The Project Gutenberg eBook of Roget's Thesaurus

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Title: Roget's Thesaurus

Author: Peter Mark Roget

Release date: December 1, 1991 [eBook #22]
Most recently updated: April 27, 2022

Language: English

Credits: MICRA, Inc.


Roget’s Thesaurus


English words and phrases classified and arranged so as to facilitate the expression of ideas and assist in literary composition

by Peter Mark Roget

An electronic thesaurus derived from the version of Roget's Thesaurus published in 1911.

MICRA, Inc. makes no representation that the original 1911 printed work on which this is based is now in the public domain in any particular country. However, MICRA, Inc. makes no proprietary claims regarding this electronic version of the 1911 thesaurus. If the 1911 work is currently public domain, this electronic version can also be treated as public domain.

Note that this version of Thesaurus-1911 has been supplemented with over 1,000 words not present in the original 1911 edition, but many modern words are still missing. About 1500 verbs (out of 6500) which can be found in an 80,000-word spell-checker are absent from this work. The deficiency of nouns is probably much worse, especially on technical topics. Of 40,000 unique words contained in the original text, 12,000 are not recognized by a spell-checker. Most of these are foreign words (primarily Latin), and many are obsolete. In this version, these words are marked as such by comments in square brackets. Although this version has been proof-read, there are doubtless numerous residual transcription errors, some of which may be obvious even without reference to the original text. We will be grateful if any of these are brought to our attention; the corrections will appear in subsequent versions.

The original arrangement has also been modified slightly in several places, in particular by splitting one entry into two. A version of the 1911 thesaurus which is almost identical to the original (only a small number of additions to the original work) has also been prepared by MICRA, Inc., and also carries no restrictions from MICRA. Copies of that version or this one may be purchased for $40.00 from MICRA, Inc., or from the Austin Code Works, Austin Texas.

Occasional references to numbers starting with "@" are the embryonic beginnings of a reorganized version, mentioned below. A few comments are also included within curly brackets {}.

The following additional differences will be noted between this version and the original edition of the printed 1911 thesaurus:

(1) the space-saving abbreviations in the original, using hyphens to represent common words, prefixes or suffixes, have been expanded into the full words or phrases.

(2) the side-by-side format for words and their opposites has been abandoned. Words are listed in order of their entry number.

(3) each main entry (1035 entries) has a pound sign "#" in front of the number to facilitate computerized search.

(4) Greek words and phrases are transliterated and included between brackets in the format <gr/greek word/gr>.

(5) where italics occurred in the original, italics are used in the Microsoft Word format file. In the plain ASCII file, this formatting is lost.

(6) in the original book, words which were obsolete (in 1911) were marked with a dagger. In this version, those words are marked with a vertical bar ("|").

Some of the words which were still current in 1911, but are no longer found in a current college-size dictionary (presently obsolete words), or which are no longer used in the specific indicated sense, have been marked with a bar followed by an exclamation point "|!". However, this marking process has just commenced, and only a small portion of the words which are now obsolete have been thus marked. Most though not all of the foreign-language phrases are now obsolete. The "obsolete" notation [obs3] indicates that the previous word (or some word in the previous phrase) is not recognized by the word processor's spelling checker, and also is either NOT in a modern college-sized dictionary, or is noted there as being "ARCHAIC".

(7) This file contains only the main body of the thesaurus. Neither outline nor index are contained here. The outline with an overview of the organization of the concepts is contained in a separate file, "outline.doc", on the distribution disk.

This first edition of this supplemented 1911 thesaurus (June 1991) is very much less complete than the latest editions of commercial thesauri, and is probably not suitable for use as an adjunct to word-processing programs, but it has no proprietary claims attached to it by MICRA, Inc., and does not contain any material published commercially after 1911.

Future (copyrighted) versions of this thesaurus are planned, which will be reorganized in a hierarchical fashion to maximize the ability to take advantage of inheritance of semantic characteristics from higher categories. The objective is to create a database of words organized by semantic categories, suitable for use in natural-language understanding programs. This is a very small-scale project, which will not be competitive with large academic or commercial efforts such as the CYC project, but is intended to provide a convenient resource for experimentation in natural-language processing for individuals or small groups. Anyone who is currently engaged in or contemplating a similar thesaurus or dictionary project, who would be willing to collaborate on this project, is encouraged to contact us, so that unnecessary duplication of effort can be avoided. We would also appreciate being notified of typos, errors, or omissions in any version. Send inquiries or comments to:

Patrick Cassidy
735 Belvidere Ave.
Plainfield, NJ 07062-2054

voice: (908) 668-5252
fax: (908) 668-5904

(If no one answers, please leave a message.)

[Illustration: P.M. Roget]

Tabular Synopsis of Categories











#1. Existence.—N. existence, being, entity, ens, esse, subsistence.
     reality, actuality; positiveness &c. adj.; fact, matter of fact, sober reality; truth &c. 494; actual existence.
     presence &c. (existence in space) 186; coexistence &c. 120.
     stubborn fact, hard fact; not a dream &c. 515; no joke.
     center of life, essence, inmost nature, inner reality, vital principle.
     [Science of existence], ontology.
     V. exist, be; have being &c. n.; subsist, live, breathe, stand, obtain, be the case; occur &c. (event) 151; have place, prevail; find oneself, pass the time, vegetate.
     consist in, lie in; be comprised in, be contained in, be constituted by.
     come into existence &c. n.; arise &c. (begin) 66; come forth &c. (appear) 446.
     become &c. (be converted) 144; bring into existence &c. 161.
     abide, continue, endure, last, remain, stay.
     Adj. existing &c. v.; existent, under the sun; in existence &c. n.; extant; afloat, afoot, on foot, current, prevalent; undestroyed.
     real, actual, positive, absolute; true &c. 494; substantial, substantive; self-existing, self-existent; essential.
     well-founded, well-grounded; unideal[obs3], unimagined; not potential &c. 2; authentic.
     Adv. actually &c. adj.; in fact, in point of fact, in reality; indeed;
de facto, ipso facto.
     Phr. ens rationis; ergo sum cogito; "thinkest thou existence doth depend on time?" [Byron].

#2. Inexistence.—N. inexistence[obs3]; nonexistence, nonsubsistence;
nonentity, nil; negativeness &c. adj.; nullity; nihility[obs3], nihilism;
tabula rasa[Lat], blank; abeyance; absence &c. 187; no such thing &c. 4;
nonbeing, nothingness, oblivion.
     annihilation; extinction &c. (destruction) 162; extinguishment,
extirpation, Nirvana, obliteration.
     V. not exist &c. 1; have no existence &c. 1; be null and void; cease
to exist &c. 1; pass away, perish; be extinct, become extinct &c. adj.; die
out; disappear &c. 449; melt away, dissolve, leave not a rack behind; go,
be no more; die &c. 360.
     annihilate, render null, nullify; abrogate &c. 756; destroy &c. 162;
take away; remove &c. (displace) 185; obliterate, extirpate.
     Adj. inexistent[obs3], nonexistent &c. 1; negative, blank; missing,
omitted; absent &c. 187; insubstantial, shadowy, spectral, visionary.
     unreal, potential, virtual; baseless, in nubibus[Lat]; unsubstantial
&c. 4; vain.
     unborn, uncreated[obs3], unbegotten, unconceived, unproduced, unmade.
     perished, annihilated, &c. v.; extinct, exhausted, gone, lost,
vanished, departed, gone with the wind; defunct &c. (dead) 360.
     fabulous, ideal &c. (imaginary) 515, supposititious &c. 514.
     Adv. negatively, virtually &c. adj.
     Phr. non ens[Lat].


#3. Substantiality.—N. substantiality, hypostasis; person, being, thing, object, article, item; something, a being, an existence; creature, body, substance, flesh and blood, stuff, substratum; matter &c. 316; corporeity[obs3], element, essential nature, groundwork, materiality, substantialness, vital part. [Totality of existences], world &c. 318; plenum. Adj. substantive, substantial; hypostatic; personal, bodily, tangible &c. (material) 316; corporeal. Adv. substantially &c. adj.; bodily, essentially.

#4. Unsubstantiality.—N. unsubstantiality[obs3], insubstantiality; nothingness, nihility[obs3]; no degree, no part, no quantity, no thing. nothing, naught, nil, nullity, zero, cipher, no one, nobody; never a one, ne'er a one[contr]; no such thing, none in the world; nothing whatever, nothing at all, nothing on earth; not a particle &c. (smallness) 32; all talk, moonshine, stuff and nonsense; matter of no importance, matter of no consequence, thing of naught, man of straw, John Doe and Richard Roe, faggot voter; nominis umbra[Lat], nonentity; flash in the pan, vox et praeterea nihil[Lat]. shadow; phantom &c.(fallacy of vision) 443; dream &c. (imagination) 515; ignis fatuus &c. (luminary) 423[Lat]; "such stuff as dreams are made of" [Tempest]; air, thin air, vapor; bubble &c. 353; "baseless fabric of a vision" [Tempest]; mockery. hollowness, blank; void &c. (absence) 187. inanity, fool's paradise. V. vanish, evaporate, fade, dissolve, melt away; disappear &c. 449. Adj. unsubstantial; baseless, groundless; ungrounded; without foundation, having no foundation. visionary &c. (imaginary) 515; immaterial &c. 137; spectral &c. 980; dreamy; shadowy; ethereal, airy; cloud built, cloud formed; gossamery, illusory, insubstantial, unreal. vacant, vacuous; empty &c. 187; eviscerated; blank, hollow; nominal; null; inane. Phr. there's nothing in it; "an ocean of dreams without a sound" [Shelley].


Internal conditions

#5. Intrinsicality.—N. intrinsicality[obs3], inbeing[obs3], inherence, inhesion[obs3]; subjectiveness; ego; egohood[obs3]; essence, noumenon; essentialness[obs3] &c. adj.; essential part, quintessence, incarnation, quiddity, gist, pith, marrow, core, sap, lifeblood, backbone, heart, soul; important part &c. (importance) 642. principle, nature, constitution, character, type, quality, crasis[obs3], diathesis[obs3]. habit; temper, temperament; spirit, humor, grain; disposition. endowment, capacity; capability &c. (power) 157. moods, declensions, features, aspects; peculiarities &c. (speciality) 79; idiosyncrasy, oddity; idiocrasy &c. (tendency) 176[obs3]; diagnostics. V. be in the blood, run in the blood; be born so; be intrinsic &c. adj. Adj. derived from within, subjective; intrinsic, intrinsical[obs3]; fundamental, normal; implanted, inherent, essential, natural; innate, inborn, inbred, ingrained, inwrought; coeval with birth, genetous[obs3], haematobious[obs3], syngenic[obs3]; radical, incarnate, thoroughbred, hereditary, inherited, immanent; congenital, congenite|; connate, running in the blood; ingenerate[obs3], ingenite|; indigenous; in the grain &c. n.; bred in the bone, instinctive; inward, internal &c. 221; to the manner born; virtual. characteristic &c. (special) 79, (indicative) 550; invariable, incurable, incorrigible, ineradicable, fixed. Adv. intrinsically &c. adj.; at bottom, in the main, in effect, practically, virtually, substantially, au fond; fairly. Phr. "character is higher than intellect" [Emerson]; "come give us a taste of your quality" magnos homines virtute metimur non fortuna [Lat][ Hamlet][Nepos]; non numero haec judicantur sed pondere [Lat][Cicero]; "vital spark of heavenly flame" [Pope].

External conditions

#6. Extrinsicality.—N. extrinsicality[obs3], objectiveness, non ego;
extraneousness &c. 57; accident; appearance, phenomenon &c. 448.
     Adj. derived from without; objective; extrinsic, extrinsical[obs3];
extraneous &c. (foreign) 57; modal, adventitious; ascititious[obs3],
adscititious[obs3]; incidental, accidental, nonessential; contingent,
     implanted, ingrafted[obs3]; inculcated, infused.
     outward, apparent &c. (external) 220.
     Adv. extrinsically &c. adj.



#7. State.—N. state, condition, category, estate, lot, ease, trim,
mood, pickle, plight, temper; aspect &c. (appearance) 448, dilemma, pass,
     constitution, habitude, diathesis[obs3]; frame, fabric &c. 329; stamp,
set, fit, mold, mould.
     mode, modality, schesis[obs3]; form &c. (shape) 240.
     tone, tenor, turn; trim, guise, fashion, light, complexion, style,
     V. be in a state, possess a state, enjoy a state, labor under a state
&c. n.; be on a footing, do, fare; come to pass.
     Adj. conditional, modal, formal; structural, organic.
     Adv. conditionally &c. adj.; as the matter stands, as things are; such
being the case &c. 8.


#8. Circumstance.—N. circumstance, situation, phase, position,
posture, attitude, place, point; terms; regime; footing, standing, status.
     occasion, juncture, conjunctive; contingency &c. (event) 151.
     predicament; emergence, emergency; exigency, crisis, pinch, pass,
push; occurrence; turning point.
     bearings, how the land lies.
     surroundings, context, environment 229a[TE 232]; location 184.
     contingency, dependence (uncertainty) 475; causation 153, attribution
     Adj. circumstantial; given, conditional, provisional; critical; modal;
contingent, incidental; adventitious &c. (extrinsic) 6; limitative[obs3].
     Adv. in the circumstances, under the circumstances &c. n., the
circumstances, conditions &c. 7; thus, in such wise.
     accordingly; that being the case, such being the case, in view of the
circumstances; that being so, sith[obs3], since, seeing that.
     as matters stand; as things go, as times go.
     conditionally, provided, if, in case; if so, if so be, if it be so;
depending on circumstances, in certain circumstances, under certain
conditions; if it so happen, if it so turn out; in the event of; in such a
contingency, in such a case, in such an event; provisionally, unless,
     according to circumstances, according to the occasion; as it may
happen, as it may turn out, as it may be; as the case may be, as the wind
blows; pro re nata[Lat].
     Phr. "yet are my sins not those of circumstance" [Lytton].



#9. Relation.—N. relation, bearing, reference, connection, concern, cognation; correlation &c. 12; analogy; similarity &c. 17; affinity, homology, alliance, homogeneity, association; approximation &c. (nearness) 197; filiation &c. (consanguinity) 11[obs3]; interest; relevancy &c. 23; dependency, relationship, relative position. comparison &c. 464; ratio, proportion. link, tie, bond of union. V. be related &c. adj.; have a relation &c. n.; relate to, refer to; bear upon, regard, concern, touch, affect, have to do with; pertain to, belong to, appertain to; answer to; interest. bring into relation with, bring to bear upon; connect, associate, draw a parallel; link &c. 43. Adj. relative; correlative &c. 12; cognate; relating to &c. v.; relative to, in relation with, referable or referrible to[obs3]; belonging to &c. v.; appurtenant to, in common with. related, connected; implicated, associated, affiliated, allied to; en rapport, in touch with. approximative[obs3], approximating; proportional, proportionate, proportionable; allusive, comparable. in the same category &c. 75; like &c. 17; relevant &c. (apt) 23; applicable, equiparant[obs3]. Adv. relatively &c. adj.; pertinently &c. 23. thereof; as to, as for, as respects, as regards; about; concerning &c. v.; anent; relating to, as relates to; with relation, with reference to, with respect to, with regard to; in respect of; while speaking of, a propos of[Fr]; in connection with; by the way, by the by; whereas; for as much as, in as much as; in point of, as far as; on the part of, on the score of; quoad hoc[Lat]; pro re nata[Lat]; under the head of &c. (class) 75 of; in the matter of, in re. Phr. "thereby hangs a tale" [Taming of the Shrew].

#10. [Want, or absence of relation.] Irrelation.—N. irrelation[obs3], dissociation; misrelation[obs3]; inapplicability; inconnection[obs3]; multifariousness; disconnection &c. (disjunction) 44; inconsequence, independence; incommensurability; irreconcilableness &c. (disagreement) 24; heterogeneity; unconformity &c. 83; irrelevancy, impertinence, nihil ad rem[Lat]; intrusion &c. 24; non-pertinence. V. have no relation to &c. 9; have no bearing upon, have no concern with &c. 9, have no business with; not concern &c. 9; have no business there, have nothing to do with, intrude &c. 24. bring in head and shoulders, drag in head and shoulders, lug in head and shoulders. Adj. irrelative[obs3], irrespective, unrelated; arbitrary; independent, unallied; unconnected, disconnected; adrift, isolated, insular; extraneous, strange, alien, foreign, outlandish, exotic. not comparable, incommensurable, heterogeneous; unconformable &c. 83. irrelevant, inapplicable; not pertinent, not to the, purpose; impertinent, inapposite, beside the mark, a propos de bottes[Fr]; aside from the purpose,, away from the purpose,, foreign to the purpose, beside the purpose, beside the question, beside the transaction, beside the point; misplaced &c. (intrusive) 24; traveling out of the record. remote, far-fetched, out of the way, forced, neither here nor there, quite another thing; detached, segregate; disquiparant[obs3]. multifarious; discordant &c. 24. incidental, parenthetical, obiter dicta, episodic. Adv. parenthetically &c. adj.; by the way, by the by; en passant[Fr], incidentally; irrespectively &c. adj.; without reference to, without regard to; in the abstract &c. 87; a se.

#11. [Relations of kindred.] Consanguinity.—N. consanguinity, relationship, kindred, blood; parentage &c. (paternity) 166; filiation[obs3], affiliation; lineage, agnation[obs3], connection, alliance; family connection, family tie; ties of blood; nepotism. kinsman, kinfolk; kith and kin; relation, relative; connection; sibling, sib; next of kin; uncle, aunt, nephew, niece; cousin, cousin- german[obs3]; first cousin, second cousin; cousin once removed, cousin twice &c. removed; near relation, distant relation; brother, sister, one's own flesh and blood. family, fraternity; brotherhood, sisterhood, cousinhood[obs3]. race, stock, generation; sept &c. 166; stirps, side; strain; breed, clan, tribe, nation. V. be related to &c. adj. claim relationship with &c. n. with. Adj. related, akin, consanguineous, of the blood, family, allied, collateral; cognate, agnate, connate; kindred; affiliated; fraternal.

intimately related, nearly related, closely related, remotely related, distantly related, allied; german.

#12. [Double or reciprocal relation.] Correlation.—N. reciprocalness &c. adj[obs3].; reciprocity, reciprocation; mutuality, correlation, interdependence, interrelation, connection, link, association; interchange &c. 148; exchange, barter. reciprocator, reprocitist. V. reciprocate, alternate; interchange &c. 148; exchange; counterchange[obs3]. Adj. reciprocal, mutual, commutual[obs3], correlative, reciprocative, interrelated, closely related; alternate; interchangeable; interdependent; international; complemental, complementary. Adv. mutually, mutatis mutandis[Lat]; vice versa; each other, one another; by turns &c. 148; reciprocally &c. adj. Phr. "happy in our mutual help" [Milton].

#13. Identity.—N. identity, sameness; coincidence, coalescence; convertibility; equality &c. 27; selfness[obs3], self, oneself; identification. monotony, tautology &c. (repetition) 104. facsimile &c. (copy) 21; homoousia; alter ego &c. (similar) 17[obs3]; ipsissima verba &c. (exactness) 494[Lat]; same; self, very, one and the same; very thing, actual thing; real McCoy; no other; one and only; in the flesh. V. be identical &c. adj.; coincide, coalesce, merge. treat as the same, render the same, identical; identify; recognize the identity of. Adj. identical; self, ilk; the same &c. n. selfsame, one and the same, homoousian[obs3]. coincide, coalescent, coalescing; indistinguishable; one; equivalent &c. (equal) 27; tweedle dee and tweedle dum[Lat]; much the same, of a muchness[obs3]; unaltered. Adv. identically &c. adj.; on all fours.

#14. [Noncoincidence.] Contrariety.—N. contrariety, contrast, foil, antithesis, oppositeness; contradiction; antagonism &c. (opposition) 708; clashing, repugnance. inversion &c. 218; the opposite, the reverse, the inverse, the converse, the antipodes, the antithesis, the other extreme. V. be contrary &c. adj.; contrast with, oppose; diller toto coelo[Lat]. invert, reverse, turn the tables; turn topsy-turvy, turn end for end, turn upside down, turn inside out. contradict, contravene; antagonize &c. 708. Adj. contrary, contrarious[obs3], contrariant[obs3]; opposite, counter, dead against; converse, reverse; opposed, antithetical, contrasted, antipodean, antagonistic, opposing; conflicting, inconsistent, contradictory, at cross purposes; negative; hostile &c. 703. differing toto coelo[Lat]; diametrically opposite; diametrically opposed; as opposite as black and white, as opposite as light and darkness, as opposite as fire and water, as opposite as the poles; as different as night and day; "Hyperion to a satyr"[ Hamlet]; quite the contrary, quite the reverse; no such thing, just the other way, tout au contraire[Fr]. Adv. contrarily &c. adj.; contra, contrariwise, per contra, on the contrary, nay rather; vice versa; on the other hand &c. (in compensation) 30. Phr. "all concord's born of contraries" [B. Jonson]. Thesis, antithesis, synthesis [Marx].

#15. Difference.—N. difference; variance, variation, variety; diversity, dissimilarity &c. 18; disagreement &c. 24; disparity &c. (inequality) 28; distinction, contradistinction; alteration. modification, permutation, moods and tenses. nice distinction, fine distinction, delicate distinction, subtle distinction; shade of difference, nuance; discrimination &c. 465; differentia. different thing, something else, apple off another tree, another pair of shoes; horse of a different color; this that or the other. V. be different &c. adj.; differ, vary, ablude|, mismatch, contrast; divaricate; differ toto coelo[Lat], differ longo intervallo[It]. vary, modify &c. (change) 140. discriminate &c. 465. Adj. differing &c. v.; different, diverse, heterogeneous, multifarious, polyglot; distinguishable, dissimilar; varied, modified; diversified, various, divers, all manner of, all kinds of; variform &c. 81[obs3]; daedal[obs3]. other, another, not the same; unequal &c. 28. unmatched; widely apart, poles apart, distinctive, characteristic; discriminative; distinguishing. incommensurable, incommensurate. Adv. differently &c. adj. Phr. il y a fagots et fagots.


#16. Uniformity.—N. uniformity; homogeneity, homogeneousness; consistency; connaturality[obs3], connaturalness[obs3]; homology; accordance; conformity &c. 82; agreement &c. 23; consonance, uniformness. regularity, constancy, even tenor, routine; monotony. V. be uniform &c. adj.; accord with &c. 23; run through. become uniform &c. adj.; conform to &c. 82. render uniform, homogenize &c. adj.; assimilate, level, smooth, dress. Adj. uniform; homogeneous, homologous; of a piece[Fr], consistent, connatural[obs3]; monotonous, even, invariable; regular, unchanged, undeviating, unvaried, unvarying. unsegmented. Adv. uniformly &c. adj.; uniformly with &c. (conformably) 82; in harmony with &c. (agreeing) 23. always, invariably, without exception, without fail, unfailingly, never otherwise; by clockwork. Phr. ab uno disce omnes[Lat].

#16a. [Absence or want of uniformity.] Nonuniformity.—N. diversity, irregularity, unevenness; multiformity &c. 81; unconformity &c. 83; roughness &c. 256; dissimilarity, dissimilitude, divarication, divergence. Adj. diversified varied, irregular, uneven, rough &c. 256; multifarious; multiform &c. 81; of various kinds; all manner of, all sorts of, all kinds of. Adv. variously, in all manner of ways, here there and everywhere.


#17. Similarity.—N. similarity, resemblance, likeness, similitude, semblance; affinity, approximation, parallelism; agreement &c. 23; analogy, analogicalness[obs3]; correspondence, homoiousia[obs3], parity. connaturalness[obs3], connaturality[obs3]; brotherhood, family likeness. alliteration, rhyme, pun. repetition &c. 104; sameness &c. (identity) 13; uniformity &c. 16; isogamy[obs3]. analogue; the like; match, pendant, fellow companion, pair, mate, twin, double, counterpart, brother, sister; one's second self, alter ego, chip of the old block, par nobile fratrum[Lat], Arcades ambo[obs3], birds of a feather, et hoc genus omne[Lat]; gens de meme famille[Fr]. parallel; simile; type &c. (metaphor) 521; image &c. (representation) 554; photograph; close resemblance, striking resemblance, speaking resemblance, faithful likeness, faithful resemblance. V. be similar &c. adj.; look like, resemble, bear resemblance; smack of, savor of; approximate; parallel, match, rhyme with; take after; imitate &c. 19; favor, span [U. S.]. render similar &c. adj.; assimilate, approximate, bring near; connaturalize[obs3], make alike; rhyme, pun. Adj. similar; resembling &c. v.; like, alike; twin. analogous, analogical; parallel, of a piece[Fr]; such as, so; homoiousian[obs3]. connatural[obs3], congener, allied to; akin to &c. (consanguineous) 1 1. approximate, much the same, near, close, something like, sort of, in the ballpark, such like; a show of; mock, pseudo, simulating, representing. exact &c. (true) 494; lifelike, faithful; true to nature, true to life, the very image, the very picture of; for all the world like, comme deux gouttes d'eau[Fr]; as like as two peas in a pod, as like as it can stare; instar omnium[Lat], cast in the same mold, ridiculously like. Adv. as if, so to speak; as it were, as if it were; quasi, just as, veluti in speculum[Lat]. Phr. et sic de similibus[Lat]; tel maitre tel valet[Fr]; tel pere tel fils[Fr]; like master, like servant; like father, like son; the fruit doesn't fall far from the tree; a chip off the old block

#18. Dissimilarity.—N. dissimilarity, dissimilaritude[obs3]; unlikeness, diversity, disparity, dissemblance[obs3]; divergence, variation.; difference &c. 15; novelty, originality; creativeness; oogamy[obs3]. V. be unlike &c. adj.; vary &c. (differ) 15; bear no resemblance to, differ toto coelo[Lat]. render unlike &c. adj.; vary &c. (diversify) 140. Adj. dissimilar, unlike, disparate; divergent; of a different kind &c. (class) 75 unmatched, unique; new, novel; unprecedented &c. 83; original. nothing of the kind; no such thing, quite another thing; far from it, cast in a different mold, tertium quid[Lat], as like a dock as a daisy, "very like a whale" [Hamlet]; as different as chalk from cheese, as different as Macedon and Monmouth; lucus a non lucendo[Lat]. diversified &c. 16a. Adv. otherwise. Phr. diis aliter visum[Lat]; "no more like my father than I to Hercules" [Hamlet].

#19. Imitation.—N. imitation; copying &c. v.; transcription; repetition, duplication, reduplication; quotation; reproduction; mimeograph, xerox, facsimile; reprint, offprint. mockery, mimicry; simulation, impersonation, personation; representation &c. 554; semblance; copy &c. 21; assimilation. paraphrase, parody, take-off, lampoon, caricature &c. 21. plagiarism; forgery, counterfeit &c. (falsehood) 544; celluloid. imitator, echo, cuckoo|, parrot, ape, monkey, mocking bird, mime; copyist, copycat; plagiarist, pirate. V. imitate, copy, mirror, reflect, reproduce, repeat; do like, echo, reecho, catch; transcribe; match, parallel. mock, take off, mimic, ape, simulate, impersonate, personate; act &c. (drama) 599; represent &c. 554; counterfeit, parody, travesty, caricature, lampoon, burlesque. follow in the steps of, tread in the steps, follow in the footsteps of, follow in the wake of; take pattern by; follow suit, follow the example of; walk in the shoes of, take a leaf out of another's book, strike in with, follow suit; take after, model after; emulate. Adj. imitated &c. v.; mock, mimic; modelled after, molded on. paraphrastic; literal; imitative; secondhand; imitable; aping, apish, mimicking.

     Adv. literally, to the letter, verbatim, literatim[Lat], sic, totidem
verbis[Lat], word for word, mot a mot[Fr]; exactly, precisely.

     Phr. like master like man; "like - but oh! how different!"
[Wordsworth]; "genius borrows nobly" [Emerson]; "pursuing echoes calling
'mong the rocks" [A. Coles]; "quotation confesses inferiority"
[Emerson]; "Imitation is the sincerest form of flattery".

#20. Nonimitation.—N. no imitation; originality; creativeness.
     invention, creation.
     Adj. unimitated[obs3], uncopied[obs3]; unmatched, unparalleled;
inimitable &c. 13; unique, original; creative, inventive, untranslated;
exceptional, rare, sui generis uncommon[Lat], unexampled.

#20a. Variation.—N. variation; alteration &c. (change) 140. modification, moods and tenses; discrepance[obs3], discrepancy. divergency &c. 291[obs3]; deviation &c. 279; aberration; innovation. V. vary &c. (change) 140; deviate &c. 279; diverge &c. 291; alternate, swerve. Adj. varied &c. v.; modified; diversified &c. 16a.

#21. [Result of imitation.] Copy.—N. copy, facsimile, counterpart,
effigies, effigy, form, likeness.
     image, picture, photo, xerox, similitude, semblance, ectype[obs3],
photo offset, electrotype; imitation &c. 19; model, representation,
adumbration, study; portrait &c. (representation) 554; resemblance.
     duplicate, reproduction; cast, tracing; reflex, reflexion[Brit],
reflection; shadow, echo.
      transcript[copy into a non-visual form], transcription; recording,
     chip off the old block; reprint, new printing; rechauffe[Fr];
apograph[obs3], fair copy.
     parody, caricature, burlesque, travesty, travestie[obs3], paraphrase.
     [copy with some differences] derivative, derivation, modification,
expansion, extension, revision; second edition &c. (repetition) 104.
     servile copy, servile imitation; plagiarism, counterfeit, fake
&c.(deception) 545; pasticcio[obs3].
     Adj. faithful; lifelike &c. (similar) 17; close, conscientious.
     unoriginal, imitative, derivative.

#22. [Thing copied.] Prototype.—N. prototype, original, model, pattern, precedent, standard, ideal, reference, scantling, type; archetype, antitype[obs3]; protoplast, module, exemplar, example, ensample[obs3], paradigm; lay-figure. text, copy, design; fugleman[obs3], keynote; die, mold; matrix, last, plasm[obs3]; proplasm[obs3], protoplasm; mint; seal, punch, intaglio, negative; stamp. V. be an example, be a role model, set an example; set a copy. Phr. a precedent embalms a principle [Disraeli]; exempla sunt odiosa[Lat].


#23. Agreement.—N. agreement; accord, accordance; unison, harmony; concord &c. 714; concordance, concert; understanding, mutual understanding. conformity &c. 82; conformance; uniformity &c. 16; consonance, consentaneousness[obs3], consistency; congruity, congruence; keeping; congeniality; correspondence, parallelism, apposition, union. fitness, aptness &c. adj.; relevancy; pertinence, pertinencey[obs3]; sortance|; case in point; aptitude, coaptation[obs3], propriety, applicability, admissibility, commensurability, compatibility; cognation &c. (relation) 9. adaption[obs3], adjustment, graduation, accommodation; reconciliation, reconcilement; assimilation. consent &c. (assent) 488; concurrence &c. 178; cooperation &c. 709. right man in the right place, very thing; quite the thing, just the thing. V. be accordant &c. adj.; agree, accord, harmonize; correspond, tally, respond; meet, suit, fit, befit, do, adapt itself to; fall in with, chime in with, square with, quadrate with, consort with, comport with; dovetail, assimilate; fit like a glove, fit to a tittle, fit to a T; match &c. 17; become one; homologate[obs3]. consent &c. (assent) 488. render accordant &c. adj.; fit, suit, adapt, accommodate; graduate; adjust &c. (render, equal) 27; dress, regulate, readjust; accord, harmonize,. reconcile; fadge[obs3], dovetail, square. Adj. agreeing, suiting &c. v.; in accord, accordant, concordant, consonant, congruous, consentaneous[obs3], correspondent, congenial; coherent; becoming; harmonious reconcilable, conformable; in accordance with, in harmony with, in keeping with, in unison with, &c. n.; at one with, of one mind, of a piece[Fr]; consistent, compatible, proportionate; commensurate; on all fours. apt, apposite, pertinent, pat; to the point, to the purpose; happy, felicitous, germane, ad rem[Lat], in point, on point, directly on point, bearing upon, applicable, relevant, admissible. fit adapted, in loco, a propos[Fr], appropriate, seasonable, sortable, suitable, idoneous[obs3], deft; meet &c. (expedient) 646.

     at home, in one's proper element.
     Adv. a propos of[Fr]; pertinently &c. adj.
     Phr. rem acu tetigisti[Lat][obs3]; if the shoe fits, wear it; the cap
fits; auxilia humilia firma consensus facit [Lat][Syrus]; discers concordia

#24. Disagreement.—N. disagreement; discord, discordance; dissonance, dissidence, discrepancy; unconformity &c. 83; incongruity, incongruence[obs3]; discongruity[obs3], mesalliance; jarring &c. v.; dissension &c. 713; conflict &c. (opposition) 708; bickering, clashing, misunderstanding, wrangle. disparity, mismatch, disproportion; dissimilitude, inequality; disproportionateness &c. adj[obs3].; variance, divergence, repugnance. unfitness &c. adj.; inaptitude, impropriety; inapplicability &c. adj.; inconsistency, inconcinnity[obs3]; irrelevancy &c. (irrelation) 10[obs3]. misjoining[obs3], misjoinder[obs3]; syncretism[obs3], intrusion, interference; concordia discors[Lat]. fish out of water. V. disagree; clash, jar &c. (discord) 713; interfere, intrude, come amiss; not concern &c. 10; mismatch; humano capiti cervicem jungere equinam[Lat]. Adj. disagreeing &c. v.; discordant, discrepant; at variance, at war; hostile, antagonistic, repugnant, incompatible, irreconcilable, inconsistent with; unconformable, exceptional &c. 83; intrusive, incongruous; disproportionate, disproportionated[obs3]; inharmonious, unharmonious[obs3]; inconsonant, unconsonant[obs3]; divergent, repugnant to. inapt, unapt, inappropriate, improper; unsuited, unsuitable; inapplicable, not to the point; unfit, unfitting, unbefitting; unbecoming; ill-timed, unseasonable, mal a propos[Fr], inadmissible; inapposite &c. (irrelevant) 10. uncongenial; ill-assorted, ill-sorted; mismatched, misjoined[obs3], misplaced, misclassified; unaccommodating, irreducible, incommensurable, uncommensurable[obs3]; unsympathetic. out of character, out of keeping, out of proportion, out of joint, out of tune, out of place, out of season, out of its element; at odds with, at variance with. Adv. in defiance, in contempt, in spite of; discordantly &c. adj.; a tort et a travers[obs3]. Phr. asinus ad lyram[Lat].



#25. [Absolute quantity.] Quantity.—N. quantity, magnitude; size
&c. (dimensions) 192; amplitude, magnitude, mass, amount, sum, quantum,
measure, substance, strength, force.
     [Science of quantity.] mathematics, mathesis[obs3].
     [Logic.] category, general conception, universal predicament.
     [Definite or finite quantity.] armful, handful, mouthful, spoonful,
capful; stock, batch, lot, dose; yaffle[obs3].
     V. quantify, measure, fix, estimate, determine, quantitate, enumerate.
     Adj. quantitative, some, any, aught, more or less, a few.
     Adv. to the tune of, all of, a full, the sum of, fully, exactly,

#26. [Relative quantity.] Degree.—N. degree, grade, extent, measure, amount, ratio, stint, standard, height, pitch; reach, amplitude, range, scope, caliber; gradation, shade; tenor, compass; sphere, station, rank, standing; rate, way, sort. point, mark, stage &c. (term) 71; intensity, strength &c. (greatness) 31. Adj. comparative; gradual, shading off; within the bounds &c. (limit) 233. Adv. by degrees, gradually, inasmuch, pro tanto[It]; however, howsoever; step by step, bit by bit, little by little, inch by inch, drop by drop; a little at a time, by inches, by slow degrees, by degrees, by little and little; in some degree, in some measure; to some extent; di grado in grado[Lat].


#27. [Sameness of quantity or degree.] Equality.—N. equality, parity, coextension[obs3], symmetry, balance, poise; evenness, monotony, level. equivalence; equipollence[obs3], equipoise, equilibrium, equiponderance[obs3]; par, quits, a wash; not a pin to choose; distinction without a difference, six of one and half a dozen of the other; tweedle dee and tweedle dum[Lat]; identity &c. 13; similarity &c. 17. equalization, equation; equilibration, co*ordination, adjustment, readjustment; drawn game, drawn battle; neck and neck race; tie, draw, standoff, dead heat. match, peer, compeer, equal, mate, fellow, brother; equivalent. V. be equal &c. adj.; equal, match, reach, keep pace with, run abreast; come to, amount to, come up to; be on a level with, lie on a level with; balance; cope with; come to the same thing. render equal &c. adj.; equalize level, dress, balance, equate, handicap, give points, spot points, handicap, trim, adjust, poise; fit, accommodate; adapt &c. (render accordant) 23; strike a balance; establish equality, restore equality, restore equilibrium; readjust; stretch on the bed of Procrustes. Adj. equal, even, level, monotonous, coequal, symmetrical, coordinate; on a par with, on a level with, on a footing with; up to the mark; equiparant[obs3]. equivalent, tantamount; indistinguishable; quits; homologous; synonymous &c. 522; resolvable into, convertible, much at one, as broad as long, neither more nor less.; much the same as, the same thing as, as good as; all one, all the same; equipollent, equiponderant[obs3], equiponderous[obs3], equibalanced[obs3]; equalized &c. v.; drawn; half and half; isochronal, isochronous isoperimetric[obs3], isoperimetrical[obs3]; isobath[Oceanography], isobathic[Oceanography]. Adv. equally &c. adj.; pari passu[Lat], ad eundum[Lat], caeteris paribus[Lat]; in equilibrio[Lat]; to all intents and purposes.

Phr. it comes to the same thing, it amounts to the same thing; what is sauce for the goose is sauce for the gander.

#28. [Difference of quantity or degree.] Inequality.—N. inequality; disparity, imparity; odds; difference &c. 15; unevenness; inclination of the balance, partiality, bias, weight; shortcoming; casting weight, make- weight; superiority &c. 33; inferiority &c. 34; inequation[obs3]. V. be unequal &c. adj.; countervail; have the advantage, give the advantage; turn the scale; kick the beam; topple, topple over; overmatch &c. 33; not come up to &c. 34. Adj. unequal, uneven, disparate, partial; unbalanced, overbalanced; top-heavy, lopsided, biased, skewed; disquiparant[obs3]. Adv. haud passibus aequis [Latin][Vergil].

#29. Mean.—N. mean, average; median, mode; balance, medium,
mediocrity, generality; golden mean &c. (mid-course) 628; middle &c. 68;
compromise &c. 774; middle course, middle state; neutrality.
     mediocrity, least common denominator.
     V. split the difference; take the average &c. n.; reduce to a mean &c.
n.; strike a balance, pair off.
Adj. mean, intermediate; middle &c. 68; average; neutral.
     mediocre, middle-class; commonplace &c. (unimportant) 643.
     Adv. on an average, in the long run; taking one with another, taking
all things together, taking it for all in all; communibus annis[Lat], in
round numbers.
     Phr. medium tenuere beati[Lat].

#30. Compensation.—N. compensation, equation; commutation; indemnification; compromise &c. 774 neutralization, nullification; counteraction &c. 179; reaction; measure for measure, retaliation &c. 718 equalization &c. 27; robbing Peter to pay Paul. set-off, offset; make-weight, casting-weight; counterpoise, ballast; indemnity, equivalent, quid pro quo; bribe, hush money; amends &c. (atonement) 952; counterbalance, counterclaim; cross-debt, cross-demand. V. make compensation; compensate, compense[obs3]; indemnify; counteract, countervail, counterpoise; balance; outbalance[obs3], overbalance, counterbalance; set off; hedge, square, give and take; make up for, lee way; cover, fill up, neutralize, nullify; equalize &c. 27; make good; redeem &c. (atone) 952. Adj. compensating, compensatory; countervailing &c. v.; in the opposite scale; equivalent &c. (equal) 27. Adv. in return, in consideration; but, however, yet, still, notwithstanding; nevertheless, nathless[obs3], none the less; although, though; albeit, howbeit; mauger[obs3]; at all events, at any rate; be that as it may, for all that, even so, on the other, hand, at the same time, quoad minus[Lat], quand meme[Fr], however that may be; after all is said and done; taking one thing with another &c. (average) 29. Phr. "light is mingled with the gloom" [Whittier]; every dark cloud has a silver lining; primo avulso non deficit alter [Lat][obs3][Vergil]; saepe creat molles aspera spina rosas [Lat][Ovid].


#31. Greatness.—N. greatness &c. adj.; magnitude; size &c. (dimensions) 192; multitude &c. (number) 102; immensity; enormity; infinity &c. 105; might, strength, intensity, fullness; importance &c. 642. great quantity, quantity, deal, power, sight, pot, volume, world; mass, heap &c. (assemblage) 72; stock &c. (store) 636; peck, bushel, load, cargo; cartload[obs3], wagonload, shipload; flood, spring tide; abundance &c. (sufficiency) 639. principal part, chief part, main part, greater part, major part, best part, essential part; bulk, mass &c. (whole) 50. V. be great &c. adj.; run high, soar, tower, transcend; rise to a great height, carry to a great height; know no bounds; ascend, mount. enlarge &c. (increase) 35, (expand) 194. Adj. great; greater &c. 33; large, considerable, fair, above par; big, huge &c. (large in size) 192; Herculean, cyclopean; ample; abundant &c. (enough) 639 full, intense, strong, sound, passing, heavy, plenary, deep, high; signal, at its height, in the zenith. world-wide, widespread, far-famed, extensive; wholesale; many &c. 102. goodly, noble, precious, mighty; sad, grave, heavy, serious; far gone, arrant, downright; utter, uttermost; crass, gross, arch, profound, intense, consummate; rank, uninitiated, red-hot, desperate; glaring, flagrant, stark staring; thorough-paced, thoroughgoing; roaring, thumping; extraordinary.; important &c. 642; unsurpassed &c. (supreme) 33; complete &c. 52. august, grand, dignified, sublime, majestic &c. (repute) 873. vast, immense, enormous, extreme; inordinate, excessive, extravagant, exorbitant, outrageous, preposterous, unconscionable, swinging, monstrous, overgrown; towering, stupendous, prodigious, astonishing, incredible; marvelous &c. 870. unlimited &c. (infinite) 105; unapproachable, unutterable, indescribable, ineffable, unspeakable, inexpressible, beyond expression, fabulous. undiminished, unabated, unreduced[obs3], unrestricted. absolute, positive, stark, decided, unequivocal, essential, perfect, finished. remarkable, of mark, marked, pointed, veriest; noteworthy; renowned. Adv. truly &c. (truth) 494[in a positive degree]; decidedly, unequivocally, purely, absolutely, seriously, essentially, fundamentally, radically, downright, in all conscience; for the most part, in the main. [in a complete degree] entirely &c. (completely) 52; abundantly &c. (sufficiently) 639; widely, far and wide. [in a great or high degree] greatly &c. adj.; much, muckle[obs3], well, indeed, very, very much, a deal, no end of, most, not a little; pretty, pretty well; enough, in a great measure, richly; to a large extent, to a great extent, to a gigantic extent; on a large scale; so; never so, ever so; ever so dole; scrap, shred, tag, splinter, rag, much; by wholesale; mighty, powerfully; with a witness, ultra[Lat], in the extreme, extremely, exceedingly, intensely, exquisitely, acutely, indefinitely, immeasurably; beyond compare, beyond comparison, beyond measure, beyond all bounds; incalculably, infinitely. [in a supreme degree] preeminently, superlatively &c. (superiority) 33. [in a too great degree] immoderately, monstrously, preposterously, inordinately, exorbitantly, excessively, enormously, out of all proportion, with a vengeance. [in a marked degree] particularly, remarkably, singularly, curiously, uncommonly, unusually, peculiarly, notably, signally, strikingly, pointedly, mainly, chiefly; famously, egregiously, prominently, glaringly, emphatically, <gr/kat exochin/>[Grl], strangely, wonderfully, amazingly, surprisingly, astonishingly, incredibly, marvelously, awfully, stupendously. [in an exceptional degree] peculiarly &c. (unconformity) 83. [in a violent degree] furiously &c. (violence) 173; severely, desperately, tremendously, extravagantly, confoundedly, deucedly, devilishly, with a vengeance; a outrance[obs3], a toute outrance[Fr][obs3]. [in a painful degree] painfully, sadly, grossly, sorely, bitterly, piteously, grievously, miserably, cruelly, woefully, lamentably, shockingly, frightfully, dreadfully, fearfully, terribly, horribly. Phr. a maximis ad minima[Lat]; "greatness knows itself" [Henry IV]; "mightiest powers by deepest calms are fed" [B. Cornwall]; minimum decet libere cui multum licet [Lat][Seneca]; "some are born great, some achieve greatness, and some have greatness thrust upon them" [Twelfth Night].

#32. Smallness.—N. smallness &c. adj.; littleness &c. (small size) 193; tenuity; paucity; fewness &c (small number) 103; meanness, insignificance (unimportance) 643; mediocrity, moderation. small quantity, modicum, trace, hint, minimum; vanishing point; material point, atom, particle, molecule, corpuscle, point, speck, dot, mote, jot, iota, ace; minutiae, details; look, thought, idea, soupcon, dab, dight[obs3], whit, tittle, shade, shadow; spark, scintilla, gleam; touch, cast; grain, scruple, granule, globule, minim, sup, sip, sop, spice, drop, droplet, sprinkling, dash, morceau[obs3], screed, smack, tinge, tincture; inch, patch, scantling, tatter, cantlet[obs3], flitter, gobbet[obs3], mite, bit, morsel, crumb, seed, fritter, shive[obs3]; snip, snippet; snick[obs3], snack, snatch, slip, scrag[obs3]; chip, chipping; shiver, sliver, driblet, clipping, paring, shaving, hair. nutshell; thimbleful, spoonful, handful, capful, mouthful; fragment; fraction &c. (part) 51; drop in the ocean. animalcule &c. 193. trifle &c. (unimportant thing) 643; mere nothing, next to nothing; hardly anything; just enough to swear by; the shadow of a shade. finiteness, finite quantity. V. be small &c. adj.; lie in a nutshell. diminish &c. (decrease) 36; (contract) 195. Adj. small, little; diminutive &c. (small in size) 193; minute; fine; inconsiderable, paltry &c. (unimportant) 643; faint &c. (weak) 160; slender, light, slight, scanty, scant, limited; meager &c. (insufficient) 640; sparing; few &c. 103; low, so-so, middling, tolerable, no great shakes; below par, under par, below the mark; at a low ebb; halfway; moderate, modest; tender, subtle. inappreciable, evanescent, infinitesimal, homeopathic, very small; atomic, corpuscular, microscopic, molecular, subatomic. mere, simple, sheer, stark, bare; near run. dull, petty, shallow, stolid, ungifted, unintelligent. Adv. to a small extent[in a small degree], on a small scale; a little bit, a wee bit; slightly &c. adj.; imperceptibly; miserably, wretchedly; insufficiently &c. 640; imperfectly; faintly &c. 160; passably, pretty well, well enough. [in a certain or limited degree] partially, in part; in a certain degree, to a certain degree; to a certain extent; comparatively; some, rather in some degree, in some measure; something, somewhat; simply, only, purely, merely; at least, at the least, at most, at the most; ever so little, as little as may be, tant soit peu[Fr], in ever so small a degree; thus far, pro tanto[It], within bounds, in a manner, after a fashion, so to speak. almost, nearly, well-nigh, short of, not quite, all but; near upon, close upon; peu s'en faut[Fr], near the mark; within an ace of, within an inch of; on the brink of; scarcely, hardly, barely, only just, no more than; about [in an uncertain degree], thereabouts, somewhere about, nearly, say; be the same, be little more or less; no ways [in no degree], no way, no wise; not at all, not in the least, not a bit, not a bit of it, not a whit, not a jot, not a shadow; in no wise, in no respect; by no means, by no manner of means; on no account, at no hand. Phr. dare pondus idonea fumo [Lat][Persius]; magno conatu magnas nugas [Lat][Terence]; "small sands the mountain, moments make the year" [Young].


#33. Superiority. [Supremacy.]—N. superiority, majority; greatness &c. 31; advantage; pull; preponderance, preponderation; vantage ground, prevalence, partiality; personal superiority; nobility &c. (rank) 875; Triton among the minnows, primus inter pares[Lat], nulli secundus[Lat], captain; crackajack * [obs3][U. S.]. supremacy, preeminence; lead; maximum; record; <gr/trikumia/>[obs3], climax; culmination &c. (summit) 210; transcendence; ne plus ultra[Lat]; lion's share, Benjamin's mess; excess, surplus &c. (remainder) 40; (redundancy) 641. V. be superior &c. adj.; exceed, excel, transcend; outdo, outbalance[obs3], outweigh, outrank, outrival, out-Herod; pass, surpass, get ahead of; over-top, override, overpass, overbalance, overweigh, overmatch; top, o'ertop, cap, beat, cut out; beat hollow; outstrip &c. 303; eclipse, throw into the shade, take the shine out of, outshine, put one's nose out of joint; have the upper hand, have the whip hand of, have the advantage; turn the scale, kick the beam; play first fiddle &c. (importance) 642; preponderate, predominate, prevail; precede, take precedence, come first; come to a head, culminate; beat &c. all others, bear the palm; break the record; take the cake * [U. S.]. become larger, render larger &c. (increase) 35, (expand) 194. Adj. superior, greater, major, higher; exceeding &c. v.; great &c. 31; distinguished, ultra[Lat]; vaulting; more than a match for. supreme, greatest, utmost, paramount, preeminent, foremost, crowning; first-rate &c. (important) 642, (excellent) 648; unrivaled peerless, matchless; none such, second to none, sans pareil[Fr]; unparagoned[obs3], unparalleled, unequalled, unapproached[obs3], unsurpassed; superlative, inimitable facile princeps[Lat], incomparable, sovereign, without parallel, nulli secundus[Lat], ne plus ultra[Lat]; beyond compare, beyond comparison; culminating &c. (topmost) 210; transcendent, transcendental; plus royaliste que le Roi[Fr], more catholic than the Pope increased &c. (added to) 35; enlarged &c. (expanded) 194. Adv. beyond, more, over; over the mark, above the mark; above par; upwards of, in advance of; over and above; at the top of the scale, at its height. [in a superior or supreme degree] eminently, egregiously, preeminently, surpassing, prominently, superlatively, supremely, above all, of all things, the most, to crown all, <gr/kat exochin/gr>[Grl], par excellence, principally, especially, particularly, peculiarly, a fortiori, even, yea, still more.

Phr. "I shall not look upon his like again" [Hamlet]; deos fortioribus addesse [Lat][Tacitus].

#34. Inferiority.—N. inferiority, minority, subordinacy; shortcoming, deficiency; minimum; smallness &c. 32; imperfection; lower quality, lower worth. [personal inferiority] commonalty &c. 876. V. be inferior &c. adj.; fall short of, come short of; not pass, not come up to; want. become smaller, render smaller &c. (decrease) 36, (contract) 195; hide its diminished head, retire into the shade, yield the palm, play second fiddle, be upstaged, take a back seat. Adj. inferior, smaller; small &c. 32; minor, less, lesser, deficient, minus, lower, subordinate, secondary; second-rate &c. (imperfect) 651; sub, subaltern; thrown into the shade; weighed in the balance and found wanting; not fit to hold a candle to, can't hold a candle to. least, smallest &c. (see little, small &c. 193); lowest. diminished &c. (decreased) 36; reduced &c. (contracted) 195; unimportant &c. 643. Adv. less; under the mark, below the mark, below par; at the bottom of the scale, at a low ebb, at a disadvantage; short of, under.


#35. Increase.—N. increase, augmentation, enlargement, extension; dilatation &c. (expansion) 194; increment, accretion; accession &c. 37; development, growth; aggrandizement, aggravation; rise; ascent &c. 305; exaggeration, exacerbation; spread &c. (dispersion) 73; flood tide; gain, produce, product, profit. V. increase, augment, add to, enlarge; dilate &c. (expand) 194; grow, wax, get ahead, gain strength; advance; run up, shoot up; rise; ascend &c. 305; sprout &c. 194. aggrandize; raise, exalt; deepen, heighten; strengthen; intensify, enhance, magnify, redouble; aggravate, exaggerate; exasperate, exacerbate; add fuel to the flame, oleum addere camino[Lat], superadd &c. (add) 37[obs3]; spread &c. (disperse) 73. Adj. increased &c. v.; on the increase, undiminished; additional &c. (added) 37. Adv. crescendo. Phr. vires acquirit eundo [Lat][Vergil].

#36. Nonincrease, Decrease.—N. decrease, diminution; lessening &c. v.; subtraction &c. 38; reduction, abatement, declension; shrinking &c. (contraction.) 195; coarctation|; abridgment &c. (shortening) 201; extenuation. subsidence, wane, ebb, decline; ebbing; descent &c. 306; decrement, reflux, depreciation; deterioration &c. 659; anticlimax; mitigation &c. (moderation) 174. V. decrease, diminish, lessen; abridge &c. (shorten) 201; shrink &c. (contract) 195; drop off, fall off, tail off; fall away, waste, wear; wane, ebb, decline; descend &c. 306; subside; melt away, die away; retire into the shade, hide its diminished head, fall to a low ebb, run low, languish, decay, crumble. bate, abate, dequantitate|; discount; depreciate; extenuate, lower, weaken, attenuate, fritter away; mitigate &c. (moderate) 174; dwarf, throw into the shade; reduce &c. 195; shorten &c. 201; subtract &c. 38. Adj. unincreased &c. (see increase &c.35)[obs3]; decreased &c. v.; decreasing &c. v.; on the wane &c. n. Phr. "a gilded halo hovering round decay" [Byron]; "fine by degrees and beautifully less" [Prior].


#37. Addition.—N. addition, annexation, adjection[obs3]; junction &c. 43; superposition, superaddition, superjunction[obs3], superfetation; accession, reinforcement; increase &c. 35; increment, supplement; accompaniment &c. 88; interposition &c. 228; insertion &c. 300. V. add, annex, affix, superadd[obs3], subjoin, superpose; clap on, saddle on; tack to, append, tag; ingraft[obs3]; saddle with; sprinkle; introduce &c. (interpose) 228; insert &c. 300. become added, accrue; advene[obs3], supervene. reinforce, reenforce, restrengthen[obs3]; swell the ranks of; augment &c. 35. Adj. added &c. v.; additional; supplemental, supplementary; suppletory[obs3], subjunctive; adjectitious[obs3], adscititious[obs3], ascititious[obs3]; additive, extra, accessory. Adv. au reste[Fr], in addition, more, plus, extra; and, also, likewise, too, furthermore, further, item; and also, and eke; else, besides, to boot, et cetera; &c.; and so on, and so forth; into the bargain, cum multis aliis[Lat], over and above, moreover. with, withal; including, inclusive, as well as, not to mention, let alone; together with, along with, coupled with, in conjunction with; conjointly; jointly &c. 43. Phr. adde parvum parvo magnus acervus erit[Lat].

#38. Nonaddition. Subtraction.—N. subtraction, subduction|!; deduction, retrenchment; removal, withdrawal; ablation, sublation[obs3]; abstraction &c. (taking) 789; garbling,, &c. v. mutilation, detruncation[obs3]; amputation; abscission, excision, recision; curtailment &c. 201; minuend, subtrahend; decrease &c. 36; abrasion. V. subduct, subtract; deduct, deduce; bate, retrench; remove, withdraw, take from, take away; detract. garble, mutilate, amputate, detruncate[obs3]; cut off, cut away, cut out; abscind[obs3], excise; pare, thin, prune, decimate; abrade, scrape, file; geld, castrate; eliminate. diminish &c. 36; curtail &c. (shorten) 201; deprive of &c. (take) 789; weaken. Adj. subtracted &c. v.; subtractive. Adv. in deduction &c. n.; less; short of; minus, without, except, except for, excepting, with the exception of, barring, save, exclusive of, save and except, with a reservation; not counting, if one doesn't count.

#39. [Thing added] Adjunct.—N. adjunct; addition, additament[obs3]; additum[Lat], affix, appelidage[obs3], annexe[obs3], annex; augment, augmentation; increment, reinforcement, supernumerary, accessory, item; garnish, sauce; accompaniment &c. 88; adjective, addendum; complement, supplement; continuation. rider, offshoot, episode, side issue, corollary; piece[Fr]; flap, lappet, skirt, embroidery, trappings, cortege; tail, suffix &c. (sequel) 65; wing. Adj. additional &c. 37. alate[obs3], alated[obs3]; winged. Adv. in addition &c. 37.

#40. [Thing remaining.] Remainder.—N. remainder, residue; remains, remanent, remnant, rest, relic; leavings, heeltap[obs3], odds and ends, cheesepairings[obs3], candle ends, orts[obs3]; residuum; dregs &c. (dirt) 653; refuse &c. (useless) 645; stubble, result, educt[obs3]; fag-end; ruins, wreck, skeleton., stump; alluvium. surplus, overplus[obs3], excess; balance, complement; superplus[obs3], surplusage[obs3]; superfluity &c.(redundancy) 641; survival, survivance[obs3]. V. remain; be left &c. adj.; exceed, survive; leave.

Adj. remaining, left; left behind left over; residual, residuary; over, odd; unconsumed, sedimentary; surviving; net; exceeding, over and above; outlying, outstanding; cast off &c. 782; superfluous &c. (redundant) 641.

#40a. [Thing deducted.] Decrement.—N. decrement, discount, defect, loss, deduction; afterglow; eduction[obs3]; waste.

#41. [Forming a whole without coherence.] Mixture.—N. mixture, admixture, commixture, commixtion[obs3]; commixion[obs3], intermixture, alloyage[obs3], matrimony; junction &c. 43; combination &c. 48; miscegenation. impregnation; infusion, diffusion suffusion, transfusion; infiltration; seasoning, sprinkling, interlarding; interpolation &c. 228 adulteration, sophistication. [Thing mixed] tinge, tincture, touch, dash, smack, sprinkling, spice, seasoning, infusion, soupcon. [Compound resulting from mixture] alloy, amalgam; brass, chowchow[obs3], pewter; magma, half-and-half, melange, tertium quid[Lat], miscellany, ambigu|, medley, mess, hotchpot[obs3], pasticcio[obs3], patchwork, odds and ends, all sorts; jumble &c. (disorder) 59; salad, sauce, mash, omnium gatherum[Lat], gallimaufry, olla-podrida[obs3], olio, salmagundi, potpourri, Noah's ark, caldron texture, mingled yarn; mosaic &c. (variegation) 440.

half-blood, half-caste, mulatto; terceron[obs3], quarteron[obs3], quinteron &c.[obs3]; quadroon, octoroon; griffo[obs3], zambo[obs3]; cafuzo[obs3]; Eurasian; fustee[obs3], fustie[obs3]; griffe, ladino[obs3], marabou, mestee[obs3], mestizo, quintroon, sacatra zebrule[obs3][U. S.]; catalo[obs3]; cross, hybrid, mongrel.

V. mix; join &c. 43; combine &c. 48; commix, immix[obs3], intermix; mix up with, mingle; commingle, intermingle, bemingle[obs3]; shuffle &c. (derange) 61; pound together; hash up, stir up; knead, brew; impregnate with; interlard &c. (interpolate) 228; intertwine, interweave &c. 219; associate with; miscegenate[obs3]. be mixed &c.; get among, be entangled with. instill, imbue; infuse, suffuse, transfuse; infiltrate, dash, tinge, tincture, season, sprinkle, besprinkle, attemper[obs3], medicate, blend, cross; alloy, amalgamate, compound, adulterate, sophisticate, infect.

Adj. mixed &c. v.; implex[obs3], composite, half-and-half, linsey- woolsey, chowchow, hybrid, mongrel, heterogeneous; motley &c. (variegated) 440; miscellaneous, promiscuous, indiscriminate; miscible. Adv. among, amongst, amid, amidst; with; in the midst of, in the crowd.

#42. [Freedom from mixture.] Simpleness.—N. simpleness &c. adj.;
purity, homogeneity.
     elimination; sifting &c. v.; purification &c. (cleanness) 652.
     V. render simple &c. adj.; simplify.
     sift, winnow, bolt, eliminate; exclude, get rid of; clear; purify &c.
(clean) 652; disentangle &c. (disjoin) 44.
     Adj. simple, uniform, of a piece[Fr], homogeneous, single, pure,
sheer, neat.
     unmixed, unmingled[obs3], unblended, uncombined, uncompounded;
elementary, undecomposed; unadulterated, unsophisticated, unalloyed,
untinged[obs3], unfortified, pur et simple[Fr]; incomplex[obs3].
     free from, exempt from; exclusive.
     Adv. simple &c. adj. only.

#43. Junction.—N. junction; joining &c. v.; joinder[Law], union connection, conjunction, conjugation; annexion[obs3], annexation, annexment[obs3]; astriction[obs3], attachment, compagination[obs3], vincture[obs3], ligation, alligation[obs3]; accouplement[obs3]; marriage &c. (wedlock,) 903; infibulation[obs3], inosculation[obs3], symphysis[Anat], anastomosis, confluence, communication, concatenation; meeting, reunion; assemblage &c. 72. coition, copulation; sex, sexual congress, sexual conjunction, sexual intercourse, love-making. joint, joining, juncture, pivot, hinge, articulation, commissure[obs3], seam, gore, gusset, suture, stitch; link &c. 45; miter mortise. closeness, tightness, &c. adj.; coherence &c. 46; combination &c. 48. annexationist. V. join, unite; conjoin, connect; associate; put together, lay together, clap together, hang together, lump together, hold together, piece together[Fr], tack together, fix together, bind up together together; embody, reembody[obs3]; roll into one. attach, fix, affix, saddle on, fasten, bind, secure, clinch, twist, make fast &c. adj.; tie, pinion, string, strap, sew, lace, tat, stitch, tack, knit, button, buckle, hitch, lash, truss, bandage, braid, splice, swathe, gird, tether, moor, picket, harness, chain; fetter &c. (restrain) 751; lock, latch, belay, brace, hook, grapple, leash, couple, accouple[obs3], link, yoke, bracket; marry &c. (wed) 903; bridge over, span. braze; pin, nail, bolt, hasp, clasp, clamp, crimp, screw, rivet; impact, solder, set; weld together, fuse together; wedge, rabbet, mortise, miter, jam, dovetail, enchase[obs3]; graft, ingraft[obs3], inosculate[obs3]; entwine, intwine[obs3]; interlink, interlace, intertwine, intertwist[obs3], interweave; entangle; twine round, belay; tighten; trice up, screw up. be joined &c.; hang together, hold together; cohere &c. 46. Adj. joined &c. v.; joint; conjoint, conjunct; corporate, compact; hand in hand. firm, fast, close, tight, taut, taught, secure, set, intervolved |; inseparable, indissoluble, insecable[obs3], severable. Adv. jointly &c. adj.; in conjunction with &c. (in addition to) 37; fast, firmly, &c. adj.; intimately. Phr. tria juncta in uno[Lat].

#44. Disjunction.—N. disjunction, disconnection, disunity, disunion, disassociation, disengagement; discontinuity &c. 70; abjunction[obs3]; cataclasm[obs3]; inconnection[obs3]; abstraction, abstractedness; isolation; insularity, insulation; oasis; island; separateness &c. adj.; severalty; disjecta membra[Lat]; dispersion &c. 73; apportionment &c. 786. separation; parting &c. v.; circumcision; detachment, segregation; divorce, sejunction|, seposition|, diduction[obs3], diremption[obs3], discerption[obs3]; elision; caesura, break, fracture, division, subdivision, rupture; compartition |; dismemberment, dislocation; luxation[obs3]; severance, disseverance; scission; rescission, abscission; laceration, dilaceration[obs3]; disruption, abruption[obs3]; avulsion[obs3], divulsion[obs3]; section, resection, cleavage; fission; partibility[obs3], separability.

fissure, breach, rent, split, rift, crack, slit, incision. dissection anatomy; decomposition &c. 49; cutting instrument &c (sharpness) 253; buzzsaw, circular saw, rip saw. separatist. V. be disjoined &c.; come off, fall off, come to pieces, fall to pieces; peel off; get loose. disjoin, disconnect, disengage, disunite, dissociate, dispair[obs3]; divorce, part, dispart[obs3], detach, separate, cut off, rescind, segregate; set apart, keep apart; insulate,, isolate; throw out of gear; cut adrift; loose; unloose, undo, unbind, unchain, unlock &c. (fix) 43, unpack, unravel; disentangle; set free &c. (liberate) 750. sunder, divide, subdivide, sever, dissever, abscind[obs3]; circumcise; cut; incide|, incise; saw, snip, nib, nip, cleave, rive, rend, slit, split, splinter, chip, crack, snap, break, tear, burst; rend &c. rend asunder, rend in twain; wrench, rupture, shatter, shiver, cranch[obs3], crunch, craunch[obs3], chop; cut up, rip up; hack, hew, slash; whittle; haggle, hackle, discind|, lacerate, scamble[obs3], mangle, gash, hash, slice. cut up, carve, dissect, anatomize; dislimb[obs3]; take to pieces, pull to pieces, pick to pieces, tear to pieces; tear to tatters, tear piecemeal, tear limb from limb; divellicate[obs3]; skin &c. 226; disintegrate, dismember, disbranch[obs3], disband; disperse &c. 73; dislocate, disjoint; break up; mince; comminute &c. (pulverize) 330; apportion &c. 786. part, part company; separate, leave. Adj. disjoined &c. v.; discontinuous &c. 70; multipartite[obs3], abstract; disjunctive; secant; isolated &c. v.; insular, separate, disparate, discrete, apart, asunder, far between, loose, free; unattached, unannexed, unassociated, unconnected; distinct; adrift; straggling; rift, reft[obs3]. [capable of being cut] scissile[Chem], divisible, discerptible[obs3], partible, separable. Adv. separately &c. adj.; one by one, severally, apart; adrift, asunder, in twain; in the abstract, abstractedly.

#45. [Connecting medium.] Connection.—N. vinculum, link; connective, connection; junction &c. 43; bond of union, copula, hyphen, intermedium[obs3]; bracket; bridge, stepping-stone, isthmus. bond, tendon, tendril; fiber; cord, cordage; riband, ribbon, rope, guy, cable, line, halser|, hawser, painter, moorings, wire, chain; string &c. (filament) 205. fastener, fastening, tie; ligament, ligature; strap; tackle, rigging; standing rigging, running rigging; traces, harness; yoke; band ribband, bandage; brace, roller, fillet; inkle[obs3]; with, withe, withy; thong, braid; girder, tiebeam; girth, girdle, cestus[obs3], garter, halter, noose, lasso, surcingle, knot, running knot; cabestro [obs3][U. S.], cinch [U. S.], lariat, legadero[obs3], oxreim[obs3]; suspenders.

pin, corking pin, nail, brad, tack, skewer, staple, corrugated fastener; clamp, U-clamp, C-clamp; cramp, cramp iron; ratchet, detent, larigo[obs3], pawl; terret[obs3], treenail, screw, button, buckle; clasp, hasp, hinge, hank, catch, latch, bolt, latchet[obs3], tag; tooth; hook, hook and eye; lock, holdfast[obs3], padlock, rivet; anchor, grappling iron, trennel[obs3], stake, post. cement, glue, gum, paste, size, wafer, solder, lute, putty, birdlime, mortar, stucco, plaster, grout; viscum[obs3]. shackle, rein &c. (means of restraint) 752; prop &c. (support) 215. V. bridge over, span; connect &c. 43; hang &c. 214.

#46. Coherence.—N. coherence, adherence, adhesion, adhesiveness; concretion, accretion; conglutination, agglutination, agglomeration; aggregation; consolidation, set, cementation; sticking, soldering &c. v.; connection; dependence. tenacity, toughness; stickiness &c. 352; inseparability, inseparableness; bur, remora. conglomerate, concrete &c. (density) 321. V. cohere, adhere, stick, cling, cleave, hold, take hold of, hold fast, close with, clasp, hug; grow together, hang together; twine round &c. (join) 43. stick like a leech, stick like wax; stick close; cling like ivy, cling like a bur; adhere like a remora, adhere like Dejanira's shirt. glue; agglutinate, conglutinate[obs3]; cement, lute, paste, gum; solder, weld; cake, consolidate &c. (solidify) 321; agglomerate. Adj. cohesive, adhesive, adhering, cohering &c. v.; tenacious, tough; sticky &c. 352. united, unseparated, unsessile[obs3], inseparable, inextricable, infrangible[obs3]; compact &c. (dense) 321.

#47. [Want of adhesion, nonadhesion, immiscibility.] Incoherence.—N. nonadhesion[obs3]; immiscibility; incoherence; looseness &c. adj.; laxity; relaxation; loosening &c. v.; freedom; disjunction &c. 44; rope of sand. V. make loose &c. adj.; loosen, slacken, relax; unglue &c. 46; detach &c. (disjoin) 44. Adj. nonadhesive, immiscible; incoherent, detached, loose, baggy, slack, lax, relaxed, flapping, streaming; disheveled; segregated, like grains of sand unconsolidated &c. 231, uncombined &c. 48; noncohesive[obs3].

#48. Combination.—N. combination; mixture &c. 41; junction &c. 43; union, unification, synthesis, incorporation, amalgamation, embodiment, coalescence, crasis[obs3], fusion, blending, absorption, centralization. alloy, compound, amalgam, composition, tertium quid[Lat]; resultant, impregnation. V. combine, unite, incorporate, amalgamate, embody, absorb, reembody[obs3], blend, merge, fuse, melt into one, consolidate, coalesce, centralize, impregnate; put together, lump together; cement a union, marry. Adj. combined &c. v.; impregnated with, ingrained; imbued inoculated.

#49. Decomposition.—N. decomposition, analysis, dissection, resolution, catalysis, dissolution; corruption &c. (uncleanness) 653; dispersion &c. 73; disjunction &c. 44; disintegration. V. decompose, decompound; analyze, disembody, dissolve; resolve into its elements, separate into its elements; electrolyze[Chem]; dissect, decentralize, break up; disperse &c. 73; unravel &c. (unroll) 313; crumble into dust. Adj. decomposed &c. v.; catalytic, analytical; resolvent, separative, solvent.


#50. Whole. [Principal part.]—N. whole, totality, integrity; totalness &c. adj[obs3].; entirety, ensemble, collectiveness[obs3]; unity &c. 87; completeness &c. 52; indivisibility, indiscerptibility[obs3]; integration, embodiment; integer. all, the whole, total, aggregate, one and all, gross amount, sum, sum total, tout ensemble, length and breadth of, Alpha and Omega, "be all and end all"; complex, complexus [obs3]; lock stock and barrel. bulk, mass, lump, tissue, staple, body, compages[obs3]; trunk, torso, bole, hull, hulk, skeleton greater part, major part, best part, principal part, main part; essential part &c. (importance). 642; lion's share, Benjamin's mess; the long and the short; nearly, all, almost all. V. form a whole, constitute a whole; integrate, embody, amass; aggregate &c. (assemble) 72; amount to, come to. Adj. whole, total, integral, entire; complete &c. 52; one, individual. unbroken, intact, uncut, undivided, unsevered[obs3], unclipped[obs3], uncropped, unshorn; seamless; undiminished; undemolished, undissolved, undestroyed, unbruised. indivisible, indissoluble, indissolvable[obs3], indiscerptible[obs3]. wholesale, sweeping; comprehensive. Adv. wholly, altogether; totally &c. (completely) 52; entirely, all, all in all, as a whole, wholesale, in a body, collectively, all put together; in the aggregate, in the lump, in the mass, in the gross, in the main, in the long run; en masse, as a body, on the whole, bodily|!, en bloc, in extenso[Lat], throughout, every inch; substantially. Phr. tout bien ou rien[Fr].

#51. Part.—N. part, portion; dose; item, particular; aught, any; division, ward; subdivision, section; chapter, clause, count, paragraph, verse; article, passage; sector, segment; fraction, fragment; cantle, frustum; detachment, parcel. piece[Fr], lump, bit cut, cutting; chip, chunk, collop[obs3], slice, scale; lamina &c. 204; small part; morsel, particle &c. (smallness) 32; installment, dividend; share &c. (allotment) 786. debris, odds and ends, oddments, detritus; excerpta[obs3]; member, limb, lobe, lobule, arm, wing, scion, branch, bough, joint, link, offshoot, ramification, twig, bush, spray, sprig; runner; leaf, leaflet; stump; component part &c. 56; sarmentum[obs3]. compartment; department &c. (class) 75; county &c. (region) 181. V. part, divide, break &c. (disjoin) 44; partition &c. (apportion) 786. Adj. fractional, fragmentary; sectional, aliquot; divided &c. v.; in compartments, multifid[obs3]; disconnected; partial. Adv. partly, in part, partially; piecemeal, part by part; by installments, by snatches, by inches, by driblets; bit by bit, inch by inch, foot by foot, drop by drop; in detail, in lots.

#52. Completeness.—N. completeness &c. adj.; completion &c. 729; integration; allness[obs3]. entirety; perfection &c. 650; solidity, solidarity; unity; all; ne plus ultra[Lat], ideal, limit. complement, supplement, make-weight; filling, up &c. v. impletion[obs3]; saturation, saturity|; high water; high tide, flood tide, spring tide; fill, load, bumper, bellyful[obs3]; brimmer[obs3]; sufficiency &c. 639. V. be complete &c. adj.; come to a head. render complete &c. adj.; complete &c. (accomplish) 729; fill, charge, load, replenish; make up, make good; piece out[Fr], eke out; supply deficiencies; fill up, fill in, fill to the brim, fill the measure of; saturate. go the whole hog, go the whole length; go all lengths. Adj. complete, entire; whole &c. 50; perfect &c. 650; full, good, absolute, thorough, plenary; solid, undivided; with all its parts; all- sided. exhaustive, radical, sweeping, thorough-going; dead. regular, consummate, unmitigated, sheer, unqualified, unconditional, free; abundant &c. (sufficient) 639. brimming; brimful, topful, topfull; chock full, choke full; as full as an egg is of meat, as full as a vetch; saturated, crammed; replete &c. (redundant) 641; fraught, laden; full-laden, full-fraught, full-charged; heavy laden. completing &c. v.; supplemental, supplementary; ascititious[obs3]. Adv. completely &c. adj.; altogether, outright, wholly, totally, in toto, quite; all out; over head and ears; effectually, for good and all, nicely, fully, through thick and thin, head and shoulders; neck and heel, neck and crop; in all respects, in every respect; at all points, out and out, to all intents and purposes; toto coelo[Lat]; utterly; clean, clean as a whistle; to the full, to the utmost, to the backbone; hollow, stark; heart and soul, root and branch, down to the ground. to the top of one's bent, as far as possible, a outrance[obs3]. throughout; from first to last, from beginning to end, from end to end, from one end to the other, from Dan to Beersheba, from head to foot, from top to toe, from top to bottom, de fond en comble[Fr]; a fond, a capite ad calcem [Lat], ab ovo usque ad mala[Lat], fore and aft; every, whit, every inch; cap-a-pie, to the end of the chapter; up to the brim, up to the ears, up to the eyes; as . . . as can be. on all accounts; sous tous les rapports[Fr]; with a vengeance, with a witness. Phr. falsus in uno falsus in omnibus [Latin: false in one thing, false in everything]; omnem movere lapidem[Lat]; una scopa nuova spazza bene [Italian].

#53. Incompleteness.—N. incompleteness &c. adj.; deficiency, short
measure; shortcoming &c. 304; insufficiency &c. 640; imperfection &c. 651;
immaturity &c. (nonpreparation) 674; half measures.
     [part wanting] defect, deficit, defalcation, omission; caret;
shortage; interval &c. 198; break &c. (discontinuity) 70; noncompletion &c.
730; missing link.
     missing piece, missing part, gap, hole, lacuna.
     V. be incomplete &c. adj.; fall short of &c. 304; lack &c. (be
insufficient) 640; neglect &c. 460.
     Adj. incomplete; imperfect &c. 651; unfinished; uncompleted &c. (see
complete &c. 729); defective, deficient, wanting, lacking, failing; in
default, in arrear[obs3]; short of; hollow, meager, lame, halfand-half,
perfunctory, sketchy; crude &c. (unprepared) 674.
     mutilated, garbled, docked, lopped, truncated.
     in progress, in hand; going on, proceeding.
     Adv. incompletely &c. adj.; by halves.
     Phr. caetera desunt[Lat]; caret.

#54. Composition.—N. composition, constitution, crasis[obs3]; combination &c. 48; inclusion, admission, comprehension, reception; embodiment; formation. V. be composed of, be made of, be formed of, be made up of; consist of, be resolved into. include &c. (in a class) 76; contain, hold, comprehend, take in, admit, embrace, embody; involve, implicate; drag into. compose, constitute, form, make; make up, fill up, build up; enter into the composition of &c. (be a component) 56. Adj. containing, constituting &c.v.

#55. Exclusion.—N. exclusion, nonadmission, omission, exception, rejection, repudiation; exile &c. (seclusion) 893; noninclusion[obs3], preclusion, prohibition. separation, segregation, seposition[obs3], elimination, expulsion; cofferdam. V. be excluded from &c. exclude, bar; leave out, shut out, bar out; reject, repudiate, blackball; lay apart, put apart, set apart, lay aside, put aside; relegate, segregate; throw overboard; strike off, strike out; neglect &c. 460; banish &c. (seclude) 893; separate.&c. (disjoin) 44. pass over, omit; garble; eliminate, weed, winnow. Adj. excluding &c. v.; exclusive, excluded &c. v.; unrecounted[obs3], not included in; inadmissible. Adv. exclusive of, barring; except; with the exception of; save; bating.

#56. Component.—N. component; component part, integral part, integrant part[obs3]; element, constituent, ingredient, leaven; part and parcel; contents; appurtenance; feature; member &c. (part) 51; personnel. V. enter into, enter into the composition of; be a component &c. n; be part of, form part of &c. 51; merge in, be merged in; be implicated in; share in &c. (participate) 778; belong to, appertain to; combine, inhere in, unite. form, make, constitute, compose. Adj. forming &c. v. inclusive.

#57. Extraneousness.—N. extraneousness &c. adj.; extrinsicality &c. 6[obs3]; exteriority &c. 220[obs3]; alienage[obs3], alienism; foreign body, foreign substance, foreign element; alien, stranger, intruder, interloper, foreigner, novus homo[Lat], newcomer, immigrant, emigrant; creole, Africander[obs3]; outsider; Dago*, wop, mick, polak, greaser, slant, Easterner [U.S.], Dutchman, tenderfoot. Adj. extraneous, foreign, alien, ulterior; tramontane, ultramontane. excluded &c. 55; inadmissible; exceptional. Adv. in foreign parts, in foreign lands; abroad, beyond seas; over sea on one's travels.



#58. Order.—N. order, regularity, uniformity, symmetry, lucidus ordo[Lat]; music of the spheres. gradation, progression; series &c. (continuity) 69. subordination; course, even tenor, routine; method, disposition, arrangement, array, system, economy, discipline orderliness &c. adj. rank, place &c. (term) 71. V. be in order, become in order &c. adj.; form, fall in, draw up; arrange itself, range itself, place itself; fall into one's place, take one's place, take one's rank; rally round. adjust, methodize, regulate, systematize. Adj. orderly, regular; in order, in trim, in apple-pie order, in its proper place; neat, tidy, en regle[Fr], well regulated, correct, methodical, uniform, symmetrical, shipshape, businesslike, systematic; unconfused &c. (see confuse &c. 61); arranged &c. 60. Adv. in order; methodically &c. adj.; in -turn, - its turn; step by step; by regular -steps, -gradations, -stages, -intervals; seriatim, systematically, by clockwork, gradatim[Lat]; at stated periods &c. (periodically) 138. Phr. natura non facit saltum[Lat]; "order is heaven's first law" [Pope]; "order from disorder sprung" [Paradise Lost]; ordo est parium dispariumque rerum sua loca tribuens dispositio [Lat][St. Augustine].

#59. [Absence, or want of Order, &c.] Disorder.—N. disorder; derangement &c. 61; irregularity; anomaly &c. (unconformity) 83; anarchy, anarchism; want of method; untidiness &c. adj.; disunion; discord &c. 24. confusion; confusedness &c. adj.; mishmash, mix; disarray, jumble, huddle, litter, lumber; cahotage[obs3]; farrago; mess, mash, muddle, muss [U. S.], hash, hodgepodge; hotch-potch[obs3], hotch-pot[obs3]; imbroglio, chaos, omnium gatherum[Lat], medley; mere mixture &c. 41; fortuitous concourse of atoms, disjecta membra[Lat], rudis indigestaque moles [Lat][Ovid]. complexity &c. 59a. turmoil; ferment &c. (agitation) 315; to-do, trouble, pudder[obs3], pother, row, rumble, disturbance, hubbub, convulsion, tumult, uproar, revolution, riot, rumpus, stour[obs3], scramble, brawl, fracas, rhubarb [baseball], fight, free-for-all, row, ruction, rumpus, embroilment, melee, spill and pelt, rough and tumble; whirlwind &c. 349; bear garden, Babel, Saturnalia, donnybrook, Donnybrook Fair, confusion worse confounded, most admired disorder, concordia discors[Lat]; Bedlam, all hell broke loose; bull in a china shop; all the fat in the fire, diable a' quatre[Fr], Devil to pay; pretty kettle of fish; pretty piece of work[Fr], pretty piece of business[Fr]. [legal terms] disorderly person; disorderly persons offence; misdemeanor. [moral disorder] slattern, slut (libertine) 962. V. be disorderly &c. adj.; ferment, play at cross-purposes. put out of order; derange &c. 61; ravel &c. 219; ruffle, rumple. Adj. disorderly, orderless; out of order, out of place, out of gear; irregular, desultory; anomalous &c. (unconformable) 83; acephalous[obs3], deranged; aimless; disorganized; straggling; unmethodical, immethodical[obs3]; unsymmetric[obs3], unsystematic; untidy, slovenly; dislocated; out of sorts; promiscuous, indiscriminate; chaotic, anarchical; unarranged &c. (see arrange &c. 60)[obs3]; confused; deranged &c. 61; topsy-turvy &c. (inverted) 218; shapeless &c. 241; disjointed, out of joint. troublous[obs3]; riotous &c. (violent) 173. complex &c. 59a. Adv. irregularly &c. adj.; by fits, by fits and snatches, by fits and starts; pellmell; higgledy-piggledy; helter-skelter, harum-scarum; in a ferment; at sixes and sevens, at cross-purposes; upside down &c. 218. Phr. the cart before the horse; <gr/hysteron proteron/gr>[Grk][Grk]; chaos is come again; "the wreck of matter and the crush of worlds" [Addison].

#59a. Complexity—N. complexity; complexness &c. adj.; complexus[obs3]; complication, implication; intricacy, intrication[obs3]; perplexity; network, labyrinth; wilderness, jungle; involution, raveling, entanglement; coil &c. (convolution) 248; sleave[obs3], tangled skein, knot, Gordian knot, wheels within wheels; kink, gnarl, knarl[obs3]; webwork[obs3]. [complexity if a task or action] difficulty &c. 704. V. complexify[obs3], complicate. Adj. gnarled, knarled[obs3]. complex, complexed; intricate, complicated, perplexed, involved, raveled, entangled, knotted, tangled, inextricable; irreducible.

#60. [Reduction to Order.] Arrangement.—N. arrangement; plan &c. 626; preparation &c. 673; disposal, disposition; collocation, allocation; distribution; sorting &c. v.; assortment, allotment, apportionment, taxis, taxonomy, syntaxis[obs3], graduation, organization; grouping; tabulation. analysis, classification, clustering, division, digestion. [Result of arrangement] digest; synopsis &c. (compendium) 596; syntagma[Gram], table, atlas; file, database; register &c. (record) 551; organism, architecture. [Instrument for sorting] sieve, riddle, screen, sorter. V. reduce to order, bring into order; introduce order into; rally. arrange, dispose, place, form; put in order, set in order, place in order; set out, collocate, pack, marshal, range, size, rank, group, parcel out, allot, distribute, deal; cast the parts, assign the parts; dispose of, assign places to; assort, sort; sift, riddle; put to rights, set to rights, put into shape, put in trim, put in array; apportion. class, classify; divide; file, string together, thread; register &c. (record) 551; catalogue, tabulate, index, graduate, digest, grade. methodize, regulate, systematize, coordinate, organize, settle, fix. unravel, disentangle, ravel, card; disembroil[obs3]; feaze[obs3]. Adj. arranged &c. v.; embattled, in battle array; cut and dried; methodical, orderly, regular, systematic. Phr. "In vast cumbrous array" [Churchill].

#61. [Subversion of Order; bringing into disorder.] Derangement.—N. derangement &c. v.; disorder &c. 59; evection[obs3], discomposure, disturbance; disorganization, deorganization[obs3]; dislocation; perturbation, interruption; shuffling &c. v.; inversion &c. 218; corrugation &c. (fold) 258; involvement. interchange &c. 148. V. derange; disarrange, misarrange[obs3]; displace, misplace; mislay, discompose, disorder; deorganize[obs3], discombobulate, disorganize; embroil, unsettle, disturb, confuse, trouble, perturb, jumble, tumble; shuffle, randomize; huddle, muddle, toss, hustle, fumble, riot; bring into disorder, put into disorder, throw into disorder &c. 59; muss [U.S.]; break the ranks, disconcert, convulse; break in upon. unhinge, dislocate, put out of joint, throw out of gear. turn topsy-turvy &c. (invert) 218; bedevil; complicate, involve, perplex, confound; imbrangle[obs3], embrangle[obs3], tangle, entangle, ravel, tousle, towzle[obs3], dishevel, ruffle; rumple &c. (fold) 258. litter, scatter; mix &c. 41. rearrange &c. 148. Adj. deranged &c. v.; syncretic, syncretistic[obs3]; mussy, messy; flaky; random, unordered [U.S.].


#62. Precedence.—N. precedence; coming before &c. v.; the lead, le pas; superiority &c. 33; importance &c. 642; antecedence, antecedency[obs3]; anteriority &c. (front) 234[obs3]; precursor &c. 64; priority &c. 116; precession &c. 280; anteposition[obs3]; epacme[obs3]; preference. V. precede; come before, come first; head, lead, take the lead; lead the way, lead the dance; be in the vanguard; introduce, usher in; have the pas; set the fashion &c. (influence) 175; open the ball; take precedence, have precedence; have the start &c. (get before) 280. place before; prefix; premise, prelude, preface. Adj. preceding &c. v.; precedent, antecedent; anterior; prior &c. 116; before; former; foregoing; beforementioned[obs3], abovementioned[obs3], aforementioned; aforesaid, said; precursory, precursive[obs3]; prevenient[obs3], preliminary, prefatory, introductory; prelusive, prelusory; proemial[obs3], preparatory. Adv. before; in advance &c. (precession) 280. Phr. seniores priores[Lat]; prior tempore prior jure[Lat].

#63. Sequence.—N. sequence, coming after; going after &c.
(following) 281; consecution, succession; posteriority &c. 117.
     continuation; order of succession; successiveness; paracme[obs3].
     secondariness[obs3]; subordinancy &c. (inferiority) 34[obs3].
     afterbirth, afterburden[obs3]; placenta, secundines[Med].
     V. succeed; come after, come on, come next; follow, ensue, step into
the shoes of; alternate.
     place after, suffix, append.
     Adj. succeeding &c.v.; sequent[obs3]; subsequent, consequent,
sequacious[obs3], proximate, next; consecutive &c. (continuity) 69;
alternate, amoebean[obs3].
     latter; posterior &c. 117.
     Adv. after, subsequently; behind &c. (rear) 235.

#64. Precursor.—N. precursor, antecedent, precedent, predecessor; forerunner, vancourier[obs3], avant-coureur[Fr], pioneer, prodrome|, prodromos[obs3], prodromus[obs3], outrider; leader, bellwether; herald, harbinger; foreboding; dawn; avant-courier, avant-garde, bellmare[obs3], forelooper[obs3], foreloper[obs3], stalking-horse, voorlooper[Afrikaans], voortrekker[Afrikaans]. prelude, preamble, preface, prologue, foreword, avant-propos[Fr], protasis[obs3], proemium[obs3], prolusion[obs3], proem, prolepsis[Gram], prolegomena, prefix, introduction; heading, frontispiece, groundwork; preparation &c. 673; overture, exordium[Lat], symphony; premises. prefigurement &c. 511; omen &c. 512. Adj. precursory; prelusive, prelusory, preludious[obs3]; proemial[obs3], introductory, prefatory, prodromous[obs3], inaugural, preliminary; precedent &c. (prior) 116. Phr. "a precedent embalms a principle" [Disraeli].

#65. Sequel.—N. sequel, suffix, successor; tail, queue, train, wake, trail, rear; retinue, suite; appendix, postscript; epilogue; peroration; codicil; continuation, sequela[obs3]; appendage; tail piece[Fr], heelpiece[obs3]; tag, more last words; colophon. aftercome[obs3], aftergrowth[obs3], afterpart[obs3], afterpiece[obs3], aftercourse[obs3], afterthought, aftergame[obs3]; arriere pensee[Fr], second thoughts; outgrowth.

#66. Beginning.—N. beginning, commencement, opening, outset, incipience, inception, inchoation[obs3]; introduction &c. (precursor) 64; alpha, initial; inauguration, debut, le premier pas, embarcation[Fr], rising of the curtain; maiden speech; outbreak, onset, brunt; initiative, move, first move; narrow end of the wedge, thin end of the wedge; fresh start, new departure. origin &c. (cause) 153; source, rise; bud, germ &c. 153; egg, rudiment; genesis, primogenesis[obs3], birth, nativity, cradle, infancy; start, inception, creation, starting point &c. 293; dawn &c. (morning) 125; evolution. title-page; head, heading; van &c. (front) 234; caption, fatihah[obs3]. entrance, entry; inlet, orifice, mouth, chops, lips, porch, portal, portico, propylon[obs3], door; gate, gateway; postern, wicket, threshold, vestibule; propylaeum[obs3]; skirts, border &c. (edge) 231. first stage, first blush, first glance, first impression, first sight. rudiments, elements, outlines, grammar, alphabet, ABCE. V. begin, start, commence; conceive, open, dawn, set in, take its rise, enter upon, enter; set out &c. (depart) 293; embark in; incept[obs3]. [transitive] initiate, launch, inaugurate. [intransitive] inchoate, rise, arise, originate. usher in; lead off, lead the way; take the lead, take the initiative; head; stand at the head, stand first, stand for; lay the foundations &c. (prepare) 673; found &c. (cause) 153; set up, set on foot, agoing[obs3], set abroach[obs3], set the ball in motion; apply the match to a train; broach; open up, open the door to. [intransitive] get underway, set about, get to work, set to work, set to; make a beginning, make a start. handsel; take the first step, lay the first stone, cut the first turf; break ground, break the ice, break cover; pass the Rubicon, cross the Rubicon; open fire, open the ball; ventilate, air; undertake &c. 676. come into existence, come into the world; make one's debut, take birth; burst forth, break out; spring up, spring forth, crop up, pop up, appear, materialize. begin at the beginning, begin ab ovo[Lat]. begin again, begin de novo; start afresh, make a fresh start, take it from the top, shuffle the cards, reshuffle the cards, resume, recommence. Adj. beginning &c. v.; initial, initiatory, initiative; inceptive, introductory, incipient; proemial[obs3], inaugural; inchoate, inchoative[obs3]; embryonic, rudimental; primogenial[obs3]; primeval, primitive, primordial &c. (old) 124; aboriginal; natal, nascent. first, foremost, leading; maiden. begun &c. v.; just begun &c. v. Adv. at the beginning, in the beginning, &c. n.; first, in the first place, imprimis[Lat], first and foremost; in limine[Lat]; in the bud, in embryo, in its infancy; from the beginning, from its birth; ab initio[Lat], ab ovo[Lat], ab incunabilis[Lat], ab origine[Lat]. Phr. let's get going! let's get this show on the road! up and at 'em! aller Anfang ist schwer [Ger]; dimidium facti qui coepit habet [Lat][Cicero]; omnium rerum principia parva sunt [Lat][Cicero].

#67. End.—N. end, close, termination; desinence[obs3], conclusion, finis, finale, period, term, terminus, endpoint, last, omega; extreme, extremity; gable end, butt end, fag-end; tip, nib, point; tail &c. (rear) 235; verge &c. (edge) 231; tag, peroration; bonne bouche[Fr]; bottom dollar, tail end, rear guard. consummation, denouement; finish &c. (completion) 729; fate; doom, doomsday; crack of doom, day of Judgment, dies irae, fall of the curtain; goal, destination; limit, determination; expiration, expiry[obs3], extinction, extermination; death &c. 360; end of all things; finality; eschatology. break up, commencement de la fin, last stage, turning point; coup de grace, deathblow; knock-out, -blow; sockdolager* [obs3][U.S.]. V. end, close, finish, terminate, conclude, be all over; expire; die &c. 360; come to a close, draw to a close &c. n.; have run its course; run out, pass away, bring to an end &c. n.; put an end to, make an end of; determine; get through; achieve &c. (complete) 729; stop &c. (make to cease) 142; shut up shop; hang up one's fiddle. Adj. ending &c. v.; final, terminal, definitive; crowning &c. (completing) 729; last, ultimate; hindermost[obs3]; rear &c. 235; caudal; vergent[obs3]. conterminate[obs3], conterminous, conterminable[obs3]. ended &c. v.; at an end; settled, decided, over, played out, set at rest; conclusive, penultimate; last but one, last but two, &c. unbegun, uncommenced[obs3]; fresh. Adv. finally &c. adj.; in fine; at the last; once for all. Phr. "as high as Heaven and as deep as hell" [Beaumont & Fletcher]; deficit omne quod nascitur [Lat][Quintilian]; en toute chose il faut considerer la fin[Fr][obs3]; finem respice[Lat][obs3]; ultimus Romanorum[Lat].

#68. Middle.—N. middle, midst, mediety|, mean &c. 29; medium, middle term; center &c. 222, mid-course &c. 628; mezzo termine[It]; juste milieu &c. 628[Fr]; halfway house, nave, navel, omphalos[obs3]; nucleus, nucleolus. equidistance[obs3], bisection, half distance; equator, diaphragm, midriff; intermediate &c. 228. Adj. middle, medial, mesial[Med], mean, mid, median, average; middlemost, midmost; mediate; intermediate &c. (interjacent) 228[obs3]; equidistant; central &c. 222; mediterranean, equatorial; homocentric. Adv. in the middle; midway, halfway; midships[obs3], amidships, in medias res.

#69. [Uninterrupted sequence.] Continuity.—N. continuity; consecution, consecutiveness &c. adj.; succession, round, suite, progression, series, train chain; catenation, concatenation; scale; gradation, course; ceaselessness, constant flow, unbroken extent. procession, column; retinue, cortege, cavalcade, rank and file, line of battle, array. pedigree, genealogy, lineage, race; ancestry, descent, family, house; line, line of ancestors; strain. rank, file, line, row, range, tier, string, thread, team; suit; colonnade. V. follow in a series, form a series &c. n.; fall in. arrange in a series, collate &c. n.; string together, file, thread, graduate, organize, sort, tabulate. Adj. continuous, continued; consecutive; progressive, gradual; serial, successive; immediate, unbroken, entire; linear; in a line, in a row &c. n.; uninterrupted, unintermitting[obs3]; unremitting, unrelenting (perseverence) 604a; perennial, evergreen; constant. Adv. continuously &c. adj.; seriatim; in a line &c. n.; in succession, in turn; running, gradually, step by step, gradatim[Lat], at a stretch; in file, in column, in single file, in Indian file.

#70. [Interrupted sequence.] Discontinuity.—N. discontinuity; disjunction &c. 44; anacoluthon[obs3]; interruption, break, fracture, flaw, fault, crack, cut; gap &c. (interval) 198; solution of continuity, caesura; broken thread; parenthesis, episode, rhapsody, patchwork; intermission; alternation &c. (periodicity) 138; dropping fire. V. be discontinuous &c. adj.; alternate, intermit, sputter, stop and start, hesitate. discontinue, pause, interrupt; intervene; break, break in upon, break off; interpose &c. 228; break the thread, snap the thread; disconnect &c. (disjoin) 44; dissever. Adj. discontinuous, unsuccessive[obs3], broken, interrupted, dicousu[Fr]; disconnected, unconnected; discrete, disjunctive; fitful &c. (irregular) 139; spasmodic, desultory; intermitting, occasional &c. v., intermittent; alternate; recurrent &c. (periodic) 138. Adv. at intervals; by snatches, by jerks, by skips, by catches, by fits and starts; skippingly[obs3], per saltum[Lat]; longo intervallo[It]. Phr. like "angel visits few and far between" [Campbell].

#71. Term.—N. term, rank, station, stage, step; degree &c. 26; scale, remove, grade, link, peg, round of the ladder, status, position, place, point, mark, pas, period, pitch; stand, standing; footing, range. V. hold a place, occupy a place, find a place, fall into a place &c. n.


#72. Assemblage.—N. {opp. 73} assemblage; collection, collocation, colligation[obs3]; compilation, levy, gathering, ingathering, muster, attroupement[obs3]; team; concourse, conflux[obs3], congregation, contesseration|, convergence &c. 290; meeting, levee, reunion, drawing room, at home; conversazione &c. (social gathering) 892[It]; assembly, congress; convention, conventicle; gemote[obs3]; conclave &c. (council) 696; posse, posse comitatus[Lat]; Noah's ark. miscellany, collectanea[obs3]; museum, menagerie &c. (store) 636; museology[obs3]. crowd, throng, group; flood, rush, deluge; rabble, mob, press, crush, cohue[obs3], horde, body, tribe; crew, gang, knot, squad, band, party; swarm, shoal, school, covey, flock, herd, drove; atajo[obs3]; bunch, drive, force, mulada [obs3][U.S.]; remuda[obs3]; roundup [U.S.]; array, bevy, galaxy; corps, company, troop, troupe, task force; army, regiment &c. (combatants) 726; host &c. (multitude) 102; populousness. clan, brotherhood, fraternity, sorority, association &c. (party) 712. volley, shower, storm, cloud. group, cluster, Pleiades, clump, pencil; set, batch, lot, pack; budget, assortment, bunch; parcel; packet, package; bundle, fascine[obs3], fasces[obs3], bale; seron[obs3], seroon[obs3]; fagot, wisp, truss, tuft; shock, rick, fardel[obs3], stack, sheaf, haycock[obs3]; fascicle, fascicule[obs3], fasciculus[Lat], gavel, hattock[obs3], stook[obs3]. accumulation &c. (store) 636; congeries, heap, lump, pile, rouleau[obs3], tissue, mass, pyramid; bing[obs3]; drift; snowball, snowdrift; acervation[obs3], cumulation; glomeration[obs3], agglomeration; conglobation[obs3]; conglomeration, conglomerate; coacervate[Chem], coacervation[Chem], coagmentation[obs3], aggregation, concentration, congestion, omnium gaterum[Lat], spicilegium[obs3], black hole of Calcutta; quantity &c. (greatness) 31. collector, gatherer; whip, whipper in. V. assemble[be or come together], collect, muster; meet, unite, join, rejoin; cluster, flock, swarm, surge, stream, herd, crowd, throng, associate; congregate, conglomerate, concentrate; precipitate; center round, rendezvous, resort; come together, flock get together, pig together; forgather; huddle; reassemble. [get or bring together] assemble, muster; bring together, get together, put together, draw together, scrape together, lump together; collect, collocate, colligate[obs3]; get, whip in; gather; hold a meeting; convene, convoke, convocate[obs3]; rake up, dredge; heap, mass, pile; pack, put up, truss, cram; acervate[obs3]; agglomerate, aggregate; compile; group, aggroup[obs3], concentrate, unite; collect into a focus, bring into a focus; amass, accumulate &c. (store) 636; collect in a dragnet; heap Ossa upon Pelion. Adj. assembled &c. v.; closely packed, dense, serried, crowded to suffocation, teeming, swarming, populous; as thick as hops; all of a heap, fasciculated, cumulative. Phr. the plot thickens; acervatim[Lat]; tibi seris tibi metis[Lat].

#73. Nonassemblage. Dispersion.—N. {opp. 72} dispersion; disjunction &c. 44; divergence &c. 291; aspersion; scattering &c. v.; dissemination, diffusion, dissipation, distribution; apportionment &c. 786; spread, respersion[obs3], circumfusion[obs3], interspersion, spargefaction[obs3]; affusion[obs3]. waifs and estrays[obs3], flotsam and jetsam, disjecta membra[Lat], [Hor.]; waveson[obs3]. V. disperse, scatter, sow, broadcast, disseminate, diffuse, shed, spread, bestrew, overspread, dispense, disband, disembody, dismember, distribute; apportion &c. 786; blow off, let out, dispel, cast forth, draught off; strew, straw, strow[obs3]; ted; spirtle[obs3], cast, sprinkle; issue, deal out, retail, utter; resperse[obs3], intersperse; set abroach[obs3], circumfuse[obs3]. turn adrift, cast adrift; scatter to the winds; spread like wildfire, disperse themselves. Adj. unassembled &c. (see assemble &c. 72); dispersed &c. v.; sparse, dispread, broadcast, sporadic, widespread; epidemic &c. (general) 78; adrift, stray; disheveled, streaming. Adv. sparsim[obs3], here and there, passim.

#74. [Place of meeting.] Focus.—N. focus; point of convergence &c. 290; corradiation[obs3]; center &c. 222; gathering place, resort haunt retreat; venue; rendezvous; rallying point, headquarters, home, club; depot &c. (store) 636; trysting place; place of meeting, place of resort, place of assignation; point de reunion; issue. V. bring to a point, bring to a focus, bring to an issue.


#75. Class.—N. class, division, category, categorema[obs3], head,
order, section; department, subdepartment, province, domain.
     kind, sort, genus, species, variety, family, order, kingdom, race,
tribe, caste, sept, clan, breed, type, subtype, kit, sect, set, subset;
assortment; feather, kidney; suit; range; gender, sex, kin.
     manner, description, denomination, designation, rubric, character,
stamp predicament; indication, particularization, selection, specification.
     similarity &c. 17.

#76. Inclusion. [Comprehension under, or reference to a class.]—N. {opp. 77} inclusion, admission, comprehension, reception. composition &c. (inclusion in a compound) 54. V. be included in &c.; come under, fall under, range under; belong to, pertain to; range with; merge in. include, comprise, comprehend, contain, admit, embrace, receive; inclose &c. (circumscribe) 229; embody, encircle. reckon among, enumerate among, number among; refer to; place with, arrange with, place under; take into account. Adj. included, including &c. v.; inclusive; congener, congenerous; of the same class &c. 75; encircling. Phr. a maximis ad minima[Lat], et hoc genus omne[Lat], &c., etc.; et coetera[Lat].

#77. Exclusion.—N. {opp. 76} exclusion &c. 55.

#78. Generality.—N. {opp. 79} generality, generalization;
universality; catholicity, catholicism; miscellany,
miscellaneousness[obs3]; dragnet; common run; worldwideness[obs3].
     everyone, everybody; all hands, all the world and his wife; anybody, N
or M, all sorts.
     prevalence, run.
     V. be general &c. adj.; prevail, be going about, stalk abroad.
     render general &c. adj.; generalize.
     Adj. general, generic, collective; broad, comprehensive, sweeping;
encyclopedical[obs3], widespread &c. (dispersed) 73.
     universal; catholic, catholical[obs3]; common, worldwide;
ecumenical, oecumenical[obs3]; transcendental; prevalent, prevailing, rife,
epidemic, besetting; all over, covered with.
     Pan-American, Anglican[obs3], Pan-Hellenic, Pan-Germanic, Slavic;
     every, all; unspecified, impersonal.
     customary &c. (habitual) 613.
     Adv. whatever, whatsoever; to a man, one and all.
     generally &c. adj.; always, for better for worse; in general,
generally speaking; speaking generally; for the most part; in the long run
&c. (on an average) 29.

#79. Speciality.—N. {opp. 78} speciality, specialite[obs3]; individuality, individuity|; particularity, peculiarity; idiocrasy &c. (tendency) 176[obs3]; personality, characteristic, mannerism, idiosyncrasy; specificness &c. adj[obs3].; singularity &c. (unconformity) 83; reading, version, lection; state; trait; distinctive feature; technicality; differentia. particulars, details, items, counts; minutiae. I, self, I myself; myself, himself, herself, itself. V. specify, particularize, individualize, realize, specialize, designate, determine; denote, indicate, point out, select. descend to particulars, enter into detail, go into detail, come to the point. Adj. special, particular, individual, specific, proper, personal, original, private, respective, definite, determinate, especial, certain, esoteric, endemic, partial, party, peculiar, appropriate, several, characteristic, diagnostic, exclusive; singular &c. (exceptional) 83; idiomatic; idiotypical; typical. this, that; yon, yonder. Adv. specially, especially, particularly &c. adj.; in particular, in propria persona[Lat]; ad hominem[Lat]; for my part. each, apiece, one by one, one at a time; severally, respectively, each to each; seriatim, in detail, in great detail, in excruciating detail, in mind-numbing detail; bit by bit; pro hac vice[Lat], pro re nata[Lat]. namely, that is to say, for example, id est, exemplia gratia[Lat], e.g., i.e., videlicet, viz.; to wit. Phr. le style est l'homme meme[Fr].


#80. Normality.—N. normality, normalcy, normalness[obs3];
familiarity, naturalness; commonness (frequency) 136; rule, standard
(conformity) 82; customary (habit) 613; standard, pattern (prototype) 22.
     V. normalize, standardize.
     Adj. normal, natural, unexceptional; common, usual (frequency) 136;

#81. Multiformity.—N. multiformity, omniformity[obs3]; variety, diversity; multifariousness &c. adj.; varied assortment. dissimilarity &c. 18. Adj. polymorphous, multiform, multifold, multifarious, multigenerous[obs3], multiplex; heterogeneous, diversified, dissimilar, various, varied, variform[obs3]; manifold, many-sided; variegated, motley, mosaic; epicene, indiscriminate, desultory, irregular; mixed, different, assorted, mingled, odd, diverse, divers; all manner of; of every description, of all sorts and kinds; et hoc genus omne[Lat]; and what not? de omnibus rebus et quibusdam aliis [Lat]. jumbled, confused, mixed up, discordant; inharmonious, unmatched, unrelated, nonuniform. omniform[obs3], omnigenous[obs3], omnifarious[obs3]; protean (form) 240. Phr. "harmoniously confused" [Pope]; "variety's the very spice of life" [Cowper].

#82. Conformity.—N. {opp. 83} conformity, conformance; observance; habituation; naturalization; conventionality &c. (custom) 613; agreement &c. 23. example, instance, specimen, sample, quotation; exemplification, illustration, case in point; object lesson; elucidation. standard, model, pattern &c. (prototype) 22. rule, nature, principle; law; order of things; normal state, natural state, ordinary state, model state, normal condition, natural condition, ordinary condition, model condition; standing dish, standing order; Procrustean law; law of the Medes and Persians; hard and fast rule.

V. conform to, conform to rule; accommodate oneself to, adapt oneself to; rub off corners. be regular &c. adj.; move in a groove; follow observe the rules, go by the rules, bend to the rules, obey the rules, obey the precedents; comply with, tally with, chime in with, fall in with; be guided by, be regulated by; fall into a custom, fall into a usage; follow the fashion, follow the crowd, follow the multitude; pass muster, do as others do, hurler avec les loups [Fr]; stand on ceremony; when in Rome do as the Romans do; go with the stream, go with the flow, swim with the stream, swim with the current, swim with the tide, blow with the wind; stick to the beaten track &c. (habit) 613; keep one in countenance. exemplify, illustrate, cite, quote, quote precedent, quote authority, appeal to authority, put a case; produce an instance &c. n.; elucidate, explain. Adj. conformable to rule; regular &c. 136; according to regulation, according to rule, according to Hoyle, according to Cocker, according to Gunter; en regle [Fr], selon les regles[Fr], well regulated, orderly; symmetric &c. 242. conventional &c. (customary) 613; of daily occurrence, of everyday occurrence; in the natural order of things; ordinary, common, habitual, usual, everyday, workaday. in the order of the day; naturalized. typical, normal, nominal, formal; canonical, orthodox, sound, strict, rigid, positive, uncompromising, Procrustean. secundum artem[Lat], shipshape, technical; exemple[Fr]. illustrative, in point. Adv. conformably &c. adj.; by rule; agreeably to; in conformity with, in accordance with, in keeping with; according to; consistently with; as usual, ad instar[Lat], instar omnium[Lat]; more solito[Lat], more-majorum. for the sake of conformity; as a matter of course, of course; pro forma[Lat], for form's sake, by the card. invariably, &c. (uniformly) 16. for example, exempli gratia[Lat], e. g.; inter alia[Lat], among other things; for instance. Phr. cela va sans dire[Fr]; ex pede Herculem[Lat]; noscitur a sociis [Lat]; ne e quovis ligno Mercurius fiat [Lat][Erasmus]; "they are happy men whose natures sort with their vocations" [Bacon]. "The nail that sticks up will get hammered down" [Japanese saying]; "Stick your neck out and it may get cut off."

#83. Unconformity.— N. {opp. 82} nonconformity &c. 82; unconformity, disconformity; unconventionality, informality, abnormity[obs3], abnormality, anomaly; anomalousness &c. adj[obs3].; exception, peculiarity; infraction of law, breach, of law, violation of law, violation of custom, violation of usage, infringement of law, infringement of custom, infringement of usage; teratism[obs3], eccentricity, bizarrerie[obs3], oddity, je ne sais quoi[Fr], monster, monstrosity, rarity; freak, freak of Nature, weirdo, mutant; rouser, snorter* [U.S.]. individuality, idiosyncrasy, originality, mannerism. aberration; irregularity; variety; singularity; exemption; salvo &c. (qualification) 469. nonconformist; nondescript, character, original, nonesuch, nonsuch[obs3], monster, prodigy, wonder, miracle, curiosity, flying fish, black sheep, black swan, lusus naturae[Lat], rara avis[Lat], queer fish; mongrel, random breed; half-caste, half-blood, half-breed; metis[Lat], crossbreed, hybrid, mule, hinny, mulatto; tertium quid[Lat], hermaphrodite. [mythical animal] phoenix, chimera, hydra, sphinx, minotaur; griffin, griffon; centaur; saggittary[obs3]; kraken, cockatrice, wyvern, roc, dragon, sea serpent; mermaid, merman, merfolk[obs3]; unicorn; Cyclops, "men whose heads do grow beneath their shoulders" [Othello]; teratology. [unconformable to the surroundings] fish out of water; neither one thing nor another, neither fish nor fowl, neither fish flesh nor fowl nor good red herring; one in a million, one in a way, one in a thousand; outcast, outlaw; off the beaten track; oasis. V. be uncomformable &c. adj.; abnormalize[obs3]; leave the beaten track, leave the beaten path; infringe a law, infringe a habit, infringe a usage, infringe a custom, break a law, break a habit, break a usage, break a custom, violate a law, violate a habit, violate a usage, violate a custom; drive a coach and six through; stretch a point; have no business there; baffle all description, beggar all description. Adj. uncomformable, exceptional; abnormal, abnormous[obs3]; anomalous, anomalistic; out of order, out of place, out of keeping, out of tune, out of one's element; irregular, arbitrary; teratogenic; lawless, informal, aberrant, stray, wandering, wanton; peculiar, exclusive, unnatural, eccentric, egregious; out of the beaten track, off the beaten track, out of the common, out of the common run; beyond the pale of, out of the pale of; misplaced; funny. unusual, unaccustomed, uncustomary, unwonted, uncommon; rare, curious, odd, extraordinary, out of the ordinary; strange, monstrous; wonderful &c. 870; unexpected, unaccountable; outre[Fr], out of the way, remarkable, noteworthy; queer, quaint, nondescript, none such, sui generis[Lat]; unfashionable; fantastic, grotesque, bizarre; outlandish, exotic, tombe des nues[Fr], preternatural; denaturalized[obs3]. heterogeneous, heteroclite[Gram], amorphous, mongrel, amphibious, epicene, half blood, hybrid; androgynous, androgynal[obs3]; asymmetric &c. 243; adelomorphous[obs3], bisexual, hermaphrodite, monoclinous[obs3]. qualified &c. 469. singular, unique, one-of-a-kind. newfangled, novel, non-classical; original, unconventional, unheard of, unfamiliar; undescribed, unprecedented, unparalleled, unexampled. Adv. unconformably &c. adj.; except, unless, save barring, beside, without, save and except, let alone. however, yet, but. once in a blue moon, once in a million years. Int. what on earth! what in the world! What the devil! Holy cow! Can you top that?; Sacre bleu [Fr]. Phr. never was seen the like, never was heard the like, never was known the like. I could hardly believe it; I saw it, but I didn't believe it.



#84. Number.—N. number, symbol, numeral, figure, cipher, digit,
integer; counter; round number; formula; function; series.
     sum, difference, complement, subtrahend; product; multiplicand,
multiplier, multiplicator[obs3]; coefficient, multiple; dividend, divisor,
factor, quotient, submultiple[Math]; fraction, rational number; surd,
irrational number; transcendental number; mixed number, complex number,
complex conjugate; numerator, denominator; decimal, circulating decimal,
repetend; common measure, aliquot part; prime number, prime, relative
prime, prime factor, prime pair; reciprocal; totient[obs3].
     binary number, octal number, hexadecimal number[Comp].
     permutation, combination, variation; election.
     ratio, proportion, comparison &c.464; progression; arithmetical
progression, geometrical progression, harmonical progression[obs3];
percentage, permilage.
     figurate numbers[obs3], pyramidal numbers, polygonal numbers.
     power, root, exponent, index, logarithm, antilogarithm; modulus, base.
     differential, integral, fluxion[obs3], fluent.
     Adj. numeral, complementary, divisible, aliquot, reciprocal, prime,
relatively prime, fractional, decimal, figurate[obs3], incommensurable.
     proportional, exponential, logarithmic, logometric[obs3],
differential, fluxional[obs3], integral, totitive[obs3].
     positive, negative; rational, irrational; surd, radical, real;
complex, imaginary; finite; infinite; impossible.
     Adv. numerically; modulo.

#85. Numeration.—N. numeration; numbering &c. v.; pagination; tale, recension[obs3], enumeration, summation, reckoning, computation, supputation[obs3]; calculation, calculus; algorithm, algorism[obs3], rhabdology[obs3], dactylonomy[obs3]; measurement &c. 466; statistics. arithmetic, analysis, algebra, geometry, analytical geometry, fluxions[obs3]; differential calculus, integral calculus, infinitesimal calculus; calculus of differences. [Statistics] dead reckoning, muster, poll, census, capitation, roll call, recapitulation; account &c. (list) 86. [Operations] notation, addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, rule of three, practice, equations, extraction of roots, reduction, involution, evolution, estimation, approximation, interpolation, differentiation, integration. [Instruments] abacus, logometer[obs3], slide rule, slipstick[coll.], tallies, Napier's bones, calculating machine, difference engine, suan- pan[obs3]; adding machine; cash register; electronic calculator, calculator, computer; [people who calculate] arithmetician, calculator, abacist[obs3], algebraist, mathematician; statistician, geometer; programmer; accountant, auditor. V. number, count, tally, tell; call over, run over; take an account of, enumerate, muster, poll, recite, recapitulate; sum; sum up, cast up; tell off, score, cipher, compute, calculate, suppute[obs3], add, subtract, multiply, divide, extract roots; algebraize[obs3]. check, prove, demonstrate, balance, audit, overhaul, take stock; affix numbers to, page. amount to, add up to, come to. Adj. numeral, numerical; arithmetical, analytic, algebraic, statistical, numerable, computable, calculable; commensurable, commensurate; incommensurable, incommensurate, innumerable, unfathomable, infinite. Adv. quantitatively; arithmetically; measurably; in numbers.

#86. List.—N. list, catalog, catalogue, inventory; register &c.
(record) 551.
     account; bill, bill of costs; terrier; tally, listing, itemization;
atlas; book, ledger; catalogue raisonne[Fr]; tableau; invoice, bill of
lading; prospectus; bill of fare, menu, carte[Fr]; score, census,
statistics, returns.
     [list of topics in a document] contents, table of contents, outline;
     [list of topics in a protracted activity (frame)] program,
programme[Brit]; syllabus; agenda, schedule, calendar, docket.
     [computer-generated list] listing, printout, output.
     [written list used as an aid to memory] checklist.
     table, chart, database; index, inverted file, word list, concordance.
     dictionary, lexicon; vocabulary, glossary; thesaurus.
     file, card index, card file, rolodex, address book.
     Red book, Blue book, Domesday book; cadastre[Fr]; directory,
gazetter[obs3]. almanac; army list, clergy list, civil service list, navy
list; Almanach de Gotha[obs3], cadaster; Lloyd's register, nautical
     who's who; Guiness's Book of World Records.
     roll; check roll, checker roll, bead roll; muster roll, muster book;
roster, panel, jury list; cartulary, diptych.
     V. list, itemize; sort, collate; enumerate, tabulate, catalog, tally.
     Adj. cadastral[obs3].


#87. {opp. 100} Unity.—N. unity; oneness &c. adj.; individuality; solitude &c. (seclusion) 893; isolation &c. (disjunction) 44; unification &c. 48. one, unit, ace; individual; none else, no other. V. be one, be alone &c. adj.; dine with Duke Humphrey[obs3]. isolate &c. (disjoin) 44. render one; unite &c. (join) 43, (combine) 48. Adj. one, sole, single, solitary, unitary; individual, apart, alone; kithless[obs3]. unaccompanied, unattended; solus[Lat], single-handed; singular, odd, unique, unrepeated[obs3], azygous, first and last; isolated &c. (disjoined) 44; insular. monospermous[obs3]; unific[obs3], uniflorous[obs3], unifoliate[obs3], unigenital[obs3], uniliteral[obs3], unijocular[obs3], unimodal [statistics], unimodular[obs3]. lone, lonely, lonesome; desolate, dreary, insecable|, inseverable[obs3], indiscerptible[obs3]; compact, indivisible, atomic, irresolvable[obs3]. Adv. singly &c. adj.; alone, by itself, per se, only, apart, in the singular number, in the abstract; one by one, one at a time; simply; one and a half, sesqui-[obs3]. Phr. natura il fece [It], e poi roppe la stampa[It]; du fort au faible [obs3][Fr]; "two souls with but a single thought, two hearts that beat as one".

#88. Accompaniment.—N. accompaniment; adjunct &c. 39; context; appendage, appurtenance. coexistence, concomitance, company, association, companionship; partnership, copartnership; coefficiency[obs3]. concomitant, accessory, coefficient; companion, buddy, attendant, fellow, associate, friend, colleague; consort, spouse, mate; partner, co- partner; satellite, hanger on, fellow-traveller, shadow; escort, cortege; attribute. V. accompany, coexist, attend; hang on, wait on; go hand in hand with; synchronize &c. 120; bear company, keep company; row in the same boat; bring in its train; associate with, couple with. Adj. accompanying &c. v.; concomitant, fellow, twin, joint; associated with, coupled with; accessory, attendant, obbligato. Adv. with, withal; together with, along with, in company with; hand in hand, side by side; cheek by jowl, cheek by jole[obs3]; arm in arm; therewith, herewith; and &c. (addition) 37. together, in a body, collectively. Phr. noscitur a sociis[Lat]; virtutis fortuna comes[Lat].

#89. Duality.—N. duality, dualism; duplicity; biplicity[obs3], biformity[obs3]; polarity; two, deuce, couple, duet, brace, pair, cheeks, twins, Castor and Pollux, gemini, Siamese twins; fellows; yoke, conjugation; dispermy[obs3], doublets, dyad, span. V. pair[unite in pairs], couple, bracket, yoke; conduplicate[obs3]; mate, span [U.S.]. Adj. two, twin; dual, dualistic, double; binary, binomial; twin, biparous[obs3]; dyadic[Math]; conduplicate[obs3]; duplex &c. 90; biduous[obs3], binate[obs3], diphyletic[obs3], dispermic[obs3], unijugate[obs3]; tete-a-tete. coupled &c. v.; conjugate. both, both the one and the other.

#90. Duplication.—N. duplication; doubling &c. v.; gemination, ingemination[obs3]; reduplication; iteration &c. (repetition) 104; renewal. V. double, redouble, duplicate, reduplicate; geminate; repeat &c. 104; renew &c. 660. Adj. double; doubled &c. v.; bicipital[obs3], bicephalous[obs3], bidental[obs3], bilabiate, bivalve, bivalvular[obs3], bifold[obs3], biform[obs3], bilateral; bifarious[obs3], bifacial[obs3]; twofold, two- sided; disomatous[obs3]; duplex; double-faced, double-headed; twin, duplicate, ingeminate[obs3]; second. Adv. twice, once more; over again &c. (repeatedly) 104; as much again, twofold; secondly, in the second place, again.

#91. [Division into two parts.] bisection.—N. bisection,
bipartition; dichotomy, subdichotomy[obs3]; halving &c. v.;
     bifurcation, forking, branching, ramification, divarication; fork,
prong; fold; half, moiety.
     V. bisect, halve, divide, split, cut in two, cleave dimidiate[obs3],
     go halves, divide with.
     separate, fork, bifurcate; branch off, out; ramify.
     Adj. bisected &c. v.; cloven, cleft; bipartite, biconjugate[obs3],
bicuspid, bifid; bifurcous[obs3], bifurcate, bifurcated; distichous,
dichotomous, furcular[obs3]; semi-, demi-, hemi[obs3].

#92. Triality.—N. Triality[obs3], trinity; triunity[obs3].
     three, triad, triplet, trey, trio, ternion[obs3], leash; shamrock,
tierce[obs3], spike-team [U.S.], trefoil; triangle, trident,
triennium[obs3], trigon[obs3], trinomial, trionym[obs3], triplopia[obs3],
tripod, trireme, triseme[obs3], triskele[obs3], triskelion, trisula[obs3].
     third power, cube; cube root.
     Adj. three; triform[obs3], trinal[obs3], trinomial; tertiary;
ternary; triune; triarch, triadie[obs3]; triple &c. 93.
     Pref. tri-, tris-.
     Phr. tria juncta in uno[Lat].

#93. Triplication.—N. triplication, triplicity[obs3];
trebleness[obs3], trine.
     V. treble, triple; triplicate, cube.
     Adj. treble, triple; tern, ternary; triplicate, threefold,
trilogistic[obs3]; third; trinal[obs3], trine.
     Adv. three times, three fold; thrice, in the third place, thirdly;
trebly &c. adj.

