research stations on the continent and its
  nearby islands south of 60 degrees south latitude (the region
  covered by the Antarctic Treaty); these stations' population of
  persons doing and supporting science or engaged in the management
  and protection of the Antarctic region varies from approximately
  4,000 in summer to 1,000 in winter; in addition, approximately 1,000
  personnel, including ship's crew and scientists doing onboard
  research, are present in the waters of the treaty region; peak
  summer (December-February) population - 3,822 total; Argentina 417,
  Australia 213, Brazil 40, Bulgaria 15, Chile 224, China 70, Ecuador
  22, Finland 20, France 123, Germany 78, India 65, Italy 112, Japan
  150, South Korea 60, NZ 85, Norway 44, Peru 28, Poland 40, Russia
  429, South Africa 80, Spain 28, Sweden 20, Ukraine 24, UK 205, US
  1,170, Uruguay 60 (2005-2006); winter (June-August) station
  population - 1,028 total; Argentina 176, Australia 62, Brazil 12,
  Chile 88, China 29, France 37, Germany 9, India 25, Italy 2, Japan
  40, South Korea 15, NZ 10, Norway 7, Poland 12, Russia 148, South
  Africa 10, Ukraine 12, UK 37, US 288, Uruguay 9 (2005); research
  stations operated within the Antarctic Treaty area (south of 60
  degrees south latitude) by members of the Council of Managers of
  National Antarctic Programs (COMNAP): year-round stations - 37
  total; Argentina 6, Australia 3, Brazil 1, Chile 3, China 2, France
  1, Germany 1, India 1, Japan 1, South Korea 1, NZ 1, Norway 1,
  Poland 1, Russia 5, South Africa 1, Ukraine 1, UK 2, US 3, Uruguay
  1, Italy and France jointly 1 (2005); seasonal-only (summer)
  stations - 15 total; Australia 1, Bulgaria 1, Chile 1, Ecuador 1,
  Finland 1, Germany 1, Italy 1, Japan 1, Norway 1, Peru 1, Russia 1,
  Spain 2, Sweden 1, UK 1 (2005-2006); in addition, during the austral
  summer some nations have numerous occupied locations such as tent
  camps, summer-long temporary facilities, and mobile traverses in
  support of research

Government Antarctica

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Antarctica

Government type: Antarctic Treaty Summary - the Antarctic Treaty, signed on 1 December 1959 and entered into force on 23 June 1961, establishes the legal framework for the management of Antarctica; the 28th Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting was held in Stockholm, Sweden in June 2005; at these periodic meetings, decisions are made by consensus (not by vote) of all consultative member nations; at the end of 2005, there were 45 treaty member nations: 28 consultative and 17 non-consultative; consultative (decision-making) members include the seven nations that claim portions of Antarctica as national territory (some claims overlap) and 21 non-claimant nations; the US and Russia have reserved the right to make claims; the US does not recognize the claims of others; Antarctica is administered through meetings of the consultative member nations; decisions from these meetings are carried out by these member nations (with respect to their own nationals and operations) in accordance with their own national laws; the years in parentheses indicate when a consultative member-nation acceded to the Treaty and when it was accepted as a consultative member, while no date indicates the country was an original 1959 treaty signatory; claimant nations are - Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, NZ, Norway, and the UK. Nonclaimant consultative nations are - Belgium, Brazil (1975/1983), Bulgaria (1978/1998) China (1983/1985), Ecuador (1987/1990), Finland (1984/1989), Germany (1979/1981), India (1983/1983), Italy (1981/1987), Japan, South Korea (1986/1989), Netherlands (1967/1990), Peru (1981/1989), Poland (1961/1977), Russia, South Africa, Spain (1982/1988), Sweden (1984/1988), Ukraine (1992/2004), Uruguay (1980/1985), and the US; non-consultative members, with year of accession in parentheses, are - Austria (1987), Canada (1988), Colombia (1989), Cuba (1984), Czech Republic (1962/1993), Denmark (1965), Estonia (2001), Greece (1987), Guatemala (1991), Hungary (1984), North Korea (1987), Papua New Guinea (1981), Romania (1971), Slovakia (1962/1993), Switzerland (1990), Turkey (1996), and Venezuela (1999); note - Czechoslovakia acceded to the Treaty in 1962 and separated into the Czech Republic and Slovakia in 1993; Article 1 - area to be used for peaceful purposes only; military activity, such as weapons testing, is prohibited, but military personnel and equipment may be used for scientific research or any other peaceful purpose; Article 2 - freedom of scientific investigation and cooperation shall continue; Article 3 - free exchange of information and personnel, cooperation with the UN and other international agencies; Article 4 - does not recognize, dispute, or establish territorial claims and no new claims shall be asserted while the treaty is in force; Article 5 - prohibits nuclear explosions or disposal of radioactive wastes; Article 6 - includes under the treaty all land and ice shelves south of 60 degrees 00 minutes south and reserves high seas rights; Article 7 - treaty-state observers have free access, including aerial observation, to any area and may inspect all stations, installations, and equipment; advance notice of all expeditions and of the introduction of military personnel must be given; Article 8 - allows for jurisdiction over observers and scientists by their own states; Article 9 - frequent consultative meetings take place among member nations; Article 10 - treaty states will discourage activities by any country in Antarctica that are contrary to the treaty; Article 11 - disputes to be settled peacefully by the parties concerned or, ultimately, by the ICJ; Articles 12, 13, 14 - deal with upholding, interpreting, and amending the treaty among involved nations; other agreements - some 200 recommendations adopted at treaty consultative meetings and ratified by governments include - Agreed Measures for Fauna and Flora (1964) which were later incorporated into the Environmental Protocol; Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (1972); Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (1980); a mineral resources agreement was signed in 1988 but remains unratified; the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was signed 4 October 1991 and entered into force 14 January 1998; this agreement provides for the protection of the Antarctic environment through six specific annexes: 1) environmental impact assessment, 2) conservation of Antarctic fauna and flora, 3) waste disposal and waste management, 4) prevention of marine pollution, 5) area protection and management and 6) liability arising from environmental emergencies; it prohibits all activities relating to mineral resources except scientific research; a permanent Antarctic Treaty Secretariat was established in 2004 in Buenos Aires, Argentina

Legal system:
  Antarctica is administered through meetings of the consultative
  member nations; decisions from these meetings are carried out by
  these member nations (with respect to their own nationals and
  operations) in accordance with their own national laws; US law,
  including certain criminal offenses by or against US nationals, such
  as murder, may apply extraterritorially; some US laws directly apply
  to Antarctica; for example, the Antarctic Conservation Act, 16
  U.S.C. section 2401 et seq., provides civil and criminal penalties
  for the following activities, unless authorized by regulation of
  statute: the taking of native mammals or birds; the introduction of
  nonindigenous plants and animals; entry into specially protected
  areas; the discharge or disposal of pollutants; and the importation
  into the US of certain items from Antarctica; violation of the
  Antarctic Conservation Act carries penalties of up to $10,000 in
  fines and one year in prison; the National Science Foundation and
  Department of Justice share enforcement responsibilities; Public Law
  95-541, the US Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, as amended in
  1996, requires expeditions from the US to Antarctica to notify, in
  advance, the Office of Oceans, Room 5805, Department of State,
  Washington, DC 20520, which reports such plans to other nations as
  required by the Antarctic Treaty; for more information, contact
  Permit Office, Office of Polar Programs, National Science
  Foundation, Arlington, Virginia 22230; telephone: (703) 292-8030, or
  visit their website at www.nsf.gov; more generally, access to the
  Antarctic Treaty area, that is to all areas between 60 and 90
  degrees south latitude, is subject to a number of relevant legal
  instruments and authorization procedures adopted by the states party
  to the Antarctic Treaty

Economy Antarctica

Economy - overview:
  Fishing off the coast and tourism, both based abroad, account for
  Antarctica's limited economic activity. Antarctic fisheries in
  2003-04 (1 July-30 June) reported landing 136,262 metric tons
  (estimated fishing from the area covered by the Convention on the
  Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), which
  extends slightly beyond the Antarctic Treaty area). Unregulated
  fishing, particularly of Patagonian toothfish, is a serious problem.
  The CCAMLR determines the recommended catch limits for marine
  species. A total of 23,175 tourists visited in the 2004-05 Antarctic
  summer, up from the 19,486 visitors the previous year. Nearly all of
  them were passengers on commercial (nongovernmental) ships and
  several yachts that make trips during the summer. Most tourist trips
  last approximately two weeks.

Communications Antarctica

Telephones - main lines in use:
  0; note - information for US bases only (2001)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  NA

Telephone system:
  general assessment: local systems at some research stations
  domestic: commercial cellular networks operating in a small number
  of locations
  international: country code - 672; via satellite (including mobile
  Inmarsat and Iridium systems) from all research stations, ships,
  aircraft, and most field parties

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM NA, FM 2, shortwave 1, note - information for US bases only
  (2002)

Radios:
  NA

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (cable system with six channels; American Forces Antarctic
  Network-McMurdo)
  note: information for US bases only (2002)

Televisions:
  several hundred at McMurdo Station (US)
  note: information for US bases only (2001)

Internet country code:
  .aq

Internet hosts:
  7,757 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  NA

Transportation Antarctica

Airports: 20 note: there are no developed public access airports or landing facilities; 28 stations or remote field locations, operated by 11 National Antarctic Programs from nations party to the Antarctic Treaty, have restricted aircraft landing facilities comprising a total of 11 runways and 22 skiways for fixed-wing aircraft; some stations have both runways and skiways; commercial enterprises operate two aircraft landing facilities at one station; helicopter pads are available at all 37 year-round and 15 seasonal stations operated by National Antarctic Programs; the 11 runways are suitable for wheeled, fixed-wing aircraft: three are gravel, four blue-ice, two sea-ice and two compacted snow; of these, five are 3 km in length, two are between 2 km and 3 km in length, three are between 1 km and 2 km in length and one is less than 1 km in length; the 22 snow surface skiways are limited to use by ski-equipped, fixed-wing aircraft; of these, three are equal to or greater than 3 km in length, one is between 2 km and 3 km in length, nine are between 1 km and 2 km in length, five are less than 1 km in length, and four are of unknown or variable length; snow surface skiways are generally prepared and maintained during specific periods only and during summer; all aircraft landing facilities subject to severe restrictions and limitations resulting from extreme seasonal and geographic conditions; aircraft landing facilities do not meet ICAO standards; advance approval from the respective governmental or nongovernmental operating organization required for using their facilities; landed aircraft are subject to inspection in accordance with Article 7, Antarctic Treaty; guidelines for the operation of aircraft near concentrations of birds in Antarctica were adopted in 2004; relevant legal instruments and authorization procedures adopted by states party to the Antarctic Treaty regulating access to the Antarctic Treaty area, that is to all areas between 60 and 90 degrees of latitude South, have to be complied with (see information under "Legal System"); an Antarctic Flight Information Manual (AFIM) providing up-to-date details of Antarctic air facilities and procedures is maintained and published by the Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 28 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 8 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 10 under 914 m: 4 length unknown or variable: 4 (2006)

Heliports:
  37
  note: all 37 year-round and 15 seasonal stations operated by
  National Antarctic Programs stations have restricted helicopter
  landing facilities (helipads) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  there are no developed ports and harbors in Antarctica; most
  coastal stations have offshore anchorages, and supplies are
  transferred from ship to shore by small boats, barges, and
  helicopters; a few stations have a basic wharf facility; US coastal
  stations include McMurdo (77 51 S, 166 40 E), and Palmer (64 43 S,
  64 03 W); government use only except by permit (see Permit Office
  under "Legal System"); all ships at port are subject to inspection
  in accordance with Article 7, Antarctic Treaty; offshore anchorage
  is sparse and intermittent; relevant legal instruments and
  authorization procedures adopted by the states parties to the
  Antarctic Treaty regulating access to the Antarctic Treaty area, to
  all areas between 60 and 90 degrees of latitude south, have to be
  complied with (see "Legal System"); The Hydrographic Committee on
  Antarctica (HCA), a special hydrographic commission of International
  Hydrographic Organization (IHO), is responsible for hydrographic
  surveying and nautical charting matters in Antarctic Treaty area; it
  coordinates and facilitates provision of accurate and appropriate
  charts and other aids to navigation in support of safety of
  navigation in region; membership of HCA is open to any IHO Member
  State whose government has acceded to the Antarctic Treaty and which
  contributes resources and/or data to IHO Chart coverage of the area;
  members of HCA are Argentina, Australia, Chile, China, France,
  Germany, Greece, India, Italy, NZ, Norway, Russia, South Africa,
  Spain, and the UK (2005)

Military Antarctica

Military - note:
  the Antarctic Treaty prohibits any measures of a military nature,
  such as the establishment of military bases and fortifications, the
  carrying out of military maneuvers, or the testing of any type of
  weapon; it permits the use of military personnel or equipment for
  scientific research or for any other peaceful purposes

Transnational Issues Antarctica

Disputes - international:
  Antarctic Treaty freezes claims (see Antarctic Treaty Summary in
  government type entry); Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, NZ,
  Norway, and UK claim land and maritime sectors (some overlapping)
  for a large portion of the continent; the US and many other states
  do not recognize these territorial claims and have made no claims
  themselves (the US and Russia reserve the right to do so); no claims
  have been made in the sector between 90 degrees west and 150 degrees
  west; several states with territorial claims in Antarctica have
  expressed their intention to submit data to the UN Commission on the
  Limits of the Continental Shelf to extend their continental shelf
  claims to adjoining undersea ridges

This page was last updated on 19 December, 2006

======================================================================

@Antigua and Barbuda

Introduction Antigua and Barbuda

Background:
  The Siboney were the first to inhabit the islands of Antigua and
  Barbuda in 2400 B.C., but Arawak Indians populated the islands when
  Columbus landed on his second voyage in 1493. Early settlements by
  the Spanish and French were succeeded by the English who formed a
  colony in 1667. Slavery, established to run the sugar plantations on
  Antigua, was abolished in 1834. The islands became an independent
  state within the British Commonwealth of Nations in 1981.

Geography Antigua and Barbuda

Location:
  Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic
  Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates:
  17 03 N, 61 48 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 442.6 sq km (Antigua 280 sq km; Barbuda 161 sq km)
  land: 442.6 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  note: includes Redonda, 1.6 sq km

Area - comparative:
  2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  153 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate:
  tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain:
  mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands, with some higher
  volcanic areas

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Boggy Peak 402 m

Natural resources:
  NEGL; pleasant climate fosters tourism

Land use:
  arable land: 18.18%
  permanent crops: 4.55%
  other: 77.27% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  NA

Natural hazards:
  hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: water management - a major concern because of limited natural fresh water resources - is further hampered by the clearing of trees to increase crop production, causing rainfall to run off quickly

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  Antigua has a deeply indented shoreline with many natural harbors
  and beaches; Barbuda has a very large western harbor

People Antigua and Barbuda

Population:
  69,108 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 27.6% (male 9,716/female 9,375)
  15-64 years: 68.5% (male 23,801/female 23,524)
  65 years and over: 3.9% (male 1,020/female 1,672) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 30 years
  male: 29.5 years
  female: 30.5 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.55% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  16.93 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  5.37 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -6.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female
  total population: 1 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 18.86 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 22.71 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 14.82 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 72.16 years
  male: 69.78 years
  female: 74.66 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.24 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality: noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s) adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan

Ethnic groups:
  black, British, Portuguese, Lebanese, Syrian

Religions:
  Christian (predominantly Anglican with other Protestant, and some
  Roman Catholic)

Languages:
  English (official), local dialects

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of
  schooling
  total population: 85.8%
  male: NA%
  female: NA% (2003 est.)

Government Antigua and Barbuda

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Antigua and Barbuda

Government type:
  constitutional parliamentary democracy

Capital:
  name: Saint John's
  geographic coordinates: 17 06 N, 61 51 W
  time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
  6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George,
  Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip

Independence:
  1 November 1981 (from UK)

National holiday:
  Independence Day (National Day), 1 November (1981)

Constitution:
  1 November 1981

Legal system:
  based on English common law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor General Sir James B. CARLISLE (since 10 June
  1993)
  head of government: Prime Minister Winston Baldwin SPENCER (since 24
  March 2004)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on
  the advice of the prime minister
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general chosen
  by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; following
  legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the
  leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister
  by the governor general

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (17-member body
  appointed by the governor general) and the House of Representatives
  (17 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to
  serve five-year terms)
  elections: House of Representatives - last held 23 March 2004 (next
  to be held in 2009)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
  ALP 4, UPP 13

Judicial branch:
  Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint Lucia; one judge of
  the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the
  Court of Summary Jurisdiction); member Caribbean Court of Justice

Political parties and leaders:
  Antigua Labor Party or ALP [Lester Bryant BIRD]; Barbuda People's
  Movement or BPM [Thomas H. FRANK]; National Democratic Congress
  [Tillman THOMAS]; United Progressive Party or UPP [Baldwin SPENCER]
  (a coalition of three opposition parties - Antigua Caribbean
  Liberation Movement or ACLM, Progressive Labor Movement or PLM,
  United National Democratic Party or UNDP)

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Antigua Trades and Labor Union or ATLU [William ROBINSON]; People's
  Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh MARSHALL]

International organization participation:
  ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM,
  IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber),
  ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OAS, OECS, OPANAL, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Deborah Mae LOVELL chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016 telephone: [1] (202) 362-5122 FAX: [1] (202) 362-5225 consulate(s) general: Miami

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Antigua and Barbuda (embassy closed 30 June 1994); the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda

Flag description:
  red, with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of
  the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black
  (top), light blue, and white, with a yellow rising sun in the black
  band

Economy Antigua and Barbuda

Economy - overview:
  Tourism continues to dominate the economy, accounting for more than
  half of GDP. Weak tourist arrival numbers since early 2000 have
  slowed the economy, however, and pressed the government into a tight
  fiscal corner. The dual-island nation's agricultural production is
  focused on the domestic market and constrained by a limited water
  supply and a labor shortage stemming from the lure of higher wages
  in tourism and construction. Manufacturing comprises enclave-type
  assembly for export with major products being bedding, handicrafts,
  and electronic components. Prospects for economic growth in the
  medium term will continue to depend on income growth in the
  industrialized world, especially in the US, which accounts for
  slightly more than one-third of tourist arrivals.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $750 million (2002 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $905 million

GDP - real growth rate:
  3.8% (2005 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $10,900 (2005 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 3.8% industry: 22% services: 74.3% (2002)

Labor force: 30,000

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 7% industry: 11% services: 82% (1983)

Unemployment rate:
  11% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  0.9% (2005 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $123.7 million
  expenditures: $145.9 million; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2000 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  cotton, fruits, vegetables, bananas, coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes,
  sugarcane; livestock

Industries:
  tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol,
  household appliances)

Industrial production growth rate:
  6% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production:
  100 million kWh (2003)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  93 million kWh (2003)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2003)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2003)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2003)

Oil - consumption:
  3,600 bbl/day (2003 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  0 cu m (2003 est.)

Current account balance:
  $-83.4 million

Exports:
  $46.81 million (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  petroleum products 48%, manufactures 23%, machinery and transport
  equipment 17%, food and live animals 4%, other 8%

Exports - partners:
  Spain 34%, Germany 20.7%, Italy 7.7%, Singapore 5.8%, UK 4.9% (2005)

Imports:
  $378 million (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment,
  manufactures, chemicals, oil

Imports - partners:
  US 21.1%, China 16.4%, Germany 13.3%, Singapore 12.7%, Spain 6.5%
  (2005)

Debt - external:
  $427.3 million; note - data are for public external debt, not total
  external debt (2000)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $1.65 million (2004)

Currency (code):
  East Caribbean dollar (XCD)

Currency code:
  XCD

Exchange rates:
  East Caribbean dollars per US dollar - 2.7 (2005), 2.7 (2004), 2.7
  (2003), 2.7 (2002), 2.7 (2001)
  note: fixed rate since 1976

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Antigua and Barbuda

Telephones - main lines in use:
  38,000 (2004)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  54,000 (2004)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: good automatic telephone system
  international: country code - 1-268; 1 coaxial submarine cable;
  satellite earth station - 2; tropospheric scatter to Saba
  (Netherlands Antilles) and Guadeloupe

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 4, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  36,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  2 (1997)

Televisions:
  31,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .ag

Internet hosts:
  2,231 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  16 (2000)

Internet users:
  20,000 (2005)

Transportation Antigua and Barbuda

Airports:
  3 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  under 914 m: 1 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  under 914 m: 1 (2006)

Roadways:
  total: 1,165 km
  paved: 384 km
  unpaved: 781 km (2002)

Merchant marine:
  total: 1,011 ships (1000 GRT or over) 7,452,503 GRT/9,783,309 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 40, cargo 596, chemical tanker 7, container
  321, liquefied gas 11, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 1,
  refrigerated cargo 12, roll on/roll off 21
  foreign-owned: 984 (Australia 1, Bangladesh 4, Belgium 4, Colombia
  2, Denmark 14, Estonia 12, France 1, Germany 858, Iceland 8, Isle of
  Man 2, Latvia 5, Lebanon 1, Lithuania 3, Netherlands 14, Norway 11,
  NZ 1, Poland 3, Russia 6, Singapore 1, Slovenia 6, Switzerland 4,
  Turkey 8, UK 7, US 7, Vietnam 1) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Saint John's

Military Antigua and Barbuda

Military branches:
  Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force (2006)

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age (est.); no conscript military service (2001)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 18,952
  females age 18-49: 18,360 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 14,859
  females age 18-49: 14,947 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 507
  females age 18-49: 494 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  NA

Transnational Issues Antigua and Barbuda

Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  considered a minor transshipment point for narcotics bound for the
  US and Europe; more significant as an offshore financial center

This page was last updated on 19 December, 2006

======================================================================

@Arctic Ocean

Introduction Arctic Ocean

Background:
  The Arctic Ocean is the smallest of the world's five oceans (after
  the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, and the recently
  delimited Southern Ocean). The Northwest Passage (US and Canada) and
  Northern Sea Route (Norway and Russia) are two important seasonal
  waterways. A sparse network of air, ocean, river, and land routes
  circumscribes the Arctic Ocean.

Geography Arctic Ocean

Location:
  body of water between Europe, Asia, and North America, mostly north
  of the Arctic Circle

Geographic coordinates:
  90 00 N, 0 00 E

Map references:
  Arctic Region

Area:
  total: 14.056 million sq km
  note: includes Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea,
  East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara
  Sea, Laptev Sea, Northwest Passage, and other tributary water bodies

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US

Coastline:
  45,389 km

Climate:
  polar climate characterized by persistent cold and relatively
  narrow annual temperature ranges; winters characterized by
  continuous darkness, cold and stable weather conditions, and clear
  skies; summers characterized by continuous daylight, damp and foggy
  weather, and weak cyclones with rain or snow

Terrain:
  central surface covered by a perennial drifting polar icepack that,
  on average, is about 3 meters thick, although pressure ridges may be
  three times that thickness; clockwise drift pattern in the Beaufort
  Gyral Stream, but nearly straight-line movement from the New
  Siberian Islands (Russia) to Denmark Strait (between Greenland and
  Iceland); the icepack is surrounded by open seas during the summer,
  but more than doubles in size during the winter and extends to the
  encircling landmasses; the ocean floor is about 50% continental
  shelf (highest percentage of any ocean) with the remainder a central
  basin interrupted by three submarine ridges (Alpha Cordillera,
  Nansen Cordillera, and Lomonosov Ridge)

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Fram Basin -4,665 m
  highest point: sea level 0 m

Natural resources:
  sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules,
  oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and whales)

Natural hazards:
  ice islands occasionally break away from northern Ellesmere Island;
  icebergs calved from glaciers in western Greenland and extreme
  northeastern Canada; permafrost in islands; virtually ice locked
  from October to June; ships subject to superstructure icing from
  October to May

Environment - current issues:
  endangered marine species include walruses and whales; fragile
  ecosystem slow to change and slow to recover from disruptions or
  damage; thinning polar icepack

Geography - note:
  major chokepoint is the southern Chukchi Sea (northern access to
  the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait); strategic location between
  North America and Russia; shortest marine link between the extremes
  of eastern and western Russia; floating research stations operated
  by the US and Russia; maximum snow cover in March or April about 20
  to 50 centimeters over the frozen ocean; snow cover lasts about 10
  months

Economy Arctic Ocean

Economy - overview:
  Economic activity is limited to the exploitation of natural
  resources, including petroleum, natural gas, fish, and seals.

Transportation Arctic Ocean

Ports and terminals:
  Churchill (Canada), Murmansk (Russia), Prudhoe Bay (US)

Transportation - note:
  sparse network of air, ocean, river, and land routes; the Northwest
  Passage (North America) and Northern Sea Route (Eurasia) are
  important seasonal waterways

Transnational Issues Arctic Ocean

Disputes - international: some maritime disputes (see littoral states)

This page was last updated on 19 December, 2006

======================================================================

@Argentina

Introduction Argentina

Background:
  In 1816, the United Provinces of the Rio Plata declared their
  independence from Spain. Eventually, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay
  went their own way, but the area that remained became Argentina. The
  country's population and culture were subsequently heavily shaped by
  immigrants from throughout Europe, but most particularly Italy and
  Spain, which provided the largest percentage of newcomers from 1860
  to 1930. Up until about the mid-20th century, much of Argentina's
  history was dominated by periods of internal political conflict
  between conservatives and liberals and between civilian and military
  factions. After World War II, an era of Peronist authoritarian rule
  and interference in subsequent governments was followed by a
  military junta that took power in 1976. Democracy returned in 1983,
  and has persisted despite numerous challenges, the most formidable
  of which was a severe economic crisis in 2001-02 that led to violent
  public protests and the resignation of several interim presidents.
  Successful negotiations with the IMF allowed Argentina to sidestep
  some fiscal discipline measures normally imposed in such
  circumstances. Since 2003, the government's efforts to stem the
  crisis have led to rapid economic recovery.

Geography Argentina

Location:
  Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between
  Chile and Uruguay

Geographic coordinates:
  34 00 S, 64 00 W

Map references:
  South America

Area:
  total: 2,766,890 sq km
  land: 2,736,690 sq km
  water: 30,200 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than three-tenths the size of the US

Land boundaries:
  total: 9,665 km
  border countries: Bolivia 832 km, Brazil 1,224 km, Chile 5,150 km,
  Paraguay 1,880 km, Uruguay 579 km

Coastline:
  4,989 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate:
  mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest

Terrain:
  rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling plateau
  of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Laguna del Carbon -105 m (located between Puerto San
  Julian and Comandante Luis Piedra Buena in the province of Santa
  Cruz)
  highest point: Cerro Aconcagua 6,960 m (located in the northwestern
  corner of the province of Mendoza)

Natural resources:
  fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron ore,
  manganese, petroleum, uranium

Land use: arable land: 10.03% permanent crops: 0.36% other: 89.61% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  15,500 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  San Miguel de Tucuman and Mendoza areas in the Andes subject to
  earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike the
  pampas and northeast; heavy flooding

Environment - current issues: environmental problems (urban and rural) typical of an industrializing economy such as deforestation, soil degradation, desertification, air pollution, and water pollution note: Argentina is a world leader in setting voluntary greenhouse gas targets

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living
  Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate
  Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
  Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
  Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note:
  second-largest country in South America (after Brazil); strategic
  location relative to sea lanes between the South Atlantic and the
  South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake
  Passage); diverse geophysical landscapes range from tropical
  climates in the north to tundra in the far south; Cerro Aconcagua is
  the Western Hemisphere's tallest mountain, while Laguna del Carbon
  is the lowest point in the Western Hemisphere

People Argentina

Population:
  39,921,833 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 25.2% (male 5,153,164/female 4,921,625)
  15-64 years: 64.1% (male 12,804,376/female 12,798,731)
  65 years and over: 10.6% (male 1,740,118/female 2,503,819) (2006
  est.)

Median age: total: 29.7 years male: 28.8 years female: 30.7 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.96% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  16.73 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  7.55 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 14.73 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 16.58 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 12.78 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 76.12 years
  male: 72.38 years
  female: 80.05 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.16 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.7% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  130,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  1,500 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Argentine(s)
  adjective: Argentine

Ethnic groups:
  white (mostly Spanish and Italian) 97%, mestizo (mixed white and
  Amerindian ancestry), Amerindian, or other non-white groups 3%

Religions:
  nominally Roman Catholic 92% (less than 20% practicing), Protestant
  2%, Jewish 2%, other 4%

Languages:
  Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 97.1%
  male: 97.1%
  female: 97.1% (2003 est.)

Government Argentina

Country name:
  conventional long form: Argentine Republic
  conventional short form: Argentina
  local long form: Republica Argentina
  local short form: Argentina

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  name: Buenos Aires
  geographic coordinates: 34 36 S, 58 27 W
  time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
  23 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 autonomous
  city* (distrito federal); Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires Capital
  Federal*, Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Cordoba, Corrientes, Entre Rios,
  Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones, Neuquen, Rio
  Negro, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santiago del
  Estero, Tierra del Fuego - Antartida e Islas del Atlantico Sur,
  Tucuman
  note: the US does not recognize any claims to Antarctica

Independence:
  9 July 1816 (from Spain)

National holiday:
  Revolution Day, 25 May (1810)

Constitution:
  1 May 1853; revised August 1994

Legal system:
  mixture of US and West European legal systems; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Nestor KIRCHNER (since 25 May 2003); Vice
  President Daniel SCIOLI (since 25 May 2003); note - the president is
  both the chief of state and head of government
  head of government: President Nestor KIRCHNER (since 25 May 2003);
  Vice President Daniel SCIOLI (since 25 May 2003); note - the
  president is both the chief of state and head of government
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
  elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket
  by popular vote for four-year terms (eligible for a second term);
  election last held 27 April 2003 (next election to be held in 2007)
  election results: results of the presidential election of 27 April
  2003: Carlos Saul MENEM 24.3%, Nestor KIRCHNER 22%, Ricardo Lopez
  MURPHY 16.4%, Adolfo Rodriguez SAA 14.4%, Elisa CARRIO 14.2%, other
  8.7%; the subsequent runoff election slated for 25 May 2003 was
  awarded to KIRCHNER by default after MENEM withdrew his candidacy on
  the eve of the election

Legislative branch:
  bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the
  Senate (72 seats; members are elected by direct vote; presently
  one-third of the members elected every two years to a six-year term)
  and the Chamber of Deputies (257 seats; members are elected by
  direct vote; one-half of the members elected every two years to a
  four-year term)
  elections: Senate - last held 23 October 2005 (next to be held in
  2007); Chamber of Deputies - last held last held 23 October 2005
  (next to be held in 2007)
  election results: Senate - percent of vote by bloc or party - FV
  45.1%, FJ 17.2%, UCR 7.5%, other 30.2%; seats by bloc or party - FV
  14, FJ 3, UCR 2, other 5; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by
  bloc or party - FV 29.9%, UCR 8.9%, ARI 7.2%, PJ 6.7%, PRO 6.2%, FJ
  3.9%, other 37.2%; seats by bloc or party - FV 50, UCR 10, ARI 8, PJ
  9, PRO 9, FJ 7, other 34

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (the nine Supreme Court judges are
  appointed by the president with approval by the Senate)

Political parties and leaders:
  Alternative for a Republic of Equals or ARI [Elisa CARRIO]; Front
  for Victory or FV [Nestor KIRCHNER]; Interbloque Federal or IF (a
  broad coalition of approximately 12 parties including RECREAR);
  Justicialist Front or FJ [Eduardo DUHALDE]; Justicialist Party or PJ
  (Peronist umbrella political organization); Radical Civic Union or
  UCR [Roberto IGLESIAS]; Republican Initiative Alliance or PRO
  (including Federal Recreate Movement or RECREAR [Ricardo LOPEZ
  MURPHY] and Commitment for Change or CPC [Mauricio MACRI]);
  Socialist Party or PS [Ruben GIUSTINIANI]; Union For All [Patricia
  BULLRICH]; several provincial parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: Argentine Association of Pharmaceutical Labs (CILFA); Argentine Industrial Union (manufacturers' association); Argentine Rural Society (large landowners' association); business organizations; Central of Argentine Workers or CTA (a radical union for employed and unemployed workers); General Confederation of Labor or CGT (Peronist-leaning umbrella labor organization); Peronist-dominated labor movement; Piquetero groups (popular protest organizations that can be either pro or anti-government); Roman Catholic Church; students

International organization participation:
  ABEDA, AfDB, Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CAN (associate), CSN, FAO,
  G-6, G-15, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU,
  ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM,
  IPU, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, NSG,
  OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UN Security Council (temporary),
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMOVIC, UNTSO, UPU, WCL,
  WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Jose Octavio BORDON
  chancery: 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
  telephone: [1] (202) 238-6400
  FAX: [1] (202) 332-3171
  consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
  New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Earl Anthony WAYNE
  embassy: Avenida Colombia 4300, C1425GMN Buenos Aires
  mailing address: international mail: use street address; APO
  address: Unit 4334, APO AA 34034
  telephone: [54] (11) 5777-4533
  FAX: [54] (11) 5777-4240

Flag description:
  three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top), white, and light
  blue; centered in the white band is a radiant yellow sun with a
  human face known as the Sun of May

Economy Argentina

Economy - overview:
  Argentina benefits from rich natural resources, a highly literate
  population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a
  diversified industrial base. Over the past decade, however, the
  country has suffered problems of inflation, external debt, capital
  flight, and budget deficits. Growth in 2000 was a negative 0.8%, as
  both domestic and foreign investors remained skeptical of the
  government's ability to pay debts and maintain the peso's fixed
  exchange rate with the US dollar. The economic situation worsened in
  2001 with the widening of spreads on Argentine bonds, massive
  withdrawals from the banks, and a further decline in consumer and
  investor confidence. Government efforts to achieve a "zero deficit,"
  to stabilize the banking system, and to restore economic growth
  proved inadequate in the face of the mounting economic problems. The
  peso's peg to the dollar was abandoned in January 2002, and the peso
  was floated in February. The exchange rate plunged and real GDP fell
  by 10.9% in 2002, but by mid-year the economy had stabilized, albeit
  at a lower level. GDP expanded by about 9% per year from 2003 to
  2005. Growth is being led by a revival in domestic demand, solid
  exports, and favorable external conditions. The government boosted
  spending ahead of the October 2005 midterm congressional elections,
  but strong revenue performance allowed Argentina to maintain a
  budget surplus. Inflation has been rising steadily and reached 12.3
  percent in 2005.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $543.4 billion (2005 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $182 billion (2005 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  9.2% (2005 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $13,700 (2005 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 9.5% industry: 35.8% services: 54.7% (2004 est.)

Labor force: 15.34 million (2005 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Unemployment rate:
  11.6% (2005 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  38.5% (June 2005)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA
  highest 10%: NA

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  52.2 (2001)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  9.6% (2005 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  21.5% of GDP (2005 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $42.63 billion
  expenditures: $39.98 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2005 est.)

Public debt:
  72.5% of GDP (2005 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  sunflower seeds, lemons, soybeans, grapes, corn, tobacco, peanuts,
  tea, wheat; livestock

Industries:
  food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles,
  chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel

Industrial production growth rate:
  7.7% (2005 est.)

Electricity - production:
  87.16 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 52.2% hydro: 40.8% nuclear: 6.7% other: 0.2% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  82.97 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  2.07 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  1.561 billion kWh (2004)

Oil - production:
  745,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  450,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day

Oil - proved reserves:
  2.95 billion bbl (2005 est.)

Natural gas - production:
  41.04 billion cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  34.58 billion cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  6.05 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  663.5 billion cu m (2005)

Current account balance:
  $5.448 billion (2005 est.)

Exports:
  $40 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  edible oils, fuels and energy, cereals, feed, motor vehicles

Exports - partners:
  Brazil 15.3%, US 10.8%, Chile 10.5%, China 8.3% (2005)

Imports:
  $28.8 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, metal
  manufactures, plastics

Imports - partners:
  Brazil 34.6%, US 16.8%, China 5.4%, Germany 5.3% (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $28.09 billion (2005 est.)

Debt - external:
  $118.2 billion (2005 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $10 billion (2001 est.)

Currency (code):
  Argentine peso (ARS)

Currency code:
  ARS

Exchange rates:
  Argentine pesos per US dollar - 2.9037 (2005), 2.9233 (2004),
  2.9006 (2003), 3.0633 (2002), 0.9995 (2001)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Argentina

Telephones - main lines in use:
  8.8 million (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  22.1 million (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: by opening the telecommunications market to
  competition and foreign investment with the "Telecommunications
  Liberalization Plan of 1998," Argentina encouraged the growth of
  modern telecommunications technology; fiber-optic cable trunk lines
  are being installed between all major cities; the major networks are
  entirely digital and the availability of telephone service is
  improving; however, telephone density is presently minimal, and
  making telephone service universally available will take time
  domestic: microwave radio relay, fiber-optic cable, and a domestic
  satellite system with 40 earth stations serve the trunk network;
  more than 110,000 pay telephones are installed and mobile telephone
  use is rapidly expanding
  international: country code - 54; satellite earth stations - 112;
  Atlantis II and Unisur submarine cables; two international gateways
  near Buenos Aires (2005)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 260 (including 10 inactive stations), FM NA (probably more than
  1,000, mostly unlicensed), shortwave 6 (1998)

Radios:
  24.3 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  42 (plus 444 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions:
  7.95 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .ar

Internet hosts:
  1,612,423 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  33 (2000)

Internet users:
  10 million (2005)

Transportation Argentina

Airports: 1,381 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 154
  over 3,047 m: 4
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 26
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 65
  914 to 1,523 m: 50
  under 914 m: 9 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1,227
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 49
  914 to 1,523 m: 587
  under 914 m: 587 (2006)

Pipelines:
  gas 29,804 km; liquid petroleum gas 41 km; oil 10,373 km; refined
  products 8,540 km; unknown (oil/water) 13 km (2006)

Railways:
  total: 31,902 km
  broad gauge: 20,858 km 1.676-m gauge (141 km electrified)
  standard gauge: 2,885 km 1.435-m gauge (26 km electrified)
  narrow gauge: 7,922 km 1.000-m gauge; 237 km 0.750-m gauge (2005)

Roadways:
  total: 229,144 km
  paved: 68,809 km (including 734 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 160,335 km (2004)

Waterways:
  11,000 km (2005)

Merchant marine:
  total: 41 ships (1000 GRT or over) 435,969 GRT/707,767 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 2, cargo 10, chemical tanker 1, passenger 1,
  passenger/cargo 3, petroleum tanker 21, refrigerated cargo 2, roll
  on/roll off 1
  foreign-owned: 11 (Chile 6, UK 4, Uruguay 1)
  registered in other countries: 24 (Bolivia 1, Chile 1, Liberia 7,
  Panama 9, Paraguay 3, Uruguay 3) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, Concepcion del Uruguay, La Plata, Punta
  Colorada, Rosario, San Lorenzo-San Martin, San Nicolas

Military Argentina

Military branches:
  Argentine Army, Navy of the Argentine Republic (includes naval
  aviation and naval infantry), Argentine Air Force (Fuerza Aerea
  Argentina, FAA) (2005)

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription
  (2001)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 8,981,886
  females age 18-49: 8,883,756 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 7,316,038
  females age 18-49: 7,442,589 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 344,575
  females age 18-49: 334,649 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $4.3 billion (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.3% (FY00)

Military - note:
  the Argentine military is a well-organized force constrained by the
  country's prolonged economic hardship; the country has recently
  experienced a strong recovery, and the military is now implementing
  "Plan 2000," aimed at making the ground forces lighter and more
  responsive (2005)

Transnational Issues Argentina

Disputes - international:
  Argentina continues to assert its claims to the UK-administered
  Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) and South Georgia and the South
  Sandwich Islands in its constitution, forcibly occupying the
  Falklands in 1982, but in 1995 agreed no longer to seek settlement
  by force; territorial claim in Antarctica partially overlaps UK and
  Chilean claims (see Antarctic disputes); unruly region at
  convergence of Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay borders is locus of money
  laundering, smuggling, arms and illegal narcotics trafficking, and
  fundraising for extremist organizations; uncontested dispute between
  Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim
  River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question; action by the
  joint boundary commission, established by Chile and Argentina in
  2001, for mapping and demarcating the disputed boundary in the
  Andean Southern Ice Field (Campo de Hielo Sur) remains pending

Trafficking in persons:
  current situation: Argentina is primarily a destination country for
  women and children trafficked for sexual and labor exploitation with
  most victims trafficked internally, from rural to urban areas, for
  exploitation in prostitution; foreign women and children trafficked
  for commercial sexual exploitation come primarily from Paraguay, but
  also from Bolivia, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, Colombia, and
  Chile; Bolivians are trafficked for forced labor; Argentine women
  and girls are also trafficked to neighboring countries for sexual
  exploitation
  tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Argentina failed to show evidence
  of increasing efforts to combat trafficking particularly in the key
  area of prosecutions; government efforts to improve interagency
  anti-trafficking coordination did not achieve significant progress
  in moving cases against traffickers through the judicial system; the
  government made progress in other areas, by submitting
  anti-trafficking legislation to Congress in August 2005 and
  sensitizing provincial and municipal government officials to the
  trafficking problem

Illicit drugs:
  used as a transshipment country for cocaine headed for Europe; some
  money-laundering activity, especially in the Tri-Border Area;
  domestic consumption of drugs in urban centers is increasing

This page was last updated on 19 December, 2006

======================================================================

@Armenia

Introduction Armenia

Background:
  Armenia prides itself on being the first nation to formally adopt
  Christianity (early 4th century). Despite periods of autonomy, over
  the centuries Armenia came under the sway of various empires
  including the Roman, Byzantine, Arab, Persian, and Ottoman. During
  World War I in the western portion of Armenia, Ottoman Turkey
  instituted a policy of forced resettlement coupled with other harsh
  practices that resulted in an estimated 1 million Armenian deaths.
  The eastern area of Armenia was ceded by the Ottomans to Russia in
  1828; this portion declared its independence in 1918, but was
  conquered by the Soviet Red Army in 1920. Armenian leaders remain
  preoccupied by the long conflict with Muslim Azerbaijan over
  Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily Armenian-populated region, assigned to
  Soviet Azerbaijan in the 1920s by Moscow. Armenia and Azerbaijan
  began fighting over the area in 1988; the struggle escalated after
  both countries attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991.
  By May 1994, when a cease-fire took hold, Armenian forces held not
  only Nagorno-Karabakh but also a significant portion of Azerbaijan
  proper. The economies of both sides have been hurt by their
  inability to make substantial progress toward a peaceful resolution.
  Turkey imposed an economic blockade on Armenia and closed the common
  border because of the Armenian occupation of Nagorno-Karabakh and
  surrounding areas.

Geography Armenia

Location:
  Southwestern Asia, east of Turkey

Geographic coordinates:
  40 00 N, 45 00 E

Map references:
  Asia

Area:
  total: 29,800 sq km
  land: 28,400 sq km
  water: 1,400 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,254 km
  border countries: Azerbaijan-proper 566 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan
  exclave 221 km, Georgia 164 km, Iran 35 km, Turkey 268 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  highland continental, hot summers, cold winters

Terrain:
  Armenian Highland with mountains; little forest land; fast flowing
  rivers; good soil in Aras River valley

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Debed River 400 m
  highest point: Aragats Lerrnagagat' 4,090 m

Natural resources:
  small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, alumina

Land use: arable land: 16.78% permanent crops: 2.01% other: 81.21% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  2,860 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  occasionally severe earthquakes; droughts

Environment - current issues:
  soil pollution from toxic chemicals such as DDT; the energy crisis
  of the 1990s led to deforestation when citizens scavenged for
  firewood; pollution of Hrazdan (Razdan) and Aras Rivers; the
  draining of Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan), a result of its use as a
  source for hydropower, threatens drinking water supplies; restart of
  Metsamor nuclear power plant in spite of its location in a
  seismically active zone

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate
  Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
  Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

Geography - note:
  landlocked in the Lesser Caucasus Mountains; Sevana Lich (Lake
  Sevan) is the largest lake in this mountain range

People Armenia

Population:
  2,976,372 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 20.5% (male 322,189/female 286,944)
  15-64 years: 68.4% (male 949,975/female 1,085,484)
  65 years and over: 11.1% (male 133,411/female 198,369) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 30.4 years
  male: 27.8 years
  female: 33.2 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  -0.19% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  12.07 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  8.23 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -5.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.17 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.12 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.9 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 22.47 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 27.59 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 16.51 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 71.84 years
  male: 68.25 years
  female: 76.02 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.33 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.1% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  2,600 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 200 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Armenian(s)
  adjective: Armenian

Ethnic groups:
  Armenian 97.9%, Yezidi (Kurd) 1.3%, Russian 0.5%, other 0.3% (2001
  census)

Religions:
  Armenian Apostolic 94.7%, other Christian 4%, Yezidi (monotheist
  with elements of nature worship) 1.3%

Languages:
  Armenian 97.7%, Yezidi 1%, Russian 0.9%, other 0.4% (2001 census)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 98.6%
  male: 99.4%
  female: 98% (2003 est.)

