The Project Gutenberg eBook of The 1998 CIA World Factbook

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Title: The 1998 CIA World Factbook

Author: United States. Central Intelligence Agency

Release date: December 1, 1999 [eBook #2016]
Most recently updated: December 31, 2020

Language: English

*** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE 1998 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK ***

Produced by Dr. Gregory B. Newby

This etext was prepared by Dr. Gregory B. Newby, as taken from the CIA's online version of the book published at the address: http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/guide.html Note the original book includes maps and other graphics. These are not included in the Project Gutenberg edition. The tables may not correctly align due to limitations of HTML conversion, but are otherwise intact. It is past experience that the CIA does not maintain past versions of The Factbook online. Hopefully, the Project Gutenberg edition will be useful to you for a long time in the future.

The CIA World Factbook 1998

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Countries are listed in alphabetical order. Notes and appendixes follow the country listings.

 Afghanistan
 Albania
 Algeria
 American Samoa
 Andorra
 Angola
 Anguilla
 Antarctica
 Antigua and Barbuda
 Arctic Ocean
 Argentina
 Armenia
 Aruba
 Ashmore and Cartier Islands
 Atlantic Ocean
 Australia
 Austria
 Azerbaijan
 Bahamas, The
 Bahrain
 Baker Island
 Bangladesh
 Barbados
 Bassas da India
 Belarus
 Belgium
 Belize
 Benin
 Bermuda
 Bhutan
 Bolivia
 Bosnia and Herzegovina
 Botswana
 Bouvet Island
 Brazil
 British Indian Ocean Territory
 British Virgin Islands
 Brunei
 Bulgaria
 Burkina Faso
 Burma
 Burundi
 Cambodia
 Cameroon
 Canada
 Cape Verde
 Cayman Islands
 Central African Republic
 Chad
 Chile
 China
 Christmas Island
 Clipperton Island
 Cocos (Keeling) Islands
 Colombia
 Comoros
 Congo, Democratic Republic of the
 Congo, Republic of the
 Cook Islands
 Coral Sea Islands
 Costa Rica
 Cote d'Ivoire
 Croatia
 Cuba
 Cyprus
 Czech Republic
 Denmark
 Djibouti
 Dominica
 Dominican Republic
 Ecuador
 Egypt
 El Salvador
 Equatorial Guinea
 Eritrea
 Estonia
 Ethiopia
 Europa Island
 Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
 Faroe Islands
 Fiji
 Finland
 France
 French Guiana
 French Polynesia
 French Southern and Antarctic Lands
 Gabon
 Gambia, The
 Gaza Strip
 Georgia
 Germany
 Ghana
 Gibraltar
 Glorioso Islands
 Greece
 Greenland
 Grenada
 Guadeloupe
 Guam
 Guatemala
 Guernsey
 Guinea
 Guinea-Bissau
 Guyana
 Haiti
 Heard Island and McDonald Islands
 Holy See (Vatican City)
 Honduras
 Hong Kong
 Howland Island
 Hungary
 Iceland
 India
 Indian Ocean
 Indonesia
 Iran
 Iraq
 Ireland
 Israel
 Italy
 Jamaica
 Jan Mayen
 Japan
 Jarvis Island
 Jersey
 Johnston Atoll
 Jordan
 Juan de Nova Island
 Kazakhstan
 Kenya
 Kingman Reef
 Kiribati
 Korea, North
 Korea, South
 Kuwait
 Kyrgyzstan
 Laos
 Latvia
 Lebanon
 Lesotho
 Liberia
 Libya
 Liechtenstein
 Lithuania
 Luxembourg
 Macau
 Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
 Madagascar
 Malawi
 Malaysia
 Maldives
 Mali
 Malta
 Man, Isle of
 Marshall Islands
 Martinique
 Mauritania
 Mauritius
 Mayotte
 Mexico
 Micronesia, Federated States of
 Midway Islands
 Moldova
 Monaco
 Mongolia
 Montserrat
 Morocco
 Mozambique
 Namibia
 Nauru
 Navassa Island
 Nepal
 Netherlands
 Netherlands Antilles
 New Caledonia
 New Zealand
 Nicaragua
 Niger
 Nigeria
 Niue
 Norfolk Island
 Northern Mariana Islands
 Norway
 Oman
 Pacific Ocean
 Pakistan
 Palau
 Palmyra Atoll
 Panama
 Papua New Guinea
 Paracel Islands
 Paraguay
 Peru
 Philippines
 Pitcairn Islands
 Poland
 Portugal
 Puerto Rico
 Qatar
 Reunion
 Romania
 Russia
 Rwanda
 Saint Helena
 Saint Kitts and Nevis
 Saint Lucia
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
 Samoa
 San Marino
 Sao Tome and Principe
 Saudi Arabia
 Senegal
 Serbia and Montenegro
 Seychelles
 Sierra Leone
 Singapore
 Slovakia
 Slovenia
 Solomon Islands
 Somalia
 South Africa
 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
 Spain
 Spratly Islands
 Sri Lanka
 Sudan
 Suriname
 Svalbard
 Swaziland
 Sweden
 Switzerland
 Syria
 Taiwan
 Tajikistan
 Tanzania
 Thailand
 Togo
 Tokelau
 Tonga
 Trinidad and Tobago
 Tromelin Island
 Tunisia
 Turkey
 Turkmenistan
 Turks and Caicos Islands
 Tuvalu
 Uganda
 Ukraine
 United Arab Emirates
 United Kingdom
 United States
 Uruguay
 Uzbekistan
 Vanuatu
 Venezuela
 Vietnam
 Virgin Islands
 Wake Island
 Wallis and Futuna
 West Bank
 Western Sahara
 World
 Yemen
 Zambia
 Zimbabwe

 Notes and Definitions
 Appendixes
     Appendix A: Abbreviations
     Appendix B: United Nations System
     Appendix C: International Organizations and Groups
     Appendix D: Selected International Environmental Agreements
     Appendix E: Weights and Measures
     Appendix F: Cross-Reference List of Country Data Codes
     Appendix G: Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Codes
     Appendix H: Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names
 History
 Contributors and Copyright Information
 Purchase Information

______________________________________________________________________

AFGHANISTAN

@Afghanistan:Geography

Location: Southern Asia, north and west of Pakistan, east of Iran

Geographic coordinates: 33 00 N, 65 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area: total: 647,500 sq km land: 647,500 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 5,529 km
border countries: China 76 km, Iran 936 km, Pakistan 2,430 km,
Tajikistan 1,206 km, Turkmenistan 744 km, Uzbekistan 137 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers

Terrain: mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Amu Darya 258 m highest point: Nowshak 7,485 m

Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, talc, barites, sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones

Land use: arable land: 12% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 46% forests and woodland: 3% other: 39% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 30,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains; flooding

Environment-current issues: soil degradation; overgrazing; deforestation (much of the remaining forests are being cut down for fuel and building materials); desertification

Environment-international agreements: party to: Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

Geography-note: landlocked

@Afghanistan:People

Population: 24,792,375 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 43% (male 5,425,510; female 5,216,954) 15-64 years: 54% (male 6,978,549; female 6,494,253) 65 years and over: 3% (male 357,780; female 319,329) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 4.21% (1998 est.) note: this rate reflects the continued return of refugees

Birth rate: 42.37 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 17.4 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 17.14 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.12 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 143.63 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 46.83 years male: 47.35 years female: 46.29 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.01 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Afghan(s) adjective: Afghan

Ethnic groups: Pashtun 38%, Tajik 25%, Uzbek 6%, Hazara 19%, minor ethnic groups (Aimaks, Turkmen, Baloch, and others)

Religions: Sunni Muslim 84%, Shi'a Muslim 15%, other 1%

Languages: Pashtu 35%, Afghan Persian (Dari) 50%, Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 31.5% male: 47.2% female: 15% (1995 est.)

@Afghanistan:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Islamic State of Afghanistan; note-the self-proclaimed Taliban government refers to the country as Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan conventional short form: Afghanistan local long form: Dowlat-e Eslami-ye Afghanestan local short form: Afghanestan former: Republic of Afghanistan

Data code: AF

Government type: transitional government

National capital: Kabul

Administrative divisions: 30 provinces (velayat, singular-velayat);
Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamian, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni,
Ghowr, Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabol, Kandahar, Kapisa, Konar,
Kondoz, Laghman, Lowgar, Nangarhar, Nimruz, Oruzgan, Paktia, Paktika,
Parvan, Samangan, Sar-e Pol, Takhar, Vardak, Zabol
note: there may be two new provinces of Nurestan (Nuristan) and Khowst

Independence: 19 August 1919 (from UK control over Afghan foreign affairs)

National holiday: Victory of the Muslim Nation, 28 April; Remembrance
Day for Martyrs and Disabled, 4 May; Independence Day, 19 August

Constitution: none

Legal system: a new legal system has not been adopted but all factions tacitly agree they will follow Shari'a (Islamic law)

Suffrage: undetermined; previously males 15-50 years of age

Executive branch: on 27 September 1996, the ruling members of the Afghan Government were displaced by members of the Islamic Taliban movement; the Islamic State of Afghanistan has no functioning government at this time, and the country remains divided among fighting factions note: the Taliban have declared themselves the legitimate government of Afghanistan; the UN has deferred a decision on credentials and the Organization of the Islamic Conference has left the Afghan seat vacant until the question of legitimacy can be resolved through negotiations among the warring factions; the country is essentially divided along ethnic lines; the Taliban controls the capital of Kabul and approximately two-thirds of the country including the predominately ethnic Pashtun areas in southern Afghanistan; opposing factions have their stronghold in the ethnically diverse north-General DOSTAM's National Islamic Movement controls several northcentral provinces and Commander MASOOD controls the ethnic Tajik majority areas of the northeast

Legislative branch: non-functioning as of June 1993

Judicial branch: non-functioning as of March 1995, although there are local Shari'a (Islamic law) courts throughout the country

Political parties and leaders: Taliban (Religious Students Movement),
Mohammad OMAR; United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan
[comprised of Jumbesh-i-Melli Islami (National Islamic Movement),
Abdul Rashid DOSTAM; Jamiat-i-Islami (Islamic Society), Burhanuddin
RABBANI and Ahmad Shah MASOOD; and Hizbi Wahdat-Khalili faction
(Islamic Unity Party), Abdul Karim KHALILI]; other smaller parties are
Hizbi Islami-Gulbuddin (Islamic Party), Gulbuddin HIKMATYAR faction;
Hizbi Islami-Khalis (Islamic Party), Yunis KHALIS faction;
Ittihad-i-Islami Barai Azadi Afghanistan (Islamic Union for the
Liberation of Afghanistan), Abdul Rasul SAYYAF;
Harakat-Inqilab-i-Islami (Islamic Revolutionary Movement), Mohammad
Nabi MOHAMMADI; Jabha-i-Najat-i-Milli Afghanistan (Afghanistan
National Liberation Front), Sibghatullah MOJADDEDI;
Mahaz-i-Milli-Islami (National Islamic Front), Sayed Ahamad GAILANI;
Hizbi Wahdat-Akbari faction (Islamic Unity Party), Mohammad Akbar
AKBARI; Harakat-i-Islami (Islamic Movement), Mohammed Asif MOHSENI

Political pressure groups and leaders: tribal elders represent
traditional Pashtun leadership; Afghan refugees in Pakistan,
Australia, US, and elsewhere have organized politically; Peshawar,
Pakistan-based groups such as the Coordination Council for National
Unity and Understanding in Afghanistan (CUNUA), Ishaq GAILANI; Writers
Union of Free Afghanistan (WUFA), A. Rasul AMIN; Mellat (Social
Democratic Party), leader NA

International organization participation: AsDB, CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO,
G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
Intelsat, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US: note: embassy operations suspended 21 August 1997 chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant) chancery: 2341 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 234-3770 FAX: [1] (202) 328-3516 consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US embassy in Kabul has been closed since January 1989 due to security concerns

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and black with a gold emblem centered on the three bands; the emblem features a temple-like structure with Islamic inscriptions above and below, encircled by a wreath on the left and right and by a bolder Islamic inscription above, all of which are encircled by two crossed scimitars note: the Taliban uses a plain white flag

@Afghanistan:Economy

Economy-overview: Afghanistan is an extremely poor, landlocked country, highly dependent on farming and livestock raising (sheep and goats). Economic considerations have played second fiddle to political and military upheavals during more than 18 years of war, including the nearly 10-year Soviet military occupation (which ended 15 February 1989). During the war one-third of the population fled the country, with Pakistan and Iran sheltering a combined peak of more than 6 million refugees. Now, only 750,000 registered Afghan refugees remain in Pakistan and about 1.2 million in Iran. Another 1 million have probably moved into and around urban areas within Afghanistan. Gross domestic product has fallen substantially over the past 18 years because of the loss of labor and capital and the disruption of trade and transport. Much of the population continues to suffer from insufficient food, clothing, housing, and medical care. Inflation remains a serious problem throughout the country, with one estimate putting the rate at 240% in Kabul in 1996. Numerical data are likely to be either unavailable or unreliable.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$19.3 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: NA%

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$800 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 53% industry: 28.5% services: 18.5% (1990)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 240% (1996 est.)

Labor force: total: 7.1 million by occupation: agriculture and animal husbandry 67.8%, industry 10.2%, construction 6.3%, commerce 5.0%, services and other 10.7% (1980 est.)

Unemployment rate: 8% (1995 est.)

Budget: revenues: $NA expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture, shoes, fertilizer, and cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, oil, coal, copper

Electricity-capacity: 494,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 655 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 37 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: wheat, fruits, nuts, karakul pelts; wool, mutton

Exports: total value: $80 million (1996 est.) commodities: fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides and pelts, precious and semi-precious gems partners: FSU, Pakistan, Iran, Germany, India, UK, Belgium, Luxembourg, Czechoslovakia

Imports: total value: $150 million (1996 est.) commodities: food and petroleum products; most consumer goods partners: FSU, Pakistan, Iran, Japan, Singapore, India, South Korea, Germany

Debt-external: $2.3 billion (March 1991 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA; about $45 million in UN aid plus additional bilateral aid and aid in kind (1997) note: US provided $450 million in bilateral assistance (1985-93); US continues to contribute to multilateral assistance through the UN programs of food aid, immunization, land mine removal, and a wide range of aid to refugees and displaced persons

Currency: 1 afghani (AF) = 100 puls

Exchange rates: afghanis (Af) per US$1-17,000 (December 1996), 7,000 (January 1995), 1,900 (January 1994), 1,019 (March 1993), 850 (1991); note-these rates reflect the free market exchange rates rather than the official exchange rate, which was fixed at 50.600 afghanis to the dollar until 1996, when it rose to 2,262.65 per dollar, and finally became fixed again at 3,000.00 per dollar on April 1996

Fiscal year: 21 March-20 March

Communications

Telephones: 31,200 (1983 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: very limited telephone and telegraph service international: satellite earth stations-1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) linked only to Iran and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 0, shortwave 2

Radios: 1.8 million (1996 est.); note-about 60% of families own a radio

Television broadcast stations: NA note: one television station run by Jumbesh faction provides intermittent service

Televisions: 100,000 (1993 est.)

@Afghanistan:Transportation

Railways: total: 24.6 km broad gauge: 9.6 km 1.524-m gauge from Gushgy (Turkmenistan) to Towraghondi; 15 km 1,524-m gauge from Termiz (Uzbekistan) to Kheyrabad transshipment point on south bank of Amu Darya

Highways: total: 21,000 km paved: 2,793 km unpaved: 18,207 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 1,200 km; chiefly Amu Darya, which handles vessels up to about 500 DWT

Pipelines: petroleum products-Uzbekistan to Bagram and Turkmenistan to
Shindand; natural gas 180 km

Ports and harbors: Kheyrabad, Shir Khan

Airports: 44 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 11 over 3,047 m: 3 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 33 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 1,524 to 2,437 m: 14 914 to 1,523 m: 4 under 914 m: 10 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 3 (1997 est.)

@Afghanistan:Military

Military branches: NA; note-the military does not exist on a national basis; some elements of the former Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Guard, Border Guard Forces, National Police Force (Sarandoi), and tribal militias still exist but are factionalized among the various groups

Military manpower-military age: NA years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: NA

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: NA

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: NA

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Afghanistan:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: support to Islamic militants worldwide by some factions; question over which group should hold Afghanistan's seat at the UN

Illicit drugs: world's second-largest illicit opium producer after Burma (cultivation in 1997-39,150 hectares, a 3% increase over 1996; potential production in 1997-1,265 metric tons, a 3% increase over 1996) and a major source of hashish

______________________________________________________________________

ALBANIA

@Albania:Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Ionian
Sea, between Greece and Serbia and Montenegro

Geographic coordinates: 41 00 N, 20 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 28,750 sq km land: 27,400 sq km water: 1,350 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries: total: 720 km border countries: Greece 282 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 151 km, Serbia and Montenegro 287 km (114 km with Serbia, 173 km with Montenegro)

Coastline: 362 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter

Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m highest point: Maja e Korabit 2,753 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, timber, nickel

Land use: arable land: 21% permanent crops: 5% permanent pastures: 15% forests and woodland: 38% other: 21% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 3,410 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes; tsunamis occur along southwestern coast

Environment-current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution from industrial and domestic effluents

Environment-international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links
Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)

@Albania:People

Population: 3,330,754 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 33% (male 572,430; female 532,917) 15-64 years: 61% (male 941,076; female 1,086,541) 65 years and over: 6% (male 82,184; female 115,606) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.97% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 21.35 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 7.45 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 45.01 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 68.64 years male: 65.58 years female: 71.94 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.57 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Albanian(s) adjective: Albanian

Ethnic groups: Albanian 95%, Greeks 3%, other 2% (Vlachs, Gypsies, Serbs, and Bulgarians) (1989 est.) note: in 1989, other estimates of the Greek population ranged from 1% (official Albanian statistics) to 12% (from a Greek organization)

Religions: Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10% note: all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing private religious practice

Languages: Albanian (Tosk is the official dialect), Greek

Literacy: definition: age 9 and over can read and write total population: 72% male: 80% female: 63% (1955 est.)

@Albania:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Albania conventional short form: Albania local long form: Republika e Shqiperise local short form: Shqiperia former: People's Socialist Republic of Albania

Data code: AL

Government type: emerging democracy

National capital: Tirana

Administrative divisions: 36 districts (rrethe, singular-rreth); Berat, Bulquize, Delvine, Devoll (Bilisht), Dibre (Peshkopi), Durres, Elbasan, Fier, Gjirokaster, Gramsh, Has (Krume), Kavaje, Kolonje (Erseke), Korce, Kruje, Kucove, Kukes, Lac, Lezhe, Librazhd, Lushnje, Malesia e Madhe (Koplik), Mallakaster (Ballsh), Mat (Burrel), Mirdite (Rreshen), Peqin, Permet, Pogradec, Puke, Sarande, Shkoder, Skrapar (Corovode), Tepelene, Tirane, Tropoje (Bajram Curri), Vlore note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)

Independence: 28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 November (1912)

Constitution: an interim basic law was approved by the People's Assembly on 29 April 1991; a draft constitution was rejected by popular referendum in the fall of 1994 and a new draft is pending

Legal system: has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state: President of the Republic Rexhep MEIDANI (since 24 July 1997) head of government: Prime Minister Fatos NANO (since 24 July 1997) cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and approved by the president elections: president elected by the People's Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 24 July 1997 (next to be held NA 2002); prime minister appointed by the president election results: Rexhep MEIDANI elected president; People's Assembly vote by number - total votes 122, for 110, against 3, abstained 2, invalid 7

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly or Kuvendi Popullor (155 seats; most members are elected by direct popular vote and some by proportional vote for four-year terms) elections: last held 29 June 1997 (next to be held NA 2000) election results: percent of vote by party-PS 53.36%, PD 25.33%, PSD 2.5%, PBDNJ 2.78%, PBK 2.36%, PAD 2.85%, PR 2.25%, PLL 3.09%, PDK 1.00%, PBSD 0.84%; seats by party-PS 101, PD 27, PSD 8, PBDNJ 4, PBK 3, PAD 2, PR 2, PLL 2, PDK 1, PBSD 1, PUK 1, independents 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chairman of the Supreme Court is elected by the People's Assembly for a four-year term

Political parties and leaders: Albanian Socialist Party or PS
(formerly the Albania Workers Party) [Fatos NANO, chairman];
Democratic Party or PD [Sali BERISHA]; Albanian Republican Party or PR
[Fatmir MEHDIU]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Skender GJINUSHI];
Unity for Human Rights Party or PBDNJ [Vasil MELO, chairman]; National
Front (Balli Kombetar) or PBK [Hysen SELFO]; Movement of Legality
Party or PLL [Guri DUROLLARI]; Party of National Unity or PUK [Idajet
BEQIRI]; Christian Democratic Party or PDK [Zef BUSHATI]; PBSD;
Democratic Party of the Right or PDD [Petrit KALAKULA]; Democratic
Alliance or PAD [Neritan CEKA]; Social Democratic Union Party or USdS
[Teodor LACO]; Albanian United Right or DBSH

International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI, EAPC,
EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user),
Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, OIC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UNOMIG, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Petrit BUSHATI chancery: 2100 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 223-4942 FAX: [1] (202) 628-7342

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Marisa R. LINO (15 July 1996) embassy: Rruga E. Labinoti 103, Tirana mailing address: PSC 59, Box 100 (A), APO AE 09624 telephone: [355] (42) 328-75, 335-20 FAX: [355] (42) 322-22

Flag description: red with a black two-headed eagle in the center

@Albania:Economy

Economy-overview: An extremely poor country by European standards, Albania is making the difficult transition to a more open-market economy. The economy rebounded in 1993-95 after a severe depression accompanying the collapse of the previous centrally planned system in 1990 and 1991. However, a weakening of government resolve to maintain stabilization policies in the election year of 1996 contributed to renewal of inflationary pressures, spurred by the budget deficit which exceeded 12%. The collapse of financial pyramid schemes in early 1997-which had attracted deposits from a substantial portion of Albania's adult population - triggered severe social unrest which led to more than 1,500 deaths, widespread destruction of property, and an 8% drop in GDP. The new government installed in July 1997 has taken strong measures to restore public order and to revive economic activity and trade. The economy continues to be bolstered by remittances of some 20% of the labor force which works abroad, mostly in Greece and Italy. These remittances supplement GDP and help offset the large foreign trade deficit. Most agricultural land was privatized in 1992, substantially improving peasant incomes.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$4.5 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: -8% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,370 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 56% industry: 21% services: 23% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 40% (1997 est.)

Labor force: total: 1.692 million (1994 est.) (including 352,000 emigrant workers and 261,000 domestically unemployed) by occupation: agriculture (nearly all private) 49.5%, private sector 22.2%, state (nonfarm) sector 28.3% (including state-owned industry 7.8%); note-includes only those domestically employed

Unemployment rate: 14% (October 1997) officially, but likely to be as high as 28%

Budget: revenues: $624 million expenditures: $996 million, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: food processing, textiles and clothing; lumber, oil, cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower

Industrial production growth rate: 6% (1995 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 1.892 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 4.435 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 1,314 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: wide range of temperate-zone crops and livestock

Exports: total value: $228 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.) commodities: asphalt, metals and metallic ores, electricity, crude oil, vegetables, fruits, tobacco partners: Italy, Greece, Germany, Belgium, US

Imports: total value: $879 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.) commodities: machinery, consumer goods, grains partners: Italy, Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Debt-external: $645 million (1996)

Economic aid: recipient: $630 million pledged 1997

Currency: 1 lek (L) = 100 qintars

Exchange rates: leke (L) per US$1-152.28 (January 1998), 148.93 (1997), 104.50 (1996), 92.70 (1995), 94.62 (1994), 102.06 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 55,000

Telephone system: domestic: obsolete wire system; no longer provides a telephone for every village; in 1992, following the fall of the communist government, peasants cut the wire to about 1,000 villages and used it to build fences international: inadequate; international traffic carried by microwave radio relay from the Tirana exchange to Italy and Greece

Radio broadcast stations: AM 17, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 577,000 (1991 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 9

Televisions: 300,000 (1993 est.)

@Albania:Transportation

Railways: total: 670 km standard gauge: 670 km 1.435-m gauge (1995)

Highways: total: 18,000 km paved: 5,400 km unpaved: 12,600 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 43 km plus Albanian sections of Lake Scutari, Lake Ohrid, and Lake Prespa (1990)

Pipelines: crude oil 145 km; petroleum products 55 km; natural gas 64 km (1991)

Ports and harbors: Durres, Sarande, Shengjin, Vlore

Merchant marine: total: 8 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 36,582 GRT/54,832 DWT (1997 est.)

Airports: 9 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 5 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 4 over 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1997 est.)

@Albania:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Interior
Ministry Troops, Border Guards

Military manpower-military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 749,633 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 609,986 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 32,367 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $42 million (1996)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.5% to 2.0% (1996)

@Albania:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: the Albanian Government supports protection of the rights of ethnic Albanians outside of its borders but has downplayed them to further its primary foreign policy goal of regional cooperation; Albanian majority in Kosovo seeks independence from Serbian Republic; Albanians in The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia claim discrimination in education, access to public-sector jobs and representation in government

Illicit drugs: increasingly active transshipment point for Southwest Asian opiates, hashish, and cannabis transiting the Balkan route and cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe; limited opium and cannabis production; ethnic Albanian narcotrafficking organizations active in Central and Eastern Europe

______________________________________________________________________

ALGERIA

@Algeria:Geography

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between
Morocco and Tunisia

Geographic coordinates: 28 00 N, 3 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 2,381,740 sq km land: 2,381,740 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 6,343 km
border countries: Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km,
Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km, Western Sahara 42 km

Coastline: 998 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 32-52 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer

Terrain: mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow, discontinuous coastal plain

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Chott Melrhir -40 m highest point: Tahat 3,003 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc

Land use: arable land: 3% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 13% forests and woodland: 2% other: 82% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 5,550 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; mud slides

Environment-current issues: soil erosion from overgrazing and other poor farming practices; desertification; dumping of raw sewage, petroleum refining wastes, and other industrial effluents is leading to the pollution of rivers and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, in particular, becoming polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and fertilizer runoff; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment-international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban

Geography-note: second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)

@Algeria:People

Population: 30,480,793 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 38% (male 5,923,087; female 5,709,614) 15-64 years: 58% (male 8,931,896; female 8,752,014) 65 years and over: 4% (male 542,012; female 622,170) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.14% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 27.51 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.63 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 45.44 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 68.93 years male: 67.78 years female: 70.12 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.38 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Algerian(s) adjective: Algerian

Ethnic groups: Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%

Religions: Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1%

Languages: Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 61.6% male: 73.9% female: 49% (1995 est.)

@Algeria:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria conventional short form: Algeria local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Shabiyah local short form: Al Jaza'ir

Data code: AG

Government type: republic

National capital: Algiers

Administrative divisions: 48 provinces (wilayas, singular-wilaya);
Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar,
Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef,
Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma,
Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem,
M'Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif,
Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret,
Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen

Independence: 5 July 1962 (from France)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 1 November (1954)

Constitution: 19 November 1976, effective 22 November 1976; revised 3
November 1988, 23 February 1989, and 28 November 1996; note-referendum
approving the revisions of 28 November 1996 was signed into law 7
December 1996

Legal system: socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of various public officials, including several Supreme Court justices; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Liamine ZEROUAL (appointed president 31 January 1994, elected president 16 November 1995) head of government: Prime Minister Ahmed OUYAHIA (since 31 December 1995) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 16 November 1995 (next to be held NA 2000); prime minister appointed by the president election results: Liamine ZEROUAL elected president; percent of vote-Liamine ZEROUAL 61.3%

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the National People's Assembly or Al-Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani (380 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the Council of Nations (144 seats; one-third of the members appointed by the president, two-thirds elected by indirect vote; members serve six-year terms; created as a result of the constitutional revision of November 1996) elections: National People's Assembly-last held 5 June 1997 (next to be held NA 2001); elections for two-thirds of the Council of Nations-last held 25 December 1997 (next to be held NA 2003) election results: National People's Assembly-percent of vote by party-NA%; seats by party-RND 156, MSP 69, FLN 62, Nahda Movement 34, FFS 20, RCD 19, PT 4, Republican Progressive Party 3, Union for Democracy and Freedoms 1, Liberal Social Party 1, independents 11; Council of Nations-percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party-RND 80, FLN 10, FFS 4, MSP 2 (remaining 48 seats appointed by the president, party breakdown NA)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: Islamic Salvation Front (FIS, outlawed April 1992), Ali BENHADJ, Dr. Abassi MADANI, Rabeh KEBIR (self-exile in Germany); National Liberation Front (FLN), Boualem BENHAMOUDA, secretary general; Socialist Forces Front (FFS), Hocine Ait AHMED, secretary general (self-exile in Switzerland); Movement of a Peaceful Society (MSP or Hamas), Mahfoud NAHNAH, chairman; Rally for Culture and Democracy (RCD), Said SAADI, secretary general; Algerian Renewal Party (PRA), Noureddine BOUKROUH, chairman; Nahda Movement (Al Nahda), Abdallah DJABALLAH, president; Democratic National Rally (RND), Abdelkader BENSALAH, chairman; Movement for Democracy in Algeria (MDA), Ahmed Ben BELLA; Workers Party (PT), Louisa HANOUN; Republican Progressive Party, Khadir DRISS; Union for Democracy and Freedoms, Mouley BOUKHALAFA; Liberal Social Party, Ahmed KHELIL note: the government established a multiparty system in September 1989 and, as of 31 December 1990, over 50 legal parties existed; a new party law was enacted in March 1997

International organization participation: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF,
AMU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO,
Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OAS
(observer), OAU, OIC, OPEC, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ramtane LAMAMRA chancery: 2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 265-2800 FAX: [1] (202) 667-2174

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Cameron HUME embassy: 4 Chemin Cheikh Bachir El-Ibrahimi, Algiers mailing address: B. P. Box 549, Alger-Gare, 16000 Algiers telephone: [213] (2) 69-11-86, 69-12-55, 69-18-54, 69-38-75 FAX: [213] (2) 69-39-79

Flag description: two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white with a red, five-pointed star within a red crescent; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam (the state religion)

@Algeria:Economy

Economy-overview: The hydrocarbons sector is the backbone of the economy, accounting for roughly 57% of government revenues, 25% of GDP, and almost all export earnings. Algeria has the fifth-largest reserves of natural gas in the world and is the second largest gas exporter; it ranks fourteenth for oil reserves. Algiers' efforts to reform one of the most centrally planned economies in the Arab world began after the 1986 collapse of world oil prices plunged the country into a severe recession. In 1989, the government launched a comprehensive, IMF-supported program to achieve economic stabilization and to introduce market mechanisms into the economy. Despite substantial progress toward economic adjustment, in 1992 the reform drive stalled as Algiers became embroiled in political turmoil. In September 1993, a new government was formed, and one priority was the resumption and acceleration of the structural adjustment process. Burdened with a heavy foreign debt, Algiers concluded a one-year standby arrangement with the IMF in April 1994 and the following year signed onto a three-year extended fund facility. Progress on economic reform, a Paris Club debt rescheduling in 1995, and oil and gas sector expansion have contributed to a recovery since 1995. Investments in developing hydrocarbon resources are likely to maintain growth and export earnings. Continuing but gradual government efforts to attract foreign and domestic investment outside that sector seek to diversify the economy and tackle problems of high unemployment and falling living standards, problems as yet untouched by the macroeconomic turnaround.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$120.4 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 2.5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$4,000 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 12% industry: 50% services: 38% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 7% (1997 est.)

Labor force: total: 7.8 million (1996 est.) by occupation: government 29.5%, agriculture 22%, construction and public works 16.2%, industry 13.6%, commerce and services 13.5%, transportation and communication 5.2% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 28% (1997 est.)

Budget: revenues: $13.7 billion expenditures: $13.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.1 million (1996 est.)

Industries: petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 6.007 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 19.1 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 630 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits; sheep, cattle

Exports: total value: $13.1 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.) commodities: petroleum and natural gas 97% partners: Italy 18.8%, US 14.8%, France 11.8%, Spain 8%, Germany 7.9% (1995 est.)

Imports: total value: $10 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.) commodities: capital goods, food and beverages, consumer goods partners: France 29%, Spain 10.5%, Italy 8.2%, US 8%, Germany 5.6% (1995 est.)

Debt-external: $33 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $420 million (1996)

Currency: 1 Algerian dinar (DA) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Algerian dinars (DA) per US$1-58.969 (January 1998), 57.707 (1997), 54.749 (1996), 47.663 (1995), 35.059 (1994), 23.345 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 862,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: good service in north but sparse in south; domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations (20 additional domestic earth stations are planned) international: 5 submarine cables; microwave radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and Tunisia; participant in Medarabtel; satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 26, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 6 million (1991 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 18

Televisions: 2 million (1993 est.)

@Algeria:Transportation

Railways: total: 4,772 km standard gauge: 3,616 km 1.435-m gauge (301 km electrified; 215 km double track) narrow gauge: 1,156 km 1.055-m gauge

Highways: total: 102,424 km paved: 70,570 km (including 608 km of expressways) unpaved: 31,854 km (1995 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 6,612 km; petroleum products 298 km; natural gas 2,948 km

Ports and harbors: Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Beni Saf, Dellys,
Djendjene, Ghazaouet, Jijel, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda, Tenes

Merchant marine: total: 78 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 928,965 GRT/1,094,104 DWT ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 27, chemical tanker 7, liquefied gas tanker 11, oil tanker 5, roll-on/roll-off cargo 13, short-sea passenger 5, specialized tanker 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 136 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 50 over 3,047 m: 8 2,438 to 3,047 m: 24 1,524 to 2,437 m: 13 914 to 1,523 m: 4 under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 86 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 24 914 to 1,523 m: 40 under 914 m: 19 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1997 est.)

@Algeria:Military

Military branches: National Popular Army, Navy, Air Force, Territorial
Air Defense, National Gendarmerie

Military manpower-military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 7,949,708 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 4,871,931 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 347,952 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $1.3 billion (1994)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2.7% (1994)

@Algeria:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: part of southeastern region claimed by Libya

______________________________________________________________________

AMERICAN SAMOA

(territory of the US)

@American Samoa:Geography

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 14 20 S, 170 00 W

Map references: Oceania

Area: total: 199 sq km land: 199 sq km water: 0 sq km note: includes Rose Island and Swains Island

Area-comparative: slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 116 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual rainfall averages 124 inches; rainy season from November to April, dry season from May to October; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: five volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited coastal plains, two coral atolls (Rose Island, Swains Island)

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Lata 966 m

Natural resources: pumice, pumicite

Land use: arable land: 5% permanent crops: 10% permanent pastures: 0% forests and woodland: 70% other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons common from December to March

Environment-current issues: limited natural fresh water resources; the water division of the government has spent substantial funds in the past few years to improve water catchments and pipelines

Environment-international agreements: party to: NA signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater harbors in the South Pacific Ocean, sheltered by shape from rough seas and protected by peripheral mountains from high winds; strategic location in the South Pacific Ocean

@American Samoa:People

Population: 62,093 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 39% (male 12,575; female 11,824) 15-64 years: 56% (male 17,513; female 17,477) 65 years and over: 5% (male 1,364; female 1,340) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.74% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 27.31 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 4.03 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.01 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 10.47 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.23 years male: 70.95 years female: 79.77 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.72 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: American Samoan(s) adjective: American Samoan

Ethnic groups: Samoan (Polynesian) 89%, Caucasian 2%, Tongan 4%, other 5%

Religions: Christian Congregationalist 50%, Roman Catholic 20%,
Protestant denominations and other 30%

Languages: Samoan (closely related to Hawaiian and other Polynesian languages), English note: most people are bilingual

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 97% male: 98% female: 97% (1980 est.)

@American Samoa:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Territory of American Samoa conventional short form: American Samoa abbreviation: AS

Data code: AQ

Dependency status: unincorporated and unorganized territory of the US; administered by the Office of Insular Affairs, US Department of the Interior

Government type: NA

National capital: Pago Pago

Administrative divisions: none (territory of the US); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are three political districts

Independence: none (territory of the US)

National holiday: Territorial Flag Day, 17 April (1900)

Constitution: ratified 1966, in effect 1967

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President of the US William Jefferson CLINTON (since 20 January 1993) and Vice President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January 1993) head of government: Governor Tauese P. SUNIA (since 3 January 1997) and Lieutenant Governor Togiola TULAFONO (since 3 January 1997) cabinet: NA elections: governor and lieutenant governor elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 3 November 1996 (next to be held 7 November 2000) election results: Tauese P. SUNIA elected governor of American Samoa; percent of vote - Tauese P. SUNIA (Democrat) 51%, Peter REID (independent) 49%

Legislative branch: bicameral Fono or Legislative Assembly consists of the House of Representatives (21 seats-20 of which are elected by popular vote and 1 is an appointed, nonvoting delegate from Swains Island; members serve two-year terms) and the Senate (18 seats; members are elected from local chiefs who serve four-year terms) elections: House of Representatives-last held 5 November 1996 (next to be held NA November 1998); Senate-last held 3 November 1996 (next to be held 7 November 2000) election results: House of Representatives-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party - NA; Senate-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-NA note: American Samoa elects one delegate to the US House of Representatives; elections last held 5 November 1996 (next to be held NA November 1998); results - Eni R. F. H. FALEOMAVAEGA (Democrat) reelected as delegate

Judicial branch: High Court, chief justice and associate justices are appointed by the US Secretary of the Interior

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party; Republican Party

International organization participation: ESCAP (associate), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, SPC

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of the US)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of the US)

Flag description: blue with a white triangle edged in red that is based on the outer side and extends to the hoist side; a brown and white American bald eagle flying toward the hoist side is carrying two traditional Samoan symbols of authority, a staff and a war club

@American Samoa:Economy

Economy-overview: This is a traditional Polynesian economy in which more than 90% of the land is communally owned. Economic activity is strongly linked to the US, with which American Samoa conducts the great bulk of its foreign trade. Tuna fishing and tuna processing plants are the backbone of the private sector, with canned tuna the primary export. Transfers from the US Government add substantially to American Samoa's economic well-being. According to one observer, attempts by the government to develop a larger and broader economy are restrained by Samoa's remote location, its limited transportation, and its devastating hurricanes. Tourism, a developing sector, may be held back in 1998 by the financial difficulties in East Asia.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$150 million (1995 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: NA%

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$2,600 (1995 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: NA %

Labor force: total: 14,400 (1990) by occupation: government 33%, tuna canneries 34%, other 33% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 12% (1991)

Budget: revenues: $97 million ($43 million in local revenue and $54 million in grant revenue) expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY90/91)

Industries: tuna canneries (largely dependent on foreign fishing vessels), handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 33,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 105 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 1,830 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: bananas, coconuts, vegetables, taro, breadfruit, yams, copra, pineapples, papayas; dairy farming

Exports: total value: $318 million (f.o.b., 1992) commodities: canned tuna 93% partners: US 99.6%

Imports: total value: $418 million (c.i.f., 1992) commodities: materials for canneries 56%, food 8%, petroleum products 7%, machinery and parts 6% partners: US 62%, Japan 9%, NZ 7%, Australia 11%, Fiji 4%, other 7%

Debt-external: $NA

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA note: important financial support from the US

Currency: 1 US dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

Communications

Telephones: 9,000 (1994 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: good telex, telegraph, facsimile and cellular phone services; domestic satellite system with 1 Comsat earth station international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 12,000 (1994 est.)

@American Samoa:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 350 km paved: 150 km unpaved: 200 km

Ports and harbors: Aunu'u (new construction), Auasi, Faleosao, Ofu,
Pago Pago, Ta'u

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 4 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 2 under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)

@American Samoa:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of the US

@American Samoa:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

ANDORRA

@Andorra:Geography

Location: Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain

Geographic coordinates: 42 30 N, 1 30 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 450 sq km land: 450 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: total: 125 km border countries: France 60 km, Spain 65 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers

Terrain: rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Riu Valira 840 m highest point: Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m

Natural resources: hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead

Land use: arable land: 2% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 56% forests and woodland: 22% other: 20% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: snowslides, avalanches

Environment-current issues: deforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows contributes to soil erosion

Environment-international agreements: party to: none of the selected agreements signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: landlocked

@Andorra:People

Population: 64,716 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 14% (male 4,819; female 4,474) 15-64 years: 73% (male 25,448; female 22,028) 65 years and over: 13% (male 4,041; female 3,906) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.5% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 10.48 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.35 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 9.84 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.15 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.03 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.09 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 83.45 years male: 80.54 years female: 86.54 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.23 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Andorran(s) adjective: Andorran

Ethnic groups: Spanish 61%, Andorran 30%, French 6%, other 3%

Religions: Roman Catholic (predominant)

Languages: Catalan (official), French, Castilian

Literacy: NA

@Andorra:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Principality of Andorra conventional short form: Andorra local long form: Principat d'Andorra local short form: Andorra

Data code: AN

Government type: parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its heads of state a coprincipality; the two princes are the president of France and Spanish bishop of Seo de Urgel, who are represented locally by officials called veguers

National capital: Andorra la Vella

Administrative divisions: 7 parishes (parroquies, singular-parroquia); Andorra, Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Les Escaldes, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria

Independence: 1278

National holiday: Mare de Deu de Meritxell, 8 September

Constitution: Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in 1991; adopted 14 March 1993

Legal system: based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: French Coprince Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995) and Spanish Episcopal Coprince Monseigneur Juan MARTI Alanis (since 31 January 1971); note-each coprince is represented by a veguer (French: Jean-Pierre COURTOIS; Spanish: Francesc BADIA Battalla) head of government: Executive Council President Marc FORNE Molne (since 21 December 1994) cabinet: Executive Council designated by the executive council president elections: executive council president elected by the General Council and formally appointed by the coprinces; election last held 16 February 1997 (next to be held NA 2001) election results: Marc FORNE Molne elected executive council president; percent of General Council vote-NA

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council of the Valleys or Consell General de las Valls (28 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote, 14 from a single national constituency and 14 to represent each of the 7 parishes; members serve four-year terms) elections: last held 16 February 1997 (next to be held February 2001) election results: percent of vote by party-UL 57%, AND 21%, IDN 7%, ND 7%, other 8%; seats by party-UL 16, AND 6, ND 2, IDN 2, UPO 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Andorra at Perpignan (France) two civil judges appointed by the veguers, one appeals judge appointed by the coprinces alternately; Ecclesiastical Court of the Bishop of Seo de Urgel (Spain); Tribunal of the Courts or Tribunal des Cortes presided over by the two civil judges, one appeals judge, the veguers, and two members of the General Council

Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Group or AND [Oscar RIBAS Reig]; Liberal Union or UL [Francesc CERQUEDA]; New Democracy or ND [Jaume BARTOMEU Cassany]; Andorran National Coalition or CNA [Antoni CERQUEDA Gispert]; National Democratic Initiative or IDN [Vincenc MATEU Zamora]; Liberal Party of Andorra (Partit Liberal d'Andorra) or PLA [Marc FORNE]; Unio Parroquial d'Ordino or UDO note: there are two other small parties

International organization participation: CE, ECE, ICRM, IFRCS,
Interpol, IOC, ITU, OSCE, UN, UNESCO, WHO, WIPO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Juli MINOVES-TRIQUELL (also Permanent Representative to the UN) chancery: 2 United Nations Plaza, 25th Floor, New York, NY 10017 telephone: [1] (212) 750-8064 FAX: [1] (212) 750-6630

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Andorra; US interests in Andorra are represented by the Consulate General's office in Barcelona (Spain); mailing address: Paseo Reina Elisenda, 23, 08034 Barcelona, Spain; telephone: (343) 280-2227; FAX: (343) 205-7705; note-Consul General Maurice S. PARKER makes periodic visits to Andorra

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the coat of arms features a quartered shield; similar to the flags of Chad and Romania that do not have a national coat of arms in the center

@Andorra:Economy

Economy-overview: Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra's tiny, well-to-do economy, accounts for roughly 80% of GDP. An estimated 10 million tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free status and by its summer and winter resorts. Andorra's comparative advantage has recently eroded as the economies of neighboring France and Spain have been opened up, providing broader availability of goods and lower tariffs. The banking sector, with its "tax haven" status, also contributes substantially to the economy. Agricultural production is limited by a scarcity of arable land, and most food has to be imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep raising. Manufacturing consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture. Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union and is treated as an EU member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs) and as a non-EU member for agricultural products.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$1.2 billion (1995 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: NA%

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$18,000 (1995 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: NA%

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: 0%

Budget: revenues: $138 million expenditures: $177 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993)

Industries: tourism (particularly skiing), sheep, timber, tobacco, banking

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 35,000 kW (1992)

Electricity-production: 140 million kWh (1992)

Electricity-consumption per capita: NA kWh; note-Andorra exports most of its electricity to France and Spain

Agriculture-products: small quantities of tobacco, rye, wheat, barley, oats, vegetables; sheep raising

Exports: total value: $47 million (f.o.b., 1995) commodities: electricity, tobacco products, furniture partners: France 49%, Spain 47%

Imports: total value: $1 billion (1995) commodities: consumer goods, food partners: France, Spain, US 4.2%

Debt-external: $NA

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes; 1 peseta (Pta) = 100 centimos; the French and Spanish currencies are used

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1-6.0836 (January 1998), 5.8367 (1997), 5.1155 (1996), 4.9915 (1995), 5.5520 (1994), 5.6632 (1993); Spanish pesetas (Ptas) per US$1-153.94 (January 1998), 146.41 (1997), 126.66 (1996), 124.69 (1995), 133.96 (1994), 127.26 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 21,258 (1983 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: modern system with microwave radio relay connections between exchanges international: landline circuits to France and Spain

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 10,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: 7,000 (1991 est.)

@Andorra:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 269 km paved: 198 km unpaved: 71 km (1991 est.)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: none

@Andorra:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of France and Spain

@Andorra:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

ANGOLA

Introduction

Current issues: Civil war has been the norm since independence from Portugal on 11 November 1975. A cease-fire between the government and (UNITA) lasted from 31 May 1991 until October 1992 when UNITA refused to accept its defeat in internationally monitored elections and fighting resumed throughout much of the country. The two sides signed another peace accord on 20 November 1994 and the cease-fire is generally holding, but military tensions and banditry persist. The peace accord provided for the integration of former UNITA insurgents into the Angolan armed forces and the government. A Government of National Unity and Reconciliation was installed in April 1997 and military integration was declared complete in June 1997, although UNITA filled fewer than half of the military positions allocated to the rebels. Efforts which began in May 1997 to extend government into UNITA-occupied areas are proceeding slowly. The original 7,200-man UN peacekeeping force began a phased drawdown in late 1996 and all UN military components are scheduled to depart by 30 June 1998 except for through 1998.

@Angola:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between
Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates: 12 30 S, 18 30 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 1,246,700 sq km land: 1,246,700 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries: total: 5,198 km border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,511 km of which 220 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province, Republic of the Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zambia 1,110 km

Coastline: 1,600 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 20 nm

Climate: semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)

Terrain: narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Morro de Moco 2,620 m

Natural resources: petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium

Land use: arable land: 2% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 23% forests and woodland: 43% other: 32% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 750 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau

Environment-current issues: the overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment-international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Desertification, Law of the Sea signed, but not ratified: Climate Change

Geography-note: Cabinda is separated from rest of country by the
Democratic Republic of the Congo

@Angola:People

Population: 10,864,512 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 45% (male 2,471,108; female 2,401,631) 15-64 years: 52% (male 2,864,152; female 2,831,209) 65 years and over: 3% (male 137,432; female 158,980) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.84% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 43.58 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 16.79 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 132.44 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 47.86 years male: 45.6 years female: 50.23 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.2 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Angolan(s) adjective: Angolan

Ethnic groups: Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European and Native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% (1998 est.)

Languages: Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 42% male: 56% female: 28% (1998 est.)

@Angola:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Angola conventional short form: Angola local long form: Republica de Angola local short form: Angola former: People's Republic of Angola

Data code: AO

Government type: transitional government, nominally a multiparty democracy with a strong presidential system

National capital: Luanda

Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (provincias,
singular-provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango,
Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte,
Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire

Independence: 11 November 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 11 November (1975)

Constitution: 11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11 August 1980, 6 March 1991, and 26 August 1992

Legal system: based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law; recently modified to accommodate political pluralism and increased use of free markets

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979) head of government: Prime Minister Fernando Franca VAN DUNEM (since 8 June 1996) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president elections: President DOS SANTOS originally elected without opposition under a one-party system and stood for reelection in Angola's first multiparty elections in 28-29 September 1992, the last elections to be held, (next to be held NA); prime minister appointed by the president and answerable to the Assembly election results: DOS SANTOS received 49.6% of the total vote, making a run-off election necessary between him and second-place finisher Jonas SAVIMBI; the run-off was not held and SAVIMBI's National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) repudiated the results of the first election; the civil war was resumed

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (220 seats; members elected by proportional vote to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held NA) election results: percent of vote by party-MPLA 54%, UNITA 34%, others 12%; seats by party-NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Tribunal da Relacao, judges of the
Supreme Court are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA [Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS], is the ruling party and has been in power since 1975; National Union for the Total Independence of Angola or UNITA [Jonas SAVIMBI], is the largest opposition party and engaged in years of armed resistance before joining the current unity government in April 1997 note: about a dozen minor parties participated in the 1992 elections but won few seats and have little influence in the National Assembly

Political pressure groups and leaders: Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC note: FLEC is waging a small-scale, highly factionalized, armed struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC
(observer), ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer),
OAU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Antonio dos Santos FRANCA "N'dalu" chancery: 1050 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 760, Washington, DC 20036 telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156 FAX: [1] (202) 785-1258

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Donald K. STEINBERG embassy: No. 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne, Miramar, Luanda mailing address: International mail: Caixa Postal 6484, Luanda; Pouch: American Embassy Luanda, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-2550 telephone: [244] (2) 345-481, 346-418 FAX: [244] (2) 346-924

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)

@Angola:Economy

Economy-overview: Angola is an economy in disarray because of more than 20 years of nearly continuous warfare. Despite its abundant natural resources, output per capita is among the world's lowest. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for 85% of the population. Oil production and the supporting activities are vital to the economy, contributing about 50% to GDP. Notwithstanding the signing of a peace accord in November 1994, sporadic violence continues, millions of land mines remain, and many farmers are reluctant to return to their fields. As a result, much of the country's food must still be imported. To take advantage of its rich resources-gold, diamonds, extensive forests, Atlantic fisheries, arable land, and large oil deposits-Angola will need to implement the peace agreement and reform government policies. Despite the high inflation and political difficulties, total output grew an estimated 9% in 1996, largely due to increased oil production and higher oil prices.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$8.2 billion (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 9% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$800 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 12% industry: 56% services: 32% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 92% (mid-1997 est.)

Labor force: total: 2.783 million economically active by occupation: agriculture 85%, industry and services 15% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: extensive unemployment and underemployment affecting more than half the population (1997 est.)

Budget: revenues: $928 million expenditures: $2.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $963 million (1992 est.)

Industries: petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing; food processing; brewing; tobacco products; sugar; textiles

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 617,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 18.62 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 185 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, manioc (tapioca), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock; forest products; fish

Exports: total value: $4 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.) commodities: crude oil 90%, diamonds, refined petroleum products, gas, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton partners: US 70%, EU

Imports: total value: $1.7 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.) commodities: capital equipment (machinery and electrical equipment), vehicles and spare parts; medicines, food, textiles and clothing; substantial military supplies partners: Portugal, Brazil, US, France, Spain

Debt-external: $12.5 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $451 million (1994)

Currency: 1 kwanza (NKz) = 100 lwei

Exchange rates: kwanza (NKz) per US$1-265,000 (August 1997), 201,994 (November 1996) note: the exchange rate is set by the National Bank of Angola (BNA); adjusted by BNA on 19 July 1997 at 265,000 kwanzas per US$1; black market rate was then 360,000 kwanzas per US$1

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 78,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: telephone service limited mostly to government and business use; HF radiotelephone used extensively for military links domestic: limited system of wire, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 17, FM 13, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 6

Televisions: 50,000 (1993 est.)

@Angola:Transportation

Railways: total: 2,952 km limited trackage in use because of land mines still in place from the civil war (1997 est.) narrow gauge: 2,798 km 1.067-m gauge; 154 km 0.600-m gauge

Highways: total: 72,626 km paved: 18,157 km unpaved: 54,469 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 1,295 km navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 179 km

Ports and harbors: Ambriz, Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Malongo, Namibe,
Porto Amboim, Soyo

Merchant marine: total: 10 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 48,384 GRT/78,357 DWT ships by type: cargo 9, oil tanker 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 252 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 32 over 3,047 m: 4 2,438 to 3,047 m: 9 1,524 to 2,437 m: 12 914 to 1,523 m: 6 under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 220 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 1,524 to 2,437 m: 32 914 to 1,523 m: 101 under 914 m: 82 (1997 est.)

@Angola:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, National
Police Force

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 2,476,766 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 1,246,349 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 105,283 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $1.2 billion (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 31% (1993)

@Angola:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: increasingly used as a transshipment point for cocaine and heroin destined for Western Europe and other African states

______________________________________________________________________

ANGUILLA

(dependent territory of the UK)

@Anguilla:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, east of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates: 18 15 N, 63 10 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 91 sq km land: 91 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: about half the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 61 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds

Terrain: flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Crocus Hill 65 m

Natural resources: salt, fish, lobster

Land use: arable land: NA% permanent crops: NA% permanent pastures: NA% forests and woodland: NA% other: 100% (mostly rock with sparse scrub oak, few trees, some commercial salt ponds)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: frequent hurricanes and other tropical storms (July to October)

Environment-current issues: supplies of potable water sometimes cannot meet increasing demand largely because of poor distribution system

Environment-international agreements: party to: NA signed, but not ratified: NA

@Anguilla:People

Population: 11,147 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 28% (male 1,558; female 1,511) 15-64 years: 65% (male 3,713; female 3,545) 65 years and over: 7% (male 359; female 461) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.25% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 17.04 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.47 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 20.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 20.16 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.37 years male: 74.39 years female: 80.43 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.98 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Anguillan(s) adjective: Anguillan

Ethnic groups: black

Religions: Anglican 40%, Methodist 33%, Seventh-Day Adventist 7%,
Baptist 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, other 12%

Languages: English (official)

Literacy: definition: age 12 and over can read and write total population: 95% male: 95% female: 95% (1984 est.)