#94. [Division into three parts.] Trisection.—N. trisection, tripartition[obs3], trichotomy; third, third part. V. trisect, divide into three parts. Adj. trifid; trisected &c. v.; tripartite, trichotomous[obs3], trisulcate[obs3]. Triadelphous[obs3], triangular, tricuspid, tricapsular[obs3], tridental[obs3], tridentate, tridentiferous[obs3], trifoliate, trifurcate, trigonal[obs3], trigrammic[obs3], trigrammatic[obs3], tripetalous[obs3], tripodal, tripodic[obs3], triquetral[obs3], triquetrous[obs3].

#95. Four.—N. quaternity[obs3], four, tetrad, quartet, quaternion,
square, quarter.
     [planar form with four sides] tetract[obs3], tetragon, quadrangle,
     [three dimensional object with four surfaces] tetrahedron.
     quadrature, quadrifoil, quadriform, quadruplet; quatrefoil.
     [object or animal with four legs] tetrapod.
     [geographical area with four sides] quadrangle, quad[coll.].
     [electromagnetic object] quadrupole.
     [four fundamental studies] quadrivium.
     V. reduce to a square, square.
     Adj. four; quaternary, quaternal[obs3]; quadratic; quartile;
tetract[obs3], tetractic[obs3], tetractinal[obs3]; tetrad, tetragonal;
square, quadrate.

#96. Quadruplication.—N. quadruplication.
     V. multiply by four, quadruplicate, biquadrate[obs3].
     Adj. fourfold, four times; quadrable[obs3], quadrumanous[obs3],
quadruple, quadruplicate, quadrible[obs3]; fourth.
     quadrifoliate[obs3], quadrifoliolate[obs3], quadrigeminal[obs3],
quadrigeminate[obs3], quadriplanar[obs3], quadriserial[obs3].
     Adv. four times; in the fourth place, fourthly.

#97. [Division into four parts.] Quadrisection.—N. quadrisection,
quadripartition[obs3]; quartering &c. v; fourth; quart; quarter,
quartern[obs3]; farthing (i.e. fourthing)[obs3]; quadrant.
     V. quarter, divide into four parts.
     Adj. quartered &c. v.; quadrifid[obs3], quadripartite.

#98. Five, &c.—N. five, cinque[Fr], quint, quincux[obs3]; six, half-a-dozen, half dozen; seven; eight; nine, three times three; dicker; ten, decade; eleven; twelve, dozen; thirteen; long dozen, baker's dozen; quintuplet; twenty, score; twenty-four, four and twenty, two dozen; twenty- five, five and twenty, quarter of a hundred; forty, two score; fifty, half a hundred; sixty, three score; seventy, three score and ten; eighty, four score; ninety, fourscore and ten; sestiad[obs3]. hundred, centenary, hecatomb, century; hundredweight, cwt.; one hundred and forty-four, gross. thousand, chiliad; millennium, thousand years, grand[coll.]; myriad; ten thousand, ban[Japanese], man[Japanese]; ten thousand years, banzai[Japanese]; lac, one hundred thousand, plum; million; thousand million, milliard, billion, trillion &c. V. centuriate[obs3]; quintuplicate. Adj. five, quinary[obs3], quintuple; fifth; senary[obs3], sextuple; sixth; seventh; septuple; octuple; eighth; ninefold, ninth; tenfold, decimal, denary[obs3], decuple[obs3], tenth; eleventh; duodenary[obs3], duodenal; twelfth; in one's 'teens, thirteenth. vicesimal[obs3], vigesimal; twentieth; twenty-fourth &c. n.; vicenary[obs3], vicennial[obs3]. centuple[obs3], centuplicate[obs3], centennial, centenary, centurial[obs3]; secular, hundredth; thousandth, &c.

#99. Quinquesection, &c.—N. division by five &c. 98; quinquesection &c.; decimation; fifth &c. V. decimate; quinquesect. Adj. quinquefid, quinquelateral, quinquepartite; quinqevalent, pentavalent; quinquarticular[obs3]; octifid[obs3]; decimal, tenth, tithe; duodecimal, twelfth; sexagesimal[obs3], sexagenary[obs3]; hundredth, centesimal; millesimal &c. [obs3]


#100. [More than one.] Plurality.—N. plurality; a number,
a certain number; one or two, two or three &c.; a few, several; multitude
&c. 102; majority.
     [large number] multitude &c. 102.
     Adj. plural, more than one, upwards of; some, several, a few; certain;
not alone &c. 87.
     Adv. et cetera, &c., etc.
     among other things, inter alia[Lat].
     Phr. non deficit alter [Lat].

#100a. [Less than one.] Fraction—N. fraction, fractional part; part
&c. 51.
     Adj. fractional, fragmentary, inconsiderable, negligible,

#101. Zero.—N. zero, nothing; null, nul, naught, nought, void; cipher, goose egg; none, nobody, no one; nichts[Ger.], nixie*, nix*; zilch, zip, zippo [all slang]; not a soul; ame qui vive[Fr]; absence &c. 187; unsubstantiality &c. 4[obs3]. Adj. not one, not a one, not any, nary a one [dial.]; not a, never a; not a whit of, not an iota of, not a drop of, not a speck of, not a jot; not a trace of, not a hint of, not a smidgen of, not a suspicion of, not a shadow of, neither hide nor hair of.

#102. Multitude.—N. multitude; numerous &c. adj.; numerosity, numerality; multiplicity; profusion &c. (plenty) 639; legion, host; great number, large number, round number, enormous number; a quantity, numbers, array, sight, army, sea, galaxy; scores, peck, bushel, shoal, swarm, draught, bevy, cloud, flock, herd, drove, flight, covey, hive, brood, litter, farrow, fry, nest; crowd &c. (assemblage) 72; lots; all in the world and his wife. [Increase of number] greater number, majority; multiplication, multiple. V. be numerous &c. adj.; swarm with, teem with, creep with; crowd, swarm, come thick upon; outnumber, multiply; people; swarm like locusts, swarm like bees. Adj. many, several, sundry, divers, various, not a few; Briarean; a hundred, a thousand, a myriad, a million, a quadrillion, a nonillion, a thousand and one; some ten or a dozen, some forty or fifty &c.; half a dozen, half a hundred &c.; very many, full many, ever so many; numerous; numerose[obs3]; profuse, in profusion; manifold, multiplied, multitudinous, multiple, multinominal, teeming, populous, peopled, crowded, thick, studded; galore. thick coming, many more, more than one can tell, a world of; no end of, no end to; cum multis aliis[Lat]; thick as hops, thick as hail; plenty as blackberries; numerous as the stars in the firmament, numerous as the sands on the seashore, numerous as the hairs on the head; and what not, and heaven knows what; endless &c. (infinite) 105. Phr. their name is "legion"; acervatim[Lat]; en foule[Fr]; "many- headed multitude" [Sidney]; "numerous as glittering gems of morning dew" [Young]; vel prece vel pretio[Lat][obs3].

#103. Fewness.—N. fewness &c. adj.; paucity, small number; small quantity &c. 32; rarity; infrequency &c. 137; handful, maniple; minority; exiguity. [Diminution of number] reduction; weeding &c. v.; elimination, sarculation|, decimation; eradication. V. be few &c. adj. render few &c. adj.; reduce, diminish the number, weed, eliminate, cull, thin, decimate. Adj. few; scant, scanty; thin, rare, scattered, thinly scattered, spotty, few and far between, exiguous; infrequent &c. 137; rari nantes[Latin]; hardly any, scarcely any; to be counted on one's fingers; reduced &c. v.; unrepeated[obs3]. Adv. rarely, here and there.

#104. Repetition.—N. repetition, iteration, reiteration, harping, recurrence, succession, run; battology, tautology; monotony, tautophony; rhythm &c. 138; diffuseness, pleonasm, redundancy. chimes, repetend, echo, ritornello[obs3], burden of a song, refrain; rehearsal; rechauffe[Fr], rifacimento[It], recapitulation. cuckoo &c. (imitation) 19; reverberation &c. 408; drumming &c. (roll) 407; renewal &c. (restoration) 660. twice-told tale; old story, old song; second edition, new edition; reappearance, reproduction, recursion [Comp]; periodicity &c. 138. V. repeat, iterate, reiterate, reproduce, echo, reecho, drum, harp upon, battologize[obs3], hammer, redouble. recur, revert, return, reappear, recurse [Comp]; renew &c. (restore) 660. rehearse; do over again, say over again; ring the changes on; harp on the same string; din in the ear, drum in the ear; conjugate in all its moods tenses and inflexions[obs3], begin again, go over the same ground, go the same round, never hear the last of; resume, return to, recapitulate, reword. Adj. repeated &c. v.; repetitional[obs3], repetitionary[obs3]; recurrent, recurring; ever recurring, thick coming; frequent, incessant; redundant, pleonastic. monotonous, harping, iterative, recursive [Math, Comp], unvaried; mocking, chiming; retold; aforesaid, aforenamed[obs3]; above-mentioned, above-said; habitual &c. 613; another. Adv. repeatedly, often, again, anew, over again, afresh, once more; ding-dong, ditto, encore, de novo, bis[obs3], da capo[It]. again and again; over and over, over and over again; recursively [Comp]; many times over; time and again, time after time; year after year; day by day &c.; many times, several times, a number of times; many a time, full many a time; frequently &c. 136. Phr. ecce iterum Crispinus[Lat]; toujours perdrix[Fr]; "cut and come again" [Crabbe]; "tomorrow and tomorrow and tomorrow" [Macbeth]; cantilenam eandem canis [Lat][Terence]; nullum est jam dictum quod non dictum sit prius [Lat][Terence].

#105. Infinity.—N. infinity, infinitude, infiniteness &c. adj.; perpetuity &c. 112; boundlessness. V. be infinite &c. adj.; know no limits, have no limits, know no bounds, have no bounds; go on for ever. Adj. infinite; immense; numberless, countless, sumless[obs3], measureless; innumerable, immeasurable, incalculable, illimitable, inexhaustible, interminable, unfathomable, unapproachable; exhaustless, indefinite; without number, without measure, without limit, without end; incomprehensible; limitless, endless, boundless, termless[obs3]; untold, unnumbered, unmeasured, unbounded, unlimited; illimited[obs3]; perpetual &c. 112. Adv. infinitely &c. adj.; ad infinitum. Phr. "as boundless as the sea" [Romeo and Juliet].



#106. Time.—N. time, duration; period, term, stage, space, span, spell, season; the whole time, the whole period; space-time; course &c. 109; snap. intermediate time, while, interim, interval, pendency[obs3]; intervention, intermission, intermittence, interregnum, interlude; respite. era, epoch; time of life, age, year, date; decade &c. (period) 108; moment, &c. (instant) 113. glass of time, sands of time, march of time, Father Time, ravages of time; arrow of time; river of time, whirligig of time, noiseless foot of time; scythe. V. continue last endure, go on, remain, persist; intervene; elapse &c. 109; hold out. take time, take up time, fill time, occupy time. pass time, pass away time, spend time, while away time, consume time, talk against time; tide over; use time, employ time; seize an opportunity &c. 134; waste time &c. (be inactive) 683. Adj. continuing &c. v.; on foot; permanent &c. (durable) 110. Adv. while, whilst, during, pending; during the time, during the interval; in the course of, at that point, at that point in time; for the time being, day by day; in the time of, when; meantime, meanwhile; in the meantime, in the interim; ad interim, pendente lite[Lat]; de die in diem[Lat]; from day to day, from hour to hour &c.; hourly, always; for a time, for a season; till, until, up to, yet, as far as, by that time, so far, hereunto, heretofore, prior to this, up to this point. the whole time, all the time; all along; throughout &c. (completely) 52; for good &c. (diuturnity)[obs3] 110. hereupon, thereupon, whereupon; then; anno Domini; A.D.; ante Christum; A.C.; before Christ; B.C.; anno urbis conditae[Lat]; A.U.C.; anno regni[Lat]; A.R.; once upon a time, one fine morning, one fine day, one day, once. Phr. time flies, tempus fugit [Lat.]; time runs out, time runs against, race against time, racing the clock, time marches on, time is of the essence, "time and tide wait for no man". ad calendas Groecas[Lat]; "panting Time toileth after him in vain" [Johnson]; "'gainst the tooth of time and razure of oblivion" [Measure for Measure]; "rich with the spoils of time" [Gray]; tempus edax rerum [Lat][Horace]; "the long hours come and go" [C.G. Rossetti]; "the time is out of joint" [Hamlet]; "Time rolls his ceaseless course" [Scott]; "Time the foe of man's dominion" [Peacock]; "time wasted is existence, used is life" [Young]; truditur dies die [Lat][Horace]; volat hora per orbem [Lat][Lucretius]; carpe diem[Lat].

#107. Neverness.—N. "neverness"; absence of time, no time; dies non; Tib's eve; Greek Kalends, a blue moon. Adv. never, ne'er[contr]; at no time, at no period; on the second Tuesday of the week, when Hell freezes over; on no occasion, never in all one's born days, nevermore, sine die; in no degree.

#108. [Definite duration, or portion of time.] Period.—N. period,
age, era; second, minute, hour, day, week, month, quarter, year, decade,
decenniumm lustrum[obs3], quinquennium, lifetime, generation; epoch,
ghurry[obs3], lunation[obs3], moon.
     century, millennium; annus magnus[Lat].
     Adj. horary[obs3]; hourly, annual &c. (periodical) 138.

#108a. Contingent Duration.—Adv. during pleasure, during good behavior; quamdiu se bene gesserit[Latin].

#109. [Indefinite duration.] Course.—N. corridors of time, sweep of time, vesta of time[obs3], course of time, progress of time, process of time, succession of time, lapse of time, flow of time, flux of time, stream of time, tract of time, current of time, tide of time, march of time, step of time, flight of time; duration &c. 106. [Indefinite time] aorist[obs3]. V. elapse, lapse, flow, run, proceed, advance, pass; roll on, wear on, press on; flit, fly, slip, slide, glide; run its course. run out, expire; go by, pass by; be -past &c. 122. Adj. elapsing &c. v.; aoristic[obs3]; progressive. Adv. in due time, in due season; in in due course, in due process, in the fullness of time; in time. Phr. labitur et labetur [Lat][Horace]; truditur dies die [Lat][Horace]; fugaces labuntur anni [Lat][Horace]; "tomorrow and tomorrow and tomorrow creeps in this petty pace from day to day" [Macbeth].

#110. [Long duration.] Diuturnity.—N. diuturnity[obs3]; a long time, a length of time; an age, a century, an eternity; slowness &c. 275; perpetuity &c. 112; blue moon, coon's age [U.S.], dog's age. durableness, durability; persistence, endlessness, lastingness &c. adj[obs3].; continuance, standing; permanence &c. (stability) 150 survival, survivance[obs3]; longevity &c. (age) 128; distance of time. protraction of time, prolongation of time, extension of time; delay &c. (lateness) 133. V. last, endure, stand, remain, abide, continue, brave a thousand years. tarry &c. (be late) 133; drag on, drag its slow length along, drag a lengthening chain; protract, prolong; spin out, eke out, draw out, lengthen out; temporize; gain time, make time, talk against time. outlast, outlive; survive; live to fight again. Adj. durable; lasting &c. v.; of long duration, of long-standing; permanent, endless, chronic, long-standing; intransient[obs3], intransitive; intransmutable[obs3], persistent; lifelong, livelong; longeval[obs3], long-lived, macrobiotic, diuturnal[obs3], evergreen, perennial; sempervirent[obs3], sempervirid[obs3]; unrelenting, unintermitting[obs3], unremitting; perpetual &c. 112. lingering, protracted, prolonged, spun out &c. v. long-pending, long- winded; slow &c. 275. Adv. long; for a long time, for an age, for ages, for ever so long, for many a long day; long ago &c. (in a past time) 122; longo intervallo[It]. all the day long, all the year round; the livelong day, as the day is long, morning noon and night; hour after hour, day after day, &c.; for good; permanently &c. adj.

#111. [Short duration.] Transientness.—N. transience, transientness &c. adj[obs3].; evanescence, impermanence, fugacity[Chem], caducity[obs3], mortality, span; nine days' wonder, bubble, Mayfly; spurt; flash in the pan; temporary arrangement, interregnum. velocity &c. 274; suddenness &c. 113; changeableness &c. 149. transient, transient boarder, transient guest [U.S.]. V. be transient &c. adj.; flit, pass away, fly, gallop, vanish, fade, evaporate; pass away like a cloud, pass away like a summer cloud, pass away like a shadow, pass away like a dream. Adj. transient, transitory, transitive; passing, evanescent, fleeting, cursory, short-lived, ephemeral; flying &c. v.; fugacious, fugitive; shifting, slippery; spasmodic; instantaneous, momentaneous[obs3]. temporal, temporary; provisional, provisory; deciduous; perishable, mortal, precarious, unstable, insecure; impermanent. brief, quick, brisk, extemporaneous, summary; pressed for time &c. (haste) 684; sudden, momentary &c. (instantaneous) 113. Adv. temporarily &c. adj.; pro tempore[Lat]; for the moment, for a time; awhile, en passant[Fr], in transitu[Lat]; in a short time; soon &c. (early) 132; briefly &c. adj.; at short notice; on the point of, on the eve of; in articulo; between cup and lip. Phr. one's days are numbered; the time is up; here today and gone tomorrow; non semper erit aestas[Lat][obs3]; eheu! fugaces labuntur anni[Lat]; sic transit gloria mundi[Lat]; a schoolboy's tale, the wonder of the hour! [Byron]; dum loquimur fugerit invidia aetas[Lat][obs3]; fugit hora[Lat]; all that is transitory is but an illusion [Goethe].

#112. [Endless duration.] Perpetuity.—N. perpetuity, eternity, everness[obs3], aye, sempiternity[obs3], immortality, athanasia[obs3]; interminability[obs3], agelessness[obs3], everlastingness &c. adj.; perpetuation; continued existence, uninterrupted existence; perennity[obs3]; permanence (durability) 110. V. last forever, endure forever, go on forever; have no end. eternize, perpetuate. Adj. perpetual, eternal; everduring[obs3], everlasting, ever-living, ever-flowing; continual, sempiternal[obs3]; coeternal; endless, unending; ceaseless, incessant, uninterrupted, indesinent[obs3], unceasing; endless, unending, interminable, having no end; unfading[obs3], evergreen, amaranthine; neverending[obs3], never-dying, never-fading; deathless, immortal, undying, imperishable. Adv. perpetually &c. adj.; always, ever, evermore, aye; for ever, for aye, till the end of the universe, forevermore, forever and a day, for ever and ever; in all ages, from age to age; without end; world without end, time without end; in secula seculorum[Lat]; to the end of time, to the crack of doom, to the "last syllable of recorded time" [Macbeth]; till doomsday; constantly &c. (very frequently) 136. Phr. esto perpetuum[Lat]; labitur et labetur in omne volubilis oevum [Lat][Horace]; "but thou shall flourish in immortal youth" [Addison]; "Eternity! thou pleasing, dreadful thought" [Addison]; "her immortal part with angels lives" [Romeo & Juliet]; ohne Rast [Ger][Goethe's motto]; ora e sempre[It].

#113. [Point of time] Instantaneity.—N. instantaneity, instantaneousness, immediacy; suddenness, abruptness. moment, instant, second, minute; twinkling, trice, flash, breath, crack, jiffy, coup, burst, flash of lightning, stroke of time. epoch, time; time of day, time of night; hour, minute; very minute &c., very time, very hour; present time, right time, true time, exact correct time. V. be instantaneous &c. adj.; twinkle, flash. Adj. instantaneous, momentary, sudden, immediate, instant, abrupt, discontinuous, precipitous, precipitant, precipitate; subitaneous[obs3], hasty; quick as thought, quick as lightning, quick as a flash; rapid as electricity. speedy, quick, fast, fleet, swift, lively, blitz; rapid (velocity) 274. Adv. instantaneously &c. adj.; in no time, in less than no time; presto, subito[obs3], instanter, suddenly, at a stroke, like a shot; in a moment &c. n. in the blink of an eye, in the twinkling of an eye, in a trice; in one's tracks; right away; toute a l'heure[Fr]; at one jump, in the same breath, per saltum[Lat], uno saltu[Lat]; at once, all at once; plump, slap; "at one fell swoop"; at the same instant &c. n.; immediately &c. (early) 132; extempore, on the moment, on the spot, on the spur of the moment; no sooner said than done; just then; slap-dash &c. (haste) 684. Phr. touch and go; no sooner said than done.

#114. [Estimation, measurement, and record of time.] Chronometry.— N. chronometry, horometry[obs3], horology; date, epoch; style, era. almanac, calendar, ephemeris; register, registry; chronicle, annals, journal, diary, chronogram. [Instruments for the measurement of time]; clock, wall clock, pendulum clock, grandfather's clock, cuckoo clock, alarm clock, clock radio; watch, wristwatch, pocket watch, stopwatch, Swiss watch; atomic clock, digital clock, analog clock, quartz watch, water clock; chronometer, chronoscope[obs3], chronograph; repeater; timekeeper, timepiece; dial, sundial, gnomon, horologe, pendulum, hourglass, clepsydra[obs3]; ghurry[obs3]. chronographer[obs3], chronologer, chronologist, timekeeper; annalist. calendar year, leap year, Julian calendar, Gregorian calendar, Chinese calendar, Jewish calendar, perpetual calendar, Farmer's almanac, fiscal year. V. fix the time, mark the time; date, register, chronicle; measure time, beat time, mark time; bear date; synchronize watches. Adj. chronological, chronometrical[obs3], chronogrammatical[obs3]; cinquecento[Fr], quattrocento[obs3], trecento[obs3]. Adv. o'clock.

#115. [False estimate of time.] Anachronism.—N. anachronism,
metachronism, parachronism, prochronism; prolepsis, misdate; anticipation,
     disregard of time, neglect of time, oblivion of time.
     intempestivity &c. 135[obs3].
     V. misdate, antedate, postdate, backdate, overdate[obs3]; anticipate;
take no note of time, lose track of time; anachronize[obs3].
     Adj. misdated &c. v.; undated; overdue, past due; out of date.


1. Time with reference to Succession

#116. Priority.—N. priority, antecedence, anteriority, precedence, pre-existence; precession &c. 280; precursor &c. 64; the past &c. 122; premises. V. precede, come before; forerun; go before &c. (lead) 280; preexist; dawn; presage &c. 511; herald, usher in. be beforehand &c. (be early) 132; steal a march upon, anticipate, forestall; have the start, gain the start. Adj. prior, previous; preceding, precedent; anterior, antecedent; pre- existing, pre-existent; former, foregoing; aforementioned, before- mentioned, abovementioned; aforesaid, said; introductory &c. (precursory) 64. Adv. before, prior to; earlier; previously &c. adj.; afore[obs3], aforehand[obs3], beforehand, ere, theretofore, erewhile[obs3]; ere then, ere now, before then, before now; erewhile[obs3], already, yet, beforehand; on the eve of. Phr. prior tempore prior jure[Lat].

#117. Posteriority.—N. posteriority; succession, sequence; following &c. 281.; subsequence, supervention; futurity &c. 121; successor; sequel &c. 65; remainder, reversion. V. follow &c. 281 after, come after, go after; succeed, supervene; ensue, occur; step into the shoes of. Adj. subsequent, posterior, following, after, later, succeeding, postliminious[obs3], postnate[obs3]; postdiluvial[obs3], postdiluvian[obs3]; puisne|!; posthumous; future &c. 121; afterdinner, postprandial. Adv. subsequently, after, afterwards, since, later; at a subsequent, at a later period, at a later date; next, in the sequel, close upon, thereafter, thereupon, upon which, eftsoons|; from that time, from that moment; after a while, after a time; in process of time.

#118. The Present Time.—N. the present, the present time, the present day, the present moment, the present juncture, the present occasion; the times, the existing time, the time being; today, these days, nowadays, our times, modern times, the twentieth century; nonce, crisis, epoch, day, hour. age, time of life. Adj. present, actual, instant, current, existing, extant, that is; present-day, up-to-date, up-to-the-moment. Adv. at this time, at this moment &c. 113; at the present time &c. n.; now, at present; at hand. at this time of day, today, nowadays; already; even now, but now, just now; on the present occasion; for the time being, for the nonce; pro hac vice[Lat].; on the nail, on the spot; on the spur of the moment, until now; to this day, to the present day. Phr. "the present hour alone is man's" [Johnson].

#119. [Time different from the present.] Different time.—N.
different time, other time.
     [Indefinite time] aorist.
     Adj. aoristic; indefinite.
     Adv. at that time, at which time, at that moment, at that instant;
then, on that occasion, upon; not now, some other time.
     when; whenever, whensoever; upon which, on which occasion; at another,
at a different, at some other, at any- time; at various times; some one of
these days, one of these days, one fine morning; eventually, some day, by
and by, sooner or later; some time or other; once upon a time.

#120. Synchronism.—N. synchronism; coexistence, coincidence; simultaneousness, simultaneity &c. adj.; concurrence, concomitance, unity of time, interim. [Having equal times] isochronism[obs3]. contemporary, coetanian[obs3]. V. coexist, concur, accompany, go hand in hand, keep pace with; synchronize. Adj. synchronous, synchronal[obs3], synchronic, synchronical, synchronistical[obs3]; simultaneous, coexisting, coincident, concomitant, concurrent; coeval, coevous[obs3]; contemporary, contemporaneous; coetaneous[obs3]; coeternal; isochronous. Adv. at the same time; simultaneously &c. adj.; together, in concert, during the same time; in the same breath; pari passu[Lat]; in the interim; as one. at the very moment &c. 113; just as, as soon as; meanwhile &c. (while) 106.

#121. [Prospective time.] Futurity.—N. futurity, futurition; future, hereafter, time to come; approaching time, coming time, subsequent time, after time, approaching age, coming age, subsequent age, after age, approaching days, coming days, subsequent days, after days, approaching hours, coming hours, subsequent hours, after hours, approaching ages, coming ages, subsequent ages, after ages, approaching life, coming life, subsequent life, after life, approaching years, coming years, subsequent years, after years; morrow; millennium, doomsday, day of judgment, crack of doom, remote future. approach of time advent, time drawing on, womb of time; destiny &c. 152; eventuality. heritage, heirs posterity. prospect &c. (expectation) 507; foresight &c. 510. V. look forwards; anticipate &c. (expect) 507, (foresee) 510; forestall &c. (be early) 132. come on, draw on; draw near; approach, await, threaten; impend &c. (be destined) 152. Adj. future, to come; coming &c. (impending) 152; next, near; close at hand; eventual, ulterior; in prospect &c. (expectation) 507. Adv. prospectively, hereafter, in future; kal[obs3], tomorrow, the day after tomorrow; in course of time, in process of time, in the fullness of time; eventually, ultimately, sooner or later; proximo[Lat]; paulo post futurum[Lat]; in after time; one of these days; after a time, after a while. from this time; henceforth, henceforwards[obs3]; thence; thenceforth, thenceforward; whereupon, upon which. soon &c. (early) 132; on the eve of, on the point of, on the brink of; about to; close upon. Phr. quid sit futurum cras fuge quaerere [Latin][Horace].

#122. [Retrospective time.] The Past—N. the past, past time; days of yore, times of yore, days of old, times of old, days past, times past, days gone by, times gone by; bygone days; old times, ancient times, former times; fore time; the good old days, the olden time, good old time; auld lang syne[obs3]; eld|. antiquity, antiqueness[obs3], status quo; time immemorial; distance of time; remote age, remote time; remote past; rust of antiquity [study of the past] paleontology, paleography, paleology[obs3]; paleozoology; palætiology|[obs3], archaeology; paleogeography; paleoecology; paleobotany; paleoclimatoogy; archaism, antiquarianism, medievalism, Pre-Raphaelitism; paleography. retrospect, retrospection, looking back, memory &c. 505.
laudator temporis acti[Lat]; medievalist, Pre-Raphaelite; antiquary, antiquarian; archmologist &c.[obs3]; Oldbuck, Dryasdust. ancestry &c. (paternity) 166. V. be past &c. adj.; have expired &c. adj., have run its course, have had its day; pass; pass by, go by, pass away, go away, pass off, go off; lapse, blow over. look back, trace back, cast the eyes back; exhume. Adj. past, gone, gone by, over, passed away, bygone, foregone; elapsed, lapsed, preterlapsed[obs3], expired, no more, run out, blown over, has-been, that has been, extinct, antediluvian, antebellum, never to return, gone with the wind, exploded, forgotten, irrecoverable; obsolete &c. (old) 124. former, pristine, quondam, ci-devant[Fr], late; ancestral. foregoing; last, latter; recent, over night; preterperfect[obs3], preterpluperfect[obs3]. looking back &c. v.; retrospective, retroactive; archaeological &c. n. Adv. paleo-; archaeo-; formerly; of old, of yore; erst[Ger], whilom, erewhile[obs3], time was, ago, over; in the olden time &c. n.; anciently, long ago, long since; a long while, a long time ago; years ago, yesteryear, ages ago; some time ago, some time since, some time back. yesterday, the day before yesterday; last year, ultimo; lately &c. (newly) 123. retrospectively; ere now, before now, till now; hitherto, heretofore; no longer; once, once upon a time; from time immemorial, from prehistoric times; in the memory of man; time out of mind; already, yet, up to this time; ex post facto. Phr. time was; the time has been, the time hath been; you can't go home again; fuimus Troes [Lat][Vergil]; fruit Ilium [Vergil]; hoc erat in more majorum[Lat]; "O call back yesterday, bid time return" [Richard II]; tempi passati[It]; "the eternal landscape of the past" [Tennyson]; ultimus Romanorum[Lat]; "what's past is prologue" [Tempest]; "whose yesterdays look backward with a smile" [Young].

2. Time with reference to a particular Period.

#123. Newness.—N. newness &c. adj.; novelty, recency; immaturity; youth &c. 127; gloss of novelty. innovation; renovation &c. (restoration) 660. modernism; mushroom, parvenu; latest fashion. V. renew &c. (restore) 660; modernize. Adj. new, novel, recent, fresh, green; young &c. 127; evergreen; raw, immature, unsettled, yeasty; virgin; untried, unhandseled[obs3], untrodden, untrod, unbeaten; fire-new, span-new. late, modern, neoteric, hypermodern, nouveau; new-born, nascent, neonatal[med.], new-fashioned, new-fangled, new-fledged; of yesterday; just out, brand-new, up to date, up to the minute, with it, fashionable, in fashion; in, hip [coll.]; vernal, renovated, sempervirent[obs3], sempervirid[obs3]. fresh as a rose, fresh as a daisy, fresh as paint; spick and span. Adv. newly &c. adj.; afresh, anew, lately, just now, only yesterday, the other day; latterly, of late. not long ago, a short time ago. Phr. di novello tutto par bello[It]; nullum est jam dictum quod non dictum est prius[Lat]; una scopa nuova spazza bene[It].

#124. Oldness.—N. oldness &c. adj[obs3].; age, antiquity; cobwebs of antiquity; maturity; decline, decay; senility &c. 128. seniority, eldership, primogeniture; archaism &c. (the past) 122; thing of the past, relic of the past; megatherium[obs3]; Sanskrit. tradition, prescription, custom, immemorial usage, common law. V. be old &c. adj.; have had its day, have seen its day; become old &c. adj.; age, fade, senesce. Adj. old, ancient, antique; of long standing, time-honored, venerable; elder, eldest; firstborn. prime; primitive, primeval, primigenous[obs3]; paleolontological, paleontologic, paleoanthropological, paleoanthropic[obs3], paleolithic; primordial, primordinate[obs3]; aboriginal &c. (beginning) 66; diluvian[obs3], antediluvian; protohistoric[obs3]; prehistoric; antebellum, colonial, precolumbian; patriarchal, preadamite[obs3]; paleocrystic[obs3]; fossil, paleozoolical, paleozoic, preglacial[obs3], antemundane[obs3]; archaic, classic, medieval, Pre-Raphaelite, ancestral, black-letter. immemorial, traditional, prescriptive, customary, whereof the memory of man runneth not to the contrary; inveterate, rooted. antiquated, of other times, rococo, of the old school, after-age, obsolete; out of date, out of fashion, out of it; stale, old-fashioned, behind the age; old-world; exploded; gone out, gone by; passe, run out; senile &c. 128; time worn; crumbling &c. (deteriorated) 659; secondhand. old as the hills, old as Methuselah, old as Adam[obs3], old as history. [geological eras (list, starting at given number of years bp)] Archeozoic[5,000,000,000], Proterozoic[1,500,000,000], Paleozoic[600,000,000], Mesozoic[220,000,000], Cenozoic[70,000,000]. [geological periods (list)] Precambrian, Cambrian[600,000,000], Ordovician[500,000,000], Silurian[440,000,000], Devonian[400,000,000], Mississippian[350,000,000], Pennsylvanian[300,000,000], Permian[270,000,000], Triassic[220,000,000], Jurassic[180,000,000], Cretaceous[135,000,000]; Tertiary[70,000,000], Paleogene[70,000,000], Neocene[25,0000,000]; Quaternary[1,000,000]. [geological epochs (list, starting at 70,000,000 years bp)] Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, Recent. Adv. since the world was made, since the year one, since the days of Methuselah. Phr. vetera extollimus recentium incuriosi [Lat][Tacitus].

#125. Morning. [Noon.]—N. morning, morn, forenoon, a.m., prime, dawn, daybreak; dayspring[obs3], foreday[obs3], sunup; peep of day, break of day; aurora; first blush of the morning, first flush of the morning, prime of the morning; twilight, crepuscule, sunrise; cockcrow, cockcrowing[obs3]; the small hours, the wee hours of the morning. spring; vernal equinox, first point of Aries. noon; midday, noonday; noontide, meridian, prime; nooning, noontime. summer, midsummer. Adj. matin, matutinal[obs3]; vernal. Adv. at sunrise &c. n.; with the sun, with the lark, "when the morning dawns". Phr. "at shut of evening flowers" [Paradise Lost]; entre chien et loup[Fr]; "flames in the forehead of the morning sky" [Milton]; "the breezy call of incense-breathing morn" [Gray].

#126. Evening. [Midnight.]—N. evening, eve; decline of day, fall of day, close of day; candlelight, candlelighting[obs3]; eventide, nightfall, curfew, dusk, twilight, eleventh hour; sunset, sundown; going down of the sun, cock- shut, dewy eve, gloaming, bedtime. afternoon, postmeridian, p.m. autumn; fall, fall of the leaf; autumnal equinox; Indian summer, St. Luke's summer, St. Martin's summer. midnight; dead of night, witching hour, witching hour of night, witching time of night; winter; killing time. Adj. vespertine, autumnal, nocturnal. Phr. "midnight, the outpost of advancing day" [Longfellow]; "sable- vested Night" [Milton]; "this gorgeous arch with golden worlds inlay'd" [Young].

#127. Youth.—N. youth; juvenility, juvenescence[obs3]; juniority[obs3]; infancy; babyhood, childhood, boyhood, girlhood, youthhood[obs3]; incunabula; minority, nonage, teens, tender age, bloom. cradle, nursery, leading strings, pupilage, puberty, pucelage[obs3]. prime of life, flower of life, springtide of life[obs3], seedtime of life, golden season of life; heyday of youth, school days; rising generation. Adj. young, youthful, juvenile, green, callow, budding, sappy, puisne, beardless, under age, in one's teens; in statu pupillari[Lat]; younger, junior; hebetic[obs3], unfledged. Phr. "youth on the prow and pleasure at the helm" [Gray]; "youth . . . the glad season of life" [Carlyle].

#128. Age.—N. age; oldness[obs3] &c. adj.; old age, advanced age, golden years; senility, senescence; years, anility[obs3], gray hairs, climacteric, grand climacteric, declining years, decrepitude, hoary age, caducity[obs3], superannuation; second childhood, second childishness; dotage; vale of years, decline of life, "sear and yellow leaf" [Macbeth]; threescore years and ten; green old age, ripe age; longevity; time of life. seniority, eldership; elders &c. (veteran) 130; firstling; doyen, father; primogeniture. [Science of old age.] geriatrics, nostology|. V. be aged &c. adj.; grow old, get old &c. adj.; age; decline, wane, dodder; senesce. Adj. aged; old &c. 124; elderly, geriatric, senile; matronly, anile|; in years; ripe, mellow, run to seed, declining, waning, past one's prime; gray, gray-headed; hoar, hoary; venerable, time-worn, antiquated, passe, effete, decrepit, superannuated; advanced in life, advanced in years; stricken in years; wrinkled, marked with the crow's foot; having one foot in the grave; doting &c. (imbecile) 499; like the last of pea time. older, elder, eldest; senior; firstborn. turned of, years old; of a certain age, no chicken, old as Methuselah; ancestral, patriarchal, &c. (ancient) 124; gerontic. Phr. "give me a staff of honor for my age" [Titus Andronicus]; bis pueri senes [Lat]; peu de gens savent elre vieux[Fr]; plenus annis abiit plenus honoribus [Lat][Pliny the Younger]; "old age is creeping on apace" [Byron]; "slow-consuming age" [Gray]; "the hoary head is a crown of glory" [Proverbs xvi, 31]; "the silver livery of advised age" [II Henry VI]; to grow old gracefully; "to vanish in the chinks that Time has made" [Rogers].

#129. Infant.—N. infant, babe, baby, babe in arms; nurseling, suckling, yearling, weanling; papoose, bambino; kid; vagitus. child, bairn, little one, brat, chit, pickaninny, urchin; bantling, bratling[obs3]; elf; youth, boy, lad, stripling, youngster, youngun, younker[obs3], callant[obs3], whipster[obs3], whippersnapper, whiffet [obs3][U.S.], schoolboy, hobbledehoy, hopeful, cadet, minor, master; scion; sap, seedling; tendril, olive branch, nestling, chicken, larva, chrysalis, tadpole, whelp, cub, pullet, fry, callow; codlin, codling; foetus, calf, colt, pup, foal, kitten; lamb, lambkin[obs3]; aurelia[obs3], caterpillar, cocoon, nymph, nympha[obs3], orphan, pupa, staddle[obs3]. girl; lass, lassie; wench, miss, damsel, demoiselle; maid, maiden; virgin; hoyden. Adj. infantine[obs3], infantile; puerile; boyish, girlish, childish, babyish, kittenish; baby; newborn, unfledged, new-fledged, callow. in the cradle, in swaddling clothes, in long clothes, in arms, in leading strings; at the breast; in one's teens.

#130. Veteran.—N. veteran, old man, seer, patriarch, graybeard; grandfather, grandsire; grandam; gaffer, gammer; crone; pantaloon; sexagenarian, octogenarian, nonagenarian, centenarian; old stager; dotard &c. 501. preadamite[obs3], Methuselah, Nestor, old Parr; elders; forefathers &c. (paternity) 166. Phr. "superfluous lags the veteran on the stage" [Johnson].

#131. Adolescence.—N. adolescence, pubescence, majority; adultism; adultness &c. adj.; manhood, virility, maturity full age, ripe age; flower of age; prime of life, meridian of life, spring of life. man &c. 373; woman &c. 374; adult, no chicken. V. come of age, come to man's estate, come to years of discretion; attain majority, assume the toga virilis[Lat]; have cut one's eyeteeth, have sown one's mild oats. Adj. adolescent, pubescent, of age; of full age, of ripe age; out of one's teens, grown up, mature, full grown, in one's prime, middle-aged, manly, virile, adult; womanly, matronly; marriageable, nubile.

3. Time with reference to an Effect or Purpose

#132. Earliness.—N. {ant. 133} earliness &c. adj.; morning &c. 125. punctuality; promptitude &c. (activity) 682; haste &c. (velocity) 274; suddenness &c. (instantaneity) 113. prematurity, precocity, precipitation, anticipation; a stitch in time. V. be early &c. adj., be beforehand &c. adv.; keep time, take time by the forelock, anticipate, forestall; have the start, gain the start; steal a march upon; gain time, draw on futurity; bespeak, secure, engage, preengage[obs3]. accelerate; expedite &c. (quicken) 274; make haste &c. (hurry) 684. Adj. early, prime, forward; prompt &c. (active) 682; summary. premature, precipitate, precocious; prevenient[obs3], anticipatory; rath[obs3]. sudden &c. (instantaneous) 113; unexpected &c. 508; near, near at hand; immediate. Adv. early, soon, anon, betimes, rath[obs3]; eft, eftsoons; ere long, before long, shortly. beforehand; prematurely &c. adj.; precipitately &c. (hastily) 684; too soon; before its time, before one's time; in anticipation; unexpectedly &c. 508. suddenly &c. (instantaneously) 113; before one can say "Jack Robinson", at short notice, extempore; on the spur of the moment, on the spur of the occasion [Bacon]; at once; on the spot, on the instant; at sight; offhand, out of hand; a' vue d'oeil[Fr]; straight, straightway, straightforth[obs3]; forthwith, incontinently, summarily, immediately, briefly, shortly, quickly, speedily, apace, before the ink is dry, almost immediately, presently at the first opportunity, in no long time, by and by, in a while, directly. Phr. no sooner said than done, immediately, if not sooner; tout vient a temps pour qui sait attendre[Fr].

#132a. Punctuality—N. punctuality, promptness, immediateness.
     V. be prompt, be on time, be in time; arrive on time; be in the nick
of time.
     Adj. timely, seasonable, in time, punctual, prompt.
     Adv. on time, punctually, at the deadline, precisely, exactly; right
on time, to the minute; in time; in good time, in military time, in pudding
time|, in due time; time enough; with no time to spare, by a hair's
     Phr. touch and go, not a minute too soon, in the nick of time, just
under the wire, get on board before the train leaves the station.

#133. Lateness.—N. {ant. 132} lateness &c. adj.; tardiness &c. (slowness) 275. delay, delation; cunctation, procrastination; deferring, deferral &c. v.; postponement, adjournment, prorogation, retardation, respite, pause, reprieve, stay of execution; protraction, prolongation; Fabian policy, medecine expectante[Fr], chancery suit, federal case; leeway; high time; moratorium, holdover. V. be late &c. adj.; tarry, wait, stay, bide, take time; dawdle &c. (be inactive) 683; linger, loiter; bide one's time, take one's time; gain time; hang fire; stand over, lie over. put off, defer, delay, lay over, suspend; table [parliamentary]; shift off, stave off; waive, retard, remand, postpone, adjourn; procrastinate; dally; prolong, protract; spin out, draw out, lengthen out, stretch out; prorogue; keep back; tide over; push to the last, drive to the last; let the matter stand over; reserve &c. (store) 636; temporize; consult one's pillow, sleep on it. lose an opportunity &c. 135; be kept waiting, dance attendance; kick one's heels, cool one's heels; faire antichambre[Fr][obs3]; wait impatiently; await &c. (expect) 507; sit up, sit up at night. Adj. late, tardy, slow, behindhand, serotine[obs3], belated, postliminious[obs3], posthumous, backward, unpunctual, untimely; delayed, postponed; dilatory &c. (slow) 275; delayed &c. v.; in abeyance. Adv. late; lateward[obs3], backward; late in the day; at sunset, at the eleventh hour, at length, at last; ultimately; after time, behind time, after the deadline; too late; too late for &c. 135. slowly, leisurely, deliberately, at one's leisure; ex post facto; sine die [parl.]. Phr. nonum prematur in annum [Lat][Horace]; "against the sunbeams serotine and lucent" [Longfellow]; ie meglio tardi che mai[It]; deliberando saepe perit occasio [Lat][Syrus].

#134. Occasion.—N. {ant. 135} timeliness, occasion, opportunity, opening, room; event (eventuality) 151; suitable season, proper season, suitable time, proper time; high time; opportuneness &c. adj.; tempestivity[obs3]. crisis, turn, juncture, conjuncture; crisis, turning point, given time. nick of time; golden opportunity, well timed opportunity, fine opportunity, favorable opportunity, opening; clear stage, fair field; mollia tempora[Lat][obs3]; fata Morgana[Lat]; spare time &c. (leisure) 685. V. seize &c. (take) 789 an opportunity, use &c. 677 an opportunity, give &c. 784 an opportunity, use an occasion; improve the occasion. suit the occasion &c. (be expedient) 646. seize the occasion, strike while the iron is hot, battre le fer sur l'enclume[Fr], make hay while the sun shines, seize the present hour, take time by the forelock, prendre la balle au bond[Fr]. Adj. opportune, timely, well-timed, timeful[obs3], seasonable. providential, lucky, fortunate, happy, favorable, propitious, auspicious, critical; suitable &c. 23; obiter dicta. Adv. opportunely &c. adj.; in proper course, in due course, in proper season, in due season, in proper time, in due time; for the nonce; in the nick of time, in the fullness of time; all in good time; just in time, at the eleventh hour, now or never. by the way, by the by; en passant[Fr], a propos[Fr]; pro re nata[Lat], pro hac vice[Lat]; par parenthese[Fr], parenthetically, by way of parenthesis, incidentally; while speaking of, while on the subject; extempore; on the spur of the moment, on the spur of the occasion; on the spot &c. (early) 132. Phr. carpe diem[Lat], [Horace]; occasionem cognosce[Lat]; one's hour is come, the time is up; that reminds me, now that you mention it, come to think of it; bien perdu bien connu[Fr]; e sempre l'ora[It]; ex quovis ligno non fit Mercurius[Lat]; nosce tempus[Lat]; nunc aut nunquam[Lat].

#135. Untimeliness—N. {ant. 134} untimeliness, intempestivity[obs3], unseasonableness, inexpedience; unsuitable time, improper time; unreasonableness &c. adj; evil hour; contretemps; intrusion; anachronism &c. 115. bad time, wrong time, inappropriate time, not the right occasion, unsuitable time, inopportune time, poor timing. V. be ill timed &c. adj.; mistime, intrude, come amiss, break in upon; have other fish to fry; be busy, be occupied. lose an opportunity, throw away an opportunity, waste an opportunity, neglect &c. 460 an opportunity; allow the opportunity to pass, suffer the opportunity to pass, allow the opportunity to slip, suffer the opportunity to slip, allow the opportunity to go by, suffer the opportunity to go by, allow the opportunity to escape, suffer the opportunity to escape, allow the opportunity to lapse, suffer the opportunity to lapse, allow the occasion to pass, allow the occasion to slip by; waste time &c. (be inactive) 683; let slip through the fingers, lock the barn door after the horse is stolen. Adj. ill-timed, mistimed; ill-fated, ill-omened, ill-starred; untimely, unseasonable; out of date, out of season; inopportune, timeless, intrusive, untoward, mal a propos[Fr], unlucky, inauspicious, infelicitous, unbefitting, unpropitious, unfortunate, unfavorable; unsuited &c. 24; inexpedient &c. 647. unpunctual &c. (late) 133; too late for; premature &c. (early) 132; too soon for; wise after the event, monday morning quarterbacking, twenty- twenty hindsight. Adv. inopportunely &c. adj.; as ill luck would have it, in an evil hour, the time having gone by, a day after the fair. Phr. after death the doctor, after meat mustard.


#136. Frequency.—N. frequency, oftness[obs3], oftenness[obs3], commonness; repetition &c. 104; normality &c. 80; example (conformity) 82; routine, custom (habit) 613. regularity, uniformity, constancy, clock-work precision; punctuality &c. (exactness) 494; even tenor; system; routine &c. (custom) 613; formula; rule &c. (form, regulation) 697; keynote, standard, model; precedent &c. (prototype) 22; conformity &c. 82. V. recur &c. 104; do nothing but; keep, keep on. Adj. frequent, many times, not rare, thickcoming[obs3], incessant, perpetual, continual, steady, constant, thick; uniform; repeated &c. 104; customary &c. 613 (habit) 613; regular (normal) 80; according to rule &c. (conformable) 82. common, everyday, usual, ordinary, familiar. old-hat, boring, well-known, trivial. Adv. often, oft; ofttimes[obs3], oftentimes; frequently; repeatedly &c. 104; unseldom[obs3], not unfrequently[obs3]; in quick succession, in rapid succession; many a time and oft; daily, hourly &c.; every day, every hour, every moment &c. perpetually, continually, constantly, incessantly, without ceasing, at all times, daily and hourly, night and day, day and night, day after day, morning noon and night, ever anon, invariably (habit) 613. most often; commonly &c. (habitually) 613. sometimes, occasionally, at times, now and then, from time to time, there being times when, toties quoties[Lat][obs3], often enough, when the mood strikes, again and again.

#137. Infrequency.—N. infrequency, rareness, rarity; fewness &c.
103; seldomness[obs3]; uncommonness.
     V. be rare &c. adj.
     Adj. unfrequent[obs3], infrequent; rare, rare as a blue diamond; few
&c. 103; scarce; almost unheard of, unprecedented, which has not occurred
within the memory of the oldest inhabitant, not within one's previous
experience; not since Adam[obs3].
     scarce as hen's teeth; one in a million; few and far between.
     Adv. seldom, rarely, scarcely, hardly; not often, not much,
infrequently, unfrequently[obs3], unoften[obs3]; scarcely, scarcely ever,
hardly ever; once in a blue moon.
     once; once in a blue moon; once in a million years; once for all, once
in a way; pro hac vice[Lat].
     Phr. ein mal kein mal[German].

#138. Regularity of recurrence. Periodicity.—N. periodicity, intermittence; beat; oscillation &c. 314; pulse, pulsation; rhythm; alternation, alternateness, alternativeness, alternity[obs3]. bout, round, revolution, rotation, turn, say. anniversary, jubilee, centenary. catamenia[obs3]; courses, menses, menstrual flux. [Regularity of return] rota, cycle, period, stated time, routine; days of the week; Sunday, Monday &c.; months of the year; January &c.; feast, fast &c.; Christmas, Easter, New Year's day &c. Allhallows[obs3], Allhallowmas[obs3], All Saints' Day; All Souls', All Souls' Day; Ash Wednesday, bicentennial, birthday, bissextile[obs3], Candlemas[obs3], Dewali, groundhog day [U.S.], Halloween, Hallowmas[obs3], Lady day, leap year, Midsummer day, Muharram, woodchuck day [U.S.], St. Swithin's day, natal day; yearbook; yuletide. punctuality, regularity, steadiness. V. recur in regular order, recur in regular succession; return, revolve; come again, come in its turn; come round, come round again; beat, pulsate; alternate; intermit. Adj. periodic, periodical; serial, recurrent, cyclical, rhythmical; recurring &c. v.; intermittent, remittent; alternate, every other. hourly; diurnal, daily; quotidian, tertian, weekly; hebdomadal|, hebdomadary|; biweekly, fortnightly; bimonthly; catamenial|; monthly, menstrual; yearly, annual; biennial, triennial, &c.; centennial, secular; paschal, lenten, &c. regular, steady, punctual, regular as clockwork. Adv. periodically &c. adj.; at regular intervals, at stated times; at fixed established, at established periods; punctually &c. adj. de die in diem[Lat]; from day to day, day by day. by turns; in turn, in rotation; alternately, every other day, off and on, ride and tie, round and round.

#139. Irregularity of recurrence.—N. irregularity, uncertainty, unpunctuality; fitfulness &c. adj.; capriciousness, ecrhythmus|. Adj. irregular, uncertain, unpunctual, capricious, desultory, fitful, flickering; rambling, rhapsodical; spasmodic; immethodical[obs3], unmethodical, variable. Adv. irregularly &c. adj.; by fits and starts &c. (discontinuously) 70.



#140. [Difference at different times.] Change.—N. change, alteration, mutation, permutation, variation, modification, modulation, inflexion, mood, qualification, innovation, metastasis, deviation, turn, evolution, revolution; diversion; break. transformation, transfiguration; metamorphosis; transmutation; deoxidization[Chem]; transubstantiation; mutagenesis[Genet], transanimation[obs3], transmigration, metempsychosis|; avatar; alterative. conversion &c. (gradual change) 144; revolution &c. (sudden or radical change) 146 inversion &c. (reversal) 218; displacement &c. 185; transference &c. 270. changeableness &c. 149; tergiversation &c. (change of mind) 607. V. change, alter, vary, wax and wane; modulate, diversify, qualify, tamper with; turn, shift, veer, tack, chop, shuffle, swerve, warp, deviate, turn aside, evert, intervert[obs3]; pass to, take a turn, turn the corner, resume. work a change, modify, vamp, superinduce; transform, transfigure, transmute, transmogrify, transume[obs3]; metamorphose, ring the changes. innovate, introduce new blood, shuffle the cards; give a turn to, give a color to; influence, turn the scale; shift the scene, turn over a new leaf. recast &c. 146; reverse &c. 218; disturb &c. 61; convert into &c. 144. Adj. changed &c. v.; newfangled; changeable &c. 149; transitional; modifiable; alterative. Adv. mutatis mutandis[Lat]. Int. quantum mutatus[Lat]! Phr. "a change came o'er the spirit of my dream" [Byron]; nous avons change tout cela [Fr][Molière]; tempora mutantur nos et mutamur in illis[Lat][obs3]; non sum qualis eram [Lat][Horace]; casaque tourner[Fr]; corpora lente augescent cito extinguuntur [Lat][obs3][Tacitus]; in statu quo ante bellum[Lat]; "still ending and beginning still" [Cowper]; vox audita perit littera scripta manet[Lat].

#141. [Absence of change.] Permanence.—N. stability &c. 150; quiescence &c. 265; obstinacy &c. 606. permanence, persistence, endurance; durability; standing, status quo; maintenance, preservation, conservation; conservation; law of the Medes and Persians; standing dish. V. let alone, let be, let it be; persist, remain, stay, tarry, rest; stet [copy editing]; hold, hold on; last, endure, bide, abide, aby[obs3], dwell, maintain, keep; stand, stand still, stand fast; subsist, live, outlive, survive; hold one's ground, keep one's ground, hold one's footing, keep one's footing; hold good. Adj. stable &c. 150; persisting &c. v.; permanent; established; unchanged &c. (change &c. 140); renewed; intact, inviolate; persistent; monotonous, uncheckered[obs3]; unfailing. undestroyed, unrepealed, unsuppressed[obs3]; conservative, qualis ab incepto[Lat]; prescriptive &c. (old) 124; stationary &c. 265. Adv. in statu quo[Lat]; for good, finally; at a stand, at a standstill; uti possidetis[Lat]; without a shadow of turning. Phr. esto perpetua[Lat]; nolumus leges Angliae mutari[Lat][obs3]; j'y suis et j'y ereste[Fr].

#142. [Change from action to rest.] Cessation.—N. cessation, discontinuance, desistance, desinence[obs3]. intermission, remission; suspense, suspension; interruption; stop; stopping &c. v.; closure, stoppage, halt; arrival &c. 292. pause, rest, lull, respite, truce, drop; interregnum, abeyance; cloture [U.S. congress]. dead stop, dead stand, dead lock; finis, cerrado[Sp]; blowout, burnout, meltdown, disintegration; comma, colon, semicolon, period, full stop; end &c. 67; death &c. 360. V. cease, discontinue, desist, stay, halt; break off, leave off; hold, stop, pull up, stop short; stick, hang fire; halt; pause, rest; burn out, blow out, melt down. have done with, give over, surcease, shut up shop; give up &c. (relinquish) 624. hold one's hand, stay one's hand; rest on one's oars repose on one's laurels. come to a stand, come to a standstill; come to a deadlock, come to a full stop; arrive &c. 292; go out, die away; wear away, wear off; pass away &c. (be past) 122; be at an end; disintegrate, self-destruct. intromit, interrupt, suspend, interpel[obs3]; intermit, remit; put an end to, put a stop to, put a period to; derail; turn off, switch off, power down, deactivate, disconnect; bring to a stand, bring to a standstill; stop, cut short, arrest, stem the tide, stem the torrent; pull the check- string, pull the plug on. Int. hold! stop! enough! avast! have done! a truce to! soft! leave off! tenez[Fr]! Phr. "I pause for a reply" [Julius Caesar].

#143. Continuance in action.—N. continuance, continuation; run; perpetuation, prolongation; persistence &c. (perseverance) 604a; repetition &c. 104. V. continue, persist; go on, jog on, keep on, run on, hold on; abide, keep, pursue, stick to its course, take its course, maintain its course; carry on, keep up. sustain, uphold, hold up, keep on foot; follow up, perpetuate; maintain; preserve &c. 604a; harp upon &c. (repeat) 104. keep going, keep alive, keep the pot boiling, keep up the ball, keep up the good work; die in harness, die with one's boots on; hold on the even tenor of one's way, pursue the even tenor of one's way. let be; stare super antiquas vias[Lat][obs3]; quieta non movere[Lat]; let things take their course; stare decisis [Lat][Jurisprudence]. Adj. continuing &c. v.; uninterrupted, unintermitting[obs3], unvarying, unshifting[obs3]; unreversed[obs3], unstopped, unrevoked, unvaried; sustained; undying &c. (perpetual) 112; inconvertible. Int. keep it up! go to it! right away! right on! attaboy! Phr. nolumus leges Angliae mutari[Lat][obs3]; vestigia nulla retrorsum [Lat][Horace]; labitur et albetur [Lat][obs3][Horace].

#144. [Gradual change to something different.] Conversion.—N. conversion, reduction, transmutation, resolution, assimilation; evolution, sea change; change of state; assumption; naturalization; transportation; development [biol.], developing [photography]. [conversion of currency] conversion of currency, exchange of currency; exchange rate; bureau de change. chemistry, alchemy; progress, growth, lapse, flux. passage; transit, transition; transmigration, shifting &c. v.; phase; conjugation; convertibility. crucible, alembic, caldron, retort. convert, pervert, renegade, apostate. V. be converted into; become, get, wax; come to, turn to, turn into, evolve into, develop into; turn out, lapse, shift; run into, fall into, pass into, slide into, glide into, grow into, ripen into, open into, resolve itself into, settle into, merge into, emerge as; melt, grow, come round to, mature, mellow; assume the form of, assume the shape of, assume the state of, assume the nature of, assume the character of; illapse|; begin a new phase, assume a new phase, undergo a change. convert into, resolve into; make, render; mold, form &c. 240; remodel, new model, refound[obs3], reform, reorganize; assimilate to, bring to, reduce to. Adj. converted into &c. v.; convertible, resolvable into; transitional; naturalized. Adv. gradually, &c. (slowly) 275 in transitu &c. (transference) 270[Lat].

#145. Reversion.—N. reversion, return; revulsion. turning point, turn of the tide; status quo ante bellum; calm before a storm; alternation &c. (periodicity) 138; inversion &c. 219; recoil &c. 277; retreat, regression, retrogression &c. 283; restoration &c. 660; relapse, recidivism &c. 661; atavism; vicinism[obs3]; V. revert, turn back, regress; relapse &c. 661; recoil &c. 277; retreat &c. 283; restore &c. 660; undo, unmake; turn the tide, roll back the tide, turn the scale, tip the scale. Adj. reverting &c. v.; regressive, revulsive, reactionary; retrorse[obs3]. Adv. a rebours[Fr].

#146. [Sudden or violent change.] Revolution.—N. revolution, bouleversement, subversion, break up; destruction &c. 162; sudden change, radical change, sweeping organic change; change of state, phase change; quantum leap, quantum jump; clean sweep, coup d'etat[Fr], counter revolution. jump, leap, plunge, jerk, start, transilience|; explosion; spasm, convulsion, throe, revulsion; storm, earthquake, cataclysm. legerdemain &c. (trick) 545. V. revolutionize; new model, remodel, recast; strike out something new, break with the past; change the face of, unsex. Adj. unrecognizable; revolutionary.

#147. [Change of one thing for another.] Substitution.—N. substitution, commutation; supplanting &c. v.; metaphor, metonymy &c. (figure of speech) 521. [Thing substituted] substitute, ersatz, makeshift, temporary expedient, replacement, succedaneum; shift, pis aller[Fr], stopgap, jury rigging, jury mast, locum tenens, warming pan, dummy, scapegoat; double; changeling; quid pro quo, alternative. representative &c. (deputy) 759; palimpsest. price, purchase money, consideration, equivalent. V. substitute, put in the place of, change for; make way for, give place to; supply the place of, take the place of; supplant, supersede, replace, cut out, serve as a substitute; step into stand in the shoes of; jury rig, make a shift with, put up with; borrow from Peter to pay Paul, take money out of one pocket and put it in another, cannibalize; commute, redeem, compound for. Adj. substituted &c.; ersatz; phony; vicarious, subdititious[obs3]. Adv. instead; in place of, in lieu of, in the stead of, in the room of; faute de mieux[Fr].

#148. [Double or mutual change.] Interchange.—N. interchange,
exchange; commutation, permutation, intermutation; reciprocation,
transposition, rearrangement; shuffling; alternation, reciprocity; castling
[at chess]; hocus-pocus.
     interchangeableness[obs3], interchangeability.
     recombination; combination 48[ref], 84..
     barter &c. 794; tit for tat &c. (retaliation) 718; cross fire,
battledore and shuttlecock; quid pro quo.
     V. interchange, exchange, counterchange[obs3]; bandy, transpose,
shuffle, change bands, swap, permute, reciprocate, commute; give and take,
return the compliment; play at puss in the corner, play at battledore and
shuttlecock; retaliate &c. 718; requite.
     rearrange, recombine.
     Adj. interchanged &c. v.; reciprocal, mutual, commutative,
interchangeable, intercurrent[obs3].
     combinatorial[Math, Statistics].
     recombinant[Biology, Genetics].
     Adv. in exchange, vice versa, mutatis mutandis[Lat], backwards and
forwards, by turns, turn and turn about; each in his turn, everyone in his
     Adj. substituted &c. v.; vicarious, subdititious[obs3].
     Adv. instead; in place of, in lieu of, in the stead of, in the room
of; faute de mieux[Fr].


#149. Changeableness.—N. changeableness &c. adj.; mutability, inconstancy; versatility, mobility; instability, unstable equilibrium; vacillation &c. (irresolution) 605; fluctuation, vicissitude; alternation &c. (oscillation) 314. restlessness &c. adj. fidgets, disquiet; disquietude, inquietude; unrest; agitation &c. 315. moon, Proteus, chameleon, quicksilver, shifting sands, weathercock, harlequin, Cynthia of the minute, April showers[obs3]; wheel of Fortune; transientness &c. 111[obs3]. V. fluctuate, vary, waver, flounder, flicker, flitter, flit, flutter, shift, shuffle, shake, totter, tremble, vacillate, wamble[obs3], turn and turn about, ring the changes; sway to and fro, shift to and fro; change and change about; waffle, blow with the wind (irresolute) 605; oscillate &c. 314; vibrate between, two extremes, oscillate between, two extremes; alternate; have as many phases as the moon. Adj. changeable, changeful; changing &c. 140; mutable, variable, checkered, ever changing; protean, proteiform|; versatile. unstaid[obs3], inconstant; unsteady, unstable, unfixed, unsettled; fluctuating &c. v.; restless; agitated &c. 315; erratic, fickle; irresolute &c. 605; capricious &c. 608; touch and go; inconsonant, fitful, spasmodic; vibratory; vagrant, wayward; desultory; afloat; alternating; alterable, plastic, mobile; transient &c. 111; wavering. Adv. seesaw &c. (oscillation) 314; off and on. Phr. "a rolling stone gathers no moss"; pictra mossa non fa muschis[It]; honores mutant mores[Lat]; varium et mutabile semper femina [Lat][Vergil].

#150. Stability.—N. stability; immutability &c. adj.; unchangeability, &c. adj.; unchangeableness|!; constancy; stable equilibrium, immobility, soundness, vitality, stabiliment[obs3], stiffness, ankylosis[obs3], solidity, aplomb. establishment, fixture; rock, pillar, tower, foundation, leopard's spots, Ethiopia's skin. permanence &c. 141; obstinacy &c. 606. V. be firm &c. adj.; stick fast; stand firm, keep firm, remain firm; weather the storm, stay the course, stick to the course, keep the faith, don't give in, don't buckle under. settle, establish, stablish[obs3], ascertain, fix, set, stabilitate[obs3]; retain, keep hold; make good, make sure; fasten &c. (join) 43; set on its legs, float; perpetuate. settle down; strike roots, put down roots, take root; take up one's abode &c. 184; build one's house on a rock. Adj. unchangeable, immutable; unaltered, unalterable; not to be changed, constant; permanent &c. 141; invariable, undeviating; stable, durable; perennial &c. (diuturnal) 110[obs3]. fixed, steadfast, firm, fast, steady, balanced; confirmed, valid; fiducial[obs3]; immovable, irremovable, riveted, rooted; settled, established &c. v.; vested; incontrovertible, stereotyped, indeclinable. tethered, anchored, moored, at anchor, on a rock, rock solid, firm as a rock; firmly seated, firmly established &c. v.; deep-rooted, ineradicable; inveterate; obstinate &c. 606. transfixed, stuck fast, aground, high and dry, stranded. [movable object rendered unmovable] stuck, jammed; unremovable; quiescent &c. 265; deterioration &c. 659. indefeasible, irretrievable, intransmutable[obs3], incommutable[obs3], irresoluble[obs3], irrevocable, irreversible, reverseless[obs3], inextinguishable, irreducible; indissoluble, indissolvable[obs3]; indestructible, undying, imperishable, incorruptible, indelible, indeciduous[obs3]; insusceptible, insusceptible of change. Int. stet. Phr. littera scripta manet[Lat].

Present Events

#151. Eventuality.—N. eventuality, event, occurrence, incident, affair, matter, thing, episode, happening, proceeding, contingency, juncture, experience, fact; matter of fact; naked fact, bare facts, just the facts; phenomenon; advent. business, concern, transaction, dealing, proceeding; circumstance, particular, casualty, accident, adventure, passage, crisis, pass, emergency, contingency, consequence; opportunity (occasion) 143. the world, life, things, doings, affairs in general; things in general, affairs in general; the times, state of affairs, order of the day; course of things, tide of things, stream of things, current of things, run of things, march of things, course of events; ups and downs of life, vicissitudes of life; chapter of accidents &c. (chance) 156; situation &c. (circumstances) 8. V. happen, occur; take place, take effect; come, become of; come off, comeabout[obs3], come round, come into existence, come forth, come to pass, come on; pass, present itself; fall; fall out, turn out; run, be on foot, fall in; befall, betide, bechance[obs3]; prove, eventuate, draw on; turn up, crop up, spring up, pop up, arise, show up, show its face, appear, come forth, cast up; supervene, survene[obs3]; issue, arrive, ensue, arise, start, hold, take its course; pass off &c. (be past) 122. meet with; experience, enjoy, encounter, undergo, suffer, pass through, go through, be subjected to, be exposed to; fall to the lot of; be one's chance, be one's fortune, be one's lot; find; endure &c. (feel) 821. Adj. happening &c. v; going on, doing, current; in the wind, in the air, afloat; on foot, afoot, on the tapis[obs3]; at issue, in question; incidental. eventful, stirring, bustling, full of incident; memorable, momentous, signal. Adv. eventually; in the event of, in case, just in case; in the course of things; as things, times go; as the world goes, wags; as the tree falls, cat jumps; as it may turn out, happen. Phr. that's the way the ball bounces, that's the way the cookie crumbles; you never know what may turn up, you never know what the future will bring; the plot thickens; "breasts the blows of circumstance" [Tennyson]; "so runs round of life from hour to hour" "sprinkled along the waste of years" [Tennyson][Keble].

Future Events

#152. Destiny.—N. destiny &c. (necessity) 601; future existence, post existence; hereafter; future state, next world, world to come, after life; futurity &c. 121; everlasting life, everlasting death; life beyond the grave, world beyond the grave; prospect &c. (expectation) 507. V. impend; hang over, lie over; threaten, loom, await, come on, approach, stare one in the face; foreordain, preordain; predestine, doom, have in store for. Adj. impending &c. v.; destined; about to be, happen; coming, in store, to come, going to happen, instant, at hand, near; near, close at hand; over hanging, hanging over one's head, imminent; brewing, preparing, forthcoming; in the wind, on the cards, in reserve; that will, is to be; in prospect &c. (expected) 507; looming in the distance, horizon, future; unborn, in embryo; in the womb of time, futurity; pregnant &c. (producing) 161. Adv. in time, the long run; all in good time; eventually &c. 151; whatever may happen &c. (certainly) 474; as chance &c. 156 would have it.



#153. [Constant antecedent]. Cause.—N. cause, origin, source, principle, element; occasioner[obs3], prime mover, primum mobile[Lat]; vera causa[Lat]; author &c. (producer) 164; mainspring; agent; leaven; groundwork, foundation &c. (support) 215. spring, fountain, well, font; fountainhead, spring head, wellhead; fons et origo[Lat], genesis; descent &c. (paternity) 166; remote cause; influence. pivot, hinge, turning point, lever, crux, fulcrum; key; proximate cause, causa causans[Lat]; straw that breaks the camel's back. ground; reason, reason why; why and wherefore, rationale, occasion, derivation; final cause &c. (intention) 620; les dessous des cartes[Fr]; undercurrents. rudiment, egg, germ, embryo, bud, root, radix radical, etymon, nucleus, seed, stem, stock, stirps, trunk, tap-root, gemmule[obs3], radicle, semen, sperm. nest, cradle, nursery, womb, nidus, birthplace, hotbed. causality, causation; origination; production &c. 161. V. be the cause &c. n of; originate; give origin to, give rise, to, give occasion to; cause, occasion, sow the seeds of, kindle, suscitate[obs3]; bring on, bring to bring pass, bring about; produce; create &c. 161; set up, set afloat, set on foot; found, broach, institute, lay the foundation of; lie at the root of. procure, induce, draw down, open the door to, superinduce, evoke, entail, operate; elicit, provoke. conduce to &c. (tend to) 176; contribute; have a hand in the pie, have a finger in the pie; determine, decide, turn the scale; have a common origin; derive its origin &c. (effect) 154. Adj. caused &c. v; causal, original; primary, primitive, primordial; aboriginal; protogenal[obs3]; radical; embryonic, embryotic[obs3]; in embryo, in ovo[Lat]; seminal, germinal; at the bottom of; connate, having a common origin. Adv. because &c. 155; behind the scenes. Phr. causa latet vis est notissima [Lat][Ovid]; felix qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas [Lat][Vergil].

#154. [Constant sequent.] Effect.— N. effect, consequence; aftergrowth[obs3], aftercome[obs3]; derivative, derivation; result; resultant, resultance[obs3]; upshot, issue, denouement; end &c. 67; development, outgrowth, fruit, crop, harvest, product, bud. production, produce, work, handiwork, fabric, performance; creature, creation; offspring, offshoot; firstfruits[obs3], firstlings; heredity, telegony[obs3]; premices premises[obs3]. V. be the effect of &c. n.; be due to, be owing to; originate in, originate from; rise -, arise, take its rise spring from, proceed from, emanate from, come from, grow from, bud from, sprout from, germinate from, issue from, flow from, result from, follow from, derive its origin from, accrue from; come to, come of, come out of; depend upon, hang upon, hinge upon, turn upon. take the consequences, sow the wind and reap the whirlwind. Adj. owing to; resulting from &c. v.; derivable from; due to; caused by &c. 153; dependent upon; derived from, evolved from; derivative; hereditary; telegonous[obs3]. Adv. of course, it follows that, naturally, consequently; as a consequence, in consequence; through, all along of, necessarily, eventually. Phr. cela va sans dire[Fr], "thereby hangs a tale" [Taming of the Shrew].

#155. [Assignment of cause] Attribution—N. attribution, theory, etiology, ascription, reference to, rationale; accounting for &c. v; palætiology,[1] imputation, derivation from. filiation[obs3], affiliation; pedigree &c. (paternity) 166. explanation &c. (interpretation) 522; reason why &c. (cause) 153. V. attribute to, ascribe to, impute to, refer to, lay to, point to, trace to, bring home to; put down to, set down to, blame; charge on, ground on; invest with, assign as cause, lay at, the door of, father upon; account for, derive from, point out the reason &c. 153; theorize; tell how it comes; put the saddle on the right horse. Adj. attributed &c. v.; attributable &c. v.; referable to, referrible to[obs3], due to, derivable from; owing to &c. (effect) 154; putative; ecbatic[obs3]. Adv. hence, thence, therefore, for, since, on account of, because, owing to; on that account; from this cause, from that cause; thanks to, forasmuch as; whence, propter hoc[Lat]. why? wherefore? whence? how comes it, how is it, how happens it? how does it happen? in some way, in some such way; somehow, somehow or other. Phr. that is why; hinc illae lachrymae [Lat][Horace].

[1] Whewell History of the inductive Sciences, book xviii vol. iii.p. 397 (3d edit.).

#156. [Absence of assignable cause.] Chance.[2]—N. chance, indetermination, accident, fortune, hazard, hap, haphazard, chance medley, random, luck, raccroc[obs3], casualty, contingence, adventure, hit; fate &c. (necessity) 601; equal chance; lottery; tombola[obs3]; toss up &c. 621; turn of the table, turn of the cards; hazard of the die, chapter of accidents, fickle finger of fate; cast of the dice, throw of the dice; heads or tails, flip of a coin, wheel of Fortune; sortes[obs3], sortes Virgilianae[obs3]. probability, possibility, odds; long odds, run of luck; accidentalness; main chance, odds on, favorable odds. contingency, dependence (uncertainty) 475; situation (circumstance) 8. statistics, theory of Probabilities, theory of Chances; bookmaking; assurance; speculation, gaming &c. 621. V. chance, hap, turn up; fall to one's lot; be one's -fate &c. 601; stumble on light upon; take one's chance &c. 621. Adj. casual, fortuitous, accidental, adventitious, causeless, incidental, contingent, uncaused, undetermined, indeterminate; random, statistical; possible &c. 470; unintentional &c. 621. Adv. by chance, accidentally, by accident; casually; perchance &c. (possibly) 470; for aught one knows; as good would have it, as bad would have it, as luck would have it, as ill-luck would have it, as chance would have it; as it may be, as it may chance, as it may turn up, as it may happen; as the case may be. Phr. "grasps the skirts of happy chance" [Tennyson]; "the accident of an accident" [Lord Thurlow]. "There but for the grace of God go I."

[2] The word Chance has two distinct meanings: the first, the absence of assignable cause, as above; and the second, the absence of design—for the latter see 621.


#157. Power.—N. power; potency, potentiality; jiva[obs3]; puissance, might, force, energy &c. 171; dint; right hand, right arm; ascendency[obs3], sway, control; prepotency, prepollence|; almightiness, omnipotence; authority &c. 737; strength &c. 159. ability; ableness &c. adj[obs3].; competency; efficacy; efficiency, productivity, expertise (skill) 698; validity, cogency; enablement[obs3]; vantage ground; influence &c. 175. pressure; conductivity; elasticity; gravity, electricity, magnetism, galvanism, voltaic electricity, voltaism, electromagnetism; atomic power, nuclear power, thermonuclear power; fuel cell; hydraulic power, water power, hydroelectric power; solar power, solar energy, solar panels; tidal power; wind power; attraction; vis inertiae[Lat], vis mortua[Lat], vis viva [Latin]; potential energy, dynamic energy; dynamic friction, dynamic suction; live circuit, live rail, live wire. capability, capacity; quid valeant humeri quid ferre recusent [obs3][Latin]; faculty, quality, attribute, endowment, virtue, gift, property, qualification, susceptibility. V. be powerful &c. adj.; gain power &c. n. belong to, pertain to; lie in one's power, be in one's power; can, be able. give power, confer power, exercise power &c. n.; empower, enable, invest; indue[obs3], endue; endow, arm; strengthen &c. 159; compel &c. 744. Adj. powerful, puissant; potential; capable, able; equal to, up to; cogent, valid; efficient, productive; effective, effectual, efficacious, adequate, competent; multipotent[obs3], plenipotent[obs3], omnipotent; almighty. forcible &c. adj. (energetic) 171; influential &c. 175; productive &c. 168. Adv. powerfully &c. adj.; by virtue of, by dint of. Phr. a toute force[Fr]; <gr/dos moi pou sto kai kino ten gen/gr>[Sp][Grk][Grk][Grk][Grk][Grk]; eripuit coelo fulmen sceptrumque tyrannis [Latin]; fortis cadere cedere non potest [Latin].

#158. Impotence.—N. impotence; inability, disability; disablement, impuissance, imbecility; incapacity, incapability; inaptitude, ineptitude, incompetence, unproductivity[obs3]; indocility[obs3]; invalidity, disqualification; inefficiency, wastefulness. telum imbelle[Lat], brutum fulmen[Lat], blank, blank cartridge, flash in the pan, vox et proeterea nihil[Lat], dead letter, bit of waste paper, dummy; paper tiger; Quaker gun. inefficacy &c. (inutility) 645[obs3]; failure &c. 732. helplessness &c. adj.; prostration, paralysis, palsy, apoplexy, syncope, sideration|, deliquium|[Lat], collapse, exhaustion, softening of the brain, inanition; emasculation, orchiotomy [Med], orchotomy[Med]. cripple, old woman, muff, powder puff, creampuff, pussycat, wimp, mollycoddle; eunuch. V. be impotent &c. adj.; not have a leg to stand on. vouloir rompre l'anguille au genou [French], vouloir prendre la lune avec les dents [French]. collapse, faint, swoon, fall into a swoon, drop; go by the board, go by the wayside; go up in smoke, end in smoke &c. (fail) 732. render powerless &c. adj.; deprive of power; disable, disenable[obs3]; disarm, incapacitate, disqualify, unfit, invalidate, deaden, cramp, tie the hands; double up, prostrate, paralyze, muzzle, cripple, becripple[obs3], maim, lame, hamstring, draw the teeth of; throttle, strangle, garrotte, garrote; ratten[obs3], silence, sprain, clip the wings of, put hors de combat[Fr], spike the guns; take the wind out of one's sails, scotch the snake, put a spoke in one's wheel; break the neck, break the back; unhinge, unfit; put out of gear. unman, unnerve, enervate; emasculate, castrate, geld, alter, neuter, sterilize, fix. shatter, exhaust, weaken &c. 160. Adj. powerless, impotent, unable, incapable, incompetent; inefficient, ineffective; inept; unfit, unfitted; unqualified, disqualified; unendowed; inapt, unapt; crippled, disabled &c. v.; armless[obs3]. harmless, unarmed, weaponless, defenseless, sine ictu[Lat], unfortified, indefensible, vincible, pregnable, untenable. paralytic, paralyzed; palsied, imbecile; nerveless, sinewless[obs3], marrowless[obs3], pithless[obs3], lustless[obs3]; emasculate, disjointed; out of joint, out of gear; unnerved, unhinged; water-logged, on one's beam ends, rudderless; laid on one's back; done up, dead beat, exhausted, shattered, demoralized; graveled &c. (in difficulty) 704; helpless, unfriended[obs3], fatherless; without a leg to stand on, hors de combat[Fr], laid on the shelf. null and void, nugatory, inoperative, good for nothing; ineffectual &c. (failing) 732; inadequate &c. 640; inefficacious &c. (useless) 645. Phr. der kranke Mann[Ger]; "desirous still but impotent to rise" [Shenstone]; the spirit is willing but the flesh is weak.

#159. [Degree of power.] Strength.—N. strength; power &c. 157; energy &c. 171; vigor, force; main force, physical force, brute force; spring, elasticity, tone, tension, tonicity. stoutness &c. adj.; lustihood[obs3], stamina, nerve, muscle, sinew, thews and sinews, physique; pith, pithiness; virtility, vitality. athletics, athleticism[obs3]; gymnastics, feats of strength. adamant, steel, iron, oak, heart of oak; iron grip; grit, bone. athlete, gymnast, acrobat; superman, Atlas, Hercules, Antæus[obs3], Samson, Cyclops, Goliath; tower of strength; giant refreshed. strengthening &c. v.; invigoration, refreshment, refocillation[obs3]. [Science of forces] dynamics, statics. V. be strong &c. adj., be stronger; overmatch. render strong &c. adj.; give strength &c. n.; strengthen, invigorate, brace, nerve, fortify, sustain, harden, case harden, steel, gird; screw up, wind up, set up; gird up one's loins, brace up one's loins; recruit, set on one's legs; vivify; refresh &c. 689; refect[obs3]; reinforce, reenforce &c. (restore) 660. Adj. strong, mighty, vigorous, forcible, hard, adamantine, stout, robust, sturdy, hardy, powerful, potent, puissant, valid. resistless, irresistible, invincible, proof against, impregnable, unconquerable, indomitable, dominating, inextinguishable, unquenchable; incontestable; more than a match for; overpowering, overwhelming; all powerful, all sufficient; sovereign. able-bodied; athletic; Herculean, Cyclopean, Atlantean[obs3]; muscular, brawny, wiry, well-knit, broad-shouldered, sinewy, strapping, stalwart, gigantic. manly, man-like, manful; masculine, male, virile. unweakened[obs3], unallayed, unwithered[obs3], unshaken, unworn, unexhausted[obs3]; in full force, in full swing; in the plenitude of power. stubborn, thick-ribbed, made of iron, deep-rooted; strong as a lion, strong as a horse, strong as an ox, strong as brandy; sound as a roach; in fine feather, in high feather; built like a brick shithouse; like a giant refreshed. Adv. strongly &c. adj.; by force &c. n.; by main force &c. (by compulsion) 744. Phr. "our withers are unwrung" [Hamlet]. Blut und Eisen[Ger]; coelitus mihi vires[Lat]; du fort au diable[Fr]; en habiles gens[Lat]; ex vi termini; flecti non frangi[Lat]; "he that wrestles with us strengthens our nerves and sharpens our skill" [Burke]; "inflexible in faith invincible in arms" [Beattie].

#160. Weakness.—N. weakness &c. adj.; debility, atony[obs3], relaxation, languor, enervation; impotence &c. 158; infirmity; effeminacy, feminality[obs3]; fragility, flaccidity; inactivity &c. 683. anaemia, bloodlessness, deficiency of blood, poverty of blood. declension of strength, loss of strength, failure of strength; delicacy, invalidation, decrepitude, asthenia[obs3], adynamy[obs3], cachexy[obs3], cachexia[Med], sprain, strain. reed, thread, rope of sand, house of cards. softling[obs3], weakling; infant &c. 129; youth &c. 127. V. be weak &c. adj.; drop, crumble, give way, totter, tremble, shake, halt, limp, fade, languish, decline, flag, fail, have one leg in the grave. render weak &c. adj.; weaken, enfeeble, debilitate, shake, deprive of strength, relax, enervate, eviscerate; unbrace, unnerve; cripple, unman &c. (render powerless) 158; cramp, reduce, sprain, strain, blunt the edge of; dilute, impoverish; decimate; extenuate; reduce in strength, reduce the strength of; mettre de l'eau dans son vin[Fr]. Adj. weak, feeble, debile|; impotent &c. 158; relaxed, unnerved, &c. v.; sapless, strengthless[obs3], powerless; weakly, unstrung, flaccid, adynamic[obs3], asthenic[obs3]; nervous. soft, effeminate, feminate[obs3], womanly. frail, fragile, shattery[obs3]; flimsy, unsubstantial, insubstantial, gimcrack, gingerbread; rickety, creaky, creaking, cranky; craichy[obs3]; drooping, tottering &c. v.. broken, lame, withered, shattered, shaken, crazy, shaky; palsied &c. 158; decrepit. languid, poor, infirm; faint, faintish[obs3]; sickly &c. (disease) 655; dull, slack, evanid|, spent, short-winded, effete; weather-beaten; decayed, rotten, worn, seedy, languishing, wasted, washy, laid low, pulled down, the worse for wear. unstrengthened &c. 159[obs3], unsupported, unaided, unassisted; aidless[obs3], defenseless &c. 158; cantilevered (support) 215. on its last legs; weak as a child, weak as a baby, weak as a chicken, weak as a cat, weak as a rat; weak as water, weak as water gruel, weak as gingerbread, weak as milk and water; colorless &c. 429. Phr. non sum qualis eram[Lat].


#161. Production.—N. {ant. 162, 158} production, creation, construction, formation, fabrication, manufacture; building, architecture, erection, edification; coinage; diaster[obs3]; organization; nisus formativus[Lat]; putting together &c. v.; establishment; workmanship, performance; achievement &c. (completion) 729. flowering, fructification; inflorescence. bringing forth &c. v.: parturition, birth, birth-throe, childbirth, delivery, confinement, accouchement, travail, labor, midwifery, obstetrics; geniture[obs3]; gestation &c. (maturation) 673; assimilation; evolution, development, growth; entelechy[Phil]; fertilization, gemination, germination, heterogamy[Biol], genesis, generation, epigenesis[obs3], procreation, progeneration[obs3], propagation; fecundation, impregnation; albumen &c. 357. spontaneous generation; archegenesis[obs3], archebiosis[obs3]; biogenesis, abiogenesis[obs3], digenesis[obs3], dysmerogenesis[obs3], eumerogenesis[obs3], heterogenesis[obs3], oogenesis, merogenesis[obs3], metogenesis[obs3], monogenesis[obs3], parthenogenesis, homogenesis[obs3], xenogenesis|[obs3]; authorship, publication; works, opus, oeuvre. biogeny[obs3], dissogeny[obs3], xenogeny[obs3]; tocogony[obs3], vacuolization. edifice, building, structure, fabric, erection, pile, tower, flower, fruit. V. produce, perform, operate, do, make, gar, form, construct, fabricate, frame, contrive, manufacture; weave, forge, coin, carve, chisel; build, raise, edify, rear, erect, put together, set up, run up; establish, constitute, compose, organize, institute; achieve, accomplish &c. (complete) 729. flower, bear fruit, fructify, teem, ean[obs3], yean[obs3], farrow, drop, pup, kitten, kindle; bear, lay, whelp, bring forth, give birth to, lie in, be brought to bed of, evolve, pullulate, usher into the world. make productive &c. 168; create; beget, get, generate, fecundate, impregnate; procreate, progenerate[obs3], propagate; engender; bring into being, call into being, bring into existence; breed, hatch, develop, bring up. induce, superinduce; suscitate|; cause &c. 153; acquire &c. 775. Adj. produced, producing &c. v.; productive of; prolific &c. 168; creative; formative, genetic, genial, genital; pregnant; enceinte, big with, fraught with; in the family way, teeming, parturient, in the straw, brought to bed of; puerperal, puerperous[obs3]. digenetic[obs3], heterogenetic[obs3], oogenetic, xenogenetic[obs3]; ectogenous[obs3], gamic[obs3], haematobious[obs3], sporogenous[Biol], sporophorous[Biol]. architectonic. Phr. ex nihilo nihil[Lat]; fiat lux[Lat]; materiam superabat opus [Lat][Ovid]; nemo dat quod non habet [Latin].

#162. [Nonproduction.] Destruction.—N. {ant. 161} destruction; waste, dissolution, breaking up; diruption[obs3], disruption; consumption; disorganization. fall, downfall, devastation, ruin, perdition, crash; eboulement[French], smash, havoc, delabrement[French], debacle; break down, break up, fall apart; prostration; desolation, bouleversement[Fr], wreck, wrack, shipwreck, cataclysm; washout. extinction, annihilation; destruction of life &c. 361; knock-down blow; doom, crack of doom. destroying &c. v.; demolition, demolishment; overthrow, subversion, suppression; abolition &c. (abrogation) 756; biblioclasm[obs3]; sacrifice; ravage, razzia[obs3]; inactivation; incendiarism; revolution &c. 146; extirpation &c. (extraction) 301; beginning of the end, commencement de la fin[French], road to ruin; dilapidation &c. (deterioration) 659; sabotage. V. be destroyed &c.; perish; fall to the ground; tumble, topple; go to pieces, fall to pieces; break up; crumble to dust; go to the dogs, go to the wall, go to smash, go to shivers, go to wreck, go to pot, go to wrack and ruin; go by the board, go all to smash; be all over, be all up, be all with; totter to its fall. destroy; do away with, make away with; nullify; annual &c. 756; sacrifice, demolish; tear up; overturn, overthrow, overwhelm; upset, subvert, put an end to; seal the doom of, do in, do for, dish*, undo; break up, cut up; break down, cut down, pull down, mow down, blow down, beat down; suppress, quash, put down, do a job on; cut short, take off, blot out; dispel, dissipate, dissolve; consume. smash, crash, quell, squash, squelch, crumple up, shatter, shiver; batter to pieces, tear to pieces, crush to pieces, cut to pieces, shake to pieces, pull to pieces, pick to pieces; laniate[obs3]; nip; tear to rags, tear to tatters; crush to atoms, knock to atoms; ruin; strike out; throw over, knock down over; fell, sink, swamp, scuttle, wreck, shipwreck, engulf, ingulf[obs3], submerge; lay in ashes, lay in ruins; sweep away, erase, wipe out, expunge, raze; level with the dust, level with the ground; waste; atomize, vaporize. deal destruction, desolate, devastate, lay waste, ravage gut; disorganize; dismantle &c. (render useless) 645; devour, swallow up, sap, mine, blast, bomb, blow to smithereens, drop the big one, confound; exterminate, extinguish, quench, annihilate; snuff out, put out, stamp out, trample out; lay in the dust, trample in the dust; prostrate; tread under foot; crush under foot, trample under foot; lay the ax to the root of; make short work of, make clean sweep of, make mincemeat of; cut up root and branch, chop into pieces, cut into ribbons; fling to the winds, scatter to the winds; throw overboard; strike at the root of, sap the foundations of, spring a mine, blow up, ravage with fire and sword; cast to the dogs; eradicate &c. 301. Adj. destroyed &c. v.; perishing &c. v.; trembling to its fall, nodding to its fall, tottering to its fall; in course of destruction &c. n.; extinct. all-destroying, all-devouring, all-engulfing. destructive, subversive, ruinous, devastating; incendiary, deletory|; destroying &c. n. suicidal; deadly &c. (killing) 361. Adv. with crushing effect, with a sledge hammer. Phr. delenda est Carthago[Lat]; dum Roma deliberat Saguntum perit[Lat]; ecrasez l'infame [Fr][Voltaire].

#163. Reproduction.—N. reproduction, renovation; restoration &c. 660; renewal; new edition, reprint, revival, regeneration, palingenesis[obs3], revivification; apotheosis; resuscitation, reanimation, resurrection, reappearance; regrowth; Phoenix. generation &c. (production) 161; multiplication. V. reproduce; restore &c. 660; revive, renovate, renew, regenerate, revivify, resuscitate, reanimate; remake, refashion, stir the embers, put into the crucible; multiply, repeat; resurge[obs3]. crop up, spring up like mushrooms. Adj. reproduced &c. v.; renascent, reappearing; reproductive; suigenetic[obs3].

#164. Producer.—N. producer, originator, inventor, author, founder, generator, mover, architect, creator, prime mover; maker &c. (agent) 690; prime mover.

#165. Destroyer.—N. destroyer &c. (destroy &c. 162); cankerworm &c. (bane) 663; assassin &c. (killer) 361; executioner &c. (punish) 975; biblioclast[obs3], eidoloclast[obs3], iconoclast, idoloclast[obs3]; nihilist.

#166. Paternity.—N. paternity; parentage; consanguinity &c. 11. parent; father, sire, dad, papa, paterfamilias, abba[obs3]; genitor, progenitor, procreator; ancestor; grandsire[obs3], grandfather; great- grandfather; fathership[obs3], fatherhood; mabap[obs3]. house, stem, trunk, tree, stock, stirps, pedigree, lineage, line, family, tribe, sept, race, clan; genealogy, descent, extraction, birth, ancestry; forefathers, forbears, patriarchs. motherhood, maternity; mother, dam, mamma, materfamilias[Lat], grandmother. Adj. paternal, parental; maternal; family, ancestral, linear, patriarchal. Phr. avi numerantur avorum[Lat]; "happy he with such a mother" [Tennyson]; hombre bueno no le busquen abolengo[Sp][obs3]; philosophia stemma non inspicit [Lat][Seneca].

#167. Posterity.—N. posterity, progeny, breed, issue, offspring, brood, litter, seed, farrow, spawn, spat; family, grandchildren, heirs; great-grandchild. child, son, daughter; butcha[obs3]; bantling, scion; acrospire[obs3], plumule[obs3], shoot, sprout, olive-branch, sprit[obs3], branch; off-shoot, off-set; ramification; descendant; heir, heiress; heir-apparent, heir- presumptive; chip off the old block; heredity; rising generation. straight descent, sonship[obs3], line, lineage, filiation[obs3], primogeniture. Adj. filial; diphyletic[obs3]. Phr. "the child is father of the man" [Wordsworth]; "the fruit doesn't fall far from the tree", "like father, like son".

#168. Productiveness—N. productiveness &c. adj.; fecundity, fertility, luxuriance, uberty|. pregnancy, pullulation, fructification, multiplication, propagation, procreation; superfetation. milch cow, rabbit, hydra, warren, seed plot, land flowing with milk and honey; second crop, aftermath; aftercrop, aftergrowth[obs3]; arrish[obs3], eddish[obs3], rowen[obs3]; protoplasm; fertilization. V. make -productive &c. adj.; fructify; procreate, generate, fertilize, spermative[obs3], impregnate; fecundate, fecundify[obs3]; teem, multiply; produce &c. 161; conceive. Adj. productive, prolific; teeming, teemful[obs3]; fertile, fruitful, frugiferous[obs3], fruit-bearing; fecund, luxuriant; pregnant, uberous[obs3]. procreant[obs3], procreative; generative, life-giving, spermatic; multiparous; omnific[obs3], propagable. parturient &c. (producing) 161; profitable &c. (useful) 644.

#169. Unproductiveness.—N. unproductiveness &c. adj.; infertility, sterility, infecundity[obs3]; masturbation; impotence &c. 158; unprofitableness &c. (inutility) 645. waste, desert, Sahara, wild, wilderness, howling wilderness. V. be - unproductive &c. adj.; hang fire, flash in the pan, come to nothing. [make unproductive] sterilize, addle; disable, inactivate. Adj. unproductive, acarpous[obs3], inoperative, barren, addled, infertile, unfertile, unprolific[obs3], arid, sterile, unfruitful, infecund[obs3]; sine prole; fallow; teemless[obs3], issueless[obs3], fruitless; unprofitable &c. (useless) 645; null and void, of no effect.

#170. Agency.—N. agency, operation, force, working, strain,
function, office, maintenance, exercise, work, swing, play;
interworking[obs3], interaction; procurement.
     causation &c. 153; instrumentality &c. 631; influence &c. 175; action
&c. (voluntary) 680; modus operandi &c. 627.
     quickening power, maintaining power, sustaining power; home stroke.
     V. be -in action &c. adj.; operate, work; act, act upon; perform,
play, support, sustain, strain, maintain, take effect, quicken, strike.
     come play, come bring into operation; have play, have free play; bring
to bear upon.
     Adj. operative, efficient, efficacious, practical, effectual.
     at work, on foot; acting &c. (doing) 680; in operation, in force, in
action, in play, in exercise; acted upon, wrought upon.
     Adv. by the -agency &c. n.- of; through &c. (instrumentality) 631; by
means of &c. 632.
     Phr. "I myself must mix with action lest I wither by despair"

#171. Physical Energy.—N. energy, physical energy, force, power &c.
157; keenness &c. adj.; intensity, vigor, strength, elasticity; go; high
pressure; fire; rush.
     acrimony, acritude[obs3]; causiticity[obs3], virulence; poignancy;
harshness &c. adj.; severity, edge, point; pungency &c. 392.
     cantharides; seasoning &c. (condiment) 393.
     activity, agitation, effervescence; ferment, fermentation; ebullition,
splutter, perturbation, stir, bustle; voluntary energy &c. 682;
     resolution &c. (mental energy) 604; exertion &c. (effort) 686;
excitation &c. (mental) 824.
     V. give -energy &c. n.; energize, stimulate, kindle, excite, exert;
sharpen, intensify; inflame &c. (render violent) 173; wind up &c.
(strengthen) 159.
     strike home, into home, hard home; make an impression.
     Adj. strong, energetic, forcible, active; intense, deep-dyed, severe,
keen, vivid, sharp, acute, incisive, trenchant, brisk.
     rousing, irritation; poignant; virulent, caustic, corrosive, mordant,
harsh, stringent; double-edged, double-shotted[obs3], double-distilled;
drastic, escharotic|; racy &c. (pungent) 392.
     potent &c. (powerful) 157; radioactive.
     Adv. strongly &c. adj.; fortiter in re[Lat]; with telling effect.
     Phr. the steam is up; vires acquirit eundo[Lat]; "the race by vigor
not by vaunts is won" [Pope].

#172. Physical Inertness.—N. inertness, dullness &c. adj.; inertia,
vis inertiae[Latin], inertion[obs3], inactivity, torpor, languor;
quiescence &c. 265; latency, inaction; passivity.
     mental inertness; sloth &c. (inactivity) 683; inexcitability &c.
826[obs3]; irresolution &c. 605; obstinacy &c. 606; permanence &c. 141.
     rare gas, paraffin, noble metal, unreactivity.
     V. be -inert &c. adj.; hang fire, smolder.
     Adj. inert, inactive, passive; torpid &c. 683; sluggish, dull, heavy,
flat, slack, tame, slow, blunt; unreactive; lifeless, dead,
     latent, dormant, smoldering, unexerted[obs3].
     Adv. inactively &c. adj.; in suspense, in abeyance.

#173. Violence.—N. violence, inclemency, vehemence, might, impetuosity; boisterousness &c. adj.; effervescence, ebullition; turbulence, bluster; uproar, callithump [obs3][U. S.], riot, row, rumpus, le diable a quatre[Fr], devil to pay, all the fat in the fire. severity &c. 739; ferocity, rage, fury; exacerbation, exasperation, malignity; fit, paroxysm; orgasm, climax, aphrodisia[obs3]; force, brute force; outrage; coup de main; strain, shock, shog[obs3]; spasm, convulsion, throe; hysterics, passion &c. (state of excitability) 825. outbreak, outburst; debacle; burst, bounce, dissilience[obs3], discharge, volley, explosion, blow up, blast, detonation, rush, eruption, displosion|, torrent. turmoil &c. (disorder) 59; ferment &c. (agitation) 315; storm, tempest, rough weather; squall &c. (wind) 349; earthquake, volcano, thunderstorm. berserk, berserker; fury, dragon, demon, tiger, beldame, Tisiphone[obs3], Megaera, Alecto[obs3], madcap, wild beast; fire eater &c. (blusterer) 887. V. be -violent &c. adj.; run high; ferment, effervesce; romp, rampage, go on a rampage; run wild, run amuck, run riot; break the peace; rush, tear; rush headlong, rush foremost; raise a storm, make a riot; rough house*; riot, storm; wreak, bear down, ride roughshod, out Herod, Herod; spread like wildfire. [(person) shout or act in anger at something] explode, make a row, kick up a row; boil, boil over; fume, foam, come on like a lion, bluster, rage, roar, fly off the handle, go bananas, go ape, blow one's top, blow one's cool, flip one's lid, hit the ceiling, hit the roof; fly into a rage (anger) 900.. break out, fly out, burst out; bounce, explode, go off, displode|, fly, detonate, thunder, blow up, crump[obs3], flash, flare, burst; shock, strain; break open, force open, prize open. render violent &c. adj.; sharpen, stir up, quicken, excite, incite, annoy, urge, lash, stimulate, turn on; irritate, inflame, kindle, suscitate|, foment; accelerate, aggravate, exasperate, exacerbate, convulse, infuriate, madden, lash into fury; fan the flame; add fuel to the flame, pour oil on the fire, oleum addere camino[Lat]. explode; let fly, fly off; discharge, detonate, set off, detonize[obs3], fulminate. Adj. violent, vehement; warm; acute, sharp; rough, rude, ungentle, bluff, boisterous, wild; brusque, abrupt, waspish; impetuous; rampant. turbulent; disorderly; blustering, raging &c. v.; troublous[obs3], riotous; tumultuary[obs3], tumultuous; obstreperous, uproarious; extravagant; unmitigated; ravening, inextinguishable, tameless; frenzied &c. (insane) 503. desperate &c. (rash) 863; infuriate, furious, outrageous, frantic, hysteric, in hysterics. fiery, flaming, scorching, hot, red-hot, ebullient. savage, fierce, ferocious, fierce as a tiger. excited &c. v.; unquelled[obs3], unquenched, unextinguished[obs3], unrepressed, unbridled, unruly; headstrong, ungovernable, unappeasable, immitigable, unmitigable[obs3]; uncontrollable, incontrollable[obs3]; insuppressible, irrepressible; orgastic, orgasmatic, orgasmic. spasmodic, convulsive, explosive; detonating &c. v.; volcanic, meteoric; stormy &c. (wind) 349. Adv. violently &c. adj.; amain[obs3]; by storm, by force, by main force; with might and main; tooth and nail, vi et armis[Lat], at the point of the sword, at the point of the bayonet; at one fell swoop; with a high hand, through thick and thin; in desperation, with a vengeance; a outrance[obs3], a toute outrance[Fr][obs3]; headlong, head foremost. Phr. furor arma ministrat[Lat]; "blown with restless violence round about the pendent world" [Measure for Measure].

#174. Moderation.—N. moderation, lenity &c. 740; temperateness, gentleness &c. adj.; sobriety; quiet; mental calmness &c. (inexcitability) 826[obs3]. moderating &c. v.; anaphrodisia[obs3]; relaxation, remission, mitigation, tranquilization[obs3], assuagement, contemporation[obs3], pacification. measure, juste milieu[Fr], golden mean, <gr/ariston metron/gr>[Grk]. moderator; lullaby, sedative, lenitive, demulcent, antispasmodic, carminative, laudanum; rose water, balm, poppy, opiate, anodyne, milk, opium, "poppy or mandragora"; wet blanket; palliative. V. be -moderate &c. adj.; keep within bounds, keep within compass; sober down, settle down; keep the peace, remit, relent, take in sail. moderate, soften, mitigate, temper, accoy|; attemper[obs3], contemper[obs3]; mollify, lenify[obs3], dulcify[obs3], dull, take off the edge, blunt, obtund[obs3], sheathe, subdue, chasten; sober down, tone down, smooth down; weaken &c. 160; lessen &c. (decrease) 36; check palliate. tranquilize, pacify, assuage, appease, swag, lull, soothe, compose, still, calm, calm down, cool, quiet, hush, quell, sober, pacify, tame, damp, lay, allay, rebate, slacken, smooth, alleviate, rock to sleep, deaden, smooth, throw cold water on, throw a wet blanket over, turn off; slake; curb &c. (restrain) 751; tame &c. (subjugate) 749; smooth over; pour oil on the waves, pour oil on the troubled waters; pour balm into, mattre de l'eau dans son vin[Fr]. go out like a lamb, "roar you as gently as any sucking dove," [Midsummer-Night's Dream]. Adj. moderate; lenient &c. 740; gentle, mild, mellow; cool, sober, temperate, reasonable, measured; tempered &c. v.; calm, unruffled, quiet, tranquil, still; slow, smooth, untroubled; tame; peaceful, peaceable; pacific, halcyon. unexciting, unirritating[obs3]; soft, bland, oily, demulcent, lenitive, anodyne; hypnotic &c. 683; sedative; antiorgastic[obs3], anaphrodisiac[obs3]. mild as mother's milk; milk and water. Adv. moderately &c. adj.; gingerly; piano; under easy sail, at half speed; within bounds, within compass; in reason. Phr. est modue in rebus[obs3]; pour oil on troubled waters.


#175. Influence.—N. influence; importance &c. 642; weight, pressure, preponderance, prevalence, sway; predominance, predominancy[obs3]; ascendency[obs3]; dominance, reign; control, domination, pull*; authority &c.737; capability &c. (power) 157; effect &c. 154; interest. synergy (cooperation) 709. footing; purchase &c. (support) 215; play, leverage, vantage ground. tower of strength, host in himself; protection, patronage, auspices. V. have -influence &c. n.; be -influential &c. adj.; carry weight, weigh, tell; have a hold upon, magnetize, bear upon, gain a footing, work upon; take root, take hold; strike root in. run through, pervade; prevail, dominate, predominate; out weigh, over weigh; over-ride, over-bear; gain head; rage; be -rife &c. adj.; spread like wildfire; have the upper hand, get the upper hand, gain the upper hand, have full play, get full play, gain full play. be recognized, be listened to; make one's voice heard, gain a hearing; play a part, play a leading part, play a leading part in; take the lead, pull the strings; turn the scale, throw one's weight into the scale; set the fashion, lead the dance. Adj. influential, effective; important &c. 642; weighty; prevailing &c. v.; prevalent, rife, rampant, dominant, regnant, predominant, in the ascendant, hegemonical[obs3]. Adv. with telling effect. Phr. tel maure tel valet[Fr].

#175a. Absence of Influence.—N. impotence &c. 158; powerlessness;
inertness &c. 172; irrelevancy &c. 10.
     V. have no -influence &c. 175.
     Adj. uninfluential[obs3], ineffective; inconsequential, nugatory;
unconducing, unconducive, unconducting to[obs3]; powerless &c. 158;
irrelevant &c. 10.

#176. Tendency.—N. tendency; aptness, aptitude; proneness, proclivity, bent, turn, tone, bias, set, leaning to, predisposition, inclination, propensity, susceptibility; conatus[Lat], nisus[Lat]; liability &c. 177; quality, nature, temperament; idiocrasy[obs3], idiosyncrasy; cast, vein, grain; humor, mood; drift &c. (direction) 278; conduciveness, conducement[obs3]; applicability &c. (utility) 644; subservience &c. (instrumentality) 631. V. tend, contribute, conduce, lead, dispose, incline, verge, bend to, trend, affect, carry, redound to, bid fair to, gravitate towards; promote &c. (aid) 707. Adj. tending &c. v.; conducive, working towards, in a fair way to, calculated to; liable &c. 177; subservient &c. (instrumental) 631; useful &c. 644; subsidiary &c. (helping) 707. Adv. for, whither.

#177. Liability.—N. liability, liableness[obs3]; possibility, contingency; susceptivity[obs3], susceptibility, exposure. V. be -liable &c. adj.; incur, lay oneself open to; run the chance, stand a chance; lie under, expose oneself to, open a door to. Adj. liable, subject; in danger &c. 665; open to, exposed to, obnoxious to; answerable; unexempt from[obs3]; apt to; dependent on; incident to. contingent, incidental, possible, on the cards, within range of, at the mercy of.


#178. Concurrence.—N. concurrence, cooperation, coagency[obs3];
union; agreement &c. 23; consilience[obs3]; consent, coincidence &c.
(assent) 488; alliance; concert, additivity, synergy &c. 709; partnership
&c. 712.
     common cause.
     V. concur, conduce, conspire, contribute; agree, unite; hang together,
pull together, join forces, make common cause.
 &c. (cooperate) 709; help to &c. (aid) 707.
     keep pace with, run parallel; go with, go along with, go hand in hand
with, coincide.
     Adj. concurring &c. v.; concurrent, in alliance with, banded together,
of one mind, at one with, coinciding.
     Adv. with one consent.

#179. Counteraction.—N. counteraction, opposition; contrariety &c. 14; antagonism, polarity; clashing &c. v.; collision, interference, inhibition, resistance, renitency, friction; reaction; retroaction &c. (recoil) 277; counterblast[obs3]; neutralization &c. (compensation) 30; vis inertiae[Lat]; check &c. (hindrance) 706. voluntary opposition &c. 708, voluntary resistance &c. 719; repression &c. (restraint) 751. opposites, action and reaction, yang and yin, yang-yin (contrariety) 14. V. counteract; run counter, clash, cross; interfere with, conflict with; contravene; jostle; go against, run against, beat against, militate against; stultify; antagonize, block, oppose &c. 708; traverse; withstand &c. (resist) 719; hinder &c. 706; repress &c. (restrain) 751; react &c. (recoil) 277. undo, neutralize; counterpoise &c. (compensate) 30; overpoise[obs3]. Adj. counteracting &c. v.; antagonistic, conflicting, retroactive, renitent, reactionary; contrary &c. 14. Adv. although &c. 30; in spite of &c. 708; against. Phr. "for every action there is a reaction, equal in force and opposite in direction" [Newton].




#180. [Indefinite space.] Space.—N. space, extension, extent, superficial extent, expanse, stretch, hyperspace; room, scope, range, field, way, expansion, compass, sweep, swing, spread. dimension, length &c. 200; distance &c. 196; size &c. 192; volume; hypervolume. latitude, play, leeway, purchase, tolerance, room for maneuver. spare room, elbow room, house room; stowage, roomage[obs3], margin; opening, sphere, arena. open space, free space; void &c. (absence) 187; waste; wildness, wilderness; moor, moorland; campagna[obs3]. abyss &c. (interval) 198; unlimited space; infinity &c. 105; world; ubiquity &c. (presence) 186; length and breadth of the land. proportions, acreage; acres, acres and perches, roods and perches, hectares, square miles; square inches, square yards, square centimeters, square meters, yards (clothing) &c.; ares, arpents[obs3]. Adj. spacious, roomy, extensive, expansive, capacious, ample; widespread, vast, world-wide, uncircumscribed; boundless &c. (infinite) 105; shoreless[obs3], trackless, pathless; extended. Adv. extensively &c. adj.; wherever; everywhere; far and near, far and wide; right and left, all over, all the world over; throughout the world, throughout the length and breadth of the land; under the sun, in every quarter; in all quarters, in all lands; here there and everywhere; from pole to pole, from China to Peru [Johnson], from Indus to the pole [Pope], from Dan to Beersheba, from end to end; on the face of the earth, in the wide world, from all points of the compass; to the four winds, to the uttermost parts of the earth.

#180a. Inextension.—N. inextension[obs3], nonextension[obs3], point; dot; atom &c. (smallness) 32.

#181. [Definite space.] Region.—N. region, sphere, ground, soil,
area, field, realm, hemisphere, quarter, district, beat, orb, circuit,
circle; reservation, pale &c. (limit) 233; compartment, department;
     [political divisions: see property &c. 780 and Government &c. 737a.].
     arena, precincts, enceinte, walk, march; patch, plot, parcel,
inclosure, close, field, court; enclave, reserve, preserve; street &c.
(abode) 189.
     clime, climate, zone, meridian, latitude.
     biosphere; lithosphere.
     Adj. territorial, local, parochial, provincial, regional.

#182. [Limited space.] Place.—N. place, lieu, spot, point, dot; niche, nook &c. (corner) 244; hole; pigeonhole &c. (receptacle) 191; compartment; premises, precinct, station; area, courtyard, square; abode &c. 189; locality &c. (situation) 183. ins and outs; every hole and corner. Adv. somewhere, in some place, wherever it may be, here and there, in various places, passim.


#183. Situation.—N. situation, position, locality, locale, status,
latitude and longitude; footing, standing, standpoint, post; stage; aspect,
attitude, posture, pose.
     environment, surroundings (location) 184; circumjacence &c. 227[obs3].
     place, site, station, seat, venue, whereabouts; ground; bearings &c.
(direction) 278; spot &c. (limited space) 182.
     topography, geography, chorography[obs3]; map &c. 554.
     V. be situated, be situate; lie, have its seat in.
     Adj. situate, situated; local, topical, topographical &c. n.
     Adv. in situ, in loco; here and there, passim; hereabouts,
thereabouts, whereabouts; in place, here, there.
     in such and such surroundings, in such and such environs, in
such and such entourage, amidst such and such surroundings, amidst such and
such environs, amidst such and such entourage.

#184. Location.—N. location, localization; lodgment; deposition, reposition; stowage, package; collocation; packing, lading; establishment, settlement, installation; fixation; insertion &c. 300. habitat, environment, surroundings (situation) 183; circumjacence &c. 227[obs3]. anchorage, mooring, encampment. plantation, colony, settlement, cantonment; colonization, domestication, situation; habitation &c. (abode) 189; cohabitation; "a local habitation and a name" [Midsummer Night's Dream]; endenization[obs3], naturalization. V. place, situate, locate, localize, make a place for, put, lay, set, seat, station, lodge, quarter, post, install; house, stow; establish, fix, pin, root; graft; plant &c. (insert) 300; shelve, pitch, camp, lay down, deposit, reposit[obs3]; cradle; moor, tether, picket; pack, tuck in; embed, imbed; vest, invest in. billet on, quarter upon, saddle with; load, lade, freight; pocket, put up, bag. inhabit &c. (be present) 186; domesticate, colonize; take root, strike root; anchor; cast anchor, come to an anchor; sit down, settle down; settle; take up one's abode, take up one's quarters; plant oneself, establish oneself, locate oneself; squat, perch, hive, se nicher[Fr], bivouac, burrow, get a footing; encamp, pitch one's tent; put up at, put up one's horses at; keep house. endenizen[obs3], naturalize, adopt. put back, replace &c. (restore) 660. Adj. placed &c. v.; situate, posited, ensconced, imbedded, embosomed[obs3], rooted; domesticated; vested in, unremoved[obs3]. moored &c. v.; at anchor.

#185. Displacement.—N. displacement, elocation[obs3], transposition.
     ejectment &c. 297[obs3]; exile &c. (banishment) 893; removal &c.
(transference) 270.
     misplacement, dislocation &c. 61; fish out of water.
     V. displace, misplace, displant[obs3], dislodge, disestablish; exile
&c. (seclude) 893; ablegate[obs3], set aside, remove; take away, cart away;
take off, draft off; lade &c. 184.
     unload, empty &c. (eject) 297; transfer &c. 270; dispel.
     vacate; depart &c. 293.
     Adj. displaced &c. v.; unplaced, unhoused[obs3], unharbored[obs3],
unestablished[obs3], unsettled; houseless[obs3], homeless; out of place,
out of a situation; in the wrong place.
     misplaced, out of its element.


#186. Presence.—N. presence; occupancy, occupation; attendance;
     permeation, pervasion; diffusion &c. (dispersion) 73.
     ubiety[obs3], ubiquity, ubiquitariness[obs3]; omnipresence.
     bystander &c. (spectator) 444.
     V. exist in space, be present &c. adj.; assister[obs3]; make one of,
make one at; look on, attend, remain; find oneself, present oneself; show
one's face; fall in the way of, occur in a place; lie, stand; occupy; be
     people; inhabit, dwell, reside, stay, sojourn, live, abide, lodge,
nestle, roost, perch; take up one's abode &c. (be located) 184; tenant.
     resort to, frequent, haunt; revisit.
     fill, pervade, permeate; be diffused, be disseminated, be through;
over spread, overrun; run through; meet one at every turn.
     Adj. present; occupying, inhabiting &c. v.; moored &c. 184;
resiant[obs3], resident, residentiary[obs3]; domiciled.
     ubiquitous, ubiquitary[obs3]; omnipresent; universally present.
     peopled, populous, full of people, inhabited.
     Adv. here, there, where, everywhere, aboard, on board, at home,
afield; here there and everywhere &c. (space) 180; in presence of, before;
under the eyes of, under the nose of; in the face of; in propria
     on the spot; in person, in the flesh.
     Phr. nusquam est qui ubique est [Lat][Seneca].

#187. [Nullibiety.[1]] Absence.—N. absence; inexistence &c. 2[obs3];
nonresidence, absenteeism; nonattendance, alibi.
     emptiness &c. adj.; void, vacuum; vacuity, vacancy; tabula rasa[Lat];
exemption; hiatus &c. (interval) 198; lipotype|!.
     truant, absentee.
     nobody; nobody present, nobody on earth; not a soul; ame qui vive[Fr].
     V. be absent &c. adj.; keep away, keep out of the way; play truant,
absent oneself, stay away; keep aloof, hold aloof.
     withdraw, make oneself scarce, vacate; go away &c. 293.
     Adj. absent, not present, away, nonresident, gone, from home; missing;
lost; wanting; omitted; nowhere to be found; inexistence &c. 2[obs3].
     empty, void; vacant, vacuous; untenanted, unoccupied, uninhabited;
tenantless; barren, sterile; desert, deserted; devoid; uninhabitable.
     Adv. without, minus, nowhere; elsewhere; neither here nor there; in
default of; sans; behind one's back.
     Phr. the bird has flown, non est inventus[Lat].
     "absence makes the heart grow fonder" [Bayley]; "absent in body but
present in spirit" [1 Corinthians v, 3]; absento nemo ne nocuisse velit
[Lat][Propertius]; "Achilles absent was Achilles still" [Homer]; aux
absents les os; briller par son absence[Fr]; "conspicuous by his absence"
[Russell]; "in the hope to meet shortly again and make our absence sweet"
[B. Jonson].

[1] Bishop Wilkins.

#188. Inhabitant.—N. inhabitant; resident, residentiary[obs3]; dweller, indweller[obs3]; addressee; occupier, occupant; householder, lodger, inmate, tenant, incumbent, sojourner, locum tenens, commorant[obs3]; settler, squatter, backwoodsman, colonist; islander; denizen, citizen; burgher, oppidan[obs3], cockney, cit, townsman, burgess; villager; cottager, cottier[obs3], cotter; compatriot; backsettler[obs3], boarder; hotel keeper, innkeeper; habitant; paying guest; planter. native, indigene, aborigines, autochthones[obs3]; Englishman, John Bull; newcomer &c. (stranger) 57. aboriginal, American[obs3], Caledonian, Cambrian, Canadian, Canuck*, downeaster [U.S.], Scot, Scotchman, Hibernian, Irishman, Welshman, Uncle Sam, Yankee, Brother Jonathan. garrison, crew; population; people &c. (mankind) 372; colony, settlement; household; mir[obs3]. V. inhabit &c. (be present) 186; endenizen &c. (locate oneself) 184[obs3]. Adj. indigenous; native, natal; autochthonal[obs3], autochthonous; British; English; American[obs3]; Canadian, Irish, Scotch, Scottish, Welsh; domestic; domiciliated[obs3], domiciled; naturalized, vernacular, domesticated; domiciliary. in the occupation of; garrisoned by, occupied by.

#189. [Place of habitation, or resort.] Abode.—N. abode, dwelling, lodging, domicile, residence, apartment, place, digs, pad, address, habitation, where one's lot is cast, local habitation, berth, diggings, seat, lap, sojourn, housing, quarters, headquarters, resiance|, tabernacle, throne, ark. home, fatherland; country; homestead, homestall[obs3]; fireside; hearth, hearth stone; chimney corner, inglenook, ingle side; harem, seraglio, zenana[obs3]; household gods, lares et penates[Lat], roof, household, housing, dulce domum[Lat], paternal domicile; native soil, native land. habitat, range, stamping ground; haunt, hangout; biosphere; environment, ecological niche. nest, nidus, snuggery[obs3]; arbor, bower, &c. 191; lair, den, cave, hole, hiding place, cell, sanctum sanctorum[Lat], aerie, eyrie, eyry[obs3], rookery, hive; covert, resort, retreat, perch, roost; nidification; kala jagah[obs3]. bivouac, camp, encampment, cantonment, castrametation[obs3]; barrack, casemate[obs3], casern[obs3]. tent &c. (covering) 223; building &c. (construction) 161; chamber &c. (receptacle) 191; xenodochium[obs3]. tenement, messuage, farm, farmhouse, grange, hacienda, toft[obs3]. cot, cabin, hut, chalet, croft, shed, booth, stall, hovel, bothy[obs3], shanty, dugout [U.S.], wigwam; pen &c. (inclosure) 232; barn, bawn[obs3]; kennel, sty, doghold[obs3], cote, coop, hutch, byre; cow house, cow shed; stable, dovecote, columbary[obs3], columbarium; shippen[obs3]; igloo, iglu[obs3], jacal[obs3]; lacustrine dwelling[obs3], lacuslake dwelling[obs3], lacuspile dwelling[obs3]; log cabin, log house; shack, shebang*, tepee, topek[obs3]. house, mansion, place, villa, cottage, box, lodge, hermitage, rus in urbe[Lat], folly, rotunda, tower, chateau, castle, pavilion, hotel, court, manor-house, capital messuage, hall, palace; kiosk, bungalow; casa[Sp], country seat, apartment house, flat house, frame house, shingle house, tenement house; temple &c. 1000. hamlet, village, thorp[obs3], dorp[obs3], ham, kraal; borough, burgh, town, city, capital, metropolis; suburb; province, country; county town, county seat; courthouse [U.S.]; ghetto. street, place, terrace, parade, esplanade, alameda[obs3], board walk, embankment, road, row, lane, alley, court, quadrangle, quad, wynd[Scot], close, yard, passage, rents, buildings, mews. square, polygon, circus, crescent, mall, piazza, arcade, colonnade, peristyle, cloister; gardens, grove, residences; block of buildings, market place, place, plaza. anchorage, roadstead, roads; dock, basin, wharf, quay, port, harbor. quarter, parish &c. (region) 181. assembly room, meetinghouse, pump room, spa, watering place; inn; hostel, hostelry; hotel, tavern, caravansary, dak bungalow[obs3], khan, hospice; public house, pub, pot house, mug house; gin mill, gin palace; bar, bar room; barrel house* [U.S.], cabaret, chophouse; club, clubhouse; cookshop[obs3], dive [U.S.], exchange [euphemism, U.S.]; grill room, saloon [U.S.], shebeen[obs3]; coffee house, eating house; canteen, restaurant, buffet, cafe, estaminet[obs3], posada[obs3]; almshouse[obs3], poorhouse, townhouse [U.S.]. garden, park, pleasure ground, plaisance[obs3], demesne. [quarters for animals] cage, terrarium, doghouse; pen, aviary; barn, stall; zoo. V. take up one's abode &c. (locate oneself) 184; inhabit &c. (be present) 186. Adj. urban, metropolitan; suburban; provincial, rural, rustic; domestic; cosmopolitan; palatial. Phr. eigner Hert ist goldes Werth[Ger]; "even cities have their graves" [Longfellow]; ubi libertas ibi patria[Lat]; home sweet home.

#190. [Things contained.] Contents.—N. contents; cargo, lading, freight, shipment, load, bale, burden, jag; cartload[obs3], shipload; cup of, basket of, &c. (receptacle) 191 of; inside &c. 221; stuffing, ullage.