Government Armenia

Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Armenia
  conventional short form: Armenia
  local long form: Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun
  local short form: Hayastan
  former: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic; Armenian Republic

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  name: Yerevan
  geographic coordinates: 40 11 N, 44 30 E
  time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)
  daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last
  Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
  11 provinces (marzer, singular - marz); Aragatsotn, Ararat,
  Armavir, Geghark'unik', Kotayk', Lorri, Shirak, Syunik', Tavush,
  Vayots' Dzor, Yerevan

Independence:
  21 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 21 September (1991)

Constitution:
  adopted by nationwide referendum 5 July 1995; amendments adopted
  through a nationwide referendum 27 November 2005

Legal system:
  based on civil law system

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Robert KOCHARIAN (since 30 March 1998)
  head of government: Prime Minister Andranik MARGARYAN (since 12 May
  2000)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term
  (eligible for a second term); election last held 19 February and 5
  March 2003 (next to be held in 2008); prime minister appointed by
  the president and confirmed with the majority support of the
  National Assembly; the prime minister and Council of Ministers must
  resign if the National Assembly refuses to accept their program
  election results: Robert KOCHARIAN reelected president; percent of
  vote - Robert KOCHARIAN 67.5%, Stepan DEMIRCHYAN 32.5%

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly (Parliament) or Azgayin Zhoghov (131
  seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms; 90
  members elected by party list, 41 by direct vote)
  elections: last held 25 May 2003 (next to be held in the spring of
  2007)
  election results: percent of vote by party - Republican Party 23.5%,
  Justice Bloc 13.6%, Rule of Law 12.3%, ARF (Dashnak) 11.4%, National
  Unity Party 8.8%, United Labor Party 5.7%; seats by faction -
  Republican Party 39, Rule of Law 20, Justice Bloc 14, ARF (Dashnak)
  11, National Unity 7, United Labor 6, People's Deputy Group 16,
  independent (not in faction or group) 18; note - as of 10 March
  2006; voting blocs in the legislature are more properly termed
  factions and can be composed of members of several parties; seats by
  faction change frequently as deputies switch parties or announce
  themselves independent

Judicial branch:
  Constitutional Court; Court of Cassation (Appeals Court)

Political parties and leaders:
  Agro-Industrial Party [Vladimir BADALYAN]; Armenia Party [Myasnik
  MALKHASYAN]; Armenian National Movement or ANM [Alex ARZUMANYAN,
  chairman]; Armenian Ramkavar Liberal Party or HRAK [Harutyun
  MIRZAKHANYAN, chairman]; Armenian Revolutionary Federation
  ("Dashnak" Party) or ARF [Levon MKRTCHYAN]; Democratic Party [Aram
  SARKISYAN]; Justice Bloc (comprised of the Democratic Party,
  National Democratic Party, National Democratic Union, the People's
  Party, and the Republic Party) [Stepan DEMIRCHYAN]; National
  Democratic Party [Shavarsh KOCHARIAN]; National Democratic Union or
  NDU [Vazgen MANUKIAN]; National Revival Party [Albert BAZEYAN];
  National Unity Party [Artashes GEGHAMYAN, chairman]; People's Party
  of Armenia [Stepan DEMIRCHYAN]; Republic Party [Aram SARKISYAN,
  chairman]; Republican Party or RPA [Andranik MARGARYAN]; Rule of Law
  Party [Samvel BALASANYAN]; Union of Constitutional Rights [Hrant
  KHACHATURYAN]; United Labor Party [Gurgen ARSENYAN]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Yerkrapah Union [Manvel GRIGORIAN]

International organization participation:
  ACCT (observer), AsDB, BSEC, CE, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, IAEA, IBRD,
  ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
  Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OAS
  (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
  UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Tatoul MARKARIAN
  chancery: 2225 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 319-1976
  FAX: [1] (202) 319-2982
  consulate(s) general: Los Angeles

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Anthony F.
  GODFREY
  embassy: 1 American Ave., Yerevan 375082
  mailing address: American Embassy Yerevan, US Department of State,
  7020 Yerevan Place, Washington, DC 20521-7020
  telephone: [374](10) 464-700
  FAX: [374](10) 464-742

Flag description:
  three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and orange

Economy Armenia

Economy - overview:
  Under the old Soviet central planning system, Armenia had developed
  a modern industrial sector, supplying machine tools, textiles, and
  other manufactured goods to sister republics in exchange for raw
  materials and energy. Since the implosion of the USSR in December
  1991, Armenia has switched to small-scale agriculture away from the
  large agroindustrial complexes of the Soviet era. The agricultural
  sector has long-term needs for more investment and updated
  technology. The privatization of industry has been at a slower pace,
  but has been given renewed emphasis by the current administration.
  Armenia is a food importer, and its mineral deposits (copper, gold,
  bauxite) are small. The ongoing conflict with Azerbaijan over the
  ethnic Armenian-dominated region of Nagorno-Karabakh and the breakup
  of the centrally directed economic system of the former Soviet Union
  contributed to a severe economic decline in the early 1990s. By
  1994, however, the Armenian Government had launched an ambitious
  IMF-sponsored economic liberalization program that resulted in
  positive growth rates in 1995-2005. Armenia joined the WTO in
  January 2003. Armenia also has managed to slash inflation, stabilize
  its currency, and privatize most small- and medium-sized
  enterprises. Armenia's unemployment rate, however, remains high,
  despite strong economic growth. The chronic energy shortages Armenia
  suffered in the early and mid-1990s have been offset by the energy
  supplied by one of its nuclear power plants at Metsamor. Armenia is
  now a net energy exporter, although it does not have sufficient
  generating capacity to replace Metsamor, which is under
  international pressure to close. The electricity distribution system
  was privatized in 2002. Armenia's severe trade imbalance has been
  offset somewhat by international aid, remittances from Armenians
  working abroad, and foreign direct investment. Economic ties with
  Russia remain close, especially in the energy sector. The government
  made some improvements in tax and customs administration in 2005,
  but anti-corruption measures will be more difficult to implement.
  Investment in the construction and industrial sectors is expected to
  continue in 2006 and will help to ensure annual average real GDP
  growth of about 13.9%.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $14.45 billion (2005 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $4.868 billion (2005 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  13.9% (2005 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $4,800 (2005 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 23.9% industry: 34.3% services: 41.8% (2005 est.)

Labor force: 1.2 million (2005)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 45% industry: 25% services: 30% (2002 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  31.6% (2004 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  43% (2003 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.6% highest 10%: 41.3% (2004)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  41.3 (2004)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  0.6% (2005 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  21.4% of GDP (2005 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $786.1 million
  expenditures: $930.7 million; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2005 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  fruit (especially grapes), vegetables; livestock

Industries:
  diamond-processing, metal-cutting machine tools, forging-pressing
  machines, electric motors, tires, knitted wear, hosiery, shoes, silk
  fabric, chemicals, trucks, instruments, microelectronics, jewelry
  manufacturing, software development, food processing, brandy

Industrial production growth rate:
  7.5% (2005 est.)

Electricity - production:
  6.317 billion kWh (2005)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 42.3% hydro: 27% nuclear: 30.7% other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption: 4.374 billion kWh (2005)

Electricity - exports: 650 million kWh; note - exports an unknown quantity to Georgia; includes exports to Nagorno-Karabakh region in Azerbaijan (2003)

Electricity - imports:
  463 million kWh; note - imports an unknown quantity from Iran (2003)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2005)

Oil - consumption:
  40,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2005 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  1.685 billion cu m (2005 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2005 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  1.685 billion cu m (2005 est.)

Current account balance:
  $-118 million (2005 est.)

Exports:
  $800 million f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  diamonds, mineral products, foodstuffs, energy

Exports - partners:
  Germany 15.6%, Netherlands 13.7%, Belgium 12.8%, Russia 12.2%,
  Israel 11.5%, US 11.2%, Georgia 4.8% (2005)

Imports:
  $1.5 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  natural gas, petroleum, tobacco products, foodstuffs, diamonds

Imports - partners:
  Russia 13.5%, Belgium 8%, Germany 7.9%, Ukraine 7%, Turkmenistan
  6.3%, US 6.2%, Israel 5.8%, Iran 5%, Romania 4.2% (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $754.9 million (2005 est.)

Debt - external:
  $1.819 billion (20 September 2005)

Economic aid - recipient:
  ODA, $254 million (2004)

Currency (code):
  dram (AMD)

Currency code:
  AMD

Exchange rates:
  drams per US dollar - 457.69 (2005), 533.45 (2004), 578.76 (2003),
  573.35 (2002), 555.08 (2001)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Armenia

Telephones - main lines in use:
  582,500 (2004)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  320,000 (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: system inadequate; now 90% privately owned and
  undergoing modernization and expansion
  domestic: the majority of subscribers and the most modern equipment
  are in Yerevan (this includes paging and mobile cellular service)
  international: country code - 374; Yerevan is connected to the
  Trans-Asia-Europe fiber-optic cable through Iran; additional
  international service is available by microwave radio relay and
  landline connections to the other countries of the Commonwealth of
  Independent States and through the Moscow international switch and
  by satellite to the rest of the world; satellite earth stations - 3
  (2005)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 9, FM 6, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:
  850,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  3 (plus an unknown number of repeaters) (1998)

Televisions:
  825,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .am

Internet hosts:
  8,163 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  9 (2001)

Internet users:
  150,000 (2005)

Transportation Armenia

Airports: 13 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 11 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2006)

Pipelines:
  gas 2,002 km (2006)

Railways:
  total: 845 km
  broad gauge: 845 km 1.520-m gauge (828 km electrified)
  note: some lines are out of service (2005)

Roadways: total: 7,633 km paved: 7,633 km (includes 1,561 km of expressways) (2003)

Military Armenia

Military branches:
  Armed Forces: Ground Forces, Nagorno-Karabakh Self Defense Force
  (NKSDF), Air Force, Air Defense Force (2006)

Military service age and obligation: 18 to 27 years of age for compulsory military service, conscript service obligation - 12 months; 18 years of age for voluntary military service (2004)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 722,836
  females age 18-49: 795,084 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 551,938
  females age 18-49: 656,493 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 31,774
  females age 18-49: 31,182 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $135 million (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  6.5% (FY01)

Transnational Issues Armenia

Disputes - international:
  Armenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists in Nagorno-Karabakh
  and since the early 1990s, has militarily occupied 16% of Azerbaijan
  - Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)
  continues to mediate dispute; over 800,000 mostly ethnic
  Azerbaijanis were driven from the occupied lands and Armenia; about
  230,000 ethnic Armenians were driven from their homes in Azerbaijan
  into Armenia; Azerbaijan seeks transit route through Armenia to
  connect to Naxcivan exclave; border with Turkey remains closed over
  Nagorno-Karabakh dispute; ethnic Armenian groups in Javakheti region
  of Georgia seek greater autonomy; tens of thousands of Armenians
  emigrate, primarily to Russia, to seek employment

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  refugees (country of origin): 235,101 (Azerbaijan)
  IDPs: 50,000 (conflict with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh) (2005)

Trafficking in persons:
  current situation: Armenia is a major source and, to a lesser
  extent, a transit and destination country for women and girls
  trafficked for sexual exploitation largely to the UAE and Turkey;
  traffickers, many of them women, route victims directly into Dubai
  or through Moscow; profits derived from the trafficking of Armenian
  victims reportedly increased dramatically from 2005
  tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Armenia has failed to show evidence
  of increasing efforts, particularly in the areas of enforcement,
  trafficking-related corruption, and victim protection; the
  government increased implementation of its anti-trafficking law, but
  failed to impose significant penalties for convicted traffickers and
  failed to vigorously investigate and prosecute ongoing and
  widespread allegations of public officials' complicity in
  trafficking; victim protection efforts remain in early, formative
  stages and a lack of sensitivity for victims remains a problem,
  particularly in the judiciary

Illicit drugs:
  illicit cultivation of small amount of cannabis for domestic
  consumption; minor transit point for illicit drugs - mostly opium
  and hashish - moving from Southwest Asia to Russia and to a lesser
  extent the rest of Europe

This page was last updated on 19 December, 2006

======================================================================

@Aruba

Introduction Aruba

Background:
  Discovered and claimed for Spain in 1499, Aruba was acquired by the
  Dutch in 1636. The island's economy has been dominated by three main
  industries. A 19th century gold rush was followed by prosperity
  brought on by the opening in 1924 of an oil refinery. The last
  decades of the 20th century saw a boom in the tourism industry.
  Aruba seceded from the Netherlands Antilles in 1986 and became a
  separate, autonomous member of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
  Movement toward full independence was halted at Aruba's request in
  1990.

Geography Aruba

Location:
  Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, north of Venezuela

Geographic coordinates:
  12 30 N, 69 58 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 193 sq km
  land: 193 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  68.5 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate:
  tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain:
  flat with a few hills; scant vegetation

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Mount Jamanota 188 m

Natural resources:
  NEGL; white sandy beaches

Land use: arable land: 10.53% permanent crops: 0% other: 89.47% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  0.01 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  lies outside the Caribbean hurricane belt

Environment - current issues:
  NA

Geography - note:
  a flat, riverless island renowned for its white sand beaches; its
  tropical climate is moderated by constant trade winds from the
  Atlantic Ocean; the temperature is almost constant at about 27
  degrees Celsius (81 degrees Fahrenheit)

People Aruba

Population:
  71,891 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 19.5% (male 7,175/female 6,849)
  15-64 years: 68.2% (male 23,894/female 25,140)
  65 years and over: 12.3% (male 3,616/female 5,217) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 38.5 years
  male: 36.4 years
  female: 40.3 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.44% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  11.03 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  6.68 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 5.79 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 6.6 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 4.95 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 79.28 years
  male: 75.95 years
  female: 82.78 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.79 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality: noun: Aruban(s) adjective: Aruban; Dutch

Ethnic groups:
  mixed white/Caribbean Amerindian 80%

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 82%, Protestant 8%, Hindu, Muslim, Confucian, Jewish

Languages:
  Dutch (official), Papiamento (a Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, English
  dialect), English (widely spoken), Spanish

Literacy: definition: NA total population: 97% male: NA% female: NA%

Government Aruba

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Aruba

Dependency status:
  member country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; full autonomy in
  internal affairs obtained in 1986 upon separation from the
  Netherlands Antilles; Dutch Government responsible for defense and
  foreign affairs

Government type:
  parliamentary democracy

Capital:
  name: Oranjestad
  geographic coordinates: 12 33 N, 70 06 W
  time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
  none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

Independence:
  none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

National holiday:
  Flag Day, 18 March

Constitution:
  1 January 1986

Legal system:
  based on Dutch civil law system, with some English common law
  influence

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen BEATRIX of the Netherlands (since 30 April
  1980), represented by Governor General Fredis REFUNJOL (since 11 May
  2004)
  head of government: Prime Minister Nelson O. ODUBER (since 30
  October 2001)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the Staten
  elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed for
  a six-year term by the monarch; prime minister and deputy prime
  minister elected by the Staten for four-year terms; election last
  held 2005 (next to be held by 2009)
  election results: Nelson O. ODUBER elected prime minister; percent
  of legislative vote - NA

Legislative branch:
  unicameral Legislature or Staten (21 seats; members elected by
  direct, popular vote to serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 23 September 2005 (next to be held by in 2009)
  election results: percent of vote by party - MEP 43%, AVP 32%, MPA
  7%, RED 7%, PDR 6%, OLA 4%, PPA 2%; seats by party - MEP 11, AVP 8,
  MPA 1, RED 1

Judicial branch:
  Common Court of Justice of Aruba (judges are appointed by the
  monarch)

Political parties and leaders:
  Aliansa/Aruban Social Movement or MSA [Robert WEVER]; Aruban
  Liberal Organization or OLA [Glenbert CROES]; Aruban Patriotic
  Movement or MPA [Monica ARENDS-KOCK]; Aruban Patriotic Party or PPA
  [Benny NISBET]; Aruban People's Party or AVP [Mike EMAN]; People's
  Electoral Movement Party or MEP [Nelson O. ODUBER]; Real Democracy
  or PDR [Andin BIKKER]; RED [Rudy LAMPE]; Workers Political Platform
  or PTT [Gregorio WOLFF]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, UNESCO (associate), UPU, WCL, WMO, WToO
  (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (represented by the Kingdom of the Netherlands); note - Mr. Henry BAARH, Minister Plenipotentiary for Aruba at the Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  the US does not have an embassy in Aruba; the Consul General to
  Netherlands Antilles is accredited to Aruba

Flag description:
  blue, with two narrow, horizontal, yellow stripes across the lower
  portion and a red, four-pointed star outlined in white in the upper
  hoist-side corner

Economy Aruba

Economy - overview:
  Tourism is the mainstay of the small, open Aruban economy, with
  offshore banking and oil refining and storage also important. The
  rapid growth of the tourism sector over the last decade has resulted
  in a substantial expansion of other activities. Over 1.5 million
  tourists per year visit Aruba, with 75% of those from the US.
  Construction continues to boom, with hotel capacity five times the
  1985 level. In addition, the reopening of the country's oil refinery
  in 1993, a major source of employment and foreign exchange earnings,
  has further spurred growth. Tourist arrivals have rebounded strongly
  following a dip after the 11 September 2001 attacks. The island
  experiences only a brief low season, and hotel occupancy in 2004
  averaged 80%, compared to 68% throughout the rest of the Caribbean.
  The newly re-elected government has made cutting the budget and
  trade deficits a high priority.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $2.258 billion (2005 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $2.258 billion

GDP - real growth rate:
  2.4% (2005 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $21,800 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 0.4% NA% industry: 33.3% NA% services: 66.3% NA%

Labor force: 41,500 (2004 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA% note: most employment is in wholesale and retail trade and repair, followed by hotels and restaurants; oil refining

Unemployment rate:
  6.9% (2005 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3.4% (2005)

Budget:
  revenues: $507.9 million
  expenditures: $577.9 million; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2000)

Public debt:
  46.3% of GDP

Agriculture - products:
  aloes; livestock; fish

Industries:
  tourism, transshipment facilities, oil refining

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA%

Electricity - production:
  770 million kWh (2003)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  716.1 million kWh (2003)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2003)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2003)

Oil - production:
  2,363 bbl/day (2003)

Oil - consumption:
  6,500 bbl/day (2003 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  0 cu m (2003 est.)

Exports:
  $80 million f.o.b.; note - includes oil reexports (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  live animals and animal products, art and collectibles, machinery
  and electrical equipment, transport equipment

Exports - partners:
  Netherlands 33.5%, Panama 16.7%, Colombia 11.9%, US 11.3%,
  Venezuela 10.1%, Netherlands Antilles 9% (2005)

Imports:
  $875 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and electrical equipment, crude oil for refining and
  reexport, chemicals; foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
  US 55.9%, Netherlands 12.9%, UK 3.8% (2005)

Debt - external:
  $478.6 million (2005 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $-11.3 million (2004)

Currency (code):
  Aruban guilder/florin (AWG)

Currency code:
  AWG

Exchange rates:
  Aruban guilders/florins per US dollar - 1.79 (2005), 1.79 (2004),
  1.79 (2003), 1.79 (2002), 1.79 (2001)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Aruba

Telephones - main lines in use:
  37,100 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  98,400 (2004)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: modern fully automatic telecommunications system
  domestic: increased competition through privatization; 3 wireless
  service providers are now licensed
  international: country code - 297; 1 submarine cable to Sint Maarten
  (Netherlands Antilles); extensive interisland microwave radio relay
  links

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 16, shortwave 0 (2004)

Radios:
  50,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (1997)

Televisions:
  20,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .aw

Internet hosts:
  11,548 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  NA

Internet users:
  24,000 (2002)

Transportation Aruba

Airports: 1 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2006)

Roadways: total: 800 km paved: 513 km unpaved: 287 km

Ports and terminals:
  Barcadera, Oranjestad, Sint Nicolaas

Military Aruba

Military branches:
  no regular indigenous military forces; Royal Netherlands Navy and
  Marines, Coast Guard

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 16,278 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 13,219 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 520 (2005 est.)

Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of the Kingdom of the Netherlands

Transnational Issues Aruba

Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  transit point for US- and Europe-bound narcotics with some
  accompanying money-laundering activity

This page was last updated on 19 December, 2006

======================================================================

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Introduction Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Background:
  These uninhabited islands came under Australian authority in 1931;
  formal administration began two years later. Ashmore Reef supports a
  rich and diverse avian and marine habitat; in 1983, it became a
  National Nature Reserve. Cartier Island, a former bombing range, is
  now a marine reserve.

Geography Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Location:
  Southeastern Asia, islands in the Indian Ocean, midway between
  northwestern Australia and Timor island

Geographic coordinates:
  12 14 S, 123 05 E

Map references:
  Southeast Asia

Area:
  total: 5 sq km
  land: 5 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  note: includes Ashmore Reef (West, Middle, and East Islets) and
  Cartier Island

Area - comparative:
  about eight times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  74.1 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm contiguous zone: 12 nm continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical

Terrain:
  low with sand and coral

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location 3 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (all grass and sand) (2005)

Irrigated land:
  0 sq km

Natural hazards:
  surrounded by shoals and reefs that can pose maritime hazards

Environment - current issues:
  NA

Geography - note:
  Ashmore Reef National Nature Reserve established in August 1983

People Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Population:
  no indigenous inhabitants
  note: Indonesian fishermen are allowed access to the lagoon and
  fresh water at Ashmore Reef's West Island (July 2006 est.)

People - note:
  the landing of illegal immigrants from Indonesia's Rote Island has
  become an ongoing problem

Government Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Country name:
  conventional long form: Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands
  conventional short form: Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Dependency status:
  territory of Australia; administered by the Australian Department
  of Transport and Regional Services

Legal system:
  the laws of the Commonwealth of Australia and the laws of the
  Northern Territory of Australia, where applicable, apply

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (territory of Australia)

Flag description:
  the flag of Australia is used

Economy Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Economy - overview: no economic activity

Transportation Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Ports and terminals: none; offshore anchorage only

Military Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of Australia; periodic visits by the
  Royal Australian Navy and Royal Australian Air Force

Transnational Issues Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Disputes - international:
  Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef;
  Australia has closed the surrounding waters to Indonesian
  traditional fishing and created a national park in the region while
  continuing to prospect for hydrocarbons in the vicinity

This page was last updated on 19 December, 2006

======================================================================

@Atlantic Ocean

Introduction Atlantic Ocean

Background:
  The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's five oceans
  (after the Pacific Ocean, but larger than the Indian Ocean, Southern
  Ocean, and Arctic Ocean). The Kiel Canal (Germany), Oresund
  (Denmark-Sweden), Bosporus (Turkey), Strait of Gibraltar
  (Morocco-Spain), and the Saint Lawrence Seaway (Canada-US) are
  important strategic access waterways. The decision by the
  International Hydrographic Organization in the spring of 2000 to
  delimit a fifth world ocean, the Southern Ocean, removed the portion
  of the Atlantic Ocean south of 60 degrees south latitude.

Geography Atlantic Ocean

Location:
  body of water between Africa, Europe, the Southern Ocean, and the
  Western Hemisphere

Geographic coordinates:
  0 00 N, 25 00 W

Map references:
  Political Map of the World

Area:
  total: 76.762 million sq km
  note: includes Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait,
  Denmark Strait, part of the Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Labrador
  Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea, almost all of the
  Scotia Sea, and other tributary water bodies

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than 6.5 times the size of the US

Coastline:
  111,866 km

Climate:
  tropical cyclones (hurricanes) develop off the coast of Africa near
  Cape Verde and move westward into the Caribbean Sea; hurricanes can
  occur from May to December, but are most frequent from August to
  November

Terrain:
  surface usually covered with sea ice in Labrador Sea, Denmark
  Strait, and coastal portions of the Baltic Sea from October to June;
  clockwise warm-water gyre (broad, circular system of currents) in
  the northern Atlantic, counterclockwise warm-water gyre in the
  southern Atlantic; the ocean floor is dominated by the Mid-Atlantic
  Ridge, a rugged north-south centerline for the entire Atlantic basin

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Milwaukee Deep in the Puerto Rico Trench -8,605 m
  highest point: sea level 0 m

Natural resources:
  oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and whales), sand
  and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules,
  precious stones

Natural hazards:
  icebergs common in Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, and the
  northwestern Atlantic Ocean from February to August and have been
  spotted as far south as Bermuda and the Madeira Islands; ships
  subject to superstructure icing in extreme northern Atlantic from
  October to May; persistent fog can be a maritime hazard from May to
  September; hurricanes (May to December)

Environment - current issues:
  endangered marine species include the manatee, seals, sea lions,
  turtles, and whales; drift net fishing is hastening the decline of
  fish stocks and contributing to international disputes; municipal
  sludge pollution off eastern US, southern Brazil, and eastern
  Argentina; oil pollution in Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Lake
  Maracaibo, Mediterranean Sea, and North Sea; industrial waste and
  municipal sewage pollution in Baltic Sea, North Sea, and
  Mediterranean Sea

Geography - note:
  major chokepoints include the Dardanelles, Strait of Gibraltar,
  access to the Panama and Suez Canals; strategic straits include the
  Strait of Dover, Straits of Florida, Mona Passage, The Sound
  (Oresund), and Windward Passage; the Equator divides the Atlantic
  Ocean into the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean

Economy Atlantic Ocean

Economy - overview:
  The Atlantic Ocean provides some of the world's most heavily
  trafficked sea routes, between and within the Eastern and Western
  Hemispheres. Other economic activity includes the exploitation of
  natural resources, e.g., fishing, dredging of aragonite sands (The
  Bahamas), and production of crude oil and natural gas (Caribbean
  Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and North Sea).

Transportation Atlantic Ocean

Ports and terminals:
  Alexandria (Egypt), Algiers (Algeria), Antwerp (Belgium), Barcelona
  (Spain), Buenos Aires (Argentina), Casablanca (Morocco), Colon
  (Panama), Copenhagen (Denmark), Dakar (Senegal), Gdansk (Poland),
  Hamburg (Germany), Helsinki (Finland), Las Palmas (Canary Islands,
  Spain), Le Havre (France), Lisbon (Portugal), London (UK), Marseille
  (France), Montevideo (Uruguay), Montreal (Canada), Naples (Italy),
  New Orleans (US), New York (US), Oran (Algeria), Oslo (Norway),
  Peiraiefs or Piraeus (Greece), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), Rotterdam
  (Netherlands), Saint Petersburg (Russia), Stockholm (Sweden)

Transportation - note:
  Kiel Canal and Saint Lawrence Seaway are two important waterways;
  significant domestic commercial and recreational use of Intracoastal
  Waterway on central and south Atlantic seaboard and Gulf of Mexico
  coast of US

Transnational Issues Atlantic Ocean

Disputes - international: some maritime disputes (see littoral states)

This page was last updated on 19 December, 2006

======================================================================

@Australia

Introduction Australia

Background:
  Aboriginal settlers arrived on the continent from Southeast Asia
  about 40,000 years before the first Europeans began exploration in
  the 17th century. No formal territorial claims were made until 1770,
  when Capt. James COOK took possession in the name of Great Britain.
  Six colonies were created in the late 18th and 19th centuries; they
  federated and became the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901. The new
  country took advantage of its natural resources to rapidly develop
  agricultural and manufacturing industries and to make a major
  contribution to the British effort in World Wars I and II. In recent
  decades, Australia has transformed itself into an internationally
  competitive, advanced market economy. It boasted one of the OECD's
  fastest growing economies during the 1990s, a performance due in
  large part to economic reforms adopted in the 1980s. Long-term
  concerns include pollution, particularly depletion of the ozone
  layer, and management and conservation of coastal areas, especially
  the Great Barrier Reef.

Geography Australia

Location:
  Oceania, continent between the Indian Ocean and the South Pacific
  Ocean

Geographic coordinates:
  27 00 S, 133 00 E

Map references:
  Oceania

Area:
  total: 7,686,850 sq km
  land: 7,617,930 sq km
  water: 68,920 sq km
  note: includes Lord Howe Island and Macquarie Island

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than the US contiguous 48 states

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  25,760 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate:
  generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical
  in north

Terrain:
  mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Lake Eyre -15 m
  highest point: Mount Kosciuszko 2,229 m

Natural resources:
  bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, gold, silver, uranium,
  nickel, tungsten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural gas,
  petroleum

Land use:
  arable land: 6.15% (includes about 27 million hectares of
  cultivated grassland)
  permanent crops: 0.04%
  other: 93.81% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  25,450 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  cyclones along the coast; severe droughts; forest fires

Environment - current issues:
  soil erosion from overgrazing, industrial development,
  urbanization, and poor farming practices; soil salinity rising due
  to the use of poor quality water; desertification; clearing for
  agricultural purposes threatens the natural habitat of many unique
  animal and plant species; the Great Barrier Reef off the northeast
  coast, the largest coral reef in the world, is threatened by
  increased shipping and its popularity as a tourist site; limited
  natural fresh water resources

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living
  Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate
  Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
  Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
  Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
  Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note:
  world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country; population
  concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts; the
  invigorating tropical sea breeze known as the "Fremantle Doctor"
  affects the city of Perth on the west coast, and is one of the most
  consistent winds in the world

People Australia

Population:
  20,264,082 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 19.6% (male 2,031,313/female 1,936,802)
  15-64 years: 67.3% (male 6,881,863/female 6,764,709)
  65 years and over: 13.1% (male 1,170,589/female 1,478,806) (2006
  est.)

Median age: total: 36.9 years male: 36 years female: 37.7 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.85% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  12.14 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  7.51 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  3.85 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 4.63 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 5.02 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 4.22 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 80.5 years
  male: 77.64 years
  female: 83.52 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.76 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.1% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  14,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 200 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Australian(s)
  adjective: Australian

Ethnic groups:
  Caucasian 92%, Asian 7%, aboriginal and other 1%

Religions:
  Catholic 26.4%, Anglican 20.5%, other Christian 20.5%, Buddhist
  1.9%, Muslim 1.5%, other 1.2%, unspecified 12.7%, none 15.3% (2001
  Census)

Languages:
  English 79.1%, Chinese 2.1%, Italian 1.9%, other 11.1%, unspecified
  5.8% (2001 Census)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 99%
  male: 99%
  female: 99% (2003 est.)

Government Australia

Country name:
  conventional long form: Commonwealth of Australia
  conventional short form: Australia

Government type:
  federal parliamentary democracy

Capital:
  name: Canberra
  geographic coordinates: 35 17 S, 149 08 E
  time difference: UTC+10 (15 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)
  daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in October; ends last
  Sunday in March (ended first Sunday in April 2006)
  note: Australia is divided into three time zones

Administrative divisions:
  6 states and 2 territories*; Australian Capital Territory*, New
  South Wales, Northern Territory*, Queensland, South Australia,
  Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia

Dependent areas:
  Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling)
  Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands,
  Norfolk Island, Macquarie Island

Independence:
  1 January 1901 (federation of UK colonies)

National holiday:
  Australia Day, 26 January (1788)

Constitution:
  9 July 1900, effective 1 January 1901

Legal system:
  based on English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,
  with reservations

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen of Australia ELIZABETH II (since 6 February
  1952), represented by Governor General Maj. Gen. (Ret.) Michael
  JEFFERY (since 11 August 2003)
  head of government: Prime Minister John Winston HOWARD (since 11
  March 1996); Deputy Prime Minister Mark VAILE (since 6 July 2005)
  cabinet: prime minister nominates, from among members of Parliament,
  candidates who are subsequently sworn in by the governor general to
  serve as government ministers
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general
  appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime
  minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the
  majority party or leader of a majority coalition is sworn in as
  prime minister by the governor general
  note: government coalition - Liberal Party and National Party

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Federal Parliament consists of the Senate (76 seats - 12
  from each of the six states and 2 from each of the two mainland
  territories; one-half of state members are elected every three years
  by popular vote to serve six-year terms while all territory members
  are elected every three years) and the House of Representatives (150
  seats; members elected by popular preferential voting to serve terms
  of up to three-years; no state can have fewer than 5 representatives)
  elections: Senate - last held 9 October 2004 (next to be held no
  later than June 2008); House of Representatives - last held 9
  October 2004 (next to be called no later than November 2007)
  election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by
  party - Liberal Party-National Party coalition 39, Australian Labor
  Party 28, Democrats 4, Australian Greens 4, Family First Party 1;
  House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by
  party - Liberal Party-National Party coalition 87, Australian Labor
  Party 60, independents 3

Judicial branch:
  High Court (the chief justice and six other justices are appointed
  by the governor general)

Political parties and leaders:
  Australian Democrats [Lyn ALLISON]; Australian Greens [Bob BROWN];
  Australian Labor Party [Kevin RUDD]; Country Liberal Party [Jodeen
  CARNEY]; Family First Party [Steve FIELDING]; Liberal Party [John
  Winston HOWARD]; The Nationals [Mark VAILE]

International organization participation:
  ANZUS, APEC, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group,
  BIS, C, CP, EAS, EBRD, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU,
  ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC,
  IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OECD, OPCW, Paris
  Club, PCA, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNMIS,
  UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Dennis J. RICHARDSON
  chancery: 1601 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
  telephone: [1] (202) 797-3000
  FAX: [1] (202) 797-3168
  consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New
  York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Robert D. McCALLUM, Jr.
  embassy: Moonah Place, Yarralumla, Canberra, Australian Capital
  Territory 2600
  mailing address: APO AP 96549
  telephone: [61] (02) 6214-5600
  FAX: [61] (02) 6214-5970
  consulate(s) general: Melbourne, Perth, Sydney

Flag description:
  blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a
  large seven-pointed star in the lower hoist-side quadrant known as
  the Commonwealth or Federation Star, representing the federation of
  the colonies of Australia in 1901; the star depicts one point for
  each of the six original states and one representing all of
  Australia's internal and external territories; on the fly half is a
  representation of the Southern Cross constellation in white with one
  small five-pointed star and four larger, seven-pointed stars

Economy Australia

Economy - overview:
  Australia has an enviable Western-style capitalist economy with a
  per capita GDP on par with the four dominant West European
  economies. Rising output in the domestic economy, robust business
  and consumer confidence, and rising exports of raw materials and
  agricultural products are fueling the economy. Australia's emphasis
  on reforms, low inflation, and growing ties with China are other key
  factors behind the economy's strength. The impact of drought, weak
  foreign demand, and strong import demand pushed the trade deficit up
  from $8 billion in 2002, to $18 billion in 2003, $13 billion in
  2004, and nearly $17 billion in 2005. Housing prices probably peaked
  in 2005, diminishing the prospect that interest rates would be
  raised to prevent a speculative bubble. Conservative fiscal policies
  have kept Australia's budget in surplus from 2002 to 2005.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $635.5 billion (2005 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $612.8 billion (2005 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  2.7% (2005 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $31,600 (2005 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 3.8% industry: 26.2% services: 70% (2004 est.)

Labor force: 10.42 million (2005 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 3.6% industry: 21.2% services: 75.2% (2004 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  5.1% (2005 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 2%
  highest 10%: 25.4% (1994)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  35.2 (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.7% (2005 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  25.9% of GDP (2005 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $249.8 billion
  expenditures: $240.2 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2005 est.)

Public debt:
  16.1% of GDP (2005 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruits, cattle, sheep, poultry

Industries:
  mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food processing,
  chemicals, steel

Industrial production growth rate:
  1.1% (2005 est.)

Electricity - production:
  237 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 90.8% hydro: 8.3% nuclear: 0% other: 0.9% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  221 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2003)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2003)

Oil - production:
  530,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  875,600 bbl/day (2003 est.)

Oil - exports:
  523,400 bbl/day (2001)

Oil - imports:
  530,800 bbl/day (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  3.664 billion bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  35.6 billion cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  25.08 billion cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  9.744 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  2.549 trillion cu m (1 January 2002)

Current account balance:
  $-42.09 billion (2005 est.)

Exports:
  $103 billion (2005 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  coal, gold, meat, wool, alumina, iron ore, wheat, machinery and
  transport equipment

Exports - partners:
  Japan 20.3%, China 11.5%, South Korea 7.9%, US 6.7%, NZ 6.5%, India
  5% (2005)

Imports:
  $119.6 billion (2005 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and transport equipment, computers and office machines,
  telecommunication equipment and parts; crude oil and petroleum
  products

Imports - partners:
  US 13.9%, China 13.7%, Japan 11%, Singapore 5.6%, Germany 5.6%
  (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $43.26 billion (2005 est.)

Debt - external:
  $323.4 billion (2005 est.)

Economic aid - donor:
  ODA, $894 million (FY99/00)

Currency (code):
  Australian dollar (AUD)

Currency code:
  AUD

Exchange rates:
  Australian dollars per US dollar - 1.3095 (2005), 1.3598 (2004),
  1.5419 (2003), 1.8406 (2002), 1.9334 (2001)

Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

Communications Australia

Telephones - main lines in use:
  11.46 million (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  18.42 million (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: excellent domestic and international service
  domestic: domestic satellite system; much use of radiotelephone in
  areas of low population density; rapid growth of mobile cellular
  telephones
  international: country code - 61; submarine cables to New Zealand,
  Papua New Guinea, and Indonesia; satellite earth stations - 19 (10
  Intelsat - 4 Indian Ocean and 6 Pacific Ocean, 2 Inmarsat - Indian
  and Pacific Ocean regions, 2 Globalstar, 5 other) (2005)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 262, FM 345, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:
  25.5 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  104 (1997)

Televisions:
  10.15 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .au

Internet hosts:
  7,772,888 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  571 (2002)

Internet users:
  14,663,622 (2006)

Transportation Australia

Airports: 455 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 311 over 3,047 m: 10 2,438 to 3,047 m: 12 1,524 to 2,437 m: 133 914 to 1,523 m: 143 under 914 m: 13 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 144 1,524 to 2,437 m: 18 914 to 1,523 m: 111 under 914 m: 15 (2006)

Heliports:
  1 (2006)

Pipelines:
  condensate/gas 546 km; gas 31,323 km; liquid petroleum gas 240 km;
  oil 4,808 km; oil/gas/water 110 km (2006)

Railways:
  total: 47,738 km
  broad gauge: 4,015 km 1.600-m gauge
  standard gauge: 28,662 km 1.435-m gauge (1,397 km electrified)
  narrow gauge: 14,831 km 1.067-m gauge (2,462 km electrified)
  dual gauge: 230 km dual gauge (2005)

Roadways:
  total: 810,641 km
  paved: 336,962 km
  unpaved: 473,679 km (2004)

Waterways:
  2,000 km (mainly used for recreation on Murray and Murray-Darling
  river systems) (2002)

Merchant marine:
  total: 53 ships (1000 GRT or over) 1,361,000 GRT/1,532,874 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 17, cargo 4, chemical tanker 3, container 1,
  liquefied gas 4, passenger 6, passenger/cargo 7, petroleum tanker 6,
  roll on/roll off 5
  foreign-owned: 17 (Canada 1, France 3, Germany 3, Japan 1,
  Netherlands 2, Norway 1, Philippines 1, UK 2, US 3)
  registered in other countries: 34 (Antigua and Barbuda 1, Bahamas 2,
  Bermuda 3, Fiji 1, Hong Kong 1, Liberia 2, Marshall Islands 2,
  Netherlands 1, NZ 2, Panama 3, Portugal 1, Singapore 7, Tonga 1, UK
  3, US 2, Vanuatu 2) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Brisbane, Dampier, Fremantle, Gladstone, Hay Point, Melbourne,
  Newcastle, Port Hedland, Port Kembla, Port Walcott, Sydney

Military Australia

Military branches:
  Australian Defense Force (ADF): Australian Army, Royal Australian
  Navy, Royal Australian Air Force, Special Operations Command

Military service age and obligation:
  16 years of age for voluntary service; women allowed to serve in
  Army combat units in non-combat support roles (2001)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 4,943,676
  females age 18-49: 4,821,264

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 16-49: 4,092,717
  females age 16-49: 3,983,447 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 142,158
  females age 16-49: 135,675 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $17.84 billion (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  2.7% (2005 est.)

Transnational Issues Australia

Disputes - international:
  East Timor and Australia agreed in 2005 to defer the disputed
  portion of the boundary for fifty years and to split hydrocarbon
  revenues evenly outside the Joint Petroleum Development Area covered
  by the 2002 Timor Sea Treaty; East Timor dispute hampers creation of
  a revised maritime boundary with Indonesia (see also Ashmore and
  Cartier Islands dispute); regional states express concern over
  Australia's 2004 declaration of a 1,000-nautical mile-wide maritime
  identification zone; Australia asserts land and maritime claims to
  Antarctica (see Antarctica); in 2004 Australia submitted its claims
  to UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) to
  extend its continental margin from both its mainland and Antarctic
  claims

Illicit drugs:
  Tasmania is one of the world's major suppliers of licit opiate
  products; government maintains strict controls over areas of opium
  poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate

This page was last updated on 19 December, 2006

======================================================================

@Austria

Introduction Austria

Background:
  Once the center of power for the large Austro-Hungarian Empire,
  Austria was reduced to a small republic after its defeat in World
  War I. Following annexation by Nazi Germany in 1938 and subsequent
  occupation by the victorious Allies in 1945, Austria's status
  remained unclear for a decade. A State Treaty signed in 1955 ended
  the occupation, recognized Austria's independence, and forbade
  unification with Germany. A constitutional law that same year
  declared the country's "perpetual neutrality" as a condition for
  Soviet military withdrawal. Following the Soviet Union's collapse in
  1991 and Austria's entry into the European Union in 1995, some
  Austrians have called into question this neutrality. A prosperous,
  democratic country, Austria entered the Economic and Monetary Union
  in 1999.