@Anguilla:Government

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Anguilla

Data code: AV

Dependency status: dependent territory of the UK

Government type: NA

National capital: The Valley

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Anguilla Day, 30 May

Constitution: Anguilla Constitutional Order 1 April 1982; amended 1990

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Alan HOOLE (since 1 November 1995) head of government: Chief Minister Hubert HUGHES (since 16 March 1994) cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from among the elected members of the House of Assembly elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor appointed by the queen; chief minister appointed by the governor from among the members of the House of Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly (11 seats total, 7 elected by direct popular vote; members serve five-year terms) elections: last held 16 March 1994 (next to be held March 1999) election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-ANA 2, AUP 2, ADP 2, independent 1

Judicial branch: High Court, judge provided by Eastern Caribbean
Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Anguilla National Alliance or ANA
[Osbourne FLEMING]; Anguilla United Party or AUP [Hubert HUGHES];
Anguilla Democratic Party or ADP [Victor BANKS]

International organization participation: Caricom (observer), CDB,
Interpol (subbureau), OECS (associate), ECLAC (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (dependent territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Flag description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Anguillan coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms depicts three orange dolphins in an interlocking circular design on a white background with blue wavy water below

@Anguilla:Economy

Economy-overview: Anguilla has few natural resources, and the economy depends heavily on high-class tourism, offshore banking, lobster fishing, and remittances from emigrants. The economy, and especially the tourism sector, suffered a setback in late 1995 due to the effects of Hurricane Luis in September but recovered in 1996. Anguillan officials have put substantial effort into developing the offshore financing sector. A comprehensive package of financial services legislation was enacted in late 1994. In the medium term, prospects for the economy will depend on the tourism sector and, therefore, on continuing income growth in the industrialized nations.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$75 million (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3.4% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$7,200 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 3.6% (1996 est.)

Labor force: total: 4,400 (1992) by occupation: commerce 36%, services 29%, construction 18%, transportation and utilities 10%, manufacturing 3%, agriculture/fishing/forestry/mining 4%

Unemployment rate: 7% (1992 est.)

Budget: revenues: $13.5 million (1993) expenditures: $17.6 million, including capital expenditures of $740,000 (1995 est.)

Industries: tourism, boat building, offshore financial services

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: NA kW

Electricity-production: NA kWh

Electricity-consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture-products: pigeon peas, corn, sweet potatoes; sheep, goats, pigs, cattle, poultry; fishing (including lobster)

Exports: total value: $1.8 million (f.o.b., 1996) commodities: lobster, fish, livestock, salt partners: NA

Imports: total value: $52.7 million (f.o.b., 1996) commodities: NA partners: NA

Debt-external: $8.5 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1-2.7000 (fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 890

Telephone system: domestic: modern internal telephone system international: microwave radio relay to island of Saint Martin (Guadeloupe and Netherlands Antilles)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 2,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: NA

@Anguilla:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 105 km paved: 65 km unpaved: 40 km (1992 est.)

Ports and harbors: Blowing Point, Road Bay

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 3 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 2 under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)

@Anguilla:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

@Anguilla:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

ANTARCTICA

@Antarctica:Geography

Location: continent mostly south of the Antarctic Circle

Geographic coordinates: 90 00 S, 0 00 E

Map references: Antarctic Region

Area: total: 14 million sq km land: 14 million sq km (280,000 sq km ice-free, 13.72 million sq km ice-covered) (est.) note: second-smallest continent (after Australia)

Area-comparative: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US

Land boundaries: 0 km note: see entry on International disputes

Coastline: 17,968 km

Maritime claims: none, but see entry on International disputes

Climate: severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and distance from the ocean; East Antarctica is colder than West Antarctica because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has the most moderate climate; higher temperatures occur in January along the coast and average slightly below freezing

Terrain: about 98% thick continental ice sheet and 2% barren rock, with average elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain ranges up to about 5,000 meters; ice-free coastal areas include parts of southern Victoria Land, Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsula area, and parts of Ross Island on McMurdo Sound; glaciers form ice shelves along about half of the coastline, and floating ice shelves constitute 11% of the area of the continent

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: Vinson Massif 5,140 m

Natural resources: none presently exploited; iron ore, chromium, copper, gold, nickel, platinum and other minerals, and coal and hydrocarbons have been found in small, uncommercial quantities

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 0% forests and woodland: 0% other: 100% (ice 98%, barren rock 2%)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: katabatic (gravity-driven) winds blow coastward from the high interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot of the plateau; cyclonic storms form over the ocean and move clockwise along the coast; volcanism on Deception Island and isolated areas of West Antarctica; other seismic activity rare and weak

Environment-current issues: in 1995 it was reported that the ozone shield, which protects the Earth's surface from harmful ultraviolet radiation, had dwindled to the lowest level recorded over Antarctica since 1975 when measurements were first taken

Environment-international agreements: party to: none of the selected agreements signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: the coldest, windiest, highest, and driest continent; during summer, more solar radiation reaches the surface at the South Pole than is received at the Equator in an equivalent period; mostly uninhabitable

@Antarctica:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants; note-there are seasonally staffed research stations; Summer (January) population-over 4,115 total; Argentina 207, Australia 268, Belgium 13, Brazil 80, Chile 256, China NA, Ecuador NA, Finland 11, France 78, Germany 32, Greenpeace 12, India 60, Italy 210, Japan 59, South Korea 14, Netherlands 10, NZ 264, Norway 23, Peru 39, Poland NA, South Africa 79, Spain 43, Sweden 10, UK 116, Uruguay NA, US 1,666, former USSR 565 (1989-90); Winter (July) population-over 1,046 total; Argentina 150, Australia 71, Brazil 12, Chile 73, China NA, France 33, Germany 19, Greenpeace 5, India 1, Japan 38, South Korea 14, NZ 11, Poland NA, South Africa 12, UK 69, Uruguay NA, US 225, former USSR 313 (1989-90); Year-round stations-42 total; Argentina 6, Australia 3, Brazil 1, Chile 3, China 2, Finland 1, France 1, Germany 1, India 1, Japan 2, South Korea 1, NZ 1, Poland 1, South Africa 3, UK 5, Uruguay 1, US 3, former USSR 6 (1990-91); Summer-only stations-over 38 total; Argentina 7, Australia 3, Chile 5, Germany 3, India 1, Italy 1, Japan 4, NZ 2, Norway 1, Peru 1, South Africa 1, Spain 1, Sweden 2, UK 1, US numerous, former USSR 5 (1989-90); note-the disintegration of the former USSR has placed the status and future of its Antarctic facilities in doubt; stations may be subject to closings at any time because of ongoing economic difficulties

@Antarctica:Government

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Antarctica

Data code: AY

Government type: Antarctic Treaty Summary-The Antarctic Treaty, signed on 1 December 1959 and entered into force on 23 June 1961, establishes the legal framework for the management of Antarctica. Administration is carried out through consultative member meetings-the 18th Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting was in Japan in April 1993. Currently, there are 42 treaty member nations: 26 consultative and 16 acceding. Consultative (voting) members include the seven nations that claim portions of Antarctica as national territory (some claims overlap) and 19 nonclaimant nations. The US and some other nations that have made no claims have reserved the right to do so. The US does not recognize the claims of others. The year in parentheses indicates when an acceding nation was voted to full consultative (voting) status, while no date indicates the country was an original 1959 treaty signatory. Claimant nations are-Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the UK. Nonclaimant consultative nations are-Belgium, Brazil (1983), China (1985), Ecuador (1990), Finland (1989), Germany (1981), India (1983), Italy (1987), Japan, South Korea (1989), Netherlands (1990), Peru (1989), Poland (1977), South Africa, Spain (1988), Sweden (1988), Uruguay (1985), the US, and Russia. Acceding (nonvoting) members, with year of accession in parentheses, are-Austria (1987), Bulgaria (1978), Canada (1988), Colombia (1988), Cuba (1984), Czech Republic (1993), Denmark (1965), Greece (1987), Guatemala (1991), Hungary (1984), North Korea (1987), Papua New Guinea (1981), Romania (1971), Slovakia (1993), Switzerland (1990), and Ukraine (1992). Article 1-area to be used for peaceful purposes only; military activity, such as weapons testing, is prohibited, but military personnel and equipment may be used for scientific research or any other peaceful purpose; Article 2-freedom of scientific investigation and cooperation shall continue; Article 3-free exchange of information and personnel in cooperation with the UN and other international agencies; Article 4-does not recognize, dispute, or establish territorial claims and no new claims shall be asserted while the treaty is in force; Article 5-prohibits nuclear explosions or disposal of radioactive wastes; Article 6-includes under the treaty all land and ice shelves south of 60 degrees 00 minutes south; Article 7-treaty-state observers have free access, including aerial observation, to any area and may inspect all stations, installations, and equipment; advance notice of all activities and of the introduction of military personnel must be given; Article 8-allows for jurisdiction over observers and scientists by their own states; Article 9-frequent consultative meetings take place among member nations; Article 10-treaty states will discourage activities by any country in Antarctica that are contrary to the treaty; Article 11-disputes to be settled peacefully by the parties concerned or, ultimately, by the ICJ; Articles 12, 13, 14-deal with upholding, interpreting, and amending the treaty among involved nations; other agreements-more than 170 recommendations adopted at treaty consultative meetings and ratified by governments include-Agreed Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora (1964); Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (1972); Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (1980); a mineral resources agreement was signed in 1988 but was subsequently rejected; the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was signed 4 October 1991 and entered into force 14 January 1998; this agreement provides for the protection of the Antarctic environment through five specific annexes on marine pollution, fauna, and flora, environmental impact assessments, waste management, and protected areas; it also prohibits all activities relating to mineral resources except scientific research; 27 parties have ratified the Protocol as of April 1998

Legal system: US law, including certain criminal offenses by or against US nationals, such as murder, may apply to areas not under jurisdiction of other countries. Some US laws directly apply to Antarctica. For example, the Antarctic Conservation Act, 16 U.S.C. section 2401 et seq., provides civil and criminal penalties for the following activities, unless authorized by regulation of statute: the taking of native mammals or birds; the introduction of nonindigenous plants and animals; entry into specially protected or scientific areas; the discharge or disposal of pollutants; and the importation into the US of certain items from Antarctica. Violation of the Antarctic Conservation Act carries penalties of up to $10,000 in fines and one year in prison. The Departments of Treasury, Commerce, Transportation, and Interior share enforcement responsibilities. Public Law 95-541, the US Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, requires expeditions from the US to Antarctica to notify, in advance, the Office of Oceans and Polar Affairs, Room 5801, Department of State, Washington, DC 20520, which reports such plans to other nations as required by the Antarctic Treaty. For more information, contact Permit Office, Office of Polar Programs, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia 22230 (703) 306-1031.

@Antarctica:Economy

Economy-overview: No economic activity at present except for fishing off the coast and small-scale tourism, both based abroad.

Communications

Telephones: NA

Telephone system: domestic: NA international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: NA

@Antarctica:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage

Airports: 18 (1997 est.); 39 landing facilities at different locations operated by 16 national governments party to the Treaty; two additional air facilities operated by commercial (nongovernmental) tourist organizations; helicopter pads at 33 of these locations; runways at 13 locations are gravel, sea ice, glacier ice, or compacted snow surface suitable for wheeled fixed-wing aircraft; no paved runways; 14 locations have snow-surface skiways limited to use by ski-equipped planes-8 runways/skiways greater than 3,000 m, 12 runways/skiways 1,000 to 3,000 m, 2 runways/skiways less than 1,000 m, and 5 of unspecified or variable length; airports generally subject to severe restrictions and limitations resulting from extreme seasonal and geographic conditions; airports do not meet ICAO standards; advance approval from the respective governmental or nongovernmental operating organization required for landing (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 18 over 3,047 m: 4 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 4 under 914 m: 5 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1997 est.)

@Antarctica:Military

Military-note: the Antarctic Treaty prohibits any measures of a military nature, such as the establishment of military bases and fortifications, the carrying out of military maneuvers, or the testing of any type of weapon; it permits the use of military personnel or equipment for scientific research or for any other peaceful purposes

@Antarctica:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: Antarctic Treaty defers claims (see Antarctic Treaty Summary above); sections (some overlapping) claimed by Argentina, Australia, Chile, France (Adelie Land), New Zealand (Ross Dependency), Norway (Queen Maud Land), and UK; the US and most other nations do not recognize the territorial claims of other nations and have made no claims themselves (the US reserves the right to do so); no formal claims have been made in the sector between 90 degrees west and 150 degrees west

______________________________________________________________________

ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

@Antigua and Barbuda:Geography

Location: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates: 17 03 N, 61 48 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 440 sq km land: 440 sq km water: 0 sq km note: includes Redonda

Area-comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 153 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands with some higher volcanic areas

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Boggy Peak 402 m

Natural resources: negligible; pleasant climate fosters tourism

Land use: arable land: 18% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 9% forests and woodland: 11% other: 62% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); periodic droughts

Environment-current issues: water management-a major concern because of limited natural fresh water resources-is further hampered by the clearing of trees to increase crop production, causing rainfall to run off quickly

Environment-international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

@Antigua and Barbuda:People

Population: 64,006 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 26% (male 8,482; female 8,200) 15-64 years: 68% (male 21,695; female 22,042) 65 years and over: 6% (male 1,548; female 2,039) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.39% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 16.72 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.87 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.92 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 21.35 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.19 years male: 68.82 years female: 73.69 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.74 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s) adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan

Ethnic groups: black, British, Portuguese, Lebanese, Syrian

Religions: Anglican (predominant), other Protestant sects, some Roman
Catholic

Languages: English (official), local dialects

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of schooling total population: 89% male: 90% female: 88% (1960 est.)

@Antigua and Barbuda:Government

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Antigua and Barbuda

Data code: AC

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Saint John's

Administrative divisions: 6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*,
Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint
Peter, Saint Philip

Independence: 1 November 1981 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 November (1981)

Constitution: 1 November 1981

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General James B. CARLISLE (since NA 1993) head of government: Prime Minister Lester Bryant BIRD (since 8 March 1994) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor general chosen by the queen on the advice of the prime minister; prime minister appointed by the governor general

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (17-member body appointed by the governor general) and the House of Representatives (17 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve five-year terms) elections: House of Representatives-last held 8 March 1994 (next to be held NA 1999) election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-ALP 11, UPP 5, independent 1

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint Lucia), one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the Court of Summary Jurisdiction

Political parties and leaders: Antigua Labor Party or ALP [Lester
Bryant BIRD]; United Progressive Party or UPP [Baldwin SPENCER], a
coalition of three opposition political parties-the United National
Democratic Party or UNDP; the Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement or
ACLM; and the Progressive Labor Movement or PLM

Political pressure groups and leaders: Antigua Trades and Labor Union or ATLU [William ROBINSON]; People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh MARSHALL]

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC,
FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU,
NAM (observer), OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WFTU,
WHO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Lionel Alexander HURST chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016 telephone: [1] (202) 362-5211 FAX: [1] (202) 362-5225 consulate(s) general: Miami

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Antigua and Barbuda (embassy closed 30 June 1994); the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda

Flag description: red with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top), light blue, and white with a yellow rising sun in the black band

@Antigua and Barbuda:Economy

Economy-overview: Tourism continues to be by far the dominant activity in the economy accounting directly or indirectly to more than half of GDP. Increased tourist arrivals have helped spur growth in the construction and transport sectors. The dual island nation's agricultural production is mainly directed to the domestic market; the sector is constrained by the limited water supply and labor shortages that reflect the pull of higher wages in tourism and construction. Manufacturing comprises enclave-type assembly for export with major products being bedding, handicrafts, and electronic components. Prospects for economic growth in the medium term will continue to depend on income growth in the industrialized world, especially in the US, which accounts for about half of all tourist arrivals.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$470 million (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3.3% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$7,400 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 3.8% industry: 18.9% services: 77.3% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 2.5% (1996)

Labor force: total: 30,000 by occupation: commerce and services 82%, agriculture 11%, industry 7% (1983)

Unemployment rate: 5%-10%(1995 est.)

Budget: revenues: $107 million expenditures: $132 million, including capital expenditures of $18 million (1995)

Industries: tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol, household appliances)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 26,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 95 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 1,458 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: cotton, fruits, vegetables, bananas, coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; livestock

Exports: total value: $45 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.) commodities: petroleum products 48%, manufactures 23%, food and live animals 4%, machinery and transport equipment 17% partners: OECS 26%, Barbados 15%, Guyana 4%, Trinidad and Tobago 2%, US 0.3%

Imports: total value: $350.8 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.) commodities: food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals, oil partners: US 27%, UK 16%, Canada 4%, OECS 3%, other 50%

Debt-external: $225 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1-2.7000 (fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 6,700

Telephone system: domestic: good automatic telephone system international: 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Saba (Netherlands Antilles) and Guadeloupe

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 2, shortwave 2

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2

Televisions: 28,000 (1993 est.)

@Antigua and Barbuda:Transportation

Railways: total: 77 km narrow gauge: 64 km 0.760-m gauge; 13 km 0.610-m gauge (used almost exclusively for handling sugarcane)

Highways: total: 250 km (1996 est.) paved: NA km unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: Saint John's

Merchant marine: total: 440 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,025,920 GRT/2,690,028 DWT ships by type: bulk 12, cargo 295, chemical tanker 6, combination bulk 1, container 89, liquefied gas tanker 2, oil tanker 4, refrigerated cargo 10, roll-on/roll-off cargo 20, vehicle carrier 1 note: a flag of convenience registry: Germany owns 11 ships, Slovenia 3, Cyprus 2, and US 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 3 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 1 under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Antigua and Barbuda:Military

Military branches: Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force, Royal
Antigua and Barbuda Police Force (includes the Coast Guard)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $1.4 million (FY90/91)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1% (FY90/91)

@Antigua and Barbuda:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: considered a long-time but relatively minor transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe and recent transshipment point for heroin from Europe to the US; potentially more significant as a drug money-laundering center

______________________________________________________________________

ARCTIC OCEAN

@Arctic Ocean:Geography

Location: body of water mostly north of the Arctic Circle

Geographic coordinates: 90 00 N, 0 00 E

Map references: Arctic Region

Area: total: 14.056 million sq km note: includes Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, Northwest Passage, and other tributary water bodies

Area-comparative: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US; smallest of the world's four oceans (after Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, and Indian Ocean)

Coastline: 45,389 km

Climate: polar climate characterized by persistent cold and relatively narrow annual temperature ranges; winters characterized by continuous darkness, cold and stable weather conditions, and clear skies; summers characterized by continuous daylight, damp and foggy weather, and weak cyclones with rain or snow

Terrain: central surface covered by a perennial drifting polar icepack that averages about 3 meters in thickness, although pressure ridges may be three times that size; clockwise drift pattern in the Beaufort Gyral Stream, but nearly straight line movement from the New Siberian Islands (Russia) to Denmark Strait (between Greenland and Iceland); the icepack is surrounded by open seas during the summer, but more than doubles in size during the winter and extends to the encircling land masses; the ocean floor is about 50% continental shelf (highest percentage of any ocean) with the remainder a central basin interrupted by three submarine ridges (Alpha Cordillera, Nansen Cordillera, and Lomonsov Ridge)

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Fram Basin -4,665 m highest point: sea level 0 m

Natural resources: sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules, oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and whales)

Natural hazards: ice islands occasionally break away from northern Ellesmere Island; icebergs calved from glaciers in western Greenland and extreme northeastern Canada; permafrost in islands; virtually icelocked from October to June; ships subject to superstructure icing from October to May

Environment-current issues: endangered marine species include walruses and whales; fragile ecosystem slow to change and slow to recover from disruptions or damage

Environment-international agreements: party to: none of the selected agreements signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: major chokepoint is the southern Chukchi Sea (northern access to the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait); strategic location between North America and Russia; shortest marine link between the extremes of eastern and western Russia, floating research stations operated by the US and Russia; maximum snow cover in March or April about 20 to 50 centimeters over the frozen ocean; snow cover lasts about 10 months

@Arctic Ocean:Government

Data code: none; the US Government has not approved a standard for hydrographic codes-see the Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Data Codes appendix

@Arctic Ocean:Economy

Economy-overview: Economic activity is limited to the exploitation of natural resources, including petroleum, natural gas, fish, and seals.

Communications

Telephone system: international: no submarine cables

@Arctic Ocean:Transportation

Ports and harbors: Churchill (Canada), Murmansk (Russia), Prudhoe Bay
(US)

Transportation-note: sparse network of air, ocean, river, and land routes; the Northwest Passage (North America) and Northern Sea Route (Eurasia) are important seasonal waterways

@Arctic Ocean:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: some maritime disputes (see littoral states); Svalbard is the focus of a maritime boundary dispute between Norway and Russia

______________________________________________________________________

ARGENTINA

@Argentina:Geography

Location: Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Chile and Uruguay

Geographic coordinates: 34 00 S, 64 00 W

Map references: South America

Area: total: 2,766,890 sq km land: 2,736,690 sq km water: 30,200 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly less than three-tenths the size of the US

Land boundaries:
total: 9,665 km
border countries: Bolivia 832 km, Brazil 1,224 km, Chile 5,150 km,
Paraguay 1,880 km, Uruguay 579 km

Coastline: 4,989 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest

Terrain: rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling plateau of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Salinas Chicas -40 m highest point: Cerro Aconcagua 6,962 m

Natural resources: fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron ore, manganese, petroleum, uranium

Land use: arable land: 9% permanent crops: 1% permanent pastures: 52% forests and woodland: 19% other: 19% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 17,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: San Miguel de Tucuman and Mendoza areas in the Andes subject to earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike the Pampas and northeast; heavy flooding

Environment-current issues: erosion results from inadequate flood controls and improper land use practices; irrigated soil degradation; desertification; air pollution in Buenos Aires and other major cities; water pollution in urban areas; rivers becoming polluted due to increased pesticide and fertilizer use

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life
Conservation

Geography-note: second-largest country in South America (after
Brazil); strategic location relative to sea lanes between South
Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel,
Drake Passage)

@Argentina:People

Population: 36,265,463 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 27% (male 5,078,061; female 4,888,883) 15-64 years: 62% (male 11,299,155; female 11,315,522) 65 years and over: 11% (male 1,526,682; female 2,157,160) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.3% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 19.96 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 7.67 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 19.03 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 74.54 years male: 70.9 years female: 78.34 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.68 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Argentine(s) adjective: Argentine

Ethnic groups: white 85%, mestizo, Amerindian, or other nonwhite groups 15%

Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 90% (less than 20% practicing),
Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, other 6%

Languages: Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 96.2% male: 96.2% female: 96.2% (1995 est.)

@Argentina:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Argentine Republic conventional short form: Argentina local long form: Republica Argentina local short form: Argentina

Data code: AR

Government type: republic

National capital: Buenos Aires

Administrative divisions: 23 provinces (provincias,
singular-provincia), and 1 federal district* (distrito federal);
Buenos Aires; Catamarca; Chaco; Chubut; Cordoba; Corrientes; Distrito
Federal*; Entre Rios; Formosa; Jujuy; La Pampa; La Rioja; Mendoza;
Misiones; Neuquen; Rio Negro; Salta; San Juan; San Luis; Santa Cruz;
Santa Fe; Santiago del Estero; Tierra del Fuego, Antartida e Islas del
Atlantico Sur; Tucuman
note: the US does not recognize any claims to Antarctica

Independence: 9 July 1816 (from Spain)

National holiday: Revolution Day, 25 May (1810)

Constitution: 1 May 1853; revised August 1994

Legal system: mixture of US and West European legal systems; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Carlos Saul MENEM (since 8 July 1989); Vice President Carlos RUCKAUF (since 8 July 1995); note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Carlos Saul MENEM (since 8 July 1989); Vice President Carlos RUCKAUF (since 8 July 1995); note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 14 May 1995 (next to be held 1999) election results: Carlos Saul MENEM reelected president; percent of vote-NA

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the Senate (72 seats; formerly, three members appointed by each of the provincial legislatures; presently transitioning to one-third of the members being elected every three years to a nine-year term) and the Chamber of Deputies (257 seats; one-half of the members elected every two years to four-year terms) elections: Senate-last held NA May 1995 (next to be held NA 1998); Chamber of Deputies-last held 26 October 1997 (next to be held NA 1999) election results: Senate-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-PJ 39, UCR 1, others 32; Chamber of Deputies-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-PJ 119, UCR 69, Frepaso 36, other 33

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), the nine Supreme Court judges are appointed by the president with approval of the Senate

Political parties and leaders: Justicialist Party or PJ [Carlos Saul MENEM] (Peronist umbrella political organization); Radical Civic Union or UCR [Fernando DE LA RUA]; Union of the Democratic Center or UCD (conservative party); Dignity and Independence Political Party or MODIN (right-wing party); Front for a Country in Solidarity or Frepaso (a four party coalition) [leader Carlos ALVAREZ]; Action for the Republic [Domingo CAVALLO]; New Leadership [Gustavo BELIZ]; several provincial parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: Peronist-dominated labor movement; General Confederation of Labor or CGT (Peronist-leaning umbrella labor organization); Argentine Industrial Union (manufacturers' association); Argentine Rural Society (large landowners' association); Argentine Association of Pharmaceutical Labs (CILFA); business organizations; students; the Roman Catholic Church; the Armed Forces

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer),
Australia Group, BCIE, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G- 6, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24,
G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MINUGUA, MINURSO, MIPONUH, MTCR, NSG (observer),
OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNPREDEP, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Diego Ramiro GUELAR chancery: 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009 telephone: [1] (202) 939-6400 through 6403 FAX: [1] (202) 332-3171 consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador James R. CHEEK has retired; replacement to be appointed in 1998 embassy: 4300 Colombia, 1425 Buenos Aires mailing address: International mail: use street address; APO address: Unit 4334, APO AA 34034 telephone: [54] (1) 777-4533, 4534 FAX: [54] (1) 777-0197

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top), white, and light blue; centered in the white band is a radiant yellow sun with a human face known as the Sun of May

@Argentina:Economy

Economy-overview: Argentina benefits from rich natural resources, a highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a diversified industrial base. Nevertheless, following decades of mismanagement and statist policies, the economy in the late 1980s was plagued with huge external debts and recurring bouts of hyperinflation. Elected in 1989, in the depths of recession, President MENEM has implemented a comprehensive economic restructuring program that has put Argentina on a path of stable, sustainable growth. Argentina's currency has traded at par with the US dollar since April 1991, and inflation has fallen to its lowest level in 50 years. Argentines have responded to price stability by repatriating capital and investing in domestic industry. Growth averaged more than 8% between 1991 and 1994, then fell 4.6% in 1995, largely in reaction to the Mexican peso crisis. The economy has since recovered strongly. However, unemployment remains nearly 14%, and Buenos Aires still depends on foreign capital to meet the bulk of its financing needs. The IMF has urged additional economic reforms to ensure equitable long-term growth.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$348.2 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 8.4% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$9,700 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 7% industry: 36% services: 57% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 0.3% (1997)

Labor force: total: 14.5 million (1995 est.) by occupation: agriculture 12%, industry 31%, services 57% (1985 est.)

Unemployment rate: 13.7% (October 1997)

Budget: revenues: $55 billion expenditures: $59 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997 est.)

Industries: food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel

Industrial production growth rate: 8.7% (1997 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 19.61 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 65.72 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 1,960 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: wheat, corn, sorghum, soybeans, sugar beets; livestock

Exports: total value: $25.4 billion (f.o.b., 1997) commodities: meat, wheat, corn, oilseed, manufactures, fuels partners: Brazil 26.1%, US 8.5%, Chile 7.0%, Netherlands 5.7%, Italy 3.5% (1995)

Imports: total value: $30.3 billion (c.i.f., 1997) commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, transport equipment, agricultural products partners: Brazil 20.8%, US 20.7%, Italy 6.3%, Germany 6.2%, France 5.2% (1995)

Debt-external: $115 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 nuevo peso argentino = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: pesos per US$1-0.99950 (January 1998), 0.99950 (1997), 0.99966 (1996), 0.99975 (1995), 0.99901 (1994), 0.99895 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 4.6 million (1990)

Telephone system: 12,000 public telephones; extensive modern system but many families do not have telephones; despite extensive use of microwave radio relay, the telephone system frequently grounds out during rainstorms, even in Buenos Aires domestic: microwave radio relay and a domestic satellite system with 40 earth stations serve the trunk network international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 260, FM 100, shortwave 6

Radios: 22.3 million (1991 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 231

Televisions: 7.165 million (1991 est.)

@Argentina:Transportation

Railways: total: 37,910 km broad gauge: 24,124 km 1.676-m gauge (142 km electrified) standard gauge: 2,765 km 1.435-m gauge narrow gauge: 11,021 km 1.000-m gauge (26 km electrified)

Highways: total: 218,276 km paved: 63,518 km (including 567 km of expressways) unpaved: 154,758 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 11,000 km navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 4,090 km; petroleum products 2,900 km; natural gas 9,918 km

Ports and harbors: Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, Comodoro Rivadavia,
Concepcion del Uruguay, La Plata, Mar del Plata, Necochea, Rio
Gallegos, Rosario, Santa Fe, Ushuaia

Merchant marine: total: 34 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 268,492 GRT/388,524 DWT ships by type: cargo 11, container 2, oil tanker 13, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 6, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 1,411 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 137 over 3,047 m: 5 2,438 to 3,047 m: 25 1,524 to 2,437 m: 55 914 to 1,523 m: 44 under 914 m: 8 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 1,274 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 65 914 to 1,523 m: 635 under 914 m: 570 (1997 est.)

@Argentina:Military

Military branches: Argentine Army, Navy of the Argentine Republic (includes Naval Aviation, Marines, and Coast Guard), Argentine Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National Aeronautical Police Force

Military manpower-military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 9,056,532 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 7,344,910 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 332,008 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $4.6 billion (1997)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.5% (1997)

@Argentina:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: short section of the southwestern boundary
with Chile is indefinite; claims UK-administered Falkland Islands
(Islas Malvinas); claims UK-administered South Georgia and the South
Sandwich Islands; territorial claim in Antarctica

Illicit drugs: increasing use as a transshipment country for cocaine headed for Europe and the US

______________________________________________________________________

ARMENIA

Introduction

Current issues: Armenia's leaders remain preoccupied by Armenia's 10-year conflict with Azerbaijan over the Nagorno-Karabakh enclave. Although a cease-fire has been in effect since May 1994, the sides have not made substantial progress toward a peaceful resolution. In January 1998, differences between President TER-PETROSSIAN and members of his cabinet over the Nagorno-Karabakh peace process came to a head. With the prime minister and defense and security ministers arrayed against him, an isolated TER-PETROSSIAN resigned the presidency on 3 February 1998. Robert KOCHARIAN, TER-PETROSSIAN's prime minister, was elected president in March 1998. Concerns about Armenia's economic performance rose in 1997 with a slowdown in growth and an increase in inflation.

@Armenia:Geography

Location: Southwestern Asia, east of Turkey

Geographic coordinates: 40 00 N, 45 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area: total: 29,800 sq km land: 28,400 sq km water: 1,400 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries: total: 1,254 km border countries: Azerbaijan-proper 566 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave 221 km, Georgia 164 km, Iran 35 km, Turkey 268 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: highland continental, hot summers, cold winters

Terrain: high Armenian Plateau with mountains; little forest land; fast flowing rivers; good soil in Aras River valley

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Debed River 400 m highest point: Aragats Lerr 4,095 m

Natural resources: small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, alumina

Land use: arable land: 17% permanent crops: 3% permanent pastures: 24% forests and woodland: 15% other: 41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 2,870 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: occasionally severe earthquakes; droughts

Environment-current issues: soil pollution from toxic chemicals such as DDT; energy blockade, the result of conflict with Azerbaijan, has led to deforestation when citizens scavenged for firewood; pollution of Hrazdan (Razdan) and Aras Rivers; the draining of Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan), a result of its use as a source for hydropower, threatens drinking water supplies; restart of Metsamor nuclear power plant without adequate (IAEA-recommended) safety and backup systems

Environment-international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Nuclear Test Ban, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: landlocked

@Armenia:People

Population: 3,421,775 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 26% (male 460,191; female 441,906) 15-64 years: 65% (male 1,092,652; female 1,139,916) 65 years and over: 9% (male 119,464; female 167,646) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.36% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 13.52 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 8.82 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -8.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 40.77 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 66.73 years male: 62.45 years female: 71.23 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.69 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Armenian(s) adjective: Armenian

Ethnic groups: Armenian 93%, Azeri 3%, Russian 2%, other (mostly
Yezidi Kurds) 2% (1989)
note: as of the end of 1993, virtually all Azeris had emigrated from
Armenia

Religions: Armenian Orthodox 94%

Languages: Armenian 96%, Russian 2%, other 2%

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 99% male: 99% female: 98% (1989 est.)

@Armenia:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Armenia conventional short form: Armenia local long form: Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun local short form: Hayastan former: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic; Armenian Republic

Data code: AM

Government type: republic

National capital: Yerevan

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces (marzer, singular-marz) and 1
city* (k'aghak'ner, singular - k'aghak'); Aragatsotn, Ararat, Armavir,
Geghark'unik', Kotayk', Lorri, Shirak, Syunik', Tavush, Vayots' Dzor,
Yerevan*

Independence: 28 May 1918 (First Armenian Republic); 23 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Referendum Day, 21 September

Constitution: adopted by nationwide referendum 5 July 1995

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Robert KOCHARIAN (since 30 March 1998) head of government: Prime Minister Armen DARBINYAN (since 10 April 1998) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; special election last held 30 March 1998 (next election to be held March 2003); prime minister appointed by the president election results: Robert KOCHARIAN elected president; percent of vote-Robert KOCHARIAN 59%, Karen DEMIRCHYAN 41%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Parliament) or Azgayin Zhoghov (190 seats; members serve four-year terms) elections: last held 5 July 1995 (next to be held NA July 1999) election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-Republican Bloc 159 (ANM 63, DLP-Hanrapetutyun Bloc 6, Republic Party 4, CDU 3, Intellectual Armenia 3, Social Democratic Party 2, independents 78), SWM 8, ACP 7, NDU 5, NSDU 3, DLP 1, ARF 1, other 4, vacant 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: Armenian National Movement or ANM [Vano
SIRADEGIAN, chairman]; National Democratic Union or NDU [Vazgen
MANUKIAN]; Intellectual Armenia [H. TOKMAJIAN]; Social Democratic
(Hnchakian) Party [Yeghia NACHARIAN]; Shamiram Women's Movement or SWM
[Maria NERSISSIAN]; Armenian Communist Party or ACP [Sergey BADALYAN];
Union of National Self-Determination or NSDU [Paruir HAIRIKIAN,
chairman]; Armenian Revolutionary Federation ("Dashnak" Party) or ARF;
Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Azat ARSHAKYN, chairman];
Democratic Liberal Party [Orthosis GYONJIAN, chairman]; Republican
Party [Andranik MARKARYAN]

International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CE (guest), CIS,
EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, NAM (observer), OSCE,
PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
(applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Rouben SHUGARIAN chancery: 2225 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 319-1976 FAX: [1] (202) 319-2982 consulate(s) general: Los Angeles

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Peter TOMSEN embassy: 18 General Baghramian Avenue, Yerevan mailing address: use embassy street address telephone: [374] (2) 524-661, 521-611 FAX: [374] (2) 151-550, 151-511

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and gold

@Armenia:Economy

Economy-overview: Under the old Soviet central planning system, Armenia had developed a modern industrial sector, supplying machine tools, textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics in exchange for raw materials and energy. Since the implosion of the USSR in December 1991, Armenia has switched to small-scale agriculture away from the large agroindustrial complexes of the Soviet area. The agricultural sector has long-term needs for more investment and updated technology. The privatization of industry has been at a slower pace, but ahead of most of the rest of the CIS. Armenia is a food importer and its mineral deposits (gold, bauxite) are small. The ongoing conflict with Azerbaijan over the ethnic Armenian-dominated region of Nagorno-Karabakh and the embargoes imposed by Azerbaijan and Turkey contributed to a severe economic decline in the early 1990s. By 1994, however, the Armenian Government had launched an ambitious IMF-sponsored economic program that has resulted in positive growth rates in 1995-97. Armenia also managed to slash inflation and to privatize most small and medium-sized enterprises. The chronic energy shortages Armenia suffered in recent years has been partially offset by the energy supplied by one of its nuclear power plants at Metsamor, which in 1996 supplied about 40% of the country's energy needs, according to the Armenian Government. Moreover, Armenia is expanding its energy imports from Iran.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$9.5 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 2.7% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$2,750 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 38% industry: 32% services: 30% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 13.2% (1997 est.)

Labor force: total: 1.6 million (1997) by occupation: manufacturing, mining, and construction 25%, agriculture 38%, services 37%

Unemployment rate: 10.6% officially registered unemployed, but large numbers of underemployed (June 1997)

Budget: revenues: $322 million expenditures: $424 million, including capital expenditures of $80 million (1998 est.)

Industries: much of industry is shut down; metal-cutting machine tools, forging-pressing machines, electric motors, tires, knitted wear, hosiery, shoes, silk fabric, washing machines, chemicals, trucks, watches, instruments, microelectronics

Industrial production growth rate: 0.7% (1997 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 2.768 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 6.3 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 1,570 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: fruit (especially grapes), vegetables; vineyards near Yerevan are famous for brandy and other liqueurs; minor livestock sector

Exports: total value: $290 million (f.o.b., 1996) commodities: gold and jewelry, aluminum, transport equipment, electrical equipment, scrap metal partners: Iran, Russia, Turkmenistan, Georgia

Imports: total value: $727 million (c.i.f., 1996) commodities: grain, other foods, fuel, other energy partners: Iran, Russia, Turkmenistan, Georgia, US, EU

Debt-external: $820 million (of which $75 million to Russia) (1997 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA note: commitments (excluding Russia), $1,385 million ($675 million in disbursements) (1992-95)

Currency: 1 dram = 100 luma (introduced new currency in November 1993)

Exchange rates: dram per US$1-499.89 (November 1997), 414.04 (1996), 405.91 (1995), 288.65 (1994), 9.11 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 650,000

Telephone system: joint venture agreement to install fiber-optic cable and construct facilities for cellular telephone service is in the implementation phase domestic: NA international: international connections to other former Soviet republics are by landline or microwave radio relay and to other countries by satellite and by leased connection through the Moscow international gateway switch; satellite earth station-1 Intelsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 10, FM 3, shortwave NA (1991)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 note: 100% of population receives Armenian and Russian TV programs

Televisions: NA

@Armenia:Transportation

Railways: total: 825 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial lines broad gauge: 825 km 1.520-m gauge (1992)

Highways: total: 8,580 km paved: 8,580 km unpaved: 0 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: NA km

Pipelines: natural gas 900 km (1991)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 11 (1996 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 5 over 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1996 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 6 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 1 (1996 est.)

@Armenia:Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force, Air Defense Force, Security Forces (internal and border troops)

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 914,134 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 726,938 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 31,814 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: 33.3 billion drams (1998); note-conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using prevailing exchange rates could produce misleading results

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Armenia:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: Armenia supports ethnic Armenians in the Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan in the longstanding, separatist conflict against the Azerbaijani Government; traditional demands on former Armenian lands in Turkey have subsided

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivator of cannabis mostly for domestic consumption; used as a transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe and the US

______________________________________________________________________

ARUBA

(part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

@Aruba:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, north of Venezuela

Geographic coordinates: 12 30 N, 69 58 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 193 sq km land: 193 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 68.5 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: flat with a few hills; scant vegetation

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Mount Jamanota 188 m

Natural resources: negligible; white sandy beaches

Land use: arable land: 11% permanent crops: NA% permanent pastures: NA% forests and woodland: NA% other: 89% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: lies outside the Caribbean hurricane belt

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements: party to: NA signed, but not ratified: NA

@Aruba:People

Population: 68,325 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 22% (male 7,775; female 7,114) 15-64 years: 69% (male 22,616; female 24,700) 65 years and over: 9% (male 2,523; female 3,597) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.47% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 13.74 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 6.4 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.63 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.09 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.96 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 76.92 years male: 73.22 years female: 80.81 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.81 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Aruban(s) adjective: Aruban

Ethnic groups: mixed white/Caribbean Amerindian 80%

Religions: Roman Catholic 82%, Protestant 8%, Hindu, Muslim,
Confucian, Jewish

Languages: Dutch (official), Papiamento (a Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch,
English dialect), English (widely spoken), Spanish

Literacy: NA

@Aruba:Government

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Aruba

Data code: AA

Dependency status: part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; full autonomy in internal affairs obtained in 1986 upon separation from the Netherlands Antilles

Government type: parliamentary

National capital: Oranjestad

Administrative divisions: none (part of the Kingdom of the
Netherlands)

Independence: none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; in 1990, Aruba requested and received from the Netherlands cancellation of the agreement to automatically give independence to the island in 1996)

National holiday: Flag Day, 18 March

Constitution: 1 January 1986

Legal system: based on Dutch civil law system, with some English common law influence

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard of the Netherlands (since 30 April 1980), represented by Governor General Olindo KOOLMAN (since 1 January 1992) head of government: Prime Minister Jan (Henny) H. EMAN (since 29 July 1994) and Deputy Prime Minister Glenbert F. CROES cabinet: Council of Ministers (elected by the Staten) elections: the queen is a constitutional monarch; governor general appointed for a six-year term by the queen; prime minister and deputy prime minister elected by the Staten for a four-year term; election last held 12 July 1997 (next to be held by December 2001) election results: inconclusive; no party won majority in December 1997 parliamentary elections; no new government formed as of May 1998

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislature or Staten (21 seats; members elected by direct popular vote and serve four-year terms) elections: last held 12 December 1997 (next to be held by NA December 2001) election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-AVP 10, MEP 9, OLA 2; although elections were held 12 December 1997, a new government had not been formed as of May 1998

Judicial branch: Joint High Court of Justice; judges are appointed by the Netherlands monarch

Political parties and leaders: Electoral Movement Party or MEP [Nelson
ODUBER]; Aruban People's Party or AVP [Jan (Henny) H. EMAN]; National
Democratic Action or ADN [Pedro Charro KELLY]; New Patriotic Party or
PPN [Eddy WERLEMEN]; Aruban Patriotic Party or PPA [Benny NISBET];
Aruban Democratic Party or PDA [Leo BERLINSKI]; Democratic Action '86
or AD '86 [Arturo ODUBER]; Aruban Liberal Party or OLA [Glenbert
CROES]

International organization participation: ECLAC (associate), Interpol,
IOC, UNESCO (associate), WCL, WToO (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (represented by the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Consul General James L. WILLIAMS embassy: J.B. Gorsiraweg #1, Curacao mailing address: P.O. Box 158, Willemstad, Curacao telephone: [599] (9) 461-3066 FAX: 461-6489

Flag description: blue with two narrow horizontal yellow stripes across the lower portion and a red, four-pointed star outlined in white in the upper hoist-side corner

@Aruba:Economy

Economy-overview: Tourism is the mainstay of the Aruban economy, although offshore banking and oil refining and storage are also important. The rapid growth of the tourism sector over the last decade has resulted in a substantial expansion of other activities. Construction has boomed, with hotel capacity five times the 1985 level. In addition, the reopening of the country's oil refinery in 1993, a major source of employment and foreign exchange earnings, has further spurred growth. Aruba's small labor force and less than 1% unemployment rate have led to a large number of unfilled job vacancies despite sharp rises in wage rates in recent years.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$1.4 billion (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 4% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$21,000 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 3.2% (1996)

Labor force: NA by occupation: most employment is in the tourist industry (1996)

Unemployment rate: 0.6% (1996 est.)

Budget: revenues: $376 million expenditures: $409 million, including capital expenditures of $107 million (1997 est.)

Industries: tourism, transshipment facilities, oil refining

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 90,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 340 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 5,154 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: aloes; livestock; fishing

Exports: total value: $1.7 billion (including oil re-exports) (f.o.b., 1996) commodities: mostly refined petroleum products partners: US 64%, EU

Imports: total value: $2 billion (f.o.b., 1996) commodities: food, consumer goods, manufactures, petroleum products, crude oil for refining and reexport partners: US 8%, EU

Debt-external: $669 million (December 1995)

Economic aid: the Netherlands provided a 1996 aid package of $224 million to Aruba, the Netherlands Antilles, and Suriname

Currency: 1 Aruban florin (Af.) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Aruban florins (Af.) per US$1-1.7900 (fixed rate since 1986)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 22,922 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: more than adequate international: 1 submarine cable to Sint Maarten (Netherlands Antilles); extensive interisland microwave radio relay links

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 19,000 (1993 est.)

@Aruba:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: NA km paved: NA km unpaved: NA km note: most coastal roads are paved, while unpaved roads serve large tracts of the interior

Ports and harbors: Barcadera, Oranjestad, Sint Nicolaas

Merchant marine: total: 2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 18,365 GRT/29,170 DWT (1997 est.)

Airports: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Aruba:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of the Kingdom of the
Netherlands

@Aruba:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: drug money-laundering center and transit point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe; added to the US list of major drug producing or drug transit countries in December 1996

______________________________________________________________________

ASHMORE AND CARTIER ISLANDS

(territory of Australia)

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, islands in the Indian Ocean, northwest of
Australia

Geographic coordinates: 12 14 S, 123 05 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area: total: 5 sq km land: 5 sq km water: 0 sq km note: includes Ashmore Reef (West, Middle, and East Islets) and Cartier Island

Area-comparative: about eight times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 74.1 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 12 nm continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical

Terrain: low with sand and coral

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location 3 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 0% forests and woodland: 0% other: 100% (all grass and sand)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: surrounded by shoals and reefs that can pose maritime hazards

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements: party to: NA signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: Ashmore Reef National Nature Reserve established in
August 1983

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands:People

Population: note: there are only seasonal caretakers

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands conventional short form: Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Data code: AT

Dependency status: territory of Australia; administered from Canberra by the Australian Department of the Environment, Sport, and Territories

Legal system: relevant laws of the Northern Territory of Australia

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of Australia)

Flag description: the flag of Australia is used

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands:Economy

Economy-overview: no economic activity

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of Australia; periodic visits by the Royal Australian Navy and Royal Australian Air Force

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

ATLANTIC OCEAN

@Atlantic Ocean:Geography

Location: body of water between Africa, Europe, Antarctica, and the
Western Hemisphere

Geographic coordinates: 0 00 N, 25 00 W

Map references: World

Area: total: 82.217 million sq km note: includes Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea, Scotia Sea, Weddell Sea, and other tributary water bodies

Area-comparative: slightly less than nine times the size of the US; second-largest of the world's four oceans (after the Pacific Ocean, but larger than Indian Ocean or Arctic Ocean)

Coastline: 111,866 km

Climate: tropical cyclones (hurricanes) develop off the coast of
Africa near Cape Verde and move westward into the Caribbean Sea;
hurricanes can occur from May to December, but are most frequent from
August to November

Terrain: surface usually covered with sea ice in Labrador Sea, Denmark Strait, and Baltic Sea from October to June; clockwise warm water gyre (broad, circular system of currents) in the northern Atlantic, counterclockwise warm water gyre in the southern Atlantic; the ocean floor is dominated by the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a rugged north-south centerline for the entire Atlantic basin

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Puerto Rico Trench -8,605 m highest point: sea level 0 m

Natural resources: oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and whales), sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules, precious stones

Natural hazards: icebergs common in Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, and the northwestern Atlantic Ocean from February to August and have been spotted as far south as Bermuda and the Madeira Islands; icebergs from Antarctica occur in the extreme southern Atlantic Ocean; ships subject to superstructure icing in extreme northern Atlantic from October to May and extreme southern Atlantic from May to October; persistent fog can be a maritime hazard from May to September

Environment-current issues: endangered marine species include the manatee, seals, sea lions, turtles, and whales; drift net fishing is hastening the decline of fish stocks and contributing to international disputes; municipal sludge pollution off eastern US, southern Brazil, and eastern Argentina; oil pollution in Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Lake Maracaibo, Mediterranean Sea, and North Sea; industrial waste and municipal sewage pollution in Baltic Sea, North Sea, and Mediterranean Sea

Environment-international agreements: party to: none of the selected agreements signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: major chokepoints include the Dardanelles, Strait of
Gibraltar, access to the Panama and Suez Canals; strategic straits
include the Strait of Dover, Straits of Florida, Mona Passage, The
Sound (Oresund), and Windward Passage; the Equator divides the
Atlantic Ocean into the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean

@Atlantic Ocean:Government

Data code: none; the US Government has not approved a standard for hydrographic codes-see the Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Data Codes appendix

@Atlantic Ocean:Economy

Economy-overview: The Atlantic Ocean provides some of the world's most heavily trafficked sea routes, between and within the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. Other economic activity includes the exploitation of natural resources, e.g., fishing, the dredging of aragonite sands (The Bahamas), and production of crude oil and natural gas (Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and North Sea).

Communications

Telephone system: international: numerous submarine cables with most between continental Europe and the UK, between North America and the UK, and in the Mediterranean; numerous direct links across Atlantic via satellite networks

@Atlantic Ocean:Transportation

Ports and harbors: Alexandria (Egypt), Algiers (Algeria), Antwerp
(Belgium), Barcelona (Spain), Buenos Aires (Argentina), Casablanca
(Morocco), Colon (Panama), Copenhagen (Denmark), Dakar (Senegal),
Gdansk (Poland), Hamburg (Germany), Helsinki (Finland), Las Palmas
(Canary Islands, Spain), Le Havre (France), Lisbon (Portugal), London
(UK), Marseille (France), Montevideo (Uruguay), Montreal (Canada),
Naples (Italy), New Orleans (US), New York (US), Oran (Algeria), Oslo
(Norway), Piraeus (Greece), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), Rotterdam
(Netherlands), Saint Petersburg (Russia), Stockholm (Sweden)

Transportation-note: Kiel Canal and Saint Lawrence Seaway are two important waterways

@Atlantic Ocean:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: some maritime disputes (see littoral states)

______________________________________________________________________

AUSTRALIA

@Australia:Geography

Location: Oceania, continent between the Indian Ocean and the South
Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 27 00 S, 133 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area: total: 7,686,850 sq km land: 7,617,930 sq km water: 68,920 sq km note: includes Lord Howe Island and Macquarie Island

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 25,760 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical in north

Terrain: mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Lake Eyre -15 m highest point: Mount Kosciusko 2,229 m

Natural resources: bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, silver, uranium, nickel, tungsten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural gas, petroleum

Land use: arable land: 6% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 54% forests and woodland: 19% other: 21% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 21,070 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: cyclones along the coast; severe droughts

Environment-current issues: soil erosion from overgrazing, industrial development, urbanization, and poor farming practices; soil salinity rising due to the use of poor quality water; desertification; clearing for agricultural purposes threatens the natural habitat of many unique animal and plant species; the Great Barrier Reef off the northeast coast, the largest coral reef in the world, is threatened by increased shipping and its popularity as a tourist site; limited natural fresh water resources

Environment-international agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Desertification

Geography-note: world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country; population concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts; regular, tropical, invigorating, sea breeze known as "the Doctor" occurs along the west coast in the summer

@Australia:People

Population: 18,613,087 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 21% (male 2,023,147; female 1,926,206) 15-64 years: 66% (male 6,251,159; female 6,105,381) 65 years and over: 13% (male 1,005,196; female 1,301,998) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.93% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 13.47 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 6.89 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.69 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.26 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 79.89 years male: 76.95 years female: 82.98 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.82 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Australian(s) adjective: Australian

Ethnic groups: Caucasian 92%, Asian 7%, aboriginal and other 1%

Religions: Anglican 26.1%, Roman Catholic 26%, other Christian 24.3%, non-Christian 11%

Languages: English, native languages

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 100% male: 100% female: 100% (1980 est.)

@Australia:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Commonwealth of Australia conventional short form: Australia

Data code: AS

Government type: democratic, federal-state system recognizing the
British monarch as sovereign

National capital: Canberra

Administrative divisions: 6 states and 2 territories*; Australian
Capital Territory*, New South Wales, Northern Territory*, Queensland,
South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia

Dependent areas: Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos
(Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald
Islands, Norfolk Island

Independence: 1 January 1901 (federation of UK colonies)

National holiday: Australia Day, 26 January (1788)

Constitution: 9 July 1900, effective 1 January 1901

Legal system: based on English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Sir William DEANE (since 16 February 1996) head of government: Prime Minister John Winston HOWARD (since 11 March 1996); Deputy Prime Minister Timothy Andrew FISCHER (since 11 March 1996) cabinet: Cabinet selected from among the members of Federal Parliament by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor general appointed by the queen; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general for a three-year term

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Parliament consists of the Senate (76 seats-12 from each of the six states and two from each of the two territories; one-half of the members elected every three years by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of Representatives (148 seats; members elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to serve three-year terms; no state can have fewer than five representatives) elections: Senate-last held 2 March 1996 (next to be held by March 1999); House of Representatives-last held 2 March 1996 (next to be held by March 1999) election results: Senate-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-Liberal-National 37, Labor 29, Australian Democrats 8, Greens 1, independent 1; note-subsequent to the election, there has been a change in the distribution of seats; the new distribution is as follows-Liberal-National 37, Labor 28, Australian Democrats 7, Greens 2, independents 2; House of Representatives-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-Liberal-National 94, Labor 49, independent 5 note: it is widely anticipated that the prime minister will call elections in late 1998

Judicial branch: High Court, the Chief Justice and six other justices are appointed by the governor general

Political parties and leaders: government: coalition of Liberal Party, John Winston HOWARD, and National Party, Timothy Andrew FISCHER opposition: Australian Labor Party, Kim BEAZLEY; Australian Democratic Party, Meg LEES; Green Party, Bob BROWN

Political pressure groups and leaders: Australian Democratic Labor
Party (anti-Communist Labor Party splinter group); Peace and Nuclear
Disarmament Action (Nuclear Disarmament Party splinter group)

International organization participation: AG (observer), ANZUS, APEC,
AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, G- 8, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINUGUA,
MTCR, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OECD, PCA, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Andrew Sharp PEACOCK chancery: 1601 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 telephone: [1] (202) 797-3000 FAX: [1] (202) 797-3168 consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Genta Hawkins HOLMES embassy: Moonah Place, Yarralumla, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2600 mailing address: APO AP 96549 telephone: [61] (6) 270-5000 FAX: [61] (6) 270-5970 consulate(s) general: Melbourne, Perth, and Sydney

Flag description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a large seven-pointed star in the lower hoist-side quadrant; the remaining half is a representation of the Southern Cross constellation in white with one small five-pointed star and four, larger, seven-pointed stars

@Australia:Economy

Economy-overview: Australia has a prosperous Western-style capitalist economy, with a per capita GDP at the level of the highly industrialized West European countries. Rich in natural resources, Australia is a major exporter of agricultural products, minerals, metals, and fossil fuels. Commodities account for 57% of the value of total exports, so that a downturn in world commodity prices can have a big impact on the economy. The government is pushing for increased exports of manufactured goods, but competition in international markets continues to be severe. Australia has suffered from the low growth and high unemployment characterizing the OECD countries in the early 1990s, but the economy has expanded at reasonably steady rates in recent years. In addition to high unemployment, short-term economic problems include a balancing of output growth and inflationary pressures and the stimulation of exports to offset rising imports, especially given the economic crisis in Asia.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$394 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3.3% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$21,400 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 4% industry: 31% services: 65% (1997 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 1% (1997 est.)