#191. Receptacle.—N. receptacle; inclosure &c. 232; recipient, receiver, reservatory. compartment; cell, cellule; follicle; hole, corner, niche, recess, nook; crypt, stall, pigeonhole, cove, oriel; cave &c. (concavity) 252. capsule, vesicle, cyst, pod, calyx, cancelli, utricle, bladder; pericarp, udder. stomach, paunch, venter, ventricle, crop, craw, maw, gizzard, breadbasket; mouth. pocket, pouch, fob, sheath, scabbard, socket, bag, sac, sack, saccule, wallet, cardcase, scrip, poke, knit, knapsack, haversack, sachel, satchel, reticule, budget, net; ditty bag, ditty box; housewife, hussif; saddlebags; portfolio; quiver &c. (magazine) 636. chest, box, coffer, caddy, case, casket, pyx, pix, caisson, desk, bureau, reliquary; trunk, portmanteau, band-box, valise; grip, grip sack [U.S.]; skippet, vasculum; boot, imperial; vache; cage, manger, rack. vessel, vase, bushel, barrel; canister, jar; pottle, basket, pannier, buck-basket, hopper, maund|, creel, cran, crate, cradle, bassinet, wisket, whisket, jardiniere, corbeille, hamper, dosser, dorser, tray, hod, scuttle, utensil; brazier; cuspidor, spittoon. [For liquids] cistern &c. (store) 636; vat, caldron, barrel, cask, drum, puncheon, keg, rundlet, tun, butt, cag, firkin, kilderkin, carboy, amphora, bottle, jar, decanter, ewer, cruse, caraffe, crock, kit, canteen, flagon; demijohn; flask, flasket; stoup, noggin, vial, phial, cruet, caster; urn, epergne, salver, patella, tazza, patera; pig gin, big gin; tyg, nipperkin, pocket pistol; tub, bucket, pail, skeel, pot, tankard, jug, pitcher, mug, pipkin; galipot, gallipot; matrass, receiver, retort, alembic, bolthead, capsule, can, kettle; bowl, basin, jorum, punch bowl, cup, goblet, chalice, tumbler, glass, rummer, horn, saucepan, skillet, posnet|, tureen. [laboratory vessels for liquids] beaker, flask, Erlenmeyer flask, Florence flask, round-bottom flask, graduated cylinder, test tube, culture tube, pipette, Pasteur pipette, disposable pipette, syringe, vial, carboy, vacuum flask, Petri dish, microtiter tray, centrifuge tube. bail, beaker, billy, canakin; catch basin, catch drain; chatti, lota, mussuk, schooner [U.S.], spider, terrine, toby, urceus. plate, platter, dish, trencher, calabash, porringer, potager, saucer, pan, crucible; glassware, tableware; vitrics. compote, gravy boat, creamer, sugar bowl, butter dish, mug, pitcher, punch bowl, chafing dish. shovel, trowel, spoon, spatula, ladle, dipper, tablespoon, watch glass, thimble. closet, commode, cupboard, cellaret, chiffonniere, locker, bin, bunker, buffet, press, clothespress, safe, sideboard, drawer, chest of drawers, chest on chest, highboy, lowboy, till, scrutoire|, secretary, secretaire, davenport, bookcase, cabinet, canterbury; escritoire, etagere, vargueno, vitrine. chamber, apartment, room, cabin; office, court, hall, atrium; suite of rooms, apartment [U.S.], flat, story; saloon, salon, parlor; by-room, cubicle; presence chamber; sitting room, best room, keeping room, drawing room, reception room, state room; gallery, cabinet, closet; pew, box; boudoir; adytum, sanctum; bedroom, dormitory; refectory, dining room, salle-a-manger; nursery, schoolroom; library, study; studio; billiard room, smoking room; den; stateroom, tablinum, tenement. [room for defecation and urination] bath room, bathroom, toilet, lavatory, powder room; john, jakes, necessary, loo; [in public places] men's room, ladies' room, rest room; [fixtures: see 653 (uncleanness)]. attic, loft, garret, cockloft, clerestory; cellar, vault, hold, cockpit; cubbyhole; cook house; entre-sol; mezzanine floor; ground floor, rez-de-chaussee; basement, kitchen, pantry, bawarchi-khana, scullery, offices; storeroom &c. (depository) 636; lumber room; dairy, laundry. coach house; garage; hangar; outhouse; penthouse; lean-to. portico, porch, stoop, stope, veranda, patio, lanai, terrace, deck; lobby, court, courtyard, hall, vestibule, corridor, passage, breezeway; ante room, ante chamber; lounge; piazza [=veranda, U.S.]. conservatory, greenhouse, bower, arbor, summerhouse, alcove, grotto, hermitage. lodging &c. (abode) 189; bed &c. (support) 215; carriage &c. (vehicle) 272. Adj. capsular; saccular, sacculated; recipient; ventricular, cystic, vascular, vesicular, cellular, camerated, locular, multilocular, polygastric; marsupial; siliquose, siliquous.



#192. Size.—N. size, magnitude, dimension, bulk, volume; largeness &c. adj.; greatness &c. (of quantity) 31; expanse &c. (space) 180; amplitude, mass; proportions. capacity, tonnage, tunnage; cordage; caliber, scantling. turgidity &c. (expansion) 194; corpulence, obesity; plumpness &c. adj.; embonpoint, corporation, flesh and blood, lustihood. hugeness &c. adj.; enormity, immensity, monstrosity. giant, Brobdingnagian, Antæus, Goliath, Gog and Magog, Gargantua, monster, mammoth, Cyclops; cachalot, whale, porpoise, behemoth, leviathan, elephant, hippopotamus; colossus; tun, cord, lump, bulk, block, loaf, mass, swad, clod, nugget, bushel, thumper, whooper, spanker, strapper; "Triton among the minnows" [Coriolanus]. mountain, mound; heap &c. (assemblage) 72. largest portion &c. 50; full size, life size. V. be large &c. adj.; become large &c. (expand) 194. Adj. large, big; great &c. (in quantity) 31; considerable, bulky, voluminous, ample, massive, massy; capacious, comprehensive; spacious &c. 180; mighty, towering, fine, magnificent. corpulent, stout, fat, obese, plump, squab, full, lusty, strapping, bouncing; portly, burly, well-fed, full-grown; corn fed, gram fed; stalwart, brawny, fleshy; goodly; in good case, in good condition; in condition; chopping, jolly; chub faced, chubby faced. lubberly, hulky, unwieldy, lumpish, gaunt, spanking, whacking, whopping, walloping, thumping, thundering, hulking; overgrown; puffy &c. (swollen) 194. huge, immense, enormous, mighty; vast, vasty; amplitudinous, stupendous; monster, monstrous, humongous, monumental; elephantine, jumbo, mammoth; gigantic, gigantean, giant, giant like, titanic; prodigious, colossal, Cyclopean, Brobdingnagian, Bunyanesque, Herculean, Gargantuan; infinite &c. 105. large as life; plump as a dumpling, plump as a partridge; fat as a pig, fat as a quail, fat as butter, fat as brawn, fat as bacon. immeasurable, unfathomable, unplumbed; inconceivable, unimaginable, unheard-of. of cosmic proportions; of epic proportions, the mother of all, the granddaddy of all.

#193. Littleness.—N. littleness &c. adj.; smallness &c. (of quantity) 32; exiguity, inextension[obs3]; parvitude[obs3], parvity[obs3]; duodecimo[obs3]; Elzevir edition, epitome, microcosm; rudiment; vanishing point; thinness &c. 203. dwarf, pygmy, pigmy[obs3], Liliputian, chit, pigwidgeon[obs3], urchin, elf; atomy[obs3], dandiprat[obs3]; doll, puppet; Tom Thumb, Hop-o'-my- thumb[obs3]; manikin, mannikin; homunculus, dapperling[obs3], cock-sparrow. animalcule, monad, mite, insect, emmet[obs3], fly, midge, gnat, shrimp, minnow, worm, maggot, entozoon[obs3]; bacteria; infusoria[obs3]; microzoa[Microbiol]; phytozoaria[obs3]; microbe; grub; tit, tomtit, runt, mouse, small fry; millet seed, mustard seed; barleycorn; pebble, grain of sand; molehill, button, bubble. point; atom &c. (small quantity) 32; fragment &c. (small part) 51; powder &c. 330; point of a pin, mathematical point; minutiae &c. (unimportance) 643. micrometer; vernier; scale. microphotography, photomicrography, micrography[obs3]; photomicrograph, microphotograph; microscopy; microscope (optical instruments) 445.. V. be little &c. adj.; lie in a nutshell; become small &c. (decrease) 36, (contract) 195. Adj. little; small &c. (in quantity) 32; minute, diminutive, microscopic; microzoal; inconsiderable &c. (unimportant) 643; exiguous, puny, tiny, wee, petty, minikin[obs3], miniature, pygmy, pigmy[obs3], elfin; undersized; dwarf, dwarfed, dwarfish; spare, stunted, limited; cramp, cramped; pollard, Liliputian, dapper, pocket; portative[obs3], portable; duodecimo[obs3]; dumpy, squat; short &c. 201. impalpable, intangible, evanescent, imperceptible, invisible, inappreciable, insignificant, inconsiderable, trivial; infinitesimal, homoeopathic[obs3]; atomic, subatomic, corpuscular, molecular; rudimentary, rudimental; embryonic, vestigial. weazen|!, scant, scraggy, scrubby; thin &c. (narrow) 203; granular &c. (powdery) 330; shrunk &c. 195; brevipennate[obs3]. Adv. in a small compass, in a nutshell; on a small scale; minutely, microscopically.

#194. Expansion.—N. expansion; increase &c. 35 of size; enlargement, extension, augmentation; amplification, ampliation[obs3]; aggrandizement, spread, increment, growth, development, pullulation, swell, dilation, rarefaction; turgescence[obs3], turgidness, turgidity; dispansion|; obesity &c. (size) 192; hydrocephalus, hydrophthalmus[Med]; dropsy, tumefaction, intumescence, swelling, tumor, diastole, distension; puffing, puffiness; inflation; pandiculation[obs3]. dilatability, expansibility. germination, growth, upgrowth[obs3]; accretion &c. 35; budding, gemmation[obs3]. overgrowth, overdistension[obs3]; hypertrophy, tympany[obs3]. bulb &c. (convexity) 250; plumper; superiority of size. [expansion of the universe] big bang; Hubble constant. V. become larger &c. (large &c. 192); expand, widen, enlarge, extend, grow, increase, incrassate[obs3], swell, gather; fill out; deploy, take open order, dilate, stretch, distend, spread; mantle, wax; grow up, spring up; bud, bourgeon[Fr], shoot, sprout, germinate, put forth, vegetate, pullulate, open, burst forth; gain flesh, gather flesh; outgrow; spread like wildfire, overrun. be larger than; surpass &c. (be superior) 33. render larger &c. (large &c. 192); expand, spread, extend, aggrandize, distend, develop, amplify, spread out, widen, magnify, rarefy, inflate, puff, blow up, stuff, pad, cram; exaggerate; fatten. Adj. expanded &c. v.; larger &c. (large &c. 192; swollen; expansive; wide open, wide spread; flabelliform[obs3]; overgrown, exaggerated, bloated, fat, turgid, tumid, hypertrophied, dropsical; pot bellied, swag bellied|; edematous, oedematous[obs3], obese, puffy, pursy[obs3], blowzy, bigswoln[obs3], distended; patulous; bulbous &c. (convex) 250; full blown, full grown, full formed; big &c. 192; abdominous[obs3], enchymatous[obs3], rhipidate[obs3]; tumefacient[obs3], tumefying[obs3].

#195. Contraction.—N. contraction, reduction, diminution; decrease &c. 36 of size; defalcation, decrement; lessening, shrinking &c. v.; compaction; tabes[obs3], collapse, emaciation, attenuation, tabefaction[obs3], consumption, marasmus[obs3], atrophy; systole, neck, hourglass. condensation, compression, compactness; compendium &c. 596; squeezing &c. v.; strangulation; corrugation; astringency; astringents, sclerotics; contractility, compressibility; coarctation[obs3]. inferiority in size. V. become small, become smaller; lessen, decrease &c. 36; grow less, dwindle, shrink, contract, narrow, shrivel, collapse, wither, lose flesh, wizen, fall away, waste, wane, ebb; decay &c. (deteriorate) 659. be smaller than, fall short of; not come up to &c. (be inferior) 34. render smaller, lessen, diminish, contract, draw in, narrow, coarctate[obs3]; boil down; constrict, constringe[obs3]; condense, compress, squeeze, corrugate, crimp, crunch, crush, crumple up, warp, purse up, pack, squeeze, stow; pinch, tighten, strangle; cramp; dwarf, bedwarf[obs3]; shorten &c. 201; circumscribe &c. 229; restrain &c. 751. [reduce in size by abrasion or paring; see subtraction 38] abrade, pare, reduce, attenuate, rub down, scrape, file, file down, grind, grind down, chip, shave, shear, wear down. Adj. contracting &c. v.; astringent; shrunk, contracted &c. v.; strangulated, tabid[obs3], wizened, stunted; waning &c. v.; neap, compact. unexpanded &c. (expand &c. 194)[obs3]; contractile; compressible; smaller &c. (small &c.193).

#196. Distance.—N. distance; space &c. 180; remoteness, farness[obs3], far-cry to; longinquity[obs3], elongation; offing, background; remote region; removedness[obs3]; parallax; reach, span, stride. outpost, outskirt; horizon; aphelion; foreign parts, ultima Thule[Lat], ne plus ultra[Lat], antipodes; long range, giant's stride. dispersion &c.73. [units of distance] length &c. 200. cosmic distance, light-years. V. be distant &c. adj.; extend to, stretch to, reach to, spread to, go to, get to, stretch away to; range. remain at a distance; keep away, keep off, keep aloof, keep clear of, stand away, stand off, stand aloof, stand clear of, stay away, keep one's distance'. [transitive] distance; distance oneself from. Adj. distant; far off, far away; remote, telescopic, distal, wide of; stretching to &c. v.; yon, yonder; ulterior; transmarine[obs3], transpontine[obs3], transatlantic, transalpine; tramontane; ultramontane, ultramundane[obs3]; hyperborean, antipodean; inaccessible, out of the way; unapproached[obs3], unapproachable; incontiguous[obs3]. Adv. far off, far away; afar, afar off; off; away; a long way off, a great way off, a good way off; wide away, aloof; wide of, clear of; out of the way, out of reach; abroad, yonder, farther, further, beyond; outre mer[Fr], over the border, far and wide, "over the hills and far away" [Gay]; from pole to pole &c. (over great space) 180; to the uttermost parts, to the ends of the earth; out of hearing, nobody knows where, a perte de vue[Fr], out of the sphere of, wide of the mark; a far cry to. apart, asunder; wide apart, wide asunder; longo intervallo[It]; at arm's length. Phr. "distance lends enchantment" [Campbell]; "it's a long long way to Tipperary"; out of sight, out of mind.

#197. Nearness.—N. nearness &c. adj.; proximity, propinquity; vicinity, vicinage; neighborhood, adjacency; contiguity &c. 199. short distance, short step, short cut; earshot, close quarters, stone's throw; bow shot, gun shot, pistol shot; hair's breadth, span. purlieus, neighborhood, vicinage, environs, alentours[Fr], suburbs, confines, banlieue[obs3], borderland; whereabouts. bystander; neighbor, borderer[obs3]. approach &c. 286; convergence 7c. 290; perihelion. V. be near &c. adj.; adjoin, hang about, trench on; border upon, verge upon; stand by, approximate, tread on the heels of, cling to, clasp, hug; huddle; hang upon the skirts of, hover over; burn. touch &c. 199 bring near, draw near &c. 286; converge &c. 290; crowd &c. 72; place side by side &c. adv. Adj. near, nigh; close at hand, near at hand; close, neighboring; bordering upon, contiguous, adjacent, adjoining; proximate, proximal; at hand, handy; near the mark, near run; home, intimate. Adv. near, nigh; hard by, fast by; close to, close upon; hard upon; at the point of; next door to; within reach, within call, within hearing, within earshot; within an ace of; but a step, not far from, at no great distance; on the verge of, on the brink of, on the skirts of; in the environs &c. n.; at one's door, at one's feet, at one's elbow, at one's finger's end, at one's side; on the tip of one's tongue; under one's nose; within a stone's throw &c. n.; in sight of, in presence of; at close quarters; cheek by jole[obs3], cheek by jowl; beside, alongside, side by side, tete-a-tete; in juxtaposition &c. (touching) 199; yardarm to yardarm, at the heels of; on the confines of, at the threshold, bordering upon, verging to; in the way. about; hereabouts, thereabouts; roughly, in round numbers; approximately, approximatively[obs3]; as good as, well-nigh.

#198. Interval.—N. interval, interspace[obs3]; separation &c. 44; break, gap, opening; hole &c. 260; chasm, hiatus, caesura; interruption, interregnum; interstice, lacuna, cleft, mesh, crevice, chink, rime, creek, cranny, crack, chap, slit, fissure, scissure[obs3], rift, flaw, breach, rent, gash, cut, leak, dike, ha-ha. gorge, defile, ravine, canon, crevasse, abyss, abysm; gulf; inlet, frith[obs3], strait, gully; pass; furrow &c. 259; abra[obs3]; barranca[obs3], barranco[obs3]; clove [U.S.], gulch [U.S.], notch [U.S.]; yawning gulf; hiatus maxime[Lat], hiatus valde deflendus[Lat]; parenthesis &c. (interjacence) 228[obs3]; void 7c. (absence) 187; incompleteness &c. 53. [interval of time] period &c. 108; interim (time) 106. V. gape &c. (open) 260. Adj. with an interval, far between; breachy[obs3], rimose[obs3], rimulose[obs3]. Adv. at intervals &c. (discontinuously) 70; longo intervallo[It].

#199. Contiguity.—N. contiguity, contact, proximity, apposition,
abuttal[obs3], juxtaposition; abutment, osculation; meeting, appulse[obs3],
rencontre[obs3], rencounter[obs3], syzygy[Astron], coincidence,
coexistence; adhesion &c. 46; touching &c. v. (see touch 379).
     borderland; frontier &c. (limit) 233; tangent; abutter.
     V. be contiguous &c. adj.; join, adjoin, abut on, march with; graze,
touch, meet, osculate, come in contact, coincide; coexist; adhere &c. 46.
     [transitive][cause to be contiguous] juxtapose; contact; join (unite)
43; link (vinculum) 45.
     Adj. contiguous; touching &c. v.; in contact &c. n.; conterminous, end
to end, osculatory; pertingent|; tangential.
     hand to hand; close to &c. (near) 197; with no interval &c. 198.


#200. Length.—N. length, longitude, span; mileage; distance &c. 196.
     line, bar, rule, stripe, streak, spoke, radius.
     lengthening &c. v.; prolongation, production, protraction; tension,
tensure[obs3]; extension.
     [Measures of length] line, nail, inch, hand, palm, foot, cubit, yard,
ell, fathom, rood, pole, furlong, mile, league; chain, link; arpent[obs3],
handbreadth[obs3], jornada [obs3][U.S.], kos[obs3], vara[obs3].
     [astronomical units of distance] astronomical unit, AU, light-year,
     [metric units of length] nanometer, nm, micron, micrometer,
millimicron, millimeter, mm, centimeter, cm, meter, kilometer, km.
     pedometer, perambulator; scale &c. (measurement) 466.
     V. be long &c. adj.; stretch out, sprawl; extend to, reach to, stretch
to; make a long arm, "drag its slow length along."
     render long &c. adj.; lengthen, extend, elongate; stretch; prolong,
produce, protract; let out, draw out, spin out|!; drawl.
     enfilade, look along, view in perspective.
     distend (expand) 194.
     Adj. long, longsome[obs3]; lengthy, wiredrawn[obs3], outstretched;
lengthened &c. v.; sesquipedalian &c. (words) 577; interminable, no end
of; macrocolous[obs3].
     linear, lineal; longitudinal, oblong.
     as long as my arm, as long as today and tomorrow; unshortened &c.
(shorten &c. 201)[obs3].
     Adv. lengthwise, at length, longitudinally, endlong[obs3], along;
tandem; in a line &c. (continuously) 69; in perspective.
     from end to end, from stem to stern, from head to foot, from the crown
of the head to the sole of the foot, from top to toe; fore and aft.

#201. Shortness.—N. shortness &c. adj.; brevity; littleness &c. 193; a span. shortening &c. v.; abbreviation, abbreviature[obs3]; abridgment, concision, retrenchment, curtailment, decurtation|; reduction &c. (contraction) 195; epitome &c. (compendium) 596. elision, ellipsis; conciseness &c. (in style) 572. abridger, epitomist[obs3], epitomizer[obs3]. V. be short &c. adj.; render short &c. adj.; shorten, curtail, abridge, abbreviate, take in, reduce; compress &c. (contract) 195; epitomize &c. 596. retrench, cut short, obtruncate[obs3]; scrimp, cut, chop up, hack, hew; cut down, pare down; clip, dock, lop, prune, shear, shave, mow, reap, crop; snub; truncate, pollard, stunt, nip, check the growth of; foreshorten[in drawing]. Adj. short, brief, curt; compendious, compact; stubby, scrimp; shorn, stubbed; stumpy, thickset, pug; chunky [U.S.], decurtate[obs3]; retrousse[obs3]; stocky; squab, squabby[obs3]; squat, dumpy; little &c. 193; curtailed of its fair proportions; short by; oblate; concise &c. 572; summary. Adv. shortly &c. adj.; in short &c. (concisely) 572.

#202. Breadth, Thickness.—N. breadth, width, latitude, amplitude;
diameter, bore, caliber, radius; superficial extent &c. (space) 180.
     thickness, crassitude[obs3]; corpulence &c. (size) 192; dilation &c.
(expansion) 194.
     V. be broad &c. adj.; become broad, render broad &c. adj.; expand &c.
194; thicken, widen, calibrate.
     Adj. broad, wide, ample, extended; discous[obs3]; fanlike; outspread,
outstretched; "wide as a church-door" [Romeo and Juliet];
latifoliate[obs3], latifolous[obs3].
     thick, dumpy, squab, squat, thickset; thick as a rope.

#203. Narrowness. Thinness.—N. narrowness &c. adj.; closeness, exility[obs3]; exiguity 7c. (little) 193. line; hair's breadth, finger's breadth; strip, streak, vein. monolayer; epitaxial deposition[Engin]. thinness &c. adj.; tenuity; emaciation, macilency[obs3], marcor|. shaving, slip &c. (filament) 205; thread paper, skeleton, shadow, anatomy, spindleshanks[obs3], lantern jaws, mere skin and bone. middle constriction, stricture, neck, waist, isthmus, wasp, hourglass; ridge, ghaut[obs3], ghat[obs3], pass; ravine &c. 198. narrowing, coarctation[obs3], angustation[obs3], tapering; contraction &c. 195. V. be narrow &c. adj.; narrow, taper, contract &c. 195; render narrow &c. adj; waste away. Adj. narrow, close; slender, thin, fine; thread-like &c. (filament) 205; finespun[obs3], gossamer; paper-thin; taper, slim, slight-made; scant, scanty; spare, delicate, incapacious[obs3]; contracted &c. 195; unexpanded &c. (expand &c. 194)[obs3]; slender as a thread. [in reference to people or animals] emaciated, lean, meager, gaunt, macilent[obs3]; lank, lanky; weedy, skinny; scrawny slinky[U.S.]; starved, starveling; herring gutted; worn to a shadow, lean as a rake [Chaucer]; thin as a lath, thin as a whipping post, thin as a wafer; hatchet-faced; lantern-jawed. attenuated, shriveled, extenuated, tabid[obs3], marcid|, barebone, rawboned. monomolecular.

#204. Layer.—N. layer, stratum, strata, course, bed, zone, substratum, substrata, floor, flag, stage, story, tier, slab, escarpment; table, tablet; dess[obs3]; flagstone; board, plank; trencher, platter. plate; lamina, lamella; sheet, foil; wafer; scale, flake, peel; coat, pellicle; membrane, film; leaf; slice, shive[obs3], cut, rasher, shaving, integument &c. (covering) 223; eschar[obs3]. stratification, scaliness, nest of boxes, coats of an onion. monolayer; bilayer; trilayer[Biochem]. V. slice, shave, pare, peel; delaminate; plate, coat, veneer; cover &c. 223. Adj. lamellar, lamellated[obs3], lamelliform[obs3], layered; laminated, laminiferous[obs3]; micaceous[obs3]; schistose, schistous[obs3]; scaly, filmy, membranous, pellicular, flaky, squamous[Anat]; foliated, foliaceous[obs3]; stratified, stratiform; tabular, discoid; spathic[obs3], spathose[obs3]. trilamellar[obs3]. graphitic[obs3].

#205. Filament.—N. filament, line; fiber, fibril; funicle[obs3], vein; hair, capillament[obs3], cilium, cilia, pilus, pili; tendril, gossamer; hair stroke; veinlet[obs3], venula[obs3], venule[obs3]. wire, string, thread, packthread, cotton, sewing silk, twine, twist, whipcord, tape, ribbon, cord, rope, yarn, hemp, oakum, jute. strip, shred, slip, spill, list, band, fillet, fascia, ribbon, riband, roll, lath, splinter, shiver, shaving. beard &c. (roughness) 256; ramification; strand. Adj. filamentous, filamentiferous[obs3], filaceous[obs3], filiform[obs3]; fibrous, fibrillous[obs3]; thread-like, wiry, stringy, ropy; capillary, capilliform[obs3]; funicular, wire-drawn; anguilliform[obs3]; flagelliform[obs3]; hairy &c. (rough) 256; taeniate[obs3], taeniform[obs3], taenioid[obs3]; venose[obs3], venous.

#206. Height.—N. height, altitude, elevation; eminence, pitch; loftiness &c. adj.; sublimity. tallness &c. adj.; stature, procerity[obs3]; prominence &c. 250. colossus &c. (size) 192; giant, grenadier, giraffe, camelopard. mount, mountain; hill alto, butte [U.S.], monticle[obs3], fell, knap[obs3]; cape; headland, foreland[obs3]; promontory; ridge, hog's back, dune; rising ground, vantage ground; down; moor, moorland; Alp; uplands, highlands; heights &c. (summit), 210; knob, loma[obs3], pena [obs3][U.S.], picacho[obs3], tump[obs3]; knoll, hummock, hillock, barrow, mound, mole; steeps, bluff, cliff, craig[obs3], tor[obs3], peak, pike, clough[obs3]; escarpment, edge, ledge, brae; dizzy height. tower, pillar, column, obelisk, monument, steeple, spire, minaret, campanile, turret, dome, cupola; skyscraper. pole, pikestaff, maypole, flagstaff; top mast, topgallant mast. ceiling &c. (covering) 223. high water; high tide, flood tide, spring tide. altimetry &c. (angel) 244[obs3]; batophobia[obs3]. satellite, spy-in-the-sky. V. be high &c. adj.; tower, soar, command; hover, hover over, fly over; orbit, be in orbit; cap, culminate; overhang, hang over, impend, beetle, bestride, ride, mount; perch, surmount; cover &c. 223; overtop &c. (be superior) 33; stand on tiptoe. become high &c. adj.; grow higher, grow taller; upgrow[obs3]; rise &c. (ascend) 305; send into orbit. render high &c. adj.; heighten &c. (elevate) 307. Adj. high, elevated, eminent, exalted, lofty, tall; gigantic &c. (big) 192; Patagonian; towering, beetling, soaring, hanging [gardens]; elevated &c. 307; upper; highest &c. (topmost) 210; high reaching, insessorial[obs3], perching. upland, moorland; hilly, knobby [U.S.]; mountainous, alpine, subalpine, heaven kissing; cloudtopt[obs3], cloudcapt[obs3], cloudtouching[obs3]; aerial. overhanging &c. v.; incumbent, overlying, superincumbent[obs3], supernatant, superimposed; prominent &c. c. 250. tall as a maypole, tall as a poplar, tall as a steeple, lanky &c. (thin) 203. Adv. on high, high up, aloft, up, above, aloof, overhead; airwind[obs3]; upstairs, abovestairs[obs3]; in the clouds; on tiptoe, on stilts, on the shoulders of; over head and ears; breast high. over, upwards; from top to bottom &c. (completely) 52. Phr. e meglio cader dalle finistre che dal tetto[It].

#207. Lowness.—N. lowness &c. adj.; debasement, depression, prostration &c. (horizontal) 213; depression &c. (concave) 252. molehill; lowlands; basement floor, ground floor; rez de chaussee[Fr]; cellar; hold, bilge; feet, heels. low water; low tide, ebb tide, neap tide, spring tide. V. be low &c. adj.; lie low, lie flat; underlie; crouch, slouch, wallow, grovel; lower &c. (depress) 308. Adj. low, neap, debased; nether, nether most; flat, level with the ground; lying low &c. v.; crouched, subjacent, squat, prostrate &c. (horizontal) 213. Adv. under; beneath, underneath; below; downwards; adown[obs3], at the foot of; under foot, under ground; down stairs, below stairs; at a low ebb; below par.

#208. Depth.—N. depth; deepness &c. adj.; profundity, depression
&c. (concavity) 252.
     hollow, pit, shaft, well, crater; gulf &c. 198; bowels of the earth,
bottomless pit[obs3], hell.
     soundings, depth of water, water, draught, submersion; plummet, sound,
probe; sounding rod, sounding line; lead.
     [instrument to measure depth] sonar, side-looking sonar;
     V. be deep &c. adj.; render deep &c. adj.; deepen.
     plunge &c. 310; sound, fathom, plumb, cast the lead, heave the lead,
take soundings, make soundings; dig &c. (excavate) 252.
     Adj. deep, deep seated; profound, sunk, buried; submerged &c. 310;
subaqueous, submarine, subterranean, subterraneous, subterrene[obs3];
     bottomless, soundless, fathomless; unfathomed, unfathomable; abysmal;
deep as a well; bathycolpian[obs3]; benthal[obs3], benthopelagic[obs3];
downreaching[obs3], yawning.
     knee deep, ankle deep.
     Adv. beyond one's depth, out of one's depth; over head and ears; mark
twine, mark twain.

#209. Shallowness.—N. shallowness &c. adj.; shoals; mere scratch.
     Adj. shallow, slight, superficial; skin deep, ankle deep, knee deep;
just enough to wet one's feet; shoal, shoaly[obs3].

#210. Summit.—N. summit, summity|; top, peak, vertex, apex, zenith,
pinnacle, acme, culmination, meridian, utmost height, ne plus utra, height,
pitch, maximum, climax, culminating point, crowning point, turning point;
turn of the tide, fountain head; water shed, water parting; sky, pole.
     tip, tip top; crest, crow's nest, cap, truck, nib; end &c. 67; crown,
brow; head, nob[obs3], noddle[obs3], pate; capsheaf[obs3].
     high places, heights.
     topgallant mast, sky scraper; quarter deck, hurricane deck.
     architrave, frieze, cornice, coping stone, zoophorus[obs3], capital,
epistyle[obs3], sconce, pediment, entablature[obs3]; tympanum; ceiling &c.
(covering) 223.
     attic, loft, garret, house top, upper story.
     [metaphorical use] summit conference, summit; peak of achievement,
peak of performance; peaks and troughs, peaks and valleys [in graphs].
     V. culminate, crown, top; overtop &c. (be superior to) 33.
     Adj. highest &c. (high &c. 206); top; top most, upper most; tiptop;
culminating &c. v.; meridian, meridional[obs3]; capital, head, polar,
supreme, supernal, topgallant.
     Adv. atop, at the top of the tree.
     Phr. en flute; fleur deau[Fr].

#211. Base.—N. base, basement; plinth, dado, wainscot; baseboard, mopboard[obs3]; bedrock, hardpan [U.S.]; foundation &c. (support) 215; substructure, substratum, ground, earth, pavement, floor, paving, flag, carped, ground floor, deck; footing, ground work, basis; hold, bilge. bottom, nadir, foot, sole, toe, hoof, keel, root; centerboard. Adj. bottom, undermost, nethermost; fundamental; founded on, based on, grounded on, built on.

#212. Verticality.—N. verticality; erectness &c. adj.;
perpendicularity &c. 216a; right angle, normal; azimuth circle.
     wall, precipice, cliff.
     elevation, erection; square, plumb line, plummet.
     V. be vertical &c. adj.; stand up, stand on end, stand erect, stand
upright; stick up, cock up.
     render vertical &c. adj.; set up, stick up, raise up, cock up; erect,
rear, raise on its legs.
     Adj. vertical, upright, erect, perpendicular, plumb, normal, straight,
bolt, upright; rampant; standing up &c. v.; rectangular, orthogonal &c.
     Adv. vertically &c. adj.; up, on end; up on end, right on end; a
plomb[Fr], endwise; one one's legs; at right angles.

#213. Horizontality.—N. horizontality[obs3]; flatness; level,
plane; stratum &c. 204; dead level, dead flat; level plane.
     recumbency, lying down &c. v.; reclination[obs3], decumbence[obs3];
decumbency[obs3], discumbency|; proneness &c. adj.; accubation[obs3],
supination[obs3], resupination[obs3], prostration; azimuth.
     plain, floor, platform, bowling green; cricket ground; croquet ground,
croquet lawn; billiard table; terrace, estrade[obs3], esplanade, parterre.
     [flat land area] table land, plateau, ledge; butte; mesa (plain) 344.
     [instrument to measure horizontality] level, spirit level.
     V. be horizontal &c. adj.; lie, recline, couch; lie down, lie flat,
lie prostrate; sprawl, loll, sit down.
     render horizontal &c. adj.; lay down, lay out; level, flatten;
prostrate, knock down, floor, fell.
     Adj. horizontal, level, even, plane; flat &c. 251; flat as a billiard
table, flat as a bowling green; alluvial; calm, calm as a mill pond;
smooth, smooth as glass.
     recumbent, decumbent, procumbent, accumbent[obs3]; lying &c. v.;
prone, supine, couchant, jacent[obs3], prostrate, recubant[obs3].
     Adv. horizontally &c. adj.; on one's back, on all fours, on its beam

#214. Pendency.—N. pendency[obs3], dependency; suspension, hanging
&c. v.; pedicel, pedicle, peduncle; tail, train, flap, skirt, pigtail, pony
tail, pendulum; hangnail
     peg, knob, button, hook, nail, stud, ring, staple, tenterhook;
fastening &c. 45; spar, horse.
     V. be pendent &c. adj.; hang, depend, swing, dangle; swag;
daggle[obs3], flap, trail, flow; beetle.
     suspend, hang, sling, hook up, hitch, fasten to, append.
     Adj. pendent, pendulous; pensile; hanging &c. v.; beetling, jutting
over, overhanging, projecting; dependent; suspended &c. v.; loose, flowing.
     having a peduncle &c. n.; pedunculate[obs3], tailed, caudate.

#215. Support.—N. support, ground, foundation, base, basis; terra firma; bearing, fulcrum, bait [U.S.], caudex crib[obs3]; point d'appui[Fr], <gr/pou sto/gr>[Grk][Grk], purchase footing, hold, locus standi[Lat]; landing place, landing stage; stage, platform; block; rest, resting place; groundwork, substratum, riprap, sustentation, subvention; floor &c. (basement) 211. supporter; aid &c. 707; prop, stand, anvil, fulciment|; cue rest, jigger; monkey; stay, shore, skid, rib, truss, bandage; sleeper; stirrup, stilts, shoe, sole, heel, splint, lap, bar, rod, boom, sprit[obs3], outrigger; ratlings[obs3]. staff, stick, crutch, alpenstock, baton, staddle[obs3]; bourdon[obs3], cowlstaff[obs3], lathi[obs3], mahlstick[obs3]. post, pillar, shaft, thill[obs3], column, pilaster; pediment, pedicle; pedestal; plinth, shank, leg, socle[obs3], zocle[obs3]; buttress, jamb, mullion, abutment; baluster, banister, stanchion; balustrade; headstone; upright; door post, jamb, door jamb. frame, framework; scaffold, skeleton, beam, rafter, girder, lintel, joist, travis[obs3], trave[obs3], corner stone, summer, transom; rung, round, step, sill; angle rafter, hip rafter; cantilever, modillion[obs3]; crown post, king post; vertebra. columella[obs3], backbone; keystone; axle, axletree; axis; arch, mainstay. trunnion, pivot, rowlock[obs3]; peg &c. (pendency) 214[obs3]; tiebeam &c. (fastening) 45; thole pin[obs3]. board, ledge, shelf, hob, bracket, trevet[obs3], trivet, arbor, rack; mantel, mantle piece[Fr], mantleshelf[obs3]; slab, console; counter, dresser; flange, corbel; table, trestle; shoulder; perch; horse; easel, desk; clotheshorse, hatrack; retable; teapoy[obs3]. seat, throne, dais; divan, musnud[obs3]; chair, bench, form, stool, sofa, settee, stall; arm chair, easy chair, elbow chair, rocking chair; couch, fauteuil[Fr], woolsack[obs3], ottoman, settle, squab, bench; aparejo[obs3], faldstool[obs3], horn; long chair, long sleeve chair, morris chair; lamba chauki[obs3], lamba kursi[obs3]; saddle, pannel[obs3], pillion; side saddle, pack saddle; pommel. bed, berth, pallet, tester, crib, cot, hammock, shakedown, trucklebed[obs3], cradle, litter, stretcher, bedstead; four poster, French bed, bunk, kip, palang[obs3]; bedding, bichhona, mattress, paillasse[obs3]; pillow, bolster; mat, rug, cushion. footstool, hassock; tabouret[obs3]; tripod, monopod. Atlas, Persides, Atlantes[obs3], Caryatides, Hercules. V. be supported &c.; lie on, sit on, recline on, lean on, loll on, rest on, stand on, step on, repose on, abut on, bear on, be based on &c.; have at one's back; bestride, bestraddle[obs3]. support, bear, carry, hold, sustain, shoulder; hold up, back up, bolster up, shore up; uphold, upbear[obs3]; prop; under prop, under pin, under set; riprap; bandage &c. 43. give support, furnish support, afford support, supply support, lend support, give foundations, furnish foundations, afford foundations, supply foundations, lend foundations; bottom, found, base, ground, imbed, embed. maintain, keep on foot; aid &c. 707. Adj. supporting, supported &c. v.; fundamental; dorsigerous[obs3]. Adv. astride on, straddle.

#216. Parallelism.—N. {ant. 216a} parallelism; coextension[obs3];
equidistance[obs3]; similarity &c. 17.
     Adj. parallel; coextensive; equidistant.
     Adv. alongside &c. (laterally) 236.

#216a. Perpendicularity—N. {ant. 216} perpendicularity,
orthogonality; verticality, &c. 212.
     V. be perpendicular, be orthogonal; intersect at right angles, be
rectangular, be at right angles to, intersect at 90 degrees; have no
     Adj. orthogonal, perpendicular; rectangular; uncorrelated.

#217. Obliquity.—N. obliquity, inclination, slope, slant, crookedness &c. adj.; slopeness[obs3]; leaning &c. v.; bevel, tilt; bias, list, twist, swag, cant, lurch; distortion &c. 243; bend &c. (curve) 245; tower of Pisa. acclivity, rise, ascent, gradient, khudd[obs3], rising ground, hill, bank, declivity, downhill, dip, fall, devexity|; gentle slope, rapid slope, easy ascent, easy descent; shelving beach; talus; monagne Russe[Fr]; facilis descensus averni[Lat]. V. intersect; lack parallelism.

#218. Inversion.—N. inversion, eversion, subversion, reversion, retroversion, introversion; contraposition &c. 237[obs3]; contrariety &c. 14; reversal; turn of the tide. overturn; somersault, somerset; summerset[obs3]; culbute[obs3]; revulsion; pirouette. transposition, transposal[obs3], anastrophy[obs3], metastasis, hyperbaton[obs3], anastrophe[obs3], hysteron proteron[Grk][Grk], hypallage[obs3], synchysis[obs3], tmesis[obs3], parenthesis; metathesis; palindrome. pronation and supination[Anat][obs3]. V. be inverted &c.; turn round, turn about, turn to the right about, go round, go about, go to the right about, wheel round, wheel about, wheel to the right about; turn over, go over, tilt over, topple over; capsize, turn turtle. invert, subvert, retrovert[obs3], introvert; reverse; up turn, over turn, up set, over set; turn topsy turvy &c. adj.; culbuter[obs3]; transpose, put the cart before the horse, turn the tables. Adj. inverted &c. v.; wrong side out, wrong side up; inside out, upside down; bottom upwards, keel upwards; supine, on one's head, topsy- turvy, sens dessus dessous[Fr]. inverse; reverse &c. (contrary) 14; opposite &c. 237. top heavy. Adv. inversely &c. adj.; hirdy-girdy[obs3]; heels over head, head over heels.

#219. Crossing.—N. crossing &c. v.; intersection, interdigitation;
decussation[obs3], transversion[obs3]; convolution &c. 248; level crossing.
     reticulation, network; inosculation[obs3], anastomosis,
intertexture[obs3], mortise.
     net, plexus, web, mesh, twill, skein, sleeve, felt, lace; wicker; mat,
matting; plait, trellis, wattle, lattice, grating, grille, gridiron,
tracery, fretwork, filigree, reticle; tissue, netting, mokes[obs3];
     cross, chain, wreath, braid, cat's cradle, knot; entangle &c.
(disorder) 59.
     [woven fabrics] cloth, linen, muslin, cambric &c.
     [web-footed animal] webfoot.
     V. cross, decussate[obs3]; intersect, interlace, intertwine,
intertwist[obs3], interweave, interdigitate, interlink.
     twine, entwine, weave, inweave[obs3], twist, wreathe; anastomose[Med],
inosculate[obs3], dovetail, splice, link; lace, tat.
     mat, plait, plat, braid, felt, twill; tangle, entangle, ravel; net,
knot; dishevel, raddle[obs3].
     Adj. crossing &c. v.; crossed, matted &c, v. transverse.
     cross, cruciform, crucial; retiform[obs3], reticular, reticulated;
areolar[obs3], cancellated[obs3], grated, barred, streaked; textile;
crossbarred[obs3], cruciate[obs3], palmiped[obs3], secant; web-footed.
     Adv. cross, thwart, athwart, transversely; at grade [U.S.]; crosswise.



#220. Exteriority.—N. exteriority[obs3]; outside, exterior;
surface, superficies; skin &c. (covering) 223; superstratum[obs3]; disk,
disc; face, facet; extrados[obs3].
     excentricity[obs3]; eccentricity; circumjacence &c. 227[obs3].
     V. be exterior &c. adj.; lie around &c. 227.
     place exteriorly, place outwardly, place outside; put out, turn out.
     Adj. exterior, external; outer most; outward, outlying, outside,
outdoor; round about &c. 227; extramural; extralimitary[obs3],
     superficial, skin-deep; frontal, discoid.
     extraregarding[obs3]; excentric[obs3], eccentric; outstanding;
extrinsic &c. 6; ecdemic[Med], exomorphic[obs3].
     Adv. externally &c. adj.; out, with out, over, outwards, ab extra, out
of doors; extra muros[Lat].
     in the open air; sub Jove, sub dio[Lat]; a la belle etoile[Fr], al

#221. Interiority.—N. interiority; inside, interior; interspace[obs3], subsoil, substratum; intrados. contents &c. 190; substance, pith, marrow; backbone &c. (center) 222; heart, bosom, breast; abdomen; vitals, viscera, entrails, bowels, belly, intestines, guts, chitterings[obs3], womb, lap; penetralia[Lat], recesses, innermost recesses; cave &c. (concavity) 252. V. be inside &c. adj.; within &c. adv. place within, keep within; inclose &c. (circumscribe) 229; intern; imbed &c. (insert) 300. Adj. interior, internal; inner, inside, inward, intraregarding[obs3]; inmost, innermost; deep seated, gut; intestine, intestinal; inland; subcutaneous; abdominal, coeliac, endomorphic[Physiol]; interstitial &c. (interjacent) 228[obs3]; inwrought &c. (intrinsic) 5; inclosed &c. v. home, domestic, indoor, intramural, vernacular; endemic. Adv. internally &c. adj.; inwards, within, in, inly[obs3]; here in, there in, where in; ab intra, withinside[obs3]; in doors, within doors; at home, in the bosom of one's family.

#222. Centrality.—N. centrality, centricalness[obs3], center;
middle &c. 68; focus &c. 74.
     core, kernel; nucleus, nucleolus; heart, pole axis, bull's eye; nave,
navel; umbilicus, backbone, marrow, pith; vertebra, vertebral column;
hotbed; concentration &c. (convergence) 290; centralization; symmetry.
     center of gravity, center of pressure, center of percussion, center of
oscillation, center of buoyancy &c.; metacenter[obs3].
     V. be central &c. adj.; converge &c. 290.
     render central, centralize, concentrate; bring to a focus.
     Adj. central, centrical[obs3]; middle &c. 68; azygous, axial, focal,
umbilical, concentric; middlemost; rachidian[obs3]; spinal, vertebral.
     Adv. middle; midst; centrally &c. adj.

#223. Covering.—N. covering, cover; baldachin, baldachino[obs3], baldaquin[obs3]; canopy, tilt, awning, tent, marquee, tente d'abri[Fr], umbrella, parasol, sunshade; veil (shade) 424; shield &c. (defense) 717. roof, ceiling, thatch, tile; pantile, pentile[obs3]; tiling, slates, slating, leads; barrack [U.S.], plafond, planchment [obs3][U.S.], tiling, shed &c. (abode) 189. top, lid, covercle|, door, operculum; bulkhead [U.S.]. bandage, plaster, lint, wrapping, dossil[obs3], finger stall. coverlet, counterpane, sheet, quilt, tarpaulin, blanket, rug, drugget[obs3]; housing; antimacassar, eiderdown, numdah[obs3], pillowcase, pillowslip[obs3]; linoleum; saddle cloth, blanket cloth; tidy; tilpah [obs3][U.S.], apishamore [obs3][U.S.]. integument, tegument; skin, pellicle, fleece, fell, fur, leather, shagreen[obs3], hide; pelt, peltry[obs3]; cordwain[obs3]; derm[obs3]; robe, buffalo robe [U.S.]; cuticle, scarfskin, epidermis. clothing &c. 225; mask &c. (concealment) 530. peel, crust, bark, rind, cortex, husk, shell, coat; eggshell, glume[obs3]. capsule; sheath, sheathing; pod, cod; casing, case, theca[obs3]; elytron[obs3]; elytrum[obs3]; involucrum[Lat]; wrapping, wrapper; envelope, vesicle; corn husk, corn shuck [U.S.]; dermatology, conchology; testaceology[obs3]. inunction[obs3]; incrustation, superimposition, superposition, obduction|; scale &c. (layer) 204. [specific coverings: list] veneer, facing; overlay; plate, silver plate, gold plate, copper plate; engobe[obs3]; ormolu; Sheffield plate; pavement; coating, paint; varnish &c. (resin) 356a; plating, barrel plating, anointing &c. v.; enamel; epitaxial deposition[Engin], vapor deposition; ground, whitewash, plaster, spackel, stucco, compo; cerement; ointment &c. (grease) 356. V. cover; superpose, superimpose; overlay, overspread; wrap &c. 225; encase, incase[obs3]; face, case, veneer, pave, paper; tip, cap, bind; bulkhead, bulkhead in; clapboard [U.S.]. coat, paint, varnish, pay, incrust, stucco, dab, plaster, tar; wash; besmear, bedaub; anoint, do over; gild, plate, japan, lacquer, lacker[obs3], enamel, whitewash; parget[obs3]; lay it on thick. overlie, overarch[obs3]; endome[obs3]; conceal &c. 528. [of aluminum] anodize. [of steel] galvanize. Adj. covering &c. v.; superimposed, overlaid, plated &c. v.; cutaneous, dermal, cortical, cuticular, tegumentary[obs3], skinny, scaly, squamous[Anat]; covered &c. v.; imbricated, loricated[obs3], armor plated, ironclad; under cover; cowled, cucullate[obs3], dermatoid[obs3], encuirassed[obs3], hooded, squamiferous[obs3], tectiform[obs3]; vaginate[obs3].

#224. Lining.—N. lining, inner coating; coating &c. (covering) 223;
stalactite, stalagmite.
     filling, stuffing, wadding, padding.
     wainscot, parietes[Lat], wall.
     V. line, stuff, incrust, wad, pad, fill.
     Adj. lined &c. v..

#225. Clothing.—N. clothing, investment; covering &c. 223; dress, raiment, drapery, costume, attire, guise, toilet, toilette, trim; habiliment; vesture, vestment; garment, garb, palliament|, apparel, wardrobe, wearing apparel, clothes, things; underclothes. array; tailoring, millinery; finery &c. (ornament) 847; full dress &c. (show) 882; garniture; theatrical properties. outfit, equipment, trousseau; uniform, regimentals; continentals [Am. Hist.]; canonicals &c. 999; livery, gear, harness, turn-out, accouterment, caparison, suit, rigging, trappings, traps, slops, togs, toggery[obs3]; day wear, night wear, zoot suit; designer clothes; masquerade. dishabille, morning dress, undress. kimono; lungi[obs3]; shooting-coat; mufti; rags, tatters, old clothes; mourning, weeds; duds; slippers. robe, tunic, paletot[obs3], habit, gown, coat, frock, blouse, toga, smock frock, claw coat, hammer coat, Prince Albert coat[obs3], sack coat, tuxedo coat, frock coat, dress coat, tail coat. cloak, pall, mantle, mantlet mantua[obs3], shawl, pelisse, wrapper; veil; cape, tippet, kirtle[obs3], plaid, muffler, comforter, haik[obs3], huke|, chlamys[obs3], mantilla, tabard, housing, horse cloth, burnoose, burnous, roquelaure[obs3]; houppelande[Fr]; surcoat, overcoat, great coat; surtout[Fr], spencer[obs3]; mackintosh, waterproof, raincoat; ulster, P- coat, dreadnought, wraprascal[obs3], poncho, cardinal, pelerine[obs3]; barbe[obs3], chudder[obs3], jubbah[obs3], oilskins, pajamas, pilot jacket, talma jacket[obs3], vest, jerkin, waistcoat, doublet, camisole, gabardine; farthingale, kilt, jupe[obs3], crinoline, bustle, panier, skirt, apron, pinafore; bloomer, bloomers; chaqueta[obs3], songtag[Ger], tablier[obs3]. pants, trousers, trowsers[obs3]; breeches, pantaloons, inexpressibles|!, overalls, smalls, small clothes; shintiyan|!; shorts, jockey shorts, boxer shorts; tights, drawers, panties, unmentionables; knickers, knickerbockers; philibeg[obs3], fillibeg[obs3]; pants suit; culottes; jeans, blue jeans, dungarees, denims. [brand names for jeans] Levis, Calvin Klein, Calvins, Bonjour, Gloria Vanderbilt. headdress, headgear; chapeau[Fr], crush hat, opera hat; kaffiyeh; sombrero, jam, tam-o-shanter, tarboosh[obs3], topi, sola topi[Lat], pagri[obs3], puggaree[obs3]; cap, hat, beaver hat, coonskin cap; castor, bonnet, tile, wideawake, billycock[obs3], wimple; nightcap, mobcap[obs3], skullcap; hood, coif; capote[obs3], calash; kerchief, snood, babushka; head, coiffure; crown &c. (circle) 247; chignon, pelt, wig, front, peruke, periwig, caftan, turban, fez, shako, csako[obs3], busby; kepi[obs3], forage cap, bearskin; baseball cap; fishing hat; helmet &c. 717; mask, domino. body clothes; linen; hickory shirt [U.S.]; shirt, sark[obs3], smock, shift, chemise; night gown, negligee, dressing gown, night shirt; bedgown[obs3], sac de nuit[Fr]. underclothes [underclothing], underpants, undershirt; slip [for women], brassiere, corset, stays, corsage, corset, corselet, bodice, girdle &c. (circle) 247; stomacher; petticoat, panties; under waistcoat; jock [for men], athletic supporter, jockstrap. sweater, jersey; cardigan; turtleneck, pullover; sweater vest. neckerchief, neckcloth[obs3]; tie, ruff, collar, cravat, stock, handkerchief, scarf; bib, tucker; boa; cummerbund, rumal[obs3], rabat[obs3]. shoe, pump, boot, slipper, sandal, galoche[obs3], galoshes, patten, clog; sneakers, running shoes, hiking boots; high-low; Blucher boot, wellington boot, Hessian boot, jack boot, top boot; Balmoral[obs3]; arctics, bootee, bootikin[obs3], brogan, chaparajos[obs3]; chavar[obs3], chivarras[obs3], chivarros[obs3]; gums [U.S.], larrigan [obs3][N. Am.], rubbers, showshoe, stogy[obs3], veldtschoen[Ger], legging, buskin, greave[obs3], galligaskin[obs3], gamache[obs3], gamashes[obs3], moccasin, gambado, gaiter, spatterdash[obs3], brogue, antigropelos[obs3]; stocking, hose, gaskins[obs3], trunk hose, sock; hosiery. glove, gauntlet, mitten, cuff, wristband, sleeve. swaddling cloth, baby linen, layette; ice wool; taffeta. pocket handkerchief, hanky[obs3], hankie. clothier, tailor, milliner, costumier, sempstress[obs3], snip; dressmaker, habitmaker[obs3], breechesmaker[obs3], shoemaker; Crispin; friseur[Fr]; cordwainer[obs3], cobbler, hosier[obs3], hatter; draper, linen draper, haberdasher, mercer. [underpants for babies] diaper, nappy[obs3][Brit]; disposable diaper, cloth diaper; Luvs[brand names for diapers], Huggies. V. invest; cover &c. 223; envelope, lap, involve; inwrap[obs3], enwrap; wrap; fold up, wrap up, lap up, muffle up; overlap; sheath, swathe, swaddle, roll up in, circumvest. vest, clothe, array, dress, dight[obs3], drape, robe, enrobe, attire, apparel, accounter[obs3], rig, fit out; deck &c. (ornament) 847; perk, equip, harness, caparison. wear; don; put on, huddle on, slip on; mantle. Adj. invested &c. v.; habited; dighted[obs3]; barbed, barded; clad, costume, shod, chausse[Fr]; en grande tenue &c. (show) 882[Fr]. sartorial. Phr. "the soul of this man is his clothes" [All's Well].

#226. Divestment.—N. divestment; taking off &c. v.. nudity; bareness &c. adj.; undress; dishabille &c. 225; the altogether; nudation[obs3], denudation; decortication, depilation, excoriation, desquamation; molting; exfoliation; trichosis[Med]. V. divest; uncover &c. (cover &c. 223); denude, bare, strip; disfurnish[obs3]; undress, disrobe &c. (dress, enrobe &c. 225); uncoif[obs3]; dismantle; put off, take off, cast off; doff; peel, pare, decorticate, excoriate, skin, scalp, flay; expose, lay open; exfoliate, molt, mew; cast the skin. Adj. divested &c. v.; bare, naked, nude; undressed, undraped; denuded; exposed; in dishabille; bald, threadbare, ragged, callow, roofless. in a state of nature, in nature's garb, in the buff, in native buff, in birthday suit; in puris naturalibus[Lat]; with nothing on, stark naked, stark raving naked [joc.]; bald as a coot, bare as the back of one's hand; out at elbows; barefoot; bareback, barebacked; leafless, napless[obs3], hairless.

#227. Circumjacence.—N. circumjacence[obs3], circumambience[obs3]; environment, encompassment; atmosphere, medium, surroundings. outpost; border &c. (edge) 231; girdle &c. (circumference) 230; outskirts, boulebards, suburbs, purlieus, precincts, faubourgs[obs3], environs, entourage, banlieue[obs3]; neighborhood, vicinage, vicinity. V. lie around &c. adv.; surround, beset, compass, encompass, environ, inclose, enclose, encircle, embrace, circumvent, lap, gird; belt; begird, engird[obs3]; skirt, twine round; hem in &c. (circumscribe) 229. Adj. circumjacent, circumambient[obs3], circumfluent[obs3]; ambient; surrounding &c. v.; circumferential, suburban. Adv. around, about; without; on every side; on all sides; right and left, all round, round about.

#228. Interposition.—N. interposition, interjacence[obs3], intercurrence[obs3], intervenience[obs3], interlocation[obs3], interdigitation, interjection, interpolation, interlineation, interspersion, intercalation. [interposition at a fine-grained level] interpenetration; permeation; infiltration. [interposition by one person in another's affairs, at the intervenor's initiative] intervention, interference; intrusion, obtrusion; insinuation. insertion &c. 300; dovetailing; embolism. intermediary, intermedium[obs3]; go between, bodkin|!, intruder, interloper; parenthesis, episode, flyleaf. partition, septum, diaphragm; midriff; dissepiment[obs3]; party wall, panel, room divider. halfway house. V. lie between, come between, get between; intervene, slide in, interpenetrate, permeate. put between, introduce, import, throw in, wedge in, edge in, jam in, worm in, foist in, run in, plow in, work in; interpose, interject, intercalate, interpolate, interline, interleave, intersperse, interweave, interlard, interdigitate, sandwich in, fit in, squeeze in; let in, dovetail, splice, mortise; insinuate, smuggle; infiltrate, ingrain. interfere, put in an oar, thrust one's nose in; intrude, obtrude; have a finger in the pie; introduce the thin end of the wedge; thrust in &c. (insert) 300. Adj. interjacent[obs3], intercurrent[obs3], intervenient[obs3], intervening &c. v., intermediate, intermediary, intercalary, interstitial; embolismal[obs3]. parenthetical, episodic; mediterranean; intrusive; embosomed[obs3]; merged. Adv. between, betwixt; twixt; among, amongst; amid, amidst; mid, midst; in the thick of; betwixt and between; sandwich-wise; parenthetically, obiter dictum.

#229. Circumscription.—N. circumscription, limitation, inclosure; confinement &c. (restraint) 751; circumvallation[obs3]; encincture; envelope &c. 232. container (receptacle) 191. V. circumscribe, limit, bound, confine, inclose; surround &c. 227; compass about; imprison &c. (restrain) 751; hedge in, wall in, rail in; fence round, fence in, hedge round; picket; corral. enfold, bury, encase, incase[obs3], pack up, enshrine, inclasp[obs3]; wrap up &c. (invest) 225; embay[obs3], embosom[obs3]. containment (inclusion) 76. Adj. circumscribed &c. v.; begirt[obs3], lapt[obs3]; buried in, immersed in; embosomed[obs3], in the bosom of, imbedded, encysted, mewed up; imprisoned &c. 751; landlocked, in a ring fence.

#230. Outline.—N. outline, circumference; perimeter, periphery, ambit, circuit, lines tournure[obs3], contour, profile, silhouette; bounds; coast line. zone, belt, girth, band, baldric, zodiac, girdle, tyre[Brit], cingle[obs3], clasp, girt; cordon &c. (inclosure) 232; circlet, &c. 247..

#231. Edge.—N. edge, verge, brink, brow, brim, margin, border,
confine, skirt, rim, flange, side, mouth; jaws, chops, chaps, fauces; lip,
     threshold, door, porch; portal &c. (opening) 260; coast, shore.
     frame, fringe, flounce, frill, list, trimming, edging, skirting, hem,
selvedge, welt, furbelow, valance, gimp.
     Adj. border, marginal, skirting; labial, labiated[obs3],

#232. Inclosure.—N. inclosure, envelope; case &c. (receptacle) 191;
wrapper; girdle &c. 230.
     pen, fold; pen fold, in fold, sheep fold; paddock, pound; corral;
yard; net, seine net.
     wall, hedge, hedge row; espalier; fence &c. (defense) 717; pale,
paling, balustrade, rail, railing, quickset hedge, park paling,
circumvallation[obs3], enceinte, ring fence.
     barrier, barricade; gate, gateway; bent, dingle [U.S.]; door, hatch,
cordon; prison &c. 752.
     dike, dyke, ditch, fosse[obs3], moat.
     V. inclose, circumscribe &c. 229.

#233. Limit.—N. limit, boundary, bounds, confine, enclave, term,
bourn, verge, curbstone[obs3], but, pale, reservation; termination,
terminus; stint, frontier, precinct, marches; backwoods.
     boundary line, landmark; line of demarcation, line of
circumvallation[obs3]; pillars of Hercules; Rubicon, turning point; ne plus
ultra[Lat]; sluice, floodgate.
     Adj. definite; conterminate|, conterminable[obs3]; terminal, frontier;
     Adv. thus far, thus far and no further.
     Phr. stick to the reservation; go beyond the pale.


#234. Front.—N. front; fore, forepart; foreground; face, disk, disc, frontage; facade, proscenium, facia[Lat], frontispiece; anteriority[obs3]; obverse [of a medal or coin]. fore rank, front rank; van, vanguard; advanced guard; outpost; first line; scout. brow, forehead, visage, physiognomy, phiz[obs3], countenance, mut*[obs3]; rostrum, beak, bow, stem, prow, prore[obs3], jib. pioneer &c. (precursor) 64; metoposcopy[obs3]. V. be in front, stand in front &c. adj.; front, face, confront; bend forwards; come to the front, come to the fore. Adj. fore, anterior, front, frontal. Adv. before; in front, in the van, in advance; ahead, right ahead; forehead, foremost; in the foreground, in the lee of; before one's face, before one's eyes; face to face, vis-a-vis; front a front. Phr. formosa muta commendatio est [Lat][Syrus]; frons est animi janua [Lat][Cicero]; "Human face divine" [Milton]; imago animi vultus est indices oculi [Lat][Cicero]; "sea of upturned faces" [Scott].

#235. Rear.—N. rear, back, posteriority; rear rank, rear guard;
background, hinterland.
     occiput[Anat], nape, chine; heels; tail, rump, croup, buttock,
posteriors, backside scut[obs3], breech, dorsum, loin; dorsal region,
lumbar region; hind quarters; aitchbone[obs3]; natch, natch bone.
     stern, poop, afterpart[obs3], heelpiece[obs3], crupper.
     wake; train &c. (sequence) 281.
     reverse; other side of the shield.
     V. be behind &c. adv.; fall astern; bend backwards; bring up the rear.
     Adj. back, rear; hind, hinder, hindmost, hindermost[obs3]; postern,
posterior; dorsal, after; caudal, lumbar; mizzen, tergal[obs3].
     Adv. behind; in the rear, in the background; behind one's back; at the
heels of, at the tail of, at the back of; back to back.
     after, aft, abaft, astern, sternmost[obs3], aback, rearward.
     Phr. ogni medaglia ha il suo rovescio[It][obs3]; the other side of the

#236. Laterality.—N. laterality[obs3]; side, flank, quarter, lee;
hand; cheek, jowl, jole[obs3], wing; profile; temple, parietes[Lat], loin,
haunch, hip; beam.
     gable, gable end; broadside; lee side.
     points of the compass; East, Orient, Levant; West; orientation.
     V. be on one side &c. adv.; flank, outflank; sidle; skirt; orientate.
     Adj. lateral, sidelong; collateral; parietal, flanking, skirting;
flanked; sideling.
     many sided; multilateral, bilateral, trilateral, quadrilateral.
     Eastern; orient, oriental; Levantine; Western, occidental, Hesperian.
     Adv. sideways, sidelong; broadside on; on one side, abreast,
alongside, beside, aside; by the side of; side by side; cheek by jowl &c.
(near) 197; to windward, to leeward; laterally &c. adj.; right and left; on
her beam ends.
     Phr. "his cheek the may of days outworn" [Shakespeare].

#237. Contraposition.—N. contraposition[obs3], opposition;
polarity; inversion &c. 218; opposite side; reverse, inverse; counterpart;
antipodes; opposite poles, North and South.
     antonym, opposite (contrariety) 14.
     V. be opposite &c. adj.; subtend.
     Adj. opposite; reverse, inverse; converse, antipodal,
subcontrary[obs3]; fronting, facing, diametrically opposite.
     Northern, septentrional, Boreal, arctic; Southern, Austral, antarctic.
     Adv. over, over the way, over against; against; face to face, vis-a-
vis; as poles asunder.

#238. Dextrality.—N. dextrality[obs3]; right, right hand; dexter,
offside, starboard.
     Adj. dextral, right-handed; dexter, dextrorsal[obs3], dextrorse[obs3];
ambidextral[obs3], ambidextrous; dextro-.
     Adv. dextrad[obs3], dextrally[obs3].

#239. Sinistrality.—N. sinistrality[obs3]; left, left hand, a
gauche; sinister, nearside[obs3], larboard, port.
     Adj. left-handed; sinister; sinistral, sinistrorsal[obs3],
sinistrorse[obs3], sinistrous[obs3];
     Pref. laevo-.
     Adv. sinistrally, sinistrously[obs3].


1. General Form

#240. Form.—N. form, figure, shape; conformation, configuration;
make, formation, frame, construction, cut, set, build, trim, cut of one's
jib; stamp, type, cast, mold; fashion; contour &c. (outline) 230; structure
&c. 329; plasmature[obs3].
     feature, lineament, turn; phase &c. (aspect) 448; posture, attitude,
     [Science of form] morphism.
     [Similarity of form] isomorphism.
     forming &c. v.; formation, figuration, efformation[obs3]; sculpture;
     V. form, shape, figure, fashion, efform[obs3], carve, cut, chisel,
hew, cast; rough hew, rough cast; sketch; block out, hammer out; trim; lick
into shape, put into shape; model, knead, work up into, set, mold,
sculpture; cast, stamp; build &c. (construct) 161.
     Adj. formed &c. v.
     [Receiving form] plastic, fictile[obs3]; formative; fluid.
     [Giving form] plasmic[obs3].
     [Similar in form] isomorphous.
     [taking several forms] pleomorphic; protean; changeable, &c. 149.

#241. [Absence of form.] Amorphism.—N. amorphism[obs3],
informity[obs3]; unlicked cub[obs3]; rudis indigestaque moles[Lat];
disorder &c. 59; deformity &c. 243.
     disfigurement, defacement; mutilation; deforming.
     chaos, randomness (disorder) 59.
     [taking form from surroundings] fluid &c. 333.
     V. deface[Destroy form], disfigure, deform, mutilate, truncate;
derange &c. 61; blemish, mar.
     Adj. shapeless, amorphous, formless; unformed, unhewn[obs3],
unfashioned[obs3], unshaped, unshapen; rough, rude, Gothic, barbarous,

#242. [Regularity of form.] Symmetry.—N. symmetry, shapeliness,
finish; beauty &c. 845; proportion, eurythmy[obs3], uniformity,
parallelism; bilateral symmetry, trilateral symmetry, multilateral
symmetry; centrality &c. 222.
     arborescence[obs3], branching, ramification; arbor vitae.
     Adj. symmetrical, shapely, well set, finished; beautiful &c. 845;
classic, chaste, severe.
     regular, uniform, balanced; equal &c. 27; parallel, coextensive.
     arborescent[obs3], arboriform[obs3]; dendriform[obs3], dendroid[obs3];
branching; ramous[obs3], ramose; filiciform[obs3], filicoid[obs3];
subarborescent[obs3]; papilionaceous[obs3].
     fuji-shaped, fujigata[Jap.].

#243. [Irregularity of form.] Distortion.—N. distortion, detortion[obs3], contortion; twist, crookedness &c. (obliquity) 217; grimace; deformity; malformation, malconformation[obs3]; harelip; monstrosity, misproportion[obs3], want of symmetry, anamorphosis[obs3]; ugliness &c. 846; talipes[obs3]; teratology. asymmetry; irregularity. V. distort, contort, twist, warp, wrest, writhe, make faces, deform, misshape. Adj. distorted &c. v.; out of shape, irregular, asymmetric, unsymmetric[obs3], awry, wry, askew, crooked; not true, not straight; on one side, crump[obs3], deformed; harelipped; misshapen, misbegotten; misproportioned[obs3], ill proportioned; ill-made; grotesque, monstrous, crooked as a ram's horn; camel backed, hump backed, hunch backed, bunch backed, crook backed; bandy; bandy legged, bow legged; bow kneed, knock kneed; splay footed, club footed; round shouldered; snub nosed; curtailed of one's fair proportions; stumpy &c. (short) 201; gaunt &c. (thin) 203; bloated &c. 194; scalene; simous[obs3]; taliped[obs3], talipedic[obs3]. Adv. all manner of ways. Phr. crooked as a Virginia fence [U.S.].

2. Special Form

#244. Angularity.—N. angularity, angularness[obs3]; aduncity[obs3]; angle, cusp, bend; fold &c. 258; notch &c. 257; fork, bifurcation. elbow, knee, knuckle, ankle, groin, crotch, crutch, crane, fluke, scythe, sickle, zigzag, kimbo[obs3], akimbo. corner, nook, recess, niche, oriel[Arch], coign[obs3]. right angle &c. (perpendicular) 216a, 212; obliquity &c. 217; angle of 45x, miter; acute angle, obtuse angle, salient angle, reentering angle, spherical angle. angular measurement, angular elevation, angular distance, angular velocity; trigonometry, goniometry; altimetry[obs3]; clinometer, graphometer[obs3], goniometer; theodolite; sextant, quadrant; dichotomy. triangle, trigon[obs3], wedge; rectangle, square, lozenge, diamond; rhomb, rhombus; quadrangle, quadrilateral; parallelogram; quadrature; polygon, pentagon, hexagon, heptagon, octagon, oxygon[obs3], decagon. pyramid, cone. Platonic bodies; cube, rhomboid; tetrahedron, pentahedron, hexahedron, octahedron, dodecahedron, icosahedron, eicosahedron; prism, pyramid; parallelopiped; curb roof, gambrel roof, mansard roof. V. bend, fork, bifurcate, crinkle. Adj. angular, bent, crooked, aduncous[obs3], uncinated[obs3], aquiline, jagged, serrated; falciform[obs3], falcated[obs3]; furcated[obs3], forked, bifurcate, zigzag; furcular[obs3]; hooked; dovetailed; knock kneed, crinkled, akimbo, kimbo[obs3], geniculated[obs3]; oblique &c. 217. fusiform[Microb], wedge-shaped, cuneiform; cuneate[obs3], multangular[obs3], oxygonal[obs3]; triangular, trigonal[obs3], trilateral; quadrangular, quadrilateral; foursquare; rectangular, square, multilateral; polygonal &c. n.; cubical, rhomboid, rhomboidal, pyramidal.

#245. Curvature.—N. curvature, curvity[obs3], curvation[obs3]; incurvature[obs3], incurvity|; incurvation[obs3]; bend; flexure, flexion, flection[obs3]; conflexure|; crook, hook, bought, bending; deflection, deflexion[obs3]; inflection, inflexion[obs3]; concameration[obs3]; arcuation[obs3], devexity|, turn, deviation, detour, sweep; curl, curling; bough; recurvity[obs3], recurvation[obs3]; sinuosity &c. 248. kink. carve, arc, arch, arcade, vault, bow, crescent, half-moon, lunule[obs3], horseshoe, loop, crane neck; parabola, hyperbola; helix, spiral; catenary[obs3], festoon; conchoid[obs3], cardioid; caustic; tracery; arched ceiling, arched roof; bay window, bow window. sine curve; spline, spline curve, spline function; obliquity &c. 217. V. be curved &c. adj[intrans].; curve, sweep, sway, swag, sag; deviate &c. 279; curl, turn; reenter. [trans] render curved &c. adj.; flex, bend, curve, incurvate[obs3]; inflect; deflect, scatter[Phys]; refract (light) 420; crook; turn, round, arch, arcuate, arch over, concamerate[obs3]; bow, curl, recurve, frizzle. rotundity &c. 249; convexity &c. 250. Adj. curved &c. v.; curviform[obs3], curvilineal[obs3], curvilinear; devex|, devious; recurved, recurvous[obs3]; crump[obs3]; bowed &c. v.; vaulted, hooked; falciform[obs3], falcated[obs3]; semicircular, crescentic; sinusoid[Geom], parabolic, paraboloid; luniform[obs3], lunular[obs3]; semilunar, conchoidal[obs3]; helical, double helical, spiral; kinky; cordiform[obs3], cordated[obs3]; cardioid; heart shaped, bell shaped, boat shaped, crescent shaped, lens shaped, moon shaped, oar shaped, shield shaped, sickle shaped, tongue shaped, pear shaped, fig shaped; kidney- shaped, reniform; lentiform[obs3], lenticular; bow-legged &c. (distorted) 243; oblique &c. 217; circular &c. 247. aduncated[obs3], arclike[obs3], arcuate, arched, beaked; bicorn[obs3], bicornuous[obs3], bicornute[obs3]; clypeate[obs3], clypeiform[obs3]; cymbiform[obs3], embowed[obs3], galeiform[obs3]; hamate[obs3], hamiform[obs3], hamous[obs3]; hooked; linguiform[obs3], lingulate[obs3]; lobiform[obs3], lunate, navicular[obs3], peltate[obs3], remiform[obs3], rhamphoid[obs3]; rostrate[obs3], rostriferous[obs3], rostroid[obs3]; scutate[obs3], scaphoid[obs3], uncate[obs3]; unguiculate[obs3], unguiform[obs3].

#246. Straightness.—N. straightness, rectilinearity[obs3], directness; inflexibility &c. (stiffness) 323; straight line, right line, direct line; short cut. V. be straight &c. adj.; have no turning; not incline to either side, not bend to either side, not turn to either side, not deviate to either side; go straight; steer for &c. (directions) 278. render straight, straighten, rectify; set straight, put straight; unbend, unfold, uncurl &c. 248, unravel &c. 219, unwrap. Adj. straight; rectilinear, rectilineal[obs3]; direct, even, right, true, in a line; unbent, virgate &c. v[obs3].; undeviating, unturned, undistorted, unswerving; straight as an arrow &c. (direct) 278; inflexible &c. 323. laser-straight; ramrod-straight.

#247. [Simple circularity.] Circularity.—N. circularity, roundness; rotundity &c. 249. circle, circlet, ring, areola, hoop, roundlet[obs3], annulus, annulet[obs3], bracelet, armlet; ringlet; eye, loop, wheel; cycle, orb, orbit, rundle, zone, belt, cordon, band; contrate wheel[obs3], crown wheel; hub; nave; sash, girdle, cestus[obs3], cincture, baldric, fillet, fascia, wreath, garland; crown, corona, coronet, chaplet, snood, necklace, collar; noose, lasso, lassoo[obs3]. ellipse, oval, ovule; ellipsoid, cycloid; epicycloid[Geom], epicycle; semicircle; quadrant, sextant, sector. sphere &c. 249. V. make round &c. adj.; round. go round; encircle &c. 227; describe a circle &c. 311. Adj. round, rounded, circular, annular, orbicular; oval, ovate; elliptic, elliptical; egg-shaped; pear-shaped &c. 245; cycloidal &c. n[obs3].; spherical &c. 249. Phr. "I watched the little circles die" [Tennyson].

#248. [Complex curvature.] Convolution.—N. winding &c. v.; convolution, involution, circumvolution; wave, undulation, tortuosity, anfractuosity[obs3]; sinuosity, sinuation[obs3]; meandering, circuit, circumbendibus[obs3], twist, twirl, windings and turnings, ambages[obs3]; torsion; inosculation[obs3]; reticulation &c. (crossing) 219; rivulation[obs3]; roughness &c. 256. coil, roll, curl; buckle, spiral, helix, corkscrew, worm, volute, rundle; tendril; scollop[obs3], scallop, escalop[obs3]; kink; ammonite, snakestone[obs3]. serpent, eel, maze, labyrinth. knot. V. be convoluted &c. adj.; wind, twine, turn and twist, twirl; wave, undulate, meander; inosculate[obs3]; entwine, intwine[obs3]; twist, coil, roll; wrinkle, curl, crisp, twill; frizzle; crimp, crape, indent, scollop[obs3], scallop, wring, intort[obs3]; contort; wreathe &c. (cross) 219. Adj. convoluted; winding, twisted &c. v.; tortile[obs3], tortive|; wavy; undated, undulatory; circling, snaky, snake-like, serpentine; serpent, anguill[obs3], vermiform; vermicular; mazy, tortuous, sinuous, flexuous, anfractuous[obs3], reclivate[obs3], rivulose[obs3], scolecoid[obs3]; sigmoid, sigmoidal[Geom]; spiriferous[obs3], spiroid[obs3]; involved, intricate, complicated, perplexed; labyrinth, labyrinthic[obs3], labyrinthian[obs3], labyrinthine; peristaltic; daedalian[obs3]; kinky, knotted. wreathy[obs3], frizzly, crepe, buckled; raveled &c. (in disorder) 59. spiral, coiled, helical; cochleate, cochleous; screw-shaped; turbinated, turbiniform[obs3]. Adv. in and out, round and round; a can of worms; Gordian knot.

#249. Rotundity.—N. rotundity; roundness &c. adj.; cylindricity[obs3]; sphericity, spheroidity[obs3]; globosity[obs3]. cylinder, cylindroid[obs3], cylindrical; barrel, drum; roll, roller; rouleau[obs3], column, rolling-pin, rundle. cone, conoid[obs3]; pear shape, egg shape, bell shape. sphere, globe, ball, boulder, bowlder[obs3]; spheroid, ellipsoid; oblong spheroid; oblate spheroid, prolate spheroid; drop, spherule, globule, vesicle, bulb, bullet, pellet, pelote[obs3], clew, pill, marble, pea, knob, pommel, horn; knot (convolution) 248. curved surface, hypersphere; hyperdimensional surface. V. render spherical &c. adj.; form into a sphere, sphere, roll into a ball; give rotundity &c. n.; round. Adj. rotund; round &c. (circular) 247; cylindric, cylindrical, cylindroid[obs3]; columnar, lumbriciform[obs3]; conic, conical; spherical, spheroidal; globular, globated[obs3], globous[obs3], globose; egg shaped, bell shaped, pear shaped; ovoid, oviform; gibbous; rixiform[obs3]; campaniform[obs3], campanulate[obs3], campaniliform[obs3]; fungiform[obs3], bead-like, moniliform[obs3], pyriform[obs3], bulbous; tres atque rotundus[Lat]; round as an orange, round as an apple, round as a ball, round as a billiard ball, round as a cannon ball.

3. Superficial Form

#250. Convexity.—N. convexity, prominence, projection, swelling, gibbosity[obs3], bilge, bulge, protuberance, protrusion; camber, cahot [obs3][N. Am.], thank-ye-ma'am [U.S.]. swell. intumescence; tumour[Brit], tumor; tubercle, tuberosity[Anat]; excrescence; hump, hunch, bunch. boss, embossment, hub, hubble [convex body parts] tooth[U.S.], knob, elbow, process, apophysis[obs3], condyle, bulb, node, nodule, nodosity[obs3], tongue, dorsum, bump, clump; sugar loaf &c. (sharpness) 253; bow; mamelon[obs3]; molar; belly, corporation|!, pot belly, gut[coll]; withers, back, shoulder, lip, flange. [convexities on skin] pimple, zit [slang]; wen, wheel, papula[Med], pustule, pock, proud flesh, growth, sarcoma, caruncle[obs3], corn, wart, pappiloma, furuncle, polypus[obs3], fungus, fungosity[obs3], exostosis[obs3], bleb, blister, blain[obs3]; boil &c. (disease) 655; airbubble[obs3], blob, papule, verruca. [convex body parts on chest] papilla, nipple, teat, tit [vulgar], titty [vulgar], boob [vulgar], knocker[vulgar], pap, breast, dug, mammilla[obs3]. [prominent convexity on the face] proboscis, nose, neb, beak, snout, nozzle, schnoz[coll]. peg, button, stud, ridge, rib, jutty, trunnion, snag. cupola, dome, arch, balcony, eaves; pilaster. relief, relievo[It], cameo; bassorilievo[obs3], mezzorilevo[obs3], altorivievo; low relief, bas relief[Fr], high relief. hill &c. (height) 206; cape, promontory, mull; forehead, foreland[obs3]; point of land, mole, jetty, hummock, ledge, spur; naze[obs3], ness. V. be prominent &c. adj.; project, bulge, protrude, pout, bouge|[Fr], bunch; jut out, stand out, stick out, poke out; stick up, bristle up, start up, cock up, shoot up; swell over, hang over, bend over; beetle. render prominent &c. adj.; raise 307; emboss, chase. [become convex] belly out. Adj. convex, prominent, protuberant, projecting &c. v.; bossed, embossed, bossy, nodular, bunchy; clavate, clavated[obs3], claviform; hummocky[obs3], moutonne[obs3], mammiliform[obs3]; papulous[obs3], papilose[obs3]; hemispheric, bulbous; bowed, arched; bold; bellied; tuberous, tuberculous; tumous[obs3]; cornute[obs3], odontoid[obs3]; lentiform[obs3], lenticular; gibbous; club shaped, hubby [obs3][U.S.], hubbly [obs3][U.S.], knobby, papillose, saddle-shaped, selliform[obs3], subclavate[obs3], torose[obs3], ventricose[obs3], verrucose[obs3]. salient, in relief, raised, repousse; bloated &c, (expanded) 194.

#251. Flatness.—N. flatness &c. adj.; smoothness &c. 255.
     plane; level &c. 213; plate, platter, table, tablet, slab.
     V. render flat, flatten; level &c. 213.
     Adj. flat, plane, even, flush, scutiform[obs3], discoid; level &c.
(horizontal) 213; flat as a pancake, flat as a fluke, flat as a flounder,
flat as a board, flat as my hand.

#252. Concavity.—N. concavity, depression, dip; hollow, hollowness; indentation, intaglio, cavity, dent, dint, dimple, follicle, pit, sinus, alveolus[obs3], lacuna; excavation, strip mine; trough &c. (furrow) 259; honeycomb. cup, basin, crater, punch bowl; cell &c. (receptacle) 191; socket. valley, vale, dale, dell, dingle, combe[obs3], bottom, slade[obs3], strath[obs3], glade, grove, glen, cave, cavern, cove; grot[obs3], grotto; alcove, cul-de-sac; gully &c. 198; arch &c. (curve) 245; bay &c. (of the sea) 343. excavator, sapper, miner. honeycomb (sponge) 252a. V. be concave &c. adj.; retire, cave in. render concave &c. adj.; depress, hollow; scoop, scoop out; gouge, gouge out, dig, delve, excavate, dent, dint, mine, sap, undermine, burrow, tunnel, stave in. Adj. depressed &c. v.; alveolate[obs3], calathiform[obs3], cup-shaped, dishing; favaginous[obs3], faveolate[obs3], favose[obs3]; scyphiform[obs3], scyphose[obs3]; concave, hollow, stove in; retiring; retreating; cavernous; porous &c. (with holes) 260; infundibul[obs3], infundibular[obs3], infundibuliform[obs3]; funnel shaped, bell shaped; campaniform[obs3], capsular; vaulted, arched.

     252a Sponge—N. sponge, honeycomb, network; frit[Chem], filter.
     sieve, net, screen (opening) 260.
     Adj. cellular, spongy, spongious[obs3]; honeycombed, alveolar;
sintered; porous (opening) 260.

#253. Sharpness.—N. sharpness &c. adj.; acuity, acumination[obs3]; spinosity[obs3]. point, spike, spine, spicule[Biol], spiculum[obs3]; needle, hypodermic needle, tack, nail, pin; prick, prickle; spur, rowel, barb; spit, cusp; horn, antler; snag; tag thorn, bristle; Adam's needle[obs3], bear grass [U.S.], tine, yucca. nib, tooth, tusk; spoke, cog, ratchet. crag, crest, arete[Fr], cone peak, sugar loaf, pike, aiguille[obs3]; spire, pyramid, steeple. beard, chevaux de frise[Fr], porcupine, hedgehog, brier, bramble, thistle; comb; awn, beggar's lice, bur, burr, catchweed[obs3], cleavers, clivers[obs3], goose, grass, hairif[obs3], hariff, flax comb, hackle, hatchel[obs3], heckle. wedge; knife edge, cutting edge; blade, edge tool, cutlery, knife, penknife, whittle, razor, razor blade, safety razor, straight razor, electric razor; scalpel; bistoury[obs3], lancet; plowshare, coulter, colter[obs3]; hatchet, ax, pickax, mattock, pick, adze, gill; billhook, cleaver, cutter; scythe, sickle; scissors, shears, pruning shears, cutters, wire cutters, nail clipper, paper cutter; sword &c. (arms) 727; bodkin &c. (perforator) 262; belduque[obs3], bowie knife[obs3], paring knife; bushwhacker [U.S.]; drawing knife, drawing shave; microtome[Microbiol]; chisel, screwdriver blade; flint blade; guillotine. sharpener, hone, strop; grindstone, whetstone; novaculite[obs3]; steel, emery. V. be sharp &c. adj.; taper to a point; bristle with. render sharp &c. adj.; sharpen, point, aculeate, whet, barb, spiculate[obs3], set, strop, grind; chip [flint]. cut &c. (sunder) 44. Adj. sharp, keen; acute; acicular, aciform[obs3]; aculeated[obs3], acuminated[obs3]; pointed; tapering; conical, pyramidal; mucronate[obs3], mucronated[obs3]; spindle shaped, needle shaped; spiked, spiky, ensiform[obs3], peaked, salient; cusped, cuspidate, cuspidated[obs3]; cornute[obs3], cornuted[obs3], cornicultate[obs3]; prickly; spiny, spinous[obs3], spicular; thorny, bristling, muricated[obs3], pectinated[obs3], studded, thistly, briary[obs3]; craggy &c. (rough) 256; snaggy, digitated[obs3], two-edged, fusiform[Microb]; dentiform[obs3], denticulated; toothed; odontoid[obs3]; starlike; stellated[obs3], stelliform[obs3]; sagittate[obs3], sagittiform[obs3]; arrowheaded[obs3]; arrowy[obs3], barbed, spurred. acinaciform; apiculate[obs3], apiculated[obs3]; aristate[obs3], awned, awny[obs3], bearded, calamiform[obs3], cone-shaped, coniform[obs3], crestate[obs3], echinate[obs3], gladiate[obs3]; lanceolate[obs3], lanciform; awl, awl-shaped, lance-shaped, awl-shaped, scimitar-shaped, sword-shaped; setarious[obs3], spinuliferous[obs3], subulate[obs3], tetrahedral, xiphoid[obs3]. cutting; sharp edged, knife edged; sharp as a razor, keen as a razor; sharp as a needle, sharp as a tack; sharpened &c. v.; set.

#254. Bluntness.—N. bluntness &c. adj.
     V. be blunt, render blunt &c. adj.; obtund[obs3], dull; take off the
point, take off the edge; turn.
     Adj. blunt, obtuse, dull, bluff; edentate, toothless.

#255. Smoothness.—N. smoothness &c. adj.; polish, gloss; lubricity, lubrication. [smooth materials] down, velvet, velure, silk, satin; velveteen, velour, velours, velumen[obs3]; glass, ice. slide; bowling green &c. (level) 213; asphalt, wood pavement, flagstone, flags. [objects used to smooth other objects] roller, steam roller, lawn roller, rolling pin, rolling mill; sand paper, emery paper, emery cloth, sander; flat iron, sad iron; burnisher, turpentine and beeswax; polish, shoe polish. [art of cutting and polishing gemstones] lapidary. [person who polishes gemstones] lapidary, lapidarian. V. smooth, smoothen[obs3]; plane; file; mow, shave; level, roll; macadamize; polish, burnish, calender[obs3], glaze; iron, hot-press, mangle; lubricate &c. (oil) 332. Adj. smooth; polished &c. v.; leiodermatous[obs3], slick, velutinous[obs3]; even; level &c. 213; plane &c. (flat) 251; sleek, glossy; silken, silky; lanate[obs3], downy, velvety; glabrous, slippery, glassy, lubricous, oily, soft, unwrinkled[obs3]; smooth as glass, smooth as ice, smooth as monumental alabaster, smooth as velvet, smooth as oil; slippery as an eel; woolly &c. (feathery) 256. Phr. smooth as silk; slippery as coonshit on a pump handle; slippery as a greased pig.

#256. Roughness.—N. roughness &c. adj.; tooth, grain, texture, ripple; asperity, rugosity[obs3], salebrosity|, corrugation, nodosity[obs3]; arborescence[obs3] &c. 242; pilosity[obs3]. brush, hair, beard, shag, mane, whisker, moustache, imperial, tress, lock, curl, ringlet; fimbriae, pili, cilia, villi; lovelock; beaucatcher[obs3]; curl paper; goatee; papillote, scalp lock. plumage, plumosity[obs3]; plume, panache, crest; feather, tuft, fringe, toupee. wool, velvet, plush, nap, pile, floss, fur, down; byssus[obs3], moss, bur; fluff. knot (convolution) 248. V. be rough &c. adj.; go against the grain. render-rough &c. adj.; roughen, ruffle, crisp, crumple, corrugate, set on edge, stroke the wrong way, rumple. Adj. rough, uneven, scabrous, scaly ,knotted; rugged, rugose[obs3], rugous[obs3]; knurly[obs3]; asperous[obs3], crisp, salebrous|, gnarled, unpolished, unsmooth[obs3], roughhewn[obs3]; craggy, cragged; crankling[obs3], scraggy; prickly &c. (sharp) 253; arborescent &c. 242[obs3]; leafy, well-wooded; feathery; plumose, plumigerous[obs3]; laciniate[obs3], laciniform[obs3], laciniose[obs3]; pappose[obs3]; pileous[obs3], pilose[obs3]; trichogenous[obs3], trichoid[Med]; tufted, fimbriated, hairy, ciliated, filamentous, hirsute; crinose[obs3], crinite[obs3]; bushy, hispid, villous, pappous[obs3], bearded, pilous[obs3], shaggy, shagged; fringed, befringed[obs3]; setous|, setose[obs3], setaceous; "like quills upon the fretful porcupine" [Hamlet]; rough as a nutmeg grater, rough as a bear. downy, velvety, flocculent, woolly; lanate[obs3], lanated[obs3]; lanuginous[obs3], lanuginose[obs3]; tomentose[obs3]; fluffy. Adv. against the grain. Phr. cabello luengo y corto el seso[Sp].

#257. Notch.—N. notch, dent, nick, cut; indent, indentation;
     embrasure, battlement, machicolation[obs3]; saw, tooth,
crenelle[obs3], scallop, scollop[obs3], vandyke; depression; jag.
     V. notch, nick, cut, dent, indent, jag, scarify, scotch, crimp,
scallop, scollop[obs3], crenulate[obs3], vandyke.
     Adj. notched &c. v.; crenate[obs3], crenated[obs3]; dentate, dentated;
denticulate, denticulated; toothed, palmated[obs3], serrated.

#258. Fold.—N. fold, plicature[obs3], plait, pleat, ply, crease; tuck, gather; flexion, flexure, joint, elbow, double, doubling, duplicature[obs3], gather, wrinkle, rimple[obs3], crinkle, crankle[obs3], crumple, rumple, rivel[obs3], ruck[obs3], ruffle, dog's ear, corrugation, frounce[obs3], flounce, lapel; pucker, crow's feet; plication[obs3]. V. fold, double, plicate[obs3], plait, crease, wrinkle, crinkle, crankle[obs3], curl, cockle up, cocker, rimple[obs3], rumple, flute, frizzle, frounce[obs3], rivel[obs3], twill, corrugate, ruffle, crimple|, crumple, pucker; turn down, double down, down under; tuck, ruck[obs3], hem, gather. Adj. folded, fluted, pleated &c. v..

#259. Furrow.—N. furrow, groove, rut, sulcus[Anat], scratch, streak, striae, crack, score, incision, slit; chamfer, fluting; corduroy road, cradle hole. channel, gutter, trench, ditch, dike, dyke; moat, fosse[obs3], trough, kennel; ravine &c. (interval) 198; tajo [obs3][U.S.], thank-ye-ma'am [U.S.]. V. furrow &c. n.; flute, plow; incise, engrave, etch, bite in. Adj. furrowed &c. v.; ribbed, striated, sulcated[Anat], fluted, canaliculated[obs3]; bisulcous[obs3], bisulcate[obs3], bisulcated[obs3]; canaliferous[obs3]; trisulcate[obs3]; corduroy; unisulcate[obs3]; costate[obs3], rimiform[obs3].

#260. Opening—N. hole, foramen; puncture, perforation; fontanel[obs3]; transforation[obs3]; pinhole, keyhole, loophole, porthole, peephole, mousehole, pigeonhole; eye of a needle; eyelet; slot. opening; aperture, apertness[obs3]; hiation[obs3], yawning, oscitancy[obs3], dehiscence, patefaction|, pandiculation[obs3]; chasm &c. (interval) 198. embrasure, window, casement; abatjour[obs3]; light; sky light, fan light; lattice; bay window, bow window; oriel[Arch]; dormer, lantern. outlet, inlet; vent, vomitory; embouchure; orifice, mouth, sucker, muzzle, throat, gullet, weasand[obs3], wizen, nozzle; placket. portal, porch, gate, ostiary|, postern, wicket, trapdoor, hatch, door; arcade; cellarway[obs3], driveway, gateway, doorway, hatchway, gangway; lich gate[obs3]. way, path &c. 627; thoroughfare; channel; passage, passageway; tube, pipe; water pipe &c. 350; air pipe &c. 351; vessel, tubule, canal, gut, fistula; adjutage[obs3], ajutage[obs3]; ostium[obs3]; smokestack; chimney, flue, tap, funnel, gully, tunnel, main; mine, pit, adit[obs3], shaft; gallery. alley, aisle, glade, vista. bore, caliber; pore; blind orifice; fulgurite[obs3], thundertube[obs3]. porousness, porosity. sieve, cullender[obs3], colander; cribble[obs3], riddle, screen; honeycomb. apertion[obs3], perforation; piercing &c. v.; terebration[obs3], empalement[obs3], pertusion|, puncture, acupuncture, penetration. key &c. 631, opener, master key, password, combination, passe-partout. V. open, ope[obs3], gape, yawn, bilge; fly open. perforate, pierce, empierce|, tap, bore, drill; mine &c. (scoop out) 252; tunnel; transpierce[obs3], transfix; enfilade, impale, spike, spear, gore, spit, stab, pink, puncture, lance, stick, prick, riddle, punch; stave in. cut a passage through; make way for, make room for. uncover, unclose, unrip[obs3]; lay open, cut open, rip open, throw open, pop open, blow open, pry open, tear open, pull open. Adj. open; perforated &c. v.; perforate; wide open, ajar, unclosed, unstopped; oscitant[obs3], gaping, yawning; patent. tubular, cannular[obs3], fistulous; pervious, permeable; foraminous[obs3]; vesicular, vasicular[obs3]; porous, follicular, cribriform[obs3], honeycombed, infundibular[obs3], riddled; tubulous[obs3], tubulated[obs3]; piped, tubate[obs3]. opening &c. v.; aperient[obs3]. Int. open sesame!

#261. Closure.—N. closure, occlusion, blockade; shutting up &c. v.; obstruction &c. (hindrance) 706; embolus; contraction &c. 195; infarction; constipation, obstipation[obs3]; blind alley, blind corner; keddah[obs3]; cul-de-sac, caecum; imperforation[obs3], imperviousness &c. adj.; impermeability; stopper &c. 263. V. close, occlude, plug; block up, stop up, fill up, bung up, cork up, button up, stuff up, shut up, dam up; blockade, obstruct &c. (hinder) 706; bar, bolt, stop, seal, plumb; choke, throttle; ram down, dam, cram; trap, clinch; put to the door, shut the door. Adj. closed &c. v.; shut, operculated[obs3]; unopened. unpierced[obs3], imporous[obs3], caecal[Med]; closable; imperforate, impervious, impermeable; impenetrable; impassable, unpassable|2; invious|; pathless, wayless[obs3]; untrodden, untrod. unventilated; air tight, water tight; hermetically sealed; tight, snug.

#262. Perforator.—N. perforator, piercer, borer, auger, chisel, gimlet, stylet[obs3], drill, wimble[obs3], awl, bradawl, scoop, terrier, corkscrew, dibble, trocar[Med], trepan, probe, bodkin, needle, stiletto, rimer, warder, lancet; punch, puncheon; spikebit[obs3], gouge; spear &c. (weapon) 727; puncher; punching machine, punching press; punch pliers.

#263. Stopper.—N. stopper, stopple; plug, cork, bung, spike, spill,
stopcock, tap; rammer[obs3]; ram, ramrod; piston; stop-gap; wadding,
stuffing, padding, stopping, dossil[obs3], pledget[obs3], tompion[obs3],
     cover &c. 223; valve, vent peg, spigot, slide valve.
     janitor, doorkeeper, porter, warder, beadle, cerberus, ostiary[obs3].


1. Motion in General

#264. [Successive change of place.] Motion.—N. motion, movement, move; going &c. v.; unrest. stream, flow, flux, run, course, stir; evolution; kinematics; telekinesis. step, rate, pace, tread, stride, gait, port, footfall, cadence, carriage, velocity, angular velocity; clip, progress, locomotion; journey &c. 266; voyage &c. 267; transit &c. 270. restlessness &c. (changeableness) 149; mobility; movableness, motive power; laws of motion; mobilization. V. be in motion &c. adj.; move, go, hie, gang, budge, stir, pass, flit; hover about, hover round, hover about; shift, slide, glide; roll, roll on; flow, stream, run, drift, sweep along; wander &c. (deviate) 279; walk &c. 266; change one's place, shift one's place, change one's quarters, shift one's quarters; dodge; keep going, keep moving; put in motion, set in motion; move; impel &c. 276; propel &c. 284; render movable, mobilize. Adj. moving &c. v.; in motion; transitional; motory[obs3], motive; shifting, movable, mobile, mercurial, unquiet; restless &c. (changeable) 149; nomadic &c. 266; erratic &c. 279. Adv. under way; on the move, on the wing, on the tramp, on the march. Phr. eppur si muove [It][Galileo]; es bildet ein Talent sich in der Stille[Ger], sich ein Charakter in dem Strom der Welt[Ger].

#265. Quiescence.—N. rest; stillness &c. adj.; quiescence; stagnation, stagnancy; fixity, immobility, catalepsy; indisturbance[obs3]; quietism. quiet, tranquility, calm; repose &c. 687; peace; dead calm, anticyclone|!; statue-like repose; silence &c. 203; not a breath of air, not a mouse stirring; sleep &c. (inactivity) 683. pause, lull &c. (cessation) 142; stand still; standing still &c. v.; lock; dead lock, dead stop, dead stand; full stop; fix; embargo. resting place; gite[Fr]; bivouac; home &c. (abode) 189; pillow &c. (support) 215; haven &c. (refuge) 666; goal &c. (arrival) 292. V. be quiescent &c. adj.; stand still, lie still; keep quiet, repose, hold the breath. remain, stay; stand, lie to, ride at anchor, remain in situ, tarry, mark time; bring to, heave to, lay to; pull up, draw up; hold, halt; stop, stop short; rest, pause, anchor; cast to an anchor, come to an anchor; rest on one's oars; repose on one's laurels, take breath; stop &c. (discontinue) 142. stagnate; quieta non movere[Lat]; let alone; abide, rest and be thankful; keep within doors, stay at home, go to bed. dwell &c. (be present) 186; settle &c. (be located) 184; alight &c. (arrive) 292 stick, stick fast; stand like a post; not stir a peg, not stir a step; be at a stand &c. n. quell, becalm, hush, stay, lull to sleep, lay an embargo on. Adj. quiescent, still; motionless, moveless; fixed; stationary; immotile; at rest at a stand, at a standstill, at anchor; stock, still; standing still &c. v.; sedentary, untraveled, stay-at-home; becalmed, stagnant, quiet; unmoved, undisturbed, unruffled; calm, restful; cataleptic; immovable &c. (stable) 150; sleeping &c. (inactive) 683; silent &c. 403; still as a statue, still as a post, still as a mouse, still as death; vegetative, vegetating. Adv. at a stand &c. adj.; tout court; at the halt. Int. stop! stay! avast! halt! hold hard! whoa! hold! sabr karo[obs3]!. Phr. requiescat in pace[Lat]; Deus nobis haec otia fecit [Lat][Vergil]; "the noonday quiet holds the hill" [Tennyson].

#266. [Locomotion by land.] Journey.—N. travel; traveling &c. v. wayfaring, campaigning. journey, excursion, expedition, tour, trip, grand tour, circuit, peregrination, discursion|, ramble, pilgrimage, hajj, trek, course, ambulation[obs3], march, walk, promenade, constitutional, stroll, saunter, tramp, jog trot, turn, stalk, perambulation; noctambulation[obs3], noctambulism; somnambulism; outing, ride, drive, airing, jaunt. equitation, horsemanship, riding, manege[Fr], ride and tie; basophobia[obs3]. roving, vagrancy, pererration|; marching and countermarching; nomadism; vagabondism, vagabondage; hoboism [U.S.]; gadding; flit, flitting, migration; emigration, immigration, demigration|, intermigration[obs3]; wanderlust. plan, itinerary, guide; handbook, guidebook, road book; Baedeker[obs3], Bradshaw, Murray; map, road map, transportation guide, subway map. procession, cavalcade, caravan, file, cortege, column. [Organs and instruments of locomotion] vehicle &c. 272; automobile, train, bus, airplane, plane, autobus, omnibus, subway, motorbike, dirt bike, off-road vehicle, van, minivan, motor scooter, trolley, locomotive; legs, feet, pegs, pins, trotters. traveler &c. 268. depot [U.S.], railway station, station. V. travel, journey, course; take a journey, go a journey; take a walk, go out for walk &c. n.; have a run; take the air. flit, take wing; migrate, emigrate; trek; rove, prowl, roam, range, patrol, pace up and down, traverse; scour the country, traverse the country; peragrate|; circumambulate, perambulate; nomadize[obs3], wander, ramble, stroll, saunter, hover, go one's rounds, straggle; gad, gad about; expatiate. walk, march, step, tread, pace, plod, wend, go by shank's mare; promenade; trudge, tramp; stalk, stride, straddle, strut, foot it, hoof it, stump, bundle, bowl along, toddle; paddle; tread a path. take horse, ride, drive, trot, amble, canter, prance, fisk[obs3], frisk, caracoler[obs3], caracole; gallop &c. (move quickly) 274. [start riding] embark, board, set out, hit the road, get going, get underway. peg on, jog on, wag on, shuffle on; stir one's stumps; bend one's steps, bend one's course; make one's way, find one's way, wend one's way, pick one's way, pick one's way, thread one's way, plow one's way; slide, glide, coast, skim, skate; march in procession, file on, defile. go to, repair to, resort to, hie to, betake oneself to. Adj. traveling &c. v.; ambulatory, itinerant, peripatetic, roving, rambling, gadding, discursive, vagrant, migratory, monadic; circumforanean[obs3], circumforaneous[obs3]; noctivagrant[obs3], mundivagrant; locomotive. wayfaring, wayworn; travel-stained. Adv. on foot, on horseback, on Shanks's mare; by the Marrowbone stage, in transitu &c. 270[Lat]; en route &c. 282. Int. come along!

#267. [Locomotion by water, or air.] Navigation.—N. navigation; aquatics; boating, yachting; ship &c. 273; oar, paddle, screw, sail, canvas, aileron. natation[obs3], swimming; fin, flipper, fish's tail. aerostation[obs3], aerostatics[obs3], aeronautics; balloonery[obs3]; balloon &c. 273; ballooning, aviation, airmanship; flying, flight, volitation[obs3]; wing, pinion; rocketry, space travel, astronautics, orbital mechanics, orbiting. voyage, sail, cruise, passage, circumnavigation, periplus[obs3]; headway, sternway, leeway; fairway. mariner &c. 269. flight, trip; shuttle, run, airlift. V. sail; put to sea &c. (depart) 293; take ship, get under way; set sail, spread sail, spread canvas; gather way, have way on; make sail, carry sail; plow the waves, plow the deep, plow the main, plow the ocean; walk the waters. navigate, warp, luff[obs3], scud, boom, kedge; drift, course, cruise, coast; hug the shore, hug the land; circumnavigate. ply the oar, row, paddle, pull, scull, punt, steam. swim, float; buffet the waves, ride the storm, skim, effleurer[Fr], dive, wade. fly, be wafted, hover, soar, flutter, jet, orbit, rocket; take wing, take a flight, take off, ascend, blast off, land, alight; wing one's flight, wing one's way; aviate; parachute, jump, glide. Adj. sailing &c. v.; volant[obs3], aerostatic[obs3]; seafaring, nautical, maritime, naval; seagoing, coasting; afloat; navigable; aerial, aeronautic; grallatory[obs3]. Adv. under way, under sail, under canvas, under steam; on the wing, in flight, in orbit. Phr. bon voyage; "spread the thin oar and catch the driving gale" [Pope].

#268. Traveler.—N. traveler, wayfarer, voyager, itinerant, passenger, commuter. tourist, excursionist, explorer, adventurer, mountaineer, hiker, backpacker, Alpine Club; peregrinator[obs3], wanderer, rover, straggler, rambler; bird of passage; gadabout, gadling[obs3]; vagrant, scatterling[obs3], landloper[obs3], waifs and estrays[obs3], wastrel, foundling; loafer; tramp, tramper; vagabond, nomad, Bohemian, gypsy, Arab[obs3], Wandering Jew, Hadji, pilgrim, palmer; peripatetic; somnambulist, emigrant, fugitive, refugee; beach comber, booly[obs3]; globegirdler[obs3], globetrotter; vagrant, hobo [U.S.], night walker, sleep walker; noctambulist, runabout, straphanger, swagman, swagsman [obs3][Aust.]; trecker[obs3], trekker, zingano[obs3], zingaro[obs3]. runner, courier; Mercury, Iris, Ariel[obs3], comet. pedestrian, walker, foot passenger; cyclist; wheelman. rider, horseman, equestrian, cavalier, jockey, roughrider, trainer, breaker. driver, coachman, whip, Jehu, charioteer, postilion, postboy[obs3], carter, wagoner, drayman[obs3]; cabman, cabdriver; voiturier[obs3], vetturino[obs3], condottiere[obs3]; engine driver; stoker, fireman, guard; chauffeur, conductor, engineer, gharry-wallah[obs3], gari-wala[obs3], hackman, syce[obs3], truckman[obs3]. Phr. on the road

#269. Mariner.—N. sailor, mariner, navigator; seaman, seafarer, seafaring man; dock walloper*; tar, jack tar, salt, able seaman, A. B.; man-of-war's man, bluejacket, galiongee[obs3], galionji[obs3], marine, jolly, midshipman, middy; skipper; shipman[obs3], boatman, ferryman, waterman[obs3], lighterman[obs3], bargeman, longshoreman; bargee[obs3], gondolier; oar, oarsman; rower; boatswain, cockswain[obs3]; coxswain; steersman, pilot; crew. aerial navigator, aeronaut, balloonist, Icarus; aeroplanist[obs3], airman, aviator, birdman, man-bird, wizard of the air, aviatrix, flier, pilot, test pilot, glider pilot, bush pilot, navigator, flight attendant, steward, stewardess, crew; astronaut, cosmonaut; parachutist, paratrooper.

#270. Transference.—N. transfer, transference; translocation, elocation|; displacement; metastasis, metathesis; removal; remotion[obs3], amotion[obs3]; relegation; deportation, asportation[obs3]; extradition, conveyance, draft, carrying, carriage; convection, conduction, contagion; transfer &c. (of property) 783. transit, transition; passage, ferry, gestation; portage, porterage[obs3], carting, cartage; shoveling &c. v.; vection|, vecture|, vectitation|; shipment, freight, wafture[obs3]; transmission, transport, transportation, importation, exportation, transumption[obs3], transplantation, translation; shifting, dodging; dispersion &c. 73; transposition &c. (interchange) 148; traction &c. 285. [Thing transferred] drift. V. transfer, transmit, transport, transplace[obs3], transplant, translocate; convey, carry, bear, fetch and carry; carry over, ferry over; hand pass, forward; shift; conduct, convoy, bring, fetch, reach; tote [U.S.]; port, import, export. send, delegate, consign, relegate, turn over to, deliver; ship, embark; waft; shunt; transpose &c. (interchange) 148; displace &c. 185; throw &c. 284; drag &c. 285; mail, post. shovel, ladle, decant, draft off, transfuse, infuse, siphon. Adj. transferred &c. v.; drifted, movable; portable, portative[obs3]; mailable [U.S.]; contagious. Adv. from hand to hand, from pillar to post. on the way, by the way; on the road, on the wing, under way, in transit, on course; as one goes; in transitu[Lat], en route, chemin faisant[Fr], en passant[Fr], in mid progress, in mid course.

#271. Carrier.—N. carrier, porter, bearer, tranter|, conveyer; cargador[obs3]; express, expressman; stevedore, coolie; conductor, locomotive, motor. beast, beast of burden, cattle, horse, nag, palfrey, Arab[obs3], blood horse, thoroughbred, galloway[obs3], charger, courser, racer, hunter, jument[obs3], pony, filly, colt, foal, barb, roan, jade, hack, bidet, pad, cob, tit, punch, roadster, goer[obs3]; racehorse, pack horse, draft horse, cart horse, dray horse, post horse; ketch; Shetland pony, shelty, sheltie; garran[obs3], garron[obs3]; jennet, genet[obs3], bayard[obs3], mare, stallion, gelding; bronco, broncho[obs3], cayuse [U.S.]; creature, critter [rural U.S.]; cow pony, mustang, Narraganset, waler[obs3]; stud. Pegasus, Bucephalus, Rocinante. ass, donkey, jackass, mule, hinny; sumpter horse, sumpter mule; burro, cuddy[obs3], ladino [obs3][U.S.]; reindeer; camel, dromedary, llama, elephant; carrier pigeon. [object used for carrying] pallet, brace, cart, dolley; support &c. 215; fork lift. carriage &c. (vehicle) 272; ship &c. 273. Adj. equine, asinine.

#272. Vehicle.—N. vehicle, conveyance, carriage, caravan, van; common carrier; wagon, waggon[obs3], wain, dray, cart, lorry. truck, tram; cariole, carriole[obs3]; limber, tumbrel, pontoon; barrow; wheel barrow, hand barrow; perambulator; Bath chair, wheel chair, sedan chair; chaise; palankeen[obs3], palanquin; litter, brancard[obs3], crate, hurdle, stretcher, ambulance; black Maria; conestoga wagon, conestoga wain; jinrikisha, ricksha, brett[obs3], dearborn [obs3][U.S.], dump cart, hack, hackery[obs3], jigger, kittereen[obs3], mailstate[obs3], manomotor[obs3], rig, rockaway[obs3], prairie schooner [U.S.], shay, sloven [Can.], team, tonga[obs3], wheel; hobbyhorse, go-cart; cycle; bicycle, bike, two-wheeler; tricycle, velocipede, quadricycle[obs3]. equipage, turn-out; coach, chariot, phaeton, break, mail phaeton, wagonette, drag, curricle[obs3], tilbury[obs3], whisky, landau, barouche, victoria, brougham, clarence[obs3], calash, caleche[French], britzka[obs3], araba[obs3], kibitka[obs3]; berlin; sulky, desobligeant[French], sociable, vis-a-vis, dormeuse[Fr]; jaunting car, outside car; dandi[obs3]; doolie[obs3], dooly[obs3]; munchil[obs3], palki[obs3]; roller skates, skate; runabout; ski; tonjon[obs3]; vettura[obs3]. post chaise, diligence, stage; stage coach, mail coach, hackney coach, glass coach; stage wagon, car, omnibus, fly, cabriolet[obs3], cab, hansom, shofle[obs3], four-wheeler, growler, droshki[obs3], drosky[obs3]. dogcart, trap, whitechapel, buggy, four-in-hand, unicorn, random, tandem; shandredhan[obs3], char-a-bancs[French]. motor car, automobile, limousine, car, auto, jalopy, clunker, lemon, flivver, coupe, sedan, two-door sedan, four-door sedan, luxury sedan; wheels [coll.], sports car, roadster, gran turismo[It], jeep, four-wheel drive vehicle, electric car, steamer; golf cart, electric wagon; taxicab, cab, taxicoach[obs3], checker cab, yellow cab; station wagon, family car; motorcycle, motor bike, side car; van, minivan, bus, minibus, microbus; truck, wagon, pick-up wagon, pick-up, tractor-trailer, road train, articulated vehicle; racing car, racer, hot rod, stock car, souped-up car.. bob, bobsled, bobsleigh[obs3]; cutter; double ripper, double runner [U.S.]; jumper, sled, sledge, sleigh, toboggan. train; accommodation train, passenger train, express trail, special train, corridor train, parliamentary train, luggage train, freight train, goods train; 1st class train, 2nd class train, 3rd class train, 1st class carriage, 2nd class carriage, 3rd class carriage, 1st class compartment, 2nd class compartment, 3rd class compartment; rolling stock; horse box, cattle truck; baggage car, express car, freight car, parlor car, dining car, Pullman car, sleeping car, sleeper, dome car; surface car, tram car, trolley car; box car, box wagon; horse car [U.S.]; bullet train, shinkansen [Jap.], cannonball, the Wabash cannonball, lightning express; luggage van; mail, mail car, mail van. shovel, spool, spatula, ladle, hod, hoe; spade, spaddle[obs3], loy[obs3]; spud; pitchfork; post hole digger. [powered construction vehicles] tractor, steamshovel, backhoe, fork lift, earth mover, dump truck, bulldozer, grader, caterpillar, trench digger, steamroller; pile driver; crane, wrecking crane.

#273. Ship.—N. ship, vessel, sail; craft, bottom. navy, marine, fleet, flotilla; shipping. man of war &c. (combatant) 726; transport, tender, storeship[obs3]; merchant ship, merchantman; packet, liner; whaler, slaver, collier, coaster, lighter; fishing boat, pilot boat; trawler, hulk; yacht; baggala[obs3]; floating hotel, floating palace; ocean greyhound. ship, bark, barque, brig, snow, hermaphrodite brig; brigantine, barkantine[obs3]; schooner; topsail schooner, for and aft schooner, three masted schooner; chasse-maree[Fr]; sloop, cutter, corvette, clipper, foist, yawl, dandy, ketch, smack, lugger, barge, hoy[obs3], cat, buss; sailer, sailing vessel; windjammer; steamer, steamboat, steamship, liner, ocean liner, cruisp, flap, dab, pat, thump, beat, blow, bang, slam, dash; punch, thwack, whack; hit hard, strike hard; swap, batter, dowse|, baste; pelt, patter, buffet, belabor; fetch one a blow; poke at, pip, ship of the line; destroyer, cruiser, frigate; landing ship, LST[abbr]; aircraft carrier, carrier, flattop[coll.], nuclear powered carrier; submarine, submersible, atomic submarine. boat, pinnace, launch; life boat, long boat, jolly boat, bum boat, fly boat, cock boat, ferry oat, canal boat; swamp boat, ark, bully [Nfld.], bateau battery[Can.], broadhorn[obs3], dory, droger[obs3], drogher; dugout, durham boat, flatboat, galiot[obs3]; shallop[obs3], gig, funny, skiff, dingy, scow, cockleshell, wherry, coble[obs3], punt, cog, kedge, lerret[obs3]; eight oar, four oar, pair oar; randan[obs3]; outrigger; float, raft, pontoon; prame[obs3]; iceboat, ice canoe, ice yacht. catamaran, hydroplane, hovercraft, coracle, gondola, carvel[obs3], caravel; felucca, caique[obs3], canoe, birch bark canoe, dugout canoe; galley, galleyfoist[obs3]; bilander[obs3], dogger[obs3], hooker, howker[obs3]; argosy, carack[obs3]; galliass[obs3], galleon; polacca[obs3], polacre[obs3], tartane[obs3], junk, lorcha[obs3], praam[obs3], proa[obs3], prahu[obs3], saick[obs3], sampan, xebec, dhow; dahabeah[obs3]; nuggah[obs3]; kayak, keel boat [U.S.], log canoe, pirogue; quadrireme[obs3], trireme; stern-wheeler [U.S.]; wanigan[obs3], wangan [obs3][U.S.], wharf boat. balloon; airship, aeroplane; biplane, monoplane, triplane[obs3]; hydroplane; aerodrome; air balloon, pilot balloon, fire balloon, dirigible, zeppelin; aerostat, Montgolfier; kite, parachute. jet plane, rocket plane, jet liner, turbojet, prop-jet, propeller plane; corporate plane, corporate jet, private plane, private aviation; airline, common carrier; fighter, bomber, fighter-bomber, escort plane, spy plane; supersonic aircraft, subsonic aircraft. Adv. afloat, aboard; on board, on ship board; hard a lee, hard a port, hard a starboard, hard a weather.

2. Degrees of Motion

#274. Velocity.—N. velocity, speed, celerity; swiftness &c. adj.; rapidity, eagle speed; expedition &c. (activity) 682; pernicity|; acceleration; haste &c. 684. spurt, rush, dash, race, steeple chase; smart rate, lively rate, swift rate &c. adj.; rattling rate, spanking rate, strapping rate, smart pace, lively pace, swift pace, rattling pace, spanking pace, strapping pace; round pace; flying, flight. lightning, greased lightning, light, electricity, wind; cannon ball, rocket, arrow, dart, hydrargyrum[Lat], quicksilver; telegraph, express train; torrent. eagle, antelope, courser, race horse, gazelle, greyhound, hare, doe, squirrel, camel bird, chickaree[obs3], chipmunk, hackee [obs3][U.S.], ostrich, scorcher*. Mercury, Ariel[obs3], Camilla[obs3], Harlequin. [Measurement of velocity] log, log line; speedometer, odometer, tachometer, strobe, radar speed detector, radar trap, air speed gauge, wind sock, wind speed meter; pedometer. V. move quickly, trip, fisk|; speed, hie, hasten, post, spank, scuttle; scud, scuddle[obs3]; scour, scour the plain; scamper; run like mad, beat it; fly, race, run a race, cut away, shot, tear, whisk, zoom, swoosh, sweep, skim, brush; cut along, bowl along, barrel along, barrel; scorch, burn up the track; rush &c. (be violent) 173; dash on, dash off, dash forward; bolt; trot, gallop, amble, troll, bound, flit, spring, dart, boom; march in quick time, march in double time; ride hard, get over the ground. hurry &c. (hasten) 684; accelerate, put on; quicken; quicken one's pace, mend one's pace; clap spurs to one's horse; make haste, make rapid strides, make forced marches, make the best of one's way; put one's best leg foremost, stir one's stumps, wing one's way, set off at a score; carry sail, crowd sail; go off like a shot, go like a shot, go ahead, gain ground; outstrip the wind, fly on the wings of the wind. keep up with, keep pace with; outstrip &c. 303; outmarch[obs3]. Adj. fast, speedy, swift, rapid, quick, fleet; aliped[obs3]; nimble, agile, expeditious; express; active &c. 682; flying, galloping &c. v.; light footed, nimble footed; winged, eagle winged, mercurial, electric, telegraphic; light-legged, light of heel; swift as an arrow &c. n.; quick as lightning &c. n., quick as a thought. Adv. swiftly &c. adj.; with speed &c. n.; apace; at a great rate, at full speed, at railway speed; full drive, full gallop; posthaste, in full sail, tantivy[obs3]; trippingly; instantaneously &c. 113. under press of sail, under press of canvas, under press of sail and steam; velis et remis[Lat], on eagle's wing, in double quick time; with rapid strides, with giant strides; a pas de geant[Fr]; in seven league boots; whip and spur; ventre a terre[Fr]; as fast as one's legs will carry one, as fast as one's heels will carry one; as fast as one can lay legs to the ground, at the top of one's speed; by leaps and bounds; with haste &c. 684. Phr. vires acquirit eundo[Lat]; "I'll put a girdle about the earth in forty minutes" [M.N.D.]; "swifter than arrow from the Tartar's bow" [M.N.D.]; go like a bat out of hell; tempus fugit[Lat].

#275. Slowness.—N. slowness &c. adj.; languor &c. (inactivity) 683; drawl; creeping &c. v., lentor[obs3]. retardation; slackening &c. v.; delay &c. (lateness) 133; claudication|. jog trot, dog trot; mincing steps; slow march, slow time. slow goer[obs3], slow coach, slow back; lingerer, loiterer, sluggard, tortoise, snail; poke* [U.S.]; dawdle &c. (inactive) 683. V. move slowly &c. adv.; creep, crawl, lag, slug, drawl, linger, loiter, saunter; plod, trudge, stump along, lumber; trail, drag; dawdle &c. (be inactive) 683; grovel, worm one's way, steal along; job on, rub on, bundle on; toddle, waddle, wabble[obs3], slug, traipse, slouch, shuffle, halt, hobble, limp, caludicate|, shamble; flag, falter, trotter, stagger; mince, step short; march in slow time, march in funeral procession; take one's time; hang fire &c. (be late) 133. retard, relax; slacken, check, moderate, rein in, curb; reef; strike sail, shorten sail, take in sail; put on the drag, apply the brake; clip the wings; reduce the speed; slacken speed, slacken one's pace; lose ground. Adj. slow, slack; tardy; dilatory &c. (inactive) 683; gentle, easy; leisurely; deliberate, gradual; insensible, imperceptible; glacial, languid, sluggish, slow paced, tardigrade|!, snail-like; creeping &c. v.; reptatorial[obs3]. Adv. slowly &c. adj.; leisurely; piano, adagio; largo, larghetto; at half speed, under easy sail; at a foots pace, at a snail's pace, at a funeral pace; in slow time, with mincing steps, with clipped wings; haud passibus aequis [Lat][Vergil]. gradually &c. adj.; gradatim[Lat]; by degrees, by slow degrees, by inches, by little and little; step by step, one step at a time; inch by inch, bit by bit, little by little, seriatim; consecutively. Phr. dum Roma deliberat Saguntum perit[Lat]; at a glacial pace.

3. Motion conjoined with Force

#276. Impulse.—N. impulse, impulsion, impetus; momentum; push, pulsion[obs3], thrust, shove, jog, jolt, brunt, booming, boost [U.S.], throw; explosion &c. (violence) 173; propulsion &c. 284. percussion, concussion, collision, occursion|, clash, encounter, cannon, carambole[obs3], appulse[obs3], shock, crash, bump; impact; elan; charge &c. (attack) 716; beating &c. (punishment) 972. blow, dint, stroke, knock, tap, rap, slap, smack, pat, dab; fillip; slam, bang; hit, whack, thwack; cuff &c. 972; squash, dowse, swap, whap[obs3], punch, thump, pelt, kick, punce|, calcitration[obs3]; ruade[obs3]; arietation|; cut, thrust, lunge, yerk|; carom, carrom[obs3], clip *, jab, plug*, sidewinder* [U.S.], sidewipe[obs3], sideswipe [U.S.]. hammer, sledge hammer, mall, maul, mallet, flail; ram, rammer[obs3]; battering ram, monkey, pile-driving engine, punch, bat; cant hook; cudgel &c. (weapon) 727; ax &c. (sharp) 253. [Science of mechanical forces] dynamics; seismometer, accelerometer, earthquake detector. V. give an impetus &c. n.; impel, push; start, give a start to, set going; drive, urge, boom; thrust, prod, foin[Fr]; cant; elbow, shoulder, jostle, justle[obs3], hustle, hurtle, shove, jog, jolt, encounter; run against, bump against, butt against; knock one's head against, run one's head against; impinge; boost [U.S.]; bunt, carom, clip y; fan, fan out; jab, plug *. strike, knock, hit, tap, rap, slap, flap, dab, pat, thump, beat, blow, bang, slam, dash; punch, thwack, whack; hit hard, strike hard; swap, batter, dowse|, baste; pelt, patter, buffet, belabor; fetch one a blow; poke at, pink, lunge, yerk[obs3]; kick, calcitrate[obs3]; butt, strike at &c. (attack) 716; whip *c. (punish) 972. come into a collision, enter into collision; collide; sideswipe; foul; fall foul of, run foul of; telescope. throw &c. (propel) 284. Adj. impelling &c. v.; impulsive, impellent[obs3]; booming; dynamic, dynamical; impelled &c. v. Phr. "a hit, a very palpable hit" [Hamlet].