Geography Austria

Location:
  Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates:
  47 20 N, 13 20 E

Map references:
  Europe

Area:
  total: 83,870 sq km
  land: 82,444 sq km
  water: 1,426 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries:
  total: 2,562 km
  border countries: Czech Republic 362 km, Germany 784 km, Hungary 366
  km, Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 35 km, Slovakia 91 km, Slovenia 330
  km, Switzerland 164 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain and
  some snow in lowlands and snow in mountains; moderate summers with
  occasional showers

Terrain:
  in the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the eastern
  and northern margins mostly flat or gently sloping

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Neusiedler See 115 m
  highest point: Grossglockner 3,798 m

Natural resources:
  oil, coal, lignite, timber, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony,
  magnesite, tungsten, graphite, salt, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 16.59% permanent crops: 0.85% other: 82.56% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  40 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  landslides; avalanches; earthquakes

Environment - current issues: some forest degradation caused by air and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of agricultural chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired power stations and industrial plants and from trucks transiting Austria between northern and southern Europe

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85,
  Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
  Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
  Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94,
  Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe
  with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river
  is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands
  because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere

People Austria

Population:
  8,192,880 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 15.4% (male 645,337/female 614,602)
  15-64 years: 67.5% (male 2,782,712/female 2,749,620)
  65 years and over: 17.1% (male 567,752/female 832,857) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 40.9 years
  male: 39.8 years
  female: 42 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.09% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  8.74 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  9.76 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  1.94 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 4.6 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 5.65 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 3.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 79.07 years
  male: 76.17 years
  female: 82.11 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.36 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.3% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  10,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 100 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Austrian(s)
  adjective: Austrian

Ethnic groups:
  Austrians 91.1%, former Yugoslavs 4% (includes Croatians, Slovenes,
  Serbs, and Bosniaks), Turks 1.6%, German 0.9%, other or unspecified
  2.4% (2001 census)

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 73.6%, Protestant 4.7%, Muslim 4.2%, other 3.5%,
  unspecified 2%, none 12% (2001 census)

Languages:
  German (official nationwide), Slovene (official in Carinthia),
  Croatian (official in Burgenland), Hungarian (official in Burgenland)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 98%
  male: NA
  female: NA

Government Austria

Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Austria
  conventional short form: Austria
  local long form: Republik Oesterreich
  local short form: Oesterreich

Government type:
  federal republic

Capital:
  name: Vienna
  geographic coordinates: 48 12 N, 16 22 E
  time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)
  daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last
  Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
  9 states (Bundeslaender, singular - Bundesland); Burgenland,
  Kaernten (Carinthia), Niederoesterreich, Oberoesterreich, Salzburg,
  Steiermark (Styria), Tirol, Vorarlberg, Wien (Vienna)

Independence:
  17 September 1156 (Duchy of Austria founded); 11 August 1804
  (Austrian Empire proclaimed); 12 November 1918 (republic proclaimed)

National holiday:
  National Day, 26 October (1955); note - commemorates the State
  Treaty restoring national sovereignty and the end of occupation and
  the passage of the law on permanent neutrality

Constitution:
  1920; revised 1929 (reinstated 1 May 1945)

Legal system:
  civil law system with Roman law origin; judicial review of
  legislative acts by the Constitutional Court; separate
  administrative and civil/penal supreme courts; accepts compulsory
  ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Heinz FISCHER (since 8 July 2004)
  head of government: Chancellor Wolfgang SCHUESSEL (OeVP)(since 4
  February 2000); Vice Chancellor Hubert GORBACH (since 21 October
  2003)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the president on the advice
  of the chancellor
  elections: president elected by direct popular vote for a six-year
  term (eligible for a second term); presidential election last held
  25 April 2004 (next to be held April 2010); chancellor traditionally
  chosen by the president from the plurality party in the National
  Council; vice chancellor chosen by the president on the advice of
  the chancellor
  election results: Heinz FISCHER elected president; percent of vote -
  Heinz FISCHER (SPOe) 52.4%, Benita FERRERO-WALDNER (OeVP) 47.6%
  note: government coalition - OeVP and FPOe

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung consists of Federal
  Council or Bundesrat (62 members; members represent each of the
  states on the basis of population, but with each state having at
  least 3 representatives; members serve a five- or six-year term) and
  the National Council or Nationalrat (183 seats; members elected by
  direct popular vote to serve four-year terms)
  elections: National Council - last held 1 October 2006 (next to be
  held in the fall of 2010)
  election results: National Council - percent of vote by party - SPOe
  35.3%, OeVP 34.3%, Greens 11.1%, FPOe 11.0%, BZOe 4.1%; seats by
  party - SPOe 68, OeVP 66, Greens 21, FPOe 21, BZOe 7

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Judicial Court or Oberster Gerichtshof; Administrative
  Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof; Constitutional Court or
  Verfassungsgerichtshof

Political parties and leaders:
  Alliance for the Future of Austria or BZOe [Joerg HAIDER]; Austrian
  People's Party or OeVP [Wolfgang SCHUESSEL]; Freedom Party of
  Austria or FPOe [Heinz Christian STRACHE]; Social Democratic Party
  of Austria or SPOe [Alfred GUSENBAUER]; The Greens [Alexander VAN
  DER BELLEN]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Austrian Trade Union Federation (nominally independent but
  primarily Socialist) or OeGB; Federal Economic Chamber;
  OeVP-oriented League of Austrian Industrialists or VOeI; Roman
  Catholic Church, including its chief lay organization, Catholic
  Action; three composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party or
  OeVP representing business, labor, and farmers and other
  non-government organizations in the areas of environment and human
  rights

International organization participation:
  ACCT (observer), AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer),
  CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA,
  IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
  IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MINURSO, NAM
  (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE,
  Paris Club, PCA, PFP, SECI (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO,
  UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNOMIG, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU
  (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Eva NOWOTNY
  chancery: 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035
  telephone: [1] (202) 895-6700
  FAX: [1] (202) 895-6750
  consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Susan R. McCAW
  embassy: Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1090, Vienna
  mailing address: use embassy street address
  telephone: [43] (1) 31339-0
  FAX: [43] (1) 3100682

Flag description:
  three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red

Economy Austria

Economy - overview:
  Austria, with its well-developed market economy and high standard
  of living, is closely tied to other EU economies, especially
  Germany's. The Austrian economy also benefits greatly from strong
  commercial relations, especially in the banking and insurance
  sectors, with central, eastern, and southeastern Europe. The economy
  features a large service sector, a sound industrial sector, and a
  small, but highly developed agricultural sector. Membership in the
  EU has drawn an influx of foreign investors attracted by Austria's
  access to the single European market and proximity to the new EU
  economies. The current government has successfully pursued a
  comprehensive economic reform program, aimed at streamlining
  government, creating a more competitive business environment,
  further strengthening Austria's attractiveness as an investment
  location, pursuing a balanced budget, and implementing effective
  pension reforms. Weak domestic consumption and slow growth in Europe
  have held the economy to growth rates of 0.4% in 2002, 1.4% in 2003,
  2.4% in 2004, and 1.8% in 2005. To meet increased competition from
  both EU and Central European countries, particularly the new EU
  members, Austria will need to continue restructuring, emphasizing
  knowledge-based sectors of the economy, and encouraging greater
  labor flexibility and greater labor participation by its aging
  population.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $265.8 billion (2005 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $293.4 billion (2005 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  1.8% (2005 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $32,500 (2005 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 1.8% industry: 30.4% services: 67.8% (2004 est.)

Labor force: 3.49 million (2005 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 3% industry: 27% services: 70% (2005 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  5.2% (2005 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  5.9% (2004)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.3% highest 10%: 22.5% (2004)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  31 (2002)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.3% (2005 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  20.8% of GDP (2005 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $148.6 billion
  expenditures: $154.5 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2005 est.)

Public debt:
  65.1% of GDP (2005 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  grains, potatoes, sugar beets, wine, fruit; dairy products, cattle,
  pigs, poultry; lumber

Industries:
  construction, machinery, vehicles and parts, food, metals,
  chemicals, lumber and wood processing, paper and paperboard,
  communications equipment, tourism

Industrial production growth rate:
  4.7% (2005 est.)

Electricity - production:
  63.69 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 29.3% hydro: 67.2% nuclear: 0% other: 3.5% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  64.78 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  13.53 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  16.63 billion kWh (2004)

Oil - production:
  17,810 bbl/day (2004)

Oil - consumption:
  249,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - exports:
  30,140 bbl/day (2004)

Oil - imports:
  152,600 bbl/day (2004)

Oil - proved reserves:
  84.3 million bbl (2004)

Natural gas - production:
  1.96 billion cu m (2004)

Natural gas - consumption:
  9.01 billion cu m (2004)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2004)

Natural gas - imports:
  7.05 billion cu m (2004)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  23.2 billion cu m (2004)

Current account balance:
  $1.467 billion (2005 est.)

Exports:
  $122.5 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, paper and
  paperboard, metal goods, chemicals, iron and steel, textiles,
  foodstuffs

Exports - partners:
  Germany 31.2%, Italy 8.7%, US 5.8%, Switzerland 5.2%, France 4.2%
  (2005)

Imports:
  $118.8 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, metal goods,
  oil and oil products; foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
  Germany 45.9%, Italy 6.6%, Switzerland 4.5% (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $11.83 billion (2005 est.)

Debt - external:
  $510.6 billion (30 June 2005 est.)

Economic aid - donor:
  ODA, $681 million (2004)

Currency (code):
  euro (EUR)
  note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the
  euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of
  member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole
  currency for everyday transactions within the member countries

Currency code:
  EUR

Exchange rates:
  euros per US dollar - 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003),
  1.0626 (2002), 1.1175 (2001)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Austria

Telephones - main lines in use:
  3.705 million (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  8.16 million (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: highly developed and efficient
  domestic: there are 45 main lines for every 100 persons; the fiber
  optic net is very extensive; all telephone applications and Internet
  services are available
  international: country code - 43; satellite earth stations - 15; in
  addition, there are about 600 VSAT (very small aperture terminals)
  (2005)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 65 (plus several hundred repeaters), shortwave 1 (2001)

Radios:
  6.08 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  10 (plus more than 1,000 repeaters) (2001)

Televisions:
  4.25 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .at

Internet hosts:
  2,062,035 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  37 (2000)

Internet users:
  4.65 million (2005)

Transportation Austria

Airports: 55 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 25 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 15 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 30 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 26 (2006)

Heliports:
  1 (2006)

Pipelines:
  gas 2,722 km; oil 663 km; refined products 149 km (2006)

Railways:
  total: 6,011 km
  standard gauge: 5,568 km 1.435-m gauge (3,427 km electrified)
  narrow gauge: 21 km 1.000-m gauge; 422 km 0.760-m gauge (109 km
  electrified) (2005)

Roadways: total: 133,718 km paved: 133,718 km (including 1,677 km of expressways) (2003)

Waterways:
  358 km (2003)

Merchant marine:
  total: 8 ships (1000 GRT or over) 34,072 GRT/44,437 DWT
  by type: cargo 6, container 2
  foreign-owned: 2 (Netherlands 2)
  registered in other countries: 14 (Liberia 13, Malta 1) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Enns, Krems, Linz, Vienna

Military Austria

Military branches:
  Land Forces (KdoLdSK), Air Forces (KdoLuSK)

Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for compulsory military service; 16 years of age for voluntary service; from 2007, at the earliest, compulsory military service obligation will be reduced from eight months to six (2005)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 1,914,800
  females age 18-49: 1,870,134 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 1,550,441
  females age 18-49: 1,515,365 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 48,967
  females age 18-49: 46,633 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $1.497 billion (FY01/02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  0.9% (2004)

Transnational Issues Austria

Disputes - international:
  Austrian anti-nuclear activists have revived blockades of the
  Czech-Austrian border to protest operation of the Temelin nuclear
  power plant in the Czech Republic

Illicit drugs:
  transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and South American
  cocaine destined for Western Europe

This page was last updated on 19 December, 2006

======================================================================

@Azerbaijan

Introduction Azerbaijan

Background:
  Azerbaijan - a nation with a Turkic and majority-Muslim population
  - was briefly independent from 1918 to 1920; it regained its
  independence after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Despite
  a 1994 cease-fire, Azerbaijan has yet to resolve its conflict with
  Armenia over the Azerbaijani Nagorno-Karabakh enclave (largely
  Armenian populated). Azerbaijan has lost 16% of its territory and
  must support some 528,000 internally displaced persons as a result
  of the conflict. Corruption is ubiquitous, and the promise of
  widespread wealth from Azerbaijan's undeveloped petroleum resources
  remains largely unfulfilled.

Geography Azerbaijan

Location:
  Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and
  Russia, with a small European portion north of the Caucasus range

Geographic coordinates:
  40 30 N, 47 30 E

Map references:
  Asia

Area:
  total: 86,600 sq km
  land: 86,100 sq km
  water: 500 sq km
  note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the
  Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region's autonomy was abolished by
  Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries:
  total: 2,013 km
  border countries: Armenia (with Azerbaijan-proper) 566 km, Armenia
  (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 221 km, Georgia 322 km, Iran
  (with Azerbaijan-proper) 432 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan
  exclave) 179 km, Russia 284 km, Turkey 9 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked); note - Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (800
  km est.)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  dry, semiarid steppe

Terrain:
  large, flat Kur-Araz Ovaligi (Kura-Araks Lowland) (much of it below
  sea level) with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag
  Yaylasi (Karabakh Upland) in west; Baku lies on Abseron Yasaqligi
  (Apsheron Peninsula) that juts into Caspian Sea

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m highest point: Bazarduzu Dagi 4,485 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, alumina

Land use: arable land: 20.62% permanent crops: 2.61% other: 76.77% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  14,550 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  droughts

Environment - current issues:
  local scientists consider the Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron
  Peninsula) (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea to be
  the ecologically most devastated area in the world because of severe
  air, soil, and water pollution; soil pollution results from oil
  spills, from the use of DDT as a pesticide, and from toxic
  defoliants used in the production of cotton

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate
  Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species,
  Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  both the main area of the country and the Naxcivan exclave are
  landlocked

People Azerbaijan

Population:
  7,961,619 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 25.8% (male 1,046,501/female 1,011,492)
  15-64 years: 66.3% (male 2,573,134/female 2,706,275)
  65 years and over: 7.8% (male 246,556/female 377,661) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 27.7 years
  male: 26.3 years
  female: 29.2 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.66% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  20.74 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  9.75 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -4.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.65 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 79 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 81.08 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 76.81 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 63.85 years
  male: 59.78 years
  female: 68.13 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.46 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  less than 0.1% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  1,400 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 100 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Azerbaijani(s), Azeri(s)
  adjective: Azerbaijani, Azeri

Ethnic groups:
  Azeri 90.6%, Dagestani 2.2%, Russian 1.8%, Armenian 1.5%, other
  3.9% (1999 census)
  note: almost all Armenians live in the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh
  region

Religions:
  Muslim 93.4%, Russian Orthodox 2.5%, Armenian Orthodox 2.3%, other
  1.8% (1995 est.)
  note: religious affiliation is still nominal in Azerbaijan;
  percentages for actual practicing adherents are much lower

Languages:
  Azerbaijani (Azeri) 89%, Russian 3%, Armenian 2%, other 6% (1995
  est.)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 98.8%
  male: 99.5%
  female: 98.2% (2003 est.)

Government Azerbaijan

Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Azerbaijan
  conventional short form: Azerbaijan
  local long form: Azarbaycan Respublikasi
  local short form: Azarbaycan
  former: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  name: Baku (Baki, Baky)
  geographic coordinates: 40 23 N, 49 51 E
  time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)
  daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last
  Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
  59 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular), 11 cities (saharlar; sahar
  - singular), 1 autonomous republic (muxtar respublika)
  rayons: Abseron Rayonu, Agcabadi Rayonu, Agdam Rayonu, Agdas Rayonu,
  Agstafa Rayonu, Agsu Rayonu, Astara Rayonu, Balakan Rayonu, Barda
  Rayonu, Beylaqan Rayonu, Bilasuvar Rayonu, Cabrayil Rayonu,
  Calilabad Rayonu, Daskasan Rayonu, Davaci Rayonu, Fuzuli Rayonu,
  Gadabay Rayonu, Goranboy Rayonu, Goycay Rayonu, Haciqabul Rayonu,
  Imisli Rayonu, Ismayilli Rayonu, Kalbacar Rayonu, Kurdamir Rayonu,
  Lacin Rayonu, Lankaran Rayonu, Lerik Rayonu, Masalli Rayonu,
  Neftcala Rayonu, Oguz Rayonu, Qabala Rayonu, Qax Rayonu, Qazax
  Rayonu, Qobustan Rayonu, Quba Rayonu, Qubadli Rayonu, Qusar Rayonu,
  Saatli Rayonu, Sabirabad Rayonu, Saki Rayonu, Salyan Rayonu, Samaxi
  Rayonu, Samkir Rayonu, Samux Rayonu, Siyazan Rayonu, Susa Rayonu,
  Tartar Rayonu, Tovuz Rayonu, Ucar Rayonu, Xacmaz Rayonu, Xanlar
  Rayonu, Xizi Rayonu, Xocali Rayonu, Xocavand Rayonu, Yardimli
  Rayonu, Yevlax Rayonu, Zangilan Rayonu, Zaqatala Rayonu, Zardab
  Rayonu
  cities: Ali Bayramli Sahari, Baki Sahari, Ganca Sahari, Lankaran
  Sahari, Mingacevir Sahari, Naftalan Sahari, Saki Sahari, Sumqayit
  Sahari, Susa Sahari, Xankandi Sahari, Yevlax Sahari
  autonomous republic: Naxcivan Muxtar Respublikasi

Independence:
  30 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday:
  Founding of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan, 28 May (1918)

Constitution:
  adopted 12 November 1995

Legal system:
  based on civil law system

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Ilham ALIYEV (since 31 October 2003)
  head of government: Prime Minister Artur RASIZADE (since 4 November
  2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Abbas ABBASOV (since 10 November
  2003)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and
  confirmed by the National Assembly
  elections: president elected by popular vote to a five-year term
  (eligible for a second term); election last held 15 October 2003
  (next to be held October 2008); prime minister and first deputy
  prime ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the
  National Assembly
  election results: Ilham ALIYEV elected president; percent of vote -
  Ilham ALIYEV 76.8%, Isa GAMBAR 14%

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Milli Mejlis (125 seats; members
  elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
  elections: last held 6 November 2005 (next to be held in November
  2010)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
  Yeni 58, Azadliq coalition 8, CSP 2, YES 2, Motherland 2, other
  parties with single seats 7, independents 42, undetermined 4

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders:
  Azerbaijan Popular Front or APF [Ali KARIMLI, leader of "Reform"
  faction; Mirmahmud MIRALI-OGLU, leader of "Classic" faction]; Civic
  Solidarity Party or CSP [Sabir RUSTAMKHANLY]; Civic Union Party
  [Ayaz MUTALIBOV]; Communist Party of Azerbaijan or CPA [Ramiz
  AHMADOV]; Compatriot Party [Mais SAFARLI]; Democratic Party for
  Azerbaijan or DPA [Rasul QULIYEV, chairman]; Justice Party [Ilyas
  ISMAILOV]; Liberal Party of Azerbaijan [Lala Shovkat HACIYEVA];
  Motherland Party; Musavat [Isa GAMBAR, chairman]; Yeni Azerbaijan
  Party; Party for National Independence of Azerbaijan or PNIA [Etibar
  MAMMADLI, chairman]; Social Democratic Party of Azerbaijan or SDP
  [Araz ALIZADE and Ayaz MUTALIBOV]
  note: opposition parties regularly factionalize and form new parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Sadval, Lezgin movement; self-proclaimed Armenian Nagorno-Karabakh
  Republic; Talysh independence movement; Union of Pro-Azerbaijani
  Forces (UPAF)

International organization participation:
  AsDB, BSEC, CE, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
  ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol,
  IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIC,
  OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SECI (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
  WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Yashar ALIYEV
  chancery: 2741 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 337-3500
  FAX: [1] (202) 337-5911
  Consulate(s) general: Los Angeles

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Anne E. DERSE embassy: 83 Azadliyg Prospecti, Baku AZ1007 mailing address: American Embassy Baku, US Department of State, 7050 Baku Place, Washington, DC 20521-7050 telephone: [994] (12) 4980-335 through 337 FAX: [994] (12) 4656-671

Flag description:
  three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), red, and green; a
  crescent and eight-pointed star in white are centered in red band

Economy Azerbaijan

Economy - overview:
  Azerbaijan's number one export is oil. Azerbaijan's oil production
  declined through 1997, but has registered an increase every year
  since. Negotiation of production-sharing arrangements (PSAs) with
  foreign firms, which have thus far committed $60 billion to
  long-term oilfield development, should generate the funds needed to
  spur future industrial development. Oil production under the first
  of these PSAs, with the Azerbaijan International Operating Company,
  began in November 1997. A consortium of Western oil companies is
  scheduled to begin pumping 1 million barrels a day from a large
  offshore field in early 2006, through a $4 billion pipeline it built
  from Baku to Turkey's Mediterranean port of Ceyhan. Economists
  estimate that by 2010 revenues from this project will double the
  country's current GDP. Azerbaijan shares all the formidable problems
  of the former Soviet republics in making the transition from a
  command to a market economy, but its considerable energy resources
  brighten its long-term prospects. Baku has only recently begun
  making progress on economic reform, and old economic ties and
  structures are slowly being replaced. Several other obstacles impede
  Azerbaijan's economic progress: the need for stepped up foreign
  investment in the non-energy sector, the continuing conflict with
  Armenia over the Nagorno-Karabakh region, and the pervasive
  corruption. Trade with Russia and the other former Soviet republics
  is declining in importance while trade is building with Turkey and
  the nations of Europe. Long-term prospects will depend on world oil
  prices, the location of new pipelines in the region, and
  Azerbaijan's ability to manage its oil wealth.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $42.99 billion (2005 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $10.4 billion (2005 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  26.4% (2005 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $5,400 (2005 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 14.1% industry: 45.7% services: 40.2% (2002 est.)

Labor force: 5.45 million (2005 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 41% industry: 7% services: 52% (2001)

Unemployment rate:
  1.1% official rate (2005 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  49% (2002 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.8% highest 10%: 27.8% (1995)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  36.5 (2001)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  9.6% (2005 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  54.4% of GDP (2005 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $3.18 billion
  expenditures: $2.986 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2005 est.)

Public debt:
  11.3% of GDP (2005 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  cotton, grain, rice, grapes, fruit, vegetables, tea, tobacco;
  cattle, pigs, sheep, goats

Industries:
  petroleum and natural gas, petroleum products, oilfield equipment;
  steel, iron ore; cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles

Industrial production growth rate:
  40% (2005 est.)

Electricity - production:
  20 billion kWh (2003)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 89.7% hydro: 10.3% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  20.25 billion kWh (2003)

Electricity - exports:
  700 million kWh (2003)

Electricity - imports:
  2.35 billion kWh (2003)

Oil - production:
  477,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  123,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day

Oil - proved reserves:
  589 million bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  5.13 billion cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  9.2 billion cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  1 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  849.5 billion cu m (1 January 2002)

Current account balance:
  $167.3 million (2005 est.)

Exports:
  $6.117 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  oil and gas 90%, machinery, cotton, foodstuffs

Exports - partners:
  Italy 30.3%, France 9.4%, Russia 6.6%, Turkey 6.3%, Turkmenistan
  6.3%, Georgia 4.8%, Israel 4.5%, Croatia 4.1% (2005)

Imports:
  $4.656 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, oil products, foodstuffs, metals, chemicals

Imports - partners:
  Russia 17%, UK 9.1%, Singapore 9.1%, Turkey 7.4%, Germany 6.1%,
  Turkmenistan 5.8%, Ukraine 5.4%, China 4.1% (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $1.192 billion (2005 est.)

Debt - external:
  $1.873 billion (2005 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  ODA, $140 million (2000 est.)

Currency (code):
  Azerbaijani manat (AZM)

Currency code:
  AZM

Exchange rates:
  Azerbaijani manats per US dollar - 4,727.1 (2005), 4,913.48 (2004),
  4,910.73 (2003), 4,860.82 (2002), 4,656.58 (2001)
  note: on 1 January 2006 Azerbaijan revalued its currency, with 5,000
  old manats equal to 1 new manat

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Azerbaijan

Telephones - main lines in use:
  1,091,400 (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  2.242 million (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: inadequate; requires considerable expansion and
  modernization; teledensity of 14 main lines per 100 persons is low
  (2002)
  domestic: the majority of telephones are in Baku and other
  industrial centers - about 700 villages still without public
  telephone service; satellite service connects Baku to a modern
  switch in its exclave of Naxcivan
  international: country code - 994; the old Soviet system of cable
  and microwave is still serviceable; satellite earth stations - 2
  (2005)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 10, FM 17, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:
  175,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  2 (1997)

Televisions:
  170,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .az

Internet hosts:
  880 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  2 (2000)

Internet users:
  678,800 (2005)

Transportation Azerbaijan

Airports: 36 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 27 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 7 1,524 to 2,437 m: 13 914 to 1,523 m: 4 under 914 m: 2 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 9
  914 to 1,523 m: 2
  under 914 m: 7 (2006)

Heliports:
  1 (2006)

Pipelines:
  gas 3,190 km; oil 2,436 km (2006)

Railways:
  total: 2,957 km
  broad gauge: 2,957 km 1.520-m gauge (1,278 km electrified) (2005)

Roadways:
  total: 27,016 km
  paved: 12,698 km (including 128 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 14,318 km (2003)

Merchant marine:
  total: 84 ships (1000 GRT or over) 405,395 GRT/436,666 DWT
  by type: cargo 26, passenger 2, passenger/cargo 8, petroleum tanker
  43, roll on/roll off 2, specialized tanker 3
  registered in other countries: 4 (Georgia 2, Malta 2) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Baku (Baki)

Military Azerbaijan

Military branches:
  Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces

Military service age and obligation: men between 18 and 35 are liable for military service; 18 years of age for voluntary military service; length of military service is 18 months and 12 months for university graduates (2006)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 1,961,973
  females age 18-49: 2,033,186 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 1,314,955
  females age 18-49: 1,676,408 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 82,358
  females age 18-49: 78,067 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $121 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  2.6% (FY99)

Transnational Issues Azerbaijan

Disputes - international:
  Armenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists in Nagorno-Karabakh
  and since the early 1990s has militarily occupied 16% of Azerbaijan;
  over 800,000 mostly ethnic Azerbaijanis were driven from the
  occupied lands and Armenia; about 230,000 ethnic Armenians were
  driven from their homes in Azerbaijan into Armenia; Azerbaijan seeks
  transit route through Armenia to connect to Naxcivan exclave;
  Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) continues
  to mediate dispute; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratify
  Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while
  Iran continues to insist on an even one-fifth allocation and
  challenges Azerbaijan's hydrocarbon exploration in disputed waters;
  bilateral talks continue with Turkmenistan on dividing the seabed
  and contested oilfields in the middle of the Caspian; Azerbaijan and
  Georgia continue to discuss the alignment of their boundary at
  certain crossing areas

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  refugees (country of origin): 8,367 (Russia)
  IDPs: 528,000 (conflict with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh) (2005)

Illicit drugs:
  limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for
  CIS consumption; small government eradication program; transit point
  for Southwest Asian opiates bound for Russia and to a lesser extent
  the rest of Europe

This page was last updated on 19 December, 2006

======================================================================

@Bahamas, The

Introduction Bahamas, The

Background:
  Lucayan Indians inhabited the islands when Christopher Columbus
  first set foot in the New World on San Salvador in 1492. British
  settlement of the islands began in 1647; the islands became a colony
  in 1783. Since attaining independence from the UK in 1973, The
  Bahamas have prospered through tourism and international banking and
  investment management. Because of its geography, the country is a
  major transshipment point for illegal drugs, particularly shipments
  to the US, and its territory is used for smuggling illegal migrants
  into the US.

Geography Bahamas, The

Location:
  Caribbean, chain of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, southeast
  of Florida, northeast of Cuba

Geographic coordinates:
  24 15 N, 76 00 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 13,940 sq km
  land: 10,070 sq km
  water: 3,870 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  3,542 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical marine; moderated by warm waters of Gulf Stream

Terrain:
  long, flat coral formations with some low rounded hills

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Mount Alvernia, on Cat Island 63 m

Natural resources: salt, aragonite, timber, arable land

Land use: arable land: 0.58% permanent crops: 0.29% other: 99.13% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  10 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  hurricanes and other tropical storms cause extensive flood and wind
  damage

Environment - current issues:
  coral reef decay; solid waste disposal

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law
  of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  strategic location adjacent to US and Cuba; extensive island chain
  of which 30 are inhabited

People Bahamas, The

Population:
  303,770
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 27.5% (male 41,799/female 41,733)
  15-64 years: 66.1% (male 98,847/female 102,074)
  65 years and over: 6.4% (male 7,891/female 11,426) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 27.8 years
  male: 27.1 years
  female: 28.6 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.64% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  17.57 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  9.05 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -2.17 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 24.68 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 30.29 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 18.96 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 65.6 years
  male: 62.24 years
  female: 69.03 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.18 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  3% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  5,600 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 200 (2003 est.)

Nationality: noun: Bahamian(s) adjective: Bahamian

Ethnic groups:
  black 85%, white 12%, Asian and Hispanic 3%

Religions:
  Baptist 35.4%, Anglican 15.1%, Roman Catholic 13.5%, Pentecostal
  8.1%, Church of God 4.8%, Methodist 4.2%, other Christian 15.2%,
  none or unspecified 2.9%, other 0.8% (2000 census)

Languages:
  English (official), Creole (among Haitian immigrants)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 95.6%
  male: 94.7%
  female: 96.5% (2003 est.)

Government Bahamas, The

Country name:
  conventional long form: Commonwealth of The Bahamas
  conventional short form: The Bahamas

Government type:
  constitutional parliamentary democracy

Capital:
  name: Nassau
  geographic coordinates: 25 05 N, 77 21 W
  time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard
  Time)
  daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in April; ends last
  Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
  21 districts; Acklins and Crooked Islands, Bimini, Cat Island,
  Exuma, Freeport, Fresh Creek, Governor's Harbour, Green Turtle Cay,
  Harbour Island, High Rock, Inagua, Kemps Bay, Long Island, Marsh
  Harbour, Mayaguana, New Providence, Nichollstown and Berry Islands,
  Ragged Island, Rock Sound, Sandy Point, San Salvador and Rum Cay

Independence:
  10 July 1973 (from UK)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 10 July (1973)

Constitution:
  10 July 1973

Legal system:
  based on English common law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor General Arthur D. HANNA (since 1 February
  2006)
  head of government: Prime Minister Perry CHRISTIE (since 3 May 2002)
  and Deputy Prime Minister Cynthia PRATT (since 7 May 2002)
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the prime
  minister's recommendation
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general
  appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the
  leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition
  is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; the
  prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (16-member body
  appointed by the governor general upon the advice of the prime
  minister and the opposition leader for five-year terms) and the
  House of Assembly (40 seats; members elected by direct popular vote
  to serve five-year terms); the government may dissolve the
  Parliament and call elections at any time
  elections: last held 1 May 2002 (next to be held by May 2007)
  election results: percent of vote by party - PLP 50.8%, FNM 41.1%,
  independents 5.2%; seats by party - PLP 29, FNM 7, independents 4

Judicial branch:
  Privy Council (London); Courts of Appeal; Supreme (lower) Court;
  magistrates courts

Political parties and leaders:
  Free National Movement or FNM [Hubert INGRAHAM]; Progressive
  Liberal Party or PLP [Perry CHRISTIE]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt
  (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOM,
  IOC, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer), WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: vacant chancery: 2220 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 319-2660 FAX: [1] (202) 319-2668 consulate(s) general: Miami, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador John D. ROOD
  embassy: 42 Queen Street, Nassau
  mailing address: local or express mail address: P. O. Box N-8197,
  Nassau; US Department of State, 3370 Nassau Place, Washington, DC
  20521-3370
  telephone: [1] (242) 322-1181, 328-2206 (after hours)
  FAX: [1] (242) 356-0222

Flag description:
  three equal horizontal bands of aquamarine (top), gold, and
  aquamarine, with a black equilateral triangle based on the hoist side

Economy Bahamas, The

Economy - overview:
  The Bahamas is a stable, developing nation with an economy heavily
  dependent on tourism and offshore banking. Tourism together with
  tourism-driven construction and manufacturing accounts for
  approximately 60% of GDP and directly or indirectly employs half of
  the archipelago's labor force. Steady growth in tourism receipts and
  a boom in construction of new hotels, resorts, and residences had
  led to solid GDP growth in recent years, but the slowdown in the US
  economy and the attacks of 11 September 2001 held back growth in
  these sectors in 2001-03. The current government has presided over a
  period of economic recovery and an upturn in large-scale private
  sector investments in tourism. Financial services constitute the
  second-most important sector of the Bahamian economy, accounting for
  about 15% of GDP. However, since December 2000, when the government
  enacted new regulations on the financial sector, many international
  businesses have left The Bahamas. Manufacturing and agriculture
  together contribute approximately a tenth of GDP and show little
  growth, despite government incentives aimed at those sectors.
  Overall growth prospects in the short run rest heavily on the
  fortunes of the tourism sector, which depends on growth in the US,
  the source of more than 80% of the visitors.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $6.105 billion (2005 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $5.783 billion (2005 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  3.7% (2005 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $20,200 (2005 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 3% industry: 7% services: 90% (2001 est.)

Labor force: 176,300 (2004)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 5%, industry 5%, tourism 50%, other services 40% (2005 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  10.2% (2005 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  9.3% (2004)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: 27%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  1.2% ( 2004)

Budget:
  revenues: $1.03 billion
  expenditures: $1.03 billion; including capital expenditures of $130
  million (FY04/05)

Agriculture - products:
  citrus, vegetables; poultry

Industries:
  tourism, banking, cement, oil transshipment, salt, rum, aragonite,
  pharmaceuticals, spiral-welded steel pipe

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA%

Electricity - production:
  1.81 billion kWh (2003)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  1.683 billion kWh (2003)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2003)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2003)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2003)

Oil - consumption:
  23,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)

Oil - exports:
  transhipments of 29,000 bbl/day (2003)

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  0 cu m (2003 est.)

Exports:
  $469.3 million (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  mineral products and salt, animal products, rum, chemicals, fruit
  and vegetables

Exports - partners:
  US 31%, Spain 29.7%, Poland 9.3%, Germany 5.6%, Guatemala 4.1%
  (2005)

Imports:
  $1.82 billion (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals, mineral
  fuels; food and live animals

Imports - partners:
  US 22.5%, South Korea 20.2%, Spain 7.8%, Brazil 7.1%, Italy 6.5%,
  Germany 5.4% (2005)

Debt - external:
  $342.6 million (2004 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $5 million (2004)

Currency (code):
  Bahamian dollar (BSD)

Currency code:
  BSD

Exchange rates:
  Bahamian dollars per US dollar - 1 (2005), 1 (2004), 1 (2003), 1
  (2002), 1 (2001)

Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

Communications Bahamas, The

Telephones - main lines in use:
  139,900 (2004)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  186,000 (2004)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: modern facilities
  domestic: totally automatic system; highly developed
  international: country code - 1-242; tropospheric scatter and
  submarine cable to Florida; 3 coaxial submarine cables; satellite
  earth station - 2 (2005)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 3, FM 5, shortwave 0 (2006)

Radios:
  215,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  2 (2006)

Televisions:
  67,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bs

Internet hosts:
  591 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  19 (2000)

Internet users:
  93,000 (2005)

Transportation Bahamas, The

Airports: 64 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 29 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 14 914 to 1,523 m: 9 under 914 m: 1 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 35 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 10 under 914 m: 22 (2006)

Heliports: 1 (2006)

Roadways: total: 2,693 km paved: 1,546 km unpaved: 1,147 km (1999)

Merchant marine:
  total: 1,177 ships (1000 GRT or over) 37,743,270 GRT/50,918,747 DWT
  by type: barge carrier 1, bulk carrier 253, cargo 250, chemical
  tanker 64, container 79, liquefied gas 35, livestock carrier 2,
  passenger 115, passenger/cargo 34, petroleum tanker 175,
  refrigerated cargo 114, roll on/roll off 20, specialized tanker 5,
  vehicle carrier 30
  foreign-owned: 1,093 (Angola 5, Australia 2, Belgium 13, Canada 18,
  China 3, Cuba 1, Cyprus 13, Denmark 59, Estonia 1, Finland 8, France
  37, Germany 22, Greece 232, Hong Kong 8, Iceland 1, India 1,
  Indonesia 4, Ireland 2, Israel 1, Italy 5, Japan 51, Jordan 2, Kenya
  1, Latvia 1, Malaysia 12, Monaco 17, Montenegro 2, Netherlands 24,
  Nigeria 2, Norway 259, Philippines 1, Poland 15, Reunion 1, Russia
  6, Saudi Arabia 12, Singapore 12, Slovenia 1, Spain 12, Sweden 6,
  Switzerland 2, Thailand 1, Turkey 8, UAE 16, UK 69, Uruguay 2, US
  121, Venezuela 1)
  registered in other countries: 4 (Barbados 1, Liberia 1, Panama 2)
  (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Freeport, Nassau, South Riding Point

Military Bahamas, The

Military branches:
  Royal Bahamian Defense Force: Marines, Air Wing (2006)

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age (est.); no conscription (2001)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 73,121 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 44,309 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 2,804 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  NA

Transnational Issues Bahamas, The

Disputes - international:
  disagrees with the US on the alignment of the maritime boundary;
  continues to monitor and interdict Haitian refugees fleeing economic
  privation and political instability

Illicit drugs:
  transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound for US and
  Europe; offshore financial center

This page was last updated on 19 December, 2006

======================================================================

@Bahrain

Introduction Bahrain

Background:
  In 1782, the Al Khalifa family captured Bahrain from the Persians.
  In order to secure these holdings, it entered into a series of
  treaties with the UK during the 19th century that made Bahrain a
  British protectorate. The archipelago attained its independence in
  1971. Bahrain's small size and central location among Persian Gulf
  countries require it to play a delicate balancing act in foreign
  affairs among its larger neighbors. Facing declining oil reserves,
  Bahrain has turned to petroleum processing and refining and has
  transformed itself into an international banking center. Sheikh
  HAMAD bin Isa Al Khalifa, who came to power in 1999, has pushed
  economic and political reforms and has worked to improve relations
  with the Shia community. In February 2001, Bahraini voters approved
  a referendum on the National Action Charter - the centerpiece of
  Sheikh HAMAD's political liberalization program. In February 2002,
  Sheikh HAMAD pronounced Bahrain a constitutional monarchy and
  changed his status from amir to king. In October 2002, Bahrainis
  elected members of the lower house of Bahrain's reconstituted
  bicameral legislature, the National Assembly.

Geography Bahrain

Location:
  Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia

Geographic coordinates:
  26 00 N, 50 33 E

Map references:
  Middle East

Area:
  total: 665 sq km
  land: 665 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  3.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  161 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: extending to boundaries to be determined

Climate:
  arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers

Terrain:
  mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m highest point: Jabal ad Dukhan 122 m

Natural resources: oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish, pearls

Land use: arable land: 2.82% permanent crops: 5.63% other: 91.55% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  40 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  periodic droughts; dust storms

Environment - current issues:
  desertification resulting from the degradation of limited arable
  land, periods of drought, and dust storms; coastal degradation
  (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and sea vegetation) resulting
  from oil spills and other discharges from large tankers, oil
  refineries, and distribution stations; lack of freshwater resources,
  groundwater and seawater are the only sources for all water needs

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous
  Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources; strategic
  location in Persian Gulf, through which much of the Western world's
  petroleum must transit to reach open ocean

People Bahrain

Population: 698,585 note: includes 235,108 non-nationals (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 27.4% (male 96,567/female 94,650)
  15-64 years: 69.1% (male 280,272/female 202,451)
  65 years and over: 3.5% (male 12,753/female 11,892) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 29.4 years
  male: 32.4 years
  female: 25.8 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  1.45% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  17.8 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  4.14 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0.82 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.38 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.07 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.26 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 16.8 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 19.65 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 13.87 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 74.45 years
  male: 71.97 years
  female: 77 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.6 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.2% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  less than 600 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 200 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bahraini(s)
  adjective: Bahraini

Ethnic groups:
  Bahraini 62.4%, non-Bahraini 37.6% (2001 census)

Religions:
  Muslim (Shi'a and Sunni) 81.2%, Christian 9%, other 9.8% (2001
  census)

Languages:
  Arabic, English, Farsi, Urdu

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 89.1%
  male: 91.9%
  female: 85% (2003 est.)

Government Bahrain

Country name:
  conventional long form: Kingdom of Bahrain
  conventional short form: Bahrain
  local long form: Mamlakat al Bahrayn
  local short form: Al Bahrayn
  former: Dilmun

Government type:
  constitutional hereditary monarchy

Capital:
  name: Manama
  geographic coordinates: 26 13 N, 50 35 E
  time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)

Administrative divisions: 5 governorates; Asamah, Janubiyah, Muharraq, Shamaliyah, Wasat note: each governorate administered by an appointed governor

Independence:
  15 August 1971 (from UK)

National holiday:
  National Day, 16 December (1971); note - 15 August 1971 is the date
  of independence from the UK, 16 December 1971 is the date of
  independence from British protection

Constitution:
  new constitution 14 February 2002

Legal system:
  based on Islamic law and English common law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: King HAMAD bin Isa al-Khalifa (since 6 March 1999);
  Heir Apparent Crown Prince SALMAN bin Hamad (son of the monarch,
  born 21 October 1969)
  head of government: Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman al-Khalifa
  (since 1971); Deputy Prime Ministers ALI bin Khalifa bin Salman
  al-Khalifa, MUHAMMAD bin Mubarak al-Khalifa, Jawad al-ARAIDH
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch
  elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister
  appointed by the monarch

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of Shura Council (40 members
  appointed by the King) and House of Deputies (40 members directly
  elected to serve four-year terms)
  elections: House of Deputies - last held 31 October 2002 (next
  election to be held in September 2006)
  election results: House of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA;
  seats by party - Sunni Islamists 12, Shia grouping 7, other
  groupings and independents 21
  note: first elections since 7 December 1973; unicameral National
  Assembly dissolved 26 August 1975; National Action Charter created
  bicameral legislature on 23 December 2000; approved by referendum 14
  February 2001; first legislative session of Parliament held on 25
  December 2002

Judicial branch:
  High Civil Appeals Court

Political parties and leaders: political parties prohibited but political societies were legalized per a July 2005 law

Political pressure groups and leaders: Shi'a activists fomented unrest sporadically in 1994-97 and have recently engaged in protests and marches, demanding that more power be vested in the elected Council of Representatives and that the government do more to decrease unemployment; several small, clandestine leftist and Islamic fundamentalist groups are active

International organization participation:
  ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt
  (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Nasir bin Muhammad al-BALUSHI chancery: 3502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 342-1111 FAX: [1] (202) 362-2192 consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador William T. MONROE embassy: Building #979, Road 3119 (next to Al-Ahli Sports Club), Block 331, Zinj District, Manama mailing address: American Embassy Manama, PSC 451, FPO AE 09834-5100; international mail: American Embassy, Box 26431, Manama telephone: [973] 1724-2700 FAX: [973] 1727-0547

Flag description:
  red, the traditional color for flags of Persian Gulf states, with a
  white serrated band (five white points) on the hoist side; the five
  points represent the five pillars of Islam

Economy Bahrain

Economy - overview:
  Petroleum production and refining account for about 60% of
  Bahrain's export receipts, 60% of government revenues, and 30% of
  GDP. With its highly developed communication and transport
  facilities, Bahrain is home to numerous multinational firms with
  business in the Gulf. A large share of exports consists of petroleum
  products made from refining imported crude. Construction proceeds on
  several major industrial projects. Unemployment, especially among
  the young, and the depletion of oil and underground water resources
  are major long-term economic problems. In 2005 Bahrain and the US
  ratified a Free Trade Agreement (FTA), the first FTA between the US
  and a Gulf state.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $15.9 billion (2005 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $11.01 billion (2005 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  5.9% (2005 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $23,100 (2005 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 0.5%
  industry: 38.7%
  services: 60.8% (2005 est.)

Labor force:
  380,000
  note: 44% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national
  (2005 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture: 1%
  industry: 79%
  services: 20% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  15% (2005 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.7% (2005 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  19.5% of GDP (2005 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $4.662 billion
  expenditures: $3.447 billion; including capital expenditures of $700
  million (2005 est.)

Public debt:
  33.5% of GDP (2005 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  fruit, vegetables; poultry, dairy products; shrimp, fish

Industries:
  petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, iron
  pelletization, fertilizers, offshore banking, ship repairing, tourism

Industrial production growth rate:
  2% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production:
  7.345 billion kWh (2003)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  6.83 billion kWh (2003)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2003)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2003)

Oil - production:
  188,300 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  26,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day

Oil - proved reserves:
  124 million bbl (2005 est.)

Natural gas - production:
  9.65 billion cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  9.65 billion cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2002 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2002 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  92.03 billion cu m (2005)

Current account balance:
  $1.531 billion (2005 est.)

Exports:
  $11.17 billion (2005 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  petroleum and petroleum products, aluminum, textiles

Exports - partners:
  Saudi Arabia 3.3%, US 2.6%, UAE 2.3% (2005)

Imports:
  $7.83 billion (2005 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  crude oil, machinery, chemicals

Imports - partners:
  Saudi Arabia 36.4%, Japan 6.6%, Germany 6.4%, US 5.4%, UK 5%, UAE
  4.1% (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $2.432 billion (2005 est.)

Debt - external:
  $6.814 billion (2005 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $150 million; note - $50 million annually since 1992 from the UAE
  and Kuwait (2002)

Currency (code):
  Bahraini dinar (BHD)

Currency code:
  BHD

Exchange rates:
  Bahraini dinars per US dollar - 0.376 (2005), 0.376 (2004), 0.376
  (2003), 0.376 (2002), 0.376 (2001)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Bahrain

Telephones - main lines in use:
  196,500 (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  748,700 (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: modern system
  domestic: modern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network
  with rapidly growing use of mobile cellular telephones
  international: country code - 973; tropospheric scatter to Qatar and
  UAE; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; submarine cable to
  Qatar, UAE, and Saudi Arabia; satellite earth stations - 1 (1997)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  338,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  4 (1997)

Televisions:
  275,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bh

Internet hosts:
  2,165 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Internet users:
  152,700 (2005)

Transportation Bahrain

Airports: 3 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 3 over 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2006)

Heliports:
  1 (2006)

Pipelines:
  gas 20 km; oil 52 km (2006)

Roadways:
  total: 3,498 km
  paved: 2,768 km
  unpaved: 730 km (2003)

Merchant marine:
  total: 8 ships (1000 GRT or over) 235,449 GRT/339,728 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 4, cargo 1, container 2, petroleum tanker 1
  foreign-owned: 3 (Kuwait 3) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Mina' Salman, Sitrah

Military Bahrain

Military branches:
  Bahrain Defense Forces (BDF): Ground Force (includes Air Defense),
  Navy, Air Force, National Guard

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age for voluntary military service (2001)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 202,126
  females age 18-49: 151,734 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 161,372
  females age 18-49: 125,488 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 6,013
  females age 18-49: 5,852 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $627.7 million (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  4.9% (2005 est.)