Labor force: total: 9.2 million (December 1997) by occupation: services 73%, industry 22%, agriculture 5% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: 8.4% (1997)

Budget: revenues: $89.35 billion expenditures: $91.92 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY97/98 est.)

Industries: mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food processing, chemicals, steel

Industrial production growth rate: 1.2% (1995)

Electricity-capacity: 38.83 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 163.082 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 8,901 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruits; cattle, sheep, poultry

Exports: total value: $68 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.) commodities: coal, gold, meat, wool, alumina, iron ore, wheat, machinery and transport equipment partners: Japan 20%, ASEAN 16%, South Korea 9%, US 9%, NZ 8%, UK, Taiwan, Hong Kong, China (1997)

Imports: total value: $67 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.) commodities: machinery and transport equipment, computers and office machines, telecommunication equipment and parts; crude oil and petroleum products partners: US 22%, Japan 17%, UK 6%, China 5%, NZ 5% (1994/95)

Debt-external: $150 billion (December 1996)

Economic aid: donor: ODA, $1.43 billion (FY97/98)

Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1-1.4865 (February 1998), (1.3439 (1997), 1.2773 (1996), 1.3486 (1995), 1.3668 (1994), 1.4704 (1993)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications

Telephones: 8.7 million (1987 est.)

Telephone system: excellent domestic and international service domestic: domestic satellite system international: submarine cables to New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and Indonesia; satellite earth stations-10 Intelsat (4 Indian Ocean and 6 Pacific Ocean), 2 Inmarsat (Indian and Pacific Ocean Regions)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 258, FM 67, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 134 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 9.2 million (1992 est.)

@Australia:Transportation

Railways: total: 38,563 km (2,914 km electrified; 172 km dual gauge) broad gauge: 6,083 km 1.600-m gauge standard gauge: 16,752 km 1.435-m gauge narrow gauge: 15,728 km 1.067-m gauge

Highways: total: 913,000 km paved: 353,331 km (including 1,3630 km of expressways) unpaved: 559,669 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 8,368 km; mainly by small, shallow-draft craft

Pipelines: crude oil 2,500 km; petroleum products 500 km; natural gas 5,600 km

Ports and harbors: Adelaide, Brisbane, Cairns, Darwin, Devonport
(Tasmania), Fremantle, Geelong, Hobart (Tasmania), Launceston
(Tasmania), Mackay, Melbourne, Sydney, Townsville

Merchant marine: total: 64 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,122,604 GRT/3,045,417 DWT ships by type: bulk 31, cargo 3, chemical tanker 4, combination bulk 1, container 5, liquefied gas tanker 4, oil tanker 10, passenger 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 5 (1997 est.)

Airports: 419 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 259 over 3,047 m: 8 2,438 to 3,047 m: 13 1,524 to 2,437 m: 111 914 to 1,523 m: 119 under 914 m: 8 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 160 1,524 to 2,437 m: 22 914 to 1,523 m: 123 under 914 m: 15 (1997 est.)

@Australia:Military

Military branches: Australian Army, Royal Australian Navy, Royal
Australian Air Force

Military manpower-military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 4,873,392 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 4,206,104 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 128,524 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $8.2 billion (FY97/98)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.9% (FY97/98)

@Australia:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: territorial claim in Antarctica (Australian
Antarctic Territory)

Illicit drugs: Tasmania is one of the world's major suppliers of licit opiate products; government maintains strict controls over areas of opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate

______________________________________________________________________

AUSTRIA

@Austria:Geography

Location: Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates: 47 20 N, 13 20 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 83,858 sq km land: 82,738 sq km water: 1,120 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries: total: 2,562 km border countries: Czech Republic 362 km, Germany 784 km, Hungary 366 km, Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 35 km, Slovakia 91 km, Slovenia 330 km, Switzerland 164 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain in lowlands and snow in mountains; cool summers with occasional showers

Terrain: in the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the eastern and northern margins mostly flat or gently sloping

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Neusiedler See 115 m highest point: Grossglockner 3,797 m

Natural resources: iron ore, oil, timber, magnesite, lead, coal, lignite, copper, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 17% permanent crops: 1% permanent pastures: 23% forests and woodland: 39% other: 20% (1996 est.)

Irrigated land: 40 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: some forest degradation caused by air and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of agricultural chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired power stations and industrial plants and from trucks transiting Austria between northern and southern Europe

Environment-international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol

Geography-note: landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere

@Austria:People

Population: 8,133,611 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 17% (male 709,890; female 673,696) 15-64 years: 68% (male 2,783,569; female 2,707,113) 65 years and over: 15% (male 471,924; female 787,419) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.05% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 9.89 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 10.05 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.59 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.16 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.31 years male: 74.13 years female: 80.67 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.37 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Austrian(s) adjective: Austrian

Ethnic groups: German 99.4%, Croatian 0.3%, Slovene 0.2%, other 0.1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 78%, Protestant 5%, other 17%

Languages: German

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 99% (1974 est.) male: NA% female: NA%

@Austria:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Austria conventional short form: Austria local long form: Republik Oesterreich local short form: Oesterreich

Data code: AU

Government type: federal republic

National capital: Vienna

Administrative divisions: 9 states (bundeslaender, singular-bundesland); Burgenland, Kaernten, Niederoesterreich, Oberoesterreich, Salzburg, Steiermark, Tirol, Vorarlberg, Wien

Independence: 1156 (from Bavaria)

National holiday: National Day, 26 October (1955)

Constitution: 1920; revised 1929 (reinstated 1 May 1945)

Legal system: civil law system with Roman law origin; judicial review of legislative acts by the Constitutional Court; separate administrative and civil/penal supreme courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; compulsory for presidential elections

Executive branch: chief of state: President Thomas KLESTIL (since 8 July 1992) head of government: Chancellor Viktor KLIMA (since 28 January 1997); Vice Chancellor Wolfgang SCHUESSEL (since 22 April 1995) cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; presidential election last held 24 May 1992 (next to be held 19 April 1998); chancellor chosen by the president from the majority party in the National Council; vice chancellor chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor election results: Thomas KLESTIL elected president; percent of vote, second ballot-Thomas KLESTIL 57%, Rudolf STREICHER 43%

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung consists of Federal Council or Bundesrat (64 members; members represent each of the provinces on the basis of population, but with each province having at least three representatives; members serve a four- or six-year term) and the National Council or Nationalrat (183 seats; members elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: National Council-last held 17 December 1995 (next to be held Fall 1999) election results: National Council-percent of vote by party-SPOe 38.3%, OeVP 28.3%, FPOe 22.1%, LF 5.3%, Greens 4.6%, other 1.4%; seats by party-SPOe 71, OeVP 53, FPOe 40, LF 10, Greens 9

Judicial branch: Supreme Judicial Court or Oberster Gerichtshof; Administrative Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof; Constitutional Court or Verfassungsgerichtshof

Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party of Austria or SPOe [Viktor KLIMA, chairman]; Austrian People's Party or OeVP [Wolfgang SCHUESSEL, chairman]; Freedom Party of Austria or FPOe [Joerg HAIDER, chairman]; Communist Party or KPOe [Walter BEIER, chairman]; The Greens or GA [Madeleine PETROVIC, parliamentary caucus floor leader and Alexander VAN DER BELLEN, party spokesman]; Liberal Forum or LF [Heide SCHMIDT]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Federal Chamber of Trade and Commerce; Austrian Trade Union Federation (primarily Socialist) or OeGB; three composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party or OeVP representing business, labor, and farmers; OeVP-oriented League of Austrian Industrialists or VOeI; Roman Catholic Church, including its chief lay organization, Catholic Action

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB,
Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD,
ECE, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol,
IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINUGUA, MINURSO, MTCR, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS
(observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UNTSO,
UNU, UPU, WCL, WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Helmut TUERK chancery: 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035 telephone: [1] (202) 895-6700 FAX: [1] (202) 895-6750 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Kathryn Walt HALL embassy: Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1091, Vienna mailing address: use embassy street address telephone: [43] (1) 313-39 FAX: [43] (1) 310-0682

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red

@Austria:Economy

Economy-overview: Austria, a member of the European Union since 1 January 1995, has a well-developed market economy with a high standard of living. With exports of goods and services reaching over 40% of GDP, Austria's economy is closely integrated with other EU member countries, especially with Germany. Austria's entry into the EU has drawn an influx of foreign investors attracted by Austria's access to the single European market. Austria is well on its way to meeting all Maastricht convergence criteria for monetary union, through privatization efforts, the 1996-98 budget consolidation programs, and austerity measures, which were expected to bring total public sector deficit down to 3% of GDP in 1997 and public debt in line with the 60% of GDP required by the EU. Cuts mainly affect the civil service and Austria's generous social system, the two major causes of the government deficit. To meet increased competition from both the EU and Central European countries, Austria will need to emphasize knowledge-based sectors of the economy and deregulate the service sector, particularly telecommunications and the energy sector. Economic prospects are expected to brighten in 1998 with GDP growth projected to be 2.5%.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$174.1 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 2.1% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$21,400 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 1.5% industry: 31.6% services: 66.9% (1996)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 1.3% (1997)

Labor force: total: 3.646 million (1996) by occupation: services 66.1%, industry and crafts 29.6%, agriculture and forestry 1.3% (salaried employees, 1996) note: an estimated 150,000 Austrians are employed abroad; foreign laborers in Austria number 298,000 (1996)

Unemployment rate: 7.1% (January 1998)

Budget: revenues: $53.6 billion expenditures: $61.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1996 est.)

Industries: food, iron and steel, machines, textiles, chemicals, electrical, paper and pulp, tourism, mining, motor vehicles

Industrial production growth rate: 1% (1996)

Electricity-capacity: 15.65 million kW (1996)

Electricity-production: 54.8 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 6,900 kWh (1996)

Agriculture-products: grains, potatoes, sugar beets, wine, fruit, dairy products; cattle, pigs, poultry; sawn wood

Exports: total value: $57.8 billion (1996) commodities: machinery and equipment, iron and steel, lumber, textiles, paper products, chemicals partners: EU 64.7% (Germany 37.7%, Italy 8.5%), Eastern Europe 14.9%, Japan 1.5%, US 3.1% (1996)

Imports: total value: $67.3 billion (1996) commodities: petroleum, foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, vehicles, chemicals, textiles and clothing, pharmaceuticals partners: EU 70.7% (Germany 42.8%, Italy 8.7%), Eastern Europe 10%, Japan 2.4%, US 4.5% (1996)

Debt-external: $29.4 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid: donor: ODA, $480 million; assistance to central and eastern Europe $400 million (1996)

Currency: 1 Austrian schilling (AS) = 100 groschen

Exchange rates: Austrian schillings (AS) per US$1-12.776 (January 1998), 12.204 (1997), 10.587 (1996), 10.081 (1995), 11.422 (1994), 11.632 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 3.47 million (1986 est.) note: 88% of all households had telephones in the 1993 census

Telephone system: domestic: highly developed and efficient international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 2 Eutelsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 105 (repeaters 684), shortwave 0

Radios: 70% of all households indicated that they had radios in the 1993 census

Television broadcast stations: 57 (repeaters 914)

Televisions: 2,418,584 (1984 est.) note: 91% of households indicated that they had televisions in the 1993 census

@Austria:Transportation

Railways: total: 5,636 km standard gauge: 5,294 km 1.435-m gauge (3,263 km electrified) narrow gauge: 342 km 1.000-m and 0.760-m gauge (84 km electrified) (1996)

Highways: 129,055 km paved: 129,055 km (including 1,607 km of expressways) unpaved: 0 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 356 km (1996)

Pipelines: crude oil 777 km; natural gas 909.1 km

Ports and harbors: Linz, Vienna, Enns, Krems

Merchant marine: total: 25 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 84,103 GRT/114,616 DWT ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 19, combination bulk 2, container 1, refrigerated cargo 2 (1997 est.)

Airports: 55 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 20 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 10 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 35 914 to 1,523 m: 4 under 914 m: 31 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1997 est.)

@Austria:Military

Military branches: Army (includes Flying Division)

Military manpower-military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 2,098,409 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 1,744,035 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 46,854 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $1.8 billion (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 0.83% (1998 est.)

@Austria:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and
South American cocaine destined for Western Europe

______________________________________________________________________

AZERBAIJAN

Introduction

Current issues: Azerbaijan continues to be plagued by an unresolved 10-year-old conflict with Armenian separatists over its Nagorno-Karabakh region. The Karabakh Armenians have declared independence and seized almost 20% of the country's territory, creating almost 1 million Azerbaijani refugees in the process. Both sides have generally observed a Russian-mediated cease-fire in place since May 1994.

@Azerbaijan:Geography

Location: Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 40 30 N, 47 30 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area: total: 86,600 sq km land: 86,100 sq km water: 500 sq km note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region's autonomy was abolished by Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries: total: 2,013 km border countries: Armenia (with Azerbaijan-proper) 566 km, Armenia (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 221 km, Georgia 322 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-proper) 432 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 179 km, Russia 284 km, Turkey 9 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked) note: Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (800 km, est.)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: dry, semiarid steppe

Terrain: large, flat Kur-Araz Lowland (much of it below sea level) with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag (Karabakh) Upland in west; Baku lies on Abseron (Apsheron) Peninsula that juts into Caspian Sea

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m highest point: Bazarduzu Dagi 4,485 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, alumina

Land use: arable land: 18% permanent crops: 5% permanent pastures: 25% forests and woodland: 11% other: 41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: droughts; some lowland areas threatened by rising levels of the Caspian Sea

Environment-current issues: local scientists consider the Abseron (Apsheron) Peninsula (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea to be the ecologically most devastated area in the world because of severe air, water, and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of DDT as a pesticide and also from toxic defoliants used in the production of cotton

Environment-international agreements: party to: Climate Change, Ozone Layer Protection signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity

Geography-note: landlocked

@Azerbaijan:People

Population: 7,855,576 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 32% (male 1,300,236; female 1,247,027) 15-64 years: 61% (male 2,336,568; female 2,468,679) 65 years and over: 7% (male 195,322; female 307,744) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.7% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 22.2 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 9.41 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -5.75 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 81.64 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 63.3 years male: 59.01 years female: 67.81 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.72 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Azerbaijani(s) adjective: Azerbaijani

Ethnic groups: Azeri 90%, Dagestani Peoples 3.2%, Russian 2.5%, Armenian 2.3%, other 2% (1995 est.) note: almost all Armenians live in the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh region

Religions: Muslim 93.4%, Russian Orthodox 2.5%, Armenian Orthodox 2.3%, other 1.8% (1995 est.) note: religious affiliation is still nominal in Azerbaijan; actual practicing adherents are much lower

Languages: Azeri 89%, Russian 3%, Armenian 2%, other 6% (1995 est.)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 97% male: 99% female: 96% (1989 est.)

@Azerbaijan:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Azerbaijani Republic conventional short form: Azerbaijan local long form: Azarbaycan Respublikasi local short form: none former: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: AJ

Government type: republic

National capital: Baku (Baki)

Administrative divisions: 59 rayons (rayonlar; rayon-singular), 11
cities* (saharlar; sahar - singular), 1 autonomous republic** (muxtar
respublika); Abseron Rayonu, Agcabadi Rayonu, Agdam Rayonu, Agdas
Rayonu, Agstafa Rayonu, Agsu Rayonu, Ali Bayramli Sahari*, Astara
Rayonu, Baki Sahari*, Balakan Rayonu, Barda Rayonu, Beylaqan Rayonu,
Bilasuvar Rayonu, Cabrayil Rayonu, Calilabad Rayonu, Daskasan Rayonu,
Davaci Rayonu, Fuzuli Rayonu, Gadabay Rayonu, Ganca Sahari*, Goranboy
Rayonu, Goycay Rayonu, Haciqabul Rayonu, Imisli Rayonu, Ismayilli
Rayonu, Kalbacar Rayonu, Kurdamir Rayonu, Lacin Rayonu, Lankaran
Rayonu, Lankaran Sahari*, Lerik Rayonu, Masalli Rayonu, Mingacevir
Sahari*, Naftalan Sahari*, Naxcivan Muxtar Respublikasi**, Neftcala
Rayonu, Oguz Rayonu, Qabala Rayonu, Qax Rayonu, Qazax Rayonu, Qobustan
Rayonu, Quba Rayonu, Qubadli Rayonu, Qusar Rayonu, Saatli Rayonu,
Sabirabad Rayonu, Saki Rayonu, Saki Sahari*, Salyan Rayonu, Samaxi
Rayonu, Samkir Rayonu, Samux Rayonu, Siyazan Rayonu, Sumqayit Sahari*,
Susa Rayonu, Susa Sahari*, Tartar Rayonu, Tovuz Rayonu, Ucar Rayonu,
Xacmaz Rayonu, Xankandi Sahari*, Xanlar Rayonu, Xizi Rayonu, Xocali
Rayonu, Xocavand Rayonu, Yardimli Rayonu, Yevlax Rayonu, Yevlax
Sahari*, Zangilan Rayonu, Zaqatala Rayonu, Zardab Rayonu

Independence: 30 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 May

Constitution: adopted 12 November 1995

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Heydar ALIYEV (since 18 June 1993) head of government: Prime Minister Artur RASIZADE (since 26 November 1996) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly elections: president elected by popular vote to a five-year term; election last held 3 October 1993 (next to be held October 1998); prime minister and first deputy prime ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly election results: Heydar ALIYEV elected president; percent of vote-Heydar ALIYEV 97%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Milli Mejlis (125 seats; members serve five-year terms) elections: last held 12 and 26 November 1995 (next to be held NA 2000) election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-YAP and allies 115, AXC 4, AMIP 3, YMP 1, vacant 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: New Azerbaijan Party or YAP [Heydar
ALIYEV, chairman]; Azerbaijan Popular Front or AXC [Abulfaz ELCHIBEY,
chairman]; Party for National Independence of Azerbaijan or AMIP
[Etibar MAMMADOV, chairman]; Musavat Party or YMP [Isa GAMBAR,
chairman]; People's Democratic Party of Azerbaijan [Rafig TURABXANLY];
People's Freedom Party [Yunus OGUZ, chairman]; Democratic Party of
Independence of Azerbaijan [Vagit KERIMOV]; Communist Party of
Azerbaijan (CPA-2) [Firudin HASANOV]; Social Democratic Party of
Azerbaijan or SDP [Zardusht ALIZADE, chairman]; Liberal Party of
Azerbaijan [Lala HAJIYEVA]; Vahdat Party [Leyla YUNUSOV, Gadzhi
ALIZADE]; Azerbaijan Muslim Democratic Party (former Islamic Party)
[Haji Mekhti SHAMILLI]; Azerbaijan Democratic Party or ADP [Ilyas
ISMAYLOV]; Civic Solidarity [Sabir RUSTAMXANLI]; Ana Vatan Party
[Fazail AGAMALI]

Political pressure groups and leaders: self-proclaimed Armenian
Nagorno-Karabakh Republic; Talysh independence movement; Sadval,
Lezgin movement

International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CE (guest), CIS,
EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM (observer),
OIC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Hafiz Mir Jalal PASHAYEV chancery: (temporary) Suite 700, 927 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005 or P. O. Box 28790, Washington, DC 20038-8790 telephone: [1] (202) 842-0001 FAX: [1] (202) 842-0004

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Stanley ESCUDERO embassy: Azadliq Prospekti 83, Baku mailing address: use embassy street address telephone: [9] (9412) 98-03-35 FAX: [9] (9412) 96-04-69

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), red, and green; a crescent and eight-pointed star in white are centered in red band

@Azerbaijan:Economy

Economy-overview: Azerbaijan is less developed industrially than either Armenia or Georgia, the other Transcaucasian states. It resembles the Central Asian states in its majority nominally Muslim population, high structural unemployment, and low standard of living. The economy's most prominent products are oil, cotton, and gas. Production from the Caspian oil and gas field has been in decline for several years, but the negotiation of more than a dozen production-sharing arrangements (PSAs) with foreign firms, which have thus far committed $30 billion to oil field development, should generate the funds needed to spur future industrial development. Oil production under the first of these PSAs, with the Azerbaijan International Operating Company, began in November 1997. Azerbaijan shares all the formidable problems of the ex-Soviet republics in making the transition from a command to a market economy, but its considerable energy resources brighten its long-term prospects. Baku has only recently begun making progress on economic reform, and old economic ties and structures are slowly being replaced. A major short-term obstacle to economic progress, including stepped up foreign investment, is the continuing conflict with Armenia over the ethnic Armenian-dominated region of Nagorno-Karabakh. Trade with Russia and the other former Soviet republics is declining in importance while trade is building up with the nations of Europe, Turkey, Iran, and the UAE. A serious long-term challenge is the maintenance of the competitiveness of non-oil exports in world markets.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$11.9 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 5.8% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,460 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 30% industry: 23% services: 47% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 3.7% (1997 est.)

Labor force: total: 2.789 million by occupation: agriculture and forestry 32%, industry and construction 26%, other 42% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 20% (1996 est.)

Budget: revenues: $565 million expenditures: $682 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1996 est.)

Industries: petroleum and natural gas, petroleum products, oilfield equipment; steel, iron ore, cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles

Industrial production growth rate: 0.3% (1997 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 5.239 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 16.051 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 2,200 kWh (1996 est.)

Agriculture-products: cotton, grain, rice, grapes, fruit, vegetables, tea, tobacco; cattle, pigs, sheep, goats

Exports: total value: $789 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.) commodities: oil and gas, chemicals, oilfield equipment, textiles, cotton partners: CIS, European countries, Turkey

Imports: total value: $1.3 billion (c.i.f., 1996 est.) commodities: machinery and parts, consumer durables, foodstuffs, textiles partners: CIS, European countries, Turkey

Debt-external: $100 million (of which $75 million to Russia)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $14 million (1993) note: commitments, 1992-95, $1,000 million ($185 million in disbursements); wheat from Turkey

Currency: 1 manat = 100 gopik

Exchange rates: manats per US$1-3,936.00 (September 1997), 4,301.26 (1996), 4,413.54 (1995), 1,570.23 (1994), 99.98 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 710,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: 202,000 persons waiting for telephone installations (January 1991 est.) domestic: telephone service is of poor quality and inadequate; a joint venture to establish a cellular telephone system in the Baku area is operational international: cable and microwave radio relay connections to former Soviet republics; connection through Moscow international gateway switch to other countries; satellite earth stations-1 Intelsat and 1 Intersputnik (Intelsat provides service to Turkey and through Turkey to 200 more countries; Intersputnik provides direct service to New York)

Radio broadcast stations: 1 state-owned radio broadcast station

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2 note: domestic and Russian TV programs are received locally and Turkish and Iranian TV is received from an Intelsat satellite through a receive-only earth station

Televisions: NA

@Azerbaijan:Transportation

Railways: total: 2,125 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial lines broad gauge: 2,125 km 1.520-m gauge (1,278 km electrified) (1993)

Highways: total: 57,770 km paved: 54,188 km unpaved: 3,582 km (1995 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 1,130 km; petroleum products 630 km; natural gas 1,240 km

Ports and harbors: Baku (Baki)

Airports: 69 (1996 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 29 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 6 1,524 to 2,437 m: 17 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 40 914 to 1,523 m: 7 under 914 m: 33 (1996 est.)

@Azerbaijan:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Border
Guards

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 2,011,076 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 1,616,412 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 71,922 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: 105.7 billion manats (1998 est.); note-conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Azerbaijan:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: Armenia supports ethnic Armenians in the Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan in the longstanding, separatist conflict against the Azerbaijani Government; Caspian Sea boundaries are not yet determined among Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkmenistan

Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for CIS consumption; limited government eradication program; transshipment point for opiates to Western Europe

______________________________________________________________________

BAHAMAS, THE

The Bahamas

                             The Bahamas
@Bahamas, The:Geography

Location: Caribbean, chain of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, southeast of Florida

Geographic coordinates: 24 15 N, 76 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 13,940 sq km land: 10,070 sq km water: 3,870 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 3,542 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation (measured from the archipelagic straight baselines) exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; moderated by warm waters of Gulf Stream

Terrain: long, flat coral formations with some low rounded hills

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Mount Alvernia, on Cat Island 63 m

Natural resources: salt, aragonite, timber

Land use: arable land: 1% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 0% forests and woodland: 32% other: 67% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes and other tropical storms that cause extensive flood and wind damage

Environment-current issues: coral reef decay; solid waste disposal

Environment-international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: strategic location adjacent to US and Cuba; extensive island chain

@Bahamas, The:People

Population: 279,833 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 28% (male 39,239; female 38,708) 15-64 years: 67% (male 91,208; female 95,198) 65 years and over: 5% (male 6,444; female 9,036) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.39% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 21.03 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.44 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 18.97 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 74 years male: 70.65 years female: 77.42 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.33 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Bahamian(s) adjective: Bahamian

Ethnic groups: black 85%, white 15%

Religions: Baptist 32%, Anglican 20%, Roman Catholic 19%, Methodist 6%, Church of God 6%, other Protestant 12%, none or unknown 3%, other 2%

Languages: English, Creole (among Haitian immigrants)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write but definition of literacy not available total population: 98.2% male: 98.5% female: 98% (1995 est.)

@Bahamas, The:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Commonwealth of The Bahamas conventional short form: The Bahamas

Data code: BF

Government type: commonwealth

National capital: Nassau

Administrative divisions: 21 districts; Acklins and Crooked Islands,
Bimini, Cat Island, Exuma, Freeport, Fresh Creek, Governor's Harbour,
Green Turtle Cay, Harbour Island, High Rock, Inagua, Kemps Bay, Long
Island, Marsh Harbour, Mayaguana, New Providence, Nicholls Town and
Berry Islands, Ragged Island, Rock Sound, Sandy Point, San Salvador
and Rum Cay

Independence: 10 July 1973 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 10 July (1973)

Constitution: 10 July 1973

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Sir Orville TURNQUEST (since 2 January 1995) head of government: Prime Minister Hubert Alexander INGRAHAM (since 19 August 1992) and Deputy Prime Minister Frank WATSON (since December 1994) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the prime minister's recommendation elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor general appointed by the queen; prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (16-member body appointed by the governor general upon the advice of the prime minister and the opposition leader for a five-year term) and the House of Assembly (40 seats; members elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 14 March 1997 (next to be held by March 2002) election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-FNM 35, PLP 5

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Progressive Liberal Party or PLP [Perry
CHRISTIE]; Free National Movement or FNM [Hubert Alexander INGRAHAM]

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CCC, CDB,
ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Arlington Griffith BUTLER chancery: 2220 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 mailing address: American Embassy, NAS/STATE 10-1006, P.O. Box 599009, Miami, FL 33159-9009 telephone: [1] (242) 322-1181, 328-2206 FAX: [1] (242) 356-0222 consulate(s) general: Miami and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Sidney WILLIAMS embassy: Queen Street, Nassau mailing address: Local or Express Mail address: P. O. Box N-8197, Nassau; American Embassy, Nassau; Stateside address: American Embassy, P.O. Box 9009, Miami, FL 33159; Pouch address: Nassau, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-3370 (pouch) telephone: [1] (809) 322-1181, 328-2206 FAX: [1] (809) 356-0222

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of aquamarine (top), gold, and aquamarine with a black equilateral triangle based on the hoist side

@Bahamas, The:Economy

Economy-overview: The Bahamas is a stable, developing nation with an economy heavily dependent on tourism and offshore banking. Tourism alone accounts for more than 50% of GDP and directly or indirectly employs 40% of the archipelago's labor force. Moderate growth in tourism receipts and a boom in construction of new hotels, resorts, and residences led to an increase of the country's GDP by an estimated 3.5% in 1997. Manufacturing and agriculture together contribute less than 10% of GDP and show little growth despite government incentives aimed at those sectors. Overall growth prospects in the short run will depend heavily on the fortunes of the tourism sector and continued income growth in the US, which accounts for the majority of tourist visitors.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$5.36 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3.5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$19,400 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 3% industry: 5% services: 92% (1997 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 0.4% (1997)

Labor force: total: 146,600 (1996) by occupation: government 30%, tourism 40%, business services 10%, agriculture 5% (1995 est.)

Unemployment rate: 10% (1997 est.)

Budget: revenues: $687.5 million expenditures: $827 million, including capital expenditures of $112 million (FY96/97 est.)

Industries: tourism, banking, cement, oil refining and transshipment, salt production, rum, aragonite, pharmaceuticals, spiral-welded steel pipe

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 401,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 1.29 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 4,100 kWh (1996)

Agriculture-products: citrus, vegetables; poultry

Exports: total value: $201.7 million (f.o.b., 1996) commodities: pharmaceuticals, cement, rum, crawfish, refined petroleum products partners: US 24%, Spain 14%, UK 7%, Norway 7%, France 6%, Italy 5% (1995 est.)

Imports: total value: $1.26 billion (c.i.f., 1996) commodities: foodstuffs, manufactured goods, crude oil, vehicles, electronics partners: US 29%, Finland 10%, Iran 10%, Denmark 8%

Debt-external: $381.7 million (1997)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Bahamian dollar (B$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Bahamian dollar (B$) per US$1-1.000 (fixed rate pegged to the dollar)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications

Telephones: 200,000 (1997 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: 91,183 telephone lines; totally automatic system; highly developed international: tropospheric scatter and submarine cable to Florida; 3 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 5, shortwave 0

Radios: 200,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1986 est.)

Televisions: 60,000 (1993 est.)

@Bahamas, The:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 2,693 km paved: 1,546 km unpaved: 1,147 km (1997 est.)

Ports and harbors: Freeport, Matthew Town, Nassau

Merchant marine: total: 1,024 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 24,674,594 GRT/38,334,892 DWT ships by type: bulk 205, cargo 223, chemical tanker 34, combination bulk 8, combination ore/oil 21, container 55, liquefied gas tanker 25, oil tanker 176, passenger 53, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 145, roll-on/roll-off cargo 49, short-sea passenger 11, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 17 note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 48 countries among which are Norway 172, Greece 145, UK 122, US 70, Denmark 42, Sweden 29, Finland 27, Monaco 27, Japan 26, and Italy 25 (1997 est.)

Airports: 62 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 32 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 15 914 to 1,523 m: 12 under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 30 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 8 under 914 m: 21 (1997 est.)

@Bahamas, The:Military

Military branches: Royal Bahamas Defense Force (Coast Guard only),
Royal Bahamas Police Force

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $22.9 million (FY96/97)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 3.8% (FY95/96)

@Bahamas, The:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound for
US and Europe; banking industry vulnerable to money-laundering

______________________________________________________________________

BAHRAIN

@Bahrain:Geography

Location: Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi
Arabia

Geographic coordinates: 26 00 N, 50 33 E

Map references: Middle East

Area: total: 620 sq km land: 620 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 161 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: extending to boundaries to be determined territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers

Terrain: mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m highest point: Jabal ad Dukhan 122 m

Natural resources: oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish

Land use: arable land: 1% permanent crops: 1% permanent pastures: 6% forests and woodland: 0% other: 92% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts; dust storms

Environment-current issues: desertification resulting from the degradation of limited arable land, periods of drought, and dust storms; coastal degradation (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and sea vegetation) resulting from oil spills and other discharges from large tankers, oil refineries, and distribution stations; no natural fresh water resources so that groundwater and sea water are the only sources for all water needs

Environment-international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources; strategic location in Persian Gulf which much of Western world's petroleum must transit to reach open ocean

@Bahrain:People

Population: 616,342 (July 1998 est.) note: includes 224,640 non-nationals (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 31% (male 95,871; female 93,232) 15-64 years: 67% (male 245,099; female 164,946) 65 years and over: 2% (male 8,799; female 8,395) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.09% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 22.43 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 3.25 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.73 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.49 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.05 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 15.54 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 74.96 years male: 72.42 years female: 77.57 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.01 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Bahraini(s) adjective: Bahraini

Ethnic groups: Bahraini 63%, Asian 13%, other Arab 10%, Iranian 8%, other 6%

Religions: Shi'a Muslim 75%, Sunni Muslim 25%

Languages: Arabic, English, Farsi, Urdu

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 85.2% male: 89.1% female: 79.4% (1995 est.)

@Bahrain:Government

Country name: conventional long form: State of Bahrain conventional short form: Bahrain local long form: Dawlat al Bahrayn local short form: Al Bahrayn

Data code: BA

Government type: traditional monarchy

National capital: Manama

Administrative divisions: 12 municipalities (manatiq, singular-mintaqah); Al Hadd, Al Manamah, Al Mintaqah al Gharbiyah, Al Mintaqah al Wusta, Al Mintaqah ash Shamaliyah, Al Muharraq, Ar Rifa wa al Mintaqah al Janubiyah, Jidd Hafs, Madinat Hamad, Madinat Isa, Juzur Hawar, Sitrah note: all municipalities administered from Manama

Independence: 15 August 1971 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 16 December (1971)

Constitution: 26 May 1973, effective 6 December 1973

Legal system: based on Islamic law and English common law

Suffrage: none

Executive branch: chief of state: Amir ISA bin Salman Al Khalifa (since 2 November 1961); Heir Apparent HAMAD bin Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa (son of the Amir, born 28 January 1949) head of government: Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman Al Khalifa (since 19 January 1970) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the amir elections: none; the amir is a traditional Arab monarch; prime minister appointed by the amir

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly was dissolved 26 August 1975 and legislative powers were assumed by the Cabinet; appointed Advisory Council established 16 December 1992

Judicial branch: High Civil Appeals Court

Political parties and leaders: political parties prohibited

Political pressure groups and leaders: several small, clandestine leftist and Islamic fundamentalist groups are active; following the arrest of a popular Shi'a cleric, Shi'a activists have fomented unrest sporadically since late 1994, demanding the return of an elected National Assembly and an end to unemployment

International organization participation: ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF,
ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU,
NAM, OAPEC, OIC, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Dr. Muhammad ABD AL-GHAFFAR Abdallah chancery: 3502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 342-0741, 342-0742 FAX: [1] (202) 362-2192 consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Johnny YOUNG embassy: Building No. 979, Road 3119 (next to Al-Ahli Sports Club), Zinj District, Manama mailing address: FPO AE 09834-5100; International Mail Box 26431, Manama (International Mail) telephone: [973] 273-300 FAX: [973] 275-418

Flag description: red with a white serrated band (eight white points) on the hoist side

@Bahrain:Economy

Economy-overview: In Bahrain, petroleum production and processing account for about 60% of export receipts, 60% of government revenues, and 30% of GDP. Economic conditions have fluctuated with the changing fortunes of oil since 1985, for example, during and following the Gulf crisis of 1990-91. With its highly developed communication and transport facilities, Bahrain is home to numerous multinational firms with business in the Gulf. A large share of exports consists of petroleum products made from imported crude. Construction proceeds on several major industrial projects. Unemployment, especially among the young, and the depletion of both oil and underground water resources are major long-term economic problems.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$8.2 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 2.7% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$13,700 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 1% industry: 38% services: 61% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: -0.2% (1996 est.)

Labor force: total: 140,000 by occupation: industry, commerce, and service 78%, government 21%, agriculture 1% (1994) note: 44% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national (July 1998 est.)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1996 est.)

Budget: revenues: $1.7 billion expenditures: $1.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $400 million (1998 est.)

Industries: petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, offshore banking, ship repairing; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 3.4% (1995)

Electricity-capacity: 1.05 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 4.4 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 7,640 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: fruit, vegetables; poultry, dairy products; shrimp, fish

Exports: total value: $4.6 billion (f.o.b., 1996) commodities: petroleum and petroleum products 61%, aluminum 7% partners: India 22%, Japan 12%, Saudi Arabia 6%, US 6%, UAE 5% (1995)

Imports: total value: $3.7 billion (f.o.b., 1996) commodities: nonoil 63%, crude oil 37% partners: Saudi Arabia 40%, US 13%, UK 7%, Japan 5%, Switzerland 5% (1995)

Debt-external: $3.2 billion (1995)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Bahraini dinar (BD) = 1,000 fils

Exchange rates: Bahraini dinars (BD) per US$1-0.3760 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 73,552 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: modern system; good domestic services and excellent international connections domestic: NA international: tropospheric scatter to Qatar and UAE; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; submarine cable to Qatar, UAE, and Saudi Arabia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: 320,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1988 est.)

Televisions: 270,000 (1993 est.)

@Bahrain:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 3,013 km paved: 2,284 km unpaved: 729 km (1996 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 56 km; petroleum products 16 km; natural gas 32 km

Ports and harbors: Manama, Mina' Salman, Sitrah

Merchant marine: total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 131,919 GRT/212,510 DWT ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 3, oil tanker 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 3 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 2 over 3,047 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1997 est.)

@Bahrain:Military

Military branches: Ground Force, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard,
Internal Security Forces

Military manpower-military age: 15 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 218,831 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 120,753 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: NA

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $256 million (1994)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 5.4% (1995)

@Bahrain:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: territorial dispute with Qatar over the Hawar
Islands and maritime boundary dispute with Qatar currently before the
International Court of Justice (ICJ)

______________________________________________________________________

BAKER ISLAND

(territory of the US)

@Baker Island:Geography

Location: Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to Australia

Geographic coordinates: 0 13 N, 176 31 W

Map references: Oceania

Area: total: 1.4 sq km land: 1.4 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: about 2.5 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 4.8 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

Terrain: low, nearly level coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location 8 m

Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until 1891)

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 0% forests and woodland: 0% other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can be a maritime hazard

Environment-current issues: no natural fresh water resources

Environment-international agreements: party to: NA signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: treeless, sparse, and scattered vegetation consisting of grasses, prostrate vines, and low growing shrubs; primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine wildlife

@Baker Island:People

Population: uninhabited note: American civilians evacuated in 1942 after Japanese air and naval attacks during World War II; occupied by US military during World War II, but abandoned after the war; public entry is by special-use permit only and generally restricted to scientists and educators; a cemetery and cemetery ruins are located near the middle of the west coast

@Baker Island:Government

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Baker Island

Data code: FQ

Dependency status: unincorporated territory of the US; administered from Washington, DC by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the National Wildlife Refuge system

Legal system: NA

Flag description: the flag of the US is used

@Baker Island:Economy

Economy-overview: no economic activity

@Baker Island:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only; note-there is one boat landing area along the middle of the west coast

Airports: 1 abandoned World War II runway of 1,665 m

Transportation-note: there is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast

@Baker Island:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually by the US Coast Guard

@Baker Island:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

BANGLADESH

@Bangladesh:Geography

Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and India

Geographic coordinates: 24 00 N, 90 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area: total: 144,000 sq km land: 133,910 sq km water: 10,090 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Wisconsin

Land boundaries: total: 4,246 km border countries: Burma 193 km, India 4,053 km

Coastline: 580 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 18 nm continental shelf: up to the outer limits of the continental margin exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; cool, dry winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to June); cool, rainy monsoon (June to October)

Terrain: mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: Reng Tlang 957 m

Natural resources: natural gas, arable land, timber

Land use: arable land: 73% permanent crops: 2% permanent pastures: 5% forests and woodland: 15% other: 5% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 31,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: droughts, cyclones; much of the country routinely flooded during the summer monsoon season

Environment-current issues: many people are landless and forced to live on and cultivate flood-prone land; limited access to potable water; water-borne diseases prevalent; water pollution especially of fishing areas results from the use of commercial pesticides; intermittent water shortages because of falling water tables in the northern and central parts of the country; soil degradation; deforestation; severe overpopulation

Environment-international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

@Bangladesh:People

Population: 127,567,002 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 38% (male 24,339,519; female 23,377,955) 15-64 years: 59% (male 38,897,130; female 36,818,818) 65 years and over: 3% (male 2,239,638; female 1,893,942) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.76% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 28.89 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 10.6 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.69 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.18 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 97.67 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 56.66 years male: 56.69 years female: 56.63 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.32 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Bangladeshi(s) adjective: Bangladesh

Ethnic groups: Bengali 98%, Biharis 250,000, tribals less than 1 million

Religions: Muslim 88.3%, Hindu 10.5%, other 1.2%

Languages: Bangla (official), English

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 38.1% male: 49.4% female: 26.1% (1995 est.)

@Bangladesh:Government

Country name: conventional long form: People's Republic of Bangladesh conventional short form: Bangladesh former: East Pakistan

Data code: BG

Government type: republic

National capital: Dhaka

Administrative divisions: 4 divisions; Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna, Rajshahi note: there may be two new divisions named Barisal and Sylhet

Independence: 16 December 1971 (from Pakistan)

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 March (1971)

Constitution: 4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972, suspended following coup of 24 March 1982, restored 10 November 1986, amended many times

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Shahabuddin AHMED (since 9 October 1996); note-the president's duties are normally ceremonial, but with the 13th amendment to the constitution ("Caretaker Government Amendment"), the president's role becomes significant at times when Parliament is dissolved and a caretaker government is installed - at presidential direction-to supervise the elections head of government: Prime Minister Sheikh HASINA Wajed (since 23 June 1996) cabinet: Cabinet selected by the prime minister and appointed by the president elections: president elected by National Parliament for a five-year term; election last held 24 July 1996 (next to be held by NA October 2001); following legislative elections, the leader of the party that wins the most seats is usually appointed prime minister by the president election results: Shahabuddin AHMED elected president without opposition; percent of National Parliament vote-NA

Legislative branch: unicameral National Parliament or Jatiya Sangsad (330 seats; 300 elected by popular vote from single territorial constituencies, 30 seats reserved for women; members serve five-year terms) elections: last held 12 June 1996 (next to be held NA 2001) election results: percent of vote by party-AL 33.87%, BNP 30.87%; seats by party-AL 178, BNP 113, JP 33, JI 3, other 2, election still to be held 1; note-the elections of 12 June 1996 brought to power an Awami League government for the first time in twenty-one years; held under a neutral, caretaker administration, the elections were characterized by a peaceful, orderly process and massive voter turnout, ending a bitter two-year impasse between the former BNP and opposition parties that had paralyzed National Parliament and led to widespread street violence

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, the Chief Justices and other judges are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP),
Khaleda ZIAur Rahman; Awami League (AL), Sheikh HASINA Wajed; Jatiyo
Party (JP), Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD; Jamaat-E-Islami (JI), Motiur
Rahman NIZAMI; Bangladesh Communist Party (BCP), Saifuddin Ahmed MANIK

International organization participation: AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP,
FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO,
ITU, MINURSO, MONUA, NAM, OIC, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNOMIL, UNPREDEP, UNU,
UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Khwaja Mohammad SHEHABUDDIN chancery: 2201 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007 telephone: [1] (202) 342-8372 through 8376 consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador John C. HOLZMAN embassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Madani Avenue, Baridhara, Dhaka 1212 mailing address: G.P.O. Box 323, Dhaka 1000 telephone: [880] (2) 884700 through 884722 FAX: [880] (2) 883-744

Flag description: green with a large red disk slightly to the hoist side of center; the red sun of freedom represents the blood shed to achieve independence; the green field symbolizes the lush countryside, and secondarily, the traditional color of Islam

@Bangladesh:Economy

Economy-overview: Despite sustained domestic and international efforts to improve economic and demographic prospects, Bangladesh remains one of the world's poorest, most densely populated, and least developed nations. Annual GDP growth has averaged over 4% in recent years from a low base. Its economy is largely agricultural, with the cultivation of rice the single most important activity in the economy. Major impediments to growth include frequent cyclones and floods, the inefficiency of state-owned enterprises, a rapidly growing labor force that cannot be absorbed by agriculture, delays in exploiting energy resources (natural gas), inadequate power supplies, and slow implementation of economic reforms. Frequent strikes that crippled the economy in 1995 and early 1996 subsided after Prime Minister Sheikh HASINA Wajed's Awami League government assumed power in mid-1996, allowing a return to normal economic activity. The current government has made some headway improving the climate for foreign investors and liberalizing the capital markets; for example, it has negotiated with foreign firms for oil and gas exploration, better countrywide distribution of cooking gas, and the construction of natural gas pipelines and power plants. Progress on other economic reforms has been halting because of opposition from the bureaucracy, public sector unions, and other vested interest groups.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$167 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 5.5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,330 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 30% industry: 18% services: 52% (1996)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 2.5% (1996)

Labor force: total: 56 million by occupation: agriculture 63%, services 25%, industry and mining 10% (1996) note: extensive export of labor to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, and Oman (1996)

Unemployment rate: 35.2% (1996)

Budget: revenues: $3.6 billion expenditures: $5.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $3 billion (FY96/97)

Industries: jute manufacturing, cotton textiles, food processing, steel, fertilizer

Industrial production growth rate: 5.3% (1996)

Electricity-capacity: 2.978 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 11.5 billion kWh (1997)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 71 kWh (1997 est.)

Agriculture-products: rice, jute, tea, wheat, sugarcane, potatoes; beef, milk, poultry

Exports: total value: $3.9 billion (1996) commodities: garments, jute and jute goods, leather, frozen fish and seafood partners: Western Europe 42%, US 30%, Hong Kong 4%, Japan 3% (FY95/96 est.)

Imports: total value: $6.9 billion (1996) commodities: capital goods, textiles, food, petroleum products partners: India 21%, China 10%, Western Europe 8%, Hong Kong 7%, Singapore 6% (FY95/96 est.)

Debt-external: $17.1 billion (1996)

Economic aid: recipient: $1.475 billion (FY96/97)

Currency: 1 taka (Tk) = 100 poisha

Exchange rates: taka (Tk) per US$1-45.450 (January 1998), 43.892 (1997), 41.794 (1996), 40.278 (1995), 40.212 (1994), 39.567 (1993)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications

Telephones: 249,800 (1994 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: poor domestic telephone service international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean); international radiotelephone communications and landline service to neighboring countries

Radio broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 6, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 11

Televisions: 350,000 (1993 est.)

@Bangladesh:Transportation

Railways: total: 2,892 km broad gauge: 978 km 1.676-m gauge narrow gauge: 1,914 km 1.000-m gauge (1992)

Highways: total: 223,391 km paved: 16,084 km unpaved: 207,307 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 5,150-8,046 km navigable waterways (includes 2,575-3,058 km main cargo routes)

Pipelines: natural gas 1,220 km

Ports and harbors: Chittagong, Dhaka, Chalna Port (Mongla)

Merchant marine: total: 39 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 310,728 GRT/444,245 DWT ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 31, oil tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2 (1997 est.)

Airports: 16 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 15 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 7 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 1 over 3,047 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Bangladesh:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary forces (includes Bangladesh Rifles, Bangladesh Ansars, Armed Police Reserve, Village Defense Parties, National Cadet Corps)

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 33,780,741 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 19,984,761 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $481 million (FY95/96)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.7% (FY95/96)

@Bangladesh:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: a portion of the boundary with India is indefinite

Illicit drugs: transit country for illegal drugs produced in neighboring countries

______________________________________________________________________

BARBADOS

@Barbados:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela

Geographic coordinates: 13 10 N, 59 32 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 430 sq km land: 430 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 97 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; rainy season (June to October)

Terrain: relatively flat; rises gently to central highland region

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Mount Hillaby 336 m

Natural resources: petroleum, fish, natural gas

Land use: arable land: 37% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 5% forests and woodland: 12% other: 46% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: infrequent hurricanes; periodic landslides

Environment-current issues: pollution of coastal waters from waste disposal by ships; soil erosion; illegal solid waste disposal threatens contamination of aquifers

Environment-international agreements: party to: Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity

Geography-note: easternmost Caribbean island

@Barbados:People

Population: 259,025 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 23% (male 30,592; female 29,747) 15-64 years: 67% (male 84,725; female 87,730) 65 years and over: 10% (male 9,926; female 16,305) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.09% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 14.92 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 8.21 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -5.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 17.25 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 74.79 years male: 72.03 years female: 77.62 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.85 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Barbadian(s) adjective: Barbadian

Ethnic groups: black 80%, white 4%, other 16%

Religions: Protestant 67% (Anglican 40%, Pentecostal 8%, Methodist 7%, other 12%), Roman Catholic 4%, none 17%, unknown 3%, other 9% (1980)

Languages: English

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school total population: 97.4% male: 98% female: 96.8% (1995 est.)

@Barbados:Government

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Barbados

Data code: BB

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Bridgetown

Administrative divisions: 11 parishes; Christ Church, Saint Andrew,
Saint George, Saint James, Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Lucy, Saint
Michael, Saint Peter, Saint Philip, Saint Thomas
note: the city of Bridgetown may be given parish status

Independence: 30 November 1966 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 30 November (1966)

Constitution: 30 November 1966

Legal system: English common law; no judicial review of legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Sir Clifford Straughn HUSBANDS (since 1 June 1996) head of government: Prime Minister Owen Seymour ARTHUR (since 6 September 1994); Deputy Prime Minister Billie MILLER (since 6 September 1994) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor general appointed by the queen; prime minister appointed by the governor general

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (21-member body appointed by the governor general) and the House of Assembly (28 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: House of Assembly-last held 6 September 1994 (next to be held by January 1999) election results: House of Assembly-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party - BLP 19, DLP 8, NDP 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Judicature, judges are appointed by the Service Commissions for the Judicial and Legal Service

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Labor Party or DLP [David
THOMPSON]; Barbados Labor Party or BLP [Owen ARTHUR]; National
Democratic Party or NDP [Richard HAYNES]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Barbados Workers Union [Leroy
TROTMAN]; People's Progressive Movement [Eric SEALY]; Workers' Party
of Barbados [Dr. George BELLE]; Clement Payne Labor Union [David
COMMISSIONG]

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC,
FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, NAM,
OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Courtney N. BLACKMAN chancery: 2144 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 939-9200 consulate(s) general: Coral Gables and New York consulate(s): Los Angeles

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Deputy Chief of Mission Donald K. HOLM embassy: Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce Building, Broad Street, Bridgetown mailing address: P. O. Box 302, Bridgetown; FPO AA 34055 telephone: [1] (246) 436-4950 FAX: [1] (246) 429-5246

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), gold, and blue with the head of a black trident centered on the gold band; the trident head represents independence and a break with the past (the colonial coat of arms contained a complete trident)

@Barbados:Economy

Economy-overview: Historically, the Barbadian economy had been dependent on sugarcane cultivation and related activities, but production in recent years has diversified into manufacturing and tourism. The start of the Port Charles Marina project in Speightstown helped the tourism industry continue to expand in 1996-97. The government continues its efforts to reduce the unacceptably high unemployment rate, encourage direct foreign investment, and privatize remaining state-owned enterprises.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$2.8 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$10,900 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 7% industry: 17% services: 76% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 2.4% (1996)

Labor force: total: 68,900 (1996) by occupation: services 75%, industry 15%, agriculture 10% (1996 est.)

Unemployment rate: 16.2% (1996)

Budget: revenues: $600 million expenditures: $645 million, including capital expenditures of $80 million (FY96/97 est.)

Industries: tourism, sugar, light manufacturing, component assembly for export

Industrial production growth rate: 0.8% (1996)

Electricity-capacity: 140,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 591.5 million kWh (1996)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 2,145 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: sugarcane, vegetables, cotton

Exports: total value: $235 million (f.o.b., 1995) commodities: sugar and molasses, rum, other foods and beverages, chemicals, electrical components, clothing partners: US 15%, UK 15%, Trinidad and Tobago 9%, Windward Islands 8%

Imports: total value: $763 million (c.i.f., 1995) commodities: consumer goods, machinery, foodstuffs, construction materials, chemicals, fuel, electrical components partners: US 37%, Trinidad and Tobago 11%, UK 10%, Japan 7%

Debt-external: $359 million (December 1996)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Barbadian dollar (Bds$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Barbadian dollars (Bds$) per US$1-2.0000 (fixed rate pegged to the dollar)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 87,343 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: island wide automatic telephone system international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Trinidad and Saint Lucia

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1 pay)

Televisions: 69,350 (1993 est.)