#277. Recoil.—N. recoil; reaction, retroaction; revulsion; bounce,
rebound, ricochet; repercussion, recalcitration[obs3]; kick,
contrecoup[Fr]; springing back &c. v.; elasticity &c. 325; reflection,
reflexion[Brit], reflex, reflux; reverberation &c. (resonance) 408; rebuff,
repulse; return.
     ducks and drakes; boomerang; spring, reactionist[obs3].
     elastic collision, coefficient of restitution.
     V. recoil, react; spring back, fly back, bounce back, bound back;
rebound, reverberate, repercuss[obs3], recalcitrate[obs3]; echo, ricochet.
     Adj. recoiling &c. v.; refluent[obs3], repercussive, recalcitrant,
reactionary; retroactive.
     Adv. on the rebound, on the recoil &c. n.
     Phr. for every action there is a reaction equal in force and opposite
in direction [Newton].

4. Motion with reference to Direction

#278. Direction.—N. direction, bearing, course, vector; set, drift, tenor; tendency &c. 176; incidence; bending, trending &c. v.; dip, tack, aim, collimation; steering steerage. point of the compass, cardinal points; North East, South, West; N by E, ENE, NE by N, NE, &c; rhumb[obs3], azimuth, line of collimation. line, path, road, range, quarter, line of march; alignment, allignment[obs3]; air line, beeline; straight shoot. V. tend towards, bend towards, point towards; conduct to, go to; point to, point at; bend, trend, verge, incline, dip, determine. steer for, steer towards, make for, make towards; aim at, level at; take aim; keep a course, hold a course; be bound for; bend one's steps towards; direct one's course, steer one's course, bend one's course, shape one's course; align one's march, allign one's march[obs3]; to straight, go straight to the point; march on, march on a point. ascertain one's direction &c. n.; s'orienter[French], see which way the wind blows; box the compass; take the air line. Adj. directed &c. v. directed towards; pointing towards &c. v.; bound for; aligned, with alligned with[obs3]; direct, straight; undeviating, unswerving; straightforward; North, Northern, Northerly, &c. n. Adv. towards; on the road, on the high road to; en avant; versus, to; hither, thither, whither; directly; straight as an arrow, forwards as an arrow; point blank; in a bee line to, in a direct line to, as the crow flies, in a straight line to, in a bee line for, in a direct line for, in a straight line for, in a bee line with, in a direct line with, in a straight line with; in a line with; full tilt at, as the crow flies. before the wind, near the wind, close to the wind, against the wind; windwards, in the wind's eye. through, via, by way of; in all directions, in all manner of ways; quaquaversum[Lat], from the four winds. Phr. the shortest distance between two points is a straight line.

#279. Deviation.—N. deviation; swerving &c. v.; obliquation|, warp, refraction; flection[obs3], flexion; sweep; deflection, deflexure[obs3]; declination. diversion, digression, depart from, aberration; divergence &c. 291; zigzag; detour &c. (circuit) 629; divagation. [Desultory motion] wandering &c. v.; vagrancy, evagation[obs3]; bypaths and crooked ways; byroad. [Motion sideways, oblique motion] sidling &c. v.; knight's move at chess. V. alter one's course, deviate, depart from, turn, trend; bend, curve &c. 245; swerve, heel, bear off; gybe[obs3], wear. intervert[obs3]; deflect; divert, divert from its course; put on a new scent, shift, shunt, draw aside, crook, warp. stray, straggle; sidle; diverge &c. 291; tralineate|; digress, wander; wind, twist, meander; veer, tack; divagate; sidetrack; turn aside, turn a corner, turn away from; wheel, steer clear of; ramble, rove, drift; go astray, go adrift; yaw, dodge; step aside, ease off, make way for, shy. fly off at a tangent; glance off; wheel about, face about; turn to the right about, face to the right about; waddle &c. (oscillate) 314; go out of one's way &c. (perform a circuit) 629; lose one's way. Adj. deviating &c. v.; aberrant, errant; excursive, discursive; devious, desultory, loose; rambling; stray, erratic, vagrant, undirected, circuitous, indirect, zigzag; crab-like. Adv. astray from, round about, wide of the mark; to the right about; all manner of ways; circuitously &c. 629. obliquely, sideling, like the move of the knight on a chessboard.

#280. [Going before.] Precession.—N. precession, leading, heading; precedence &c. 62; priority &c. 116; the lead, le pas; van &c. (front) 234; precursor &c. 64. V. go before, go ahead, go in the van, go in advance; precede, forerun; usher in, introduce, herald, head, take the lead; lead the way, lead the dance; get the start, have the start; steal a march; get before, get ahead, get in front of; outstrip &c. 303; take precedence &c. (first in order) 62. Adj. leading, precedent &c. v. Adv. in advance, before, ahead, in the van, in the lead; foremost, headmost[obs3]; in front; at the head, out in front; way out in front, far ahead. Phr. seniores priores[Lat], ahead of his time.

#281. [Going after.] Sequence.—N. sequence; coming after &c. (order) 63; (time) 117; following pursuit &c. 622. follower, attendant, satellite, shadow, dangler, train. V. follow; pursue &c. 622; go after, fly after. attend, beset, dance attendance on, dog; tread in the steps of, tread close upon; be in the wake of, be in the trail of, be in the rear of, go in the wake of, go in the trail of, go in the rear of, follow in the wake of, follow in the trail of, follow in the rear of; follow as a shadow, hang on the skirts of; tread on the heels of, follow on the heels of; camp on the trail. Adj. subsequent, next, succeeding; following &c. v.. Adv. behind; in the rear &c. 235, in the train of, in the wake of; after &c. (order) 63, (time) 117.

#282. [Motion forward; progressive motion.] Progression.—N. progress, progression, progressiveness; advancing &c. v.; advance, advancement; ongoing; flood, tide, headway; march &c. 266; rise; improvement &c. 658. V. advance; proceed, progress; get on, get along, get over the ground; gain ground; forge ahead; jog on, rub on, wag on; go with the stream; keep one's course, hold on one's course; go on, move on, come one, get on, pass on, push on, press on, go forward, move forward, come forward, get forward, pass forward, push forward, press forward, go forwards, move forwards, come forwards, get forwards, pass forwards, push forwards, press forwards, go ahead, move ahead, come ahead, get ahead, pass ahead, push ahead, press ahead; make one's way, work one's way, carve one's way, push one's way, force one's way, edge one's way, elbow one's way; make progress, make head, make way, make headway, make advances, make strides, make rapid strides &c. (velocity) 274; go ahead, shoot ahead; distance; make up leeway. Adj. advancing &c. v.; progressive, profluent[obs3]; advanced. Adv. forward, onward; forth, on, ahead, under way, en route for, on one's way, on the way, on the road, on the high road, on the road to; in progress; in mid progress; in transitu &c. 270[Lat]. Phr. vestigia nulla retrorsum[Lat]; "westward the course of empire takes its way" [Berkeley].

#283. [Motion backwards.] Regression.—N. regress, regression; retrocession[obs3], retrogression, retrograduation[obs3], retroaction; reculade[obs3]; retreat, withdrawal, retirement, remigration[obs3]; recession &c. (motion from) 287; recess; crab-like motion. refluence[obs3], reflux; backwater, regurgitation, ebb, return; resilience reflection, reflexion (recoil) 277[Brit]; flip-flop, volte- face[Fr]. counter motion, retrograde motion, backward movement, motion in reverse, counter movement, counter march; veering, tergiversation, recidivation|, backsliding, fall; deterioration &c. 659; recidivism, recidivity[obs3]. reversal, relapse, turning point &c.(reversion) 145. V. recede, regrade, return, revert, retreat, retire; retrograde, retrocede; back out; back down; balk; crawfish* [U.S.], crawl*; withdraw; rebound &c. 277; go back, come back, turn back, hark back, draw back, fall back, get back, put back, run back; lose ground; fall astern, drop astern; backwater, put about; backtrack, take the back track; veer round; double, wheel, countermarch; ebb, regurgitate; jib, shrink, shy. turn tail, turn round, turn upon one's heel, turn one's back upon; retrace one's steps, dance the back step; sound a retreat, beat a retreat; go home. Adj. receding &c. v.; retrograde, retrogressive; regressive, refluent[obs3], reflex, recidivous, resilient; crab-like; balky; reactionary &c. 277. Adv. back, backwards; reflexively, to the right about; a reculons[Fr], a rebours[Fr]. Phr. revenons a nos moutons[Fr], as you were.

#284. [Motion given to an object situated in front.] Propulsion.—N.
propulsion, projection; propelment[obs3]; vis a tergo[Lat: force from
behind]; push, shove &c. (impulse) 276; ejaculate; ejection &c. 297; throw,
fling, toss, shot, discharge, shy; launch, release.
     [Science of propulsion] projectiles, ballistics, archery.
     [devices to give propulsion] propeller, screw, twin screws, turbine,
jet engine.
     [objects propelled] missile, projectile, ball, discus, quoit,
brickbat, shot;
     [weapons which propel] arrow, gun, ballista &c. (arms) 727[obs3].
     [preparation for propulsion] countdown, windup.
     shooter; shot; archer, toxophilite[obs3]; bowman, rifleman, marksman;
good shot, crack shot; sharpshooter &c. (combatant) 726.
     V. propel, project, throw, fling, cast, pitch, chuck, toss, jerk,
heave, shy, hurl; flirt, fillip.
     dart, lance, tilt; ejaculate, jaculate[obs3]; fulminate, bolt, drive,
sling, pitchfork.
     send; send off, let off, fire off; discharge, shoot; launch, release,
send forth, let fly; put in orbit, send into orbit, launch into orbit dash.
     put in motion, set in motion; set agoing[obs3], start; give a start,
give an impulse to; impel &c. 276; trundle &c. (set in rotation) 312; expel
&c. 297.
     carry one off one's legs; put to flight.
     Adj. propelled &c. v.; propelling &c. v..; propulsive, projectile.

#285. [Motion given to an object situated behind.] Traction.—N.
traction; drawing &c. v.; draught, pull, haul; rake; "a long pull a strong
pull and a pull all together"; towage[obs3], haulage.
     V. draw, pull, haul, lug, rake, drag, tug, tow, trail, train; take in
     wrench, jerk, twitch, touse|; yank [U.S.].
     Adj. drawing &c. v.; tractile[obs3], tractive.

#286. [Motion towards.] Approach.—N. approach, approximation, appropinquation[obs3]; access; appulse[obs3]; afflux[obs3], affluxion[obs3]; advent &c. (approach of time) 121; pursuit &c. 622. V. approach, approximate, appropinquate[obs3]; near; get near, go near, draw near; come to close quarters, come near; move towards, set in towards; drift; make up to; gain upon; pursue &c. 622; tread on the heels of; bear up; make the land; hug the shore, hug the land. Adj. approaching &c. v.; approximative[obs3]; affluent; impending, imminent &c. (destined) 152. Adv. on the road. Int. come hither! approach! here! come! come near! forward!

#287. [Motion from.] Recession.—N. recession, retirement,
withdrawal; retreat; retrocession &c. 283[obs3]; departure, &c. 293; recoil
&c. 277; flight &c. (avoidance) 623.
     V. recede, go, move back, move from, retire; withdraw, shrink, back
off; come away, move away, back away, go away, get away, drift away; depart
&c. 293; retreat &c. 283; move off, stand off, sheer off; fall back, stand
aside; run away &c. (avoid) 623.
     remove, shunt, distance.
     Adj. receding &c. v.
     Phr. distance oneself from a person.

#288. [Motion towards, actively; force causing to draw closer.]
Attraction.—N. attraction, attractiveness; attractivity[obs3]; drawing
to, pulling towards, adduction[obs3].
     electrical attraction, electricity, static electricity, static, static
cling; magnetism, magnetic attraction; gravity, attraction of gravitation.
     [objects which attract by physical force] lodestone, loadstone,
lodestar, loadstar[obs3]; magnet, permanent magnet, siderite, magnetite;
electromagnet; magnetic coil, voice coil; magnetic dipole; motor coil,
rotor, stator.
     electrical charge; positive charge, negative charge.
     magnetic pole; north pole, south pole; magnetic monopole.
     V. attract, draw; draw towards, pull towards, drag towards; adduce.
     Adj. attracting &c. v.; attrahent[obs3], attractive, adducent[obs3],
     Phr. ubi mel ibi apes [Latin][Plautus].

#289. [Motion from, actively; force driving apart.] Repulsion.—N.
repulsion; driving from &c. v.; repulse, abduction.
     magnetic repulsion, magnetic levitation; antigravity.
     V. repel, push from, drive apart, drive from &c. 276; chase, dispel;
retrude[obs3]; abduce[obs3], abduct; send away; repulse.
     keep at arm's length, turn one's back upon, give the cold shoulder;
send off, send away with a flea in one's ear.
     Adj. repelling &c. v.; repellent, repulsive; abducent[obs3],
     Phr. like charges repel; opposite charges attract; like poles repel,
opposite poles attract.

#290. [Motion nearer to.] Convergence.—N. convergence, confluence,
concourse, conflux[obs3], congress, concurrence, concentration;
convergency; appulse[obs3], meeting; corradiation[obs3].
     assemblage &c. 72; resort &c. (focus) 74; asymptote.
     V. converge, concur, come together, unite, meet, fall in with; close
with, close in upon; center round, center in; enter in; pour in.
     gather together, unite, concentrate, bring into a focus.
     Adj. converging &c. v.; convergent, confluent, concurrent;
centripetal; asymptotical, asymptotic; confluxible[obs3].

#291. [Motion further off.] Divergence.—N. divergence, divergency[obs3]; divarication, ramification, forking; radiation; separation &c. (disjunction) 44; dispersion &c. 73; deviation &c. 279; aberration. V. diverge, divaricate, radiate; ramify; branch off, glance off, file off; fly off, fly off at a tangent; spread, scatter, disperse &c. 73; deviate &c. 279; part &c. (separate) 44. Adj. diverging &c. v.; divergent, radiant, centrifugal; aberrant.

#292. [Terminal motion at.] Arrival.—N. arrival, advent; landing;
debarkation, disembarkation; reception, welcome, vin d'honneur[Fr].
     home, goal, goalpost; landing place, landing stage; bunder[obs3];
resting place; destination, harbor, haven, port, airport, spaceport;
terminus, halting place, halting ground, landing strip, runway, terminal;
journey's end; anchorage &c. (refuge) 666.
     return, remigration[obs3]; meeting; rencounter[obs3], encounter.
     completion &c. 729.
     recursion[Math, Comp].
     V. arrive; get to, come to; come; reach, attain; come up with, come up
to; overtake, make, fetch; complete &c. 729; join, rejoin.
     light, alight, dismount; land, go ashore; debark, disembark; put in,
put into; visit, cast anchor, pitch one's tent; sit down &c. (be located)
184; get to one's journey's end; make the land; be in at the death; come
back, get back, come home, get home; return; come in &c. (ingress) 294;
make one's appearance &c. (appear) 446; drop in; detrain, deplane; outspan;
     come to hand; come at, come across; hit; come upon, light upon, pop
upon, bounce upon, plump upon, burst upon, pitch upon; meet; encounter,
rencounter[obs3]; come in contact.
     Adj. arriving &c. v.; homeward bound.
     Adv. here, hither.
     Int. welcome! hail! all Hail! good-day, good morrow!
     Phr. any port in a storm.

#293. [Initial motion from.] Departure.—N. departure, decession[obs3], decampment; embarkation; outset, start; removal; exit &c. (egress) 295; exodus, hejira, flight. leave taking, valediction, adieu, farewell, goodbye, auf wiedersehen[Ger], sayonara, dosvidanya[Russ], ciao, aloha, hasta la vista[Sp]; stirrup cup; valedictorian. starting point, starting post; point of departure, point of embarkation, place of departure, place of embarkation; port of embarkation; airport, take-off point, taxiing runway, runway, launching pad, spaceport. V. depart; go away; take one's departure, set out; set off, march off, put off, start off, be off, move off, get off, whip off, pack off, go off, take oneself off; start, issue, march out, debouch; go forth, sally forth; sally, set forward; be gone; hail from. leave a place, quit, vacate, evacuate, abandon; go off the stage, make one's exit; retire, withdraw, remove; vamoose*, vamose* [obs3][U.S.]; go one's way, go along, go from home; take flight, take wing; spring, fly, flit, wing one's flight; fly away, whip away; embark; go on board, go aboard; set sail' put to sea, go to sea; sail, take ship; hoist blue Peter; get under way, weigh anchor; strike tents, decamp; walk one's chalks, cut one's stick; take leave; say good bye, bid goodbye &c. n.; disappear &c. 449; abscond &c. (avoid) 623; entrain; inspan[obs3]. Adj. departing &c. v.; valedictory; outward bound. Adv. whence, hence, thence; with a foot in the stirrup; on the wing, on the move. Int. begone! &c. (ejection) 297; farewell! adieu! goodbye! good day! au revoir[Fr]! fare you well! God bless you! God speed! all aboard! auf wiedersehen[Ger]! au plaisir de vous revoir[Fr]! bon voyage! gluckliche Reise[Ger]! vive valeque[Fr]!

#294. [Motion into.] Ingress.—N. ingress; entrance, entry; introgression; influx, intrusion, inroad, incursion, invasion, irruption; ingression; penetration, interpenetration; illapse[obs3], import, infiltration; immigration; admission &c. (reception) 296; insinuation &c. (interjacence) 228[obs3]; insertion &c. 300. inlet; way in; mouth, door, &c. (opening) 260; barway[obs3]; path &c. (way) 627; conduit &c. 350; immigrant. V. have the entree; enter; go into, go in, come into, come in, pour into, pour in, flow into, flow in, creep into, creep in, slip into, slip in, pop into, pop in, break into, break in, burst into, burst in; set foot on; ingress; burst in upon, break in upon; invade, intrude; insinuate itself; interpenetrate, penetrate; infiltrate; find one's way into, wriggle into, worm oneself into. give entrance to &c. (receive) 296; insert &c. 300. Adj. incoming.

#295. [Motion out of.] Egress.—N. egress, exit, issue; emersion, emergence; outbreak, outburst; eruption, proruption[obs3]; emanation; egression; evacuation; exudation, transudation; extravasation[Med], perspiration, sweating, leakage, percolation, distillation, oozing; gush &c. (water in motion) 348; outpour, outpouring; effluence, effusion; effluxion[obs3], drain; dribbling &c. v.; defluxion[obs3]; drainage; outcome, output; discharge &c. (excretion) 299. export, expatriation; emigration, remigration[obs3]; debouch, debouche; emunctory[obs3]; exodus &c. (departure) 293; emigrant. outlet, vent, spout, tap, sluice, floodgate; pore; vomitory, outgate[obs3], sally port; way out; mouth, door &c. (opening) 260; path &c. (way) 627; conduit &c. 350; airpipe &c. 351[obs3]. V. emerge, emanate, issue; egress; go out of, come out of, move out of, pass out of, pour out of, flow out of; pass out of, evacuate. exude, transude; leak, run through, out through; percolate, transcolate|; egurgitate[obs3]; strain, distill; perspire, sweat, drain, ooze; filter, filtrate; dribble, gush, spout, flow out; well, well out; pour, trickle, &c. (water in motion) 348; effuse, extravasate[Med], disembogue[obs3], discharge itself, debouch; come forth, break forth; burst out, burst through; find vent; escape &c. 671. Adj. effused &c. v.; outgoing.

#296. [Motion into, actively.] Reception.—N. reception; admission, admittance, entree, importation; introduction, intromission; immission[obs3], ingestion, imbibation[obs3], introception[obs3], absorption, ingurgitation[obs3], inhalation; suction, sucking; eating, drinking &c. (food) 298; insertion &c. 300; interjection &c. 228; introit. V. give entrance to, give admittance to, give the entree; introduce, intromit; usher, admit, receive, import, bring in, open the door to, throw in, ingest, absorb, imbibe, inhale, breathe in; let in, take in, suck in, draw in; readmit, resorb, reabsorb; snuff up, swallow, ingurgitate[obs3]; engulf, engorge; gulp; eat, drink &c. (food) 298. Adj. admitting &c. v., admitted &c. v.; admissable; absorbent.

#297. [Motion out of, actively] Ejection.—N. ejection, emission, effusion, rejection, expulsion, exportation, eviction, extrusion, trajection[obs3]; discharge. emesis, vomiting, vomition[obs3]. egestion[obs3], evacuation; ructation[obs3], eructation; bloodletting, venesection[Med], phlebotomy, paracentesis[obs3]; expuition, exspuition; tapping, drainage; clearance, clearage[obs3]. deportation; banishment &c. (punishment ) 972; rouge's march; relegation, extradition; dislodgment. bouncer [U.S.], chucker-out*[obs3]. [material vomited] vomit, vomitus[Med], puke, barf[coll]. V. give exit, give vent to; let out, give out, pour out, squeeze out, send out; dispatch, despatch; exhale, excern|, excrete; embogue[obs3]; secrete, secern[obs3]; extravasate[Med], shed, void, evacuation; emit; open the sluices, open the floodgates; turn on the tap; extrude, detrude[obs3]; effuse, spend, expend; pour forth; squirt, spirt[obs3], spurt, spill, slop; perspire &c. (exude) 295; breathe, blow &c. (wind) 349. tap, draw off; bale out, lade out; let blood, broach. eject, reject; expel, discard; cut, send to coventry, boycott; chasser[Fr]; banish &c. (punish) 972; bounce * [U.S.]; fire *, fire out *; throw &c. 284 throw out, throw up, throw off, throw away, throw aside; push &c. 276 throw out, throw off, throw away, throw aside; shovel out, shovel away, sweep out, sweep away; brush off, brush away, whisk off, whisk away, turn off, turn away, send off, send away; discharge; send adrift, turn adrift, cast adrift; turn out, bundle out; throw overboard; give the sack to; send packing, send about one's business, send to the right about; strike off the roll &c. (abrogate) 756; turn out neck and heels, turn out head and shoulders, turn out neck and crop; pack off; send away with a flea in the ear; send to Jericho; bow out, show the door to. turn out of doors, turn out of house and home; evict, oust; unhouse, unkennel; dislodge; unpeople[obs3], dispeople[obs3]; depopulate; relegate, deport. empty; drain to the dregs; sweep off; clear off, clear out, clear away; suck, draw off; clean out, make a clean sweep of, clear decks, purge. embowel[obs3], disbowel[obs3], disembowel; eviscerate, gut; unearth, root out, root up; averuncate|; weed out, get out; eliminate, get rid of, do away with, shake off; exenterate[obs3]. vomit, throw up, regurgitate, spew, puke, keck[obs3], retch, heave, upchuck, chuck up, barf; belch out; cast up, bring up, be sick, get sick, worship the porcelain god. disgorge; expectorate, clear the throat, hawk, spit, sputter, splutter, slobber, drivel, slaver, slabber[obs3]; eructate; drool. unpack, unlade, unload, unship, offload; break bulk; dump. be let out. spew forth, erupt, ooze &c. (emerge) 295. Adj. emitting, emitted, &c. v. Int. begone! get you gone! get away, go away, get along, go along, get along with you, go along with you! go your way! away with! off with you! get the hell out of here![vulg.], go about your business! be off! avaunt[obs3]! aroynt[obs3]! allez-vous-en[Fr]! jao[obs3]! va-t'en[Fr]!

#298. [Eating.] Food.—N. eating &c. v.; deglutition, gulp, epulation[obs3], mastication, manducation[obs3], rumination; gluttony &c. 957. [eating specific foods] hippophagy[obs3], ichthyophagy[obs3]. [CAUSED BY: appetite &c. 865]. mouth, jaws, mandible, mazard[obs3], chops. drinking &c. v.; potation, draught, libation; carousal &c. (amusement) 840; drunkenness &c. 959. food, pabulum; aliment, nourishment, nutriment; sustenance, sustentation, sustention; nurture, subsistence, provender, corn, feed, fodder, provision, ration, keep, commons, board; commissariat &c. (provision) 637; prey, forage, pasture, pasturage; fare, cheer; diet, dietary; regimen; belly timber, staff of life; bread, bread and cheese. comestibles, eatables, victuals, edibles, ingesta; grub, grubstake, prog[obs3], meat; bread, bread stuffs; cerealia[obs3]; cereals; viands, cates[obs3], delicacy, dainty, creature comforts, contents of the larder, fleshpots; festal board; ambrosia; good cheer, good living. beef, bisquit[obs3], bun; cornstarch [U.S.]; cookie, cooky [U.S.]; cracker, doughnut; fatling[obs3]; hardtack, hoecake [U.S.], hominy [U.S.]; mutton, pilot bread; pork; roti[obs3], rusk, ship biscuit; veal; joint, piece de resistance[Fr], roast and boiled; remove, entremet[obs3]; releve[Fr], hash, rechauffe[Fr], stew, ragout, fricassee, mince; pottage, potage[obs3], broth, soup, consomme, puree, spoonmeat[obs3]; pie, pasty, volauvent[obs3]; pudding, omelet; pastry; sweets &c. 296; kickshaws[obs3]; condiment &c. 393. appetizer, hors d'oeuvre[Fr]. main course, entree. alligator pear, apple &c., apple slump; artichoke; ashcake[obs3], griddlecake, pancake, flapjack; atole[obs3], avocado, banana, beche de mer[Fr], barbecue, beefsteak; beet root; blackberry, blancmange, bloater, bouilli[obs3], bouillon, breadfruit, chop suey [U.S.]; chowder, chupatty[obs3], clam, compote, damper, fish, frumenty[obs3], grapes, hasty pudding, ice cream, lettuce, mango, mangosteen, mince pie, oatmeal, oyster, pineapple, porridge, porterhouse steak, salmis[obs3], sauerkraut, sea slug, sturgeon ("Albany beef"), succotash [U.S.], supawn [obs3][U.S.], trepang[obs3], vanilla, waffle, walnut. table, cuisine, bill of fare, menu, table d'hote[Fr], ordinary, entree. meal, repast, feed, spread; mess; dish, plate, course; regale; regalement[obs3], refreshment, entertainment; refection, collation, picnic, feast, banquet, junket; breakfast; lunch, luncheon; dejeuner[Fr], bever[obs3], tiffin[obs3], dinner, supper, snack, junk food, fast food, whet, bait, dessert; potluck, table d'hote[Fr], dejeuner a la fourchette[Fr]; hearty meal, square meal, substantial meal, full meal; blowout*; light refreshment; bara[obs3], chotahazri[obs3]; bara khana[obs3]. mouthful, bolus, gobbet[obs3], morsel, sop, sippet[obs3]. drink, beverage, liquor, broth, soup; potion, dram, draught, drench, swill*; nip, sip, sup, gulp. wine, spirits, liqueur, beer, ale, malt liquor, Sir John Barleycorn, stingo[obs3], heavy wet; grog, toddy, flip, purl, punch, negus[obs3], cup, bishop, wassail; gin &c. (intoxicating liquor) 959; coffee, chocolate, cocoa, tea, the cup that cheers but not inebriates; bock beer, lager beer, Pilsener beer, schenck beer[obs3]; Brazil tea, cider, claret, ice water, mate, mint julep [U.S.]; near beer, 3.2 beer, non-alcoholic beverage. eating house &c. 189. [person who eats] diner; hippophage; glutton &c. 957. V. eat, feed, fare, devour, swallow, take; gulp, bolt, snap; fall to; despatch, dispatch; discuss; take down, get down, gulp down; lay in, tuck in*; lick, pick, peck; gormandize &c. 957; bite, champ, munch, cranch[obs3], craunch[obs3], crunch, chew, masticate, nibble, gnaw, mumble. live on; feed upon, batten upon, fatten upon, feast upon; browse, graze, crop, regale; carouse &c. (make merry) 840; eat heartily, do justice to, play a good knife and fork, banquet. break bread, break one's fast; breakfast, lunch, dine, take tea, sup. drink in, drink up, drink one's fill; quaff, sip, sup; suck, suck up; lap; swig; swill*, chugalug[slang], tipple &c. (be drunken) 959; empty one's glass, drain the cup; toss off, toss one's glass; wash down, crack a bottle, wet one's whistle. purvey &c. 637. Adj. eatable, edible, esculent[obs3], comestible, alimentary; cereal, cibarious[obs3]; dietetic; culinary; nutritive, nutritious; gastric; succulent; potable, potulent|; bibulous. omnivorous, carnivorous, herbivorous, granivorous[obs3], graminivorous, phytivorous[obs3]; ichthyivorous[obs3]; omophagic[obs3], omophagous[obs3]; pantophagous[obs3], phytophagous[obs3], xylophagous Phr[Biol]. "across the walnuts and the wine" [Tennyson]; "blessed hour of our dinners!" [O. Meredith]; "now good digestion wait on appetite, and health on both!" [Macbeth]; "who can cloy the hungry edge of appetite?" [Richard II]

#299. Excretion—N. excretion, discharge, emanation; exhalation, exudation, extrusion, secretion, effusion, extravasation[Med], ecchymosis[Med]; evacuation, dejection, faeces, excrement, shit, stools, crap[vulg.]; bloody flux; cacation[obs3]; coeliac-flux, coeliac-passion; dysentery; perspiration, sweat; subation[obs3], exudation; diaphoresis; sewage; eccrinology[Med]. saliva, spittle, rheum; ptyalism[obs3], salivation, catarrh; diarrhoea; ejecta, egesta[Biol], sputa; excreta; lava; exuviae &c. (uncleanness) 653[Lat]. hemorrhage, bleeding; outpouring &c. (egress) 295. V. excrete &c. (eject) 297; emanate &c. (come out) 295.

#300. [Forcible ingress.] Insertion.—N. insertion, implantation,
introduction; insinuation &c. (intervention) 228; planting, &c. v.;
injection, inoculation, importation, infusion; forcible ingress &c. 294;
immersion; submersion, submergence, dip, plunge; bath &c. (water), 337;
interment &c. 363.
     clyster[Med], enema, glyster[obs3], lavage, lavement[obs3].
     V. insert; introduce, intromit; put into, run into; import; inject;
interject &c. 298; infuse, instill, inoculate, impregnate, imbue, imbrue.
     graft, ingraft[obs3], bud, plant, implant; dovetail.
     obtrude; thrust in, stick in, ram in, stuff in, tuck in, press, in,
drive in, pop in, whip in, drop in, put in; impact; empierce| &c. (make a
hole) 260[obs3].
     imbed; immerse, immerge, merge; bathe, soak &c. (water) 337; dip,
plunge &c. 310.
     bury &c. (inter) 363.
     insert &c itself; plunge in medias res.
     Adj. inserted &c. v.

#301. [Forcible egress.] Extraction.—N. extraction; extracting &c.
v.; removal, elimination, extrication, eradication, evolution.
     evulsion[obs3], avulsion[obs3]; wrench; expression, squeezing;
extirpation, extermination; ejection &c. 297; export &c. (egress) 295.
     extractor, corkscrew, forceps, pliers.
     V. extract, draw; take out, draw out, pull out, tear out, pluck out,
pick out, get out; wring from, wrench; extort; root up, weed up, grub up,
rake up, root out, weed out, grub out, rake out; eradicate; pull up by the
roots, pluck up by the roots; averruncate|; unroot[obs3]; uproot, pull up,
extirpate, dredge.
     remove; educe, elicit; evolve, extricate; eliminate &c. (eject) 297;
eviscerate &c. 297.
     express, squeeze out, press out.
     Adj. extracted &c. v.

#302. [Motion through.] Passage.—N. passage, transmission; permeation; penetration, interpenetration; transudation, infiltration; endosmose exosmose[obs3]; endosmosis[Chem]; intercurrence[obs3]; ingress &c. 294; egress &c. 295; path &c. 627; conduit &c. 350; opening &c. 260; journey &c. 266; voyage &c. 267. V. pass, pass through; perforate &c. (hole) 260; penetrate, permeate, thread, thrid[obs3], enfilade; go through, go across; go over, pass over; cut across; ford, cross; pass and repass, work; make one's way, thread one's way, worm one's way, force one's way; make a passage form a passage; cut one's way through; find its way, find its vent; transmit, make way, clear the course; traverse, go over the ground. Adj. passing &c. v.; intercurrent[obs3]; endosmosmic[obs3], endosmotic[Chem]. Adv. en passant &c. (transit) 270[Fr].

#303. [Motion beyond] Transcursion—N. transcursion|, transiliency[obs3], transgression; trespass; encroachment, infringement; extravagation|, transcendence; redundancy &c. 641. V. transgress, surpass, pass; go beyond, go by; show in front, come to the front; shoot ahead of; steal a march upon, steal a gain upon. overstep, overpass, overreach, overgo[obs3], override, overleap, overjump[obs3], overskip[obs3], overlap, overshoot the mark; outstrip, outleap, outjump, outgo, outstep[obs3], outrun, outride, outrival, outdo; beat, beat hollow; distance; leave in the lurch, leave in the rear; throw into the shade; exceed, transcend, surmount; soar &c. (rise) 305. encroach, trespass, infringe, trench upon, entrench on, intrench on[obs3]; strain; stretch a point, strain a point; cross the Rubicon. Adj. surpassing &c. v. Adv. beyond the mark, ahead.

#304. [motion short of] Shortcoming—N. shortcoming, failure; falling short &c v.; default, defalcation; leeway; labor in vain, no go. incompleteness &c. 53; imperfection &c. 651; insufficiency &c. 640; noncompletion &c. 730; failure &c. 732. V. 303, come short of, fall short of, stop short of, come short, fall short, stop short; not reach; want; keep within bounds, keep within the mark, keep within the compass. break down, stick in the mud, collapse, flat out [U.S.], come to nothing; fall through, fall to the ground; cave in, end in smoke, miss the mark, fail; lose ground; miss stays. Adj. unreached; deficient; short, short of; minus; out of depth; perfunctory &c. (neglect) 460. Adv. within the mark, within the compass, within the bounds; behindhand; re infecta[Lat]; to no purpose; for from it. Phr. the bubble burst.

#305. [Motion upwards] Ascent.—N. ascent, ascension; rising &c.
309; acclivity, hill &c. 217; flight of steps, flight of stairs; ladder
     rocket, lark; sky rocket, sky lark; Alpine Club.
     V. ascend, rise, mount, arise, uprise; go up, get up, work one's way
up, start up; shoot up, go into orbit; float up; bubble up; aspire.
     climb, clamber, ramp, scramble, escalade[obs3], surmount; shin,
shinny, shinney; scale, scale the heights.
     [cause to go up] raise, elevate &c. 307.
     go aloft, fly aloft; tower, soar, take off; spring up, pop up, jump
up, catapult upwards, explode upwards; hover, spire, plane, swim, float,
surge; leap &c. 309.
     Adj. rising &c. v. scandent|, buoyant; supernatant, superfluitant|;
     Adv. uphill.

#306. [Motion downwards] Descent.—N. descent, descension[obs3],
declension, declination; fall; falling &c. v.: slump; drop, plunge,
plummet, cadence; subsidence, collapse, lapse; downfall, tumble, slip,
tilt, trip, lurch; cropper, culbute[obs3]; titubation[obs3], stumble; fate
of Icarus.
     avalanche, debacle, landslip, landslide.
     declivity, dip, hill.
     [equipment for descending by rappeling] rappel.
     V. descend; go down, drop down, come down; fall, gravitate, drop,
slip, slide, rappel, settle; plunge, plummet, crash; decline, set, sink,
droop, come down a peg; slump.
     dismount, alight, light, get down; swoop; stoop &c. 308; fall
prostrate, precipitate oneself; let fall &c. 308.
     tumble, trip, stumble, titubate[obs3], lurch, pitch, swag, topple,
topple over, tumble over, topple down, tumble down; tilt, sprawl, plump
down, come down a cropper.
     Adj. descending &c. v.; descendent; decurrent[obs3], decursive[obs3];
labent[obs3], deciduous; nodding to its fall.
     Adv. downhill, downwards.
     Phr. the bottom fell out.

#307. Elevation.—N. elevation; raising &c. v.; erection, lift;
sublevation[obs3], upheaval; sublimation, exaltation; prominence &c.
(convexity) 250.
     lever &c. 633; crane, derrick, windlass, capstan, winch; dredge,
dredger, dredging machine.
     dumbwaiter, elevator, escalator, lift.
     V. heighten, elevate, raise, lift, erect; set up, stick up, perch up,
perk up, tilt up; rear, hoist, heave; uplift, upraise, uprear,
upbear[obs3], upcast[obs3], uphoist[obs3], upheave; buoy, weigh mount, give
a lift; exalt; sublimate; place on a pedestal, set on a pedestal.
     [ref] escalate (increase) 35, 102, 194.
     take up, drag up, fish up; dredge.
     stand up, rise up, get up, jump up; spring to one's feet; hold
oneself, hold one's head up; drawn oneself up to his full height.
     Adj. elevated &c. v.; stilted, attollent[obs3], rampant.
     Adv. on stilts, on the shoulders of, on one's legs, on one's hind

#308. Depression.—N. lowering &c. v.; depression; dip &c. (concavity) 252; abasement; detrusion[obs3]; reduction. overthrow, overset[obs3], overturn; upset; prostration, subversion, precipitation. bow; courtesy, curtsy; genuflexion[obs3], genuflection, kowtow, obeisance, salaam. V. depress, lower, let down, take down, let down a peg, take down a peg; cast; let drop, let fall; sink, debase, bring low, abase, reduce, detrude[obs3], pitch, precipitate. overthrow, overturn, overset[obs3]; upset, subvert, prostate, level, fell; cast down, take down, throw down, fling down, dash down, pull down, cut down, knock down, hew down; raze, raze to the ground, rase to the ground[obs3]; trample in the dust, pull about one's ears. sit, sit down; couch, squat, crouch, stoop, bend, bow; courtesy, curtsy; bob, duck, dip, kneel; bend the knee, bow the knee, bend the head, bow the head; cower; recline &c. (be horizontal) 213. Adj. depressed &c. v.; at a low ebb; prostrate &c. (horizontal) 213; detrusive[obs3]. Phr. facinus quos inquinat aequat [Lat][Lucan].

#309. Leap.—N. leap, jump, hop, spring, bound, vault,
     ance, caper; curvet, caracole; gambade|, gambado|; capriole,
demivolt[obs3]; buck, buck jump; hop skip and jump; falcade[obs3].
     kangaroo, jerboa; chamois, goat, frog, grasshopper, flea;
buckjumper[obs3]; wallaby.
     V. leap; jump up, jump over the moon; hop, spring, bound, vault, ramp,
cut capers, trip, skip, dance, caper; buck, buck jump; curvet, caracole;
foot it, bob, bounce, flounce, start; frisk &c. (amusement) 840; jump about
&c. (agitation) 315; trip it on the light fantastic toe, trip the light
fantastic, dance oneself off one's legs, dance off one's shoes.
     Adj. leaping &c. v.; saltatory[obs3], frisky.
     Adv. on the light fantastic toe.
     Phr. di salto in salto[It].

#310. Plunge—N. plunge, dip, dive, header; ducking &c. v.; diver.
     V. plunge, dip, souse, duck; dive, plump; take a plunge, take a
header; make a plunge; bathe &c.(water) 337.
     submerge, submerse; immerse; douse, sink, engulf, send to the bottom.
     get out of one's depth; go to the bottom, go down like a stone, drop
like a lead balloon; founder, welter, wallow.

#311. [Curvilinear motion.] Circuition.—N. circuition[obs3], circulation; turn, curvet; excursion, circumvention, circumnavigation, circumambulation; northwest passage; circuit &c. 629. turning &c. v.; wrench; evolution; coil, corkscrew. V. turn, bend, wheel; go about, put about; heel; go round to the right about, turn round to the right about; turn on one's heel; make a circle, make a complete circle, describe a circle, describe a complete circle; go through 180x, go through 360x, pass through 180x, pass through 360x. circumnavigate, circumambulate, circumvent; "put a girdle round about the earth" [M.N.D.]; go the round, make the round of. wind, circulate, meander; whisk, twirl; twist &c. (convolution) 248; make a detour &c. (circuit) 629. Adj. turning &c. v.; circuitous; circumforaneous[obs3], circumfluent[obs3]. Adv. round about.

#312. [Motion in a continued circle.] Rotation.—N. rotation, revolution, spinning, gyration, turning about an axis, turning around an axis, circulation, roll; circumrotation[obs3], circumvolution, circumgyration[obs3]; volutation[obs3], circination|, turbination[obs3], pirouette, convolution. verticity|, whir, whirl, eddy, vortex, whirlpool, gurge[obs3]; countercurrent; Maelstrom, Charybdis; Ixion. [rotating air] cyclone; tornado, whirlwind; dust devil. [rotation of an automobile] spin-out. axis, axis of rotation, swivel, pivot, pivot point; axle, spindle, pin, hinge, pole, arbor, bobbin, mandrel; axle shaft; gymbal; hub, hub of rotation. [rotation and translation together] helix, helical motion. [measure of rotation] angular momentum, angular velocity; revolutions per minute, RPM. [result of rotation] centrifugal force; surge; vertigo, dizzy round; coriolus force. [things that go around] carousel, merry-go-round; Ferris wheel; top, dreidel ,teetotum[obs3]; gyroscope; turntable, lazy suzan; screw, whirligig, rolling stone[obs3], water wheel, windmill; wheel, pulley wheel, roulette wheel, potter's wheel, pinwheel, gear; roller; flywheel; jack; caster; centrifuge, ultracentrifuge, bench centrifuge, refrigerated centrifuge, gas centrifuge, microfuge; drill, augur, oil rig; wagon wheel, wheel, tire, tyre[Brit][Brit]. [Science of rotary motion] trochilics[obs3]. [person who rotates] whirling dervish. V. rotate; roll along; revolve, spin; turn round; circumvolve[obs3]; circulate; gyre, gyrate, wheel, whirl, pirouette; twirl, trundle, troll, bowl. roll up, furl; wallow, welter; box the compass; spin like a top, spin like a teetotum|!. [of an automobile] spin out. Adj. rotating &c.v.; rotary, rotary; circumrotatory[obs3], trochilic[obs3], vertiginous, gyratory; vortical, vorticose[obs3]. Adv. head over heels, round and round, like a horse in a mill.

#313. [Motion in the reverse circle.] Evolution.—N. evolution, unfolding, development; evolvement; unfoldment; eversion &c. (inversion) 218. V. evolve; unfold, unroll, unwind, uncoil, untwist, unfurl, untwine, unravel; untangle, disentangle; develop. Adj. evolving &c. v.; evolved &c. v.

#314. [Reciprocating motion, motion to and fro.] Oscillation.—N. oscillation; vibration, libration; motion of a pendulum; nutation; undulation; pulsation; pulse. alternation; coming and going &c. v.; ebb and flow, flux and reflux, ups and down. fluctuation; vacillation &c. (irresolution) 605. wave, vibratiuncle[obs3], swing, beat, shake, wag, seesaw, dance, lurch, dodge; logan[obs3], loggan[obs3], rocking-stone, vibroscope[obs3]. V. oscillate; vibrate, librate[obs3]; alternate, undulate, wave; rock, swing; pulsate, beat; wag, waggle; nod, bob, courtesy, curtsy; tick; play; wamble[obs3], wabble[obs3]; dangle, swag. fluctuate, dance, curvet, reel, quake; quiver, quaver; shake, flicker; wriggle; roll, toss, pitch; flounder, stagger, totter; move up and down, bob up and down &c. Adv.; pass and repass, ebb and flow, come and go; vacillate &c. 605; teeter [U.S.]. brandish, shake, flourish. Adj. oscillating &c. v.; oscillatory, undulatory, pulsatory[obs3], libratory, rectilinear; vibratory, vibratile[obs3]; pendulous. Adv. to and fro, up and down, backwards and forwards, hither and yon, seesaw, zigzag, wibble-wabble[obs3], in and out, from side to side, like buckets in a well.

#315. [Irregular motion] Agitation.—N. agitation, stir, tremor, shake, ripple, jog, jolt, jar, jerk, shock, succussion[obs3], trepidation, quiver, quaver, dance; jactitation|, quassation|; shuffling 7c. v.; twitter, flicker, flutter. turbulence, perturbation; commotion, turmoil, disquiet; tumult, tumultuation|; hubbub, rout, bustle, fuss, racket, subsultus[obs3], staggers, megrims, epilepsy, fits; carphology[obs3], chorea, floccillation[obs3], the jerks, St. Vitus's dance, tilmus[obs3]. spasm, throe, throb, palpitation, convulsion. disturbance, chaos &c. (disorder) 59; restlessness &c. (changeableness) 149. ferment, fermentation; ebullition, effervescence, hurly-burly, cahotage[obs3]; tempest, storm, ground swell, heavy sea, whirlpool, vortex &c. 312; whirlwind &c. (wind) 349. V. be agitated &c.; shake; tremble, tremble like an aspen leaf; quiver, quaver, quake, shiver, twitter, twire[obs3], writhe, toss, shuffle, tumble, stagger, bob, reel, sway, wag, waggle; wriggle, wriggle like an eel; dance, stumble, shamble, flounder, totter, flounce, flop, curvet, prance, cavort [U.S.]; squirm. throb, pulsate, beat, palpitate, go pitapat; flutter, flitter, flicker, bicker; bustle. ferment, effervesce, foam; boil, boil over; bubble up; simmer. toss about, jump about; jump like a parched pea; shake like an aspen leaf; shake to its center, shake to its foundations; be the sport of the winds and waves; reel to and fro like a drunken man; move from post to pillar and from pillar to post, drive from post to pillar and from pillar to post, keep between hawk and buzzard. agitate, shake, convulse, toss, tumble, bandy, wield, brandish, flap, flourish, whisk, jerk, hitch, jolt; jog, joggle, jostle, buffet, hustle, disturb, stir, shake up, churn, jounce, wallop, whip, vellicate[obs3]. Adj. shaking &c. v.; agitated, tremulous; desultory, subsultory|; saltatoric[obs3]; quasative[obs3]; shambling; giddy-paced, saltatory[obs3], convulsive, unquiet, restless, all of a twitter. Adv. by fits and starts; subsultorily| &c. adj[obs3].; per saltum[Lat]; hop skip and jump; in convulsions, in fits. Phr. tempete dans un verre d'eau[Fr].



#316. MATERIALITY.—N. materiality, materialness; corporeity[obs3], corporality[obs3]; substantiality, substantialness, flesh and blood, plenum; physical condition. matter, body, substance, brute matter, stuff, element, principle, parenchyma[Biol], material, substratum, hyle[obs3], corpus, pabulum; frame. object, article, thing, something; still life; stocks and stones; materials &c. 635. [Science of matter] physics; somatology[obs3], somatics; natural philosophy, experimental philosophy; physicism[obs3]; physical science, philosophie positive[Fr], materialism; materialist; physicist; somatism[obs3], somatist[obs3]. Adj. material, bodily; corporeal, corporal; physical; somatic, somatoscopic[obs3]; sensible, tangible, ponderable, palpable, substantial. objective, impersonal, nonsubjective[obs3], neuter, unspiritual, materialistic.

#317. Immateriality.—N. immateriality, immaterialness;
incorporeity[obs3], spirituality; inextension[obs3]; astral plane.
     personality; I, myself, me; ego, spirit &c. (soul) 450; astral body;
immaterialism[obs3]; spiritualism, spiritualist.
     V. disembody, spiritualize.
     Adj. immaterial, immateriate[obs3]; incorporeal, incorporal[obs3];
incorporate, unfleshly[obs3]; supersensible[obs3]; asomatous[obs3],
unextended[obs3]; unembodied[obs3], disembodied; extramundane, unearthly;
pneumatoscopic[obs3]; spiritual &c. (psychical) 450[obs3].
     personal, subjective, nonobjective.

#318. World.—N. world, creation, nature, universe; earth, globe, wide world; cosmos; kosmos[obs3]; terraqueous globe[obs3], sphere; macrocosm, megacosm[obs3]; music of the spheres. heavens, sky, welkin|, empyrean; starry cope, starry heaven, starry host; firmament; Midgard; supersensible regions[obs3]; varuna; vault of heaven, canopy of heaven; celestial spaces. heavenly bodies, stars, asteroids; nebulae; galaxy, milky way, galactic circle, via lactea[Lat], ame no kawa [Jap.]. sun, orb of day, Apollo[obs3], Phoebus; photosphere, chromosphere; solar system; planet, planetoid; comet; satellite, moon, orb of night, Diana, silver-footed queen; aerolite[obs3], meteor; planetary ring; falling star, shooting star; meteorite, uranolite[obs3]. constellation, zodiac, signs of the zodiac, Charles's wain, Big Dipper, Little Dipper, Great Bear, Southern Cross, Orion's belt, Cassiopea's chair, Pleiades. colures[obs3], equator, ecliptic, orbit. [Science of heavenly bodies] astronomy; uranography, uranology[obs3]; cosmology, cosmography[obs3], cosmogony; eidouranion[obs3], orrery; geodesy &c. (measurement) 466; star gazing, star gazer[obs3]; astronomer; observatory; planetarium. Adj. cosmic, cosmical[obs3]; mundane, terrestrial, terrestrious|, terraqueous[obs3], terrene, terreous|, telluric, earthly, geotic[obs3], under the sun; sublunary[obs3], subastral[obs3]. solar, heliacal[obs3]; lunar; celestial, heavenly, sphery[obs3]; starry, stellar; sidereal, sideral[obs3]; astral; nebular; uranic. Adv. in all creation, on the face of the globe, here below, under the sun. Phr. die Weltgeschichte ist das Weltergesicht[Ger]; "earth is but the frozen echo of the silent voice of God" [Hageman]; "green calm below, blue quietness above" [Whittier]; "hanging in a golden chain this pendant World" [Paradise Lost]; "nothing in nature is unbeautiful" [Tennyson]; "silently as a dream the fabric rose" [Cowper]; "some touch of nature's genial glow" [Scott]; "this majestical roof fretted with golden fire" [Hamlet]; "through knowledge we behold the World's creation" [Spenser].

#319. Gravity.—N. gravity, gravitation; weight; heaviness &c. adj.;
specific gravity; pondorosity[obs3], pressure, load; burden, burthen[obs3];
ballast, counterpoise; lump of, mass of, weight of.
     lead, millstone, mountain, Ossa on Pelion.
     weighing, ponderation[obs3], trutination|; weights; avoirdupois
weight, troy weight, apothecaries' weight; grain, scruple, drachma[obs3],
ounce, pound, lb, arroba[obs3], load, stone, hundredweight, cwt, ton, long
ton, metric ton, quintal, carat, pennyweight, tod[obs3].
     [metric weights] gram, centigram, milligram, microgram, kilogram;
nanogram, picogram, femtogram, attogram.
     [Weighing Instrument] balance, scale, scales, steelyard, beam,
weighbridge[obs3]; spring balance, piezoelectric balance, analytical
balance, two-pan balance, one-pan balance; postal scale, baby scale.
     [Science of gravity] statics.
     V. be heavy &c. adj.; gravitate, weigh, press, cumber, load.
     [Measure the weight of] weigh, poise.
     Adj. weighty; weighing &c. v.; heavy as lead; ponderous, ponderable;
lumpish[obs3], lumpy, cumbersome, burdensome; cumbrous, unwieldy, massive.
     incumbent, superincumbent[obs3].

#320. Levity.—N. levity; lightness &c. adj.; imponderability,
buoyancy, volatility.
     feather, dust, mote, down, thistle, down, flue, cobweb, gossamer,
straw, cork, bubble, balloon; float, buoy; ether, air.
     leaven, ferment, barm[obs3], yeast.
     lighter-than-air balloon, helium balloon, hydrogen balloon, hot air
     convection, thermal draft, thermal.
     V. be light &c. adj.; float, rise, swim, be buoyed up.
     render light &c. adj.; lighten, leaven.
     Adj. light, subtile, airy; imponderous[obs3], imponderable;
astatic[obs3], weightless, ethereal, sublimated; gossamery; suberose[obs3],
suberous[obs3]; uncompressed, volatile; buoyant, floating &c. v.; portable.
     light as a feather, light as a thistle, light as air; lighter than
air; rise like a balloon, float like a balloon.


1. Solid Matter

#321. Density..—N. density, solidity; solidness &c. adj.; impenetrability, impermeability; incompressibility; imporosity[obs3]; cohesion &c. 46; constipation, consistence, spissitude|. specific gravity; hydrometer, areometer[obs3]. condensation; caseation[obs3]; solidation[obs3], solidification; consolidation; concretion, coagulation; petrification &c. (hardening) 323; crystallization, precipitation; deposit, precipitate; inspissation[obs3]; gelation, thickening &c. v. indivisibility, indiscerptibility[obs3], insolubility, indissolvableness. solid body, mass, block, knot, lump; concretion, concrete, conglomerate; cake, clot, stone, curd, coagulum; bone, gristle, cartilage; casein, crassamentum|; legumin[obs3]. superdense matter, condensed states of matter; dwarf star, neutron star. V. be dense &c. adj.; become solid, render solid &c. adj.; solidify, solidate[obs3]; concrete, set, take a set, consolidate, congeal, coagulate; curd, curdle; lopper; fix, clot, cake, candy, precipitate, deposit, cohere, crystallize; petrify &c. (harden) 323. condense, thicken, gel, inspissate[obs3], incrassate[obs3]; compress, squeeze, ram down, constipate. Adj. dense, solid; solidified &c. v.; caseous; pukka[obs3]; coherent, cohesive &c. 46; compact, close, serried, thickset; substantial, massive, lumpish[obs3]; impenetrable, impermeable, nonporous, imporous[obs3]; incompressible; constipated; concrete &c. (hard) 323; knotted, knotty; gnarled; crystalline, crystallizable; thick, grumous|, stuffy. undissolved, unmelted[obs3], unliquefied[obs3], unthawed[obs3]. indivisible, indiscerptible[obs3], infrangible[obs3], indissolvable[obs3], indissoluble, insoluble, infusible.

#322. Rarity.—N. rarity, tenuity; absence of solidity &c. 321;
subtility[obs3]; subtilty[obs3], subtlety; sponginess, compressibility.
     rarefaction, expansion, dilatation, inflation, subtilization[obs3].
     vaporization, evaporation, diffusion, gassification[obs3].
     ether &c. (gas) 334.
     V. rarefy, expand, dilate, subtilize[obs3].
     Adj. rare, subtile, thin, fine, tenuous, compressible, flimsy, slight;
light &c. 320; cavernous, spongy &c. (hollow) 252.
     rarefied &c. v.; unsubstantial; uncompact[obs3], incompressed[obs3];

#323. Hardness.—N. hardness &c. adj.; rigidity; renitence[obs3], renitency; inflexibility, temper, callosity, durity [obs3]. induration, petrifaction; lapidification[obs3], lapidescence[obs3]; vitrification, ossification; crystallization. stone, pebble, flint, marble, rock, fossil, crag, crystal, quartz, granite, adamant; bone, cartilage; hardware; heart of oak, block, board, deal board; iron, steel; cast iron, decarbonized iron, wrought iron; nail; brick, concrete; cement. V. render hard &c. adj.; harden, stiffen, indurate, petrify, temper, ossify, vitrify; accrust[obs3]. Adj. hard, rigid, stubborn, stiff, firm; starch, starched; stark, unbending, unlimber, unyielding; inflexible, tense; indurate, indurated; gritty, proof. adamant, adamantine, adamantean[obs3]; concrete, stony, granitic, calculous, lithic[obs3], vitreous; horny, corneous[obs3]; bony; osseous, ossific[obs3]; cartilaginous; hard as a rock &c. n.; stiff as buckram, stiff as a poker; stiff as starch, stiff as a board.

#324. Softness.—N. softness, pliableness &c. adj.; flexibility;
pliancy, pliability; sequacity[obs3], malleability; ductility,
tractility[obs3]; extendibility, extensibility; plasticity; inelasticity,
flaccidity, laxity.
     clay, wax, butter, dough, pudding; alumina, argil; cushion, pillow,
feather bed, down, padding, wadding; foam.
     mollification; softening &c.v.
     V. render -soft &c. adj.; soften, mollify, mellow, relax, temper;
mash, knead, squash.
     bend, yield, relent, relax, give.
     Adj. soft, tender, supple; pliant, pliable; flexible, flexile; lithe,
lithesome; lissom, limber, plastic; ductile; tractile[obs3], tractable;
malleable, extensile, sequacious[obs3], inelastic; aluminous[obs3];
     yielding &c. v.; flabby, limp, flimsy.
     doughy, spongy, penetrable, foamy, cushiony[obs3].
     flaccid, flocculent, downy; edematous, oedematous[obs3],
medullary[Anat], argillaceous, mellow.
     soft as butter, soft as down, soft as silk; yielding as wax, tender as

#325. Elasticity.—N. elasticity, springiness, spring, resilience,
renitency, buoyancy.
     rubber, India(n) rubber, latex, caoutchouc, whalebone, gum elastic,
baleen, natural rubber; neoprene, synthetic rubber, Buna-S, plastic.
     flexibility, Young's modulus.
     V. stretch, flex, extend, distend, be elastic &c. adj.; bounce, spring
back &c. (recoil) 277.
     Adj. elastic, flexible, tensile, spring, resilient, renitent, buoyant;
ductile, stretchable, extendable.
     Phr. the stress is proportional to the strain.

#326. Inelasticity.—N. want of elasticity, absence of elasticity
&c. 325; inelasticity &c. (softness) 324,
     Adj. unyielding, inelastic, inflexible &c. (soft) 324;

#327. Tenacity.—N. {ant. 328} tenacity, toughness, strength;
(cohesion) 46; grip, grasp, stickiness, (cohesion) 46; sequacity[obs3];
stubbornness &c. (obstinacy); glue, cement, glutinousness[obs3],
sequaciousness[obs3], viscidity, (semiliquidity) 352.
     leather; white leather, whitleather[obs3]; gristle, cartilage.
     unbreakability, tensile strength.
     V. be tenacious &c. adj.; resist fracture.
     grip, grasp, stick (cohesion) 46.
     Adj. tenacious, tough, strong, resisting, sequacious[obs3], stringy,
gristly cartilaginous, leathery, coriaceous[obs3], tough as
whitleather[obs3]; stubborn &c. (obstinate) 606.
     unbreakable, indivisible; atomic.

#328. Brittleness.—N. {ant. 327} brittleness &c. adj.; fragility, friability, frangibility, fissibility[obs3]; house of cards, house of glass. V. be brittle &c. adj.; live in a glass house. break, crack, snap, split, shiver, splinter, crumble, break short, burst, fly, give way; fall to pieces; crumble to, crumble into dust. Adj. brittle, brash [U.S.], breakable, weak, frangible, fragile, frail, gimcrack|, shivery, fissile; splitting &c. v.; lacerable[obs3], splintery, crisp, crimp, short, brittle as glass.

#329. [Structure.] Texture.—N. structure (form) 240, organization,
anatomy, frame, mold, fabric, construction; framework, carcass,
architecture; stratification, cleavage.
     substance, stuff, compages[obs3], parenchyma[Biol]; constitution,
staple, organism.
     [Science of structures] organography[obs3], osteology, myology,
splanchnology[obs3], neurology, angiography[obs3], adeology[obs3];
angiography[obs3], adenography[obs3].
     texture, surface texture; intertexture[obs3], contexture[obs3];
tissue, grain, web, surface; warp and woof, warp and weft; tooth, nap &c.
(roughness) 256; flatness (smoothness) 255; fineness of grain; coarseness
of grain, dry goods.
     silk, satin; muslin, burlap.
     [Science of textures] histology.
     Adj. structural, organic; anatomic, anatomical.
     textural, textile; fine grained, coarse grained; fine, delicate,
subtile, gossamery, filmy, silky, satiny; coarse; homespun.
     rough, gritty; smooth.
     smooth as silk, smooth as satin.

#330. Pulverulence.—N. powderiness[obs3][State of powder.], pulverulence[obs3]; sandiness &c. adj.; efflorescence; friability. powder, dust, sand, shingle; sawdust; grit; meal, bran, flour, farina, rice, paddy, spore, sporule[obs3]; crumb, seed, grain; particle &c. (smallness) 32; limature|, filings, debris, detritus, tailings, talus slope, scobs[obs3], magistery[obs3], fine powder; flocculi[Lat]. smoke; cloud of dust, cloud of sand, cloud of smoke; puff of smoke, volume of smoke; sand storm, dust storm. [Reduction to powder] pulverization, comminution[obs3], attenuation, granulation, disintegration, subaction[obs3], contusion, trituration[Chem], levigation[obs3], abrasion, detrition, multure[obs3]; limitation; tripsis[obs3]; filing &c.v.. [Instruments for pulverization] mill, arrastra[obs3], gristmill, grater, rasp, file, mortar and pestle, nutmeg grater, teeth, grinder, grindstone, kern[obs3], quern[obs3], koniology[obs3]. V. come to dust; be disintegrated, be reduced to powder &c. reduce to powder, grind to powder; pulverize, comminute, granulate, triturate, levigate[obs3]; scrape, file, abrade, rub down, grind, grate, rasp, pound, bray, bruise; contuse, contund[obs3]; beat, crush, cranch[obs3], craunch[obs3], crunch, scranch[obs3], crumble, disintegrate; attenuate &c. 195. Adj. powdery, pulverulent[obs3], granular, mealy, floury, farinaceous, branny[obs3], furfuraceous[obs3], flocculent, dusty, sandy, sabulous[obs3], psammous[obs3]; arenose[obs3], arenarious[obs3], arenaceous[obs3]; gritty, efflorescent, impalpable; lentiginous[obs3], lepidote[obs3], sabuline[obs3]; sporaceous[obs3], sporous[obs3]. pulverizable; friable, crumbly, shivery; pulverized &c. v.; attrite[obs3]; in pieces.

#331. Friction.—N. friction, attrition; rubbing, abrasion, scraping
&c. v.; confrication|, detrition, contrition|, affriction[obs3], abrasion,
arrosion|, limature|, frication[obs3], rub; elbow grease; rosin; massage;
roughness &c. 256.
     rolling friction, sliding friction, starting friction.
     V. rub, scratch, scrape, scrub, slide, fray, rasp, graze, curry,
scour, polish, rub out, wear down, gnaw; file, grind &c. (reduce to powder)
     set one's teeth on edge; rosin.
     Adj. anatriptic[obs3]; attrite[obs3].

#332. [Absence of friction. Prevention of friction.] Lubrication.—
N. smoothness &c. 255; unctuousness &c. 355.
     lubrication, lubrification[obs3]; anointment; oiling &c. v.
     synovia[Anat]; glycerine, oil, lubricating oil, grease &c. 356;
saliva; lather.
     V. lubricate, lubricitate|; oil, grease, lather, soap; wax.
     Adj. lubricated &c. v.; lubricous.


1. Fluids in General

#333. Fluidity.—N. fluidity, liquidity; liquidness &c. adj[obs3].;
gaseity &c. 334[obs3].
     fluid, inelastic fluid; liquid, liquor; lymph, humor, juice, sap,
serum, blood, serosity[obs3], gravy, rheum, ichor[obs3], sanies[obs3];
     solubility, solubleness[obs3].
     [Science of liquids at rest] hydrology, hydrostatics, hydrodynamics.
     V. be fluid &c. adj.; flow &c. (water in motion) 348; liquefy, melt,
condense &c. 335.
     Adj. liquid, fluid, serous, juicy, succulent, sappy; ichorous[obs3];
fluent &c. (flowing) 348.
     liquefied &c. 335; uncongealed; soluble.

#334. Gaseity.—N. gaseity[obs3]; vaporousness &c. adj.; flatulence,
flatulency; volatility; aeration, aerification.
     elastic fluid, gas, air, vapor, ether, steam, essence, fume, reek,
effluvium, flatus; cloud &c. 353; ammonia, ammoniacal gas[obs3]; volatile
alkali; vacuum, partial vacuum.
     [Science of elastic fluids] pneumatics, pneumatostatics[obs3];
aerostatics[obs3], aerodynamics.
     gasmeter[obs3], gasometer[obs3]; air bladder, swimming bladder, sound
(of a fish).
     V. vaporize, evaporate, evanesce, gasify, emit vapor &c. 336; diffuse.
     Adj. gaseous, aeriform[obs3], ethereal, aerial, airy, vaporous,
volatile, evaporable[obs3], flatulent.

#335. Liquefaction.—N. liquefaction; liquescence[obs3], liquescency[obs3]; melting &c. (heat) 384; colliquation|, colliquefaction|; thaw; liquation|, deliquation|, deliquescence; lixiviation[obs3], dissolution. solution, apozem[obs3], lixivium[obs3], infusion, flux. solvent, menstruum, alkahest[obs3]. V. render liquid &c. 333; liquefy, run; deliquesce; melt &c. (heat) 384; solve; dissolve, resolve; liquate|; hold in solution; condense, precipitate, rain. Adj. liquefied &c. v., liquescent, liquefiable; deliquescent, soluble, colliquative[obs3].

#336. Vaporization.—N. vaporization, volatilization; gasification,
evaporation, vaporation[obs3]; distillation, cupellation[Chem], cohobation,
sublimination[obs3], exhalation; volatility.
     vaporizer, still, retort; fumigation, steaming; bay salt, chloride of
     mister, spray.
     bubble, effervescence.
     V. render -gaseous &c. 334; vaporize, volatilize; distill, sublime;
evaporate, exhale, smoke, transpire, emit vapor, fume, reek, steam,
fumigate; cohobate[obs3]; finestill[obs3].
     bubble, sparge, effervesce, boil.
     Adj. volatilized &c. v.; reeking &c. v.; volatile; evaporable[obs3],
     bubbly, effervescent, boiling.

2. Specific Fluids

#337. Water.—N. water; serum, serosity[obs3]; lymph; rheum; diluent; agua[Sp], aqua, pani[obs3]. dilution, maceration, lotion; washing &c. v.; immersion|, humectation[obs3], infiltration, spargefaction|, affusion[obs3], irrigation, douche, balneation[obs3], bath. deluge &c. (water in motion) 348; high water, flood tide. V. be watery &c. adj.; reek. add water, water, wet; moisten &c. 339; dilute, dip, immerse; merge; immerge, submerge; plunge, souse, duck, drown; soak, steep, macerate, pickle, wash, sprinkle, lave, bathe, affuse[obs3], splash, swash, douse, drench; dabble, slop, slobber, irrigate, inundate, deluge; syringe, inject, gargle. Adj. watery, aqueous, aquatic, hydrous, lymphatic; balneal[obs3], diluent; drenching &c. v.; diluted &c. v.; weak; wet &c. (moist) 339. Phr. the waters are out.

#338. Air.—N. air &c. (gas) 334; common air, atmospheric air;
atmosphere; aerosphere[obs3].
     open air; sky, welkin; blue sky; cloud &c. 353.
     weather, climate, rise and fall of the barometer, isobar.
     [Science of air] aerology, aerometry[obs3], aeroscopy[obs3],
aeroscopy[obs3], aerography[obs3]; meteorology, climatology; pneumatics;
eudioscope[obs3], baroscope[obs3], aeroscope[obs3], eudiometer[obs3],
barometer, aerometer[obs3]; aneroid, baroscope[obs3]; weather gauge,
weather glass, weather cock.
     exposure to the air, exposure to the weather; ventilation;
aerostation[obs3], aeronautics, aeronaut.
     V. air, ventilate, fan &c. (wind) 349.
     Adj. containing air, flatulent, effervescent; windy &c. 349.
     atmospheric, airy; aerial, aeriform[obs3]; meteorological;
     Adv. in the open air, a la belle etoile[Fr], al fresco; sub jove

#339. Moisture.—N. moisture; moistness &c. adj.; humidity,
humectation[obs3]; madefaction|, dew; serein[obs3]; marsh &c. 345;
hygrometry, hygrometer.
     V. moisten, wet; humect[obs3], humectate[obs3]; sponge, damp, bedew;
imbue, imbrue, infiltrate, saturate; soak, drench &c. (water) 337.
     be moist &c. adj.; not have a dry thread; perspire &c. (exude) 295.
     Adj. moist, damp; watery &c. 337; madid[obs3], roric[obs3];
undried[obs3], humid, sultry, wet, dank, luggy[obs3], dewy; roral|, rorid|;
roscid[obs3]; juicy.
     wringing wet, soaking wet; wet through to the skin; saturated &c. v.
     swashy[obs3], soggy, dabbled; reeking, dripping, soaking, soft, sodden,
sloppy, muddy; swampy &c. (marshy) 345; irriguous[obs3].

#340. Dryness.—N. dryness &c. adj.; siccity[obs3], aridity,
drought, ebb tide, low water.
     exsiccation|, desiccation; arefaction|, dephlegmation|, drainage;
     [CHEMSUB which renders dry] desiccative, dessicator.
     [device to render dry] dessicator; hair drier, clothes drier, gas
drier, electric drier; vacuum oven, drying oven, kiln; lyophilizer.
     V. be dry &c. adj..
     [transitive] render dry &c. adj.; dry; dry up, soak up; sponge, swab,
wipe; drain.
     desiccate, dehydrate, exsiccate[obs3]; parch.
     kiln dry; vacuum dry, blow dry, oven dry; hang out to dry.
     be fine, hold up.
     Adj. dry, anhydrous, arid; adust[obs3], arescent|; dried &c. v.;
undamped; juiceless[obs3], sapless; sear; husky; rainless, without rain,
fine; dry as a bone, dry as dust, dry as a stick, dry as a mummy, dry as a
     water proof, water tight.
     dehydrated, dessicated.

#341. Ocean—N. sea, ocean, main, deep, brine, salt water, waves,
billows, high seas, offing, great waters, watery waste, "vasty deep"; wave,
tide, &c. (water in motion) 348.
     hydrography, hydrographer; Neptune, Poseidon, Thetis, Triton, Naiad,
Nereid; sea nymph, Siren; trident, dolphin.
     Adj. oceanic; marine, maritime; pelagic, pelagian; seagoing;
hydrographic; bathybic[obs3], cotidal[obs3].
     Adv. at sea, on sea; afloat.

#342. Land.—N. land, earth, ground, dry land, terra firma.
     continent, mainland, peninsula, chersonese[Fr], delta; tongue of land,
neck of land; isthmus, oasis; promontory &c. (projection) 250; highland &c.
(height) 206.
     coast, shore, scar, strand, beach; playa; bank, lea; seaboard,
seaside, seabank[obs3], seacoast, seabeach[obs3]; ironbound coast; loom of
the land; derelict; innings; alluvium, alluvion[obs3]; ancon.
     riverbank, river bank, levee.
     soil, glebe, clay, loam, marl, cledge[obs3], chalk, gravel, mold,
subsoil, clod, clot; rock, crag.
     acres; real estate &c. (property) 780; landsman[obs3].
     V. land, come to land, set foot on the soil, set foot on dry land;
come ashore, go ashore, debark.
     Adj. earthy, continental, midland, coastal, littoral, riparian;
alluvial; terrene &c. (world) 318; landed, predial[obs3], territorial;
geophilous[obs3]; ripicolous.
     Adv. ashore; on shore, on land.

#343. Gulf. Lake—N. land covered with water, gulf, gulph[obs3], bay, inlet, bight, estuary, arm of the sea, bayou [U.S.], fiord, armlet; frith[obs3], firth, ostiary|, mouth; lagune[obs3], lagoon; indraught[obs3]; cove, creek; natural harbor; roads; strait; narrows; Euripus; sound, belt, gut, kyles[obs3]; continental slope, continental shelf. lake, loch, lough[obs3], mere, tarn, plash, broad, pond, pool, lin[obs3], puddle, slab, well, artesian well; standing water, dead water, sheet of water; fish pond, mill pond; ditch, dike, dyke, dam; reservoir &c. (store) 636; alberca[obs3], barachois[obs3], hog wallow [U.S.]. Adj. lacustrine[obs3].

#344. Plain.—N. plain, table-land, face of the country; open country, champaign country[obs3]; basin, downs, waste, weary waste, desert, wild, steppe, pampas, savanna, prairie, heath, common, wold[obs3], veldt; moor, moorland; bush; plateau &c. (level) 213; campagna[obs3]; alkali flat, llano; mesa, mesilla [obs3][U.S.], playa; shaking prairie, trembling prairie; vega[Sp]. meadow, mead, haugh[obs3], pasturage, park, field, lawn, green, plat, plot, grassplat[obs3], greensward, sward, turf, sod, heather; lea, ley, lay; grounds; maidan[obs3], agostadero[obs3]. Adj. champaign[obs3], alluvial; campestral[obs3], campestrial[obs3], campestrian[obs3], campestrine[obs3].

#345. Marsh.—N. marsh, swamp, morass, marish[obs3], moss, fen, bog, quagmire, slough, sump, wash; mud, squash, slush; baygall [obs3][U.S.], cienaga[obs3], jhil[obs3], vlei[obs3]. Adj. marsh, marshy; swampy, boggy, plashy[obs3], poachy[obs3], quaggy[obs3], soft; muddy, sloppy, squashy; paludal[obs3]; moorish, moory; fenny.

#346. Island.—N. island, isle, islet, eyot[obs3], ait[obs3],
holf[obs3], reef, atoll, breaker; archipelago; islander.
     Adj. insular, seagirt; archipelagic[obs3].

3. Fluids in Motion

#347. [Fluid in motion.] Stream.—N. stream &c. (of water) 348, (of
air) 349.
     V. flow &c. 348; blow &c. 349.

#348. [Water in motion.] River.—N. running water. jet, spirt[obs3], spurt, squirt, spout, spray, splash, rush, gush, jet d'eau[Fr]; sluice. water spout, water fall; cascade, force, foss[obs3]; lin[obs3], linn[obs3]; ghyll[obs3], Niagara; cataract, rapids, white water, catadupe|, cataclysm; debacle, inundation, deluge; chute, washout. rain, rainfall; serein[obs3]; shower, scud; downpour; driving rain, drenching rain, cloudburst; hyetology[obs3], hyetography[obs3]; predominance of Aquarius[obs3], reign of St. Swithin; mizzle[obs3], drizzle, stillicidum[obs3], plash; dropping &c. v.; falling weather; northeaster, hurricane, typhoon. stream, course, flux, flow, profluence[obs3]; effluence &c. (egress) 295; defluxion[obs3]; flowing &c. v.; current, tide, race, coulee. spring, artesian well, fount, fountain; rill, rivulet, gill, gullet, rillet[obs3]; streamlet, brooklet; branch [U.S.]; runnel, sike[obs3], burn, beck, creek, brook, bayou, stream, river; reach, tributary. geyser, spout, waterspout. body of water, torrent, rapids, flush, flood, swash; spring tide, high tide, full tide; bore, tidal bore, eagre[obs3], hygre[obs3]; fresh, freshet; indraught[obs3], reflux, undercurrent, eddy, vortex, gurge[obs3], whirlpool, Maelstrom, regurgitation, overflow; confluence, corrivation|. wave, billow, surge, swell, ripple; <gr/anerythmon gelasma/gr>[obs3][Grk]; beach comber, riffle [U.S.], rollers, ground swell, surf, breakers, white horses, whitecaps; rough sea, heavy sea, high seas, cross sea, long sea, short sea, chopping sea. [Science of fluids in motion] hydrodynamics; hydraulics, hydraulicostatics[obs3]; rain gauge, flowmeter; pegology[obs3]. irrigation &c. (water) 337; pump; watering pot, watering cart; hydrant, syringe; garden hose, lawn spray; bhisti[obs3], mussuk[obs3]. V. flow, run; meander; gush, pour, spout, roll, jet, well, issue; drop, drip, dribble, plash, spirtle[obs3], trill, trickle, distill, percolate; stream, overflow, inundate, deluge, flow over, splash, swash; guggle[obs3], murmur, babble, bubble, purl, gurgle, sputter, spurt, spray, regurgitate; ooze, flow out &c. (egress) 295. rain hard, rain in torrents, rain cats and dogs, rain pitchforks; pour with rain, drizzle, spit, set in; mizzle[obs3]. flow into, fall into, open into, drain into; discharge itself, disembogue[obs3]. [Cause a flow] pour; pour out &c. (discharge) 297; shower down, irrigate, drench &c. (wet) 337; spill, splash. [Stop a flow] stanch; dam, up &c. (close) 261; obstruct &c. 706. Adj. fluent; diffluent[obs3], profluent[obs3], affluent; tidal; flowing &c. v.; meandering, meandry[obs3], meandrous[obs3]; fluvial, fluviatile; streamy[obs3], showery, rainy, pluvial, stillicidous|; stillatitious[obs3]. Phr. "for men may come and men may go but I go on forever" [Tennyson]; "that old man river, he just keeps rolling along" [Showboat].

#349. [Air in motion] Wind.—N.. wind, draught, flatus, afflatus, efflation[obs3], eluvium[obs3]; air; breath, breath of air; puff, whiff, zephyr; blow, breeze, drift; aura; stream, current, jet stream; undercurrent. gust, blast, squall, gale, half a gale, storm, tempest, hurricane, whirlwind, tornado, samiel, cyclone, anticyclone, typhoon; simoon[obs3], simoom; harmattan[obs3], monsoon, trade wind, sirocco, mistral, bise[obs3], tramontane, levanter; capful of wind; fresh breeze, stiff breeze; keen blast; blizzard, barber [Can.], candelia[obs3], chinook, foehn, khamsin[obs3], norther, vendaval[obs3], wuther[obs3]. windiness &c. adj.; ventosity|; rough weather, dirty weather, ugly weather, stress of weather; dirty sky, mare's tail; thick squall, black squall, white squall. anemography[obs3], aerodynamics; wind gauge, weathercock, vane, weather-vane, wind sock; anemometer, anemoscope[obs3]. sufflation[obs3], insufflation[obs3], perflation[obs3], inflation, afflation[obs3]; blowing, fanning &c. v.; ventilation. sneezing &c.v.: errhine[obs3]; sternutative[obs3], sternutatory[obs3]; sternutation; hiccup, hiccough; catching of the breath. Eolus, Boreas, Zephyr, cave of Eolus. air pump, air blower, lungs, bellows, blowpipe, fan, ventilator, punkah[obs3]; branchiae[obs3], gills, flabellum[obs3], vertilabrum[obs3]. whiffle ball. V. blow, waft; blow hard, blow great guns, blow a hurricane &c. n.; wuther[obs3]; stream, issue. respire, breathe, puff; whiff, whiffle; gasp, wheeze; snuff, snuffle; sniff, sniffle; sneeze, cough. fan, ventilate; inflate, perflate|; blow up. Adj. blowing &c. v.; windy, flatulent; breezy, gusty, squally; stormy, tempestuous, blustering; boisterous &c. (violent) 173. pulmonic[Med], pulmonary. Phr. "lull'd by soft zephyrs" [Pope]; "the storm is up and all is on the hazard" [Julius Caesar]; "the winds were wither'd in the stagnant air" [Byron]; "while mocking winds are piping loud" [Milton]; "winged with red lightning and tempestuous rage" [Paradise Lost].

#350. [Channel for the passage of water.] Conduit.—N. conduit, channel, duct, watercourse, race; head race, tail race; abito[obs3], aboideau[obs3], aboiteau[Fr], bito[obs3]; acequia[obs3], acequiador[obs3], acequiamadre[obs3]; arroyo; adit[obs3], aqueduct, canal, trough, gutter, pantile; flume, ingate[obs3], runner; lock-weir, tedge[obs3]; vena[obs3]; dike, main, gully, moat, ditch, drain, sewer, culvert, cloaca, sough, kennel, siphon; piscina[obs3]; pipe &c. (tube) 260; funnel; tunnel &c. (passage) 627; water pipe, waste pipe; emunctory[obs3], gully hole, artery, aorta, pore, spout, scupper; adjutage[obs3], ajutage[obs3]; hose; gargoyle; gurgoyle[obs3]; penstock, weir; flood gate, water gate; sluice, lock, valve; rose; waterworks. pipeline. Adj. vascular &c. (with holes) 260.

#351. [Channel for the passage of air.] Airpipe.—N. air pipe, air tube; airhole[obs3], blowhole, breathinghole[obs3], venthole; shaft, flue, chimney, funnel, vent, nostril, nozzle, throat, weasand[obs3], trachea; bronchus, bronchia[Med]; larynx, tonsils, windpipe, spiracle; ventiduct[obs3], ventilator; louvre, jalousie, Venetian blinds; blowpipe &c. (wind) 349; pipe &c. (tube) 260; jhilmil[obs3]; smokestack. screen, window screen. artificial lung, iron lung, heart and lung machine.


#352. Semiliquidity.—N. semiliquidity; stickiness &c. adj.; viscidity, viscosity; gummosity[obs3], glutinosity[obs3], mucosity[obs3]; spissitude[obs3], crassitude[obs3]; lentor[obs3]; adhesiveness &c. (cohesion) 46. inspissation[obs3], incrassation[obs3]; thickening. jelly, mucilage, gelatin, gluten; carlock[obs3], fish glue; ichthyocol[obs3], ichthycolla[obs3]; isinglass; mucus, phlegm, goo; pituite[obs3], lava; glair[obs3], starch, gluten, albumen, milk, cream, protein|!; treacle; gum, size, glue (tenacity) 327; wax, beeswax. emulsion, soup; squash, mud, slush, slime, ooze; moisture &c. 339; marsh &c. 345. V. inspissate[obs3], incrassate[obs3]; thicken, mash, squash, churn, beat up. sinter. Adj. semifluid, semiliquid; tremellose[obs3]; half melted, half frozen; milky, muddy &c. n.; lacteal, lactean[obs3], lacteous[obs3], lactescent[obs3], lactiferous[obs3]; emulsive, curdled, thick, succulent, uliginous[obs3]. gelatinous, albuminous, mucilaginous, glutinous; glutenous, gelatin, mastic, amylaceous[obs3], ropy, clammy, clotted; viscid, viscous; sticky, tacky, gooey; slab, slabby[obs3]; lentous|, pituitous[obs3]; mucid[obs3], muculent[obs3], mucous; gummy.

#353. [Mixture of air and water.] Bubble. [Cloud.]—N. bubble, foam, froth, head, spume, lather, suds, spray, surf, yeast, barm[obs3], spindrift. cloud, vapor, fog, mist, haze, steam, geyser; scud, messenger, rack, nimbus; cumulus, woolpack[obs3], cirrus, stratus; cirrostratus, cumulostratus; cirrocumulus; mackerel sky, mare's tale, dirty sky; curl cloud; frost smoke; thunderhead. [Science of clouds] nephelognosy[obs3]; nephograph[obs3], nephology[obs3]. effervescence, fermentation; bubbling &c. v. nebula; cloudliness &c. (opacity) 426[obs3]; nebulosity &c. (dimness) 422. V. bubble, boil, foam, froth, mantle, sparkle, guggle[obs3], gurgle; effervesce, ferment, fizzle. Adj. bubbling &c. v.; frothy, nappy[obs3], effervescent, sparkling, mousseux[French: frothy], up. cloudy &c. n.; thunderheaded[obs3]; vaporous, nebulous, overcast. Phr. "the lowring element scowls o'er the darkened landscip" [Paradise Lost].

#354. Pulpiness.—N. pulpiness &c. adj.; pulp, taste, dough, curd,
pap, rob, jam, pudding, poultice, grume[obs3].
     mush, oatmeal, baby food.
     Adj. pulpy &c. n.; pultaceous[obs3], grumous[obs3]; baccate[obs3].

#355. Unctuousness.—N. unctuousness &c. adj.; unctuosity[obs3],
lubricity; ointment &c. (oil) 356; anointment; lubrication &c. 332.
     V. oil &c. (lubricate) 332.
     Adj. unctuous, oily, oleaginous, adipose, sebaceous; unguinous[obs3];
fat, fatty, greasy; waxy, butyraceous, soapy, saponaceous[obs3], pinguid,
lardaceous[obs3]; slippery.

#356. Oil.—N. oil, fat, butter, cream, grease, tallow, suet, lard, dripping exunge|, blubber; glycerin, stearin, elaine[Chem], oleagine[obs3]; soap; soft soap, wax, cerement; paraffin, spermaceti, adipocere[obs3]; petroleum, mineral, mineral rock, mineral crystal, mineral oil; vegetable oil, colza oil[obs3], olive oil, salad oil, linseed oil, cottonseed oil, soybean oil, nut oil; animal oil, neat's foot oil, train oil; ointment, unguent, liniment; aceite[obs3], amole[obs3], Barbados tar[obs3]; fusel oil, grain oil, rape oil, seneca oil; hydrate of amyl, ghee[obs3]; heating oil, "#2 oil", No. 2 oil, distillate, residual oils, kerosene, jet fuel, gasoline, naphtha; stearin.

#356a. Resin.—N. resin, rosin; gum; lac, sealing wax; amber,
ambergris; bitumen, pitch, tar; asphalt, asphaltum; camphor; varnish,
copal[obs3], mastic, magilp[obs3], lacquer, japan.
     artificial resin, polymer; ion-exchange resin, cation-exchange resin,
anion exchange resin, water softener, Amberlite[obs3], Dowex[Chem], Diaion.
     V. varnish &c. (overlay) 223.
     Adj. resiny[obs3], resinous; bituminous, pitchy, tarry; asphaltic,



1. Vitality in general

#357. Organization.—N. organized world, organized nature; living nature, animated nature; living beings; organic remains, fossils. protoplasm, cytoplasm, protein; albumen; structure &c. 329; organization, organism. [Science of living beings] biology; natural history, organic chemistry, anatomy, physiology; zoology &c. 368; botany; microbiology, virology, bacteriology, mycology &c. 369; naturalist. archegenesis &c. (production) 161[obs3]; antherozoid[obs3], bioplasm[obs3], biotaxy[obs3], chromosome, dysmeromorph[obs3]; ecology, oecology; erythroblast[Physiol], gametangium[obs3], gamete, germinal matter, invagination[Biol]; isogamy[obs3], oogamy[obs3]; karyaster[obs3]; macrogamete[obs3], microgamete[obs3]; metabolism, anabolism, catabolism; metaplasm[obs3], ontogeny, ovary, ovum, oxidation, phylogeny, polymorphism, protozoa, spermary[obs3], spermatozoon, trophoplasm[obs3], vacuole, vertebration[obs3], zoogloea[obs3], zygote. Darwinism, neo-Darwinism, Lamarkism, neoLamarkism, Weismannism. morphology, taxonomy. Adj. organic, organized; karyoplasmic[obs3], unsegmentic[obs3], vacuolar, zoogloeic[obs3], zoogloeoid[obs3].

#358. Inorganization.—N. mineral world, mineral kingdom;
unorganized matter, inorganic matter, brute matter, inanimate matter.
     [Science of the mineral kingdom] mineralogy, geology, geognosy[obs3],
geoscopy[obs3]; metallurgy, metallography[obs3]; lithology; oryctology|,
     V. turn to dust; mineralize, fossilize.
     Adj. inorganic, inanimate, inorganized[obs3]; lithoidal[obs3]; azoic;

#359. Life.—N. life, vitality, viability; animation; vital spark,
vital flame, soul, spirit.
     respiration, wind; breath of life, breath of one's nostrils; oxygen,
     [devices to sustain respiration] respirator, artificial respirator,
heart and lung machine, iron lung; medical devices &c. 662.
     lifeblood; Archeus[obs3]; existence &c. 1.
     vivification; vital force; vitalization; revivification &c. 163;
Prometheus; life to come &c. (destiny) 152.
     [Science of life] physiology, biology; animal ecology.
     nourishment, staff of life &c. (food) 298.
     genetics, heredity, inheritance, evolution, natural selection,
reproduction (production) 161.
     microbe, aerobe, anaerobe, facultative anaerobe, obligate aerobe,
obligate anaerobe, halophile[Microbiol], methanogen[Microbiol],
archaebacteria[Microb], microaerophile[Microbiol].
     animal &c. 366; vegetable &c. 367.
     artificial life, robot, robotics, artificial intelligence.
     [vital signs] breathing, breathing rate, heartbeat, pulse,
     preservation of life, healing (medicine) 662.
     V. be alive &c. adj.; live, breathe, respire; subsist &c. (exist) 1;
walk the earth "strut and fret one's hour upon the stage" [Macbeth]; be
     see the light, be born, come into the world, fetch breath, draw
breath, fetch the breath of life, draw the breath of life; quicken; revive;
come to life.
     give birth to &c. (produce) 161; bring to life, put into life,
vitalize; vivify, vivificate[obs3]; reanimate &c. (restore) 660; keep
alive, keep body and soul together, keep the wolf from the door; support
     hive nine lives like a cat.
     Adj. living, alive; in life, in the flesh, in the land of the living;
on this side of the grave, above ground, breathing, quick, animated;
animative[obs3]; lively &c. (active) 682; all alive and kicking; tenacious
of life; full of life, yeasty.
     vital, vitalic[obs3]; vivifying, vivified, &c. v.; viable,
zoetic[obs3]; Promethean.
     Adv. vivendi causa[Lat].
     Phr. atqui vivere militare est [Lat][Seneca]; non est vivere sed
valere vita [Lat][Marial].

#360. Death.—N. death; decease, demise; dissolution, departure, obit, release, rest, quietus, fall; loss, bereavement; mortality, morbidity. end of life &c. 67, cessation of life &c. 142, loss of life, extinction of life, ebb of life &c. 359. death warrant, death watch, death rattle, death bed; stroke of death, agonies of death, shades of death, valley of death, jaws of death, hand of death; last breath, last gasp, last agonies; dying day, dying breath, dying agonies; chant du cygne[Fr]; rigor mortis[Lat]; Stygian shore. King of terrors, King Death; Death; doom &c. (necessity) 601; "Hell's grim Tyrant" [Pope]. euthanasia; break up of the system; natural death, natural decay; sudden death, violent death; untimely end, watery grave; debt of nature; suffocation, asphyxia; fatal disease &c. (disease) 655; death blow &c. (killing) 361. necrology, bills of mortality, obituary; death song &c. (lamentation) 839. V. die, expire, perish; meet one's death, meet one's end; pass away, be taken; yield one's breath, resign one's breath; resign one's being, resign one's life; end one's days, end one's life, end one's earthly career; breathe one's last; cease to live, cease to breathe; depart this life; be no more &c. adj.; go off, drop off, pop off; lose one's life, lay down one's life, relinquish one's life, surrender one's life; drop into the grave, sink into the grave; close one's eyes; fall dead, drop dead, fall down dead, drop down dead; break one's neck; give up the ghost, yield up the ghost; be all over with one. pay the debt to nature, shuffle off this mortal coil, take one's last sleep; go the way of all flesh; hand in one's checks, pass in one's checks, hand in one's chips, pass in one's chips [U.S.]; join the greater number, join the majority; come to dust, turn to dust; cross the Stygian ferry, cross the bar; go to one's long account, go to one's last home, go to Davy Jones's locker, go to the wall; receive one's death warrant, make one's will, step out, die a natural death, go out like the snuff of a candle; come to an untimely end; catch one's death; go off the hooks, kick the bucket, buy the farm, hop the twig, turn up one's toes; die a violent death &c. (be killed) 361. Adj. dead, lifeless; deceased, demised, departed, defunct, extinct; late, gone, no more; exanimate[obs3], inanimate; out of the world, taken off, released; departed this life &c. v.; dead and gone; dead as a doornail, dead as a doorpost[obs3], dead as a mutton, dead as a herring, dead as nits; launched into eternity, gone to one's eternal reward, gone to meet one's maker, pushing up daisies, gathered to one's fathers, numbered with the dead. dying &c. v.; moribund, morient|; hippocratic; in articulo, in extremis; in the jaws of death, in the agony of death; going off; aux abois[Fr]; one one's last legs, on one's death bed; at the point of death, at death's door,, at the last gasp; near one's end, given over, booked; with one foot in the grave, tottering on the brink of the grave. stillborn; mortuary; deadly &c. (killing) 361. Adv. post obit, post mortem[Lat]. Phr. life ebbs, life fails, life hangs by a thread; one's days are numbered, one's hour is come, one's race is run, one's doom is sealed; Death knocks at the door, Death stares one in the face; the breath is out of the body; the grave closes over one; sic itur ad astra [Lat][Vergil]; de mortuis nil nisi bonum[Lat]; dulce et decorum est pro patria mori [Lat][Horace]; honesta mors turpi vita potior [Lat][Tacitus]; "in adamantine chains shall death be bound" [Pope]; mors ultima linea rerum est [Lat][Girace]; ominia mors aequat [Lat][Claudianus]; "Spake the grisly Terror" [Paradise Lost]; "the lone couch of this everlasting sleep" [Shelley]; nothing is certain but death and taxes.

#361. [Destruction of live; violent death.] Killing.—N. killing &c. v.; homicide, manslaughter, murder, assassination, trucidation|, iccusion|; effusion of blood; blood, blood shed; gore, slaughter, carnage, butchery; battue[obs3]. massacre; fusillade, noyade[obs3]; thuggery, Thuggism[obs3]. deathblow, finishing stroke, coup de grace, quietus; execution &c. (capital punishment) 972; judicial murder; martyrdom. butcher, slayer, murderer, Cain, assassin, terrorist, cutthroat, garroter, bravo, Thug, Moloch, matador, sabreur[obs3]; guet-a-pens; gallows, executioner &c. (punishment) 975; man-eater, apache[obs3], hatchet man [U.S.], highbinder [obs3][U.S.]. regicide, parricide, matricide, fratricide, infanticide, feticide, foeticide[obs3], uxoricide[obs3], vaticide[obs3]. suicide, felo de se[obs3], hara-kiri, suttee, Juggernath[obs3]; immolation, auto da fe, holocaust. suffocation, strangulation, garrote; hanging &c. v.; lapidation[obs3]. deadly weapon &c. (arms) 727; Aceldama[obs3]. [Destruction of animals] slaughtering; phthisozoics[obs3]; sport, sporting; the chase, venery; hunting, coursing, shooting, fishing; pig- sticking; sportsman, huntsman, fisherman; hunter, Nimrod; slaughterhouse, meat packing plant, shambles, abattoir. fatal accident, violent death, casualty. V. kill, put to death, slay, shed blood; murder, assassinate, butcher, slaughter, victimize, immolate; massacre; take away life, deprive of life; make away with, put an end to; despatch, dispatch; burke, settle, do for. strangle, garrote, hang, throttle, choke, stifle, suffocate, stop the breath, smother, asphyxiate, drown. saber; cut down, cut to pieces, cut the throat; jugulate[obs3]; stab, run through the body, bayonet, eviscerate; put to the sword, put to the edge of the sword. shoot dead; blow one's brains out; brain, knock on the head; stone, lapidate[obs3]; give a deathblow; deal a deathblow; give a quietus, give a coupe de grace. behead, bowstring, electrocute, gas &c. (execute) 972. hunt, shoot &c. n. cut off, nip in the bud, launch into eternity, send to one's last account, sign one's death warrant, strike the death knell of. give no quarter, pour out blood like water; decimate; run amuck; wade knee deep in blood, imbrue one's hands in blood. die a violent death, welter in one's blood; dash out one's brains, blow out one's brains; commit suicide; kill oneself, make away with oneself, put an end to oneself, put an end to it all. Adj. killing &c. v.; murderous, slaughterous; sanguinary, sanguinolent[obs3]; blood stained, blood thirsty; homicidal, red handed; bloody, bloody minded; ensanguined[obs3], gory; thuggish. mortal, fatal, lethal; dead, deadly; mortiferous|, lethiferous[obs3]; unhealthy &c. 657; internecine; suicidal. sporting; piscatorial, piscatory[obs3]. Adv. in at the death. Phr. "assassination has never changed the history of the world" [Disraeli].

#362. Corpse.—N. corpse, corse[obs3], carcass, cadaver, bones,
skeleton, dry bones; defunct, relics, reliquiae[Lat], remains, mortal
remains, dust, ashes, earth, clay; mummy; carrion; food for worms, food for
fishes; tenement of clay this mortal coil.
     shade, ghost, manes.
     organic remains, fossils.
     Adj. cadaverous, corpse-like; unburied &c. 363;

#363. Interment.—N. interment, burial, sepulture[obs3]; inhumation|; obsequies, exequies[obs3]; funeral, wake, pyre, funeral pile; cremation. funeral, funeral rite, funeral solemnity; kneel, passing bell, tolling; dirge &c. (lamentation) 839; cypress; orbit, dead march, muffled drum; mortuary, undertaker, mute; elegy; funeral, funeral oration, funeral sermon; epitaph. graveclothes[obs3], shroud, winding sheet, cerecloth; cerement. coffin, shell, sarcophagus, urn, pall, bier, hearse, catafalque, cinerary urn[obs3]. grave, pit, sepulcher, tomb, vault, crypt, catacomb, mausoleum, Golgotha, house of death, narrow house; cemetery, necropolis; burial place, burial ground; grave yard, church yard; God's acre; tope, cromlech, barrow, tumulus, cairn; ossuary; bone house, charnel house, dead house; morgue; lich gate[obs3]; burning ghat[obs3]; crematorium, crematory; dokhma[obs3], mastaba[obs3], potter's field, stupa[obs3], Tower of Silence. sexton, gravedigger. monument, cenotaph, shrine; grave stone, head stone, tomb stone; memento mori[Lat]; hatchment[obs3], stone; obelisk, pyramid. exhumation, disinterment; necropsy, autopsy, post mortem examination[Lat]; zoothapsis[obs3]. V. inter, bury; lay in the grave, consign to the grave, lay in the tomb, entomb, in tomb; inhume; lay out, perform a funeral, embalm, mummify; toll the knell; put to bed with a shovel; inurn[obs3]. exhume, disinter, unearth. Adj. burried &c. v.; burial, funereal, funebrial[obs3]; mortuary, sepulchral, cinerary[obs3]; elegiac; necroscopic[obs3]. Adv. in memoriam; post obit, post mortem[Lat]; beneath the sod. Phr. hic jacet[Lat][obs3], ci-git[Fr]; RIP; requiescat in pace[Lat]; "the lone couch of his everlasting sleep" [Shelley]; "without a grave- unknell'd, uncoffin'd, and unknown" [Byron]; "in the dark union of insensate dust" [Byron]; "the deep cold shadow of the tomb" [Moore].

2. Special Vitality

#364. Animality.—N. animal life; animation, animality[obs3],
animalization[obs3]; animalness, corporeal nature, human system; breath.
     flesh, flesh and blood; physique; strength &c. 159.
     Adj. fleshly, human, corporeal.

#365. Vegetability|.—N. vegetable life; vegetation, vegetability|;
     V. vegetate, grow roots, put down roots.
     Adj. rank, lush; vegetable, vegetal, vegetive[obs3].

#366. Animal.—N. animal, animal kingdom; fauna; brute creation. beast, brute, creature, critter [US dialect], wight, created being; creeping thing, living thing; dumb animal, dumb creature; zoophyte. [major divisions of animals] mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, fish, crustacean, shellfish, mollusk, worm, insect, arthropod, microbe. [microscopic animals] microbe, animalcule &c. 193. [reptiles] alligator, crocodile; saurian; dinosaur [extinct]; snake, serpent, viper, eft; asp, aspick[obs3]. [amphibians] frog, toad. [fishes] trout, bass, tuna, muskelunge, sailfish, sardine, mackerel. [insects] ant, mosquito, bee, honeybee. [arthropods] tardigrade, spider. [classification by number of feet] biped, quadruped. flocks and herds, live stock; domestic animals, wild animals; game, ferae naturae[Lat]; beasts of the field, fowls of the air, denizens of the sea; black game, black grouse; blackcock[obs3], duck, grouse, plover, rail, snipe. [domesticated mammals] horse &c. (beast of burden) 271; cattle, kine[obs3], ox; bull, bullock; cow, milch cow, calf, heifer, shorthorn; sheep; lamb, lambkin[obs3]; ewe, ram, tup; pig, swine, boar, hog, sow; steer, stot[obs3]; tag, teg[obs3]; bison, buffalo, yak, zebu, dog, cat. [dogs] dog, hound; pup, puppy; whelp, cur, mongrel; house dog, watch dog, sheep dog, shepherd's dog, sporting dog, fancy dog, lap dog, toy dog, bull dog, badger dog; mastiff; blood hound, grey hound, stag hound, deer hound, fox hound, otter hound; harrier, beagle, spaniel, pointer, setter, retriever; Newfoundland; water dog, water spaniel; pug, poodle; turnspit; terrier; fox terrier, Skye terrier; Dandie Dinmont; collie. [cats][generally] feline, puss, pussy; grimalkin[obs3]; gib cat, tom cat. [wild mammals] fox, Reynard, vixen, stag, deer, hart, buck, doe, roe; caribou, coyote, elk, moose, musk ox, sambar[obs3]. bird; poultry, fowl, cock, hen, chicken, chanticleer, partlet[obs3], rooster, dunghill cock, barn door fowl; feathered tribes, feathered songster; singing bird, dicky bird; canary, warbler; finch; aberdevine[obs3], cushat[obs3], cygnet, ringdove[obs3], siskin, swan, wood pigeon. [undesirable animals] vermin, varmint[Western US], pest. Adj. animal, zoological equine, bovine, vaccine, canine, feline, fishy; piscatory[obs3], piscatorial; molluscous[obs3], vermicular; gallinaceous, rasorial[obs3], solidungulate[obs3], soliped[obs3].

#367. Vegetable.—N. vegetable, vegetable kingdom; flora, verdure. plant; tree, shrub, bush; creeper; herb, herbage; grass. annual; perennial, biennial, triennial; exotic. timber, forest; wood, woodlands; timberland; hurst[obs3], frith[obs3], holt, weald[obs3], park, chase, greenwood, brake, grove, copse, coppice, bocage[obs3], tope, clump of trees, thicket, spinet, spinney; underwood, brushwood; scrub; boscage, bosk[obs3], ceja[Sp], chaparral, motte [obs3][U.S.].; arboretum &c. 371. bush, jungle, prairie; heath, heather; fern, bracken; furze, gorse, whin; grass, turf; pasture, pasturage; turbary[obs3]; sedge, rush, weed; fungus, mushroom, toadstool; lichen, moss, conferva[obs3], mold; growth; alfalfa, alfilaria[obs3], banyan; blow, blowth[obs3]; floret[obs3], petiole; pin grass, timothy, yam, yew, zinnia. foliage, branch, bough, ramage[obs3], stem, tigella[obs3]; spray &c. 51; leaf. flower, blossom, bine[obs3]; flowering plant; timber tree, fruit tree; pulse, legume. Adj. vegetable, vegetal, vegetive[obs3], vegitous|; herbaceous, herbal; botanic[obs3]; sylvan, silvan[obs3]; arborary[obs3], arboreous[obs3], arborescent[obs3], arborical|; woody, grassy; verdant, verdurous; floral, mossy; lignous[obs3], ligneous; wooden, leguminous; vosky[obs3], cespitose[obs3], turf-like, turfy; endogenous, exogenous. Phr. "green-robed senators of mighty woods" [Keats]; "this is the forest primeval" [Longfellow].

#368. [The science of animals.] Zoology.—N. zoology, zoonomy[obs3], zoography[obs3], zootomy[obs3]; anatomy; comparative anatomy; animal physiology, comparative physiology; morphology; mammalogy. anthropology, ornithology, ichthyology, herpetology, ophiology[obs3], malacology[obs3], helminthology[Med], entomology, oryctology[obs3], paleontology, mastology[obs3], vermeology[obs3]; ichthy &c. ichthyotomy[obs3]; taxidermy. zoologist &c. Adj. zoological &c. n.

#369. [The science of plants.] Botany.—N. botany; physiological botany, structural botany, systematic botany; phytography[obs3], phytology[obs3], phytotomy[obs3]; vegetable physiology, herborization[obs3], dendrology, mycology, fungology[obs3], algology[obs3]; flora, romona; botanic garden &c. (garden) 371[obs3]; hortus siccus[Lat], herbarium, herbal. botanist &c.; herbist[obs3], herbarist[obs3], herbalist, herborist[obs3], herbarian[obs3]. V. botanize, herborize[obs3]. Adj. botanical &c. n.; botanic[obs3].

#370. [The economy or management of animals.] Husbandry.—N. husbandry, taming &c. v.; circuration[obs3], zoohygiantics[obs3]; domestication, domesticity; manege[Fr], veterinary art; farriery[obs3]; breeding, pisciculture. menagerie, vivarium, zoological garden; bear pit; aviary, apiary, alveary[obs3], beehive; hive; aquarium, fishery; duck pond, fish pond. phthisozoics &c. (killing) 361[obs3][Destruction of animals]; euthanasia, sacrifice, humane destruction. neatherd[obs3], cowherd, shepherd; grazier, drover, cowkeeper[obs3]; trainer, breeder; apiarian[obs3], apiarist; bull whacker [U.S.], cowboy, cow puncher [U.S.], farrier; horse leech, horse doctor; vaquero, veterinarian, vet, veterinary surgeon. cage &c. (prison) 752; hencoop[obs3], bird cage, cauf[obs3]; range, sheepfold, &c. (inclosure) 232. V. tame, domesticate, acclimatize, breed, tend, break in, train; cage, bridle, &c. (restrain) 751. Adj. pastoral, bucolic; tame, domestic.

#371. [The economy or management of plants.] Agriculture.—N. agriculture, cultivation, husbandry, farming; georgics, geoponics[obs3]; tillage, agronomy, gardening, spade husbandry, vintage; horticulture, arboriculture[obs3], floriculture; landscape gardening; viticulture. husbandman, horticulturist, gardener, florist; agricultor[obs3], agriculturist; yeoman, farmer, cultivator, tiller of the soil, woodcutter, backwoodsman; granger, habitat, vigneron[obs3], viticulturist; Triptolemus. field, meadow, garden; botanic garden[obs3], winter garden, ornamental garden, flower garden, kitchen garden, market garden, hop garden; nursery; green house, hot house; conservatory, bed, border, seed plot; grassplot[obs3], grassplat[obs3], lawn; park &c. (pleasure ground) 840; parterre, shrubbery, plantation, avenue, arboretum, pinery[obs3], pinetum[obs3], orchard; vineyard, vinery; orangery[obs3]; farm &c. (abode) 189. V. cultivate; till the soil; farm, garden; sow, plant; reap, mow, cut; manure, dress the ground, dig, delve, dibble, hoe, plough, plow, harrow, rake, weed, lop and top; backset [obs3][U.S.]. Adj. agricultural, agrarian, agrestic[obs3]. arable, predial[obs3], rural, rustic, country; horticultural.

#372. Mankind.—N. man, mankind; human race, human species, human kind, human nature; humanity, mortality, flesh, generation. [Science of man] anthropology, anthropogeny[obs3], anthropography[obs3], anthroposophy[obs3]; ethnology, ethnography; humanitarian. human being; person, personage; individual, creature, fellow creature, mortal, body, somebody; one; such a one, some one; soul, living soul; earthling; party, head, hand; dramatis personae[Lat]; quidam[Lat]. people, persons, folk, public, society, world; community, community at large; general public; nation, nationality; state, realm; commonweal, commonwealth; republic, body politic; million &c. (commonalty) 876; population &c. (inhabitant) 188. tribe, clan (paternity) 166; family (consanguinity) 11. cosmopolite; lords of the creation; ourselves. Adj. human, mortal, personal, individual, national, civic, public, social; cosmopolitan; anthropoid. Phr. "am I not a man and a brother?" [Wedgwood].

#373. Man.—N. man, male, he, him; manhood &c. (adolescence) 131;
gentleman, sir, master; sahib; yeoman, wight|!, swain, fellow, blade, beau,
elf, chap, gaffer, good man; husband &c. (married man) 903; Mr., mister;
boy &c. (youth) 129.
     [Male animal] cock, drake, gander, dog, boar, stag, hart, buck, horse,
entire horse, stallion; gibcat[obs3], tomcat; he goat, Billy goat; ram,
tup; bull, bullock; capon, ox, gelding, steer, stot[obs3].
     homosexual, gay, queen[slang].
     V. masculinize
     Adj. male, he-, masculine; manly, virile; unwomanly, unfeminine.
     Pron. he, him, his.
     Phr. hominem pagina nostra sapit [Lat][Mar.]; homo homini aut deus
aut lupus [Lat][Erasmus]; homo vitae commodatus non donatus est

#374. Woman.—N. woman, she, her, female, petticoat.
     feminality[obs3], muliebrity[obs3]; womanhood &c. (adolescence) 131.
     womankind; the sex, the fair; fair sex, softer sex; weaker vessel.
     dame, madam, madame, mistress, Mrs. lady, donna belle[Sp], matron,
dowager, goody, gammer[obs3]; Frau[Ger], frow[obs3], Vrouw[Dutch], rani;
good woman, good wife; squaw; wife &c. (marriage) 903; matronage,
     bachelor girl, new woman, feminist, suffragette, suffragist.
     nymph, wench, grisette[obs3]; girl &c. (youth) 129.
     [Effeminacy] sissy, betty, cot betty [U.S.], cotquean[obs3],
henhussy[obs3], mollycoddle, muff, old woman.
     [Female animal] hen, bitch, sow, doe, roe, mare; she goat, Nanny goat,
tabita; ewe, cow; lioness, tigress; vixen.
     estrogen, oestrogen.
      consanguinity &c. 166[female relatives], paternity &c. 11.
     lesbian, dyke[slang].
     V. feminize.
     Adj. female, she-; feminine, womanly, ladylike, matronly, maidenly,
wifely; womanish, effeminate, unmanly; gynecic[obs3], gynaecic[obs3].
     Pron. she, her, hers.
     Phr. "a perfect woman nobly planned" [Wordsworth]; "a lovely lady
garmented in white" [Shelley]; das Ewig-Weibliche zieht uns hinan
[Ger][Goethe]; "earth's noblest thing, a woman perfected" [Lowell]; es de
vidrio la mujer[Sp]; "she moves a goddess and she looks a queen" [Pope];
"the beauty of a lovely woman is like music" [G. Eliot]; varium et mutabile
semper femina [Lat][Vergil]; "woman is the lesser man" [Tennyson].

#374a. Sexuality [human]—N. sex, sexuality, gender; male,
masculinity, maleness &c. 373; female, femininity &c. 374.
     sexual intercourse, copulation, mating, coitus, sex; lovemaking,
marital relations, sexual union; sleeping together, carnal knowledge.
     sex instinct, sex drive, libido, lust, concupiscence; hots, horns
[coll]; arousal, heat, rut, estrus, oestrus; tumescence; erection, hard-on,
     masturbation, self-gratification, autoeroticism, onanism, self-abuse.
     orgasm, climax, ejaculation.
     sexiness, attractiveness; sensuality, voluptuousness.
     [sexual intercourse outside of marriage] fornication, adultery.
     [person who is sexy] sex symbol, sex goddess; stud, hunk.
     one-night stand.
     pornography, porn, porno; hardcore pornography, softcore pornography;
pin-up, cheesecake; beefcake; Playboy[magazines with sexual photos],
Esquire, Hustler.
     [unorthodox sexual activity] perversion, deviation, sexual
abnormality; fetish, fetishism; homosexuality, lesbianism, bisexuality;
sodomy, buggery; pederasty; sadism, masochism, sado-masochism; incest.
     V. mate, copulate; make love, have intercourse, fornicate, have sex,
do it, sleep together, fuck[vulg.]; sleep around, play the field..
     masturbate, jerk off[coll.], jack off[coll.], play with oneself.
     have the hots[coll]; become aroused, get hot; have an erection, get it
     come, climax, ejaculate.
     Adj. sexy, erotic, sexual, carnal, sensual.
     hot, horny, randy, rutting; passionate, lusty, hot-blooded,
libidinous; up, in the mood.
     homosexual, gay, lesbian, bisexual.


1. Sensation in general

#375. Physical Sensibility.—N. sensibility; sensitiveness &c. adj.;
physical sensibility, feeling, impressibility, perceptivity, aesthetics;
moral sensibility &c. 822.
     sensation, impression; consciousness &c. (knowledge) 490.
     external senses.
     V. be sensible of &c. adj.; feel, perceive.
     render sensible &c. adj.; sharpen, cultivate, tutor.
     cause sensation, impress; excite an impression, produce an impression.
     Adj. sensible, sensitive, sensuous; aesthetic, perceptive, sentient;
conscious &c. (aware) 490.
     acute, sharp, keen, vivid, lively, impressive, thin-skinned.
     Adv. to the quick.
     Phr. "the touch'd needle trembles to the pole" [Pope].

#376. Physical Insensibility.—N. insensibility, physical insensibility; obtuseness &c. adj.; palsy, paralysis, paraesthesia[Med], anaesthesia; sleep &c. 823; hemiplegia[obs3], motor paralysis; vegetable state; coma. anaesthetic agent, opium, ether, chloroform, chloral; nitrous oxide, laughing gas; exhilarating gas, protoxide of nitrogen[ISA:chemsubcfs]; refrigeration. V. be insensible &c. adj.; have a thick skin, have a rhinoceros hide. render insensible &c. adj.; anaesthetize[obs3], blunt, pall, obtund[obs3], benumb, paralyze; put under the influence of chloroform &c. n.; stupefy, stun. Adj. insensible, unfeeling, senseless, impercipient[obs3], callous, thick-skinned, pachydermatous; hard, hardened; case hardened; proof, obtuse, dull; anaesthetic; comatose, paralytic, palsied, numb, dead.

#377. Physical Pleasure.—N. pleasure; physical pleasure, sensual pleasure, sensuous pleasure; bodily enjoyment, animal gratification, hedonism, sensuality; luxuriousness &c. adj.; dissipation, round of pleasure, titillation, gusto, creature comforts, comfort, ease; pillow &c. (support) 215; luxury, lap of luxury; purple and fine linen; bed of downs, bed of roses; velvet, clover; cup of Circe &c. (intemperance) 954. treat; refreshment, regale; feast; delice[Fr]; dainty &c. 394; bonne bouche[Fr]. source of pleasure &c. 829; happiness &c. (mental enjoyment) 827. V. feel pleasure, experience pleasure, receive pleasure; enjoy, relish; luxuriate in, revel in, riot in, bask in, swim in, drink up, eat up, wallow in; feast on; gloat over, float on; smack the lips. live on the fat of the land, live in comfort &c. adv.; bask in the sunshine, faire ses choux gras[Fr].. give pleasure &c. 829. Adj. enjoying &c. v.; luxurious, voluptuous, sensual, comfortable, cosy, snug, in comfort, at ease. pleasant, agreeable &c. 829. Adv. in comfort &c. n.; on a bed of roses &c. n.; at one's ease. Phr. ride si sapis [Lat][Martial]; voluptales commendat rarior usus [Lat][Juvenal].

#378. Physical Pain.—N. pain; suffering, sufferance, suffrance[obs3]; bodily pain, physical pain, bodily suffering, physical suffering, body pain; mental suffering &c. 828; dolour, ache; aching &c. v.; smart; shoot, shooting; twinge, twitch, gripe, headache, stomach ache, heartburn, angina, angina pectoris[Lat]; hurt, cut; sore, soreness; discomfort, malaise; cephalalgia[Med], earache, gout, ischiagra[obs3], lumbago, neuralgia, odontalgia[obs3], otalgia[obs3], podagra[obs3], rheumatism, sciatica; tic douloureux[Fr], toothache, tormina[obs3], torticollis[obs3]. spasm, cramp; nightmare, ephialtes[obs3]; crick, stitch; thrill, convulsion, throe; throb &c. (agitation) 315; pang; colic; kink. sharp pain, piercing pain, throbbing pain, shooting pain, sting, gnawing pain, burning pain; excruciating pain. anguish, agony; torment, torture; rack; cruciation[obs3], crucifixion; martyrdom, toad under a harrow, vivisection. V. feel pain, experience pain, suffer pain, undergo pain &c. n.; suffer, ache, smart, bleed; tingle, shoot; twinge, twitch, lancinate[obs3]; writhe, wince, make a wry face; sit on thorns, sit on pins and needles. give pain, inflict pain; lacerate; pain, hurt, chafe, sting, bite, gnaw, gripe; pinch, tweak; grate, gall, fret, prick, pierce, wring, convulse; torment, torture; rack, agonize; crucify; cruciate[obs3], excruciate|; break on the wheel, put to the rack; flog &c. (punish) 972; grate on the ear &c. (harsh sound) 410. Adj. in pain &c. n., in a state of pain; pained &c. v.; gouty, podagric[obs3], torminous[obs3]. painful; aching &c. v.; sore, raw.

2. Special Sensation
(1) Touch

#379. [Sensation of pressure] Touch.—N. touch; tact, taction[obs3], tactility; feeling; palpation, palpability; contrectation[obs3]; manipulation; massage. [Organ of touch] hand, finger, forefinger, thumb, paw, feeler, antenna; palpus[obs3]. V. touch, feel, handle, finger, thumb, paw, fumble, grope, grabble; twiddle, tweedle; pass the fingers over, run the fingers over; manipulate, wield; throw out a feeler. Adj. tactual, tactile; tangible, palpable; lambent.

#380. Sensations of Touch.—N. itching, pruritis &c. v[Med].;
titillation, formication[obs3], aura; stereognosis[obs3].
     V. itch, tingle, creep, thrill, sting; prick, prickle; tickle,
     Adj. itching &c. v.; stereognostic[obs3], titillative.

#381. [insensibility to touch.] Numbness.—N. numbness &c. (physical
insensibility) 376; anaesthesia; pins and needles.
     V. benumb &c. 376.
     Adj. numb; benumbed &c. v.; deadened; intangible, impalpable.

(2) Heat

#382. Heat.—N. heat, caloric; temperature, warmth, fervor, calidity[obs3]; incalescence[obs3], incandescence; glow, flush; fever, hectic. phlogiston; fire, spark, scintillation, flash, flame, blaze; bonfire; firework, pyrotechnics, pyrotechny[obs3]; wildfire; sheet of fire, lambent flame; devouring element; adiathermancy[obs3]; recalescence[Phys]. summer, dog days; canicular days[obs3]; baking &c. 384 heat, white heat, tropical heat, Afric heat[obs3], Bengal heat[obs3], summer heat, blood heat; sirocco, simoom; broiling sun; insolation; warming &c. 384. sun &c. (luminary) 423. [Science of heat] pyrology[obs3]; thermology[obs3], thermotics[obs3], thermodynamics; thermometer &c. 389. [thermal units] calorie, gram-calorie, small calorie; kilocalorie, kilogram calorie, large calorie; British Thermal Unit, B.T.U.; therm, quad. [units of temperature] degrees Kelvin, kelvins, degrees centigrade, degrees Celsius; degrees Fahrenheit. V. be hot &c. adj.; glow, flush, sweat, swelter, bask, smoke, reek, stew, simmer, seethe, boil, burn, blister, broil, blaze, flame; smolder; parch, fume, pant. heat &c. (make hot) 384; recalesce[obs3]; thaw, give. Adj. hot, warm, mild, genial, tepid, lukewarm, unfrozen; thermal, thermic; calorific; fervent, fervid; ardent; aglow. sunny, torrid, tropical, estival|!, canicular[obs3], steamy; close, sultry, stifling, stuffy, suffocating, oppressive; reeking &c. v.; baking &c. 384. red hot, white hot, smoking hot, burning &c. v. hot, piping hot; like a furnace, like an oven; burning, hot as fire, hot as pepper; hot enough to roast an ox, hot enough to boil an egg. fiery; incandescent, incalescent[obs3]; candent[obs3], ebullient, glowing, smoking; live; on fire; dazzling &c. v.; in flames, blazing, in a blaze; alight, afire, ablaze; unquenched, unextinguished[obs3]; smoldering; in a heat, in a glow, in a fever, in a perspiration, in a sweat; sudorific[obs3]; sweltering, sweltered; blood hot, blood warm; warm as a toast, warm as wool. volcanic, plutonic, igneous; isothermal|!, isothermic|!, isotheral|!. Phr. not a breath of air; "whirlwinds of tempestuous fire" [Paradise Lost].