Transnational Issues Bahrain

Disputes - international:
  none

Trafficking in persons:
  current situation: Bahrain is a destination country for men and
  women from South and Southeast Asia who migrate willingly to work as
  laborers or domestic servants, but may be subjected to conditions of
  involuntary servitude when faced with exorbitant recruitment and
  transportation fees, withholding of their passports, restrictions on
  their movement, non-payment of wages, and physical or sexual abuse;
  Eastern European women are also believed to be trafficked to Bahrain
  for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation or forced labor
  tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Bahrain's efforts to address
  trafficking in persons are based largely on pledges of future
  efforts; the government did not enact a comprehensive
  anti-trafficking law extending labor protection to domestic workers

This page was last updated on 19 December, 2006

======================================================================

@Bangladesh

Introduction Bangladesh

Background:
  Europeans began to set up trading posts in the area of Bangladesh
  in the 16th century; eventually the British came to dominate the
  region and it became part of British India. In 1947, West Pakistan
  and East Bengal (both primarily Muslim) separated from India
  (largely Hindu) and jointly became the new country of Pakistan. East
  Bengal became East Pakistan in 1955, but the awkward arrangement of
  a two-part country with its territorial units separated by 1,600 km
  left the Bengalis marginalized and dissatisfied. East Pakistan
  seceded from its union with West Pakistan in 1971 and was renamed
  Bangladesh. About a third of this extremely poor country floods
  annually during the monsoon rainy season, hampering economic
  development.

Geography Bangladesh

Location:
  Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and India

Geographic coordinates:
  24 00 N, 90 00 E

Map references:
  Asia

Area:
  total: 144,000 sq km
  land: 133,910 sq km
  water: 10,090 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Iowa

Land boundaries: total: 4,246 km border countries: Burma 193 km, India 4,053 km

Coastline: 580 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm contiguous zone: 18 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm continental shelf: up to the outer limits of the continental margin

Climate:
  tropical; mild winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March
  to June); humid, warm rainy monsoon (June to October)

Terrain:
  mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: Keokradong 1,230 m

Natural resources: natural gas, arable land, timber, coal

Land use: arable land: 55.39% permanent crops: 3.08% other: 41.53% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  47,250 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  droughts, cyclones; much of the country routinely inundated during
  the summer monsoon season

Environment - current issues:
  many people are landless and forced to live on and cultivate
  flood-prone land; water-borne diseases prevalent in surface water;
  water pollution, especially of fishing areas, results from the use
  of commercial pesticides; ground water contaminated by naturally
  occurring arsenic; intermittent water shortages because of falling
  water tables in the northern and central parts of the country; soil
  degradation and erosion; deforestation; severe overpopulation

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
  Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  most of the country is situated on deltas of large rivers flowing
  from the Himalayas: the Ganges unites with the Jamuna (main channel
  of the Brahmaputra) and later joins the Meghna to eventually empty
  into the Bay of Bengal

People Bangladesh

Population:
  147,365,352 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 32.9% (male 24,957,997/female 23,533,894)
  15-64 years: 63.6% (male 47,862,774/female 45,917,674)
  65 years and over: 3.5% (male 2,731,578/female 2,361,435) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 22.2 years
  male: 22.2 years
  female: 22.2 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  2.09% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  29.8 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  8.27 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -0.68 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.16 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 60.83 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 61.87 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 59.74 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 62.46 years
  male: 62.47 years
  female: 62.45 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  3.11 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  less than 0.1% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  13,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  650 (2001 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
  degree of risk: high
  food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E,
  and typhoid fever
  vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria are high risks in
  some locations
  water contact disease: leptospirosis
  animal contact disease: rabies (2005)

Nationality:
  noun: Bangladeshi(s)
  adjective: Bangladeshi

Ethnic groups:
  Bengali 98%, tribal groups, non-Bengali Muslims (1998)

Religions:
  Muslim 83%, Hindu 16%, other 1% (1998)

Languages:
  Bangla (official, also known as Bengali), English

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 43.1%
  male: 53.9%
  female: 31.8% (2003 est.)

Government Bangladesh

Country name:
  conventional long form: People's Republic of Bangladesh
  conventional short form: Bangladesh
  local long form: Gana Prajatantri Banladesh
  local short form: Banladesh
  former: East Bengal, East Pakistan

Government type:
  parliamentary democracy

Capital:
  name: Dhaka
  geographic coordinates: 23 43 N, 90 25 E
  time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
  6 divisions; Barisal, Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna, Rajshahi, Sylhet

Independence:
  16 December 1971 (from West Pakistan); note - 26 March 1971 is the
  date of independence from West Pakistan, 16 December 1971 is known
  as Victory Day and commemorates the official creation of the state
  of Bangladesh

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 26 March (1971); note - 26 March 1971 is the date
  of independence from West Pakistan, 16 December 1971 is Victory Day
  and commemorates the official creation of the state of Bangladesh

Constitution:
  4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972; suspended following
  coup of 24 March 1982, restored 10 November 1986; amended many times

Legal system:
  based on English common law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Iajuddin AHMED (since 6 September 2002);
  note - the president's duties are normally ceremonial, but with the
  13th amendment to the constitution ("Caretaker Government
  Amendment"), the president's role becomes significant at times when
  Parliament is dissolved and a caretaker government is installed - at
  presidential direction - to supervise the elections
  head of government: Prime Minister Khaleda ZIA (since 10 October
  2001)
  cabinet: Cabinet selected by the prime minister and appointed by the
  president
  elections: president elected by National Parliament for a five-year
  term (eligible for a second term); election scheduled for 16
  September 2002 was not held since Iajuddin AHMED was the only
  presidential candidate; he was sworn in on 6 September 2002 (next
  election to be held by 2007); following legislative elections, the
  leader of the party that wins the most seats is usually appointed
  prime minister by the president
  election results: Iajuddin AHMED declared by the Election Commission
  elected unopposed as president; percent of National Parliament vote
  - NA

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Parliament or Jatiya Sangsad; 300 seats elected
  by popular vote from single territorial constituencies (the
  constitutional amendment reserving 30 seats for women over and above
  the 300 regular parliament seats expired in May 2001); members serve
  five-year terms
  elections: last held 1 October 2001 (next to be held no later than
  January 2007)
  election results: percent of vote by party - BNP and alliance
  partners 41%, AL 40%; seats by party - BNP 193, AL 58, JI 17, JP
  (Ershad faction) 14, IOJ 2, JP (Manzur) 4, other 12; note - the
  election of October 2001 brought a majority BNP government aligned
  with three other smaller parties - JI, IOJ, and Jatiya Party (Manzur)

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (the chief justices and other judges are appointed by
  the president)

Political parties and leaders:
  Awami League or AL [Sheikh HASINA]; Bangladesh Communist Party or
  BCP [Saifuddin Ahmed MANIK]; Bangladesh Nationalist Party or BNP
  [Khaleda ZIA]; Islami Oikya Jote or IOJ [Mufti Fazlul Haq AMINI];
  Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh or JIB [Motiur Rahman NIZAMI]; Jatiya
  Party or JP (Ershad faction) [Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD]; Jatiya Party
  (Manzur faction) [Naziur Rahman MANZUR]; Liberal Democratic Party or
  LDP [Badrudozza CHOWDHURY and Oli AHMED]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ARF, AsDB, BIMSTEC, C, CP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt
  (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF,
  IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM,
  OIC, OPCW, SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE,
  UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNOMIG, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
  WToO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Shamsher Mobin CHOWDHURY
  chancery: 3510 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 244-0183
  FAX: [1] (202) 244-5366
  consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Patricia A. BUTENIS
  embassy: Madani Avenue, Baridhara, Dhaka 1212
  mailing address: G. P. O. Box 323, Dhaka 1000
  telephone: [880] (2) 885-5500
  FAX: [880] (2) 882-3744

Flag description:
  green field with a large red disk shifted slightly to the hoist
  side of center; the red disk represents the rising sun and the
  sacrifice to achieve independence; the green field symbolizes the
  lush vegetation of Bangladesh

Economy Bangladesh

Economy - overview:
  Despite sustained domestic and international efforts to improve
  economic and demographic prospects, Bangladesh remains a poor,
  overpopulated, and inefficiently-governed nation. Although half of
  GDP is generated through the service sector, nearly two-thirds of
  Bangladeshis are employed in the agriculture sector, with rice as
  the single-most-important product. Major impediments to growth
  include frequent cyclones and floods, inefficient state-owned
  enterprises, inadequate port facilities, a rapidly growing labor
  force that cannot be absorbed by agriculture, delays in exploiting
  energy resources (natural gas), insufficient power supplies, and
  slow implementation of economic reforms. Reform is stalled in many
  instances by political infighting and corruption at all levels of
  government. Progress also has been blocked by opposition from the
  bureaucracy, public sector unions, and other vested interest groups.
  The BNP government, led by Prime Minister Khaleda ZIA, has the
  parliamentary strength to push through needed reforms, but the
  party's political will to do so has been lacking in key areas. One
  encouraging note: growth has been a steady 5% for the past several
  years.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $305.9 billion (2005 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $63.56 billion (2005 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  6.4% (2005 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $2,100 (2005 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 19.9%
  industry: 19.8%
  services: 60.3% (2004 est.)

Labor force:
  66.6 million
  note: extensive export of labor to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Oman,
  Qatar, and Malaysia; workers' remittances estimated at $1.71 billion
  in 1998-99 (2005 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 63% industry: 11% services: 26% (FY95/96)

Unemployment rate:
  2.5% (includes underemployment) (2005 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  45% (2004 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.9% highest 10%: 28.6% (1995-96 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  31.8 (2000)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  7% (2005 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  24.4% of GDP (2005 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $5.993 billion
  expenditures: $8.598 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2005 est.)

Public debt:
  44.5% of GDP (2005 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  rice, jute, tea, wheat, sugarcane, potatoes, tobacco, pulses,
  oilseeds, spices, fruit; beef, milk, poultry

Industries:
  cotton textiles, jute, garments, tea processing, paper newsprint,
  cement, chemical fertilizer, light engineering, sugar

Industrial production growth rate:
  6.7% (2005 est.)

Electricity - production:
  17.42 billion kWh (2003)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 93.7% hydro: 6.3% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  16.2 billion kWh (2003)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2003)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2003)

Oil - production:
  6,825 bbl/day (2003)

Oil - consumption:
  84,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day

Oil - proved reserves:
  28.45 million bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  11.9 billion cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  11.9 billion cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  300.2 billion cu m (1 January 2002)

Current account balance:
  $37 million (2005 est.)

Exports:
  $9.372 billion (2005 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  garments, jute and jute goods, leather, frozen fish and seafood
  (2001)

Exports - partners:
  US 23.6%, Germany 13.5%, UK 9.4%, France 6.4% (2005)

Imports:
  $12.97 billion (2005 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, chemicals, iron and steel, textiles,
  foodstuffs, petroleum products, cement (2000)

Imports - partners:
  India 14.1%, China 13.5%, Kuwait 8.5%, Singapore 6.2%, Japan 4.1%,
  Hong Kong 4.1% (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $2.825 billion (2005 est.)

Debt - external:
  $20.63 billion (2005 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $1.575 billion (2000 est.)

Currency (code):
  taka (BDT)

Currency code:
  BDT

Exchange rates:
  taka per US dollar - 64.328 (2005), 59.513 (2004), 58.15 (2003),
  57.888 (2002), 55.807 (2001)

Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

Communications Bangladesh

Telephones - main lines in use:
  1.07 million (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  9 million (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: totally inadequate for a modern country
  domestic: modernizing; introducing digital systems; trunk systems
  include VHF and UHF microwave radio relay links, and some
  fiber-optic cable in cities
  international: country code - 880; satellite earth stations - 6;
  international radiotelephone communications and landline service to
  neighboring countries (2005)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 15, FM 13, shortwave 2 (2006)

Radios:
  6.15 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  15 (1999)

Televisions:
  770,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bd

Internet hosts:
  469 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  10 (2000)

Internet users:
  300,000 (2005)

Transportation Bangladesh

Airports: 16 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 15 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 5 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2006)

Pipelines:
  gas 2,604 km (2006)

Railways:
  total: 2,768 km
  broad gauge: 946 km 1.676-m gauge
  narrow gauge: 1,822 km 1.000-m gauge (2005)

Roadways:
  total: 239,226 km
  paved: 22,726 km
  unpaved: 216,500 km (2003)

Waterways:
  8,372 km
  note: includes 5,635 km main cargo routes; network reduced to 5,200
  km in dry season (2005)

Merchant marine:
  total: 42 ships (1000 GRT or over) 341,733 GRT/485,840 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 3, cargo 29, container 6, passenger/cargo 1,
  petroleum tanker 3
  foreign-owned: 1 (China 1)
  registered in other countries: 10 (Antigua and Barbuda 4, Comoros 1,
  Malta 3, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Singapore 1) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Chittagong, Mongla Port

Military Bangladesh

Military branches:
  Bangladesh Defense Force: Bangladesh Army, Bangladesh Navy,
  Bangladesh Air Force (Bangladesh Biman Bahini, BAF) (2006)

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription
  (2005)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 35,170,019 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 26,841,255 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $1.01 billion (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.8% (2005 est.)

Transnational Issues Bangladesh

Disputes - international:
  discussions with India remain stalled to delimit a small section of
  river boundary, exchange 162 miniscule enclaves in both countries,
  allocate divided villages, and stop illegal cross-border trade,
  migration, violence, and transit of terrorists through the porous
  border; Bangladesh resists India's attempts to fence or wall off
  high-traffic sections of the porous boundary; a joint
  Bangladesh-India boundary inspection in 2005 revealed 92 pillars are
  missing; dispute with India over New Moore/South Talpatty/Purbasha
  Island in the Bay of Bengal deters maritime boundary delimitation;
  Burmese Muslim refugees strain Bangladesh's meager resources

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  refugees (country of origin): 20,402 (Burma)
  IDPs: 61,000 (land conflicts, religious persecution) (2005)

Illicit drugs:
  transit country for illegal drugs produced in neighboring countries

This page was last updated on 19 December, 2006

======================================================================

@Barbados

Introduction Barbados

Background:
  The island was uninhabited when first settled by the British in
  1627. Slaves worked the sugar plantations established on the island
  until 1834 when slavery was abolished. The economy remained heavily
  dependent on sugar, rum, and molasses production through most of the
  20th century. The gradual introduction of social and political
  reforms in the 1940s and 1950s led to complete independence from the
  UK in 1966. In the 1990s, tourism and manufacturing surpassed the
  sugar industry in economic importance.

Geography Barbados

Location:
  Caribbean, island in the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of
  Venezuela

Geographic coordinates:
  13 10 N, 59 32 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 431 sq km
  land: 431 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  97 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical; rainy season (June to October)

Terrain:
  relatively flat; rises gently to central highland region

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Mount Hillaby 336 m

Natural resources: petroleum, fish, natural gas

Land use: arable land: 37.21% permanent crops: 2.33% other: 60.46% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  50 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  infrequent hurricanes; periodic landslides

Environment - current issues: pollution of coastal waters from waste disposal by ships; soil erosion; illegal solid waste disposal threatens contamination of aquifers

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: easternmost Caribbean island

People Barbados

Population:
  279,912 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 20.1% (male 28,160/female 28,039)
  15-64 years: 71.1% (male 97,755/female 101,223)
  65 years and over: 8.8% (male 9,508/female 15,227) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 34.6 years
  male: 33.4 years
  female: 35.6 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.37% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  12.71 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  8.67 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -0.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.01 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 11.77 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 13.38 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 10.15 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 72.79 years
  male: 70.79 years
  female: 74.82 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.65 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  1.5% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  2,500 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 200 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Barbadian(s) or Bajan (colloquial)
  adjective: Barbadian or Bajan (colloquial)

Ethnic groups:
  black 90%, white 4%, Asian and mixed 6%

Religions:
  Protestant 67% (Anglican 40%, Pentecostal 8%, Methodist 7%, other
  12%), Roman Catholic 4%, none 17%, other 12%

Languages:
  English

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
  total population: 99.7%
  male: 99.7%
  female: 99.7% (2002 est.)

Government Barbados

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Barbados

Government type:
  parliamentary democracy

Capital:
  name: Bridgetown
  geographic coordinates: 13 06 N, 59 37 W
  time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
  11 parishes; Christ Church, Saint Andrew, Saint George, Saint
  James, Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Lucy, Saint Michael, Saint
  Peter, Saint Philip, Saint Thomas; note - the city of Bridgetown may
  be given parish status

Independence:
  30 November 1966 (from UK)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 30 November (1966)

Constitution:
  30 November 1966

Legal system:
  English common law; no judicial review of legislative acts; accepts
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor General Sir Clifford Straughn HUSBANDS
  (since 1 June 1996)
  head of government: Prime Minister Owen Seymour ARTHUR (since 7
  September 1994); Deputy Prime Minister Mia MOTTLEY (since 26 May
  2003)
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of
  the prime minister
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general
  appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the
  leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition
  is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; the
  prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (21-member body
  appointed by the governor general) and the House of Assembly (30
  seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year
  terms)
  elections: House of Assembly - last held 21 May 2003 (next to be
  held by May 2008)
  election results: House of Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA;
  seats by party - BLP 23, DLP 7

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court of Judicature (judges are appointed by the Service
  Commissions for the Judicial and Legal Services)

Political parties and leaders:
  Barbados Labor Party or BLP [Owen ARTHUR]; Democratic Labor Party
  or DLP [David THOMPSON]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Barbados Workers Union [Leroy TROTMAN]; Clement Payne Labor Union
  [David COMISSIONG]; People's Progressive Movement [Eric SEALY];
  Worker's Party of Barbados [Dr. George BELLE]

International organization participation:
  ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU,
  ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU,
  LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO,
  WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Michael Ian KING
  chancery: 2144 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 939-9200
  FAX: [1] (202) 332-7467
  consulate(s) general: Miami, New York
  consulate(s): Los Angeles

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Mary M. OURISMAN
  embassy: Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce Building, Broad Street,
  Bridgetown; (courier) ALICO Building-Cheapside, Bridgetown
  mailing address: P. O. Box 302, Bridgetown; CMR 1014, APO AA 34055
  telephone: [1] (246) 436-4950
  FAX: [1] (246) 429-5246, 429-3379

Flag description:
  three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), gold, and blue
  with the head of a black trident centered on the gold band; the
  trident head represents independence and a break with the past (the
  colonial coat of arms contained a complete trident)

Economy Barbados

Economy - overview:
  Historically, the Barbadian economy had been dependent on sugarcane
  cultivation and related activities, but production in recent years
  has diversified into light industry and tourism. Offshore finance
  and information services are important foreign exchange earners. The
  government continues its efforts to reduce unemployment, to
  encourage direct foreign investment, and to privatize remaining
  state-owned enterprises. The economy contracted in 2002-03 mainly
  due to a decline in tourism. Growth was positive in 2005, as
  economic conditions in the US and Europe moderately improved.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $4.815 billion (2005 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $2.964 billion (2005 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  4.1% (2005 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $17,300 (2005 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 6% industry: 16% services: 78% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 128,500 (2001 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 10% industry: 15% services: 75% (1996 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  10.7% (2003 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  -0.5% (2003 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $847 million (including grants)
  expenditures: $886 million; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2000 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  sugarcane, vegetables, cotton

Industries:
  tourism, sugar, light manufacturing, component assembly for export

Industrial production growth rate:
  -3.2% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production:
  819 million kWh (2003)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  761.7 million kWh (2003)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2003)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2003)

Oil - production:
  1,000 bbl/day (2003)

Oil - consumption:
  10,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day

Oil - proved reserves:
  1.254 million bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  29.17 million cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  29.17 million cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  141.6 million cu m (1 January 2002)

Exports:
  $209 million (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  sugar and molasses, rum, other foods and beverages, chemicals,
  electrical components

Exports - partners:
  US 18.6%, Trinidad and Tobago 15%, UK 12.1%, Saint Lucia 8.4%,
  Jamaica 7.9%, Grenada 4.6%, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 4.6%
  (2005)

Imports:
  $1.476 billion (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  consumer goods, machinery, foodstuffs, construction materials,
  chemicals, fuel, electrical components

Imports - partners:
  NZ 45.9%, US 20.3%, Trinidad and Tobago 12% (2005)

Debt - external:
  $668 million (2003)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $9.1 million (1995)

Currency (code):
  Barbadian dollar (BBD)

Currency code:
  BBD

Exchange rates:
  Barbadian dollars per US dollar - 2 (2005), 2 (2004), 2 (2003), 2
  (2002), 2 (2001)

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Barbados

Telephones - main lines in use:
  134,900 (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  206,200 (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: island-wide automatic telephone system
  international: country code - 1-246; satellite earth stations - 1
  (Intelsat -Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Trinidad and
  Saint Lucia

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 6, shortwave 0 (2004)

Radios:
  237,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (plus two cable channels) (2004)

Televisions:
  76,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bb

Internet hosts:
  282 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  19 (2000)

Internet users:
  160,000 (2005)

Transportation Barbados

Airports: 1 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  over 3,047 m: 1 (2006)

Roadways:
  total: 1,600 km
  paved: 1,600 km (2003)

Merchant marine:
  total: 58 ships (1000 GRT or over) 433,390 GRT/664,998 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 11, cargo 32, chemical tanker 7, passenger 1,
  passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 3, roll on/roll off 2,
  specialized tanker 1
  foreign-owned: 57 (Bahamas, The 1, Canada 8, Greece 11, Lebanon 1,
  Monaco 1, Norway 29, UAE 1, UK 5)
  registered in other countries: 1 (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
  1) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Bridgetown

Military Barbados

Military branches:
  Royal Barbados Defense Force: Troops Command, Coast Guard (2005)

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age for voluntary military service; volunteers at
  earlier age with parental consent; no conscription (2001)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 71,524
  females age 18-49: 72,302 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 54,510
  females age 18-49: 54,889 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  NA

Military - note:
  the Royal Barbados Defense Force includes a land-based Troop
  Command and a small Coast Guard; the primary role of the land
  element is to defend the island against external aggression; the
  Command consists of a single, part-time battalion with a small
  regular cadre that is deployed throughout the island; it
  increasingly supports the police in patrolling the coastline to
  prevent smuggling and other illicit activities (2005)

Transnational Issues Barbados

Disputes - international:
  in 2005, Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago agreed to compulsory
  international arbitration that will result in a binding award
  challenging whether the northern limit of Trinidad and Tobago's and
  Venezuela's maritime boundary extends into Barbadian waters and the
  southern limit of Barbadian traditional fishing; joins other
  Caribbean states to counter Venezuela's claim that Aves Island
  sustains human habitation, a criterion under the UN Convention on
  the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which permits Venezuela to extend its
  EEZ/continental shelf over a large portion of the Caribbean Sea

Illicit drugs:
  one of many Caribbean transshipment points for narcotics bound for
  Europe and the US; offshore financial center

This page was last updated on 19 December, 2006

======================================================================

@Belarus

Introduction Belarus

Background:
  After seven decades as a constituent republic of the USSR, Belarus
  attained its independence in 1991. It has retained closer political
  and economic ties to Russia than any of the other former Soviet
  republics. Belarus and Russia signed a treaty on a two-state union
  on 8 December 1999 envisioning greater political and economic
  integration. Although Belarus agreed to a framework to carry out the
  accord, serious implementation has yet to take place. Since his
  election in July 1994 as the country's first president, Alexander
  LUKASHENKO has steadily consolidated his power through authoritarian
  means. Government restrictions on freedom of speech and the press,
  peaceful assembly, and religion continue.

Geography Belarus

Location:
  Eastern Europe, east of Poland

Geographic coordinates:
  53 00 N, 28 00 E

Map references:
  Europe

Area:
  total: 207,600 sq km
  land: 207,600 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Kansas

Land boundaries:
  total: 2,900 km
  border countries: Latvia 141 km, Lithuania 502 km, Poland 407 km,
  Russia 959 km, Ukraine 891 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  cold winters, cool and moist summers; transitional between
  continental and maritime

Terrain:
  generally flat and contains much marshland

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Nyoman River 90 m
  highest point: Dzyarzhynskaya Hara 346 m

Natural resources:
  forests, peat deposits, small quantities of oil and natural gas,
  granite, dolomitic limestone, marl, chalk, sand, gravel, clay

Land use: arable land: 26.77% permanent crops: 0.6% other: 72.63% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  1,310 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  NA

Environment - current issues: soil pollution from pesticide use; southern part of the country contaminated with fallout from 1986 nuclear reactor accident at Chornobyl' in northern Ukraine

Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note:
  landlocked; glacial scouring accounts for the flatness of
  Belarusian terrain and for its 11,000 lakes

People Belarus

Population:
  10,293,011 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 15.7% (male 825,823/female 791,741)
  15-64 years: 69.7% (male 3,490,442/female 3,682,950)
  65 years and over: 14.6% (male 498,976/female 1,003,079) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 37.2 years
  male: 34.5 years
  female: 39.9 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  -0.06% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  11.16 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  14.02 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  2.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.5 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.88 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 13 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 13.92 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 12.03 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 69.08 years
  male: 63.47 years
  female: 74.98 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.43 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.3% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  15,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  1,000 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Belarusian(s)
  adjective: Belarusian

Ethnic groups:
  Belarusian 81.2%, Russian 11.4%, Polish 3.9%, Ukrainian 2.4%, other
  1.1% (1999 census)

Religions:
  Eastern Orthodox 80%, other (including Roman Catholic, Protestant,
  Jewish, and Muslim) 20% (1997 est.)

Languages:
  Belarusian, Russian, other

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 99.6%
  male: 99.8%
  female: 99.5% (2003 est.)

Government Belarus

Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Belarus
  conventional short form: Belarus
  local long form: Respublika Byelarus'
  local short form: Byelarus'
  former: Belorussian (Byelorussian) Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type:
  republic in name, although in fact a dictatorship

Capital:
  name: Minsk
  geographic coordinates: 53 54 N, 27 34 E
  time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)
  daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last
  Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
  6 provinces (voblastsi, singular - voblasts') and 1 municipality*
  (horad); Brest, Homyel', Horad Minsk*, Hrodna, Mahilyow, Minsk,
  Vitsyebsk
  note: administrative divisions have the same names as their
  administrative centers

Independence:
  25 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 3 July (1944); note - 3 July 1944 was the date
  Minsk was liberated from German troops, 25 August 1991 was the date
  of independence from the Soviet Union

Constitution:
  15 March 1994; revised by national referendum of 24 November 1996
  giving the presidency greatly expanded powers and became effective
  27 November 1996; revised again 17 October 2004 removing
  presidential term limits

Legal system:
  based on civil law system

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Aleksandr LUKASHENKO (since 20 July 1994)
  head of government: Prime Minister Sergei SIDORSKIY (since 19
  December 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir SEMASHKO (since
  December 2003)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
  first election took place 23 June and 10 July 1994; according to the
  1994 constitution, the next election should have been held in 1999,
  however, Aleksandr LUKASHENKO extended his term to 2001 via a
  November 1996 referendum; subsequent election held 9 September 2001;
  an October 2004 referendum ended presidential term limits allowing
  president to run in a third election held on 19 March 2006; prime
  minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president
  election results: Aleksandr LUKASHENKO reelected president; percent
  of vote - Aleksandr LUKASHENKO 82.6%, Aleksandr MILINKEVICH 6%,
  Aleksandr KOZULIN 2.3%; note - election marred by electoral fraud

Legislative branch:
  bicameral National Assembly or Natsionalnoye Sobranie consists of
  the Council of the Republic or Soviet Respubliki (64 seats; 56
  members elected by regional councils and 8 members appointed by the
  president, all for four-year terms) and the Chamber of
  Representatives or Palata Predstaviteley (110 seats; members elected
  by universal adult suffrage to serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 17 and 31 October 2004; international observers
  widely denounced the elections as flawed and undemocratic, based on
  massive government falsification; pro-LUKASHENKO candidates won
  every seat, after many opposition candidates were disqualified for
  technical reasons
  election results: Soviet Respubliki - percent of vote by party - NA;
  seats by party - NA; Palata Predstaviteley - percent of vote by
  party - NA; seats by party - NA

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president);
  Constitutional Court (half of the judges appointed by the president
  and half appointed by the Chamber of Representatives)

Political parties and leaders:
  pro-government parties: Agrarian Party or AP [Mikhail SHIMANSKY];
  Belarusian Communist Party or KPB; Belarusian Patriotic Movement
  (Belarusian Patriotic Party) or BPR [Nikolai ULAKHOVICH, chairman];
  Liberal Democratic Party of Belarus [Sergei GAYDUKEVICH]; Party of
  Labor and Justice [Viktor SOKOLOV]; Social-Sports Party [Vladimir
  ALEXANDROVICH]
  opposition parties: 10 Plus Coalition [Alyaksandr MILINKEVICH],
  includes: Belarusian Party of Communists or PKB [Syarhey KALYAKIN];
  Belarusian Party of Labor (unregistered) [Aleksandr BUKHVOSTOV,
  Leonid LEMESHONAK]; Belarusian Popular Front or BPF [Vintsyuk
  VYACHORKA]; Belarusian Social-Democratic Gramada [Stanislav
  SHUSHKEVICH]; Green Party [Oleg GROMYKO]; Party of Freedom and
  Progress (unregistered) [Vladimir NOVOSYAD]; United Civic Party or
  UCP [Anatol LYABEDKA]; Women's Party "Nadezhda" [Valentina
  MATUSEVICH, chairperson]
  other opposition includes: Belarusian Social-Democratic Party
  Nardonaya Hromada or BSDP NH [Alyaksandr KOZULIN, chairman];
  Christian Conservative BPF [Zyanon PAZNIAK]; Ecological Party of
  Greens [Mikhail KARTASH]; Party of Popular Accord [Sergei YERMAKK];
  Republican Party [Vladimir BELAZOR]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Assembly of Pro-Democratic NGOs [Sergey MATSKEVICH]; Belarusian
  Congress of Democratic Trade Unions [Alyaksandr YAROSHUK];
  Belarusian Helsinki Committee [Tatiana PROTKO]; Belarusian
  Organization of Working Women [Irina ZHIKHAR]; Charter 97 [Andrey
  SANNIKOV]; Lenin Communist Union of Youth (youth wing of the
  Belarusian Party of Communists or PKB); National Strike Committee of
  Entrepreneurs [Aleksandr VASILYEV, Valery LEVONEVSKY]; Partnership
  NGO [Nikolay ASTREYKA]; Perspektiva kiosk watchdog NGO [Anatol
  SHUMCHENKO]; Vyasna [Ales BYALATSKY]; Women's Independent Democratic
  Movement [Ludmila PETINA]; Youth Front (Malady Front) [Dzmitryy
  DASHKEVICH, Syarhey BAKHUN]; Zubr youth group [Vladimir KOBETS]

International organization participation:
  BSEC (observer), CEI, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
  ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA,
  NAM, NSG, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO,
  WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Mikhail KHVOSTOV
  chancery: 1619 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
  telephone: [1] (202) 986-1604
  FAX: [1] (202) 986-1805
  consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Karen B. STEWART
  embassy: 46 Starovilenskaya St., Minsk 220002
  mailing address: PSC 78, Box B Minsk, APO 09723
  telephone: [375] (17) 210-12-83, 217-7347, 217-7348
  FAX: [375] (17) 234-7853

Flag description:
  red horizontal band (top) and green horizontal band one-half the
  width of the red band; a white vertical stripe on the hoist side
  bears Belarusian national ornamentation in red

Economy Belarus

Economy - overview:
  Belarus's economy in 2005 posted 8% growth. The government has
  succeeded in lowering inflation over the past several years. Trade
  with Russia - by far its largest single trade partner - decreased in
  2005, largely as a result of a change in the way the Value Added Tax
  (VAT) on trade was collected. Trade with European countries
  increased. Belarus has seen little structural reform since 1995,
  when President LUKASHENKO launched the country on the path of
  "market socialism." In keeping with this policy, LUKASHENKO
  reimposed administrative controls over prices and currency exchange
  rates and expanded the state's right to intervene in the management
  of private enterprises. During 2005, the government re-nationalized
  a number of private companies. In addition, businesses have been
  subject to pressure by central and local governments, e.g.,
  arbitrary changes in regulations, numerous rigorous inspections,
  retroactive application of new business regulations, and arrests of
  "disruptive" businessmen and factory owners. A wide range of
  redistributive policies has helped those at the bottom of the
  ladder; the Gini coefficient is among the lowest in the world.
  Because of these restrictive economic policies, Belarus has had
  trouble attracting foreign investment, which remains low. Growth has
  been strong in recent years, despite the roadblocks in a tough,
  centrally directed economy with a high, but decreasing, rate of
  inflation. Belarus continues to receive heavily discounted oil and
  natural gas from Russia. Much of Belarus' growth can be attributed
  to the re-export of Russian oil at market prices.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $73.09 billion (2005 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $26.69 billion (2005 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  9.2% (2005 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $7,100 (2005 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 9.3% industry: 31.6% services: 59.1% (2005 est.)

Labor force: 4.3 million (31 December 2005)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 14% industry: 34.7% services: 51.3% (2003 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  1.6% officially registered unemployed; large number of
  underemployed workers (2005)

Population below poverty line:
  27.1% (2003 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 5.1% highest 10%: 20% (1998)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  30.4 (2000)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  10.3% (2005 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  24.8% of GDP (2005 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $5.903 billion
  expenditures: $6.343 billion; including capital expenditures of $180
  million (2005 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  grain, potatoes, vegetables, sugar beets, flax; beef, milk

Industries:
  metal-cutting machine tools, tractors, trucks, earthmovers,
  motorcycles, televisions, chemical fibers, fertilizer, textiles,
  radios, refrigerators

Industrial production growth rate:
  15.6% (2005 est.)

Electricity - production:
  30 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 99.5% hydro: 0.1% nuclear: 0% other: 0.4% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  34.3 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  800 million kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  7 billion kWh (2003)

Oil - production:
  36,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  252,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)

Oil - exports:
  14,500 bbl/day (2003 est.)

Oil - imports:
  360,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Natural gas - production:
  250 million cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  20.5 billion cu m (2005 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  20.5 billion cu m (2005 est.)

Current account balance:
  $852 million (2005 est.)

Exports:
  $16.14 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, mineral products, chemicals, metals,
  textiles, foodstuffs

Exports - partners:
  Russia 38.5%, Ukraine 7.8%, Poland 7.1%, Latvia 4.2%, UK 4.1%,
  China 4.1% (2005)

Imports:
  $16.94 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  mineral products, machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs,
  metals

Imports - partners:
  Russia 57.9%, Germany 9.7%, Ukraine 6.4%, Poland 5.2% (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $1.215 billion (2005 est.)

Debt - external:
  $4.662 billion (30 June 2005 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $194.3 million (1995)

Currency (code):
  Belarusian ruble (BYB/BYR)

Currency code:
  BYB/BYR

Exchange rates:
  Belarusian rubles per US dollar - 2,150 (2005), 2,160.26 (2004),
  2,051.27 (2003), 1,790.92 (2002), 1,390 (2001)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Belarus

Telephones - main lines in use:
  3,284,300 (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  4.098 million (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: Belarus lags behind its neighbors in upgrading
  telecommunications infrastructure; state-owned Beltelcom, is the
  sole provider of fixed line local and long distance service;
  modernization of the network to digital switching progressing slowly
  domestic: fixed line penetration is improving although rural areas
  continue to be underserved; four GSM wireless networks are
  experiencing rapid growth; strict government controls on
  telecommunications technologies
  international: country code - 375; Belarus is a member of the
  Trans-European Line (TEL), Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line,
  and has access to the Trans-Siberia Line (TSL); three fiber-optic
  segments provide connectivity to Latvia, Poland, Russia, and
  Ukraine; worldwide service is available to Belarus through this
  infrastructure; additional analog lines to Russia; Intelsat,
  Eutelsat, and Intersputnik earth stations

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 28, FM 37, shortwave 11 (1998)

Radios:
  3.02 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  47 (plus 27 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions:
  2.52 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .by

Internet hosts:
  33,641 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  23 (2002)

Internet users:
  3,394,400 (2005)

Transportation Belarus

Airports: 86 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 41
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 22
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
  914 to 1,523 m: 1
  under 914 m: 12 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 45
  over 3,047 m: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
  914 to 1,523 m: 6
  under 914 m: 35 (2006)

Heliports:
  1 (2006)

Pipelines:
  gas 5,223 km; oil 2,321 km; refined products 1,686 km (2006)

Railways:
  total: 5,512 km
  broad gauge: 5,497 km 1.520-m gauge (874 km electrified)
  standard gauge: 15 km 1.435 m (2005)

Roadways:
  total: 93,055 km
  paved: 93,055 km (2003)

Waterways:
  2,500 km (use limited by location on perimeter of country and by
  shallowness) (2003)

Ports and terminals:
  Mazyr

Military Belarus

Military branches:
  Belarus Armed Forces: Land Force, Air and Air Defense Force (2006)

Military service age and obligation:
  18-27 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript
  service obligation - 18 months (2005)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 2,520,644
  females age 18-49: 2,564,696 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 1,657,984
  females age 18-49: 2,102,793 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 85,202
  females age 18-49: 82,037 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $420.5 million (2006)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.4% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Belarus

Disputes - international:
  1997 boundary treaty with Ukraine remains unratified over
  unresolved financial claims, preventing demarcation and diminishing
  border security; the whole boundary with Latvia and more than half
  the boundary with Lithuania remains undemarcated; discussions toward
  economic and political union with Russia proceed slowly

Illicit drugs:
  limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly for the
  domestic market; transshipment point for illicit drugs to and via
  Russia, and to the Baltics and Western Europe; a small and lightly
  regulated financial center; new anti-money-laundering legislation
  does not meet international standards; few investigations or
  prosecutions of money-laundering activities

This page was last updated on 19 December, 2006

======================================================================

@Belgium

Introduction Belgium

Background:
  Belgium became independent from the Netherlands in 1830; it was
  occupied by Germany during World Wars I and II. The country
  prospered in the past half century as a modern, technologically
  advanced European state and member of NATO and the EU. Tensions
  between the Dutch-speaking Flemings of the north and the
  French-speaking Walloons of the south have led in recent years to
  constitutional amendments granting these regions formal recognition
  and autonomy.

Geography Belgium

Location:
  Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between France and the
  Netherlands

Geographic coordinates:
  50 50 N, 4 00 E

Map references:
  Europe

Area:
  total: 30,528 sq km
  land: 30,278 sq km
  water: 250 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about the size of Maryland

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,385 km
  border countries: France 620 km, Germany 167 km, Luxembourg 148 km,
  Netherlands 450 km

Coastline:
  66.5 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  exclusive economic zone: geographic coordinates define outer limit
  continental shelf: median line with neighbors

Climate:
  temperate; mild winters, cool summers; rainy, humid, cloudy

Terrain:
  flat coastal plains in northwest, central rolling hills, rugged
  mountains of Ardennes Forest in southeast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: North Sea 0 m
  highest point: Signal de Botrange 694 m

Natural resources:
  construction materials, silica sand, carbonates

Land use: arable land: 27.42% permanent crops: 0.69% other: 71.89% note: includes Luxembourg (2005)

Irrigated land:
  400 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  flooding is a threat along rivers and in areas of reclaimed coastal
  land, protected from the sea by concrete dikes

Environment - current issues:
  the environment is exposed to intense pressures from human
  activities: urbanization, dense transportation network, industry,
  extensive animal breeding and crop cultivation; air and water
  pollution also have repercussions for neighboring countries;
  uncertainties regarding federal and regional responsibilities (now
  resolved) have slowed progress in tackling environmental challenges

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile
  Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
  Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic
  Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
  Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
  Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
  Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
  Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

Geography - note:
  crossroads of Western Europe; majority of West European capitals
  within 1,000 km of Brussels, the seat of both the European Union and
  NATO

People Belgium

Population:
  10,379,067 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 16.7% (male 883,254/female 846,099)
  15-64 years: 65.9% (male 3,450,879/female 3,389,565)
  65 years and over: 17.4% (male 746,569/female 1,062,701) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 40.9 years
  male: 39.6 years
  female: 42.1 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.13% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  10.38 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  10.27 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  1.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 4.62 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 5.2 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 4.01 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 78.77 years
  male: 75.59 years
  female: 82.09 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.64 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.2% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  10,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 100 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Belgian(s)
  adjective: Belgian

Ethnic groups:
  Fleming 58%, Walloon 31%, mixed or other 11%

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 75%, Protestant or other 25%

Languages:
  Dutch (official) 60%, French (official) 40%, German (official) less
  than 1%, legally bilingual (Dutch and French)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 99%
  male: 99%
  female: 99% (2003 est.)

Government Belgium

Country name:
  conventional long form: Kingdom of Belgium
  conventional short form: Belgium
  local long form: Royaume de Belgique/Koninkrijk Belgie
  local short form: Belgique/Belgie

Government type:
  federal parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy

Capital:
  name: Brussels
  geographic coordinates: 50 50 N, 4 20 E
  time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)
  daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last
  Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
  10 provinces (French: provinces, singular - province; Dutch:
  provincies, singular - provincie) and 3 regions* (French: regions;
  Dutch: gewesten); Antwerpen, Brabant Wallon, Brussels* (Bruxelles),
  Flanders*, Hainaut, Liege, Limburg, Luxembourg, Namur,
  Oost-Vlaanderen, Vlaams-Brabant, Wallonia*, West-Vlaanderen
  note: as a result of the 1993 constitutional revision that furthered
  devolution into a federal state, there are now three levels of
  government (federal, regional, and linguistic community) with a
  complex division of responsibilities

Independence:
  4 October 1830 (a provisional government declares independence from
  the Netherlands); 21 July 1831 (King Leopold I ascends to the throne)

National holiday:
  21 July (1831) ascension to the Throne of King Leopold I

Constitution:
  7 February 1831; amended many times; revised 14 July 1993 to create
  a federal state

Legal system:
  civil law system influenced by English constitutional theory;
  judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ
  jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
  chief of state: King ALBERT II (since 9 August 1993); Heir Apparent
  Prince PHILIPPE, son of the monarch
  head of government: Prime Minister Guy VERHOFSTADT (since 13 July
  1999)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers formally appointed by the monarch
  elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary and constitutional;
  following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or
  the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime
  minister by the monarch and then approved by parliament
  note: government coalition - VLD, MR, PS, SP.A-Spirit

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of a Senate or Senaat in Dutch, Senat
  in French (71 seats; 40 members are directly elected by popular
  vote, 31 are indirectly elected; members serve four-year terms) and
  a Chamber of Deputies or Kamer van Volksvertegenwoordigers in Dutch,
  Chambre des Representants in French (150 seats; members are directly
  elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation
  to serve four-year terms)
  elections: Senate and Chamber of Deputies - last held 18 May 2003
  (next to be held no later than May 2007)
  election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - SP.A-Spirit
  15.5%, VLD 15.4%, CD & V 12.7%, PS 12.8%, MR 12.1%, VB 9.4%, CDH
  5.6%; seats by party - SP.A-Spirit 7, VLD 7, CD & V 6, PS 6, MR 5,
  VB 5, CDH 2, other 2 (note - there are also 31 indirectly elected
  senators); Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - VLD
  15.4%, SP.A-Spirit 14.9%, CD & V 13.3%, PS 13.0%, VB 11.6%, MR
  11.4%, CDH 5.5%, Ecolo 3.1%; seats by party - VLD 25, SP.A-Spirit
  23, CD & V 21, PS 25, VB 18, MR 24, CDH 8, Ecolo 4, other 2
  note: as a result of the 1993 constitutional revision that furthered
  devolution into a federal state, there are now three levels of
  government (federal, regional, and linguistic community) with a
  complex division of responsibilities; this reality leaves six
  governments each with its own legislative assembly

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court of Justice or Hof van Cassatie (in Dutch) or Cour de
  Cassation (in French) (judges are appointed for life by the
  government; candidacies have to be submitted by the High Justice
  Council)

Political parties and leaders:
  Flemish parties: Christian Democrats and Flemish or CD & V [Jo
  VANDEURZEN]; Flemish Liberal Democrats or VLD [Bart SOMERS]; GROEN!
  (formerly AGALEV, Flemish Greens) [Vera DUA]; New Flemish Alliance
  or NVA [Bart DE WEVER]; Social Progressive Alternative or SP.A
  [Johan Vande LANOTTE]; Spirit [Geert LAMBERT] (new party now
  associated with SP.A); Vlaams Belang (Flemish Interest) or VB [Frank
  VANHECKE]
  Francophone parties: Ecolo (Francophone Greens) [Jean-Michel JAVAUX,
  Isabelle DURANT, Claude BROUIR]; Humanist and Democratic Center of
  CDH [Joelle MILQUET]; National Front or FN [Daniel FERET]; Reform
  Movement or MR [Didier REYNDERS]; Socialist Party or PS [Elio DI
  RUPO]; other minor parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Christian, Socialist, and Liberal Trade Unions; Federation of
  Belgian Industries; numerous other associations representing
  bankers, manufacturers, middle-class artisans, and the legal and
  medical professions; various organizations represent the cultural
  interests of Flanders and Wallonia; various peace groups such as Pax
  Christi and groups representing immigrants

International organization participation:
  ACCT, AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CE, CERN, EAPC,
  EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
  ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF,
  IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MONUC, NATO, NEA, NSG,
  OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, ONUB, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, SECI
  (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNITAR, UNRWA,
  UNTSO, UPU, WADB (nonregional), WCL, WCO, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO,
  ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Franciskus VAN DAELE chancery: 3330 Garfield Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 333-6900 FAX: [1] (202) 333-3079 consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York consulate(s): Atlanta

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Tom C. KOROLOGOS embassy: Regentlaan 27 Boulevard du Regent, B-1000 Brussels mailing address: PSC 82, Box 002, APO AE 09710 telephone: [32] (2) 508-2111 FAX: [32] (2) 511-2725

Flag description:
  three equal vertical bands of black (hoist side), yellow, and red;
  the design was based on the flag of France

Economy Belgium

Economy - overview:
  This modern, private-enterprise economy has capitalized on its
  central geographic location, highly developed transport network, and
  diversified industrial and commercial base. Industry is concentrated
  mainly in the populous Flemish area in the north. With few natural
  resources, Belgium must import substantial quantities of raw
  materials and export a large volume of manufactures, making its
  economy unusually dependent on the state of world markets. Roughly
  three-quarters of its trade is with other EU countries. Public debt
  is nearly 100% of GDP. On the positive side, the government has
  succeeded in balancing its budget, and income distribution is
  relatively equal. Belgium began circulating the euro currency in
  January 2002. Economic growth in 2001-03 dropped sharply because of
  the global economic slowdown, with moderate recovery in 2004-05.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $322.3 billion (2005 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $350.3 billion (2005 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  1.5% (2005 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $31,100 (2005 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 1% industry: 24% services: 74.9% (2004 est.)