@Barbados:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 1,640 km paved: 1,573 km unpaved: 67 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Bridgetown

Merchant marine: total: 57 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 869,363 GRT/1,365,640 DWT ships by type: bulk 15, cargo 30, container 1, combination bulk 4, multifunction large-load carrier 1, oil tanker 4, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1 note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships of 2 countries: Canada owns 2 ships, Hong Kong 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 1 over 3,047 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Barbados:Military

Military branches: Royal Barbados Defense Force (includes Ground
Forces and Coast Guard), Royal Barbados Police Force

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 71,891 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 49,562 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Barbados:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: one of many Caribbean transshipment points for narcotics bound for the US and Europe

______________________________________________________________________

BASSAS DA INDIA

(possession of France)

@Bassas da India:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, islands in the southern Mozambique Channel, about one-half of the way from Madagascar to Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 21 30 S, 39 50 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 0.2 sq km land: 0.2 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: about one-third the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 35.2 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical

Terrain: a volcanic rock 2.4 meters high

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location 2.4 m

Natural resources: none

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 0% forests and woodland: 0% other: 100% (all rock)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: maritime hazard since it is usually under water during high tide and surrounded by reefs; subject to periodic cyclones

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements: party to: NA signed, but not ratified: NA

@Bassas da India:People

Population: uninhabited

@Bassas da India:Government

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Bassas da India

Data code: BS

Dependency status: possession of France; administered by a high commissioner of the Republic, resident in Reunion

Legal system: NA

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (possession of France)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (possession of France)

Flag description: the flag of France is used

@Bassas da India:Economy

Economy-overview: no economic activity

@Bassas da India:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

@Bassas da India:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of France

@Bassas da India:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: claimed by Madagascar

______________________________________________________________________

BELARUS

@Belarus:Geography

Location: Eastern Europe, east of Poland

Geographic coordinates: 53 00 N, 28 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area: total: 207,600 sq km land: 207,600 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Kansas

Land boundaries:
total: 3,098 km
border countries: Latvia 141 km, Lithuania 502 km, Poland 605 km,
Russia 959 km, Ukraine 891 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: cold winters, cool and moist summers; transitional between continental and maritime

Terrain: generally flat and contains much marshland

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Nyoman River 90 m highest point: Dzyarzhynskaya Hara 346 m

Natural resources: forests, peat deposits, small quantities of oil and natural gas

Land use: arable land: 29% permanent crops: 1% permanent pastures: 15% forests and woodland: 34% other: 21% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: soil pollution from pesticide use; southern part of the country contaminated with fallout from 1986 nuclear reactor accident at Chornobyl' in northern Ukraine

Environment-international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Biodiversity, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection signed, but not ratified: Climate Change, Law of the Sea

Geography-note: landlocked

@Belarus:People

Population: 10,409,050 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 20% (male 1,062,012; female 1,018,154) 15-64 years: 67% (male 3,365,065; female 3,564,078) 65 years and over: 13% (male 460,633; female 939,108) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.05% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 9.71 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 13.47 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.25 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.49 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 14.16 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 68.26 years male: 62.26 years female: 74.56 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.34 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Belarusian(s) adjective: Belarusian

Ethnic groups: Byelorussian 77.9%, Russian 13.2%, Polish 4.1%,
Ukrainian 2.9%, other 1.9%

Religions: Eastern Orthodox 80%, other (including Roman Catholic,
Protestant, Jewish, and Muslim) 20% (1997 est.)

Languages: Byelorussian, Russian, other

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 98% male: 99% female: 97% (1989 est.)

@Belarus:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Belarus conventional short form: Belarus local long form: Respublika Byelarus' local short form: none former: Belorussian (Byelorussian) Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: BO

Government type: republic

National capital: Minsk

Administrative divisions: 6 voblastsi (singular-voblasts') and one municipality* (harady, singular - horad); Brestskaya (Brest), Homyel'skaya (Homyel'), Horad Minsk*, Hrodzyenskaya (Hrodna), Mahilyowskaya (Mahilyow), Minskaya, Vitsyebskaya (Vitsyebsk) note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)

Independence: 25 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 July (1990); note-date set by referendum of November 1996

Constitution: referendum of 24 November 1996; became effective on 17
November 1996

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Aleksandr LUKASHENKO (since 20 July 1994) head of government: Prime Minister Sergey LING (acting since 18 November 1996, confirmed 19 February 1997); First Deputy Prime Minister Petr PRAKAPOVICH (since 23 December 1996); Deputy Prime Ministers Vladimir GARKUN (since 21 July 1994), Valeriy KOKAREV (since 23 August 1994), Vasiliy DOLGOLEV (since 30 October 1995), Vladimir ZAMETALIN (since 15 July 1997) cabinet: Council of Ministers elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 24 June and 10 July 1994 (next to be held NA 2001 because of the additional two years provided by the November 1996 referendum); prime minister appointed by the president election results: Aleksandr LUKASHENKO elected president; percent of vote-Aleksandr LUKASHENKO 85%, Vyacheslav KEBICH 15% note: first presidential elections took place in June-July 1994

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Natsionalnoye Sobranie established by the 27 November Constitution consists of the Council of the Republic or Soviet Republiki (64 seats; 8 appointed by the president and 56 indirectly elected by deputies of local councils for four-year terms) and the Chamber of Representatives or Palata Pretsaviteley (110 seats; note-present members came from the defunct Supreme Soviet) elections: last held May and November-December 1995 (two rounds, each with a run-off; next to be held NA 2000) election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-KPB 42, Agrarian 33, CAB 9, Party of People's Concord 8, UPNAZ 2, SDPB 2, BPR 1, Green Party 1, Republican Party of Labor and Justice 1, BSP 1, BNF 1, Social and Sports Party 1, Ecological Party 1, independents 95, vacant 62; note-the last election took place to fill seats in the former Supreme Soviet (260 seats); after the November 1996 referendum, seats for the Chamber of Representatives were filled by former Supreme Soviet members as follows: PKB 24, Agrarian 14, Party of Peoples Concord 5, LDPB 1, UPNAZ 1, Green World Party 1, Belarusian Social Sports Party 1, Ecological Party 1, Republican Party of Labor and Justice 1, independents 61; 58 of the 64 seats in the Council of the Republic have been appointed/elected

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the president; Constitutional Court, half of the judges appointed by the president and half appointed by the Chamber of Representatives

Political parties and leaders: Belarusian Communist Party or KPB [Viktor CHIKIN]; Agrarian Party [Aleksandr PAVLOV, chairman]; Civic Accord Bloc (United Civic Party) or CAB [Stanislav BOGDANKEVICH, chairman]; Party of People's Concord [Leonid SECHKO, chairman]; Party of All-Belarusian Unity and Concord or UPNAZ [Dmitriy BULAKOV, chairman]; Belarusian Social-Democrat Hramada or SDBP [Nikolay STATKEVICH, chairman]; Belarusian Patriotic Movement (Belarusian Patriotic Party) or BPR [Anatoliy BARANKEVICH]; Green Party of Belarus or BPZ [Nikolay KARTASH, chairman]; Republican Party of Labor and Justice or RPPS [Anatol NETYLKIN, chairman]; Belarusian Popular Front or BNF [Levon BARSHEVSKIY, chairman]; Belarusian Social Sports Party or BSSP [Aleksandr ALEKSANDROVICH, chairman]; Ecological Party or BEP [Liudmila YELIZAROVA, chairman]; United Democratic Party of Belarus or ADPB [Aleksandr DOBROVOLSKIY]; Slavic Assembly or SAB [Andrey TSEGALKA]; Liberal-Democratic Party or LDPB [Sergei GAYDUKEVICH, chairman]; Belarusian Christian-Democratic Unity or BKDZ [Petr SILKO]; Polish Democratic Union or PDZ [Eduard AKHREM]; Party of Beer Lovers [Yuriy GONCHAR]; Party of Communists Belarusian or KPB [Sergei KALYAKIN and Vasiliy NOVIKOV, chairmen]; Belarusian Labor Party or BPP [Aleksandr BUKHVOSTOV]

International organization participation: BIS, CCC, CEI, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Inmarsat, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Valeriy V. TSEPKALO chancery: 1619 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009 telephone: [1] (202) 986-1604 FAX: [1] (202) 986-1805 consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel SPECKHARD embassy: Starovilenskaya #46-220002, Minsk mailing address: use embassy street address telephone: [375] (172) 31-50-00 FAX: [375] (172) 34-78-53

Flag description: red horizontal band (top) and green horizontal band one-half the width of the red band; a white vertical stripe of white on the hoist side bears in red the Belarusian national ornament

@Belarus:Economy

Economy-overview: The Belarusian government has revived economic output since mid-1996 by pursuing a policy of rapid credit expansion, ending years of cumulative decline. Real GDP increased by 2.6% in 1996 and the growth rate tripled in 1997. Lack of profitability and resurgent inflation-which increased from an average monthly rate of 2.8% in 1996 to 4.4% in 1997-however, have kept enterprises from making much needed capital investments. As a result, infrastructure and equipment stocks have continued to deteriorate. Belarus has seen little structural reform since 1995, when LUKASHENKO launched the country on the path of "market socialism." Privatization of enterprises controlled by the central government virtually ceased in 1996. As of May 1997, only about 10% of all enterprises under central government control had been privatized. In addition, LUKASHENKO has re-imposed administrative control over prices and the national currency's exchange rate, and expanded the state's right to intervene arbitrarily in the management of private enterprise. Lack of structural reform, and a climate hostile to business, have inhibited foreign investment in Belarus in 1995-97. In 1995 Belarus ranked second to last among the 15 former Soviet republics in terms of the average amount of foreign investment it attracted per capita. Although it moved up to 11th place in 1996, this was largely due to inflows from Russia related to the construction of the Yamal natural gas pipeline. Belarus's trade deficit has grown steadily over the past three years - from 8% of total trade turnover in 1995 to 14% in the first quarter of 1997 - despite the government's efforts to promote exports and limit imports. Given Belarus's limited fiscal reserve, a continued growth in the trade deficit will increase vulnerability to a balance of payments crisis.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$50.4 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 8.5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$4,800 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 20% industry: 43% services: 37% (1997 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 65% (1997 est.)

Labor force: total: 4.3 million by occupation: industry and construction 40%, agriculture and forestry 19%, services 41% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: 3.3% officially registered unemployed (July 1997); large numbers of underemployed workers

Budget: revenues: $4 billion expenditures: $4.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $180 million (1997 est.)

Industries: tractors, metal-cutting machine tools, off-highway dump trucks up to 110-metric-ton load capacity, wheel-type earth movers for construction and mining, eight-wheel-drive, high-flotation trucks with cargo capacity of 25 metric tons for use in tundra and roadless areas, equipment for animal husbandry and livestock feeding, motorcycles, television sets, chemical fibers, fertilizer, linen fabric, wool fabric, radios, refrigerators, other consumer goods

Industrial production growth rate: 17% (1997 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 7.21 million kW (1997)

Electricity-production: 23.7 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 3,144 kWh (1996)

Agriculture-products: grain, potatoes, vegetables; meat, milk

Exports: total value: $5.4 billion (f.o.b., 1996) commodities: machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs partners: Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Germany

Imports: total value: $6.7 billion (c.i.f., 1996) commodities: fuel, natural gas, industrial raw materials, textiles, sugar partners: Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Germany

Debt-external: $970 million (December 1997 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $186 million (1993) note: commitments, $3,930 million ($1,845 million disbursements), 1992-95

Currency: Belarusian rubel (BR)

Exchange rates: Belarusian rubels per US$1-31,030 (19 January 1998 official Belarusian exchange rate), 28,800 (October 1997 end of period),15,500 (yearend 1996), 11,500 (yearend 1995), 10,600 (yearend 1994), 699 (yearend 1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 1.849 million (1991 est.)

Telephone system: telephone service inadequate for the purposes of either business or the population; about 70% of the telephones are in homes; over 750,000 applications from households for telephones remain unsatisfied (1992 est.); new investment centers on international connections and business needs domestic: the new NMT-450 analog cellular system is now operating in Minsk international: international traffic is carried by the Moscow international gateway switch and also by satellite; satellite earth stations-1 Intelsat (through Canada) and 1 Eutelsat (through the UK)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 35, FM 18, shortwave 0

Radios: 3.17 million (1991 est.) (5,615,000 with multiple speaker systems for program diffusion)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (one national and one private; the license of the private station was suspended during the parliamentary elections of 1994)

Televisions: 3.5 million (1992 est.)

@Belarus:Transportation

Railways: total: 5,488 km broad gauge: 5,488 km 1.520-m gauge (873 km electrified) (1993)

Highways: total: 52,131 km paved: 36,544 km unpaved: 15,587 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: NA km; note-Belarus has extensive and widely used canal and river systems

Pipelines: crude oil 1,470 km; refined products 1,100 km; natural gas 1,980 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Mazyr

Merchant marine: note: claims 5% of former Soviet fleet (1995 est.)

Airports: 118 (1996 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 36 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 18 1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 under 914 m: 11 (1996 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 82 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 6 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 914 to 1,523 m: 9 under 914 m: 62 (1996 est.)

@Belarus:Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force, Air Defense Force, Interior
Ministry Troops, Border Guards

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 2,681,014 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 2,099,860 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 78,780 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: 4.5 trillion rubles (1997 est.); note-conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.3% (1997 est.)

@Belarus:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: demarcation has begun on border with Lithuania

Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly for the domestic market; transshipment point for illicit drugs to Russia and Western Europe

______________________________________________________________________

BELGIUM

@Belgium:Geography

Location: Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between France and the Netherlands

Geographic coordinates: 50 50 N, 4 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 30,510 sq km land: 30,230 sq km water: 280 sq km

Area-comparative: about the size of Maryland

Land boundaries:
total: 1,385 km
border countries: France 620 km, Germany 167 km, Luxembourg 148 km,
Netherlands 450 km

Coastline: 64 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: median line with neighbors exclusive fishing zone: median line with neighbors (extends about 68 km from coast) territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; mild winters, cool summers; rainy, humid, cloudy

Terrain: flat coastal plains in northwest, central rolling hills, rugged mountains of Ardennes Forest in southeast

Elevation extremes: lowest point: North Sea 0 m highest point: Signal de Botrange 694 m

Natural resources: coal, natural gas

Land use: arable land: 24% permanent crops: 1% permanent pastures: 20% forests and woodland: 21% other: 34%

Irrigated land: 10 sq km including Luxembourg (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding is a threat in areas of reclaimed coastal land, protected from the sea by concrete dikes

Environment-current issues: Meuse River, a major source of drinking water, polluted from steel production wastes; other rivers polluted by animal wastes and fertilizers; industrial air pollution contributes to acid rain in neighboring countries

Environment-international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Law of the Sea

Geography-note: crossroads of Western Europe; majority of West European capitals within 1,000 km of Brussels which is the seat of both the EU and NATO

@Belgium:People

Population: 10,174,922 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 17% (male 903,954; female 860,940) 15-64 years: 66% (male 3,387,329; female 3,318,221) 65 years and over: 17% (male 693,519; female 1,010,959) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.09% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 10.21 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 10.41 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.27 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.35 years male: 74.13 years female: 80.74 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.49 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Belgian(s) adjective: Belgian

Ethnic groups: Fleming 55%, Walloon 33%, mixed or other 12%

Religions: Roman Catholic 75%, Protestant or other 25%

Languages: Flemish 56%, French 32%, German 1%, legally bilingual 11%

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 99% (1980 est.) male: NA% female: NA%

@Belgium:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of Belgium conventional short form: Belgium local long form: Royaume de Belgique/Koninkrijk Belgie local short form: Belgique/Belgie

Data code: BE

Government type: federal parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarch

National capital: Brussels

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (French: provinces, singular-province; Flemish: provincien, singular-provincie); Antwerpen, Brabant, Hainaut, Liege, Limburg, Luxembourg, Namur, Oost-Vlaanderen, West-Vlaanderen note: constitutional reforms passed by Parliament in 1993 theoretically increased the number of provinces to 10 by splitting the province of Brabant into two new provinces, Flemish Brabant and Walloon Brabant, but this has not been confirmed by the US Government

Independence: 4 October 1830 (from the Netherlands)

National holiday: National Day, 21 July (ascension of King LEOPOLD to the throne in 1831)

Constitution: 7 February 1831, last revised 14 July 1993; parliament approved a constitutional package creating a federal state

Legal system: civil law system influenced by English constitutional theory; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state: King ALBERT II (since 9 August 1993); Heir Apparent Prince PHILIPPE, son of the king head of government: Prime Minister Jean-Luc DEHAENE (since 6 March 1992) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the king and approved by Parliament elections: none; the king is a constitutional monarch; prime minister appointed by the king and then approved by Parliament

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of a Senate or Senaat in Flemish, Senat in French (71 seats; 40 members are directly elected, 31 will be indirectly elected at a later date; members serve four-year terms) and a Chamber of Deputies or Kamer van Volksvertegenwoordigers in Flemish, Chambre des Representants in French (150 seats; members are directly elected by proportional representation to serve four-year terms) elections: Senate and Chamber of Deputies-last held 21 May 1995 (next to be held by the end of 1999) election results: Senate-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-CVP 7, SP 6, VLD 6, VU 2, AGALEV 1, VB 3, PS 5, PRL 5, PSC 3, ECOLO 2; note-before the 1995 elections, there were 184 seats; Chamber of Deputies-percent of vote by party-CVP 17.2%, PS 11.9%, SP 12.6%, VLD 13.1%, PRL 10.3%, PSC 7.7%, VB 7.8%, VU 4.7%, ECOLO 4.0%, AGALEV 4.4%, FN 2.3%; seats by party-CVP 29, PS 21, SP 20, VLD 21, PRL 18, PSC 12, VB 11, VU 5, ECOLO 6, AGALEV 5, FN 2; note-before the 1995 elections, there were 212 seats note: as a result of the 1993 constitutional revision that furthered devolution into a federal state, there are now three levels of government (federal, regional, and linguistic community) with a complex division of responsibilities; this reality leaves six governments each with its own legislative assembly; for other acronyms of the listed parties see Political parties and leaders

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice or Hof van Cassatie in Flemish, Cour de Cassation in French, judges are appointed for life by the Belgian monarch

Political parties and leaders: Flemish Christian Democrats or CVP (Christian People's Party) [Marc VAN PEEL, president]; Francophone Christian Democrats or PSC (Social Christian Party) [Gerard DEPREZ, president]; Flemish Socialist Party or SP [Louis TOBBACK, president]; Francophone Socialist Party or PS [Philippe BUSQUIN, president]; Flemish Liberal Democrats or VLD [Herman DE CROO, president]; Francophone Liberal Reformation Party or PRL [Louis MICHEL, president]; Francophone Democratic Front or FDF [Olivier MAINGAIN, president]; Volksunie or VU [Bert ANCIAUX, president]; Vlaams Blok or VB [Karel DILLEN]; National Front or FN [Frank VANHECKE, president]; AGALEV (Flemish Greens) [no president]; ECOLO (Francophone Greens) [no president]; other minor parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: Christian and Socialist Trade Unions; Federation of Belgian Industries; numerous other associations representing bankers, manufacturers, middle-class artisans, and the legal and medical professions; various organizations represent the cultural interests of Flanders and Wallonia; various peace groups such as the Flemish Action Committee Against Nuclear Weapons and Pax Christi

International organization participation: ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer),
AsDB, Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE,
EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS
(observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UNMOGIP, UNMOP, UNPREDEP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Andre ADAM chancery: 3330 Garfield Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 333-6900 FAX: [1] (202) 333-3079 consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Alan J. BLINKEN embassy: 27 Boulevard du Regent, B-1000 Brussels mailing address: APO AE 09724, PSC 82, Box 002, Brussels telephone: [32] (2) 508-2111 FAX: [32] (2) 511-2725

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of black (hoist side), yellow, and red; the design was based on the flag of France

@Belgium:Economy

Economy-overview: This highly developed private enterprise economy has capitalized on its central geographic location, highly developed transport network, and diversified industrial and commercial base. Industry is concentrated mainly in the populous Flemish area in the north, although the government is encouraging reinvestment in the southern region of Walloon. With few natural resources, Belgium must import substantial quantities of raw materials and export a large volume of manufactures, making its economy unusually dependent on the state of world markets. Two-thirds of its trade is with other EU countries. The economy grew at a strong 4% annual pace during the period 1988-90, slowed to 1% in 1991-92, dropped by 1.5% in 1993, recovered with moderate 2.3% growth in 1994 and 1995, and fell off again to 1.4% in 1996, with continued substantial unemployment. Belgium's public debt fell from 127% of GDP in 1996 to 124% in 1997, and the government is trying to control its expenditures to bring the figure more into line with other industrialized countries. GDP growth of 2.5% is forecast for 1998.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$236.3 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 2.3% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$23,200 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 2% industry: 28% services: 70% (1994)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 1.7% (1997 est.)

Labor force: total: 4.283 million (1997) by occupation: services 69.7%, industry 27.7%, agriculture 2.6% (1992)

Unemployment rate: 12.75% (1997)

Budget: revenues: $NA expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: engineering and metal products, motor vehicle assembly, processed food and beverages, chemicals, basic metals, textiles, glass, petroleum, coal

Industrial production growth rate: 9.7% (1995)

Electricity-capacity: 13.592 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 69.56 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 7,306 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture-products: sugar beets, fresh vegetables, fruits, grain, tobacco; beef, veal, pork, milk

Exports: total value: $172 billion (f.o.b., 1997) Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union (BLEU) commodities: iron and steel, transportation equipment, tractors, diamonds, petroleum products partners: EU 67.2% (Germany 19%), US 5.8%, former Communist countries 1.4% (1994)

Imports: total value: $158.5 billion (c.i.f., 1997) Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union commodities: fuels, grains, chemicals, foodstuffs partners: EU 75% (Germany 22.1%), US 5%, former Communist countries 0.8% (1997)

Debt-external: $31.3 billion (1992 est.)

Economic aid: donor: ODA, $808 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Belgian franc (BF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Belgian francs (BF) per US$1-37.459 (January 1998), 35.774 (1997), 30.962 (1996), 29.480 (1995), 33.456 (1994), 34.597 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 5.691 million (1992 est.)

Telephone system: highly developed, technologically advanced, and completely automated domestic and international telephone and telegraph facilities domestic: nationwide cellular telephone system; extensive cable network; limited microwave radio relay network international: 5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Eutelsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 39, shortwave 0

Radios: 100,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 32 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 3,315,662 (1993 est.)

@Belgium:Transportation

Railways: total: 3,368 km (2,386 km electrified; 2,563 km double track) standard gauge: 3,368 km 1.435-m gauge (1996)

Highways: total: 143,175 km paved: 143,175 km (including 1,674 km of expressways) unpaved: 0 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 2,043 km (1,528 km in regular commercial use)

Pipelines: crude oil 161 km; petroleum products 1,167 km; natural gas 3,300 km

Ports and harbors: Antwerp (one of the world's busiest ports), Brugge,
Gent, Hasselt, Liege, Mons, Namur, Oostende, Zeebrugge

Merchant marine: total: 25 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 60,082 GRT/93,973 DWT ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 7, chemical tanker 5, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 10 (1997 est.)

Airports: 42 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 24 over 3,047 m: 6 2,438 to 3,047 m: 9 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 6 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 18 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 15 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1997 est.)

@Belgium:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie

Military manpower-military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 2,549,277 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 2,111,332 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 63,937 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $4.6 billion (1995)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.7% (1995)

@Belgium:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: source of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine processors; transshipment point for cocaine, heroin, hashish, and marijuana entering Western Europe

______________________________________________________________________

BELIZE

@Belize:Geography

Location: Middle America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between
Guatemala and Mexico

Geographic coordinates: 17 15 N, 88 45 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 22,960 sq km land: 22,800 sq km water: 160 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Massachusetts

Land boundaries: total: 516 km border countries: Guatemala 266 km, Mexico 250 km

Coastline: 386 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm in the north, 3 nm in the south; note-from the mouth of the Sarstoon River to Ranguana Cay, Belize's territorial sea is 3 nm; according to Belize's Maritime Areas Act, 1992, the purpose of this limitation is to provide a framework for the negotiation of a definitive agreement on territorial differences with Guatemala

Climate: tropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to February)

Terrain: flat, swampy coastal plain; low mountains in south

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Victoria Peak 1,160 m

Natural resources: arable land potential, timber, fish

Land use: arable land: 2% permanent crops: 1% permanent pastures: 2% forests and woodland: 92% other: 3% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent, devastating hurricanes (September to
December) and coastal flooding (especially in south)

Environment-current issues: deforestation; water pollution from sewage, industrial effluents, agricultural runoff

Environment-international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Marine Dumping, Ship Pollution, Whaling signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: national capital moved 80 km inland from Belize City to Belmopan because of hurricanes; only country in Central America without a coastline on the North Pacific Ocean

@Belize:People

Population: 230,160 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 42% (male 49,486; female 47,596) 15-64 years: 54% (male 63,259; female 61,567) 65 years and over: 4% (male 4,048; female 4,204) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.42% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 31.05 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.5 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 32.36 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 68.97 years male: 67.01 years female: 71.03 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.87 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Belizean(s) adjective: Belizean

Ethnic groups: mestizo 44%, Creole 30%, Maya 11%, Garifuna 7%, other 8%

Religions: Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 30% (Anglican 12%, Methodist 6%, Mennonite 4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 3%, Pentecostal 2%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1%, other 2%), none 2%, other 6% (1980)

Languages: English (official), Spanish, Mayan, Garifuna (Carib)

Literacy: definition: age 14 and over has ever attended school total population: 70.3% male: 70.3% female: 70.3% (1991 est.) note: other sources list the literacy rate as high as 75%

@Belize:Government

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Belize former: British Honduras

Data code: BH

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Belmopan

Administrative divisions: 6 districts; Belize, Cayo, Corozal, Orange
Walk, Stann Creek, Toledo

Independence: 21 September 1981 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 21 September (1981)

Constitution: 21 September 1981

Legal system: English law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Sir Colville YOUNG (since 17 November 1993) head of government: Prime Minister Manuel ESQUIVEL (since July 1993); Deputy Prime Minister Dean BARROW (since NA July 1993) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor general appointed by the queen; prime minister appointed by the governor general

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly consists of the Senate (8 members; members are appointed for five-year terms, five on the advice of the prime minister, two on the advice of the leader of the opposition, and one after consultation with the Belize Advisory Council-this council serves as an independent body to advise the governor general with respect to difficult decisions such as granting pardons, commutations, stays of execution, the removal of justices of appeal who appear to be incompetent, etc.) and the National Assembly (29 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: National Assembly-last held 30 June 1993 (next to be held no later than September 1998) election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-PUP 13, UDP 15, NABR 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, the chief justice is appointed by the governor general on advice of the prime minister

Political parties and leaders: People's United Party or PUP [Said
MUSA]; United Democratic Party or UDP [Manuel ESQUIVEL, Dean BARROW];
National Alliance for Belizean Rights or NABR [Philip GOLDSON]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Society for the Promotion of
Education and Research or SPEAR [Assad SHOMAN]; United Workers Front

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC,
FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer),
ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO,
WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador James Schofield MURPHY chancery: 2535 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 332-9636 FAX: [1] (202) 332-6888 consulate(s) general: Los Angeles mailing address: 5825 W. Sunset Boulevard, Suite 206, Hollywood, CA 90028 telephone: [1] (213) 469-7343

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Carolyn CURIEL embassy: Gabourel Lane and Hutson Street, Belize City mailing address: P. O. Box 286, Unit 7401, APO AA 34025 telephone: [501] (2) 77161 through 77163 FAX: [501] (2) 30802

Flag description: blue with a narrow red stripe along the top and the bottom edges; centered is a large white disk bearing the coat of arms; the coat of arms features a shield flanked by two workers in front of a mahogany tree with the related motto SUB UMBRA FLOREO (I Flourish in the Shade) on a scroll at the bottom, all encircled by a green garland

@Belize:Economy

Economy-overview: The small, essentially private enterprise economy is based primarily on agriculture, agro-based industry, and merchandising, with tourism and construction assuming greater importance. Sugar, the chief crop, accounts for more than one-third of exports, while the banana industry is the country's largest employer. The government's tough austerity program in 1997 resulted in an economic slowdown that is likely to continue in 1998. Political tension in the run-up to the elections will tend to discourage investment, already suffering as a result of tight monetary and fiscal policies. The trade deficit has been growing, mostly as a result of low export prices for sugar and bananas and could increase further if a pre-election boost in government spending leads to a rise in imports. The ruling in 1997 by the World Trade Organization against the European Union's banana import regime-which had granted Belize preferential treatment - is also hurting the prospects for growth, and could contribute to an increase in already high unemployment.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$680 million (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 2.9% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$3,000 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 20% industry: 27% services: 53% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 1% (1997 est.)

Labor force: total: 71,000 by occupation: agriculture 30%, services 16%, government 15.4%, commerce 11.2%, manufacturing 10.3% note: shortage of skilled labor and all types of technical personnel (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: 13% (1997 est.)

Budget: revenues: $140 million expenditures: $142 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY97/98 est.)

Industries: garment production, food processing, tourism, construction

Industrial production growth rate: 0.2% (1996 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 23,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 105 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 491 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: bananas, coca, citrus, sugarcane; lumber; fish, cultured shrimp

Exports: total value: $166 million (f.o.b., 1996) commodities: sugar, citrus fruits, bananas, clothing, fish products, molasses, wood partners: US 44%, UK 42%, other EU 5%, Canada 3% (1996)

Imports: total value: $262 million (c.i.f., 1996) commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, food, manufactured goods, fuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals partners: US 55%, Mexico 12%, UK 5% (1997)

Debt-external: $217 million (1996)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Belizean dollar (Bz$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Belizean dollars (Bz$) per US$1-2.0000 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 29,000 (1996 est.)

Telephone system: above-average system domestic: trunk network depends primarily on microwave radio relay international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 9, shortwave 1

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2

Televisions: 27,048 (1993 est.)

@Belize:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 2,248 km paved: 427 km unpaved: 1,821 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 825 km river network used by shallow-draft craft; seasonally navigable

Ports and harbors: Belize City, Big Creek, Corozol, Punta Gorda

Merchant marine: total: 265 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,298,562 GRT/2,055,027 DWT ships by type: bulk 26, cargo 184, chemical tanker 4, combination bulk 1, container 6, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 26, passenger-cargo 2, refrigerated cargo 8, roll-on/roll-off cargo 4, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 1 note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships of 8 countries: Cuba 1, Cyprus 1, Greece 1, Hong Kong 1, Panama 1, Singapore 2, UAE 2, and US 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 44 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 41 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 10 under 914 m: 30 (1997 est.)

@Belize:Military

Military branches: Belize Defense Force (includes Ground Forces,
Maritime Wing, Air Wing, and Volunteer Guard), Belize National Police

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 56,142 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 33,328 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 2,536 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $15 million (FY97/98)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2%

@Belize:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: border with Guatemala in dispute; talks to resolve the dispute are ongoing

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine; small-scale illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; minor money-laundering center

______________________________________________________________________

BENIN

@Benin:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between
Nigeria and Togo

Geographic coordinates: 9 30 N, 2 15 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 112,620 sq km land: 110,620 sq km water: 2,000 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries:
total: 1,989 km
border countries: Burkina Faso 306 km, Niger 266 km, Nigeria 773 km,
Togo 644 km

Coastline: 121 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plain; some hills and low mountains

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Mount Tanekas 641 m

Natural resources: small offshore oil deposits, limestone, marble, timber

Land use: arable land: 13% permanent crops: 4% permanent pastures: 4% forests and woodland: 31% other: 48% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 100 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan wind may affect north in winter

Environment-current issues: recent droughts have severely affected marginal agriculture in north; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching threatens wildlife populations; deforestation; desertification

Environment-international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: no natural harbors

@Benin:People

Population: 6,100,799 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 48% (male 1,465,067; female 1,455,852) 15-64 years: 50% (male 1,455,224; female 1,582,880) 65 years and over: 2% (male 61,523; female 80,253) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.31% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 45.82 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 12.77 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 100.22 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 53.61 years male: 51.56 years female: 55.72 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.48 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Beninese (singular and plural) adjective: Beninese

Ethnic groups: African 99% (42 ethnic groups, most important being
Fon, Adja, Yoruba, Bariba), Europeans 5,500

Religions: indigenous beliefs 70%, Muslim 15%, Christian 15%

Languages: French (official), Fon and Yoruba (most common vernaculars in south), tribal languages (at least six major ones in north)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 37% male: 48.7% female: 25.8% (1995 est.)

@Benin:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Benin conventional short form: Benin local long form: Republique du Benin local short form: Benin former: Dahomey

Data code: BN

Government type: republic under multiparty democratic rule; dropped Marxism-Leninism December 1989; democratic reforms adopted February 1990; transition to multiparty system completed 4 April 1991

National capital: Porto-Novo is the official capital; Cotonou is the seat of government

Administrative divisions: 6 departments; Atakora, Atlantique, Borgou,
Mono, Oueme, Zou

Independence: 1 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: National Day, 1 August (1990)

Constitution: 2 December 1990

Legal system: based on French civil law and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Mathieu KEREKOU (since 4 April 1996); note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Mathieu KEREKOU (since 4 April 1996); note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government; Prime Minister Adrien HOUNGBEDJI (since 9 April 1996) acts as assistant to the president; a prime minister is not provided for in the constitution but was appointed by President KEREKOU with the permission of the constitutional court cabinet: Council of Ministers headed by the prime minister; all are appointed by the president elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 18 March 1996 (next to be held March 2001) election results: Mathieu KEREKOU elected president; percent of vote-Mathieu KEREKOU 52.49%, Nicephore SOGLO 47.51%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (83 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 28 March 1995 (next to be held NA 1999) election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-RB 20, PRD 19, FARD-ALAFIA 10, PSD 7, NCC 3, RDL-VIVOTEN 3, PCB 2, AC 1, RDP 1, other 17

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court or Cour Constitutionnelle,
Supreme Court or Cour Supreme, High Court of Justice

Political parties and leaders: Alliance of the National Party for
Democracy and Development or PNDD and the Democratic Renewal Party or
PRD [Pascal Chabi KAO]; Action for Renewal and Development or
FARD-ALAFIA [Mathieu KEREKOU]; Alliance of the Social Democratic Party
or PSD and the National Union for Solidarity and Progress or UNSP
[Bruno AMOUSSOU]; Alliance Chameleon or AC; Alliance for Democracy and
Progress or ADP [Adekpedjon AKINDES]; Alliance for Social Democracy or
ASD [Robert DOSSOU]; Liberal Democrats' Rally for National
Reconstruction-Vivoten or RDL-Vivoten [Severin ADJOVI]; Communist
Party of Benin or PCB [Pascal TODJINOU, first secretary]; Our Common
Cause or NCC [Albert TEVOEDJRE]; Rally for Democracy and Progress or
RDP; The Renaissance Party of Benin or RB [Nicephore SOGLO]
note: as of February 1996, more than 80 political parties were
officially recognized

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, ECA,
ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU,
MIPONUH, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WAEMU,
WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Lucien Edgar TONOUKOUIN chancery: 2737 Cathedral Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 232-6656, 6657, 6658 FAX: [1] (202) 265-1996

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador John M. YATES embassy: Rue Caporal Bernard Anani, Cotonou mailing address: B. P. 2012, Cotonou telephone: [229] 30-06-50, 30-05-13, 30-17-92 FAX: [229] 30-14-39, 30-19-74

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and red with a vertical green band on the hoist side

@Benin:Economy

Economy-overview: The economy of Benin remains underdeveloped and dependent on subsistence agriculture, cotton production, and regional trade. Growth in real output, which had averaged a sound 4% during 1990-95, rose to 5.5% in 1996 and was targeted at 4.8% for 1997. Rapid population growth offset much of this growth in output. Inflation jumped to 55% in 1994 (compared to 3% in 1993) following the 50% currency devaluation in January 1994, but has subsided over the past three years, with a target of 3.5% inflation in 1997. Commercial and transport activities, which make up a large part of GDP, are extremely vulnerable to developments in Nigeria, particularly fuel shortages. Support by the Paris Club and official bilateral creditors has eased the external debt situation in recent years. The government, still burdened with money-losing state enterprises and a bloated civil service, has been gradually implementing a World Bank supported structural adjustment program since 1991.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$11.3 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 5.8% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,900 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 34% industry: 14% services: 52% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 3.5% (1997 est.)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $299 million expenditures: $445 million, including capital expenditures of $14 million (1995 est.)

Industries: textiles, cigarettes; beverages, food; construction materials, petroleum

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 15,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 6 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 45 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: corn, sorghum, cassava (tapioca), yams, beans, rice, cotton, palm oil, peanuts; poultry, livestock

Exports: total value: $192 million (f.o.b., 1995) commodities: cotton, crude oil, palm products, cocoa partners: Brazil 18%, Portugal 14%, Morocco, Libya, France

Imports: total value: $693 million (c.i.f., 1995) commodities: foodstuffs, beverages, tobacco, petroleum products, intermediate goods, capital goods, light consumer goods partners: France 27%, Thailand 9%, China, Hong Kong

Debt-external: $1.7 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1-608.36 (January 1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993) note: beginning 12 January 1994 the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 16,200 (1986 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: fair system of open wire and microwave radio relay international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); submarine cable

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2

Televisions: 20,000 (1993 est.)

@Benin:Transportation

Railways: total: 578 km (single track) narrow gauge: 578 km 1.000-m gauge (1995 est.)

Highways: total: 6,787 km paved: 1,357 km (including 10 km of expressways) unpaved: 5,430 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: navigable along small sections, important only locally

Ports and harbors: Cotonou, Porto-Novo

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 6 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 4 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 3 (1997 est.)

@Benin:Military

Military branches: Armed Forces (includes Army, Navy, Air Force),
National Gendarmerie

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 1,311,490 females age 15-49: 1,378,979 (1998 est.) note: both sexes are liable for military service

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 671,230 females: 698,290 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 65,498 females: 65,112 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $33 million (1994)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 3.2% (1994)

@Benin:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for narcotics associated with
Nigerian trafficking organizations and most commonly destined for
Western Europe and the US

______________________________________________________________________

BERMUDA

(dependent territory of the UK)

@Bermuda:Geography

Location: North America, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, east of North Carolina (US)

Geographic coordinates: 32 20 N, 64 45 W

Map references: North America

Area: total: 50 sq km land: 50 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 103 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter

Terrain: low hills separated by fertile depressions

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Town Hill 76 m

Natural resources: limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism

Land use: arable land: 6% permanent crops: NA% permanent pastures: NA% forests and woodland: NA% other: NA (1997 est.) note: developed (55%), and rural and open space (39%) comprise 94% of Bermudian land area

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes (June to November)

Environment-current issues: asbestos disposal; water pollution; preservation of open space

Environment-international agreements: party to: NA signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: consists of about 360 small coral islands with ample rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater lakes; some land, reclaimed and otherwise, was leased by US Government from 1941 to 1995

@Bermuda:People

Population: 62,009 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 20% (male 6,191; female 6,046) 15-64 years: 70% (male 21,330; female 21,912) 65 years and over: 10% (male 2,777; female 3,753) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.77% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 12.21 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 7.22 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.68 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 9.57 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 76.77 years male: 75 years female: 78.63 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.71 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Bermudian(s) adjective: Bermudian

Ethnic groups: black 61%, white and other 39%

Religions: Anglican 28%, Roman Catholic 15%, African Methodist Episcopal (Zion) 12%, Seventh-Day Adventist 6%, Methodist 5%, other 34% (1991)

Languages: English (official), Portuguese

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 98% male: 98% female: 99% (1970 est.)

@Bermuda:Government

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Bermuda

Data code: BD

Dependency status: dependent territory of the UK

Government type: NA

National capital: Hamilton

Administrative divisions: 9 parishes and 2 municipalities*;
Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*, Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*, Saint
Georges, Sandys, Smiths, Southampton, Warwick

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Bermuda Day, 24 May

Constitution: 8 June 1968

Legal system: English law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor Thorold MASEFIELD (since June 1997) head of government: Premier Pamela GORDON (since 25 March 1997); Deputy Premier Jerome DILL (since 1 September 1995) cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the premier, appointed by the governor elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor appointed by the queen; premier appointed by the governor

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (an 11-member body appointed by the governor) and the House of Assembly (40 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 5 October 1993 (next to be held by NA October 1998) election results: percent of vote by party-UBP 50%, PLP 46%, independents 4%; seats by party-UBP 22, PLP 18

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: United Bermuda Party or UBP [Pamela
GORDON]; Progressive Labor Party or PLP [Jennifer SMITH]; National
Liberal Party or NLP [Charles JEFFERS]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Bermuda Industrial Union or BIU
[Derrick BURGESS]; Bermuda Public Services Association or BPSA
(Leleath BAILEY)

International organization participation: Caricom (observer), CCC,
ICFTU, Interpol (subbureau), IOC

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (dependent territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Consul General Robert A. FARMER consulate(s) general: Crown Hill, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire, Hamilton mailing address: P. O. Box HM325, Hamilton HMBX; American Consulate General Hamilton, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5300 telephone: [1] (441) 295-1342 FAX: [1] (441) 295-1592

Flag description: red with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Bermudian coat of arms (white and blue shield with a red lion holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea Venture off Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag

@Bermuda:Economy

Economy-overview: Bermuda enjoys one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, having successfully exploited its location by providing financial services for international firms and luxury tourist facilities for 360,000 visitors annually. The tourist industry, which accounts for an estimated 28% of GDP, attracts 84% of its business from North America. The industrial sector is small, and agriculture is severely limited by a lack of suitable land. About 80% of food needs are imported. International business contributes over 60% of Bermuda's economic output; a failed independence vote in late 1995 can be partially attributed to Bermudian fears of scaring away foreign firms.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$1.8 billion (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 2.4% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$29,000 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 1.8% (November 1997)

Labor force: total: 34,633 by occupation: clerical 23%, services 22%, laborers 17%, professional and technical 17%, administrative and managerial 12%, sales 7%, agriculture and fishing 2% (1996)

Unemployment rate: NEGL% (1995)

Budget: revenues: $430.9 million expenditures: $452.9 million, including capital expenditures of $50 million (FY95/96 est.)

Industries: tourism, finance, insurance, structural concrete products, paints, perfumes, pharmaceuticals, ship repairing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 145,000 kW (1996)

Electricity-production: 527,526,728 kWh (1996)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 7,856 kWh (1996)

Agriculture-products: bananas, vegetables, citrus, flowers; dairy products

Exports: total value: $67.7 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.) commodities: reexports of pharmaceuticals partners: Netherlands 50%, Brazil 13%, Canada 6% (1996)

Imports: total value: $569 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.) commodities: miscellaneous manufactured articles, machinery and transport equipment, food and live animals, chemicals partners: US 73%, UK 5%, Canada 4% (1996 est.)

Debt-external: $NA

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Bermudian dollar (Bd$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Bermudian dollar (Bd$) per US$1-1.0000 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 54,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: modern, fully automatic telephone system international: 3 submarine cables; satellite earth stations-3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: 78,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 3

Televisions: 57,000 (1992 est.)

@Bermuda:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 225 km paved: 225 km unpaved: 0 km (1997 est.) note: in addition, there are 232 km of paved and unpaved roads that are privately owned

Ports and harbors: Hamilton, Saint George

Merchant marine: total: 91 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,590,132 GRT/7,440,524 DWT ships by type: bulk 18, chemical tanker 1, container 18, liquefied gas tanker 7, oil tanker 26, refrigerated cargo 15, roll-on/roll-off cargo 3, short-sea passenger 2, vehicle carrier 1 note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 8 countries among which are UK 31, Canada 13, US 10, Norway 2, Hong Kong 1, Nigeria 4, Sweden 4, and Mexico 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Bermuda:Military

Military branches: Bermuda Regiment, Bermuda Police Force, Bermuda
Reserve Constabulary

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

@Bermuda:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

BHUTAN

@Bhutan:Geography

Location: Southern Asia, between China and India

Geographic coordinates: 27 30 N, 90 30 E

Map references: Asia

Area: total: 47,000 sq km land: 47,000 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: about half the size of Indiana

Land boundaries: total: 1,075 km border countries: China 470 km, India 605 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot summers in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas

Terrain: mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Dangme Chu 97 m highest point: Khula Kangri I 7,553 m

Natural resources: timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbide

Land use: arable land: 2% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 6% forests and woodland: 66% other: 26% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 340 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: violent storms coming down from the Himalayas are the source of the country's name which translates as Land of the Thunder Dragon; frequent landslides during the rainy season

Environment-current issues: soil erosion; limited access to potable water

Environment-international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Nuclear Test Ban signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography-note: landlocked; strategic location between China and
India; controls several key Himalayan mountain passes

@Bhutan:People

Population: 1,908,307 (July 1998 est.) note: other estimates range as low as 600,000

Age structure: 0-14 years: 40% (male 396,839; female 368,391) 15-64 years: 56% (male 549,050; female 518,780) 65 years and over: 4% (male 38,235; female 37,012) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.27% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 37.33 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 14.6 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.03 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 111.66 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 52.31 years male: 52.77 years female: 51.83 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.22 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Bhutanese (singular and plural) adjective: Bhutanese

Ethnic groups: Bhote 50%, ethnic Nepalese 35%, indigenous or migrant tribes 15%

Religions: Lamaistic Buddhism 75%, Indian- and Nepalese-influenced
Hinduism 25%

Languages: Dzongkha (official), Bhotes speak various Tibetan dialects,
Nepalese speak various Nepalese dialects

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 42.2% male: 56.2% female: 28.1% (1995 est.)

People-note: refugee issue over the presence in Nepal of approximately 91,000 Bhutanese refugees, 90% of whom are in seven United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) camps

@Bhutan:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of Bhutan conventional short form: Bhutan

Data code: BT

Government type: monarchy; special treaty relationship with India

National capital: Thimphu

Administrative divisions: 18 districts (dzongkhag, singular and
plural); Bumthang, Chhukha, Chirang, Daga, Geylegphug, Ha, Lhuntshi,
Mongar, Paro, Pemagatsel, Punakha, Samchi, Samdrup Jongkhar, Shemgang,
Tashigang, Thimphu, Tongsa, Wangdi Phodrang

Independence: 8 August 1949 (from India)

National holiday: National Day, 17 December (1907) (Ugyen WANGCHUCK became first hereditary king)

Constitution: no written constitution or bill of rights note: Bhutan uses 1953 Royal decree for the Constitution of the National Assembly

Legal system: based on Indian law and English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: each family has one vote in village-level elections

Executive branch: chief of state: King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK (since 24 July 1972); note-the king is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK (since 24 July 1972); note-the king is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Council of Ministers (Lhengye Shungtsog) appointed by the king note: there is also a Royal Advisory Council (Lodoi Tsokde), members nominated by the king elections: none; the king is a hereditary monarch

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Tshogdu (150 seats; 105 elected from village constituencies, 10 represent religious bodies, and 35 are designated by the king to represent government and other secular interests; members serve three-year terms) elections: last held NA (next to be held NA) election results: NA

Judicial branch: the Supreme Court of Appeal is the king; High Court, judges appointed by the king

Political parties and leaders: no legal parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: Buddhist clergy; Indian merchant community; ethnic Nepalese organizations leading militant antigovernment campaign

International organization participation: AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77,
IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IMF, Intelsat, IOC, ITU, NAM, SAARC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none; note-Bhutan has a Permanent Mission to the UN; address: 2 United Nations Plaza, 27th Floor, New York, NY 10017; telephone [1] (212) 826-1919; the Bhutanese mission to the UN has consular jurisdiction in the US consulate(s) general: New York honorary consulate(s): San Francisco; Washington, DC

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US and Bhutan have no formal diplomatic relations, although informal contact is maintained between the Bhutanese and US Embassy in New Delhi (India)

Flag description: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner; the upper triangle is yellow and the lower triangle is orange; centered along the dividing line is a large black and white dragon facing away from the hoist side

@Bhutan:Economy

Economy-overview: The economy, one of the world's smallest and least developed, is based on agriculture and forestry, which provide the main livelihood for 90% of the population and account for about 40% of GDP. Agriculture consists largely of subsistence farming and animal husbandry. Rugged mountains dominate the terrain and make the building of roads and other infrastructure difficult and expensive. The economy is closely aligned with India's through strong trade and monetary links. The industrial sector is technologically backward, with most production of the cottage industry type. Most development projects, such as road construction, rely on Indian migrant labor. Bhutan's hydropower potential and its attraction for tourists are key resources. The Bhutanese Government has made some progress in expanding the nation's productive base and improving social welfare. Model education, social, and environment programs in Bhutan are underway with support from multilateral development organizations. Each economic program takes into account the government's desire to protect the country's environment and cultural traditions. GDP growth averaged 5% per year in 1991-95, with information not yet available for 1996-97. Detailed controls and uncertain policies in areas like industrial licensing, trade, labor, and finance continue to hamper foreign investment.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$1.3 billion (1995 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 6.9% (1995 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$730 (1995 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 42% industry: 32% services: 26% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 7% (FY96/97 est.)

Labor force: NA by occupation: agriculture 93%, services 5%, industry and commerce 2% note: massive lack of skilled labor

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $146 million expenditures: $152 million, including capital expenditures of $94 million (FY95/96 est.) note: the government of India finances nearly three-fifths of Bhutan's budget expenditures

Industries: cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic beverages, calcium carbide

Industrial production growth rate: 7.6% (1992 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 361,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 1.707 billion kWh (1995) note: exports electricity to India

Electricity-consumption per capita: 143 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: rice, corn, root crops, citrus, foodgrains; dairy products, eggs

Exports: total value: $77.4 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.) commodities: cardamom, gypsum, timber, handicrafts, cement, fruit, electricity (to India), precious stones, spices partners: India 94%, Bangladesh

Imports: total value: $104.1 million (c.i.f., 1996 est.) commodities: fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery and parts, vehicles, fabrics, rice partners: India 77%, Japan, UK, Germany, US

Debt-external: $129 million (FY94/95)

Economic aid: recipient: $NA

Currency: 1 ngultrum (Nu) = 100 chetrum; note-Indian currency is also legal tender

Exchange rates: ngultrum (Nu) per US$1-39.358 (January 1998), 36.313 (1997), 35.433 (1996), 32.427 (1995), 31.374 (1994), 30.493 (1993); note-the Bhutanese ngultrum is at par with the Indian rupee

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications

Telephones: 4,620 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: domestic telephone service is very poor with very few telephones in use international: international telephone and telegraph service is by landline through India; a satellite earth station was planned (1990)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1990)

Radios: 23,000 (1989 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1990 est.)

Televisions: 200 (1985 est.)

@Bhutan:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 3,285 km paved: 1,994 km unpaved: 1,291 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Bhutan:Military

Military branches: Royal Bhutan Army, Palace Guard, Militia

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 466,594 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 248,985 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 18,946 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Bhutan:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: with Nepal over 91,000 Bhutanese refugees in
Nepal

______________________________________________________________________

BOLIVIA

@Bolivia:Geography

Location: Central South America, southwest of Brazil

Geographic coordinates: 17 00 S, 65 00 W

Map references: South America

Area: total: 1,098,580 sq km land: 1,084,390 sq km water: 14,190 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Montana

Land boundaries:
total: 6,743 km
border countries: Argentina 832 km, Brazil 3,400 km, Chile 861 km,
Paraguay 750 km, Peru 900 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid

Terrain: rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano), hills, lowland plains of the Amazon Basin

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Rio Paraguay 90 m highest point: Cerro Illimani 6,882 m

Natural resources: tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten, antimony, silver, iron, lead, gold, timber

Land use: arable land: 2% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 24% forests and woodland: 53% other: 21% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,750 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: cold, thin air of high plateau is obstacle to efficient fuel combustion, as well as to physical activity by those unaccustomed to it from birth; flooding in the northeast (March-April)

Environment-current issues: the clearing of land for agricultural purposes and the international demand for tropical timber are contributing to deforestation; soil erosion from overgrazing and poor cultivation methods (including slash-and-burn agriculture); desertification; loss of biodiversity; industrial pollution of water supplies used for drinking and irrigation

Environment-international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection

Geography-note: landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m), with Peru

@Bolivia:People

Population: 7,826,352 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 39% (male 1,559,149; female 1,526,646) 15-64 years: 56% (male 2,139,680; female 2,245,268) 65 years and over: 5% (male 161,431; female 194,178) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 31.43 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 9.89 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 63.86 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 60.89 years male: 57.98 years female: 63.94 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.05 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Bolivian(s) adjective: Bolivian

Ethnic groups: Quechua 30%, Aymara 25%, mestizo (mixed white and
Amerindian ancestry) 25%-30%, white 5%-15%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant (Evangelical Methodist)

Languages: Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara (official)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 83.1% male: 90.5% female: 76% (1995 est.)