#383. Cold.—N. cold, coldness &c. adj.; frigidity, inclemency, fresco. winter; depth of winter, hard winter; Siberia, Nova Zembla; wind-chill factor. [forms of frozen water] ice; snow, snowflake, snow crystal, snow drift; sleet; hail, hailstone; rime, frost; hoar frost, white frost, hard frost, sharp frost; barf; glaze [U. S.], lolly [obs3][N. Am.]; icicle, thick-ribbed ice; fall of snow, heavy fall; iceberg, icefloe; floe berg; glacier; neve, serac[obs3]; pruina[obs3]. [cold substances] freezing mixture, dry ice, liquid nitrogen, liquid helium. [Sensation of cold] chilliness &c. adj.; chill; shivering &c. v.; goose skin, horripilation[obs3]; rigor; chattering of teeth; numbness, frostbite. V. be cold &c. adj[intrans.].; shiver, starve, quake, shake, tremble, shudder, didder[obs3], quiver; freeze, freeze to death, perish with cold. [transitive] chill, freeze &c. (render cold) 385; horripilate[obs3], make the skin crawl, give one goose flesh. Adj. cold, cool; chill, chilly; icy; gelid, frigid, algid[obs3]; fresh, keen, bleak, raw, inclement, bitter, biting, niveous[obs3], cutting, nipping, piercing, pinching; clay-cold; starved &c. (made cold) 385; chilled to the bone, shivering &c. v.; aguish, transi de froid[Fr]; frostbitten, frost-bound, frost-nipped. cold as a stone, cold as marble, cold as lead, cold as iron, cold as a frog, cold as charity, cold as Christmas; cool as a cucumber, cool as custard. icy, glacial, frosty, freezing, pruinose[obs3], wintry, brumal[obs3], hibernal[obs3], boreal, arctic, Siberian, hyemal[obs3]; hyperborean, hyperboreal[obs3]; icebound; frozen out. unwarmed[obs3], unthawed[obs3]; lukewarm, tepid; isocheimal[obs3], isocheimenal[obs3], isocheimic[obs3]. frozen, numb, frost-bitten. Adv. coldly, bitterly &c. adj.; pierre fendre[Fr];

#384. Calefaction.—N. increase of temperature; heating &c. v.; calefaction[obs3], tepefaction[obs3], torrefaction[obs3]; melting, fusion; liquefaction &c. 335; burning &c. v.; ambustion[obs3], combustion; incension|, accension[obs3]; concremation[obs3], cremation; scorification[obs3]; cautery, cauterization; ustulation[obs3], calcination; cracking, refining; incineration, cineration[obs3]; carbonization; cupellation[Chem]. ignition, inflammation, adustion[obs3], flagration| [obs3]; deflagration, conflagration; empyrosis[obs3], incendiarism; arson; auto dafe[Fr]. boiling &c. v.; coction[obs3], ebullition, estuation[obs3], elixation|, decoction; ebullioscope[obs3]; geyser; distillation (vaporization) 336. furnace &c. 386; blanket, flannel, fur; wadding &c. (lining) 224; clothing &c. 225. still; refinery; fractionating column, fractionating tower, cracking tower. match &c. (fuel) 388; incendiary; petroleuse[Fr]; [biological effects resembling the effects of heat][substances causing a burning sensation and damage on skin or tissue] cauterizer[obs3]; caustic, lunar caustic, alkali, apozem[obs3], moxa[obs3]; acid, aqua fortis[Lat], aqua regia; catheretic[obs3], nitric acid, nitrochloro-hydric acid[ISA:CHEMSUB], nitromuriatic acid[ISA:CHEMSUBPREFIX]; radioactivity, gamma rays, alpha particles, beta rays, X-rays, radiation, cosmic radiation, background radiation, radioactive isotopes, tritium, uranium, plutonium, radon, radium. sunstroke, coup de soleil[Fr]; insolation. [artifacts requiring heat in their manufacture] pottery, ceramics, crockery, porcelain, china; earthenware, stoneware; pot, mug, terra cotta[Sp], brick, clinker. [products of combustion] cinder, ash, scoriae, embers, soot; slag. [products of heating organic materials] coke, carbon, charcoal; wood alcohol, turpentine, tea tree oil; gasoline, kerosene, naptha[ISA:CHEMSUB], fuel oil (fuel) 388; wax, paraffin; residue, tar. inflammability, combustibility. [Transmission of heat] diathermancy[obs3], transcalency[obs3], conduction; convection; radiation, radiant heat; heat conductivity, conductivity. [effects of heat 2.] thermal expansion; coefficient of expansion. V. heat, warm, chafe, stive[obs3], foment; make hot &c. 382; sun oneself, sunbathe. go up in flames, burn to the ground (flame) 382. fire; set fire to, set on fire; kindle, enkindle, light, ignite, strike a light; apply the match to, apply the torch to; rekindle, relume[obs3]; fan the flame, add fuel to the flame; poke the fire, stir the fire, blow the fire; make a bonfire of. melt, thaw, fuse; liquefy &c. 335. burn, inflame, roast, toast, fry, grill, singe, parch, bake, torrefy[obs3], scorch; brand, cauterize, sear, burn in; corrode, char, calcine, incinerate; smelt, scorify[obs3]; reduce to ashes; burn to a cinder; commit to the flames, consign to the flames. boil, digest, stew, cook, seethe, scald, parboil, simmer; do to rags. take fire, catch fire; blaze &c. (flame) 382. Adj. heated &c. v.; molten, sodden; rchauff; heating &c. v.; adust[obs3]. inflammable, combustible; diathermal[obs3], diathermanous[obs3]; burnt &c. v.; volcanic, radioactive.

#385. Refrigeration.—N. refrigeration, infrigidation[obs3], reduction of temperature; cooling &c. v.; congelation[obs3], conglaciation| [obs3]; ice &c. 383; solidification &c. (density) 321; ice box (refrigerator) 385.. extincteur[Fr]; fire annihilator; amianth[obs3], amianthus[obs3]; earth-flax, mountain-flax; flexible asbestos; fireman, fire brigade (incombustibility) 388a. incombustibility, incombustibleness &c. adj[obs3]. (insulation) 388a. air conditioning[residential cooling], central air conditioning; air conditioner; fan, attic fan; dehumidifier. V. cool, fan, refrigerate, refresh, ice; congeal, freeze, glaciate; benumb, starve, pinch, chill, petrify, chill to the marrow, regelate[obs3], nip, cut, pierce, bite, make one's teeth chatter, damp, slack quench; put out, stamp out; extinguish; go out, burn out (incombustibility) 388a.. Adj. cooled &c. v.; frozen out; cooling &c. v.; frigorific[obs3].

#386. Furnace.—N. furnace, stove, kiln, oven; cracker; hearth, focus, combustion chamber; athanor[obs3], hypocaust[obs3], reverberatory; volcano; forge, fiery furnace; limekiln; Dutch oven; tuyere, brasier[obs3], salamander, heater, warming pan; boiler, caldron, seething caldron, pot; urn, kettle; chafing-dish; retort, crucible, alembic, still; waffle irons; muffle furnace, induction furnace; electric heater, electric furnace, electric resistance heat. [steel-making furnace] open-hearth furnace. fireplace, gas fireplace; coal fire, wood fire; fire-dog, fire-irons; grate, range, kitchener; caboose, camboose[obs3]; poker, tongs, shovel, ashpan, hob, trivet; andiron, gridiron; ashdrop; frying-pan, stew-pan, backlog. [area near a fireplace] hearth, inglenook. [residential heating methods] oil burner, gas burner, Franklin stove, pot-bellied stove; wood-burning stove; central heating, steam heat, hot water heat, gas heat, forced hot air, electric heat, heat pump; solar heat, convective heat. hothouse, bakehouse[obs3], washhouse[obs3]; laundry; conservatory; sudatory[obs3]; Turkish bath, Russian bath, vapor bath, steam bath, sauna, warm bath; vaporarium[obs3].

#387. Refrigerator.—N. refrigerator, refrigeratory[obs3]; frigidarium[obs3]; cold storage, cold room, cold laboratory; icehouse, icepail, icebag, icebox; cooler, damper, polyurethane cooler; wine cooler. freezer, deep freeze, dry ice freezer, liquid nitrogen freezer, refigerator-freezer. freezing mixture[refrigerating substances], ice, ice cubes, blocks of ice, chipped ice; liquid nitrogen, dry ice, dry ice-acetone, liquid helium.

#388. Fuel.—N. fuel, firing, combustible. [solid fuels] coal, wallsend[obs3], anthracite, culm[obs3], coke, carbon, charcoal, bituminous coal, tar shale; turf, peat, firewood, bobbing, faggot, log; cinder &c. (products of combustion) 384; ingle, tinder, touchwood; sulphur, brimstone; incense; port-fire; fire-barrel, fireball, brand; amadou[obs3], bavin[obs3]; blind coal, glance coal; German tinder, pyrotechnic sponge, punk, smudge [U. S.]; solid fueled rocket. [fuels for candles and lamps] wax, paraffin wax, paraffin oil; lamp oil, whale oil. [liquid fuels] oil, petroleum, gasoline, high octane gasoline, nitromethane[ISA:CHEMSUB@fuel], petrol, gas, juice [coll.], gasohol, alcohol, ethanol, methanol, fuel oil, kerosene, jet fuel, heating oil, number 2 oil, number 4 oil, naphtha; rocket fuel, high specific impulse fuel, liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen, lox. [gaseous fuels] natural gas, synthetic gas, synthesis gas, propane, butane, hydrogen. brand, torch, fuse; wick; spill, match, light, lucifer, congreve[obs3], vesuvian, vesta[obs3], fusee, locofoco[obs3]; linstock[obs3]. candle &c. (luminary) 423; oil &c. (grease) 356. Adj. carbonaceous; combustible, inflammable; high octane, high specific impulse; heat of combustion,.

#388a. Insulation, Fire extinction. {ant. of 388}—insulation,
incombustible material, noncombustible material; fire retardant, flame
retardant; fire wall, fire door.
     incombustibility, incombustibleness &c. adj.
     extincteur[Fr]; fire annihilator; amianth[obs3], amianthus[obs3];
earth-flax, mountain-flax; asbestos; fireman, fire fighter, fire eater,
fire department, fire brigade, engine company; pumper, fire truck, hook and
ladder, aerial ladder, bucket; fire hose, fire hydrant.
     [forest fires] backfire, firebreak, trench; aerial water bombardment.
     wet blanket; fire extinguisher, soda and acid extinguisher, dry
chemical extinguisher, CO-two extinguisher, carbon tetrachloride, foam;
sprinklers, automatic sprinkler system; fire bucket, sand bucket.
     [warning of fire] fire alarm, evacuation alarm,
     [laws to prevent fire] fire code, fire regulations, fire; fire
inspector; code violation, citation.
     V. go out, die out, burn out; fizzle.
     extinguish; damp, slack, quench, smother; put out, stamp out; douse,
snuff, snuff out, blow out.
     fireproof, flameproof.
     Adj. incombustible; nonflammable, uninflammable,
unflammable[obs3]; fireproof.
     Phr. fight fire with fire

#389. Thermometer.—N. thermometer, thermometrograph[obs3], mercury thermometer, alcohol thermometer, clinical thermometer, dry-bulb thermometer, wet-bulb thermometer, Anschutz thermometer[Ger], gas thermometer, telethermometer; color-changing temperature indicator; thermopile, thermoscope[obs3]; pyrometer, calorimeter, bomb calorimeter; thermistor, thermocouple. [temperature-control devices] thermostat, thermoregulator.

(3) Taste

#390. Taste.—N. taste, flavor, gust, gusto, savor; gout, relish;
sapor|, sapidity[obs3]; twang, smack, smatch| [obs3]; aftertaste, tang.
     tasting; degustation, gustation.
     palate, tongue, tooth, stomach.
     V. taste, savor, smatch[obs3], smack, flavor, twang; tickle the palate
&c. (savory) 394; smack the lips.
     Adj. sapid, saporific[obs3]; gustable|, gustatory; gustful[obs3];
strong, gamy; palatable &c. 394.

#391. Insipidity.—N. insipidity, blandness; tastelessness &c. adj.
     V. be tasteless &c. adj.
     Adj. bland, void of taste &c. 390; insipid; tasteless, gustless|,
savorless; ingustible|, mawkish, milk and water, weak, stale, flat, vapid,
fade, wishy-washy, mild; untasted[obs3].

#392. Pungency.—N. pungency, piquance, piquancy, poignancy haut- gout, strong taste, twang, race. sharpness &c. adj.; acrimony; roughness &c. (sour) 392; unsavoriness &c. 395. mustard, cayenne, caviare; seasoning &c. (condiment) 393; niter, saltpeter, brine (saltiness) 392a; carbonate of ammonia; sal ammoniac[obs3], sal volatile, smelling salts; hartshorn (acridity) 401a. dram, cordial, nip. nicotine, tobacco, snuff, quid, smoke; segar[obs3]; cigar, cigarette; weed; fragrant weed, Indian weed; Cavendish, fid[obs3], negro head, old soldier, rappee[obs3], stogy[obs3]. V. be pungent &c. adj.; bite the tongue. render -pungent &c. adj.; season, spice, salt, pepper, pickle, brine, devil. smoke, chew, take snuff. Adj. pungent, strong; high-, full-flavored; high-tasted, high- seasoned; gamy, sharp, stinging, rough, piquant, racy; biting, mordant; spicy; seasoned &c. v.; hot, hot as pepper; peppery, vellicating[obs3], escharotic[obs3], meracious|; acrid, acrimonious, bitter; rough &c. (sour) 397; unsavory &c. 395.

#392a. Saltiness.—N. saltiness.
     niter, saltpeter, brine.
     Adj. salty, salt, saline, brackish, briny; salty as brine, salty as a
herring, salty as Lot's wife.
     salty, racy (indecent) 961.
     Phr. take it with a grain of salt.

#392b. Bitterness—N. bitterness, acridness[obs3], acridity,
acrimony; caustic, alkali; acerbity; gall, wormwood; bitters, astringent
     [additive for alcoholic beverages]Angostura aromatic bitters.
     sourness &c. 397; pungency &c. 392.
     [bitter substances] alkaloids; turmeric.
     Adj. bitter, bitterish, acrid, acerb, acerbic.
     Phr. bitter as gall; bitter pill to take; sugar coating on a bitter

#393. Condiment.—N. condiment, seasoning, sauce, spice, relish,
     [exlist] salt; mustard, grey poupon mustard; pepper, black pepper,
white pepper, peppercorn, curry, sauce piquante[Fr]; caviare, onion,
garlic, pickle; achar[obs3], allspice; bell pepper, Jamaica pepper, green
pepper; chutney; cubeb[obs3], pimento.
     [capsicum peppers] capsicum, red pepper, chili peppers, cayenne.
     nutmeg, mace, cinnamon, oregano, cloves, fennel.
     [herbs] pot herbs, parsley, sage, rosemary, thyme, bay leaves,
     [fragrant woods and gums] frankincense, balm, myrrh.
     [from pods] paprika.
     [from flower stigmas] saffron.
     [from roots] ginger, turmeric.
     V. season, spice, flavor, spice up &c. (render pungent) 392.

#394. Savoriness.—N. savoriness &c. adj.; good taste,
deliciousness, delectability.
     relish, zest; appetizer.
     tidbit, titbit[obs3], dainty, delicacy, tasty morsel; appetizer, hors
d'ouvres[Fr.]; ambrosia, nectar, bonne-bouche[Fr]; game, turtle, venison;
     V. be savory &c. adj.; tickle the palate, tickle the appetite; flatter
the palate.
     render palatable &c. adj.
     relish, like, smack the lips.
     Adj. savory, delicious, tasty, well-tasted, to one's taste, good,
palatable, nice, dainty, delectable; toothful[obs3], toothsome;
gustful[obs3], appetizing, lickerish[obs3], delicate, exquisite, rich,
luscious, ambrosial, scrumptious, delightful.
     Adv. per amusare la bocca
     Phr[It]. cela se laisse manger[Fr].

#395. Unsavoriness.—N. unsavoriness &c. adj.; amaritude[obs3]; acrimony, acridity (bitterness) 392b; roughness &c. (sour) 397; acerbity, austerity; gall and wormwood, rue, quassia[obs3], aloes; marah[obs3]; sickener[obs3]. V. be unpalatable &c. adj.; sicken, disgust, nauseate, pall, turn the stomach. Adj. unsavory, unpalatable, unsweetened, unsweet[obs3]; ill-flavored; bitter, bitter as gall; acrid, acrimonious; rough. offensive, repulsive, nasty; sickening &c. v.; nauseous; loathsome, fulsome; unpleasant &c. 830.

#396. Sweetness.—N. sweetness, dulcitude[obs3].
     sugar, syrup, treacle, molasses, honey, manna; confection,
confectionary; sweets, grocery, conserve, preserve, confiture[obs3], jam,
julep; sugar-candy, sugar-plum; licorice, marmalade, plum, lollipop,
bonbon, jujube, comfit, sweetmeat; apple butter, caramel, damson, glucose;
maple sirup[obs3], maple syrup, maple sugar; mithai[obs3], sorghum, taffy.
     nectar; hydromel[obs3], mead, meade[obs3], metheglin[obs3],
honeysuckle, liqueur, sweet wine, aperitif.
     [sources of sugar] sugar cane, sugar beets.
     [sweet foods] desert, pastry, pie, cake, candy, ice cream, tart, puff,
pudding (food) 298.
     dulcification|, dulcoration|.
     sweetener, corn syrup, cane sugar, refined sugar, beet sugar,
dextrose; artificial sweetener, saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame, Sweet'N
     V. be sweet &c. adj.
     render sweet &c. adj.; sweeten; edulcorate[obs3]; dulcorate|,
dulcify|; candy; mull. Adj. sweet; saccharine, sacchariferous[obs3];
dulcet, candied, honied[obs3], luscious, lush, nectarious[obs3],
melliferous[obs3]; sweetened &c. v.
     sweet as a nut, sweet as sugar, sweet as honey.
     sickly sweet.
     Phr. eau sucre[Fr]; "sweets to the sweet" [Hamlet].

#397. Sourness.—N. sourness &c. adj.; acid, acidity, low pH;
acetous fermentation, lactic fermentation.
     vinegar, verjuice[obs3], crab, alum; acetic acid, lactic acid.
     V. be sour; sour, turn sour &c. adj.; set the teeth on edge.
     render sour &c. adj.; acidify, acidulate.
     Adj. sour; acid, acidulous, acidulated; tart, crabbed; acetous,
acetose[obs3]; acerb, acetic; sour as vinegar, sourish, acescent[obs3],
subacid[Chem]; styptic, hard, rough.
     Phr. sour as a lemon.

(4) Odor

#398. Odor.—N. odor, smell, odorament|, scent, effluvium;
emanation, exhalation; fume, essence, trail, nidor|, redolence.
     sense of smell; scent; act of smelling &c. v.; olfaction,
     [pleasant odor] fragrance &c. 400.
     [animal with acute sense of smell] bloodhound, hound.
     [smell detected by a hound] spoor.
     V. have an odor &c. n.; smell, smell of, smell strong of; exhale; give
out a smell &c. n.; reek, reek of; scent.
     smell, scent; snuff, snuff up; sniff, nose, inhale.
     Adj. odorous, odoriferous; smelling, reeking, foul-smelling, strong-
scented; redolent, graveolent[obs3], nidorous[obs3], pungent; putrid,
     [Relating to the sense of smell] olfactory, quick-scented.

#399. Inodorousness.—N. inodorousness[obs3]; absence of smell, want
of smell.
     deodorant, deodorization, deodorizer.
     V. be inodorous &c. adj[obs3].; not smell.
     Adj. inodorous[obs3], onodorate; scentless; without smell, wanting
smell &c. 398.
     deodorized, deodorizing.

#400. Fragrance.—N. fragrance, aroma, redolence, perfume, bouquet, essence, scent; sweet smell, aromatic perfume. agalloch[obs3], agallochium[obs3]; aloes wood; bay rum; calambac[obs3], calambour[obs3]; champak[obs3], horehound[ISA:plant@mint], lign-aloes[obs3], marrubium[obs3], mint, muskrat, napha water[obs3], olibanum[obs3], spirit of myrcia[obs3]. essential oil. incense; musk, frankincense; pastil[obs3], pastille; myrrh, perfumes of Arabia[obs3]; otto[obs3], ottar[obs3], attar; bergamot, balm, civet, potpourri, pulvil|; nosegay; scentbag[obs3]; sachet, smelling bottle, vinaigrette; eau de Cologne[Fr], toilet water, lotion, after-shave lotion; thurification[obs3]. perfumer. [fragrant wood oils] eucalyptus oil, pinene. V. be fragrant &c. adj.; have a perfume &c. n.; smell sweet. scent[render fragrant], perfume, embalm. Adj. fragrant, aromatic, redolent, spicy, savory, balmy, scented, sweet-smelling, sweet-scented; perfumed, perfumatory[obs3]; thuriferous; fragrant as a rose, muscadine[obs3], ambrosial.

#401. Fetor.—N. fetor[obs3]; bad &c. adj. smell, bad odor; stench, stink; foul odor, malodor; empyreuma[obs3]; mustiness &c. adj.; rancidity; foulness &c. (uncleanness) 653. stoat, polecat, skunk; assafoetida[obs3]; fungus, garlic; stinkpot; fitchet[obs3], fitchew[obs3], fourmart[obs3], peccary. acridity &c. 401a. V. have a bad smell &c. n.; smell; stink, stink in the nostrils, stink like a polecat; smell strong &c. adj., smell offensively. Adj. fetid; strong-smelling; high, bad, strong, fulsome, offensive, noisome, rank, rancid, reasty[obs3], tainted, musty, fusty, frouzy[obs3]; olid[obs3], olidous|; nidorous[obs3]; smelling, stinking; putrid &c. 653; suffocating, mephitic; empyreumatic[obs3].

#401a. Acridity—N. acridity, astringency, bite.
     [acrid substances] tear gas; smoke, acrid fumes.
     Adj. acrid, biting, astringent, sharp, harsh; bitter &c. 392b.

(5) Sound


#402. Sound.—N. sound, noise, strain; accent, twang, intonation, tone; cadence; sonorousness &c. adj.; audibility; resonance &c. 408; voice &c. 580; aspirate; ideophone[obs3]; rough breathing. [Science, of sound] acoustics; phonics, phonetics, phonology, phonography[obs3]; diacoustics[obs3], diaphonics[obs3]; phonetism[obs3]. V. produce sound; sound, make a noise; give out sound, emit sound; resound &c. 408. Adj. sounding; soniferous[obs3]; sonorous, sonorific[obs3]; resonant, audible, distinct; stertorous; phonetic; phonic, phonocamptic[obs3]. Phr. "a thousand trills and quivering sounds" [Addison]; forensis strepitus[Lat].

#403. Silence.—N. silence; stillness &c. (quiet) 265; peace, hush, lull; muteness &c. 581; solemn silence, awful silence, dead silence, deathlike silence. V. be silent &c. adj.; hold one's tongue &c. (not speak) 585. render silent &c. adj.; silence, still, hush; stifle, muffle, stop; muzzle, put to silence &c. (render mute) 581. Adj. silent; still, stilly; noiseless, soundless; hushed &c. v.; mute &c. 581. soft, solemn, awful, deathlike, silent as the grave; inaudible &c. (faint) 405. Adv. silently &c. adj.; sub silentio[Lat]. Int. hush! silence! soft! whist! tush! chut[obs3]! tut! pax[Lat]! be quiet! be silent! be still! shut up![rude]; chup[obs3]! chup rao[obs3]! tace[It]! Phr. one might hear a feather drop, one might hear a pin drop, so quiet you could hear a pin drop; grosse Seelen dulden still [German]; le silence est la vertu de ceux qui ne sont pas sages [French]; le silence est le parti le plus sar de celui se dfie de soi-meme[French]; "silence more musical than any song" [C. G. Rossetti]; tacent satis laudant[Latin]; better to be silent and thought a fool than to speak up and remove all doubt.

#404. Loudness.—N. loudness, power; loud noise, din; blare; clang, clangor; clatter, noise, bombilation[obs3], roar, uproar, racket, hubbub, bobbery[obs3], fracas, charivari[obs3], trumpet blast, flourish of trumpets, fanfare, tintamarre[obs3], peal, swell, blast, larum[obs3], boom; bang (explosion) 406; resonance &c. 408. vociferation, hullabaloo, &c. 411; lungs; Stentor. artillery, cannon; thunder. V. be loud &c. adj.; peal, swell, clang, boom, thunder, blare, fulminate, roar; resound &c. 408. speak up, shout &c. (vociferate) 411; bellow &c. (cry as an animal) 412. rend the air, rend the skies; fill the air; din in the ear, ring in the ear, thunder in the ear; pierce the ears, split the ears, rend the ears, split the head; deafen, stun; faire le diable a quatre[Fr]; make one's windows shake, rattle the windows; awaken the echoes, startle the echoes; wake the dead. Adj. loud, sonorous; high-sounding, big-sounding; deep, full, powerful, noisy, blatant, clangorous, multisonous[obs3]; thundering, deafening &c. v; trumpet-tongued; ear-splitting, ear-rending, ear- deafening; piercing; obstreperous, rackety, uproarious; enough to wake the dead, enough to wake seven sleepers. shrill &c. 410 clamorous &c. (vociferous) 411 stentorian, stentorophonic|. Adv. loudly &c. adj. aloud; at the top of one's voice, at the top of one's lungs, lustily, in full cry. Phr. the air rings with; "the deep dread-bolted thunder" [Lear].

#405. Faintness.—N. faintness &c. adj.; faint sound, whisper, breath; undertone, underbreath[obs3]; murmur, hum, susurration; tinkle; "still small voice." hoarseness &c. adj.; raucity[obs3]. V. whisper, breathe, murmur, purl, hum, gurgle, ripple, babble, flow; tinkle; mutter &c. (speak imperfectly) 583; susurrate[obs3]. steal on the ear; melt in the air, float on the air. Adj. inaudible; scarcely audible, just audible; low, dull; stifled, muffled; hoarse, husky; gentle, soft, faint; floating; purling, flowing &c. v.; whispered &c. v.; liquid; soothing; dulcet &c. (melodious) 413; susurrant[obs3], susurrous[obs3]. Adv. in a whisper, with bated breath, sotto voce[Lat], between the teeth, aside; piano, pianissimo; d la sourdine[obs3]; out of earshot inaudibly &c. adj.


#406. [Sudden and violent sounds.] Snap.—N. snap &c. v.; rapping
&c. v.; decrepitation, crepitation; report, thud; burst, explosion, blast,
boom, discharge, detonation, firing, salvo, volley.
     squib, cracker, firecracker, cherry bomb, M80, gun, cap, cap gun,
     bomb burst, atomic explosion, nuclear explosion (arms) 727.
     [explosive substances] gunpowder, dynamite, gun cotton,
nitroglycerine, nitrocellulose, plastic explosive, plastique, TNT, cordite,
trinitrotoluene, picric acid, picrates, mercury fulminate (arms) 727.
     whack, wham, pow.
     V. rap, snap, tap, knock, ping; click; clash; crack, crackle; crash;
pop; slam, bang, blast, boom, clap, clang, clack, whack, wham;
brustle[obs3]; burst on the ear; crepitate, rump.
     blow up, blow; detonate.
     Adj. rapping &c. v.
     Int. kaboom! whamo! Heewhack! pow!

#407. [Repeated and protracted sounds.] Roll.—N. roll &c. v.;
drumming &c. v.; berloque[obs3], bombination[obs3], rumbling; tattoo,
drumroll; dingdong; tantara[obs3]; rataplan[obs3]; whirr; ratatat, ratatat-
tat; rubadub; pitapat; quaver, clutter, charivari[obs3], racket; cuckoo;
repetition &c. 104; peal of bells, devil's tattoo; reverberation &c. 408.
     [sound of railroad train rolling on rails] clickety-clack.
     hum, purr.
     [animals that hum] hummingbird.
     [animals that purr] cat, kitten (animal sounds) 412.
     V. roll, drum, rumble, rattle, clatter, patter, clack;
     hum, trill, shake; chime, peal, toll; tick, beat.
     drum in the ear, din in the ear.
     Adj. rolling &c. v.; monotonous &c. (repeated) 104; like a bee in a

#408. Resonance.—N. resonance; ring &c. v.; ringing, tintinabulation &c. v.; reflexion[Brit], reflection, reverberation; echo, reecho; zap, zot[coll.]; buzz (hiss) 409. low note, base note, bass note, flat note, grave note, deep note; bass; basso, basso profondo[It]; baritone, barytone[obs3]; contralto. [device to cause resonance] echo chamber, resonator. [ringing in the ears] tinnitus[Med]. [devices which make a resonating sound] bell, doorbell, buzzer; gong, cymbals (musical instruments) 417. [physical resonance] sympathetic vibrations; natural frequency, coupled vibration frequency; overtone; resonating cavity; sounding board, tuning fork. [electrical resonance] tuning, squelch, frequency selection; resonator, resonator circuit; radio &c. @ [chemical resonance] resonant structure, aromaticity, alternating double bonds, non-bonded resonance; pi clouds, unsaturation, double bond (valence) @ V. resound, reverberate, reecho, resonate; ring, jingle, gingle[obs3], chink, clink; tink[obs3], tinkle; chime; gurgle &c. 405 plash, goggle, echo, ring in the ear. Adj. resounding &c. v.; resonant, reverberant, tinnient|, tintinnabulary; sonorous, booming, deep-toned, deep-sounding, deep-mouthed, vibrant; hollow, sepulchral; gruff &c. (harsh) 410. Phr. "sweet bells jangled, out of time and harsh" [Hamlet]; echoing down the mountain and through the dell.

#408a. Nonresonance[obs3].—N. thud, thump, dead sound;
nonresonance[obs3]; muffled drums, cracked bell; damper; silencer.
     V. sound dead; stop the sound, damp the sound, deaden the sound,
deaden the reverberations, dampen the reverberations.
     Adj. nonresonant[obs3], dead; dampened, muffled.

#409. [Hissing sounds.] Sibilation.—N. sibilance, sibilation; zip;
hiss &c. v.; sternutation; high note &c. 410.
     [animals that hiss] goose, serpent, snake (animal sounds) 412.
     [animals that buzz] insect, bug; bee, mosquito, wasp, fly.
     [inanimate things that hiss] tea kettle, pressure cooker; air valve,
pressure release valve, safety valve, tires, air escaping from tires,
punctured tire; escaping steam, steam, steam radiator, steam release valve.
     V. hiss, buzz, whiz, rustle; fizz, fizzle; wheeze, whistle, snuffle;
squash; sneeze; sizzle, swish.
     Adj. sibilant; hissing &c. v.; wheezy; sternutative[obs3].

#410. [Harsh sounds.] Stridor.—N. creak &c. v.; creaking &c. v.; discord, &c. 414; stridor; roughness, sharpness, &c. adj.; cacophony; cacoepy[obs3]. acute note, high note; soprano, treble, tenor, alto, falsetto, penny trumpet, voce di testa[It]. V. creak, grate, jar, burr, pipe, twang, jangle, clank, clink; scream &c. (cry) 411; yelp &c. (animal sound) 412; buzz &c. (hiss) 409. set the teeth on edge, corcher les oreilles[Fr]; pierce the ears, split the ears, split the head; offend the ear, grate upon the ear, jar upon the ear. Adj. creaking &c. v.; stridulous[obs3], harsh, coarse, hoarse, horrisonous|, rough, gruff, grum[obs3], sepulchral, hollow. sharp, high, acute, shrill; trumpet-toned; piercing, ear-piercing, high-pitched, high-toned; cracked; discordant &c. 414; cacophonous.

#411. Cry.—N. cry &c. v.; voice &c. (human) 580; hubbub; bark &c. (animal) 412. vociferation, outcry, hullabaloo, chorus, clamor, hue and cry, plaint; lungs; stentor. V. cry, roar, shout, bawl, brawl, halloo, halloa, hoop, whoop, yell, bellow, howl, scream, screech, screak[obs3], shriek, shrill, squeak, squeal, squall, whine, pule, pipe, yaup[obs3]. cheer; hoot; grumble, moan, groan. snore, snort; grunt &c. (animal sounds) 412. vociferate; raise up the voice, lift up the voice; call out, sing out, cry out; exclaim; rend the air; thunder at the top of one's voice, shout at the top of one's voice, shout at the pitch of one's breath, thunder at the pitch of one's breath; s'gosiller; strain the throat, strain the voice, strain the lungs; give a cry &c. Adj. crying &c. v.; clamant[obs3], clamorous; vociferous; stentorian &c. (loud) 404; open-mouthed.

#412. [Animal sounds.] Ululation.—N. cry &c. v.; crying &c. v.; bowwow, ululation, latration[obs3], belling; reboation[obs3]; wood-note; insect cry, fritiniancy|, drone; screech owl; cuckoo. wailing (lamentation) 839. V. cry, roar, bellow, blare, rebellow[obs3]; growl, snarl. [specific animal sounds] bark [dog, seal]; bow-wow, yelp [dog]; bay, bay at the moon [dog, wolf]; yap, yip, yipe, growl, yarr|, yawl, snarl, howl [dog, wolf]; grunt, gruntle[obs3]; snort [pig, hog, swine, horse]; squeak [swine, mouse]; neigh, whinny [horse]; bray [donkey, mule, hinny, ass]; mew, mewl [kitten]; meow [cat]; purr [cat]; caterwaul, pule [cats]; baa[obs3], bleat [lamb]; low, moo [cow, cattle]; troat[obs3], croak, peep [frog]; coo [dove, pigeon]; gobble [turkeys]; quack [duck]; honk, gaggle, guggle [obs3][goose]; crow, caw, squawk, screech, [crow]; cackle, cluck, clack [hen, rooster, poultry]; chuck, chuckle; hoot, hoo [owl]; chirp, cheep, chirrup, twitter, cuckoo, warble, trill, tweet, pipe, whistle [small birds]; hum [insects, hummingbird]; buzz [flying insects, bugs]; hiss [snakes, geese]; blatter[obs3]; ratatat [woodpecker]. Adj. crying &c. v.; blatant, latrant[obs3], remugient[obs3], mugient[obs3]; deep-mouthed, full-mouthed; rebellowing[obs3], reboant[obs3]. Adv. in full cry.


#413. Melody. Concord.—N. melody, rhythm, measure; rhyme &c.(poetry) 597. pitch, timbre, intonation, tone. scale, gamut; diapason; diatonic chromatic scale[obs3], enharmonic scale[obs3]; key, clef, chords. modulation, temperament, syncope, syncopation, preparation, suspension, resolution. staff, stave, line, space, brace; bar, rest; appoggiato[obs3], appoggiatura[obs3]; acciaccatura[obs3]. note, musical note, notes of a scale; sharp, flat, natural; high note &c.(shrillness) 410; low note &c. 408; interval; semitone; second, third, fourth &c.; diatessaron[obs3]. breve, semibreve[Mus], minim, crotchet, quaver; semiquaver, demisemiquaver, hemidemisemiquaver; sustained note, drone, burden. tonic; key note, leading note, fundamental note; supertonic[obs3], mediant[obs3], dominant; submediant[obs3], subdominant[obs3]; octave, tetrachord[obs3]; major key, minor key, major scale, minor scale, major mode, minor mode; passage, phrase. concord, harmony; emmeleia[obs3]; unison, unisonance[obs3]; chime, homophony; euphony, euphonism[obs3]; tonality; consonance; consent; part. [Science of harmony] harmony, harmonics; thorough-bass, fundamental- bass; counterpoint; faburden[obs3]. piece of music &c. 415[Fr]; composer, harmonist[obs3], contrapuntist (musician) 416. V. be harmonious &c. adj.; harmonize, chime, symphonize[obs3], transpose; put in tune, tune, accord, string. Adj. harmonious, harmonical[obs3]; in concord &c. n., in tune, in concert; unisonant[obs3], concentual[obs3], symphonizing[obs3], isotonic, homophonous[obs3], assonant; ariose[obs3], consonant. measured, rhythmical, diatonic[obs3], chromatic, enharmonic[obs3]. melodious, musical; melic[obs3]; tuneful, tunable; sweet, dulcet, canorous[obs3]; mellow, mellifluous; soft, clear, clear as a bell; silvery; euphonious, euphonic, euphonical[obs3]; symphonious; enchanting &c. (pleasure-giving) 829; fine-toned, full-toned, silver-toned. Adv. harmoniously, in harmony; as one &c. adj. Phr. "the hidden soul of harmony" [Milton].

#414. Discord.—N. discord, discordance; dissonance, cacophony, want of harmony, caterwauling; harshness &c. 410. Babel[Confused sounds]; Dutch concert, cat's concert; marrowbones and cleavers. V. be discordant &c. adj.; jar &c. (sound harshly) 410. Adj. discordant; dissonant, absonant[obs3]; out of tune, tuneless; unmusical, untunable[obs3]; unmelodious, immelodious[obs3]; unharmonious[obs3], inharmonious; singsong; cacophonous; harsh &c. 410; jarring.

#415. Music.—N. music; concert; strain, tune, air; melody &c. 413; aria, arietta[obs3]; piece of music[Fr], work, number, opus; sonata; rondo, rondeau[Fr]; pastorale, cavatina[obs3], roulade[obs3], fantasia, concerto, overture, symphony, variations, cadenza; cadence; fugue, canon, quodlibet, serenade, notturno [Italian], dithyramb; opera, operetta; oratorio; composition, movement; stave; passamezzo [obs3][Italian], toccata, Vorspiel [German]. instrumental music; full score; minstrelsy, tweedledum and tweedledee, band, orchestra; concerted piece[Fr], potpourri, capriccio. vocal music, vocalism[obs3]; chaunt, chant; psalm, psalmody; hymn; song &c. (poem) 597; canticle, canzonet[obs3], cantata, bravura, lay, ballad, ditty, carol, pastoral, recitative, recitativo[obs3], solfeggio[obs3]. Lydian measures; slow music, slow movement; adagio &c. adv.; minuet; siren strains, soft music, lullaby; dump; dirge &c. (lament) 839; pibroch[obs3]; martial music, march; dance music; waltz &c. (dance) 840. solo, duet, duo, trio; quartet, quartett[obs3]; septett[obs3]; part song, descant, glee, madrigal, catch, round, chorus, chorale; antiphon[obs3], antiphony; accompaniment, second, bass; score; bourdon[obs3], drone, morceau[obs3], terzetto[obs3]. composer &c. 413; musician &c. 416. V. compose, perform &c. 416; attune. Adj. musical; instrumental, vocal, choral, lyric, operatic; harmonious &c. 413; Wagnerian. Adv. adagio; largo, larghetto, andante, andantino[obs3]; alla capella[It][obs3]; maestoso[obs3], moderato; allegro, allegretto; spiritoso[obs3], vivace[obs3], veloce[obs3]; presto, prestissimo[obs3]; con brio; capriccioso[obs3]; scherzo, scherzando[obs3]; legato, staccato, crescendo, diminuendo, rallentando[obs3], affettuoso[obs3]; obbligato; pizzicato; desto[obs3]. Phr. "in notes by distance made more sweet" [Collins]; "like the faint exquisite music of a dream" [Moore]; "music arose with its voluptuous swell" [Byron]; "music is the universal language of mankind" [Longfellow]; "music's golden tongue" [Keats]; "the speech of angels" [Carlyle]; "will sing the savageness out of a bear" [Othello]; music hath charms to soothe the savage beast.

#416. Musician. [Performance of Music.]—N. musician, artiste,
performer, player, minstrel; bard &c. (poet) 597;
     [specific types of musicians] accompanist, accordionist,
instrumentalist, organist, pianist, violinist, flautist; harper, fiddler,
fifer[obs3], trumpeter, piper, drummer; catgut scraper.
     band, orchestral waits.
     vocalist, melodist; singer, warbler; songster, chaunter[obs3],
chauntress[obs3], songstress; cantatrice[obs3].
     choir, quire, chorister; chorus, chorus singer; liedertafel[Ger].
     nightingale, philomel[obs3], thrush; siren; bulbul, mavis; Pierides;
sacred nine; Orpheus, Apollo[obs3], the Muses Erato, Euterpe, Terpsichore;
tuneful nine, tuneful quire.
     composer &c. 413.
     performance, execution, touch, expression, solmization[obs3].
     V. play, pipe, strike up, sweep the chords, tweedle, fiddle; strike
the lyre, beat the drum; blow the horn, sound the horn, wind the horn;
doodle; grind the organ; touch the guitar &c. (instruments) 417; thrum,
strum, beat time.
     execute, perform; accompany; sing a second, play a second; compose,
set to music, arrange.
     sing, chaunt, chant, hum, warble, carol, chirp, chirrup, lilt, purl,
quaver, trill, shake, twitter, whistle; sol-fa[obs3]; intone.
     have an ear for music, have a musical ear, have a correct ear.
     Adj. playing &c. v.; musical.
     Adv. adagio, andante &c. (music) 415.

#417. Musical Instruments.—N. musical instruments; band; string- band, brass-band; orchestra; orchestrina[obs3]. monochord[obs3][Stringed instruments], polychord[obs3]; harp, lyre, lute, archlute[obs3]; mandola[obs3], mandolin, mandoline[obs3]; guitar; zither; cither[obs3], cithern[obs3]; gittern[obs3], rebeck[obs3], bandurria[obs3], bandura, banjo; bina[obs3], vina[obs3]; xanorphica[obs3]. viol, violin; fiddle, kit; viola, viola d'amore[Fr], viola di gamba[It]; tenor, cremona, violoncello, bass; bass viol, base viol; theorbo[obs3], double base, contrabasso[obs3], violone[obs3], *psaltery; bow, fiddlestick[obs3]. piano, pianoforte; harpsichord, clavichord, clarichord[obs3], manichord[obs3]; clavier, spinet, virginals, dulcimer, hurdy-gurdy, vielle[obs3], pianino[obs3], Eolian harp. organ[Wind instruments]; harmonium, harmoniphon[obs3]; American organ[obs3], barrel organ, hand organ; accordion, seraphina[obs3], concertina; humming top. flute, fife, piccolo, flageolet; clarinet, claronet[obs3]; basset horn, corno di bassetto[obs3], oboe, hautboy, cor Anglais[Fr], corno Inglese[obs3], bassoon, double bassoon, contrafagotto[obs3], serpent, bass clarinet; bagpipes, union pipes; musette, ocarina, Pandean pipes; reed instrument; sirene[obs3], pipe, pitch-pipe; sourdet[obs3]; whistle, catcall; doodlesack[obs3], harmoniphone[obs3]. horn, bugle, cornet, cornet-a-pistons, cornopean|, clarion, trumpet, trombone, ophicleide[obs3]; French horn, saxophone, sax [informal], buglehorn[obs3], saxhorn, flugelhorn[obs3], althorn[obs3], helicanhorn[obs3], posthorn[obs3]; sackbut, euphonium, bombardon tuba[obs3]. [Vibrating surfaces] cymbal, bell, gong; tambour|!, tambourine, tamborine[obs3]; drum, tom-tom; tabor, tabret[obs3], tabourine[obs3], taborin[obs3]; side drum, kettle drum; timpani, tympani[obs3]; tymbal[obs3], timbrel[obs3], castanet, bones; musical glasses, musical stones; harmonica, sounding-board, rattle; tam-tam, zambomba[obs3]. [Vibrating bars] reed, tuning fork, triangle, Jew's harp, musical box, harmonicon[obs3], xylophone. sordine[obs3], sordet[obs3]; sourdine[obs3], sourdet[obs3]; mute.


#418. [Sense of sound.] Hearing.—N. hearing &c. v.; audition,
auscultation; eavesdropping; audibility.
     acute ear, nice ear, delicate ear, quick ear, sharp ear, correct ear,
musical ear; ear for music.
     ear, auricle, lug, acoustic organs, auditory apparatus; eardrum,
tympanum, tympanic membrane.
     [devices to aid human hearing by amplifying sound] ear trumpet,
speaking trumpet, hearing aid, stethoscope.
     [distance within which direct hearing is possible] earshot, hearing
distance, hearing, hearing range, sound, carrying distance.
     [devices for talking beyond hearing distance] telephone[exlist],
phone, telephone booth, intercom, house phone, radiotelephone, radiophone,
wireless, wireless telephone, mobile telephone, car radio, police radio,
two-way radio, walkie-talkie[military], handie-talkie, citizen's band, CB,
amateur radio, ham radio, short-wave radio, police band, ship-to-shore
radio, airplane radio, control tower communication; (communication) 525,
527, 529, 531, 532; electronic devices.
     [devices for recording and reproducing recorded sound] phonograph,
gramophone, megaphone, phonorganon[obs3].
     [device to convert sound to electrical signals] microphone,directional
microphone, mike, hand mike, lapel microphone.
     [devices to convert recorded sound to electronic signals] phonograph
needle, stylus, diamond stylus, pickup; reading head (electronic devices).
     hearer, auditor, listener, eavesdropper, listener-in.
     auditory, audience.
     [science of hearing] otology, otorhinolaryngology.
     [physicians specializing in hearing] otologist, otorhinolaryngologist.
     V. hear, overhear; hark, harken; list, listen, pay attention, take
heed; give an ear, lend an ear, bend an ear; catch, catch a sound, prick up
one's ears; give ear, give a hearing, give audience to.
     hang upon the lips of, be all ears, listen with both ears.
     become audible; meet the ear, fall upon the ear, catch the ear,
reach the ear; be heard; ring in the ear &c. (resound) 4O8.
     Adj. hearing &c. v.; auditory, auricular, acoustic; phonic.
     Adv. arrectis auribus[Lat].
     Int. hark, hark ye! hear! list, listen! O yes! Oyez!
     listen up [coll.]; listen here! hear ye! attention! achtung [German].

#419. Deafness.—N. deafness, hardness of hearing, surdity|;
inaudibility, inaudibleness[obs3].
     V. be deaf &c. adj.; have no ear; shut one's ears, stop one's ears,
close one's ears; turn a deaf ear to.
     render deaf, stun, deafen.
     Adj. deaf, earless[obs3], surd; hard of hearing, dull of hearing;
deaf-mute, stunned, deafened; stone deaf; deaf as a post, deaf as an
adder, deaf as a beetle, deaf as a trunkmaker[obs3].
     inaudible, out of hearing.
     Phr. hear no evil.

(6) Light


#420. Light.—N. light, ray, beam, stream, gleam, streak, pencil; sunbeam, moonbeam; aurora. day; sunshine; light of day, light of heaven; moonlight, starlight, sun &c. (luminary) 432 light; daylight, broad daylight, noontide light; noontide, noonday, noonday sun. glow &c. v.; glimmering &c. v.; glint; play of light, flood of light; phosphorescence, lambent flame. flush, halo, glory, nimbus, aureola. spark, scintilla; facula; sparkling &c. v.; emication|, scintillation, flash, blaze, coruscation, fulguration[obs3]; flame &c. (fire) 382; lightning, levin[obs3], ignis fatuus[Lat], &c. (luminary) 423. luster, sheen, shimmer, reflexion[Brit], reflection; gloss, tinsel, spangle, brightness, brilliancy, splendor; effulgence, refulgence; fulgor[obs3], fulgidity[obs3]; dazzlement[obs3], resplendence, transplendency[obs3]; luminousness &c. adj.; luminosity; lucidity; renitency|, nitency[obs3]; radiance,, radiation; irradiation, illumination. actinic rays, actinism; Roentgen-ray, Xray; photography, heliography; photometer &c. 445. [Science of light] optics; photology[obs3], photometry; dioptrics[obs3], catoptrics[obs3]. [Distribution of light] chiaroscuro, clairobscur[obs3], clear obscure, breadth, light and shade, black and white, tonality. reflection, refraction, dispersion; refractivity. V. shine, glow, glitter; glister, glisten; twinkle, gleam; flare, flare up; glare, beam, shimmer, glimmer, flicker, sparkle, scintillate, coruscate, flash, blaze; be bright &c. adj.; reflect light, daze, dazzle, bedazzle, radiate, shoot out beams; fulgurate. clear up, brighten. lighten, enlighten; levin[obs3]; light, light up; irradiate, shine upon; give out a light, hang out a light; cast light upon, cast light in, throw light upon, throw light in, shed light upon, shed luster upon; illume[obs3], illumine, illuminate; relume[obs3], strike a light; kindle &c. (set fire to) 384. Adj. shining &c. v.; luminous, luminiferous[obs3]; lucid, lucent, luculent[obs3], lucific[obs3], luciferous; light, lightsome; bright, vivid, splendent[obs3], nitid[obs3], lustrous, shiny, beamy[obs3], scintillant[obs3], radiant, lambent; sheen, sheeny; glossy, burnished, glassy, sunny, orient, meridian; noonday, tide; cloudless, clear; unclouded, unobscured[obs3]. gairish[obs3], garish; resplendent, transplendent[obs3]; refulgent, effulgent; fulgid[obs3], fulgent[obs3]; relucent[obs3], splendid, blazing, in a blaze, ablaze, rutilant[obs3], meteoric, phosphorescent; aglow. bright as silver; light as day, bright as day, light as noonday, bright as noonday, bright as the sun at noonday. actinic; photogenic[obs2], graphic; heliographic; heliophagous[obs3]. Phr. "a day for gods to stoop and men to soar" [Tennyson]; "dark with excessive bright" [Milton].

#421. Darkness.—N. darkness &c. adj., absence of light; blackness &c. (dark color) 431; obscurity, gloom, murk; dusk &c. (dimness) 422. Cimmerian darkness[obs3], Stygian darkness, Egyptian darkness; night; midnight; dead of night, witching hour of night, witching time of night; blind man's holiday; darkness visible, darkness that can be felt; palpable obscure; Erebus[Lat]; "the jaws of darkness" [Midsummer Night's Dream]; "sablevested night" [Milton]. shade, shadow, umbra, penumbra; sciagraphy[obs3]. obscuration; occultation, adumbration, obumbration[obs3]; obtenebration[obs3], offuscation|, caligation|; extinction; eclipse, total eclipse; gathering of the clouds. shading; distribution of shade; chiaroscuro &c. (light) 420. noctivagation[obs3]. [perfectly black objects] black body; hohlraum[Phys]; black hole; dark star; dark matter, cold dark matter. V. be dark &c. adj. darken, obscure, shade; dim; tone down, lower; overcast, overshadow; eclipse; obfuscate, offuscate|; obumbrate[obs3], adumbrate; cast into the shade becloud, bedim[obs3], bedarken[obs3]; cast a shade, throw a shade, spread a shade, cast a shadow, cast a gloom, throw a shadow, spread a shadow, cast gloom, throw gloom, spread gloom. extinguish; put out, blow out, snuff out; doubt. turn out the lights, douse the lights, dim the lights, turn off the lights, switch off the lights. Adj. dark, darksome[obs3], darkling; obscure, tenebrious[obs3], sombrous[obs3], pitch dark, pitchy, pitch black; caliginous[obs3]; black &c. (in color) 431. sunless, lightless &c. (see sun[obs3], light, &c. 423); somber, dusky; unilluminated &c. (see illuminate &c. 420)[obs3]; nocturnal; dingy, lurid, gloomy; murky, murksome[obs3]; shady, umbrageous; overcast &c. (dim) 422; cloudy &c. (opaque) 426; darkened; &c. v. dark as pitch, dark as a pit, dark as Erebus[Lat]. benighted; noctivagant!|, noctivagous!|. Adv. in the dark, in the shade. Phr. "brief as the lightning in the collied night" [M. N. D.]; "eldest Night and Chaos, ancestors of Nature" [P. L.]; "the blackness of the noonday night" [Longfellow]; "the prayer of Ajax was for light" [Longfellow].

#422. Dimness.—N. dimness &c. adj.; darkness &c. 421; paleness &c.
(light color) 429.
     half light, demi-jour; partial shadow, partial eclipse; shadow of a
shade; glimmer, gliming[obs3]; nebulosity; cloud &c. 353; eclipse.
     aurora, dusk, twilight, shades of evening, crepuscule, cockshut time|;
break of day, daybreak, dawn.
     moonlight, moonbeam, moonglade[obs3], moonshine; starlight, owl's
light, candlelight, rushlight, firelight; farthing candle.
     V. be dim, grow dim &c. adj.; flicker, twinkle, glimmer; loom, lower;
fade; pale, pale its ineffectual fire [Hamlet].
     render dim &c. adj.; dim, bedim[obs3], obscure; darken, tone down.
     Adj. dim, dull, lackluster, dingy, darkish, shorn of its beams, dark
     faint, shadowed forth; glassy; cloudy; misty &c. (opaque) 426; blear;
muggy|, fuliginous[obs3]; nebulous, nebular; obnubilated[obs3], overcast,
crepuscular, muddy, lurid, leaden, dun, dirty; looming &c. v.
     pale &c. (colorless) 429; confused &c. (invisible) 447.

#423. [Source of light, self-luminous body.] Luminary.—N. luminary; light &c. 420; flame &c. (fire) 382. spark, scintilla; phosphorescence, fluorescence. sun, orb of day, Phoebus, Apollo[obs3], Aurora; star, orb; meteor, falling star, shooting star; blazing star, dog star, Sirius; canicula, Aldebaran[obs3]; constellation, galaxy; zodiacal light; anthelion[obs3]; day star, morning star; Lucifer; mock sun, parhelion; phosphor, phosphorus; sun dog|!; Venus. aurora, polar lights; northern lights, aurora borealis; southern lights, aurora australis. lightning; chain lightning, fork lightning, sheet lightning, summer lightning; ball lightning, kugelblitz [German]; [chemical substances giving off light without burning] phosphorus, yellow phosphorus; scintillator, phosphor; firefly luminescence. ignis fatuus[Lat]; Jack o'lantern, Friar's lantern; will-o'-the-wisp, firedrake[obs3], Fata Morgana[Lat]; Saint Elmo's fire. [luminous insects] glowworm, firefly, June bug, lightning bug. [luminous fish] anglerfish. [Artificial light] gas; gas light, lime light, lantern, lanthorn[obs3]; dark lantern, bull's-eye; candle, bougie[Fr], taper, rushlight; oil &c. (grease) 356; wick, burner; Argand[obs3], moderator, duplex; torch, flambeau, link, brand; gaselier[obs3], chandelier, electrolier[obs3], candelabrum, candelabra, girandole[obs3], sconce, luster, candlestick. [non-combustion based light sources] lamp, light; incandescent lamp, tungsten bulb, light bulb; flashlight, torch[Brit]; arc light; laser; maser [microwave radiation]; neon bulb, neon sign; fluorescent lamp. [parts of a light bulb] filament; socket; contacts; filler gas. firework, fizgig[obs3]; pyrotechnics; rocket, lighthouse &c. (signal) 550. V. illuminate &c. (light) 420. Adj. self-luminous, glowing; phosphoric|!, phosphorescent, fluorescent; incandescent; luminescent, chemiluminescent; radiant &c. (light) 420. Phr. "blossomed the lovely stars, the forget-me-nots of the angels" [Longfellow]; "the sentinel stars set their watch in the sky" [Campbell]; "the planets in their station list'ning stood" [Paradise Lost]; "the Scriptures of the skies" [Bailey]; "that orbed continent, the fire that severs day from night" [Twelfth Night].

#424. Shade.—N. shade; awning &c. (cover) 223; parasol, sunshade,
umbrella; chick; portiere; screen, curtain, shutter, blind, gauze, veil,
chador, mantle, mask; cloud, mist, gathering. of clouds.
     umbrage, glade; shadow &c. 421.
     beach umbrella, folding umbrella.
     V. draw a curtain; put up a shutter, close a shutter; veil &c. v.;
cast a shadow &c. (darken) 421.
     Adj. shady, umbrageous.
     Phr. "welcome ye shades! ye bowery thickets hail" [Thomson].

#425. Transparency.—N. transparence, transparency; clarity; translucence, translucency; diaphaneity[obs3]; lucidity, pellucidity[obs3], limpidity; fluorescence; transillumination, translumination[obs3]. transparent medium, glass, crystal, lymph, vitrite[obs3], water. V. be transparent &c. adj.; transmit light. Adj. transparent, pellucid, lucid, diaphanous, translucent, tralucent|, relucent[obs3]; limpid, clear, serene, crystalline, clear as crystal, vitreous, transpicuous[obs3], glassy, hyaline; hyaloid[Med], vitreform[obs3].

#426. Opacity.—N. opacity; opaqueness &c. adj.
film; cloud &c. 353.
     V. be opaque &c. adj.; obstruct the passage of light; obfuscate,
     Adj. opaque, impervious to light; adiaphanous[obs3]; dim &c. 422;
turbid, thick, muddy, opacous|, obfuscated, fuliginous[obs3], cloud, hazy,
misty, foggy, vaporous, nubiferous[obs3], muggy|| (turbidity) 426a.
     smoky, fumid[obs3], murky, dirty.

#426a. Turbidity—N. turbidity, cloudiness, fog, haze, muddiness,
haziness, obscurity.
      nephelometer[instrument to measure turbidity].
     Adj. turbid, thick, muddy, obfuscated, fuliginous[obs3], hazy, misty,
foggy, vaporous, nubiferous[obs3]; cloudy (cloud) 353.
     smoky, fumid[obs3], murky, dirty.

#427. Semitransparency.—N. semitransparency, translucency,
semiopacity; opalescence, milkiness, pearliness[obs3]; gauze, muslin; film;
mica, mother-of-pearl, nacre; mist &c. (cloud) 353.
     [opalescent jewel] opal.
     turbidity &c. 426a.
     Adj. semitransparent, translucent, semipellucid[obs3],
semidiaphanous[obs3], semiopacous[obs3], semiopaque; opalescent,
opaline[obs3]; pearly, milky; frosted, nacreous.
     V. opalesce.


#428. Color.—N. color, hue, tint, tinge, dye, complexion, shade, tincture, cast, livery, coloration, glow, flush; tone, key. pure color, positive color, primary color, primitive complementary color; three primaries; spectrum, chromatic dispersion; broken color, secondary color, tertiary color. local color, coloring, keeping, tone, value, aerial perspective. [Science of color] chromatics, spectrum analysis, spectroscopy; chromatism[obs3], chromatography||, chromatology[obs3]. [instruments to measure color] prism, spectroscope, spectrograph, spectrometer, colorimeter (optical instruments) 445. pigment, coloring matter, paint, dye, wash, distemper, stain; medium; mordant; oil paint &c. painting 556. V. color, dye, tinge, stain, tint, tinct[obs3], paint, wash, ingrain, grain, illuminate, emblazon, bedizen, imbue; paint &c. (fine art) 556. Adj. colored &c. v.; colorific[obs3], tingent[obs3], tinctorial[obs3]; chromatic, prismatic; full-colored, high-colored, deep-colored; doubly- dyed; polychromatic; chromatogenous[obs3]; tingible[obs3]. bright, vivid, intense, deep; fresh, unfaded[obs3]; rich, gorgeous; gay. gaudy, florid; gay, garish; rainbow-colored, multihued; showy, flaunting, flashy; raw, crude; glaring, flaring; discordant, inharmonious. mellow, pastel, harmonious, pearly, sweet, delicate, tender, refined.

#429. [Absence of color.] Achromatism.—N. achromatism[obs3]; decoloration[obs3], discoloration; pallor, pallidness, pallidity[obs3]; paleness &c. adj.; etiolation; neutral tint, monochrome, black and white. V. lose color &c. 428; fade, fly, go; become colorless &c. adj.; turn pale, pale. deprive of color, decolorize, bleach, tarnish, achromatize, blanch, etiolate, wash out, tone down. Adj. uncolored &c. (see color &c. 428); colorless, achromatic, aplanatic[obs3]; etiolate, etiolated; hueless[obs3], pale, pallid; palefaced[obs3], tallow-faced; faint, dull, cold, muddy, leaden, dun, wan, sallow, dead, dingy, ashy, ashen, ghastly, cadaverous, glassy, lackluster; discolored &c. v. light-colored, fair, blond; white &c. 430. pale as death, pale as ashes, pale as a witch, pale as a ghost, pale as a corpse, white as a corpse.

#430. Whiteness.—N. whiteness &c. adj.; argent. albification[obs3], etiolation; lactescence[obs3]. snow, paper, chalk, milk, lily, ivory, alabaster; albata[obs3], eburin[obs3], German silver, white metal, barium sulphate[Chem], titanium oxide, blanc fixe[Fr], ceruse[obs3], pearl white; white lead, carbonate of lead. V. be white &c. adj. render white &c. adj.; whiten, bleach, blanch, etiolate, whitewash, silver. Adj. white; milk-white, snow-white; snowy; niveous[obs3], candid, chalky; hoar, hoary; silvery; argent, argentine; canescent[obs3], cretaceous, lactescent[obs3]. whitish, creamy, pearly, fair, blond; blanched &c. v.; high in tone, light. white as a sheet, white as driven snow, white as a lily, white as silver; like ivory &c. n.

#431. Blackness.—N. blackness &c. adj.; darkness &c. (want of light). 421; swartliness[obs3], lividity, dark color, tone, color; chiaroscuro &c. 420. nigrification[obs3], infuscation[obs3]. jet, ink, ebony, coal pitch, soot, charcoal, sloe, smut, raven, crow. [derogatory terms for black-skinned people] Negro, blackamoor, man of color, nigger, darkie, Ethiop, black; buck, nigger [U. S.]; coon [U. S.], sambo. [Pigments] lampblack, ivory black, blueblack; writing ink, printing ink, printer's ink, Indian ink, India ink. V. be black &c. adj.; render -black &c. adj. blacken, infuscate[obs3], denigrate; blot, blotch; smutch[obs3]; smirch; darken &c. 421. black, sable, swarthy, somber, dark, inky, ebony, ebon, atramentous[obs3], jetty; coal-black, jet-black; fuliginous[obs3], pitchy, sooty, swart, dusky, dingy, murky, Ethiopic; low-toned, low in tone; of the deepest dye. black as jet &c. n., black as my hat, black as a shoe, black as a tinker's pot, black as November, black as thunder, black as midnight; nocturnal &c. (dark) 421; nigrescent[obs3]; gray &c. 432; obscure &c. 421. Adv. in mourning.

#432. Gray.—N. gray &c. adj.; neutral tint, silver, pepper and salt, chiaroscuro, grisaille[Fr]. [Pigments] Payne's gray; black &c. 431. Adj. gray, grey; iron-gray, dun, drab, dingy, leaden, livid, somber, sad, pearly, russet, roan; calcareous, limy, favillous[obs3]; silver, silvery, silvered; ashen, ashy; cinereous[obs3], cineritious[obs3]; grizzly, grizzled; slate-colored, stone-colored, mouse-colored, ash- colored; cool.

#433. Brown.—N. brown &c. adj. bister[obs3][Pigments], ocher, sepia, Vandyke brown. V. render brown &c. adj.; tan, embrown[obs3], bronze. Adj. brown, bay, dapple, auburn, castaneous[obs3], chestnut, nut- brown, cinnamon, russet, tawny, fuscous[obs3], chocolate, maroon, foxy, tan, brunette, whitey brown[obs3]; fawn-colored, snuff-colored, liver- colored; brown as a berry, brown as mahogany, brown as the oak leaves; khaki. sun-burnt; tanned &c. v.

Primitive Colors[1]

[1] The author's classification of colors has been retained, though it does not entirely accord with the theories of modern science.

#434. Redness.—N. red, scarlet, vermilion, carmine, crimson, pink, lake, maroon, carnation, couleur de rose[Fr], rose du Barry[obs3]; magenta, damask, purple; flesh color, flesh tint; color; fresh color, high color; warmth; gules[Heraldry]. ruby, carbuncle; rose; rust, iron mold. [Dyes and pigments] cinnabar, cochineal; fuchsine[obs3]; ruddle[obs3], madder; Indian red, light red, Venetian red; red ink, annotto[obs3]; annatto[obs3], realgar[ISA:mineral], minium[obs3], red lead. redness &c. adj.; rubescence[obs3], rubicundity, rubification[obs3]; erubescence[obs3], blush. V. be red, become red &c.adj.; blush, flush, color up, mantle, redden. render red &c. adj.; redden, rouge; rubify[obs3], rubricate; incarnadine.; ruddle[obs3]. Adj. red &c. n., reddish; rufous, ruddy, florid, incarnadine, sanguine; rosy, roseate; blowzy, blowed[obs3]; burnt; rubicund, rubiform[obs3]; lurid, stammell blood red[obs3]; russet buff, murrey[obs3], carroty[obs3], sorrel, lateritious[obs3]; rubineous[obs3], rubricate, rubricose[obs3], rufulous[obs3]. rose-colored, ruby-colored, cherry-colored, claret-colored, flame- colored, flesh-colored, peach-colored, salmon-colored, brick-colored, brick-colored, dust-colored. blushing &c. v.; erubescent[obs3]; reddened &c. v. red as fire, red as blood, red as scarlet, red as a turkey cock, red as a lobster; warm, hot; foxy.

Complementary Colors

#435. Greenness.—N. green &c. adj.; blue and yellow; vert
     emerald, verd antique[Fr], verdigris, malachite, beryl, aquamarine;
absinthe, creme de menthe[Fr].
     [Pigments] terre verte[Fr], verditer[obs3], verdine[obs3], copperas.
     greenness, verdure; viridity[obs3], viridescence[obs3];
     [disease of eyes with green tint] glaucoma, [Jap: rokunaisho].
     Adj. green, verdant; glaucous, olive, olive green; green as grass;
     emerald green, pea green, grass green, apple green, sea green, olive
green, bottle green, coke bottle green.
     greenish; virent[obs3], virescent[obs3].
     green (learner) 541[new, inexperienced, novice], (unskillful) 699.
     green [ill, sick].
     Phr. green with envy; the green grass of Ireland; the wearing of the

#436. Yellowness.—N. yellow &c. adj.; or. [Pigments] gamboge; cadmium-yellow, chrome-yellow, Indian-yellow king's-yellow, lemonyellow; orpiment[obs3], yellow ocher, Claude tint, aureolin[obs3]; xanthein[Chemsub], xanthin[obs3]; zaofulvin[obs3]. crocu s, saffron, topaz; xanthite[obs3]; yolk. jaundice; London fog|!; yellowness &c. adj.; icterus[obs3]; xantho- cyanopia|!, xanthopsia[Med]. Adj. yellow, aureate, golden, flavous|, citrine, fallow; fulvous[obs3], fulvid[obs3]; sallow, luteous[obs3], tawny, creamy, sandy; xanthic[obs3], xanthous[obs3]; jaundiced- auricomous[obs3]. gold-colored, citron-colored, saffron-colored, lemon-colored, lemon yellow, sulphur-colored, amber-colored, straw-colored, primrose-colored, creamcolored; xanthocarpous[obs3], xanthochroid[obs3], xanthopous[obs3]. yellow as a quince, yellow as a guinea, yellow as a crow's foot. warm, advancing.

#437. Purple.—N. purple &c. adj.; blue and red, bishop's purple;
aniline dyes, gridelin[obs3], amethyst; purpure[Heraldry]; heliotrope.
     lividness, lividity.
     V. empurple[obs3].
     Adj. purple, violet, ultraviolet; plum-colored, lavender, lilac, puce,
mauve; livid.

#438. Blueness.—N. blue &c. adj.; garter-blue; watchet|.
     [Pigments] ultramarine, smalt, cobalt, cyanogen[Chemsub]; Prussian
blue, syenite blue[obs3]; bice[obs3], indigo; zaffer[obs3].
     lapis lazuli, sapphire, turquoise; indicolite[obs3].
     blueness, bluishness; bloom.
     Adj. blue, azure, cerulean; sky-blue, sky-colored, sky-dyed;
cerulescent[obs3]; powder blue, bluish; atmospheric, retiring; cold.

#439. Orange.—N. orange, red and yellow; gold; or; flame &c. color,
     [Pigments] ocher, Mars'orange[obs3], cadmium.
     cardinal bird, cardinal flower, cardinal grosbeak, cardinal lobelia[a
flowering plant].
     V. gild, warm.
     Adj. orange; ochreous[obs3]; orange-colored, gold-colored,
flame-colored, copper-colored, brass-colored, apricot-colored; warm, hot,

#440. Variegation.—N. variegation; colors, dichroism, trichroism; iridescence, play of colors, polychrome, maculation, spottiness, striae. spectrum, rainbow, iris, tulip, peacock, chameleon, butterfly, tortoise shell; mackerel, mackerel sky; zebra, leopard, cheetah, nacre, ocelot, ophite[obs3], mother-of-pearl, opal, marble. check, plaid, tartan, patchwork; marquetry-, parquetry; mosaic, tesserae[obs3], strigae[obs3]; chessboard, checkers, chequers; harlequin; Joseph's coat; tricolor. V. be variegated &c. adj.; variegate, stripe, streak, checker, chequer; bespeckle[obs3], speckle; besprinkle, sprinkle; stipple, maculate, dot, bespot[obs3]; tattoo, inlay, damascene; embroider, braid, quilt. Adj. variegated &c. v.; many-colored, many-hued; divers-colored, party-colored; dichromatic, polychromatic; bicolor[obs3], tricolor, versicolor[obs3]; of all the colors of the rainbow, of all manner of colors; kaleidoscopic. iridescent; opaline[obs3], opalescent; prismatic, nacreous, pearly, shot, gorge de pigeon, chatoyant[obs3]; irisated[obs3], pavonine[obs3]. pied, piebald; motley; mottled, marbled; pepper and salt, paned, dappled, clouded, cymophanous[obs3]. mosaic, tesselated, plaid; tortoise shell &c. n. spotted, spotty; punctated[obs3], powdered; speckled &c. v.; freckled, flea-bitten, studded; flecked, fleckered[obs3]; striated, barred, veined; brinded[obs3], brindled; tabby; watered; grizzled; listed; embroidered &c. v.; daedal[obs3]; naevose[obs3], stipiform[obs3]; strigose[obs3], striolate[obs3].


#441. Vision.—N. vision, sight, optics, eyesight. view, look, espial[obs3], glance, ken, coup d'oeil[Fr]; glimpse, glint, peep; gaze, stare, leer; perlustration[obs3], contemplation; conspection|, conspectuity|; regard, survey; introspection; reconnaissance, speculation, watch, espionage, espionnage[Fr], autopsy; ocular inspection, ocular demonstration; sight-seeing. point of view; gazebo, loophole, belvedere, watchtower. field of view; theater, amphitheater, arena, vista, horizon; commanding view, bird's eye view; periscope. visual organ, organ of vision; eye; naked eye, unassisted eye; retina, pupil, iris, cornea, white; optics, orbs; saucer eyes, goggle eyes, gooseberry eyes. short sight &c. 443; clear sight, sharp sight, quick sight, eagle sight, piercing sight, penetrating sight, clear glance, sharp glance, quick glance, eagle glance, piercing glance, penetrating glance, clear eye, sharp eye, quick eye, eagle eye, piercing eye, penetrating eye; perspicacity, discernment; catopsis[obs3]. eagle, hawk; cat, lynx; Argus[obs3]. evil eye; basilisk, cockatrice [Mythical]. V. see, behold, discern, perceive, have in sight, descry, sight, make out, discover, distinguish, recognize, spy, espy, ken; get a sight of, have a sight of, catch a sight of, get a glimpse of, have a glimpse of, catch a glimpse of; command a view of; witness, contemplate, speculate; cast the eyes on, set the eyes on; be a spectator &c. 444 of; look on &c. (be present) 186; see sights &c. (curiosity) 455; see at a glance &c. (intelligence) 498. look, view, eye; lift up the eyes, open one's eye; look at, look on, look upon, look over, look about one, look round; survey, scan, inspect; run the eye over, run the eye through; reconnoiter, glance round, glance on, glance over turn one's looks upon, bend one's looks upon; direct the eyes to, turn the eyes on, cast a glance. observe &c. (attend to) 457; watch &c. (care) 459; see with one's own eyes; watch for &c. (expect) 507; peep, peer, pry, take a peep; play at bopeep[obs3]. look full in the face, look hard at, look intently; strain one's eyes; fix the eyes upon, rivet the eyes upon; stare, gaze; pore over, gloat on; leer, ogle, glare; goggle; cock the eye, squint, gloat, look askance. Adj. seeing &c. v.; visual, ocular; optic, optical; ophthalmic. clear-eyesighted &c. n.; eagle-eyed, hawk-eyed, lynx-eyed, keen-eyed, Argus-eyed. visible &c. 446. Adv. visibly &c. 446; in sight of, with one's eyes open at sight, at first sight, at a glance, at the first blush; prima facie[Lat]. Int. look! &c. (attention) 457. Phr. the scales falling from one's eyes; "an eye like Mars to threaten or command" [Hamlet]; "her eyes are homes of silent prayer" [Tennyson]; "looking before and after" [Hamlet]; "thy rapt soul sitting in thine eyes" [Milton].

#442. Blindness.—N. blindness, cecity[obs3], excecation|, amaurosis[obs3], cataract, ablepsy|, ablepsia[obs3], prestriction|; dim- sightedness &c. 443; Braille, Braille-type; guttaserena ("drop serene"), noctograph[obs3], teichopsia[obs3]. V. be blind &c. adj.; not see; lose sight of; have the eyes bandaged; grope in the dark. not look; close the eyes, shut the eyes-, turn away the eyes, avert the eyes; look another way; wink &c. (limited vision) 443; shut the eyes to, be blind to, wink at, blink at. render blind &c. adj.; blind, blindfold; hoodwink, dazzle, put one's eyes out; throw dust into one's eyes, pull the wool over one's eyes; jeter de la poudre aux yeux[Fr]; screen from sight &c. (hide) 528. Adj. blind; eyeless, sightless, visionless; dark; stone-blind, sand- blind, stark-blind; undiscerning[obs3]; dimsighted &c. 443. blind as a bat, blind as a buzzard, blind as a beetle, blind as a mole, blind as an owl; wall-eyed. blinded &c. v. Adv. blindly, blindfold, blindfolded; darkly. Phr. "O dark, dark, dark, amid the blaze of noon" [Milton].

#443. [Imperfect vision.] Dimsightedness. [Fallacies of vision.]—N. dim sight, dull sight half sight, short sight, near sight, long sight, double sight, astigmatic sight, failing sight; dimsightedness &c.; purblindness, lippitude[obs3]; myopia, presbyopia[obs3]; confusion of vision; astigmatism; color blindness, chromato-pseudo-blepsis[obs3], Daltonism; nyctalopia[obs3]; strabismus, strabism[obs3], squint; blearedness[obs3], day blindness, hemeralopia[obs3], nystagmus; xanthocyanopia[obs3], xanthopsia[Med]; cast in the eye, swivel eye, goggle- eyes; obliquity of vision. winking &c. v.; nictitation; blinkard[obs3], albino. dizziness, swimming, scotomy[obs3]; cataract; ophthalmia. [Limitation of vision] blinker; screen &c. (hider) 530. [Fallacies of vision] deceptio visus[Lat]; refraction, distortion, illusion, false light, anamorphosis[obs3], virtual image, spectrum, mirage, looming, phasma|; phantasm, phantasma[obs3], phantom; vision; specter, apparition, ghost; ignis fatuus &c. (luminary) 423 specter of the Brocken magic mirror[Lat]; magic lantern &c. (show) 448; mirror lens &c. (instrument) 445. V. be dimsighted &c. n.; see double; have a mote in the eye, have a mist before the eyes, have a film over the eyes; see through a prism, see through a glass darkly; wink, blink, nictitate; squint; look askant[obs3], askant askance[obs3]; screw up the eyes, glare, glower; nictate[obs3]. dazzle, loom. Adj. dim-sighted &c. n.; myopic, presbyopic[obs3]; astigmatic moon- eyed, mope-eyed, blear-eyed, goggle-eyed, gooseberry-eyed, one-eyed; blind of one eye, monoculous[obs3]; half-blind, purblind; cock-eyed, dim-eyed, mole-eyed; dichroic. blind as a bat &c. (blind) 442; winking &c. v.

#444. Spectator.—N. spectator, beholder, observer, looker-on, onlooker, witness, eyewitness, bystander, passer by; sightseer; rubberneck * [U. S.].
     spy; sentinel &c. (warning) 668.
     V. witness, behold &c. (see) 441; look on &c. (be present) 186; gawk, rubber *, rubberneck *[U.S.].

#445. Optical Instruments.—N. optical instruments; lens, meniscus, magnifier, sunglass, magnifying glass, hand lens; microscope, megascope[obs3], tienoscope[obs3]. spectacles, specs [coll.],glasses, barnacles, goggles, eyeglass, pince-nez, monocle, reading glasses, bifocals; contact lenses, soft lenses, hard lenses; sunglasses, shades[coll.]. periscopic lens[obs3]; telescope, glass, lorgnette; spyglass, opera glass, binocular, binoculars, field glass; burning glass, convex lens, concave lens, convexo-concave lens[obs3], coated lens, multiple lens, compound lens, lens system, telephoto lens, wide-angle lens, fish-eye lens, zoom lens; optical bench. astronomical telescope, reflecting telescope, reflector, refracting telescope, refractor, Newtonian telescope, folded-path telescope, finder telescope, chromatoscope; X-ray telescope; radiotelescope, phased-array telescope, Very Large Array radiotelescope; ultraviolet telescope; infrared telescope; star spectroscope; space telescope. [telescope mounts] altazimuth mount, equatorial mount. refractometer, circular dichroism spectrometer. interferometer. phase-contrast microscope, fluorescence microscope, dissecting microscope; electron microscope, transmission electron microscope; scanning electron microscope, SEM; scanning tunneling electron microscope. [microscope components] objective lens, eyepiece, barrel, platform, focusing knob; slide, slide glass, cover glass, counting chamber; illuminator, light source, polarizer, [component parts of telescopes] reticle, cross-hairs. light pipe, fiber optics mirror, reflector, speculum; looking-glass, pier-glass, cheval-glass, rear-view mirror, hand mirror, one-way mirror, magnifying mirror. [room with distorting mirrors] fun house. prism, diffraction grating; beam splitter, half-wave plate, quarter- wave plate. camera lucida[Lat], camera obscura[Lat]; magic lantern &c. (show) 448; stereopticon; chromatrope[obs3], thaumatrope[obs3]; stereoscope, pseudoscope[obs3], polyscope[obs3], kaleidoscope. photometer, eriometer[obs3], actinometer[obs3], lucimeter[obs3], radiometer; ligth detector, photodiode, photomultiplier, photodiode array, photocell. X-ray diffractometer, goniometer. spectrometer, monochrometer, UV spectrometer, visible spectrometer, Infrared spectrometer, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, recording spectrometer; densitometer, scanning densitometer, two-dimensional densitometer. abdominoscope[obs3], gastroscope[Med], helioscope[obs3], polariscope[obs3], polemoscope[obs3], spectroscope. abdominoscopy[obs3]; gastroscopy[Med]; microscopy, microscopist.

#446. Visibility.—N. visibility, perceptibility; conspicuousness, distinctness &c. adj.; conspicuity[obs3], conspicuousness; appearance &c. 448; bassetting[obs3]; exposure; manifestation &c. 525; ocular proof, ocular evidence, ocular demonstration; field of view &c. (vision) 441; periscopism[obs3]. V. be become visible &c. adj.; appear, open to the view; meet the eye, catch the eye; basset; present itself, show manifest itself, produce itself, discover itself, reveal itself, expose itself, betray itself; stand forth, stand out; materialize; show; arise; peep out, peer out, crop out; start up, spring up, show up, turn up, crop up; glimmer, loom; glare; burst forth; burst upon the view, burst upon the sight; heave in sight; come in sight, come into view, come out, come forth, come forward; see the light of day; break through the clouds; make its appearance, show its face, appear to one's eyes, come upon the stage, float before the eyes, speak for itself &c. (manifest) 525; attract the attention &c. 457; reappear; live in a glass house. expose to view &c. 525. Adj. visible, perceptible, perceivable, discernible, apparent; in view, in full view, in sight; exposed to view, en evidence; unclouded, unobscured[obs3], in the foreground. obvious &c. (manifest) 525; plain, clear, distinct, definite; well defined, well marked; in focus; recognizable, palpable, autoptical[obs3]; glaring, staring, conspicuous; stereoscopic; in bold, in strong relief. periscopic[obs3], panoramic. before one's eyes, under one's eyes; before one, vue d'oeil[Fr], in one's eye, oculis subjecta fidelibus[Lat]. Adv. visibly &c. adj.; in sight of; before one's eyes &c. adj.; veluti in speculum[Lat].

#447. Invisibility.—N. invisibility, invisibleness, nonappearance,
imperceptibility; indistinctness &c. adj.; mystery, delitescence[obs3].
     concealment &c. 528; latency &c. 526.
     V. be invisible &c. adj.; be hidden &c. (hide) 528; lurk &c. (lie
hidden) 526; escape notice.
     render invisible &c. adj.; conceal &c. 528; put out of sight.
     not see &c. (be blind) 442; lose sight of.
     Adj. invisible, imperceptible; undiscernible[obs3], indiscernible;
unapparent, non-apparent; out of sight, not in sight; a perte de
vue[French]; behind the scenes, behind the curtain; viewless, sightless;
inconspicuous, unconspicuous[obs3]; unseen &c. (see see &c. 441); covert
&c. (latent) 526; eclipsed, under an eclipse.
     dim &c. (faint) 422; mysterious, dark, obscure, confused; indistinct,
indistinguishable; shadowy, indefinite, undefined; ill-defined, ill-marked;
blurred, fuzzy, out of focus; misty &c. (opaque) 426; delitescent[obs3].
     hidden, obscured, covered, veiled (concealed) 528.
     Phr. "full many a flower is born to blush unseen" [Gray].

#448. Appearance.—N. appearance, phenomenon, sight, spectacle, show, premonstration|, scene, species, view, coup d'oeil[Fr]; lookout, outlook, prospect, vista, perspective, bird's-eye view, scenery, landscape, picture, tableau; display, exposure, mise en scene[Fr]; rising of the curtain. phantasm, phantom &c. (fallacy of vision) 443. pageant, spectacle; peep-show, raree-show, gallanty-show; ombres chinoises[Sp]; magic lantern, phantasmagoria, dissolving views; biograph[obs3], cinematograph, moving pictures; panorama, diorama, cosmorama[obs3], georama[obs3]; coup de theatre, jeu de theatre[Fr]; pageantry &c. (ostentation) 882; insignia &c. (indication) 550. aspect, angle, phase, phasis[obs3], seeming; shape &c. (form) 240; guise, look, complexion, color, image, mien, air, cast, carriage, port, demeanor; presence, expression, first blush, face of the thing; point of view, light. lineament feature trait lines; outline, outside; contour, face, countenance, physiognomy, visage, phiz[obs3],. cast of countenance, profile, tournure[obs3], cut of one's jib, metoposcopy[obs3]; outside &c. 220. V. appear; be visible, become visible &c. 446; seem, look, show; present the appearance of, wear the appearance of, carry the appearance of, have the appearance of, bear the appearance of, exhibit the appearance of, take the appearance of, take on the appearance of, assume the appearance, present the semblance of, wear the semblance of, carry the semblance of, have the semblance of, bear the semblance of, exhibit the semblance of, take the semblance of, take on the semblance of, assume the semblance of; look like; cut a figure, figure; present to the view; show &c. (make manifest) 525. Adj. apparent, seeming, ostensible; on view. Adv. apparently; to all seeming, to all appearance; ostensibly, seemingly, as it seems, on the face of it, prima facie [Lat]; at the first blush, at first sight; in the eyes of; to the eye. Phr. editio princeps [Lat].

#449. Disappearance.—N. disappearance, evanescence, eclipse,
     departure &c. 293; exit; vanishing point; dissolving views.
     V. disappear, vanish, dissolve, fade, melt away, pass, go,
avaunt[obs3], evaporate, vaporize; be gone &c. adj.; leave no trace, leave
"not a rack behind" [Tempest]; go off the stage &c. (depart) 293; suffer
an eclipse, undergo an eclipse; retire from sight; be lost to view, pass
out of sight.
     lose sight of.
     efface &c. 552.
     Adj. disappearing &c. v.; evanescent; missing, lost; lost to sight,
lost to view; gone.
     Int. vanish! disappear! avaunt[obs3]! get lost! get out of here &c.
(ejection) 297.




#450. Intellect.—N. intellect, mind, understanding, reason, thinking principle; rationality; cogitative faculties, cognitive faculties, discursive faculties, reasoning faculties, intellectual faculties; faculties, senses, consciousness, observation, percipience, intelligence, intellection, intuition, association of ideas, instinct, conception, judgment, wits, parts, capacity, intellectuality, genius; brains, cognitive powers, intellectual powers; wit &c. 498; ability &c. (skill) 698; wisdom &c. 498; Vernunft[Ger], Verstand[Ger]. soul, spirit, ghost, inner man, heart, breast, bosom, penetralia mentis[Lat], divina particula aurae[Lat], heart's core; the Absolute, psyche, subliminal consciousness, supreme principle. brain, organ of thought, seat of thought; sensorium[obs3], sensory; head, headpiece; pate, noddle[obs3], noggin, skull, scull, pericranium[Med], cerebrum, cranium, brainpan[obs3], sconce, upper story. [in computers] central processing unit, CPU; arithmetic and logical unit, ALU. [Science of mind] metaphysics; psychics, psychology; ideology; mental philosophy, moral philosophy; philosophy of the mind; pneumatology[obs3], phrenology; craniology[Med], cranioscopy[Med]. ideality, idealism; transcendentalism, spiritualism; immateriality &c. 317; universal concept, universal conception. metaphysician, psychologist &c. V. note, notice, mark; take notice of, take cognizance of be aware of, be conscious of; realize; appreciate; ruminate &c. (think) 451; fancy &c. (imagine) 515. Adj. intellectual[Relating to intellect], mental, rational, subjective, metaphysical, nooscopic[obs3], spiritual; ghostly; psychical[obs3], psychological; cerebral; animastic[obs3]; brainy; hyperphysical[obs3], superphysical[obs3]; subconscious, subliminal. immaterial &c. 317; endowed with reason. Adv. in petto. Phr. ens rationis [Lat]; frons est animi janua [Lat][Cicero]; locos y ninos dicen la verdad [Sp]; mens sola loco non exulat [Lat][Ovid]; "my mind is my kingdom" [Campbell]; "stern men with empires in their brains" [Lowell]; "the mind, the music breathing from her face" [Byron]; "thou living ray of intellectual Fire" [Falconer].

#450a. Absence or want of Intellect.—N. absence of intellect, want
of intellect &c. 450; imbecility &c. 499.: brutality, brute force.
     instinct, brute instinct, stimulus-response loop, conditioned
response, instinctive reaction, Pavlovian response.
     mimicry, aping (imitation) 19.
     moron, imbecile, idiot; fool &c. 501; dumb animal; vegetable, brain-
     Adj. unendowed with reason, void of reason; thoughtless; vegetative;
moronic, idiotic, brainless [all pejorative].
     Adv. instinctively, like Pavlov's dog; vegetatively.
     V. mimic, ape (imitate) 19; respond instinctively.

#451. Thought.—N. thought; exercitation of the intellect[obs3], exercise of the intellect; intellection; reflection, cogitation, consideration, meditation, study, lucubration, speculation, deliberation, pondering; head work, brain work; cerebration; deep reflection; close study, application &c. (attention) 457. abstract thought, abstraction contemplation, musing; brown study &c. (inattention) 458; reverie, Platonism; depth of thought, workings of the mind, thoughts, inmost thoughts; self-counsel self-communing, self- consultation; philosophy of the Absolute, philosophy of the Academy, philosophy of the Garden, philosophy of the lyceum, philosophy of the Porch. association of thought, succession of thought, flow of thought, train of thought, current of thought, association of ideas, succession of ideas, flow of ideas, train of ideas, current of ideas. after thought, mature thought; reconsideration, second thoughts; retrospection &c. (memory) 505; excogitation[obs3]; examination &c. (inquiry) 461 invention &c. (imagination) 515. thoughtfulness &c. adj. V. think, reflect, cogitate, excogitate[obs3], consider, deliberate; bestow thought upon, bestow consideration upon; speculate, contemplate, meditate, ponder, muse, dream, ruminate; brood over, con over; animadvert, study; bend -, apply mind &c. (attend) 457; digest, discuss, hammer at, weigh, perpend; realize, appreciate; fancy &c. (imagine) 515; trow[obs3]. take into consideration; take counsel &c. (be advised) 695; commune with oneself, bethink oneself; collect one's thoughts; revolve in the mind, turn over in the mind, run over in the mind; chew the cud upon, sleep upon; take counsel of one's pillow, advise with one's pillow. rack one's brains, ransack one's brains, crack one's brains, beat one's brains, cudgel one's brains; set one's brain to work, set one's wits to work. harbor an idea, entertain an idea, cherish an idea, nurture an idea &c. 453; take into one's head; bear in mind; reconsider. occur; present itself, suggest itself; come into one's head, get into one's head; strike one, flit across the view, come uppermost, run in one's head; enter the mind, pass in the mind, cross the mind, flash on the mind, flash across the mind, float in the mind, fasten itself on the mind, be uppermost in the mind, occupy the mind; have in one's mind. make an impression; sink into the mind, penetrate into the mind; engross the thoughts. Adj. thinking &c. v.; thoughtful, pensive, meditative, reflective, museful[obs3], wistful, contemplative, speculative, deliberative, studious, sedate, introspective, Platonic, philosophical. lost in thought &c. (inattentive) 458; deep musing &c. (intent) 457. in the mind, under consideration. Adv. all things considered. Phr. the mind being on the stretch; the mind turning upon, the head turning upon, the mind running upon; "divinely, bent to meditation" [Richard III]; en toute chose il faut considerer la fin[Fr][obs3]; "fresh- pluckt from bowers of never-failing thought" [O. Meredith]; "go speed the stars of Thought"[Emerson]; "in maiden meditation fancy-free" [M. N. D.]; "so sweet is zealous contemplation" [Richard III]; "the power of thought is the magic of the Mind" [Byron]; "those that think must govern those that toil" [Goldsmith]; "thought is parent of the deed" [Carlyle]; "thoughts in attitudes imperious" [Longfellow]; "thoughts that breathe and words that burn" [Gray]; vivere est cogitare [Lat][Cicero]; Volk der Dichter und Denker [Ger].

#452. [Absence or want of thought.] Incogitancy.—N.
incogitancy[obs3], vacancy, inunderstanding[obs3]; fatuity &c. 499;
thoughtlessness &c. (inattention) 458; vacuity.
     couch potato, vegetable.
     V. not think &c. 451; not think of; dismiss from the mind, dismiss
from the thoughts &c. 451.
     indulge in reverie &c. (be inattentive) 458.
     put away thought; unbend the mind, relax the mind, divert the mind,
veg out.
     Adj. vacant, unintellectual, unideal[obs3], unoccupied, unthinking,
inconsiderate, thoughtless, mindless, no-brain, vacuous; absent &c.
(inattentive) 458; diverted; irrational &c. 499; narrow-minded &c. 481.
     unthought of, undreamt 'of, unconsidered; off one's mind;
incogitable[obs3], not to be thought of.
     Phr. absence d'esprit; pabulum pictura pascit inani[Lat][obs3].

#453. [Object of thought.] Idea.—N. idea, notion, conception, thought, apprehension, impression, perception, image, <gr/eidolon/gr>[Grk], sentiment, reflection, observation, consideration; abstract idea; archetype, formative notion; guiding conception, organizing conception; image in the mind, regulative principle. view &c. (opinion) 484; theory &c. 514; conceit, fancy; phantasy &c. (imagination) 515.point of view &c. (aspect) 448; field of view.

#454. [Subject of thought, <gr/noemata/gr>] Topic.—N. subject of
thought, material for thought; food for the mind, mental pabulum.
     subject, subject matter; matter, theme, <gr/noemata/gr>[Grk], topic,
what it is about, thesis, text, business, affair, matter in hand, argument;
motion, resolution; head, chapter; case, point; proposition, theorem; field
of inquiry; moot point, problem &c. (question) 461.
     V. float in the mind, pass in the mind &c. 451.
     Adj. thought of; uppermost in the mind; in petto.
     Adv. under consideration; in question, in the mind; on foot, on the
carpet, on the docket, on the tapis[obs3]; relative to &c. 9.


#455. [The desire of knowledge.] Curiosity.—N. interest, thirst for knowledge, thirst for truth; curiosity, curiousness; inquiring mind; inquisitiveness. omnivorous intellect, devouring mind. [person who desires knowledge] inquirer; sightseer; quidnunc[Lat], newsmonger, Paul Pry, eavesdropper; gossip &c. (news) 532; rubberneck; intellectual; seeker[inquirer after religious knowledge], seeker after truth. V. be curious &c. adj.; take an interest in, stare, gape; prick up the ears, see sights, lionize; pry; nose; rubberneck*[U. S.]. Adj. curious, inquisitive, burning with curiosity, overcurious; inquiring &c. 461; prying, snoopy, nosy, peering; prurient; inquisitorial, inquisitory[obs3]; curious as a cat; agape &c. (expectant) 507. Phr. what's the matter? what next? consumed with curiosity; curiosity killed the cat, satisfaction brought it back. "curiouser and curiouser" [Alice in Wonderland].

#456. [Absence of curiosity.] Incuriosity.—N. incuriosity, incuriousness &c. adj.; insouciance &c. 866; indifference, lack of interest, disinterest. boredom, ennui (weariness) 841; satiety &c. 639; foreknowledge (foresight) 510. V. be incurious &c. adj.; have no curiosity &c. 455; take no interest in &c. 823; mind one's own business. Adj. incurious, uninquisitive, indifferent; impassive &c. 823; uninterested, detached, aloof.

#457. Attention.—N. attention; mindfulness, presence of mind &c. adj.; intentness, intentiveness[obs3]; alertness; thought &c. 451; advertence, advertency[obs3]; observance, observation; consideration, reflection, perpension|; heed; heedfulness; particularity; notice, regard &c. v.; circumspection, diligence &c. (care) 459; study, scrutiny inspection, introspection; revision, revisal. active application, diligent application, exclusive application, minute application, close application, intense application, deep application, profound application, abstract application, labored application, deliberate application, active attention, diligent attention, exclusive attention, minute attention, close attention, intense attention, deep attention, profound attention, abstract attention, labored attention, deliberate attention, active thought, diligent thought, exclusive thought, minute thought, close thought, intense thought, deep thought, profound thought, abstract thought, labored thought, deliberate thought, active study, diligent study, exclusive study, minute study, close study, intense study, deep study, profound study, abstract study, labored study, deliberate study. minuteness, attention to detail. absorption of mind &c. (abstraction) 458. indication, calling attention to &c. v. V. be attentive &c. adj.; attend, advert to, observe, look, see, view, remark, notice, regard, take notice, mark; give attention to, pay attention to, pay heed to, give heed to; incline an ear to, lend an ear to; trouble one's head about; give a thought to, animadvert to; occupy oneself with; contemplate &c. (think of) 451; look at, look to, look after, look into, look over; see to; turn the mind to, bend the mind to, apply the mind to, direct the mind to, give the mind to, turn the eye to, bend the eye to, apply the eye to, direct the eye to, give the eye to, turn the attention to, bend the attention to, apply the attention to, direct the attention to, give the attention to; have an eye to, have in one's eye; bear in mind; take into account, take into consideration; keep in sight, keep in view; have regard to, heed, mind, take cognizance of entertain, recognize; make note of, take note of; note. examine cursorily; glance at, glance upon, glance over; cast the eyes over, pass the eyes over; run over, turn over the leaves, dip into, perstringe|; skim &c. (neglect) 460; take a cursory view of. examine, examine closely, examine intently; scan, scrutinize, consider; give one's mind to, bend one's mind to; overhaul, revise, pore over; inspect, review, pass under review; take stock of; fix the eye on, rivet attention on, fix attention on, devote the eye to, fix the mind on, devote the thoughts to; hear out, think out; mind one's business. revert to; watch &c. (expect) 507, (take care of) 459; hearken to, listen to; prick up the ears; have the eyes open, keep the eyes open; come to the point. meet with attention; fall under one's notice, fall under one's observation; be under consideration &c. (topic) 454. catch the eye, strike the eye; attract notice; catch the attention, awaken the attention, wake the attention, invite the attention, solicit the attention, attract the attention, claim the attention, excite the attention, engage the attention, occupy the attention, strike the attention, arrest the attention, fix the attention, engross the attention, absorb the attention, rivet the attention, catch the mind, awaken the mind, wake the mind, invite the mind, solicit the mind, attract the mind, claim the mind excite the mind, engage the mind, occupy the mind, strike the mind, arrest the mind, fix the mind, engross the mind, absorb the mind, rivet the mind, catch the thoughts, awaken the thoughts, wake the thoughts, invite the thoughts, solicit the thoughts, attract the thoughts, claim the thoughts excite the thoughts, engage the thoughts, occupy the thoughts, strike the thoughts, arrest the thoughts, fix the thoughts, engross the thoughts, absorb the thoughts, rivet the thoughts; be present to the mind, be uppermost in the mind. bring under one's notice; point out, point to, point at, point the finger at; lay the finger on, indigitate|, indicate; direct attention to, call attention to; show; put a mark &c. (sign) 550 upon; call soldiers to "attention"; bring forward &c. (make manifest) 525. Adj. attentive, mindful, observant, regardful; alive to, awake to; observing &c. v.; alert, open-eyed; intent on, taken up with, occupied with, engaged in; engrossed in, wrapped in, absorbed, rapt, transfixed, riveted, mesmerized, hypnotized; glued to (the TV); breathless; preoccupied &c. (inattentive) 458; watchful &c. (careful) 459; breathless, undistracted, upon the stretch; on the watch &c. (expectant) 507. steadfast. [compelling attention] interesting, engrossing, mesmerizing, riveting. Int. see! look, look here, look you, look to it! mark! lo! behold! soho[obs3]! hark, hark ye! mind! halloo! observe! lo and behold! attention! nota bene [Latin], "N.B.", note well; I'd have you to know; notice! O yes! Oyez! dekko[obs3]! ecco[obs3]! yoho! Phr. this is to give notice, these are to give notice; dictum sapienti sat est [Latin: a word to the wise is sufficient]; finem respice[Lat]. Attention! Now hear this! Oyez!; Achtung[German]; vnimanie[Russ][Russian]; chui[Japanese].

#458. Inattention.—N. inattention, inconsideration; inconsiderateness &c. adj.; oversight; inadvertence, inadvertency, nonobservance, disregard. supineness &c. (inactivity) 683; etourderie[French], want of thought; heedlessness &c. (neglect) 460; insouciance &c. (indifference) 866. abstraction; absence of mind, absorption of mind; preoccupation, distraction, reverie, brown study, deep musing, fit of abstraction. V. be inattentive &c. adj.; overlook, disregard; pass by &c. (neglect) 460 not observe &c. 457; think little of. close one's eyes to, shut one's eyes to; pay no attention to; dismiss from one's thoughts, discard from one's thoughts, discharge from one's thoughts, dismiss from one's mind, discard from one's mind, discharge from one's mind; drop the subject, think no more of; set aside, turn aside, put aside; turn away from, turn one's attention from, turn a deaf ear to, turn one's back upon. abstract oneself, dream, indulge in reverie. escape notice, escape attention; come in at one ear and go out at the other; forget &c. (have no remembrance) 506. call off the attention, draw off the attention, call away the attention, divert the attention, distract the mind; put out of one's head; disconcert, discompose; put out, confuse, perplex, bewilder, moider[obs3], fluster, muddle, dazzle; throw a sop to Cerberus. Adj. inattentive; unobservant, unmindful, heedless, unthinking, unheeding, undiscerning[obs3]; inadvertent; mindless, regardless, respectless[obs3], listless &c. (indifferent) 866; blind, deaf; bird- witted; hand over head; cursory, percursory[obs3]; giddy-brained, scatter- brained, hare-brained; unreflective, unreflecting[obs3], ecervele [French]; offhand; dizzy, muzzy[obs3], brainsick[obs3]; giddy, giddy as a goose; wild, harum-scarum, rantipole[obs3], highflying; heedless, careless &c. (neglectful) 460. inconsiderate, thoughtless. absent, abstracted, distrait; absentminded, lost; lost in thought, wrapped in thought; rapt, in the clouds, bemused; dreaming on other things, musing on other things; preoccupied, engrossed &c. (attentive) 457; daydreaming, in a reverie &c. n.; off one's guard &c. (inexpectant) 508[obs3]; napping; dreamy; caught napping. disconcerted, distracted, put out &c. v. Adv. inattentively, inadvertently, absent-mindedly &c. adj[obs3].; per incuriam[Lat], sub silentio[Lat]. Int. stand at ease, stand easy! Phr. the attention wanders; one's wits gone a woolgathering, one's wits gone a bird's nesting; it never entered into one's head; the mind running on other things; one's thoughts being elsewhere; had it been a bear it would have bitten you. 129

#459. Care. [Vigilance.]—N. care, solicitude, heed; heedfulness &c. adj.; scruple &c. (conscientiousness) 939. watchfulness &c. adj.; vigilance, surveillance, eyes of Argus[obs3], watch, vigil, look out, watch and ward, loeil du maitre[Fr]. alertness &c. (activity) 682; attention &c. 457; prudence &c., circumspection &c. (caution) 864; anxiety; forethought &c. 510; precaution &c. (preparation) 673; tidiness &c. (order) 58, (cleanliness) 652; accuracy &c. (exactness) 494; minuteness, attention to detail. V. be careful &c. adj.; reck[obs3]; take care &c. (be cautious) 864; pay attention to &c. 457; take care of; look to, look after, see to, see after; keep an eye on, keep a sharp eye on; chaperon, matronize[obs3], play gooseberry; keep watch, keep watch and ward; mount guard, set watch, watch; keep in sight, keep in view; mind, mind one's business. look sharp, look about one; look with one's own eyes; keep a good lookout, keep a sharp lookout; have all one's wits about one, have all one's eyes about one; watch for &c. (expect) 507; keep one's eyes open, have the eyes open, sleep with one's eye open. Adj. careful regardful, heedful; taking care &c. v.; particular; prudent &c. (cautious) 864; considerate; thoughtful &c. (deliberative) 451; provident &c. (prepared) 673; alert &c. (active) 682; sure-footed. guarded, on one's guard; on the qui vivre[Fr], on the alert, on watch, on the lookout; awake, broad awake, vigilant; watchful, wakeful, wistful; Argus-eyed; wide awake &c. (intelligent) 498; on the watch for (expectant) 507. tidy &c. (orderly) 58, (clean) 652; accurate &c. (exact) 494; scrupulous &c. (conscientious) 939; cavendo tutus &c. (safe) 664[Lat]. Adv. carefully &c. adj.; with care, gingerly. Phr. quis custodiet istos custodes? [Latin: who will watch the watchers?]; "care will kill a cat" [Wither]; ni bebas agua que no veas [Sp]; "O polished perturbation! Golden care!" [Henry IV]; "the incessant care and labor of his mind" [Henry IV].

#460. Neglect.—N. neglect; carelessness &c. adj.; trifling &c. v.; negligence; omission, oversight, laches[Law], default; supineness &c. (inactivity) 683; inattention &c. 458; nonchalance &c. (insensibility) 823; imprudence, recklessness &c. 863; slovenliness &c. (disorder) 59, (dirt) 653; improvidence &c. 674; noncompletion &c. 730; inexactness &c. (error) 495. paralipsis, paralepsis, paraleipsis [in rhetoric]. trifler, waiter on Providence; Micawber. V. be negligent &c. adj.; take no care of &c. (take care of &c. 459); neglect; let slip, let go; lay aside, set aside, cast aside, put aside; keep out of sight, put out of sight; lose sight of. overlook, disregard; pass over, pas by; let pass; blink; wink at, connive at; gloss over; take no note of, take no thought of, take no account of, take no notice of; pay no regard to; laisser aller[Fr]. scamp; trifle, fribble[obs3]; do by halves; cut; slight &c. (despise) 930; play with, trifle with; slur, skim, skim the surface; effleurer [Fr]; take a cursory view of &c. 457. slur over, skip over, jump over, slip over; pretermit[obs3], miss, skip, jump, omit, give the go-by to, push aside, pigeonhole, shelve, sink; table [parliamentary]; ignore, shut one's eyes to, refuse to hear, turn a deaf ear to; leave out of one's calculation; not attend to &c. 457, not mind; not trouble oneself about, not trouble one's head about, not trouble oneself with; forget &c. 506; be caught napping &c. (not expect) 508; leave a loose thread; let the grass grow under one's feet. render neglectful &c. adj.; put off one's guard, throw off one's guard; distract, divert. Adj. neglecting &c. v.; unmindful, negligent, neglectful; heedless, careless, thoughtless; perfunctory, remiss; feebleness &c. 575. inconsiderate; uncircumspect[obs3], incircumspect[obs3]; off one's guard; unwary, unwatchful[obs3], unguarded; offhand. supine &c. (inactive) 683; inattentive &c. 458; insouciant &c. (indifferent) 823; imprudent, reckless &c. 863; slovenly &c. (disorderly) 59, (dirty) 653; inexact &c. (erroneous) 495; improvident &c. 674. neglected &c. v.; unheeded, uncared-for, unperceived, unseen, unobserved, unnoticed, unnoted[obs3], unmarked, unattended to, unthought of, unregarded[obs3], unremarked, unmissed[obs3]; shunted, shelved. unexamined, unstudied, unsearched[obs3], unscanned[obs3], unweighed[obs3], unsifted, unexplored. abandoned; buried in a napkin, hid under a bushel. Adv. negligently &c. adj.; hand over head, anyhow; in an unguarded moment &c. (unexpectedly) 508; per incuriam[Lat]. Int. never mind, no matter, let it pass. Phr. out of sight, out of mind.

#461. Inquiry [Subject of Inquiry. Question]—N. inquiry; request &c. 765; search, research, quest, pursuit &c. 622. examination, review, scrutiny, investigation, indagation|; perquisition[obs3], perscrutation[obs3], pervestigation|; inquest, inquisition; exploration; exploitation, ventilation. sifting; calculation, analysis, dissection, resolution, induction; Baconian method[obs3]. strict inquiry, close inquiry, searching inquiry, exhaustive inquiry; narrow search, strict search; study &c. (consideration) 451. scire facias[Lat], ad referendum; trial. questioning &c. v.; interrogation, interrogatory; interpellation; challenge, examination, cross-examination, catechism; feeler, Socratic method, zetetic philosophy[obs3]; leading question; discussion &c. (reasoning) 476. reconnoitering, reconnaissance; prying &c. v.; espionage, espionnage[Fr]; domiciliary visit, peep behind the curtain; lantern of Diogenes. question, query, problem, desideratum, point to be solved, porism[obs3]; subject of inquiry, field of inquiry, subject of controversy; point in dispute, matter in dispute; moot point; issue, question at issue; bone of contention &c. (discord) 713; plain question, fair question, open question; enigma &c. (secret) 533; knotty point &c. (difficulty) 704; quodlibet; threshold of an inquiry. [person who questions] inquirer, investigator, inquisitor, inspector, querist[obs3], examiner, catechist; scrutator scrutineer scrutinizer[obs3]; analyst; quidnunc &c. (curiosity) 455[Lat]. V. make inquiry &c. n.; inquire, ask, seek, search. look for, look about for, look out for; scan, reconnoiter, explore, sound, rummage, ransack, pry, peer, look round; look over, go over, look through, go through; spy, overhaul. [transitive: object is a topic] ask about, inquire about. scratch the head, slap the forehead. look into every hole and corner, peer into every hole and corner, pry into every hole and corner; nose; trace up; search out, hunt down, hunt out, fish out, ferret out; unearth; leave no stone unturned. seek a clue, seek a clew; hunt, track, trail, mouse, dodge, trace; follow the trail, follow the scent; pursue &c. 662; beat up one's quarters; fish for; feel for &c. (experiment) 463. investigate; take up an inquiry, institute an inquiry, pursue an inquiry, follow up an inquiry, conduct an inquiry, carry on an inquiry, carry out an inquiry, prosecute an inquiry &c. n.; look at, look into; preexamine; discuss, canvass, agitate. [inquire into a topic] examine, study, consider, calculate; dip into, dive into, delve into, go deep into; make sure of, probe, sound, fathom; probe to the bottom, probe to the quick; scrutinize, analyze, anatomize, dissect, parse, resolve, sift, winnow; view in all its phases, try in all its phases; thresh out. bring in question, bring into question, subject to examination; put to the proof &c. (experiment) 463; audit, tax, pass in review; take into consideration &c. (think over) 451; take counsel &c. 695. [intransitive] question, demand; put the question, pop the question, propose the question, propound the question, moot the question, start the question, raise the question, stir the question, suggest the question, put forth the question, ventilate the question, grapple with the question, go into a question. question[transitive: human object], put to the question, interrogate, pump; subject to interrogation, subject to examination; cross-question, cross-examine; press for an answer; give the third degree; put to the inquisition; dodge|!. catechize. require an answer; pick the brains of, suck the brains of; feel the pulse. get the lay of the land; see how the wind is blowing; put one's ear to the ground. [intransitive] be in question &c. adj.; undergo examination. Adj. inquiry &c. v.; inquisitive &c. (curious) 455; requisitive|, requisitory[obs3]; catechetical[obs3], inquisitorial, analytic; in search of, in quest of; on the lookout for, interrogative, zetetic[obs3]; all searching. undetermined, untried, undecided; in question, in dispute, in issue, in course of inquiry; under discussion, under consideration, under investigation &c. n.; sub judice[Lat], moot, proposed; doubtful &c. (uncertain) 475. Adv. what? why? wherefore? whence? whither? where? quaere? how comes it[Lat], how happens it, how is it? what is the reason? what's the matter, what's in the wind? what on earth? when? who? nicht wahr?[Ger].

#462. Answer.—N. answer, response, reply, replication, riposte,
rejoinder, surrejoinder[obs3], rebutter, surrebutter[obs3], retort,
repartee; rescript, rescription[obs3]; antiphon[obs3], antiphony;
acknowledgment; password; echo; counter statement.
     discovery &c. 480a; solution &c. (explanation) 522; rationale &c.
(cause) 153; clue &c. (indication) 550.
     Oedipus; oracle &c. 513; return &c. (record) 551.
     V. answer, respond, reply, rebut, retort, rejoin; give for answer,
return for answer; acknowledge, echo.
     explain &c. (interpret) 522; solve &c. (unriddle) 522; discover &c.
480a; fathom, hunt out &c. (inquire) 461; satisfy, set at rest, determine.
     Adj. answering &c. v.; responsive, respondent; conclusive.
     Adv. because &c. (cause) 153; on the scent, on the right scent.
     Int. eureka!

#463. Experiment.—N. experiment; essay &c. (attempt) 675; analysis &c. (investigation) 461; screen; trial, tentative method, ttonnement. verification, probation, experimentum crucis[Lat], proof, (demonstration) 478; criterion, diagnostic, test, probe, crucial test, acid test, litmus test. crucible, reagent, check, touchstone, pix[obs3]; assay, ordeal; ring; litmus paper, curcuma paper[obs3], turmeric paper; test tube; analytical instruments &c. 633. empiricism, rule of thumb. feeler; trial balloon, pilot balloon, messenger balloon; pilot engine; scout; straw to show the wind. speculation, random shot, leap in the dark. analyzer, analyst, assayist[obs3]; adventurer; experimenter, experimentist[obs3], experimentalist; scientist, engineer, technician. subject, experimentee[obs3], guinea pig, experimental animal. [experimental method] protocol, experimental method, blind experiment, double-blind experiment, controlled experiment. poll, survey, opinion poll. epidemiological survey[Med], retrospective analysis, retrospective survey, prospective survey, prospective analysis; statistical analysis. literature search, library research. tryout, audition. [results of experiment] discovery &c 480; measurement &c. 466; evidence &c. 467. [reasoning about an experiment] deduction, induction, abduction. V. experiment; essay &c. (endeavor) 675; try, try out, assay; make an experiment, make a trial of; give a trial to; put on trial, subject to trial; experiment upon; rehearse; put to the test, bring to the test, submit to the test, submit to the proof; prove, verify, test, touch, practice upon, try one's strength; road-test, test drive, take for a spin; test fly. grope; feel one's way, grope for one's way; fumble, ttonner, aller ttons[Fr], put out a feeler, throw out a feeler; send up a trial balloon, send up a pilot balloon; see how the land lies, get the lay of the land, test the waters, feel out, sound out, take the pulse, see, check, check out[coll.], see how the wind blows; consult the barometer; feel the pulse; fish for, bob for; cast for, beat about for; angle, trawl, cast one's net, beat the bushes. try one's fortune &c. (adventure) 675; explore &c. (inquire) 461. Adj. experimental, empirical. probative, probatory[obs3], probationary, provisional; analytic, docimastic[obs3]; tentative;unverified, unproven, speculative, untested. Adv. on trial, under examination, on probation, under probation, on one's trial, on approval. Phr. check it out, give it a try, see how it goes; "Run it up the flagpole and see who salutes."

#464. Comparison.—N. comparison, collation, contrast;
identification; comparative estimate, relative estimate, relativity.
     simile, similitude, analogy (similarity) 17; allegory &c. (metaphor)
     matching, pattern-matching.
     [quantitative comparison] ratio, proportion (number) 84.
     [results of comparison] discrimination 465; indiscrimination
465a[obs3]; identification 465b.
     V. compare to, compare with; collate, confront; place side by side,
juxtapose &c. (near) 197; set against one another, pit against one another;
contrast, balance.
     identify, draw a parallel, parallel.
     compare notes; institute a comparison; parva componere magnis[Lat]..
     Adj. comparative; metaphorical &c. 521.
     compared with &c. v.; comparable; judged by comparison.
     Adv. relatively &c. (relation) 9; as compared with &c. v.
     Phr. comparisons are odious; "comparisons are odorous" [Much Ado
about Nothing].

#464a. Incomparability [Lack of comparison]—N. incomparability;
incommensurability; indistinguishablility &c. 465a.
     Adj. incommensurable, incommensurate; incomparable; different &c.15.
     Phr. like apples and oranges; no basis for comparison; no standard for

#465. [results of comparison. 1] Discrimination.—N. discrimination, distinction, differentiation, diagnosis, diorism[obs3]; nice perception; perception of difference, appreciation of difference; estimation &c. 466; nicety, refinement; taste &c. 850; critique, judgment; tact; discernment &c. (intelligence) 498; acuteness, penetration; nuances. dope*, past performances. V. discriminate, distinguish, severalize[obs3]; recognize, match, identify; separate; draw the line, sift; separate the chaff from the wheat, winnow the chaff from the wheat; separate the men from the boys; split hairs, draw a fine line, nitpick, quibble. estimate &c. (measure) 466; know which is which, know what is what, know "a hawk from a handsaw" [Hamlet]. take into account, take into consideration; give due weight to, allow due weight to; weigh carefully. Adj. discriminating &c. v.; dioristic[obs3], discriminative, distinctive; nice. Phr. il y a fagots et fagots; rem acu tetigisti[Lat][obs3]; la critique est aisee et l'art est difficile [Fr]; miles apart; a distinction without a difference.

#465a. [results of comparison. 2] Indiscrimination.—N.
indiscrimination[obs3], indistinguishability; indistinctness,
indistinction[obs3]; uncertainty &c. (doubt) 475; incomparability &c. 464a.
     V. not discriminate &c. 465; overlook &c. (neglect) 460 a distinction:
confound, confuse.
     Adj. indiscriminate; undistinguished|!, indistinguishable,
undistinguishable[obs3]; unmeasured; promiscuous, undiscriminating.
     Phr. valeat quantum valere potest[Lat.].

#465b. [results of comparison. 3] Identification.—N. identification, recognition, diagnosis, match; apperception, assimilation; dereplication; classification; memory &c. 505; interpretation &c. 522; cognizance (knowledge) 490. V. identify, recognize, match, match up; classify; recall, remember &c. (memory) 505; find similarity (similarity) 17; put in its proper place, put in its proper niche, place in order (arrangement) 60.

#466. Measurement.—N. measurement, admeasurement[obs3], mensuration, survey, valuation, appraisement, assessment, assize; estimate, estimation; dead reckoning, reckoning &c. (numeration) 85; gauging &c. v.; horse power. metrology, weights and measures, compound arithmetic. measure, yard measure, standard, rule, foot rule, compass, calipers; gage, gauge; meter, line, rod, check; dividers; velo[obs3]. flood mark, high water mark; Plimsoll line; index &c. 550. scale; graduation, graduated scale; nonius[obs3]; vernier &c. (minuteness) 193. [instruments for measuring] bathometer, galvanometer, heliometer, interferometer, odometer, ombrometer[obs3], pantometer[obs3], pluviometer[obs3], pneumatometer[obs3], pneumometer[obs3], radiometer, refractometer, respirometer, rheometer, spirometer[obs3], telemeter, udometer[obs3], vacuometer[obs3], variometer[obs3], viameter[obs3], thermometer, thermistor (heat &c. 382), barometer (air &c. 338), anemometer (wind 349), dynamometer, goniometer (angle 244) meter; landmark &c. (limit) 233; balance, scale &c. (weight) 319; marigraph[obs3], pneumatograph[obs3], stethograph[obs3]; rain gauge, rain gage; voltmeter(volts), ammeter(amps); spectrophotometer (light absorbance); mass spectrophotometer(molecular mass); geiger counter, scintillation counter(radioactivity); pycnometer (liquid density); graduated cylinder, volumetric flask (volume); radar gun (velocity); radar (distance); side-looking radar (shape, topography); sonar (depth in water); light meter (light intensity); clock, watch, stopwatch, chronometer (time); anemometer (wind velocity); densitometer (color intensity). measurability, computability, determinability[obs3]. coordinates, ordinate and abscissa, polar coordinates, latitude and longitude, declination and right ascension, altitude and azimuth. geometry, stereometry[obs3], hypsometry[obs3]; metage[obs3]; surveying, land surveying; geodesy, geodetics[obs3], geodesia[obs3]; orthometry[obs3], altimetry[obs3]; cadastre[Fr]. astrolabe, armillary sphere[obs3]. land surveyor; geometer. V. measure, mete; determine, assay; evaluate, value, assess, rate, appraise, estimate, form an estimate, set a value on; appreciate; standardize. span, pace step; apply the compass &c. n.; gauge, plumb, probe, sound, fathom; heave the log, heave the lead; survey. weigh. take an average &c. 29; graduate. Adj. measuring &c. v.; metric, metrical; measurable, perceptible, noticeable, detectable, appreciable, ponderable, determinable, fathomable; geodetical, topographic, topographical, cartographic, cartographical.


#467. Evidence [On one side.]—N. evidence; facts, premises, data, praecognita[Lat], grounds. indication &c. 550; criterion &c. (test) 463. testimony, testification[obs3], expert testimony; attestation; deposition &c. (affirmation) 535; examination. admission &c. (assent) 488; authority, warrant, credential, diploma, voucher, certificate, doquet[obs3], docket; testamur[obs3]; record &c. 551; document; pi ce justificative[obs3]; deed, warranty &c. (security) 771; signature, seal &c. (identification) 550; exhibit, material evidence, objective evidence. witness, indicator, hostile witness; eyewitness, earwitness, material witness, state's evidence; deponent; sponsor; cojuror[obs3]. oral evidence, documentary evidence, hearsay evidence, external evidence, extrinsic evidence, internal evidence, intrinsic evidence, circumstantial evidence, cumulative evidence, ex parte evidence[Lat], presumptive evidence, collateral evidence, constructive evidence; proof &c. (demonstration) 478; evidence in chief. secondary evidence; confirmation, corroboration, support; ratification &c. (assent) 488; authentication; compurgation[obs3], wager of law, comprobation|. citation, reference; legal research, literature search (experiment) 463.

V. be evidence &c. n.; evince, show, betoken, tell of; indicate &c. (denote) 550; imply, involve, argue, bespeak, breathe. have weight, carry weight; tell, speak volumes; speak for itself &c. (manifest) 525. rest upon, depend upon; repose on. bear witness &c. n.; give evidence &c. n.; testify, depose, witness, vouch for; sign, seal, undersign[obs3], set one's hand and seal, sign and seal, deliver as one's act and deed, certify, attest; acknowledge &c. (assent) 488. [provide conclusive evidence] make absolute, confirm, prove (demonstrate) 478. [add further evidence] indorse, countersign, corroborate, support, ratify, bear out, uphold, warrant. adduce, attest, cite, quote; refer to, appeal to; call, call to witness; bring forward, bring into court; allege, plead; produce witnesses, confront witnesses. place into evidence, mark into evidence. [obtain evidence] collect evidence, bring together evidence, rake up evidence; experiment &c. 463. have a case, make out a case; establish, authenticate, substantiate, verify, make good, quote chapter and verse; bring home to, bring to book. Adj. showing &c. v.; indicative, indicatory; deducible &c. 478; grounded on, founded on, based on; corroborative, confirmatory. Adv. by inference; according to, witness, a fortiori; still more, still less; raison de plus[Fr]; in corroboration &c. n. of; valeat quantum[Lat]; under seal, under one's hand and seal. Phr. dictum de dicto[Lat]; mise en evidence[Fr.].

#468. [Evidence on the other side, on the other hand.] Counter Evidence.—N. counter evidence; evidence on the other side, evidence on the other hand; conflicting evidence, contradictory evidence, opposing evidence; disproof, refutation &c. 479; negation &c. 536. plea &c. 617; vindication &c. 937 counter protest; "tu quoque" argument; other side of the shield, other side of the coin, reverse of the shield. V. countervail, oppose; mitigate against; rebut &c. (refute) 479; subvert &c. (destroy) 162; cheek, weaken; contravene; contradict &c. (deny) 536; tell the other side of the story, tell another story, turn the scale, alter the case; turn the tables; cut both ways; prove a negative. audire alteram partem[Lat]. Adj. countervailing &c. v.; contradictory. unattested, unauthenticated, unsupported by evidence; supposititious. Adv. on the contrary, per contra.

#469. Qualification.—N. qualification, limitation, modification,
     allowance, grains of allowance, consideration, extenuating
circumstances; mitigation.
     condition, proviso, prerequisite, contingency, stipulation, provision,
specification, sine qua non[Lat]; catch, string, strings attached;
exemption; exception, escape clause, salvo, saving clause; discount &c.
813; restriction; fine print.
     V. qualify, limit, modify, leaven, give a color to, introduce new
conditions, narrow, temper.
     waffle, quibble, hem and haw (be uncertain) 475; equivocate
(sophistry) 477.
     depend, depend on, be contingent on (effect) 154.
     allow for, make allowance for; admit exceptions, take into account;
     moderate, temper, season, leaven.
     take exception.
     Adj. qualifying &c. v.; qualified, conditioned, restricted, hedged;
conditional; exceptional &c. (unconformable) 83.
     hypothetical &c. (supposed) 514; contingent &c. (uncertain) 475.
     Adv. provided, provided that, provided always; if, unless, but, yet;
according as; conditionally, admitting, supposing; on the supposition of
&c. (theoretically) 514; with the understanding, even, although, though,
for all that, after all, at all events.
     approximately &c. 197, 17; in a limited degree (smallness) 32;
somewhat, sort of, something like that, to a certain extent, to a degree,
in a sense, so to speak.
     with grains of allowance, cum grano salis[Latin: with a grain of
salt]; exceptis excipiendis[Lat]; wind and weather permitting; if possible
&c. 470.
     subject to, conditioned upon; with this proviso &c. n.
     Phr. "if the good lord is willing and the creeks don't rise"; catch-22.

Degrees of Evidence

#470. Possibility.—N. possibility, potentiality; what may be, what
is possible &c. adj.; compatibility &c. (agreement) 23.
     practicability, feasibility; practicableness &c. adj.
contingency, chance &c. 156.
     V. be possible &c. adj.; stand a chance; admit of, bear.
     render possible &c. adj.; put in the way of.
     Adj. possible; in the cards, on the dice; in posse, within the bounds
of possibility, conceivable, credible; compatible &c. 23; likely.
     practicable, feasible, performable, achievable; within reach, within
measurable distance; accessible, superable[obs3], surmountable; attainable,
obtainable; contingent &c. (doubtful) 475, (effect) 154.
     barely possible, marginally possible, just possible; possible but
improbably, (improbable) 473; theoretically possible.
     Adv. possibly, by possibility; perhaps, perchance, peradventure;
maybe, may be, haply, mayhap.
     if possible, wind and weather permitting, God willing, Deo
volente[Lat], D. V.; as luck may have it.
     Phr. misericordia Domini inter pontem et fontent[Lat]; "the glories
of the Possible are ours" [B. Taylor]; anything is possible; in theory
possible, but in practise unlikely.