Labor force: 4.77 million (2005 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 1.3% industry: 24.5% services: 74.2% (2003 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  8.4% (2005 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  4% (1989 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.2% highest 10%: 23% (1996)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  25 (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.8% (2005 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  19.9% of GDP (2005 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $180.4 billion
  expenditures: $180.5 billion; including capital expenditures of
  $1.56 billion (2005 est.)

Public debt:
  94.3% of GDP (2005 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  sugar beets, fresh vegetables, fruits, grain, tobacco; beef, veal,
  pork, milk

Industries:
  engineering and metal products, motor vehicle assembly,
  transportation equipment, scientific instruments, processed food and
  beverages, chemicals, basic metals, textiles, glass, petroleum

Industrial production growth rate:
  -0.2% (2005 est.)

Electricity - production:
  78.77 billion kWh (2003)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 38.4% hydro: 0.6% nuclear: 59.3% other: 1.8% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  79.66 billion kWh (2003)

Electricity - exports:
  8.3 billion kWh (2003)

Electricity - imports:
  14.7 billion kWh (2003)

Oil - production:
  13,060 bbl/day (2003)

Oil - consumption:
  624,200 bbl/day (2003 est.)

Oil - exports:
  450,000 bbl/day (2001)

Oil - imports:
  1.042 million bbl/day (2001)

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  15.48 billion cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  15.4 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Current account balance:
  $6.305 billion (2005 est.)

Exports:
  $269.6 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, chemicals, diamonds, metals and metal
  products, foodstuffs

Exports - partners:
  Germany 19.4%, France 17.3%, Netherlands 11.7%, UK 8.2%, US 6.4%,
  Italy 5.3% (2005)

Imports:
  $264.5 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, chemicals, diamonds, pharmaceuticals,
  foodstuffs, transportation equipment, oil products

Imports - partners:
  Netherlands 17.8%, Germany 17.2%, France 11.4%, UK 6.8%, Ireland
  6.5%, US 5.4% (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $12 billion (2005 est.)

Debt - external:
  $980.1 billion (30 June 2005 est.)

Economic aid - donor:
  ODA, $1.072 billion (2002)

Currency (code):
  euro (EUR)
  note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the
  euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of
  member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole
  currency for everyday transactions within the member countries

Currency code:
  EUR

Exchange rates:
  euros per US dollar - 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003),
  1.0626 (2002), 1.1175 (2001)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Belgium

Telephones - main lines in use:
  4.801 million (2004)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  9.46 million (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: highly developed, technologically advanced, and
  completely automated domestic and international telephone and
  telegraph facilities
  domestic: nationwide cellular telephone system; extensive cable
  network; limited microwave radio relay network
  international: country code - 32; submarine cables - 5; satellite
  earth stations - 7 (Intelsat - 3) (2005)

Radio broadcast stations:
  FM 79, AM 7, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:
  8.075 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  25 (plus 10 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions:
  4.72 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .be

Internet hosts:
  2,870,770 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  61 (2000)

Internet users:
  5.1 million (2005)

Transportation Belgium

Airports: 43 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 25 over 3,047 m: 6 2,438 to 3,047 m: 7 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 2 under 914 m: 7 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 18 914 to 1,523 m: 2 under 914 m: 16 (2006)

Heliports:
  1 (2006)

Pipelines:
  gas 1,561 km; oil 158 km; refined products 535 km (2006)

Railways:
  total: 3,521 km
  standard gauge: 3,521 km 1.435-m gauge (2,927 km electrified) (2005)

Roadways:
  total: 149,757 km
  paved: 117,110 km (including 1,747 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 32,647 km (2003)

Waterways:
  2,043 km (1,528 km in regular commercial use) (2003)

Merchant marine:
  total: 66 ships (1000 GRT or over) 3,952,159 GRT/6,521,645 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 19, cargo 4, chemical tanker 2, container 10,
  liquefied gas 15, petroleum tanker 12, roll on/roll off 4
  foreign-owned: 10 (Denmark 4, Greece 4, UK 2)
  registered in other countries: 113 (Antigua and Barbuda 4, Bahamas
  13, Bermuda 4, Cyprus 1, French Southern and Antarctic Lands 6,
  Georgia 1, Gibraltar 2, Greece 12, Hong Kong 3, Luxembourg 9, Malta
  10, Mozambique 2, Netherlands 2, Netherlands Antilles 4, Panama 11,
  Portugal 8, Russia 4, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3, Singapore
  12, Sweden 2) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Antwerp, Brussels, Gent, Liege, Oostende, Zeebrugge

Military Belgium

Military branches:
  Belgian Armed Forces: Land, Naval, and Air Operations Commands
  (2005)

Military service age and obligation:
  16 years of age for voluntary military service; women comprise
  approx. 7% of the Belgian armed forces (2001)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 16-49: 2,436,736
  females age 16-49: 2,369,463 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 16-49: 1,998,003
  females age 16-49: 1,940,918 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 64,263
  females age 16-49: 61,402 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $3.999 billion (2003)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.3% (2003)

Transnational Issues Belgium

Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  growing producer of synthetic drugs; transit point for US-bound
  ecstasy; source of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine
  processors; transshipment point for cocaine, heroin, hashish, and
  marijuana entering Western Europe; despite a strengthening of
  legislation, the country remains vulnerable to money laundering
  related to narcotics, automobiles, alcohol, and tobacco

This page was last updated on 19 December, 2006

======================================================================

@Belize

Introduction Belize

Background:
  Belize was the site of several Mayan city states until their
  decline at the end of the first millennium A.D. The British and
  Spanish disputed the region in the 17th and 18th centuries; it
  formally became the colony of British Honduras in 1854. Territorial
  disputes between the UK and Guatemala delayed the independence of
  Belize until 1981. Guatemala refused to recognize the new nation
  until 1992. Tourism has become the mainstay of the economy. Current
  concerns include high unemployment, growing involvement in the South
  American drug trade, and increasing urban crime.

Geography Belize

Location:
  Central America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Guatemala and
  Mexico

Geographic coordinates:
  17 15 N, 88 45 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 22,966 sq km
  land: 22,806 sq km
  water: 160 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Massachusetts

Land boundaries: total: 516 km border countries: Guatemala 266 km, Mexico 250 km

Coastline:
  386 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm in the north, 3 nm in the south; note - from
  the mouth of the Sarstoon River to Ranguana Cay, Belize's
  territorial sea is 3 nm; according to Belize's Maritime Areas Act,
  1992, the purpose of this limitation is to provide a framework for
  negotiating a definitive agreement on territorial differences with
  Guatemala
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to November); dry
  season (February to May)

Terrain:
  flat, swampy coastal plain; low mountains in south

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Victoria Peak 1,160 m

Natural resources: arable land potential, timber, fish, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 3.05% permanent crops: 1.39% other: 95.56% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  30 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  frequent, devastating hurricanes (June to November) and coastal
  flooding (especially in south)

Environment - current issues:
  deforestation; water pollution from sewage, industrial effluents,
  agricultural runoff; solid and sewage waste disposal

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law
  of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  only country in Central America without a coastline on the North
  Pacific Ocean

People Belize

Population:
  287,730 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 39.5% (male 57,923/female 55,678)
  15-64 years: 57% (male 82,960/female 81,046)
  65 years and over: 3.5% (male 4,888/female 5,235) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 19.6 years
  male: 19.5 years
  female: 19.8 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  2.31% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  28.84 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  5.72 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.93 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 24.89 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 28.07 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 21.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 68.3 years
  male: 66.43 years
  female: 70.26 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  3.6 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  2.4% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  3,600 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 200 (2003 est.)

Nationality: noun: Belizean(s) adjective: Belizean

Ethnic groups:
  mestizo 48.7%, Creole 24.9%, Maya 10.6%, Garifuna 6.1%, other 9.7%

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 49.6%, Protestant 27% (Pentecostal 7.4%, Anglican
  5.3%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5.2%, Mennonite 4.1%, Methodist 3.5%,
  Jehovah's Witnesses 1.5%), other 14%, none 9.4% (2000)

Languages:
  English (official), Spanish, Mayan, Garifuna (Carib), Creole

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 94.1%
  male: 94.1%
  female: 94.1% (2003 est.)

Government Belize

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Belize former: British Honduras

Government type:
  parliamentary democracy

Capital:
  name: Belmopan
  geographic coordinates: 17 15 N, 88 46 W
  time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC during Standard
  Time)

Administrative divisions:
  6 districts; Belize, Cayo, Corozal, Orange Walk, Stann Creek, Toledo

Independence:
  21 September 1981 (from UK)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 21 September (1981)

Constitution:
  21 September 1981

Legal system:
  English law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor General Sir Colville YOUNG, Sr. (since 17
  November 1993)
  head of government: Prime Minister Said Wilbert MUSA (since 28
  August 1998); Deputy Prime Minister John BRICENO (since 1 September
  1998)
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of
  the prime minister
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general
  appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the
  leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition
  is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; prime
  minister recommends the deputy prime minister

Legislative branch:
  bicameral National Assembly consists of the Senate (12 members
  appointed by the governor general - 6 on the advice of the prime
  minister, 3 on the advice of the leader of the opposition, and 1
  each on the advice of the Belize Council of Churches and Evangelical
  Association of Churches, the Belize Chamber of Commerce and Industry
  and the Belize Better Business Bureau, and the National Trade Union
  Congress and the Civil Society Steering Committee; members are
  appointed for five-year terms) and the House of Representatives (29
  seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year
  terms)
  elections: House of Representatives - last held 5 March 2003 (next
  to be held March 2008)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
  PUP 21, UDP 8

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (the chief justice is appointed by the governor
  general on the advice of the prime minister)

Political parties and leaders:
  People's United Party or PUP [Said MUSA]; United Democratic Party
  or UDP [Dean BARROW, party leader; Douglas SINGH, party chairman]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Society for the Promotion of Education and Research or SPEAR [Adele
  CATZIM]

International organization participation:
  ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt,
  ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC,
  IOM, ITU, LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Lisa M. SHOMAN
  chancery: 2535 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 332-9636
  FAX: [1] (202) 332-6888
  consulate(s) general: Los Angeles

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Robert J. DIETER
  embassy: 29 Gabourel Lane, Belize City
  mailing address: P. O. Box 286, Belize City
  telephone: [501] 227-7161 through 7163
  FAX: [501] 223-0802

Flag description:
  blue with a narrow red stripe along the top and the bottom edges;
  centered is a large white disk bearing the coat of arms; the coat of
  arms features a shield flanked by two workers in front of a mahogany
  tree with the related motto SUB UMBRA FLOREO (I Flourish in the
  Shade) on a scroll at the bottom, all encircled by a green garland

Economy Belize

Economy - overview:
  In this small, essentially private-enterprise economy the tourism
  industry is the number one foreign exchange earner followed by
  marine products, citrus, cane sugar, bananas, and garments. The
  government's expansionary monetary and fiscal policies, initiated in
  September 1998, led to sturdy GDP growth averaging nearly 5% in
  1999-2005. Major concerns continue to be the sizable trade deficit
  and foreign debt. A key short-term objective remains the reduction
  of poverty with the help of international donors.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $1.778 billion (2004 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $908 million (2005 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  3.8% (2005 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $6,800 (2005 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 14.2%
  industry: 15.2%
  services: 61.2% (2004 est.)

Labor force:
  90,000
  note: shortage of skilled labor and all types of technical personnel
  (2001 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture: 27%
  industry: 18%
  services: 55% (2001 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  12.9% (2003)

Population below poverty line:
  33% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3% (2005 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  17.8% of GDP (2005 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $262 million
  expenditures: $329 million; including capital expenditures of $70
  million (2005 est.)

Agriculture - products: bananas, coca, citrus, sugar; fish, cultured shrimp; lumber; garments

Industries:
  garment production, food processing, tourism, construction

Industrial production growth rate:
  4.6% (1999)

Electricity - production:
  120 million kWh (2003)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 59.9% hydro: 40.1% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  111.6 million kWh (2003)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2003)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2003)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2003)

Oil - consumption:
  6,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  0 cu m (2003 est.)

Current account balance:
  $-180 million (2005 est.)

Exports:
  $349.9 million f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  sugar, bananas, citrus, clothing, fish products, molasses, wood

Exports - partners:
  US 30.6%, UK 25%, France 4.8% (2005)

Imports:
  $622.4 million f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods; fuels,
  chemicals, pharmaceuticals; food, beverages, tobacco

Imports - partners:
  US 31%, Mexico 11.6%, Russia 8.8%, Cuba 6%, Guatemala 5.6%, China
  4.6%, Spain 4.4% (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $87 million (2005 est.)

Debt - external:
  $1.362 billion (June 2004 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $NA

Currency (code):
  Belizean dollar (BZD)

Currency code:
  BZD

Exchange rates:
  Belizean dollars per US dollar - 2 (2005), 2 (2004), 2 (2003), 2
  (2002), 2 (2001)

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Belize

Telephones - main lines in use:
  33,300 (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  93,100 (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: above-average system
  domestic: trunk network depends primarily on microwave radio relay
  international: country code - 501; satellite earth station - 8
  (Intelsat - 2, unknown - 6) (2005)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 12, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  133,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  2 (1997)

Televisions:
  41,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bz

Internet hosts:
  3,905 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  2 (2000)

Internet users:
  35,000 (2005)

Transportation Belize

Airports: 43 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 5
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 2
  under 914 m: 2 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 38
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 11
  under 914 m: 26 (2006)

Roadways: total: 2,872 km paved: 488 km unpaved: 2,384 km (1999)

Waterways:
  825 km (navigable only by small craft) (2005)

Merchant marine:
  total: 285 ships (1000 GRT or over) 985,464 GRT/1,322,629 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 36, cargo 203, chemical tanker 7, container 4,
  passenger/cargo 3, petroleum tanker 13, refrigerated cargo 12, roll
  on/roll off 6, specialized tanker 1
  foreign-owned: 225 (China 103, Croatia 1, Cyprus 2, Estonia 3,
  Germany 3, Greece 2, Hong Kong 8, Iceland 2, Indonesia 2, Italy 4,
  Japan 2, North Korea 2, South Korea 4, Latvia 6, Lithuania 1,
  Malaysia 1, Mexico 1, Norway 2, Poland 2, Russia 36, Singapore 6,
  Spain 3, Switzerland 1, Turkey 11, UAE 5, Ukraine 7, US 5) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Belize City

Military Belize

Military branches:
  Belize Defense Force (BDF): Army, Maritime Wing, Air Wing, and
  Volunteer Guard

Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; laws allow for conscription only if volunteers are insufficient; conscription has never been implemented; volunteers typically outnumber available positions by 3:1 (2001)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 61,201
  females age 18-49: 60,048 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 44,238
  females age 18-49: 43,633 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 3,213
  females age 18-49: 3,100 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $19 million (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.7% (2005 est.)

Transnational Issues Belize

Disputes - international:
  Guatemalan squatters continue to settle in the largely uninhabited
  rain forests of Belize's border region; OAS seeks to revive the 2002
  failed Belize-Guatemala Differendum that created a small adjustment
  to land boundary, a Guatemalan maritime corridor in Caribbean, joint
  ecological park for disputed Sapodilla Cays, and substantial US-UK
  financial package

Trafficking in persons:
  current situation: Belize is a source, transit, and destination
  country for men, women, and children trafficked for the purposes of
  labor and sexual exploitation; women and girls are trafficked mainly
  from Central America, and exploited in prostitution; children are
  trafficked to Belize for labor exploitation; Belize's largely
  unmonitored borders with Guatemala, Honduras, and Mexico facilitate
  the movement of illegal migrants who are vulnerable to traffickers;
  girls are trafficked within the country for sexual exploitation,
  sometimes with the consent and complicity of their close relatives;
  there are unconfirmed reports that Indian and Chinese migrants are
  trafficked for involuntary servitude in homes and shops
  tier rating: Tier 3 - Belize has failed to show evidence of
  significant law enforcement or victim protection efforts

Illicit drugs:
  transshipment point for cocaine; small-scale illicit producer of
  cannabis for the international drug trade; money-laundering activity
  related to narcotics trafficking and offshore sector

This page was last updated on 19 December, 2006

======================================================================

@Benin

Introduction Benin

Background:
  Present day Benin was the site of Dahomey, a prominent West African
  kingdom that rose in the 15th century. The territory became a French
  Colony in 1872 and achieved independence on 1 August 1960, as the
  Republic of Benin. A succession of military governments ended in
  1972 with the rise to power of Mathieu KEREKOU and the establishment
  of a government based on Marxist-Leninist principles. A move to
  representative government began in 1989. Two years later, free
  elections ushered in former Prime Minister Nicephore SOGLO as
  president, marking the first successful transfer of power in Africa
  from a dictatorship to a democracy. KEREKOU was returned to power by
  elections held in 1996 and 2001, though some irregularities were
  alleged.

Geography Benin

Location:
  Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Nigeria and
  Togo

Geographic coordinates:
  9 30 N, 2 15 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 112,620 sq km
  land: 110,620 sq km
  water: 2,000 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,989 km
  border countries: Burkina Faso 306 km, Niger 266 km, Nigeria 773 km,
  Togo 644 km

Coastline:
  121 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

Terrain:
  mostly flat to undulating plain; some hills and low mountains

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Mont Sokbaro 658 m

Natural resources: small offshore oil deposits, limestone, marble, timber

Land use: arable land: 23.53% permanent crops: 2.37% other: 74.1% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  120 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  hot, dry, dusty harmattan wind may affect north from December to
  March

Environment - current issues:
  inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching threatens wildlife
  populations; deforestation; desertification

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
  Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  sandbanks create difficult access to a coast with no natural
  harbors, river mouths, or islands

People Benin

Population:
  7,862,944
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 44.1% (male 1,751,709/female 1,719,138)
  15-64 years: 53.5% (male 2,067,248/female 2,138,957)
  65 years and over: 2.4% (male 75,694/female 110,198) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 17.6 years
  male: 17.2 years
  female: 18 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  2.73% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  38.85 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  12.22 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 79.56 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 84.09 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 74.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 53.04 years
  male: 51.9 years
  female: 54.22 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  5.2 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  1.9% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  68,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  5,800 (2003 est.)

Major infectious diseases: degree of risk: very high food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever vectorborne diseases: malaria, yellow fever, and others are high risks in some locations respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis (2005)

Nationality:
  noun: Beninese (singular and plural)
  adjective: Beninese

Ethnic groups:
  African 99% (42 ethnic groups, most important being Fon, Adja,
  Yoruba, Bariba), Europeans 5,500

Religions:
  indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 30%, Muslim 20%

Languages:
  French (official), Fon and Yoruba (most common vernaculars in
  south), tribal languages (at least six major ones in north)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 33.6%
  male: 46.4%
  female: 22.6% (2002 est.)

Government Benin

Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Benin
  conventional short form: Benin
  local long form: Republique du Benin
  local short form: Benin
  former: Dahomey

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  name: Porto-Novo (official capital)
  geographic coordinates: 6 29 N, 2 37 E
  time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)
  note: Cotonou (seat of government)

Administrative divisions:
  12 departments; Alibori, Atakora, Atlantique, Borgou, Collines,
  Kouffo, Donga, Littoral, Mono, Oueme, Plateau, Zou

Independence:
  1 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday:
  National Day, 1 August (1960)

Constitution:
  December 1990

Legal system:
  based on French civil law and customary law; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President YAYI Boni (since 6 April 2006); note -
  the president is both the chief of state and head of government
  head of government: President YAYI Boni (since 6 April 2006)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
  elections: president reelected by popular vote for a five-year term
  (eligible for a second term); runoff election held 19 March 2006
  (next to be held March 2011)
  election results: YAYI Boni elected president; percent of vote -
  YAYI Boni 74.5%, Adrien HOUNGBEDJI 25.5%

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (83 seats;
  members are elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 30 March 2003 (next to be held March 2007)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
  Presidential Movement (UBF, MADEP, FC, Alliance MDC-PC-CPP, IPD,
  AFP, MDS, RDP) 52, opposition (PRB, PRD, E'toile, and 5 other small
  parties) 31

Judicial branch:
  Constitutional Court or Cour Constitutionnelle; Supreme Court or
  Cour Supreme; High Court of Justice

Political parties and leaders:
  Alliance of Progress Forces or AFP; African Movement for Democracy
  and Progress or MADEP [Sefou FAGBOHOUN]; Democratic Renewal Party or
  PRD [Adrien HOUNGBEDJI]; Impulse for Progress and Democracy or IPD;
  Key Force or FC; Movement for Development and Solidarity or MDS;
  Movement for Development by the Culture-Salute Party-Congress of
  People for Progress Alliance or Alliance MDC-PS-CPP; New Alliance or
  NA; Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP; Renaissance Party du
  Benin or RB [Nicephore SOGLO]; The Star Alliance (Alliance E'toile)
  [Sacca LAFIA]; Union of Tomorrow's Benin or UBF [Bruno AMOUSSOU]
  note: approximately 20 additional minor parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
  ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, MONUC, NAM,
  OIC, OIF, ONUB, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMIS,
  UNOCI, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
  WToO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Cyrille Segbe OGUIN chancery: 2124 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 232-6656 FAX: [1] (202) 265-1996

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Wayne NEILL embassy: Rue Caporal Bernard Anani, Cotonou mailing address: 01 B. P. 2012, Cotonou telephone: [229] 30-06-50 FAX: [229] 30-06-70

Flag description:
  two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and red (bottom) with a
  vertical green band on the hoist side

Economy Benin

Economy - overview:
  The economy of Benin remains underdeveloped and dependent on
  subsistence agriculture, cotton production, and regional trade.
  Growth in real output has averaged around 5% in the past six years,
  but rapid population growth has offset much of this increase.
  Inflation has subsided over the past several years. In order to
  raise growth still further, Benin plans to attract more foreign
  investment, place more emphasis on tourism, facilitate the
  development of new food processing systems and agricultural
  products, and encourage new information and communication
  technology. Many of these proposals are included in Benin's
  application to receive Millennium Challenge Account funding - for
  which it was a finalist in 2004-05. The 2001 privatization policy
  continues in telecommunications, water, electricity, and agriculture
  in spite of government reluctance. The Paris Club and bilateral
  creditors have eased the external debt situation, with Benin
  benefiting from a G8 debt reduction announced in July 2005, while
  pressing for more rapid structural reforms. Benin continues to be
  hurt by Nigerian trade protection that bans imports of a growing
  list of products from Benin and elsewhere, which has resulted in
  increased smuggling and criminality in the border region.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $8.419 billion (2005 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $4.34 billion (2005 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  3.5% (2005 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $1,100 (2005 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 31.6% industry: 13.8% services: 54.6% (2004 est.)

Labor force:
  3.211 million

Unemployment rate:
  NA%

Population below poverty line:
  33% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3.5% (2005 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  19.9% of GDP (2005 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $766.8 million
  expenditures: $1.017 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2005 est.)

Agriculture - products: cotton, corn, cassava (tapioca), yams, beans, palm oil, peanuts; livestock

Industries:
  textiles, food processing, construction materials, cement

Industrial production growth rate:
  8.3% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:
  69 million kWh (2003)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 14.2% hydro: 85.8% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  538.2 million kWh (2003)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2003)

Electricity - imports:
  474 million kWh (2003)

Oil - production:
  400 bbl/day (2003)

Oil - consumption:
  12,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day

Oil - proved reserves:
  4.105 million bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  0 cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  1.218 billion cu m (1 January 2002)

Current account balance:
  $-400 million (2005 est.)

Exports:
  $826.9 million f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  cotton, crude oil, palm products, cocoa

Exports - partners:
  China 31.3%, Indonesia 8.1%, India 7.4%, Niger 6%, Togo 4.8%,
  Thailand 4.8%, Nigeria 4.6% (2005)

Imports:
  $1.043 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  foodstuffs, capital goods, petroleum products

Imports - partners:
  France 21.8%, Ghana 7.1%, Cote d'Ivoire 7%, China 6.7%, UK 5.2%,
  Belgium 4.9%, Togo 4.5%, Thailand 4.2%, Nigeria 4% (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $676 million (2005 est.)

Debt - external:
  $1.6 billion (2000)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $342.6 million (2000)

Currency (code):
  Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible
  authority is the Central Bank of the West African States

Currency code:
  XOF

Exchange rates:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 527.47
  (2005), 528.29 (2004), 581.2 (2003), 696.99 (2002), 733.04 (2001)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Benin

Telephones - main lines in use:
  76,300 (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  386,700 (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: fair system of open-wire, microwave radio relay, and
  cellular connections
  international: country code - 229; satellite earth station - 7
  (Intelsat-Atlantic Ocean); fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC)
  provides connectivity to Europe and Asia

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 4 (2000)

Radios:
  660,000 (2000)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (2001)

Televisions:
  66,000 (2000)

Internet country code:
  .bj

Internet hosts:
  867 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  4 (2002)

Internet users:
  425,000 (2005)

Transportation Benin

Airports: 5 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 4
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2006)

Railways: total: 578 km narrow gauge: 578 km 1.000-m gauge (2005)

Roadways: total: 16,000 km paved: 1,400 km unpaved: 14,600 km (2005)

Waterways:
  150 km (on River Niger along northern border) (2005)

Ports and terminals:
  Cotonou

Military Benin

Military branches:
  Army, Navy, Air Force

Military service age and obligation: 21 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; in practice, volunteers may be taken at the age of 18; both sexes are eligible for military service; conscript tour of duty - 18 months (2004)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 21-49: 1,295,230
  females age 21-49: 1,301,936 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 21-49: 749,774
  females age 21-49: 751,329 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 76,661
  females: 75,068 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $100.9 million (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  2.3% (2005 est.)

Transnational Issues Benin

Disputes - international:
  Benin and Burkina Faso military clash in 2006 over sections of
  riverine boundary involving disputed villages and squatters; much of
  Benin-Niger boundary, including tripoint with Nigeria, remains
  undemarcated; in 2005, Nigeria ceded thirteen villages to Benin as a
  consequence of a 2004 joint task force to resolve maritime and land
  boundary disputes, but clashes among rival gangs along the border
  persist; a joint boundary commission continues to resurvey the
  boundary with Togo to verify Benin's claim that Togo moved boundary
  stones

Illicit drugs:
  transshipment point for narcotics associated with Nigerian
  trafficking organizations and most commonly destined for Western
  Europe and the US; vulnerable to money laundering due to a poorly
  regulated financial infrastructure

This page was last updated on 19 December, 2006

======================================================================

@Bermuda

Introduction Bermuda

Background:
  Bermuda was first settled in 1609 by shipwrecked English colonists
  headed for Virginia. Tourism to the island to escape North American
  winters first developed in Victorian times. Tourism continues to be
  important to the island's economy, although international business
  has overtaken it in recent years. Bermuda has developed into a
  highly successful offshore financial center. Although a referendum
  on independence from the UK was soundly defeated in 1995, the
  present government has reopened debate on the issue.

Geography Bermuda

Location:
  North America, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, east
  of South Carolina (US)

Geographic coordinates:
  32 20 N, 64 45 W

Map references:
  North America

Area:
  total: 53.3 sq km
  land: 53.3 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about one-third the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  103 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter

Terrain:
  low hills separated by fertile depressions

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Town Hill 76 m

Natural resources: limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism

Land use: arable land: 20% permanent crops: 0% other: 80% (55% developed, 45% rural/open space) (2005)

Irrigated land:
  NA

Natural hazards:
  hurricanes (June to November)

Environment - current issues:
  sustainable development

Geography - note:
  consists of about 138 coral islands and islets with ample rainfall,
  but no rivers or freshwater lakes; some land was leased by US
  Government from 1941 to 1995

People Bermuda

Population:
  65,773 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 18.6% (male 6,146/female 6,098)
  15-64 years: 69.2% (male 22,562/female 22,954)
  65 years and over: 12.2% (male 3,479/female 4,534) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 40.2 years
  male: 39.3 years
  female: 41 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.61% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  11.4 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  7.74 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  2.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 8.3 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 9.85 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 6.73 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 77.96 years
  male: 75.85 years
  female: 80.1 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.89 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.297% (2005)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  163 (2005)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  392 (2005)

Nationality:
  noun: Bermudian(s)
  adjective: Bermudian

Ethnic groups:
  black 54.8%, white 34.1%, mixed 6.4%, other races 4.3%, unspecified
  0.4% (2000 census)

Religions:
  Anglican 23%, Roman Catholic 15%, African Methodist Episcopal 11%,
  other Protestant 18%, other 12%, unaffiliated 6%, unspecified 1%,
  none 14% (2000 census)

Languages:
  English (official), Portuguese

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 98%
  male: 98%
  female: 99% (2005 est.)

Government Bermuda

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Bermuda former: Somers Islands

Dependency status:
  overseas territory of the UK

Government type:
  parliamentary; self-governing territory

Capital:
  name: Hamilton
  geographic coordinates: 32 17 N, 64 46 W
  time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)
  daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in April; ends last
  Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
  9 parishes and 2 municipalities*; Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*,
  Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*, Saint George's, Sandys, Smith's,
  Southampton, Warwick

Independence:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday:
  Bermuda Day, 24 May

Constitution:
  8 June 1968; amended 1989 and 2003

Legal system:
  English law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor Sir John VEREKER (since 11 April 2002)
  head of government: Premier Ewart BROWN (since 30 October 2006);
  Deputy Premier Paula COX
  cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the premier, appointed by the governor
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by
  the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the
  majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually
  appointed premier by the governor

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (an 11-member body
  appointed by the governor, the premier, and the opposition) and the
  House of Assembly (36 seats; members are elected by popular vote to
  serve up to five-year terms)
  elections: last general election held 24 July 2003 (next to be held
  not later than July 2008)
  election results: percent of vote by party - PLP 51.7%, UBP 48%;
  seats by party - PLP 22, UBP 14

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrate Courts

Political parties and leaders:
  Progressive Labor Party or PLP [Ewart BROWN]; United Bermuda Party
  or UBP [Wayne FURBERT]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Bermuda Employer's Union [Eddie SAINTS]; Bermuda Industrial Union
  or BIU [Derrick BURGESS]; Bermuda Public Services Union or BPSU [Ed
  BALL]; Bermuda Union of Teachers [Michael CHARLES]

International organization participation:
  Caricom (associate), ICFTU, Interpol (subbureau), IOC, UPU, WCO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Consul General Gregory W. SLAYTON consulate(s) general: Crown Hill, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire DVO3 mailing address: P. O. Box HM325, Hamilton HMBX; American Consulate General Hamilton, US Department of State, 5300 Hamilton Place, Washington, DC 20520-5300 telephone: [1] (441) 295-1342 FAX: [1] (441) 295-1592, [1] (441) 296-9233

Flag description:
  red, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and
  the Bermudian coat of arms (white and green shield with a red lion
  holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea
  Venture off Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag

Economy Bermuda

Economy - overview:
  Bermuda enjoys the highest per capita income in the world, more
  than 50% higher than that of the US. Its economy is primarily based
  on providing financial services for international business and
  luxury facilities for tourists. A number of reinsurance companies
  relocated to the island following 11 September 2001 and again after
  Hurricane Katrina, contributing to the expansion of an already
  robust international business sector. Bermuda's tourism industry -
  which derives over 80% of its visitors from the US - continues to
  struggle but remains the island's number two industry. Most capital
  equipment and food must be imported. Bermuda's industrial sector is
  small, although construction continues to be important; the average
  cost of a house in June 2003 had risen to $976,000. Agriculture is
  limited with only 20% of the land being arable.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $4.5 billion (2004 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  NA

GDP - real growth rate:
  4.6% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $69,900 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 1% industry: 10% services: 89% (2002 est.)

Labor force: 38,360 (2004)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture and fishing 3%, laborers 17%, clerical 19%, professional and technical 21%, administrative and managerial 15%, sales 7%, services 19% (2004 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  2.1% (2004 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  19% (2000)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.8% (November 2005)

Budget:
  revenues: $738 million
  expenditures: $665 million (FY04/05)

Agriculture - products:
  bananas, vegetables, citrus, flowers; dairy products, honey

Industries:
  international business, tourism, light manufacturing

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA%

Electricity - production:
  682.5 million kWh (2005)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  616.7 million kWh (2005)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2005)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2005)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2003)

Oil - consumption:
  4,658 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil - exports:
  0 bbl/day NA bbl/day

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  0 cu m (2003 est.)

Exports:
  $1.469 billion (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  reexports of pharmaceuticals

Exports - partners:
  France 65.6%, Spain 11.7%, US 4.5% (2005)

Imports:
  $982 million (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  clothing, fuels, machinery and transport equipment, construction
  materials, chemicals, food and live animals

Imports - partners:
  Kazakhstan 51%, France 19%, South Korea 10.2%, US 7.6% (2005)

Debt - external:
  $160 million (FY99/00)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $NA

Currency (code):
  Bermudian dollar (BMD)

Currency code:
  BMD

Exchange rates:
  Bermudian dollar per US dollar - 1.0000 (fixed rate pegged to the
  US dollar)

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Bermuda

Telephones - main lines in use:
  56,000 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  49,000 (2004)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: good
  domestic: fully automatic digital telephone system; fiber optic
  trunk lines
  international: country code - 1-441; submarine cables - 3 (fiber
  optic); satellite earth stations - 3 (2005)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 5, FM 3, shortwave 0 (2005)

Radios:
  82,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  3 (2005)

Televisions:
  66,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bm

Internet hosts:
  8,114 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  20 (2000)

Internet users:
  39,000 (2005)

Transportation Bermuda

Airports: 1 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2006)

Roadways: total: 447 km paved: 447 km note: public roads - 225 km; private roads - 222 km (2002)

Merchant marine:
  total: 132 ships (1000 GRT or over) 7,873,728 GRT/8,688,692 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 25, cargo 1, container 24, liquefied gas 23,
  passenger 19, passenger/cargo 6, petroleum tanker 16, refrigerated
  cargo 13, roll on/roll off 5
  foreign-owned: 116 (Australia 3, Belgium 4, France 1, Germany 21,
  Greece 2, Hong Kong 10, Indonesia 1, Ireland 1, Israel 3, Monaco 2,
  Nigeria 11, Norway 5, Sweden 14, Switzerland 2, UK 9, US 27)
  registered in other countries: 6 (Liberia 1, Marshall Islands 4,
  Panama 1) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Hamilton, Saint George

Military Bermuda

Military branches:
  no regular military forces

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 15,151 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 12,165 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 408 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $4.03 million (2001)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  0.11% (FY00/01)

Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues Bermuda

Disputes - international: none

This page was last updated on 19 December, 2006

======================================================================

@Bhutan

Introduction Bhutan

Background:
  In 1865, Britain and Bhutan signed the Treaty of Sinchulu, under
  which Bhutan would receive an annual subsidy in exchange for ceding
  some border land to British India. Under British influence, a
  monarchy was set up in 1907; three years later, a treaty was signed
  whereby the British agreed not to interfere in Bhutanese internal
  affairs and Bhutan allowed Britain to direct its foreign affairs.
  This role was assumed by independent India after 1947. Two years
  later, a formal Indo-Bhutanese accord returned the areas of Bhutan
  annexed by the British, formalized the annual subsidies the country
  received, and defined India's responsibilities in defense and
  foreign relations. A refugee issue of some 100,000 Bhutanese in
  Nepal remains unresolved; 90% of the refugees are housed in seven
  United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
  camps. In March 2005, King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK unveiled the
  government's draft constitution - which would introduce major
  democratic reforms - and pledged to hold a national referendum for
  its approval. A referendum date has yet to be named.

Geography Bhutan

Location:
  Southern Asia, between China and India

Geographic coordinates:
  27 30 N, 90 30 E

Map references:
  Asia

Area:
  total: 47,000 sq km
  land: 47,000 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about half the size of Indiana

Land boundaries: total: 1,075 km border countries: China 470 km, India 605 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot summers
  in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas

Terrain:
  mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Drangme Chhu 97 m highest point: Kula Kangri 7,553 m

Natural resources: timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbonate

Land use: arable land: 2.3% permanent crops: 0.43% other: 97.27% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  400 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  violent storms from the Himalayas are the source of the country's
  name, which translates as Land of the Thunder Dragon; frequent
  landslides during the rainy season

Environment - current issues:
  soil erosion; limited access to potable water

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes
  signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note:
  landlocked; strategic location between China and India; controls
  several key Himalayan mountain passes

People Bhutan

Population: 2,279,723 note: other estimates range as low as 810,000 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 38.9% (male 458,801/female 426,947)
  15-64 years: 57.1% (male 671,057/female 631,078)
  65 years and over: 4% (male 46,217/female 45,623) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 20.4 years
  male: 20.2 years
  female: 20.6 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  2.1% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  33.65 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  12.7 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.01 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 98.41 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 96.14 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 100.79 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 54.78 years
  male: 55.02 years
  female: 54.53 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  4.74 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  less than 0.1% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  less than 100 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Bhutanese (singular and plural)
  adjective: Bhutanese

Ethnic groups:
  Bhote 50%, ethnic Nepalese 35% (includes Lhotsampas - one of
  several Nepalese ethnic groups), indigenous or migrant tribes 15%

Religions:
  Lamaistic Buddhist 75%, Indian- and Nepalese-influenced Hinduism 25%

Languages:
  Dzongkha (official), Bhotes speak various Tibetan dialects,
  Nepalese speak various Nepalese dialects

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 47%
  male: 60%
  female: 34% (2003 est.)

Government Bhutan

Country name:
  conventional long form: Kingdom of Bhutan
  conventional short form: Bhutan
  local long form: Druk Gyalkhap
  local short form: Druk Yul

Government type:
  monarchy; special treaty relationship with India

Capital:
  name: Thimphu
  geographic coordinates: 27 28 N, 89 39 E
  time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
  18 districts (dzongkhag, singular and plural); Bumthang, Chhukha,
  Chirang, Dagana, Geylegphug, Ha, Lhuntshi, Mongar, Paro, Pemagatsel,
  Punakha, Samchi, Samdrup Jongkhar, Shemgang, Tashigang, Thimphu,
  Tongsa, Wangdi Phodrang
  note: there may be two new districts named Gasa and Yangtse

Independence:
  8 August 1949 (from India)

National holiday:
  National Day (Ugyen WANGCHUCK became first hereditary king), 17
  December (1907)

Constitution:
  no written constitution or bill of rights; note - in 2001, the king
  commissioned the drafting of a constitution, and in March 2005
  publicly unveiled it; is awaiting national referendum

Legal system:
  based on Indian law and English common law; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  each family has one vote in village-level elections; note - in late
  2003 Bhutan's legislature passed a new election law

Executive branch:
  chief of state: King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK (since 24 July 1972)
  head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Sangay
  NGEDUP (since 5 September 2005)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers (Lhengye Shungtsog) nominated by the
  monarch, approved by the National Assembly; members serve fixed,
  five-year terms; note - there is also a Royal Advisory Council
  (Lodoi Tsokde), members nominated by the monarch
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary, but democratic reforms
  in July 1998 grant the National Assembly authority to remove the
  monarch with two-thirds vote

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Tshogdu (150 seats; 105 elected
  from village constituencies, 10 represent religious bodies, and 35
  are designated by the monarch to represent government and other
  secular interests; members serve three-year terms)
  elections: local elections last held August 2005 (next to be held in
  2008)
  election results: NA

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court of Appeal (the monarch); High Court (judges appointed
  by the monarch)

Political parties and leaders:
  no legal parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Buddhist clergy; ethnic Nepalese organizations leading militant
  antigovernment campaign; Indian merchant community; United Front for
  Democracy (exiled)

International organization participation:
  AsDB, BIMSTEC, CP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IMF,
  Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OPCW,
  SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
  WToO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none; note - Bhutan has a Permanent Mission to the UN; address: 2 United Nations Plaza, 27th Floor, New York, NY 10017; telephone [1] (212) 826-1919; FAX [1] (212) 826-2998; the Bhutanese mission to the UN has consular jurisdiction in the US consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US and Bhutan have no formal diplomatic relations, although informal contact is maintained between the Bhutanese and US Embassy in New Delhi (India)

Flag description:
  divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner; the upper
  triangle is yellow and the lower triangle is orange; centered along
  the dividing line is a large black and white dragon facing away from
  the hoist side

Economy Bhutan

Economy - overview:
  The economy, one of the world's smallest and least developed, is
  based on agriculture and forestry, which provide the main livelihood
  for more than 90% of the population. Agriculture consists largely of
  subsistence farming and animal husbandry. Rugged mountains dominate
  the terrain and make the building of roads and other infrastructure
  difficult and expensive. The economy is closely aligned with India's
  through strong trade and monetary links and dependence on India's
  financial assistance. The industrial sector is technologically
  backward, with most production of the cottage industry type. Most
  development projects, such as road construction, rely on Indian
  migrant labor. Bhutan's hydropower potential and its attraction for
  tourists are key resources. Model education, social, and environment
  programs are underway with support from multilateral development
  organizations. Each economic program takes into account the
  government's desire to protect the country's environment and
  cultural traditions. For example, the government, in its cautious
  expansion of the tourist sector, encourages visits by upscale,
  environmentally conscientious tourists. Detailed controls and
  uncertain policies in areas like industrial licensing, trade, labor,
  and finance continue to hamper foreign investment.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $2.9 billion (2003 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $840.5 million

GDP - real growth rate:
  5.9% (2005 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $1,400 (2003 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 25.8% industry: 37.9% services: 36.3% (2002 est.)

Labor force: NA note: major shortage of skilled labor

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 93% industry: 2% services: 5%

Unemployment rate:
  NA%

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  7% (2005 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $346.6 million
  expenditures: including capital expenditures of $NA
  note: the government of India finances nearly three-fifths of
  Bhutan's budget expenditures (FY95/96 est.)

Public debt:
  81.4% of GDP

Agriculture - products:
  rice, corn, root crops, citrus, foodgrains; dairy products, eggs

Industries:
  cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic beverages,
  calcium carbide

Industrial production growth rate:
  9.3% (1996 est.)

Electricity - production:
  1.882 billion kWh (2003)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 0.1% hydro: 99.9% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  250.3 million kWh (2003)

Electricity - exports:
  1.51 billion kWh (2003)

Electricity - imports:
  10 million kWh (2003)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2003)

Oil - consumption:
  1,100 bbl/day (2003 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  0 cu m (2003 est.)