@Bolivia:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Bolivia conventional short form: Bolivia local long form: Republica de Bolivia local short form: Bolivia

Data code: BL

Government type: republic

National capital: La Paz (seat of government); Sucre (legal capital and seat of judiciary)

Administrative divisions: 9 departments (departamentos, singular-departamento); Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, Beni, La Paz, Oruro, Pando, Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija

Independence: 6 August 1825 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 August (1825)

Constitution: 2 February 1967; revised in August 1994

Legal system: based on Spanish law and Napoleonic Code; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age, universal and compulsory (married); 21 years of age, universal and compulsory (single)

Executive branch: chief of state: President Hugo BANZER Suarez (since 6 August 1997); Vice President Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez (since 6 August 1997); note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Hugo BANZER Suarez (since 6 August 1997); Vice President Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez (since 6 August 1997); note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from a panel of candidates proposed by the Senate elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 1 June 1997 (next to be held June 2002) election results: Hugo BANZER Suarez elected president; percent of vote-Hugo BANZER Suarez (ADN) 22%; Jaime PAZ Zamora (MIR) 17%, Juan Carlos DURAN (MNR) 18%, Ivo KULJIS (UCS) 16%, Remedios LOZA (CONDEPA) 17%; no candidate received a majority of the popular vote; Hugo BANZER Suarez won a congressional runoff election on 5 August 1997 after forming a "megacoalition" with MIR, UCS, CONDEPA, NFR and PCD

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (27 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (130 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: Chamber of Senators and Chamber of Deputies-last held 1 June 1997 (next to be held June 2002) election results: Chamber of Senators-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party - ADN 11, MIR 7, MNR 4, CONDEPA 3, UCS 2; Chamber of Deputies-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-ADN 32, MNR 26, MIR 23, UCS 21, CONDEPA 19, MBL 5, IU 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), judges appointed for a 10-year term by National Congress

Political parties and leaders:
Left Parties: Free Bolivia Movement or MBL [Antonio ARANIBAR];
Patriotic Axis of Convergence or EJE-P [Ramiro BARRANECHEA]; April 9
Revolutionary Vanguard or VR-9 [Carlos SERRATE]; Alternative of
Democratic Socialism or ASD [Jerjes JUSTINIANO]; Revolutionary Front
of the Left or FRI [Oscar ZAMORA]; Bolivian Communist Party or PCB
[Marcos DOMIC]; United Left or IU [Marcos DOMIC]; Front of National
Salvation or FSN [Manual MORALES Davila]; Socialist Party One or PS-1;
Bolivian Socialist Falange or FSB; Socialist Unzaguista Movement or
MAS
Center-Left Parties: Movement of the Revolutionary Left or MIR [Oscar
EID]; Christian Democrat or PDC [Benjamin MIGUEL]; New Youth Force
[Alfonso SAAVEDRA Bruno]
Center Party: Nationalist Revolutionary Movement or MNR [Gonzalo
SANCHEZ DE LOZADA]
Center-Right Parties: Nationalist Democratic Action or ADN [Enrique
TORO]; New Republican Force or NFR [Manfred REYES VILLA]
Populist Parties: Civic Solidarity Union or UCS [Johnny FERNANDEZ];
Conscience of the Fatherland or CONDEPA [Remedios LOZA Alvarado];
Solidarity and Democracy or SYD; Unity and Progress Movement or MUP
[Ivo KULJIS]; Popular Patriotic Movement or MPP [Julio MANTILLA]
Evangelical Party: Bolivian Renovating Alliance or ARBOL [Marcelo
FERNANDEZ, Hugo VILLEGAS]
Indigenous Parties: Tupac Katari Revolutionary Liberation Movement or
MRTK-L [Victor Hugo CARDENAS Conde]; Nationalist Katarista Movement or
MKN [Fernando UNTOJA]; Front of Katarista Unity or FULKA [Genaro
FLORES]; Katarismo National Unity or KND [Filepe KITTELSON]

International organization participation: AG, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (subscriber), ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM,
OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Marcelo PEREZ Monasterios chancery: 3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 483-4410 through 4412 FAX: [1] (202) 328-3712 consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Donna Jean HRINAK embassy: Avenida Arce 2780, San Jorge, La Paz mailing address: P. O. Box 425, La Paz; APO AA 34032 telephone: [591] (2) 430251 FAX: [591] (2) 433900

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with the coat of arms centered on the yellow band; similar to the flag of Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band

@Bolivia:Economy

Economy-overview: With its long history of semifeudal social controls, dependence on volatile prices for its mineral exports, and bouts of hyperinflation, Bolivia has remained one of the poorest and least developed Latin American countries. However, Bolivia has experienced generally improving economic conditions since the PAZ Estenssoro administration (1985-89) introduced market-oriented policies which reduced inflation from 11,700% in 1985 to about 20% in 1988. PAZ Estenssoro was followed as president by Jaime PAZ Zamora (1989-93) who continued the free-market policies of his predecessor, despite opposition from his own party and from Bolivia's once powerful labor movement. By maintaining fiscal discipline, PAZ Zamora helped reduce inflation to 9.3% in 1993, while GDP grew by an annual average of 3.25% during his tenure. President SANCHEZ DE LOZADA (1993-1997) vowed to advance the market-oriented economic reforms he helped launch as PAZ Estenssoro's planning minister. His successes included the signing of a free trade agreement with Mexico and the Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur) as well as the privatization of the state airline, phone company, railroad, electric power company, and oil company. Furthermore, SANCHEZ DE LOZADA sponsored legislation creating private social security accounts for all adult Bolivians and capitalized these new accounts with the state's remaining 50% share in the privatized companies. Hugo BANZER Suarez took office in August 1997 and has proclaimed his commitment to the economic reforms of the previous administration.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$23.1 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 4.4% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$3,000 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 17% industry: 26% services: 57% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 7% (1997)

Labor force: total: 2.5 million by occupation: agriculture NA%, services and utilities NA%, manufacturing, mining and construction NA%

Unemployment rate: 10%

Budget: revenues: $3.75 billion expenditures: $3.75 billion, including capital expenditures of $556.2 million (1995 est.)

Industries: mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverages, tobacco, handicrafts, clothing

Industrial production growth rate: 4% (1995 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 786,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 2.9 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 370 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: coffee, coca, cotton, corn, sugarcane, rice, potatoes; timber

Exports: total value: $1.4 billion (f.o.b., 1997) commodities: metals 34%, natural gas 9.4%, soybeans 8.4%, jewelry 11%, wood 6.9% partners: US 22%, UK 9.3%, Colombia 8.7%, Peru 7.4%, Argentina 7.2%

Imports: total value: $1.7 billion (c.i.f. 1997) commodities: capital goods 48%, chemicals 11%, petroleum 5%, food 5% (1993 est.) partners: US 20%, Japan 13%, Brazil 12, Chile 7.5% (1996)

Debt-external: $4.2 billion (1997)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $588 million (1997)

Currency: 1 boliviano ($B) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: bolivianos ($B) per US$1-5.3724 (January 1998), 5.2543 (1997), 5.0746 (1996), 4.8003 (1995), 4.6205 (1994), 4.2651 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 144,300 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: new subscribers face bureaucratic difficulties; most telephones are concentrated in La Paz and other cities domestic: microwave radio relay system being expanded international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 129, FM 0, shortwave 68

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 43

Televisions: 500,000 (1993 est.)

@Bolivia:Transportation

Railways: total: 3,691 km (single track) narrow gauge: 3,652 km 1.000-m gauge; 39 km 0.760-m gauge (13 km electrified) (1995)

Highways: total: 52,216 km paved: 2,872 km (including 27 km of expressways) unpaved: 49,344 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 10,000 km of commercially navigable waterways

Pipelines: crude oil 1,800 km; petroleum products 580 km; natural gas 1,495 km

Ports and harbors: none; however, Bolivia has free port privileges in the maritime ports of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Paraguay

Merchant marine: total: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,214 GRT/6,390 DWT (1997 est.)

Airports: 1,153 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 11 over 3,047 m: 4 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 1,142 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 73 914 to 1,523 m: 229 under 914 m: 837 (1997 est.)

@Bolivia:Military

Military branches: Army (Ejercito Boliviano), Navy (Fuerza Naval
Boliviana, includes Marines), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Boliviana),
National Police Force (Policia Nacional de Bolivia)

Military manpower-military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 1,859,823 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 1,209,537 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 82,670 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $154 million (1997)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.9% (1996)

@Bolivia:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: has wanted a sovereign corridor to the South Pacific Ocean since the Atacama area was lost to Chile in 1884; dispute with Chile over Rio Lauca water rights

Illicit drugs: world's third-largest cultivator of coca (after Peru and Colombia) with an estimated 46,900 hectares under cultivation in 1997, a 2.5% decrease in overall cultivation of coca from 1996 levels; Bolivia, however, is the second-largest producer of coca leaf; even so, farmer abandonment and voluntary and forced eradication programs resulted in leaf production dropping from 75,100 metric tons in 1996 to 73,000 tons in 1997, a 3% decrease from 1996; government considers all but 12,000 hectares illicit; intermediate coca products and cocaine exported to or through Colombia, Brazil, Argentina, and Chile to the US and other international drug markets; alternative crop program aims to reduce illicit coca cultivation

______________________________________________________________________

BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

Introduction

Current issues: On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the former Yugoslavia's three warring parties signed a peace agreement that brought to a halt over three years of interethnic civil strife in Bosnia and Herzegovina (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995). The Dayton Agreement, signed then by Bosnian President IZETBEGOVIC, Croatian President TUDJMAN, and Serbian President MILOSEVIC, divides Bosnia and Herzegovina roughly equally between the Muslim/Croat Federation and the Bosnian Serbs while maintaining Bosnia's currently recognized borders. In 1995-96, a NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops served in Bosnia to implement and monitor the military aspects of the agreement. IFOR was succeeded by a smaller, NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR) whose mission is to deter renewed hostilities. SFOR will remain in place until June 1998. A High Representative appointed by the UN Security Council is responsible for civilian implementation of the accord, including monitoring implementation, facilitating any difficulties arising in connection with civilian implementation, and coordinating activities of the civilian organizations and agencies in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Bosnian conflict began in the spring of 1992 when the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina held a referendum on independence and the Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia-responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a "greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosnia's Muslims and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement in Washington creating their joint Muslim/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Federation, formed by the Muslims and Croats in March 1994, is one of two entities (the other being the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska) that comprise Bosnia and Herzegovina.

@Bosnia and Herzegovina:Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia

Geographic coordinates: 44 00 N, 18 00 E

Map references: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Europe

Area: total: 51,233 sq km land: 51,233 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries: total: 1,459 km border countries: Croatia 932 km, Serbia and Montenegro 527 km (312 km with Serbia, 215 km with Montenegro)

Coastline: 20 km

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast

Terrain: mountains and valleys

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m highest point: Maglic 2,386 m

Natural resources: coal, iron, bauxite, manganese, forests, copper, chromium, lead, zinc

Land use: arable land: 14% permanent crops: 5% permanent pastures: 20% forests and woodland: 39% other: 22% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent and destructive earthquakes

Environment-current issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants; sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; widespread casualties, water shortages, and destruction of infrastructure because of the 1992-95 civil strife

Environment-international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized borders, the country is divided into a joint Muslim/Croat Federation (about 51% of the territory) and a Serb Republic, The Republika Srpska [RS] (about 49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is contiguous to Croatia and traditionally has been settled by an ethnic Croat majority

@Bosnia and Herzegovina:People

Population: 3,365,727 (July 1998 est.) note: all data dealing with population is subject to considerable error because of the dislocations caused by military action and ethnic cleansing

Age structure: 0-14 years: 18% (male 307,857; female 291,424) 15-64 years: 71% (male 1,177,516; female 1,195,419) 65 years and over: 11% (male 156,041; female 237,470) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.63% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 8.72 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 12.32 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 39.91 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.65 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 30.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 63.03 years male: 58.35 years female: 68.02 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.14 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s) adjective: Bosnian, Herzegovinian

Ethnic groups: Serb 40%, Muslim 38%, Croat 22% (est.)

Religions: Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Catholic 15%, Protestant 4%, other 10%

Languages: Serbo-Croatian (often called Bosnian) 99%

Literacy: NA

@Bosnia and Herzegovina:Government

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Bosnia and Herzegovina local long form: none local short form: Bosna i Hercegovina

Data code: BK

Government type: emerging democracy

National capital: Sarajevo

Administrative divisions: there are two first-order administrative divisions approved by the US Government-the Muslim/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina) and Republika Srpska; it has been reported that the Muslim/Croat Federation is comprised of 10 cantons identified by either number or name - Goradzde (5), Livno (10), Middle Bosnia (6), Neretva (7), Posavina (2), Sarajevo (9), Tuzla Podrinje (3), Una Sana (1), West Herzegovina (8), Zenica Doboj (4)

Independence: NA April 1992 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: Republika Srpska-"Republic Day," 9 January;
Independence Day, 1 March; Bosnia-"Republic Day," 25 November

Constitution: the Dayton Agreement, signed 14 December 1995, included a new constitution now in force

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Chairman of the Presidency Alija IZETBEGOVIC (since 14 September 1996); other members of the three-member rotating presidency: Kresimir ZUBAK (since 14 September 1996-Croat) and Momcilo KRAJISNIK (since 14 September 1996 - Serb) head of government: Cochairman of the Council of Ministers Haris SILAJDZIC (since NA January 1997); Cochairman of the Council of Ministers Boro BOSIC (since NA January 1997) NA cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the council chairmen note: president of the Muslim/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Ejup GANIC (since 1 January 1998); president of the Republika Srpska: Biljana PLAVSIC (since September 1996) elections: the three presidency members (one each Muslim, Croat, Serb) are elected by direct election (first election for a two-year term, thereafter for a four-year term); the president with the most votes becomes the chairman; election last held 14 September 1996 (next to be held September 1998); the cochairmen are nominated by the presidency election results: Alija IZETBEGOVIC elected chairman of the collective presidency with the highest number of votes; percent of vote-Alija IZETBEGOVIC received 80% of the Muslim vote to Haris SILAJDZIC's 14%; Kresimir ZUBAK received 88% of the Croat vote to Ivo KOMSIC's 11%; Momcilo KRAJISNIK received 68% of the Serb vote to Mladen IVANIC's 30%

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliamentary Assembly or Skupstina consists of the National House of Representatives or Vijece Opcina (42 seats-14 Serb, 14 Croat, and 14 Muslim; members serve two-year terms) and the House of Peoples or Vijece Gradanstvo (15 seats-5 Muslim, 5 Croat, 5 Serb; members serve two-year terms) elections: National House of Representatives-elections last held 14 September 1996 (next to be held NA); note-the House of Peoples is elected by the Muslim/Croat Federation's 140-seat House of Representatives (two-thirds) and the Republika Srpska's 83-seat National Assembly (one-third) election results: National House of Representatives: two-thirds chosen from the Muslim/Croat Federation: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-SDA 16, HDZ-BiH 7, Joint List of Social Democrats 3, Party for Bosnia and Herzegovina 2; one-third chosen from the Bosnian Serb Republic: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-SDS 9, SDA 3, Democratic Patriotic Front/Union for Peace and Progress 2 note: the Muslim/Croat Federation has a House of Representatives with 140 seats: seats by party-SDA 80, HDZ-BiH 33, Party for Bosnia and Herzegovina 11, Joint List of Social Democrats 10, other 6; the Republika Srpska has a National Assembly with 83 seats: seats by party-SDS 24, Serb Radical Party 15, Serb National Alliance 15, Socialist Party 9, Independent Social Democrats 2, Coalition for United Bosnia and Herzegovina and others 18

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, supervised by the Ministry of Justice;
Constitutional Court, supervised by the Ministry of Justice

Political parties and leaders: Party of Democratic Action or SDA [Alija IZETBEGOVIC]; Croatian Democratic Union of BiH or HDZ-BiH [Bozo RAJIC]; Serb Democratic Party or SDS [Aleksa BUHA]; Party for Bosnia and Herzegovina or SBiH [Haris SILAJDZIC]; Joint List (consists of the following parties: UBSD, RP, MBO, HSG, and SPP); Civic Democratic Party or GDS [Ibrahim SPAHIC]; Croatian Peasants' Party of BiH or HSS [Ivo KOMSIC]; Independent Social Democratic Party or SNSD [Milorad DODIK]; Liberal Bosniak Organization or LBO [Muhamed FILIPOVIC]; Liberal Party or LS [Rasim KADIC, president]; Muslim-Bosniac Organization or MBO [Adil ZULFIKARPASIC]; Republican Party of Bosnia and Herzegovina or RS [Stjepan KLJUIC]; Serb Civic Council or SGV [Mirko PEJANOVIC]; Social Democratic Party or SDP (formerly the Democratic Party of Socialists or DSS) [Zlatko LAGUMDZIJA]; Socialist Party of Republika Srpska or SPRS [Zivko RADISIC]; Social Democrats of Bosnia Herzegovina [Selim BESLAGIC]; Serb Radical Party of RS [Nikola POPLASEN]; Serb Party of Krojina and Posavina or SSKIP [Predrag LAZAREVIC]; National Democratic Union (also known as Democratic People's Union or DNZ) [Fikret ABDIC]; Serb National Alliance or SNS [Biljana PLAVSIC]; Coalition for a United and Democratic BiH (coalition of SDA, SBiH, LS, and GDS) note: 82 parties participated in the September 1997 municipal elections

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: CE (guest), CEI, EBRD, ECE,
FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), OIC (observer),
OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Sven ALKALAJ chancery: Suite 760, 1707 L Street NW, Washington, DC 20036 telephone: [1] (202) 833-3612, 3613, 3615 FAX: [1] (202) 833-2061 consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Richard KAUZLARICH embassy: 43 Ul. Dure Dakovica, Sarajevo mailing address: use street address telephone: [387] (71) 445-700, 667-391, 667-389, 667-743, 667-390, 659-969, 659-992 FAX: [387] (71) 659-722

Flag description: a wide medium blue vertical band on the fly side with a yellow isosceles triangle abutting the band and the top of the flag; the remainder of the flag is medium blue with seven full five-pointed white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the hypotenuse of the triangle

Government-note: Until declaring independence in spring 1992, Bosnia and Herzegovina existed as a republic in the former Yugoslavia. Bosnia was partitioned by fighting during 1992-95 and governed by competing ethnic factions. Bosnia's current governing structures were created by the Dayton Accords, the 1995 peace agreement which was officially signed in Paris on 14 December 1995 by Bosnian President IZETBEGOVIC, Croatian President TUDJMAN, and Serbian President MILOSEVIC. This agreement retained Bosnia's exterior border and created a joint multi-ethnic and democratic government. This national government-based on proportional representation similar to that which existed in the former socialist regime-is charged with conducting foreign, economic, and fiscal policy. The Dayton Accords also recognized a second tier of government, comprised of two entities-a joint Muslim/Croat Federation and the Bosnian Serb Republika Srpska (RS)-each presiding over roughly one-half the territory. The Federation and RS governments are charged with overseeing internal functions. As mandated by the Dayton Accords, the Bosnians on 14 September 1996 participated in the first post-war elections of national, entity, and cantonal leaders. The Bosnians have been slow to form and install new joint institutions. A new Federation cabinet was sworn in 18 December 1996 and the new Bosnian central government cabinet was confirmed on 3 January 1997. The Bosnians on 13-14 September 1997 participated in municipal elections, postponed in 1996 because of voter registration irregularities.

@Bosnia and Herzegovina:Economy

Economy-overview: Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as the poorest republic in the old Yugoslav federation. Although agriculture has been almost all in private hands, farms have been small and inefficient, and the republic traditionally has been a net importer of food. Industry has been greatly overstaffed, one reflection of the rigidities of communist central planning and management. TITO had pushed the development of military industries in the republic with the result that Bosnia hosted a large share of Yugoslavia's defense plants. The bitter interethnic warfare in Bosnia caused production to plummet by 80% from 1990 to 1995, unemployment to soar, and human misery to multiply. With an uneasy peace in place, output has recovered in 1996-97 at high percentage rates on a low base, but remains less than half the 1990 level. The country, especially in the Muslim-Croat area, receives substantial amounts of humanitarian aid from the international community. Wide regional differences in war damage and access to the outside world have resulted in substantial variations in living conditions among local areas and individual families.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$4.41 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 35% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,690 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 19% industry: 23% services: 58% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: NA%

Labor force: total: 1,026,254 by occupation: NA%

Unemployment rate: 40%-50% (1996 est.)

Budget: revenues: $NA expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, tank and aircraft assembly, domestic appliances, oil refining; much of capacity damaged or shut down (1995)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 2.339 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 1.4 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 506 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock

Exports: total value: $152 million (1995 est.) commodities: NA partners: NA

Imports: total value: $1.1 billion (1995 est.) commodities: NA partners: NA

Debt-external: $3.5 billion (yearend 1995 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: $1.2 billion (1997 pledged)

Currency: 1 convertible marka = 100 convertible pfenniga; former currencies still used

Exchange rates: NA

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 727,000

Telephone system: telephone and telegraph network is in need of modernization and expansion; many urban areas are below average when compared with services in other former Yugoslav republics domestic: NA international: no satellite earth stations

Radio broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: 840,000

Television broadcast stations: 6

Televisions: 1,012,094

@Bosnia and Herzegovina:Transportation

Railways: total: 1,021 km (electrified 795 km; operating as diesel or steam until grids are repaired) standard gauge: 1,021 km 1.435-m gauge (1995); note-some segments still need repair and/or reconstruction

Highways: total: 21,846 km paved: 11,425 km unpaved: 10,421 km (1996 est.) note: roads need maintenance and repair

Waterways: NA km; Sava blocked by downed bridges

Pipelines: crude oil 174 km; natural gas 90 km (1992); note-pipelines now disrupted

Ports and harbors: Bosanski Brod (an inland waterway port on the Sava which is not useable), Orasje (ferry)

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 26 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 9 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 17 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 9 under 914 m: 7 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1997 est.)

@Bosnia and Herzegovina:Military

Military branches: Army

Military manpower-military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 912,536 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 733,931 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 26,114 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Bosnia and Herzegovina:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: disputes with Serbia over Serbian populated areas

Illicit drugs: transit point for minor regional marijuana and opiate trafficking routes

______________________________________________________________________

BOTSWANA

@Botswana:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, north of South Africa

Geographic coordinates: 22 00 S, 24 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 600,370 sq km land: 585,370 sq km water: 15,000 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries: total: 4,013 km border countries: Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa 1,840 km, Zimbabwe 813 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: semiarid; warm winters and hot summers

Terrain: predominately flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari
Desert in southwest

Elevation extremes: lowest point: junction of the Limpopo and Shashe Rivers 513 m highest point: Tsodilo Hill 1,489 m

Natural resources: diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver

Land use: arable land: 1% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 46% forests and woodland: 47% other: 6% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow from the west, carrying sand and dust across the country, which can obscure visibility

Environment-current issues: overgrazing; desertification; limited fresh water resources

Environment-international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: landlocked; population concentrated in eastern part of the country

@Botswana:People

Population: 1,448,454 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 42% (male 310,253; female 302,960) 15-64 years: 54% (male 370,925; female 409,941) 65 years and over: 4% (male 20,637; female 33,738) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.11% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 32.02 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 20.89 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 59.29 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 40.09 years male: 39.46 years female: 40.75 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.03 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural) adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)

Ethnic groups: Batswana 95%, Kalanga, Basarwa, and Kgalagadi 4%, white 1%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 50%

Languages: English (official), Setswana

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 69.8% male: 80.5% female: 59.9% (1995 est.)

@Botswana:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Botswana conventional short form: Botswana former: Bechuanaland

Data code: BC

Government type: parliamentary republic

National capital: Gaborone

Administrative divisions: 10 districts and four town councils*;
Central, Chobe, Francistown*, Gaborone*, Ghanzi, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng,
Kweneng, Lobatse*, Ngamiland, North-East, Selebi-Phikwe*, South-East,
Southern

Independence: 30 September 1966 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 30 September (1966)

Constitution: March 1965, effective 30 September 1966

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law; judicial review limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Festus MOGAE (since 1 April 1998) note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Festus MOGAE (since 1 April 1998) note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 15 October 1994 (next to be held NA October 1999); vice president appointed by the president election results: Sir Ketumile MASIRE elected president; percent of National Assembly vote-NA note: President MASIRE resigned on 31 March 1998; Vice President MOGAE assumed the presidency pending elections to be held in 1999; on 2 April 1998, Festus MOGAE, then president, designated S. K. Ian KHAMA to be vice president after he is elected to the National Assembly in accordance with constitutional requirements

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the House of Chiefs (a largely advisory 15-member body consisting of the chiefs of the eight principal tribes, four elected subchiefs, and three members selected by the other 12) and the National Assembly (44 seats, 40 members are directly elected by popular vote and 4 appointed by the majority party; members serve five-year terms) elections: National Assembly-elections last held 15 October 1994 (next to be held October 1999) election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-BDP 27, BNF 13

Judicial branch: High Court; Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: Botswana Democratic Party or BDP
[Festus MOGAE]; Botswana Freedom Party or BFP [leader NA]; Botswana
National Front or BNF [Kenneth KOMA]; Botswana People's Party or BPP
[Knight MARIPE]; Independence Freedom Party or IFP [Motsamai MPHO];
Unified Action Party or UAP [Lepetu SETSHWEALD]

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO,
G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Archibald Mooketsa MOGWE chancery: Suite 7M, 3400 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 244-4990, 4991 FAX: [1] (202) 244-4164

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Robert C. KRUEGER embassy: address NA, Gaborone mailing address: P. O. Box 90, Gaborone telephone: [267] 353982 FAX: [267] 356947

Flag description: light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the center

@Botswana:Economy

Economy-overview: Agriculture still provides a livelihood for more than 80% of the population but supplies only about 50% of food needs and accounts for only 4% of GDP. Subsistence farming and cattle raising predominate. Diamond mining and tourism also are important to the economy. The sector is plagued by erratic rainfall and poor soils. Substantial mineral deposits were found in the 1970s and the mining sector grew from 25% of GDP in 1980 to 35% in 1997. Unemployment officially is 21% but unofficial estimates place it closer to 40%. On the plus side is the substantial positive trade balance.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$5 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 6% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$3,300 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 4% industry: 45% (including 35% mining) services: 51% (1997 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 10% (1996 est.)

Labor force: total: 235,000 formal sector employees (1995) by occupation: 100,000 public sector; 135,000 private sector, including 14,300 who are employed in various mines in South Africa; most others engaged in cattle raising and subsistence agriculture (1995 est.)

Unemployment rate: 20-40% (1997 est.)

Budget: revenues: $1.6 billion expenditures: $1.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $560 million (FY96/97)

Industries: diamonds, copper, nickel, coal, salt, soda ash, potash; livestock processing

Industrial production growth rate: 4.6% (FY92/93)

Electricity-capacity: 217,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 1 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 962 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: sorghum, maize, millet, pulses, groundnuts (peanuts), beans, cowpeas, sunflower seed; livestock

Exports: total value: $2.31 billion (f.o.b. 1996 est.) commodities: diamonds 71%, copper and nickel 5%, meat 3% partners: Europe 74%, Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 22%, Zimbabwe 3%

Imports: total value: $1.6 billion (c.i.f., 1996 est.) commodities: foodstuffs, vehicles and transport equipment, textiles, petroleum products partners: Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 74%, Europe 8%, Zimbabwe 6%

Debt-external: $619 million (1996)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $189 million (1993)

Currency: 1 pula (P) = 100 thebe

Exchange rates: pula (P) per US$1-3.8547 (January 1998), 3.6508 (1997), 3.3242 (1996), 2.7716 (1995), 2.6831 (1994), 2.4190 (1993)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 19,109 (1985 est.)

Telephone system: sparse system domestic: small system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relay links, and a few radiotelephone communication stations international: microwave radio relay links to Zambia, Zimbabwe and South Africa; satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 13, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1988 est.)

Televisions: 13,800 (1993 est.)

@Botswana:Transportation

Railways: total: 971 km narrow gauge: 971 km 1.067-m gauge (1995)

Highways: total: 18,482 km paved: 4,343 km unpaved: 14,139 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 92 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 12 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 9 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 80 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 55 under 914 m: 22 (1997 est.)

@Botswana:Military

Military branches: Botswana Defense Force (includes Army and Air
Wing), Botswana National Police

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 335,301 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 177,248 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 18,148 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $199 million (FY93/94)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 5.2% (FY93/94)

@Botswana:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: quadripoint with Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe is in disagreement; dispute with Namibia over uninhabited Kasikili (Sidudu) Island in Linyanti (Chobe) River is presently at the ICJ; at least one other island in Linyanti River is contested

______________________________________________________________________

BOUVET ISLAND

(territory of Norway)

@Bouvet Island:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the South Atlantic Ocean, south-southwest of the Cape of Good Hope (South Africa)

Geographic coordinates: 54 26 S, 3 24 E

Map references: Antarctic Region

Area: total: 58 sq km land: 58 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 29.6 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 4 nm

Climate: antarctic

Terrain: volcanic; maximum elevation about 800 meters; coast is mostly inaccessible

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location 780 m

Natural resources: none

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 0% forests and woodland: 0% other: 100% (all ice)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements: party to: NA signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: covered by glacial ice

@Bouvet Island:People

Population: uninhabited

@Bouvet Island:Government

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Bouvet Island

Data code: BV

Dependency status: territory of Norway; administered from Oslo

Legal system: NA

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of Norway)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of Norway)

Flag description: the flag of Norway is used

@Bouvet Island:Economy

Economy-overview: no economic activity; declared a nature reserve

Communications

Communications-note: automatic meteorological station

@Bouvet Island:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

@Bouvet Island:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of Norway

@Bouvet Island:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

BRAZIL

@Brazil:Geography

Location: Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 S, 55 00 W

Map references: South America

Area: total: 8,511,965 sq km land: 8,456,510 sq km water: 55,455 sq km note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries: total: 14,691 km border countries: Argentina 1,224 km, Bolivia 3,400 km, Colombia 1,643 km, French Guiana 673 km, Guyana 1,119 km, Paraguay 1,290 km, Peru 1,560 km, Suriname 597 km, Uruguay 985 km, Venezuela 2,200 km

Coastline: 7,491 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: 200 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: mostly tropical, but temperate in south

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills, mountains, and narrow coastal belt

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Pico da Neblina 3,014 m

Natural resources: bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, platinum, tin, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber

Land use: arable land: 5% permanent crops: 1% permanent pastures: 22% forests and woodland: 58% other: 14% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 28,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: recurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in south

Environment-current issues: deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers the existence of a multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities

Environment-international agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: largest country in South America; shares common boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador

@Brazil:People

Population: 169,806,557 (July 1998 est.) note: Brazil took a census in August 1996 which showed a total of 157,079,573; this figure is about 5% lower than projections by the US Census Bureau, which is close to the implied underenumeration of 4.6% for 1991; since the full results of the census have not been released for analysis, the numbers shown for Brazil do not take into consideration the results of this 1996 census

Age structure: 0-14 years: 30% (male 26,090,859; female 25,132,122) 15-64 years: 65% (male 54,199,642; female 55,769,122) 65 years and over: 5% (male 3,499,272; female 5,115,540) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.24% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 20.92 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 8.53 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 36.96 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 64.36 years male: 59.39 years female: 69.59 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.33 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Brazilian(s) adjective: Brazilian

Ethnic groups: white (includes Portuguese, German, Italian, Spanish,
Polish) 55%, mixed white and black 38%, black 6%, other (includes
Japanese, Arab, Amerindian) 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic (nominal) 70%

Languages: Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 83.3% male: 83.3% female: 83.2% (1995 est.)

@Brazil:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil conventional short form: Brazil local long form: Republica Federativa do Brasil local short form: Brasil

Data code: BR

Government type: federal republic

National capital: Brasilia

Administrative divisions: 26 states (estados, singular-estado) and 1
federal district* (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas,
Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato
Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana,
Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do
Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins

Independence: 7 September 1822 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 7 September (1822)

Constitution: 5 October 1988

Legal system: based on Roman codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: voluntary between 16 and 18 years of age and over 70; compulsory over 18 and under 70 years of age

Executive branch: chief of state: President Fernando Henrique CARDOSO (since 1 January 1995); Vice President Marco MACIEL (since 1 January 1995); note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Fernando Henrique CARDOSO (since 1 January 1995); Vice President Marco MACIEL (since 1 January 1995); note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 3 October 1994 (next to be held NA October 1998) election results: Fernando Henrique CARDOSO elected president; percent of vote-Fernando Henrique CARDOSO 53%, Luis Inacio LULA da Silva 26%, Eneas CARNEIRO 7%, Orestes QUERCIA 4%, Leonel BRIZOLA 3%, Espiridiao AMIN 3%; note-second direct presidential election since 1960

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congresso Nacional consists of the Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; three members from each state or federal district elected according to the principle of majority to serve eight-year terms; one-third elected after a four year period, two-thirds elected after the next four-year period) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve four-year terms) elections: Federal Senate-last held 3 October 1994 for two-thirds of Senate (next to be held October 1998 for one-third of the Senate); Chamber of Deputies - last held 3 October 1994 (next to be held October 1998) election results: Federal Senate-percent of vote by party-PMDB 28%, PFL 22%, PSDB 12%, PPR 7%, PDT 7%, PT 6%, PTB 6%, other 12%; seats by party-NA; Chamber of Deputies-percent of vote by party-PMDB 21%, PFL 18%, PDT 7%, PSDB 12%, PPR 10%, PTB 6%, PT 10%, other 16%; seats by party-NA note: party totals since the fall of 1994 have changed considerably due to extensive party-switching

Judicial branch: Supreme Federal Tribunal, 11 judges are appointed for life by the president and confirmed by the Senate

Political parties and leaders: Brazilian Democratic Movement Party or
PMDB [Paes DE ANDRADE, president]; Liberal Front Party or PFL [Jose
JORGE, president]; Workers' Party or PT [Jose DIRCEU, president];
Brazilian Workers' Party or PTB [Rodrigues PALMA, president];
Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Leonel BRIZOLA, president]; Brazilian
Progressive Party or PPB [Espiridiao AMIN, president]; Brazilian
Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Artur DA TAVOLA, president]; Popular
Socialist Party or PPS [Roberto FREIRE, president]; Communist Party of
Brazil or PCdoB [Joao AMAZONAS, chairman]; Liberal Party or PL [Alvaro
VALLE, president]

Political pressure groups and leaders: left wing of the Catholic
Church, Landless Worker's Movement, and labor unions allied to leftist
Workers' Party are critical of government's social and economic
policies

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), BIS
(pending member), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU,
LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MIPONUH, MONUA, MTCR, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS,
OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMOP, UNPREDEP, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Paulo Tarso FLECHA de LIMA chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 238-2700 FAX: [1] (202) 238-2827 consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Melvyn LEVITSKY embassy: Avenida das Nacoes, Lote 3, Brasilia, Distrito Federal mailing address: Unit 3500, APO AA 34030 telephone: [55] (61) 321-7272 FAX: [55] (61) 225-9136 consulate(s) general: Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo consulate(s): Recife

Flag description: green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars (one for each state and the Federal District) arranged in the same pattern as the night sky over Brazil; the globe has a white equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress)

@Brazil:Economy

Economy-overview: Possessing large and well-developed agricultural, mining, manufacturing, and service sectors, Brazil's economy outweighs that of all other South American countries and is expanding its presence in world markets. Prior to the institution of a stabilization plan-the Plano Real (Real Plan) in mid-1994, stratospheric inflation rates had disrupted economic activity and discouraged foreign investment. Since then, tight monetary policy has brought inflation under control-consumer prices increased by less than 5% in 1997 compared to more than 1,000% in 1994. At the same time, GDP growth slowed from 5.7% in 1994 to about 3.0% in 1997 due to tighter credit. The strong currency, another cornerstone of the Real Plan, has encouraged imports-contributing to a growing trade deficit-and restrained export growth. Brazil's more stable economy allowed it to weather the fallout in 1995 from the Mexican peso crisis relatively well. Record levels of foreign investment have flowed in, helping support the Real Plan through financial shocks in October-November 1997 that occurred in the wake of the Asian financial crisis. These shocks caused Brazil's foreign exchange reserves to drop by $8 billion to $52 billion and the stock market to decline by about 25%, although it still ended up more than 30% for the year. President CARDOSO remains committed to defending the Real Plan, but he faces several key challenges domestically and abroad. His package of fiscal reforms requiring constitutional amendments has progressed slowly through the balkanized Brazilian legislature; in their absence, the government continues to run deficits and has limited room to relax its interest and exchange rate policies if it wants to keep inflation under control. Some foreign investors remain concerned about the viability of Brazil's exchange rate policy because of the country's fiscal and current account deficits. The government thus has to contend with the possibility of capital flight or a speculative attack that could draw down foreign reserves to a critical level and force a devaluation.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$1.04 trillion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3% (1997)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$6,300 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 13% industry: 38% services: 49% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 4.8% (1997)

Labor force: total: 57 million (1989 est.) by occupation: services 42%, agriculture 31%, industry 27%

Unemployment rate: 7% (1997 est.)

Budget: revenues: $87.5 billion expenditures: $96 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1996)

Industries: textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and equipment

Industrial production growth rate: 4.5% (1997 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 57.64 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 264.895 billion kWh (1995) note: imported about 36.95 billion kWh of electricity from Paraguay

Electricity-consumption per capita: 1,878 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus; beef

Exports: total value: $53 billion (f.o.b., 1997) commodities: iron ore, soybean bran, orange juice, footwear, coffee, motor vehicle parts partners: EU 28%, Latin America 23%, US 20%, Argentina 12% (1996)

Imports: total value: $61.4 billion (f.o.b., 1997) commodities: crude oil, capital goods, chemical products, foodstuffs, coal partners: EU 26%, US 22%, Argentina 13%, Japan 5% (1996)

Debt-external: $192.9 billion (December 1997)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $107 million (1993)

Currency: 1 real (R$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: R$ per US$1-1.120 (January 1998), 1.078 (1997), 1.005 (1996), 0.918 (1995), 0.639 (1994); CR$ per US$1-390.845 (January 1994), 88.449 (1993) note: on 1 August 1993 the cruzeiro real (CR$), equal to 1,000 cruzeiros, was introduced; another new currency, the real (R$) was introduced on 1 July 1994, equal to 2,750 cruzeiro reais

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 14,426,673 (1992 est.)

Telephone system: good working system domestic: extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 64 earth stations international: 3 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations-3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean Region East)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1,223, FM 0, shortwave 151

Radios: 60 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 112 note: Brazil has the world's fourth largest television broadcasting system

Televisions: 30 million (1993 est.)

@Brazil:Transportation

Railways: total: 26,895 km (1,750 km electrified) broad gauge: 5,730 km 1.600-m gauge standard gauge: 194 km 1.440-m gauge narrow gauge: 20,958 km 1.000-m gauge; 13 km 0.760-m gauge dual gauge: 523 km 1.000-m and 1.600-m gauges

Highways: total: 1.98 million km paved: 184,140 km unpaved: 1,795,860 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 50,000 km navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 2,000 km; petroleum products 3,804 km; natural gas 1,095 km

Ports and harbors: Belem, Fortaleza, Ilheus, Imbituba, Manaus,
Paranagua, Porto Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande, Salvador,
Santos, Vitoria

Merchant marine: total: 188 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,498,081 GRT/7,279,945 DWT ships by type: bulk 37, cargo 26, chemical tanker 9, combination ore/oil 11, container 16, liquefied gas tanker 10, multifunction large-load carrier 1, oil tanker 61, passenger-cargo 5, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 11 (1997 est.)

Airports: 3,291 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 502 over 3,047 m: 5 2,438 to 3,047 m: 19 1,524 to 2,437 m: 130 914 to 1,523 m: 319 under 914 m: 29 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 2,789 1,524 to 2,437 m: 76 914 to 1,523 m: 1,324 under 914 m: 1,389 (1997 est.)

@Brazil:Military

Military branches: Brazilian Army, Brazilian Navy (includes Marines),
Brazilian Air Force, Federal Police (paramilitary)

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 46,620,486 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 31,337,037 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 1,806,162 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $15.1 billion (1997)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.9% (1997)

@Brazil:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: short section of the boundary with Paraguay, just west of Salto das Sete Quedas (Guaira Falls) on the Rio Parana, has not been precisely delimited; two short sections of boundary with Uruguay are in dispute-Arroio Invernada (Arroyo de la Invernada) area of the Rio Quarai (Rio Cuareim) and the islands at the confluence of the Rio Quarai and the Uruguay River

Illicit drugs: limited illicit producer of cannabis, minor coca cultivation in the Amazon region, mostly used for domestic consumption; government has a large-scale eradication program to control cannabis; important transshipment country for Bolivian and Colombian cocaine headed for the US and Europe; increasingly used by Andean traffickers as a way station between Peru and Colombia

______________________________________________________________________

BRITISH INDIAN OCEAN TERRITORY

(dependent territory of the UK)

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Geography

Location: Southern Asia, archipelago in the Indian Ocean, about one-half the way from Africa to Indonesia

Geographic coordinates: 6 00 S, 71 30 E

Map references: World

Area: total: 60 sq km land: 60 sq km water: 0 sq km note: includes the entire Chagos Archipelago

Area-comparative: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 698 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical marine; hot, humid, moderated by trade winds

Terrain: flat and low (up to four meters in elevation)

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location on Diego Garcia 15 m

Natural resources: coconuts, fish

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 0% forests and woodland: NA% other: NA%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements: party to: NA signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: archipelago of 2,300 islands; Diego Garcia, largest and southernmost island, occupies strategic location in central Indian Ocean; island is site of joint US-UK military facility

@British Indian Ocean Territory:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants note: there are UK-US military personnel and civilian contractors; approximately 3,000 native inhabitants, known as the Chagosians or Ilois, were evacuated to Mauritius before construction of UK-US military facilities

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Government

Country name: conventional long form: British Indian Ocean Territory conventional short form: none abbreviation: BIOT

Data code: IO

Dependency status: dependent territory of the UK; administered by a commissioner, resident in the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in London

Legal system: NA

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952) head of government: Commissioner David Ross MACLENNAN (since NA 1994); Administrator Don CAIRNS (since NA); note-both reside in the UK cabinet: NA elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; commissioner and administrator appointed by the queen

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (dependent territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Flag description: white with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and six blue wavy horizontal stripes bearing a palm tree and yellow crown centered on the outer half of the flag

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Economy

Economy-overview: All economic activity is concentrated on the largest island of Diego Garcia, where joint UK-US defense facilities are located. Construction projects and various services needed to support the military installations are done by military and contract employees from the UK, Mauritius, the Philippines, and the US. There are no industrial or agricultural activities on the islands.

Electricity-capacity: NA kW note: electricity supplied by the US military

Electricity-production: NA kWh note: electricity supplied by the US military

Electricity-consumption per capita: NA kWh

Communications

Telephones: NA

Telephone system: facilities for military needs only domestic: NA international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: NA

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Transportation

Highways: total: NA km paved: short stretch of paved road of NA km between port and airfield on Diego Garcia unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: Diego Garcia

Airports: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 1 over 3,047 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of the UK; the US lease on Diego Garcia expires in 2016

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: the island of Diego Garcia is claimed by
Mauritius; the Chagos Archipelago is claimed by Seychelles

______________________________________________________________________

BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS

(dependent territory of the UK)

@British Virgin Islands:Geography

Location: Caribbean, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic
Ocean, east of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates: 18 30 N, 64 30 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 150 sq km land: 150 sq km water: 0 sq km note: includes the island of Anegada

Area-comparative: about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 80 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: subtropical; humid; temperatures moderated by trade winds

Terrain: coral islands relatively flat; volcanic islands steep, hilly

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Mount Sage 521 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use: arable land: 20% permanent crops: 7% permanent pastures: 33% forests and woodland: 7% other: 33% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October)

Environment-current issues: limited natural fresh water resources (except for a few seasonal streams and springs on Tortola, most of the islands' water supply comes from wells and rainwater catchment)

Environment-international agreements: party to: NA signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: strong ties to nearby US Virgin Islands and Puerto
Rico

@British Virgin Islands:People

Population: 18,705 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 21% (male 2,008; female 1,957) 15-64 years: 74% (male 7,079; female 6,689) 65 years and over: 5% (male 535; female 437) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.41% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 16.15 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 4.76 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 12.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.22 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 22.97 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 74.94 years male: 74.19 years female: 75.73 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.72 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: British Virgin Islander(s) adjective: British Virgin Islander

Ethnic groups: black 90%, white, Asian

Religions: Protestant 86% (Methodist 45%, Anglican 21%, Church of God 7%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5%, Baptist 4%, Jehovah's Witnesses 2%, other 2%), Roman Catholic 6%, none 2%, other 6% (1981)

Languages: English (official)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 97.8% (1991 est.) male: NA% female: NA%

@British Virgin Islands:Government

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: British Virgin Islands abbreviation: BVI

Data code: VI

Dependency status: dependent territory of the UK

Government type: NA

National capital: Road Town

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Territory Day, 1 July

Constitution: 1 June 1977

Legal system: English law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor David MACKILLIGIN (since NA June 1995) head of government: Chief Minister Ralph T. O'NEAL (since 15 May 1995; appointed after the death of former Chief Minister H. Lavity STOUTT) cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from members of the Legislative Council elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor appointed by the queen; chief minister appointed by the governor from among the members of the Legislative Council

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council (13 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote, 1 member from each of 9 electoral districts, 4 at large members; members serve five-year terms) elections: last held 20 February 1995 (next to be held NA February 2000) election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-VIP 6, CCM 2, UP 2, independents 3

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court, one judge of the
Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the High
Court

Political parties and leaders: United Party or UP [Conrad MADURO];
Virgin Islands Party or VIP [Ralph T. O'NEAL]; Concerned Citizens
Movement or CCM [E. Walwyn BREWLEY]; Independent People's Movement or
IPM [Omar HODGE and Allen O'NEAL]

International organization participation: Caricom (associate), CDB, ECLAC (associate), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, OECS (associate), UNESCO (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (dependent territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Flag description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Virgin Islander coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms depicts a woman flanked on either side by a vertical column of six oil lamps above a scroll bearing the Latin word VIGILATE (Be Watchful)

@British Virgin Islands:Economy

Economy-overview: The economy, one of the most prosperous in the Caribbean, is highly dependent on tourism, which generates an estimated 45% of the national income. In 1985, the government began offering offshore registration to companies wishing to incorporate in the islands, and incorporation fees now generate substantial revenues. An estimated 210,000 companies were on the offshore registry by yearend 1996. The adoption of a comprehensive insurance law in late 1994, which provides a blanket of confidentiality with regulated statutory gateways for investigation of criminal offenses, is expected to make the British Virgin Islands even more attractive to international business. Livestock raising is the most important agricultural activity; poor soils limit the islands' ability to meet domestic food requirements. Because of traditional close links with the US Virgin Islands, the British Virgin Islands has used the dollar as their currency since 1959.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$144 million (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 4.5% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$11,000 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 3% industry: 14% services: 83% (1989)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 2.5% (1990 est.)

Labor force: total: 4,911 (1980) by occupation: tourism NA%

Unemployment rate: 3% (1995)

Budget: revenues: $77.1 million expenditures: $76.4 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY93/94)

Industries: tourism, light industry, construction, rum, concrete block, offshore financial center

Industrial production growth rate: 4% (1985)

Electricity-capacity: 13,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 42 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 3,224 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: fruits, vegetables; livestock, poultry; fish

Exports: total value: $3.4 million (f.o.b., 1990) commodities: rum, fresh fish, fruits, animals; gravel, sand partners: Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US

Imports: total value: $11.5 million (c.i.f., 1988) commodities: building materials, automobiles, foodstuffs, machinery partners: Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US

Debt-external: $4.5 million (1985)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 6,291 (1990 est.)

Telephone system: worldwide telephone service domestic: NA international: submarine cable to Bermuda

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1995)

Radios: 9,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 4,000 (1992 est.)

@British Virgin Islands:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 113 km (1995 est.) paved: NA km unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: Road Town

Merchant marine: none (1995 est.)

Airports: 3 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@British Virgin Islands:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

@British Virgin Islands:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

BRUNEI

@Brunei:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and
Malaysia

Geographic coordinates: 4 30 N, 114 40 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area: total: 5,770 sq km land: 5,270 sq km water: 500 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Delaware

Land boundaries: total: 381 km border countries: Malaysia 381 km

Coastline: 161 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or to median line territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy

Terrain: flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west

Elevation extremes: lowest point: South China Sea 0 m highest point: Bukit Pagon 1,850 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, timber

Land use: arable land: 1% permanent crops: 1% permanent pastures: 1% forests and woodland: 85% other: 12% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are very rare

Environment-current issues: seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia

Environment-international agreements: party to: Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost an enclave of Malaysia

@Brunei:People

Population: 315,292 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 33% (male 53,219; female 50,906) 15-64 years: 63% (male 103,949; female 93,370) 65 years and over: 4% (male 7,569; female 6,279) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.44% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 24.92 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.17 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.61 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.11 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.21 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 23.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.69 years male: 70.17 years female: 73.29 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.35 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Bruneian(s) adjective: Bruneian

Ethnic groups: Malay 64%, Chinese 20%, other 16%

Religions: Muslim (official) 63%, Buddhism 14%, Christian 8%, indigenous beliefs and other 15% (1981)

Languages: Malay (official), English, Chinese

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 88.2% male: 92.6% female: 83.4% (1995 est.)

@Brunei:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam conventional short form: Brunei

Data code: BX

Government type: constitutional sultanate

National capital: Bandar Seri Begawan

Administrative divisions: 4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular-daerah); Belait, Brunei and Muara, Temburong, Tutong

Independence: 1 January 1984 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 23 February (1984)

Constitution: 29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a
State of Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on 1
January 1984)

Legal system: based on English common law; for Muslims, Islamic
Shari'a law supersedes civil law in a number of areas

Suffrage: none

Executive branch: chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister His Majesty Paduka Seri Baginda Sultan Haji HASSANAL Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah (since 5 October 1967); note-the sultan is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister His Majesty Paduka Seri Baginda Sultan Haji HASSANAL Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah (since 5 October 1967); note-the sultan is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Council of Cabinet Ministers appointed and presided over by the sultan; deals with executive matters note: there is also a Religious Council (members appointed by the sultan) that advises on religious matters, a Privy Council (members appointed by the sultan) that deals with constitutional matters, and the Council of Succession (members appointed by the sultan) that determines the succession to the throne if the need arises elections: none; the sultan is a traditional Islamic monarch

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council or Majlis Masyuarat Megeri (a privy council that serves only in a consultative capacity; NA seats; members appointed by the sultan) elections: last held in March 1962 note: in 1970 the Council was changed to an appointive body by decree of the sultan; an elected Legislative Council is being considered as part of constitutional reform, but elections are unlikely for several years

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chief justice and judges are sworn in by the sultan for three-year terms

Political parties and leaders: Brunei United National Party (inactive), Anak HASANUDDIN, chairman; Brunei National Solidarity Party (the first legal political party and now banned), Mohamad HATTA bin Maji Zainal Abidin, secretary general; Brunei Peoples Party (banned), Sheik A. M. AZAHARI, leader; Brunei National Democratic Party or BNDP (deregistered), Haji Abdul LATIF bin Abdul Hamad, president

International organization participation: APEC, ASEAN, C, CCC, ESCAP,
G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDB, IFRCS, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol,
IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Pengiran Anak Dato Haji PUTEH Ibni Mohammad Alam chancery: Watergate, Suite 300, 3rd floor, 2600 Virginia Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037 telephone: [1] (202) 342-0159 FAX: [1] (202) 342-0158

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Glen Robert RASE embassy: Third Floor, Teck Guan Plaza, Jalan Sultan, Bandar Seri Begawan mailing address: American Embassy Box B, Bandar Seri Begawan, APO AP 96440 telephone: [673] (2) 229670 FAX: [673] (2) 225293

Flag description: yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width) and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in red is superimposed at the center; the emblem includes a swallow-tailed flag on top of a winged column within an upturned crescent above a scroll and flanked by two upraised hands

@Brunei:Economy

Economy-overview: This small, wealthy economy is a mixture of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation and welfare measures, and village tradition. It is almost totally supported by exports of crude oil and natural gas, with revenues from the petroleum sector accounting for perhaps half of GDP. Per capita GDP is far above most other Third World countries, and substantial income from overseas investment supplements income from domestic production. The government provides for all medical services and subsidizes food and housing. The government is beginning to show progress on its basic policy of diversifying the economy away from oil and gas. Brunei's leaders are concerned that steadily increased integration in the world economy will undermine internal social cohesion.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$5.4 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3.5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$18,000 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 5% industry: 46% services: 49% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 2% (1997 est.)

Labor force: total: 144,000 (1995 est.); note-includes foreign workers and military personnel by occupation: government 48%, production of oil, natural gas, services, and construction 42%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 4%, other 6% (1986 est.) note: temporary residents make up 41% of labor force (1991)

Unemployment rate: 4.8% (1994 est.)

Budget: revenues: $2.5 billion expenditures: $2.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $768 million (1995 est.)

Industries: petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction

Industrial production growth rate: 4% (1997 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 646,000 kW (1997 est.)

Electricity-production: 1.26 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 4,311 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: rice, cassava (tapioca), bananas; water buffalo

Exports: total value: $2.62 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.) commodities: crude oil, liquefied natural gas, petroleum products partners: ASEAN 31%, Japan 27%, South Korea 26%, UK, Taiwan (1996 est.)

Imports: total value: $2.65 billion (c.i.f., 1996 est.) commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicals partners: Singapore 29%, UK 19%, US 13%, Malaysia 9%, Japan 5% (1994 est.)

Debt-external: $0

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Bruneian dollar (B$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Bruneian dollars (B$) per US$1-1.7533 (January 1998), 1.4848 (1997), 1.4100 (1996), 1.4174 (1995), 1.5274 (1994), 1.6158 (1993); note-the Bruneian dollar is at par with the Singapore dollar

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 90,000 (1997 est.)

Telephone system: service throughout country is excellent; international service good to Europe, US, and East Asia domestic: NA international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: 284,000 (1995 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1984 est.)

Televisions: 173,000 (1995 est.)

@Brunei:Transportation

Railways: total: 13 km (private line) narrow gauge: 13 km 0.610-m gauge

Highways: total: 1,150 km paved: 399 km unpaved: 751 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 209 km; navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m

Pipelines: crude oil 135 km; petroleum products 418 km; natural gas 920 km

Ports and harbors: Bandar Seri Begawan, Kuala Belait, Muara, Seria,
Tutong

Merchant marine: total: 7 liquefied gas tankers (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 348,476 GRT/340,635 DWT (1997 est.)

Airports: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 1 over 3,047 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 3 (1997 est.)