#471. Impossibility.—N. impossibility &c. adj.; what cannot, what can never be; sour grapes; hopelessness &c. 859. V. be impossible &c. adj.; have no chance whatever. attempt impossibilities; square the circle, wash a blackamoor white; skin a flint; make a silk purse out of a sow's ear, make bricks without straw; have nothing to go upon; weave a rope of sand, build castles in the air, prendre la lune avec les dents[Fr], extract sunbeams from cucumbers, set the Thames on fire, milk a he-goat into a sieve, catch a weasel asleep, rompre l'anguille au genou[Fr], be in two places at once. Adj. impossible; not possible &c. 470; absurd, contrary to reason; unlikely; unreasonable &c. 477; incredible &c. 485; beyond the bounds of reason, beyond the bounds of possibility, beyond the realm of possibility; from which reason recoils; visionary; inconceivable &c. (improbable) 473; prodigious &c. (wonderful) 870; unimaginable, inimaginable[obs3]; unthinkable. impracticable unachievable; unfeasible, infeasible; insuperable; unsurmountable[obs3], insurmountable; unattainable, unobtainable; out of reach, out of the question; not to be had, not to be thought of; beyond control; desperate &c. (hopeless) 859; incompatible &c. 24; inaccessible, uncomeatable[obs3], impassable, impervious, innavigable[obs3], inextricable; self-contradictory. out of one's power, beyond one's power, beyond one's depth, beyond one's reach, beyond one's grasp; too much for; ultra crepidam[Lat]. Phr. the grapes are sour; non possumus[Lat]; non nostrum tantas componere lites [Lat][Vergil]; look for a needle in a haystack, chercher une aiguille dans une botte de foin [obs3][Fr.]; il a le mer boire[obs3].

#472. Probability.—N. probability, likelihood; credibleness[obs3]; likeliness &c. adj.; vraisemblance[Fr], verisimilitude, plausibility; color, semblance, show of; presumption; presumptive evidence, circumstantial evidence; credibility. reasonable chance, fair chance, good chance, favorable chance, reasonable prospect, fair prospect, good prospect, favorable prospect; prospect, wellgrounded hope; chance &c. 156. V. be probable &c. adj.; give color to, lend color to; point to; imply &c. (evidence) 467; bid fair &c. (promise) 511; stand fair for; stand a good chance, run a good chance. think likely, dare say, flatter oneself; expect &c. 507; count upon &c. (believe) 484. Adj. probable, likely, hopeful, to be expected, in a fair way. plausible, specious, ostensible, colorable, ben trovato[It], well- founded, reasonable, credible, easy of belief, presumable, presumptive, apparent. Adv. probably &c. adj.; belike[obs3]; in all probability, in all likelihood; very likely, most likely; like enough; odds on, odds in favor, ten &c. to one; apparently, seemingly, according to every reasonable expectation; prim facie[Lat]; to all appearance &c. (to the eye) 448. Phr. the chances, the odds are; appearances are in favor of, chances are in favor of; there is reason to believe, there is reason to think, there is reason to expect; I dare say; all Lombard Street to a China orange.

#473. Improbability.—N. improbability, unlikelihood; unfavorable chance, bad chance, ghost of a chance, little chance, small chance, poor chance, scarcely any chance, no chance; bare possibility; long odds; incredibility &c. 485. V. be improbable &c. adj.; have a small chance &c. n. Adj. improbable, unlikely, contrary to all reasonable expectation; wild, far out, out of sight, outtasight, heavy [all coll.]. rare &c. (infrequent) 137; unheard of, inconceivable; unimaginable, inimaginable[obs3]; incredible &c. 485; more than doubtful; strange, bizarre (uncomformable) 83. Phr. the chances are against; aquila non capit muscas[Lat]; pedir peras pal olmo[Lat].

#474. Certainty.—N. certainty; necessity &c. 601; certitude, surety, assurance; dead certainty, moral certainty; infallibleness &c. adj.; infallibility, reliability; indubitableness, inevitableness, unquestionableness[obs3]. gospel, scripture, church, pope, court of final appeal; res judicata[Lat], ultimatum positiveness; dogmatism, dogmatist, dogmatizer; doctrinaire, bigot, opinionist[obs3], Sir Oracle; ipse dixit[Lat]. fact; positive fact, matter of fact; fait accompli[Fr]. V. be certain &c. adj.; stand to reason. render certain &c. adj.; insure, ensure, assure; clinch, make sure; determine, decide, set at rest, "make assurance double sure" [Macbeth]; know &c. (believe) 484. dogmatize, lay down the law. Adj. certain, sure, assured &c. v.; solid, well-founded. unqualified, absolute, positive, determinate, definite, clear, unequivocal, categorical, unmistakable, decisive, decided, ascertained. inevitable, unavoidable, avoidless[obs3]; ineluctable. unerring, infallible; unchangeable &c. 150; to be depended on, trustworthy, reliable, bound. unimpeachable, undeniable, unquestionable; indisputable, incontestable, incontrovertible, indubitable; irrefutable &c. (proven) 478; conclusive, without power of appeal. indubious[obs3]; without doubt, beyond a doubt, without a shade or shadow of doubt, without question, beyond question; past dispute; clear as day; beyond all question, beyond all dispute; undoubted, uncontested, unquestioned, undisputed; questionless[obs3], doubtless. authoritative, authentic, official. sure as fate, sure as death and taxes, sure as a gun. evident, self-evident, axiomatic; clear, clear as day, clear as the sun at noonday. Adv. certainly &c. adj.; for certain, certes[Lat], sure, no doubt, doubtless, and no mistake, flagrante delicto[Lat], sure enough, to be sure, of course, as a matter of course, a coup sur, to a certainty; in truth &c. (truly) 494; at any rate, at all events; without fail; coute que coute[Fr], coute qu'il coute[Fr]; whatever may happen, if the worst come to the worst; come what may, happen what may, come what will; sink or swim; rain or shine. Phr. cela va sans dire[Fr]; there is -no question, - not a shadow of doubt; the die is cast &c. (necessity) 601; "facts are stubborn things" [Smollett].

#475. Uncertainty.—N. uncertainty, incertitude, doubt; doubtfulness &c. adj.; dubiety, dubitation[obs3], dubitancy|, dubitousness[obs3]. hesitation, suspense; perplexity, embarrassment, dilemma, bewilderment; timidity &c. (fear) 860; vacillation &c. 605; diaporesis[obs3], indetermination. vagueness &c. adj.; haze, fog; obscurity &c. (darkness) 421; ambiguity &c. (double meaning) 520; contingency, dependence, dependency, double contingency, possibility upon a possibility; open question &c. (question) 461; onus probandi[Lat]; blind bargain, pig in a poke, leap in the dark, something or other; needle in a haystack, needle in a bottle of hay; roving commission. precariousness &c. adj.; fallibility. V. be uncertain &c. adj.; wonder whether. lose the clue, lose the clew, scent; miss one's way. not know what to make of &c. (unintelligibility) 519, not know which way to turn, not know whether one stands on one's head or one's heels; float in a sea of doubt,hesitate, flounder; lose oneself, lose one's head; muddle one's brains. render uncertain &c. adj.; put out, pose, puzzle, perplex, embarrass; confuse, confound; bewilder, bother, molder, addle the wits, throw off the scent, ambiguas in vulgus spargere voces[Lat]; keep in suspense. doubt &c. (disbelieve) 485; hang in the balance, tremble in the balance; depend. Adj. uncertain; casual; random &c. (aimless) 621; changeable &c. 149. doubtful, dubious; indecisive; unsettled, undecided, undetermined; in suspense, open to discussion; controvertible; in question &c. (inquiry) 461. vague; indeterminate, indefinite; ambiguous, equivocal; undefined, undefinable; confused &c. (indistinct) 447; mystic, oracular; dazed. perplexing &c. v.; enigmatic, paradoxical, apocryphal, problematical, hypothetical; experimental &c. 463. unpredictable, unforeseeable (unknowable) 519. fallible, questionable, precarious, slippery, ticklish, debatable, disputable; unreliable, untrustworthy. contingent, contingent on, dependent on; subject to; dependent on circumstances; occasional; provisional. unauthentic, unauthenticated, unauthoritative; unascertained, unconfirmed; undemonstrated; untold, uncounted. in a state of uncertainty, in a cloud, in a maze; bushed, off the track; ignorant.&c. 491; afraid to say; out of one's reckoning, astray, adrift; at sea, at fault, at a loss, at one's wit's end, at a nonplus; puzzled &c. v.; lost, abroad, dsorient; distracted, distraught. Adv. pendente lite[Lat]; sub spe rati[Lat]. Phr. Heaven knows; who can tell? who shall decide when doctors disagree? ambiguas in vulgum spargere voces[Lat].


#476. Reasoning,—N. {ant. 477} reasoning, ratiocination, rationalism; dialectics, induction, generalization. discussion, comment; ventilation; inquiry &c. 461. argumentation, controversy, debate; polemics, wrangling; contention &c. 720 logomachy[obs3]; disputation, disceptation[obs3]; paper war. art of reasoning, logic. process of reasoning, train of reasoning, chain of reasoning; deduction, induction, abduction; synthesis, analysis. argument; case, plaidoyer[obs3], opening; lemma, proposition, terms, premises, postulate, data, starting point, principle; inference &c. (judgment) 480. prosyllogism[obs3], syllogism; enthymeme[obs3], sorites[obs3], dilemma, perilepsis[obs3], a priori reasoning, reductio ad absurdum, horns of a dilemma, argumentum ad hominem [Lat.], comprehensive argument; empirema[obs3], epagoge[obs3]. [person who reasons] reasoner, logician, dialectician; disputant; controversialist, controvertist[obs3]; wrangler, arguer, debater polemic, casuist, rationalist; scientist; eristic[obs3]. logical sequence; good case; correct just reasoning, sound reasoning, valid reasoning, cogent reasoning, logical reasoning, forcible reasoning, persuasive reasoning, persuasory reasoning[obs3], consectary reasoning|, conclusive &c. 478; subtle reasoning; force of argument, strong point, strong argument, persuasive argument. arguments, reasons, pros and cons. V. reason, argue, discuss, debate, dispute, wrangle- argufy[obs3], bandy words, bandy arguments; chop logic; hold an argument, carry on an argument; controvert &c. (deny) 536; canvass; comment upon, moralize upon; spiritualize; consider &c. (examine) 461. open a discussion, open a case; try conclusions; join issue, be at issue; moot; come to the point; stir a question, agitate a question, ventilate a question, torture a question; take up a side, take up a case. contend, take one's stand upon, insist, lay stress on; infer &c. 480. follow from &c. (demonstration) 478. Adj. reasoning &c. v.; rationalistic; argumentative, controversial, dialectic, polemical; discursory[obs3], discursive; disputatious; Aristotelian[obs3], eristic[obs3], eristical[obs3]. debatable, controvertible. logical; relevant &c. 23. Adv. for, because, hence, whence, seeing that, since, sith[obs3], then thence so; for that reason, for this reason, for which reason; for as, inasmuch as; whereas, ex concesso[Lat], considering, in consideration of; therefore, wherefore; consequently, ergo, thus, accordingly; a fortiori. in conclusion, in fine; finally, after all, au bout du compt[Fr], on the whole, taking one thing with another. Phr. ab actu ad posse valet consecutio [Lat]; per troppo dibatter la verita si perde [It]; troppo disputare la verita fa errare [It].

#477. [The absence of reasoning.] Intuition. [False or vicious reasoning; show of reason.] Sophistry.—N. intuition, instinct, association, hunch, gut feeling; presentiment, premonition; rule of thumb; superstition; astrology[obs3]; faith (supposition) 514. sophistry, paralogy[obs3], perversion, casuistry, jesuitry, equivocation, evasion; chicane, chicanery; quiddet[obs3], quiddity; mystification; special pleading; speciousness &c. adj.; nonsense &c. 497; word sense, tongue sense. false reasoning, vicious reasoning, circular reasoning; petitio principii[Lat], ignoratio elenchi[Lat]; post hoc ergo propter hoc[Lat]; non sequitur, ignotum per ignotius[Lat]. misjudgment &c. 481; false teaching &c. 538. sophism, solecism, paralogism[obs3]; quibble, quirk, elenchus[obs3], elench[obs3], fallacy, quodlibet, subterfuge, subtlety, quillet[obs3]; inconsistency, antilogy[obs3]; "a delusion, a mockery, and a snare" [Denman]; claptrap, cant, mere words; "lame and impotent conclusion" [Othello]. meshes of sophistry, cobwebs of sophistry; flaw in an argument; weak point, bad case. overrefinement[obs3]; hairsplitting &c. v. V. judge intuitively, judge by intuition; hazard a proposition, hazard a guess, talk at random. reason ill, falsely &c. adj.; misjudge &c. 481; paralogize[obs3]. take on faith, take as a given; assume (supposition) 514. pervert, quibble; equivocate, mystify, evade, elude; gloss over, varnish; misteach &c. 538[obs3]; mislead &c. (error) 495; cavil, refine, subtilize[obs3], split hairs; misrepresent &c. (lie) 544. beg the question, reason in a circle, reason in circles, assume the conclusion. cut blocks with a razor, beat about the bush, play fast and loose, play fast and loose with the facts, blow hot and cold, prove that black is white and white black, travel out of the record, parler a tort et a travers[Fr][obs3], put oneself out of court, not have a leg to stand on. judge hastily, shoot from the hip, jump to conclusions (misjudgment) 481. Adj. intuitive, instinctive, impulsive; independent of reason, anterior to reason; gratuitous, hazarded; unconnected. unreasonable, illogical, false, unsound, invalid; unwarranted, not following; inconsequent, inconsequential; inconsistent; absonous|, absonant[obs3]; unscientific; untenable, inconclusive, incorrect; fallacious, fallible; groundless, unproved; non sequitur[Latin: it does not follow]. deceptive, sophistical, jesuitical; illusive, illusory; specious, hollow, plausible, ad captandum[Lat], evasive; irrelevant &c. 10. weak, feeble, poor, flimsy, loose, vague. irrational; nonsensical &c. (absurd) 497. foolish &c. (imbecile) 499; frivolous, pettifogging, quibbling; finespun[obs3], overrefined[obs3]. at the end of one's tether, au bout de son latin. Adv. intuitively &c. adj.; by intuition; illogically &c. adj. Phr. non constat[Lat]; that goes for nothing.

#478. Demonstration.—N. {ant. 479} demonstration, proof, rigorous
proof; conclusiveness &c. adj.; apodeixis[obs3], apodixis[obs3], probation,
     logic of facts &c. (evidence) 467; experimentum crucis &c. (test)
463[Lat]; argument &c. 476; rigorous establishment, absolute establishment.
     conviction, cogency, (persuasion) 484.
     V. demonstrate, prove, establish; make good; show, evince, manifest
&c. (be evidence of) 467; confirm, corroborate, substantiate, verify &c.
467 settle the question, reduce to demonstration, set the question at rest.
     make out, make out a case; prove one's point, have the best of the
argument; draw a conclusion &c. (judge) 480.
     follow, follow of course, follow as a matter of course, follow
necessarily; stand to reason; hold good, hold water.
     convince, persuade (belief) 484.
     Adj. demonstrating &c. v., demonstrative, demonstrable; probative,
unanswerable, conclusive; apodictic[obs3], apodeictic[obs3],
apodeictical[obs3]; irresistible, irrefutable, irrefragable; necessary.
     categorical, decisive, crucial.
     demonstrated &c. v.; proven; unconfuted[obs3], unanswered,
unrefuted[obs3]; evident &c. 474.
     deducible, consequential, consectary[obs3], inferential, following.
     [demonstrated to one's satisfaction] convincing, cogent, persuasive
(believable) 484.
     Adv. of course, in consequence, consequently, as a matter of course;
necessarily, of necessity.
     Phr. probatum est[Lat]; there is nothing more to be said; quod est
demonstrandum[Lat], Q.E.D.; it must follow; exitus acta probat[Lat].

#479. Confutation.—N. {ant 478} confutation, refutation; answer, complete answer; disproof, conviction, redargution[obs3], invalidation; exposure, exposition; clincher; retort; reductio ad absurdum; knock down argument, tu quoque argument[Lat]; sockdolager * [obs3][U. S.]. correction &c. 527a; dissuasion &c. 616. V. confute, refute, disprove; parry, negative, controvert, rebut, confound, disconfirm, redargue[obs3], expose, show the fallacy of, defeat; demolish, break &c. (destroy) 162; overthrow, overturn scatter to the winds, explode, invalidate; silence; put to silence, reduce to silence; clinch an argument, clinch a question; give one a setdown[obs3], stop the mouth, shut up; have, have on the hip. not leave a leg to stand on, cut the ground from under one's feet. be confuted &c.; fail; expose one's weak point, show one's weak point. counter evidence &c. 468. Adj. confuting, confuted, &c. v.; capable of refutation; refutable, confutable[obs3], defeasible. contravene (counter evidence) 468. condemned on one's own showing,condemned out of one's own mouth. Phr. the argument falls to the ground, cadit quaestio[Lat], it does not hold water, "suo sibi gladio hunc jugulo" [Terence]; his argument was demolished by new evidence.


#480. Judgment. [Conclusion.]—N. result, conclusion, upshot; deduction, inference, ergotism[Med]; illation; corollary, porism[obs3]; moral. estimation, valuation, appreciation, judication[obs3]; dijudication[obs3], adjudication; arbitrament, arbitrement[obs3], arbitration; assessment, ponderation[obs3]; valorization. award, estimate; review, criticism, critique, notice, report. decision, determination, judgment, finding, verdict, sentence, decree; findings of fact; findings of law; res judicata[Lat]. plebiscite, voice, casting vote; vote &c. (choice) 609; opinion &c. (belief) 484; good judgment &c. (wisdom) 498. judge, umpire; arbiter, arbitrator; asessor, referee. censor, reviewer, critic; connoisseur; commentator &c. 524; inspector, inspecting officer. twenty-twenty hindsight[judgment after the fact]; armchair general, monday morning quarterback. V. judge, conclude; come to a conclusion, draw a conclusion, arrive at a conclusion; ascertain, determine, make up one's mind. deduce, derive, gather, collect, draw an inference, make a deduction, weet|, ween[obs3]. form an estimate, estimate, appreciate, value, count, assess, rate, rank, account; regard, consider, think of; look upon &c. (believe) 484; review; size up *. settle; pass an opinion, give an opinion; decide, try, pronounce, rule; pass judgment, pass sentence; sentence, doom; find; give judgment, deliver judgment; adjudge, adjudicate; arbitrate, award, report; bring in a verdict; make absolute, set a question at rest; confirm &c. (assent) 488. comment, criticize, kibitz; pass under review &c. (examine) 457; investigate &c. (inquire) 461. hold the scales, sit in judgment; try judgment, hear a cause. Adj. judging &c. v.; judicious &c. (wise) 498; determinate, conclusive. Adv. on the whole, all things considered. Phr. "a Daniel come to judgment" [Merchant of Venice]; "and stand a critic, hated yet caress'd" [Byron]; "it is much easier to be critical than to be correct" [Disraeli]; la critique est aisee et l'art est difficile[Fr]; "nothing if not critical" [Othello]; "O most lame and impotent conclusion" [Othello].

#480a. [Result of search or inquiry.] Discovery.—N. discovery, detection, disenchantment; ascertainment[obs3], disclosure, find, revelation. trover &c.(recovery) 775[Law]. V. discover, find, determine, evolve, learn &c. 539; fix upon; pick up; find out, trace out, make out, hunt out, fish out, worm out, ferret out, root out; fathom; bring out, draw out; educe, elicit, bring to light; dig out, grub up, fish up; unearth, disinter. solve, resolve, elucidate; unriddle, unravel, unlock, crack, crack open; pick up, open the lock; find a clue, find clew a to, find the key to the riddle; interpret &c. 522; disclose &c. 529. trace, get at; hit it, have it; lay one's finger, lay one's hands upon; spot; get at the truth, arrive at the truth &c. 494; put the saddle on the right horse, hit the right nail on the head. be near the truth, be warm, get warmer, burn; smoke, scent, sniff, catch a whiff of, smell a rat. open the eyes to; see through, see daylight, see in its true colors, see the cloven foot; detect; catch, catch tripping. pitch upon, fall upon, light upon, hit upon, stumble upon, pop upon; come across, come onto; meet with, meet up with, fall in with. recognize, realize; verify, make certain of, identify. Int. eureka! aha[obs3]! I've got it!

#481. Misjudgment.—N. misjudgment, obliquity of judgment; miscalculation, miscomputation, misconception &c. (error) 495; hasty conclusion. [causes of misjudgment. 1] prejudgment, prejudication[obs3], prejudice; foregone conclusion; prenotion[obs3], prevention, preconception, predilection, prepossession, preapprehension[obs3], presumption, assumption, presentiment; fixed idea, preconceived idea; ide fixe; mentis gratissimus error[Lat]; fool's paradise. [causes of misjudgment.2] esprit de corps, party spirit, partisanship, clannishness, prestige. [causes of misjudgment. 3] bias, bigotry, warp, twist; hobby, fad, quirk, crotchet, partiality, infatuation, blind side, mote in the eye. [causes of misjudgment. 4] one-sided views, one-track mind, partial views, narrow views, confined views, superficial views, one-sided ideas, partial ideas, narrow ideas, confined ideas, superficial ideas, one-sided conceptions, partial conceptions, narrow conceptions, confined conceptions, superficial conceptions, one-sided notions, partial notions, narrow notions, confined notions, superficial notions; narrow mind; bigotry &c. (obstinacy) 606; odium theologicum[Lat]; pedantry; hypercriticism. doctrinaire &c. (positive) 474. [causes of misjudgment. 5] overestimation &c. 482; underestimation &c. 483. [causes of misjudgment. 6] ignorance &c. 491. erroneous assumptions, erroneous data, mistaken assumptions, incorrect assumptions (error) 495. V. misjudge, misestimate, misthink[obs3], misconjecture[obs3], misconceive &c. (error) 495; fly in the face of facts; miscalculate, misreckon, miscompute. overestimate &c. 482; underestimate &c. 483. prejudge, forejudge; presuppose, presume, prejudicate[obs3]; dogmatize; have a bias &c. n.; have only one idea; jurare in verba magistri[Lat], run away with the notion; jump to a conclusion, rush to a conclusion, leap to a conclusion, judge hastily, shoot from the hip, jump to conclusions; look only at one side of the shield; view with jaundiced eye, view through distorting spectacles; not see beyond one's nose; dare pondus fumo[Lat]; get the wrong sow by the ear &c. (blunder) 699. give a bias, give a twist; bias, warp, twist; prejudice, prepossess. Adj. misjudging &c. v.; ill-judging, wrong-headed; prejudiced &c. v.; jaundiced; shortsighted, purblind; partial, one-sided, superficial. narrow-minded, narrow-souled[obs3]; mean-spirited; confined, illiberal, intolerant, besotted, infatuated, fanatical, entete[Fr], positive, dogmatic, conceited; opinative, opiniative[obs3]; opinioned, opinionate, opinionative, opinionated; self-opinioned, wedded to an opinion, opinitre; bigoted &c. (obstinate) 606; crotchety, fussy, impracticable; unreasonable, stupid &c. 499; credulous &c 486; warped. misjudged &c. v. Adv. ex parte[Lat]. Phr. nothing like leather; the wish the father to the thought; wishful thinking; unshakable conviction; "my mind is made up - don't bother me with the facts".

#482. Overestimation.—N. overestimation &c. v.; exaggeration &c. 549; vanity &c. 880; optimism, pessimism, pessimist. much cry and little wool, much ado about nothing; storm in a teacup, tempest in a teacup; fine talking. V. overestimate, overrate, overvalue, overprize, overweigh, overreckon[obs3], overstrain, overpraise; eulogize; estimate too highly, attach too much importance to, make mountains of molehills, catch at straws; strain, magnify; exaggerate &c. 549; set too high a value upon; think much of, make much of, think too much of, make too much of; outreckon[obs3]; panegyrize[obs3]. extol, extol to the skies; make the most of, make the best of, make the worst of; make two bites of a cherry. have too high an opinion of oneself &c. (vanity) 880. Adj. overestimated &c. v.; oversensitive &c. (sensibility) 822. Phr. all his geese are swans; parturiunt montes[Lat].

#483. Underestimation.—N. underestimation; depreciation &c. (detraction) 934; pessimism, pessimist; undervaluing &c. v.; modesty &c. 881. V. underrate, underestimate, undervalue, underreckon[obs3]; depreciate; disparage &c. (detract) 934; not do justice to; misprize, disprize; ridicule &c. 856; slight &c. (despise) 930; neglect &c. 460; slur over. make light of, make little of, make nothing of, make no account of; belittle; minimize, think nothing of; set no store by, set at naught; shake off as dewdrops from the lion's mane. Adj. depreciating, depreciated &c. v.; unvalued, unprized[obs3].

#484. Belief.—N. belief; credence; credit; assurance; faith, trust, troth, confidence, presumption, sanguine expectation &c. (hope) 858; dependence on, reliance on. persuasion, conviction, convincement[obs3], plerophory[obs3], self- conviction; certainty &c. 474; opinion, mind, view; conception, thinking; impression &c. (idea) 453; surmise &c. 514; conclusion &c. (judgment) 480. tenet, dogma, principle, way of thinking; popular belief &c. (assent) 488. firm belief, implicit belief, settled belief, fixed rooted deep-rooted belief, staunch belief, unshaken belief, steadfast belief, inveterate belief, calm belief, sober belief, dispassionate belief, impartial belief, well-founded belief, firm opinion, implicit opinion, settled opinion, fixed rooted deep-rooted opinion, staunch opinion, unshaken opinion, steadfast opinion, inveterate opinion, calm opinion, sober opinion, dispassionate opinion, impartial opinion, well-founded opinion &c.; uberrima fides[Lat][obs3]. system of opinions, school, doctrine, articles, canons; article of faith, declaration of faith, profession of faith; tenets, credenda[obs3], creed; thirty-nine articles &c. (orthodoxy) 983a; catechism; assent &c. 488; propaganda &c. (teaching) 537. credibility &c. (probability) 472. V. believe, credit; give faith to, give credit to, credence to; see, realize; assume, receive; set down for, take for; have it, take it; consider, esteem, presume. count upon, depend upon, calculate upon, pin one's faith upon, reckon upon, lean upon, build upon, rely upon, rest upon; lay one's account for; make sure of. make oneself easy about, on that score; take on trust, take on credit; take for granted, take for gospel; allow some weight to, attach some weight to. know, know for certain; have know, make no doubt; doubt not; be, rest assured &c. adj.; persuade oneself, assure oneself, satisfy oneself; make up one's mind. give one credit for; confide in, believe in, put one's trust in; place in, repose in, implicit confidence in; take one's word for, at one's word; place reliance on, rely upon, swear by, regard to. think, hold; take, take it; opine, be of opinion, conceive, trow[obs3], ween[obs3], fancy, apprehend; have it, hold a belief, possess, entertain a belief, adopt a belief, imbibe a belief, embrace a belief, get hold of a belief, hazard, foster, nurture a belief, cherish a belief, have an opinion, hold an opinion, possess, entertain an opinion, adopt an opinion, imbibe an opinion, embrace an opinion, get hold of an opinion, hazard an opinion, foster an opinion, nurture an opinion, cherish an opinion &c. n. view as, consider as, take as, hold as, conceive as, regard as, esteem as, deem as, look upon as, account as, set down as; surmise &c. 514. get it into one's head, take it into one's head; come round to an opinion; swallow &c. (credulity) 486. cause to be believed &c. v.; satisfy, persuade, have the ear of, gain the confidence of, assure; convince, convict|!, convert; wean, bring round; bring over, win over; indoctrinate &c. (teach) 537; cram down the throat; produce conviction, carry conviction; bring home to, drive home to. go down, find credence, pass current; be received &c. v., be current &c. adj.; possess, take hold of, take possession of the mind. Adj. believing &c. v.; certain, sure, assured, positive, cocksure, satisfied, confident, unhesitating, convinced, secure. under the impression; impressed with, imbued with, penetrated with. confiding, suspectless[obs3]; unsuspecting, unsuspicious; void of suspicion; credulous &c. 486; wedded to. believed &c. v.; accredited, putative; unsuspected. worthy of, deserving of, commanding belief; credible, reliable, trustworthy, to be depended on; satisfactory; probably &c. 472; fiducial[obs3], fiduciary; persuasive, impressive. relating to belief, doctrinal. Adv. in the opinion of, in the eyes of; me judice[Lat]; meseems[obs3], methinks; to the best of one's belief; I dare say, I doubt not, I have no doubt, I am sure; sure enough &c. (certainty) 474; depend upon, rely upon it; be assured, rest assured; I'll warrant you &c. (affirmation) 535. Phr. experto crede [Lat][Vergil]; fata viam invenient [Lat]; Justitiae soror incorrupta Fides[Lat]; "live to explain thy doctrine by thy life" [Prior]; "stands not within the prospect of belief" [Macbeth]; tarde quae credita laedunt credimus [Lat][Ovid]; vide et crede [Lat].

#485. Unbelief. Doubt.—N. unbelief, disbelief, misbelief; discredit, miscreance[obs3]; infidelity &c. (irreligion) 989[obs3]; dissent &c. 489; change of opinion &c. 484; retraction &c. 607. doubt &c. (uncertainty) 475; skepticism, scepticism, misgiving, demure; distrust, mistrust, cynicism; misdoubt[obs3], suspicion, jealousy, scruple, qualm; onus probandi[Lat]. incredibility, incredibleness; incredulity. [person who doubts] doubter, skeptic, cynic.; unbeliever &c. 487. V. disbelieve, discredit; not believe &c. 484; misbelieve[obs3]; refuse to admit &c. (dissent) 489; refuse to believe &c. (incredulity) 487. doubt; be doubtful &c. (uncertain) 475; doubt the truth of; be skeptical as to &c. adj.; diffide|; distrust, mistrust; suspect, smoke, scent, smell a rat; have doubts, harbor doubts, entertain doubts, suspicions; have one's doubts. demure, stick at, pause, hesitate, scruple; stop to consider, waver. hang in suspense, hang in doubt. throw doubt upon, raise a question; bring in, call in question; question, challenge, dispute; deny &c. 536; cavil; cause a doubt, raise a doubt, start a doubt, suggest a doubt, awake a doubt, make suspicion; ergotize[obs3]. startle, stagger; shake one's faith, shake one's belief, stagger one's faith, stagger one's belief. Adj. unbelieving; skeptical, sceptical. [transitive] incredulous as to, skeptical as to; distrustful as to, shy as to, suspicious of; doubting &c. v. doubtful &c. (uncertain) 475; disputable; unworthy of, undeserving of belief &c. 484; questionable; suspect, suspicious; open to suspicion, open to doubt; staggering, hard to believe, incredible, unbelievable, not to be believed, inconceivable; impossible &c. 471. fallible &c. (uncertain) 475; undemonstrable; controvertible &c. (untrue) 495. Adv. cum grano salis[Latin: with a grain of salt]; with grains of allowance. Phr. fronti nulla fides[Lat]; nimium ne crede colori [Lat][Vergil]; "timeo Danaos et dona ferentes" [Latin: I fear the Greeks even when bearing gifts][Vergil], beware of Greeks bearing gifts; credat Judaeus Apella [Lat][Horace]; let those believe who may; ad tristem partem stenua est suspicio [Lat][Syrus].

#486. Credulity.—N. credulity, credulousness &c. adj.; cullibility|, gullibility; gross credulity, infatuation; self delusion, self deception; superstition; one's blind side; bigotry &c. (obstinacy) 606; hyperorthodoxy &c. 984[obs3]; misjudgment &c. 481. credulous person &c (dupe) 547. V. be credulous &c. adj.; jurare in verba magistri[Lat]; follow implicitly; swallow, gulp down; take on trust; take for granted, take for gospel; run away with a notion, run away with an idea; jump to a conclusion, rush to a conclusion; think the moon is made of green cheese; take for granted, grasp the shadow for the substance; catch at straws, grasp at straws. impose upon &c. (deceive) 545. Adj. credulous, gullible; easily deceived &c. 545; simple, green, soft, childish, silly, stupid; easily convinced; over-credulous, over confident, over trustful; infatuated, superstitious; confiding &c. (believing) 484. Phr. the wish the father to the thought; credo quia impossibile [Lat][Tertullian]; all is not gold that glitters; no es oro todo lo que reluce[Sp]; omne ignotum pro magnifico[Lat].

#487. Incredulity.—N. incredulousness[obs3], incredulity;
skepticism, pyrrhonism|!; want of faith &c. (irreligion) 989[obs3].
     suspiciousness &c. adj.; scrupulosity; suspicion &c. (unbelief) 485.
     mistrust, cynicism.
     unbeliever, skeptic, cynic; misbeliever.1, pyrrhonist; heretic &c.
(heterodox) 984.
     V. be incredulous &c. adj.; distrust &c. (disbelieve) 485; refuse to
believe; shut one's eyes to, shut one's ears to; turn a deaf ear to; hold
aloof, ignore, nullis jurare in verba magistri[Lat].
     Adj. incredulous, skeptical, unbelieving, inconvincible[obs3]; hard of
belief, shy of belief, disposed to doubt, indisposed to believe;
suspicious, scrupulous, distrustful, cynical.

1The word miscreant, which originally meant simply misbeliever, has now quite another meaning (949). See Trench, On the Study of Words, p. 71.

#488. Assent.—N. assent, assentment[obs3]; acquiescence, admission; nod; accord, concord, concordance; agreement &c. 23; affirmance, affirmation; recognition, acknowledgment, avowal; confession of faith. unanimity, common consent, consensus, acclamation, chorus, vox populi; popular belief, current belief, current opinion; public opinion; concurrence &c. (of causes) 178; cooperation &c. (voluntary) 709. ratification, confirmation, corroboration, approval, acceptance, visa; indorsement &c. (record) 551[obs3]. consent &c. (compliance) 762. pressure to conform, herd instinct, peer pressure. V. assent; give assent, yield assent, nod assent; acquiesce; agree &c. 23; receive, accept, accede, accord, concur, lend oneself to, consent, coincide, reciprocate, go with; be at one with &c. adj.; go along with, chime in with, strike in with, close in with; echo, enter into one's views, agree in opinion; vote, give one's voice for; recognize; subscribe to, conform to, defer to; say yes to, say ditto, amen to, say aye to. acknowledge, own, admit, allow, avow, confess; concede &c. (yield) 762; come round to; abide by; permit &c. 760. arrive at an understanding, come to an understanding, come to terms, come to an agreement. confirm, affirm; ratify, approve, indorse, countersign; corroborate &c. 467. go with the stream, swim with the stream, go with the flow, blow with the wind; be in fashion, join in the chorus, join the crowd, be one of the guys, be part of the group, go with the crowd, don't make waves; be in every mouth. Adj. assenting &c. v; of one accord, of one mind; of the same mind, at one with, agreed, acquiescent, content; willing &c. 602. uncontradicted, unchallenged, unquestioned, uncontroverted. carried, agreed, nem[abbr]. con. &c. adv[abbr: nemine contradicente].; unanimous; agreed on all hands, carried by acclamation. affirmative &c. 535. Adv. yes, yea, ay, aye, true; good; well; very well, very true; well and good; granted; even so, just so; to be sure, "thou hast said", you said it, you said a mouthful; truly, exactly, precisely, that's just it, indeed, certainly, you bet, certes[Lat], ex concesso[Lat]; of course, unquestionably, assuredly, no doubt, doubtless; naturally, natch. be it so; so be it, so let it be; amen; willingly &c. 602. affirmatively, in the affirmative. OK, all right, might as well, why not? with one consent, with one voice, with one accord; unanimously, una voce, by common consent, in chorus, to a man; nem[abbr]. con.[abbr: nemine contradicente], nemine dissentiente[Lat]; without a dissentient voice; as one man, one and all, on all hands. Phr. avec plaisir[Fr]; chi tace accousente[It][obs3]; "the public mind is the creation of the Master-Writers" [Disraeli]; you bet your sweet ass it is; what are we waiting for? whenever you're ready; anytime you're ready.

#489. Dissent.—N. dissent; discordance &c. (disagreement) 24;
difference diversity of opinion.
     nonconformity &c. (heterodoxy) 984; protestantism, recusancy, schism;
disaffection; secession &c. 624; recantation &c. 607.
     dissension &c (discord) 713; discontent &c. 832; cavilling.
     protest; contradiction &c (denial) 536; noncompliance &c (rejection)
     dissentient, dissenter; non-juror, non-content, nonconformist;
sectary, separatist, recusant, schismatic, protestant, heretic.
     refusal &c. 764.
     V. dissent, demur; call in question &c. (doubt) 485; differ in
opinion, disagree; say no &c. 536; refuse assent, refuse to admit; cavil,
protest, raise one's voice against, repudiate; contradict &c. (deny) 536.
     have no notion of, differ toto caelo[Lat]; revolt at, revolt from the
     shake the head, shrug the shoulders; look askance, look askant[obs3].
     secede; recant &c. 607.
     Adj. dissenting &c. v; negative &c. 536; dissident, dissentient;
unconsenting &c. (refusing) 764; non-content, nonjuring[obs3]; protestant,
recusant; unconvinced, unconverted.
     unavowed, unacknowledged; out of the question.
     discontented &c. 832; unwilling &c. 603; extorted.
     sectarian, denominational, schismatic; heterodox; intolerant.
     Adv. no &c. 536; at variance, at issue with; under protest.
     Int. God forbid! not for the world; I'll be hanged if; never tell me;
your humble servant, pardon me.
     Phr. many men many minds; quot homines tot sententiae [Lat][Terence];
tant s'en faut[Fr]; il s'en faut bien[Fr];no way; by no means; count me

#490. Knowledge.—N. knowledge; cognizance, cognition, cognoscence|; acquaintance, experience, ken, privity[obs3], insight, familiarity; comprehension, apprehension; recognition; appreciation &c. (judgment) 480; intuition; conscience, consciousness; perception, precognition; acroamatics|!. light, enlightenment; glimpse, inkling; glimmer, glimmering; dawn; scent, suspicion; impression &c. (idea) 453; discovery &c. 480a. system of knowledge, body of knowledge; science, philosophy, pansophy[obs3]; acroama|!; theory, aetiology[obs3], etiology; circle of the sciences; pandect[obs3], doctrine, body of doctrine; cyclopedia, encyclopedia; school &c. (system of opinions) 484. tree of knowledge; republic of letters &c. (language) 560. erudition, learning, lore, scholarship, reading, letters; literature; book madness; book learning, bookishness; bibliomania[obs3], bibliolatry[obs3]; information, general information; store of knowledge &c.; education &c. (teaching) 537; culture, menticulture[obs3], attainments; acquirements, acquisitions; accomplishments; proficiency; practical knowledge &c. (skill) 698; liberal education; dilettantism; rudiments &c (beginning) 66. deep knowledge, profound knowledge, solid knowledge, accurate knowledge, acroatic knowledge[obs3], acroamatic knowledge[obs3], vast knowledge, extensive knowledge, encyclopedic knowledge, encyclopedic learning; omniscience, pantology[obs3]. march of intellect; progress of science, advance of science, advance of learning; schoolmaster abroad. [person who knows much] scholar &c. 492. V. know, ken, scan, wot[obs3]; wot aware[obs3], be aware &c. adj.- of; ween[obs3], weet[obs3], trow[obs3], have, possess. conceive; apprehend, comprehend; take, realize, understand, savvy* [U.S.], appreciate; fathom, make out; recognize, discern, perceive, see, get a sight-of, experience. know full well; have some knowledge of, possess some knowledge of; be au courant &c. adj.; have in one's head, have at one' fingers ends; know by heart, know by rote; be master of; connaitre le dessous des cartes[Fr], know what's what &c. 698. see one's way; discover &c. 480a. come to one's knowledge &c. (information) 527. Adj. knowing &c. v.; cognitive; acroamatic[obs3]. aware of, cognizant of, conscious of; acquainted with, made acquainted with; privy to, no stranger to; au -fait, au courant; in the secret; up to, alive to; behind the scenes, behind the curtain; let into; apprized of, informed of; undeceived. proficient with, versed with, read with, forward with, strong with, at home in; conversant with, familiar with. erudite, instructed, leaned, lettered, educated; well conned, well informed, well read, well grounded, well educated; enlightened, shrewd, savant, blue, bookish, scholastic, solid, profound, deep-read, book- learned; accomplished &c (skillful) 698; omniscient; self-taught. known &c. v.; ascertained, well-known, recognized, received, notorious, noted; proverbial; familiar, familiar as household words, familiar to every schoolboy; hackneyed, trite, trivial, commonplace. cognoscible[obs3], cognizable. Adv. to one's knowledge, to the best of one's knowledge. Phr. one's eyes being opened &c. (disclosure) 529; ompredre tout c'est tout pardonner[French: to know all is to pardon all]; empta dolore docet experientia[Lat];<gr/gnothi seauton/gr>[Grk]; "half our knowledge we must snatch not take" [Pope]; Jahre lehren mehr als Bucher[German: years teach more than books]; "knowledge comes but wisdom lingers"[Tennyson]; "knowledge is power" [Bacon]; les affaires font les hommes [Fr]; nec scire fas est omnia [Lat][Horace]; "the amassed thought and experience of innumerable minds" [Emerson]; was ich nicht weiss macht mich nicht heiss[Ger].

#491. Ignorance.—N. ignorance, nescience, tabula rasa[Lat], crass ignorance, ignorance crasse[Fr]; unfamiliarity, unacquaintance[obs3]; unconsciousness &c. adj.; darkness, blindness; incomprehension, inexperience, simplicity. unknown quantities, x, y, z. sealed book, terra incognita, virgin soil, unexplored ground; dark ages. [Imperfect knowledge] smattering, sciolism[obs3], glimmering, dilettantism; bewilderment &c. (uncertainty) 475; incapacity. [Affectation of knowledge] pedantry; charlatanry, charlatism[obs3]; Philister[obs3], Philistine. V. be ignorant &c. adj.; not know &c. 490; know not, know not what, know nothing of; have no idea, have no notion, have no conception; not have the remotest idea; not know chalk from cheese. ignore, be blind to; keep in ignorance &c. (conceal) 528. see through a glass darkly; have a film over the eyes, have a glimmering &c. n.; wonder whether; not know what to make of &c. (unintelligibility) 519; not pretend to take upon, not take upon one self to say. Adj. ignorant; nescient; unknowing, unaware, unacquainted, unapprised, unapprized[obs3], unwitting, unweeting|, unconscious; witless, weetless[obs3]; a stranger to; unconversant[obs3]. uninformed, uncultivated, unversed, uninstructed, untaught, uninitiated, untutored, unschooled, misguided, unenlightened; Philistine; behind the age. shallow, superficial, green, rude, empty, half-learned, illiterate; unread, uninformed, uneducated, unlearned, unlettered, unbookish; empty- headed, dizzy, wooly-headed; pedantic; in the dark; benighted, belated; blinded, blindfolded; hoodwinked; misinformed; au bout de son latin, at the end of his tether, at fault; at sea &c. (uncertain) 475; caught tripping. unknown, unapprehended, unexplained, unascertained, uninvestigated[obs3], unexplored, unheard of, not perceived; concealed &c. 528; novel. Adv. ignorantly &c. adj.; unawares; for anything, for aught one knows; not that one knows. Int. God knows, Heaven knows, the Lord knows, who knows, nobody knows. Phr. "ignorance never settles a question" [Disraeli]; quantum animis erroris inest[Lat]! [Ovid]; "small Latin and less Greek" [B. Jonson]; "that unlettered small-knowing soul" [Love's Labor's Lost]; "there is no darkness but ignorance" [Twelfth NIght].

#492. Scholar.—N. scholar, connoisseur, savant, pundit, schoolman[obs3], professor, graduate, wrangler; academician, academist[obs3]; master of arts, doctor, licentitate, gownsman; philosopher, master of math; scientist, clerk; sophist, sophister[obs3]; linguist; glossolinguist, philologist; philologer[obs3]; lexicographer, glossographer; grammarian; litterateur[Fr], literati, dilettanti, illuminati, cogniscenti[It]; fellow, Hebraist, lexicologist, mullah, munshi[obs3], Sanskritish; sinologist, sinologue[obs3]; Mezzofanti[obs3], admirable Crichton, Mecaenas. bookworm, helluo librorum[Lat]; bibliophile, bibliomaniac[obs3]; bluestocking, bas-bleu[Fr]; bigwig, learned Theban, don; Artium Baccalaureus[Lat][obs3], Artium Magister[Lat]. learned man, literary man; homo multarum literarum[Lat]; man of learning, man of letters, man of education, man of genius. antiquarian, antiquary; archaeologist. sage &c. (wise man) 500. pedant, doctrinaire; pedagogue, Dr. Pangloss; pantologist[obs3], criminologist. schoolboy &c. (learner) 541. Adj. learned &c. 490; brought up at the feet of Gamaliel. Phr. "he was a scholar and a ripe and good one" [Henry VIII]; "the manifold linguist" [All's Well That Ends Well].

#493. Ignoramus.—N. ignoramus, dunce; wooden spoon; no scholar.
     [insulting terms for ignorant person: see also imbecility 499, folly
501] moron, imbecile, idiot; fool, jerk, nincompoop, asshole [vulgar].
     [person with superficial knowledge] dilettante, sciolist[obs3],
smatterer, dabbler, half scholar; charlatan; wiseacre.
     greenhorn, amateur &c (dupe) 547; novice, tyro &c (learner) 541;
     lubber &c (bungler) 701; fool &c. 501; pedant &c 492.
Adj. bookless[obs3], shallow; ignorant &c. 491.
     Phr. "a wit with dunces and a dunce with wits" [Pope].

#494. [Object of knowledge.] Truth.—N. fact, reality &c. (existence) 1; plain fact, plain matter of fact; nature &c. (principle) 5; truth, verity; gospel, gospel truth, God's honest truth; orthodoxy &c. 983a; authenticity; veracity &c. 543; correctness, correctitude[obs3]. accuracy, exactitude; exactness, preciseness &c. adj.; precision, delicacy; rigor, mathematical precision, punctuality; clockwork precision &c. (regularity) 80; conformity to rule; nicety. orthology[obs3]; ipsissima verba[Lat]; realism. plain truth, honest truth, sober truth, naked truth, unalloyed truth, unqualified truth, stern truth, exact truth, intrinsic truth; nuda veritas[Lat]; the very thing; not an -illusion &c 495; real Simon Pure; unvarnished tale, unvarnished truth; the truth the whole truth and nothing but the truth; just the thing. V. be true &c. adj., be the case; sand the test; have the true ring; hold good, hold true, hold water. render true, prove true &c. adj.; substantiate &c. (evidence) 467. get at the truth &c. (discover) 480a. Adj. real, actual &c. (existing) 1; veritable, true; right, correct; certain &c. 474; substantially true, categorically true, definitively true &c; true to the letter, true as gospel; unimpeachable; veracious &c. 543; unreconfuted[obs3], unconfuted[obs3]; unideal[obs3], unimagined; realistic. exact, accurate, definite, precise, well-defined, just, just so, so; strict, severe; close &c. (similar) 17; literal; rigid, rigorous; scrupulous &c. (conscientious) 939; religiously exact, punctual, mathematical, scientific; faithful, constant, unerring; curious, particular, nice, delicate, fine; clean-cut, clear-cut. verified, empirically true, experimentally verified, substantiated, proven (demonstrated) 478. rigorously true, unquestionably true. true by definition. genuine, authentic, legitimate; orthodox &c. 983a; official, ex officio. pure, natural, sound, sterling; unsophisticated, unadulterated, unvarnished, unalloyed, uncolored; in its true colors; pukka[obs3]. well-grounded, well founded; solid, substantial, tangible, valid; undistorted, undisguised; unaffected, unexaggerated, unromantic, unflattering. Adv. truly &c. adj.; verily, indeed, really, in reality; with truth &c. (veracity) 543; certainly &c. (certain) 474; actually &c. (existence) 1; in effect &c (intrinsically) 5. exactly &c. adj.; ad amussim[Lat]; verbatim, verbatim et literatim [Lat]; word for word, literally, literatim[Lat], totidem vervis[Lat], sic, to the letter, chapter and verse, ipsissimis verbis[Lat]; ad unguem[Lat]; to an inch; to a nicety, to a hair, to a tittle, to a turn, to a T; au pied de la lettre [Fr]; neither more nor less; in every respect, in all respects; sous tous les rapports[Fr]; at any rate, at all events; strictly speaking. Phr. the truth is, the fact is; rem acu tetigisti[obs3][Lat]; en suivant la verite [Fr]; ex facto jus oritur [Lat]; la verita e figlia del empo [It]; locos y ninos dicen la verdad [Spanish: crazy people and children tell the truth]; nihil est veritatis luce dulcius [Lat][Cicero]; veritas nunquam perit [Lat][Seneca]; veritatem dies aperit [Lat][Seneca]; "the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth"; "just the facts, ma'am, just the facts." [Dragnet].

#495. Error.—N. error, fallacy; misconception, misapprehension, misstanding[obs3], misunderstanding; inexactness &c. adj.; laxity; misconstruction &c. (misinterpretation) 523; miscomputation &c. (misjudgment) 481; non sequitur &c. 477; mis-statement, mis-report; mumpsimus[obs3]. mistake; miss, fault, blunder, quiproquo, cross purposes, oversight, misprint, erratum, corrigendum, slip, blot, flaw, loose thread; trip, stumble &c. (failure) 732; botchery &c. (want of skill) 699[obs3]; slip of the tongue, slip of the lip, Freudian slip; slip of the pen; lapsus linguae[Lat], clerical error; bull &c. (absurdity) 497; haplography[obs3]. illusion, delusion; snare; false impression, false idea; bubble; self- decit, self-deception; mists of error. heresy &c. (heterodoxy) 984; hallucination &c. (insanity) 503; false light &c. (fallacy of vision) 443; dream &c. (fancy) 515; fable &c. (untruth) 546; bias &c. (misjudgment) 481; misleading &c. v. V. be erroneous &c. adj. cause error; mislead, misguide; lead astray, lead into error; beguile, misinform &c. (misteach) 538[obs3]; delude; give a false impression, give a false idea; falsify, misstate; deceive &c. 545; lie &c. 544. err; be -in error &c. adj., be mistaken &c. v.; be deceived &c. (duped) 547; mistake, receive a false impression, deceive oneself; fall into error, lie under error, labor under an error &c. n.; be in the wrong, blunder; misapprehend, misconceive, misunderstand, misreckon, miscount, miscalculate &c. (misjudge) 481. play at cross purposes, be at cross purposes &c. (misinterpret) 523. trip, stumble; lose oneself &c. (uncertainty) 475; go astray; fail &c. 732; be in the wrong box; take the wrong sow by the ear &c. (mismanage) 699; put the saddle on the wrong horse; reckon without one's host; take the shadow for the substance &c (credulity) 486; dream &c (imagine) 515. Adj. erroneous, untrue, false, devoid of truth, fallacious, apocryphal, unreal, ungrounded, groundless; unsubstantial &c. 4; heretical &c. (heterodox) 984; unsound; illogical &c. 477. inexact, unexact inaccurate[obs3], incorrect; indefinite &c. (uncertain) 475. illusive, illusory; delusive; mock, ideal &c (imaginary) 515; spurious &c. 545; deceitful &c. 544; perverted. controvertible, unsustainable; unauthenticated, untrustworthy. exploded, refuted; discarded. in error, under an error &c. n.; mistaken &c. v.; tripping &c. v.; out, out in one's reckoning; aberrant; beside the mark, wide of the mark, wide of the truth, way off, far off; astray &c (at fault) 475; on a false scent, on the wrong scent; in the wrong box, outside the ballpark; at cross purposes, all in the wrong; all out. Adv. more or less. Phr. errare est humanum[Lat]; mentis gratissimus error [Lat][Horace]; "on the dubious waves of error tost" [Cowper]; "to err is human, to forgive divine" [Pope]; "you lie—under a mistake" [Shelley].

#496. Maxim.—N. maxim, aphorism; apothegm, apophthegm[obs3];
dictum, saying, adage, saw, proverb; sentence, mot[Fr], motto, word,
byword, moral, phylactery, protasis[obs3].
     axiom, theorem, scholium[obs3], truism, postulate.
     first principles, a priori fact, assumption (supposition) 514.
     reflection &c (idea) 453; conclusion &c (judgment) 480; golden rule
&c. (precept) 697; principle, principia[Lat]; profession of faith &c.
(belief) 484; settled principle, accepted principle, formula.
     accepted fact.
     received truth, wise maxim, sage maxim, received maxim, admitted
maxim, recognized maxim &c; true saying, common saying, hackneyed saying,
trite saying, commonplace saying &c.
     Adj. aphoristic, proverbial, phylacteric[obs3]; axiomatic, gnomic.
     Adv. as the saying goes, as the saying is, as they say.

#497. Absurdity.—N. absurdity, absurdness &c. adj.; imbecility &c. 499; alogy|, nonsense, utter nonsense; paradox, inconsistency; stultiloquy[obs3], stultiloquence[obs3]; nugacity[obs3]. blunder, muddle, bull; Irishism|!, Hibernicism|!; slipslop[obs3]; anticlimax, bathos; sophism &c. 477. farce, galimathias[obs3], amphigouri[obs3], rhapsody; farrago &c (disorder) 59; betise[Fr]; extravagance, romance; sciamachy[obs3]. sell, pun, verbal quibble, macaronic[obs3]. jargon, fustian, twaddle, gibberish &c (no meaning) 517; exaggeration &c 549; moonshine, stuff; mare's nest, quibble, self-delusion. vagary, tomfoolery, poppycock, mummery, monkey trick, boutade[Fr], escapade. V. play the fool &c. 499; talk nonsense, parler a tort et a travess[Fr]; battre la campagne[Fr][obs3]; <gr/ hanemolia bazein/gr>; be - absurd &c. adj. Adj. absurd, nonsensical, preposterous, egregious, senseless, inconsistent, ridiculous, extravagant, quibbling; self-annulling, self- contradictory; macaronic[obs3], punning. foolish &c. 499; sophistical &c. 477; unmeaning &c. 517; without rhyme or reason; fantastic. Int. fiddlededee! pish! pho[obs3]! "in the name of the Prophet—figs!" [Horace Smith]. Phr. credat Judaeus Apella [Lat][Horace]; tell it to the marines.


#498. Intelligence. Wisdom.—N. intelligence, capacity, comprehension, understanding; cuteness, sabe * [obs3][U.S.], savvy * [U.S.]; intellect &c. 450; nous[Fr], parts, sagacity, mother wit, wit, esprit, gumption, quick parts, grasp of intellect; acuteness &c adj.; acumen, subtlety, penetration, perspicacy[obs3], perspicacity; discernment, due sense of, good judgment; discrimination &c 465; cunning &c. 702; refinement &c (taste) 850. head, brains, headpiece, upper story, long head; eagle eye, eagle- glance; eye of a lynx, eye of a hawk. wisdom, sapience, sense; good sense, common sense, horse sense [U.S.], plain sense; rationality, reason; reasonableness &c. adj; judgment; solidity, depth, profundity, caliber; enlarged views; reach of thought, compass of thought; enlargement of mind. genius, inspiration, geist[Ger], fire of genius, heaven-born genius, soul; talent &c. (aptitude) 698. [Wisdom in action] prudence &c. 864; vigilance &c. 459; tact &c 698; foresight &c 510; sobriety, self-possession, aplomb, ballast. a bright thought, not a bad idea. Solomon-like wisdom. V. be -intelligent &c. adj.; have all one's wits about one; understand &c. (intelligible) 518; catch an idea, take in an idea; take a joke, take a hint. see through, see at a glance, see with half an eye, see far into, see through a millstone; penetrate; discern &c (descry) 441; foresee &c 510. discriminate &c. 465; know what's what &c. 698; listen to reason. Adj. intelligent[Applied to persons], quick of apprehension, keen, acute, alive, brainy, awake, bright, quick, sharp; quick witted, keen witted, clear witted, sharp- eyed, sharp sighted, sharp witted; wide-awake; canny, shrewd, astute; clear-headed; farsighted &c 510; discerning, perspicacious, penetrating, piercing; argute[obs3]; quick-witted, nimble- witted, needle-witted; sharp as a needle, sharp as a tack; alive to &c (cognizant) 490; clever &c. (apt) 698; arch &c (cunning) 702; pas si bete[Fr]; acute &c 682. wise, sage, sapient, sagacious, reasonable, rational, sound, in one's right mind, sensible, abnormis sapiens[Lat], judicious, strong-minded. unprejudiced, unbiased, unbigoted[obs3], unprepossessed[obs3]; undazzled[obs3], unperplexed[obs3]; unwarped judgment[obs3], impartial, equitable, fair. cool; cool-headed, long-headed, hardheaded, strong-headed; long- sighted, calculating, thoughtful, reflecting; solid, deep, profound. oracular; heaven-directed, heaven-born. prudent &c (cautious) 864; sober, stand, solid; considerate, politic, wise in one's generation; watchful &c. 459; provident &c (prepared) 673; in advance of one' age; wise as a serpent, wise as Solomon, wise as Solon. [Applied to actions] wise, sensible, reasonable, judicious; well- thought-out, well-planned, well-judged, well-advised; prudent, politic; expedient &c. 646. Phr. aut regem aut fatuum nasci oportet[Lat]; "but with the morning cool reflection came" [Scott]; flosculi sententiarum[Lat]; les affaires font les hommes[Fr]; mas vale saber que haber[Sp]; mas vale ser necio que profiadol nemo solus sapit [Lat][Plautus]; nosce te[Lat]; <gr/gnothi seauton/gr>[Grk]; nullum magnum ingenium sine mixtura dementiae fuit [Lat][Seneca, from Aristotle]; sapere aude [Lat][Horace]; victrix fortunae sapientia [Lat][Juvenal].

#499. Imbecility. Folly—N. want of -intelligence &c. 498, want of - intellect &c. 450; shadowness[obs3], silliness, foolishness &c. adj.; imbecility, incapacity, vacancy of mind, poverty of intellect, weakness of intellect, clouded perception, poor head, apartments to let; stupidity, stolidity; hebetude[obs3], dull understanding, meanest capacity, shortsightedness; incompetence &c (unskillfulness) 699. one's weak side, not one's strong point; bias &c 481; infatuation &c. (insanity) 503. simplicity, puerility, babyhood; dotage, anility[obs3], second childishness, fatuity; idiocy, idiotism[obs3]; driveling. folly, frivolity, irrationality, trifling, ineptitude, nugacity[obs3], inconsistency, lip wisdom, conceit; sophistry &c. 477; giddiness &c (inattention) 458; eccentricity &c. 503; extravagance &c (absurdity) 497; rashness &c. 863. act of folly &c. 699. b. be - imbecile &c adj.; have no -brains, have no sense &c. 498. trifle, drivel, radoter[obs3], dote; ramble &c (madness) 503; play the fool, play the monkey, monkey around, fool around; take leave of one's senses (insanity) 503; not see an inch beyond one's nose; stultify oneself &c. 699; talk nonsense &c. 497. Adj. unintelligent[Applied to persons], unintellectual, unreasoning; mindless, witless, reasoningless[obs3], brainless; halfbaked; having no head &c. 498; not -bright &c. 498; inapprehensible[obs3]. weak headed, addle headed, puzzle headed, blunder headed, muddle headed, muddy headed, pig headed, beetle headed, buffle headed[obs3], chuckle headed, mutton headed, maggoty headed, grossheaded[obs3]; beef headed, fat witted, fat-headed. weak-minded, feeble-minded; dull minded, shallow minded, lack-brained; rattle-brained, rattle headed; half witted, lean witted, short witted, dull witted, blunt-witted, shallow-pated[obs3], clod-pated[obs3], addle- pated[obs3]; dim-sighted, short-sighted; thick-skulled; weak in the upper story. shallow, borne, weak, wanting, soft, sappy, spoony; dull, dull as a beetle; stupid, heavy, insulse[obs3], obtuse, blunt, stolid, doltish; asinine; inapt &c. 699; prosaic &c. 843; hebetudinous[obs3]. childish, child-like; infantine[obs3], infantile, babyish, babish[obs3]; puerile, anile; simple &c. (credulous) 486; old-womanish. fatuous, idiotic, imbecile, driveling; blatant, babbling; vacant; sottish; bewildered &c.475. blockish[obs3], unteachable Boeotian, Boeotic; bovine; ungifted, undiscerning[obs3], unenlightened, unwise, unphilosophical[obs3]; apish; simious[obs3]. foolish, silly, senseless, irrational, insensate, nonsensical, inept; maudlin. narrow-minded &c. 481; bigoted &c. (obstinate) 606; giddy &c. (thoughtless) 458; rash &c. 863; eccentric &c. (crazed) 503. [Applied to actions] foolish, unwise, injudicious, improper, unreasonable, without reason, ridiculous, absurd, idiotic, silly, stupid, asinine; ill-imagined, ill-advised, ill-judged, ill-devised; mal entendu[Fr]; inconsistent, irrational, unphilosophical[obs3]; extravagant &c (nonsensical) 497; sleeveless, idle; pointless, useless &c. 645; inexpedient &c. 647; frivolous &c. (trivial) 643. Phr. Davus sum non [Lat][Oedipus]; "a fool's bolt is soon shot" clitellae bovi sunt impositae [obs3][Henry V.][Lat][Cicero]; "fools rush in where angels fear to tread" [Pope]; il n' a ni bouche ni eperon [Fr]; "the bookful blockhead, ignorantly read" [Pope]; "to varnish nonsense with the charms of sound" [Churchill].

#500. Sage—N. sage, wise man; genius; master mind, master spirit of
the age; longhead[obs3], thinker; intellectual, longhair.
     authority, oracle, luminary, shining light, esprit fort, magnus
Apollo[Lat][obs3], Solon, Solomon, Nestor, Magi, "second Daniel."
     man of learning &c. 492; expert &c. 700; wizard &c. 994.
     [Ironically] wiseacre, bigwig, know-it-all; poor man's Einstein.
     Adj. venerable, reverenced, emeritus.
     Phr. barba tenus sapientes[Lat].

#501. Fool.—N. fool, idiot, tomfool, wiseacre, simpleton, witling[obs3], dizzard[obs3], donkey, ass; ninny, ninnyhammer[obs3]; chowderhead[obs3], chucklehead[obs3]; dolt, booby, Tom Noddy, looby[obs3], hoddy-doddy[obs3], noddy, nonny, noodle, nizy[obs3], owl; goose, goosecap[obs3]; imbecile; gaby[obs3]; radoteur[obs3], nincompoop, badaud[obs3], zany; trifler, babbler; pretty fellow; natural, niais[obs3]. child, baby, infant, innocent, milksop, sop. oaf, lout, loon, lown[obs3], dullard, doodle, calf, colt, buzzard, block, put, stick, stock, numps[obs3], tony. bull head, dunderhead, addlehead[obs3], blockhead, dullhead[obs3], loggerhead, jolthead[obs3], jolterhead[obs3], beetlehead[obs3], beetlebrain, grosshead[obs3], muttonhead, noodlehead, giddyhead[obs3]; numbskull, thickskull[obs3]; lackbrain[obs3], shallowbrain[obs3]; dimwit, halfwit, lackwit[obs3]; dunderpate[obs3]; lunkhead sawney[obs3][U.S.], gowk[obs3]; clod, clod-hopper; clod-poll, clot- poll, clot-pate; bull calf; gawk, Gothamite, lummox, rube [U.S.]; men of Boeotia, wise men of Gotham. un sot a triple etage[Fr], sot; jobbernowl[obs3], changeling, mooncalf, gobemouche[obs3]. dotard, driveler; old fogey, old woman, crock; crone, grandmother; cotquean[obs3], henhussy[obs3]. incompetent (insanity) 503. greenhorn &c (dupe) 547; dunce &c (ignoramus) 493; lubber &c (bungler) 701; madman &c 504. one who will not set the Thames on fire; one who did not invent gunpowder, qui n'a pas invente' la poudre [Fr]; no conjuror. Phr. fortuna favet fatuis[Lat]; les fous font les festinas et les sages les mangent [Fr]; nomina stultorum parietibus harrent [Lat]; stultorum plena sunt omnia [Lat][Cicero].

#502. Sanity.—N. sanity; soundness &c. adj.; rationality, sobriety,
lucidity, lucid interval; senses, sober senses, right mind, sound mind,
mens sana[Lat].
     V. be sane &c. adj.; retain one's senses, retain one's reason.
     become sane &c. adj.; come to one's senses, sober down.
     render sane &c. adj; bring to one's senses, sober.
     Adj. sane, rational, reasonable, compos mentis, of sound mind; sound,
sound-minded; lucid.
     self-possessed; sober, sober-minded.
     in one's sober senses, in one's right mind; in possession of one's
     Adv. sanely &c.adj.

#503. Insanity.—N. disordered reason, disordered intellect; diseased mind, unsound mind, abnormal mind; derangement, unsoundness; psychosis; neurosis; cognitive disorder; affective disorder[obs3]. insanity, lunacy; madness &c. adj.; mania, rabies, furor, mental alienation, aberration; paranoia, schizophrenia; dementation[obs3], dementia, demency[obs3]; phrenitis[obs3], phrensy[obs3], frenzy, raving, incoherence, wandering, delirium, calenture of the brain[obs3]; delusion, hallucination; lycanthropy[obs3]; brain storm|!. vertigo, dizziness, swimming; sunstroke, coup de soleil[Fr], siriasis[obs3]. fanaticism, infatuation, craze; oddity, eccentricity, twist, monomania (caprice) 608; kleptodipsomania[obs3]; hypochondriasis &c. (low spirits) 837[Med]; melancholia, depression, clinical depression, severe depression; hysteria; amentia[obs3]. screw loose, tile loose, slate loose; bee in one's bonnet, rats in the upper story. dotage &c. (imbecility) 499. V. be insane &c. adj. become insane &c. adj; lose one's senses, lose one's reason, lose one's faculties, lose one's wits; go mad, run mad, lose one's marbles [coll.], go crazy, go bonkers [coll.], flip one's wig [coll.], flip one's lid[coll.], flip out[coll.], flip one's bush [coll.]. rave, dote, ramble, wander; drivel &c. (be imbecile) 499; have a screw loose &c. n., have a devil; avoir le diable au corps[Fr]; lose one's head &c. (be uncertain) 475. render mad, drive mad &c adj.; madden, dementate[obs3], addle the wits, addle the brain, derange the head, infatuate, befool[obs3]; turn the brain, turn one's head; drive one nuts [coll.]. Adj. insane, mad, lunatic, loony[coll.]; crazy, crazed, aliene[obs3], non compos mentis; not right, cracked, touched; bereft of reason; all possessed, unhinged, unsettled in one's mind; insensate, reasonless, beside oneself, demented, daft; phrenzied[obs3], frenzied, frenetic; possessed, possessed with a devil; deranged, maddened, moonstruck; shatterpated[obs3]; mad-brained, scatter brained, shatter brained, crackbrained; touched, tetched [dialect]; off one's head. [behavior suggesting insanity] maniacal; delirious, lightheaded, incoherent, rambling, doting, wandering; frantic, raving, stark staring mad, stark raving mad, wild-eyed, berserk; delusional, hallucinatory. [behavior somewhat resembling insanity] corybantic[obs3], dithyrambic; rabid, giddy, vertiginous, wild; haggard, mazed; flighty; distracted, distraught; depressed; agitated, hyped up; bewildered &c. (uncertain) 475. mad as a March hare, mad as a hatter; of unsound mind &c. n.; touched in one's head, wrong in one's head, not right in one's head, not in one's right mind, not right in one's wits, upper story; out of one's mind, out of one's wits, out of one's skull [coll.], far gone, out of one's senses, out of one's wits; not in one's right mind. fanatical, infatuated, odd, eccentric; hypped[obs3], hyppish[obs3]; spaced out [coll.]. imbecile, silly, &c. 499. Adv. like one possessed. Phr. the mind having lost its balance; the reason under a cloud; tet exaltee[French], tet montee[French]; ira furor brevis est[Latin]; omnes stultos insanire [Latin][Horace].

#504. Madman.—N. madman, lunatic, maniac, bedlamite[obs3], candidate for Bedlam, raver[obs3], madcap, crazy; energumen[obs3]; automaniac[obs3], monomaniac, dipsomaniac, kleptomaniac; hypochondriac &c. (low spirits); crank, Tom o'Bedlam. dreamer &c. 515; rhapsodist, seer, highflier[obs3], enthusiast, fanatic, fanatico[Sp]; exalte[French]; knight errant, Don Quixote. idiot &c. 501.


1. To the Past

#505. Memory.—N. memory, remembrance; retention, retentiveness; tenacity; veteris vestigia flammae[Lat]; tablets of the memory; readiness. reminiscence, recognition, recollection, rememoration[obs3]; recurrence, flashback; retrospect, retrospection. afterthought, post script, PS. suggestion &c. (information) 527; prompting &c. v.; hint, reminder; remembrancer[obs3], flapper; memorial &c. (record) 551; commemoration &c. (celebration) 883. [written reminder] note, memo, memorandum; things to be remembered, token of remembrance, memento, souvenir, keepsake, relic, memorabilia. art of memory, artificial memory; memoria technica[Lat]; mnemonics, mnemotechnics[obs3]; phrenotypics[obs3]; Mnemosyne. prompt-book; crib sheet, cheat sheet. retentive memory, tenacious memory, photographic memory, green memory|!, trustworthy memory, capacious memory, faithful memory, correct memory, exact memory, ready memory, prompt memory, accurate recollection; perfect memory, total recall. celebrity, fame, renown, reputation &c. (repute) 873. V. remember, mind; retain the memory of, retain the remembrance of; keep in view. recognize, recollect, bethink oneself, recall, call up, retrace; look back, trace back, trace backwards; think back, look back upon; review; call upon, recall upon, bring to mind, bring to remembrance; carry one's thoughts back; rake up the past. have in the thoughts, hold in the thoughts, bear in the thoughts, carry in the thoughts, keep in the thoughts, retain in the thoughts, have in the memory, hold in the memory, bear in the memory, carry in the memory, keep in the memory, retain in the memory, have in the mind, hold in the mind, bear in the mind, carry in the mind, keep in the mind, retain in the mind, hold in remembrance; be in one's thoughts, live in one's thoughts, remain in one's thoughts, dwell in one's thoughts, haunt one's thoughts, impress one's thoughts, be in one's mind, live in one's mind, remain in one's mind, dwell in one's mind, haunt one's mind, impress one's mind, dwell in one's memory. sink in the mind; run in the head; not be able to get out of one's head; be deeply impressed with; rankle &c. (revenge) 919. recur to the mind; flash on the mind, flash across the memory. [cause to remember] remind; suggest &c. (inform ) 527; prompt; put in mind, keep in mind, bring to mind; fan the embers; call up, summon up, rip up; renew; infandum renovare dolorem [Lat]; jog the memory, flap the memory, refresh the memory, rub up the memory, awaken the memory; pull by the sleeve; bring back to the memory, put in remembrance, memorialize. task the memory, tax the memory. get at one's fingers' ends, have at one's fingers', learn at one's fingers', know one's lesson, say one's lesson, repeat by heart, repeat by rote; say one's lesson; repeat, repeat as a parrot; have at one's fingers' ends. [transitive] commit to memory, memorize; con over, con; fix in the memory, rivet in the memory, imprint in the memory, impress in the memory, stamp in the memory, grave in the memory, engrave in the memory, store in the memory, treasure up in the memory, bottle up in the memory, embalm in the memory, enshrine in the memory; load the memory with, store the memory with, stuff the memory with, burden the memory with. redeem from oblivion; keep the memory alive, keep the wound green, pour salt in the wound, reopen old wounds'; tangere ulcus[obs3][Lat]; keep up the memory of; commemorate &c. (celebrate) 883. make a note of, jot a note, pen a memorandum &c. (record) 551. Adj. remembering, remembered &c. v.; mindful, reminiscential[obs3]; retained in the memory &c. v.; pent up in one's memory; fresh; green, green in remembrance; unforgotten, present to the mind; within one's memory &c. n.; indelible; uppermost in one's thoughts; memorable &c. (important) 642. Adv. by heart, by rote; without book, memoriter[obs3]. in memory of; in memoriam; memoria in aeterna[Lat]; suggestive. Phr. manet alta mente repostum [Lat][Vergil]; forsan et haec olim meminisse juvabit [Lat][Vergil]; absens haeres non erit [Lat]; beatae memoriae [Lat]; "briefly thyself remember" [Lear]; mendacem memorem esse oportet [Lat][Quintilian]; "memory the warder of the brain" [Macbeth]; parsque est meminisse doloris [Lat][Ovid]; "to live in hearts we leave behind is not to die" [Campbell]; vox audita peril littera scripta manet [Lat]; out of sight, out of mind.

#506. Oblivion.—N. oblivion, obliviousness, lethe; forgetfulness &c. adj.; amnesia; obliteration &c. 552 of, insensibility &c. 823 to the past. short memory, treacherous memory, poor memory, loose memory, slippery memory, failing memory; decay of memory, failure of memory, lapse of memory; waters of Lethe, waters of oblivion. amnesty, general pardon. [deliberate or unconscious forgetting] repressed memory. V. forget; be forgetful &c. adj.; fall into oblivion, sink into oblivion; have a short memory &c. n., have no head. forget one's own name, have on the tip of one's tongue, come in one ear and go out the other. slip memory, escape memory, fade from memory, die away from the memory; lose, lose sight of. fail to recall, not be able to recall. [cause oneself to forget: transitive] unlearn; efface &c. 552, discharge from the memory; consign to oblivion, consign to the tomb of the Capulets; think no more of &c. (turn the attention from) 458; cast behind one's back, wean one's thoughts from; let bygones be bygones &c.(forgive) 918. Adj. forgotten &c. v.; unremembered, past recollection, bygone, out of mind; buried in oblivion, sunk in oblivion; clean forgotten; gone out of one's head, gone out of one's recollection. forgetful, oblivious, mindless, Lethean; insensible &c. 823 to the past; heedless. Phr. non mi ricordo[It]; the memory failing, the memory deserting one, being at (or in) fault.

2. To the Future

#507. Expectation.—N. expectation, expectance, expectancy; anticipation, reckoning, calculation; foresight &c. 510. contemplation, prospection[obs3], lookout; prospect, perspective, horizon, vista; destiny &c. 152. suspense, waiting, abeyance; curiosity &c. 455; anxious expectation, ardent expectation, eager expectation, breathless expectation, sanguine expectation; torment of Tantalus. hope &c. 858; trust &c. (belief) 484; auspices &c. (prediction) 511; assurance, confidence, presumption, reliance. V. expect; look for, look out for, look forward to; hope for; anticipate; have in prospect, have in contemplation; keep in view; contemplate, promise oneself; not wonder &c. 870 at, not wonder if. wait for, tarry for, lie in wait for, watch for, bargain for; keep a good lookout for, keep a sharp lookout for; await; stand at "attention," abide, bide one's time, watch. foresee &c. 510; prepare for &c. 673; forestall &c. (be early) 132; count upon &c. (believe in) 484; think likely &c. (probability) 472. lead one to expect &c. (predict) 511; have in store for &c. (destiny) 152. prick up one's ears, hold one's breath. Adj. expectant; expecting &c. v.; in expectation &c. n.; on the watch &c. (vigilant) 459; open-eyed, open-mouthed, in wide-eyed anticipation; agape, gaping, all agog; on tenterhooks, on tiptoe, on the tiptoe of expectation; aux aguets[obs3]; ready; curious &c. 455; looking forward to. expected &c. v.; long expected, foreseen; in prospect &c. n.; prospective; in one's eye, in one's view, in the horizon, on the horizon, just over the horizon, just around the corner, around the corner; impending &c. (destiny) 152. Adv. on the watch &c. adj.; with breathless expectation &c. n.; with bated breath, with rapt anticipation; arrectis auribus[Lat]. Phr. we shall see; nous verrons[Fr]; "expectation whirls me round" [Troilus and Cressida]; the light at the end of the tunnel.

#508. Inexpectation.—N. inexpectation[obs3], non-expectation; false expectation &c. (disappointment) 509; miscalculation &c. 481. surprise, sudden burst, thunderclap, blow, shock, start; bolt out of the blue; wonder &c. 870; eye opener. unpleasant surprise, pleasant surprise. V. not expect &c. 507; be taken by surprise; start; miscalculate &c. 481; not bargain for; come upon, fall upon. be unexpected &c. adj.; come unawares &c. adv.; turn up, pop, drop from the clouds; come upon one, burst upon one, flash upon one, bounce upon one, steal upon one, creep upon one; come like a thunder clap, burst like a thunderclap, thunder bolt; take by surprise, catch by surprise, catch unawares, catch napping; yach [obs3][S. Africa]. pounce upon, spring a mine upon. surprise, startle, take aback, electrify, stun, stagger, take away one's breath, throw off one's guard; astonish, dumbfound &c. (strike with wonder) 870. Adj. nonexpectant[obs3]; surprised &c. v.; unwarned, unaware; off one's guard; inattentive 458. unexpected, unanticipated, unpredicted[obs3], unlooked for, unforeseen, unhoped for; dropped from the clouds; beyond expectation, contrary to expectation, against expectation, against all expectation; out of one's reckoning; unheard of &c. (exceptional) 83; startling, surprising; sudden &c. (instantaneous) 113. unpredictable, unforeseeable (unknowable) 519. Adv. abruptly, unexpectedly, surprisingly; plump, pop, a l'improviste[Fr], unawares; without notice, without warning, without a "by your leave"; like a thief in the night, like a thunderbolt; in an unguarded moment; suddenly &c. (instantaneously) 113. Int. heydey[obs3]! &c. (wonder) 870. Phr. little did one think, little did one expect; nobody would ever suppose, nobody would ever think, nobody would ever expect; who would have thought? it beats the Dutch|!.

#509. [Failure of expectation.] Disappointment.—N. disappointment; blighted hope, balk; blow; anticlimax; slip 'twixt cup and lip; nonfulfillment of one's hopes; sad disappointment, bitter disappointment; trick of fortune; afterclap; false expectation, vain expectation; miscalculation &c. 481; fool's paradise; much cry and little wool. V. be disappointed; look blank, look blue; look aghast, stand aghast &c. (wonder) 870; find to one's cost; laugh on the wrong side of one's mouth; find one a false prophet. not realize one's hope, not realize one's expectation. [cause to be disappointed] disappoint; frustrate, discomfit, crush, defeat (failure) 732; crush one's hope, dash one's hope, balk one's hope, disappoint one's hope, blight one's hope, falsify one's hope, defeat one's hope, discourage; balk, jilt, bilk; play one false, play a trick; dash the cup from the lips, tantalize; dumfound, dumbfound, dumbfounder, dumfounder (astonish) 870. Adj. disappointed &c. v.; disconcerted, aghast; disgruntled; out of one's reckoning. Phr. the mountain labored and brought forth a mouse; parturiunt montes[Lat]; nascitur ridiculus mus [Lat][Horace]; diis aliter visum[Lat][obs3], the bubble burst; one's countenance falling.

#510. Foresight.—N. foresight, prospicience[obs3], prevision, long- sightedness; anticipation; providence &c. (preparation) 673. forethought, forecast; predeliberation[obs3], presurmise[obs3]; foregone conclusion &c. (prejudgment) 481; prudence &c. (caution) 864. foreknowledge; prognosis; precognition, prescience, prenotion[obs3], presentiment; second sight; sagacity &c. (intelligence) 498; antepast[obs3], prelibation[obs3], prophasis[obs3]. prospect &c. (expectation) 507; foretaste; prospectus &c. (plan) 626. V. foresee; look forwards to, look ahead, look beyond; scent from afar; look into the future, pry into the future, peer into the future. see one's way; see how the land lies, get the lay of the land, see how the wind blows, test the waters, see how the cat jumps. anticipate; expect &c. 507; be beforehand &c. (early) 132; predict &c. 511; foreknow, forejudge, forecast; presurmise[obs3]; have an eye to the future, have an eye to the main chance; respicere finem[Lat]; keep a sharp lookout &c. (vigilance) 459; forewarn &c. 668. Adj. foreseeing &c. v.; prescient; farseeing, farsighted; sagacious &c. (intelligent) 498; weatherwise[obs3]; provident &c. (prepared) 673; prospective &c. 507. Adv. against the time when. Phr. cernit omnia Deus vindex[Lat]; mihi cura futuri[Lat]; run it up the flagpole and see who salutes.

#511. Prediction.—N. prediction, announcement; program, programme &c. (plan) 626[Brit]; premonition &c. (warning) 668; prognosis, prophecy, vaticination, mantology[obs3], prognostication, premonstration|; augury, auguration|; ariolation|, hariolation|; foreboding, aboding[obs3]; bodement[obs3], abodement[obs3]; omniation|, omniousness[obs3]; auspices, forecast; omen &c. 512; horoscope, nativity; sooth[obs3], soothsaying; fortune telling, crystal gazing; divination; necromancy &c. 992. [Divination by the stars] astrology[obs3], horoscopy[obs3], judicial astrology1[obs3]. [obs3] adytum[Place of prediction]. prefiguration[obs3], prefigurement; prototype, type. [person who predicts] oracle &c. 513. V. predict, prognosticate, prophesy, vaticinate, divine, foretell, soothsay, augurate[obs3], tell fortunes; cast a horoscope, cast a nativity; advise; forewarn &c. 668. presage, augur, bode; abode, forebode; foretoken, betoken; prefigure, preshow[obs3]; portend; foreshow[obs3], foreshadow; shadow forth, typify, pretypify[obs3], ominate[obs3], signify, point to. usher in, herald, premise, announce; lower. hold out expectation, raise expectation, excite expectation, excite hope; bid fair, promise, lead one to expect; be the precursor &c 64. [predict by mathematical or statistical means from past experience] extrapolate, project. Adj. predicting &cv.; predictive, prophetic; fatidic[obs3], fatidical[obs3]; vaticinal, oracular, fatiloquent[obs3], haruspical, Sibylline; weatherwise[obs3]. ominous, portentous, augurous[obs3], augurial, augural; auspicial[obs3], auspicious; prescious[obs3], monitory, extispicious[obs3], premonitory, significant of, pregnant with, bit with the fate of. Phr. "coming events cast their shadows before" [Campbell]; dicamus bona verba[Lat]; "there buds the promise of celestial worth" [Young].

[1] The following terms, expressive of different forms of divination, have been collected from various sources, and are here given as a curious illustration of bygone superstitions:—
    Divination by oracles, Theomancy[obs3]; by the Bible, Bibliomancy; by ghosts, Psychomancy[obs3]; by crystal gazing, Crystallomancy[obs3]; by shadows or manes, Sciomancy; by appearances in the air, Aeromancy[obs3], Chaomancy[obs3]; by the stars at birth, Genethliacs; by meteors, Meteoromancy[obs3]; by winds, Austromancy[obs3]; by sacrificial appearances, Aruspicy (or Haruspicy)[obs3], Hieromancy[obs3], Hieroscopy[obs3]; by the entrails of animals sacrificed, Extispicy[obs3], Hieromancy[obs3]; by the entrails of a human sacrifice, Anthropomancy[obs3]; by the entrails of fishes, Ichthyomancy[obs3]; by sacrificial fire, Pyromancy[obs3]; by red-hot iron, Sideromancy[obs3]; by smoke from the altar, Capnomancy[obs3]; by mice, Myomancy[obs3]; by birds, Orniscopy[obs3], Ornithomancy[obs3]; by a cock picking up grains, Alectryomancy (or Alectromancy)[obs3]; by fishes, Ophiomancy[obs3]; by herbs, Botanomancy[obs3]; by water, Hydromancy[obs3]; by fountains, Pegomancy[obs3]; by a wand, Rhabdomancy; by dough of cakes, Crithomancy[obs3]; by meal, Aleuromancy[obs3], Alphitomancy[obs3]; by salt, Halomancy[obs3]; by dice, Cleromancy[obs3]; by arrows, Belomancy[obs3]; by a balanced hatchet, Axinomancy[obs3]; by a balanced sieve, Coscinomancy[obs3]; by a suspended ring, Dactyliomancy[obs3]; by dots made at random on paper, Geomancy[obs3]; by precious stones, Lithomancy[obs3]; by pebbles, Pessomancy[obs3]; by pebbles drawn from a heap, Psephomancy[obs3]; by mirrors, Catoptromancy[obs3]; by writings in ashes, Tephramancy[obs3]; by dreams, Oneiromancy[obs3]; by the hand, Palmistry, Chiromancy; by nails reflecting the sun's rays, Onychomancy[obs3]; by finger rings, Dactylomancy[obs3]; by numbers, Arithmancy[obs3]; by drawing lots, Sortilege[obs3]; by passages in books, Stichomancy[obs3]; by the letters forming the name of the person, Onomancy[obs3], Nomancy; by the features, Anthroposcopy[obs3]; by the mode of laughing, Geloscopy[obs3]; by ventriloquism, Gastromancy[obs3]; by walking in a circle, Gyromancy[obs3]; by dropping melted wax into water, Ceromancy[obs3]; by currents, Bletonism; by the color and peculiarities of wine, Œnomancy[obs3].

#512. Omen.—N. omen, portent, presage, prognostic, augury, auspice;
sign &c. (indication) 550; harbinger &c. (precursor) 64; yule candle|!.
     bird of ill omen; signs of the times; gathering clouds; warning &c.
     prefigurement &c. 511.
     Adj. ill-boding.
     Phr. auspicium melioris aevi[Lat][obs3].

#513. Oracle.—N. oracle; prophet, prophesier, seer, soothsayer, augur, fortune teller, crystal gazer[obs3], witch, geomancer[obs3], aruspex[obs3]; aruspice[obs3], haruspice[obs3]; haruspex; astrologer, star gazer[obs3]; Sibyl; Python, Pythoness[obs3]; Pythia; Pythian oracle, Delphian oracle; Monitor, Sphinx, Tiresias, Cassandra[obs3], Sibylline leaves; Zadkiel, Old Moore; sorcerer &c. 994; interpreter &c. 524. [person who predicts by non-mystical (natural) means] predictor, prognosticator, forecaster; weather forecaster, weatherman. Phr. a prophet is without honor in his own country; "you don't need a weatherman to know which way the wind blows" [Bob Dylan].


#514. Supposition.—N. supposition, assumption, assumed position, postulation, condition, presupposition, hypothesis, blue sky hypothesis, postulate, postulatum[Lat], theory; thesis, theorem; data; proposition, position; proposal &c. (plan) 626; presumption &c. (belief) 484; divination. conjecture; guess, guesswork, speculation; rough guess, shot, shot in the dark [coll.]; conjecturality[obs3]; surmise, suspicion, sneaking suspicion; estimate, approximation (nearness) 197. inkling, suggestion, hint, intimation, notion, impression; bare supposition, vague supposition, loose supposition, loose suggestion. association of ideas, (analogy) 514a; metonym[Gram], metonymy[Gram], simile (metaphor) 521. conceit, idea, thought; original idea, invention (imagination) 515. V. suppose, conjecture, surmise, suspect, guess, divine; theorize; presume, presurmise[obs3], presuppose; assume, fancy, wis[obs3], take it; give a guess, speculate, believe, dare say, take it into one's head, take for granted; imagine &c. 515. put forth; propound, propose; start, put a case, submit, move, make a motion; hazard out, throw out a suggestion, put forward a suggestion, put forward conjecture. allude to, suggest, hint, put it into one's head. suggest itself &c. (thought) 451; run in the head &c. (memory) 505; marvel if, wonder if, wonder whether. Adj. supposing &c. v.; given, mooted, postulatory[obs3]; assumed &c. v.; supposititious, suppositive[obs3], suppositious; gratuitous, speculative, conjectural, hypothetical, theoretical, academic, supposable, presumptive, putative; suppositional. suggestive, allusive. Adv. if, if so be; an; on the supposition &c. n.;ex hypothesi[Lat]; in the case, in the event of; quasi, as if, provided; perhaps &c. (by possibility) 470; for aught one knows.

#514a. Analogy—N. analogy, association, association of ideas.
     metaphor &c. 521.
     analogical thinking; free association; train of thought.
     Adj. analogical.

#515. Imagination.—N. imagination; originality; invention; fancy; inspiration; verve. warm imagination, heated imagination, excited imagination, sanguine imagination, ardent imagination, fiery imagination, boiling imagination, wild imagination, bold imagination, daring imagination, playful imagination, lively imagination, fertile imagination, fancy. "mind's eye"; "such stuff as dreams are made of" [Tempest]. ideality, idealism; romanticism, utopianism, castle-building. dreaming; phrensy[obs3], frenzy; ecstasy, extasy[obs3]; calenture &c. (delirium) 503[obs3]; reverie, trance; day dream, golden dream; somnambulism. conception, Vorstellung[Ger], excogitation[obs3], "a fine frenzy"; cloudland[obs3], dreamland; flight of fancy, fumes of fancy; "thick coming fancies" [Macbeth]; creation of the brain, coinage of the brain; imagery. conceit, maggot, figment, myth, dream, vision, shadow, chimera; phantasm, phantasy; fantasy, fancy; whim, whimsey[obs3], whimsy; vagary, rhapsody, romance, gest[obs3], geste[obs3], extravaganza; air drawn dagger, bugbear, nightmare. flying Dutchman, great sea serpent, man in the moon, castle in the air, pipe dream, pie-in-the-sky, chateau en Espagne[Fr]; Utopia, Atlantis[obs3], happy valley, millennium, fairyland; land of Prester John, kingdom of Micomicon; work of fiction &c. (novel) 594; Arabian nights[obs3]; le pot au lait[Fr]; dream of Alnashar &c. (hope) 858[obs3]. illusion &c. (error) 495; phantom &c. (fallacy of vision) 443; Fata Morgana &c. (ignis fatuus) 423[Lat]; vapor &c. (cloud) 353; stretch of the imagination &c. (exaggeration) 549; mythogenesis[obs3]. idealist, romanticist, visionary; mopus[obs3]; romancer, dreamer; somnambulist; rhapsodist &c. (fanatic) 504; castle-buildier, fanciful projector. V. imagine, fancy, conceive; idealize, realize; dream, dream of, dream up; "give to airy nothing a local habitation and a name" [Midsummer Night's Dream]. create, originate, devise, invent, coin, fabricate; improvise, strike out something new. set one's wits to work; strain one's invention, crack one's invention; rack one's brains, ransack one's brains, cudgel one's brains; excogitate[obs3]; brainstorm. give play, give the reins, give a loose to the imagination, give fancy; indulge in reverie. visualize, envision, conjure up a vision; fancy oneself, represent oneself, picture, picture-oneself, figure to oneself; vorstellen[Ger]. float in the mind; suggest itself &c. (thought) 451. Adj. imagined &c. v.; ben trovato[It]; air drawn, airbuilt[obs3]. imagining &cv. v, imaginative; original, inventive, creative, fertile. romantic, high flown, flighty, extravagant, fanatic, enthusiastic, unrealistic, Utopian, Quixotic. ideal, unreal; in the clouds, in nubibus[Lat]; unsubsantial[obs3] &c. 4; illusory &c. (fallacious) 495. fabulous, legendary; mythical, mythic, mythological; chimerical; imaginary, visionary; notional; fancy, fanciful, fantastic, fantastical[obs3]; whimsical; fairy, fairy-like; gestic[obs3]. Phr. "a change came o'er the spirit of my dream" [Byron]; aegri somnia vana[Lat][obs3]; dolphinum appingit sylvis in fluctibus aprum [obs3][Latin][Horace]; "fancy light from fancy caught" [Tennyson]; "imagination rules the world" [Napoleon]; l'imagination gallope[Fr], le jugement ne va que le pas[French]; musaeo contingens cuncta lepore [Latin][Lucretius]; tous songes sont mensonges[French]; Wahrheil und Dichtung[German].



#516. [Idea to be conveyed.] Meaning. [Thing signified.]—N. meaning; signification, significance; sense, expression; import, purport; force; drift, tenor, spirit, bearing, coloring; scope. [important part of the meaning] substance; gist, essence, marrow, spirit &c. 5. matter; subject, subject matter; argument, text, sum and substance. general meaning, broad meaning, substantial meaning, colloquial meaning, literal meaning, plain meaning, simple meaning, natural meaning, unstrained meaning, true &c. (exact) 494 meaning, honest &c. 543 meaning, prima facie &c. (manifest) 525 meaning[Lat]; letter of the law. literally; after acceptation. synonym; implication, allusion &c. (latency) 526; suggestion &c. (information) 527; figure of speech &c. 521; acceptation &c. (interpretation) 522. V. mean, signify, express; import, purport; convey, imply, breathe, indicate, bespeak, bear a sense; tell of, speak of; touch on; point to, allude to; drive at; involve &c. (latency) 526; declare &c. (affirm) 535. understand by &c. (interpret) 522. Adj. meaning &c. v.; expressive, suggestive, allusive; significant, significative[obs3], significatory[obs3]; pithy; full of meaning, pregnant with meaning. declaratory &c. 535; intelligible &c. 518; literal; synonymous; tantamount &c. (equivalent) 27; implied &c. (latent) 526; explicit &c. 525. Adv. to that effect; that is to say &c. (being interpreted) 522.

#517. [Absence of meaning.] Unmeaningness.—N. meaninglessness, unmeaningness &c. adj[obs3].; scrabble. empty sound, dead letter, vox et praeterea nihil[Lat]; "a tale told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, signifying nothing"; "sounding brass and a tinkling cymbal." nonsense, utter nonsense, gibberish; jargon, jabber, mere words, hocus-pocus, fustian, rant, bombast, balderdash, palaver, flummery, verbiage, babble, baverdage, baragouin[obs3], platitude, niaiserie[obs3]; inanity; flap-doodle; rigmarole, rodomontade; truism; nugae canorae[Lat]; twaddle, twattle, fudge, trash, garbage, humbug; poppy-cock [U.S.]; stuff, stuff and nonsense; bosh, rubbish, moonshine, wish-wash, fiddle-faddle; absurdity &c. 497; vagueness &c. (unintelligibility) 519. [routine or reflexive statements without substantive thought, esp. legal] boilerplate. V. mean nothing; be unmeaning &c. adj.; twaddle, quibble, scrabble. Adj. unmeaning; meaningless, senseless; nonsensical; void of sense &c. 516. inexpressive, unexpressive; vacant; not significant &c. 516; insignificant. trashy, washy, trumpery, trivial, fiddle-faddle, twaddling, quibbling. unmeant, not expressed; tacit &c. (latent) 526. inexpressible, undefinable, incommunicable.

#518. Intelligibility.—N. intelligibility; clearness, explicitness
&c. adj.; lucidity, comprehensibility, perspicuity; legibility, plain
speaking &c. (manifestation) 525; precision &c. 494; <gr/phonanta
synetoisy/gr>[Grk][Grk]; a word to the wise.
     V. be intelligible &c. adj.; speak for itself, speak volumes; tell its
own tale, lie on the surface.
     render intelligible &c. adj.; popularize, simplify, clear up;
elucidate &c. (explain) 522.
     understand, comprehend, take, take in; catch, grasp, follow, collect,
master, make out; see with half an eye, see daylight, see one's way; enter
into the ideas of; come to an understanding.
     Adj. intelligible; clear, clear as day, clear as noonday; lucid;
perspicuous, transpicuous[obs3]; luminous, transparent.
     easily understood, easy to understand, for the million, intelligible
to the meanest capacity, popularized.
     plain, distinct, explicit; positive; definite &c. (precise) 494.
     graphic; expressive &c. (meaning) 516; illustrative &c. (explanatory)
     unambiguous, unequivocal, unmistakable &c. (manifest) 525; unconfused;
legible, recognizable; obvious &c. 525.
     Adv. in plain terms, in plain words, in plain English.
     Phr. he that runs may read &c. (manifest) 525.

#519. Unintelligibility.—N. unintelligibility; incomprehensibility, imperspicuity[obs3]; inconceivableness, vagueness &c. adj.; obscurity; ambiguity &c. 520; doubtful meaning; uncertainty &c. 475; perplexity &c. (confusion) 59; spinosity[obs3]; obscurum per obscurius[Lat]; mystification &c. (concealment) 528; latency &c. 526; transcendentalism. paradox, oxymoron; riddle, enigma, puzzle &c. (secret) 533; diagnus vindice nodus[Lat]; sealed book; steganography[obs3], freemasonry. pons asinorum[Lat], asses' bridge; high Dutch, Greek, Hebrew; jargon &c. (unmeaning) 517. V. be unintelligible &c. adj.; require explanation &c. 522; have a doubtful meaning, pass comprehension. render unintelligible &c. adj.; conceal &c 528; darken &c. 421; confuse &c. (derange) 61; perplex &c. (bewilder) 475. not understand &c. 518; lose, lose the clue; miss; not know what to make of, be able to make nothing of, give it up; not be able to account for, not be able to make either head or tail of; be at sea &c. (uncertain) 475; wonder &c. 870; see through a glass darkly &c. (ignorance) 491. not understand one another; play at cross purposes &c. (misinterpret) 523. Adj. unintelligible, unaccountable, undecipherable, undiscoverable, unknowable, unfathomable; incognizable[obs3], inexplicable, inscrutable; inapprehensible[obs3], incomprehensible; insolvable[obs3], insoluble; impenetrable. illegible, as Greek to one, unexplained, paradoxical; enigmatic, enigmatical, puzzling (secret) 533; indecipherable. obscure, dark, muddy, clear as mud, seen through a mist, dim, nebulous, shrouded in mystery; opaque, dense; undiscernible &c. (invisible) 447[obs3]; misty &c. (opaque) 426; hidden &c 528; latent &c 526. indefinite, garbled &c (indistinct) 447; perplexed &c. (confused) 59; undetermined, vague, loose, ambiguous; mysterious; mystic, mystical; acroamatic[obs3], acroamatical[obs3]; metempirical; transcendental; occult, recondite, abstruse, crabbed. inconceivable, inconceptible[obs3]; searchless[obs3]; above comprehension, beyond comprehension, past comprehension; beyond one's depth; unconceived. inexpressible, undefinable, incommunicable. unpredictable, unforeseeable. Phr. it's Greek to me.

#520. [Having a double sense] Equivocalness.—N. equivocalness &c adj.; double meaning &c. 516; ambiguity, double entente, double entendre[Fr], pun, paragram[obs3], calembour[obs3], quibble, equivoque[Fr], anagram; conundrum &c (riddle) 533; play on words, word play &c. (wit) 842; homonym, homonymy[Gram]; amphiboly[obs3], amphibology[obs3]; ambilogy[obs3], ambiloquy|. Sphinx, Delphic oracle. equivocation &c. (duplicity) 544; white lie, mental reservation &c. (concealment) 528; paltering. V. be -equivocal &c. adj.; have two meanings &c. 516; equivocate &c. (alter) 544. Adj. equivocal, ambiguous, amphibolous[obs3], homonymous[obs3]; double-tongued &c. (lying) 544; enigmatical, indeterminate. Phr. on the one hand, on the other hand.

#521. Metaphor.—N. figure of speech; facon de parler [French], way
of speaking, colloquialism.
     phrase &c. 566; figure, trope, metaphor, enallage[obs3],
catachresis[obs3]; metonymy[Gram], synecdoche[Semant]; autonomasia|!,
irony, figurativeness &c. adj.; image, imagery; metalepsis[obs3], type,
anagoge[obs3], simile, personification, prosopopoeia[obs3], allegory,
apologue[obs3], parable, fable; allusion, adumbration; application.
     exaggeration, hyperbole &c. 549.
     association, association of ideas (analogy) 514a
     V. employ -metaphor &c. n.; personify, allegorize, adumbrate, shadow
forth, apply, allude to.
     Adj. metaphorical, figurative, catachrestical[obs3], typical,
tralatitious[obs3], parabolic, allegorical, allusive, anagogical[obs3];
ironical; colloquial; tropical.
     Adv. so to speak, so to say, so to express oneself; as it were.
     Phr. mutato nomine de te fabula narratur [Lat][Horace].

#522. Interpretation.—N. interpretation, definition; explanation, explication; solution, answer; rationale; plain interpretation, simple interpretation, strict interpretation; meaning &c. 516. translation; rendering, rendition; redition[obs3]; literal translation, free translation; key; secret; clew &c. (indication) 550; clavis[obs3], crib, pony, trot [U.S.]. exegesis; expounding, exposition; hermeneutics; comment, commentary; inference &c. (deduction) 480; illustration, exemplification; gloss, annotation, scholium[obs3], note; elucidation, dilucidation|; eclaircissement[Fr], mot d'enigme[Fr]. [methods of interpreting - list] symptomatology[Med], semiology, semeiology[obs3], semiotics; metoposcopy[obs3], physiognomy; paleography &c. (philology) 560; oneirology acception[obs3], acceptation, acceptance; light, reading, lection, construction, version. equivalent, equivalent meaning &c. 516; synonym; paraphrase, metaphrase[obs3]; convertible terms, apposition; dictionary &c. 562; polyglot. V. interpret, explain, define, construe, translate, render; do into, turn into; transfuse the sense of. find out &c. 480a the meaning &c. 516 of; read; spell out, make out; decipher, unravel, disentangle; find the key of, enucleate, resolve, solve; read between the lines. account for; find the cause, tell the cause &c. 153 of; throw light upon, shed light upon, shed new light upon, shed fresh light upon; clear up, clarify, elucidate. illustrate, exemplify; unfold, expound, comment upon, annotate; popularize &c. (render intelligible) 518. take in a particular sense, understand in a particular sense, receive in a particular sense, accept in a particular sense; understand by, put a construction on, be given to understand. Adj. explanatory, expository; explicative, explicatory; exegetical[obs3]; construable. polyglot; literal; paraphrastic, metaphrastic[obs3]; consignificative[obs3], synonymous; equivalent &c. 27. Adv. in explanation &c. n.; that is to say, id est, videlicet, to wit, namely, in other words. literally, strictly speaking; in plain, in plainer terms, in plainer words, in plainer English; more simply.

#523. Misinterpretation.—N. misinterpretation, misapprehension, misunderstanding, misacceptation|, misconstruction, misapplication; catachresis[obs3]; eisegesis[obs3]; cross-reading, cross-purposes; mistake &c. 495. misrepresentation, perversion, exaggeration &c. 549; false coloring, false construction; abuse of terms; parody, travesty; falsification &c. (lying) 544. V. misinterpret, misapprehend, misunderstand, misconceive, misspell, mistranslate, misconstrue, misapply; mistake &c. 495. misrepresent, pervert; explain wrongly, misstate; garble &c. (falsify) 544; distort, detort|; travesty, play upon words; stretch the sense, strain the sense, stretch the meaning, strain the meaning, wrest the sense, wrest the meaning; explain away; put a bad construction on, put a false construction on; give a false coloring. be at cross purposes, play at cross purposes. Adj. misinterpreted &c. v.; untranslated, untranslatable.

#524. Interpreter.—N. interpreter; expositor, expounder, exponent,
explainer; demonstrator.
     scholiast, commentator, annotator; metaphrast[obs3], paraphrast[obs3];
glossarist[obs3], prolocutor.
     spokesman, speaker, mouthpiece.
     dragoman, courier, valet de place, cicerone, showman;
oneirocritic[obs3]; (Edipus; oracle &c. 513)


#525. Manifestation.—N. {ant. 526} manifestation; plainness &c. adj.; plain speaking; expression; showing &c. v.; exposition, demonstration; exhibition, production; display, show; showing off; premonstration|. exhibit[Thing shown]. indication &c. (calling attention to) 457. publicity &c. 531; disclosure &c. 529; openness &c. (honesty) 543, (artlessness) 703; panchement. evidence &c. 467. V. make manifest, render manifest &c. adj.; bring forth, bring forward, bring to the front, bring into view; give notice; express; represent, set forth, exhibit; show, show up; expose; produce; hold up to view, expose to view; set before one, place before one, lay before one, one's eyes; tell to one's face; trot out, put through one's paces, bring to light, display, demonstrate, unroll; lay open; draw out, bring out; bring out in strong relief; call into notice, bring into notice; hold up the mirror; wear one's heart upon his sleeve; show one's face, show one's colors; manifest oneself; speak out; make no mystery, make no secret of; unfurl the flag; proclaim &c. (publish) 531. indicate &c. (direct attention to) 457; disclose &c. 529; elicit &c. 480a. be manifest &c. adj.; appear &c. (be visible) 446; transpire &c. (be disclosed) 529; speak for itself, stand to reason; stare one in the face, rear its head; give token, give sign, give indication of; tell its own tale &c. (intelligible) 518. Adj. manifest, apparent; salient, striking, demonstrative, prominent, in the foreground, notable, pronounced. flagrant; notorious &c. (public) 531; arrant; stark staring; unshaded, glaring. defined, definite. distinct, conspicuous &c. (visible) 446; obvious, evident, unmistakable, indubitable, not to be mistaken, palpable, self-evident, autoptical[obs3]; intelligible &c. 518. plain, clear, clear as day, clear as daylight, clear as noonday; plain as a pike staff, plain as the sun at noon-day, plain as the nose on one's face, plain as the way to parish church. explicit, overt, patent, express; ostensible; open, open as day; naked, bare, literal, downright, undisguised, exoteric. unreserved, frank, plain-spoken &c. (artless) 703; candid (veracious) 543; barefaced. manifested &c. v.; disclosed &c. 529; capable of being shown, producible; inconcealable[obs3], unconcealable; no secret. Adv. manifestly, openly &c. adj.; before one's eyes, under one's nose, to one's face, face to face, above board, cartes sur table, on the stage, in open court, in the open streets; in market overt; in the face of day, face of heaven; in broad daylight, in open daylight; without reserve; at first blush, prima facie[Lat], on the face of; in set terms. Phr. cela saute aux yeux[French]; he that runs may read; you can see it with half an eye; it needs no ghost to tell us [Hamlet]; the meaning lies on the surface; cela va sans dire[Fr]; res ipsa loquitur[Lat]; "clothing the palpable and familiar" [Coleridge]; fari quae sentiat[Lat]; volto sciolto i pensieri stretti [It]; "you don't need a weatherman to know which way the wind blows" [Bob Dylan].

#526. Latency. Implication.—N. {ant. 525} latency, inexpression[obs3]; hidden meaning, occult meaning; occultness, mystery, cabala[obs3], anagoge[obs3]; silence &c (taciturnity) 585; concealment &c. 528; more than meets the eye, more than meets the ear; Delphic oracle; le dessous des cartes[Fr], undercurrent. implication, logical implication; logical consequence; entailment. allusion, insinuation; innuendo &c. 527; adumbration; "something rotten in the state of Denmark" [Hamlet]. snake in the grass &c. (pitfall) 667; secret &c. 533. darkness, invisibility, imperceptibility. V. be latent &c. adj.; lurk, smolder, underlie, make no sign; escape observation, escape detection, escape recognition; lie hid &c. 528. laugh in one's sleeve; keep back &c. (conceal) 528. involve, imply, understand, allude to, infer, leave an inference; entail; whisper &c. (conceal) 528. [understand the implication] read between the lines. Adj. latent; lurking &c.v.; secret &c. 528; occult; implied &c. v.; dormant; abeyant. unapparent, unknown, unseen &c. 441; in the background; invisible &c. 447; indiscoverable[obs3], dark; impenetrable &c. (unintelligible) 519; unspied[obs3], unsuspected. unsaid, unwritten, unpublished, unbreathed[obs3], untalked of[obs3], untold &c. 527, unsung, unexposed, unproclaimed[obs3], undisclosed &c. 529, unexpressed; not expressed, tacit. undeveloped, solved, unexplained, untraced[obs3], undiscovered &c. 480a, untracked, unexplored, uninvented[obs3]. indirect, crooked, inferential; by inference, by implication; implicit; constructive; allusive, covert, muffled; steganographic[obs3]; understood, underhand, underground; delitescent[obs3], concealed &c. 528. Adv. by a side wind; sub silentio[Lat]; in the background; behind the scenes, behind one's back; on the tip of one's tongue; secretly &c. 528; between the lines. Phr. "thereby hangs a tale" [As You Like It]; tacitum vivit sub pectore vulnus [Lat][Vergil]; where there's smoke, there's fire.

#527. Information.—N. information, enlightenment, acquaintance, knowledge &c. 490; publicity &c. 531; data &c. 467. communication, intimation; notice, notification; enunciation, annunciation; announcement; communiqu; representation, round robin, presentment. case, estimate, specification, report, advice, monition; news &c. 532; return &c. (record) 551; account &c. (description) 594; statement &c. (affirmation) 535. mention; acquainting &c. v; instruction &c. (teaching) 537; outpouring; intercommunication, communicativeness. informant, authority, teller, intelligencer[obs3], reporter, exponent, mouthpiece; informer, eavesdropper, delator, detective; sleuth; mouchard[obs3], spy, newsmonger; messenger &c. 534; amicus curiae[Lat]. valet de place, cicerone, pilot, guide; guidebook, handbook; vade mecum[Latin]; manual; map, plan, chart, gazetteer; itinerary &c. (journey) 266. hint, suggestion, innuendo, inkling, whisper, passing word, word in the ear, subaudition[obs3], cue, byplay; gesture &c. (indication) 550; gentle hint, broad hint; verbum sapienti [Latin: a word to the wise]; insinuation &c. (latency) 526. information theory. [units of information] bit, byte, word, doubleword[Comp], quad word, paragraph, segment. [information storage media] magnetic media, paper medium, optical media; random access memory, RAM; read-only memory, ROM; write once read mostly memory, WORM. V. tell; inform, inform of; acquaint, acquaint with; impart, impart to; make acquaintance with, apprise, advise, enlighten, awaken; transmit. let fall, mention, express, intimate, represent, communicate, make known; publish &c. 531; notify, signify, specify, convey the knowledge of. let one know, have one to know; give one to understand; give notice; set before, lay before, put before; point out, put into one's head; put one in possession of; instruct &c. (teach) 537; direct the attention to &c. 457. announce, annunciate; report, report progress; bringword[obs3], send word, leave word, write word; telegraph, telephone; wire; retail, render an account; give an account &c. (describe) 594; state &c (affirm) 535. [disclose inadvertently or reluctantly] let slip, blurt out, spill the beans, unburden oneself of, let off one's chest; disclose &c. 529. show cause; explain &c. (interpret) 522. hint; given an inkling of; give a hint, drop a hint, throw out a hint; insinuate; allude to, make allusion to; glance at; tip the wink &c. (indicate) 550; suggest, prompt, give the cue, breathe; whisper, whisper in the ear. give a bit of one's mind; tell one plainly, tell once for all; speak volumes. undeceive[obs3], unbeguile[obs3]; set right, correct, open the eyes of, disabuse, disillusion one of. be informed of &c.; know &c 490; learn &c. 539; get scent of, get wind of, gather from; awaken to, open one's eyes to; become alive, become awake to; hear, overhear, understand. come to one's ears, come to one's knowledge; reach one's ears. Adj. informed &c. v.; communique; reported &c. v.; published &c. 531. expressive &c. 516; explicit &c. (open) 525, (clear) 518; plain spoken &c, (artless) 703. nuncupative, nuncupatory|; declaratory, expository; enunciative[obs3]; communicative, communicatory[obs3]. Adv. from information received. Phr. a little bird told me; I heard it through the grapevine.

#527a. Correction. [Correct an error of information; distinguish from
correcting a flaw or misbehavior]—N. correction.
     disillusionment &c. 616.
     V. correct, set right, set straight, put straight; undeceive[obs3];
     show one one's error; point out an error, point out a fallacy; pick
out an error, pick out the fallacy; open one's eyes.
     pick apart an argument, confutation &c. 479; reasoning &c. 476.
     Adj. corrective.
     Phr. I stand corrected.

#528. Concealment.—N. concealment; hiding &c. v.; occultation, mystification. seal of secrecy; screen &c. 530; disguise &c. 530; masquerade; masked battery; hiding place &c. 530; cryptography, steganography[obs3]; freemasonry. stealth, stealthiness, sneakiness; obreption|; slyness &c. (cunning) 702. latitancy[obs3], latitation[obs3]; seclusion &c. 893; privacy, secrecy, secretness[obs3]; incognita. reticence; reserve; mental reserve, reservation; arriere pensee[Fr], suppression, evasion, white lie, misprision; silence &c. (taciturnity) 585; suppression of truth &c. 544; underhand dealing; closeness, secretiveness &c. adj.; mystery. latency &c. 526; snake in the grass; secret &c. 533; stowaway. V. conceal, hide, secrete, put out of sight; lock up, seal up, bottle up. encrypt, encode, cipher. cover, screen, cloak, veil, shroud; cover up one's tracks; screen from sight, screen from observation; drawing the veil; draw the curtain, close the curtain; curtain, shade, eclipse, throw a view over; becloud, bemask; mask, disguise; ensconce, muffle, smother; befog; whisper. keep from; keep back, keep to oneself; keep snug, keep close, keep secret, keep dark; bury; sink, suppress; keep from, keep from out of view, keep from out of sight; keep in the shade, throw into the shade, throw into background; stifle, hush up, smother, withhold, reserve; fence with a question; ignore &c. 460. keep a secret, keep one's own counsel; hold one's tongue &c. (silence) 585; make no sign, not let it go further; not breathe a word, not breathe a syllable about; not let the right hand know what the left is doing; hide one's light under a bushel, bury one's talent in a napkin. keep in the dark, leave in the dark, keep in the ignorance; blind, blind the eyes; blindfold, hoodwink, mystify; puzzle &c. (render uncertain) 475; bamboozle &c. (deceive) 545. be concealed &c. v.; suffer an eclipse; retire from sight, couch; hide oneself; lie hid, lie in perdu[Fr], lie in close; lie in ambush (ambush) 530; seclude oneself &c. 893; lurk, sneak, skulk, slink, prowl; steal into, steal out of, steal by, steal along; play at bopeep[obs3], play at hide and seek; hide in holes and corners; still hunt. Adj. concealed &c. v.; hidden; secret, recondite, mystic, cabalistic, occult, dark; cryptic, cryptical[obs3]; private, privy, in petto, auricular, clandestine, close, inviolate; tortuous. behind a screen &c. 530; undercover, under an eclipse; in ambush, in hiding, in disguise; in a cloud, in a fog, in a mist, in a haze, in a dark corner; in the shade, in the dark; clouded, wrapped in clouds, wrapt in clouds[obs3]; invisible &c.447; buried, underground, perdu[Fr]; secluded &c. 893. undisclosed &c. 529, untold &c. 527; covert &c. (latent) 526; untraceable; mysterious &c. (unintelligible) 519. irrevealable[obs3], inviolable; confidential; esoteric; not to be spoken of; unmentionable. obreptitious[obs3], furtive, stealthy, feline; skulking &c. v.; surreptitious, underhand, hole and corner; sly &c. (cunning). 702; secretive, evasive; reserved, reticent, uncommunicative, buttoned up; close, close as wax; taciturn &c. 585. Adv. secretly &c. adj.; in secret, in private, in one's sleeve, in holes and corners; in the dark &c. adj. januis clausis[Lat], with closed doors, a huis clos[Fr]; hugger mugger, a la derobee[Fr]; under the cloak of, under the rose, under the table; sub rosa[Lat], en tapinois[Fr], in the background, aside, on the sly, with bated breath, sotto voce[Lat], in a whisper, without beat of drum, a la sourdine[obs3]. behind the veil; beyond mortal ken, beyond the grave, beyond the veil; hid from mortal vision; into the eternal secret, into the realms supersensible[obs3], into the supreme mystery. in confidence, in strict confidence, in strictest confidence; confidentially &c. adj.; between ourselves, between you and me; between you and me and the bedpost; entre nous[Fr], inter nos, under the seal of secrecy; a couvert[Fr]. underhand, by stealth, like a thief in the night; stealthily &c. adj.; behind the scenes, behind the curtain, behind one's back, behind a screen &c. 530; incognito; in camera. Phr. it must go no further, it will go no further; don't tell a soul;"tell it not in Gath,"nobody the wiser; alitur vitium vivitque tegendo[Lat][obs3]; "let it be tenable in your silence still"[Hamlet]. [confidential disclosure to news reporters] background information, deep background information, deep background; background session, backgrounder; not for attribution

#529. Disclosure—N. disclosure; retection|; unveiling &c.v.; deterration[obs3], revealment, revelation; exposition, exposure; expose; whole truth; telltale &c (news) 532. acknowledgment, avowal; confession, confessional; shrift. bursting of a bubble; denouement. [person who discloses a secret] tattletale, snitch, fink, stool pigeon, canary. V. disclose, discover, dismask|; draw the veil, draw aside the veil, lift the veil, raise the veil, lift up the veil, remove the veil, tear aside the veil, tear the curtain; unmask, unveil, unfold, uncover, unseal, unkennel; take off the seal, break the seal; lay open, lay bare; expose; open, open up; bare, bring to light. divulge, reveal, break; squeal, tattle, sing, rat, snitch [all coll.]; let into the secret; reveal the secrets of the prison house; tell &c (inform) 527; breathe, utter, blab, peach; let out, let fall, let drop, let slip, spill the beans, let the cat out of the bag; betray; tell tales, come out of school; come out with; give vent, give utterance to; open the lips, blurt out, vent, whisper about; speak out &c (make manifest) 525; make public &c 531; unriddle &c (find out) 480a; split. acknowledge, allow, concede, grant, admit, own, own up to, confess, avow, throw off all disguise, turn inside out, make a clean breast; show one's hand, show one's cards; unburden one's mind, disburden one's mind, disburden one's conscience, disburden one's heart; open one's mind, lay bare one's mind, tell a piece of one's mind[Fr]; unbosom oneself, own to the soft impeachment; say the truth, speak the truth; turn King's (or Queen's) evidence; acknowledge the corn* [U.S.]. raise the mask, drop the mask, lift the mask, remove the mask, throw off the mask; expose; lay open; undeceive[obs3], unbeguile[obs3]; disabuse, set right, correct, open the eyes of; dsillusionner. be disclosed &c.; transpire, come to light; come in sight &c. (be visible) 446; become known, escape the lips; come out, ooze out, creep out, leak out, peep out, crop-out; show its face, show its colors; discover &c. itself; break through the clouds, flash on the mind. Adj. disclosed &c.v.; open, public &c. 525. Int.out with it! Phr. the murder is out; a light breaks in upon one; the scales fall from one's eyes; the eyes are opened.

#530. Ambush [Means of concealment].—N. camouflage; mimicry; hiding
place; secret place, secret drawer; recess, hold, holes and corners;
closet, crypt, adytum[obs3], abditory[obs3], oubliette.
     ambush, ambuscade; stalking horse; lurking hole, lurking place; secret
path, back stairs; retreat &c. (refuge) 666.
     screen, cover, shade, blinker; veil, curtain, blind, cloak, cloud.
     mask, visor, vizor[obs3], disguise, masquerade dress, domino.
     pitfall &c. (source of danger) 667; trap &c. (snare) 545.
     V. blend in, blend into the background.
     lie in ambush &c (hide oneself) 528; lie in wait for, lurk; set a trap
for &c (deceive) 545; ambuscade, ambush.
     [transitive] camouflage.
     Adj. camouflaged, hidden, concealed.
     Adv. aux aguets[obs3].

#531. Publication.—N. publication; public announcement &c 527; promulgation, propagation, proclamation, pronunziamento [Italian]; circulation, indiction[obs3], edition; hue and cry. publicity, notoriety, currency, flagrancy, cry, bruit, hype; vox populi; report &c (news) 532. the Press, public press, newspaper, journal, gazette, daily; telegraphy; publisher &c v.; imprint. circular, circular letter; manifesto, advertisement, ad., placard, bill, affiche[obs3], broadside, poster; notice &c. 527. V. publish; make public, make known &c (information) 527; speak of, talk of; broach, utter; put forward; circulate, propagate, promulgate; spread, spread abroad; rumor, diffuse, disseminate, evulugate; put forth, give forth, send forth; emit, edit, get out; issue; bring before the public, lay before the public, drag before the public; give out, give to the world; put about, bandy about, hawk about, buzz about, whisper about, bruit about, blaze about; drag into the open day; voice. proclaim, herald, blazon; blaze abroad, noise abroad; sound a trumpet; trumpet forth, thunder forth; give tongue; announce with beat of drum, announce with flourish of trumpets; proclaim from the housetops, proclaim at Charing Cross. advertise, placard; post, post up afficher[obs3], publish in the Gazette, send round the crier. raise a cry, raise a hue and cry, raise a report; set news afloat. be published &c; be public, become public &c adj.; come out; go about, fly about, buzz about, blow about; get about, get abroad, get afloat, get wind; find vent; see the light; go forth, take air, acquire currency, pass current; go the rounds, go the round of the newspapers, go through the length and breadth of the land; virum volitare per ora[Lat]; pass from mouth to mouth; spread; run like wildfire, spread like wildfire. Adj. published &c.v.; current &c. (news) 532; in circulation, public; notorious; flagrant, arrant; open &c 525; trumpet-tongued; encyclical, encyclic[obs3], promulgatory[obs3]; exoteric. Adv. publicly &c. adj.; in open court, with open doors. Int. Oyez! O yes! notice! Phr. notice is hereby given; this is to give, these are to give notice; nomina stultorum parietibus haerent[Lat]; semel emissum volat irrevocabile verbum[Lat]..

#532. News.—N. news; information &c 527; piece of news[Fr], budget of news, budget of information; intelligence, tidings. word, advice, aviso[Sp], message; dispatch, despatch; telegram, cable, marconigram[obs3], wire, communication, errand, embassy. report, rumor, hearsay, on dit[Fr], flying rumor, news stirring, cry, buzz, bruit, fame; talk, oui dire[Fr], scandal, eavesdropping; town tattle, table talk; tittle tattle; canard, topic of the day, idea afloat. bulletin, fresh news, stirring news; glad tidings; flash, news just in; on-the-spot coverage; live coverage. old story, old news, stale news, stale story; chestnut*. narrator &c (describe) 594; newsmonger, scandalmonger; talebearer, telltale, gossip, tattler. [study of news reporting] journalism. [methods of conveying news] media, news media, the press, the information industry; newspaper, magazine, tract, journal, gazette, publication &c. 531; radio, television, ticker (electronic information transmission). [organizations producing news reports] United Press International, UPI; Associated Press, AP; The Dow Jones News Service, DJ; The New York Times News Service, NYT[abbr]; Reuters [England]; TASS [Soviet Union]; The Nikkei [Japan]. [person reporting news as a profession] newscaster, newsman, newswoman, reporter, journalist, correspondent, foreign correspondent, special correspondent, war correspondent, news team, news department; anchorman, anchorwoman[obs3]; sportscaster; weatherman. [officials providing news for an organization] press secretary, public relations department, public relations man. V. transpire &c (be disclosed) 529; rumor &c (publish) 531. Adj. many-tongued; rumored; publicly rumored, currently rumored, currently reported; rife, current, floating, afloat, going about, in circulation, in every one's mouth, all over the town. in progress; live; on the spot; in person. Adv. as the story goes, as the story runs; as they say, it is said; by telegraph, by wireless. Phr. "airy tongues that syllable men's names" [Milton]; what's up?; what's the latest?; what's new?; what's the latest poop?.