Exports:
  $154 million f.o.b. (2000 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  electricity (to India), cardamom, gypsum, timber, handicrafts,
  cement, fruit, precious stones, spices

Exports - partners:
  Japan 33.2%, Germany 13.6%, France 13.5%, South Korea 7.8%, US
  7.7%, Thailand 5.8%, Italy 5.1% (2005)

Imports:
  $196 million c.i.f. (2000 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery and parts, vehicles, fabrics,
  rice

Imports - partners:
  Hong Kong 68.4%, Mexico 20.8%, France 3.9% (2005)

Debt - external:
  $593 million (2004)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $78 million substantial aid from India and other nations

Currency (code):
  ngultrum (BTN); Indian rupee (INR)

Currency code:
  BTN; INR

Exchange rates:
  ngultrum per US dollar - 44.101 (2005), 45.317 (2004), 46.583
  (2003), 48.61 (2002), 47.186 (2001)

Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

Communications Bhutan

Telephones - main lines in use:
  32,700 (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  37,800 (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: telecommunications facilities are poor
  domestic: very low teledensity; domestic service is very poor
  especially in rural areas; wireless service available since 2003
  international: country code - 975; international telephone and
  telegraph service via landline and microwave relay through India;
  satellite earth station - 1 (2005)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 0, FM 9, shortwave 1 (2006)

Radios:
  37,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (2006)

Televisions:
  11,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bt

Internet hosts:
  7,567 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  NA

Internet users:
  25,000 (2005)

Transportation Bhutan

Airports: 2 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2006)

Roadways: total: 8,050 km paved: 4,991 km unpaved: 3,059 km (2003)

Military Bhutan

Military branches:
  Royal Bhutan Army: Royal Bodyguard, Royal Bhutan Police (2005)

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription
  (2001)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 483,860
  females age 18-49: 453,683 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 314,975
  females age 18-49: 296,833 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 23,939
  females age 18-49: 21,979 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $8.29 million (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1% (2005 est.)

Transnational Issues Bhutan

Disputes - international:
  approximately 105,000 Bhutanese have lived decades as refugees in
  Nepal, 90% of whom reside in seven UN Office of the High
  Commissioner for Refugees camps; Bhutan cooperates with India to
  expel Indian separatists

This page was last updated on 19 December, 2006

======================================================================

@Bolivia

Introduction Bolivia

Background:
  Bolivia, named after independence fighter Simon BOLIVAR, broke away
  from Spanish rule in 1825; much of its subsequent history has
  consisted of a series of nearly 200 coups and countercoups.
  Democratic civilian rule was established in 1982, but leaders have
  faced difficult problems of deep-seated poverty, social unrest, and
  illegal drug production. In December 2005, Bolivians elected
  Movement Toward Socialism leader Evo MORALES president - by the
  widest margin of any leader since the restoration of civilian rule
  in 1982 - after he ran on a promise to change the country's
  traditional political class and empower the nation's poor majority.
  However, since taking office, his controversial strategies have
  exacerbated racial and economic tensions between the Amerindian
  populations of the Andean west and the non-indigenous communities of
  the eastern lowlands.

Geography Bolivia

Location:
  Central South America, southwest of Brazil

Geographic coordinates:
  17 00 S, 65 00 W

Map references:
  South America

Area:
  total: 1,098,580 sq km
  land: 1,084,390 sq km
  water: 14,190 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than three times the size of Montana

Land boundaries:
  total: 6,743 km
  border countries: Argentina 832 km, Brazil 3,400 km, Chile 861 km,
  Paraguay 750 km, Peru 900 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid

Terrain:
  rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano), hills,
  lowland plains of the Amazon Basin

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Rio Paraguay 90 m
  highest point: Nevado Sajama 6,542 m

Natural resources:
  tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten, antimony, silver,
  iron, lead, gold, timber, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 2.78% permanent crops: 0.19% other: 97.03% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  1,320 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  flooding in the northeast (March-April)

Environment - current issues:
  the clearing of land for agricultural purposes and the
  international demand for tropical timber are contributing to
  deforestation; soil erosion from overgrazing and poor cultivation
  methods (including slash-and-burn agriculture); desertification;
  loss of biodiversity; industrial pollution of water supplies used
  for drinking and irrigation

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law
  of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
  Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Life
  Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection

Geography - note:
  landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest
  navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m), with Peru

People Bolivia

Population:
  8,989,046 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 35% (male 1,603,982/female 1,542,319)
  15-64 years: 60.4% (male 2,660,806/female 2,771,807)
  65 years and over: 4.6% (male 182,412/female 227,720) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 21.8 years
  male: 21.2 years
  female: 22.5 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  1.45% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  23.3 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  7.53 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -1.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 51.77 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 55.31 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 48.05 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 65.84 years
  male: 63.21 years
  female: 68.61 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.85 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.1% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  4,900 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 500 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bolivian(s)
  adjective: Bolivian

Ethnic groups:
  Quechua 30%, mestizo (mixed white and Amerindian ancestry) 30%,
  Aymara 25%, white 15%

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant (Evangelical Methodist) 5%

Languages:
  Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara (official)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 87.2%
  male: 93.1%
  female: 81.6% (2003 est.)

Government Bolivia

Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Bolivia
  conventional short form: Bolivia
  local long form: Republica de Bolivia
  local short form: Bolivia

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  name: La Paz (adminstrative capital)
  geographic coordinates: 16 30 S, 68 09 W
  time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)
  note: Sucre (constitutional capital)

Administrative divisions:
  9 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Beni,
  Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz, Oruro, Pando, Potosi, Santa Cruz,
  Tarija

Independence:
  6 August 1825 (from Spain)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 6 August (1825)

Constitution:
  2 February 1967; revised in August 1994

Legal system:
  based on Spanish law and Napoleonic Code; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age, universal and compulsory (married); 21 years of
  age, universal and compulsory (single)

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Juan Evo MORALES Ayma (since 22 January
  2006); Vice President Alvaro GARCIA Linera (since 22 January 2006);
  note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
  head of government: President Juan Evo MORALES Ayma (since 22
  January 2006); Vice President Alvaro GARCIA Linera (since 22 January
  2006); note - the president is both chief of state and head of
  government
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
  elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket
  by popular vote for a single five-year term; election last held 18
  December 2005 (next to be held in 2010)
  election results: Juan Evo MORALES Ayma elected president; percent
  of vote - Juan Evo MORALES Ayma 53.7%; Jorge Fernando QUIROGA
  Ramirez 28.6%; Samuel DORIA MEDINA Arana 7.8%; Michiaki NAGATANI
  Morishit 6.5%; Felipe QUISPE Huanca 2.2%; Guildo ANGULA Cabrera 0.7%

Legislative branch:
  bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of
  Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (27 seats; members are
  elected by proportional representation from party lists to serve
  five-year terms) and Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (130
  seats; 69 are directly elected from their districts and 61 are
  elected by proportional representation from party lists to serve
  five-year terms)
  elections: Chamber of Senators and Chamber of Deputies - last held
  18 December 2005 (next to be held in 2010)
  election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party -
  NA%; seats by party - PODEMOS 13, MAS 12, UN 1, MNR 1; Chamber of
  Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - MAS 73,
  PODEMOS 43, UN 8, MNR 6

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges appointed for 10-year terms
  by National Congress); District Courts (one in each department);
  provincial and local courts (to try minor cases)

Political parties and leaders:
  Bolivian Socialist Falange or FSB [Romel PANTOJA]; Civic Solidarity
  Union or UCS [Johnny FERNANDEZ]; Free Bolivia Movement or MBL [Franz
  BARRIOS]; Marshal of Ayacucho Institutional Vanguard or VIMA [Freddy
  ZABALA]; Movement of the Revolutionary Left or MIR [Jaime PAZ
  Zamora]; Movement Toward Socialism or MAS [Juan Evo MORALES Ayma];
  Movement Without Fear or MSM [Juan DEL GRANADO]; National
  Revolutionary Movement or MNR [Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA]; New
  Republican Force or NFR [Manfred REYES-VILLA]; Pachakuti Indigenous
  Movement or MIP [Felipe QUISPE Huanca]; Poder Democratico Nacional
  or PODEMOS [Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez]; Socialist Party or PS
  [Jeres JUSTINIANO]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Cocalero groups; indigenous organizations; labor unions; Sole
  Confederation of Campesino Workers of Bolivia or CSUTCB [Roman
  LOAYZA]

International organization participation:
  CAN, CSN, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD,
  IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO
  (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA,
  MINUSTAH, MONUC, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMISET, UNOCI, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU,
  WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Gustavo GUZMAN Saldana
  chancery: 3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 483-4410
  FAX: [1] (202) 328-3712
  consulate(s) general: Houston, Miami, New York, Oklahoma City, San
  Francisco, Seattle, Washington, DC

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Philip S. GOLDBERG embassy: Avenida Arce 2780, La Paz mailing address: P. O. Box 425, La Paz; APO AA 34032 telephone: [591] (2) 216-8000 FAX: [591] (2) 216-8111

Flag description:
  three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with
  the coat of arms centered on the yellow band; similar to the flag of
  Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star centered in the
  yellow band

Economy Bolivia

Economy - overview:
  Bolivia, long one of the poorest and least developed Latin American
  countries, reformed its economy after suffering a disastrous
  economic crisis in the early 1980s. The reforms spurred real GDP
  growth, which averaged 4% in the 1990s, and poverty rates fell.
  Economic growth, however, lagged again beginning in 1999 because of
  a global slowdown and homegrown factors such as political turmoil,
  civil unrest, and soaring fiscal deficits, all of which hurt
  investor confidence. In 2003, violent protests against the
  pro-foreign investment economic policies of President SANCHEZ DE
  LOZADA led to his resignation and the cancellation of plans to
  export Bolivia's newly discovered natural gas reserves to large
  northern hemisphere markets. In 2005, the government passed a
  controversial natural gas law that imposes on the oil and gas firms
  significantly higher taxes as well as new contracts that give the
  state control of their operations. Bolivian officials are in the
  process of implementing the law; meanwhile, foreign investors have
  stopped investing and have taken the first legal steps to secure
  their investments. Real GDP growth in 2003-05 - helped by increased
  demand for natural gas in neighboring Brazil - was positive, but
  still below the levels seen during the 1990s. Bolivia's fiscal
  position has improved in recent years, but the country remains
  dependent on foreign aid from multilateral lenders and foreign
  governments to meet budget shortfalls. In 2005, the G8 announced a
  $2 billion debt-forgiveness plan over the next few decades that
  should help reduce some fiscal pressures on the government in the
  near term.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $25.82 billion (2005 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $9.657 billion (2005 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  4.1% (2005 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $2,900 (2005 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 12.8% industry: 35.2% services: 52% (2005 est.)

Labor force: 4.22 million (2005 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Unemployment rate:
  8% in urban areas; widespread underemployment (2005 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  64% (2004 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.3% highest 10%: 32% (1999)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  60.6 (2002)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  5.4% (2005 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  12.5% of GDP (2005 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $2.848 billion
  expenditures: $3.189 billion; including capital expenditures of $741
  million (2005 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  soybeans, coffee, coca, cotton, corn, sugarcane, rice, potatoes;
  timber

Industries:
  mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverages, tobacco,
  handicrafts, clothing

Industrial production growth rate:
  5.7% (2004 est.)

Electricity - production:
  4.25 billion kWh (2003)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 44.4% hydro: 54% nuclear: 0% other: 1.5% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  3.963 billion kWh (2003)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2003)

Electricity - imports:
  10 million kWh (2003)

Oil - production:
  42,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  48,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day

Oil - proved reserves:
  458.8 million bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  6.72 billion cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  1.74 billion cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  2.9 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  679.6 billion cu m (1 January 2002)

Current account balance:
  $462 million (2005 est.)

Exports:
  $2.371 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  natural gas, soybeans and soy products, crude petroleum, zinc ore,
  tin

Exports - partners:
  Brazil 41.2%, US 14.1%, Colombia 8.8%, Argentina 7.6%, Peru 5.5%
  (2005)

Imports:
  $1.845 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  petroleum products, plastics, paper, aircraft and aircraft parts,
  prepared foods, automobiles, insecticides, soybeans

Imports - partners:
  Brazil 21.9%, Argentina 16.7%, US 13.8%, Chile 6.9%, Peru 6.5%,
  Japan 6.1%, China 5.8% (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $1.798 billion (2005 est.)

Debt - external:
  $6.309 billion (2005 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $221 million (2005 est.)

Currency (code):
  boliviano (BOB)

Currency code:
  BOB

Exchange rates:
  bolivianos per US dollar - 8.0661 (2005), 7.9363 (2004), 7.6592
  (2003), 7.17 (2002), 6.6069 (2001)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Bolivia

Telephones - main lines in use:
  646,300 (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  2.421 million (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: new subscribers face bureaucratic difficulties;
  most telephones are concentrated in La Paz and other cities; mobile
  cellular telephone use expanding rapidly
  domestic: primary trunk system, which is being expanded, employs
  digital microwave radio relay; some areas are served by fiber-optic
  cable; mobile cellular systems are being expanded
  international: country code - 591; satellite earth station - 1
  Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 171, FM 73, shortwave 77 (1999)

Radios:
  5.25 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  48 (1997)

Televisions:
  900,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bo

Internet hosts:
  20,085 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  9 (2000)

Internet users:
  480,000 (2005)

Transportation Bolivia

Airports: 1,084 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 16 over 3,047 m: 4 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 1,068 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 60 914 to 1,523 m: 207 under 914 m: 797 (2006)

Pipelines:
  gas 4,860 km; liquid petroleum gas 47 km; oil 2,475 km; refined
  products 1,589 km; unknown (oil/water) 247 km (2006)

Railways:
  total: 3,519 km
  narrow gauge: 3,519 km 1.000-m gauge (2005)

Roadways:
  total: 60,762 km
  paved: 4,314 km (including 11 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 56,448 km (2003)

Waterways:
  10,000 km (commercially navigable) (2005)

Merchant marine:
  total: 24 ships (1000 GRT or over) 127,297 GRT/198,525 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 2, cargo 8, chemical tanker 1, passenger/cargo
  3, petroleum tanker 10
  foreign-owned: 10 (Argentina 1, China 1, Egypt 2, Iran 1, Singapore
  3, Taiwan 1, Yemen 1) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Puerto Aguirre (on the Paraguay/Parana waterway, at the
  Bolivia/Brazil border); also, Bolivia has free port privileges in
  maritime ports in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Paraguay

Military Bolivia

Military branches:
  Bolivian Armed Forces: Bolivian Army (Ejercito Boliviano), Bolivian
  Navy (Armada Boliviana; includes marines), Bolivian Air Force
  (Fuerza Aerea Boliviana, FAB) (2006)

Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; when annual number of volunteers falls short of goal, compulsory recruitment is effected, including conscription of boys as young as 14; one estimate holds that 40% of the armed forces are under the age of 18, with 50% of those under the age of 16; conscript tour of duty - 12 months (2002)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 1,923,234
  females age 18-49: 2,007,315 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 1,311,414
  females age 18-49: 1,502,177 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 101,101
  females age 18-49: 98,671 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $130 million (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.4% (2005 est.)

Transnational Issues Bolivia

Disputes - international:
  Chile rebuffs Bolivia's reactivated claim to restore the Atacama
  corridor, ceded to Chile in 1884, offering instead unrestricted but
  not sovereign maritime access through Chile for Bolivian natural gas
  and other commodities

Trafficking in persons:
  current situation: Bolivia is a source and transit country for men,
  women, and children trafficked for the purposes of labor and sexual
  exploitation to Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, as well as to Spain;
  children are trafficked internally for sexual exploitation, forced
  mining, and agricultural labor; illegal migrants from Asia
  transiting Bolivia are vulnerable as trafficking victims
  tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Bolivia has failed to show evidence
  of increasing efforts to combat trafficking in the areas of
  prosecutions and victim protection

Illicit drugs:
  world's third-largest cultivator of coca (after Colombia and Peru)
  with an estimated 26,500 hectares under cultivation in August 2005,
  an 8% increase from 2004; intermediate coca products and cocaine
  exported mostly to or through Brazil, Argentina, and Chile to
  European drug markets; cultivation steadily increasing despite
  eradication and alternative crop programs; money-laundering activity
  related to narcotics trade, especially along the borders with Brazil
  and Paraguay

This page was last updated on 19 December, 2006

======================================================================

@Bosnia and Herzegovina

Introduction Bosnia and Herzegovina

Background:
  Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of sovereignty in October 1991
  was followed by a declaration of independence from the former
  Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic
  Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia and
  Montenegro - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning
  the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form
  a "Greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the
  number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement
  creating a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
  On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties initialed
  a peace agreement that brought to a halt three years of interethnic
  civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December
  1995). The Dayton Peace Accords retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's
  international boundaries and created a joint multi-ethnic and
  democratic government charged with conducting foreign, diplomatic,
  and fiscal policy. Also recognized was a second tier of government
  comprised of two entities roughly equal in size: the Bosniak/Croat
  Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb-led
  Republika Srpska (RS). The Federation and RS governments were
  charged with overseeing most government functions. The Office of the
  High Representative (OHR) was established to oversee the
  implementation of the civilian aspects of the agreement. In 1995-96,
  a NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops
  served in Bosnia to implement and monitor the military aspects of
  the agreement. IFOR was succeeded by a smaller, NATO-led
  Stabilization Force (SFOR) whose mission was to deter renewed
  hostilities. European Union peacekeeping troops (EUFOR) replaced
  SFOR in December 2004; their mission is to maintain peace and
  stability throughout the country.

Geography Bosnia and Herzegovina

Location:
  Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia

Geographic coordinates:
  44 00 N, 18 00 E

Map references:
  Europe

Area:
  total: 51,129 sq km
  land: 51,129 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries: total: 1,459 km border countries: Croatia 932 km, Montenegro 225 km, Serbia 302 km

Coastline:
  20 km

Maritime claims:
  no data available

Climate:
  hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short,
  cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along
  coast

Terrain:
  mountains and valleys

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
  highest point: Maglic 2,386 m

Natural resources:
  coal, iron ore, bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, cobalt,
  manganese, nickel, clay, gypsum, salt, sand, forests, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 19.61% permanent crops: 1.89% other: 78.5% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  30 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  destructive earthquakes

Environment - current issues:
  air pollution from metallurgical plants; sites for disposing of
  urban waste are limited; water shortages and destruction of
  infrastructure because of the 1992-95 civil strife; deforestation

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous
  Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized borders, the country is
  divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation (about 51% of the
  territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska or RS (about
  49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is contiguous
  to Croatia and Serbia and Montenegro (Montenegro), and traditionally
  has been settled by an ethnic Croat majority in the west and an
  ethnic Serb majority in the east

People Bosnia and Herzegovina

Population:
  4,498,976 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 15.5% (male 359,739/female 336,978)
  15-64 years: 70.1% (male 1,590,923/female 1,564,665)
  65 years and over: 14.4% (male 265,637/female 381,034) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 38.4 years
  male: 37.2 years
  female: 39.5 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  1.35% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  8.77 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  8.27 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  13.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 9.82 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 11.26 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 8.28 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 78 years
  male: 74.39 years
  female: 81.88 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.22 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  less than 0.1% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  900 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  100 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)
  adjective: Bosnian, Herzegovinian

Ethnic groups:
  Bosniak 48%, Serb 37.1%, Croat 14.3%, other 0.6% (2000)
  note: Bosniak has replaced Muslim as an ethnic term in part to avoid
  confusion with the religious term Muslim - an adherent of Islam

Religions:
  Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, other 14%

Languages:
  Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 94.6%
  male: 98.4%
  female: 91.1% (2000 est.)

Government Bosnia and Herzegovina

Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Bosnia and Herzegovina
  local long form: none
  local short form: Bosna i Hercegovina
  former: People's Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Socialist
  Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Government type:
  emerging federal democratic republic

Capital:
  name: Sarajevo
  geographic coordinates: 43 52 N, 18 25 E
  time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)
  daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last
  Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
  2 first-order administrative divisions and 1 internationally
  supervised district* - Brcko district (Brcko Distrikt)*, the
  Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Federacija Bosna
  i Hercegovina) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska; note -
  Brcko district is in northeastern Bosnia and is an administrative
  unit under the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina; the district
  remains under international supervision

Independence:
  1 March 1992 (from Yugoslavia; referendum for independence was
  completed 1 March 1992; independence was declared 3 March 1992)

National holiday:
  National Day, 25 November (1943)

Constitution:
  the Dayton Agreement, signed 14 December 1995, included a new
  constitution now in force; note - each of the entities also has its
  own constitution

Legal system:
  based on civil law system

Suffrage:
  18 years of age, universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Chairman of the Presidency Nebojsa RADMANOVIC
  (chairman since 6 November 2006; presidency member since 1 October
  2006 - Serb); other members of the three-member presidency rotating
  (every eight months): Zeljko KOMSIC (since 1 October 2006 - Croat)
  and Haris SILAJDZIC (since 1 October 2006 - Bosniak)
  head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Adnan
  TERZIC (since 20 December 2002)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the council chairman;
  approved by the National House of Representatives
  elections: the three members of the presidency (one Bosniak, one
  Croat, one Serb) are elected by popular vote for a four-year term
  (eligible for a second term, but then ineligible for four years);
  the member with the most votes becomes the chairman unless he or she
  was the incumbent chairman at the time of the election, but the
  chairmanship rotates every eight months; election last held 1
  October 2006 (next to be held in 2010); the chairman of the Council
  of Ministers is appointed by the presidency and confirmed by the
  National House of Representatives
  election results: percent of vote - Nebojsa RADMANOVIC with 53.3% of
  the Serb vote; Zeljko KOMSIC received 39.6% of the Croat vote; Haris
  SILAJDZIC received 62.8% of the Bosniak vote
  note: President of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Niko
  LOZANCIC (since 27 January 2003); Vice Presidents Sahbaz DZIHANOVIC
  (since in 2003) and Desnica RADIVOJEVIC (since in 2003); President
  of the Republika Srpska: Milan JELIC (since 9 November 2006)

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliamentary Assembly or Skupstina consists of the
  national House of Representatives or Predstavnicki Dom (42 seats -
  elected by proportional representation, 28 seats allocated from the
  Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and 14 seats from the Republika
  Srpska; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms);
  and the House of Peoples or Dom Naroda (15 seats - 5 Bosniak, 5
  Croat, 5 Serb; members elected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's
  House of Representatives and the Republika Srpska's National
  Assembly to serve four-year terms); note - Bosnia's election law
  specifies four-year terms for the state and first-order
  administrative division entity legislatures
  elections: national House of Representatives - elections last held 1
  October 2006 (next to be held in 2010); House of Peoples - last
  constituted in January 2003 (next to be constituted in 2007)
  election results: national House of Representatives - percent of
  vote by party/coalition - NA%; seats by party/coalition - SDA 9,
  SBiH 8, SNSD 7, SDP 5, SDS 3, HDZ-BH 3, other 7; House of Peoples -
  percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition -
  NA
  note: the Bosniak/Croat Federation has a bicameral legislature that
  consists of a House of Representatives (98 seats; members elected by
  popular vote to serve four-year terms); elections last held 1
  October 2006 (next to be held in October 2010); percent of vote by
  party - NA; seats by party/coalition - SDA 28, SBiH 24, SDP 17,
  HDZ-BH 8, HDZ100 7, other 14; and a House of Peoples (60 seats - 30
  Bosniak, 30 Croat); last constituted December 2002; the Republika
  Srpska has a National Assembly (83 seats; members elected by popular
  vote to serve four-year terms); elections last held 1 October 2006
  (next to be held in the fall of 2010); percent of vote by party -
  NA; seats by party/coalition - SNSD 41, SDS 17, PDP 8, DNS 4, SBH 4,
  SPRS 3, SDA 3, other 3; as a result of the 2002 constitutional
  reform process, a 28-member Republika Srpska Council of Peoples
  (COP) was established in the Republika Srpska National Assembly
  including eight Croats, eight Bosniaks, eight Serbs, and four
  members of the smaller communities

Judicial branch:
  BH Constitutional Court (consists of nine members: four members are
  selected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of Representatives,
  two members by the Republika Srpska's National Assembly, and three
  non-Bosnian members by the president of the European Court of Human
  Rights); BH State Court (consists of nine judges and three divisions
  - Administrative, Appellate and Criminal - having jurisdiction over
  cases related to state-level law and appellate jurisdiction over
  cases initiated in the entities); note - a War Crimes Chamber opened
  in March 2005
  note: the entities each have a Supreme Court; each entity also has a
  number of lower courts; there are 10 cantonal courts in the
  Federation, plus a number of municipal courts; the Republika Srpska
  has five municipal courts

Political parties and leaders:
  Alliance of Independent Social Democrats or SNSD [Milorad DODIK];
  Bosnian Party or BOSS [Mirnes AJANOVIC]; Civic Democratic Party or
  GDS [Ibrahim SPAHIC]; Croat Christian Democratic Union of Bosnia and
  Herzegovina or HKDU [Marin TOPIC]; Croat Party of Rights or HSP
  [Zvonko JURISIC]; Croat Peasants Party or HSS [Marko TADIC];
  Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HDZ-BH
  [Dragan COVIC]; Croatian Democratic Union 100 or HDZ100; Croatian
  Peoples Union [Milenko BRKIC]; Democratic National Union or DNZ
  [Rifet DOLIC]; Democratic Peoples Alliance or DNS [Marko PAVIC];
  Liberal Democratic Party or LDS [Rasim KADIC]; New Croat Initiative
  or NHI [Kresimir ZUBAK]; Party for Bosnia and Herzegovina or SBiH
  [Haris SILAJDZIC]; Party for Democratic Action or SDA [Sulejman
  TIHIC]; Party of Democratic Progress or PDP [Mladen IVANIC]; Serb
  Democratic Party or SDS [Dragan CAVIC]; Serb Radical Party of the
  Republika Srpska or SRS-RS [Milanko MIHAJLICA]; Serb Radical
  Party-Dr. Vojislav Seselj or SRS-VS [Radislav KANJERIC]; Social
  Democratic Party of BIH or SDP [Zlatko LAGUMDZIJA]; Social
  Democratic Union or SDU [Sejfudin TOKIC]; Socialist Party of
  Republika Srpska or SPRS [Petar DJOKIC]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  BIS, CE, CEI, EBRD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM,
  IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO,
  ITU, MIGA, MONUC, NAM (guest), OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OPCW,
  OSCE, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
  WToO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Bisera TURKOVIC
  chancery: 2109 E Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
  telephone: [1] (202) 337-1500
  FAX: [1] (202) 337-1502
  consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Douglas L. McELHANEY embassy: Alipasina 43, 71000 Sarajevo mailing address: use street address telephone: [387] (33) 445-700 FAX: [387] (33) 659-722 branch office(s): Banja Luka, Mostar

Flag description:
  a wide medium blue vertical band on the fly side with a yellow
  isosceles triangle abutting the band and the top of the flag; the
  remainder of the flag is medium blue with seven full five-pointed
  white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the hypotenuse
  of the triangle

Economy Bosnia and Herzegovina

Economy - overview:
  Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to Macedonia as the poorest
  republic in the old Yugoslav federation. Although agriculture is
  almost all in private hands, farms are small and inefficient, and
  the republic traditionally is a net importer of food. Industry
  remains greatly overstaffed, a holdover from the socialist economic
  structure of Yugoslavia. TITO had pushed the development of military
  industries in the republic with the result that Bosnia was saddled
  with a host of industrial firms with little commercial potential.
  The interethnic warfare in Bosnia caused production to plummet by
  80% from 1992 to 1995 and unemployment to soar. With an uneasy peace
  in place, output recovered in 1996-99 at high percentage rates from
  a low base; but output growth slowed in 2000-02. Part of the lag in
  output was made up in 2003-05. National-level statistics are limited
  and do not capture the large share of black market activity. The
  konvertibilna marka (convertible mark or BAM)- the national currency
  introduced in 1998 - is pegged to the euro, and confidence in the
  currency and the banking sector has increased. Implementation of
  privatization, however, has been slow, and local entities only
  reluctantly support national-level institutions. Banking reform
  accelerated in 2001 as all the Communist-era payments bureaus were
  shut down; foreign banks, primarily from Western Europe, now control
  most of the banking sector. A sizeable current account deficit and
  high unemployment rate remain the two most serious economic
  problems. The country receives substantial amounts of reconstruction
  assistance and humanitarian aid from the international community but
  will have to prepare for an era of declining assistance.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $23.09 billion
  note: Bosnia has a large informal sector that could also be as much
  as 50% of official GDP (2005 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $8.495 billion (2005 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  5% (2005 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $5,200 (2005 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 14.2% industry: 30.8% services: 55% (2002)

Labor force: 1.026 million (2001)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Unemployment rate:
  45.5% official rate; grey economy may reduce actual unemployment to
  25-30% (31 December 2004 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  25% (2004 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  26.2 (2001)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  4.4% (2005 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $4.373 billion
  expenditures: $4.401 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2005 est.)

Public debt:
  29% of GDP

Agriculture - products:
  wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock

Industries:
  steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, vehicle
  assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, tank and
  aircraft assembly, domestic appliances, oil refining

Industrial production growth rate:
  5.5% (2003 est.)

Electricity - production:
  10.51 billion kWh (2003)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 53.5% hydro: 46.5% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  8.849 billion kWh (2003)

Electricity - exports:
  3.2 billion kWh (2003)

Electricity - imports:
  2.271 billion kWh (2003)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2003)

Oil - consumption:
  21,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  160 million cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  300 million cu m (2001 est.)

Current account balance:
  $-2.087 billion (2005 est.)

Exports:
  $2.7 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  metals, clothing, wood products

Exports - partners:
  Croatia 18.4%, Italy 17.1%, Slovenia 14.6%, Germany 12.8%, Austria
  6.5%, Hungary 5.2%, China 4.2% (2005)

Imports:
  $6.8 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
  Croatia 24.7%, Germany 13.7%, Slovenia 13.1%, Italy 11%, Austria
  6.9%, Hungary 5.5% (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $2.531 billion (2005 est.)

Debt - external:
  $3.116 billion (2005 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $650 million (2001 est.)

Currency (code):
  marka (BAM)

Currency code:
  BAM

Exchange rates:
  marka per US dollar - 1.5727 (2005), 1.5752 (2004), 1.7329 (2003),
  2.0782 (2002), 2.1857 (2001)
  note: the marka is pegged to the euro

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Bosnia and Herzegovina

Telephones - main lines in use:
  968,900 (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  1.594 million (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: telephone and telegraph network needs
  modernization and expansion; many urban areas are below average as
  contrasted with services in other former Yugoslav republics
  domestic: NA
  international: country code - 387; no satellite earth stations

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 8, FM 16, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:
  940,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  33 (plus 277 repeaters) (September 1995)

Televisions:
  NA

Internet country code:
  .ba

Internet hosts:
  31,490 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  3 (2000)

Internet users:
  806,400 (2005)

Transportation Bosnia and Herzegovina

Airports:
  28 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 8
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  under 914 m: 3 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 20
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 7
  under 914 m: 12 (2006)

Heliports:
  5 (2006)

Railways:
  total: 608 km (777 km electrified)
  standard gauge: 608 km 1.435-m gauge (2005)

Roadways:
  total: 21,846 km
  paved: 11,425 km (4,686 km of interurban roads)
  unpaved: 10,421 km (2005)

Waterways:
  Sava River (northern border) open to shipping but use limited (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Samac, and Brcko (all
  inland waterway ports on the Sava), Orasje

Military Bosnia and Herzegovina

Military branches:
  VF Army (the air and air defense forces are subordinate commands
  within the Army), VRS Army (the air and air defense forces are
  subordinate commands within the Army)

Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for compulsory military service in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina; 16 years of age in times of war; 18 years of age for Republika Srpska; 17 years of age for voluntary military service in the Federation and in the Republika Srpska; by law, military obligations cover all healthy men between the ages of 18 and 60, and all women between the ages of 18 and 55; service obligation is four months (July 2004)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 1,119,508
  females age 18-49: 1,079,435 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 910,539
  females age 18-49: 881,446 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 32,942
  females age 18-49: 31,466 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $234.3 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  4.5% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Bosnia and Herzegovina

Disputes - international:
  Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia and Montenegro have delimited
  most of their boundary, but sections along the Drina River remain in
  dispute; discussions continue with Croatia on several small disputed
  sections of the boundary related to maritime access that hinder
  ratification of the 1999 border agreement

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  refugees (country of origin): 19,213 (Croatia)
  IDPs: 309,200 (Bosnian Croats, Serbs, and Muslims displaced in
  1992-95 war) (2005)

Illicit drugs:
  minor transit point for marijuana and opiate trafficking routes to
  Western Europe; remains highly vulnerable to money-laundering
  activity given a primarily cash-based and unregulated economy, weak
  law enforcement, and instances of corruption

This page was last updated on 19 December, 2006

======================================================================

@Botswana

Introduction Botswana

Background:
  Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted
  its new name upon independence in 1966. Four decades of
  uninterrupted civilian leadership, progressive social policies, and
  significant capital investment have created one of the most dynamic
  economies in Africa. Mineral extraction, principally diamond mining,
  dominates economic activity, though tourism is a growing sector due
  to the country's conservation practices and extensive nature
  preserves. Botswana has one of the world's highest known rates of
  HIV/AIDS infection, but also one of Africa's most progressive and
  comprehensive programs for dealing with the disease.

Geography Botswana

Location:
  Southern Africa, north of South Africa

Geographic coordinates:
  22 00 S, 24 00 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 600,370 sq km
  land: 585,370 sq km
  water: 15,000 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 4,013 km
  border countries: Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa 1,840 km, Zimbabwe
  813 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  semiarid; warm winters and hot summers

Terrain:
  predominantly flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari Desert in
  southwest

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: junction of the Limpopo and Shashe Rivers 513 m
  highest point: Tsodilo Hills 1,489 m

Natural resources:
  diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore,
  silver

Land use: arable land: 0.65% permanent crops: 0.01% other: 99.34% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  10 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  periodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow from the west,
  carrying sand and dust across the country, which can obscure
  visibility

Environment - current issues:
  overgrazing; desertification; limited fresh water resources

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: landlocked; population concentrated in eastern part of the country

People Botswana

Population:
  1,639,833
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 38.3% (male 319,531/female 309,074)
  15-64 years: 57.9% (male 460,692/female 488,577)
  65 years and over: 3.8% (male 23,374/female 38,585) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 19.4 years
  male: 18.8 years
  female: 20 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  -0.04% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  23.08 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  29.5 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  6.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population
  note: there is an increasing flow of Zimbabweans into South Africa
  and Botswana in search of better economic opportunities (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 53.7 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 54.92 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 52.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 33.74 years
  male: 33.9 years
  female: 33.56 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.79 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  37.3% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  350,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  33,000 (2003 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
  degree of risk: high
  food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and
  typhoid fever
  vectorborne disease: malaria (2005)

Nationality:
  noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
  adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)

Ethnic groups:
  Tswana (or Setswana) 79%, Kalanga 11%, Basarwa 3%, other, including
  Kgalagadi and white 7%

Religions:
  Christian 71.6%, Badimo 6%, other 1.4%, unspecified 0.4%, none
  20.6% (2001 census)

Languages:
  Setswana 78.2%, Kalanga 7.9%, Sekgalagadi 2.8%, English 2.1%
  (official), other 8.6%, unspecified 0.4% (2001 census)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 79.8%
  male: 76.9%
  female: 82.4% (2003 est.)

Government Botswana

Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Botswana
  conventional short form: Botswana
  local long form: Republic of Botswana
  local short form: Botswana
  former: Bechuanaland

Government type:
  parliamentary republic

Capital:
  name: Gaborone
  geographic coordinates: 24 45 S, 25 55 E
  time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
  9 districts and 5 town councils*; Central, Francistown*, Gaborone*,
  Ghanzi, Jwaneng*, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng, Lobatse*, Northeast,
  Northwest, Selebi-Pikwe*, Southeast, Southern

Independence:
  30 September 1966 (from UK)

National holiday:
  Independence Day (Botswana Day), 30 September (1966)

Constitution:
  March 1965, effective 30 September 1966

Legal system:
  based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law; judicial review
  limited to matters of interpretation; accepts compulsory ICJ
  jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Festus G. MOGAE (since 1 April 1998) and
  Vice President Seretse Ian KHAMA (since 13 July 1998); note - the
  president is both the chief of state and head of government
  head of government: President Festus G. MOGAE (since 1 April 1998)
  and Vice President Seretse Ian KHAMA (since 13 July 1998); note -
  the president is both the chief of state and head of government
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
  elections: president indirectly elected for a five-year term
  (eligible for a second term); election last held 20 October 2004
  (next to be held in 2009); vice president appointed by the president
  election results: Festus G. MOGAE elected president; percent of
  National Assembly vote - 52%

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of the House of Chiefs (a largely
  advisory 15-member body with 8 permanent members consisting of the
  chiefs of the principal tribes, and 7 non-permanent members serving
  5-year terms, consisting of 4 elected subchiefs and 3 members
  selected by the other 12 members) and the National Assembly (63
  seats, 57 members are directly elected by popular vote, 4 are
  appointed by the majority party, and 2, the President and
  Attorney-General, serve as ex-officio members; members serve
  five-year terms)
  elections: National Assembly elections last held 30 October 2004
  (next to be held October 2009)
  election results: percent of vote by party - BDP 51.7%, BNF 26.1%,
  BCP 16.6%, other 5%; seats by party - BDP 44, BNF 12, BCP 1

Judicial branch:
  High Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrates' Courts (one in each
  district)

Political parties and leaders:
  Botswana Alliance Movement or BAM [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO];
  Botswana Congress Party or BCP [Otlaadisa KOOSALETSE]; Botswana
  Democratic Party or BDP [Festus G. MOGAE]; Botswana National Front
  or BNF [Otswoletse MOUPO]; Botswana Peoples Party or BPP; MELS
  Movement of Botswana or MELS; New Democratic Front or NDF
  note: a number of minor parties joined forces in 1999 to form the
  BAM but did not capture any parliamentary seats - includes the
  United Action Party [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO]; the Independence
  Freedom Party or IFP [Motsamai MPHO]; the Botswana Progressive Union
  [D. K. KWELE]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACP, AfDB, AU, C, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM,
  IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA,
  NAM, OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIS, UPU, WCO,
  WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Lapologang Caesar LEKOA
  chancery: 1531-1533 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
  telephone: [1] (202) 244-4990
  FAX: [1] (202) 244-4164

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Katherine H. CANAVAN embassy: address NA, Gaborone mailing address: Embassy Enclave, P. O. Box 90, Gaborone telephone: [267] 353982 FAX: [267] 312782

Flag description: light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the center

Economy Botswana

Economy - overview:
  Botswana has maintained one of the world's highest economic growth
  rates since independence in 1966. Through fiscal discipline and
  sound management, Botswana has transformed itself from one of the
  poorest countries in the world to a middle-income country with a per
  capita GDP of $10,000 in 2005. Two major investment services rank
  Botswana as the best credit risk in Africa. Diamond mining has
  fueled much of the expansion and currently accounts for more than
  one-third of GDP and for 70-80% of export earnings. Tourism,
  financial services, subsistence farming, and cattle raising are
  other key sectors. On the downside, the government must deal with
  high rates of unemployment and poverty. Unemployment officially is
  23.8%, but unofficial estimates place it closer to 40%. HIV/AIDS
  infection rates are the second highest in the world and threaten
  Botswana's impressive economic gains. An expected leveling off in
  diamond mining production overshadows long-term prospects.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $17.53 billion (2005 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $9.046 billion (2005 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  5.5% (2005 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $10,700 (2005 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 2.4% industry: 46.9% (including 36% mining) services: 50.7% (2003 est.)

Labor force: 288,400 formal sector employees (2004)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Unemployment rate:
  23.8% (2004)

Population below poverty line:
  30.3% (2003)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  63 (1993)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  8.6% (2005 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  20.3% of GDP (2005 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $3.766 billion
  expenditures: $3.767 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2005 est.)

Public debt:
  6.2% of GDP (2005 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  livestock, sorghum, maize, millet, beans, sunflowers, groundnuts

Industries:
  diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash; livestock
  processing; textiles

Industrial production growth rate:
  7.5% (2005 est.)

Electricity - production:
  891 million kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  2.641 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  1.39 billion kWh (2002)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2003)

Oil - consumption:
  12,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day

Oil - imports:
  16,000 bbl/day (2001)

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  0 cu m (2003 est.)

Current account balance:
  $1.584 billion (2005 est.)

Exports:
  $3.68 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  diamonds, copper, nickel, soda ash, meat, textiles

Exports - partners:
  European Free Trade Association (EFTA) 87%, Southern African
  Customs Union (SACU) 7%, Zimbabwe 4% (2004)

Imports:
  $3.37 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  foodstuffs, machinery, electrical goods, transport equipment,
  textiles, fuel and petroleum products, wood and paper products,
  metal and metal products

Imports - partners:
  Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 74%, EFTA 17%, Zimbabwe 4%
  (2004)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $6.309 billion (2005 est.)

Debt - external:
  $519 million (2005 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $73 million (1995)

Currency (code):
  pula (BWP)

Currency code:
  BWP

Exchange rates:
  pulas per US dollar - 5.1104 (2005), 4.6929 (2004), 4.9499 (2003),
  6.3278 (2002), 5.8412 (2001)

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Botswana

Telephones - main lines in use:
  132,000 (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  823,100 (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: the system is expanding with the growth of
  mobile cellular service and participation in regional development
  domestic: small system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relay
  links, and a few radiotelephone communication stations; mobile
  cellular service is growing fast
  international: country code - 267; two international exchanges;
  digital microwave radio relay links to Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe,
  and South Africa; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 8, FM 13, shortwave 4 (2001)

Radios:
  252,720 (2000)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (2001)

Televisions:
  31,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bw

Internet hosts:
  5,499 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  11 (2001)

Internet users:
  60,000 (2002)

Transportation Botswana

Airports: 85 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 10
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 75
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
  914 to 1,523 m: 55
  under 914 m: 17 (2006)

Railways: total: 888 km narrow gauge: 888 km 1.067-m gauge (2005)

Roadways: total: 25,233 km paved: 8,867 km unpaved: 16,366 km (2003)

Military Botswana

Military branches:
  Botswana Defense Force (includes an air wing) (2006)

Military service age and obligation:
  18 is the apparent age of voluntary military service; the official
  qualifications for determining minimum age are unknown (2001)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 350,649
  females age 18-49: 361,642 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 136,322
  females age 18-49: 136,315 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 21,103
  females age 18-49: 21,379 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $325.5 million (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  3.4% (2005 est.)

Transnational Issues Botswana

Disputes - international:
  commission established with Namibia has yet to resolve small
  residual disputes along the Caprivi Strip, including the Situngu
  marshlands along the Linyanti River; downstream Botswana residents
  protest Namibia's planned construction of the Okavango hydroelectric
  dam at Popavalle (Popa Falls); Botswana has built electric fences to
  stem the thousands of Zimbabweans who flee to find work and escape
  political persecution; Namibia has long supported and in 2004
  Zimbabwe dropped objections to plans between Botswana and Zambia to
  build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing
  their short, but not clearly delimited Botswana-Zambia boundary

This page was last updated on 19 December, 2006

======================================================================

@Bouvet Island

Introduction Bouvet Island

Background:
  This uninhabited volcanic island is almost entirely covered by
  glaciers and is difficult to approach. It was discovered in 1739 by
  a French naval officer after whom the island was named. No claim was
  made until 1825, when the British flag was raised. In 1928, the UK
  waived its claim in favor of Norway, which had occupied the island
  the previous year. In 1971, Bouvet Island and the adjacent
  territorial waters were designated a nature reserve. Since 1977,
  Norway has run an automated meteorological station on the island.

Geography Bouvet Island

Location:
  island in the South Atlantic Ocean, southwest of the Cape of Good
  Hope (South Africa)

Geographic coordinates:
  54 26 S, 3 24 E

Map references:
  Antarctic Region

Area:
  total: 49 sq km
  land: 49 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  29.6 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 4 nm

Climate:
  antarctic

Terrain:
  volcanic; coast is mostly inaccessible

Elevation extremes: lowest point: South Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Olav Peak 935 m

Natural resources: none

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (93% ice) (2005)

Irrigated land:
  0 sq km

Natural hazards:
  NA

Environment - current issues:
  NA

Geography - note:
  covered by glacial ice; declared a nature reserve

People Bouvet Island

Population: uninhabited (July 2006 est.)