@Brunei:Military

Military branches: Land Forces, Navy, Air Force, Royal Brunei Police

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 87,048 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 50,408 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 3,126 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $312 million (1994)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 6.2% (1994)

@Brunei:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: may wish to purchase the Malaysian salient that divides the country; possibly involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam; in 1984, Brunei established an exclusive fishing zone that encompasses Louisa Reef in the southern Spratly Islands, but has not publicly claimed the island

______________________________________________________________________

BULGARIA

@Bulgaria:Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between
Romania and Turkey

Geographic coordinates: 43 00 N, 25 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 110,910 sq km land: 110,550 sq km water: 360 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly larger than Tennessee

Land boundaries: total: 1,808 km border countries: Greece 494 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 148 km, Romania 608 km, Serbia and Montenegro 318 km (all with Serbia), Turkey 240 km

Coastline: 354 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers

Terrain: mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Black Sea 0 m highest point: Musala 2,925 m

Natural resources: bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land

Land use: arable land: 37% permanent crops: 2% permanent pastures: 16% forests and woodland: 35% other: 10% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 12,370 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: earthquakes, landslides

Environment-current issues: air pollution from industrial emissions; rivers polluted from raw sewage, heavy metals, detergents; deforestation; forest damage from air pollution and resulting acid rain; soil contamination from heavy metals from metallurgical plants and industrial wastes

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol

Geography-note: strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes from Europe to Middle East and Asia

@Bulgaria:People

Population: 8,240,426 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 16% (male 696,131; female 662,335) 15-64 years: 68% (male 2,756,695; female 2,812,192) 65 years and over: 16% (male 564,698; female 748,375) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.6% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 8.08 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 13.24 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 12.78 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.96 years male: 68.39 years female: 75.74 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.14 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Bulgarian(s) adjective: Bulgarian

Ethnic groups: Bulgarian 85.3%, Turk 8.5%, Gypsy 2.6%, Macedonian 2.5%, Armenian 0.3%, Russian 0.2%, other 0.6%

Religions: Bulgarian Orthodox 85%, Muslim 13%, Jewish 0.8%, Roman Catholic 0.5%, Uniate Catholic 0.2%, Protestant, Gregorian-Armenian, and other 0.5%

Languages: Bulgarian, secondary languages closely correspond to ethnic breakdown

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 98% male: 99% female: 97% (1992 est.)

@Bulgaria:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Bulgaria conventional short form: Bulgaria

Data code: BU

Government type: republic

National capital: Sofia

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (oblasti, singular-oblast);
Burgas, Grad Sofiya, Khaskovo, Lovech, Montana, Plovdiv, Ruse, Sofiya,
Varna

Independence: 22 September 1908 (from Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 March (1878)

Constitution: adopted 12 July 1991

Legal system: civil law and criminal law based on Roman law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Petar STOYANOV (since 22 January 1997); Vice President Todor KAVALDZHIEV (since 22 January 1997) head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister) Ivan Kostov (since 19 May 1997); Deputy Prime Ministers Aleksandur BOZHKOV (since 12 February 1997 Evgeniy BAKURDZHIEV (since 21 May 1997), Veselin METODIEV (since 21 May 1997) cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the National Assembly elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 27 October and 3 November 1996 (next to be held NA 2001); chairman of the Council of Ministers (prime minister) nominated by the president election results: Petar STOYANOV elected president; percent of vote-Petar STOYANOV 59.73%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Narodno Sobranie (240 seats; members are popularly elected to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 19 April 1997 (next to be held NA 2001) election results: percent of vote by party-UDF 52%, BSP 22%, ANS 7%, Euro-left 5.5%, BBB 4.95%; seats by party-UDF 137, BSP 58, ANS 19, Euro-left 14, BBB 12

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chairman appointed for a seven-year term by the president; Constitutional Court, 12 justices appointed or elected for a nine-year term

Political parties and leaders: Bulgarian Socialist Party or BSP [Georgi PURVANOV, chairman]; Union of Democratic Forces or UDF (an alliance of pro-Democratic parties) [Ivan KOSTOV]; Euro-left [Aleksandur TOMOV]; Alliance for National Salvation or ANS (coalition led mainly by Movement for Rights and Freedoms or DPS [Ahmed DOGAN]); Bulgarian Business Bloc or BBB [Georgi GANCHEV]; People's Union [Anastasiya MOZER and Stefan SAVOV, cochairmen]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Democratic Alliance for the Republic or DAR; New Union for Democracy or NUD; Podkrepa Labor Confederation; Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria or CITUB; Bulgarian Agrarian National Union-United or BZNS; Bulgarian Democratic Center; "Nikola Petkov" Bulgarian Agrarian National Union; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization or IMRO; Agrarian movement; numerous regional, ethnic, and national interest groups with various agendas

International organization participation: ACCT, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE,
CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBEC, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, IIB, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, MONUA, NAM (guest), NSG, OSCE, PCA,
PFP, UN, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIBH, UNMOT, UPU, WEU (associate partner),
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Philip DIMITROV chancery: 1621 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 387-7969 FAX: [1] (202) 234-7973 consulate(s): New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Avis T. BOHLEN embassy: 1 Saborna Street, Sofia mailing address: Unit 1335, APO AE 09213-1335 telephone: [359] (2) 980-52-41 through 48 FAX: [359] (2) 981-89-77

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green, and red; the national emblem formerly on the hoist side of the white stripe has been removed-it contained a rampant lion within a wreath of wheat ears below a red five-pointed star and above a ribbon bearing the dates 681 (first Bulgarian state established) and 1944 (liberation from Nazi control)

@Bulgaria:Economy

Economy-overview: One of the poorest countries of central Europe, Bulgaria has slowly been moving from its old command economy towards a market-oriented economy. The economy faced a major crisis in 1996, marked by a banking system in turmoil, a depreciating currency, and contracting production and foreign trade. Foreign exchange reserves dwindled to $518 million, while dramatically hiked interest rates added to the domestic debt burden and stifled growth. GDP fell by 11% in 1996, after experiencing 2.0% growth in 1995. Privatization of state-owned industries stagnated, although the first auction of a mass privatization program was undertaken in late 1996. Lagging progress on structural reforms led to postponement of IMF disbursements under a $580 million standby loan agreed to in July 1996. In November 1996, the IMF proposed a currency board as Bulgaria's best chance to restore confidence in the lev, eliminate unnecessary spending, and avoid hyperinflation. The board was set up on 1 July 1997. Its establishment was followed by a reduction in inflation and interest rates and by a rise in foreign investment. Simultaneously the government pledged to sell off some of the most attractive state assets. GDP in 1997 dropped 7.4%, but is expected to rebound to an estimated 2% in 1998. Other government objectives include: the completion of land reform, the privatization and strengthening of the banking system, and the modernization of the legal environment of business.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$35.6 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: -7.4% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$4,100 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 12% industry: 31% services: 57% (1997 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 1% (1998 est.)

Labor force: total: 3.57 million (1996 est.) by occupation: industry 41%, agriculture 18%, other 41% (1992)

Unemployment rate: 14% (1997 est.)

Budget: revenues: $2.7 billion expenditures: $3.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997 est.)

Industries: machine building and metal working, food processing, chemicals, textiles, construction materials, ferrous and nonferrous metals

Industrial production growth rate: -7.4% (1997 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 12.087 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 41.449 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 4,821 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: grain, oilseed, vegetables, fruits, tobacco; livestock

Exports: total value: $4.9 billion (f.o.b., 1997) commodities: machinery and equipment 15.2%; agriculture and food 18.9%; textiles and apparel 14.8%; metals, minerals, and fuels 26.5%; chemicals and plastics 20%; other 4.6% (1996) partners: OECD 50.0% (EU 37.2%); CIS and Central and Eastern Europe 32.4%; Arab countries 5.8%; other 11.8% (1995)

Imports: total value: $4.5 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.) commodities: fuels, minerals, and raw materials 40.7%; machinery and equipment 18.4%; textiles and apparel 11.6%; agricultural products 7.5%; metals and ores 5.2%; chemicals and plastics 12.2%; other 4.4% (1996) partners: OECD 45.5% (EU 38.1%); CIS and Central and Eastern European countries 41.1%; Arab countries 1.8%; other 11.6% (1995)

Debt-external: $10 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid: NA

Currency: 1 lev (Lv) = 100 stotinki

Exchange rates: leva (Lv) per US$1-1,740 (1997), 483.4 (1996), 70.7 (1995), 54.2 (1994), 27.1 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 2,773,293 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: almost two-thirds of the lines are residential; 67% of Sofia households have telephones (November 1988 est.) domestic: extensive but antiquated transmission system of coaxial cable and microwave radio relay; telephone service is available in most villages international: direct dialing to 36 countries; satellite earth stations-1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean Region); Intelsat available through a Greek earth station

Radio broadcast stations: AM 20, FM 15, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 29 (Russian repeater in Sofia 1)

Televisions: 2.1 million (May 1990 est.)

@Bulgaria:Transportation

Railways: total: 4,292 km standard gauge: 4,047 km 1.435-m gauge (2,650 km electrified; 917 double track) other gauge: 245 km 0.760-m gauge (1995)

Highways: total: 36,720 km paved: 33,746 km (including 314 km of expressways) unpaved: 2,974 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 470 km (1987)

Pipelines: crude oil 193 km; petroleum products 525 km; natural gas 1,400 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Burgas, Lom, Nesebur, Ruse, Varna, Vidin

Merchant marine: total: 94 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,027,117 GRT/1,541,266 DWT ships by type: bulk 45, cargo 23, chemical tanker 4, container 2, oil tanker 9, passenger-cargo 1, railcar carrier 2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 6, short-sea passenger 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 34 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 34 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 14 1,524 to 2,437 m: 9 under 914 m: 10 (1997 est.)

@Bulgaria:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Border
Troops, Internal Troops

Military manpower-military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 2,042,441 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 1,703,879 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 61,643 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $418.6 million (1996)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2.0% to 2.5% (1996)

@Bulgaria:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: twenty bilateral agreements remain unsigned in a dispute over Bulgarian nonrecognition of Macedonian as a language distinct from Bulgarian

Illicit drugs: major European transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and, to a lesser degree, South American cocaine for the European market; limited producer of precursor chemicals; significant producer of amphetamines, much of which are consumed in the Middle East

______________________________________________________________________

BURKINA FASO

@Burkina Faso:Geography

Location: Western Africa, north of Ghana

Geographic coordinates: 13 00 N, 2 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 274,200 sq km land: 273,800 sq km water: 400 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly larger than Colorado

Land boundaries:
total: 3,192 km
border countries: Benin 306 km, Ghana 548 km, Cote d'Ivoire 584 km,
Mali 1,000 km, Niger 628 km, Togo 126 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers

Terrain: mostly flat to dissected, undulating plains; hills in west and southeast

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Mouhoun (Black Volta) River 200 m highest point: Tena Kourou 749 m

Natural resources: manganese, limestone, marble; small deposits of gold, antimony, copper, nickel, bauxite, lead, phosphates, zinc, silver

Land use: arable land: 13% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 22% forests and woodland: 50% other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 200 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: recurring droughts

Environment-current issues: recent droughts and desertification severely affecting agricultural activities, population distribution, and the economy; overgrazing; soil degradation; deforestation

Environment-international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography-note: landlocked

@Burkina Faso:People

Population: 11,266,393 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 48% (male 2,721,564; female 2,687,770) 15-64 years: 49% (male 2,616,375; female 2,899,923) 65 years and over: 3% (male 146,195; female 194,566) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.72% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 46.24 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 17.65 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.41 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 109.15 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 46.1 years male: 45.38 years female: 46.85 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.64 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Burkinabe (singular and plural) adjective: Burkinabe

Ethnic groups: Mossi about 24%, Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi, Bobo, Mande,
Fulani

Religions: indigenous beliefs 40%, Muslim 50%, Christian (mainly Roman
Catholic) 10%

Languages: French (official), tribal languages belonging to Sudanic family, spoken by 90% of the population

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 19.2% male: 29.5% female: 9.2% (1995 est.)

@Burkina Faso:Government

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Burkina Faso former: Upper Volta

Data code: UV

Government type: parliamentary

National capital: Ouagadougou

Administrative divisions: 30 provinces; Bam, Bazega, Bougouriba,
Boulgou, Boulkiemde, Ganzourgou, Gnagna, Gourma, Houe, Kadiogo,
Kenedougou, Komoe, Kossi, Kouritenga, Mouhoun, Namentenga, Naouri,
Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passore, Poni, Sanguie, Sanmatenga, Seno,
Sissili, Soum, Sourou, Tapoa, Yatenga, Zoundweogo
note: there may be a new administrative structure of 45 provinces
(Bale, Bam, Banwa, Bazega, Bougouriba, Boulgou, Boulkiemde, Comoe,
Ganzourgou, Gnagna, Gourma, Houet, Ioba, Kadiogo, Kenedougou,
Komandjari, Kompienga, Kossi, Koupelogo, Kouritenga, Kourweogo,
Leraba, Loroum, Mouhoun, Nahouri, Namentenga, Nayala, Naumbiel,
Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passore, Poni, Samentenga, Sanguie, Seno,
Sissili, Soum, Sourou, Tapoa, Tuy, Yagha, Yatenga, Ziro, Zondomo,
Zoundweogo)

Independence: 5 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 4 August (1983)

Constitution: 2 June 1991

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law

Suffrage: universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Captain Blaise COMPAORE (since 15 October 1987) head of government: Prime Minister Kadre Desire OUEDRAOGO (since 6 February 1996) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; the number of terms which a president may serve is not limited; election last held 1 December 1991 (next to be held NA 1998); prime minister appointed by the president with the consent of the legislature election results: Blaise COMPAORE elected president with 90.4% percent of the votes of those who voted (the abstention rate was 74.7%)

Legislative branch: bicameral; consists of a National Assembly or Assemblee des Deputes Populaires (ADP) (111 seats; members are popularly elected to serve five-year terms) and the purely consultative Chamber of Representations or Chambre des Representants (120 seats; members are appointed to serve three-year terms) elections: last held 11 May 1997 (next to be held NA 2002) election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-CDP 101, PDP 6, RDA 2, ADF 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Appeals Court

Political parties and leaders: African Democratic Assembly or RDA [Gerard Kango OUEDRAOGO]; Alliance for Democracy and Federation or ADF [Herman YAMEOGO]; Burkinabe Bolshevic Party or PBB; Burkinabe Socialist Party or PSB; Burkinabe Socialist Bloc or BSB [Earnest Nongma OUEDRAOGO, president]; Burkinabe Environmentalist Party or UVDB; Congress for Democracy and Progress or CDP [Din Salif SAWADAGO] (the strongest party in the 1997 legislative elections); Front for Social Forces or FFS [Fide'le KIENTEGA]; Group of Democratic Patriots or GDP; Movement for Social Tolerance and Progress or MTP; New Social Democrats or NSD; Open Revolutionary Party or POR; Organization for People's Democracy-Labor Movement or ODP-MT (ruling party at time of 1992 elections but was incorporated, with about a dozen smaller parties, into the powerful CDP in February 1996); Party for Democracy and Progress or PDP [Joseph KI-ZERBO]; Party for Progress and Social Development or PPDS; Party for African Independence or PAI

Political pressure groups and leaders: watchdog/political action
groups throughout the country in both organizations and communities;
Burkinabe General Confederation of Labor or CGTB; National
Confederation of Burkinabe Workers or CNTB; National Organization of
Free Unions or ONSL

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA,
ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM,
OAU, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WAEMU, WCL, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Bruno Nongoma ZIDOUEMBA chancery: 2340 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 332-5577, 6895

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Sharon P. WILKINSON (16 July 1996) embassy: Avenue Raoul Follerau, Ouagadougou mailing address: 01 B. P. 35, Ouagadougou telephone: [226] 306723 through 306726 FAX: [226] 303890

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a yellow five-pointed star in the center; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

@Burkina Faso:Economy

Economy-overview: One of the poorest countries in the world, landlocked Burkina Faso has a high population density, few natural resources, and a fragile soil. Over 80% of the population is engaged in subsistence agriculture which is highly vulnerable to variations in rainfall. Industry remains dominated by unprofitable government-controlled corporations. Following the African franc currency devaluation in January 1994 the government updated its development program in conjunction with international agencies, and exports and economic growth have increased.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$10.3 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 6% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$950 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 32% industry: 26% services: 42% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 3% (1996 est.)

Labor force: NA (most adults are employed in subsistence agriculture) by occupation: agriculture 80%, industry 15%, commerce, services, and government 5% note: 20% of male labor force migrates annually to neighboring countries for seasonal employment (1984)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $277 million expenditures: $492 million, including capital expenditures of $233 million (1995 est.)

Industries: cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing, soap, cigarettes, textiles, gold

Industrial production growth rate: 4.2% (1995)

Electricity-capacity: 78,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 220 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 21 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: peanuts, shea nuts, sesame, cotton, sorghum, millet, corn, rice; livestock

Exports: total value: $298 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.) commodities: cotton, animal products, gold partners: Cote d'Ivoire, France, Italy, Mali

Imports: total value: $500 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.) commodities: machinery, food products, petroleum partners: Cote d'Ivoire, France, Togo, Nigeria

Debt-external: $715 million (December 1996)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1-608.36 (January 1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993) note: beginning 12 January 1994 the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 21,000 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: all services only fair domestic: microwave radio relay, open wire, and radiotelephone communication stations international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 32, shortwave 1

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 3 (1997)

Televisions: 49,000 (1991 est.)

@Burkina Faso:Transportation

Railways: total: 622 km (517 km from Ouagadougou to the Cote d'Ivoire border and 105 km from Ouagadougou to Kaya) narrow gauge: 622 km 1.000-m gauge (1995 est.)

Highways: total: 12,506 km paved: 2,001 km unpaved: 10,505 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 33 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 2 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 31 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 14 under 914 m: 14 (1997 est.)

@Burkina Faso:Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National
Police, People's Militia

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 2,317,227 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 1,187,840 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $104 million (1994)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 6.4% (1994)

@Burkina Faso:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

BURMA

@Burma:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Bay of
Bengal, between Bangladesh and Thailand

Geographic coordinates: 22 00 N, 98 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area: total: 678,500 sq km land: 657,740 sq km water: 20,760 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 5,876 km
border countries: Bangladesh 193 km, China 2,185 km, India 1,463 km,
Laos 235 km, Thailand 1,800 km

Coastline: 1,930 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon, December to April)

Terrain: central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Andaman Sea 0 m highest point: Hkakabo Razi 5,881 m

Natural resources: petroleum, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper, tungsten, lead, coal, some marble, limestone, precious stones, natural gas

Land use: arable land: 15% permanent crops: 1% permanent pastures: 1% forests and woodland: 49% other: 34% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10,680 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and landslides common during rainy season (June to September); periodic droughts

Environment-current issues: deforestation; industrial pollution of air, soil, and water; inadequate sanitation and water treatment contribute to disease

Environment-international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94 signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: strategic location near major Indian Ocean shipping lanes

@Burma:People

Population: 47,305,319 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 36% (male 8,798,474; female 8,461,791) 15-64 years: 59% (male 14,052,386; female 14,019,244) 65 years and over: 5% (male 888,773; female 1,084,651) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.65% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 28.96 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 12.51 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 78.35 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 54.51 years male: 53.03 years female: 56.08 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.7 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Burmese (singular and plural) adjective: Burmese

Ethnic groups: Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese 3%,
Mon 2%, Indian 2%, other 5%

Religions: Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic 1%),
Muslim 4%, animist beliefs 1%, other 2%

Languages: Burmese, minority ethnic groups have their own languages

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 83.1% male: 88.7% female: 77.7% (1995 est.)

@Burma:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Union of Burma conventional short form: Burma local long form: Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw (translated by the US Government as Union of Myanma and by the Burmese as Union of Myanmar) local short form: Myanma Naingngandaw former: Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma

Data code: BM

Government type: military regime

National capital: Rangoon (regime refers to the capital as Yangon)

Administrative divisions: 7 divisions* (yin-mya, singular-yin) and 7
states (pyine-mya, singular - pyine); Chin State, Ayeyarwady*, Bago*,
Kachin State, Kayin State, Kayah State, Magway*, Mandalay*, Mon State,
Rakhine State, Sagaing*, Shan State, Tanintharyi*, Yangon*

Independence: 4 January 1948 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 January (1948)

Constitution: 3 January 1974 (suspended since 18 September 1988); national convention started on 9 January 1993 to draft a new constitution; chapter headings and three of 15 sections have been approved

Legal system: does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Prime Minister and Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Gen. THAN SHWE (since 23 April 1992); note-the prime minister is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: Prime Minister and Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Gen. THAN SHWE (since 23 April 1992); note-the prime minister is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: State Peace and Development Council (SPDC); military junta, so named 15 November 1997, which initially assumed power 18 September 1988 under the name State Law and Order Restoration Council; the SPDC oversees the cabinet elections: none; the prime minister assumed power upon resignation of the former prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly or Pyithu Hluttaw (485 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 27 May 1990, but Assembly never convened election results: percent of vote by party-NA%; seats by party-NLD 396, NUP 10, other 79

Judicial branch: limited; remnants of the British-era legal system in place, but there is no guarantee of a fair public trial; the judiciary is not independent of the executive

Political parties and leaders: Union Solidarity and Development
Association (USDA, proregime), THAN AUNG, general secretary; National
Unity Party (NUP, proregime), THA KYAW; National League for Democracy
(NLD), AUNG SHWE, chairman, AUNG SAN SUU KYI, general secretary; and
eight minor legal parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma (NCGUB), headed by Dr. SEIN WIN-consists of individuals legitimately elected to the People's Assembly but not recognized by the military regime; the group fled to a border area and joined with insurgents in December 1990 to form a parallel government; Kachin Independence Army (KIA); United Wa State Army (UWSA); Karen National Union (KNU); several Shan factions; All Burma Student Democratic Front (ABSDF)

International organization participation: AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP,
FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador TIN WINN chancery: 2300 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 332-9044, 9045 FAX: [1] (202) 332-9046 consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Kent M. WIEDEMANN embassy: 581 Merchant Street, Rangoon (GPO 521) mailing address: Box B, APO AP 96546 telephone: [95] (1) 282055, 282181 (operator assistance required) FAX: [95] (1) 280409

Flag description: red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing, all in white, 14 five-pointed stars encircling a cogwheel containing a stalk of rice; the 14 stars represent the 14 administrative divisions

@Burma:Economy

Economy-overview: Burma has a mixed economy with private activity dominant in agriculture, light industry, and transport, and with substantial state-controlled activity, mainly in energy, heavy industry, and the rice trade. Government policy in the last nine years, 1989-97, has aimed at revitalizing the economy after three decades of tight central planning. Thus, private activity has markedly increased; foreign investment has been encouraged, so far with moderate success; and efforts continue to increase the efficiency of state enterprises. Published estimates of Burma's foreign trade are greatly understated because of the volume of black-market trade. A major ongoing problem is the failure to achieve monetary and fiscal stability. Although Burma remains a poor Asian country, its rich resources furnish the potential for substantial long-term increases in income, exports, and living standards.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$55.7 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 6% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,190 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 61% industry: 10% services: 29% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 30%-40% (1997 est.)

Labor force: total: 18.8 million (FY95/96 est.) by occupation: agriculture 65.2%, industry 14.3%, trade 10.1%, government 6.3%, other 4.1% (FY88/89 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $7.9 billion expenditures: $12.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.7 billion (FY96/97)

Industries: agricultural processing; textiles and footwear; wood and wood products; copper, tin, tungsten, iron; construction materials; pharmaceuticals; fertilizer

Industrial production growth rate: 9.2% (FY95/96 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 1.212 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 4.1 billion kWh (FY95/96 est.)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 79 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: paddy rice, corn, oilseed, sugarcane, pulses; hardwood

Exports: total value: $693 million (1996) commodities: pulses and beans, teak, rice, rubber, hardwood partners: Singapore, China, Indonesia, India, Thailand

Imports: total value: $1.4 billion (1996) commodities: machinery, transport equipment, construction materials, food products, consumer goods partners: Japan, Singapore, China, Thailand, Malaysia

Debt-external: $5.3 billion (FY94/95 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $61 million (1993)

Currency: 1 kyat (K) = 100 pyas

Exchange rates: kyats (K) per US$1-6.3941 (January 1998) 6.2418 (1997), 5.9176 (1996), 5.6670 (1995), 5.9749 (1994), 6.1570 (1993); unofficial-310-350 (1998)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 122,195 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: meets minimum requirements for local and intercity service for business and government; international service is good domestic: NA international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1985 est.) note: radiobroadcast coverage is limited to the most populous areas

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1988 est.)

Televisions: 88,000 (1992 est.)

@Burma:Transportation

Railways: total: 3,569 km narrow gauge: 3,569 km 1.000-m gauge (1995)

Highways: total: 28,200 km paved: 3,440 km unpaved: 24,760 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 12,800 km; 3,200 km navigable by large commercial vessels

Pipelines: crude oil 1,343 km; natural gas 330 km

Ports and harbors: Bassein, Bhamo, Chauk, Mandalay, Moulmein,
Myitkyina, Rangoon, Akyab (Sittwe), Tavoy

Merchant marine: total: 45 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 561,786 GRT/742,450 DWT ships by type: bulk 15, cargo 18, chemical tanker 1, container 2, oil tanker 3, passenger-cargo 3, refrigerated cargo 1, vehicle carrier 2 note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships of 2 countries: Japan owns 2 ships, US 3 (1997 est.)

Airports: 80 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 24 over 3,047 m: 3 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 12 914 to 1,523 m: 7 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 56 over 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 914 to 1,523 m: 19 under 914 m: 32 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1997 est.)

@Burma:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 12,208,916 females age 15-49: 11,983,225 (1998 est.) note: both sexes liable for military service

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 6,523,797 females: 6,387,291 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 488,818 females: 469,850 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $380 million (FY96/97 est.)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Burma:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: world's largest illicit producer of opium (cultivation in 1997-155,150 hectares, a 5% decline from 1996; potential production-2,365 metric tons, an 8% drop from 1996) and a minor producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; surrender of drug warlord KHUN SA's Mong Tai Army in January 1996 was hailed by Rangoon as a major counternarcotics success, but lack of serious government commitment and resources continue to hinder the overall antidrug effort; growing role in the production of methamphetamines for regional consumption

______________________________________________________________________

BURUNDI

Introduction

Current issues: in a number of waves since October 1993, hundreds of thousands of refugees have fled the ethnic violence between the Hutu and Tutsi factions in Burundi and crossed into Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zaire (now called Democratic Republic of the Congo); since October 1996, an estimated 92,000 Hutu refuguees have been forced to return to Burundi by Tutsi rebel forces in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, leaving an estimated 35,000 still dispersed there; in Burundi, the ethnic violence between the Hutus and the Tutsis continued in 1996, causing an additional 150,000 Hutus to flee to Tanzania, thus raising their numbers in that country to about 250,000

@Burundi:Geography

Location: Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates: 3 30 S, 30 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 27,830 sq km land: 25,650 sq km water: 2,180 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries: total: 974 km border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 233 km, Rwanda 290 km, Tanzania 451 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: equatorial; high plateau with considerable altitude variation (772 m to 2,760 m); average annual temperature varies with altitude from 23 to 17 degrees centigrade but is generally moderate as the average altitude is about 1,700 m; average annual rainfall is about 150 cm; wet seasons from February to May and September to November, and dry seasons from June to August and December to January

Terrain: hilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in east, some plains

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Lake Tanganyika 772 m highest point: Mount Heha 2,760 m

Natural resources: nickel, uranium, rare earth oxides, peat, cobalt, copper, platinum (not yet exploited), vanadium

Land use: arable land: 44% permanent crops: 9% permanent pastures: 36% forests and woodland: 3% other: 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 140 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding, landslides

Environment-current issues: soil erosion as a result of overgrazing and the expansion of agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation (little forested land remains because of uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel); habitat loss threatens wildlife populations

Environment-international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography-note: landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed

@Burundi:People

Population: 5,537,387 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 47% (male 1,313,112; female 1,309,600) 15-64 years: 50% (male 1,331,336; female 1,417,228) 65 years and over: 3% (male 69,718; female 96,393) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.51% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 41.61 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 17.38 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 10.84 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 101.19 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 45.56 years male: 43.79 years female: 47.38 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.4 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Burundian(s) adjective: Burundi

Ethnic groups: Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%,
Europeans 3,000, South Asians 2,000

Religions: Christian 67% (Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 5%), indigenous beliefs 32%, Muslim 1%

Languages: Kirundi (official), French (official), Swahili (along Lake
Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 35.3% male: 49.3% female: 22.5% (1995 est.)

@Burundi:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Burundi conventional short form: Burundi local long form: Republika y'u Burundi local short form: Burundi

Data code: BY

Government type: republic

National capital: Bujumbura

Administrative divisions: 15 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura, Bururi,
Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba,
Muramvya, Muyinga, Ngozi, Rutana, Ruyigi

Independence: 1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 July (1962)

Constitution: 13 March 1992; provides for establishment of a plural political system

Legal system: based on German and Belgian civil codes and customary law; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch: chief of state: President Pierre BUYOYA (interim president since 27 September 1996); note-former President NTIBANTUNGANYA was overthrown in a coup on 25 July 1996 and took refuge for 11 months in the US ambassador's residence in Bujumbura; former Major (retired) Pierre BUYOYA has not been recognized as president of Burundi by the US or most other governments head of government: Prime Minister Pascal-Firmin NDIMIRA (since 31 July 1996) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by prime minister elections: NA

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (81 seats; members are popularly elected on a proportional basis to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 29 June 1993 (scheduled to be held in 1998, although no date has been set) election results: percent of vote by party-FRODEBU 71%, UPRONA 21.4%; seats by party - FRODEBU 65, UPRONA 16; other parties won too small shares of the vote to win seats in the assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme

Political parties and leaders: Unity for National Progress or UPRONA
[Charles MUKASI, president]; Burundi Democratic Front or FRODEBU [Jean
MINANI, president]; Socialist Party of Burundi or PSB; People's
Reconciliation Party or PRP [Mathias HITIMANA, leader]; opposition
parties, legalized in March 1992, include Burundi African Alliance for
the Salvation or ABASA; Rally for Democracy and Economic and Social
Development or RADDES [Cyrille SIGEJEJE, chairman]; and Party for
National Redress or PARENA [Jean-Baptiste BAGAZA, leader]

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC,
CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Henri SIMBAKWTRA chancery: Suite 212, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007 telephone: [1] (202) 342-2574

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Morris N. HUGHES, Jr. (27 June l996) embassy: Avenue des Etats-Unis, Bujumbura mailing address: B. P. 1720, Bujumbura telephone: [257] (2) 223454 FAX: [257] (2) 222926

Flag description: divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels (top and bottom) and green panels (hoist side and outer side) with a white disk superimposed at the center bearing three red six-pointed stars outlined in green arranged in a triangular design (one star above, two stars below)

@Burundi:Economy

Economy-overview: Burundi is a landlocked, resource-poor country in an early stage of economic development. The economy is predominately agricultural with roughly 90% of the population dependent on subsistence agriculture. Its economic health depends on the coffee crop, which accounts for 80% of foreign exchange earnings. The ability to pay for imports therefore rests largely on the vagaries of the climate and the international coffee market. As part of its economic reform agenda, launched in February 1991 with IMF and World Bank support, Burundi is trying to diversify its agricultural exports, attract foreign investment in industry, and modernize government budgetary practices. Since October 1993 the nation has suffered from massive ethnic-based violence which has resulted in the death of perhaps 100,000 persons and the displacement of a million others. Foods, medicines, and electricity remain in short supply. An impoverished and disorganized government can hardly implement the needed reform programs.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$4 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 4.4% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$660 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 56% industry: 18% services: 26% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 26% (1996 est.)

Labor force: total: 1.9 million by occupation: agriculture 93.0%, government 4.0%, industry and commerce 1.5%, services 1.5% (1983 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $222 million expenditures: $258 million, including capital expenditures of $92 million (1995 est.)

Industries: light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap; assembly of imported components; public works construction; food processing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 43,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 158 million kWh (1995) note: imports some electricity from Democratic Republic of the Congo

Electricity-consumption per capita: 32 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: coffee, cotton, tea, corn, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, manioc (tapioca); meat, milk, hides

Exports: total value: $40 million (f.o.b., 1996) commodities: coffee 81%, tea, cotton, hides partners: EU 60%, US 7%, Asia 1%

Imports: total value: $127 million (c.i.f., 1996) commodities: capital goods 26%, petroleum products, foodstuffs, consumer goods partners: EU 47%, Asia 25%, US 6%

Debt-external: $1.1 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Burundi franc (FBu) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Burundi francs (FBu) per US$1-412.59 (January 1998), 352.35 (1997), 302.75 (1996), 249.76 (1995), 252.66 (1994), 242.78 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 7,200 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: primitive system domestic: sparse system of open wire, radiotelephone communications, and low-capacity microwave radio relay international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 4,500 (1993 est.)

@Burundi:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 14,480 km paved: 1,028 km unpaved: 13,452 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: Lake Tanganyika

Ports and harbors: Bujumbura

Airports: 4 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 1 over 3,047 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 2 under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Burundi:Military

Military branches: Army (includes naval and air units), paramilitary
Gendarmerie

Military manpower-military age: 16 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 1,203,518 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 627,587 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 69,030 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $25 million (1993)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2.6% (1993)

@Burundi:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

CAMBODIA

@Cambodia:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between
Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos

Geographic coordinates: 13 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area: total: 181,040 sq km land: 176,520 sq km water: 4,520 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Oklahoma

Land boundaries: total: 2,572 km border countries: Laos 541 km, Thailand 803 km, Vietnam 1,228 km

Coastline: 443 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: 200 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season
(December to April); little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m highest point: Phnum Aoral 1,810 m

Natural resources: timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese, phosphates, hydropower potential

Land use: arable land: 13% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 11% forests and woodland: 66% other: 10% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 920 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: monsoonal rains (June to November); flooding; occasional droughts

Environment-current issues: logging activities throughout the country and strip mining for gems in the western region along the border with Thailand are resulting in habitat loss and declining biodiversity (in particular, destruction of mangrove swamps threatens natural fisheries); deforestation; soil erosion; in rural areas, a majority of the population does not have access to potable water

Environment-international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Marine Life Conservation, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94 signed, but not ratified: Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

Geography-note: a land of paddies and forests dominated by the Mekong
River and Tonle Sap

@Cambodia:People

Population: 11,339,562 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 45% (male 2,611,684; female 2,533,313) 15-64 years: 52% (male 2,729,598; female 3,119,579) 65 years and over: 3% (male 142,836; female 202,552) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.51% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 41.63 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 16.49 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 106.76 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 47.99 years male: 46.64 years female: 49.41 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.81 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Cambodian(s) adjective: Cambodian

Ethnic groups: Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4%

Religions: Theravada Buddhism 95%, other 5%

Languages: Khmer (official), French

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 35% male: 48% female: 22% (1990 est.)

@Cambodia:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of Cambodia conventional short form: Cambodia local long form: Preahreacheanachakr Kampuchea local short form: Kampuchea

Data code: CB

Government type: multiparty liberal democracy under a constitutional monarchy established in September 1993

National capital: Phnom Penh

Administrative divisions: 20 provinces (khett, singular and plural)
and 3 municipalities* (krong, singular and plural); Banteay Mean
Cheay, Batdambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Spoe,
Kampong Thum, Kampot, Kandal, Kaoh Kong, Keb*, Kracheh, Mondol Kiri,
Otdar Mean Cheay, Phnum Penh*, Pouthisat, Preah Seihanu*
(Sihanoukville), Preah Vihear, Prey Veng, Rotanah Kiri, Siem Reab,
Stoeng Treng, Svay Rieng, Takev
note: there may be a new municipality called Pailin

Independence: 9 November 1949 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 9 November 1949

Constitution: promulgated 21 September 1993

Legal system: currently being defined

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: King Norodom SIHANOUK (reinstated 24 September 1993) head of government: power shared between First Prime Minister UNG HUOT (since NA August 1997) and Second Prime Minister HUN SEN (since NA 1993); note-former First Prime Minister Prince Norodom RANARIDDH deposed in July 1997 by forces loyal to HUN SEN cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the king elections: none; the king is a constitutional monarch; prime ministers appointed by the king

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (120 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 23 May 1993 (next to be held 26 July 1998) election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-FUNCINPEC 58, CPP 51, BLDP 10, MOLINAKA 1 note: the May 1993 elections were for the Constituent Assembly which became the National Assembly after the new constitution was promulgated in September 1993

Judicial branch: Supreme Council of the Magistracy, provided for in the constitution, was formed in December 1997

Political parties and leaders: National United Front for an
Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia (FUNCINPEC),
Prince NORODOM RANARIDDH; Cambodian Pracheachon Party or Cambodian
People's Party (CPP), CHEA SIM; Buddhist Liberal Democratic Party
(BLDP), SON SANN; Buddhist Liberal Party (BLP), IENG MOULY; National
Solidarity Party (also known as Democratic Kampuchea, also known as
the Khmer Rouge), KHIEU SAMPHAN; Movement Pour La Liberation Nationale
Khmere (MOLINAKA), PROM NEAKAREACH; Khmer Nation Party (KNP), SAM
RANGSI

International organization participation: ACCT, AsDB, ASEAN (observer), CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, NAM, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador VAR HUOTH chancery: 4500 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011 telephone: [1] (202) 726-7742 FAX: [1] (202) 726-8381

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Kenneth M. QUINN embassy: 27 EO Street 240, Phnom Penh mailing address: Box P, APO AP 96546 telephone: [855] (23) 216-436, 216-438 FAX: [855] (23) 216-437

Flag description: three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (double width), and blue with a white three-towered temple representing Angkor Wat outlined in black in the center of the red band

@Cambodia:Economy

Economy-overview: After four years of solid macroeconomic performance, Cambodia's economy slowed dramatically in 1997 due to the twin shocks of the regional economic crisis and the July violence and political infighting. Economic growth fell from 6.5% in 1996 to 1.5% in 1997, foreign investment slowed, and tourism declined 16% from 1996 levels. Despite these difficulties, inflation accelerated only slightly to 9.5%; the government managed to keep the national budget in balance even with increased expenditures on the military and police; and the economy ran a small balance of payments surplus. The future payments could be adversely affected by the currency crises in Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia, which tends to make Cambodia's exports more expensive at the same time imports from these countries become cheaper. The long-term development of the economy after decades of war remains a daunting challenge. Human resource levels in the population are low, particularly in the poverty-ridden countryside. The almost total lack of basic infrastructure in the countryside will continue to hinder development. Recurring political instability hinders foreign investment. Corruption and inexperience among Cambodia's government officials will serve as a further drag on the economy.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$7.7 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 1.5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$715 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 47.3% industry: 15.4% services: 37.3% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 9.5% (1997 est.)

Labor force: 2.5 million to 3 million by occupation: agriculture 80% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $261 million expenditures: $496 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1995 est.)

Industries: rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber, cement, gem mining, textiles

Industrial production growth rate: 7% (1995 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 35,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 190 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 18 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: rice, rubber, corn, vegetables

Exports: total value: $615 million (1996 est.) commodities: timber, garments, rubber, soybeans, sesame partners: Singapore, Japan, Thailand, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, US

Imports: total value: $1 billion (1996 est.) commodities: cigarettes, construction materials, petroleum products, machinery, motor vehicles partners: Singapore, Vietnam, Japan, Australia, Hong Kong, Indonesia

Debt-external: $2.2 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA note: international donors pledged a total of $1.8 billion in 1995 and 1996

Currency: 1 new riel (CR) = 100 sen

Exchange rates: riels (CR) per US$1-3,537.0 (January 1998), 2,946.3 (1997), 2,624.1 (1996), 2,450.8 (1995), 2,545.3 (1994), 2,689.0 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 7,000 (1981 est.)

Telephone system: service barely adequate for government requirements and virtually nonexistent for general public domestic: NA international: landline international service limited to Vietnam and other adjacent countries; satellite earth station-1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 10, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 5

Televisions: 800,000 (1996 est.)

@Cambodia:Transportation

Railways: total: 603 km narrow gauge: 603 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways: total: 35,769 km paved: 4,165 km unpaved: 31,604 km (1997 est.)

Waterways: 3,700 km navigable all year to craft drawing 0.6 m; 282 km navigable to craft drawing 1.8 m

Ports and harbors: Kampong Saom (Sihanoukville), Kampot, Krong Kaoh
Kong, Phnom Penh

Merchant marine: total: 87 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 390,566 GRT/556,743 DWT ships by type: bulk 10, cargo 66, container 2, livestock carrier 2, oil tankers 3, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 3 note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships of 7 countries: Aruba 1, Cyprus 8, Egypt 1, South Korea 1, Malta 1, Panama 1, Russia 5 (1997 est.)

Airports: 20 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 7 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 3 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 13 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 10 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 3 (1997 est.)

@Cambodia:Military

Military branches: Royal Cambodian Armed Forces (RCAF)-created in 1993 by the merger of the Cambodian People's Armed Forces and the two noncommunist resistance armies note: there are also resistance forces comprised of the Khmer Rouge (also known as the National United Army or NUA) and a separate royalist resistance movement

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 2,477,842 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 1,381,787 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 113,098 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $160 million (1996)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Cambodia:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: offshore islands and sections of the boundary with Vietnam are in dispute; maritime boundary with Vietnam not defined; parts of border with Thailand are indefinite; maritime boundary with Thailand not clearly defined

Illicit drugs: transshipment site for Golden Triangle heroin en route to West; possible money-laundering; high-level narcotics-related corruption reportedly involving government, military, and police; possible small-scale opium, heroin, and amphetamine production; large producer of cannabis for the international market

______________________________________________________________________

CAMEROON

@Cameroon:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between
Equatorial Guinea and Nigeria

Geographic coordinates: 6 00 N, 12 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 475,440 sq km land: 469,440 sq km water: 6,000 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries:
total: 4,591 km
border countries: Central African Republic 797 km, Chad 1,094 km,
Republic of the Congo 523 km, Equatorial Guinea 189 km, Gabon 298 km,
Nigeria 1,690 km

Coastline: 402 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 50 nm

Climate: varies with terrain, from tropical along coast to semiarid and hot in north

Terrain: diverse, with coastal plain in southwest, dissected plateau in center, mountains in west, plains in north

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Fako 4,095 m

Natural resources: petroleum, bauxite, iron ore, timber, hydropower potential

Land use: arable land: 13% permanent crops: 2% permanent pastures: 4% forests and woodland: 78% other: 3% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 210 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: recent volcanic activity with release of poisonous gases

Environment-current issues: water-borne diseases are prevalent; deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; poaching; overfishing

Environment-international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94 signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban

Geography-note: sometimes referred to as the hinge of Africa

@Cameroon:People

Population: 15,029,433 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 46% (male 3,468,861; female 3,436,814) 15-64 years: 51% (male 3,795,748; female 3,829,824) 65 years and over: 3% (male 224,881; female 273,305) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.81% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 42.06 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 13.96 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 76.88 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 51.44 years male: 49.9 years female: 53.03 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.86 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Cameroonian(s) adjective: Cameroonian

Ethnic groups: Cameroon Highlanders 31%, Equatorial Bantu 19%, Kirdi 11%, Fulani 10%, Northwestern Bantu 8%, Eastern Nigritic 7%, other African 13%, non-African less than 1%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 51%, Christian 33%, Muslim 16%

Languages: 24 major African language groups, English (official),
French (official)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 63.4% male: 75% female: 52.1% (1995 est.)

@Cameroon:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Cameroon conventional short form: Cameroon former: French Cameroon

Data code: CM

Government type: unitary republic; multiparty presidential regime (opposition parties legalized 1990)

National capital: Yaounde

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces; Adamaoua, Centre, Est,
Extreme-Nord, Littoral, Nord, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Ouest

Independence: 1 January 1960 (from UN trusteeship under French administration)

National holiday: National Day, 20 May (1972)

Constitution: 20 May 1972

Legal system: based on French civil law system, with common law influence; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Paul BIYA (since 6 November 1982) head of government: Prime Minister Peter Mafany MUSONGE (since 19 September 1996) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held 12 October 1997 (next to be held NA October 2004); prime minister appointed by the president election results: President Paul BIYA reelected; percent of vote-Paul BIYA 93%; note - supporters of the opposition candidates boycotted the elections, making a comparison of vote shares relatively meaningless

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (180 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms; note-the president can either lengthen or shorten the term of the legislature) elections: last held 11 May 1997 (next to be held NA 2002) election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-CDPM 109, SDF 43, UNDP 13, UDC 5, UPC-K 1, MDR 1, MLJC 1; note-7 contested seats will be filled in an election at a time to be set by the Supreme Court note: the constitution calls for an upper chamber for the legislature, to be called Senate, which the government says will be established in 1998

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Cameroon People's Democratic Movement or CPDM (government-controlled and the only party until legalization of opposition parties in 1990) [Paul BIYA, president] major opposition parties: Cameroonian Democratic Union or UDC [Adamou NDAM NJOYA]; Movement for the Defense of the Republic or MDR [Dakole DAISSALA, leader]; Movement for the Youth of Cameroon or MLJC [ Marcel YANDO, leader]; National Union for Democracy and Progress or UNDP [Maigari BELLO BOUBA, chairman]; Social Democratic Front or SDF [John FRU NDI, leader]; Union of Cameroonian Populations or UPC [Augustin Frederick KODOG, leader]; Union of Cameroonian Democratic Forces or UFOC [Victorin Hameni BIELEU]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Alliance for Change or FAC;
Cameroon Anglophone Movement or CAM [Vishe FAI, secretary general]

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, C,
CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-19, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UNITAR, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Jerome MENDOUGA chancery: 2349 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 265-8790 through 8794

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Charles H. TWINING embassy: Rue Nachtigal, Yaounde mailing address: B. P. 817, Yaounde; Pouch: American Embassy DOS, Washington, DC 20521-2520 telephone: [237] 23-40-14, 23-05-12 FAX: [237] 23-07-53

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), red, and yellow with a yellow five-pointed star centered in the red band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

@Cameroon:Economy

Economy-overview: Because of its oil resources and favorable agricultural conditions, Cameroon has one of the best-endowed primary commodity economies in sub-Saharan Africa. Still, it faces many of the serious problems facing other underdeveloped countries, such as a top-heavy civil service and a generally unfavorable climate for business enterprise. The development of the oil sector led to rapid economic growth between 1970 and 1985. Growth came to an abrupt halt in 1986, precipitated by steep declines in the prices of major exports: petroleum, coffee, and cocoa. Export earnings were cut by almost one-third, and inefficiencies in fiscal management were exposed. Since 1990, the government has embarked on various IMF and World Bank programs designed to spur business investment, increase efficiency in agriculture, improve trade, and recapitalize the nation's banks. The government, however, failed to press forward vigorously with these programs. The latest enhanced structural adjustment agreement was signed in October 1997; the parties hope this will prove more successful, yet government mismanagement remains a problem. Inflation, which rose to 48% after the devaluation of 1994, has been brought back under control. Progress toward privatization of remaining state industry remains slow. President BIYA's new government of December 1997 has replaced old hands in the government economic control structure with promising technocrats.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$30.9 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$2,100 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 32% industry: 27% services: 41% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 3% (1997 est.)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $2.23 billion expenditures: $2.23 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY96/97 est.)

Industries: petroleum production and refining, food processing, light consumer goods, textiles, lumber

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 627,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 2.715 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 201 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: coffee, cocoa, cotton, rubber, bananas, oilseed, grains, root starches; livestock; timber

Exports: total value: $1.9 billion (f.o.b., 1996) commodities: crude oil and petroleum products, lumber, cocoa beans, aluminum, coffee, cotton partners: EU (particularly France, Italy, and Spain) about 60%, African countries, Korea, Taiwan, and China

Imports: total value: $1.5 billion (f.o.b., 1996) commodities: machines and electrical equipment, food, consumer goods, transport equipment, petroleum products partners: EU (France 40%), African countries, US 7%

Debt-external: $10 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid: France signed two loan agreements totaling $55 million in September 1997 and the Paris Club agreed in October 1997 to reduce the official debt by 50% and to reschedule it on favorable terms with a consolidation of payments due through 2000

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1-608.36 (January 1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993) note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications

Telephones: 36,737 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: available only to business and government domestic: cable, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 11, FM 11, shortwave 0

Radios: 2 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: NA

@Cameroon:Transportation

Railways: total: 1,104 km narrow gauge: 1,104 km 1.000-m gauge (1995 est.)

Highways: total: 34,300 km paved: 4,288 km unpaved: 30,012 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 2,090 km; of decreasing importance

Ports and harbors: Bonaberi, Douala, Garoua, Kribi, Tiko

Merchant marine: total: 2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 24,122 GRT/33,509 DWT (1996 est.)

Airports: 52 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 11 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 41 1,524 to 2,437 m: 8 914 to 1,523 m: 19 under 914 m: 14 (1997 est.)

@Cameroon:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Naval Infantry), Air Force,
National Gendarmerie, Presidential Guard

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 3,287,626 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 1,663,852 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 160,640 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $102 million (FY93/94)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Cameroon:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: demarcation of international boundaries in the vicinity of Lake Chad, the lack of which led to border incidents in the past, is completed and awaits ratification by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria; dispute with Nigeria over land and maritime boundaries in the vicinity of the Bakasi Peninsula has been referred to the ICJ with a ruling expected in 1998

______________________________________________________________________

CANADA

@Canada:Geography

Location: Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and North Pacific Ocean, north of the conterminous US

Geographic coordinates: 60 00 N, 95 00 W

Map references: North America

Area: total: 9,976,140 sq km land: 9,220,970 sq km water: 755,170 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly larger than US

Land boundaries: total: 8,893 km border countries: US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)

Coastline: 243,791 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north

Terrain: mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Mount Logan 5,950 m

Natural resources: nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas

Land use: arable land: 5% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 3% forests and woodland: 54% other: 38% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 7,100 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow

Environment-current issues: air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea, Marine Life
Conservation

Geography-note: second-largest country in world (after Russia); strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route; nearly 90% of the population is concentrated within 160 km of the US/Canada border

@Canada:People

Population: 30,675,398 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 20% (male 3,106,331; female 2,961,328) 15-64 years: 68% (male 10,457,686; female 10,328,953) 65 years and over: 12% (male 1,619,704; female 2,201,396) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.09% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 12.12 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 7.25 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 6.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.59 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 79.16 years male: 75.86 years female: 82.63 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.65 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Canadian(s) adjective: Canadian

Ethnic groups: British Isles origin 40%, French origin 27%, other
European 20%, Amerindian 1.5%, other, mostly Asian 11.5%

Religions: Roman Catholic 45%, United Church 12%, Anglican 8%, other 35% (1991)

Languages: English (official), French (official)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 97% (1986 est.) male: NA% female: NA%

@Canada:Government

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Canada

Data code: CA

Government type: federation with parliamentary democracy

National capital: Ottawa

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces and 2 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory* note: the Northwest Territories will be split in two as of April 1999; the eastern section, which will be self-governing, will be renamed Nunavut, the west is as yet unnamed

Independence: 1 July 1867 (from UK)

National holiday: Canada Day, 1 July (1867)

Constitution: 17 April 1982 (Constitution Act); originally, the machinery of the government was set up in the British North America Act of 1867; charter of rights and unwritten customs

Legal system: based on English common law, except in Quebec, where civil law system based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Romeo LeBLANC (since 8 February 1995) head of government: Prime Minister Jean CHRETIEN (since 4 November 1993) cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister from among the members of his own party sitting in Parliament elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor general appointed by the queen on the advice of the prime minister for a five-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party in the House of Commons is automatically designated by the governor general to become prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat (a body whose members are appointed to serve until reaching 75 years of age by the governor general and selected on the advice of the prime minister; its normal limit is 104 senators) and the House of Commons or Chambre des Communes (301 seats; members elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: House of Commons-last held 2 June 1997 (next to be held by NA June 2002) election results: percent of votes by party-Liberal Party 38%, Reform Party 19%, Tories 19%, Bloc Quebecois 11%, New Democratic Party 11%, other 2%; seats by party - Liberal Party 155, Reform Party 60, Bloc Quebecois 44, New Democratic Party 21, Progressive Conservative Party 20, independents 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the prime minister through the governor general

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Party [Jean CHRETIEN]; Bloc
Quebecois [Gilles DUCEPPE]; Reform Party [Preston MANNING]; New
Democratic Party [Alexa MCDONOUGH]; Progressive Conservative Party
[Jean CHAREST]

International organization participation: ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer),
APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE
(observer), CP, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, ESA (cooperating state), FAO,
G- 7, G- 8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol,
IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MIPONUH, MTCR, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS,
OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNPREDEP, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Raymond A. J. CHRETIEN chancery: 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20001 telephone: [1] (202) 682-1740 FAX: [1] (202) 682-7726 consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Dallas, Detroit, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, New York, and Seattle consulate(s): Miami, Princeton, San Diego, San Francisco, and San Jose

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Gordon GIFFIN embassy: 100 Wellington Street, K1P 5T1, Ottawa mailing address: P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburg, NY 13669-0430 telephone: [1] (613) 238-5335, 4470 FAX: [1] (613) 238-5720 consulate(s) general: Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto, and Vancouver

Flag description: three vertical bands of red (hoist side), white (double width, square), and red with a red maple leaf centered in the white band

@Canada:Economy

Economy-overview: As an affluent, high-tech industrial society, Canada today closely resembles the US in its market-oriented economic system, pattern of production, and high living standards. Since World War II, the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. Canada started the 1990s in recession, and real rates of growth have averaged only 1.1% so far this decade. Because of slower growth, Canada still faces high unemployment-especially in Quebec and the Maritime Provinces-and a large public sector debt. With its great natural resources, skilled labor force, and modern capital plant, however, Canada will enjoy better economic prospects in the future. The continuing constitutional impasse between English- and French-speaking areas is raising the possibility of a split in the federation, making foreign investors somewhat edgy.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$658 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3.5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$21,700 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 3% industry: 31% services: 66% (1997)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 1.8% (1997)

Labor force: total: 15.3 million (1997) by occupation: services 75%, manufacturing 16%, agriculture 3%, construction 5%, other 1% (1997)

Unemployment rate: 8.6% (December 1997)

Budget: revenues: $106.5 billion expenditures: $117.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.7 billion (1996)

Industries: processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper products, transportation equipment, chemicals, fish products, petroleum and natural gas

Industrial production growth rate: 1.7% (1997 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 113.645 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 532.64 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 17,448 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits, vegetables; dairy products; forest products; commercial fisheries provide annual catch of 1.5 million metric tons, of which 75% is exported

Exports: total value: $208.6 billion (f.o.b., 1997) commodities: newsprint, wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, machinery, natural gas, aluminum, motor vehicles and parts; telecommunications equipment partners: US, Japan, UK, Germany, South Korea, Netherlands, China

Imports: total value: $194.4 billion (c.i.f., 1997) commodities: crude oil, chemicals, motor vehicles and parts, durable consumer goods, computers; telecommunications equipment and parts partners: US, Japan, UK, Germany, France, Mexico, Taiwan, South Korea

Debt-external: $253 billion (1996)

Economic aid: donor: ODA, $1.6 billion (1995) note: ODA and OOF commitments, $10.1 billion (1986-91)

Currency: 1 Canadian dollar (Can$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Canadian dollars (Can$) per US$1-1.4408 (January 1998), 1.3846 (1997), 1.3635 (1996), 1.37241 (1995), 1.3656 (1994), 1.2901 (1993)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 15.3 million (1990)

Telephone system: excellent service provided by modern technology domestic: domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations international: 5 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations-5 Intelsat (4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) and 2 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 900, FM 29, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 70 (repeaters 1,400) (1991)

Televisions: 11.53 million (1983 est.)