#533. Secret.—N. secret; dead secret, profound secret;
arcanum[obs3], mystery; latency &c 526; Asian mystery[obs3]; sealed book,
secrets of the prison house; le desous des cartes [Fr].
     enigma, riddle, puzzle, nut to crack, conundrum, charade, rebus,
logogriph[obs3]; monogram, anagram; Sphinx; crux criticorum[Lat].
     maze, labyrinth, Hyrcynian wood; intricacy, meander.
     problem &c (question) 461; paradox &c (difficulty) 704;
unintelligibility &c. 519; terra incognita &c. (ignorance) 491.
     Adj. secret &c. (concealed) 528; involved &c, 248; labyrinthine,
labyrinthian[obs3], mazy.
     confidential; top secret.

#534. Messenger.—N. messenger, envoy, emissary, legate; nuncio, internuncio[obs3]; ambassador &c (diplomatist) 758. marshal, flag bearer, herald, crier, trumpeter, bellman[obs3], pursuivant[obs3], parlementaire[Fr], apparitor[obs3]. courier, runner; dak[obs3], estafette[obs3]; Mercury, Iris, Ariel[obs3]. commissionaire[Fr]; errand boy, chore boy; newsboy. mail, overnight mail, express mail, next-day delivery; post, post office; letter bag; delivery service; United Parcel Service, UPS; Federal Express, Fedex. telegraph, telephone; cable, wire (electronic information transmission); carrier pigeon. [person reporting news: see news &c. 532] reporter, gentleman of the press, representative of the press; penny-a-liner; special correspondent, own correspondent; spy, scout; informer &c. 527.

#535. Affirmation.—N. affirmance, affirmation; statement, allegation, assertion, predication, declaration, word, averment; confirmation. asseveration, adjuration, swearing, oath, affidavit; deposition &c (record) 551; avouchment; assurance; protest, protestation; profession; acknowledgment &c. (assent) 488; legal pledge, pronouncement; solemn averment, solemn avowal, solemn declaration. remark, observation; position &c. (proposition) 514, saying, dictum, sentence, ipse dixit[Lat]. emphasis; weight; dogmatism &c. (certainty) 474; dogmatics &c 887. V. assert; make an assertion &c n.; have one's say; say, affirm, predicate, declare, state; protest, profess. put forth, put forward; advance, allege, propose, propound, enunciate, broach, set forth, hold out, maintain, contend, pronounce, pretend. depose, depone, aver, avow, avouch, asseverate, swear; make oath, take one's oath; make an affidavit, swear an affidavit, put in an affidavit; take one's Bible oath, kiss the book, vow, vitam impendere vero[Lat]; swear till one is black in the face, swear till one is blue in the face, swear till all's blue; be sworn, call Heaven to witness; vouch, warrant, certify, assure, swear by bell book and candle. swear by &c (believe) 484; insist upon, take one's stand upon; emphasize, lay stress on; assert roundly, assert positively; lay down, lay down the law; raise one's voice, dogmatize, have the last word; rap out; repeat; reassert, reaffirm. announce &c (information) 527; acknowledge &c (assent) 488; attest &c (evidence) 467; adjure &c (put to one's oath) 768. Adj. asserting &c.v.; declaratory, predicatory[obs3], pronunciative[obs3], affirmative, soi-disant[Fr]; positive; certain &c 474; express, explicit &c (patent) 525; absolute, emphatic, flat, broad, round, pointed, marked, distinct, decided, confident, trenchant, dogmatic, definitive, formal, solemn, categorical, peremptory; unretracted[obs3]; predicable. Adv. affirmatively &c adj.; in the affirmative. with emphasis, ex-cathedra, without fear of contradiction. as God is my witness, I must say, indeed, i' faith, let me tell you, why, give me leave to say, marry, you may be sure, I'd have you to know; upon my word, upon my honor; by my troth, egad, I assure you; by jingo, by Jove, by George, &c.; troth, seriously, sadly; in sadness, in sober sadness, in truth, in earnest; of a truth, truly, perdy[obs3], in all conscience, upon oath; be assured &c (belief) 484; yes &c (assent) 488; I'll warrant, I'll warrant you, I'll engage, I'll answer for it, I'll be bound, I'll venture to say, I'll take my oath; in fact, forsooth, joking apart; so help me God; not to mince the matter. Phr. quoth he; dixi[Lat].

#536. Negation.—N. negation, abnegation; denial; disavowal, disclaimer; abjuration; contradiction, contravention; recusation[obs3][Law], protest; recusancy &c (dissent) 489; flat contradiction, emphatic contradiction, emphatic denial, dementi[Lat]. qualification &c 469; repudiation &c 610; retraction &c 607; confutation &c 479; refusal &c 764; prohibition &c 761. V. deny; contradict, contravene; controvert, give denial to, gainsay, negative, shake the head. disown, disaffirm, disclaim, disavow; recant &c 607; revoke &c (abrogate) 756. dispute; impugn, traverse, rebut, join issue upon; bring in question, call in question &c. (doubt) 485; give (one) the lie in his throat. deny flatly, deny peremptorily, deny emphatically, deny absolutely, deny wholly, deny entirely; give the lie to, belie. repudiate &c 610; set aside, ignore &c 460; rebut &c. (confute) 479; qualify &c 469; refuse &c 764. recuse[Law]. Adj. denying &c.v.; denied &c.v.; contradictory; negative, negatory; recusant &c (dissenting) 489; at issue upon. Adv. no, nay, not, nowise; not a bit, not a whit, not a jot; not at all, nohow, not in the least, not so; negative, negatory; no way [coll.]; no such thing; nothing of the kind, nothing of the sort; quite the contrary, tout au contraire[Fr], far from it; tant s'en faut[Fr]; on no account, in no respect; by no, by no manner of means; negatively. [negative with respect to time] never, never in a million years; at no time. Phr. there never was a greater mistake; I know better; non haec in faedera[Lat]; a thousand times no.

#537. Teaching.—N. teaching &c.v.; instruction; edification; education; tuition; tutorage, tutelage; direction, guidance; opsimathy[obs3]. qualification, preparation; training, schooling &c. v.; discipline; excitation. drill, practice; book exercise. persuasion, proselytism, propagandism[obs3], propaganda; indoctrination, inculcation, inoculation; advise &c. 695. explanation &c (interpretation) 522; lesson, lecture, sermon; apologue[obs3], parable; discourse, prolection[obs3], preachment; chalk talk; Chautauqua [U.S.]. exercise, task; curriculum; course, course of study; grammar, three R's, initiation, A.B.C. &c (beginning) 66. elementary education, primary education, secondary education, technical education, college education, collegiate education, military education, university education, liberal education, classical education, religious education, denominational education, moral education, secular education; propaedeutics[obs3], moral tuition. gymnastics, calisthenics; physical drill, physical education; sloyd[obs3]. [methods of teaching] phonics; rote, rote memorization, brute memory; cooperative learning; Montessori method, ungraded classes. [measuring degree of learning of pupils] test, examination, exam; final exam, mid-term exam grade[result of measurement of learning], score, marks; A,B,C,D,E,F; gentleman's C; pass, fail, incomplete. homework; take-home lesson; exercise for the student; theme, project. V. teach, instruct, educate, edify, school, tutor; cram, prime, coach; enlighten &c (inform) 527. inculcate, indoctrinate, inoculate, infuse, instill, infix, ingraft[obs3], infiltrate; imbue, impregnate, implant; graft, sow the seeds of, disseminate. given an idea of; put up to, put in the way of; set right. sharpen the wits, enlarge the mind; give new ideas, open the eyes, bring forward, "teach the young idea how to shoot" [Thomson]; improve &c. 658. expound &c (interpret) 522; lecture; read a lesson, give a lesson, give a lecture, give a sermon, give a discourse; incept[obs3]; hold forth, preach; sermonize, moralize; point a moral. train, discipline; bring up, bring up to; form, ground, prepare, qualify; drill, exercise, practice, habituate, familiarize with, nurture, drynurse[obs3], breed, rear, take in hand; break, break in; tame; preinstruct[obs3]; initiate; inure &c (habituate) 613. put to nurse, send to school. direct, guide; direct attention to &c. (attention) 457; impress upon the mind, impress upon the memory; beat into, beat into the head; convince &c (belief) 484. [instructional materials] book, workbook, exercise book. [unnecessary teaching] preach to the wise, teach one's grandmother to suck eggs, teach granny to suck eggs; preach to the converted. Adj. teaching &c.v; taught &c.v.; educational; scholastic, academic, doctrinal; disciplinal[obs3]; instructive, instructional, didactic; propaedeutic[obs3], propaedeutical[obs3]. Phr. the schoolmaster abroad; a bovi majori disscit arare minor[Lat]; adeo in teneris consuecere multum est [Lat][Vergil]; docendo discimus[Lat]; quaenocent docent[Lat]; qui docet discit[Latin]; "sermons in stones and good in everything" [As You Like It].

#538. Misteaching.—N. misteaching[obs3], misinformaton,
misintelligence[obs3], misguidance, misdirection, mispersuasion[obs3],
misinstruction[obs3], misleading &c.v.; perversion, false teaching;
sophistry &c 477; college of Laputa; the blind leading the blind.
     [misteaching by government agents] propaganda, disinformation,
agitprop; indoctrination.
     V. misinform, misteach[obs3], misdescribe[obs3], misinstruct[obs3],
miscorrect[obs3]; misdirect, misguide; pervert; put on a false scent, throw
off the scent, throw off the trail; deceive &c 545; mislead &c (error) 495;
misrepresent; lie &c 544; ambiguas in vulgum spargere voces [Lat][Vergil].
     propagandize, disinform.
     render unintelligible &c 519; bewilder &c (uncertainty) 475; mystify
&c. (conceal) 528; unteach.
     [person or government agent who misteaches] propagandist.
     Adj. misteaching &c.v[obs3]; unedifying.
     Phr. piscem natare doces [Lat]; the blind leading the blind.

#539. Learning—N. learning; acquisition of knowledge &c 490, acquisition of skill &c 698; acquirement, attainment; edification, scholarship, erudition; acquired knowledge, lore, wide information; self- instruction; study, reading, perusal; inquiry &c 451. apprenticeship, prenticeship[obs3]; pupilage, pupilarity[obs3]; tutelage, novitiate, matriculation. docility &c (willingness) 602; aptitude &c 698. V. learn; acquire knowledge, gain knowledge, receive knowledge, take in knowledge, drink in knowledge, imbibe knowledge, pick up knowledge, gather knowledge, get knowledge, obtain knowledge, collect knowledge, glean knowledge, glean information, glean learning. acquaint oneself with, master; make oneself master of, make oneself acquainted with; grind, cram; get up, coach up; learn by heart, learn by rote. read, spell, peruse; con over, pore over, thumb over; wade through; dip into; run the eye over, run the eye through; turn over the leaves. study; be studious &c adj. [study intensely] burn the midnight oil, consume the midnight oil, mind one's book; cram. go to school, go to college, go to the university; matriculate; serve an (or one's) apprenticeship, serve one's time; learn one's trade; be informed &c 527; be taught &c 537. [stop going to school voluntarily (intransitive)] drop out, leave school, quit school; graduate; transfer; take a leave. [cause to stop going to school (transitive)] dismiss, expel, kick out of school. [stop going to school involuntarily] flunk out; be dismissed &c. Adj. studious; scholastic, scholarly; teachable; docile &c (willing) 602; apt &c 698, industrious &c 682. Adv. at one's books; in statu pupillari &c (learner) 541[Lat]. Phr. "a lumber-house of books in every head" [Pope]; ancora imparo[Lat][obs3]! "hold high converse with the mighty dead" [Thomson]; "lash'd into Latin by the tingling rod" [Gay].

#540. Teacher.—N. teacher, trainer, instructor, institutor, master,
tutor, director, Corypheus, dry nurse, coach, grinder, crammer, don;
governor, bear leader; governess, duenna[Sp]; disciplinarian.
     professor, lecturer, reader, prelector[obs3], prolocutor, preacher;
chalk talker, khoja[obs3]; pastor &c (clergy) 996; schoolmaster,
dominie[Fr], usher, pedagogue, abecedarian; schoolmistress, dame, monitor,
pupil teacher.
     expositor &c 524; preceptor, guide; guru; mentor &c (adviser) 695;
pioneer, apostle, missionary, propagandist, munshi[obs3], example &c (model
for imitation) 22.
     professorship &c (school) 542.
     tutelage &c (teaching) 537.
     Adj. professorial.
     Phr. qui doet discet[Lat].

#541. Learner.—N. learner, scholar, student, pupil; apprentice,
prentice[obs3], journeyman; articled clerk; beginner, tyro, amateur, rank
amateur; abecedarian, alphabetarian[obs3]; alumnus, eleve[Fr].
     recruit, raw recruit, novice, neophyte, inceptor[obs3], catechumen,
probationer; seminarian, chela, fellow-commoner; debutant.
     [apprentice medical doctors] intern; resident.
     schoolboy; fresh, freshman, frosh; junior soph[obs3], junior; senior
soph[obs3], senior; sophister[obs3], sophomore; questionist[obs3].
     [college and university students] undergraduate; graduate student; law
student; medical student; pre-med; post-doctoral student, post-doc;
matriculated student; part-time student, night student, auditor.
     [group of learners] class, grade, seminar, form, remove; pupilage &c
(learning) 539.
     disciple, follower, apostle, proselyte; fellow-student,
     [place of learning] school &c. 542.
     V. learn; practise.
     Adj. in statu pupillari[Lat], in leading strings.
     Phr. practise makes perfect.

#542. School.—N. school, academy, university, alma mater, college, seminary, Lyceum; institute, institution; palaestra, Gymnasium, class, seminar. day school, boarding school, preparatory school, primary school, infant school, dame's school, grammar school, middle class school, Board school, denominational school, National school, British and Foreign school, collegiate school, art school, continuation school, convent school, County Council school, government school, grant-in-aid school, high school, higher grade school, military school, missionary school, naval school, naval academy, state-aided school, technical school, voluntary school, school; school of art; kindergarten, nursery, creche, reformatory. pulpit, lectern, soap box desk, reading desk, ambo[obs3], lecture room, theater, auditorium, amphitheater, forum, state, rostrum, platform, hustings, tribune. school book, horn book, text book; grammar, primer, abecedary[obs3], rudiments, manual, vade mecum; encyclopedia, cyclopedia; Lindley Murray, Cocker; dictionary, lexicon. professorship, lectureship, readership, fellowship, tutorship; chair. School Board Council of Education; Board of Education; Board of Studies, Prefect of Studies; Textbook Committee; propaganda. Adj. scholastic, academic, collegiate; educational. Adv. ex cathedra[Lat].

#543. Veracity.—N. veracity; truthfulness, frankness, &c. adj.; truth, sincerity, candor, unreserve|!, honesty, fidelity; plain dealing, bona fides[Lat]; love of truth; probity &c. 939; ingenuousness &c (artlessness) 703. the truth the whole truth and nothing but the truth; honest truth, sober truth &c (fact) 494; unvarnished tale; light of truth. V. speak the truth, tell the truth; speak by the card; paint in its true colors, show oneself in one's true colors; make a clean breast &c (disclose) 529; speak one's mind &c. (be blunt) 703; not lie &c 544, not deceive &c. 545. Adj. truthful, true; veracious, veridical; scrupulous &c (honorable) 939; sincere, candid, frank, open, straightforward, unreserved; open hearted, true hearted, simple-hearted; honest, trustworthy; undissembling &c (dissemble &c 544)[obs3]; guileless, pure; truth-loving; unperjured[obs3]; true blue, as good as one's word; unaffected, unfeigned, bona fide; outspoken, ingenuous &c (artless) 703; undisguised &c (real) 494. uncontrived. Adv. truly &c (really) 494; in plain words &c 703; in truth, with truth, of a truth, in good truth; as the dial to the sun, as the needle to the pole; honor bright; troth; in good sooth[obs3], in good earnest; unfeignedly, with no nonsense, in sooth[obs3], sooth to say[obs3], bona fide, in foro conscientiae[Lat]; without equivocation; cartes sur table, from the bottom of one's heart; by my troth &c (affirmation) 535. Phr. di il vero a affronterai il diavolo[It][obs3]; Dichtung und Wahrheit[Ger]; esto quod esse videris[Lat]; magna est veritas et praevalet[Lat]; "that golden key that opes the palace of eternity" [Milton]; veritas odium parit[Lat]; veritatis simplex oratio est[Lat]; verite sans peur[Fr].

#544. Falsehood.—N. falsehood, falseness; falsity, falsification; deception &c. 545; untruth &c 546; guile; lying &c. 454; untruth &c 546; guile; lying &c. v. misrepresentation; mendacity, perjury, false swearing; forgery, invention, fabrication; subreption[obs3]; covin[obs3]. perversion of truth, suppression of truth; suppressio veri[Lat]; perversion, distortion, false coloring; exaggeration &c 549; prevarication, equivocation, shuffling, fencing, evasion, fraud; suggestio falsi &c (lie) 546[Lat]; mystification &c (concealment) 528; simulation &c (imitation) 19; dissimulation, dissembling; deceit; blague[obs3]. sham; pretense, pretending, malingering. lip homage, lip service; mouth honor; hollowness; mere show, mere outside; duplicity, double dealing, insincerity, hypocrisy, cant, humbug; jesuitism, jesuitry; pharisaism; Machiavelism, "organized hypocrisy"; crocodile tears, mealy-mouthedness[obs3], quackery; charlatanism[obs3], charlatanry; gammon; bun-kum[obs3], bumcombe, flam; bam*[obs3], flimflam, cajolery, flattery; Judas kiss; perfidy &c (bad faith) 940; il volto sciolto i pensieri stretti[It]. unfairness &c (dishonesty) 940; artfulness &c (cunning) 702; misstatement &c (error) 495. V. be false &c adj., be a liar &c 548; speak falsely &c adv.; tell a lie &c. 546; lie, fib; lie like a trooper; swear false, forswear, perjure oneself, bear false witness. misstate, misquote, miscite[obs3], misreport, misrepresent; belie, falsify, pervert, distort; put a false construction upon &c. (misinterpret) prevaricate, equivocate, quibble; palter, palter to the understanding; repondre en Normand[Fr]; trim, shuffle, fence, mince the truth, beat about the bush, blow hot and cold, play fast and loose. garble, gloss over, disguise, give a color to; give a gloss, put a gloss, put false coloring upon; color, varnish, cook, dress up, embroider; varnish right and puzzle wrong; exaggerate &c 549; blague[obs3]. invent, fabricate; trump up, get up; force, fake, hatch, concoct; romance &c (imagine) 515; cry "wolf!" dissemble, dissimulate; feign, assume, put on, pretend, make believe; play possum; play false, play a double game; coquet; act a part, play a part; affect &c. 855; simulate, pass off for; counterfeit, sham, make a show of; malinger; say the grapes are sour. cant, play the hypocrite, sham Abraham, faire pattes de velours, put on the mask, clean the outside of the platter, lie like a conjuror; hand out false colors, hold out false colors, sail under false colors; "commend the poisoned chalice to the lips" [Macbeth]; ambiguas in vulgum spargere voces [Lat]; deceive &c 545. Adj. false, deceitful, mendacious, unveracious, fraudulent, dishonest, faithless, truthless, trothless; unfair, uncandid; hollow-hearted; evasive; uningenuous, disingenuous; hollow, sincere, Parthis mendacior; forsworn. artificial, contrived; canting; hypocritical, jesuitical, pharisaical; tartuffish; Machiavelian; double, double tongued, double faced, double handed, double minded, double hearted, double dealing; Janus faced; smooth- faced, smooth spoken, smooth tongued; plausible; mealy-mouthed; affected &c 855. collusive, collusory; artful &c. (cunning) 702; perfidious &c 940; spurious &c (deceptive) 545; untrue &c 546; falsified &c v.; covinous. Adv. falsely &c adj.; a la tartufe, with a double tongue; silly &c (cunning) 702. Phr. blandae mendacia lingua[Lat]; falsus in uno falsus in omnibus[Lat]; "I give him joy that's awkward at a lie" [Young]; la mentira tiene las piernas cortas [Sp]; "O what a goodly outside falsehood hath" [Merchant of Venice].

#545. Deception.—N. deception; falseness &c 544; untruth &c 546; imposition, imposture; fraud, deceit, guile; fraudulence, fraudulency[obs3]; covin[obs3]; knavery &c. (cunning) 702; misrepresentation &c (falsehood) 544; bluff; straw-bail, straw bid [U.S.]; spoof*. delusion, gullery[obs3]; juggling, jugglery[obs3]; slight of hand, legerdemain; prestigiation|, prestidigitation; magic &c 992; conjuring, conjuration; hocus-pocus, escamoterie[obs3], jockeyship[obs3]; trickery, coggery|, chicanery; supercherie[obs3], cozenage[obs3], circumvention, ingannation|, collusion; treachery &c 940; practical joke. trick, cheat, wile, blind, feint, plant, bubble, fetch, catch, chicane, juggle, reach, hocus, bite; card sharping, stacked deck, loaded dice, quick shuffle, double dealing, dealing seconds, dealing from the bottom of the deck; artful dodge, swindle; tricks upon travelers; stratagem &c (artifice) 702; confidence trick, fake, hoax; theft &c. 791; ballot-box stuffing barney*[obs3][U.S.], brace* game, bunko game, drop* game, gum* game, panel game[U.S.]; shell game, thimblerig; skin* game [U.S.]. snare, trap, pitfall, decoy, gin; springe[obs3], springle|; noose, hoot; bait, decoy-duck, tub to the whale, baited trap, guet-a-pens; cobweb, net, meshes, toils, mouse trap, birdlime; dionaea[obs3], Venus's flytrap[obs3]; ambush &c 530; trapdoor, sliding panel, false bottom; spring-net, spring net, spring gun, mask, masked battery; mine; flytrap[obs3]; green goods [U.S.]; panel house. Cornish hug; wolf in sheep's clothing &c (deceiver) 548; disguise, disguisement[obs3]; false colors, masquerade, mummery, borrowed plumes; pattes de velours[Fr]. mockery &c (imitation) 19; copy &c 21; counterfeit, sham, make- believe, forgery, fraud; lie &c 546; "a delusion a mockery and a snare" [Denman], hollow mockery. whited sepulcher, painted sepulcher; tinsel; paste, junk jewelry, costume jewelry, false jewelry, synthetic jewels; scagliola[obs3], ormolu, German silver, albata[obs3], paktong[obs3], white metal, Britannia metal, paint; veneer; jerry building; man of straw. illusion &c (error) 495; ignis fatuus &c 423[Lat]; mirage &c 443. V. deceive, take in; defraud, cheat, jockey, do, cozen, diddle, nab, chouse, play one false, bilk, cully[obs3], jilt, bite, pluck, swindle, victimize; abuse; mystify; blind one's eyes; blindfold, hoodwink; throw dust into the eyes; dupe, gull, hoax, fool, befool[obs3], bamboozle, flimflam, hornswoggle; trick. impose upon, practice upon, play upon, put upon, palm off on, palm upon, foist upon; snatch a verdict; bluff off, bluff; bunko, four flush*, gum* [U.S.], spoof*, stuff (a ballot box) [U.S.]. circumvent, overreach; outreach, out wit, out maneuver; steal a march upon, give the go-by, to leave in the lurch decoy, waylay, lure, beguile, delude, inveigle; entrap, intrap[obs3], ensnare; nick, springe[obs3]; set a trap, lay a trap, lay a snare for; bait the hook, forelay[obs3], spread the toils, lime; trapan[obs3], trepan; kidnap; let in, hook in; nousle[obs3], nousel[obs3]; blind a trail; enmesh, immesh[obs3]; shanghai; catch, catch in a trap; sniggle, entangle, illaqueate[obs3], hocus, escamoter[obs3], practice on one's credulity; hum, humbug; gammon, stuff up*, sell; play a trick upon one, play a practical joke upon one, put something over on one, put one over on; balk, trip up, throw a tub to a whale; fool to the top of one's bent, send on a fool's errand; make game, make a fool of, make an April fool of[obs3], make an ass of; trifle with, cajole, flatter; come over &c. (influence) 615; gild the pill, make things pleasant, divert, put a good face upon; dissemble &c 544. cog, cog the dice, load the dice, stack the deck; live by one's wits, play at hide and seek; obtain money under false pretenses &c (steal) 791; conjure, juggle, practice chicanery; deacon [U.S.]. play off, palm off, foist off, fob- off. lie &c 544; misinform &c 538; mislead &c (error) 495; betray &c 940; be deceived &c 547. Adj. deceived &c v.; deceiving &c; cunning &c 702; prestigious|, prestigiatory|; deceptive, deceptious[obs3]; deceitful, covinous[obs3]; delusive, delusory; illusive, illusory; elusive, insidious, ad captandum vulgus[Lat]. untrue &c 546; mock, sham, make-believe, counterfeit, snide*, pseudo, spurious, supposititious, so-called, pretended, feigned, trumped up, bogus, scamped, fraudulent, tricky, factitious;bastard; surreptitious, illegitimate, contraband, adulterated, sophisticated; unsound, rotten at the core; colorable; disguised; meretricious, tinsel, pinchbeck, plated; catchpenny; Brummagem. artificial, synthetic, ersatz[&German]; simulated &c 544. Adv. under false colors, under the garb of, under cover of; over the left. Phr. "keep the word of promise to the ear and break it to the hope" [Macbeth]; fronti nulla fides[Lat]; "ah that deceit should steal such gentle shapes" [Richard III]; "a quicksand of deceit" [Henry VI]; decipimur specie recti [Lat][Horace]; falsi crimen[Lat]; fraus est celare fraudem[Lat]; lupus in fabula[Lat]; "so smooth, he daubed his vice with show of virtue" [Richard III].

#546. Untruth.—N. untruth, falsehood, lie, story, thing that is not, fib, bounce, crammer, taradiddle[obs3], whopper; jhuth[obs3]. forgery, fabrication, invention; misstatement, misrepresentation; perversion, falsification, gloss, suggestio falsi[Lat]; exaggeration &c 549. invention, fabrication, fiction; fable, nursery tale; romance &c (imagination) 515; absurd story, untrue story, false story, trumped up story, trumped up statement; thing devised by the enemy; canard; shave, sell, hum, traveler's tale, Canterbury tale, cock and bull story, fairy tale, fake; claptrap. press agent's yarn; puff, puffery (exaggeration) 549. myth, moonshine, bosh, all my eye and Betty Martin, mare's nest, farce. irony; half truth, white lie, pious fraud; mental reservation &c (concealment) 528. pretense, pretext; false plea &c 617; subterfuge, evasion, shift, shuffle, make-believe; sham &c (deception) 545. profession, empty words; Judas kiss &c (hypocrisy) 544; disguise &c (mask) 530. V. have a false meaning. Adj. untrue, false, phony, trumped up; void of foundation, without- foundation; fictive, far from the truth, false as dicer's oaths; unfounded, ben trovato[It], invented, fabulous, fabricated, forged; fictitious, factitious, supposititious, surreptitious; elusory[obs3], illusory; ironical; soi-disant &c (misnamed) 565[Fr]. Phr. se non e vero e ben trovato[It]; "where none is meant that meets the ear"[Milton].

#547. Dupe.—N. dupe, gull, gudgeon, gobemouche[obs3], cull*, cully[obs3], victim, pigeon, April fool[obs3]; jay*, sucker*; laughingstock &c 857; Cyclops, simple Simon, flat; greenhorn; fool &c 501; puppet, cat's paw. V. be deceived &c 545, be the dupe of; fall into a trap; swallow the bait, nibble at the bait; bite, catch a Tartar. Adj. credulous &c 486; mistaken &c. (error) 495.

#548. Deceiver.—N. deceiver &c (deceive &c 545); dissembler, hypocrite; sophist, Pharisee, Jesuit, Mawworm[obs3], Pecksniff, Joseph Surface, Tartufe[obs3], Janus; serpent, snake in the grass, cockatrice, Judas, wolf in sheep's clothing; jilt; shuffler|!, stool pigeon. liar &c (lie &c 544); story-teller, perjurer, false witness, menteur a triple etage[Fr], Scapin[obs3]; bunko steerer* [U.S.], carpetbagger* [U.S.], capper* [U.S.], faker, fraud, four flusher*, horse coper[obs3], ringer*, spieler[obs3], straw bidder [U.S.]. imposter, pretender, soi-disant[Fr], humbug; adventurer; Cagliostro, Fernam Mendez Pinto; ass in lion's skin &c (bungler) 701; actor &c (stage player) 599. quack, charlatan, mountebank, saltimbanco[obs3], saltimbanque[obs3], empiric, quacksalver, medicaster[obs3], Rosicrucian, gypsy; man of straw. conjuror, juggler, trickster, prestidigitator, jockey; crimp, decoy, decoy duck; rogue, knave, cheat; swindler &c (thief) 792; jobber. Phr. "saint abroad and a devil at home" [Bunyan].

#549. Exaggeration.—N. exaggeration; expansion &c 194; hyperbole, stretch, strain, coloring; high coloring, caricature, caricatura[obs3]; extravagance &c. (nonsense) 497; Baron Munchausen; men in buckram, yarn, fringe, embroidery, traveler's tale; fish story, gooseberry* storm in a teacup; much ado about nothing &c (overestimation) 482; puff, puffery &c (boasting) 884; rant &c (turgescence) 577[obs3]. figure of speech, facon de parler[Fr]; stretch of fancy, stretch of the imagination; flight of fancy &c (imagination) 515. false coloring &c (falsehood) 544; aggravation &c. 835. V. exaggerate, magnify, pile up, aggravate; amplify &c (expand) 194; overestimate &c 482; hyperbolize; overcharge, overstate, overdraw, overlay, overshoot the mark, overpraise; make over much, over the most of; strain, strain over a point; stretch, stretch a point; go great lengths; spin a long yarn; draw with a longbow, shoot with a longbow; deal in the marvelous. out-Herod Herod, run riot, talk at random. heighten, overcolor[obs3]; color highly, color too highly; broder[obs3]; flourish; color &c. (misrepresent) 544; puff &c (boast) 884. Adj. exaggerated &c. v.; overwrought; bombastic &c. (grandiloquent) 577; hyperbolical[obs3], on stilts; fabulous, extravagant, preposterous, egregious, outre[Fr], highflying[obs3]. Adv. hyperbolically &c adj. Phr. excitabat enim fluctus in simpulo [Lat][Cicero].


1. Natural Means

#550. Indication—N. indication; symbolism, symbolization; semiology, semiotics, semeiology[obs3], semeiotics[obs3]; Zeitgeist. [means of recognition: property] characteristic, diagnostic; lineament, feature, trait; fingerprint, voiceprint, footprint, noseprint [for animals]; cloven hoof; footfall; recognition (memory) 505. [means of recognition: tool] diagnostic, divining rod; detector. sign, symbol; index, indice|, indicator; point, pointer; exponent, note, token, symptom; dollar sign, dollar mark. type, figure, emblem, cipher, device; representation &c. 554; epigraph, motto, posy. gesture, gesticulation; pantomime; wink, glance, leer; nod, shrug, beck; touch, nudge; dactylology[obs3], dactylonomy[obs3]; freemasonry, telegraphy, chirology[Med], byplay, dumb show; cue; hint &c. 527; clue, clew, key, scent. signal, signal post; rocket, blue light; watch fire, watch tower; telegraph, semaphore, flagstaff; cresset[obs3], fiery cross; calumet; heliograph; guidon; headlight. [sign (evidence) on physobj of contact with another physobj] mark, scratch, line, stroke, dash, score, stripe, streak, tick, dot, point, notch, nick. print; imprint, impress, impression. [symbols accompanying written text to signify modified interpretation] keyboard symbols, printing symbols; red letter[for emphasis], italics, sublineation[obs3], underlining, bold font; jotting; note, annotation, reference; blaze, cedilla, guillemets[obs3], hachure[Topography]; quotation marks, double quotes,"", parentheses, brackets, braces, curly brackets, arrows, slashes; left parenthesis[list], "("; right parenthesis, ")"; opening bracket, "["; closing bracket, "]"; left curly brace, "{"; right curly brace, "}"; left arrow, "<"; right arrow, ">"; forward slash, "/"; backward slash, "\"; exclamation point, "!"; commercial at, "@"; pound sign, "#"; percent sign, "%"; carat, "^"; ampersand, "&"; asterisk, "*"; hyphen, "-"; dash, "-", "_"; em dash, "—"; plus sign, "+", equals sign, "="; question mark, "?"; period, "."; semicolon, ";", colon, ":"; comma, ","; apostrophe, "'"; single quote, "'"; tilde, "~". [For identification: general] badge, criterion; countercheck[obs3], countermark[obs3], countersign, counterfoil; duplicate, tally; label, ticket, billet, letter, counter, check, chip, chop; dib[obs3]; totem; tessera[obs3], card, bill; witness, voucher; stamp; cacher[Fr]; trade mark, Hall mark. [For identification of people, on a document] signature, mark, autograph, autography; attestation; hand, hand writing, sign manual; cipher; seal, sigil[Lat], signet, hand and seal [Law]; paraph[obs3], brand; superscription; indorsement[obs3], endorsement. [For identification of people, to gain access to restricted (locations or information)] password, watchword, catchword; security card, pass, passkey; credentials &c. (evidence) 467; open sesame; timbrology[obs3]; mot de passe[Fr], mot du guet[Fr]; pass-parole; shibboleth. title, heading, docket. address card, visiting card; carte de visite[Fr]. insignia; banner, banneret[obs3], bannerol[obs3]; bandrol[obs3]; flag, colors, streamer, standard, eagle, labarum[obs3], oriflamb[obs3], oriflamme; figurehead; ensign; pennon, pennant, pendant; burgee[obs3], blue Peter, jack, ancient, gonfalon, union jack; banderole, "old glory" [U.S.], quarantine flag; vexillum[obs3]; yellow-flag, yellow jack; tricolor, stars and stripes; bunting. heraldry, crest; coat of arms, arms; armorial bearings, hatchment[obs3]; escutcheon, scutcheon; shield, supporters; livery, uniform; cockade, epaulet, chevron; garland, love knot, favor. [Of locality] beacon, cairn, post, staff, flagstaff, hand, pointer, vane, cock, weathercock; guidepost, handpost[obs3], fingerpost[obs3], directing post, signpost; pillars of Hercules, pharos; bale-fire, beacon- fire; l'etoile du Nord[Fr]; landmark, seamark; lighthouse, balize[obs3]; polestar, loadstar[obs3], lodestar; cynosure, guide; address, direction, name; sign, signboard. [Of the future] warning &c. 668; omen &c. 512; prefigurement &c. 511. trace[Of the past], record &c. 551. warning &c. 668[Of danger]; alarm &c. 669. scepter &c. 747[Of authority]. trophy &c. 733[Of triumph]. gauge &c. 466[Of quantity]. milestone[Of distance], milepost. brand[Of disgrace], fool's cap. check[For detection], telltale; test &c. (experiment) 463; mileage ticket; milliary[obs3]. notification &c. (information) 527; advertisement &c. (publication) 531. word of command, call; bugle call, trumpet call; bell, alarum, cry; battle cry, rallying cry; angelus[obs3]; reveille; sacring bell[obs3], sanctus bell[Lat]. exposition &c. (explanation) 522, proof &c. (evidence) 463; pattern &c. (prototype) 22. V. indicate; be the sign &c. n. of; denote, betoken; argue, testify &c. (evidence) 467; bear the impress &c. n. of; connote, connotate[obs3]. represent, stand for; typify &c. (prefigure) 511; symbolize. put an indication, put a mark &c. n.; note, mark, stamp, earmark; blaze; label, ticket, docket; dot, spot, score, dash, trace, chalk; print; imprint, impress; engrave, stereotype. make a sign &c. n. signalize; underscore; give a signal, hang out a signal; beckon; nod; wink, glance, leer, nudge, shrug, tip the wink; gesticulate; raise the finger, hold up the finger, raise the hand, hold up the hand; saw the air, "suit the action to the word" [Hamlet]. wave a banner, unfurl a banner, hoist a banner, hang out a banner &c. n.; wave the hand, wave a kerchief; give the cue &c. (inform) 527; show one's colors; give an alarm, sound an alarm; beat the drum, sound the trumpets, raise a cry. sign, seal, attest &c. (evidence) 467; underline &c. (give importance to) 642; call attention to &c. (attention) 457; give notice &c. (inform) 527. Adj. indicating &c. v., indicative, indicatory; denotative, connotative; diacritical, representative, typical, symbolic, pantomimic, pathognomonic[obs3], symptomatic, characteristic, demonstrative, diagnostic, exponential, emblematic, armorial; individual &c. (special) 79. known by, recognizable by; indicated &c. v.; pointed, marked. [Capable of being denoted] denotable[obs3]; indelible. Adv. in token of; symbolically &c. adj.; in dumb show. Phr. ecce signum[Lat]; ex ungue leonem[Lat], ex pede Herculem[Lat]; vide ut supra; vultus ariete fortior[Lat][obs3].

#551. Record.—N. trace, vestige, relic, remains; scar, cicatrix; footstep, footmark[obs3], footprint; pug; track mark, wake, trail, scent, piste[obs3]. monument, hatchment[obs3], slab, tablet, trophy, achievement; obelisk, pillar, column, monolith; memorial; memento &c. (memory) 505; testimonial, medal; commemoration &c. (celebration) 883. record, note, minute; register, registry; roll &c. (list) 86; cartulary, diptych, Domesday book; catalogue raisonne[Fr]; entry, memorandum, indorsement[obs3], inscription, copy, duplicate, docket; notch &c. (mark) 550; muniment[obs3], deed &c. (security) 771; document; deposition, proces verbal[Fr]; affidavit; certificate &c. (evidence) 467. notebook, memorandum book, memo book, pocketbook, commonplace book; portfolio; pigeonholes, excerpta[obs3], adversaria[Lat], jottings, dottings[obs3]. gazette, gazetteer; newspaper, daily, magazine; almanac, almanack[obs3]; calendar, ephemeris, diary, log, journal, daybook, ledger; cashbook[obs3], petty cashbook[obs3]; professional journal, scientific literature, the literature, primary literature, secondary literature, article, review article. archive, scroll, state paper, return, blue book; statistics &c. 86; compte rendu[Fr]; Acts of, Transactions of, Proceedings of; Hansard's Debates; chronicle,annals, legend; history, biography &c. 594; Congressional Records. registration; registry; enrollment, inrollment[obs3]; tabulation; entry, booking; signature &c (identification) 550; recorder &c. 553; journalism. [analog recording media] recording, tape recording, videotape. [digital recording media] compact disk; floppy disk, diskette; hard disk, Winchester disk; read-only memory, ROM; write once read mostly memory, WORM. V. record; put on record, place on record; chronicle, calendar, hand down to posterity; keep up the memory &c. (remember) 505; commemorate &c. (celebrate) 883; report &c. (inform) 527; write, commit to writing, reduce to writing; put in writing, set down in writing, writing in black and white; put down, jot down, take down, write down, note down, set down; note, minute, put on paper; take note, make a note, take minute, take memorandum; make a return. mark &c. (indicate) 550; sign &c. (attest) 467. enter, book; post, post up, insert, make an entry of; mark off, tick off; register, enroll, inscroll[obs3]; file &c. (store) 636. burn into memory; carve in stone. Adv. on record. Phr. exegi monumentum aere perennium [Lat][obs3][Horace]; "read their history in a nation's eyes" [Gray]; "records that defy the tooth of time" [Young].

#552. [Suppression of sign.] Obliteration.—N. obliteration;
erasure, rasure[obs3]; cancel, cancellation; circumduction[obs3]; deletion,
blot; tabula rasa[Lat]; effacement, extinction.
     V. efface, obliterate, erase, raze|!, rase[obs3], expunge, cancel;
blot out, take out, rub out, scratch out, strike out, wipe out, wash out,
sponge out; wipe off, rub off; wipe away; deface, render illegible; draw
the pen through, apply the sponge.
     be effaced &c.; leave no trace &c. 550; "leave not a rack behind."
     Adj. obliterated &c. v.; out of print; printless[obs3]; leaving no
trace; intestate; unrecorded, unregistered, unwritten.
     Int. dele; out with it!
     Phr. delenda est Carthago [Lat][Cato].

#553. Recorder.—N. recorder, notary, clerk; registrar, registrary[obs3], register; prothonotary[Law]; amanuensis, secretary, scribe, babu[obs3], remembrancer[obs3], bookkeeper, custos rotulorum[Lat], Master of the Rolls. annalist; historian, historiographer; chronicler, journalist; biographer &c. (narrator) 594; antiquary &c. (antiquity) 122; memorialist[obs3]; interviewer.

#554. Representation.—N. representation, representment[obs3]; imitation &c. 19; illustration, delineation, depictment[obs3]; imagery, portraiture, iconography; design, designing; art, fine arts; painting &c. 556; sculpture &c. 557; engraving &c. 558; photography, cinematography; radiography, autoradiography[Bioch], fluorography[Chem], sciagraphy[obs3]. personation, personification; impersonation; drama &c. 599. picture, photo, photograph, daguerreotype, snapshot; X-ray photo; movie film, movie; tracing, scan, TV image, video image, image file, graphics, computer graphics, televideo, closed-circuit TV. copy &c. 21; drawing, sketch, draught, draft; plot, chart, figure, scheme. image, likeness, icon, portrait, striking likeness, speaking likeness; very image; effigy, facsimile. figure, figure head; puppet, doll, figurine, aglet[obs3], manikin, lay-figure, model, mammet[obs3], marionette, fantoccini[obs3], waxwork, bust; statue, statuette. ideograph, hieroglyphic, anaglyph [obs3],kanji[Jap]; diagram, monogram. map, plan, chart, ground plan, projection, elevation (plan) 626. ichnography[obs3], cartography; atlas; outline, scheme; view &c. (painting) 556; radiograph, scotograph[obs3], sciagraph[obs3]; spectrogram, heliogram[obs3]. V. represent, delineate; depict, depicture[obs3]; portray; take a likeness, catch a likeness &c. n.; hit off, photograph, daguerreotype; snapshot; figure, shadow forth, shadow out; adumbrate; body forth; describe &c. 594; trace, copy; mold. dress up; illustrate, symbolize. paint &c. 556; carve &c. 557; engrave &c. 558. personate, personify; impersonate; assume a character; pose as; act; play &c. (drama) 599; mimic &c. (imitate) 19; hold the mirror up to nature. Adj. represent, representing &c. v., representative; *illustrative; represented &c. v.; imitative, figurative; iconic. like &c. 17; graphic &c. (descriptive) 594; cinquecento quattrocento[Fr][obs3], trecento[obs3].

#555. Misrepresentation.—N. misrepresentation, distortion, caricatura|, exaggeration; daubing &c. v.; bad likeness, daub, sign painting; scratch, caricature; anamorphosis[obs3]; burlesque, falsification, misstatement; parody, lampoon, take-off, travesty. V. misrepresent, distort, overdraw, exaggerate, caricature, daub; burlesque, parody, travesty. Adj. misrepresented &c. v.

#556. Painting.—N. painting; depicting; drawing &c. v.; design; perspective, sciagraphy[obs3], skiagraphy[obs3]; chiaroscuro &c. (light) 420 composition; treatment. historical painting, portrait painting, miniature painting; landscape painting, marine painting; still life, flower painting, scene painting; scenography[obs3]. school, style; the grand style, high art, genre, portraiture; ornamental art &c. 847. monochrome, polychrome; grisaille[Fr]. pallet, palette; easel; brush, pencil, stump; black lead, charcoal, crayons, chalk, pastel; paint &c. (coloring matter) 428; watercolor, body color, oil color; oils, oil paint; varnish &c. 356a, priming; gouache, tempera, distemper, fresco, water glass; enamel; encaustic painting; mosaic; tapestry. photography, heliography, color photography; sun painting; graphics, computer graphics. picture, painting, piece[Fr], tableau, canvas; oil painting &c.; fresco, cartoon; easel picture, cabinet picture, draught, draft; pencil &c. drawing, water color drawing, etching, charcoal, pen-and-ink; sketch, outline, study. photograph, color photograph, black-and-white photograph, holograph, heliograph; daguerreotype, talbotype[obs3], calotype[obs3], heliotype[obs3]; negative, positive; print, glossy print, matte print; enlargement, reduction, life-size print; instant photo, Polaroid photo. technicolor, Kodachrome, Ektachrome; Polaroid. portrait &c. (representation) 554; whole length, full length, half length; kitcat, head; miniature; shade, silhouette; profile. landscape, seapiece[obs3]; view, scene, prospect; panorama, diorama; still life. picture gallery, exhibit; studio, atelier; pinacotheca[obs3]. V. paint, design, limn draw, sketch, pencil, scratch, shade, stipple, hatch, dash off, chalk out, square up; color, dead color, wash, varnish; draw in pencil &c. n.; paint in oils &c. n.; stencil; depict &c. (represent) 554. Adj. painted &c. v.; pictorial, graphic, picturesque. pencil, oil &c. n. Adv. in pencil &c. n. Phr. fecit[Lat], delineavit[Lat]; mutum est pictura poema[Lat].

#557. Sculpture.—N. sculpture, insculpture| [obs3]; carving &c. v.;
     high relief, low relief, bas relief[Fr]; relief; relieve;
bassorilievo[obs3], altorilievo[obs3], mezzorilievo[obs3]; intaglio,
anaglyph[obs3]; medal, medallion; cameo.
     marble, bronze, terra cotta[Sp], papier-mache; ceramic ware, pottery,
porcelain, china, earthenware; cloisonne, enamel, faience, Laocoon,
     statue.&c. (image) 554; cast &c (copy) 21; glyptotheca[obs3].
     V. sculpture, carve, cut, chisel, model, mold; *cast.
     Adj. sculptured &c, v. in relief, anaglyptic[obs3], ceroplastic[obs3],
ceramic; parian[obs3]; marble &c. n.; xanthian[obs3].

#558. Engraving.—N. engraving, chalcography[obs3]; line engraving, mezzotint engraving, stipple engraving, chalk engraving; dry point, bur; etching, aquatinta[obs3]; chiseling; plate engraving, copperplate engraving, steel engraving, wood engraving; xylography, lignography[obs3], glyptography[obs3], cerography[obs3], lithography, chromolithography[obs3], photolithography, zincography[obs3], glyphography, xylograph, lignograph[obs3], glyptograph[obs3], cerograph[obs3], lithograph, chromolithograph, photolithograph, zincograph[obs3], glyphograph[obs3], holograph. impression, print, engraving, plate; steelplate, copperplate; etching; mezzotint, aquatint, lithotint[obs3]; cut, woodcut; stereotype, graphotype[obs3], autotype[obs3], heliotype[obs3]. graver, burin[obs3], etching point, style; plate, stone, wood block, negative; die, punch, stamp. printing; plate printing, copperplate printing, anastatic printing[obs3], color printing, lithographic printing; type printing &c. 591; three-color process. illustration, illumination; half tone; photogravure; vignette, initial letter, cul de lampe[Fr], tailpiece. [person who inscribes on stone] lapidary, lapidarian. V. engrave, grave, stipple, scrape, etch; bite, bite in; lithograph &c., n.; print. Adj. insculptured[obs3]; engraved &c. v.. [of inscriptions on stone] lapidary. Phr. sculpsit[Lat], imprimit[Lat].

#559. Artist.—N. artist; painter, limner, drawer, sketcher, designer, engraver; master, old master; draftsman, draughtsman; copyist, dauber, hack; enamel, enameler, enamelist; caricaturist. historical painter, landscape painter, marine painter, flower painter, portrait painter, miniature painter, miniaturist, scene painter, sign painter, coach painter; engraver; Apelles[obs3]; sculptor, carver, chaser, modeler, figuriste[obs3], statuary; Phidias, Praxiteles; Royal Academician. photographer, cinematographer, lensman, cameraman, camera technician, camera buff; wildlife photographer. Phr. photo safari; "with gun and camera"

2. Conventional Means

1. Language generally

#560. Language.—N. language; phraseology &c. 569; speech &c. 582; tongue, lingo, vernacular; mother tongue, vulgar tongue, native tongue; household words; King's English, Queen's English; dialect &c. 563. confusion of tongues, Babel, pasigraphie[obs3]; pantomime &c. (signs) 550; onomatopoeia; betacism[obs3], mimmation, myatism[obs3], nunnation[obs3]; pasigraphy[obs3]. lexicology, philology, glossology[obs3], glottology[obs3]; linguistics, chrestomathy[obs3]; paleology[obs3], paleography; comparative grammar. literature, letters, polite literature, belles lettres[Fr], muses, humanities, literae humaniores[Lat], republic of letters, dead languages, classics; genius of language; scholarship &c. (scholar) 492. V. express by words &c. 566. Adj. lingual, linguistic; dialectic; vernacular, current; bilingual; diglot[obs3], hexaglot[obs3], polyglot; literary. Phr. "syllables govern the world" [Selden].

#561. Letter.—N. letter; character; hieroglyphic &c. (writing) 590; type &c. (printing) 591; capitals; digraph, trigraph; ideogram, ideograph; majuscule, minuscule; majuscule, minuscule; alphabet, ABC[obs3], abecedary[obs3], christcross-row. consonant, vowel; diphthong, triphthong[Gram]; mute, liquid, labial, dental, guttural. syllable; monosyllable, dissyllable[obs3], polysyllable; affix, suffix. spelling, orthograph[obs3]; phonography[obs3], phonetic spelling; anagrammatism[obs3], metagrammatism[obs3]. cipher, monogram, anagram; doubleacrostic[obs3]. V. spell. Adj. literal; alphabetical, abecedarian; syllabic; majuscular[obs3], minuscular[obs3]; uncial &c. (writing) 590.

#562. Word.—N. word, term, vocable; name &c. 564; phrase &c. 566;
root, etymon; derivative; part of speech &c. (grammar) 567;
     dictionary, vocabulary, lexicon, glossary; index, concordance;
thesaurus; gradus[Lat], delectus[Lat].
     etymology, derivation; glossology[obs3], terminology orismology[obs3];
paleology &c. (philology) 560[obs3].
     lexicography; glossographer &c. (scholar) 492; lexicologist,
     Adj. verbal, literal; titular, nominal. conjugate[Similarly derived],
paronymous[obs3]; derivative.
     Adv. verbally &c. adj.; verbatim &c. (exactly) 494.
     Phr. "the artillery of words" [Swift].

#563. Neologism.—N. neology, neologism; newfangled expression,
nonce expression; back-formation; caconym[obs3]; barbarism.
     archaism, black letter, monkish Latin.
     corruption, missaying[obs3], malapropism, antiphrasis[obs3].
     pun, paranomasia[obs3], play upon words; word play &c. (wit) 842;
double-entendre &c. (ambiguity) 520[Fr]; palindrome, paragram[obs3],
anagram, clinch; abuse of language, abuse of terms.
     dialect, brogue, idiom, accent, patois; provincialism, regionalism,
localism; broken English, lingua franca; Anglicism, Briticism, Gallicism,
Scotticism, Hibernicism; Americanism[obs3]; Gypsy lingo, Romany; pidgin,
pidgin English, pigeon English; Volapuk, Chinook, Esperanto, Hindustani,
kitchen Kaffir.
     dog Latin, macaronics[obs3], gibberish; confusion of tongues, Babel;
babu English[obs3], chi-chi.
     figure of speech &c. (metaphor) 521; byword.
     colloquialism, informal speech, informal language.
     substandard language, vernacular.
     vulgar language, obscene language, obscenity, vulgarity.
     jargon, technical terms, technicality, lingo, slang, cant, argot; St.
Gile's Greek, thieves' Latin, peddler's French, flash tongue, Billingsgate,
Wall Street slang.
     pseudonym &c. (misnomer) 565; Mr. So-and-so; wha d'ye call 'em[obs3],
whatchacallim, what's his name; thingummy[obs3], thingumbob; je ne sais
     neologist[obs3], coiner of words.
     V. coin words, coin a term; backform; Americanize, Anglicize.
     Adj. neologic[obs3], neological[obs3]; archaic; obsolete &c. (old)
124; colloquial; Anglice[obs3].

#564. Nomenclature.—N. nomenclature; naming &c. v.; nuncupation|, nomination, baptism; orismology[obs3]; onomatopoeia; antonomasia[obs3]. name; appelation[obs3], appelative[obs3]; designation, title; heading, rubric; caption; denomination; by-name, epithet. style, proper name; praenomen[Lat], agnomen[obs3], cognomen; patronymic, surname; cognomination[obs3]; eponym; compellation[obs3], description, antonym; empty title, empty name; handle to one's name; namesake. term, expression, noun; byword; convertible terms &c. 522; technical term; cant &c. 563. V. name, call, term, denominate designate, style, entitle, clepe[obs3], dub, christen, baptize, characterize, specify, define, distinguish by the name of; label &c. (mark) 550. be -called &c v.; take the name of, bean the name of, go by the name of, be known by the name of, go under the name of, pass under the name of, rejoice in the name of. Adj. named &c. v.; hight[obs3], ycleped, known as; what one may well, call fairly, call properly, call fitly. nuncupatory[obs3], nuncupative; cognominal[obs3], titular, nominal, orismological[obs3]. Phr. "beggar'd all description" [Antony and Cleopatra].

#565. Misnomer.—N. misnomer; lucus a non lucendo[Lat]; Mrs.
Malaprop; what d'ye call 'em &c. (neologism) 563[obs3]; Hoosier.
     nickname, sobriquet, by-name; assumed name, assumed title; alias; nom
de course, nom de theatre, nom de guerre[Fr], nom de plume; pseudonym,
     V. misname, miscall, misterm[obs3]; nickname; assume a name.
     Adj. misnamed &c. v.; pseudonymous; soi-disant[Fr]; self called, self
styled, self christened; so-called.
     nameless, anonymous; without a having no name; innominate, unnamed;
     Adv. in no sense.

#566. Phrase.—N. phrase, expression, set phrase; sentence, paragraph; figure of speech &c. 521; idiom, idiotism[obs3]; turn of expression; style. paraphrase &c. (synonym) 522; periphrase &c. (circumlocution) 573 motto &c. (proverb) 496[obs3]. phraseology &c. 569. V. express, phrase; word, word it; give words to, give expression to; voice; arrange in words, clothe in words, put into words, express by words; couch in terms; find words to express; speak by the card; call, denominate, designate, dub. Adj. expressed &c. v.; idiomatic. Adv. in round terms, in set terms, in good set terms, set terms; in set phrases.

#567. Grammar.—N. grammar, accidence, syntax, praxis, punctuation; parts of speech; jussive[obs3]; syllabication; inflection, case, declension, conjugation; us et norma loquendi[Lat]; Lindley Murray &c. (schoolbook) 542; correct style, philology &c. (language) 560. V. parse, punctuate, syllabicate[obs3].

#568. Solecism.—N. solecism; bad grammar, false grammar, faulty grammar; slip of the pen, slip of the tongue; lapsus linguae[Lat]; slipslop[obs3]; bull; barbarism, impropriety. V. use bad grammar, faulty grammar; solecize[obs3], commit a solecism; murder the King's English, murder the Queen's English, break Priscian's head. Adj. ungrammatical; incorrect, inaccurate; faulty; improper, incongruous; solecistic, solecistical[obs3].

#569. Style.—N. style, diction, phraseology, wording; manner, strain; composition; mode of expression, choice of words; mode of speech, literary power, ready pen, pen of a ready writer; command of language &c. (eloquence) 582; authorship; la morgue litteraire[Fr].. V. express by words &c. 566; write. Phr. le style c'est de l'homme [Fr][Buffon]; "style is the dress of thoughts" [Chesterfield].

Various Qualities of Style

#570. Perspicuity.—N. perspicuity, perspicuousness &c. (intelligibility) 518; plain speaking &c. (manifestation) 525; definiteness, definition; exactness &c. 494; explicitness, lucidness. Adj. lucid &c. (intelligible) 518; explicit &c. (manifest) 525; exact &c. 494.

#571. Obscurity.—N. obscurity &c. (unintelligibility) 519; involution; hard words; ambiguity &c. 520; unintelligibleness; vagueness &c. 475, inexactness &c. 495; what d'ye call 'em &c. (neologism) 563[obs3]; darkness of meaning. Adj. obscure &c. n.; crabbed, involved, confused.

#572. Conciseness.—N. conciseness &c. adj.; brevity, "the soul of wit", laconism[obs3]; Tacitus; ellipsis; syncope; abridgment &c. (shortening) 201; compression &c. 195; epitome &c. 596; monostich[obs3]; brunch word, portmanteau word. V. be concise &c. adj.; condense &c. 195; abridge &c. 201; abstract &c. 596; come to the point. Adj. concise, brief, short, terse,close; to the point, exact; neat, compact; compressed, condensed, pointed; laconic, curt, pithy, trenchant, summary; pregnant; compendious &c. (compendium) 596; succinct; elliptical, epigrammatic, quaint, crisp; sententious. Adv. concisely &c. adj.; briefly, summarily; in brief, in short, in a word, in a few words; for shortness sake; to come to the point, to make a long story short, to cut the matter short, to be brief; it comes to this, the long and the short of it is. Phr. brevis esse laboro obscurus fio [Lat][Horace].

#573. Diffuseness.—N. diffuseness &c. adj.; amplification &c. v.; dilating &c. v.; verbosity, verbiage, cloud of words, copia verborum[Lat]; flow of words &c. (loquacity) 584; looseness. Polylogy[obs3], tautology, battology[obs3], perissology|; pleonasm, exuberance, redundancy; thrice-told tale; prolixity; circumlocution, ambages [obs3]; periphrase[obs3], periphrasis; roundabout phrases; episode; expletive; pennya-lining; richness &c. 577. V. be diffuse &c. adj.; run out on, descant, expatiate, enlarge, dilate, amplify, expand, inflate; launch out, branch out; rant. maunder, prose; harp upon &c. (repeat) 104; dwell on, insist upon. digress, ramble, battre la campagne[Fr][obs3], beat about the bush, perorate, spin a long yarn, protract; spin out, swell out, draw out; battologize[obs3]. Adj. diffuse, profuse; wordy, verbose, largiloquent|, copious, exuberant, pleonastic, lengthy; longsome[obs3], long-winded, longspun[obs3], long drawn out; spun out, protracted, prolix, prosing, maundering; circumlocutory, periphrastic, ambagious[obs3], roundabout; digressive; discursive, excursive; loose; rambling episodic; flatulent, frothy. Adv. diffusely &c. adj.; at large, in extenso[Lat]; about it and about it.

#574. Vigor.—N. vigor, power, force; boldness, raciness &c. adj.;
intellectual, force; spirit, point, antithesis, piquance, piquancy; verve,
glow, fire, warmth; strong language; gravity, sententiousness; elevation,
loftiness, sublimity.
     eloquence; command of words, command of language.
     Adj. vigorous, nervous, powerful, forcible, trenchant, incisive,
impressive; sensational.
     spirited, lively, glowing, sparkling, racy, bold, slashing; pungent,
piquant, full of point, pointed, pithy, antithetical; sententious.
     lofty, elevated, sublime; eloquent; vehement, petulant, impassioned;
     Adv. in glowing terms, in good set terms, in no measured terms.
     Phr. "thoughts that breath and words that burn" [Gray].

#575. Feebleness.—N. feebleness &c. adj. Adj. feeble, bald, tame, meager, jejune, vapid, bland, trashy, lukewarm, cold, frigid, poor, dull, dry, languid; colorless, enervated; proposing, prosy, prosaic; unvaried, monotonous, weak, washy, wishy-washy; sketchy, slight. careless, slovenly, loose, lax (negligent) 460; slipshod, slipslop[obs3]; inexact; puerile, childish; flatulent; rambling &c. (diffuse) 573.

#576. Plainness.—N. plainness &c. adj.; simplicity, severity; plain
terms, plain English; Saxon English; household words
     V. call a spade "a spade"; plunge in medias res; come to the point.
     Adj. plain, simple; unornamented, unadorned, unvarnished; homely,
homespun; neat; severe, chaste, pure, Saxon; commonplace, matter-of-fact,
natural, prosaic.
     dry, unvaried,monotonous &c. 575.
     Adv. in plain terms, in plain words, in plain English, in plain common
parlance; point-blank.

#577. Ornament.—N. ornament; floridness c[obs3]. adj. turgidity, turgescence[obs3]; altiloquence &c. adj[obs3].; declamation, teratology|!; well-rounded periods; elegance &c. 578; orotundity. inversion, antithesis, alliteration, paronomasia; figurativeness &c. (metaphor) 521. flourish; flowers of speech, flowers of rhetoric; frills of style, euphuism[obs3], euphemism. big-sounding words, high-sounding words; macrology[obs3], sesquipedalia verba[Lat], Alexandrine; inflation, pretension; rant, bombast, fustian, prose run mad; fine writing; sesquipedality[obs3]; Minerva press. phrasemonger; euphuist[obs3], euphemist. V. ornament, overlay with ornament, overcharge; smell of the lamp. Adj. ornament &c. v.; beautified &c. 847; ornate, florid, rich, flowery; euphuistic[obs3], euphemistic; sonorous; high-sounding, big- sounding; inflated, swelling, tumid; turgid, turgescent; pedantic, pompous, stilted; orotund; high flown, high flowing; sententious, rhetorical, declamatory; grandiose; grandiloquent, magniloquent, altiloquent[obs3]; sesquipedal[obs3], sesquipedalian; Johnsonian, mouthy; bombastic; fustian; frothy, flashy, flaming. antithetical, alliterative; figurative &c. 521; artificial &c. (inelegant) 579. Adv. ore rutundo[Lat].

#578. Elegance.—N. elegance, purity, grace, ease; gracefulness,
readiness &c. adj.; concinnity[obs3], euphony, numerosity[obs3];
Atticism[obs3], classicalism[obs3], classicism.
     well rounded periods, well turned periods, flowing periods; the right
word in the right place; antithesis &c. 577.
     V. point an antithesis, round a period.
     Adj. elegant, polished, classical, Attic, correct, Ciceronian,
artistic; chaste, pure, Saxon, academical[obs3].
     graceful, easy, readable, fluent, flowing, tripping; unaffected,
natural, unlabored[obs3]; mellifluous; euphonious, euphemism, euphemistic;
numerose|, rhythmical.
     felicitous, happy, neat; well put, neatly put, well expressed, neatly

#579. Inelegance.—N. inelegance; stiffness &c. adj.; "unlettered Muse" [Gray]; barbarism; slang &c. 563; solecism &c. 568; mannerism &c. (affectation) 855; euphuism[obs3]; fustian &c. 577; cacophony; words that break the teeth, words that dislocate the jaw; marinism[obs3]. V. be inelegant &c. adj. Adj. inelegant, graceless, ungraceful; harsh, abrupt; dry, stiff, cramped, formal, guinde[Fr]; forced, labored; artificial, mannered, ponderous; awkward, uncourtly[obs3], unpolished; turgid &c. 577; affected, euphuistic[obs3]; barbarous, uncouth, grotesque, rude, crude, halting; offensive to ears polite.

2. Spoken Language

#580. Voice.—N. voice; vocality[obs3]; organ, lungs, bellows; good voice, fine voice, powerful voice &c. (loud) 404; musical voice &c. 413; intonation; tone of voice &c. (sound) 402. vocalization; cry &c. 411; strain, utterance, prolation[obs3]; exclamation, ejaculation, vociferation, ecphonesis[obs3]; enunciation, articulation; articulate sound, distinctness; clearness, of articulation; stage whisper; delivery. accent, accentuation; emphasis, stress; broad accent, strong accent, pure accent, native accent, foreign accent; pronunciation. [Word similarly pronounced] homonym. orthoepy[obs3]; cacoepy[obs3]; euphony &c. (melody) 413. gastriloquism[obs3], ventriloquism; ventriloquist; polyphonism[obs3], polyphonist[obs3]. [Science of voice] phonology &c. (sound) 402. V. utter, breathe; give utterance, give tongue; cry &c. (shout) 411; ejaculate, rap out; vocalize, prolate|, articulate, enunciate, pronounce, accentuate, aspirate, deliver, mouth; whisper in the ear. Adj. vocal, phonetic, oral; ejaculatory, articulate, distinct, stertorous; euphonious &c. (melodious) 413. Phr. "how sweetly sounds the voice of a good woman" [Massinger]; "the organ of the soul" [Longfellow]; "thy voice is a celestial melody" [Longfellow].

#581. Aphony.—N. aphony[obs3], aphonia[obs3]; dumbness &c. adj.; obmutescence[obs3]; absence of voice, want of voice; dysphony[obs3]; cacoepy[obs3]; silence &c. (taciturnity) 585; raucity[obs3]; harsh voice &c. 410, unmusical voice &c. 414; falsetto, "childish treble mute"; dummy. V. keep silence &c. 585; speak low, speak softly; whisper &c. (faintness) 405. silence; render mute, render silent; muzzle, muffle, suppress, smother, gag, strike dumb, dumfounder; drown the voice, put to silence, stop one's mouth, cut one short. stick in the throat. Adj. aphonous[obs3], dumb, mute; deafmute, deaf and dumb; mum; tongue- tied; breathless, tongueless, voiceless, speechless, wordless; mute as a fish, mute as a stockfish[obs3], mute as a mackerel; silent &c. (taciturn) 585; muzzled; inarticulate, inaudible. croaking, raucous, hoarse, husky, dry, hollow, sepulchral, hoarse as a raven; rough. Adv. with bated breath, with the finger on the lips; sotto voce[Lat]; in a low tone, in a cracked voice, in a broken voice. Phr. vox faucibus haesit [Lat][Vergil].

#582. Speech.—N. speech, faculty of speech; locution, talk, parlance, verbal intercourse, prolation[obs3], oral communication, word of mouth, parole, palaver, prattle; effusion. oration, recitation, delivery, say, speech, lecture, harangue, sermon, tirade, formal speech, peroration; speechifying; soliloquy &c. 589; allocution &c. 586; conversation &c. 588; salutatory; screed; valedictory [U.S.][U.S.]. oratory; elocution, eloquence; rhetoric, declamation; grandiloquence, multiloquence[obs3]; burst of eloquence; facundity[obs3]; flow of words, command of words, command of language; copia verborum[Lat]; power of speech, gift of the gab; usus loquendi[Lat]. speaker &c. v.; spokesman; prolocutor, interlocutor; mouthpiece, Hermes; orator, oratrix[obs3], oratress[obs3]; Demosthenes, Cicero; rhetorician; stump orator, platform orator; speechmaker, patterer[obs3], improvisatore[obs3]. V. speak of; say, utter, pronounce, deliver, give utterance to; utter forth, pour forth; breathe, let fall, come out with; rap out, blurt out have on one's lips; have at the end of one's tongue, have at the tip of one's tongue. break silence; open one's lips, open one's mouth; lift one's voice, raise one's voice; give the tongue, wag the tongue; talk, outspeak[obs3]; put in a word or two. hold forth; make a speech,.deliver a speech &c. n.; speechify, harangue, declaim, stump, flourish, recite, lecture, sermonize, discourse, be on one's legs; have one's say, say one's say; spout, rant, rave, vent one's fury, vent one's rage; expatiate &c. (speak at length) 573; speak one's mind, go on the stump, take the stump [U. S.]. soliloquize &c. 589; tell &c. (inform) 527; speak to &c. 586; talk together &c. 588. be eloquent &c. adj; have a tongue in one's head, have the gift of the gab &c. n. pass one's lips, escape one's lips; fall from the lips, fall from the mouth. Adj. speaking &c., spoken &c. v.; oral, lingual, phonetic, not written, unwritten, outspoken; eloquent, elocutionary; oratorical, rhetorical; declamatory; grandiloquent &c. 577; talkative &c. 584; Ciceronian, nuncupative, Tullian. Adv. orally &c. adj.; by word of mouth, viva voce, from the lips of. Phr. quoth he, said he &c.; "action is eloquence" [Coriolanus]; "pour the full tide of eloquence along" [Pope]; "she speaks poignards and every word stabs" [Much Ado About Nothing]; "speech is but broken light upon the depth of the unspoken [G. Eliot]; "to try thy eloquence now 'tis time [Antony and Cleopatra].

#583. [Imperfect Speech.] Stammering.—N. inarticulateness; stammering &c. v.; hesitation &c. v.; impediment in one's speech; titubancy[obs3], traulism|; whisper &c. (faint sound) 405; lisp, drawl, tardiloquence[obs3]; nasal tone, nasal accent; twang; falsetto &c. (want of voice) 581; broken voice, broken accents, broken sentences. brogue &c. 563; slip of the tongue, lapsus linouae [Lat]. V. stammer, stutter, hesitate, falter, hammer; balbutiate|, balbucinate|, haw, hum and haw, be unable to put two words together. mumble, mutter; maud|, mauder[obs3]; whisper &c. 405; mince, lisp; jabber, gibber; sputter, splutter; muffle, mump[obs3]; drawl, mouth; croak; speak thick, speak through the nose; snuffle, clip one's words; murder the language, murder the King's English, murder the Queen's English; mispronounce, missay[obs3]. Adj. stammering &c. v.; inarticulate, guttural, nasal; tremulous; affected. Adv. sotto voce &c. (faintly) 405[Lat].

#584. Loquacity.—N. loquacity, loquaciousness; talkativeness &c. adj.; garrulity; multiloquence[obs3], much speaking. jaw; gabble; jabber, chatter; prate, prattle, cackle, clack; twaddle, twattle, rattle; caquet[obs3], caquetterie[Fr]; blabber, bavardage[obs3], bibble-babble[obs3], gibble-gabble[obs3]; small talk &c. (converse) 588. fluency, flippancy, volubility, flowing, tongue; flow of words; flux de bouche[Fr], flux de mots[Fr]; copia verborum[Lat], cacoethes loquendi[Lat]; furor loquendi[Lat]; verbosity &c. (diffuseness) 573; gift of the gab &c. (eloquence) 582. talker; chatterer, chatterbox; babbler &c. v.; rattle; ranter; sermonizer, proser[obs3], driveler; blatherskite [U. S.]; gossip &c. (converse) 588; magpie, jay, parrot, poll, Babel; moulin a paroles[Fr].. V. be loquacious &c. adj.; talk glibly, pour forth, patter; prate, palaver, prose, chatter, prattle, clack, jabber, jaw; blather, blatter[obs3], blether[obs3]; rattle, rattle on; twaddle, twattle; babble, gabble; outtalk; talk oneself out of breath, talk oneself hoarse; expatiate &c. (speak at length) 573; gossip &c. (converse) 588; din in the ears &c. (repeat) 104; talk at random, talk nonsense &c. 497; be hoarse with talking. Adj. loquacious, talkative, garrulous, linguacious|, multiloquous[obs3]; largiloquent|; chattering &c. v.; chatty &c. (sociable) 892; declamatory &c. 582; open-mouthed. fluent, voluble, glib, flippant; long tongued, long winded &c. (diffuse) 573. Adv. trippingly on the tongue; glibly &c. adj.; off the reel. Phr. the tongue running fast, the tongue running loose, the tongue running on wheels; all talk and no cider; "foul whisperings are abroad" [Macbeth]; "what a spendthrift is he of his tongue!" [Tempest].

#585. Taciturnity.—N. silence, muteness, obmutescence[obs3]; taciturnity, pauciloquy[obs3], costiveness|, curtness; reserve, reticence &c. (concealment) 528. man of few words. V. be silent &c. adj.; keep silence, keep mum; hold one's tongue, hold one's peace, hold one's jaw; not speak. &c. 582; say nothing, keep one's counsel; seal the lips, close the lips, button the lips, zipper the lips, put a padlock on the lips, put a padlock on the mouth; put a bridle on one's tongue; bite one's tongue, keep one's tongue between one's teeth; make no sign, not let a word escape one; keep a secret &c. 528; not have a word to say; hush up, hush, lay the finger on the lips, place the finger on the lips; render mute &c. 581. stick in one's throat. Adj. silent, mute, mum; silent as a post, silent as a stone, silent as the grave &c. (still) 403; dumb &c. 581; unconversable[obs3]. taciturn, sparing of words; closetongued; costive|, inconversable|, curt; reserved; reticent &c. (concealing) 528. Int. shush! tush! silence! mum! hush! chut[obs3]! hist! tut! chup[obs3]! mum's the word; keep your mouth shut![vulgar]. Phr. cave quid dicis quando et cui[Lat]; volto sciolto i pensieri stretti[It].

#586. Allocution.—N. allocution, alloquy|, address; speech &c. 582;
apostrophe, interpellation, appeal, invocation, salutation; word in the
     [Feigned dialogue] dialogism[obs3].
     platform &c. 542; plank; audience &c. (interview) 588.
     V. speak to, address, accost, make up to, apostrophize, appeal to,
invoke; ball, salute; call to, halloo.
     take aside, take by the button; talk to in private.
     lecture &c. (make a speech) 582.
     Int. soho[obs3]! halloo! hey! hist!

#587. Response—N. &c., see Answer 462.

#588. Conversation.—N. conversation, interlocution; collocution[obs3], colloquy, converse, confabulation, talk, discourse, verbal intercourse; oral communication, commerce; dialogue, duologue, trialogue. causerie, chat, chitchat; small talk, table talk, teatable talk[obs3], town talk, village talk, idle talk; tattle, gossip, tittle-tattle; babble, babblement[obs3]; tripotage[obs3], cackle, prittle-prattle[obs3], cancan, on dit[Fr]; talk of the town, talk of the village. conference, parley, interview, audience, pourparler; tete-a-tete; reception, conversazione[It]; congress &c. (council) 696; powwow [U. S.]. hall of audience, durbar[obs3]. palaver, debate, logomachy[obs3], war of words. gossip, tattler; Paul Pry; tabby; chatterer &c. (loquacity) 584; interlocutor &c. (spokesman) 582; conversationist[obs3], dialogist[obs3]. "the feast of reason and the flow of soul" [Pope]; mollia tempora fandi[Lat][obs3]. V. talk together, converse, confabulate; hold on a conversation, carry on a conversation, join in a conversation, engage in a conversation; put in a word; shine in conversation; bandy words; parley; palaver; chat, gossip, tattle; prate &c. (loquacity) 584; powwow [U.S.].. discourse with, confer with, commune with, commerce with; hold converse, hold conference, hold intercourse; talk it over; be closeted with; talk with one in private, tete-a-tete. Adj. conversing &c. v.; interlocutory; conversational, conversable[obs3]; discursive, discoursive[obs3]; chatty &c. (sociable) 892; colloquial. Phr. "with thee conversing I forget all time" [Paradise Lost].

#589. Soliloquy.—N. soliloquy, monologue, apostrophe;
     V. Soliloquize; say to oneself, talk to oneself; say aside, think
aloud, apostrophize.
     Adj. soliloquizing &c. v.
     Adv. aside.

3. Written Language

#590. Writing.—N. writing &c. v.; chirography, stelography[obs3], cerography[obs3]; penmanship, craftmanship[obs3]; quill driving; typewriting. writing, manuscript, MS., literae scriptae[Lat]; these presents. stroke of the pen, dash of the pen; coupe de plume; line; headline; pen and ink. letter &c. 561; uncial writing, cuneiform character, arrowhead, Ogham, Runes, hieroglyphic; contraction; Brahmi[obs3], Devanagari, Nagari; script. shorthand; stenography, brachygraphy[obs3], tachygraphy[obs3]; secret writing, writing in cipher; cryptography, stenography; phonography[obs3], pasigraphy[obs3], Polygraphy[obs3], logography[obs3]. copy; transcript, rescript; rough copy, fair copy; handwriting; signature, sign manual; autograph, monograph, holograph; hand, fist. calligraphy; good hand, running hand, flowing hand, cursive hand, legible hand, bold hand. cacography[obs3], griffonage[obs3], barbouillage[obs3]; bad hand, cramped hand, crabbed hand, illegible hand; scribble &c. v.; pattes de mouche[Fr]; ill-formed letters; pothooks and hangers. stationery; pen, quill, goose quill; pencil, style; paper, foolscap, parchment, vellum, papyrus, tablet, slate, marble, pillar, table; blackboard; ink bottle, ink horn, ink pot, ink stand, ink well; typewriter. transcription &c. (copy) 21; inscription &c. (record) 551; superscription &c. (indication) 550; graphology. composition, authorship; cacoethes scribendi[Lat]; graphoidea[obs3], graphomania[obs3]; phrenoia[obs3]. writer, scribe, amanuensis, scrivener, secretary, clerk, penman, copyist, transcriber, quill driver; stenographer, typewriter, typist; writer for the press &c. (author) 593. V. write, pen; copy, engross; write out, write out fair; transcribe; scribble, scrawl, scrabble, scratch; interline; stain paper; write down &c. (record) 551; sign &c. (attest) 467; enface[obs3]. compose, indite, draw up, draft, formulate; dictate; inscribe, throw on paper, dash off; manifold. take up the pen, take pen in hand; shed ink, spill ink, dip one's pen in ink. Adj. writing &c. v.; written &c. v.; in writing, in black and white; under one's hand. uncial, Runic, cuneiform, hieroglyphical[obs3]. Adv. currente calamo[Sp]; pen in hand. Phr. audacter et sincere[Lat]; le style est l'homme meme [Fr]; "nature's noblest gift - my gray goose quill" [Byron]; scribendi recte sapere et principium et fons [Lat][Horace]; "that mighty instrument of little men" [Byron]; "the pen became a clarion" [Longfellow].

#591. Printing.—N. printing; block printing, type- printing; plate printing &c. 558[engraving]; the press &c. (publication) 531; composition. print, letterpress, text; context, note, page, column. typography; stereotype, electrotype, aprotype[obs3]; type, black letter, font, fount; pi, pie; capitals &c. (letters) 561; brevier[obs3], bourgeois, pica &c. boldface, capitals, caps., catchword; composing-frame, composing room, composing rule, composing stand, composing stick; italics, justification, linotype, live matter, logotype; lower case, upper case; make-up, matrix, matter, monotype[obs3], point system: 4-1/2, 5, 5-1/2, 6, 7, 8 point, etc.; press room, press work; reglet[obs3], roman; running head, running title; scale, serif, shank, sheet work, shoulder, signature, slug, underlay. folio &c. (book) 593; copy, impression, pull, proof, revise; author's proof, galley proof, press proof; press revise. printer, compositor, reader; printer's devil copyholder. V. print; compose; put to press, go to press; pass through the press, see through the press; publish &c. 531; bring out; appear in print, rush into print; distribute, makeup, mortise, offset, overrun, rout. Adj. printed &c. v.; in type; typographical &c. n.; solid in galleys.

#592. Correspondence.—N. correspondence, letter, epistle, note, billet, post card, missive, circular, favor, billet-doux; chit, chitty[obs3], letter card, picture post card; postal [U.S.], card; despatch; dispatch; bulletin, these presents; rescript, rescription[obs3]; post &c. (messenger) 534. V. correspond with; write to, send a letter to; keep up a correspondence. Adj. epistolary. Phr. furor scribendi[Lat].

#593. Book.—N. booklet; writing, work, volume, tome, opuscule[obs3]; tract, tractate[obs3]; livret[obs3]; brochure, libretto, handbook, codex, manual, pamphlet, enchiridion[obs3], circular, publication; chap book. part, issue, number livraison[Fr]; album, portfolio; periodical, serial, magazine, ephemeris, annual, journal. paper, bill, sheet, broadsheet[obs3]; leaf, leaflet; fly leaf, page; quire, ream [subdivisions of a book] chapter, section, head, article, paragraph, passage, clause; endpapers, frontispiece; cover, binding. folio, quarto, octavo; duodecimo[obs3], sextodecimo[obs3], octodecimo[obs3]. encyclopedia; encompilation[obs3]. [collection of books] library, bibliotheca[obs3]. press &c. (publication) 531. [complete description] definitive work, treatise, comprehensive treatise (dissertation) 595. [person who writes a book] writer, author, litterateur[Fr], essayist, journalism; pen, scribbler, the scribbling race; literary hack, Grub-street writer; writer for the press, gentleman of the press, representative of the press; adjective jerker[obs3], diaskeaust[obs3], ghost, hack writer, ink slinger; publicist; reporter, penny a liner; editor, subeditor[obs3]; playwright &c. 599; poet &c. 597. bookseller, publisher; bibliopole[obs3], bibliopolist[obs3]; librarian; bookstore, bookshop, bookseller's shop. knowledge of books, bibliography; book learning &c. (knowledge) 490. Phr. "among the giant fossils of my past" [E. B. Browning]; craignez tout d'un auteur en courroux[Fr]; "for authors nobler palms remain" [Pope]; "I lived to write and wrote to live" [Rogers]; "look in thy heart and write" [Sidney]; "there is no Past so long as Books shall live" [Bulwer Lytton]; "the public mind is the creation of the Master-Writers" [Disraeli]; "volumes that I prize above my dukedom" [Tempest].

#594. Description.—N. description, account, statement, report; expose &c. (disclosure) 529 specification, particulars; state of facts, summary of facts; brief &c. (abstract) 596; return &c. (record) 551; catalogue raisonne &c. (list) 86[Fr]; guidebook &c. (information) 527. delineation &c (representation) 554; sketch; monograph; minute account, detailed particular account, circumstantial account, graphic account; narration, recital, rehearsal, relation. historiography[obs3], chronography[obs3]; historic Muse, Clio; history; biography, autobiography; necrology, obituary. narrative, history; memoir, memorials; annals &c. (chronicle) 551; saga; tradition, legend, story, tale, historiette[obs3]; personal narrative, journal, life, adventures, fortunes, experiences, confessions; anecdote, ana[obs3], trait. work of fiction, novel, romance, Minerva press; fairy tale, nursery tale; fable, parable, apologue[obs3]; dime novel, penny dreadful, shilling shocker relator &c. v.; raconteur, historian &c. (recorder) 553; biographer, fabulist[obs3], novelist. V. describe; set forth &c. (state) 535; draw a picture, picture; portray &c. (represent) 554; characterize, particularize; narrate, relate, recite, recount, sum up, run over, recapitulate, rehearse, fight one's battles over again. unfold a tale &c. (disclose) 529; tell; give an account of, render an account of; report, make a report, draw up a statement. detail; enter into particulars, enter into details, descend to particulars, descend to details; itemize. Adj. descriptive, graphic, narrative, epic, suggestive, well-drawn; historic; traditional, traditionary; legendary; anecdotic[obs3], storied; described &c. v. Phr. furor scribendi[Lat].

#595. Dissertation.—N. dissertation, treatise, essay; thesis, theme; monograph, tract, tractate[obs3], tractation[obs3]; discourse, memoir, disquisition, lecture, sermon, homily, pandect[obs3]; excursus. commentary, review, critique, criticism, article; leader, leading article; editorial; running commentary. investigation &c. (inquiry) 461; study &c. (consideration) 451; discussion &c. (reasoning) 476; exposition &c. (explanation) 522. commentator, critic, essayist, pamphleteer. V. expound upon a subject, dissert upon a subject[obs3], descant upon a subject, write upon a subject, touch upon a subject; treat a subject, treat a subject thoroughly, treat of a subject, take up a subject, ventilate a subject, discuss a subject, deal with a subject, go into a subject, go into a subject at length, canvass a subject, handle a subject, do justice to a subject. hold forth[oral dissertation], discourse, delve into. Adj. discursive, discoursive[obs3]; disquisitionary[obs3]; expository.

#596. Compendium.—N. compend, compendium; abstract, precis, epitome, multum in parvo[Lat], analysis, pandect[obs3], digest, sum and substance, brief, abridgment, summary, apercu, draft, minute, note; excerpt; synopsis, textbook, conspectus, outlines, syllabus, contents, heads, prospectus. album; scrap book, note book, memorandum book, commonplace book; extracts, excerpta[obs3], cuttings; fugitive pieces, fugitive writing; spicilegium[obs3], flowers, anthology, collectanea[obs3], analecta[obs3]; compilation. recapitulation, resume, review. abbreviation, abbreviature[obs3]; contraction; shortening &c. 201; compression &c. 195. V. abridge, abstract, epitomize, summarize; make an abstract, prepare an abstract, draw an abstract, compile an abstract &c. n. recapitulate, review, skim, run over, sum up. abbreviate &c. (shorten) 201; condense &c. (compress) 195; compile &c. (collect) 72. Adj. compendious, synoptic, analectic[obs3]; abrege[Fr], abridged &c. v.; variorum[obs3]. Adv. in short, in epitome, in substance, in few words. Phr. it lies in a nutshell.

#597. Poetry.—N. poetry, poetics, poesy, Muse, Calliope, tuneful Nine, Parnassus, Helicon[obs3], Pierides, Pierian spring. versification, rhyming, making verses; prosody, orthometry[obs3]. poem; epic, epic poem; epopee[obs3], epopoea, ode, epode[obs3], idyl, lyric, eclogue, pastoral, bucolic, dithyramb, anacreontic[obs3], sonnet, roundelay, rondeau[Fr], rondo, madrigal, canzonet[obs3], cento[obs3], *monody, elegy; amoebaeum, ghazal[obs3], palinode. dramatic poetry, lyric poetry; opera; posy, anthology; disjecta membra poetae song[Lat], ballad, lay; love song, drinking song, war song, sea song; lullaby; music &c. 415; nursery rhymes. [Bad poetry] doggerel, Hudibrastic verse[obs3], prose run mad; macaronics[obs3]; macaronic verse[obs3], leonine verse; runes. canto, stanza, distich, verse, line, couplet, triplet, quatrain; strophe, antistrophe[obs3]. verse, rhyme, assonance, crambo[obs3], meter, measure, foot, numbers, strain, rhythm; accentuation &c. (voice) 580; dactyl, spondee, trochee, anapest &c.; hexameter, pentameter; Alexandrine; anacrusis[obs3], antispast[obs3], blank verse, ictus. elegiacs &c. adj.; elegiac verse, elegaic meter, elegaic poetry. poet, poet laureate; laureate; bard, lyrist[obs3], scald, skald[obs3], troubadour, trouvere[Fr]; minstrel; minnesinger, meistersinger[Ger]; improvisatore[obs3]; versifier, sonneteer; rhymer, rhymist[obs3], rhymester; ballad monger, runer[obs3]; poetaster; genus irritabile vatum [Latin]. V. poetize, sing, versify, make verses, rhyme, scan. Adj. poetic, poetical; lyric, lyrical, tuneful, epic, dithyrambic &c. n.; metrical; a catalectin[obs3]; elegiac, iambic, trochaic, anapestic[obs3]; amoebaeic, Melibean, skaldic[obs3]; Ionic, Sapphic, Alcaic[obs3], Pindaric. Phr. "a poem round and perfect as a star" [Alex. Smith]; Dichtung und Wahrheit [Ger]; furor poeticus[Lat]; "his virtues formed the magic of his song" [Hayley]; "I do but sing because I must" [Tennyson]; "I learnt life from the poets" [de Stael]; licentia vatum[Lat]; mutum est pictura poema[Lat]; "O for a muse of fire!" [Henry V]; "sweet food of sweetly uttered knowledge" [Sidney]; "the true poem is the poet's mind" [Emerson]; Volk der Dichter und Denker[Ger]; "wisdom married to immortal verse" [Wordsworth].

#598. Prose.—N. prose, prose writer. prosaicism[obs3],
prosaism[obs3], prosaist[obs3], proser[obs3].
     V. prose.
     write prose, write in prose.
     Adj. prosal[obs3],prosy, prosaic; unpoetic, unpoetical[obs3].
     rhymeless[obs3], unrhymed, in prose, not in verse.

#599. The Drama.—N. the drama, the stage, the theater, the play; film the film, movies, motion pictures, cinema, cinematography; theatricals, dramaturgy, histrionic art, buskin, sock, cothurnus[obs3], Melpomene and Thalia, Thespis. play, drama, stage play, piece[Fr], five-act play, tragedy, comedy, opera, vaudeville, comedietta[obs3], lever de rideau[Fr], interlude, afterpiece[obs3], exode[obs3], farce, divertissement, extravaganza, burletta[obs3], harlequinade[obs3], pantomime, burlesque, opera bouffe[Fr], ballet, spectacle, masque, drame comedie drame[Fr]; melodrama, melodrame[obs3]; comidie larmoyante[Fr], sensation drama; tragicomedy, farcical-comedy; monodrame monologue[obs3];duologue trilogy; charade, proverbs; mystery, miracle play; musical, musical comedy. [movies] western, horse opera; flick [coll.]; spy film, love story, adventure film, documentary, nature film; pornographic film, smoker, skin flick, X-rated film. act, scene, tableau; induction, introduction; prologue, epilogue; libretto. performance, representation, mise en scene[French], stagery[obs3], jeu de theatre[French]; acting; gesture &c. 550; impersonation &c. 554; stage business, gag, buffoonery. light comedy, genteel comedy, low comedy. theater; playhouse, opera house; house; music hall; amphitheater, circus, hippodrome, theater in the round; puppet show, fantoccini[obs3]; marionettes, Punch and Judy. auditory, auditorium, front of the house, stalls, boxes, pit, gallery, parquet; greenroom, coulisses[Fr]. flat; drop, drop scene; wing, screen, side scene; transformation scene, curtain, act drop; proscenium. stage, scene, scenery, the boards; trap, mezzanine floor; flies; floats, footlights; offstage; orchestra. theatrical costume, theatrical properties. movie studio, back lot, on location. part, role, character, dramatis personae[Lat]; repertoire. actor, thespian, player; method actor; stage player, strolling player; stager, performer; mime, mimer[obs3]; artists; comedian, tragedian; tragedienne, Roscius; star, movie star, star of stage and screen, superstar, idol, sex symbol; supporting actor, supporting cast; ham, hamfatter *[obs3]; masker[obs3]. pantomimist, clown harlequin, buffo[obs3], buffoon, farceur, grimacer, pantaloon, columbine; punchinello[obs3]; pulcinello[obs3], pulcinella[obs3]; extra, bit-player, walk-on role, cameo appearance; mute, figurante[obs3], general utility; super, supernumerary. company; first tragedian, prima donna[Sp], protagonist; jeune premier[French]; debutant, debutante[French]; light comedian, genteel comedian, low comedian; walking gentleman, amoroso[obs3], heavy father, ingenue[French], jeune veuve[French]. mummer, guiser[obs3], guisard[obs3], gysart |, masque. mountebank, Jack Pudding; tumbler, posture master, acrobat; contortionist; ballet dancer, ballet girl; chorus singer; coryphee danseuse[Fr]. property man, costumier, machinist; prompter, call boy; manager; director, stage manager, acting manager. producer, entrepreneur, impresario; backer, investor, angel[fig]. dramatic author, dramatic writer; play writer, playwright; dramatist, mimographer[obs3]. V. act, play, perform; put on the stage; personate &c. 554; mimic &c. (imitate) 19; enact; play a part, act a part, go through a part, perform a part; rehearse, spout, gag, rant; "strut and fret one's hour upon a stage"; tread the boards, tread the stage; come out; star it. Adj. dramatic; theatric, theatrical; scenic, histrionic, comic, tragic, buskined[obs3], farcical, tragicomic, melodramatic, operatic; stagy. Adv. on the stage, on the boards; on film; before the floats, before an audience; behind the scenes. Phr. fere totus mundus exercet histrionem [Lat][Petronius Arbiter]; "suit the action to the word, the word to the action" [Hamlet]; "the play's the thing" [Hamlet]; "to wake the soul by tender strokes of art" [Pope].




1. Acts of Volition

#600. Will.—N. will, volition, conation[obs3], velleity; liberum arbitrium[Lat]; will and pleasure, free will; freedom &c. 748; discretion; option &c. (choice) 609; voluntariness[obs3]; spontaneity, spontaneousness; originality. pleasure, wish, mind; desire; frame of mind &c. (inclination) 602; intention &c. 620; predetermination &c. 611; selfcontrol &c. determination &c. (resolution) 604; force of will. V. will, list; see fit, think fit; determine &c. (resolve) 604; enjoin; settle &c. (choose) 609; volunteer. have a will of one's own; do what one chooses &c. (freedom) 748; have it all one's own way; have one's will, have one's own way. use one's discretion, exercise one's discretion; take upon oneself, take one's own course, take the law into one's own hands; do of one's own accord, do upon one's own authority; originate &c. (cause) 153. Adj. voluntary, volitional, willful; free &c. 748; optional; discretional, discretionary; volitient[obs3], volitive[obs3]. minded &c. (willing) 602; prepense &c. (predetermined) 611[obs3]; intended &c. 620; autocratic; unbidden &c. (bid &c. 741); spontaneous; original &c. (casual) 153; unconstrained. Adv. voluntarily &c. adj.; at will, at pleasure; a volonte[Fr], a discretion; al piacere[It]; ad libitum, ad arbitrium[Lat]; as one thinks proper, as it seems good to; a beneplacito[It]. of one's won accord, of one's own free will; proprio motu[Lat], suo motu[Lat], ex meromotu[Lat]; out of one's own head; by choice &c. 609; purposely &c. (intentionally) 620; deliberately &c. 611. Phr. stet pro ratione voluntas[Lat]; sic volo sic jubeo[Lat]; a vostro beneplacito[It]; beneficium accipere libertatem est vendere[Lat]; Deus vult[Lat]; was man nicht kann meiden muss man willig leiden[Ger].

#601. Necessity.—N. involuntariness; instinct, blind impulse; inborn proclivity, innate proclivity; native tendency, natural tendency; natural impulse, predetermination. necessity, necessitation; obligation; compulsion &c. 744; subjection &c. 749; stern necessity, hard necessity, dire necessity, imperious necessity, inexorable necessity, iron necessity, adverse necessity; fate; what must be. destiny, destination; fatality, fate, kismet, doom, foredoom, election, predestination; preordination, foreordination; lot fortune; fatalism; inevitableness &c. adj.; spell &c. 993. star, stars; planet, planets; astral influence; sky, Fates, Parcae, Sisters three, book of fate; God's will, will of Heaven; wheel of Fortune, Ides of March, Hobson's choice. last shift, last resort; dernier ressort[Fr]; pis aller &c. (substitute) 147[Fr]; necessaries &c. (requirement) 630. necessarian[obs3], necessitarian[obs3]; fatalist; automaton. V. lie under a necessity; befated[obs3], be doomed, be destined &c. in for, under the necessity of; have no choice, have no alternative; be one's fate &c. n. to be pushed to the wall to be driven into a corner, to be unable to help. destine, doom, foredoom, devote; predestine, preordain; cast a spell &c. 992; necessitate; compel &c. 744. Adj. necessary, needful &c (requisite) 630. fated; destined &c. v.; elect; spellbound, compulsory &c. (compel) 744; uncontrollable, inevitable, unavoidable, irresistible, irrevocable, inexorable; avoidless[obs3], resistless. involuntary, instinctive, automatic, blind, mechanical; unconscious, unwitting, unthinking; unintentional &c. (undesigned) 621; impulsive &c. 612. Adv. necessarily &c. adv.; of necessity, of course; ex necessitate rei[Lat]; needs must; perforce &c. 744; nolens volens[Lat]; will he nil he, willy nilly, bon gre mal gre[Fr], willing or unwilling, coute que coute[Fr]. faute de mieux[Fr]; by stress of; if need be. Phr. it cannot be helped; there is no help for, there is no helping it; it will be, it must be, it needs to be, it must be so, it will have its way; the die is cast; jacta est alea[obs3][Lat]; che sara sara[French]; "it is written"; one's days are numbered, one's fate is sealed; Fata obstant[Latin]; diis aliter visum[obs3][Latin]; actum me invito factus[Latin], non est meus actus[Latin]; aujord'hui roi demain rien[French]; quisque suos patimur manes [Latin][Vergil];"The moving finger writes and having writ moves on. Nor all your piety and wit can bring it back to cancel half a line, nor all your tears wash out a word of it."[Rubayyat of Omar Khayyam].

#602. Willingness.—N. willingness, voluntariness &c. adj[obs3].; willing mind, heart. disposition, inclination, leaning, animus; frame of mind, humor, mood, vein; bent &c. (turn of mind) 820; penchant &c. (desire) 865; aptitude &c. 698. docility, docibleness[obs3]; persuasibleness[obs3], persuasibility[obs3]; pliability &c. (softness) 324. geniality, cordiality; goodwill; alacrity, readiness, earnestness, forwardness; eagerness &c. (desire) 865. asset &c. 488; compliance &c. 762; pleasure &c. (will) 600; gratuitous service. labor of love; volunteer, volunteering. V. be willing &c. adj.; incline, lean to, mind, propend; had as lief; lend a willing ear, give a willing ear, turn a willing ear; have a half a mind to, have a great mind to; hold to, cling to; desire &c. 865. see fit, think good, think proper; acquiesce &c (assent) 488; comply with &c. 762. swallow the bait, nibble at the bait; gorge the hook; have no scruple of, make no scruple of; make no bones of; jump at, catch at; meet halfway; volunteer. Adj. willing, minded, fain, disposed, inclined, favorable; favorably- minded, favorably inclined, favorably disposed; nothing loth; in the vein, in the mood, in the humor, in the mind. ready, forward, earnest, eager; bent upon &c. (desirous) 865; predisposed, propense[obs3]. docile; persuadable, persuasible; suasible[obs3], easily persuaded, facile, easy-going; tractable &c. (pliant) 324; genial, gracious, cordial, cheering, hearty; content &c. (assenting) 488. voluntary, gratuitous, spontaneous; unasked &c. (ask &c. 765); unforced &c. (free) 748. Adv. willingly &c. adj.; fain, freely, as lief, heart and soul; with pleasure, with all one's heart, with open arms; with good will, with right will; de bonne volonte[Fr], ex animo[Lat]; con amore[It], heart in hand, nothing loth, without reluctance, of one's own accord, graciously, with a good grace. a la bonne heure[Fr]; by all means, by all manner of means; to one's heart's content; yes &c. (assent) 488.

#603. Unwillingness.—N. unwillingness &c. adj.; indisposition, indisposedness[obs3]; disinclination, aversation[obs3]; nolleity[obs3], nolition[obs3]; renitence[obs3], renitency; reluctance; indifference &c. 866; backwardness &c. adj.; slowness &c. 275; want of alacrity, want of readiness; indocility &c. (obstinacy) 606[obs3]. scrupulousness, scrupulosity; qualms of conscience, twinge of conscience; delicacy, demur, scruple, qualm, shrinking, recoil; hesitation &c. (irresolution) 605; fastidiousness &c. 868. averseness &c. (dislike) 867[obs3]; dissent &c. 489; refusal &c. 764. V. be unwilling &c. adj.; nill; dislike &c. 867; grudge, begrudge; not be able to find it in one's heart to, not have the stomach to. demur, stick at, scruple, stickle; hang fire, run rusty; recoil, shrink, swerve; hesitate &c. 605; avoid &c. 623. oppose &c. 708; dissent &c. 489; refuse &c. 764. Adj. unwilling; not in the vein, loth, loath, shy of, disinclined, indisposed, averse, reluctant, not content; adverse &c. (opposed) 708; laggard, backward, remiss, slack, slow to; indifferent &c. 866; scrupulous; squeamish &c. (fastidious) 868; repugnant &c. (dislike) 867; restiff|, restive; demurring &c. v.; unconsenting &c. (refusing) 764; involuntary &c. 601. Adv. unwillingly &c. adj.; grudgingly, with a heavy heart; with a bad, with an ill grace; against one's wishes, against one's will, against the grain, sore against one's wishes, sore against one's will, sore against one's grain; invita Minerva[Lat]; a contre caeur[Fr]; malgre soi[Fr]; in spite of one's teeth, in spite of oneself; nolens volens &c. (necessity) 601[Lat]; perforce &c. 744; under protest; no &c. 536; not for the world, far be it from me.

#604. Resolution.—N. determination, will; iron will, unconquerable will; will of one's own, decision, resolution; backbone; clear grit, true grit, grit [U. S. &can.]; sand, strength of mind, strength of will; resolve &c. (intent) 620; firmness &c. (stability) 150; energy, manliness, vigor; game, pluck; resoluteness &c. (courage) 861; zeal &c. 682; aplomb; desperation; devotion, devotedness. mastery over self; self control, self command, self possession, self reliance, self government, self restraint, self conquest, self denial; moral courage, moral strength; perseverance &c. 604a; tenacity; obstinacy &c. 606; bulldog; British lion. V. have determination &c. n.; know one's own mind; be resolved &c. adj.; make up one's mind, will, resolve, determine; decide &c. (judgment) 480; form a determination, come to a determination, come to a resolution, come to a resolve; conclude, fix, seal, determine once for all, bring to a crisis, drive matters to an extremity; take a decisive step &c. (choice) 609; take upon oneself &c. (undertake) 676. devote oneself to, give oneself up to; throw away the scabbard, kick down the ladder, nail one's colors to the mast, set one's back against the wall, set one's teeth, put one's foot down, take one's stand; stand firm &c. (stability) 150; steel oneself; stand no nonsense, not listen to the voice of the charmer. buckle to; buckle oneself put one's shoulder to the wheel, lay one's shoulder to the wheel, set one's shoulder to the wheel; put one's heart into; run the gauntlet, make a dash at, take the bull by the horns; rush in medias res, plunge in medias res; go in for; insist upon, make a point of; set one's heart upon, set one's mind upon. stick at nothing, stop at nothing; make short work of &c. (activity) 682; not stick at trifles; go all lengths, go the limit *, go the whole hog; persist &c. (persevere) 604a; go through fire and water, ride the tiger, ride in the whirlwind and direct the storm. Adj. resolved &c. v.; determined; strong-willed, strong-minded; resolute &c. (brave) 861; self-possessed; decided, definitive, peremptory, tranchant[obs3]; unhesitating, unflinching, unshrinking[obs3]; firm, iron, gritty [U.S.], indomitable, game to the backbone; inexorable, relentless, not to be shaken, not to be put down; tenax propositi[Lat]; inflexible &c. (hard) 323; obstinate &c. 606; steady &c. (persevering) 604a. earnest, serious; set upon, bent upon, intent upon. steel against, proof against; in utrumque paratus[Lat]. Adv. resolutely &c. adj.; in earnest, in good earnest; seriously, joking apart, earnestly, heart and soul; on one's mettle; manfully, like a man, with a high hand; with a strong hand &c. (exertion) 686. at any rate, at any risk, at any hazard at any price, at any cost, at any sacrifice; at all hazards, at all risks, at all events; a bis ou a blanc[Fr][obs3]; cost what it may; coute[Fr]; a tort et a travers[obs3]; once for all; neck or nothing; rain or shine. Phr. spes sibi quisque[Lat]; celui qui veut celui-la peut[Fr]; chi non s'arrischia non guadagna[Fr][obs3]; frangas non flectes[Lat]; manu forti[Lat]; tentanda via est[Lat].

#604a. Perseverance.—N. perseverance; continuance &c. (inaction) 143; permanence &c. (absence of change) 141; firmness &c. (stability) 150. constancy, steadiness; singleness of purpose, tenacity of purpose; persistence, plodding, patience; sedulity &c. (industry) 682; pertinacy|, pertinacity, pertinaciousness; iteration &c. 104 bottom, game, pluck, stamina, backbone, grit; indefatigability, indefatigableness; bulldog courage. V. persevere, persist; hold on, hold out; die in the last ditch, be in at the death; stick to, cling to, adhere to; stick to one's text, keep on; keep to one's course, keep to one's ground, maintain one's course, maintain one's ground; go all lengths, go through fire and water; bear up, keep up, hold up; plod; stick to work &c. (work) 686; continue &c. 143; follow up; die in harness, die at one's post. Adj. persevering, constant; steady, steadfast; undeviating, unwavering, unfaltering, unswerving, unflinching, unsleeping[obs3], unflagging, undrooping[obs3]; steady as time; unrelenting, unintermitting[obs3], unremitting; plodding; industrious &c. 682; strenuous &c. 686; pertinacious; persisting, persistent. solid, sturdy, staunch, stanch, true to oneself; unchangeable &c. 150; unconquerable &c. (strong) 159; indomitable, game to the last, indefatigable, untiring, unwearied, never tiring. Adv. through evil report and good report, through thick and thin, through fire and water; per fas et nefas[Lat]; without fail, sink or swim, at any price, vogue la galere[Fr].. Phr. never say die; give it the old college try; vestigia nulla retrorsum[Lat]; aut vincer aut mori[Lat]; la garde meurt et ne se rend pas[Fr]; tout vient a temps pour qui sait attendre[Fr].

#605. Irresolution.—N. irresolution, infirmity of purpose, indecision; indetermination, undetermination|!; unsettlement; uncertainty &c. 475; demur, suspense; hesitating &c. v., hesitation, hesitancy; vacillation; changeableness &c. 149; fluctuation; alternation &c. (oscillation) 314; caprice &c. 608. fickleness, levity, legerete[Fr]; pliancy &c. (softness) 324; weakness; timidity &c. 860; cowardice &c. 862; half measures. waverer, ass between two bundles of hay; shuttlecock, butterfly; wimp; doughface [obs3][U. S.]. V. be irresolute &c. adj.; hang in suspense, keep in suspense; leave "ad referendum"; think twice about, pause; dawdle &c. (inactivity) 683; remain neuter; dillydally, hesitate, boggle, hover, dacker[obs3], hum and haw, demur, not know one's own mind; debate, balance; dally with, coquet with; will and will not, chaser-balancer[obs3]; go halfway, compromise, make a compromise; be thrown off one's balance, stagger like a drunken man; be afraid &c. 860; "let 'I dare not' wait upon 'I would'" [Macbeth]; falter, waver vacillate &c. 149; change &c. 140; retract &c. 607; fluctuate; pendulate[obs3]; alternate &c. (oscillate) 314; keep off and on, play fast and loose; blow hot and cold &c. (caprice) 608. shuffle, palter, blink; trim. Adj. irresolute, infirm of purpose, double-minded, half-hearted; undecided, unresolved, undetermined; shilly-shally; fidgety, tremulous; hesitating &c. v.; off one's balance; at a loss &c. (uncertain) 475. vacillating &c. v.; unsteady &c. (changeable) 149; unsteadfast[obs3], fickle, without ballast; capricious &c. 608; volatile, frothy; light, lightsome, light-minded; giddy; fast and loose. weak, feeble-minded, frail; timid, wimpish, wimpy &c. 860; cowardly &c. 862; dough-faced [U.S.]; facile; pliant &c. (soft) 324; unable to say "no", easy-going, revocable, reversible. Adv. irresolutely &c. adj.; irresolved[obs3], irresolvedly[obs3]; in faltering accents; off and on; from pillar to post; seesaw &c. 314. Int. "how happy could I be with either!" [Gay].

#606. Obstinacy.—N. obstinateness &c. adj.; obstinacy, tenacity; cussedness [U. S.]; perseverance &c. 604a; immovability; old school; inflexibility &c. (hardness) 323; obduracy, obduration[obs3]; dogged resolution; resolution &c. 604; ruling passion; blind side. self-will, contumacy, perversity; pervicacy|, pervicacity[obs3]; indocility[obs3]. bigotry, intolerance, dogmatism; opiniatry|, opiniativeness; fixed idea &c. (prejudgment) 481; fanaticism, zealotry, infatuation, monomania; opinionatedness opinionativeness[obs3]. mule; opinionist|, opinionatist[obs3], opiniator|, opinator|; stickler, dogmatist; bigot; zealot, enthusiast, fanatic. V. be obstinate &c. adj.; stickle, take no denial, fly in the face of facts; opinionate, be wedded to an opinion, hug a belief; have one's own way &c. (will) 600; persist &c. (persevere) 604a; have the last word, insist on having the last word. die hard, fight against destiny, not yield an inch, stand out. Adj. obstinate, tenacious, stubborn, obdurate, casehardened; inflexible &c. (hard) 323; balky; immovable, unshakable, not to be moved; inert &c. 172; unchangeable &c. 150; inexorable &c. (determined) 604; mulish, obstinate as a mule, pig-headed. dogged; sullen, sulky; unmoved, uninfluenced, unaffected. willful, self-willed, perverse; resty[obs3], restive, restiff|; pervicacious[obs3], wayward, refractory, unruly; heady, headstrong; entete[Fr]; contumacious; crossgrained[obs3]. arbitrary, dogmatic, positive, bigoted; prejudiced &c. 481; creed- bound; prepossessed, infatuated; stiff-backed, stiff necked, stiff hearted; hard-mouthed, hidebound; unyielding; impervious, impracticable, inpersuasible[obs3]; unpersuadable; intractable, untractable[obs3]; incorrigible, deaf to advice, impervious to reason; crotchety &c. 608. Adv. obstinately &c. adj. Phr. non possumus[Lat]; no surrender; ils n'ont rien appris ne rien oublie[Fr].

#607. Tergiversation.—N. change of mind, change of intention, change of purpose; afterthought. tergiversation, recantation; palinode, palinody[obs3]; renunciation; abjuration,abjurement[obs3]; defection &c. (relinquishment) 624; going over &c. v.; apostasy; retraction, retractation[obs3]; withdrawal; disavowal &c. (negation) 536; revocation, revokement[obs3]; reversal; repentance &c. 950- redintegratio amoris[Lat]. coquetry; vacillation &c. 605; backsliding; volte-face[Fr]. turn coat, turn tippet|; rat, apostate, renegade; convert, pervert; proselyte, deserter; backslider; blackleg, crawfish [U. S.], scab*, mugwump [U. S.], recidivist. time server, time pleaser[obs3]; timist|, Vicar of Bray, trimmer, ambidexter[obs3]; weathercock &c. (changeable) 149; Janus. V. change one's mind, change one's intention, change one's purpose, change one's note; abjure, renounce; withdraw from &c. (relinquish) 624; waver, vacillate; wheel round, turn round, veer round; turn a pirouette; go over from one side to another, pass from one side to another, change from one side to another, skip from one side to another; go to the rightabout; box the compass, shift one's ground, go upon another tack. apostatize, change sides, go over, rat; recant, retract; revoke; rescind &c. (abrogate) 756; recall; forswear, unsay; come over, come round to an opinion; crawfish *[U. S.], crawl* [U. S.]. draw in one's horns, eat one's words; eat the leek, swallow the leek; swerve, flinch, back out of, retrace one's steps, think better of it; come back return to one's first love; turn over a new leaf &c. (repent) 950. trim, shuffle, play fast and loose, blow hot and cold, coquet, be on the fence, straddle, bold with the hare but run with the hounds; nager entre deux eaux[Fr]; wait to see how the cat jumps, wait to see how the wind blows. Adj. changeful &c. 149; irresolute &c. 605; ductile, slippery as an eel, trimming, ambidextrous, timeserving[obs3]; coquetting &c. v. revocatory[obs3], reactionary. Phr. "a change came o'er the spirit of my dream" [Byron].

#608. Caprice.—N. caprice, fancy, humor; whim, whimsy, whimsey[obs3], whimwham[obs3]; crotchet, capriccio, quirk, freak, maggot, fad, vagary, prank, fit, flimflam, escapade, boutade[Fr], wild-goose chase; capriciousness &c. adj.; kink. V. be capricious &c. adj.; have a maggot in the brain; take it into one's head, strain at a gnat and swallow a camel; blow hot and cold; play fast and loose, play fantastic tricks; tourner casaque[Fr]. Adj. capricious; erratic, eccentric, fitful, hysterical; full of whims &c. n.; maggoty; inconsistent, fanciful, fantastic, whimsical, crotchety, kinky [U. S.], particular, humorsome[obs3], freakish, skittish, wanton, wayward; contrary; captious; arbitrary; unconformable &c. 83; penny wise and pound foolish; fickle &c. (irresolute) 605; frivolous, sleeveless, giddy, volatile. Adv. by fits and starts, without rhyme or reason. Phr. nil fuit unquain sic inipar sibi[Lat]; the deuce is in him.

#609. Choice.—N. choice, option; discretion &c. (volition) 600; preoption[obs3]; alternative; dilemma, embarras de choix[Fr]; adoption, cooptation[obs3]; novation[obs3]; decision &c. (judgment) 480. election; political election (politics) 737a. selection, excerption, gleaning, eclecticism; excerpta[obs3], gleanings, cuttings, scissors and paste; pick &c. (best) 650. preference, prelation[obs3], opinion poll, survey; predilection &c. (desire) 865. V. offers one's choice, set before; hold out the alternative, present the alternative, offer the alternative; put to the vote. use option, use discretion, exercise option, exercise discretion, one's option; adopt, take up, embrace, espouse; choose, elect, opt for; take one's choice, make one's choice; make choice of, fix upon. vote, poll, hold up one's hand; divide. settle; decide &c. (adjudge) 480; list &c. (will) 600; make up one's mind &c. (resolve) 604. select; pick and choose; pick out, single out; cull, glean, winnow; sift the chaff from the wheat, separate the chaff from the wheat, winnow the chaff from the wheat; pick up, pitch upon; pick one's way; indulge one's fancy. set apart, mark out for; mark &c. 550. prefer; have rather, have as lief; fancy &c. (desire) 865; be persuaded &c. 615. take a decided step, take a decisive step; commit oneself to a course; pass the Rubicon, cross the Rubicon; cast in one's lot with; take for better or for worse. Adj. optional; discretional &c. (voluntary) 600. eclectic; choosing &c. v.; preferential; chosen &c. v.; choice &c. (good) 648. Adv. optionally &c. adj.; at pleasure &c. (will) 600; either the one or the other; or at the option of; whether or not; once and for all; for one's money. by choice, by preference; in preference; rather, before.

#609a. Absence of Choice.—N. no choice, Hobson's choice; first come
first served, random selection; necessity &c. 601; not a pin to choose &c.
(equality) 27; any, the first that comes; that or nothing.
     neutrality, indifference; indecision &c. (irresolution) 605;
     coercion (compulsion) 744.
     V. be neutral &c. adj.; have no choice, have no election; waive, not
vote; abstain from voting, refrain from voting; leave undecided; "make a
virtue of necessity" [Two Gentlemen].
     Adj. neutral, neuter; indifferent, uninterested; undecided &c.
(irresolute) 605.
     Adv. either &c. (choice) 609.
     Phr. who cares? what difference does it make? "There's not a dime's
worth of difference between them." [George Wallace].

#610. Rejection.—N. rejection, repudiation, exclusion; refusal &c. 764; declination V. reject; set aside, lay aside; give up; decline &c. (refuse) 764; exclude, except; pluck, spin; cast. repudiate, scout, set at naught; fling to the winds, fling to the dogs, fling overboard, fling away, cast to the winds, cast to the dogs, cast overboard, cast away, throw to the winds, throw to the dogs, throw overboard, throw away, toss to the winds, toss to the dogs, toss overboard, toss away; send to the right about; disclaim &c. (deny) 536; discard &c. (eject) 297, (have done with) 678. Adj. rejected &c. v.; reject, rejectaneous|, rejectious|; not chosen &c. 609, to be thought of, out of the question Adv. neither, neither the one nor the other; no &c 536. Phr. non haec in faedera[Lat].

#611. Predetermination.—N. predestination, preordination, premeditation, predeliberation[obs3], predetermination; foregone conclusion, fait accompli[Fr]; parti pris[Fr]; resolve, propendency|; intention &c. 620; project &c. 626; fate, foredoom, necessity. V. predestine, preordain, predetermine, premeditate, resolve, concert; resolve beforehand, predesignate. Adj. prepense[obs3], premeditated &c. v., predesignated, predesigned[obs3]; advised, studied, designed, calculated; aforethought; intended &c. 620; foregone. well-laid, well-devised, well-weighed; maturely considered; cunning. Adv. advisedly &c. adj.; with premeditation, deliberately, all things considered, with eyes open, in cold blood; intentionally &c. 620.

#612. Impulse.—N. impulse, sudden thought; impromptu, improvisation; inspiration, flash, spurt. improvisatore[obs3]; creature of impulse. V. flash on the mind. say what comes uppermost; improvise, extemporize. Adj. extemporaneous, impulsive, indeliberate[obs3]; snap; improvised, improvisate[obs3], improvisatory[obs3]; unpremeditated, unmeditated; improvise; unprompted, unguided; natural, unguarded; spontaneous &c. (voluntary) 600; instinctive &c. 601. Adv. extempore, extemporaneously; offhand, impromptu, a limproviste[Fr]; improviso[obs3]; on the spur of the moment, on the spur of the occasion.

#613. Habit. [includes commonness due to frequency of occurrence]— N. habit, habitude; assuetude|, assuefaction|, wont; run, way. common state of things, general state of things, natural state of things, ordinary state of things, ordinary course of things, ordinary run of things; matter of course; beaten path, beaten track, beaten ground. prescription, custom, use, usage, immemorial usage, practice; prevalence, observance; conventionalism, conventionality; mode, fashion, vogue; etiquette &c. (gentility) 852; order of the day, cry; conformity &c. 82; consuetude,.dustoor[obs3]. one's old way, old school, veteris vestigia flammae[Lat]; laudator temporis acti[Lat]. rule, standing order, precedent, routine; red-tape, red-tapism[obs3]; pipe clay; rut, groove. cacoethes[Lat]; bad habit, confirmed habit, inveterate habit, intrinsic habit &c.; addiction, trick. training &c. (education) 537; seasoning, second nature, acclimatization; knack &c. V. be wont &c. adj. fall into a rut, fall into a custom &c. (conform to) 82; tread the beaten track, follow the beaten track, tread the beaten path, follow the beaten; stare super antiquas vias[Lat][obs3]; move in a rut, run on in a groove, go round like a horse in a mill, go on in the old jog trot way. habituate, inure, harden, season, caseharden; accustom, familiarize; naturalize, acclimatize; keep one's hand in; train &c. (educate) 537. get into the way, get into the knack of; learn &c. 539; cling to, adhere to; repeat &c. 104; acquire a habit, contract a habit, fall into a habit, acquire a trick, contract a trick, fall into a trick; addict oneself to, take to, get into. be habitual &c. adj.; prevail; come into use, become a habit, take root; gain upon one, grow upon one. Adj. habitual; accustomary[obs3]; prescriptive, accustomed &c. v.; of daily occurrence, of everyday occurrence; consuetudinary[obs3]; wonted, usual, general, ordinary, common, frequent, everyday, household, garden variety, jog, trot; well-trodden, well-known; familiar, vernacular, trite, commonplace, conventional, regular, set, stock, established, stereotyped; prevailing, prevalent; current, received, acknowledged, recognized, accredited; of course, admitted, understood. conformable. &c. 82; according to use, according to custom, according to routine; in vogue, in fashion, in, with it; fashionable &c. (genteel) 852. wont; used to, given to, addicted to, attuned to, habituated &c. v.; in the habit of; habitue; at home in &c. (skillful) 698; seasoned; imbued with; devoted to, wedded to. hackneyed, fixed, rooted, deep-rooted, ingrafted[obs3], permanent, inveterate, besetting; naturalized; ingrained &c. (intrinsic) 5. Adv. habitually &c. adj.; always &c. (uniformly) 16. as usual, as is one's wont, as things go, as the world goes, as the sparks fly upwards; more suo, more solito[Lat]; ex more. as a rule, for the most part; usually, generally, typically &c. adj.; most often, most frequently. Phr. cela s'entend[Fr]; abeunt studia in mores[Lat]; adeo in teneris consuescere multum est[Lat]; consuetudo quasi altera natura [Lat][Cicero]; hoc erat in more majorum[Lat]; "How use doth breed a habit in a man!" [Two Gentlemen]; magna est vis consuetudinis[Lat]; morent fecerat usus [Lat][Ovid].

#614. Desuetude.—N. desuetude, disusage[obs3]; obsolescence, disuse &c. 678; want of habit, want of practice; inusitation[obs3]; newness to; new brooms. infraction of usage &c. (unconformity) 83; nonprevalence[obs3]; "a custom more honored in the breach than the observance" [Hamlet]. V. be -unaccustomed &c. adj.; leave off a habit, cast off a habit, break off a habit, wean oneself of a habit, violate a habit, break through a habit, infringe a habit, leave off a custom, cast off a custom, break off a custom, wean oneself of a custom, violate a custom, break through a custom, infringe a custom, leave off a usage, cast off a usage, break off a usage, wean oneself of a usage, violate a usage, break through a usage, infringe a usage; disuse &c. 678; wear off. Adj. unaccustomed, unused, unwonted, unseasoned, uninured[obs3], unhabituated[obs3], untrained; new; green &c. (unskilled) 699; unhackneyed. unusual &c. (unconformable) 83; nonobservant[obs3]; disused &c. 678.

2. Causes of Volition

#615. Motive.—N. motive, springs of action, wellsprings of action. reason, ground, call, principle; by end, by purpose; mainspring, primum mobile[Lat], keystone; the why and the wherefore; pro and con, reason why; secret motive, arriere pensee[Fr]; intention &c. 620. inducement, consideration; attraction; loadstone; magnet, magnetism, magnetic force; allectation|, allective|; temptation, enticement, agacerie[obs3], allurement, witchery; bewitchment, bewitchery; charm; spell &c. 993; fascination, blandishment, cajolery; seduction, seducement; honeyed words, voice of the tempter, song of the Sirens forbidden fruit, golden apple. persuasibility[obs3], persuasibleness[obs3]; attractability[obs3]; impressibility, susceptibility; softness; persuasiveness, attractiveness; tantalization[obs3]. influence, prompting, dictate, instance; impulse, impulsion; incitement, incitation; press, instigation; provocation &c. (excitation of feeling) 824; inspiration; persuasion, suasion; encouragement, advocacy; exhortation; advice &c. 695; solicitation &c. (request) 765; lobbyism; pull*. incentive, stimulus, spur, fillip, whip, goad, ankus[obs3], rowel, provocative, whet, dram. bribe, lure; decoy, decoy duck; bait, trail of a red herring; bribery and corruption; sop, sop for Cerberus. prompter, tempter; seducer, seductor[obs3]; instigator, firebrand, incendiary; Siren, Circe; agent provocateur; lobbyist. V. induce, move; draw, draw on; bring in its train, give an impulse &c. n.; to; inspire; put up to, prompt, call up; attract, beckon. stimulate &c. (excite) 824; spirit up, inspirit; rouse, arouse; animate, incite, foment, provoke, instigate, set on, actuate; act upon, work upon, operate upon; encourage; pat on the back, pat on the shoulder, clap on the back, clap on the shoulder. influence, weigh with, bias, sway, incline, dispose, predispose, turn the scale, inoculate; lead by the nose; have influence with, have influence over, have influence upon, exercise influence with, exercise influence over, exercise influence upon; go round, come round one; turn the head, magnetize; lobby. persuade; prevail with, prevail upon; overcome, carry; bring round to one's senses, bring to one's senses; draw over, win over, gain over, come over, talk over; procure, enlist, engage; invite, court. tempt, seduce, overpersuade[obs3], entice, allure, captivate, fascinate, bewitch, carry away, charm, conciliate, wheedle, coax, lure; inveigle; tantalize; cajole &c. (deceive) 545. tamper with, bribe, suborn, grease the palm, bait with a silver hook, gild the pill, make things pleasant, put a sop into the pan, throw a sop to, bait the hook. enforce, force; impel &c. (push) 276; propel &c. 284; whip, lash, goad, spur, prick, urge; egg on, hound, hurry on; drag &c. 285; exhort; advise &c. 695; call upon &c. press &c. (request) 765; advocate. set an example, set the fashion; keep in countenance. be persuaded &c.; yield to temptation, come round; concede &c. (consent) 762; obey a call; follow advice, follow the bent,.follow the dictates of; act on principle. Adj. impulsive, motive; suasive, suasory[obs3], persuasive, persuasory[obs3], hortative, hortatory; protreptical|; inviting, tempting, &c. v.; suasive, suasory[obs3]; seductive, attractive; fascinating &c. (pleasing) 829; provocative &c. (exciting) 824. induced &c. v.; disposed; persuadable &c. (docile) 602; spellbound; instinct with, smitten with, infatuated; inspired &c. v.; by. Adv. because, therefore &c. (cause) 155; from this motive, from that motive; for this reason, for that reason; for; by reason of, for the sake of, count of; out of, from, as, forasmuch as. for all the world; on principle. Phr. fax mentis incendium gloriae[Lat]; "temptation hath a music for all ears" "to beguile many and be beguiled by one" [Willis][Othello].