Government Bouvet Island

Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Bouvet Island

Dependency status:
  territory of Norway; administered by the Polar Department of the
  Ministry of Justice and Police from Oslo

Legal system:
  the laws of Norway, where applicable, apply

Flag description:
  the flag of Norway is used

Economy Bouvet Island

Economy - overview: no economic activity; declared a nature reserve

Communications Bouvet Island

Internet country code:
  .bv

Internet hosts:
  6 (2006)

Communications - note:
  automatic meteorological station

Transportation Bouvet Island

Ports and terminals: none; offshore anchorage only

Military Bouvet Island

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Norway

Transnational Issues Bouvet Island

Disputes - international: none

This page was last updated on 19 December, 2006

======================================================================

@Brazil

Introduction Brazil

Background:
  Following three centuries under the rule of Portugal, Brazil became
  an independent nation in 1822 and a republic in 1889. By far the
  largest and most populous country in South America, Brazil overcame
  more than half a century of military intervention in the governance
  of the country when in 1985 the military regime peacefully ceded
  power to civilian rulers. Brazil continues to pursue industrial and
  agricultural growth and development of its interior. Exploiting vast
  natural resources and a large labor pool, it is today South
  America's leading economic power and a regional leader. Highly
  unequal income distribution remains a pressing problem.

Geography Brazil

Location:
  Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean

Geographic coordinates:
  10 00 S, 55 00 W

Map references:
  South America

Area:
  total: 8,511,965 sq km
  land: 8,456,510 sq km
  water: 55,455 sq km
  note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas,
  Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao
  Paulo

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries:
  total: 16,884.4 km
  border countries: Argentina 1,261 km, Bolivia 3,423 km, Colombia
  1,644 km, French Guiana 730.4 km, Guyana 1,606 km, Paraguay 1,365
  km, Peru 2,995 km, Suriname 593 km, Uruguay 1,068 km, Venezuela
  2,199 km

Coastline:
  7,491 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm continental shelf: 200 nm or to edge of the continental margin

Climate:
  mostly tropical, but temperate in south

Terrain:
  mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills,
  mountains, and narrow coastal belt

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Pico da Neblina 3,014 m

Natural resources:
  bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, platinum,
  tin, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber

Land use: arable land: 6.93% permanent crops: 0.89% other: 92.18% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  29,200 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  recurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in
  south

Environment - current issues:
  deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers a
  multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; there
  is a lucrative illegal wildlife trade; air and water pollution in
  Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land
  degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining
  activities; wetland degradation; severe oil spills

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living
  Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate
  Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
  Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
  Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  largest country in South America; shares common boundaries with
  every South American country except Chile and Ecuador

People Brazil

Population:
  188,078,227
  note: Brazil conducted a census in August 2000, which reported a
  population of 169,799,170; that figure was about 3.3% lower than
  projections by the US Census Bureau, and is close to the implied
  underenumeration of 4.6% for the 1991 census; estimates for this
  country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality
  due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant
  mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and
  changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would
  otherwise be expected (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 25.8% (male 24,687,656/female 23,742,998)
  15-64 years: 68.1% (male 63,548,331/female 64,617,539)
  65 years and over: 6.1% (male 4,712,675/female 6,769,028) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 28.2 years
  male: 27.5 years
  female: 29 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  1.04% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  16.56 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  6.17 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -0.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 28.6 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 32.3 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 24.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 71.97 years
  male: 68.02 years
  female: 76.12 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.91 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.7% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  660,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  15,000 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Brazilian(s)
  adjective: Brazilian

Ethnic groups:
  white 53.7%, mulatto (mixed white and black) 38.5%, black 6.2%,
  other (includes Japanese, Arab, Amerindian) 0.9%, unspecified 0.7%
  (2000 census)

Religions:
  Roman Catholic (nominal) 73.6%, Protestant 15.4%, Spiritualist
  1.3%, Bantu/voodoo 0.3%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.2%, none 7.4%
  (2000 census)

Languages:
  Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 86.4%
  male: 86.1%
  female: 86.6% (2003 est.)

Government Brazil

Country name:
  conventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil
  conventional short form: Brazil
  local long form: Republica Federativa do Brasil
  local short form: Brasil

Government type:
  federative republic

Capital:
  name: Brasilia
  geographic coordinates: 15 47 S, 47 55 W
  time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)
  daylight saving time: +1hr, begins third Sunday in October; ends
  third Sunday in February
  note: Brazil is divided into four time zones, including one for the
  Fernando de Noronha islands

Administrative divisions:
  26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district*
  (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara,
  Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso,
  Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco,
  Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul,
  Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins

Independence:
  7 September 1822 (from Portugal)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 7 September (1822)

Constitution:
  5 October 1988

Legal system:
  based on Roman codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  voluntary between 16 and 18 years of age and over 70; compulsory
  over 18 and under 70 years of age; note - military conscripts do not
  vote

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Luiz Inacio LULA DA SILVA (since 1
  January 2003); Vice President Jose ALENCAR (since 1 January 2003);
  note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
  government
  head of government: President Luiz Inacio LULA DA SILVA (since 1
  January 2003); Vice President Jose ALENCAR (since 1 January 2003)
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
  elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket
  by popular vote for a single four-year term; election last held 1
  October 2006 with runoff 29 October 2006 (next to be held 3 October
  2010 and, if necessary, 31 October 2010)
  election results: Luiz Inacio LULA DA SILVA (PT) reelected president
  - 60.83%, Geraldo ALCKMIN (PSDB) 39.17%

Legislative branch:
  bicameral National Congress or Congresso Nacional consists of the
  Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; 3 members from each
  state and federal district elected according to the principle of
  majority to serve eight-year terms; one-third elected after a
  four-year period, two-thirds elected after the next four-year
  period) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513
  seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve
  four-year terms)
  elections: Federal Senate - last held 1 October 2006 for one-third
  of the Senate (next to be held October 2010 for two-thirds of the
  Senate); Chamber of Deputies - last held 1 October 2006 (next to be
  held October 2010)
  election results: Federal Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%;
  seats by party - PFL 6, PSDB 5, PMDB 4, PTB 3, PT 2, PFL 1, PDT 1,
  PSB 1, PL 1, PPS 1, PRTB 1, PP 1, PCdoB 1; total seats following
  election - PFL 18, PMDB 15, PSDB 15, PT 11, PDT 5, PTB 4, PSB 3, PL
  3, PCdoB 2, PRB 2, PPS 1, PRTB 1, PP 1; Chamber of Deputies -
  percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PMDB 89, PT 83, PFL
  65, PSDB 65, PP 42, PSB 27, PDT 24, PL 23, PTB 22, PPS 21, PCdoB 13,
  PV 13, PSC 9, other 17

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Federal Tribunal (11 ministers are appointed for life by
  the president and confirmed by the Senate); Higher Tribunal of
  Justice; Regional Federal Tribunals (judges are appointed for life);
  note - though appointed "for life," judges, like all federal
  employees, have a mandatory retirement age of 70

Political parties and leaders:
  Brazilian Democratic Movement Party or PMDB [Federal Deputy Michel
  TEMER]; Brazilian Labor Party or PTB [Flavio de CASTRO MARTINEZ];
  Brazilian Renewal Labor Party or PRTB [Jose Levy Fidelix DA CRUZ];
  Brazilian Republican Party or PRB [Vitor Paulo Araujo DOS SANTOS];
  Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Senator Tasso JEREISSATI];
  Brazilian Socialist Party or PSB [Federal Deputy Eduardo Henrique
  Accioly CAMPOS]; Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB [Jose Renato
  RABELO]; Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Carlos Roberto LUPI];
  Democratic Socialist Party or PSD [Luis Marques MENDES]; Green Party
  or PV [Jose Luiz de Franca PENNA]; Humanist Party of Solidarity or
  PHS [leader NA]; Liberal Party or PL [Federal Deputy Valdemar COSTA
  Neto]; National Order Reconstruction Party or PRONA [Federal Deputy
  Dr. Eneas Ferreira CARNEIRO]; Partido Municipalista Renovador or PMR
  [Natal Wellington Rodrigues FURUCHO]; Popular Socialist Party or PPS
  [Federal Deputy Roberto FREIRE]; Progressive Party or PP [Federal
  Deputy Pedro CORREA]; Social Christian Party or PSC [Vitor Jorge
  ABDALA NOSSEIS]; Workers' Party or PT [Ricardo Jose Ribeiro BERZOINI]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Landless Worker's Movement; labor unions and federations; large
  farmers' associations; religious groups including evangelical
  Christian churches and the Catholic Church

International organization participation:
  AfDB, BIS, CAN (associate), CSN, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA,
  IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO,
  IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur,
  MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN,
  UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
  UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMOVIC, UNOCI, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO,
  WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Roberto P. ABDENUR chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 238-2700 FAX: [1] (202) 238-2827 consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Clifford M. SOBEL embassy: Avenida das Nacoes, Quadra 801, Lote 3, Distrito Federal Cep 70403-900, Brasilia mailing address: Unit 3500, APO AA 34030 telephone: [55] (61) 3312-7000 FAX: [55] (61) 3225-9136 consulate(s) general: Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo consulate(s): Recife

Flag description:
  green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue
  celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars (one for each state
  and the Federal District) arranged in the same pattern as the night
  sky over Brazil; the globe has a white equatorial band with the
  motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress)

Economy Brazil

Economy - overview:
  Characterized by large and well-developed agricultural, mining,
  manufacturing, and service sectors, Brazil's economy outweighs that
  of all other South American countries and is expanding its presence
  in world markets. From 2001-03 real wages fell and Brazil's economy
  grew, on average only 2.2% per year, as the country absorbed a
  series of domestic and international economic shocks. That Brazil
  absorbed these shocks without financial collapse is a tribute to the
  resiliency of the Brazilian economy and the economic program put in
  place by former President CARDOSO and strengthened by President LULA
  DA SILVA. In 2004, Brazil enjoyed more robust growth that yielded
  increases in employment and real wages. The three pillars of the
  economic program are a floating exchange rate, an
  inflation-targeting regime, and tight fiscal policy, all reinforced
  by a series of IMF programs. The currency depreciated sharply in
  2001 and 2002, which contributed to a dramatic current account
  adjustment; in 2003 to 2005, Brazil ran record trade surpluses and
  recorded its first current account surpluses since 1992.
  Productivity gains - particularly in agriculture - also contributed
  to the surge in exports, and Brazil in 2005 surpassed the previous
  year's record export level. While economic management has been good,
  there remain important economic vulnerabilities. The most
  significant are debt-related: the government's largely domestic debt
  increased steadily from 1994 to 2003 - straining government finances
  - before falling as a percentage of GDP in 2005, while Brazil's
  foreign debt (a mix of private and public debt) is large in relation
  to Brazil's small (but growing) export base. Another challenge is
  maintaining economic growth over a period of time to generate
  employment and make the government debt burden more manageable.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $1.536 trillion (2005 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $619.7 billion (2005 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  2.3% (2005 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $8,300 (2005 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 8.4% industry: 40% services: 51.6% (2005 est.)

Labor force: 90.41 million (2005 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 20% industry: 14% services: 66% (2003 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  9.8% (2005 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  22% (1998 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 0.7% highest 10%: 31.27% (2002)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  59.7 (2004)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  6.9% (2005 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  19.9% of GDP (2005 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $140.6 billion
  expenditures: $172.4 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2004)

Public debt:
  51.6% of GDP (2005 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus; beef

Industries:
  textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel,
  aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and equipment

Industrial production growth rate:
  3.4% (2005 est.)

Electricity - production:
  387.5 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 8.3% hydro: 82.7% nuclear: 4.4% other: 4.6% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  359.6 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  6 million kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  37.4 billion kWh; note - supplied by Paraguay (2004)

Oil - production:
  2.01 million bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  1.61 million bbl/day (2004)

Oil - exports:
  241,700 bbl/day NA bbl/day

Oil - imports:
  572,600 bbl/day NA bbl/day

Oil - proved reserves:
  15.12 billion bbl (2005 est.)

Natural gas - production:
  15.79 billion cu m (2005 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  21.74 billion cu m (2005 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2005 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  5.947 billion cu m (2005 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  240 billion cu m (2005)

Current account balance:
  $14.19 billion (2005 est.)

Exports:
  $115.1 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  transport equipment, iron ore, soybeans, footwear, coffee, autos

Exports - partners:
  US 19.6%, China 7.5%, Argentina 6.9%, Germany 5.3%, Mexico 4.3%
  (2005)

Imports:
  $78.02 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery, electrical and transport equipment, chemical products,
  oil

Imports - partners:
  US 19.7%, Germany 8.7%, Argentina 8.2%, China 6.2%, Nigeria 6.1%
  (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $53.8 billion (2005 est.)

Debt - external:
  $188 billion (2005 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $30 billion (2002)

Currency (code):
  real (BRL)

Currency code:
  BRL

Exchange rates:
  reals per US dollar - 2.4344 (2005), 2.9251 (2004), 3.0771 (2003),
  2.9208 (2002), 2.3577 (2001)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Brazil

Telephones - main lines in use:
  42.382 million (2004)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  86.21 million (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: good working system
  domestic: extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic
  satellite system with 64 earth stations
  international: country code - 55; 3 coaxial submarine cables;
  satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat
  (Atlantic Ocean region east), connected by microwave relay system to
  Mercosur Brazilsat B3 satellite earth station

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1,365, FM 296, shortwave 161 (of which 91 are collocated with AM
  stations) (1999)

Radios:
  71 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  138 (1997)

Televisions:
  36.5 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .br

Internet hosts:
  6,508,431 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  50 (2000)

Internet users:
  25.9 million (2005)

Transportation Brazil

Airports: 4,276 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 714 over 3,047 m: 8 2,438 to 3,047 m: 24 1,524 to 2,437 m: 164 914 to 1,523 m: 464 under 914 m: 54 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 3,562 1,524 to 2,437 m: 81 914 to 1,523 m: 1,634 under 914 m: 1,847 (2006)

Heliports:
  417 (2006)

Pipelines:
  condensate/gas 244 km; gas 11,669 km; liquid petroleum gas 341 km;
  oil 5,212 km; refined products 4,755 km (2006)

Railways:
  total: 29,252 km
  broad gauge: 4,877 km 1.600-m gauge (939 km electrified)
  standard gauge: 194 km 1.440-m gauge
  narrow gauge: 23,785 km 1.000-m gauge (581 km electrified)
  dual gauge: 396 km 1.000 m and 1.600-m gauges (three rails) (78 km
  electrified) (2005)

Roadways: total: 1,724,929 km paved: 94,871 km unpaved: 1,630,058 km (2000)

Waterways:
  50,000 km (most in areas remote from industry and population) (2005)

Merchant marine:
  total: 137 ships (1000 GRT or over) 2,038,923 GRT/3,057,820 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 21, cargo 21, chemical tanker 8, container 8,
  liquefied gas 12, passenger/cargo 12, petroleum tanker 47, roll
  on/roll off 8
  foreign-owned: 15 (Chile 1, Germany 7, Norway 2, Spain 4, UK 1)
  registered in other countries: 5 (Ghana 1, Liberia 3, Marshall
  Islands 1) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Gebig, Itaqui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande, San Sebasttiao, Santos,
  Sepetiba Terminal, Tubarao, Vitoria

Military Brazil

Military branches:
  Brazilian Army, Brazilian Navy (Marinha do Brasil (MB), includes
  Naval Air and Marine Corps (Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais)), Brazilian
  Air Force (Forca Aerea Brasileira, FAB) (2006)

Military service age and obligation: 21-45 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - nine to 12 months; 17-45 years of age for voluntary service; an increasing percentage of the ranks are "long-service" volunteer professionals; women were allowed to serve in the armed forces beginning in early 1980s when the Brazilian Army became the first army in South America to accept women into career ranks; women serve in Navy and Air Force only in Women's Reserve Corps (2001)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 19-49: 45,586,036
  females age 19-49: 45,728,704 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 19-49: 33,119,098
  females age 19-49: 38,079,722 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 1,785,930
  females age 19-49: 1,731,648 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $9.94 billion (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.3% (2005 est.)

Transnational Issues Brazil

Disputes - international:
  unruly region at convergence of Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay borders
  is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms and illegal narcotics
  trafficking, and fundraising for extremist organizations;
  uncontested dispute with Uruguay over certain islands in the
  Quarai/Cuareim and Invernada boundary streams and the resulting
  tripoint with Argentina; in 2004 Brazil submitted its claims to the
  United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) to extend
  its maritime continental margin

Trafficking in persons:
  current situation: Brazil is a source and destination country for
  women and girls trafficked for sexual exploitation within Brazil and
  to destinations in South America, the Caribbean, Western Europe,
  Japan, the US, and the Middle East, and for men trafficked within
  the country for forced agricultural labor; child sex tourism is a
  problem within the country, particularly in the resort areas and
  coastal cities of Brazil's northeast; foreign victims from Bolivia,
  Peru, China, and Korea are trafficked to Brazil for labor
  exploitation in factories
  tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Brazil has failed to show evidence
  of increasing efforts to fight trafficking, specifically for its
  failure to apply effective criminal penalties against traffickers
  who exploit forced labor

Illicit drugs:
  illicit producer of cannabis; trace amounts of coca cultivation in
  the Amazon region, used for domestic consumption; government has a
  large-scale eradication program to control cannabis; important
  transshipment country for Bolivian, Colombian, and Peruvian cocaine
  headed for Europe; also used by traffickers as a way station for
  narcotics air transshipments between Peru and Colombia; upsurge in
  drug-related violence and weapons smuggling; important market for
  Colombian, Bolivian, and Peruvian cocaine; illicit narcotics
  proceeds earned in Brazil are often laundered through the financial
  system; significant illicit financial activity in the Tri-Border Area

This page was last updated on 19 December, 2006

======================================================================

@British Indian Ocean Territory

Introduction British Indian Ocean Territory

Background:
  Established as a territory of the UK in 1965, a number of the
  British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT) islands were transferred to
  the Seychelles when it attained independence in 1976. Subsequently,
  BIOT has consisted only of the six main island groups comprising the
  Chagos Archipelago. The largest and most southerly of the islands,
  Diego Garcia, contains a joint UK-US naval support facility. All of
  the remaining islands are uninhabited. Former agricultural workers,
  earlier residents in the islands, were relocated primarily to
  Mauritius but also to the Seychelles, between 1967 and 1973. In
  2000, a British High Court ruling invalidated the local immigration
  order that had excluded them from the archipelago, but upheld the
  special military status of Diego Garcia.

Geography British Indian Ocean Territory

Location:
  archipelago in the Indian Ocean, south of India, about one-half the
  way from Africa to Indonesia

Geographic coordinates:
  6 00 S, 71 30 E; note - Diego Garcia 7 20 S, 72 25 E

Map references:
  Political Map of the World

Area:
  total: 54,400 sq km
  land: 60 sq km; Diego Garcia 44 sq km
  water: 54,340 sq km
  note: includes the entire Chagos Archipelago of 55 islands

Area - comparative:
  land area is about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  698 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 3 nm exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical marine; hot, humid, moderated by trade winds

Terrain:
  flat and low (most areas do not exceed two meters in elevation)

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location on Diego Garcia 15 m

Natural resources: coconuts, fish, sugarcane

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  0 sq km

Natural hazards:
  NA

Environment - current issues:
  NA

Geography - note:
  archipelago of 55 islands; Diego Garcia, largest and southernmost
  island, occupies strategic location in central Indian Ocean; island
  is site of joint US-UK military facility

People British Indian Ocean Territory

Population:
  no indigenous inhabitants
  note: approximately 1,200 former agricultural workers resident in
  the Chagos Archipelago, often referred to as Chagossians or Ilois,
  were relocated to Mauritius and the Seychelles in the 1960s and
  1970s; in November 2000 they were granted the right of return by a
  British High Court ruling, though no timetable has been set; in
  November 2004, there were approximately 4,000 UK and US military
  personnel and civilian contractors living on the island of Diego
  Garcia (July 2006 est.)

Government British Indian Ocean Territory

Country name:
  conventional long form: British Indian Ocean Territory
  conventional short form: none
  abbreviation: BIOT

Dependency status:
  overseas territory of the UK; administered by a commissioner,
  resident in the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in London

Legal system:
  the laws of the UK, where applicable, apply

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
  head of government: Commissioner Tony CROMBIE (since January 2004);
  Administrator Tony HUMPHRIES (since February 2005); note - both
  reside in the UK
  cabinet: NA
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; commissioner and
  administrator appointed by the monarch

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Flag description:
  white with six blue wavy horizontal stripes; the flag of the UK is
  in the upper hoist-side quadrant; the striped section bears a palm
  tree and yellow crown centered on the outer half of the flag

Economy British Indian Ocean Territory

Economy - overview:
  All economic activity is concentrated on the largest island of
  Diego Garcia, where joint UK-US defense facilities are located.
  Construction projects and various services needed to support the
  military installations are done by military and contract employees
  from the UK, Mauritius, the Philippines, and the US. There are no
  industrial or agricultural activities on the islands. When the Ilois
  return, they plan to reestablish sugarcane production and fishing.
  The country makes money by selling fishing licenses and postage
  stamps.

Electricity - production:
  NA kWh; note - electricity supplied by the US military

Electricity - consumption:
  NA kWh

Currency (code):
  both the British Pound (GBP) and the US Dollar (USD) are accepted

Communications British Indian Ocean Territory

Telephones - main lines in use:
  NA

Telephone system:
  general assessment: separate facilities for military and public
  needs are available
  domestic: all commercial telephone services are available, including
  connection to the Internet
  international: international telephone service is carried by
  satellite (2000)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  NA

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (1997)

Televisions:
  NA

Internet country code:
  .io

Internet hosts:
  65 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Transportation British Indian Ocean Territory

Airports: 1 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1 over 3,047 m: 1 (2006)

Roadways:
  total: NA
  paved: short section of paved road between port and airfield on
  Diego Garcia

Ports and terminals:
  Diego Garcia

Military British Indian Ocean Territory

Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of the UK; the US lease on Diego
  Garcia expires in 2016

Transnational Issues British Indian Ocean Territory

Disputes - international:
  Mauritius and Seychelles claim the Chagos Archipelago including
  Diego Garcia; in 2001 the former inhabitants of the Chagos
  Archipelago, evicted in 1965 and now residing chiefly in Mauritius,
  were granted UK citizenship and the right to repatriation; the UK
  resists the Chagossians' demand for an immediate return to the
  islands; repatriation is complicated by the exclusive US military
  lease of Diego Garcia that restricts access to the largest island in
  the chain;

This page was last updated on 19 December, 2006

======================================================================

@British Virgin Islands

Introduction British Virgin Islands

Background:
  First inhabited by Arawak and later by Carib Indians, the Virgin
  Islands were settled by the Dutch in 1648 and then annexed by the
  English in 1672. The islands were part of the British colony of the
  Leeward Islands from 1872-1960; they were granted autonomy in 1967.
  The economy is closely tied to the larger and more populous US
  Virgin Islands to the west; the US dollar is the legal currency.

Geography British Virgin Islands

Location:
  Caribbean, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean,
  east of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates:
  18 30 N, 64 30 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 153 sq km
  land: 153 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  note: comprised of 16 inhabited and more than 20 uninhabited
  islands; includes the islands of Tortola, Anegada, Virgin Gorda,
  Jost van Dyke

Area - comparative:
  about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  80 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 3 nm exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  subtropical; humid; temperatures moderated by trade winds

Terrain:
  coral islands relatively flat; volcanic islands steep, hilly

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Mount Sage 521 m

Natural resources:
  NEGL

Land use:
  arable land: 20%
  permanent crops: 6.67%
  other: 73.33% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  NA

Natural hazards:
  hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October)

Environment - current issues: limited natural fresh water resources (except for a few seasonal streams and springs on Tortola, most of the islands' water supply comes from wells and rainwater catchments)

Geography - note: strong ties to nearby US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico

People British Virgin Islands

Population:
  23,098 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 20.5% (male 2,403/female 2,331)
  15-64 years: 74.3% (male 8,811/female 8,340)
  65 years and over: 5.3% (male 636/female 577) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 31.4 years
  male: 31.6 years
  female: 31.2 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  1.97% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  14.89 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  4.42 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  9.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.1 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 16.72 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 19.5 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 13.79 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 76.68 years
  male: 75.56 years
  female: 77.84 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.72 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality: noun: British Virgin Islander(s) adjective: British Virgin Islander

Ethnic groups:
  black 83%, white, Indian, Asian and mixed

Religions:
  Protestant 86% (Methodist 33%, Anglican 17%, Church of God 9%,
  Seventh-Day Adventist 6%, Baptist 4%, Jehovah's Witnesses 2%, other
  15%), Roman Catholic 10%, none 2%, other 2% (1991)

Languages:
  English (official)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 97.8% (1991 est.)
  male: NA%
  female: NA%

Government British Virgin Islands

Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: British Virgin Islands
  abbreviation: BVI

Dependency status:
  overseas territory of the UK; internal self-governing

Government type:
  NA

Capital:
  name: Road Town
  geographic coordinates: 18 27 N, 64 37 W
  time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Independence:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday:
  Territory Day, 1 July

Constitution:
  1 June 1977, amended in 2000

Legal system:
  English law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor David PEAREY (since 18 April 2006)
  head of government: Chief Minister Dr. Orlando D. SMITH (since 17
  June 2003)
  cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from members of
  the Legislative Council
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by
  the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the
  majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually
  appointed chief minister by the governor

Legislative branch:
  unicameral Legislative Council (13 seats; members are elected by
  direct popular vote, 1 member from each of nine electoral districts,
  4 at-large members; members serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 16 May 2003 (next to be held in 2007)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
  NDP 8, VIP 5

Judicial branch:
  Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court, consisting of the High Court of
  Justice and the Court of Appeal (one judge of the Supreme Court is a
  resident of the islands and presides over the High Court);
  Magistrate's Court; Juvenile Court; Court of Summary Jurisdiction

Political parties and leaders:
  Concerned Citizens Movement or CCM [Ethlyn SMITH]; National
  Democratic Party or NDP [Orlando SMITH]; United Party or UP [Gregory
  MADURO]; Virgin Islands Party or VIP [Ralph T. O'NEAL]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  Caricom (associate), CDB, Interpol (subbureau), IOC, OECS
  (associate), UNESCO (associate), UPU

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Flag description:
  blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and
  the Virgin Islander coat of arms centered in the outer half of the
  flag; the coat of arms depicts a woman flanked on either side by a
  vertical column of six oil lamps above a scroll bearing the Latin
  word VIGILATE (Be Watchful)

Economy British Virgin Islands

Economy - overview:
  The economy, one of the most stable and prosperous in the
  Caribbean, is highly dependent on tourism, generating an estimated
  45% of the national income. An estimated 350,000 tourists, mainly
  from the US, visited the islands in 1998. Tourism suffered in 2002
  because of the lackluster US economy. In the mid-1980s, the
  government began offering offshore registration to companies wishing
  to incorporate in the islands, and incorporation fees now generate
  substantial revenues. Roughly 400,000 companies were on the offshore
  registry by yearend 2000. The adoption of a comprehensive insurance
  law in late 1994, which provides a blanket of confidentiality with
  regulated statutory gateways for investigation of criminal offenses,
  made the British Virgin Islands even more attractive to
  international business. Livestock raising is the most important
  agricultural activity; poor soils limit the islands' ability to meet
  domestic food requirements. Because of traditionally close links
  with the US Virgin Islands, the British Virgin Islands has used the
  US dollar as its currency since 1959.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $853.4 million (2004 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $839.7 million

GDP - real growth rate:
  1% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $38,500 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 1.8% industry: 6.2% services: 92% (1996 est.)

Labor force: 12,770 (2004)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 0.6% industry: 40% services: 59.4%

Unemployment rate:
  3.6% (1997)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2% (2005)

Budget:
  revenues: $204.7 million
  expenditures: $180.4 million; including capital expenditures of
  $33.8 million (1997)

Agriculture - products:
  fruits, vegetables; livestock, poultry; fish

Industries:
  tourism, light industry, construction, rum, concrete block,
  offshore financial center

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA%

Electricity - production:
  34.55 million kWh (2003)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  32.13 million kWh (2003)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2003)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2003)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2003)

Oil - consumption:
  410 bbl/day (2003 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  0 cu m (2003 est.)

Current account balance:
  $134.3 million

Exports:
  $25.3 million (2002)

Exports - commodities:
  rum, fresh fish, fruits, animals; gravel, sand

Exports - partners:
  Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US (2004)

Imports:
  $187 million (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  building materials, automobiles, foodstuffs, machinery

Imports - partners:
  Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US (2004)

Debt - external:
  $36.1 million (1997)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $NA

Currency (code):
  US dollar (USD)

Currency code:
  USD

Exchange rates:
  the US dollar is used

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications British Virgin Islands

Telephones - main lines in use:
  11,700 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  8,000 (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: worldwide telephone service
  domestic: NA
  international: country code - 1-284; submarine cable to Bermuda

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 0 (2004)

Radios:
  9,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (plus one cable company) (1997)

Televisions:
  4,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .vg

Internet hosts:
  525 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  16 (2000)

Internet users:
  4,000 (2002)

Transportation British Virgin Islands

Airports: 3 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 1 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2006)

Roadways:
  total: 177 km
  paved: 177 km (2002)

Merchant marine:
  registered in other countries: 1 (North Korea 1) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Road Town

Military British Virgin Islands

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 6,410 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 5,295 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 201 (2005 est.)

Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues British Virgin Islands

Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  transshipment point for South American narcotics destined for the
  US and Europe; large offshore financial center makes it vulnerable
  to money laundering

This page was last updated on 19 December, 2006

======================================================================

@Brunei

Introduction Brunei

Background:
  The Sultanate of Brunei's influence peaked between the 15th and
  17th centuries when its control extended over coastal areas of
  northwest Borneo and the southern Philippines. Brunei subsequently
  entered a period of decline brought on by internal strife over royal
  succession, colonial expansion of European powers, and piracy. In
  1888, Brunei became a British protectorate; independence was
  achieved in 1984. The same family has ruled Brunei for over six
  centuries. Brunei benefits from extensive petroleum and natural gas
  fields, the source of one of the highest per capita GDPs in the
  developing world.

Geography Brunei

Location:
  Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and Malaysia

Geographic coordinates:
  4 30 N, 114 40 E

Map references:
  Southeast Asia

Area:
  total: 5,770 sq km
  land: 5,270 sq km
  water: 500 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Delaware

Land boundaries: total: 381 km border countries: Malaysia 381 km

Coastline: 161 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or to median line

Climate:
  tropical; hot, humid, rainy

Terrain:
  flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west

Elevation extremes: lowest point: South China Sea 0 m highest point: Bukit Pagon 1,850 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, timber

Land use: arable land: 2.08% permanent crops: 0.87% other: 97.05% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  10 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are rare

Environment - current issues:
  seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
  Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and
  Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost
  an enclave within Malaysia

People Brunei

Population:
  379,444 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 28.1% (male 54,411/female 52,134)
  15-64 years: 68.8% (male 138,129/female 123,017)
  65 years and over: 3.1% (male 5,584/female 6,169) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 27.4 years
  male: 28 years
  female: 26.7 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  1.87% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  18.79 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  3.45 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  3.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.12 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.09 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 12.25 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 15.46 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 8.86 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 75.01 years
  male: 72.57 years
  female: 77.59 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.28 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  less than 0.1% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  less than 200 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 200 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bruneian(s)
  adjective: Bruneian

Ethnic groups:
  Malay 67%, Chinese 15%, indigenous 6%, other 12%

Religions:
  Muslim (official) 67%, Buddhist 13%, Christian 10%, indigenous
  beliefs and other 10%

Languages:
  Malay (official), English, Chinese

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 93.9%
  male: 96.3%
  female: 91.4% (2002)

Government Brunei

Country name:
  conventional long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam
  conventional short form: Brunei
  local long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam
  local short form: Brunei

Government type:
  constitutional sultanate

Capital:
  name: Bandar Seri Begawan
  geographic coordinates: 4 52 S, 114 55 E
  time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
  4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular - daerah); Belait, Brunei and
  Muara, Temburong, Tutong

Independence:
  1 January 1984 (from UK)

National holiday:
  National Day, 23 February (1984); note - 1 January 1984 was the
  date of independence from the UK, 23 February 1984 was the date of
  independence from British protection

Constitution:
  29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a State of
  Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on 1
  January 1984)

Legal system:
  based on English common law; for Muslims, Islamic Shari'a law
  supersedes civil law in a number of areas

Suffrage:
  none

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah
  (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of
  state and head of government
  head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah
  (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of
  state and head of government
  cabinet: Council of Cabinet Ministers appointed and presided over by
  the monarch; deals with executive matters; note - there is also a
  Religious Council (members appointed by the monarch) that advises on
  religious matters, a Privy Council (members appointed by the
  monarch) that deals with constitutional matters, and the Council of
  Succession (members appointed by the monarch) that determines the
  succession to the throne if the need arises
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary

Legislative branch:
  Legislative Council met on 25 September 2004 for first time in 20
  years with 21 members appointed by the Sultan; passed constitutional
  amendments calling for a 45-seat council with 15 elected members;
  Sultan dissolved council on 1 September 2005 and appointed a new
  council with 29 members as of 2 September 2005
  elections: last held in March 1962 (date of next election NA)

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court - chief justice and judges are sworn in by monarch
  for three-year terms; Judicial Committee of Privy Council in London
  is final court of appeal for civil cases; Shariah courts deal with
  Islamic laws (2006)

Political parties and leaders:
  Brunei Solidarity National Party (PPKB) [Haji Mohd HATTA bin Haji
  Zainal Abidin]; National Development Party (NDP) [YASSIN Affendi];
  People's Awareness Party (PAKAR) [Awang Haji MAIDIN bin Haji Ahmad]
  note: parties are small and have limited activity (2005)

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  APEC, APT, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, C, EAS, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB,
  IFRCS, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC,
  OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Pengiran Anak Dato PUTEH
  chancery: 3520 International Court NW #300, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 237-1838
  FAX: [1] (202) 885-0560

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Emil SKODON
  embassy: Third Floor, Teck Guan Plaza, Jalan Sultan, Bandar Seri
  Begawan, BS8811
  mailing address: PSC 470 (BSB), FPO AP 96507; P.O. Box 2991, Bandar
  Seri Begawan BS8675, Negara Brunei Darussalam
  telephone: [673] 222-0384
  FAX: [673] 222-5293

Flag description:
  yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width)
  and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in
  red is superimposed at the center; the emblem includes a
  swallow-tailed flag on top of a winged column within an upturned
  crescent above a scroll and flanked by two upraised hands

Economy Brunei

Economy - overview:
  This small, well-to-do economy encompasses a mixture of foreign and
  domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation, welfare measures,
  and village tradition. Crude oil and natural gas production account
  for nearly half of GDP and more than 90% of government revenues. Per
  capita GDP is far above most other Third World countries, and
  substantial income from overseas investment supplements income from
  domestic production. The government provides for all medical
  services and free education through the university level and
  subsidizes rice and housing. Brunei's leaders are concerned that
  steadily increased integration in the world economy will undermine
  internal social cohesion, although it became a more prominent player
  by serving as chairman for the 2000 APEC (Asian Pacific Economic
  Cooperation) forum. Plans for the future include upgrading the labor
  force, reducing unemployment, strengthening the banking and tourist
  sectors, and, in general, further widening the economic base beyond
  oil and gas.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $6.842 billion (2003 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $5.486 billion

GDP - real growth rate:
  1.7% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $23,600 (2003 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 3.6%
  industry: 56.1%
  services: 40.3% (2004 est.)

Labor force:
  146,300
  note: includes foreign workers and military personnel; temporary
  residents make up about 40% of labor force (2003 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture: 2.9%
  industry: 61.1%
  services: 36% (2003 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  4.8% (2004)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  0.9% (2004)

Budget:
  revenues: $3.765 billion
  expenditures: $4.815 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2004 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  rice, vegetables, fruits; chickens, water buffalo, eggs

Industries:
  petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction

Industrial production growth rate:
  7.3% (2003 est.)

Electricity - production:
  2.906 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  2.726 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Oil - production:
  200,800 bbl/day (2005)

Oil - consumption:
  10,770 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil - exports:
  192,700 bbl/day (2005)

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day

Oil - proved reserves:
  1.255 billion bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  11.4 billion cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  1.73 billion cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  9 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  390.8 billion cu m (1 January 2002)

Exports:
  $4.514 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  crude oil, natural gas, refined products

Exports - partners:
  Japan 36.8%, Indonesia 19.3%, South Korea 12.7%, US 9.5%, Australia
  9.3% (2005)

Imports:
  $1.641 billion c.i.f. (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food,
  chemicals

Imports - partners:
  Singapore 32.7%, Malaysia 23.3%, Japan 6.9%, UK 5.3%, Thailand
  4.5%, South Korea 4.1% (2005)

Debt - external:
  $0 $NA

Economic aid - recipient:
  $770,000 (2004)

Currency (code):
  Bruneian dollar (BND)

Currency code:
  BND

Exchange rates:
  Bruneian dollars per US dollar - 1.6644 (2005), 1.6902 (2004),
  1.7422 (2003), 1.7906 (2002), 1.7917 (2001)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Brunei

Telephones - main lines in use:
  90,000 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  205,900 (2004)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: service throughout the country is excellent;
  international service is good to East Asia, Europe, and the US
  domestic: every service available
  international: country code - 673; satellite earth stations - 2
  Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean); digital submarine
  cable links to Malaysia, the Philippines, and Singapore (2001)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 2 (transmitting on 18 different frequencies), shortwave 0
  note: British Forces Broadcasting Service (BFBS) station transmits
  two FM signals with English and Nepali service (2006)

Radios:
  329,000 (1998)

Television broadcast stations: 4; note - including two UHF stations broadcasting a subscription service (2006)

Televisions:
  201,900 (1998)

Internet country code:
  .bn

Internet hosts:
  27 (2005)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  2 (2000)

Internet users:
  56,000 (2005)

Transportation Brunei

Airports: 2 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  over 3,047 m: 1 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2006)

Heliports:
  3 (2006)

Pipelines:
  gas 672 km; oil 463 km (2006)

Roadways: total: 2,525 km paved: 2,338 km unpaved: 187 km (2000)

Waterways:
  209 km (navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m) (2005)

Merchant marine:
  total: 8 ships (1000 GRT or over) 465,937 GRT/413,393 DWT
  by type: liquefied gas 8
  foreign-owned: 8 (UK 8) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Lumut, Muara, Seria

Military Brunei

Military branches:
  Royal Brunei Armed Forces: Royal Brunei Land Forces, Royal Brunei
  Navy, Royal Brunei Air Force (Tentera Udara Diraja Brunei) (2005)

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age (est.) (2004)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 103,885
  females age 18-49: 93,024 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 85,045
  females age 18-49: 77,436 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 3,478
  females age 18-49: 3,342 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $290.7 million (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  5.1% (2003 est.)

Transnational Issues Brunei

Disputes - international:
  in 2003 Brunei and Malaysia ceased gas and oil exploration in their
  disputed offshore and deepwater seabeds and negotiations have
  stalemated prompting consideration of international legal
  adjudication; Malaysia's land boundary with Brunei around Limbang is
  in dispute; Brunei established an exclusive economic fishing zone
  encompassing Louisa Reef in southern Spratly Islands in 1984 but
  makes no public territorial claim to the offshore reefs; the 2002
  "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" has
  eased tensions in the Spratly Islands but falls short of a legally
  binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants

Illicit drugs:
  drug trafficking and illegally importing controlled substances are
  serious offenses in Brunei and carry a mandatory death penalty

This page was last updated on 19 December, 2006

======================================================================

@Bulgaria

Introduction Bulgaria

Background:
  The Bulgars, a Central Asian Turkic tribe, merged with the local
  Slavic inhabitants in the late 7th century to form the first
  Bulgarian state. In succeeding centuries, Bulgaria struggled with
  the Byzantine Empire to assert its place in the Balkans, but by the
  end of the 14th century the country was overrun by the Ottoman
  Turks. Northern Bulgaria attained autonomy in 1878 and all of
  Bulgaria became independent from the Ottoman Empire in 1908. Having
  fought on the losing side in both World Wars, Bulgaria fell within
  the Soviet sphere of influence and became a People's Republic in
  1946. Communist domination ended in 1990, when Bulgaria held its
  first multiparty election since World War II and began the
  contentious process of moving toward political democracy and a
  market economy while combating inflation, unemployment, corruption,
  and crime. The country joined NATO in 2004 and is slated to join the
  EU in 2007.

Geography Bulgaria

Location:
  Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Romania and
  Turkey

Geographic coordinates:
  43 00 N, 25 00 E

Map references:
  Europe

Area:
  total: 110,910 sq km
  land: 110,550 sq km
  water: 360 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly larger than Tennessee

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,808 km
  border countries: Greece 494 km, Macedonia 148 km, Romania 608 km,
  Serbia 318 km, Turkey 240 km

Coastline:
  354 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers

Terrain:
  mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Black Sea 0 m highest point: Musala 2,925 m

Natural resources: bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land

Land use: arable land: 29.94% permanent crops: 1.9% other: 68.16% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  5,880 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  earthquakes, landslides

Environment - current issues:
  air pollution from industrial emissions; rivers polluted from raw
  sewage, heavy metals, detergents; deforestation; forest damage from
  air pollution and resulting acid rain; soil contamination from heavy
  metals from metallurgical plants and industrial wastes

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85,
  Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental
  Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty,
  Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
  Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
  Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
  Pollution, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulfur 94

Geography - note:
  strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes
  from Europe to Middle East and Asia

People Bulgaria

Population:
  7,385,367 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 13.9% (male 527,881/female 502,334)
  15-64 years: 68.7% (male 2,496,054/female 2,579,680)
  65 years and over: 17.3% (male 527,027/female 752,391) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 40.8 years
  male: 38.7 years
  female: 42.9 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  -0.86% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  9.65 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  14.27 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -4.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 19.85 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 23.52 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 15.95 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 72.3 years
  male: 68.68 years
  female: 76.13 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.38 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  less than 0.1% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  346 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  100 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bulgarian(s)
  adjective: Bulgarian

Ethnic groups:
  Bulgarian 83.9%, Turk 9.4%, Roma 4.7%, other 2% (including
  Macedonian, Armenian, Tatar, Circassian) (2001 census)

Religions:
  Bulgarian Orthodox 82.6%, Muslim 12.2%, other Christian 1.2%, other
  4% (2001 census)

Languages:
  Bulgarian 84.5%, Turkish 9.6%, Roma 4.1%, other and unspecified
  1.8% (2001 census)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 98.6%
  male: 99.1%
  female: 98.2% (2003 est.)