@Canada:Transportation

Railways: total: 72,963 km; note-there are two major transcontinental freight railway systems: Canadian National (privatized November 1995) and Canadian Pacific Railway; passenger service provided by government-operated firm VIA, which has no trackage of its own standard gauge: 72,963 km 1.435-m gauge (183 km electrified) (1996)

Highways: total: 1.021 million km paved: 358,371 km (including 19,000 km of expressways) unpaved: 662,629 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 3,000 km, including Saint Lawrence Seaway

Pipelines: crude and refined oil 23,564 km; natural gas 74,980 km

Ports and harbors: Becancour (Quebec), Churchill, Halifax, Hamilton,
Montreal, New Westminster, Prince Rupert, Quebec, Saint John (New
Brunswick), Saint John's (Newfoundland), Sept Isles, Sydney,
Trois-Rivieres, Thunder Bay, Toronto, Vancouver, Windsor

Merchant marine: total: 57 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 638,267 GRT/902,923 DWT ships by type: bulk 10, cargo 9, chemical tanker 4, oil tanker 16, passenger 2, passenger-cargo 1, railcar carrier 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 7, short-sea passenger 5, specialized tanker 1 note: does not include ships used exclusively in the Great Lakes (1997 est.)

Airports: 1,393 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 515 over 3,047 m: 17 2,438 to 3,047 m: 16 1,524 to 2,437 m: 149 914 to 1,523 m: 240 under 914 m: 93 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 878 1,524 to 2,437 m: 73 914 to 1,523 m: 350 under 914 m: 455 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 17 (1997 est.)

@Canada:Military

Military branches: Canadian Armed Forces (includes Land Forces Command
or LC, Maritime Command or MC, Air Command or AC, Communications
Command or CC, Training Command or TC), Royal Canadian Mounted Police
(RCMP)

Military manpower-military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 8,200,963 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 7,033,996 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 209,679 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $7.1 billion (FY97/98)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.2% (FY97/98)

@Canada:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: maritime boundary disputes with the US (Dixon
Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, Machias Seal Island)

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug market; use of hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large quantities of high-quality marijuana indoors; growing role as a transit point for heroin and cocaine entering the US market

______________________________________________________________________

CAPE VERDE

@Cape Verde:Geography

Location: Western Africa, group of Islands in the North Atlantic
Ocean, west of Senegal

Geographic coordinates: 16 00 N, 24 00 W

Map references: World

Area: total: 4,030 sq km land: 4,030 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly larger than Rhode Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 965 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; warm, dry summer; precipitation meager and very erratic

Terrain: steep, rugged, rocky, volcanic

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Pico 2,829 m

Natural resources: salt, basalt rock, pozzuolana (a siliceous volcanic ash used to produce hydraulic cement), limestone, kaolin, fish

Land use: arable land: 11% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 6% forests and woodland: 0% other: 83% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 30 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: prolonged droughts; harmattan wind can obscure visibility; volcanically and seismically active

Environment-current issues: overgrazing of livestock and improper land use such as the cultivation of crops on steep slopes has led to soil erosion; demand for wood used as fuel has resulted in deforestation; desertification; environmental damage has threatened several species of birds and reptiles; overfishing

Environment-international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: strategic location 500 km from west coast of Africa near major north-south sea routes; important communications station; important sea and air refueling site

@Cape Verde:People

Population: 399,857 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 46% (male 92,175; female 90,557) 15-64 years: 48% (male 90,183; female 102,541) 65 years and over: 6% (male 9,765; female 14,636) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.49% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 34.47 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 7.04 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -12.54 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 47.53 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 70.5 years male: 67.21 years female: 73.89 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.08 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Cape Verdean(s) adjective: Cape Verdean

Ethnic groups: Creole (mulatto) 71%, African 28%, European 1%

Religions: Roman Catholicism fused with indigenous beliefs

Languages: Portuguese, Crioulo, a blend of Portuguese and West African words

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 71.6% male: 81.4% female: 63.8% (1995 est.)

@Cape Verde:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Cape Verde conventional short form: Cape Verde local long form: Republica de Cabo Verde local short form: Cabo Verde

Data code: CV

Government type: republic

National capital: Praia

Administrative divisions: 14 districts (concelhos, singular-concelho);
Boa Vista, Brava, Fogo, Maio, Paul, Praia, Porto Novo, Ribeira Grande,
Sal, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz, Sao Nicolau, Sao Vicente, Tarrafal
note: there may be a new administrative structure of 16 districts (Boa
Vista, Brava, Maio, Mosteiros, Paul, Praia, Porto Novo, Ribeira
Grande, Sal, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz, Sao Domingos, Sao Nicolau,
Sao Filipe, Sao Vicente, Tarrafa)

Independence: 5 July 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 5 July (1975)

Constitution: new constitution came into force 25 September 1992

Legal system: derived from the legal system of Portugal

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Antonio MASCARENHAS Monteiro (since 22 March 1991) head of government: Prime Minister Carlos Alberto Wahnon de Carvalho VEIGA (since 13 January 1991) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister from among the members of the National Assembly elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 18 February 1996 (next to be held NA February 2001); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly and appointed by the president election results: Antonio MASCARENHAS Monteiro elected president; percent of vote-Antonio MASCARENHAS Monteiro (independent) 80.1%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (72 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 17 December 1995 (next to be held NA 2000) election results: percent of vote by party-MPD 59%, PAICV 28%, PCD 6%; seats by party - MPD 50, PAICV 21, PCD 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal of Justice or Supremo Tribunal de
Justia

Political parties and leaders: Movement for Democracy or MPD [Prime
Minister Carlos VEIGA, founder and president]; African Party for
Independence of Cape Verde or PAICV [Pedro Verona Rodrigues PIRES,
chairman]; Party for Democratic Convergence or PCD; Social Democratic
Party or PSD [Joao ALEM, president]

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA,
ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Deputy Chief of Mission is Charge d'Affaires Manuel MATOS chancery: 3415 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007 telephone: [1] (202) 965-6820 FAX: [1] (202) 965-1207 consulate(s) general: Boston

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Lawrence Neal BENEDICT (17 June 1996) embassy: Rua Abilio Macedo 81, Praia mailing address: C. P. 201, Praia telephone: [238] 61 56 16 FAX: [238] 61 13 55

Flag description: three horizontal bands of light blue (top, double width), white (with a horizontal red stripe in the middle third), and light blue; a circle of 10 yellow five-pointed stars is centered on the hoist end of the red stripe and extends into the upper and lower blue bands

@Cape Verde:Economy

Economy-overview: Cape Verde's low per capita GDP reflects a poor natural resource base, serious water shortages exacerbated by cycles of long-term drought, and a high birth rate. The economy is service-oriented, with commerce, transport, and public services accounting for almost 70% of GDP. Although nearly 70% of the population lives in rural areas, the share of agriculture in GDP in 1995 was only 8%, of which fishing accounts for 1.5%. About 90% of food must be imported. The fishing potential, mostly lobster and tuna, is not fully exploited. Cape Verde annually runs a high trade deficit, financed by foreign aid and remittances from emigrants; remittances constitute a supplement to GDP of more than 20%. Economic reforms, launched by the new democratic government in 1991, are aimed at developing the private sector and attracting foreign investment to diversify the economy. Prospects for 1998 depend heavily on the maintenance of aid flows, remittances, and the momentum of the government's development program.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$538 million (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 4.5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,370 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 8% industry: 18% services: 74% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 6.2% (1996)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA %

Budget: revenues: $188 million expenditures: $228 million, including capital expenditures of $116 million (1996)

Industries: food and beverages, fish processing, shoes and garments, salt mining, ship repair,

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 7,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 40 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 92 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: bananas, corn, beans, sweet potatoes, sugarcane, coffee, peanuts; fish

Exports: total value: $12.8 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.) commodities: shoes, garments, fish, bananas, hides, partners: Portugal, Spain, France, UK

Imports: total value: $237 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.) commodities: foodstuffs, consumer goods, industrial products, transport equipment, fuels partners: Portugal 41%, Netherlands, France, Spain, US

Debt-external: $202 million (1996)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $70 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Cape Verdean escudo (CVEsc) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Cape Verdean escudos (CVEsc) per US$1-95.400 (December 1997), 93.177 (1997), 82.591 (1996), 76.853 (1995), 81.891 (1994), 80.427 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 22,900 (1995 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: interisland microwave radio relay system with both analog and digital exchanges; work is in progress on a submarine fiber-optic cable system scheduled for completion in 1998 international: 2 coaxial submarine cables; HF radiotelephone to Senegal and Guinea-Bissau; satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 6, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997 est.)

Televisions: 7,000 (1991 est.)

@Cape Verde:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 1,100 km paved: 858 km unpaved: 242 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Mindelo, Praia, Tarrafal

Merchant marine: total: 4 (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 9,620 GRT/13,920 DWT ships by type: cargo 3, chemical tanker 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 6 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 6 over 3,047 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 5 (1997 est.)

@Cape Verde:Military

Military branches: People's Revolutionary Armed Forces (FARP; includes
Army and Navy), Security Service

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 81,265 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 46,235 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $3.4 million (1994)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2.2% (1997 est.)

@Cape Verde:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: increasingly used as a transshipment point for illicit drugs moving from Latin America and Africa destined for Western Europe

______________________________________________________________________

CAYMAN ISLANDS

(dependent territory of the UK)

@Cayman Islands:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island group in Caribbean Sea, nearly one-half of the way from Cuba to Honduras

Geographic coordinates: 19 30 N, 80 30 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 260 sq km land: 260 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 160 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; warm, rainy summers (May to October) and cool, relatively dry winters (November to April)

Terrain: low-lying limestone base surrounded by coral reefs

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: The Bluff 43 m

Natural resources: fish, climate and beaches that foster tourism

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 8% forests and woodland: 23% other: 69% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes (July to November)

Environment-current issues: no natural fresh water resources, drinking water supplies must be met by rainwater catchment

Environment-international agreements: party to: NA signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: important location between Cuba and Central America

@Cayman Islands:People

Population: 37,716 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: NA 15-64 years: NA 65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 4.22% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 13.95 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 4.98 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 33.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.) note: major destination for Cubans trying to migrate to the US

Infant mortality rate: 8.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.1 years male: 75.37 years female: 78.81 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.34 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Caymanian(s) adjective: Caymanian

Ethnic groups: mixed 40%, white 20%, black 20%, expatriates of various ethnic groups 20%

Religions: United Church (Presbyterian and Congregational), Anglican,
Baptist, Roman Catholic, Church of God, other Protestant denominations

Languages: English

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school total population: 98% male: 98% female: 98% (1970 est.)

@Cayman Islands:Government

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Cayman Islands

Data code: CJ

Dependency status: dependent territory of the UK

Government type: NA

National capital: George Town

Administrative divisions: 8 districts; Creek, Eastern, Midland, South
Town, Spot Bay, Stake Bay, West End, Western

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Constitution Day (first Monday in July)

Constitution: 1959, revised 1972 and 1992

Legal system: British common law and local statutes

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952) head of government: Governor and President of the Executive Council John Wynne OWEN (since 15 September 1995) cabinet: Executive Council (three members appointed by the governor, four members elected by the Legislative Assembly) elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; the governor is appointed by the queen

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (18 seats, 3 official members and 15 elected by popular vote; members serve four-year terms) elections: last held 20 November 1996 (next to be held NA November 2000) election results: percent of vote-NA; seats-National Team coalition 9, independents 6

Judicial branch: Grand Court; Cayman Islands Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: no formal political parties

International organization participation: Caricom (observer), CDB,
Interpol (subbureau), IOC

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (dependent territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Flag description: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Caymanian coat of arms on a white disk centered on the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms includes a pineapple and turtle above a shield with three stars (representing the three islands) and a scroll at the bottom bearing the motto HE HATH FOUNDED IT UPON THE SEAS

@Cayman Islands:Economy

Economy-overview: With no direct taxation, the Islands are a thriving offshore financial center; 28,000 foreign companies do business with the 600 registered banks and trust companies; banking assets exceed $500 billion. Tourism is also a mainstay, accounting for about 70% of GDP and 75% of foreign currency earnings. The tourist industry is aimed at the luxury market and caters mainly to visitors from North America. Total tourist arrivals exceeded 1 million visitors in 1995 and again in 1996. About 90% of the islands' food and consumer goods must be imported. The Caymanians enjoy one of the highest outputs per capita and one of the highest standards of living in the world.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$860 million (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 4.5% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$23,800 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 1.4% industry: 3.2% services: 95.4% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 2.1% (1996 est.)

Labor force: total: 8,061 by occupation: service workers 18.7%, clerical 18.6%, construction 12.5%, finance and investment 6.7%, directors and business managers 5.9% (1979)

Unemployment rate: 7% (1992)

Budget: revenues: $141.5 million expenditures: $160.7 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1991)

Industries: tourism, banking, insurance and finance, construction, construction materials, furniture

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 75,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 230 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 6,929 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: vegetables, fruit; livestock; turtle farming

Exports: total value: $3.4 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.) commodities: turtle products, manufactured consumer goods partners: mostly US

Imports: total value: $333 million (c.i.f., 1995 est.) commodities: foodstuffs, manufactured goods partners: US, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, Netherlands Antilles, Japan

Debt-external: $NA

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Caymanian dollar (CI$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Caymanian dollars (CI$) per US$1-0.83 (3 November 1995), 0.85 (22 November 1993)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 21,584 (1993 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: 1 submarine coaxial cable; satellite earth station-1
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 28,200 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1995)

Televisions: 6,000 (1992 est.)

@Cayman Islands:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 406 km paved: 304 km unpaved: 102 km

Ports and harbors: Cayman Brac, George Town

Merchant marine: total: 54 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 751,113 GRT/1,139,958 DWT ships by type: bulk 4, cargo 8, chemical tanker 4, container 5, oil tanker 6, refrigerated cargo 18, roll-on/roll-off cargo 7, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 1 note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 10 countries: Greece 11, US 8, UK 5, Cyprus 1, Finland 1, India 1, Japan 1, Norway 1, Sweden 1, and Switzerland 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 3 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Cayman Islands:Military

Military branches: Royal Cayman Islands Police Force (RCIPF)

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

@Cayman Islands:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: vulnerable to drug money-laundering and drug transshipment

______________________________________________________________________

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

Introduction

Current issues: In 1996, the Central African Republic experienced three mutinies by dissident elements of the armed forces, which demanded back pay as well as political and military reforms. Continuing violence in 1997 between the government and rebel military groups over pay issues, living conditions, and lack of opposition party representation in the government has destroyed many businesses in the capital, reducing tax revenues and exacerbating the government's problems in meeting expenses.

@Central African Republic:Geography

Location: Central Africa, north of Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates: 7 00 N, 21 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 622,980 sq km land: 622,980 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries: total: 5,203 km border countries: Cameroon 797 km, Chad 1,197 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,577 km, Republic of the Congo 467 km, Sudan 1,165 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical; hot, dry winters; mild to hot, wet summers

Terrain: vast, flat to rolling, monotonous plateau; scattered hills in northeast and southwest

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Oubangui River 335 m highest point: Mount Gaou 1,420 m

Natural resources: diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, oil

Land use: arable land: 3% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 5% forests and woodland: 75% other: 17% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds affect northern areas; floods are common

Environment-current issues: tap water is not potable; poaching has diminished its reputation as one of the last great wildlife refuges; desertification; deforestation

Environment-international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 94 signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography-note: landlocked; almost the precise center of Africa

@Central African Republic:People

Population: 3,375,771 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 44% (male 745,128; female 737,879) 15-64 years: 52% (male 864,263; female 906,656) 65 years and over: 4% (male 55,051; female 66,794) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.02% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 38.72 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 16.75 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.78 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 105.73 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 46.82 years male: 45.02 years female: 48.68 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.12 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Central African(s) adjective: Central African

Ethnic groups: Baya 34%, Banda 27%, Sara 10%, Mandjia 21%, Mboum 4%,
M'Baka 4%, Europeans 6,500 (including 3,600 French)

Religions: indigenous beliefs 24%, Protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, Muslim 15%, other 11% note: animistic beliefs and practices strongly influence the Christian majority

Languages: French (official), Sangho (lingua franca and national language), Arabic, Hunsa, Swahili

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 60% male: 68.5% female: 52.4% (1995 est.)

@Central African Republic:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Central African Republic conventional short form: none local long form: Republique Centrafricaine local short form: none former: Central African Empire abbreviation: CAR

Data code: CT

Government type: republic

National capital: Bangui

Administrative divisions: 14 prefectures (prefectures, singular-prefecture), 2 economic prefectures* (prefectures economiques, singular-prefecture economique), and 1 commune**; Bamingui-Bangoran, Bangui**, Basse-Kotto, Gribingui*, Haute-Kotto, Haute-Sangha, Haut-Mbomou, Kemo-Gribingui, Lobaye, Mbomou, Nana-Mambere, Ombella-Mpoko, Ouaka, Ouham, Ouham-Pende, Sangha*, Vakaga

Independence: 13 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: National Day, 1 December (1958) (proclamation of the republic)

Constitution: passed by referendum 29 December 1994; adopted 7 January 1995

Legal system: based on French law

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Ange PATASSE (since 22 October 1993) head of government: Prime Minister Michel GBEZERA-BRIA (since January 1997) cabinet: Council of Ministers elections: president elected by popular vote for a 6-year term; election last held 19 September 1993 (next to be held NA 1999); prime minister appointed by the president election results: Ange PATASSE elected president; percent of vote-PATASSE 52.45%, Abel GOUMBA 45.62%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (85 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 19 September 1993 (next to be held NA 1998) election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-MLPC 34, RDC 13, PLD 7, FPP 7, ADP 6, PSD 3, CN 3, MDREC 1, PRC 1, FC 1, MESAN 1, independents supporting David DACKO 6, other independents 2 note: the National Assembly is advised by the Economic and Regional Council or Conseil Economique et Regional; when they sit together they are called the Congress or Congres

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme, judges appointed by the president; Constitutional Court, judges appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Democracy and Progress or
ADP [Tchapka BREDE]; Central African Democratic Assembly or RDC [Andre
KOLINGBA]; Central African Republican Party or PRC; Civic Forum or FC
[Gen. Timothee MALENDOMA]; Democratic Movement for the Renaissance and
Evolution of Central Africa or MDREC [Joseph BENDOUNGA]; Liberal
Democratic Party or PLD [Nestor KOMBO-NAGUEMON]; Movement for the
Liberation of the Central African People or MLPC [the party of the
president, Ange Felix PATASSE]; Movement for Democracy and Development
or MDD [David DACKO]; National Convention or CN [David GALIAMBO];
Patriotic Front for Progress or FPP [Abel GOUMBA]; Social Democratic
Party or PSD [Enoch Derant LAKOUE]; Social Evolution Movement of Black
Africa or MESAN [Prosper LAVODRAMA and Joseph NGBANGADIBO]

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC,
CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC
(observer), UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Henri KOBA chancery: 1618 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 462 2517 FAX: [1] (202) 462 2517

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mosina H. JORDAN embassy: Avenue David Dacko, Bangui mailing address: B. P. 924, Bangui telephone: [236] 61 26 21 FAX: [236] 61 44 94

Flag description: four equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, green, and yellow with a vertical red band in center; there is a yellow five-pointed star on the hoist side of the blue band

@Central African Republic:Economy

Economy-overview: Subsistence agriculture, together with forestry, remains the backbone of the economy of the Central African Republic (CAR), with more than 70% of the population living in outlying areas. The agricultural sector generates half of GDP. Timber has accounted for about 16% of export earnings and the diamond industry for nearly 54%. Important constraints to economic development include the CAR's landlocked position, a poor transportation system, a largely unskilled work force, and a legacy of misdirected macroeconomic policies. The 50% devaluation of the currencies of 14 Francophone African nations on 12 January 1994 had mixed effects on the CAR's economy. Diamond, timber, coffee, and cotton exports increased, leading an estimated rise of GDP of 7% in 1994 and nearly 5% in 1995. Military rebellions and social unrest in 1996 were accompanied by widespread destruction of property and a drop in GDP of 1%. Ongoing violence between the government and rebel military groups over pay issues, living conditions, and political representation has destroyed many businesses in the capital, reduced tax revenues for the government, and delayed negotiations for an IMF financial aid agreement.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$3.3 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: NA%

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,000 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 50% industry: 14% services: 36% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 4% (1996 est.)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: 6% (1993)

Budget: revenues: $638 million expenditures: $1.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $888 million (1994 est.)

Industries: diamond mining, sawmills, breweries, textiles, footwear, assembly of bicycles and motorcycles

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 43,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 100 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 31 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: cotton, coffee, tobacco, manioc (tapioca), yams, millet, corn, bananas; timber

Exports: total value: $171 million (f.o.b., 1995) commodities: diamonds, timber, cotton, coffee, tobacco partners: France 16%, Belgium-Luxembourg 40.1%, Italy, Japan, US, Spain, Iran, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo

Imports: total value: $174 million (f.o.b., 1995) commodities: food, textiles, petroleum products, machinery, electrical equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, consumer goods, industrial products partners: France 37%, other EU countries, Japan 24%, Algeria, Cameroon, Namibia

Debt-external: $890 million (1994 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA; traditional budget subsidies from France

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1-608.36 (January 1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993) note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 16,867 (1992 est.)

Telephone system: fair system domestic: network consists principally of microwave radio relay and low-capacity, low-powered radiotelephone communication international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 7,500 (1993 est.)

@Central African Republic:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 23,810 km paved: 429 km unpaved: 23,381 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 800 km; traditional trade carried on by means of shallow-draft dugouts; Oubangui is the most important river

Ports and harbors: Bangui, Nola

Airports: 52 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 3 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 49 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 10 914 to 1,523 m: 23 under 914 m: 15 (1997 est.)

@Central African Republic:Military

Military branches: Central African Army (includes Republican Guard),
Air Force, National Gendarmerie, Police Force

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 763,085 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 398,617 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $30 million (1994)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2.3% (1994)

@Central African Republic:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

CHAD

Introduction

Historical perspective: In December 1990, after Chad had endured decades of civil warfare among ethnic groups as well as invasions by Libya, former northern guerrilla leader Idriss DEBY seized control of the government. His transitional government eventually suppressed or came to terms with most political-military groups, settled the territorial dispute with Libya on terms favorable to Chad, drafted a democratic constitution which was ratified by popular referendum in March 1996, held multiparty national presidential elections in June and July 1996 (DEBY won with 67% of the vote), and held multiparty elections for the National Assembly in January and February 1997, in which Idriss DEBY's party, Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS, won a majority of the seats.

@Chad:Geography

Location: Central Africa, south of Libya

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 19 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 1.284 million sq km land: 1,259,200 sq km water: 24,800 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly more than three times the size of
California

Land boundaries: total: 5,968 km border countries: Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African Republic 1,197 km, Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical in south, desert in north

Terrain: broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest, lowlands in south

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Djourab Depression 175 m highest point: Emi Koussi 3,415 m

Natural resources: petroleum (unexploited but exploration under way), uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad)

Land use: arable land: 3% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 36% forests and woodland: 26% other: 35% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 140 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; periodic droughts; locust plagues

Environment-current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water; improper waste disposal in rural areas contributes to soil and water pollution; desertification

Environment-international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

Geography-note: landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water body in the Sahel

@Chad:People

Population: 7,359,512 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 44% (male 1,631,010; female 1,623,272) 15-64 years: 53% (male 1,903,012; female 1,982,257) 65 years and over: 3% (male 97,118; female 122,843) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.66% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 43.45 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 16.86 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 116.97 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 48.22 years male: 45.81 years female: 50.73 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.74 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Chadian(s) adjective: Chadian

Ethnic groups: Muslims (Arabs, Toubou, Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko,
Kanembou, Baguirmi, Boulala, Zaghawa, and Maba), non-Muslims (Sara,
Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye, Moundang, Moussei, Massa), nonindigenous
150,000 (of whom 1,000 are French)

Religions: Muslim 50%, Christian 25%, indigenous beliefs (mostly animism) 25%

Languages: French (official), Arabic (official), Sara and Sango (in south), more than 100 different languages and dialects

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write in French or Arabic total population: 48.1% male: 62.1% female: 34.7% (1995 est.)

@Chad:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Chad conventional short form: Chad local long form: Republique du Tchad local short form: Tchad

Data code: CD

Government type: republic

National capital: N'Djamena

Administrative divisions: 14 prefectures (prefectures,
singular-prefecture); Batha, Biltine, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti,
Chari-Baguirmi, Guera, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental,
Mayo-Kebbi, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Tandjile

Independence: 11 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 11 August (1960)

Constitution: 31 March 1995, passed by referendum

Legal system: based on French civil law system and Chadian customary law; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY (since 4 December 1990) head of government: Prime Minister Nassour Guelengdouksia OUAIDOU (since 16 May 1997); appointed by the president; note-he was reappointed on 1 January 1998 when President DEBY named his new government cabinet: Council of State appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister elections: the constitution provides for the election of a president by direct popular vote to serve a term of five years; if no candidate receives at least 50% of the total vote, the two candidates receiving the most votes must stand for a second round of voting; last held 2 June and 11 July 1996 (next to be held NA 2001); the prime minister is appointed by the president election results: in the first round of voting none of the 15 candidates received the required 50% of the total vote; percent of vote, first round-Lt. Gen. Idress DEBY 47.8%; percent of vote, second round-Lt. Gen. DEBY 69.1%, Wadal Abdelkader KAMOUGUE 30.9%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (125 seats; members serve four-year terms); replaces the Higher Transitional Council or the Conseil Superieur de Transition elections: National Assembly-last held in two rounds on 5 January and 23 February 1997, (next to be held NA 2001); in the first round of voting on 5 January 1997 some candidates won clear victories by receiving 50% or more of the vote; where that did not happen, the two highest scoring candidates stood for a second round of voting election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-MPS 65, URD 29, UNDR 15, RDP 3, others 13

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts;
Magistrate Courts

Political parties and leaders: Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS [Maldom Bada ABBAS, chairman], originally in opposition but now the party in power and the party of the president; National Union for Development and Renewal or UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO, leader]; Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Lal Mahamat CHOUA, leader]; Union for Renewal and Democracy or URD [Gen. Wadal Abdelkader KAMOUGUE, leader]; note-in mid-1996 Chad had about 60 political parties, of which these are the most prominent in the new National Assembly

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC,
CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UDEAC,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mahamat Saleh AHMAT chancery: 2002 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20009 telephone: [1] (202) 462-4009 FAX: [1] (202) 265-1937

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador David C. HALSTED embassy: Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena mailing address: B. P. 413, N'Djamena telephone: [235] (51) 70-09, (51) 90-52, (51) 92-33 FAX: [235] (51) 56-54

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the flag of Andorra, which has a national coat of arms featuring a quartered shield centered in the yellow band; design was based on the flag of France

@Chad:Economy

Economy-overview: Landlocked Chad's economic development suffers from it's geographic remoteness, drought, lack of infrastructure, and political turmoil. About 85% of the population depends on agriculture, including the herding of livestock. Of Africa's Francophone countries, Chad benefited least from the 50% devaluation of their currencies in January 1994. Financial aid from the World Bank, the African Development Fund, and other sources is directed largely at the improvement of agriculture, especially livestock production. Lack of financing, however, is stalling the development of a southern oil field and the construction of a proposed oil pipeline through Cameroon.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$4.3 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 5.5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$600 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 48% industry: 18% services: 34% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 15% (1997 est.)

Labor force: NA by occupation: agriculture 85% (subsistence farming, herding, and fishing)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $198 million expenditures: $218 million, including capital expenditures of $146 million (1998 est.)

Industries: cotton textiles, meat packing, beer brewing, natron (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials

Industrial production growth rate: 5% (1995)

Electricity-capacity: 29,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 80 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 14 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: cotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca); cattle, sheep, goats, camels

Exports: total value: $259 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.) commodities: cotton, cattle, textiles partners: Portugal 30%, Germany 18%, South Africa 16%, France 7%

Imports: total value: $301 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.) commodities: machinery and transportation equipment 39%, industrial goods 20%, petroleum products 13%, foodstuffs 9%; textiles; note-excludes military equipment partners: France 34%, Cameroon 24%, Nigeria 7%, US 6%

Debt-external: $875 million (1995 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: $125 million committed by Taiwan (August 1997); $30 million committed by African Development Bank

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: CFA Francs (CFAF) per US$1-608.36 (January 1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993) note: beginning 12 January 1994 the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 5,000 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: primitive system domestic: fair system of radiotelephone communication stations international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1987 est.) note: limited TV service; many facilities are inoperative

Televisions: 7,000 (1991 est.)

@Chad:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 32,700 km paved: 262 km unpaved: 32,438 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 2,000 km navigable

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 53 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 6 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 47 1,524 to 2,437 m: 16 914 to 1,523 m: 21 under 914 m: 10 (1997 est.)

@Chad:Military

Military branches: Armed Forces (includes Ground Force, Air Force, and
Gendarmerie), Republican Guard, Police

Military manpower-military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 1,645,295 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 852,705 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 68,343 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $74 million (1994)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 11.1% (1994)

@Chad:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: demarcation of international boundaries in the vicinity of Lake Chad, the lack of which led to border incidents in the past, is completed and awaits ratification by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria

______________________________________________________________________

CHILE

@Chile:Geography

Location: Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean, between Argentina and Peru

Geographic coordinates: 30 00 S, 71 00 W

Map references: South America

Area: total: 756,950 sq km land: 748,800 sq km water: 8,150 sq km note: includes Easter Island (Isla de Pascua) and Isla Sala y Gomez

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than twice the size of Montana

Land boundaries: total: 6,171 km border countries: Argentina 5,150 km, Bolivia 861 km, Peru 160 km

Coastline: 6,435 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: 200 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; desert in north; cool and damp in south

Terrain: low coastal mountains; fertile central valley; rugged Andes in east

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Cerro Aconcagua 6,962 m

Natural resources: copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, molybdenum

Land use: arable land: 5% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 18% forests and woodland: 22% other: 55% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 12,650 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: severe earthquakes; active volcanism; tsunamis

Environment-current issues: air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage; deforestation contributing to loss of biodiversity; soil erosion; desertification

Environment-international agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: strategic location relative to sea lanes between
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake
Passage); Atacama Desert is one of world's driest regions

@Chile:People

Population: 14,787,781 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 28% (male 2,134,701; female 2,043,112) 15-64 years: 65% (male 4,768,366; female 4,811,403) 65 years and over: 7% (male 426,924; female 603,275) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.27% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 18.28 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.55 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 10.39 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.16 years male: 72.01 years female: 78.48 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.3 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Chilean(s) adjective: Chilean

Ethnic groups: white and white-Amerindian 95%, Amerindian 3%, other 2%

Religions: Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 11%, Jewish

Languages: Spanish

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 95.2% male: 95.4% female: 95% (1995 est.)

@Chile:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Chile conventional short form: Chile local long form: Republica de Chile local short form: Chile

Data code: CI

Government type: republic

National capital: Santiago

Administrative divisions: 13 regions (regiones, singular-region);
Aisen del General Carlos Ibanez del Campo, Antofagasta, Araucania,
Atacama, Bio-Bio, Coquimbo, Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins, Los
Lagos, Magallanes y de la Antartica Chilena, Maule, Region
Metropolitana, Tarapaca, Valparaiso
note: the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica

Independence: 18 September 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 18 September (1810)

Constitution: 11 September 1980, effective 11 March 1981; amended 30
July 1989

Legal system: based on Code of 1857 derived from Spanish law and subsequent codes influenced by French and Austrian law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state: President Eduardo FREI Ruiz-Tagle (since 11 March 1994); note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Eduardo FREI Ruiz-Tagle (since 11 March 1994); note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held 11 December 1993 (next to be held NA December 1999) election results: Eduardo FREI Ruiz-Tagle elected president; percent of vote-Eduardo FREI Ruiz-Tagle (PDC) 58%, Arturo ALESSANDRI 24.4%, other 17.6%

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the Senate or Senado (48 seats, 38 elected by popular vote; members serve eight-year terms-one-half elected every four years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (120 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: Senate-last held 11 December 1997 (next to be held NA December 2001); Chamber of Deputies-last held 11 December 1997 (next to be held NA December 2001) election results: Senate-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-Coalition of Parties for Democracy 20 (PDC 14, PS 4, PPD 2), Union for the Progress of Chile 17 (RN 7, UDI 10), independent 10; Chamber of Deputies-percent of vote by party-Coalition of Parties for Democracy 50.55% (PDC 22.98%, PS 11.10%, PPD 12.55%, PRSD 3.13%), Union for the Progress of Chile 36.23% (RN 16.78%, UDI 14.43%); seats by party-Coalition of Parties for Democracy 70 (PDC 39, PPD 16, PRSD 4, PS 11), Union for the Progress of Chile 46 (RN 24, UDI 21, Party of the South 1), right-wing independents 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), judges are appointed by the president and ratified by the Senate from lists of candidates provided by the court itself; the president of the Supreme Court is elected by the 21-member court

Political parties and leaders: Coalition of Parties for Democracy or CPD consists mainly of: Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Enrique KRAUSS]; Socialist Party or PS [Camilo ESCALONA]; Party for Democracy or PPD [Sergio BITAR]; Radical Social Democratic Party or PRSD [Anselmo SULE]; Union for the Progress of Chile or UPP consists mainly of two parties: National Renewal or RN [Alberto ESPINA]; Independent Democratic Union or UDI [Jovino NOVOA]

Political pressure groups and leaders: revitalized university student federations at all major universities; United Labor Central or CUT includes trade unionists from the country's five largest labor confederations; Roman Catholic Church

International organization participation: APEC, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11,
G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador John BIEHL Del Rios chancery: 1732 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 telephone: [1] (202) 785-1746 FAX: [1] (202) 887-5579 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Gabriel GUERRA-MONDRAGON embassy: Avenida Andres Bello 2800, Santiago mailing address: APO AA 34033 telephone: [56] (2) 232-2600 FAX: [56] (2) 330-3710

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; there is a blue square the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of the white band; the square bears a white five-pointed star in the center; design was based on the US flag

@Chile:Economy

Economy-overview: Chile has a prosperous, essentially free market economy. Civilian governments - which took over from the military in March 1990-have continued to reduce the government's role in the economy while shifting the emphasis of public spending toward social programs. Growth in real GDP averaged more than 7.0% in 1991-1997, and inflation is nearing a 40-year low. Chile's currency and foreign reserves also are strong, as sustained foreign capital inflows-including significant direct investment-have more than offset current account deficits and public debt buybacks. President FREI, who took office in March 1994, has placed improving Chile's education system and developing foreign export markets at the top of his economic agenda. Despite this progress, the Chilean economy remains largely dependent on a few sectors-particularly copper mining, fishing, and forestry. Success in meeting the government's goal of sustained annual economic growth of 5% depends largely on world prices for these commodities, continued foreign investor confidence, and the government's ability to maintain a conservative fiscal stance. In 1996, Chile became an associate member of Mercosur and concluded a Free Trade Agreement with Canada.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$168.5 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 7.1% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$11,600 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 8% industry: 33% services: 59% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 6% (1997)

Labor force: total: 5.7 million (1997 est.) by occupation: services 38.3% (includes government 12%), industry and commerce 33.8%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 19.2%, mining 2.3%, construction 6.4% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 6.1% (1997)

Budget: revenues: $17 billion expenditures: $17 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1996 est.)

Industries: copper, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron and steel, wood and wood products, transport equipment, cement, textiles

Industrial production growth rate: 4.2% (1997)

Electricity-capacity: 5.504 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 24.5 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 1,730 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: wheat, corn, grapes, beans, sugar beets, potatoes, fruit; beef, poultry, wool; timber; 1991 fish catch of 6.6 million metric tons

Exports: total value: $16.9 billion (f.o.b., 1997) commodities: copper 37%, other metals and minerals 8.2%, wood products 7.1%, fish and fishmeal 9.8%, fruits 8.4% (1994) partners: EU 25%, US 15%, Asia 34%, Latin America 20% (1995 est.)

Imports: total value: $18.2 billion (f.o.b., 1997) commodities: capital goods 25.2%, spare parts 24.8%, raw materials 15.4%, petroleum 10%, foodstuffs 5.7% (1994) partners: EU 18%, US 25%, Asia 16%, Latin America 26% (1995 est.)

Debt-external: $26.7 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $50.3 million (1996 est.)

Currency: 1 Chilean peso (Ch$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Chilean pesos (Ch$) per US$1-452.60 (January 1998), 419.30 (1997), 412.27 (1996), 396.78 (1995), 420.08 (1994), 404.35 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 1.5 million (1994 est.)

Telephone system: modern system based on extensive microwave radio relay facilities domestic: extensive microwave radio relay links; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 179, FM 614, shortwave 11

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 11

Televisions: 2.85 million (1992 est.)

@Chile:Transportation

Railways: total: 6,782 km broad gauge: 3,743 km 1.676-m gauge (1,653 km electrified) narrow gauge: 116 km 1.067-m gauge; 2,923 km 1.000-m gauge (40 km electrified) (1995)

Highways: total: 79,800 km paved: 11,012 km unpaved: 68,788 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 725 km

Pipelines: crude oil 755 km; petroleum products 785 km; natural gas 320 km

Ports and harbors: Antofagasta, Arica, Chanaral, Coquimbo, Iquique,
Puerto Montt, Punta Arenas, San Antonio, San Vicente, Talcahuano,
Valparaiso

Merchant marine: total: 39 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 473,173 GRT/770,619 DWT ships by type: bulk 12, cargo 9, chemical tanker 4, container 2, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 4, passenger 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 3, vehicle carrier 2 (1997 est.)

Airports: 380 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 52 over 3,047 m: 5 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 1,524 to 2,437 m: 18 914 to 1,523 m: 18 under 914 m: 6 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 328 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 1,524 to 2,437 m: 15 914 to 1,523 m: 74 under 914 m: 234 (1997 est.)

@Chile:Military

Military branches: Army of the Nation, National Navy (includes Naval Air, Coast Guard, and Marines), Air Force of the Nation, Carabineros of Chile (National Police), Investigations Police

Military manpower-military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 3,919,465 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 2,909,927 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 128,442 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $2.8 billion (1997); note-includes earnings from CODELCO Company; probably includes costs of pensions and internal security

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 3.5% (1997)

@Chile:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: short section of the southeastern boundary with Argentina is indefinite; Bolivia has wanted a sovereign corridor to the South Pacific Ocean since the Atacama area was lost to Chile in 1884; dispute with Bolivia over Rio Lauca water rights; territorial claim in Antarctica (Chilean Antarctic Territory) partially overlaps Argentine and British claims

Illicit drugs: a minor transshipment country for cocaine destined for the US and Europe; booming economy has made it more attractive to traffickers seeking to launder drug profits

______________________________________________________________________

CHINA

(also see separate

@China:Geography

Location: Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay,
Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam

Geographic coordinates: 35 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area: total: 9,596,960 sq km land: 9,326,410 sq km water: 270,550 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries: total: 22,143.34 km border countries: Afghanistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Burma 2,185 km, Hong Kong 30 km, India 3,380 km, Kazakhstan 1,533 km, North Korea 1,416 km, Kyrgyzstan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Macau 0.34 km, Mongolia 4,673 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, Russia (northeast) 3,605 km, Russia (northwest) 40 km, Tajikistan 414 km, Vietnam 1,281 km

Coastline: 14,500 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: claim to shallow areas of East China Sea and Yellow Sea territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north

Terrain: mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas, and hills in east

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Turpan Pendi -154 m highest point: Mount Everest 8,848 m

Natural resources: coal, iron ore, petroleum, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest)

Land use: arable land: 10% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 43% forests and woodland: 14% other: 33% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 498,720 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts

Environment-current issues: air pollution (greenhouse gases, particulates) from the overwhelming use of high-sulfur coal as a fuel, produces acid rain which is damaging forests; water shortages experienced throughout the country, particularly in urban areas and in the north; future growth in water usage threatens to outpace supplies; water pollution from industrial effluents; much of the population does not have access to potable water; less than 10% of sewage receives treatment; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic development; desertification; trade in endangered species

Environment-international agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: world's fourth-largest country (after Russia, Canada, and US)

@China:People

Population: 1,236,914,658 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 26% (male 169,347,516; female 149,897,253) 15-64 years: 68% (male 431,164,591; female 404,513,208) 65 years and over: 6% (male 38,398,920; female 43,593,170) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.83% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 15.73 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 6.99 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.41 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.15 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.13 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 45.46 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 69.59 years male: 68.32 years female: 71.06 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Chinese (singular and plural) adjective: Chinese

Ethnic groups: Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan,
Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1%

Religions: Daoism (Taoism), Buddhism, Muslim 2%-3%, Christian 1% (est.) note: officially atheist, but traditionally pragmatic and eclectic

Languages: Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the
Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghaiese), Minbei (Fuzhou),
Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority
languages (see Ethnic divisions entry)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 81.5% male: 89.9% female: 72.7% (1995 est.)

@China:Government

Country name: conventional long form: People's Republic of China conventional short form: China local long form: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo local short form: Zhong Guo abbreviation: PRC

Data code: CH

Government type: Communist state

National capital: Beijing

Administrative divisions: 23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions* (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4 municipalities** (shi, singular and plural); Anhui, Beijing**, Chongqing**, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi*, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol*, Ningxia*, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanghai**, Shanxi, Sichuan, Tianjin**, Xinjiang*, Xizang* (Tibet), Yunnan, Zhejiang note: China considers Taiwan its 23rd province; see separate entry for the special administrative region of Hong Kong

Independence: 221 BC (unification under the Qin or Ch'in Dynasty 221 BC; Qing or Ch'ing Dynasty replaced by the Republic on 12 February 1912; People's Republic established 1 October 1949)

National holiday: National Day, 1 October (1949)

Constitution: most recent promulgation 4 December 1982

Legal system: a complex amalgam of custom and statute, largely criminal law; rudimentary civil code in effect since 1 January 1987; new legal codes in effect since 1 January 1980; continuing efforts are being made to improve civil, administrative, criminal, and commercial law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President JIANG Zemin (since 27 March 1993) and Vice President HU Jintao (since 16 March 1998) head of government: Premier ZHU Rongji (since 18 March 1998); Vice Premiers QIAN Qichen (since 29 March 1993), LI Lanqing (29 March 1993), WU Bangguo (since 17 March 1995), and WEN Jiabao (since 18 March 1998) cabinet: State Council appointed by the National People's Congress (NPC) elections: president and vice president elected by the National People's Congress for five-year terms; elections last held 16-18 March 1998 (next to be held NA March 2003); premier nominated by the president, confirmed by the National People's Congress election results: JIANG Zemin reelected president by the Ninth National People's Congress with a total of 2,882 votes (36 delegates voted against him, 29 abstained, and 32 did not vote); HU Jintao elected vice president by the Ninth National People's Congress with a total of 2,841 votes (67 delegates voted against him, 39 abstained, and 32 did not vote)

Legislative branch: unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui (2,979 seats; members elected by municipal, regional, and provincial people's congresses to serve five-year terms) elections: last held NA December-NA February 1998 (next to be held late 2002-NA March 2003) election results: percent of vote-NA; seats-NA

Judicial branch: Supreme People's Court, judges appointed by the
National People's Congress

Political parties and leaders: Chinese Communist Party (CCP), JIANG Zemin, General Secretary of the Central Committee; eight registered small parties controlled by CCP

Political pressure groups and leaders: no meaningful political opposition groups exist

International organization participation: AfDB, APEC, AsDB, BIS
(pending member), CCC, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, NAM (observer),
PCA, UN, UN Security Council, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM,
UNITAR, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador LI Zhaoxing chancery: 2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 328-2500 through 2502 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador James R. SASSER embassy: Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3, 100600 Beijing mailing address: PSC 461, Box 50, FPO AP 96521-0002 telephone: [86] (10) 6532-3831 FAX: [86] (10) 6532-6422 consulate(s) general: Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Shenyang

Flag description: red with a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward the middle of the flag) in the upper hoist-side corner

@China:Economy

Economy-overview: Beginning in late 1978 the Chinese leadership has been trying to move the economy from a sluggish Soviet-style centrally planned economy to a more market-oriented economy but still within a rigid political framework of Communist Party control. To this end the authorities switched to a system of household responsibility in agriculture in place of the old collectivization, increased the authority of local officials and plant managers in industry, permitted a wide variety of small-scale enterprise in services and light manufacturing, and opened the economy to increased foreign trade and investment. The result has been a quadrupling of GDP since 1978. Agricultural output doubled in the 1980s, and industry also posted major gains, especially in coastal areas near Hong Kong and opposite Taiwan, where foreign investment helped spur output of both domestic and export goods. On the darker side, the leadership has often experienced in its hybrid system the worst results of socialism (bureaucracy, lassitude, corruption) and of capitalism (windfall gains and stepped-up inflation). Beijing thus has periodically backtracked, retightening central controls at intervals. In 1992-97 annual growth of GDP accelerated, particularly in the coastal areas-averaging about 10% annually according to official figures. In late 1993 China's leadership approved additional long-term reforms aimed at giving still more play to market-oriented institutions and at strengthening the center's control over the financial system; state enterprises would continue to dominate many key industries in what was now termed "a socialist market economy." In 1995-97 inflation dropped sharply, reflecting tighter monetary policies and stronger measures to control food prices. At the same time, the government struggled to (a) collect revenues due from provinces, businesses, and individuals; (b) reduce corruption and other economic crimes; and (c) keep afloat the large state-owned enterprises, most of which had not participated in the vigorous expansion of the economy and many of which have been losing the ability to pay full wages and pensions. From 60 to 100 million surplus rural workers are adrift between the villages and the cities, many subsisting through part-time low-paying jobs. Popular resistance, changes in central policy, and loss of authority by rural cadres have weakened China's population control program, which is essential to maintaining growth in living standards. Another long-term threat to continued rapid economic growth is the deterioration in the environment, notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table especially in the north. China continues to lose arable land because of erosion and economic development; furthermore, the regime gives insufficient priority to agricultural research. The next few years may witness increasing tensions between a highly centralized political system and an increasingly decentralized economic system. Rapid economic growth likely will continue but at a declining rate. Hong Kong's reversion on 1 July 1997 to Chinese administration will strengthen the already close ties between the two economies.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$4.25 trillion (1997 estimate as
extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1995 with use of official
Chinese growth figures for 1996-97; the result may overstate China's
GDP by as much as 25%)

GDP-real growth rate: 8.8% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$3,460 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 20% industry: 49% services: 31% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 2.8% (1997 est.)

Labor force: total: 623.9 million (1995) by occupation: agriculture and forestry 53%, industry and commerce 26%, construction and mining 7%, social services 4%, other 10% (1995)

Unemployment rate: officially 4% in urban areas; probably 8%-10%; substantial unemployment and underemployment in rural areas (1997 est.)

Budget: revenues: $NA expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: iron and steel, coal, machine building, armaments, textiles and apparel, petroleum, cement, chemical fertilizers, footwear, toys, food processing, autos, consumer electronics, telecommunications

Industrial production growth rate: 13% (1996 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 250 million kW (1997 est.)

Electricity-production: 1.135 trillion kWh (1997 est.)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 1,100 kWh (1997 est.)

Agriculture-products: rice, wheat, potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, cotton, other fibers, oilseed; pork and other livestock products; fish

Exports: total value: $182.7 billion (f.o.b., 1997) commodities: electrical machinery, clothing, footwear, toys, mineral fuels, leather, plastics, fabrics (1997) partners: Hong Kong, US, Japan, South Korea, Germany, Netherlands (1997)

Imports: total value: $142.4 billion (c.i.f., 1997) commodities: mechanical appliances, electrical machinery, mineral fuels, plastics, iron and steel, fabrics, cotton and yarn (1997) partners: Japan, Taiwan, US, South Korea, Hong Kong, Germany, Singapore (1997)

Debt-external: $131 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $1.977 billion (1993)

Currency: 1 yuan (¥) = 10 jiao

Exchange rates: yuan (¥) per US$1-8.2796 (December 1997), 8.2898 (1997), 8.3142 (1996), 8.3514 (1995), 8.6187 (1994), 5.7620 (1993) note: beginning 1 January 1994, the People's Bank of China quotes the midpoint rate against the US dollar based on the previous day's prevailing rate in the interbank foreign exchange market

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 89 million (1997 est.); note-there are 2.5 telephones per 100 urban population and 7.2 telephones per 100 total population

Telephone system: domestic and international services are increasingly available for private use; unevenly distributed domestic system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and most townships domestic: interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular telephone systems have been installed; a domestic satellite system with 55 earth stations is in place international: satellite earth stations-5 Intelsat (4 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean Region) and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific and Indian Ocean Regions); several international fiber-optic links to Japan, South Korea, and Hong Kong

Radio broadcast stations: AM 274, FM NA, shortwave 0

Radios: 216.5 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 202 (repeaters 2,050)

Televisions: 75 million

@China:Transportation

Railways: total: 64,900 km (including 5,400 km of provincial "local" rails) standard gauge: 61,300 km 1.435-m gauge (10,400 km electrified; 18,540 km double track) narrow gauge: 3,600 km 0.750-m gauge local industrial lines (1998 est.)

Highways: total: 1.18 million km paved: 241,300 km unpaved: 938,700 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 138,600 km; about 110,600 km navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 9,070 km; petroleum products 560 km; natural gas 9,383 km (1998)

Ports and harbors: Dalian, Fuzhou, Guangzhou, Haikou, Huangpu,
Lianyungang, Nanjing, Nantong, Ningbo, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai,
Shantou, Tianjin, Xiamen, Xingang, Yantai, Zhanjiang

Merchant marine: total: 1,708 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 16,139,185 GRT/24,154,260 DWT ships by type: barge carrier 2, bulk 313, cargo 858, chemical tanker 15, combination bulk 10, container 118, liquefied gas tanker 13, multifunction large-load carrier 5, oil tanker 231, passenger 6, passenger-cargo 45, refrigerated cargo 25, roll-on/roll-off cargo 24, short-sea passenger 43 note: China owns an additional 307 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 11,648,133 DWT operating under the registries of Cyprus, Hong Kong, Liberia, Malta, Marshall Islands, Panama, Singapore, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Vanuatu (1997 est.)

Airports: 206 (1996 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 192 over 3,047 m: 18 2,438 to 3,047 m: 65 1,524 to 2,437 m: 90 914 to 1,523 m: 13 under 914 m: 6 (1996 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 14 1,524 to 2,437 m: 8 914 to 1,523 m: 5 under 914 m: 1 (1996 est.)

@China:Military

Military branches: People's Liberation Army (PLA), which includes the
Ground Forces, Navy (includes Marines and Naval Aviation), Air Force,
Second Artillery Corps (the strategic missile force), People's Armed
Police (internal security troops, nominally subordinate to Ministry of
Public Security, but included by the Chinese as part of the "armed
forces" and considered to be an adjunct to the PLA in wartime)

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 359,057,859 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 197,553,118 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 9,553,823 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: the officially announced 1998 figure is 91 billion yuan, but China's defense expenditures are almost certainly two to three times the announced budget; note-conversion of the defense budget into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@China:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: boundary with India in dispute; two disputed sections of the boundary with Russia remain to be settled; most of the boundary with Tajikistan in dispute; 33-km section of boundary with North Korea in the Paektu-san (mountain) area is indefinite; involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; maritime boundary dispute with Vietnam in the Gulf of Tonkin; Paracel Islands occupied by China, but claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; claims Japanese-administered Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands/Diaoyu Tai), as does Taiwan; sections of land border with Vietnam are indefinite

Illicit drugs: major transshipment point for heroin produced in the
Golden Triangle; growing domestic drug abuse problem

______________________________________________________________________

CHRISTMAS ISLAND

(territory of Australia)

@Christmas Island:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, island in the Indian Ocean, south of
Indonesia

Geographic coordinates: 10 30 S, 105 40 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area: total: 135 sq km land: 135 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: about 0.7 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 138.9 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 12 nm exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical; heat and humidity moderated by trade winds

Terrain: steep cliffs along coast rise abruptly to central plateau

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: Murray Hill 361 m

Natural resources: phosphate

Land use: arable land: NA% permanent crops: NA% permanent pastures: NA% forests and woodland: NA% other: 100% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can be a maritime hazard

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements: party to: NA signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: located along major sea lanes of Indian Ocean

@Christmas Island:People

Population: 2,195 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: NA 15-64 years: NA 65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 7.77% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth: total population: NA male: NA female: NA

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

Nationality: noun: Christmas Islander(s) adjective: Christmas Island

Ethnic groups: Chinese 61%, Malay 25%, European 11%, other 3%, no indigenous population

Religions: Buddhist 55%, Christian 15%, Muslim 10%, other 20% (1991)

Languages: English

@Christmas Island:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Territory of Christmas Island conventional short form: Christmas Island

Data code: KT

Dependency status: territory of Australia; administered from Canberra by the Australian Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories

Government type: NA

National capital: The Settlement

Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

National holiday: NA

Constitution: Christmas Island Act of 1958

Legal system: under the authority of the governor general of Australia and Australian law

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952), represented by the Australian governor general head of government: Administrator (acting) Graham NICHOLLS (since NA) elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; administrator appointed by the governor general of Australia and represents the queen and Australia

Legislative branch: unicameral Christmas Island Shire Council (9 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve one-year terms) elections: last held NA December 1996 (next to be held NA December 1997) election results: percent of vote-NA; seats-independents 9

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: none

International organization participation: none

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of Australia)

Flag description: the flag of Australia is used

@Christmas Island:Economy

Economy-overview: Phosphate mining had been the only significant economic activity, but in December 1987 the Australian Government closed the mine. In 1990, the mine was reopened by private operators. Australian-based Casinos Austria International Ltd. built a $45 million casino on Christmas Island.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$NA

GDP-real growth rate: NA%

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$NA

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: NA%

Labor force: total: NA by occupation: tourism 400 people, mining 100 people

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $NA expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: tourism, phosphate extraction (near depletion)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: NA kW

Electricity-production: NA kWh

Electricity-consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture-products: NA

Exports: $NA commodities: phosphate partners: Australia, NZ

Imports: $NA commodities: consumer goods partners: principally Australia

Debt-external: $NA

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1-1.5281 (January 1998), 1.3439 (1997), 1.2773 (1996), 1.3486 (1995), 1.3667 (1994), 1.4704, (1993)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications

Telephones: NA

Telephone system: domestic: NA international: NA note: external telephone and telex services are provided by Intelsat satellite

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 500 (1992)

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 350 (1992)

@Christmas Island:Transportation

Railways: 24 km to serve phosphate mines

Highways: total: NA km paved: NA km unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: Flying Fish Cove

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Christmas Island:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of Australia

@Christmas Island:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

CLIPPERTON ISLAND

(possession of France)

@Clipperton Island:Geography

Location: Middle America, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, 1,120 km southwest of Mexico

Geographic coordinates: 10 17 N, 109 13 W

Map references: World

Area: total: 7 sq km land: 7 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: about 12 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 11.1 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical, humid, average temperature 20-32 degrees C, rains
May-October

Terrain: coral atoll

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Rocher Clipperton 29 m

Natural resources: none

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 0% forests and woodland: 0% other: 100% (all coral)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: subject to tornadoes

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements: party to: NA signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: reef about 8 km in circumference

@Clipperton Island:People

Population: uninhabited

@Clipperton Island:Government

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Clipperton Island local long form: none local short form: Ile Clipperton former: sometimes called Ile de la Passion

Data code: IP

Dependency status: possession of France; administered by France from
French Polynesia by a high commissioner of the Republic

Legal system: NA

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (dependent territory of
France)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (dependent territory of
France)

Flag description: the flag of France is used

@Clipperton Island:Economy

Economy-overview: Although 115 species of fish have been identified in the territorial waters of Clipperton Island, the only economic activity is a tuna fishing station.