#615a. Absence of Motive.—N. absence of motive, aimlessness;
caprice &c. 608; chance &c. (absence of design) 621.
     V. have no motive; scruple &c. (be unwilling) 603.
     Adj. without rhyme or reason; aimless, capricious, whimsical &c.
(chance) 621.
     Adv. out of mere caprice.

#616. Dissuasion.—N. dissuasion, dehortation[obs3], expostulation, remonstrance; deprecation &c. 766. discouragement, damper, wet blanket; disillusionment, disenchantment. cohibition &c. (restraint) 751[obs3]; curb &c. (means of restraint) 752; check &c. (hindrance) 706. reluctance &c. (unwillingness) 603; contraindication. V. dissuade, dehort[obs3], cry out against, remonstrate, expostulate, warn, contraindicate. disincline, indispose, shake, stagger; dispirit; discourage, dishearten; deter; repress, hold back, keep back &c. (restrain) 751; render averse &c. 603; repel; turn aside &c. (deviation) 279; wean from; act as a drag &c. (hinder) 706; throw cold water on, damp, cool, chill, blunt, calm, quiet, quench; deprecate &c. 766. disenchant, disillusion, deflate, take down a peg, pop one's balloon, prick one's balloon, burst one's bubble; disabuse (correction) 527a. Adj. dissuading &c. v.; dissuasive; dehortatory[obs3], expostulatory[obs3]; monitive|, monitory. dissuaded &c. v.; admonitory; uninduced &c. (induce &c. 615); unpersuadable &c. (obstinate) 606; averse &c. (unwilling) 603; repugnant &c. (dislike) 867. repressed.

#617. [Ostensible motive, ground, or reason assigned.] Pretext.—N. pretext, pretense, pretension, plea|; allegation, advocation; ostensible motive, ostensible ground, ostensible reason, phony reason; excuse &c. (vindication) 937; subterfuge; color; gloss, guise, cover. loop hole, starting hole; how to creep out of, salvo, come off; way of escape. handle, peg to hang on, room locus standi[Lat]; stalking-horse, cheval de bataille[Fr], cue. pretense &c. (untruth) 546; put off, dust thrown in the eyes; blind; moonshine; mere pretext, shallow pretext; lame excuse, lame apology; tub to a whale; false plea, sour grapes; makeshift, shift, white lie; special pleading &c. (sophistry) 477; soft sawder &c. (flattery) 933[obs3]. V. pretend, plead, allege; shelter oneself under the plea of; excuse &c. (vindicate) 937; lend a color to; furnish a handle &c. n.; make a pretext of, make a handle of; use as a plea &c. n.; take one's stand upon, make capital out of, pretend &c. (lie) 544. Adj. ostensibly &c. (manifest) 525; alleged, apologetic; pretended &c. 545. Adv. ostensibly; under color; under the plea, under the pretense of, under the guise of.

3. Objects of Volition

#618. Good.—N. good, benefit, advantage; improvement &c. 658; greatest good, supreme good; interest, service, behoof, behalf; weal; main chance, summum bonum[Lat], common weal; "consummation devoutly to be wished"; gain, boot; profit, harvest. boon &c. (gift) 784; good turn; blessing; world of good; piece of good luck[Fr], piece of good fortune[Fr]; nuts, prize, windfall, godsend, waif, treasure-trove. good fortune &c. (prosperity) 734; happiness &c. 827. [Source of good] goodness &c. 648; utility &c. 644; remedy &c. 662; pleasure giving &c. 829. Adj. commendable &c. 931; useful &c. 644; good &c., beneficial &c. 648. Adv. well, aright, satisfactorily, favorably, not amis[Fr]; all for the best; to one's advantage &c. n.; in one's favor, in one's interest &c. n. Phr. so far so good; magnum bonum[Lat].

#619. Evil.—N. evil, ill, harm, hurt., mischief, nuisance;
machinations of the devil, Pandora's box, ills that flesh is heir to.
     blow, buffet, stroke, scratch, bruise, wound, gash, mutilation; mortal
blow, wound; immedicabile vulnus[Lat]; damage, loss &c. (deterioration)
     disadvantage, prejudice, drawback.
     disaster, accident, casualty; mishap &c. (misfortune) 735; bad job,
devil to pay; calamity, bale, catastrophe, tragedy; ruin &c. (destruction)
162; adversity &c. 735.
     mental suffering &c. 828. * demon &v[Evil spirit]. 980. bane &c.
663[Cause of evil]. badness &c. 649[Production of evil]; painfulness &c.
830; evil doer &c. 913.
     outrage, wrong, injury, foul play; bad turn, ill turn; disservice,
spoliation &c. 791; grievance, crying evil.
     V. be in trouble &c. (adversity) 735.
     Adj. disastrous, bad &c. 649; awry, out of joint; disadvantageous.
     Adv. amis[Fr], wrong, ill, to one's cost
     Phr. "moving accidents by flood and field" [Othello].


[1] That is, volition having reference to a future object.

1. Conceptional Volition

#620. Intention.—N. intent, intention, intentionality; purpose; quo animo[Lat]; project &c. 626; undertaking &c. 676; predetermination &c. 611; design, ambition. contemplation, mind, animus, view, purview, proposal; study; look out. final cause; raison d'etre[Fr]; cui bono[Lat]; object, aim, end; "the be all and the end all"; drift &c. (meaning) 516; tendency &c. 176; destination, mark, point, butt, goal, target, bull's-eye, quintain[obs3][medeival]; prey, quarry, game. decision, determination, resolve; fixed set purpose, settled purpose; ultimatum; resolution &c. 604; wish &c. 865; arriere pensee[Fr]; motive &c. 615. [Study of final causes] teleology. V. intend, purpose, design, mean; have to; propose to oneself; harbor a design; have in view, have in contemplation, have in one's eye, have in- petto; have an eye to. bid for, labor for; be after, aspire after, endeavor after; be at, aim at, drive at, point at, level at, aspire at; take aim; set before oneself; study to. take upon oneself &c. (undertake) 676; take into one's head; meditate, contemplate of, think of, dream of, talk of; premeditate &c. 611; compass, calculate; destine, destinate[obs3]; propose. project &c. (plan) 626; have a mind to &c. (be willing) 602; desire &c. 865; pursue &c. 622. Adj. intended &c. v.; intentional, advised, express, determinate; prepense &c. 611[obs3]; bound for; intending &c. v.; minded; bent upon &c. (earnest) 604; at stake; on the anvil, on the tapis[obs3]; in view, in prospect, in the breast of; in petto; teleological Adv. intentionally &c. adj.; advisedly, wittingly, knowingly, designedly, purposely, on purpose, by design, studiously, pointedly; with intent &c. n.; deliberately &c. (with premeditation) 611; with one's eyes open, in cold blood. for; with a view, with an eye to; in order to, in order that; to the end that, with the intent that; for the purpose of, with the view of, in contemplation of, on account of. in pursuance of, pursuant to; quo animo[Lat]; to all intents and purposes. Phr. "The road to hell is paved with good intentions" [Johnson]; sublimi feriam sidera vertice [Lat][Horace].

#621. [Absence of purpose in the succession of events] Chance. 2—N. chance &c. 156; lot, fate &c. (necessity) 601; luck; good luck &c. (good) 618; mascot. speculation, venture, stake, game of chance; mere shot, random shot; blind bargain, leap in the dark; pig in a poke &c. (uncertainty) 475; fluke, potluck; faro bank; flyer*; limit. uncertainty; uncertainty principle, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. drawing lots; sortilegy[obs3], sortition|; sortes[obs3], sortes Virgilianae[obs3]; rouge et noir[Fr], hazard, ante, chuck-a-luck, crack-loo [obs3][U.S.], craps, faro, roulette, pitch and toss, chuck, farthing, cup tossing, heads or tails cross and pile, poker-dice; wager; bet, betting; gambling; the turf. gaming house, gambling house, betting house; bucket shop; gambling joint; totalizator, totalizer; hell; betting ring; dice, dice box. [person who takes chances] gambler, gamester; man of the turf; adventurer; dicer|!. V. chance &c. (hap) 156; stand a chance &c. (be possible) 470. toss up; cast lots, draw lots; leave to chance, trust to chance, leave to the chapter of accidents, trust to the chapter of accidents; tempt fortune; chance it, take one's chance, take a shot at it (attempt) 675; run the risk, run the chance, incur the risk, incur the chance, encounter the risk, encounter the chance; stand the hazard of the die. speculate, try one's luck, set on a cast, raffle, put into a lottery, buy a pig in a poke, shuffle the cards. risk, venture, hazard, stake; ante; lay, lay a wager; make a bet, wager, bet, gamble, game, play for; play at chuck farthing. Adj. fortuitous &c. 156; unintentional, unintended; accidental; not meant; undesigned, purposed; unpremeditated &c. 612; unforeseen, uncontemplated, never thought of. random, indiscriminate, promiscuous; undirected; aimless, driftless[obs3], designless[obs3], purposeless, causeless; without purpose. possible &c. 470. unforeseeable, unpredictable, chancy, risky, speculative, dicey. Adv. randomly, by chance, fortuitously; unpredictably, unforeseeably; casually &c. 156; unintentionally &c. adj.; unwittingly. en passant[Fr], by the way, incidentally; as it may happen; at random, at a venture, at haphazard. Phr. acierta errando[Lat]; dextro tempore[Lat]; "fearful concatenation of circumstances" [D. Webster]; "fortuitous combination of circumstances" [Dickens]; le jeu est le fils d'avarice et le pere du desespoir[Fr]; "the happy combination of fortuitous circumstances" [Scott]; "the fortuitous or casual concourse of atoms" [Bentley]; "God does not play dice with the universe" [A. Einstein].

#622. [Purpose in action.] Pursuit—N. pursuit; pursuing &c. v.; prosecution; pursuance; enterprise &c. (undertaking) 676; business &c. 625; adventure &c. (essay) 675; quest &c. (search) 461; scramble, hue and cry, game; hobby; still-hunt. chase, hunt, battue[obs3], race, steeple chase, hunting, coursing; venation, venery; fox chase; sport, sporting; shooting, angling, fishing, hawking; shikar[Geogloc:India]. pursuer; hunter, huntsman; shikari[Geogloc:India], sportsman, Nimrod; hound &c. 366. V. pursue, prosecute, follow; run after, make after, be after, hunt after, prowl after; shadow; carry on &c. (do) 680; engage in &c. (undertake) 676; set about &c. (begin) 66; endeavor &c. 675; court &c. (request) 765 seek &c. (search) 461; aim at &c. (intention) 620; follow the trail &c. (trace) 461; fish for &c. (experiment) 463; press on &c. (haste) 684; run a race &c. (velocity) 274. chase, give chase, course, dog, hunt, hound; tread on the heels, follow on the heels of, &c. (sequence) 281. rush upon; rush headlong &c. (violence) 173 ride full tilt at, run full tilt at; make a leap at, jump at, snatch at run down; start game. tread a path; take a course, hold- a course; shape one's steps, direct one's steps, bend one's steps, course; play a game; fight one's way, elbow one's way; follow up; take to, take up; go in for; ride one's hobby. Adj. pursuing &c. v.; in quest of &c. (inquiry) 461 in pursuit, in full cry, in hot pursuit; on the scent. Adv. in pursuance of &c. (intention) 620; after. Int. tallyho! yoicks! soho[obs3]!

#623. [Absence of pursuit.] Avoidance.—N. abstention, abstinence; for bearance[obs3]; refraining &c. v.; inaction &c. 681; neutrality. avoidance, evasion, elusion; seclusion &c. 893. avolation|, flight; escape &c. 671; retreat &c. 287; recoil &c. 277; departure &c. 293; rejection &c. 610. shirker &c. v.; truant; fugitive, refugee; runaway, runagate; maroon. V. abstain, refrain, spare, not attempt; not do &c. 681; maintain the even tenor of one's way. eschew, keep from, let alone, have nothing to do with; keep aloof keep off, stand aloof, stand off, hold aloof, hold off; take no part in, have no hand in. avoid, shun; steer clear of, keep clear of; fight shy of; keep one's distance, keep at a respectful distance; keep out of the way, get out of the way; evade, elude, turn away from; set one's face against &c. (oppose) 708; deny oneself. shrink back; hang back, hold back, draw back; recoil &c. 277; retire &c. (recede) 287; flinch, blink, blench, shy, shirk, dodge, parry, make way for, give place to. beat a retreat; turn tail, turn one's back; take to one's heels; runaway, run for one's life; cut and run; be off like a shot; fly, flee; fly away, flee away, run away from; take flight, take to flight; desert, elope; make off, scamper off, sneak off, shuffle off, sheer off; break away, tear oneself away, slip away, slink away, steel away, make away from, scamper away from, sneak away from, shuffle away from, sheer away from; slip cable, part company, turn one's heel; sneak out of, play truant, give one the go by, give leg bail, take French leave, slope, decamp, flit, bolt, abscond, levant, skedaddle, absquatulate [obs3][U.S.], cut one's stick, walk one's chalks, show a light pair of heels, make oneself scarce; escape &c. 671; go away &c. (depart) 293; abandon &c. 624; reject &c. 610. lead one a dance, lead one a pretty dance; throw off the scent, play at hide and seek. Adj. unsought, unattempted; avoiding &c. v.; neutral, shy of &c. (unwilling) 603; elusive, evasive; fugitive, runaway; shy, wild. Adj. lest, in order to avoid. Int. forbear! keep off, hands off! sauve qui peut[Fr]! [French: every man for himself]; devil take the hindmost! Phr. "things unattempted yet in prose or rhyme" [Paradise Lost].

#624. Relinquishment.—N. relinquishment, abandonment; desertion, defection, secession, withdrawal; cave of Adullam[obs3]; nolle prosequi[Lat]. discontinuance &c. (cessation) 142; renunciation &c. (recantation) 607; abrogation &c. 756; resignation &c. (retirement) 757; desuetude &c. 614; cession &c. (of property) 782. V. relinquish, give up, abandon, desert, forsake, leave in the lurch; go back on; depart from, secede from, withdraw from; back out of; leave, quit, take leave of, bid a long farewell; vacate &c. (resign) 757. renounce &c (abjure) 607; forego, have done with, drop; disuse &c. 678; discard &c. 782; wash one's hands of; drop all idea of. break off, leave off; desist; stop &c. (cease) 142; hold one's hand, stay one's hand; quit one's hold; give over, shut up shop. throw up the game, throw up the cards; give up the point, give up the argument; pass to the order of the day, move to the previous question. Adj. unpursued[obs3]; relinquished &c. v.; relinquishing &c. v. Int. avast! &c. (stop) 142. Phr. aufgeschoben ist nicht aufgehoben[Ger]; entbehre gern was du nicht hast[Ger].

#625. Business.—N. business, occupation, employment; pursuit &c. 622; what one is doing, what one is about; affair, concern, matter, case. matter in hand, irons in the fire; thing to do, agendum, task, work, job, chore [U.S.], errand, commission, mission, charge, care; duty &c. 926. part, role, cue; province, function, lookout, department, capacity, sphere, orb, field, line; walk, walk of life; beat, round, routine; race, career. office, place, post, chargeship[obs3], incumbency, living; situation, berth, employ; service &c. (servitude) 749; engagement; undertaking &c. 676. vocation, calling, profession, cloth, faculty; industry, art; industrial arts; craft, mystery, handicraft; trade &c. (commerce) 794. exercise; work &c. (action) 680; avocation; press of business &c. (activity) 682. V. pass one's time in, employ one's time in, spend one's time in; employ oneself in, employ oneself upon; occupy oneself with, concern oneself with; make it one's business &c. n.; undertake &c. 676; enter a profession; betake oneself to, turn one's hand to; have to do with &c. (do) 680. office, place, post, chargeship[obs3], incumbency, living; situation, berth, employ; service &c. (servitude) 749; engagement; undertaking &c. 676. drive a trade; carry on a trade, do a trade, transact a trade, carry on business, do business, transact business &c. n.; keep a shop; ply one's task, ply one's trade; labor in one's vocation; pursue the even tenor of one's way; attend to business, attend to one's work. officiate, serve, act; act one's part, play one's part; do duty; serve the office of, discharge the office of, perform the office of, perform the duties of, perform the functions of; hold an office, fill an office, fill a place, fill a situation; hold a portfolio, hold a place, hold a situation. be about, be doing, be engaged in, be employed in, be occupied with, be at work on; have one's hands in, have in hand; have on one's hands, have on one's shoulders; bear the burden; have one's hands full &c. (activity) 682. be in the hands of, be on the stocks, be on the anvil; pass through one's hands. Adj. businesslike; workaday; professional; official, functional; busy &c. (actively employed) 682; on hand, in hand, in one's hands; afoot; on foot, on the anvil; going on; acting. Adv. in the course of business, all in one's day's work; professionally &c. Adj. Phr. "a business with an income at its heels" [Cowper]; amoto quaeramus seria ludo [Lat][Horace]; par negotiis neque supra [Lat][Tacitus].

#626. Plan.—N. plan, scheme, design, project; proposal, proposition, suggestion; resolution, motion; precaution &c. (provision) 673; deep-laid plan &c. (premeditated) 611; system &c. (order) 58; organization &c. (arrangement) 60; germ &c. (cause) 153. sketch, skeleton, outline, draught, draft, ebauche[Fr], brouillon[Fr]; rough cast, rough draft, draught copy; copy; proof, revise. drawing, scheme, schematic, graphic, chart, flow chart (representation) 554. forecast, program(me), prospectus; carte du pays[Fr]; card; bill, protocol; order of the day, list of agenda; bill of fare &c. (food) 298; base of operations; platform, plank, slate [U. S.], ticket [U. S.]. role; policy &c. (line of conduct) 692. contrivance, invention, expedient, receipt, nostrum, artifice, device; pipelaying [U. S.]; stratagem &c. (cunning) 702; trick &c. (deception) 545; alternative, loophole; shift &c. (substitute) 147; last shift &c. (necessity) 601. measure, step; stroke, stroke of policy; master stroke; trump card, court card; cheval de bataille[Fr], great gun; coup, coup d'etat[Fr]; clever stroke, bold stroke, good move, good hit, good stroke; bright thought, bright idea. intrigue, cabal, plot, conspiracy, complot[obs3], machination; subplot, underplot[obs3], counterplot. schemer, schemist[obs3], schematist|; strategist, machinator; projector, artist, promoter, designer &c. v.; conspirator; intrigant &c. (cunning) 702[obs3]. V. plan,,scheme, design, frame, contrive, project, forecast, sketch; devise, invent &c. (imagine) 515; set one's wits to work &c. 515; spring a project; fall upon, hit upon; strike out, chalk out, cut out, lay out, map out; lay down a plan; shape out a course, mark out a course; predetermine &c. 611; concert, preconcert, preestablish; prepare &c. 673; hatch, hatch a plot concoct; take steps, take measures. cast, recast, systematize, organize; arrange &c. 60; digest, mature. plot; counter-plot, counter-mine; dig a mine; lay a train; intrigue &c. (cunning) 702. Adj. planned &c. v.; strategic, strategical; planning &c. v.; prepared, in course of preparation &c. 673; under consideration; on the tapis[obs3], on the carpet, on the floor.

#627. Method. [Path.]—N. method, way, manner, wise, gait, form, mode, fashion, tone, guise; modus operandi, MO; procedure &c. (line of conduct) 692. path, road, route, course; line of way, line of road; trajectory, orbit, track, beat, tack. steps; stair, staircase; flight of stairs, ladder, stile; perron[obs3]. bridge, footbridge, viaduct, pontoon, steppingstone, plank, gangway; drawbridge; pass, ford, ferry, tunnel; pipe &c. 260. door; gateway &c. (opening) 260; channel, passage, avenue, means of access, approach, adit[obs3]; artery, lane, alley, aisle, lobby, corridor; back-door, back-stairs; secret passage; covert way; vennel[obs3]. roadway, pathway, stairway; express; thoroughfare; highway; turnpike, freeway, royal road, coach road; broad highway, King's highway, Queen's highway; beaten track, beaten path; horse road, bridle road, bridle track, bridle path; walk, trottoir[obs3], footpath, pavement, flags, sidewalk; crossroad, byroad, bypath, byway; cut; short cut &c. (mid-course) 628; carrefour[obs3]; private road, occupation road; highways and byways; railroad, railway, tram road, tramway; towpath; causeway; canal &c. (conduit) 350; street &c. (abode) 189; speedway. adv. how; in what way, in what manner; by what mode; so, in this way, after this fashion. one way or another, anyhow; somehow or other &c. (instrumentality) 631; by way of; via; in transitu &c. 270[Lat]; on the high road to. Phr. hae tibi erunt artes[Lat].

#628. Mid-course.—N. middle course, midcourse; mean &c. 29 middle
&c. 68; juste milieu[Fr], mezzo termine[It], golden mean,
<gr/ariston metron/gr>[obs3][Grk], aurea mediocritas[Lat].
     straight &c. (direct) 278 straight course, straight path; short cut,
cross cut; great circle sailing.
     neutrality; half measure, half and half measures; compromise.
     V. keep in a middle course, preserve a middle course, preserve an even
course, go straight &c. (direct) 278.
     go halfway, compromise, make a compromise.
     Adj. straight &c. (direct) 278.
     Phr. medium tenuere beati[Lat].

#629. Circuit.—N. circuit, roundabout way, digression, detour,
circumbendibus, ambages[obs3], loop; winding &c. (circuition) 311[obs3];
zigzag &c. (deviation) 279.
     V. perform a circuit; go round about, go out of one's way; make a
detour; meander &c. (deviate) 279.
     lead a pretty dance; beat about the bush; make two bites of a cherry.
     Adj. circuitous, indirect, roundabout; zigzag &c. (deviating) 279;
     Adv. by a side wind, by an indirect course; in a roundabout way; from
pillar to post.

#630. Requirement.—N. requirement, need, wants, necessities;
necessaries, necessaries of life; stress, exigency, pinch, sine qua non,
matter of necessity; case of need, case of life or death.
     needfulness, essentiality, necessity, indispensability, urgency.
     requisition &c. (request) 765, (exaction) 741; run upon; demand, call
     charge, claim, command, injunction, mandate, order, precept.
     desideratum &c. (desire) 865; want &c. (deficiency) 640.
     V. require, need, want, have occasion for; not be able to do without,
not be able to dispense with; prerequire[obs3].
     render necessary, necessitate, create a, necessity for, call for, put
in requisition; make a requisition &c. (ask for) 765, (demand) 741.
     stand in need of; lack &c. 640; desiderate[obs3]; desire &c. 865; be
necessary &c. Adj.
     Adj. required &c. v.; requisite, needful, necessary, imperative,
essential, indispensable, prerequisite; called for; in demand, in request.
     urgent, exigent, pressing, instant, crying, absorbing.
     in want of; destitute of &c. 640.
     Adv. ex necessitate rei &c. (necessarily) 601[Lat]; of necessity.
     Phr. there is no time to lose; it cannot be spared, it cannot be
dispensed with; mendacem memorem esse oportet [Lat][Quintilian]; necessitas
non habet legem[Lat]; nec tecum possum trivere nec sine te [Lat][Martial].

2. Subservience to Ends

1. Actual Subservience

#631. Instrumentality.—N. instrumentality; aid &c. 707; subservience, subserviency; mediation, intervention, medium, intermedium[obs3], vehicle, hand; agency &c. 170. minister, handmaid; midwife, accoucheur[Fr], accoucheuse[Fr], obstetrician; gobetween; cat's-paw; stepping-stone. opener &c. 260; key; master key, passkey, latchkey; "open sesame"; passport, passe-partout, safe-conduct, password. instrument &c. 633; expedient &c. (plan) 626; means &c. 632. V. subserve, minister, mediate, intervene; be instrumental &c. adj.; pander to; officiate; tend. Adj. instrumental; useful &c. 644; ministerial, subservient, mediatorial[obs3]; intermediate, intervening; conducive. Adv. through, by, per; whereby, thereby, hereby; by the agency of &c. 170; by dint of; by virtue of, in virtue of; through the medium of &c. n.; along with; on the shoulders of; by means of &c. 632; by the aid of, with the aid of &c. (assistance) 707.

per fas et nefas[Lat], by fair means or foul; somehow, somehow or other; by hook or by crook.

#632. Means.—N. means, resources, wherewithal, ways and means; capital &c. (money) 800; revenue; stock in trade &c. 636; provision &c. 637; a shot in the locker; appliances &c. (machinery) 633; means and appliances; conveniences; cards to play; expedients &c. (measures) 626; two strings to one's bow; sheet anchor &c. (safety) 666; aid &c. 707; medium &c. 631. V. find means, have means, possess means &c. n. Adj. instrumental &c. 631; mechanical &c. 633. Adv. by means of, with; by what means, by all means, by any means, by some means; wherewith, herewith, therewith; wherewithal. how &c. (in what manner) 627; through &c. (by the instrumentality of) 631; with the aid of, by the aid of &c. (assistance) 707; by the agency of &c. 170

#633. Instrument.—N. machinery, mechanism, engineering. instrument, organ, tool, implement, utensil, machine, engine, lathe, gin, mill; air engine, caloric engine, heat engine. gear; tackle, tackling, rig, rigging, apparatus, appliances; plant, materiel; harness, trappings, fittings, accouterments; barde[obs3]; equipment, equipmentage[obs3]; appointments, furniture, upholstery; chattels; paraphernalia &c. (belongings) 780. mechanical powers; lever, leverage; mechanical advantage; crow, crowbar; handspike[obs3], gavelock[obs3], jemmy[obs3], jimmy, arm, limb, wing; oar, paddle; pulley; wheel and axle; wheelwork, clockwork; wheels within wheels; pinion, crank, winch; cam; pedal; capstan &c. (lift) 307; wheel &c. (rotation) 312; inclined plane; wedge; screw; spring, mainspring; can hook, glut, heald[obs3], heddle[obs3], jenny, parbuckle[obs3], sprag[obs3], water wheel. handle, hilt, haft, shaft, heft, shank, blade, trigger, tiller, helm, treadle, key; turnscrew, screwdriver; knocker. hammer &c. (impulse) 276; edge tool &c. (cut) 253; borer &c. 262; vice, teeth, &c. (hold) 781; nail, rope &c. (join) 45; peg &c. (hang) 214; support &c. 215; spoon &c. (vehicle) 272; arms &c. 727; oar &c. (navigation) 267; cardiograph, recapper[obs3], snowplow, tenpenny[obs3], votograph[obs3]. Adj. instrumental &c. 631; mechanical, machinal[obs3]; brachial[Med].

#634. Substitute.—N. substitute &c. 147; deputy &c. 759; badli[obs3].

#635. Materials.—N. material, raw material, stuff, stock, staple; adobe, brown stone; chinking; clapboard; daubing; puncheon; shake; shingle, bricks and mortar; metal; stone; clay, brick crockery &c. 384; compo, composition; concrete; reinforced concrete, cement; wood, ore, timber. materials; supplies, munition, fuel, grist, household stuff pabulum &c. (food) 298; ammunition &c. (arms) 727; contingents; relay, reinforcement, reenforcement[obs3]; baggage &c. (personal property) 780; means &c. 632; calico, cambric, cashmere. Adj. raw &c. (unprepared) 674; wooden &c. n.; adobe.

#636. Store.—N. stock, fund, mine, vein, lode, quarry; spring; fount, fountain; well, wellspring; milch cow. stock in trade, supply; heap &c. (collection) 72; treasure; reserve, corps de reserve, reserved fund, nest egg, savings, bonne bouche[Fr]. crop, harvest, mow, vintage. store, accumulation, hoard, rick, stack; lumber; relay &c. (provision) 637. storehouse, storeroom, storecloset[obs3]; depository, depot, cache, repository, reservatory[obs3], repertory; repertorium[obs3]; promptuary[obs3], warehouse, entrepot[Fr], magazine; buttery, larder, spence[obs3]; garner, granary; cannery, safe-deposit vault, stillroom[obs3]; thesaurus; bank &c. (treasury) 802; armory; arsenal; dock; gallery, museum, conservatory; menagery[obs3], menagerie.

     reservoir, cistern, aljibar[obs3], tank, pond, mill pond;
     budget, quiver, bandolier, portfolio; coffer &c. (receptacle) 191.
     conservation; storing &c. v.; storage.
     V. store; put by, lay by, set by; stow away; set apart, lay apart;
store treasure, hoard treasure, lay up, heap up, put up, garner up, save
up; bank; cache; accumulate, amass, hoard, fund, garner, save.
     reserve; keep back, hold back; husband, husband one's resources.
     deposit; stow, stack, load; harvest; heap, collect &c. 72; lay in
store &c.
     Adj.; keep, file [papers]; lay in &c. (provide) 637; preserve &c. 670.
     Adj. stored &c. v.; in store, in reserve, in ordinary; spare,
     Phr. adde parvum parvo magnus acervus erit[Lat].

#637. Provision.—N. provision, supply; grist, grist for the mill;
subvention &c. (aid) 707; resources &c. (means) 632; groceries, grocery.
     providing &c. v.; purveyance; reinforcement, reenforcement[obs3];
     provender &c. (food) 298; ensilage; viaticum.
     caterer, purveyor, commissary, quartermaster, manciple[obs3], feeder,
batman, victualer, grocer, comprador[Sp], restaurateur; jackal, pelican;
sutler &c. (merchant) 797[obs3].
     grocery shop [U. S.], grocery store.
     V. provide; make provision, make due provision for; lay in, lay in a
stock, lay in a store.
     supply, suppeditate|; furnish; find, find one in; arm.
     cater, victual, provision, purvey, forage; beat up for; stock, stock
with; make good, replenish; fill, fill up; recruit, feed.
     have in store, have in reserve; keep, keep by one, keep on foot, keep
on hand; have to fall back upon; store &c. 636; provide against a rainy day
&c. (economy) 817.

#638. Waste.—N. consumption, expenditure, exhaustion; dispersion &c. 73; ebb; leakage &c. (exudation) 295; loss &c. 776; wear and tear; waste; prodigality &c. 818; misuse &c. 679; wasting &c. v.; rubbish &c. (useless) 645. mountain in labor. V. spend, expend, use, consume, swallow up, exhaust; impoverish; spill, drain, empty; disperse &c. 73. cast away, fool away, muddle away, throw away, fling away, fritter away; burn the candle at both ends, waste; squander &c. 818. "waste its sweetness on the desert air" [Gray]; cast one's bread upon the waters, cast pearls before swine; employ a steam engine to crack a nut, waste powder and shot, break a butterfly on a wheel; labor in vain &c. (useless) 645; cut blocks with a razor, pour water into a sieve. leak &c. (run out) 295; run to waste; ebb; melt away, run dry, dry up. Adj. wasted &c. v.; at a low ebb. wasteful &c. (prodigal) 818; penny wise and pound foolish. Phr. magno conatu magnas nugas[Lat]; le jeu ne vaut pas la chandelle[Fr]; "idly busy rolls their world away" [Goldsmith].

#639. Sufficiency.—N. sufficiency, adequacy, enough, withal, satisfaction, competence; no less; quantum sufficit[Lat], Q.S.. mediocrity &c. (average) 29. fill; fullness &c. (completeness) 52; plenitude, plenty; abundance; copiousness &c. Adj.; amplitude, galore, lots, profusion; full measure; "good measure pressed down and running, over." luxuriance &c. (fertility) 168; affluence &c. (wealth) 803; fat of the land; "a land flowing with milk and honey"; cornucopia; horn of plenty, horn of Amalthaea; mine &c. (stock) 636. outpouring; flood &c. (great quantity) 31; tide &c. (river) 348; repletion &c. (redundancy) 641; satiety &c. 869. V. be sufficient &c. Adj.; suffice, do, just do, satisfy, pass muster; have enough &c. n.; eat. one's fill, drink one's fill, have one's fill; roll in, swim in; wallow in &c. (superabundance) 641; wanton. abound, exuberate, teem, flow, stream, rain, shower down; pour, pour in; swarm; bristle with; superabound. render sufficient &c. Adj.; replenish &c. (fill) 52. Adj. sufficient, enough, adequate, up to the mark, commensurate, competent, satisfactory, valid, tangible. measured; moderate &c. (temperate) 953. full.&c. (complete) 52; ample; plenty, plentiful, plenteous; plenty as blackberries; copious, abundant; abounding &c. v.; replete, enough and to spare, flush; choke-full, chock-full; well-stocked, well-provided; liberal; unstinted, unstinting; stintless[obs3]; without stint; unsparing, unmeasured; lavish &c. 641; wholesale. rich; luxuriant &c. (fertile) 168; affluent &c. (wealthy) 803; wantless[obs3]; big with &c. (pregnant) 161. unexhausted[obs3], unwasted[obs3]; exhaustless, inexhaustible. Adv. sufficiently, amply &c. Adj.; full; in abundance &c. n. with no sparing hand; to one's heart's content, ad libitum, without stint. Phr. "cut and come again" [Crabbe]; das Beste ist gut genug[Ger].

#640. Insufficiency.—N. insufficiency; inadequacy, inadequateness; incompetence &c. (impotence) 158; deficiency &c. (incompleteness) 53; imperfection &c. 651; shortcoming &c. 304; paucity; stint; scantiness &c. (smallness) 32; none to spare, bare subsistence. scarcity, dearth; want, need, lack, poverty, exigency; inanition, starvation, famine, drought. dole, mite, pittance; short allowance, short commons; half rations; banyan day. emptiness, poorness &c. Adj.; depletion, vacancy, flaccidity; ebb tide; low water; "a beggarly account of empty boxes" [Romeo and Jul.]; indigence &c. 804; insolvency &c. (nonpayment) 808. V. be insufficient &c. Adj.; not suffice &c. 639; come short of &c. 304 run dry. want, lack, need, require; caret; be in want &c. (poor) 804, live from hand to mouth. render insufficient &c. Adj.; drain of resources, impoverish &c. (waste) 638; stint &c. (begrudge) 819; put on short allowance. do insufficiently &c. adv.; scotch the snake. Adj. insufficient, inadequate; too little &c. 32; not enough &c. 639; unequal to; incompetent &c. (impotent) 158; "weighed in the balance and found wanting"; perfunctory &c. (neglect) 460; deficient &c. (incomplete) 53; wanting, &c. v.; imperfect &c. 651; ill-furnished, ill-provided, ill- stored, ill-off. slack, at a low ebb; empty, vacant, bare; short of, out of, destitute of, devoid of, bereft of &c. 789; denuded of; dry, drained. unprovided, unsupplied[obs3], unfurnished; unreplenished, unfed[obs3]; unstored[obs3], untreasured[obs3]; empty-handed. meager, poor, thin, scrimp, sparing, spare, stinted; starved, starving; halfstarved, famine-stricken, famished; jejune. scant &c. (small) 32; scarce; not to be had, not to be had for love or money, not to be had at any price; scurvy; stingy &c. 819; at the end of one's tether; without resources &c. 632; in want &c. (poor) 804; in debt &c. 806. Adv. insufficiently &c. Adj.; in default of, for want of; failing. Phr. semper avarus eget [Lat][Horace].

#641. Redundancy.—N. redundancy, redundance[obs3]; too much, too many; superabundance, superfluity, superfluence|, saturation; nimiety[obs3], transcendency, exuberance, profuseness; profusion &c. (plenty) 639; repletion, enough in all conscience, satis superque[Lat], lion's share; more than enough &c. 639; plethora, engorgement, congestion, load, surfeit, sickener[obs3]; turgescence &c. (expansion) 194[obs3]; overdose, overmeasure[obs3], oversupply, overflow; inundation &c. (water) 348; avalanche. accumulation &c. (store) 636; heap &c. 72; drug, drug in the market; glut; crowd; burden. excess; surplus, overplus[obs3]; epact[obs3]; margin; remainder &c. 40; duplicate; surplusage[obs3], expletive; work of supererogation; bonus, bonanza. luxury; intemperance &c. 954; extravagance &c. (prodigality) 818; exorbitance, lavishment[obs3]. pleonasm &c. (diffuseness) 573; too many irons in the fire; embarras de richesses[Fr]. V. superabound, overabound[obs3]; know no bounds, swarm; meet one at every turn; creep with, crawl with, bristle with; overflow; run over, flow over, well over, brim over; run riot; overrun, overstock, overlay, overcharge, overdose, overfeed, overburden, overload, overdo, overwhelm, overshoot the mark &c. (go beyond) 303; surcharge, supersaturate, gorge, glut, load, drench, whelm, inundate, deluge, flood; drug, drug the market; hepatize[obs3].

choke, cloy, accloy[obs3], suffocate; pile up, lay on thick; impregnate with; lavish &c. (squander) 818. send coals to Newcastle, carry coals to Newcastle, carry owls to Athens[obs3]; teach one's grandmother to suck eggs; pisces natare docere[Lat]; kill the slain, "gild refined gold", "gild the lily", butter one's bread on both sides, put butter upon bacon; employ a steam engine to crack a nut &c. (waste) 638. exaggerate &c. 549; wallow in roll in &c. (plenty) 639 remain on one's hands, hang heavy on hand, go a begging. Adj. redundant; too much, too many; exuberant, inordinate, superabundant, excessive, overmuch, replete, profuse, lavish; prodigal &c. 818; exorbitant; overweening; extravagant; overcharged &c. v.; supersaturated, drenched, overflowing; running over, running to waste, running down. crammed to overflowing, filled to overflowing; gorged, ready to burst; dropsical, turgid, plethoric; obese &c. 194. superfluous, unnecessary, needless, supervacaneous|, uncalled for, to spare, in excess; over and above &c. (remainder) 40; de trop[Fr]; adscititious &c. (additional) 37; supernumerary &c. (reserve) 636; on one's hands, spare, duplicate, supererogatory, expletive; un peu fort[Fr]. Adv. over, too, over and above; overmuch, too much; too far; without measure, beyond measure, out of measure; with . . . to spare; over head and ears; up to one's eyes, up to one's ears; extra; beyond the mark &c. (transcursion) 303; acervatim [Lat]. Phr. it never rains but it pours; fortuna multis dat nimium nulli satis [Lat].

2. Degree of Subservience

#642. Importance.—N. importance, consequence, moment, prominence, consideration, mark, materialness. import, significance, concern; emphasis, interest. greatness &c. 31; superiority &c. 33; notability &c. (repute) 873; weight &c. (influence) 175; value &c. (goodness) 648; usefulness &c. 644. gravity, seriousness, solemnity; no joke, no laughing matter; pressure, urgency, stress; matter of life and death. memorabilia, notabilia[obs3], great doings; red-letter day. great thing, great point; main chance, "the be all and the end all" [Macbeth]; cardinal point; substance, gist &c. (essence) 5; sum and substance, gravamen, head and front; important part, principal part, prominent part, essential part; half the battle; sine qua non; breath of one's nostrils &c. (life) 359;cream, salt, core, kernel, heart, nucleus; keynote, keystone; corner stone; trump card &c. (device) 626; salient points. top sawyer, first fiddle, prima donna[Sp], chief; triton among the minnows; "it" [U.S.]. V. be important &c. adj., be somebody, be something; import, signify, matter, boot, be an object; carry weight &c. (influence) 175; make a figure &c. (repute) 873; be in the ascendant, come to the front, lead the way, take the lead, play first fiddle, throw all else into the shade; lie at the root of; deserve notice, merit notice, be worthy of notice, be worthy of regard, be worthy of consideration. attach importance to, ascribe importance to, give importance to &c. n.; value, care for, set store upon, set store by; mark &c. 550; mark with a white stone, underline; write in italics, put in italics, print in italics, print in capitals, print in large letters, put in large type, put in letters. of gold; accentuate, emphasize, lay stress on. make a fuss about, make a fuss over, make a stir about, make a piece of work about[Fr], make much ado about; make much ado of, make much of. Adj. important; of importance &c. n.; momentous, material; to the point; not to be overlooked, not to be despised, not to be sneezed at; egregious; weighty &c. (influential) 175; of note &c. (repute) 873; notable, prominent, salient, signal; memorable, remarkable; unforgettable; worthy of remark, worthy of notice; never to be forgotten; stirring, eventful. grave, serious, earnest, noble, grand, solemn, impressive, commanding, imposing. urgent, pressing, critical, instant. paramount, essential, vital, all-absorbing, radical, cardinal, chief, main, prime, primary, principal, leading, capital, foremost, overruling; of vital &c. importance. in the front rank, first-rate; superior &c. 33; considerable &c. (great) 31; marked &c. v.; rare &c. 137. significant, telling, trenchant, emphatic, pregnant; tanti[Lat]. Adv. materially &c. adj.; in the main; above all, <gr/kat' exochin/gr>, par excellence, to crown all, to beat all. Phr. expende Hannibalem![Lat] [Juvenal].

#643. Unimportance.—N. unimportance, insignificance, nothingness, immateriality. triviality, levity, frivolity; paltriness &c. Adj.; poverty; smallness &c. 32; vanity &c. (uselessness) 645; matter of indifference &c. 866; no object. nothing, nothing to signify,, nothing worth speaking of, nothing particular, nothing to boast of, nothing to speak of; small matter, no great matter, trifling matter &c. Adj.; mere joke, mere nothing; hardly anything; scarcely anything; nonentity, small beer, cipher; no great shakes, peu de chose[Fr]; child's play, kinderspiel. toy, plaything, popgun, paper pellet, gimcrack, gewgaw, bauble, trinket, bagatelle, Rickshaw, knickknack, whim-wham, trifle, "trifles light as air"; yankee notions [U. S.]. trumpery, trash, rubbish, stuff, fatras[obs3], frippery; "leather or prunello"; chaff, drug, froth bubble smoke, cobweb; weed; refuse &c. (inutility) 645; scum &c. (dirt) 653. joke, jest, snap of the fingers; fudge &c. (unmeaning) 517; fiddlestick[obs3], fiddlestick end[obs3]; pack of nonsense, mere farce. straw, pin, fig, button, rush; bulrush, feather, halfpenny, farthing, brass farthing, doit[obs3], peppercorn, jot, rap, pinch of snuff, old son; cent, mill, picayune, pistareen[obs3], red cent [U.S.].

minutiae, details, minor details, small fry; dust in the balance, feather in the scale, drop in the ocean, flea-bite, molehill. nine days' wonder, ridiculus mus[Lat]; flash in the pan &c. (impotence) 158; much ado about nothing &c. (overestimation) 482. V. be unimportant &c. Adj.; not matter &c. 642; go for nothing, matter nothing, signify nothing, matter little, matter little or nothing; not matter a straw &c. n. make light of &c. (underestimate) 483; catch at straws &c. (overestimate) 482. Adj. unimportant; of little account, of small account, of no account, of little importance, of no importance &c. 642; immaterial; unessential, nonessential; indifferent. subordinate &c. (inferior) 34; mediocre &c. (average) 29; passable, fair, respectable, tolerable, commonplace; uneventful, mere, common; ordinary &c. (habitual) 613; inconsiderable, so-so, insignificant, inappreciable. trifling, trivial; slight, slender, light, flimsy, frothy, idle; puerile &c. (foolish) 499; airy, shallow; weak &c. 160; powerless &c. 158; frivolous, petty, niggling; piddling, peddling; fribble[obs3], inane, ridiculous, farcical; finical, finikin[obs3]; fiddle-faddle, fingle- fangle[obs3], namby-pamby, wishy-washy, milk and water. poor, paltry, pitiful; contemptible &c. (contempt) 930; sorry, mean, meager, shabby, miserable, wretched, vile, scrubby, scrannel[obs3], weedy, niggardly, scurvy, putid[obs3], beggarly, worthless, twopennyhalfpenny, cheap, trashy, catchpenny, gimcrack, trumpery; one-horse [U. S.]. not worth the pains, not worth while, not worth mentioning, not worth speaking of, not worth a thought, not worth a curse, not worth a straw &c. n.;1 beneath notice, unworthy of notice, beneath regard, unworthy of regard, beneath consideration, unworthy of consideration; de lana caprina[It][obs3]; vain &c. (useless) 645.

Adv. slightly &c. adj.; rather, somewhat, pretty well, tolerably. for aught one cares. Int. no matter! pish! tush! tut! pshaw! pugh! pooh, pooh-pooh! fudge! bosh! humbug! fiddlestick[obs3], fiddlestick end[obs3]! fiddlededee! never mind! n'importe[Fr]! what signifies it, what boots it, what of it, what of that, what matter, what's the odds, a fig for' stuff and nonsense, stuff! nonsense! Phr. magno conatu magnas nugas[Lat]; le jeu ne vaut pas la chandelle[Fr]; it matters not, it does not signify; it is of no consequence, it is of no importance; elephantus non capit murem[Lat]; tempete dans un verre d'eau[Fr].

#644. Utility.—N. utility; usefulness &c. adj.; efficacy, efficiency, adequacy; service, use, stead, avail; help &c. (aid) 707; applicability &c. adj.; subservience &c. (instrumentality) 631; function &c. (business) 625; value; worth &c. (goodness) 648; money's worth; productiveness &c. 168; cui bono &c. (intention) 620[Lat]; utilization &c. (use) 677 step in the right direction. common weal; commonwealth public good, public interest; utilitarianism &c. (philanthropy) 910. V. be useful &c. adj.; avail, serve; subserve &c. (be instrumental to) 631; conduce &c. (tend) 176; answer, serve one's turn, answer a purpose, serve a purpose. act a part &c. (action) 680; perform a function, discharge a function &c.; render a service, render good service, render yeoman's service; bestead[obs3], stand one in good stead be the making of; help &c. 707. bear fruit &c. (produce) 161; bring grist to the mill; profit, remunerate; benefit &c. (do good) 648. find one's account in, find one's advantage in; reap the benefit of &c. (be better for) 658. render useful &c. (use) 677. Adj. useful; of use &c. n.; serviceable, proficuous|, good for; subservient &c. (instrumental) 631.; conducive &c. (tending) 176; subsidiary &c. (helping) 707. advantageous &c. (beneficial) 648; profitable, gainful, remunerative, worth one's salt; valuable; prolific &c. (productive) 168. adequate; efficient, efficacious; effective, effectual; expedient &c. 646. applicable, available, ready, handy, at hand, tangible; commodious, adaptable; of all work. Adv. usefully &c. adj.; pro bono publico[Lat].

#645. Inutility.—N. inutility; uselessness &c. adj.; inefficacy[obs3], futility; ineptitude, inaptitude; unsubservience[obs3]; inadequacy &c. (insufficiency) 640; inefficiency.&c. (incompetence) 158; unskillfulness &c. 699; disservice; unfruitfulness &c.(unproductiveness). 169; labor in vain, labor lost, labor of Sisyphus; lost trouble, lost labor; work of Penelope; sleeveless errand, wild goose chase, mere farce. tautology &c. (repetition) 104; supererogation &c. (redundancy) 641. vanitas vanitatum[Lat], vanity, inanity, worthlessness, nugacity[obs3]; triviality &c. (unimportance) 643. caput mortuum[Lat][obs3], waste paper, dead letter; blunt tool. litter, rubbish, junk, lumber, odds and ends, cast-off clothes; button top; shoddy; rags, orts[obs3], trash, refuse, sweepings, scourings, offscourings[obs3], waste, rubble, debris, detritus; stubble, leavings; broken meat; dregs &c. (dirt) 653; weeds, tares; rubbish heap, dust hole; rudera[obs3], deads[obs3]. fruges consumere natus &c. (drone) 683[Lat][Horace]. V. be useless &c. Adj.; go a begging &c. (redundant) 641; fail &c. 732. seek after impossibilities, strive after impossibilities; use vain efforts, labor in vain, roll the stone of Sisyphus, beat the air, lash the waves, battre l'eau avec un baton[Fr], donner un coup d'epee dans l'eau[Fr], fish in the air, milk the ram, drop a bucket into an empty well, sow the sand; bay the moon; preach to the winds, speak to the winds; whistle jigs to a milestone; kick against the pricks, se battre contre des moulins[Fr]; lock the stable door when the steed is stolen, lock the barn door after the horse is stolen &c. (too late) 135; hold a farthing candle to the sun; cast pearls before swine &c. (waste) 638; carry coals to Newcastle &c. (redundancy) 641; wash a blackamoor white &c. (impossible) 471. render useless &c. adj.; dismantle, dismast, dismount, disqualify, disable; unrig; cripple, lame &c. (injure) 659; spike guns, clip the wings; put out of gear. Adj. useless, inutile, inefficacious, futile, unavailing, bootless; inoperative &c. 158; inadequate &c. (insufficient) 640; inservient|, unsubservient; inept, inefficient &c. (impotent) 158; of no avail &c. (use) 644; ineffectual &c. (failure) 732; incompetent &c. (unskillful) 699; "stale, flat and unprofitable"; superfluous &c. (redundant) 641; dispensable; thrown away &c. (wasted) 638; abortive &c. (immature) 674. worthless, valueless, priceless; unsalable; not worth a straw &c. (trifling) 643 dear at any price. vain, empty, inane; gainless[obs3], profitless, fruitless; unserviceable, unprofitable; ill-spent; unproductive &c. 169; hors de combat[Fr]; effete, past work &c. (impaired) 659; obsolete &c. (old) 124; fit for the dust hole; good for nothing; of no earthly use; not worth having, not worth powder and shot; leading to no end, uncalled for; unnecessary, unneeded. Adv. uselessly &c. adj.; to little purpose, to no purpose, to little or no purpose. Int. cui bono?[Lat]; what's the good! Phr. actum ne agas[Lat][obs3]; chercher une aiguille dans une botte de foin[obs3][Fr]; tanto buon che val niente[It].

#646. [Specific subservience.] Expedience.—N. expedience, expediency; desirableness, desirability &c. adj.; fitness &c. (agreement) 23; utility &c. 644; propriety; opportunism; advantage. high time &c. (occasion) 134. V. be expedient &c. Adj.; suit &c. (agree) 23; befit; suit the time, befit the time, suit the season, befit the season, suit the occasion, befit the occasion. conform &c. 82. Adj. expedient; desirable, advisable, acceptable; convenient; worth while, meet; fit, fitting; due, proper, eligible, seemly, becoming; befitting &c. v.; opportune &c. (in season) 134; in loco; suitable &c. (accordant) 23; applicable &c. (useful) 644. Adv. in the right place; conveniently &c. adj. Phr. operae pretium est[Lat].

#647. Inexpedience.—N. inexpedience, inexpediency; undesirableness, undesirability &c. Adj.; discommodity[obs3], impropriety; unfitness &c. (disagreement) 24; inutility &c. 645; disadvantage. V. be inexpedient &c. Adj.; come amiss &c. (disagree) 24; embarrass &c. (hinder) 706; put to inconvenience; pay too dear for one's whistle. Adj. inexpedient, undesirable; unadvisable, inadvisable; objectionable; inapt, ineligible, inadmissible, inconvenient; incommodious, discommodious[obs3]; disadvantageous; inappropriate, unfit &c. (inconsonant) 24. ill-contrived, ill-advised; unsatisfactory; unprofitable &c., unsubservient &c. (useless) 645; inopportune &c. (unseasonable) 135; out of place, in the wrong place; improper, unseemly. clumsy, awkward; cumbrous, cumbersome; lumbering, unwieldy, hulky[obs3]; unmanageable &c. (impracticable) 704; impedient &c. (in the way) 706[obs3]. unnecessary &c. (redundant) 641. Phr. it will never do.

#648. [Capability of producing good. Good qualities.] Goodness.—N. goodness &c. adj.; excellence, merit; virtue &c. 944; value, worth, price. super-excellence, supereminence; superiority &c. 33; perfection &c. 650; coup de maitre[Fr]; masterpiece, chef d'ouvre[Fr], prime, flower, cream, elite, pick, A1, nonesuch, nonpareil, creme de la creme, flower of the flock, cock of the roost, salt of the earth; champion; prodigy. tidbit; gem, gem of the first water; bijou, precious stone, jewel, pearl, diamond, ruby, brilliant, treasure; good thing; rara avis[Lat], one in a thousand. beneficence &c. 906; good man &c. 948. V. be beneficial &c. Adj.; produce good, do good &c. 618; profit &c. (be of use) 644; benefit; confer a benefit &c. 618. be the making of, do a world of good, make a man of. produce a good effect; do a good turn, confer an obligation; improve &c. 658. do no harm, break no bones. be good &c. adj.; excel, transcend &c. (be superior) 33; bear away the bell. stand the proof, stand the test; pass muster, pass an examination. challenge comparison, vie, emulate, rival. Adj. harmless, hurtless[obs3]; unobnoxious[obs3], innocuous, innocent, inoffensive. beneficial, valuable, of value; serviceable &c. (useful) 644; advantageous, edifying, profitable; salutary &c. (healthful) 656. favorable; propitious &c. (hope-giving) 858; fair. good, good as gold; excellent; better; superior &c. 33; above par; nice, fine; genuine &c. (true) 494. best, choice, select, picked, elect, recherche, rare, priceless; unparagoned[obs3], unparalleled &c. (supreme) 33; superlatively &c. 33; good; bully*, crackajack*[obs3], giltedged; superfine, superexcellent[obs3]; of the first water; first-rate, first-class; high- wrought, exquisite, very best, crack, prime, tiptop, capital, cardinal; standard &c. (perfect) 650; inimitable. admirable, estimable; praiseworthy &c. (approve) 931; pleasing &c. 829; couleur de rose[Fr], precious, of great price; costly &c. (dear) 814; worth its weight in gold, worth a Jew's eye; priceless, invaluable, inestimable, precious as the apple of the eye. tolerable &c. (not very good) 651; up to the mark, unexceptionable, unobjectionable; satisfactory, tidy. in good condition, in fair condition; fresh; sound &c. (perfect) 650. Adv. beneficially &c. adj.; well &c. 618. Phr. "Jewels five words long" [Tennyson]; "long may such goodness live!" [Rogers]; "the luxury of doing good" [Goldsmith].

#649. [Capability of producing evil. Bad qualities.] Badness.—N. hurtfulness &c. Adj[obs3].; virulence. evil doer &c. 913; bane &c. 663; plague spot &c. (insalubrity) 657; evil star, ill wind; hoodoo; Jonah; snake in the grass, skeleton in the closet; amari aliquid[Lat][obs3], thorn in the side. malignity; malevolence &c. 907; tender mercies [ironically]. ill-treatment, annoyance, molestation, abuse, oppression, persecution, outrage; misusage &c. 679; injury &c. (damage) 659; knockout drops [U. S.]. badness &c. adj.; peccancy[obs3], abomination; painfulness &c. 830; pestilence &c. (disease) 655; guilt &c. 947; depravity &c. 945. V. be hurtful &c. adj.; cause evil, produce evil, inflict evil, work evil, do evil &c. 619; damnify[obs3], endamage[obs3], hurt, harm; injure &c. (damage) 659; pain &c. 830. wrong, aggrieve, oppress, persecute; trample upon, tread upon, bear hard upon, put upon; overburden; weigh down, weigh heavy on; victimize; run down; molest &c. 830. maltreat, abuse; ill-use, ill-treat; buffet, bruise, scratch, maul; smite &c. (scourge) 972; do violence, do harm, do a mischief; stab, pierce, outrage. do mischief, make mischief; bring into trouble. destroy &c. 162. Adj. hurtful, harmful, scathful[obs3], baneful, baleful; injurious, deleterious, detrimental, noxious, pernicious, mischievous, full of mischief, mischief-making, malefic, malignant, nocuous, noisome; prejudicial; disserviceable[obs3], disadvantageous; wide-wasting. unlucky, sinister; obnoxious; untoward, disastrous. oppressive, burdensome, onerous; malign &c. (malevolent) 907. corrupting &c. (corrupt &c. 659); virulent, venomous, envenomed, corrosive; poisonous &c. (morbific) 657[obs3]; deadly &c. (killing) 361; destructive &c. (destroying) 162; inauspicious &c. 859. bad, ill, arrant, as bad as bad can be, dreadful; horrid, horrible; dire; rank, peccant, foul, fulsome; rotten, rotten at the core. vile, base, villainous; mean &c. (paltry) 643; injured &c. deteriorated &c. 659; unsatisfactory, exceptionable, indifferent; below par &c. (imperfect) 651; illcontrived, ill-conditioned; wretched, sad, grievous, deplorable, lamentable; pitiful, pitiable, woeful &c. (painful) 830. evil, wrong; depraved &c. 945; shocking; reprehensible &c. (disapprove) 932. hateful, hateful as a toad; abominable, detestable, execrable, cursed, accursed, confounded; damned, damnable; infernal; diabolic &c. (malevolent) 907. unadvisable &c. (inexpedient) 647; unprofitable &c. (useless) 645; incompetent &c. (unskillful) 699; irremediable &c. (hopeless) 859.

     Adv. badly &c. Adj.; wrong, ill; to one's cost; where the shoe
     Phr. bad is the best; the worst come to the worst; herba mala presto
cresco [Lat]; "wrongs unredressed or insults unavenged" [Wordsworth].

#650. Perfection.—N. perfection; perfectness &c. adj.; indefectibility[obs3]; impeccancy[obs3], impeccability. pink, beau ideal, phenix, paragon; pink of perfection, acme of perfection; ne plus ultra[Lat]; summit &c. 210. cygne noir[Fr]; philosopher's stone; chrysolite, Koh-i-noor. model, standard, pattern, mirror, admirable Crichton; trump, very prince of. masterpiece, superexcellence &c. (goodness) 648[obs3]; transcendence &c. (superiority) 33. V. be perfect &c. adj.; transcend &c. (be supreme) 33. bring to perfection, perfect, ripen, mature; complete &,,c. 729; put in trim &c. (prepare) 673; maturate. Adj. perfect, faultless; indefective[obs3], indeficient[obs3], indefectible; immaculate, spotless, impeccable; free from imperfection &c. 651; unblemished, uninjured &c. 659; sound, sound as a roach; in perfect condition; scathless[obs3], intact, harmless; seaworthy &c. (safe) 644; right as a trivet; in seipso totus teres atque rotundus [Lat][Horace]; consummate &c. (complete) 52; finished &c. 729. best &c. (good) 648; model, standard; inimitable, unparagoned[obs3], unparalleled &c. (supreme) 33; superhuman, divine; beyond all praise &c. (approbation) 931; sans peur et sans reproche[Fr]. adv. to perfection; perfectly &c. adj.; ad unguem[Lat]; clean, - as a whistle. phr. "let us go on unto perfection" [ Hebrews vi, 1]; "the perfection of art is to conceal art" [Quintilian].

#651. Imperfection.—N. imperfection; imperfectness &c. Adj.; deficiency; inadequacy &c. (insufficiency) 640; peccancy &c. (badness) 649[obs3]; immaturity &c. 674. fault, defect, weak point; screw loose; flaw &c. (break) 70; gap &c. 198; twist &c. 243; taint, attainder; bar sinister, hole in one's coat; blemish &c. 848; weakness &c. 160; half blood; shortcoming &c. 304; drawback; seamy side. mediocrity; no great shakes, no great catch; not much to boast of; one-horse shay. V. be imperfect &c. adj.; have a defect &c. n.; lie under a disadvantage; spring a leak. not pass muster, barely pass muster; fall short &c. 304. Adj. imperfect; not perfect &c. 650; deficient, defective; faulty, unsound, tainted; out of order, out of tune; cracked, leaky; sprung; warped &c. (distort) 243; lame; injured &c. (deteriorated) 659; peccant &c. (bad) 649; frail &c. (weak) 160; inadequate &c. (insufficient) 640; crude &c. (unprepared) 674; incomplete &c. 53; found wanting; below par; short- handed; below its full strength, under its full strength, below its full complement. indifferent, middling, ordinary, mediocre; average &c. 29; so-so; coucicouci, milk and water; tolerable, fair, passable; pretty well, pretty good; rather good, moderately good; good; good enough, well enough, adequate; decent; not bad, not amiss; inobjectionable[obs3], unobjectionable, admissible, bearable, only better than nothing. secondary, inferior; second-rate, second-best; one-horse [U.S.]. Adv. almost &c.; to a limited extent, rather &c. 32; pretty, moderately, passing; only, considering, all things considered, enough. Phr. surgit amari aliquid[Lat].

#652. Cleanness.—N. cleanness, cleanliness &c. adj.; purity; cleaning &c. v.; purification, defecation &c. v.; purgation, lustration[obs3]; detersion[obs3], abstersion[obs3]; epuration[obs3], mundation|; ablution, lavation[obs3], colature|; disinfection &c. v.; drainage, sewerage. lavatory, laundry, washhouse[obs3]; washerwoman, laundress, dhobi[obs3], laundryman, washerman[obs3]; scavenger, dustman[obs3], sweep; white wings brush[Local U. S.]; broom, besom[obs3], mop, rake, shovel, sieve, riddle, screen, filter; blotter. napkin, cloth, maukin|, malkin|, handkerchief, towel, sudary[obs3]; doyley[obs3], doily, duster, sponge, mop, swab. cover, drugget[obs3]. wash, lotion, detergent, cathartic, purgative; purifier &c. v.; disinfectant; aperient[obs3]; benzene, benzine benzol, benolin[obs3]; bleaching powder, chloride of lime, dentifrice, deobstruent[obs3], laxative. V. be clean, render clean &c. Adj. clean, cleanse; mundify|, rinse, wring, flush, full, wipe, mop, sponge, scour, swab, scrub, brush up. wash, lave, launder, buck; absterge|, deterge[obs3]; decrassify[obs3]; clear, purify; depurate[obs3], despumate[obs3], defecate; purge, expurgate, elutriate[Chem], lixiviate[obs3], edulcorate[obs3], clarify, refine, rack; filter, filtrate; drain, strain. disinfect, fumigate, ventilate, deodorize; whitewash; castrate, emasculate. sift, winnow, pick, weed, comb, rake, brush, sweep. rout out, clear out, sweep out &c.; make a clean sweep of. Adj. clean, cleanly; pure; immaculate; spotless, stainless, taintless; trig; without a stain, unstained, unspotted, unsoiled, unsullied, untainted, uninfected; sweet, sweet as a nut. neat, spruce, tidy, trim, gimp, clean as a new penny, like a cat in pattens; cleaned &c. v.; kempt[obs3]. abstergent[obs3], cathartic, cleansing, purifying. Adv. neatly &c. adj.; clean as a whistle.

#653. Uncleanness.—N. uncleanness &c. Adj.; impurity; immundity[obs3], immundicity[obs3]; impurity &c. 961[of mind]. defilement, contamination &c. v.; defoedation|; soilure[obs3], soiliness|; abomination; leaven; taint, tainture|; fetor &c. 401[obs3]. decay; putrescence, putrefaction; corruption; mold, must, mildew, dry rot, mucor, rubigo|. slovenry[obs3]; slovenliness &c. Adj. squalor. dowdy, drab, slut, malkin[obs3], slattern, sloven, slammerkin|, slammock[obs3], slummock[obs3], scrub, draggle-tail, mudlark[obs3], dust- man, sweep; beast. dirt, filth, soil, slop; dust, cobweb, flue; smoke, soot, smudge, smut, grit, grime, raff[obs3]; sossle[obs3], sozzle[obs3]. sordes[obs3], dregs, grounds, lees; argol[obs3]; sediment, settlement heeltap[obs3]; dross, drossiness[obs3]; mother|, precipitate, scoriae, ashes, cinders. recrement[obs3], slag; scum, froth. hogwash; ditchwater[obs3], dishwater, bilgewater[obs3]; rinsings, cheeseparings; sweepings &c. (useless refuse) 645; offscourings[obs3], outscourings[obs3]; off scum; caput mortuum[Lat][obs3], residuum, sprue, fecula[Lat], clinker, draff[obs3]; scurf, scurfiness[obs3]; exuviae[Lat], morphea; fur, furfur[obs3]; dandruff, tartar. riffraff; vermin, louse, flea, bug, chinch[obs3]. mud, mire, quagmire, alluvium, silt, sludge, slime, slush, slosh, sposh [obs3][U. S.]. spawn, offal, gurry [obs3][U. S.]; lientery[obs3]; garbage, carrion; excreta &c. 299; slough, peccant humor, pus, matter, suppuration, lienteria[obs3]; faeces, feces, excrement, ordure, dung, crap[vulgar], shit[vulgar]; sewage, sewerage; muck; coprolite; guano, manure, compost. dunghill, colluvies[obs3], mixen[obs3], midden, bog, laystall[obs3], sink, privy, jakes; toilet, john, head; cess[obs3], cesspool; sump, sough, cloaca, latrines, drain, sewer, common sewer; Cloacina; dust hole. sty, pigsty, lair, den, Augean stable[obs3], sink of corruption; slum, rookery. V. be unclean, become unclean &c. Adj.; rot, putrefy, ferment, fester, rankle, reek; stink &c. 401; mold, molder; go bad &c. adj. render unclean &c. adj.; dirt, dirty; daub, blot, blur, smudge, smutch[obs3], soil, smoke, tarnish, slaver, spot, smear; smirch; begrease[obs3]; dabble, drabble[obs3], draggle, daggle[obs3]; spatter, slubber; besmear &c., bemire, beslime[obs3], begrime, befoul; splash, stain, distain[obs3], maculate, sully, pollute, defile, debase, contaminate, taint, leaven; corrupt &c. (injure) 659; cover with dust &c. n.; drabble in the mud[obs3]; roil. wallow in the mire; slobber, slabber[obs3]. Adj. dirty, filthy, grimy; unclean, impure; soiled &c. v.; not to be handled with kid gloves; dusty, snuffy[obs3], smutty, sooty, smoky; thick, turbid, dreggy; slimy; mussy [U.S.]. slovenly, untidy, messy, uncleanly. [of people] unkempt, sluttish, dowdy, draggle-tailed; uncombed. unscoured[obs3], unswept[obs3], unwiped[obs3], unwashed, unstrained, unpurified[obs3]; squalid; lutose[obs3], slammocky[obs3], slummocky[obs3], sozzly[obs3]. nasty, coarse, foul, offensive, abominable, beastly, reeky, reechy[obs3]; fetid &c. 401. [of rotting living matter] decayed, moldy, musty, mildewed, rusty, moth-eaten, mucid[obs3], rancid, weak, bad, gone bad, etercoral[obs3], lentiginous[obs3], touched, fusty, effete, reasty[obs3], rotten, corrupt, tainted, high, flyblown, maggoty; putrid, putrefactive, putrescent, putrefied; saprogenic, saprogenous[obs3]; purulent, carious, peccant; fecal, feculent; stercoraceous[obs3], excrementitious[obs3]; scurfy, scurvy, impetiginous[obs3]; gory, bloody; rotting &c. v.; rotten as a pear, rotten as cheese. crapulous &c. (intemperate) 954[obs3]; gross &c. (impure in mind) 961; fimetarious[obs3], fimicolous[obs3]. Phr. "they that touch pitch will be defiled" [Much Ado About Nothing].

#654. Health.—N. health, sanity; soundness &c. adj.; vigor; good health, perfect health, excellent health, rude health, robust health; bloom. mens sana in corpore sano[Lat]; Hygeia[obs3]; incorruption, incorruptibility; good state of health, clean bill of health; eupepsia[obs3]; euphoria, euphory[obs3]; St. Anthony's fire[obs3]. V. be in health &c. adj. bloom, flourish. keep body and soul together, keep on one's legs; enjoy good health, enjoy a good state of health; have a clean bill of health. return to health; recover &c. 660; get better &c. (improve) 658; take a new lease of life, fresh lease of life; recruit; restore to health; cure &c. (restore) 660; tinker. Adj. healthy, healthful; in health &c. n.; well, sound, hearty, hale, fresh, green, whole; florid, flush, hardy, stanch, staunch, brave, robust, vigorous, weatherproof. unscathed, uninjured, unmaimed[obs3], unmarred, untainted; sound of wind and limb, safe and sound. on one's legs; sound as a roach, sound as a bell; fresh as a daisy, fresh as a rose, fresh as April[obs3]; hearty as a buck; in fine feather, in high feather; in good case, in full bloom; pretty bobbish[obs3], tolerably well, as well as can be expected. sanitary &c. (health-giving) 656; sanatory &c. (remedial) 662[obs3]. Phr. "health that snuffs the morning air" [Grainger]; non est vivere sed valere vita [Lat][Martial].

#655. Disease.—N. disease; illness, sickness &c. adj.; ailing &c. "all the ills that flesh is heir to" [Hamlet]; morbidity, morbosity|; infirmity, ailment, indisposition; complaint, disorder, malady; distemper, distemperature[obs3]. visitation, attack, seizure, stroke, fit. delicacy, loss of health, invalidation, cachexy[obs3]; cachexia[Med], atrophy, marasmus[obs3]; indigestion, dyspepsia; decay &c. (deterioration) 659; decline, consumption, palsy, paralysis, prostration. taint, pollution, infection, sepsis, septicity[obs3], infestation; epidemic, pandemic, endemic, epizootic; murrain, plague, pestilence, pox. sore, ulcer, abscess, fester, boil; pimple, wen &c. (swelling) 250; carbuncle, gathering, imposthume[obs3], peccant humor, issue; rot, canker, cold sore, fever sore; cancer, carcinoma, leukemia, neoplastic disease, malignancy, tumor; caries, mortification, corruption, gangrene, sphacelus[obs3], sphacelation[obs3], leprosy; eruption, rash, breaking out. fever, temperature, calenture[obs3]; inflammation. ague, angina pectoris[Lat], appendicitis; Asiatic cholera[obs3], spasmodic cholera; biliary calculus, kidney stone, black death, bubonic plague, pneumonic plague; blennorrhagia[obs3], blennorrhoea[obs3]; blood poisoning, bloodstroke[obs3], bloody flux, brash; breakbone fever[obs3], dengue fever, malarial fever, Q-fever; heart attack, cardiac arrest, cardiomyopathy[Med]; hardening of the arteries, arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis; bronchocele[Med], canker rash, cardialgia[Med], carditis[Med], endocarditis[Med]; cholera, asphyxia; chlorosis, chorea, cynanche[obs3], dartre[Fr]; enanthem[obs3], enanthema[obs3]; erysipelas; exanthem[obs3], exanthema; gallstone, goiter, gonorrhea, green sickness; grip, grippe, influenza, flu; hay fever, heartburn, heaves, rupture, hernia, hemorrhoids, piles, herpes, itch, king's evil, lockjaw; measles, mumps[obs3], polio; necrosis, pertussis, phthisis[obs3], pneumonia, psora[obs3], pyaemia[obs3], pyrosis[Med], quinsy, rachitis[obs3], ringworm, rubeola, St. Vitus's dance, scabies, scarlatina, scarlet fever, scrofula, seasickness, struma[obs3], syntexis[obs3], tetanus, tetter[obs3], tonsillitis, tonsilitis[obs3], tracheocele[Med], trachoma, trismus[Med], varicella[Med], varicosis[Med], variola[Med], water qualm, whooping cough; yellow fever, yellow jack. fatal disease &c. (hopeless) 859; dangerous illness, galloping consumption, churchyard cough; general breaking up, break up of the system. [Disease of mind] idiocy &c. 499; insanity &c. 503. martyr to disease; cripple; "the halt the lame and the blind"; valetudinary[obs3], valetudinarian; invalid, patient, case; sickroom, sick- chamber. [Science of disease] pathology, etiology, nosology[obs3]. [Veterinary] anthrax, bighead; blackleg, blackquarter[obs3]; cattle plague, glanders[obs3], mange, scrapie, milk sickness; heartworm, feline leukemia, roundworms; quarter-evil, quarter-ill; rinderpest. [disease-causing agents] virus, bacterium, bacteria. [types of viruses] DNA virus; RNA virus. [RNA viruses] rhinovirus; rhabdovirus; picornavirus. [DNA viruses] herpesvirus; cytomegalovirus, CMV; human immunodefficiency virus, HIV. V. be ill &c. adj.; ail, suffer, labor under, be affected with, complain of, have; droop, flag, languish, halt; sicken, peak, pine; gasp. keep one's bed; feign sickness &c. (falsehood) 544. lay by, lay up; take a disease, catch a disease &c. n., catch an infection; break out. Adj. diseased; ailing &c. v.; ill, ill of; taken ill, seized with; indisposed, unwell, sick, squeamish, poorly, seedy; affected with illness, afflicted with illness; laid up, confined, bedridden, invalided, in hospital, on the sick list; out of health, out of sorts; under the weather [U. S.]; valetudinary[obs3]. unsound, unhealthy; sickly, morbid, morbose[obs3], healthless[obs3], infirm, chlorotic[Med], unbraced[obs3]. drooping, flagging, lame, crippled, halting. morbid, tainted, vitiated, peccant, contaminated, poisoned, tabid[obs3], mangy, leprous, cankered; rotten, rotten to the core, rotten at the core; withered, palsied, paralytic; dyspeptic; luetic[obs3], pneumonic, pulmonic[Med], phthisic[obs3], rachitic; syntectic[obs3], syntectical[obs3]; tabetic[obs3], varicose. touched in the wind, broken-winded, spavined, gasping; hors de combat &c. (useless) 645[Fr]. weakly, weakened &c. (weak) 160; decrepit; decayed &c. (deteriorated) 659; incurable &c. (hopeless) 859; in declining health; cranky; in a bad way, in danger, prostrate; moribund &c. (death) 360. morbific &c. 657[obs3]; epidemic, endemic; zymotic[obs3].

#656. Salubrity.—N. salubrity; healthiness &c. Adj.
fine air, fine climate; eudiometer[obs3].
     [Preservation of health] hygiene; valetudinarian, valetudinarianism;
sanitarian; sanitarium, sanitorium.
     V. be salubrious &c. Adj.; agree with; assimilate &c. 23.
     Adj. salubrious, salutary, salutiferous[obs3]; wholesome; healthy,
healthful; sanitary, prophYlactic, benign, bracing, tonic, invigorating,
good for, nutritious; hygeian[obs3], hygienic.
     innoxious[obs3], innocuous, innocent; harmless, uninjurious,
     sanative &c. (remedial) 662; restorative &c. (reinstate) 660; useful
&c. 644.

#657. Insalubrity.—N. insalubrity; unhealthiness &c. Adj.; nonnaturals[obs3]; plague spot; malaria &c. (poison) 663; death in the pot, contagion; toxicity. Adj. insalubrious; unhealthy, unwholesome; noxious, noisome; morbific[obs3], morbiferous[obs3]; mephitic, septic, azotic[obs3], deleterious; pestilent, pestiferous, pestilential; virulent, venomous, envenomed; poisonous, toxic, toxiferous[obs3], teratogenic; narcotic. contagious, infectious, catching, taking, epidemic, zymotic[obs3]; epizootic. innutritious[obs3], indigestible, ungenial; uncongenial &c. (disagreeing) 24. deadly &c. (killing) 361.

#658. Improvement.—N. improvement; amelioration, melioration;
betterment; mend, amendment, emendation; mending &c. v.; advancement;
advance &c. (progress) 282; ascent &c. 305; promotion, preferment;
elevation &c. 307; increase &c. 35; cultivation, civilization; culture,
march of intellect; menticulture[obs3]; race-culture, eugenics.
     reform, reformation; revision, radical reform; second thoughts,
correction, limoe labor[Lat], refinement, elaboration; purification &c.
652; oxidation; repair &c. (restoration) 660; recovery &c. 660.
     revise, new edition.
     reformer, radical.
     V. improve; be better, become better, get better; mend, amend.
     advance &c. (progress) 282; ascend &c. 305; increase &c. 35; fructify,
ripen, mature; pick up, come about, rally, take a favorable turn; turn over
a new leaf, turn the corner; raise one's head, sow one's wild oats; recover
&c. 660.
     be better &c. adj., be improved by; turn to right account, turn to
good account, turn to best account; profit by, reap the benefit of; make
good use of, make capital out of; place to good account.
     render better, improve, mend, amend, better; ameliorate, meliorate;
correct; decrassify[obs3].
     improve upon, refine upon; rectify; enrich, mellow, elaborate, fatten.
     promote, cultivate, advance, forward, enhance; bring forward, bring
on; foster &c. 707; invigorate &c. (strengthen) 159.
     touch up, rub up, brush up, furbish up, bolster up, vamp up, brighten
up, warm up; polish, cook, make the most of, set off to advantage; prune;
repair &c. (restore) 660; put in order &c. (arrange) 60.
     review, revise; make corrections, make improvements &c. n.; doctor &c.
(remedy) 662; purify,&c. 652.
     relieve, refresh, infuse new blood into, recruit.
     reform, remodel, reorganize; new model.
     view in a new light, think better of, appeal from Philip drunk to
Philip sober.
     palliate, mitigate; lessen an evil &c. 36.
     Adj. improving &c. v.; progressive, improved &c. v.; better, better
off, better for; all the better for; better advised.
     reformatory, emendatory[obs3]; reparatory &c. (restorative) 660[obs3];
remedial &c. 662.
     corrigible, improvable; accultural[obs3].
     adv. on consideration, on reconsideration, on second thoughts, on
better advice; ad melius inquirendum[Lat].
     phr. urbent latericiam invenit marmoream reliquit[Lat].

#659. Deterioration.—N. deterioration, debasement; wane, ebb; recession &c. 287; retrogradation &c. 283[obs3]; decrease &c. 36. degeneracy, degeneration, degenerateness; degradation; depravation, depravement; devolution; depravity &c. 945; demoralization, retrogression; masochism. impairment, inquination|, injury, damage, loss, detriment, delaceration|, outrage, havoc, inroad, ravage, scath[obs3]; perversion, prostitution, vitiation, discoloration, oxidation, pollution, defoedation|, poisoning, venenation|, leaven, contamination, canker, corruption, adulteration, alloy. decline, declension, declination; decadence, decadency[obs3]; falling off &c. v.; caducity[obs3], decrepitude. decay, dilapidation, ravages of time, wear and tear; corrosion, erosion; moldiness, rottenness; moth and rust, dry rot, blight, marasmus[obs3], atrophy, collapse; disorganization; delabrement &c. (destruction)[Fr]. 162; aphid, Aphis, plant louse, puceron[obs3]; vinefretter[obs3], vinegrub[obs3]. wreck, mere wreck, honeycomb, magni nominis umbra[Lat]; jade, plug, rackabones [obs3][U. S.], skate [U. S.]; tackey[obs3], tacky [U. S.]. V. be worse, be deteriorated, become worse, become deteriorated &c. Adj.; have seen better days, deteriorate, degenerate, fall off; wane &c. (decrease) 36; ebb; retrograde &c. 283- decline, droop; go down &c. (sink) 306; go downhill, go from bad to worse, go farther and fare worse; jump out of the frying pan into the fire. run to seed, go to seed, run to waste swale|, sweal|; lapse, be the worse for; sphacelate; break[obs3], break down; spring a leak, crack, start; shrivel &c. (contract) 195; fade, go off, wither, molder, rot, rankle, decay, go bad; go to decay, fall into decay; "fall into the sear and yellow leaf", rust, crumble, shake; totter, totter to its fall; perish &c. 162; die &c. 360. [Render less good] deteriorate; weaken &c. 160; put back, set back; taint, infect, contaminate, poison, empoison[obs3], envenom, canker, corrupt, exulcerate|, pollute, vitiate, inquinate|; debase, embase|; denaturalize, denature, leaven; deflower, debauch, defile, deprave, degrade; ulcerate; stain &c. (dirt) 653; discolor; alloy, adulterate, sophisticate, tamper with, prejudice. pervert, prostitute, demoralize, brutalize; render vicious &c. 945. embitter, acerbate, exacerbate, aggravate. injure, impair, labefy[obs3], damage, harm, hurt, shend|, scath|, scathe, spoil, mar, despoil, dilapidate, waste; overrun; ravage; pillage &c. 791. wound, stab, pierce, maim, lame, surbate|, cripple, hough[obs3], hamstring, hit between wind and water, scotch, mangle, mutilate, disfigure, blemish, deface, warp. blight, rot; corrode, erode; wear away, wear out; gnaw, gnaw at the root of; sap, mine, undermine, shake, sap the foundations of, break up; disorganize, dismantle, dismast; destroy &c. 162. damnify &c. (aggrieve) 649[obs3]; do one's worst; knock down; deal a blow to; play havoc with, play sad havoc with, play the mischief with, play the deuce with, play the very devil with, play havoc among, play sad havoc among, play the mischief among, play the deuce among, play the very devil among; decimate. Adj. unimproved &c. (improve &c. 658); deteriorated &c. v.; altered, altered for the worse; injured &c. v.; sprung; withering, spoiling &c. v.; on the wane, on the decline; tabid[obs3]; degenerate; marescent[obs3]; worse; the worse for, all the worse for; out of repair, out of tune; imperfect &c. 651; the worse for wear; battered; weathered, weather-beaten; stale, passe, shaken, dilapidated, frayed, faded, wilted, shabby, secondhand, threadbare; worn, worn to a thread, worn to a shadow, worn to the stump, worn to rags; reduced, reduced to a skeleton; far gone; tacky [U. S.*]. decayed &c. v.; moth-eaten, worm-eaten; mildewed, rusty, moldy, spotted, seedy, time-worn, moss-grown; discolored; effete, wasted, crumbling, moldering, rotten, cankered, blighted, tainted; depraved &c. (vicious) 945; decrepid[obs3], decrepit; broke, busted, broken, out of commission, hors de combat[Fr], out of action, broken down; done, done for, done up; worn out, used up, finished; beyond saving, fit for the dust hole, fit for the wastepaper basket, past work &c. (useless) 645. at a low ebb, in a bad way, on one's last legs; undermined, deciduous; nodding to its fall &c. (destruction) 162; tottering &c,. (dangerous) 665: past cure &c. (hopeless) 859; fatigued &c. 688; retrograde &c. (retrogressive) 283; deleterious &c. 649. Phr. out of the frying pan into the fire; agrescit medendo[Latin]; "what a falling off was there!" [Hamlet].

#660. Restoration.—N. restoration, restoral; reinstatement, replacement, rehabilitation, reestablishment, reconstitution, reconstruction; reproduction &c. 163; renovation, renewal; revival, revivessence[obs3], reviviscence[obs3]; refreshment &c. 689; resuscitation, reanimation, revivification, reviction|; Phenix; reorganization. renaissance, second youth, rejuvenescence[obs3],. new birth; regeneration, regeneracy[obs3], regenerateness[obs3]; palingenesis[obs3], reconversion. redress, retrieval, reclamation, recovery; convalescence; resumption, resumption; sanativeness[obs3]. recurrence &c. (repetition) 104; rechauffe[Fr], rifacimento[It]. cure, recure|, sanation|; healing &c. v.; redintegration[obs3]; rectification; instauration[obs3]. repair, reparation, remanufacture; recruiting &c. v.; cicatrization; disinfection; tinkering. reaction; redemption &c. (deliverance) 672; restitution &c. 790; relief &c. 834. tinker, cobbler; vis medicatrix &c. (remedy) 662[obs3]. curableness. V. return to the original state; recover, rally, revive; come come to, come round, come to oneself; pull through, weather the storm, be oneself again; get well ,get round, get the better of, get over, get about; rise from one's ashes, rise from the grave; survive &c. (outlive) 110; resume, reappear; come to, come to life again; live again, rise again. heal, skin over, cicatrize; right itself. restore, put back, place in statu quo[Lat]; reinstate, replace, reseat, rehabilitate, reestablish, reestate[obs3], reinstall. reconstruct, rebuild, reorganize, reconstitute; reconvert; renew, renovate; regenerate; rejuvenate. redeem, reclaim, recover, retrieve; rescue &c. (deliver) 672. redress, recure[obs3]; cure, heal, remedy, doctor, physic, medicate; break of; bring round, set on one's legs. resuscitate, revive, reanimate, revivify, recall to life; reproduce &c. 163; warm up; reinvigorate, refresh &c. 689. make whole, redintegrate[obs3]; recoup &c. 790; make good, make all square; rectify, correct; put right, put to rights, set right, set to rights, set straight; set up; put in order &c. (arrange) 60; refit, recruit; fill up, fill up the ranks; reinforce. repair; put in repair, remanufacture, put in thorough repair, put in complete repair; retouch, refashion, botch|, vamp, tinker, cobble; do up, patch up, touch up, plaster up, vamp up; darn, finedraw[obs3], heelpiece[obs3]; stop a gap, stanch, staunch, caulk, calk, careen, splice, bind up wounds. Adj. restored &c. v.; redivivus[Lat], convalescent; in a fair way; none the worse; rejuvenated. restoring &c. v.; restorative, recuperative; sanative, reparative, sanatory[obs3], reparatory[obs3]; curative, remedial. restorable, recoverable, sanable[obs3], remediable, retrievable, curable. Adv. in statu quo[Lat]; as you were. phr. revenons a nos moutons[Fr]; medecin[Fr], gueris-toi toi-meme[Fr]; vestigia nulla retrorsum [Lat][Horace].

#661. Relapse.—N. relapse, lapse; falling back &c. v.;
retrogradation &c. (retrogression) 283[obs3]; deterioration &c. 659.
     [Return to, or recurrence of a bad state] backsliding, recidivation |;
recidivism, recidivity[obs3]; recrudescence.
     V. relapse, lapse; fall back, slide back, sink back; return;
retrograde &c. 283; recidivate; fall off again &c. 659.

#662. Remedy.—N. remedy, help, cure, redress; medicine, medicament; diagnosis, medical examination; medical treatment; surgery; preventive medicine. [medical devices] clinical thermometer, stethoscope, X-ray machine. anthelmintic[Med]; antidote, antifebrile[Med], antipoison[obs3], counterpoison[obs3], antitoxin, antispasmodic; bracer, faith cure, placebo; helminthagogue[obs3], lithagogue[obs3], pick-meup, stimulant, tonic; vermifuge, prophylactic, corrective, restorative; sedative &c. 174; palliative; febrifuge; alterant[obs3], alterative; specific; antiseptic, emetic, analgesic, pain-killer, antitussive[Med], antiinflammatory[Med], antibiotic, antiviral[Med], antifungal[Med], carminative; Nepenthe, Mithridate. cure, treatment, regimen; radical cure, perfect cure, certain cure; sovereign remedy. examination, diagnosis, diagnostics; analysis, urinalysis, biopsy, radiology. medicine, physic, Galenicals[obs3], simples, drug, pharmaceutical, prescription, potion, draught, dose, pill, bolus, injection, infusion, drip, suppository, electuary[obs3]; linctus[obs3], lincture[obs3]; medicament; pharmacon[obs3]. nostrum, receipt, recipe, prescription; catholicon[obs3], panacea, elixir, elixir vitae, philosopher's stone; balm, balsam, cordial, theriac[obs3], ptisan[obs3]. agueweed[obs3], arnica, benzoin, bitartrate of potash, boneset[obs3], calomel, catnip, cinchona, cream of tartar, Epsom salts[Chem]; feverroot[obs3], feverwort; friar's balsam, Indian sage; ipecac, ipecacuanha; jonquil, mercurous chloride, Peruvian bark; quinine, quinquina[obs3]; sassafras, yarrow. salve, ointment, cerate, oil, lenitive, lotion, cosmetic; plaster; epithem[obs3], embrocation[obs3], liniment, cataplasm[obs3], sinapism[obs3], arquebusade[obs3], traumatic, vulnerary, pepastic[obs3], poultice, collyrium[obs3], depilatory; emplastrum[obs3]; eyewater[obs3], vesicant, vesicatory[Med]. compress, pledget[obs3]; bandage &c. (support) 215. treatment, medical treatment, regimen; dietary, dietetics; vis medicatrix[obs3], vis medicatrix naturae[Lat][obs3]; medecine expectante[Fr]; bloodletting, bleeding, venesection[Med], phlebotomy, cupping, sanguisae, leeches; operation, surgical operation; transfusion, infusion, intravenous infusion, catheter, feeding tube; prevention, preventative medicine, immunization, inoculation, vaccination, vaccine, shot, booster, gamma globulin. pharmacy, pharmacology, pharmaceutics; pharmacopoeia, formulary; acology[obs3], Materia Medica[Lat], therapeutics, posology[obs3]; homeopathy, allopathy[obs3], heteropathy[Med], osteopathy, hydropathy[Med]; cold water cure; dietetics; surgery, chirurgery[Med], chirurgy[obs3]; healing art, leechcraft[obs3]; orthopedics, orthopedy[obs3], orthopraxy[obs3]; pediatrics; dentistry, midwifery, obstetrics, gynecology; tocology[obs3]; sarcology[obs3]. hospital, infirmary; pesthouse[obs3], lazarhouse[obs3]; lazaretto; lock hospital; maison de sante[Fr]; ambulance. dispensary; dispensatory[obs3], drug store, pharmacy, apothecary, druggist, chemist. Hotel des Invalides; sanatorium, spa, pump room, well; hospice; Red Cross. doctor, physician, surgeon; medical practitioner, general practitioner, specialist; medical attendant, apothecary, druggist; leech; osteopath, osteopathist[obs3]; optometrist, ophthalmologist; internist, oncologist, gastroenterologist; epidemiologist[Med], public health specialist; dermatologist; podiatrist; witch doctor, shaman, faith healer, quack, exorcist; Aesculapius[obs3], Hippocrates, Galen; accoucheur[Fr], accoucheuse[Fr], midwife, oculist, aurist[obs3]; operator; nurse, registered nurse, practical nurse, monthly nurse, sister; nurse's aide, candystriper; dresser; bonesetter; pharmaceutist[obs3], pharmacist, druggist, chemist, pharmacopolist[obs3]. V. apply a remedy &c. n.; doctor, dose, physic, nurse, minister to, attend, dress the wounds, plaster; drain; prevent &c. 706; relieve &c. 834; palliate &c. 658; restore &c. 660; drench with physic; bleed, cup, let blood; manicure. operate, excise, cut out; incise. Adj. remedial; restorative &c. 660; corrective, palliative, healing; sanatory[obs3], sanative; prophylactic, preventative, immunizing; salutiferous &c. (salutary) 656[obs3]; medical, medicinal; therapeutic, chirurgical[Med], epulotic|, paregoric, tonic, corroborant, analeptic[obs3], balsamic, anodyne, hypnotic, neurotic, narcotic, sedative, lenitive, demulcent|, emollient; depuratory[obs3]; detersive[obs3], detergent; abstersive[obs3], disinfectant, febrifugal[obs3], alterative; traumatic, vulnerary. allopathic[obs3], heteropathic[obs3], homeopathic, hydropathic[Med]; anthelmintic[Med]; antifebrile[Med], antiluetic[obs3]; aperient[obs3], chalybeate[obs3], deobstruent[obs3], depurative[obs3], laxative, roborant[obs3]. dietetic, alimentary; nutritious, nutritive; peptic; alexipharmic[obs3], alexiteric[obs3]; remediable, curable. phr. aux grands maux les grands remedes[Fr]; Dios que da la llaga da la medicina[Sp]; para todo hay remedio sino para la muerte[Sp]; temporis ars medicina fere est [Lat][Ovid]; "the remedy is worse than the disease" [Dryden]; "throw physic to the dogs, I'll none of it" [Macbeth].

#663. Bane.—N. bane, curse; evil &c. 619; hurtfulness &c. (badness) 649[obs3]; painfulness &c. (cause of pain) 830; scourge &c. (punishment) 975; damnosa hereditas[Lat]; white elephant. sting, fang, thorn, tang, bramble, brier, nettle. poison, toxin; teratogen; leaven, virus venom; arsenic; antimony, tartar emetic; strychnine, nicotine; miasma, miasm[obs3], mephitis[obs3], malaria, azote[obs3], sewer gas; pest. [poisonous substances, examples] Albany hemp[obs3], arsenious oxide, arsenious acid; bichloride of mercury; carbonic acid, carbonic gas; choke damp, corrosive sublimate, fire damp; hydrocyanic acid, cyanide, Prussic acid[ISA:chemsubcfp], hydrogen cyanide; marsh gas, nux vomica[Lat], ratsbane[obs3]. [poisonous plants] hemlock, hellebore, nightshade, belladonna, henbane, aconite; banewort[obs3], bhang, ganja[obs3], hashish; Upas tree. [list of poisonous substances(on-line)] Toxline. rust, worm, helminth[Med], moth, moth and rust, fungus, mildew; dry rot; canker, cankerworm; cancer; torpedo; viper &c. (evil doer) 913; demon &c. 980. [Science of poisons] toxicology. Adj. baneful &c. (bad) 649; poisonous &c. (unwholesome) 657. phr. bibere venenum in auro[Lat].

3. Contingent Subservience

#664. Safety.—N. safety, security, surety, impregnability; invulnerability, invulnerableness &c. Adj.; danger past, danger over; storm blown over; coast clear; escape &c. 671; means of escape; blow valve, safety valve, release valve, sniffing valve; safeguard, palladium. guardianship, wardship, wardenship; tutelage, custody, safekeeping; preservation &c. 670; protection, auspices. safe-conduct, escort, convoy; guard, shield &c. (defense) 717; guardian angel; tutelary god, tutelary deity, tutelary saint; genius loci. protector, guardian; warden, warder; preserver, custodian, duenna[Sp], chaperon, third person. watchdog, bandog[obs3]; Cerberus; watchman, patrolman, policeman; cop, dick, fuzz, smokey, peeler|, zarp|[all slang]; sentinel, sentry, scout &c. (warning) 668; garrison; guardship[obs3]. [Means of safety] refuge &c. anchor &c. 666; precaution &c. (preparation) 673; quarantine, cordon sanitaire[Fr]. confidence &c. 858[Sense of security]. V. be safe &c. Adj.; keep one's head above water, tide over, save one's bacon; ride out the storm, weather the storm; light upon one's feet, land on one's feet; bear a charmed life; escape &c. 671. make safe, render safe &c. Adj.; protect; take care of &c. (care) 459; preserve &c. 670; cover, screen, shelter, shroud, flank, ward; guard &c. (defend) 717; secure &c. (restrain) 751; entrench, intrench[obs3], fence round &c. (circumscribe) 229; house, nestle, ensconce; take charge of. escort, convoy; garrison; watch, mount guard, patrol. make assurance doubly sure &c. (caution) 864; take up a loose thread; take precautions &c. (prepare for) 673; double reef topsails. seek safety; take shelter, find shelter &c. 666. Adj. safe, secure, sure; in safety, in security; on the safe side; under the shield of, under the shade of, under the wing of, under the shadow of one's wing; under cover, under lock and key; out of danger, out of the woods, out of the meshes, out of harm's way; unharmed, unscathed; on sure ground, at anchor, high and dry, above water; unthreatened[obs3], unmolested; protected &c. v.; cavendo tutus[Lat]; panoplied &c. (defended) 717[obs3]. snug, seaworthy; weatherproof, waterproof, fireproof. defensible, tenable, proof against, invulnerable; unassailable, unattackable, impenetrable; impregnable, imperdible|; inexpugnable; Achillean[obs3]. safe and sound &c. (preserved) 670;scathless &c. (perfect) 650[obs3]; unhazarded[obs3]; not dangerous &c. 665. unthreatening, harmless; friendly (cooperative) 709. protecting, protective &c. v.; guardian, tutelary; preservative &c. 670; trustworthy &c 939. adv. ex abundanti cautela[Lat][obs3]; with impunity. phr. all's well; salva res est[Lat]; suave mari magno[Lat]; a couvert[Fr]; e terra alterius spectare laborem [Lat][Lucretius]; Dieu vous garde[Fr].

#665. Danger.—N. danger, peril, insecurity, jeopardy, risk, hazard, venture, precariousness, slipperiness; instability &c. 149; defenselessness &c. Adj. exposure &c. (liability) 177; vulnerability; vulnerable point, heel of Achilles[obs3]; forlorn hope &c. (hopelessness) 859. [Dangerous course] leap in the dark &c. (rashness) 863; road to ruin, faciles descensus Averni [Lat][Vergil], hairbreadth escape. cause for alarm; source of danger &c. 667. rock ahead[Approach of danger], breakers ahead; storm brewing; clouds in the horizon, clouds gathering; warning &c. 668; alarm &c. 669. [Sense of danger] apprehension &c. 860. V. be in danger &c. Adj.; be exposed to danger, run into danger, incur danger, encounter danger &c. n.; run a risk; lay oneself open to &c. (liability) 177; lean on a broken reed, trust to a broken reed; feel the ground sliding from under one, have to run for it; have the chances against one, have the odds against one, face long odds; be in deep trouble, be between a rock and a hard place. hang by a thread, totter; sleep on a volcano, stand on a volcano; sit on a barrel of gunpowder, live in a glass house. bring in danger, place in danger, put in danger, place in jeopardy, put in jeopardy &c. n.; endanger, expose to danger, imperil; jeopard[obs3], jeopardize; compromise; sail too near the wind &c. (rash) 863. adventure, risk, hazard, venture, stake, set at hazard; run the gauntlet &c. (dare) 861; engage in a forlorn hope. threaten danger &c. 909; run one hard; lay a trap for &c. (deceive) 545. Adj. in danger &c. n.; endangered &c. v.; fraught with danger; dangerous, hazardous, perilous, parlous, periculous|; unsafe, unprotected &c. (safe, protect &c. 664);insecure, untrustworthy; built upon sand, on a sandy basis; wildcat. defenseless, fenceless, guardless[obs3], harborless; unshielded; vulnerable, expugnable[obs3], exposed; open to &c. (liable) 177. aux abois[Fr], at bay; on the wrong side of the wall, on a lee shore, on the rocks. at stake, in question; precarious, critical, ticklish; slippery, slippy; hanging by a thread &c. v.; with a halter round one's neck; between the hammer and the anvil, between Scylla and Charybdis, between a rock and a hard place, between the devil and the deep blue sea, between two fires; on the edge of a precipice, on the brink of a precipice, on the verge of a precipice, on the edge of a volcano; in the lion's den, on slippery ground, under fire; not out of the wood. unwarned, unadmonished, unadvised, unprepared &c. 674; off one's guard &c. (inexpectant) 508[obs3]. tottering; unstable, unsteady; shaky, top-heavy, tumbledown, ramshackle, crumbling, waterlogged; helpless, guideless[obs3]; in a bad way; reduced to the last extremity, at the last extremity; trembling in the balance; nodding to its fall &c. (destruction) 162. threatening &c. 909; ominous, illomened; alarming &c. (fear) 860; explosive. adventurous &c. (rash) 863, (bold) 861. Phr. incidit in Scyllam qui vult vitare Charybdim[Lat]; nam tua res agitur paries dum proximus ardet[Lat].

#666. [Means of safety.] Refuge.—N. refuge, sanctuary, retreat, fastness; acropolis; keep, last resort; ward; prison &c. 752; asylum, ark, home, refuge for the destitute; almshouse[obs3]; hiding place &c. (ambush) 530; sanctum sanctorum &c. (privacy) 893[Lat]. roadstead, anchorage; breakwater, mole, port, haven; harbor, harbor of refuge; seaport; pier, jetty, embankment, quay. covert, cover, shelter, screen, lee wall, wing, shield, umbrella; barrier; dashboard, dasher [U.S.]. wall &c. (inclosure) 232; fort &c. (defense) 717. anchor, kedge; grapnel, grappling iron; sheet anchor, killick[obs3]; mainstay; support &c. 215; cheek &c. 706; ballast. jury mast; vent-peg; safety valve, blow-off valve; safety lamp; lightning rod, lightning conductor; safety belt, airbag, seat belt; antilock brakes, antiskid tires, snow tires. means of escape &c. (escape) 671 lifeboat, lifejacket, life buoy, swimming belt, cork jacket; parachute, plank, steppingstone; emergency landing. safeguard &c. (protection) 664. V. seek refuge, take refuge, find refuge &c. n.; seek safety, find safety &c. 664; throw oneself into the arms of; break for taller timber [U. S.]. create a diversion. Phr. any port in a storm; bibere venenum in auro[Lat]; valet anchora virtus[obs3].

#667. [Source of danger.] Pitfall.—N. rocks, reefs, coral reef, sunken rocks, snags; sands, quicksands; syrt|, syrtis|; Goodwin sands, sandy foundation; slippery ground; breakers, shoals, shallows, bank, shelf, flat, lee shore, ironbound coast; rock ahead, breakers ahead. precipice; maelstrom, volcano; ambush &c. 530; pitfall, trapdoor; trap &c. (snare) 545. sword of Damocles; wolf at the door, snake in the grass, death in the pot; latency &c. 526. ugly customer, dangerous person, le chat qui dort[Fr]; firebrand, hornet's nest. Phr. latet anquis in herba [Lat][Vergil]; proximus ardet Ucalegon [Lat][Vergil].

#668. Warning.—N. warning, early warning, caution, caveat; notice &c. (information) 527; premonition, premonishment[obs3]; prediction &c. 511; contraindication, lesson, dehortation[obs3]; admonition, monition; alarm &c. 669. handwriting on the wall, mene mene tekel upharsin, red flag, yellow flag; fog-signal, foghorn; siren; monitor, warning voice, Cassandra[obs3], signs of the times, Mother Cary's chickens[obs3], stormy petrel, bird of ill omen, gathering clouds, clouds in the horizon, death watch. watchtower, beacon, signal post; lighthouse &c. (indication of locality) 550. sentinel, sentry; watch, watchman; watch and ward; watchdog, bandog[obs3], housedog[obs3]; patrol, patrolman, vedette[obs3], picket, bivouac, scout, spy, spial|; undercover agent, mole, plainclothesman; advanced guard, rear guard; lookout. cautiousness &c. 864. monitor, guard camera, radar, AWACS, spy satellite, spy-in-the-sky, U2 plane, spy plane. V. warn, caution; forewarn, prewarn[obs3]; admonish, premonish[obs3]; give notice, give warning, dehort[obs3]; menace &c. (threaten) 909; put on one's guard; sound the alarm &c. 669; croak. beware, ware; take warning, take heed at one's peril; keep watch and ward &c. (care) 459. Adj. warning &c. v.; premonitory, monitory, cautionary; admonitory, admonitive[obs3]; sematic[Biol]. warned, forewarned &c. v.; on one's guard &c. (careful) 459, (cautious) 864. Adv. in terrorem[Lat] &c. (threat) 909. Int. beware! ware! take care! look out! fore![golf], mind what you are about!, take care what you are about! mind! Phr. ne reveillez pas le chat qui dort [French: don't wake a sleeping cat]; foenum habet in cornu[Lat]; caveat actor; le silence du people est la legon des rois[Fr]; verbum sat sapienti [Latin: a word to the wise is sufficient]; un averti en vaut deux[Fr].

#669. [Indication of danger.] Alarm.—N. alarm; alarum, larum[obs3], alarm bell, tocsin, alerts, beat of drum, sound of trumpet, note of alarm, hue and cry, fire cross, signal of distress; blue lights; war-cry, war- whoop; warning &c. 668; fogsignal, foghorn; yellow flag; danger signal; red light, red flag; fire bell; police whistle. false alarm, cry of wolf; bug-bear, bugaboo. V. give the alarm, raise the alarm, sound the alarm, turn in the alarm, beat the alarm, give an alarm, raise an alarm, sound an alarm, turn in an alarm, beat an alarm &c. n.; alarm; warn &c. 668; ring the tocsin; battre la generale[Fr]; cry wolf. Adj. alarming &c. v. Int. sauve qui peut[Fr]! [French: every man for himself]; qui vive? [Fr].

#670. Preservation.—N. preservation; safe-keeping; conservation &c. (storage) 636; maintenance, support, susteritation[obs3], conservatism; vis conservatrix[obs3]; salvation &c. (deliverance) 672. [Means of preservation] prophylaxis; preserver, preservative, additive; antibiotics, antifungals[Med], biocide; hygiastics[obs3], hygiantics[obs3]; cover, drugget[obs3]; cordon sanitaire[Fr]; canning; ensilage; tinned goods, canned goods. [Superstitious remedies] snake oil, spider webs, cure-all; laetrile; charm &c. 993. V. preserve, maintain, keep, sustain, support, hold; keep up, keep alive; refrigerate, keep on ice; not willingly let die; bank up; nurse; save, rescue; be safe, make safe &c. 664; take care of &c. (care) 459; guard &c. (defend) 717. stare super antiquas vias [Lat][Bacon]; hold one's own; hold one's ground, stand one's ground &c. (resist) 719. embalm, cure, salt, pickle, season, kyanize|, bottle, pot, tin, can; sterilize, pasteurize, radiate; dry, lyophilize[Chem], freeze-dry, concentrate, evaporate; freeze, quick-freeze, deep-freeze; husband &c. (store) 636. Adj. preserving &c. v.; conservative; prophylactic; preservatory[obs3], preservative; hygienic. preserved &c. v.; unimpaired, unbroken, uninjured, unhurt, unsinged[obs3], unmarred; safe, safe and sound; intact, with a whole skin. Phr. nolumus leges Angliae mutari[Lat][obs3].

#671. Escape.—N. escape, scape; avolation|, elopement, flight; evasion &c. (avoidance) 623; retreat; narrow escape, hairbreadth escape; close call; come off, impunity. [Means of escape] loophole &c. (opening) 260; path &c. 627; refuse &c. 666; vent, vent peg; safety valve; drawbridge, fire escape. reprieve &c. (deliverance) 672; liberation &c. 750. refugee &c. (fugitive) 623. V. escape, scape; make one's escape, effect one's escape, make good one's escape; break jail; get off, get clear off, get well out of; echapper belle[Fr], save one's bacon, save one's skin; weather the storm &c. (safe) 664; escape scot-free. elude &c., make off &c. (avoid) 623; march off &c. (go away) 293; give one the slip; slip through the hands, slip through the fingers; slip the collar, wriggle out of prison, break out, break loose, break loose from prison; break away, slip away, get away; find vent, find a hole to creep out of. disappear, vanish. Adj..escaping, escaped &c. v. stolen away, fled. Phr. the bird has flown the coop.

#672. Deliverance.—N. deliverance, extrication, rescue; reprieve, reprieval[obs3]; respite; liberation &c. 750; emancipation; redemption, salvation; riddance; gaol delivery; redeemableness[obs3]. V. deliver, extricate, rescue, save, emancipate, redeem, ransom; bring off, bring through; tirer d'affaire[Fr], get the wheel out of the rut, snatch from the jaws of death, come to the rescue; rid; retrieve &c. (restore) 660; be rid of, get rid of. Adj. saved &c. v. extricable, redeemable, rescuable. Int. to the rescue!

3. Precursory Measures

#673. Preparation.—N. preparation; providing &c. v.; provision, providence; anticipation &c. (foresight) 510; precaution, preconcertation[obs3], predisposition; forecast &c. (plan) 626; rehearsal, note of preparation. [Putting in order] arrangement &c. 60; clearance; adjustment &c. 23; tuning; equipment, outfit, accouterment, armament, array. ripening &c. v.; maturation, evolution; elaboration, concoction, digestion; gestation, batching, incubation, sitting. groundwork, first stone, cradle, stepping-stone; foundation, scaffold &c. (support) 215; scaffolding, echafaudage[Fr]. [Preparation of men] training &c. (education) 537; inurement &c. (habit) 613; novitiate; cooking[ Preparation of food], cookery; brewing, culinary art; tilling[ Preparation of the soil], plowing, sowing; semination[obs3], cultivation. [State of being prepared] preparedness, readiness, ripeness, mellowness; maturity; un impromptu fait a loisir[Fr]. [Preparer] preparer, trainer; pioneer, trailblazer; avant- courrier[Fr], avant-coureur[Fr]; voortrekker[Afrikaans]; sappers and miners, pavior[obs3], navvy[obs3]; packer, stevedore; warming pan. V. prepare; get ready, make ready; make preparations, settle preliminaries, get up, sound the note of preparation. set in order, put in order &c. (arrange) 60; forecast &c. (plan) 626 prepare the ground, plow the ground, dress the ground; till the soil, cultivate the soil; predispose, sow the seed, lay a train, dig a mine; lay the groundwork, fix the groundwork, lay the basis, fix the basis, lay the foundations, fix the foundations; dig the foundations, erect the scaffolding; lay the first stone &c. (begin) 66. roughhew; cut out work; block out, hammer out; lick into shape &c. (form) 240. elaborate, mature, ripen, mellow, season, bring to maturity; nurture &c. (aid) 707; hatch, cook, brew; temper, anneal, smelt; barbecue; infumate|; maturate. equip, arm, man; fit-out, fit up; furnish, rig, dress, garnish, betrim[obs3], accouter, array, fettle, fledge; dress up, furbish up, brush up, vamp up; refurbish; sharpen one's tools, trim one's foils, set, prime, attune; whet the knife, whet the sword; wind up, screw up; adjust &c. (fit) 27; put in trim, put in train, put in gear, put in working order, put in tune, put in a groove for, put in harness; pack. train &c. (teach) 537; inure &c. (habituate) 613; breed; prepare &c. for; rehearse; make provision for; take steps, take measures, take precautions; provide, provide against; beat up for recruits; open the door to &c. (facilitate) 705. set one's house in order, make all snug; clear the decks, clear for action; close one's ranks; shuffle the cards. prepare oneself; serve an apprenticeship &c. (learn) 539; lay oneself out for, get into harness, gird up one's loins, buckle on one's armor, reculer pour mieux sauter[Fr], prime and load, shoulder arms, get the steam up, put the horses to. guard against, make sure against; forearm, make sure, prepare for the evil day, have a rod in pickle, provide against a rainy day, feather one's nest; lay in provisions &c. 637; make investments; keep on foot. be prepared, be ready &c. Adj.; hold oneself in readiness, keep one's powder dry; lie in wait for &c. (expect) 507; anticipate &c. (foresee) 510; principiis obstare[Lat]; veniente occurrere morbo[Lat].

Adj. preparing &c. v.; in preparation, in course of preparation, in agitation, in embryo, in hand, in train; afoot, afloat; on foot, on the stocks, on the anvil; under consideration &c. (plan) 626; brewing, batching, forthcoming, brooding; in store for, in reserve. precautionary, provident; preparative, preparatory; provisional, inchoate, under revision; preliminary &c. (precedent) 62. prepared &c. v.; in readiness; ready, ready to one's band, ready made, ready cut and dried; made to one's hand, handy, on the table; in gear; in working order, in working gear; snug; in practice. ripe, mature, mellow; pukka[obs3]; practiced &c. (skilled) 698; labored, elaborate, highly-wrought, smelling of the lamp, worked up. in full feather, in best bib and tucker; in harness, at harness; in the saddle, in arms, in battle array, in war paint; up in arms; armed at all points, armed to the teeth, armed cap a pie; sword in hand; booted and spurred. in utrumque paratus[Lat], semper paratus[Lat]; on the alert &c. (vigilant) 459; at one's post. Adv. in preparation, in anticipation of; against, for; abroach[obs3]. Phr. a bove majori discit arare minor[Lat]; "looking before and after" [Hamlet], si vis pacem para bellum[Lat].

#674. Nonpreparation.—N. non-preparation, absence of preparation, want of preparation; inculture|, inconcoction|, improvidence. immaturity, crudity; rawness &c. Adj.; abortion; disqualification. [Absence of art] nature, state of nature; virgin soil, unweeded garden; neglect &c. 460. rough copy &c. (plan) 626; germ &c. 153; raw material &c. 635. improvisation &c. (impulse) 612. V. be unprepared &c. Adj.; want preparation, lack preparation; lie fallow; s'embarquer sans biscuits[Fr]; live from hand to mouth. [Render unprepared] dismantle &c. (render useless) 645; undress &c. 226. extemporize, improvise, ad lib. Adj. unprepared &c. [prepare &c. 673]; without preparation &c. 673; incomplete &c. 53; rudimental, embryonic, abortive; immature, unripe, kachcha[obs3], raw, green, crude; coarse; rough cast, rough hewn; in the rough; unhewn[obs3], unformed, unfashioned[obs3], unwrought, unlabored[obs3], unblown, uncooked, unboiled, unconcocted, unpolished. unhatched, unfledged, unnurtured[obs3], unlicked[obs3], untaught, uneducated, uncultivated,. untrained, untutored, undrilled, unexercised; deckle-edged[obs3]; precocious, premature; undigested, indigested[obs3]; unmellowed[obs3], unseasoned, unleavened. unrehearsed, unscripted, extemporaneous, improvised, spontaneous, ad lib, ad libitem [Latin]. fallow; unsown, untilled; natural, in a state of nature; undressed; in dishabille, en deshabille[Fr]. unqualified, disqualified; unfitted; ill-digested; unbegun, unready, unarranged[obs3], unorganized, unfurnished, unprovided, unequipped, untrimmed; out of gear, out of order; dismantled &c. v. shiftless, improvident, unthrifty, thriftless, thoughtless, unguarded; happy-go-lucky; caught napping &c. (inexpectant) 508[obs3]; unpremeditated &c. 612. Adv. extempore &c. 612.

#675. Essay.—N. essay, trial, endeavor, attempt; aim, struggle, venture, adventure, speculation, coup d'essai[Fr], debut; probation &c. (experiment) 463. V. try, essay; experiment &c. 463; endeavor, strive; tempt, attempt, make an attempt; venture, adventure, speculate, take one's chance, tempt fortune; try one's fortune, try one's luck, try one's hand; use one's endeavor; feel one's way, grope one's way, pick one's way. try hard, push, make a bold push, use one's best endeavor; do one's best &c. (exertion) 686. Adj. essaying &c. v.; experimental &c. 463; tentative, empirical, probationary. Adv. experimentally &c. Adj.; on trial, at a venture; by rule of thumb. if one may be so bold. Phr. aut non tentaris aut perfice [Lat][Ovid]; chi non s'arrischia non guadagna[Fr][obs3].

#676. Undertaking.—N. undertaking; compact &c. 769; adventure, venture; engagement &c. (promise) 768; enterprise, emprise[obs3]; pilgrimage; matter in hand &c. (business ) 625; move; first move &c. (beginning) 66. V. undertake; engage in, embark in; launch into, plunge into; volunteer; apprentice oneself to; engage &c. (promise) 768; contract &c. 769; take upon oneself, take upon one's shoulders; devote oneself to &c. (determination) 604. take up, take in hand; tackle; set about, go about; set to, fall to, set to work; launch forth; set up shop; put in hand, put in execution; set forward; break the neck of a business, be in, for; put one's hand to, put one's foot in; betake oneself to, turn one's hand to, go to do; begin &c. 66; broach, institute &c. one's (originate) 153; put one's hand to the plow, lay one's hand to the plow, put one's shoulder to the wheel. have in hand &c. (business) 625; have many irons in the fire &c. (activity) 682. Adj. undertaking &c. v.; on the anvil &c. 625. Int. here goes!

#677. Use.—N. use; employ, employment; exercise, exercitation[obs3]; application, appliance; adhibition[obs3], disposal; consumption; agency &c. (physical) 170; usufruct; usefulness &c. 644; benefit; recourse, resort, avail. [Conversion to use] utilization, service, wear. [Way of using] usage. V. use,.make use of, employ, put to use; put in action, put in operation, put in practice; set in motion, set to work. ply, work, wield, handle, manipulate; play, play off; exert, exercise, practice, avail oneself of, profit by, resort to, have recourse to, recur to, take betake oneself to; take up with, take advantage of; lay one's hands on, try. render useful &c. 644; mold; turn to account, turn to use; convert to use, utilize; work up; call into play, bring into play; put into requisition; call forth, draw forth; press into service, enlist into the service; bring to bear upon, devote, dedicate, consecrate, apply, adhibit[obs3], dispose of; make a handle of, make a cat's-paw of. fall back upon, make a shift with; make the most of, make the best of. use up, swallow up; consume, absorb, expend; tax, task, wear, put to task. Adj. in use; used &c. v.; well-worn, well-trodden. useful &c. 644; subservient &c. (instrumental) 631.

#678. Disuse.—N. forbearance, abstinence; disuse; relinquishment &c. 782; desuetude &c. (want of habit) 614; disusage[obs3]. V. not use; do without, dispense with, let alone, not touch, forbear, abstain, spare, waive, neglect; keep back, reserve. lay up, lay by, lay on the shelf, keep on the shelf, lay up in ordinary; lay up in a napkin; shelve; set aside, put aside, lay aside; disuse, leave off, have done with; supersede; discard &c. (eject) 297; dismiss, give warning. throw aside &c. (relinquish) 782; make away with &c. (destroy) 162; cast overboard, heave overboard, throw overboard; cast to the dogs, cast to the winds; dismantle &c. (Render useless) 645. lie unemployed, remain unemployed &c. Adj. Adj. not used &c. v.; unemployed, unapplied, undisposed of, unspent, unexercised, untouched, untrodden, unessayed[obs3], ungathered[obs3], unculled; uncalled for, not required. disused &c. v.; done with.

#679. Misuse.—N. misuse, misusage, misemployment[obs3],
misapplication, misappropriation.
     abuse, profanation, prostitution, desecration; waste &c. 638.
     V. misuse, misemploy, misapply, misappropriate.
     desecrate, abuse, profane, prostitute; waste &c. 638; overtask,
overtax, overwork; squander &c. 818.
     cut blocks with a razor, employ a steam engine to crack a nut; catch
at a straw.
     Adj. misused &c. v.
     Phr. ludere cum sacris[Lat].


1. Simple voluntary Action

#680. Action.—N. action, performance; doing, &c. v.; perpetration; exercise, excitation; movement, operation, evolution, work; labor &c. (exertion) 686; praxis, execution; procedure &c. (conduct) 692; handicraft; business &c. 625; agency &c. (power at work) 170. deed, act, overt act, stitch, touch, gest transaction[obs3], job, doings, dealings, proceeding, measure, step, maneuver, bout, passage, move, stroke, blow; coup, coup de main, coup d'etat[Fr]; tour de force &c. (display) 882; feat, exploit; achievement &c. (completion) 729; handiwork, workmanship; manufacture; stroke of policy &c. (plan) 626. actor &c. (doer) 690. V. do, perform, execute; achieve &c. (complete) 729; transact, enact; commit, perpetrate, inflict; exercise, prosecute, carry on, work, practice, play. employ oneself, ply one's task; officiate, have in hand &c. (business) 625; labor &c. 686; be at work; pursue a course; shape one's course &c. (conduct) 692. act, operate; take action, take steps; strike a blow, lift a finger, stretch forth one's hand; take in hand &c. (undertake) 676; put oneself in motion; put in practice; carry into execution &c. (complete) 729; act upon. be an actor &c. 690; take a part in, act a part in, play a part in, perform a part in; participate in; have a hand in, have a finger in the pie; have to do with; be a party to, be a participator in; bear a hand, lend a hand; pull an oar, run in a race; mix oneself up with &c. (meddle) 682. be in action; come into operation &c. (power at work) 170. Adj. doing &c. v.; acting; in action; in harness; on duty; in operation &c. 170. Adv. in the act, in the midst of, in the thick of; red-handed, in flagrante delicto[Lat]; while one's hand is in. Phr. "action is eloquence" [Coriolanus]; actions speak louder than words; actum aiunt ne agas [obs3][Lat][Terence]; "awake, arise, or be forever fall'n" [Paradise Lost]; dii pia facta vident [Lat][Ovid]; faire sans dire[Fr]; fare fac[It]; fronte capillata post est occasio calva[Lat]; "our deeds are sometimes better than our thoughts" [Bailey]; "the great end of life is not knowledge but action" [Huxley]; "thought is the soul of act" [R. Browning]; vivre-ce nest pas respirer c'est agir[Fr][obs3]; "we live in deeds not years" [Bailey].

#681. Inaction.—N. inaction, passiveness, abstinence from action; noninterference, nonintervention; Fabian policy, conservative policy; neglect &c. 460. inactivity &c. 683; rest &c. (repose) 687; quiescence &c. 265; want of occupation, inoccupation[obs3]; idle hours, time hanging on one's hands, dolce far niente[It]; sinecure, featherbed, featherbedding, cushy job, no- show job; soft snap, soft thing. V. not do, not act, not attempt; be inactive &c. 683; abstain from doing, do nothing, hold, spare; not stir, not move, not lift a finger, not lift a foot, not lift a peg; fold one's arms, fold one's hands; leave alone, let alone; let be, let pass, let things take their course, let it have its way, let well alone, let well enough alone; quieta non movere[Lat]; stare super antiquas vias[Lat][obs3]; rest and be thankful, live and let live; lie rest upon one's oars; laisser aller[Fr], faire[Fr]; stand aloof; refrain &c. (avoid) 623 keep oneself from doing; remit one's efforts, relax one's efforts; desist &c. (relinquish) 624; stop &c. (cease) 142; pause &c. (be quiet) 265. wait, lie in wait, bide one's time, take time, tide it over. cool one's heels, kick one's heels; while away the time, while away tedious hours; pass the time, fill up the time, beguile the time; talk against time; let the grass grow under one's feet; waste time &c. (inactive) 683. lie by, lie on the shelf, lie in ordinary, lie idle, lie to, lie fallow; keep quiet, slug; have nothing to do, whistle for want of thought. undo, do away with; take down, take to pieces; destroy &c. 162. Adj. not doing &c. v.; not do