Government Bulgaria

Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Bulgaria
  conventional short form: Bulgaria
  local long form: Republika Balgariya
  local short form: Balgariya

Government type:
  parliamentary democracy

Capital:
  name: Sofia
  geographic coordinates: 42 41 N, 23 19 E
  time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)
  daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last
  Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
  28 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast); Blagoevgrad, Burgas,
  Dobrich, Gabrovo, Khaskovo, Kurdzhali, Kyustendil, Lovech, Montana,
  Pazardzhik, Pernik, Pleven, Plovdiv, Razgrad, Ruse, Shumen,
  Silistra, Sliven, Smolyan, Sofiya, Sofiya-Grad, Stara Zagora,
  Turgovishte, Varna, Veliko Turnovo, Vidin, Vratsa, Yambol

Independence:
  3 March 1878 (as an autonomous principality within the Ottoman
  Empire); 22 September 1908 (complete independence from the Ottoman
  Empire)

National holiday:
  Liberation Day, 3 March (1878)

Constitution:
  adopted 12 July 1991

Legal system:
  civil law and criminal law based on Roman law; accepts compulsory
  ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Georgi PURVANOV (since 22 January 2002);
  Vice President Angel MARIN (since 22 January 2002)
  head of government: Prime Minister Sergei STANISHEV (since 16 August
  2005); Deputy Prime Ministers Ivaylo KALFIN, Daniel VULCHEV, and
  Emel ETEM (since 16 August 2005)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and
  elected by the National Assembly
  elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket
  by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term);
  election last held 22 and 29 October 2006 (next to be held in 2011);
  chairman of the Council of Ministers (prime minister) nominated by
  the president and elected by the National Assembly; deputy prime
  ministers nominated by the prime minister and elected by the
  National Assembly
  election results: Georgi PURVANOV reelected president; percent of
  vote - Georgi PURVANOV 77.3%, Volen SIDEROV 22.7%; Sergei STANISHEV
  elected prime minister, result of legislative vote - 168 to 67

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Narodno Sobranie (240 seats;
  members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 25 June 2005 (next to be held June 2009)
  election results: percent of vote by party - CfB 31.1%, NMS2 19.9%,
  MRF 12.7%, ATAKA 8.2%, UDF 7.7%, DSB 6.5%, BPU 5.2%; seats by party
  - CfB 83, NMS2 53, MRF 33, UDF 20, ATAKA 17, DSB 17, BPU 13,
  independents 4

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Administrative Court; Supreme Court of Cassation;
  Constitutional Court (12 justices appointed or elected for nine-year
  terms); Supreme Judicial Council (consists of the chairmen of the
  two Supreme Courts, the Chief Prosecutor, and 22 other members;
  responsible for appointing the justices, prosecutors, and
  investigating magistrates in the justice system; members of the
  Supreme Judicial Council elected for five-year terms, 11 elected by
  the National Assembly and 11 by bodies of the judiciary)

Political parties and leaders:
  ATAKA (Attack Coalition) (coalition of parties headed by the Attack
  National Union); Attack National Union [Volen Siderov]; Bulgarian
  Agrarian National Union-People's Union or BANU [Anastasia MOZER];
  Bulgarian People's Union or BPU (coalition of UFD, IMRO, and BANU);
  Bulgarian Socialist Party or BSP [Sergei STANISHEV]; Coalition for
  Bulgaria or CfB (coalition of parties dominated by BSP) [Sergei
  STANISHEV]; Democrats for a Strong Bulgaria or DSB [Ivan KOSTOV];
  Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization or IMRO [Krasimir
  KARAKACHANOV]; Movement for Rights and Freedoms or MRF [Ahmed
  DOGAN]; National Movement for Simeon II or NMS2 [Simeon
  SAXE-COBURG-GOTHA]; New Time [Emil KOSHLUKOV]; Union of Democratic
  Forces or UDF [Petar STOYANOV]; Union of Free Democrats or UFD
  [Stefan SOFIYANSKI]; United Democratic Forces or UtDF (a coalition
  of center-right parties dominated by UDF)

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria or CITUB;
  Podkrepa Labor Confederation; numerous regional, ethnic, and
  national interest groups with various agendas

International organization participation: ACCT, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (guest), NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (associate affiliate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Elena B. POPTODOROVA chancery: 1621 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 387-0174 FAX: [1] (202) 234-7973 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador John Ross BEYRLE embassy: 16 Kozyak Street, Sofia 1407 mailing address: American Embassy Sofia, US Department of State, 5740 Sofia Place, Washington, DC 20521-5740 telephone: [359] (2) 937-5100 FAX: [359] (2) 937-5320

Flag description:
  three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green, and red; note -
  the national emblem, formerly on the hoist side of the white stripe,
  has been removed

Economy Bulgaria

Economy - overview:
  Bulgaria, a former communist country soon to enter the European
  Union, has experienced macroeconomic stability and strong growth
  since a major economic downturn in 1996 led to the fall of the then
  socialist government. As a result, the government became committed
  to economic reform and responsible fiscal planning. Minerals,
  including coal, copper, and zinc, play an important role in
  industry. In 1997, macroeconomic stability was reinforced by the
  imposition of a fixed exchange rate of the lev against the German
  D-mark - the currency is now fixed against the euro - and the
  negotiation of an IMF standby agreement. Low inflation and steady
  progress on structural reforms improved the business environment;
  Bulgaria has averaged 4% growth since 2000 and has begun to attract
  significant amounts of foreign direct investment. Corruption in the
  public administration, a weak judiciary, and the presence of
  organized crime remain the largest challenges for Bulgaria.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $71.67 billion (2005 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $25.79 billion (2005 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  5.5% (2005 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $9,600 (2005 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 9.3% industry: 30.4% services: 60.3% (2005 est.)

Labor force: 3.34 million (2005 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 11% industry: 32.7% services: 56.3% (3rd qtr. 2004 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  9.9% (2005)

Population below poverty line:
  Below $2.15 per day (PPP) 4% (2003)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.4% highest 10%: 23.7% (2001)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  31.9 (2001)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  5% (2005)

Investment (gross fixed):
  23.8% of GDP (2005 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $11.18 billion
  expenditures: $10.9 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2005 est.)

Public debt:
  31.9% of GDP (2005 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  vegetables, fruits, tobacco, wine, wheat, barley, sunflowers, sugar
  beets; livestock

Industries:
  electricity, gas, water; food, beverages, tobacco; machinery and
  equipment, base metals, chemical products, coke, refined petroleum,
  nuclear fuel

Industrial production growth rate:
  7.9% (2005)

Electricity - production:
  45 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 47.8% hydro: 8.1% nuclear: 44.1% other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  25.1 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  6.8 billion kWh (2003)

Electricity - imports:
  1.3 billion kWh (2003)

Oil - production:
  1,000 bbl/day (2004)

Oil - consumption:
  98,000 bbl/day (2004)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day

Oil - imports:
  85,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - proved reserves:
  15 million bbl (1 January 2005)

Natural gas - production:
  1.13 million cu m (2003)

Natural gas - consumption:
  3.1 billion cu m (2004)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2003)

Natural gas - imports:
  2.9 billion cu m (2004)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  5.67 billion cu m (1 January 2005)

Current account balance:
  $-3.919 billion (2005)

Exports:
  $11.67 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  clothing, footwear, iron and steel, machinery and equipment, fuels

Exports - partners:
  Italy 12%, Turkey 10.5%, Germany 9.8%, Greece 9.5%, France 4.6%
  (2005)

Imports:
  $16.78 billion f.o.b. (2005)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment; metals and ores; chemicals and plastics;
  fuels, minerals, and raw materials

Imports - partners:
  Russia 15.6%, Germany 13.6%, Italy 9%, Turkey 6.1%, Greece 5%,
  France 4.7% (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $8.695 billion (2005)

Debt - external:
  $15.32 billion (2005 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $475 million per year in EU pre-accession aid (2004-06)

Currency (code):
  lev (BGL)

Currency code:
  BGN

Exchange rates:
  leva per US dollar - 1.5741 (2005), 1.5751 (2004), 1.7327 (2003),
  2.077 (2002), 2.1847 (2001)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Bulgaria

Telephones - main lines in use:
  2,483,500 (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  6.245 million (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: extensive but antiquated
  domestic: more than two-thirds of the lines are residential;
  telephone service is available in most villages; a fairly modern
  digital cable trunk line now connects switching centers in most of
  the regions, the others are connected by digital microwave radio
  relay
  international: country code - 359; direct dialing to 58 countries;
  satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region); 2
  Intelsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 31, FM 63, shortwave 2 (2001)

Radios:
  4.51 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  39 (plus 1,242 repeaters) (2001)

Televisions:
  3.31 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bg

Internet hosts:
  184,975 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  200 (2001)

Internet users:
  2.2 million (2005)

Transportation Bulgaria

Airports: 217 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 132 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 19 1,524 to 2,437 m: 15 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 96 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 85 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 11 under 914 m: 72 (2006)

Heliports:
  4 (2006)

Pipelines:
  gas 2,505 km; oil 339 km; refined products 156 km (2006)

Railways:
  total: 4,294 km
  standard gauge: 4,049 km 1.435-m gauge (2,710 km electrified)
  narrow gauge: 245 km 0.760-m gauge (2005)

Roadways:
  total: 102,016 km
  paved: 93,855 km (including 328 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 8,161 km (2003)

Waterways:
  470 km (2006)

Merchant marine:
  total: 75 ships (1000 GRT or over) 872,653 GRT/1,294,877 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 40, cargo 17, chemical tanker 4, container 6,
  passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 3, roll on/roll off 4
  foreign-owned: 2 (Germany 1, Russia 1)
  registered in other countries: 41 (Cambodia 1, Comoros 1, Malta 13,
  Panama 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 17, Slovakia 7, unknown
  1) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Burgas, Varna

Military Bulgaria

Military branches:
  Bulgarian Armed Forces: Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Bulgarian Air
  Force (2006)

Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscript service obligation - 9 months; as of May 2006, 67% of the Bulgarian Army comprised of professional soldiers; conscription into the Army to end as of 1 January 2008; Air and Air Defense Forces and Naval Forces will become fully professional by end of 2006 (2006)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 1,661,211
  females age 18-49: 1,660,982 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 1,302,037
  females age 18-49: 1,365,126 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 51,023
  females age 18-49: 48,651 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $356 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  2.6% (2003)

Transnational Issues Bulgaria

Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  major European transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and,
  to a lesser degree, South American cocaine for the European market;
  limited producer of precursor chemicals; some money laundering of
  drug-related proceeds through financial institutions

This page was last updated on 19 December, 2006

======================================================================

@Burkina Faso

Introduction Burkina Faso

Background:
  Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta) achieved independence from
  France in 1960. Repeated military coups during the 1970s and 1980s
  were followed by multiparty elections in the early 1990s. Burkina
  Faso's high population density and limited natural resources result
  in poor economic prospects for the majority of its citizens. Recent
  unrest in Cote d'Ivoire and northern Ghana has hindered the ability
  of several hundred thousand seasonal Burkinabe farm workers to find
  employment in neighboring countries.

Geography Burkina Faso

Location:
  Western Africa, north of Ghana

Geographic coordinates:
  13 00 N, 2 00 W

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 274,200 sq km
  land: 273,800 sq km
  water: 400 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly larger than Colorado

Land boundaries:
  total: 3,193 km
  border countries: Benin 306 km, Cote d'Ivoire 584 km, Ghana 549 km,
  Mali 1,000 km, Niger 628 km, Togo 126 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers

Terrain:
  mostly flat to dissected, undulating plains; hills in west and
  southeast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Mouhoun (Black Volta) River 200 m
  highest point: Tena Kourou 749 m

Natural resources:
  manganese, limestone, marble; small deposits of gold, phosphates,
  pumice, salt

Land use: arable land: 17.66% permanent crops: 0.22% other: 82.12% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  250 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  recurring droughts

Environment - current issues: recent droughts and desertification severely affecting agricultural activities, population distribution, and the economy; overgrazing; soil degradation; deforestation

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  landlocked savanna cut by the three principal rivers of the Black,
  Red, and White Voltas

People Burkina Faso

Population:
  13,902,972
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 46.8% (male 3,267,202/female 3,235,190)
  15-64 years: 50.7% (male 3,513,559/female 3,538,623)
  65 years and over: 2.5% (male 140,083/female 208,315) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 16.5 years
  male: 16.3 years
  female: 16.7 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  3% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  45.62 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  15.6 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 91.35 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 99.17 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 83.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 48.85 years
  male: 47.33 years
  female: 50.42 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  6.47 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  4.2% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  300,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  29,000 (2003 est.)

Major infectious diseases: degree of risk: very high food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever vectorborne disease: malaria is a high risk in some locations water contact disease: schistosomiasis respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis (2005)

Nationality:
  noun: Burkinabe (singular and plural)
  adjective: Burkinabe

Ethnic groups:
  Mossi over 40%, Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi, Bobo, Mande, Fulani

Religions:
  Muslim 50%, indigenous beliefs 40%, Christian (mainly Roman
  Catholic) 10%

Languages:
  French (official), native African languages belonging to Sudanic
  family spoken by 90% of the population

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 26.6%
  male: 36.9%
  female: 16.6% (2003 est.)

Government Burkina Faso

Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Burkina Faso
  local long form: none
  local short form: Burkina Faso
  former: Upper Volta, Republic of Upper Volta

Government type:
  parliamentary republic

Capital:
  name: Ouagadougou
  geographic coordinates: 12 22 N, 1 31 W
  time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
  45 provinces; Bale, Bam, Banwa, Bazega, Bougouriba, Boulgou,
  Boulkiemde, Comoe, Ganzourgou, Gnagna, Gourma, Houet, Ioba, Kadiogo,
  Kenedougou, Komondjari, Kompienga, Kossi, Koulpelogo, Kouritenga,
  Kourweogo, Leraba, Loroum, Mouhoun, Nahouri, Namentenga, Nayala,
  Noumbiel, Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passore, Poni, Sanguie, Sanmatenga,
  Seno, Sissili, Soum, Sourou, Tapoa, Tuy, Yagha, Yatenga, Ziro,
  Zondoma, Zoundweogo

Independence:
  5 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday:
  Republic Day, 11 December (1958)

Constitution:
  2 June 1991 approved by referendum, 11 June 1991 formally adopted;
  amended April 2000

Legal system:
  based on French civil law system and customary law

Suffrage:
  universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Blaise COMPAORE (since 15 October 1987)
  head of government: Prime Minister Paramanga Ernest YONLI (since 6
  November 2000)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the
  recommendation of the prime minister
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term
  (eligible for a second term); election last held 13 November 2005
  (next to be held in 2010); in April 2000, the constitution was
  amended reducing the presidential term from seven to five years,
  enforceable as of 2005; prime minister appointed by the president
  with the consent of the legislature
  election results: Blaise COMPAORE reelected president; percent of
  popular vote - Blaise COMPAORE 80.3%, Benewende Stanislas SANKARA
  4.9%

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (111 seats;
  members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
  elections: National Assembly election last held 5 May 2002 (next to
  be held May 2007)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
  CDP 57, RDA-ADF 17, PDP/PS 10, CFD 5, PAI 5, other 17

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court; Appeals Court

Political parties and leaders:
  African Democratic Rally-Alliance for Democracy and Federation or
  RDA-ADF [Herman YAMEOGO]; Confederation for Federation and Democracy
  or CFD [Amadou Diemdioda DICKO]; Congress for Democracy and Progress
  or CDP [Roch Marc-Christian KABORE]; Movement for Tolerance and
  Progress or MTP [Nayabtigungou Congo KABORE]; Party for African
  Independence or PAI [Philippe OUEDRAOGO]; Party for Democracy and
  Progress or PDP [Joseph KI-ZERBO]; Socialist Party or PS; Union of
  Greens for the Development of Burkina Faso or UVDB [Ram OVEDRAGO]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Burkinabe General Confederation of Labor or CGTB; Burkinabe
  Movement for Human Rights or MBDHP; Group of 14 February; National
  Confederation of Burkinabe Workers or CNTB; National Organization of
  Free Unions or ONSL; watchdog/political action groups throughout the
  country in both organizations and communities

International organization participation:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
  ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
  Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, MONUC, NAM,
  OIC, OIF, ONUB, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOCI, UPU,
  WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Tertius ZONGO
  chancery: 2340 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 332-5577
  FAX: [1] (202) 667-1882

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Jeanine E. JACKSON
  embassy: 602 Avenue Raoul Follereau, Koulouba, Secteur 4
  mailing address: 01 B. P. 35, Ouagadougou 01; pouch mail - US
  Department of State, 2440 Ouagadougou Place, Washington, DC
  20521-2440
  telephone: [226] 50-30-67-23
  FAX: [226] 50-30-38-90, 50-31-23-68

Flag description:
  two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a yellow
  five-pointed star in the center; uses the popular pan-African colors
  of Ethiopia

Economy Burkina Faso

Economy - overview:
  One of the poorest countries in the world, landlocked Burkina Faso
  has few natural resources and a weak industrial base. About 90% of
  the population is engaged in subsistence agriculture, which is
  vulnerable to harsh climatic conditions. Cotton is the key crop and
  the government has joined with other cotton producing countries in
  the region to lobby for improved access to Western markets. GDP
  growth has largely been driven by increases in world cotton prices.
  Industry remains dominated by unprofitable government-controlled
  corporations. Following the CFA franc currency devaluation in
  January 1994, the government updated its development program in
  conjunction with international agencies; exports and economic growth
  have increased. The government devolved macroeconomic policy and
  inflation targeting to the West African regional central bank
  (BCEAO), but maintains control over fiscal and microeconomic
  policies, including implementing reforms to encourage private
  investment. The bitter internal crisis in neighboring Cote d'Ivoire
  continues to hurt trade and industrial prospects and deepens the
  need for international assistance.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $16.66 billion (2005 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $5.405 billion (2005 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  3.5% (2005 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $1,200 (2005 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 32.2%
  industry: 19.6%
  services: 48.2% (2004 est.)

Labor force:
  5 million
  note: a large part of the male labor force migrates annually to
  neighboring countries for seasonal employment (2003)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture: 90%
  industry and services: 10% (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  NA%

Population below poverty line:
  45% (2003 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 2%
  highest 10%: 46.8% (1994)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  48.2 (1998)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  6.4% (2005 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  20.7% of GDP (2005 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $1.033 billion
  expenditures: $1.382 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2005 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  cotton, peanuts, shea nuts, sesame, sorghum, millet, corn, rice;
  livestock

Industries:
  cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing, soap, cigarettes,
  textiles, gold

Industrial production growth rate:
  14% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:
  375.6 million kWh (2003)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 69.9% hydro: 30.1% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  349.3 million kWh (2003)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2003)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2003)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2003)

Oil - consumption:
  8,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  0 cu m (2003 est.)

Current account balance:
  $-460 million (2005 est.)

Exports:
  $395 million f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  cotton, livestock, gold

Exports - partners:
  China 38.3%, Singapore 12.6%, Thailand 5.7%, Ghana 5.2%, Taiwan
  4.4% (2005)

Imports:
  $992 million f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  capital goods, foodstuffs, petroleum

Imports - partners:
  France 24.2%, Cote d'Ivoire 23.7%, Togo 6.8% (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $764 million (2005 est.)

Debt - external:
  $1.85 billion (2003)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $468.4 million (2003)

Currency (code):
  Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible
  authority is the Central Bank of the West African States

Currency code:
  XOF

Exchange rates:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 527.47
  (2005), 528.29 (2004), 581.2 (2003), 696.99 (2002), 733.04 (2001)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Burkina Faso

Telephones - main lines in use:
  97,400 (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  572,200 (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: all services only fair
  domestic: microwave radio relay, open-wire, and radiotelephone
  communication stations
  international: country code - 226; satellite earth station - 1
  Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 3, FM 17, shortwave 3 (2002)

Radios:
  394,020 (2000)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (2002)

Televisions:
  131,340 (2002)

Internet country code:
  .bf

Internet hosts:
  399 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2002)

Internet users:
  64,600 (2005)

Transportation Burkina Faso

Airports: 34 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 2 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 32
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
  914 to 1,523 m: 11
  under 914 m: 18 (2006)

Railways:
  total: 622 km
  narrow gauge: 622 km 1.000-m gauge
  note:: another 660 km of this railway extends into Cote D'Ivoire
  (2005)

Roadways: total: 12,506 km paved: 2,001 km unpaved: 10,505 km (1999)

Military Burkina Faso

Military branches:
  Army, Air Force of Burkina Faso (Force Aerienne de Burkina Faso),
  National Gendarmerie (2006)

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age for compulsory military service; 20 years of age
  for voluntary military service (2001)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 2,651,687 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 1,530,324 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $74.83 million (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.3% (2005 est.)

Transnational Issues Burkina Faso

Disputes - international:
  two villages are in dispute along the border with Benin; Benin
  accuses Burkina Faso of moving boundary pillars; Burkina Faso border
  regions remain a staging area for Liberia and Cote d'Ivoire rebels
  and an asylum for refugees caught in local fighting; the Ivoirian
  Government accuses Burkina Faso of sheltering Ivoirian rebels

This page was last updated on 19 December, 2006

======================================================================

@Burma

Introduction Burma

Background:
  Britain conquered Burma over a period of 62 years (1824-1886) and
  incorporated it into its Indian Empire. Burma was administered as a
  province of India until 1937 when it became a separate,
  self-governing colony; independence from the Commonwealth was
  attained in 1948. Gen. NE WIN dominated the government from 1962 to
  1988, first as military ruler, then as self-appointed president, and
  later as political kingpin. Despite multiparty legislative elections
  in 1990 that resulted in the main opposition party - the National
  League for Democracy (NLD) - winning a landslide victory, the ruling
  junta refused to hand over power. NLD leader and Nobel Peace Prize
  recipient AUNG SAN SUU KYI, who was under house arrest from 1989 to
  1995 and 2000 to 2002, was imprisoned in May 2003 and subsequently
  transferred to house arrest, where she remains virtually
  incommunicado. In November 2005, the junta extended her detention
  for at least another six months. Her supporters, as well as all
  those who promote democracy and improved human rights, are routinely
  harassed or jailed.

Geography Burma

Location:
  Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal,
  between Bangladesh and Thailand

Geographic coordinates:
  22 00 N, 98 00 E

Map references:
  Southeast Asia

Area:
  total: 678,500 sq km
  land: 657,740 sq km
  water: 20,760 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 5,876 km
  border countries: Bangladesh 193 km, China 2,185 km, India 1,463 km,
  Laos 235 km, Thailand 1,800 km

Coastline:
  1,930 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate:
  tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest
  monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild
  temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon,
  December to April)

Terrain:
  central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Andaman Sea 0 m
  highest point: Hkakabo Razi 5,881 m

Natural resources:
  petroleum, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper, tungsten, lead,
  coal, some marble, limestone, precious stones, natural gas,
  hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 14.92%
  permanent crops: 1.31%
  other: 83.77% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  18,700 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and landslides
  common during rainy season (June to September); periodic droughts

Environment - current issues:
  deforestation; industrial pollution of air, soil, and water;
  inadequate sanitation and water treatment contribute to disease

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone
  Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical
  Timber 94
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  strategic location near major Indian Ocean shipping lanes

People Burma

Population:
  47,382,633
  note: estimates for this country take into account the effects of
  excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life
  expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 26.4% (male 6,335,236/female 6,181,216)
  15-64 years: 68.5% (male 16,011,723/female 16,449,626)
  65 years and over: 5.1% (male 1,035,853/female 1,368,979) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 27 years
  male: 26.4 years
  female: 27.6 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.81% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  17.91 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  9.83 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 61.85 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 72.68 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 50.38 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 60.97 years
  male: 58.07 years
  female: 64.03 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.98 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  1.2% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  330,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  20,000 (2003 est.)

Major infectious diseases: degree of risk: very high food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria are high risks in some locations (2005)

Nationality:
  noun: Burmese (singular and plural)
  adjective: Burmese

Ethnic groups:
  Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese 3%, Indian 2%,
  Mon 2%, other 5%

Religions:
  Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic 1%), Muslim
  4%, animist 1%, other 2%

Languages:
  Burmese, minority ethnic groups have their own languages

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 85.3%
  male: 89.2%
  female: 81.4% (2002)

Government Burma

Country name:
  conventional long form: Union of Burma
  conventional short form: Burma
  local long form: Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw (translated by the
  US Government as Union of Myanma and by the Burmese as Union of
  Myanmar)
  local short form: Myanma Naingngandaw
  former: Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma
  note: since 1989 the military authorities in Burma have promoted the
  name Myanmar as a conventional name for their state; this decision
  was not approved by any sitting legislature in Burma, and the US
  Government did not adopt the name, which is a derivative of the
  Burmese short-form name Myanma Naingngandaw

Government type:
  military junta

Capital:
  name: Rangoon (Yangon)
  geographic coordinates: 16 47 N, 96 10 E
  time difference: UTC+6.5 (11.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)
  note: Naypyidaw is being established as a government center

Administrative divisions:
  7 divisions (taing-myar, singular - taing) and 7 states (pyi
  ne-myar, singular - pyi ne)
  divisions: Ayeyarwady, Bago, Magway, Mandalay, Sagaing, Tanintharyi,
  Yangon
  states: Chin State, Kachin State, Kayah State, Kayin State, Mon
  State, Rakhine State, Shan State

Independence:
  4 January 1948 (from UK)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 4 January (1948); Union Day, 12 February (1947)

Constitution:
  3 January 1974; suspended since 18 September 1988; national
  convention convened in 1993 to draft a new constitution but
  collapsed in 1996; reconvened in 2004 but does not include
  participation of democratic opposition

Legal system:
  has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council
  (SPDC) Sr. Gen. THAN SHWE (since 23 April 1992)
  head of government: Prime Minister, Gen SOE WIN (since 19 October
  2004)
  cabinet: Cabinet is overseen by the SPDC; military junta, so named
  15 November 1997, assumed power 18 September 1988 under the name
  State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
  elections: none

Legislative branch:
  unicameral People's Assembly or Pyithu Hluttaw (485 seats; members
  elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 27 May 1990, but Assembly never allowed by
  junta to convene
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
  NLD 392 (opposition), SNLD 23 (opposition), NUP 10 (pro-government),
  other 60

Judicial branch:
  remnants of the British-era legal system are in place, but there is
  no guarantee of a fair public trial; the judiciary is not
  independent of the executive

Political parties and leaders: National League for Democracy or NLD [AUNG SHWE, chairman, AUNG SAN SUU KYI, general secretary]; National Unity Party or NUP (pro-regime) [THA KYAW] (at last report); Shan Nationalities League for Democracy or SNLD [HKUN HTUN OO]; and other smaller parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma or NCGUB (self-proclaimed government in exile) ["Prime Minister" Dr. SEIN WIN] consists of individuals, some legitimately elected to the People's Assembly in 1990 (the group fled to a border area and joined insurgents in December 1990 to form parallel government in exile); Kachin Independence Organization or KIO; Karen National Union or KNU; several Shan factions; United Wa State Army or UWSA; Union Solidarity and Development Association or USDA (pro-regime, a social and political mass-member organization) [HTAY OO, general secretary]

International organization participation:
  APT, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, BIMSTEC, CP, EAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
  ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol,
  IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires MYINT LWIN chancery: 2300 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 332-3344 FAX: [1] (202) 332-4351 consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Shari
  VILLAROSA
  embassy: 581 Merchant Street, Rangoon (GPO 521)
  mailing address: Box B, APO AP 96546
  telephone: [95] (1) 379-880, 379-881
  FAX: [95] (1) 256-018

Flag description:
  red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing,
  14 white five-pointed stars encircling a cogwheel containing a stalk
  of rice; the 14 stars represent the seven administrative divisions
  and seven states

Economy Burma

Economy - overview:
  Burma, a resource-rich country, suffers from pervasive government
  controls, inefficient economic policies, and rural poverty. The
  junta took steps in the early 1990s to liberalize the economy after
  decades of failure under the "Burmese Way to Socialism," but those
  efforts stalled, and some of the liberalization measures were
  rescinded. Burma does not have monetary or fiscal stability, so the
  economy suffers from serious macroeconomic imbalances - including
  inflation, multiple official exchange rates that overvalue the
  Burmese kyat, and a distorted interest rate regime. Most overseas
  development assistance ceased after the junta began to suppress the
  democracy movement in 1988 and subsequently refused to honor the
  results of the 1990 legislative elections. In response to the
  government of Burma's attack in May 2003 on AUNG SAN SUU KYI and her
  convoy, the US imposed new economic sanctions against Burma -
  including a ban on imports of Burmese products and a ban on
  provision of financial services by US persons. A poor investment
  climate further slowed the inflow of foreign exchange. The most
  productive sectors will continue to be in extractive industries,
  especially oil and gas, mining, and timber. Other areas, such as
  manufacturing and services, are struggling with inadequate
  infrastructure, unpredictable import/export policies, deteriorating
  health and education systems, and corruption. A major banking crisis
  in 2003 shuttered the country's 20 private banks and disrupted the
  economy. As of December 2005, the largest private banks operate
  under tight restrictions limiting the private sector's access to
  formal credit. Official statistics are inaccurate. Published
  statistics on foreign trade are greatly understated because of the
  size of the black market and unofficial border trade - often
  estimated to be as large as the official economy. Burma's trade with
  Thailand, China, and India is rising. Though the Burmese government
  has good economic relations with its neighbors, better investment
  and business climates and an improved political situation are needed
  to promote foreign investment, exports, and tourism.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $80.11 billion (2005 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $7.464 billion (2005 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  5.2% (2005 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $1,700 (2005 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 56.4% industry: 8.2% services: 35.3% (2005 est.)

Labor force: 27.75 million (2005 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 70% industry: 7% services: 23% (2001)

Unemployment rate:
  5% (2005 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  25% (2000 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.8% highest 10%: 32.4% (1998)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  20.2% (2005 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  11.5% of GDP (2005 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $473.3 million
  expenditures: $716.6 million; including capital expenditures of NA
  (FY04/05 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  rice, pulses, beans, sesame, groundnuts, sugarcane; hardwood; fish
  and fish products

Industries:
  agricultural processing; knit and woven apparel; wood and wood
  products; copper, tin, tungsten, iron; construction materials;
  pharmaceuticals; fertilizer; cement; natural gas

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA%

Electricity - production:
  7.393 billion kWh (2003)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 44.5% hydro: 43.4% nuclear: 0% other: 12.1% (2002)

Electricity - consumption:
  6.875 billion kWh (2003)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2003)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Oil - production:
  18,500 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  32,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)

Oil - exports:
  3,356 bbl/day (2003)

Oil - imports:
  49,230 bbl/day (2003)

Oil - proved reserves:
  less than 1 billion bbl (2005)

Natural gas - production:
  9.98 billion cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  1.569 billion cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  8.424 billion cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  283.2 billion cu m (2005)

Current account balance:
  $700 million (2005 est.)

Exports:
  $3.111 billion f.o.b.
  note: official export figures are grossly underestimated due to the
  value of timber, gems, narcotics, rice, and other products smuggled
  to Thailand, China, and Bangladesh (2004)

Exports - commodities:
  clothing, gas, wood products, pulses, beans, fish, rice

Exports - partners:
  Thailand 44.3%, India 12.3%, China 6.8%, Japan 5% (2005)

Imports:
  $3.454 billion f.o.b.
  note: import figures are grossly underestimated due to the value of
  consumer goods, diesel fuel, and other products smuggled in from
  Thailand, China, Malaysia, and India (2004)

Imports - commodities:
  fabric, petroleum products, plastics, machinery, transport
  equipment, construction materials, crude oil; food products

Imports - partners:
  China 28.8%, Thailand 21.8%, Singapore 18.3%, Malaysia 7.6% (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $763 million (2005 est.)

Debt - external:
  $6.99 billion (2005 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $127 million (2001 est.)

Currency (code):
  kyat (MMK)

Currency code:
  MMK

Exchange rates:
  kyats per US dollar - 5.761 (2005), 5.7459 (2004), 6.0764 (2003),
  6.5734 (2002), 6.6841 (2001)
  note: these are official exchange rates; unofficial exchange rates
  ranged in 2004 from 815 kyat/US dollar to nearly 970 kyat/US dollar,
  and by year-end 2005, the unofficial exchange rate was 1,075 kyat/US
  dollar

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Burma

Telephones - main lines in use:
  476,200 (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  183,400 (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: barely meets minimum requirements for local and
  intercity service for business and government; international service
  is fair
  domestic: NA
  international: country code - 95; satellite earth station - 2,
  Intelsat (Indian Ocean), and ShinSat

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 1 (2004)

Radios:
  4.2 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  2 (2004)

Televisions:
  320,000 (2000)

Internet country code:
  .mm

Internet hosts:
  42 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1
  note: as of September 2000, Internet connections were legal only for
  the government, tourist offices, and a few large businesses (2000)

Internet users:
  78,000 (2005)

Transportation Burma

Airports: 85 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 21 over 3,047 m: 8 2,438 to 3,047 m: 7 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 1 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 64 over 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 13 914 to 1,523 m: 18 under 914 m: 32 (2006)

Heliports:
  1 (2006)

Pipelines:
  gas 2,224 km; oil 558 km (2006)

Railways: total: 3,955 km narrow gauge: 3,955 km 1.000-m gauge (2005)

Roadways: total: 27,000 km paved: 3,200 km unpaved: 23,800 km (2005)

Waterways:
  12,800 km (2005)

Merchant marine:
  total: 34 ships (1000 GRT or over) 402,699 GRT/620,642 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 8, cargo 20, passenger 2, passenger/cargo 3,
  specialized tanker 1
  foreign-owned: 9 (Germany 5, Japan 4) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Moulmein, Rangoon, Sittwe

Military Burma

Military branches:
  Myanmar Armed Forces (Tatmadaw): Army, Navy, Air Force (2005)

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age for voluntary military service for both sexes (2004)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 12,268,850
  females age 18-49: 12,469,771 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 7,946,701
  females age 18-49: 8,543,705 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 469,841
  females: 455,689 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $39 million (FY97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  2.1% (FY97)

Transnational Issues Burma

Disputes - international:
  over half of Burma's population consists of diverse ethnic groups
  with substantial numbers of kin beyond its borders; despite
  continuing border committee talks, significant differences remain
  with Thailand over boundary alignment and the handling of ethnic
  rebels, refugees, and illegal cross-border activities; ethnic Karens
  flee into Thailand to escape fighting between Karen rebels and
  Burmese troops; in 2005 Thailand sheltered about 121,000 Burmese
  refugees; Karens also protest Thai support for a Burmese
  hydroelectric dam on the Salween River near the border;
  environmentalists in Burma and Thailand continue to voice concern
  over China's construction of hydroelectric dams upstream on the
  Nujiang/Salween River in Yunnan Province; India seeks cooperation
  from Burma to keep Indian Nagaland separatists from hiding in remote
  Burmese uplands

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  IDPs: 550,000-1,000,000 (government offensives against ethnic
  insurgent groups near borders; most IDPs are ethnic Karen, Karenni,
  Shan, Tavoyan, and Mon) (2005)

Trafficking in persons:
  current situation: Burma is a source country for men, women, and
  children trafficked to East and Southeast Asia for sexual
  exploitation, domestic service, and forced commercial labor; a
  significant number of victims are economic migrants who wind up in
  forced or bonded labor and forced prostitution; to a lesser extent,
  Burma is a country of transit and destination for women trafficked
  from China for sexual exploitation; internal trafficking of persons
  occurs primarily for labor in industrial zones and agricultural
  estates; internal trafficking of women and girls for sexual
  exploitation occurs from villages to urban centers and other areas;
  the military junta's economic mismanagement, human rights abuses,
  and policy of using forced labor are driving factors behind Burma's
  large trafficking problem
  tier rating: Tier 3 - Burma does not fully comply with the minimum
  standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making
  significant efforts to do so

Illicit drugs:
  remains world's second largest producer of illicit opium (estimated
  production in 2004 - 292 metric tons, down 40% from 2003 due to
  eradication efforts and drought; cultivation in 2004 - 30,900
  hectares, a 34% decline from 2003); lack of government will to take
  on major narcotrafficking groups and lack of serious commitment
  against money laundering continues to hinder the overall antidrug
  effort; major source of methamphetamine and heroin for regional
  consumption; currently under Financial Action Task Force
  countermeasures due to continued failure to address its inadequate
  money-laundering controls (2005)

This page was last updated on 19 December, 2006

======================================================================

@Burundi

Introduction Burundi

Background:
  Burundi's first democratically elected president was assassinated
  in October 1993 after only 100 days in office, triggering widespread
  ethnic violence between Hutu and Tutsi factions. Over 200,000
  Burundians perished during the conflict that spanned almost a dozen
  years. Hundreds of thousands of Burundians were internally displaced
  or became refugees in neighboring countries. An internationally
  brokered power-sharing agreement between the Tutsi-dominated
  government and the Hutu rebels in 2003 paved the way for a
  transition process that led to an integrated defense force,
  established a new constitution in 2005, and elected a majority Hutu
  government in 2005. The new government, led by President Pierre
  NKURUNZIZA, signed a South African brokered ceasefire with the
  country's last rebel group in the summer of 2006 but still faces
  many challenges.

Geography Burundi

Location:
  Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates:
  3 30 S, 30 00 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 27,830 sq km
  land: 25,650 sq km
  water: 2,180 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
  total: 974 km
  border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 233 km, Rwanda
  290 km, Tanzania 451 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  equatorial; high plateau with considerable altitude variation (772
  m to 2,670 m above sea level); average annual temperature varies
  with altitude from 23 to 17 degrees centigrade but is generally
  moderate as the average altitude is about 1,700 m; average annual
  rainfall is about 150 cm; two wet seasons (February to May and
  September to November), and two dry seasons (June to August and
  December to January)

Terrain:
  hilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in east, some plains

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Lake Tanganyika 772 m
  highest point: Heha 2,670 m

Natural resources:
  nickel, uranium, rare earth oxides, peat, cobalt, copper, platinum,
  vanadium, arable land, hydropower, niobium, tantalum, gold, tin,
  tungsten, kaolin, limestone

Land use:
  arable land: 35.57%
  permanent crops: 13.12%
  other: 51.31% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  210 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  flooding, landslides, drought

Environment - current issues:
  soil erosion as a result of overgrazing and the expansion of
  agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation (little forested land
  remains because of uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel); habitat
  loss threatens wildlife populations

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes,
  Ozone Layer Protection
  signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note:
  landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed; the
  Kagera, which drains into Lake Victoria, is the most remote
  headstream of the White Nile

People Burundi

Population:
  8,090,068
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 46.3% (male 1,884,825/female 1,863,200)
  15-64 years: 51.1% (male 2,051,451/female 2,082,017)
  65 years and over: 2.6% (male 83,432/female 125,143) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 16.6 years
  male: 16.4 years
  female: 16.9 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  3.7% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  42.22 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  13.46 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  8.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 63.13 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 70.26 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 55.79 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 50.81 years
  male: 50.07 years
  female: 51.58 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  6.55 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  6% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  250,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  25,000 (2003 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
  degree of risk: very high
  food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and
  typhoid fever
  vectorborne disease: malaria (2005)

Nationality:
  noun: Burundian(s)
  adjective: Burundian

Ethnic groups:
  Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%, Europeans
  3,000, South Asians 2,000

Religions:
  Christian 67% (Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 5%), indigenous
  beliefs 23%, Muslim 10%

Languages:
  Kirundi (official), French (official), Swahili (along Lake
  Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 51.6%
  male: 58.5%
  female: 45.2% (2003 est.)

Government Burundi

Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Burundi
  conventional short form: Burundi
  local long form: Republique du Burundi/Republika y'u Burundi
  local short form: Burundi
  former: Urundi

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  name: Bujumbura
  geographic coordinates: 3 23 S, 29 22 E
  time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
  17 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura Mairie, Bujumbura Rurale, Bururi,
  Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba,
  Muramvya, Muyinga, Mwaro, Ngozi, Rutana, Ruyigi

Independence:
  1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 1 July (1962)

Constitution:
  28 February 2005; ratified by popular referendum

Legal system:
  based on German and Belgian civil codes and customary law; has not
  accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Pierre NKURUNZIZA (since 26 August 2005);
  First Vice President Martin NDUWIMANA - Tutsi (since 29 August
  2005); Second Vice President Marina BARAMPAMA - Hutu (since 8
  September 2006)
  head of government: President Pierre NKURUNZIZA (since 26 August
  2005); First Vice President Martin NDUWIMANA - Tutsi (since 29
  August 2005); Second Vice President Marina BARAMPAMA - Hutu (since 8
  September 2006)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by president
  elections: the president is elected by popular vote to a five-year
  term (eligible for a second term); note - the constitution adopted
  in February 2005 permits the post-transition president to be elected
  by a two-thirds majority of the parliament; vice presidents
  nominated by the president, endorsed by parliament
  election results: Pierre NKURUNZIZA was elected president by the
  parliament by a vote of 151 to 9; note - the constitution adopted in
  February 2005 permits the post-transition president to be elected by
  a two-thirds majority of the legislature

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament or Parlement, consists of a National Assembly
  or Assemblee Nationale (minimum 100 seats - 60% Hutu and 40% Tutsi
  with at least 30% being women; additional seats appointed by a
  National Independent Electoral Commission to ensure ethnic
  representation; members are elected by popular vote to serve
  five-year terms) and a Senate (54 seats; 34 by indirect vote to
  serve five year terms, with remaining seats assigned to ethnic
  groups and former chiefs of state)
  elections: National Assembly - last held 4 July 2005 (next to be
  held in 2010); Senate - last held 29 July 2005 (next to be held in
  2010)
  election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party -
  CNDD-FDD 58.6%, FRODEBU 21.7%, UPRONA 7.2%, CNDD 4.1%,
  MRC-Rurenzangemero 2.1%, others 6.2%; seats by party - CNDD-FDD 59,
  FRODEBU 25, UPRONA 10, CNDD 4, MRC-Rurenzangemero 2; Senate -
  percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - CNDD-FDD 30,
  FRODEBU 3, CNDD 1

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; Constitutional Court; Courts of
  Appeal (there are three in separate locations); Tribunals of First
  Instance (17 at the province level and 123 small local tribunals)

Political parties and leaders:
  the three national, mainstream, governing parties are: Burundi
  Democratic Front or FRODEBU [Leonce NGENDAKUMANA, president];
  National Council for the Defense of Democracy, Front for the Defense
  of Democracy or CNDD-FDD [Hussein RADJABU, president]; Unity for
  National Progress or UPRONA [Aloys RUBUKA, president]
  note: a multiparty system was introduced after 1998, included are:
  National Council for the Defense of Democracy or CNDD; National
  Resistance Movement for the Rehabilitation of the Citizen or
  MRC-Rurenzangemero [Epitace BANYAGANAKANDI]; Party for National
  Redress or PARENA [Jean-Baptiste BAGAZA]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  none

International organization participation:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, CEPGL, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt,
  ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM
  (observer), IPU, ISO (subscriber), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Celestin NIYONGABO
  chancery: Suite 212, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
  telephone: [1] (202) 342-2574
  FAX: [1] (202) 342-2578

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Patricia Newton MOLLER
  embassy: Avenue des Etats-Unis, Bujumbura
  mailing address: B. P. 1720, Bujumbura
  telephone: [257] 223454
  FAX: [257] 222926

Flag description:
  divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels (top and bottom)
  and green panels (hoist side and fly side) with a white disk
  superimposed at the center bearing three red six-pointed stars
  outlined in green arranged in a triangular design (one star above,
  two stars below)

Economy Burundi

Economy - overview:
  Burundi is a landlocked, resource-poor country with an
  underdeveloped manufacturing sector. The economy is predominantly
  agricultural with more than 90% of the population dependent on
  subsistence agriculture. Economic growth depends on coffee and tea
  exports, which account for 90% of foreign exchange earnings. The
  ability to pay for imports, therefore, rests primarily on weather
  conditions and international coffee and tea prices. The Tutsi
  minority, 14% of the population, dominates the government and the
  coffee trade at the expense of the Hutu majority, 85% of the
  population. An ethnic-based war that lasted for over a decade
  resulted in more than 200,000 deaths, forced more than 48,000
  refugees into Tanzania, and displaced 140,000 others internally.
  Only one in two children go to school, and approximately one in 10
  adults has HIV/AIDS. Food, medicine, and electricity remain in short
  supply. Political stability and the end of the civil war have
  improved aid flows and economic activity has increased, but
  underlying weaknesses - a high poverty rate, poor education rates, a
  weak legal system, and low administrative capacity - risk
  undermining planned economic reforms.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $5.404 billion (2005 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $730 million (2005 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  1.1% (2005 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $700 (2005 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 46.3% industry: 20.3% services: 33.4% (2005 est.)

Labor force: 2.99 million (2002)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 93.6% industry: 2.3% services: 4.1% (2002 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  NA%

Population below poverty line:
  68% (2002 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.8% highest 10%: 32.9% (1998)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  33.3 (1998)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  16% (2005 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  11.6% of GDP (2005 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $215.4 million
  expenditures: $278 million; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2005 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  coffee, cotton, tea, corn, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, manioc
  (tapioca); beef, milk, hides

Industries:
  light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap; assembly of
  imported components; public works construction; food processing

Industrial production growth rate:
  18% (2001)

Electricity - production:
  141.3 million kWh (2003)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 0.6% hydro: 99.4% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  141.4 million kWh (2003)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2003)

Electricity - imports:
  10 million kWh; note - supplied by the Democratic Republic of the
  Congo (2003)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2003)

Oil - consumption:
  3,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  0 cu m (2003 est.)

Current account balance:
  $-29 million (2005 est.)

Exports:
  $52 million f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  coffee, tea, sugar, cotton, hides

Exports - partners:
  Germany 24.4%, Belgium 11.1%, Netherlands 8%, Switzerland 5.8%, US
  4.6%, Pakistan 4% (2005)

Imports:
  $200 million f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  capital goods, petroleum products, foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
  Kenya 12.9%, Tanzania 10.6%, Belgium 10.4%, Italy 8.1%, France
  5.4%, Uganda 5.3%, China 5%, India 4.1% (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $105 million (2005 est.)

Debt - external:
  $1.2 billion (2003)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $105.5 million (2003)

Currency (code):
  Burundi franc (BIF)

Currency code:
  BIF

Exchange rates:
  Burundi francs per US dollar - 1,138 (2005), 1,100.91 (2004),
  1,082.62 (2003), 930.75 (2002), 830.35 (2001)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Burundi

Telephones - main lines in use:
  27,700 (2004)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  153,000 (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: primitive system
  domestic: sparse system of open-wire, radiotelephone communications,
  and low-capacity microwave radio relay
  international: country code - 257; satellite earth station - 1
  Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 0, FM 4, shortwave 1 (2001)

Radios:
  440,000 (2001)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (2001)

Televisions:
  25,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bi

Internet hosts:
  160 (2006)

Intern