@Clipperton Island:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

@Clipperton Island:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of France

@Clipperton Island:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

COCOS (KEELING) ISLANDS

 Cocos (Keeling) Islands
(territory of Australia)

                       Cocos (Keeling) Islands
@Cocos (Keeling) Islands:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, group of islands in the Indian Ocean, south of Indonesia, about one-half of the way from Australia to Sri Lanka

Geographic coordinates: 12 30 S, 96 50 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area: total: 14 sq km land: 14 sq km water: 0 sq km note: includes the two main islands of West Island and Home Island

Area-comparative: about 24 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 2.6 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: pleasant, modified by the southeast trade wind for about nine months of the year; moderate rainfall

Terrain: flat, low-lying coral atolls

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location 5 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use: arable land: NA% permanent crops: NA% permanent pastures: NA% forests and woodland: NA% other: 100% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: cyclones may occur in the early months of the year

Environment-current issues: fresh water resources are limited to rainwater accumulations in natural underground reservoirs

Environment-international agreements: party to: NA signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: two coral atolls thickly covered with coconut palms and other vegetation

@Cocos (Keeling) Islands:People

Population: 637 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: NA 15-64 years: NA 65 years and over: NA (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.21% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth: total population: NA male: NA female: NA

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

Nationality: noun: Cocos Islander(s) adjective: Cocos Islander

Ethnic groups: Europeans, Cocos Malays

Religions: Sunni Muslim 57%, Christian 22%, other 21% (1981 est.)

Languages: English, Malay

@Cocos (Keeling) Islands:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands conventional short form: Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Data code: CK

Dependency status: territory of Australia; administered from Canberra by the Australian Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories

Government type: NA

National capital: West Island

Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

National holiday: NA

Constitution: Cocos (Keeling) Islands Act of 1955

Legal system: based upon the laws of Australia and local laws

Suffrage: NA

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952), represented by the Australian governor general head of government: Administrator (acting) Maureen ELLIS (since NA) cabinet: NA elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; administrator appointed by the governor general of Australia and represents the queen and Australia

Legislative branch: unicameral Cocos (Keeling) Islands Shire Council
(NA seats)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: none

International organization participation: WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of Australia)

Flag description: the flag of Australia is used

@Cocos (Keeling) Islands:Economy

Economy-overview: Grown throughout the islands, coconuts are the sole cash crop. Copra and fresh coconuts are the major export earners. Small local gardens and fishing contribute to the food supply, but additional food and most other necessities must be imported from Australia.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$NA

GDP-real growth rate: NA%

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$NA

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: NA%

Labor force: NA note: the Cocos Islands Cooperative Society Ltd. employs construction workers, stevedores, and lighterage worker operations; tourism employs others

Budget: revenues: $NA expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: copra products and tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: NA kW

Electricity-production: NA kWh

Electricity-consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture-products: vegetables, bananas, pawpaws, coconuts

Exports: $NA commodities: copra partners: Australia

Imports: $NA commodities: foodstuffs partners: Australia

Debt-external: $NA

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1-1.5281 (January 1998), 1.3439 (1997), 1.2773 (1996), 1.3486 (1995), 1.3667 (1994), 1.4704 (1993)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications

Telephones: NA

Telephone system: domestic: NA international: telephone, telex, and facsimile communications with Australia and elsewhere via satellite; 1 satellite earth station of NA type

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 300 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0 note: intermittent television service via satellite

Televisions: NA

@Cocos (Keeling) Islands:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: NA km paved: NA km unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: none; lagoon anchorage only

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Cocos (Keeling) Islands:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of Australia

@Cocos (Keeling) Islands:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

COLOMBIA

@Colombia:Geography

Location: Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between
Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between
Ecuador and Panama

Geographic coordinates: 4 00 N, 72 00 W

Map references: South America, Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 1,138,910 sq km land: 1,038,700 sq km water: 100,210 sq km note: includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, Serrana Bank, and Serranilla Bank

Area-comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Montana

Land boundaries: total: 7,408 km border countries: Brazil 1,643 km, Ecuador 590 km, Panama 225 km, Peru 2,900 km, Venezuela 2,050 km

Coastline: 3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448 km)

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands

Terrain: flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes
Mountains, eastern lowland plains

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Nevado del Huila 5,750 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds

Land use: arable land: 4% permanent crops: 1% permanent pastures: 39% forests and woodland: 48% other: 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 5,300 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional earthquakes; periodic droughts

Environment-current issues: deforestation; soil damage from overuse of pesticides; air pollution, especially in Bogota, from vehicle emissions

Environment-international agreements: party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94 signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

Geography-note: only South American country with coastlines on both
North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea

@Colombia:People

Population: 38,580,949 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 33% (male 6,474,927; female 6,321,404) 15-64 years: 62% (male 11,725,078; female 12,333,982) 65 years and over: 5% (male 780,486; female 945,072) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.89% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 24.93 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.69 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 25.44 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 70.06 years male: 66.15 years female: 74.11 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.9 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Colombian(s) adjective: Colombian

Ethnic groups: mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed black-Amerindian 3%, Amerindian 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: Spanish

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 91.3% male: 91.2% female: 91.4% (1995 est.)

@Colombia:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Colombia conventional short form: Colombia local long form: Republica de Colombia local short form: Colombia

Data code: CO

Government type: republic; executive branch dominates government structure

National capital: Bogota

Administrative divisions: 32 departments (departamentos,
singular-departamento) and 1 capital district* (distrito capital);
Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Atlantico, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas,
Caqueta, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca,
Guainia, Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Narino, Norte
de Santander, Putumayo, Quindio, Risaralda, San Andres y Providencia,
Distrito Capital de Santa Fe de Bogota*, Santander, Sucre, Tolima,
Valle del Cauca, Vaupes, Vichada

Independence: 20 July 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 20 July (1810)

Constitution: 5 July 1991

Legal system: based on Spanish law; a new criminal code modeled after US procedures was enacted in 1992-93; judicial review of executive and legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Ernesto SAMPER Pizano (since 7 August 1994); note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Ernesto SAMPER Pizano (since 7 August 1994); note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Cabinet elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 29 May 1994 (next to be held May 1998); vice president elected by popular vote for a four-year term in a new procedure that replaces the traditional designation of vice presidents by newly elected presidents election results: Ernesto SAMPER Pizano elected president; percent of vote-no candidate received more than 50% of the total vote, therefore, a run-off election to select a president from the two leading candidates was held 19 June 1994; percent of vote-Ernesto SAMPER Pizano (Liberal Party) 50.4%, Andres PASTRANA Arango (Conservative Party) 48.6%, blank votes 1%; Humberto de la CALLE Lombana elected vice president; percent of vote-NA

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress or Congreso consists of the Senate or Senado (102 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Camara de Representantes (161 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: Senate-last held 13 March 1994 (next to be held March 1998); House of Representatives-last held 13 March 1994 (next to be held March 1998) election results: Senate-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-Liberal Party 59, conservatives (includes PC and NDF) 31, other 12; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-Liberal Party 89, conservatives (includes PC and NDF) 53, AD/M-19 2, other 17

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justical), highest court of criminal law, judges are selected from the nominees of the Higher Council of Justice for eight-year terms; Council of State, highest court of administrative law, judges are selected from the nominees of the Higher Council of Justice for eight-year terms; Constitutional Court, guards integrity and supremacy of the constitution, rules on constitutionality of laws, amendments to the constitution, and international treaties

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Party or PL [Emilio LEBOLO Castellanos]; Conservative Party or PC [Hugo ESCOBAR Sierra]; New Democratic Force or NDF [Andres PASTRANA Arango]; Democratic Alliance M-19 or AD/M-19 is a coalition of small leftist parties and dissident liberals and conservatives; Patriotic Union (UP) is a legal political party formed by Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and Colombian Communist Party (PCC)

Political pressure groups and leaders: two largest insurgent groups active in Colombia-Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia or FARC; and National Liberation Army or ELN

International organization participation: AG, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-
3, G-11, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, MINUGUA, NAM, OAS,
OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Juan Carlos ESGUERRA Portocarrero chancery: 2118 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 387-8338 FAX: [1] (202) 232-8643 consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and Washington, DC consulate(s): Atlanta and Tampa

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Curtis Warren KAMMAN embassy: Calle 22D-BIS, No. 47-51, Apartado Aereo 3831 mailing address: APO AA 34038 telephone: [57] (1) 315-0811 FAX: [57] (1) 315-2197

Flag description: three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double-width), blue, and red; similar to the flag of Ecuador, which is longer and bears the Ecuadorian coat of arms superimposed in the center

@Colombia:Economy

Economy-overview: Columbia is recovering from a short recession that began in late 1996 - resulting from tight monetary policy to drive down inflation, declining business confidence related to President SAMPER's political difficulties, and a slowdown in exports stemming from an appreciation of the peso and a recession in neighboring Venezuela. Although 1997's 3.1% GDP growth rate represented an improvement over 1996, it ranked among the lowest in Latin America and was substantially lower than the average annual growth rate exceeding 4% that Colombia posted for several decades prior to SAMPER's election. Colombia's next president will inherit a variety of economic problems. Most notably, the unemployment rate is at its highest level this decade, risks for the export sector and foreign investors are rising as a result of increasing guerrilla violence and a volatile exchange rate, and the fiscal deficit has more than tripled since 1994.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$231.1 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3.1% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$6,200 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 19% industry: 26% services: 55% (1996)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 17.7% (1997 est.)

Labor force: total: 16.8 million (1997 est.) by occupation: services 46%, agriculture 30%, industry 24% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 12.2% (1997 est.)

Budget: revenues: $26 billion (1996 est.) expenditures: $30 billion including capital expenditures of $NA (1996 est.)

Industries: textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages, chemicals, cement; gold, coal, emeralds

Industrial production growth rate: -1.2% (1996)

Electricity-capacity: 10.781 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 47 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 1,307 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: coffee, cut flowers, bananas, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseed, vegetables; forest products; shrimp farming

Exports: total value: $11.4 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.) commodities: petroleum, coffee, coal, bananas, fresh cut flowers partners: US 39%, EC 25.7%, Japan 2.9%, Venezuela 8.5% (1992)

Imports: total value: $13.5 billion (c.i.f., 1997 est.) commodities: industrial equipment, transportation equipment, consumer goods, chemicals, paper products partners: US 36%, EC 18%, Brazil 4%, Venezuela 6.5%, Japan 8.7% (1992)

Debt-external: $17.1 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $30 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Colombian peso (Col$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Colombian pesos (Col$) per US$1-1345.0 (February 1998), 1,140.96 (1997), 1,036.69 (1996), 912.83 (1995), 844.84 (1994), 863.06 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 1.89 million (1986 est.)

Telephone system: modern system in many respects domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system; domestic satellite system with 11 earth stations international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 413 (licensed), FM 217 (licensed), shortwave 28

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 33

Televisions: 5.5 million (1993 est.)

@Colombia:Transportation

Railways: total: 3,386 km standard gauge: 150 km 1.435-m gauge (connects Cerrejon coal mines to maritime port at Bahia Portete) narrow gauge: 3,236 km 0.914-m gauge (1,830 km in use) (1995)

Highways: total: 107,000 km paved: 12,733 km unpaved: 94,267 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 14,300 km, navigable by river boats

Pipelines: crude oil 3,585 km; petroleum products 1,350 km; natural gas 830 km; natural gas liquids 125 km

Ports and harbors: Barranquilla, Buenaventura, Cartagena, Leticia,
Puerto Bolivar, San Andres, Santa Marta, Tumaco, Turbo

Merchant marine: total: 19 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 70,775 GRT/94,677 DWT ships by type: bulk 5, cargo 8, container 1, multi-function large load carrier 2, oil tanker 3 (1997 est.)

Airports: 1,136 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 86 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 10 1,524 to 2,437 m: 36 914 to 1,523 m: 31 under 914 m: 7 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 1,050 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 65 914 to 1,523 m: 348 under 914 m: 636 (1997 est.)

@Colombia:Military

Military branches: Army (Ejercito Nacional), Navy (Armada Nacional, includes Marines and Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Colombiana), National Police (Policia Nacional)

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 10,229,023 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 6,862,893 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 352,204 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $2 billion (1995)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2.8% (1995)

@Colombia:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: maritime boundary dispute with Venezuela in the Gulf of Venezuela; territorial disputes with Nicaragua over Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of coca, opium poppies, and cannabis; cultivation of coca in 1997-79,500 hectares, an 18% increase over 1996; potential production of cocaine in 1997-125 metric tons, a 14% increase over 1996; cultivation of opium in 1997-6,600 hectares, a 5% increase over 1996; potential production of opium in 1997-66 metric tons, a 5% increase over 1996; the world's largest processor of coca derivatives into cocaine; supplier of cocaine to the US and other international drug markets; active aerial eradication program seeks to virtually eliminate coca and opium crops

______________________________________________________________________

COMOROS

Introduction

Historical perspective: Comoros has had difficulty in achieving political stability, having endured 18 coups or attempted coups since receiving independence from France in 1975. Most recently, in August 1997, the islands of Anjouan and Moheli declared their independence from Comoros. An attempt in September 1997 by the government to reestablish control over the rebellious islands by force failed, and presently the Organization of African Unity is brokering negotiations to effect a reconciliation.

@Comoros:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, group of islands in the Mozambique Channel, about two-thirds of the way between northern Madagascar and northern Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 12 10 S, 44 15 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 2,170 sq km land: 2,170 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly more than 12 times the size of Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 340 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; rainy season (November to May)

Terrain: volcanic islands, interiors vary from steep mountains to low hills

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: Mount Kartala 2,360 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use: arable land: 35% permanent crops: 10% permanent pastures: 7% forests and woodland: 18% other: 30% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: cyclones possible during rainy season (December to
April); Mount Kartala on Grand Comore is an active volcano

Environment-current issues: soil degradation and erosion results from crop cultivation on slopes without proper terracing; deforestation

Environment-international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: important location at northern end of Mozambique
Channel

@Comoros:People

Population: 545,528 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 43% (male 116,345; female 115,886) 15-64 years: 54% (male 146,655; female 150,612) 65 years and over: 3% (male 7,644; female 8,386) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.1% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 40.52 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 9.52 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 84.54 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 60.36 years male: 57.95 years female: 62.84 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.48 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Comoran(s) adjective: Comoran

Ethnic groups: Antalote, Cafre, Makoa, Oimatsaha, Sakalava

Religions: Sunni Muslim 86%, Roman Catholic 14%

Languages: Arabic (official), French (official), Comoran (a blend of
Swahili and Arabic)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 57.3% male: 64.2% female: 50.4% (1995 est.)

@Comoros:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Federal Islamic Republic of the Comoros conventional short form: Comoros local long form: Republique Federale Islamique des Comores local short form: Comores

Data code: CN

Government type: independent republic

National capital: Moroni

Administrative divisions: three islands; Grande Comore (Njazidja),
Anjouan (Nzwani), and Moheli (Mwali)
note: there are also four municipalities named Domoni, Fomboni,
Moroni, and Mutsamudu

Independence: 6 July 1975 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 July (1975)

Constitution: 20 October 1996

Legal system: French and Muslim law in a new consolidated code

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Mohamed TAKI Abdulkarim (since 16 March 1996) head of government: Prime Minister Nourdine BOURHANE (since 6 December 1997) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president elections: president elected by popular vote to a five-year term; election last held 16 March 1996 (next to be held NA March 2001); prime minister appointed by the president election results: Mohamed TAKI Abdulkarim elected president; share of vote-64%

Legislative branch: bicameral legislature consists of the Senate (15 seats; members selected by regional councils for six-year terms) and a Federal Assembly or Assemblee Federale (43 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 1 and 8 December 1996 (next to be held NA December 2000) election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-RND 39, RND candidate running as independent 1, FNJ 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supremes, two members are appointed by the president, two members are elected by the Federal Assembly, one by the Council of each island, and former presidents of the republic

Political parties and leaders: Rassemblement National pour le Development or RND [Mohamed TAKI Abdulkarim], party of the government; Front National pour la Justice or FNJ, Islamic party in opposition note: under a new constitution ratified in October 1996, a two party system was established; President Mohamed TAKI Abdulkarim called for all parties to dissolve and join him in creating the RND; the constitution stipulates that only parties that win six seats in the Federal Assembly (two from each island) are permitted to be in opposition, but if no party accomplishes that the second most successful party will be in opposition; in the elections of December 1996 the FNJ appeared to qualify as opposition

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL,
CCC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
InOC, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ahmed DJABIR (ambassador to the US and Canada and permanent representative to the UN) chancery: (temporary) care of the Permanent Mission of the Federal and Islamic Republic of the Comoros to the United Nations, 336 East 45th Street, 2nd Floor, New York, NY 10017 telephone: [1] (212) 972-8010

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Comoros; the ambassador to Mauritius is accredited to Comoros

Flag description: green with a white crescent in the center of the field, its points facing downward; there are four white five-pointed stars placed in a line between the points of the crescent; the crescent, stars, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam; the four stars represent the four main islands of the archipelago - Mwali, Njazidja, Nzwani, and Mayotte (a territorial collectivity of France, but claimed by Comoros); the design, the most recent of several, is described in the constitution approved by referendum on 7 June 1992

@Comoros:Economy

Economy-overview: One of the world's poorest countries, Comoros is made up of three islands that have inadequate transportation links, a young and rapidly increasing population, and few natural resources. The low educational level of the labor force contributes to a subsistence level of economic activity, high unemployment, and a heavy dependence on foreign grants and technical assistance. Agriculture, including fishing, hunting, and forestry, is the leading sector of the economy. It contributes 40% to GDP, employs 80% of the labor force, and provides most of the exports. The country is not self-sufficient in food production; rice, the main staple, accounts for the bulk of imports. The government is struggling to upgrade education and technical training, to privatize commercial and industrial enterprises, to improve health services, to diversify exports, to promote tourism, and to reduce the high population growth rate. Continued foreign support is essential if the goal of 4% annual GDP growth is to be maintained in the late 1990s.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$400 million (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3.5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$685 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 40% industry: 14% services: 46% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 3.5% (1996 est.)

Labor force: total: 144,500 (1996 est.) by occupation: agriculture 80%, government 3%

Unemployment rate: 20% (1996 est.)

Budget: revenues: $55 million expenditures: $71 million, including capital expenditures of $15 million (1995 est.)

Industries: tourism, perfume distillation, textiles, furniture, jewelry, construction materials, soft drinks

Industrial production growth rate: -6.5% (1989 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 9,750 kW (1996)

Electricity-production: 31 million kWh (1996)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 38 kWh (1996)

Agriculture-products: vanilla, cloves, perfume essences, copra, coconuts, bananas, cassava (tapioca)

Exports: total value: $11.4 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.) commodities: vanilla, ylang-ylang, cloves, perfume oil, copra partners: France 54%, Germany 18%, US 18%

Imports: total value: $70 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.) commodities: rice and other foodstuffs, consumer goods; petroleum products, cement, transport equipment partners: France 60%, South Africa 10%, Kenya 5%, Singapore 4%

Debt-external: $219 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Comoran franc (CF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Comoran francs (CF) per US$1-456.27 (January 1998), 437.75 (1997), 383.66 (1996), 374.36 (1995), 416.40 (1994), 283.16 (1993) note: beginning 12 January 1994, the Comoran franc was devalued to 75 per French franc from 50 per French franc at which it had been fixed since 1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 4,000 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: sparse system of microwave radio relay and HF radiotelephone communication stations domestic: HF radiotelephone communications and microwave radio relay international: HF radiotelephone communications to Madagascar and Reunion

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 78,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: 200 (1993 est.)

@Comoros:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 880 km paved: 673 km unpaved: 207 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Fomboni, Moroni, Mutsamudu

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 4 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 4 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 3 (1997 est.)

@Comoros:Military

Military branches: Comoran Security Force

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 129,095 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 76,991 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $3 million (1994 est.)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Comoros:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: claims French-administered Mayotte

______________________________________________________________________

CONGO, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE

@Congo, Democratic Republic of the:Geography

Location: Central Africa, northeast of Angola

Geographic coordinates: 0 00 N, 25 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 2,345,410 sq km land: 2,267,600 sq km water: 77,810 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly less than one-fourth the size of US

Land boundaries:
total: 10,271 km
border countries: Angola 2,511 km, Burundi 233 km, Central African
Republic 1,577 km, Republic of the Congo 2,410 km, Rwanda 217 km,
Sudan 628 km, Uganda 765 km, Zambia 1,930 km

Coastline: 37 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: boundaries with neighbors territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot and humid in equatorial river basin; cooler and drier in southern highlands; cooler and wetter in eastern highlands; north of Equator - wet season April to October, dry season December to February; south of Equator - wet season November to March, dry season April to October

Terrain: vast central basin is a low-lying plateau; mountains in east

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Margherita Peak (Mount Stanley) 5,110 m

Natural resources: cobalt, copper, cadmium, petroleum, industrial and gem diamonds, gold, silver, zinc, manganese, tin, germanium, uranium, radium, bauxite, iron ore, coal, hydropower potential, timber

Land use: arable land: 3% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 7% forests and woodland: 77% other: 13% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 100 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts in south; volcanic activity

Environment-current issues: poaching threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; deforestation; refugees who arrived in mid-1994 were responsible for significant deforestation, soil erosion, and wildlife poaching in the eastern part of the country (most of those refugees were repatriated in November and December 1996)

Environment-international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification

Geography-note: straddles Equator; very narrow strip of land that controls the lower Congo river and is only outlet to South Atlantic Ocean; dense tropical rain forest in central river basin and eastern highlands

@Congo, Democratic Republic of the:People

Population: 49,000,511 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 48% (male 11,829,386; female 11,766,829) 15-64 years: 49% (male 11,778,121; female 12,339,837) 65 years and over: 3% (male 557,095; female 729,243) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.99% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 46.77 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 15.2 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.63 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.) note: in 1994, about a million refugees fled into Zaire (now called Democratic Republic of the Congo), to escape the fighting between the Hutus and the Tutsis in Rwanda and Burundi; the outbreak of widespread fighting between rebels and government forces in October 1996 spurred about 875,000 refugees to return to Rwanda in late 1996 and early 1997; additionally, Democratic Republic of the Congo is host to about 200,000 Angolan, about 110,000 Burundi, about 100,000 Sudanese, about 15,000 Ugandan, and about 18,000 Republic of the Congo refugees

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 101.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 49.31 years male: 47.27 years female: 51.4 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.51 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Congolese (singular and plural) adjective: Congolese or Congo

Ethnic groups: over 200 African ethnic groups of which the majority are Bantu; the four largest tribes-Mongo, Luba, Kongo (all Bantu), and the Mangbetu-Azande (Hamitic) make up about 45% of the population

Religions: Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 20%, Kimbanguist 10%, Muslim 10%, other syncretic sects and traditional beliefs 10%

Languages: French (official), Lingala (a lingua franca trade language), Kingwana (a dialect of Kiswahili or Swahili), Kikongo, Tshiluba

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write in French, Lingala, Kingwana, or Tshiluba total population: 77.3% male: 86.6% female: 67.7% (1995 est.)

@Congo, Democratic Republic of the:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Democratic Republic of the Congo conventional short form: none local long form: Republique Democratique du Congo local short form: none former: Belgian Congo, Congo/Leopoldville, Congo/Kinshasa, Zaire

Data code: CG

Government type: dictatorship; presumably undergoing a transition to representative government

National capital: Kinshasa

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces (provinces, singular-province)
and one city* (ville); Bandundu, Bas-Congo, Equateur,
Kasai-Occidental, Kasai-Oriental, Katanga, Kinshasa*, Maniema,
Nord-Kivu, Orientale, Sud-Kivu

Independence: 30 June 1960 (from Belgium)

National holiday: anniversary of independence from Belgium, 30 June (1960)

Constitution: 24 June 1967, amended August 1974, revised 15 February 1978, amended April 1990; transitional constitution promulgated in April 1994; following successful rebellion the new government announced on 29 May 1997 a two-year time table of constitutional reform

Legal system: based on Belgian civil law system and tribal law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state: Laurent Desire KABILA (since 17 May 1997); note-the president is both chief of state and head of government head of government: Laurent Desire KABILA (since 17 May 1997); note-the president is both chief of state and head of government cabinet: National Executive Council; KABILA's cabinet was appointed by him and has no prime minister elections: before Laurent Desire KABILA seized power, the president was elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held 29 July 1984 (next was to be held in May 1997); formerly, the prime minister was elected by the High Council of the Republic; note-the term of the former government expired in 1991, elections were not held, and former president MOBUTU continued in office until his government was militarily defeated by KABILA on 17 May 1997 election results: MOBUTU Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu wa Za Banga reelected president in 1984 without opposition note: Marshal MOBUTU Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu wa Za Banga was president from 24 November 1965 until forced into exile on 16 May 1997 when his government was overturned militarily by Laurent Desire KABILA, who immediately assumed governing authority; in his 29 May 1997 inaugural address, President KABILA announced a two-year time table for political reform leading to elections by April 1999

Legislative branch: legislative activity has been suspended pending the establishment of KABILA's promised constitutional reforms and the elections to be held by April 1999 elections: the country's first multi-party presidential and legislative elections had been scheduled for May 1997 but were not held; instead KABILA overthrew the MOBUTO government and seized control of the country

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: sole legal party until January 1991-Popular Movement of the Revolution or MPR; other parties include Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Etienne TSHISEKEDI wa Mulumba]; Democratic Social Christian Party or PDSC [Andre BO-BOLIKO]; Union of Federalists and Independent Republicans or UFERI [Gabriel KYUNGU wa Kumwunzu]; Unified Lumumbast Party or PALU [Antoine GIZENGA] note: President KABILA, who has banned political party activity indefinitely, currently leads the Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo-Zaire or AFDL

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC,
CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU,
NAM, OAU, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Charge d'Affaires ad interim Tambo A. Kabila MUKENDI chancery: 1800 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009 telephone: [1] (202) 234-7690, 7691 FAX: [1] (202) 686-3631

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel H. SIMPSON embassy: 310 Avenue des Aviateurs, Kinshasa mailing address: Unit 31550, APO AE 09828 telephone: [243] (12) 21533 through 21535, 21104; [243] (88) 43604 through 43608 FAX: [243] (88) 43805, 43467

Flag description: light blue with a large yellow five-pointed star in the center and a columnar arrangement of six small yellow five-pointed stars along the hoist side

@Congo, Democratic Republic of the:Economy

Economy-overview: The economy of Democratic Republic of the Congo-a nation endowed with vast potential wealth-has declined significantly since the mid-1980s. The new government has instituted a tight fiscal policy that has curbed inflation and currency depreciation. Plans are underway to introduce a new national currency. Most formal transactions are conducted in hard currency but a barter economy flourishes in all but the largest cities. Most individuals and families survive through subsistence farming or petty trade. International investors show renewed interest, especially in the mining and telecommunications sectors. However, poor infrastructure, an uncertain legal framework, corruption and lack of transparency in government economic policy remain a brake on investment and growth. A number of IMF and World Bank missions have met with the new government to help it develop a coherent economic plan.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$18 billion (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 1.5% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$400 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 59% industry: 15% services: 26% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: NA%

Labor force: total: 14.51 million (1993 est.) by occupation: agriculture 65%, industry 16%, services 19% (1991 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $269 million expenditures: $244 million, including capital expenditures of $24 million (1996 est.)

Industries: mining, mineral processing, consumer products (including textiles, footwear, cigarettes, processed foods and beverages), cement, diamonds

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 2.831 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 5.22 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 95 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: coffee, sugar, palm oil, rubber, tea, quinine, cassava (tapioca), palm oil, bananas, root crops, corn, fruits; wood products

Exports: total value: $1.9 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.) commodities: diamonds, copper, coffee, cobalt, crude oil partners: Belgium, US, France, Germany, Italy, UK, Japan, South Africa

Imports: total value: $1.1 billion (c.i.f., 1996 est.) commodities: consumer goods, foodstuffs, mining and other machinery, transport equipment, fuels partners: Belgium, South Africa, US, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, UK

Debt-external: $13.8 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 zaire (Z) = 100 makuta

Exchange rates: new zaires (Z) per US$1-115,000 (January 1998), 83,764 (October 1996), 7,024 (1995), 1,194 (1994), 3 (1993) note: on 22 October 1993 the new zaire, equal to 3,000,000 old zaires, was introduced

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 34,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: barely adequate wire and microwave radio relay service in and between urban areas; domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 10, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: 3.87 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 18

Televisions: 55,000 (1992 est.)

@Congo, Democratic Republic of the:Transportation

Railways: total: 5,138 km (1995); note-severely reduced route-distance in use because of damage to facilities by civil strife narrow gauge: 3,987 km 1.067-m gauge (858 km electrified); 125 km 1.000-m gauge; 1,026 km 0.600-m gauge

Highways: total: 145,000 km paved: 2,500 km unpaved: 142,500 km (1993 est.)

Waterways: 15,000 km including the Congo, its tributaries, and unconnected lakes

Pipelines: petroleum products 390 km

Ports and harbors: Banana, Boma, Bukavu, Bumba, Goma, Kalemie, Kindu,
Kinshasa, Kisangani, Matadi, Mbandaka

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 234 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 24 over 3,047 m: 4 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 15 914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 210 1,524 to 2,437 m: 20 914 to 1,523 m: 96 under 914 m: 94 (1997 est.)

@Congo, Democratic Republic of the:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 10,543,138 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 5,366,937 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: NA

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA

@Congo, Democratic Republic of the:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: Democratic Republic of the Congo-Tanzania-Zambia tripoint in Lake Tanganyika may no longer be indefinite since it has been informally reported that the indefinite segment of the Democratic Republic of the Congo-Zambia boundary has been settled; long segment of the boundary with Republic of the Congo along the Congo river is indefinite (no division of the river or its islands has been made)

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis, mostly for domestic consumption

______________________________________________________________________

CONGO, REPUBLIC OF THE

@Congo, Republic of the:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between
Angola and Gabon

Geographic coordinates: 1 00 S, 15 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 342,000 sq km land: 341,500 sq km water: 500 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Montana

Land boundaries: total: 5,504 km border countries: Angola 201 km, Cameroon 523 km, Central African Republic 467 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,410 km, Gabon 1,903 km

Coastline: 169 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June to October); constantly high temperatures and humidity; particularly enervating climate astride the Equator

Terrain: coastal plain, southern basin, central plateau, northern basin

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Mount Berongou 903 m

Natural resources: petroleum, timber, potash, lead, zinc, uranium, copper, phosphates, natural gas

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 29% forests and woodland: 62% other: 9% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: seasonal flooding

Environment-current issues: air pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution from the dumping of raw sewage; tap water is not potable; deforestation

Environment-international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94 signed, but not ratified: Desertification, Law of the Sea

Geography-note: about 70% of the population lives in Brazzaville,
Pointe Noire, or along the railroad between them

@Congo, Republic of the:People

Population: 2,658,123 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 43% (male 569,382; female 563,327) 15-64 years: 54% (male 700,507; female 734,447) 65 years and over: 3% (male 36,383; female 54,077) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.21% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 38.5 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 16.45 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 102.69 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 47.07 years male: 45.29 years female: 48.89 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.98 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Congolese (singular and plural) adjective: Congolese or Congo

Ethnic groups: Kongo 48%, Sangha 20%, M'Bochi 12%, Teke 17%, Europeans NA%; note - Europeans estimated at 8,500, mostly French, before the 1997 civil war; may be half of that in 1998, following the widespread destruction of foreign businesses in 1997

Religions: Christian 50%, animist 48%, Muslim 2%

Languages: French (official), Lingala and Monokutuba (lingua franca trade languages), many local languages and dialects (of which Kikongo has the most users)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 74.9% male: 83.1% female: 67.2% (1995 est.)

@Congo, Republic of the:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of the Congo conventional short form: none local long form: Republique du Congo local short form: none former: Congo/Brazzaville, Congo

Data code: CF

Government type: republic

National capital: Brazzaville

Administrative divisions: 9 regions (regions, singular-region) and 1 commune*; Bouenza, Brazzaville*, Cuvette, Kouilou, Lekoumou, Likouala, Niari, Plateaux, Pool, Sangha

Independence: 15 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Congolese National Day, 15 August (1960)

Constitution: new constitution approved by referendum March 1992 but is now being redrafted by President SASSOU-NGUESSO

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO (inaugurated on 25 October 1997) head of government: prime minister (vacant) appointed from the majority party by the president cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 16 August 1992 (next was to be held 27 July 1997 but will be delayed for several years pending the drafting of a new constitution which will change term to seven years) election results: Pascal LISSOUBA elected president; percent of vote-Pascal LISSOUBA 61%, Bernard KOLELAS 39%

Legislative branch: bicameral parliament consists of an Assemblee Nationale or National Assembly (125 seats, members are elected by direct popular vote for five-year terms) and a Senat or Senate (60 seats, members are elected by direct popular vote for six-year terms); note-the National Assembly which was elected on 3 October 1993 was dissolved; it has been replaced by a transitional advisory parliament of 75 members named by the National Reconciliation Forum of January 1998 elections: National Assembly-last held 3 October 1993 (next to be held NA); Senate - last held November 1996 (next to be held NA) election results: National Assembly-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party - UPADS 64, URD/PCT 58, others 3; Senate-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-UPADS 23, MCDDI 14, RDD 8, RDPS 5, PCT 2, others 8

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: the most important of the many political parties are Congolese Labor Party or PCT [Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO, president]; Association for Democracy and Development or RDD [Joachim YHOMBI-OPANGO, president]; Association for Democracy and Social Progress or RDPS [Jean-Pierre Thystere TCHICAYA, president]; Congolese Movement for Democracy and Integral Development or MCDDI [Michel MAMPOUYA, leader]; Pan-African Union for Social Development or UPADS [Martin MBERI, leader]; Union of Democratic Forces or UFD [Sebastian EBAO, leader]; Union for Democratic Renewal or URD; Union for Development and Social Progress or UDPS [Jean-Michael BOKAMBA-YANGOUMA, leader]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Union of Congolese Socialist
Youth or UJSC; Congolese Trade Union Congress or CSC; Revolutionary
Union of Congolese Women or URFC; General Union of Congolese Pupils
and Students or UGEEC

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC,
CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, UDEAC,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: (vacant); Charge d'Affaires ad interim Serge MONBOULI chancery: 4891 Colorado Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20011 telephone: [1] (202) 726-5500 FAX: [1] (202) 726-1860

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador J. Aubrey HOOKS embassy: Avenue Amilcar Cabral, Brazzaville mailing address: B. P. 1015, Brazzaville telephone: [242] 83 20 70 FAX: [242] 83 63 38 note: the embassy is temporarily collocated with the US Embassy in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (US Embassy Kinshasa, 310 Avenue des Aviateurs, Kinshasa)

Flag description: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a yellow band; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

@Congo, Republic of the:Economy

Economy-overview: The economy is a mixture of village agriculture and handicrafts, an industrial sector based largely on oil, support services, and a government characterized by budget problems and overstaffing. Oil has supplanted forestry as the mainstay of the economy, providing about 90% of government revenues and exports. In the early 1980s, rapidly rising oil revenues enabled the government to finance large-scale development projects with GDP growth averaging 5% annually, one of the highest rates in Africa. Subsequently, falling oil prices cut GDP growth by half. Moreover, the government has mortgaged a substantial portion of its oil earnings, contributing to the government's shortage of revenues. The 12 January 1994 devaluation of Franc Zone currencies by 50% resulted in inflation of 61% in 1994 but inflation has subsided since. Economic reform efforts continue with the support of international organizations, notably the World Bank and the IMF.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$5.25 billion (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 4% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$2,000 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 11.4% industry: 35.2% services: 53.4% (1993)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 3% (1996 est.)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $870 million expenditures: $970 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997 est.)

Industries: petroleum extraction, cement kilning, lumbering, brewing, sugar milling, palm oil, soap, cigarette making

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 118,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 438 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 220 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: cassava (tapioca) accounts for 90% of food output, sugar, rice, corn, peanuts, vegetables, coffee, cocoa; forest products

Exports: total value: $1.2 billion (f.o.b., 1995) commodities: crude oil 90%, lumber, plywood, sugar, cocoa, coffee, diamonds partners: Belgium-Luxembourg 24.3%, Taiwan 20.2%, US 14.9%, Italy 14.8% (1995 est.)

Imports: total value: $670 million (f.o.b. 1995) commodities: intermediate manufactures, capital equipment, construction materials, foodstuffs, petroleum products partners: France 31.2%, Netherlands 24.6%, Italy 11.4%, US 6.9% (1995 est.)

Debt-external: $5.3 billion (1996)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1-608.36 (January 1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993) note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 18,000 (1983 est.)

Telephone system: services barely adequate for government use; key exchanges are in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, and Loubomo; inter-city lines frequently out-of-order domestic: primary network consists of microwave radio relay and coaxial cable international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 4 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 8,500 (1993 est.)

@Congo, Republic of the:Transportation

Railways: total: 795 km (includes 285 km private track) narrow gauge: 795 km 1.067-m gauge (1995 est.)

Highways: total: 12,800 km paved: 1,242 km unpaved: 11,558 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: the Congo and Ubangi (Oubangui) Rivers provide 1,120 km of commercially navigable water transport; other rivers are used for local traffic only

Pipelines: crude oil 25 km

Ports and harbors: Brazzaville, Impfondo, Ouesso, Oyo, Pointe-Noire

Merchant marine: total: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,918 GRT/4,100 DWT (1997 est.)

Airports: 37 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 4 over 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 33 1,524 to 2,437 m: 8 914 to 1,523 m: 15 under 914 m: 10 (1997 est.)

@Congo, Republic of the:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Marines), Air Force, National
Police

Military manpower-military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 623,924 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 317,997 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 27,354 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $110 million (1993)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 3.8% (1993)

@Congo, Republic of the:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: long segment of the boundary with Democratic Republic of the Congo along the Congo River is indefinite (no division of the river or its islands has been made)

______________________________________________________________________

COOK ISLANDS

(self-governing in free association with New Zealand)

@Cook Islands:Geography

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 21 14 S, 159 46 W

Map references: Oceania

Area: total: 240 sq km land: 240 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: 1.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 120 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds

Terrain: low coral atolls in north; volcanic, hilly islands in south

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Te Manga 652 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use: arable land: 9% permanent crops: 13% permanent pastures: NA% forests and woodland: NA% other: 78% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons (November to March)

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea signed, but not ratified: NA

@Cook Islands:People

Population: 19,989 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: NA 15-64 years: NA 65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 1.06% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 22.52 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.2 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.71 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 24.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.14 years male: 69.2 years female: 73.1 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.19 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Cook Islander(s) adjective: Cook Islander

Ethnic groups: Polynesian (full blood) 81.3%, Polynesian and European 7.7%, Polynesian and non-European 7.7%, European 2.4%, other 0.9%

Religions: Christian (majority of populace are members of the Cook
Islands Christian Church)

Languages: English (official), Maori

Literacy: NA

@Cook Islands:Government

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Cook Islands

Data code: CW

Dependency status: self-governing in free association with New
Zealand; Cook Islands is fully responsible for internal affairs; New
Zealand retains responsibility for external affairs, in consultation
with the Cook Islands

Government type: self-governing parliamentary democracy

National capital: Avarua

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: none (became self-governing in free association with New Zealand on 4 August 1965 and has the right at any time to move to full independence by unilateral action)

National holiday: Constitution Day, 4 August

Constitution: 4 August 1965

Legal system: based on New Zealand law and English common law

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952), represented by Apenera SHORT (since NA); New Zealand High Commissioner Jon JONESSEN (since NA January 1998), representative of New Zealand head of government: Prime Minister Sir Geoffrey A. HENRY (since 1 February 1989); Deputy Prime Minister Inatio AKARURU (since 1 February 1989) cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister; collectively responsible to Parliament elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; the queen's representative is appointed by the queen; the New Zealand high commissioner is appointed by the New Zealand Government; following legislative elections, the leader of the party that wins the most seats usually becomes prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (25 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 6 March 1994 (next to be held by NA 1999) election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-Cook Islands Party 20, Democratic Party 3, Democratic Alliance Party 2 note: the House of Arikis (chiefs) advises on traditional matters, but has no legislative powers

Judicial branch: High Court

Political parties and leaders: Cook Islands Party, Geoffrey HENRY;
Democratic Party, Sir Thomas DAVIS; Democratic Alliance Party, Norman
GEORGE

International organization participation: AsDB, ESCAP (associate),
FAO, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), IOC, Sparteca,
SPC, SPF, UNESCO, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (self-governing in free association with New Zealand)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (self-governing in free association with New Zealand)

Flag description: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a large circle of 15 white five-pointed stars (one for every island) centered in the outer half of the flag

@Cook Islands:Economy

Economy-overview: Like many other South Pacific island nations, the Cook Islands' economic development is hindered by the isolation of the country from foreign markets, lack of natural resources, periodic devastation from natural disasters, and inadequate infrastructure. Agriculture provides the economic base with major exports made up of copra and citrus fruit. Manufacturing activities are limited to fruit-processing, clothing, and handicrafts. Trade deficits are made up for by remittances from emigrants and by foreign aid, overwhelmingly from New Zealand. In 1996, the government declared bankruptcy, citing a $120 million public debt. Efforts to exploit tourism potential and expanding the mining and fishing industries have not been enough to adequately deal with the financial crisis. In an effort to stem further erosion of the economy, the government slashed public service salaries by 50%, condensed the number of government ministries from 52 to 22, reduced the number of civil servants by more than half, began selling government assets, and closed all overseas diplomatic posts except for the one in New Zealand.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$79 million (1994 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: NA%

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$4,000 (1994 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 17% industry: 6% services: 77% (FY90/91)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 2.6% (1994 est.)

Labor force: total: 6,601 (1993) by occupation: agriculture 29%, government 27%, services 25%, industry 15%, other 4% (1981)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $NA expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: fruit processing, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 6,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 15 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 775 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: copra, citrus, pineapples, tomatoes, beans, pawpaws, bananas, yams, taro, coffee

Exports: total value: $4.2 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.) commodities: copra, fresh and canned citrus fruit, coffee; fish; pearls and pearl shells; clothing partners: NZ 80%, Japan, Hong Kong (1993)

Imports: total value: $85 million (c.i.f., 1994) commodities: foodstuffs, textiles, fuels, timber, capital goods partners: NZ 49%, Italy, Australia (1993)

Debt-external: $160 million (1994)

Economic aid: recipient: roughly $16 million annually, 1985-95, with New Zealand furnishing 88% of the total

Currency: 1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1-1.7283 (January 1998), 1.5083 (1997), 1.4543 (1996), 1.5235 (1995), 1.6844 (1994), 1.8495 (1993)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 4,180 (1994)

Telephone system: domestic: the individual islands are connected by a combination of satellite earth stations, microwave systems, and VHF and HF radiotelephone; within the islands, service is provided by small exchanges connected to subscribers by open wire, cable, and fiber-optic cable international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 1

Radios: 13,000 (1994 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 studio and 8 low-powered repeaters achieve good coverage on the island of Rarotonga

Televisions: 3,500 (1995 est.)

@Cook Islands:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 187 km paved: 35 km unpaved: 152 km (1980 est.)

Ports and harbors: Avarua, Avatiu

Merchant marine: total: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,464 GRT/2,181 DWT (1997 est.)

Airports: 7 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 6 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 3 (1997 est.)

@Cook Islands:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of New Zealand, in consultation with the Cook Islands and at its request

@Cook Islands:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

CORAL SEA ISLANDS

(territory of Australia)

@Coral Sea Islands:Geography

Location: Oceania, islands in the Coral Sea, northeast of Australia

Geographic coordinates: 18 00 S, 152 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area: total: less than 3 sq km land: less than 3 sq km water: 0 sq km note: includes numerous small islands and reefs scattered over a sea area of about 1 million sq km, with the Willis Islets the most important

Area-comparative: NA

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 3,095 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical

Terrain: sand and coral reefs and islands (or cays)

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location on Cato Island 6 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 0% forests and woodland: 0% other: 100% (mostly grass or scrub cover)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: occasional, tropical cyclones

Environment-current issues: no permanent fresh water resources

Environment-international agreements: party to: NA signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: important nesting area for birds and turtles

@Coral Sea Islands:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants note: there is a staff of three to four at the meteorological station

@Coral Sea Islands:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Coral Sea Islands Territory conventional short form: Coral Sea Islands

Data code: CR

Dependency status: territory of Australia; administered from Canberra by the Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories

Legal system: the laws of Australia, where applicable, apply

Executive branch: administered from Canberra by the Department of the
Environment, Sport and Territories

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of Australia)

Flag description: the flag of Australia is used

@Coral Sea Islands:Economy

Economy-overview: no economic activity

Communications

Communications-note: there are automatic weather relay stations on many of the isles and reefs relaying data to the mainland

@Coral Sea Islands:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

@Coral Sea Islands:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of Australia; visited regularly by the Royal Australian Navy; Australia has control over the activities of visitors

@Coral Sea Islands:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

COSTA RICA

@Costa Rica:Geography

Location: Middle America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the
North Pacific Ocean, between Nicaragua and Panama

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 N, 84 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 51,100 sq km land: 50,660 sq km water: 440 sq km note: includes Isla del Coco

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries: total: 639 km border countries: Nicaragua 309 km, Panama 330 km

Coastline: 1,290 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; dry season (December to April); rainy season (May to November)

Terrain: coastal plains separated by rugged mountains

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Cerro Chirripo 3,810 m

Natural resources: hydropower potential

Land use: arable land: 6% permanent crops: 5% permanent pastures: 46% forests and woodland: 31% other: 12% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,200 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: occasional earthquakes, hurricanes along Atlantic coast; frequent flooding of lowlands at onset of rainy season; active volcanoes

Environment-current issues: deforestation, largely a result of the clearing of land for cattle ranching; soil erosion

Environment-international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

@Costa Rica:People

Population: 3,604,642 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 34% (male 620,496; female 591,299) 15-64 years: 61% (male 1,120,118; female 1,093,099) 65 years and over: 5% (male 82,893; female 96,737) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.95% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 22.89 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 4.15 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 13.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.93 years male: 73.5 years female: 78.48 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.81 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Costa Rican(s) adjective: Costa Rican

Ethnic groups: white (including mestizo) 96%, black 2%, Amerindian 1%,
Chinese 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: Spanish (official), English spoken around Puerto Limon

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 94.8% male: 94.7% female: 95% (1995 est.)

@Costa Rica:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Costa Rica conventional short form: Costa Rica local long form: Republica de Costa Rica local short form: Costa Rica

Data code: CS

Government type: democratic republic

National capital: San Jose

Administrative divisions: 7 provinces (provincias, singular-provincia); Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limon, Puntarenas, San Jose

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution: 9 November 1949

Legal system: based on Spanish civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state: President Miguel Angel RODRIGEUZ (since 8 May 1998); First Vice President Astrid FISCHEL (since 8 May 1998), Second Vice President Elizabeth ODIO (since 8 May 1998); note-president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Miguel Angel RODRIGUEZ (since 8 May 1998); First Vice President Astrid FISCHEL (since 8 May 1998), Second Vice President Elizabeth ODIO (since 8 May 1998); note-president is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Cabinet selected by the president elections: president and vice presidents elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 1 February 1998 (next to be held NA February 2002) election results: Miguel Angel RODRIGUEZ elected president; percent of vote-Miguel Angel RODRIGUEZ (PUSC) 46.6%, Jose Miguel CORRALES (PLN) 44.6%

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea Legislativa (57 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 1 February 1998 (next to be held NA February 2002) election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-PUSC 27, PLN 23, minority parties 7

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), justices are elected for eight-year terms by the Legislative Assembly

Political parties and leaders: Social Christian Unity Party or PUSC
[Miguel Angel RODRIGUEZ Echeverria]; National Liberation Party or PLN
[Jose Miguel CORRALES Bolanos]; National Integration Party or PIN
[Walter MUNOZ Cespedes]; National Independent Party or PNI [Jorge
GONZALEZ Marten]; People United Party or PPU [Norma VARGAS Duarte];
National Christian Alliance Party or ANC [Alejandro MADRIGAL
Benavides]; Democratic Force Party or PFD [Vladimir DE LA CRUZ de
Lemos]; Libertarian Movement Party or PML [Federico MALAVASI Calvo];
Costa Rican Renovation Party or PRC [Sherman Thomas JACKSON]; New
Democratic Party or PDN [Rodrigo GUTIERREZ Schwanhauser]; National
Rescue Party or PRN [Marina VOLIO Brenes]; Democratic Party or PD
[Alvaro GONZALEZ Espinoza]; Independent Party or PI [Yolanda GUTIERREZ
Ventura]
note: mainly a two-party system-PUSC and PLN; small parties share only
5% of population's support

Political pressure groups and leaders: Costa Rican Confederation of
Democratic Workers or CCTD (Liberation Party affiliate); Confederated
Union of Workers or CUT (Communist Party affiliate); Authentic
Confederation of Democratic Workers or CATD (Communist Party
affiliate); Chamber of Coffee Growers; National Association for
Economic Development or ANFE; Free Costa Rica Movement or MCRL
(rightwing militants); National Association of Educators or ANDE;
Federation of Public Service Workers or FTSP

International organization participation: AG (observer), BCIE, CACM,
ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO,
ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, UN, UN
Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Jose THOMPSON chancery: 2114 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 234-2945 FAX: [1] (202) 265-4795 consulate(s) general: Albuquerque, Atlanta, Chicago, Durham, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and Tampa consulate(s): Austin

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas J. DODD embassy: Pavas Road, San Jose mailing address: APO AA 34020 telephone: [506] 220-3939 FAX: [506] 220-2305

Flag description: five horizontal bands of blue (top), white, red (double width), white, and blue, with the coat of arms in a white disk on the hoist side of the red band

@Costa Rica:Economy

Economy-overview: Costa Rica's basically stable and progressive economy depends especially on tourism and the export of bananas, coffee, and other agricultural products. Poverty has been substantially reduced over the past 15 years, and a strong social safety net has been put in place. Recent trends, however, have been disappointing. Economic growth slipped from 4.3% in 1994 to 2.5% in 1995, and to 0.9% in 1996, and then rebounded in 1997 to 3%. Inflation rose to 22.5% in 1995 from 13.5% in 1994, receded to 17.5% in 1996, then dropped to 11.2% in 1997. Unemployment appears moderate at 5.7%, but substantial underemployment continues. Furthermore, substantial government deficits have undermined efforts to maintain the quality of social services. The government thus faces a formidable set of problems: to curb inflation, reduce the deficit, encourage domestic savings, and improve public sector efficiency while increasing the role of the private sector, all this in harmony with IMF agreements. One important positive development-the infusion of more than $200 million in 1997 by microchip giant Intel and the anticipated attraction of other high-tech firms to Costa Rica will help stimulate growth and employment over the next several years.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$19.6 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$5,500 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 18% industry: 24% services: 58% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 11.2% (1997 est.)

Labor force: total: 868,300 by occupation: industry and commerce 35.1%, government and services 33%, agriculture 27%, other 4.9% (1985 est.)

Unemployment rate: 5.7% (1997 est.); much underemployment

Budget: revenues: $1.1 billion expenditures: $1.34 billion, including capital expenditures of $110 million (1991 est.)

Industries: food processing, textiles and clothing, construction materials, fertilizer, plastic products

Industrial production growth rate: 10.5% (1992)

Electricity-capacity: 1.094 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 4.53 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 1,323 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: coffee, bananas, sugar, corn, rice, beans, potatoes; beef; timber (depletion of forest resources has resulted in declining timber output)

Exports: total value: $2.9 billion (f.o.b., 1996) commodities: coffee, bananas, textiles, sugar partners: US, Germany, Italy, Guatemala, El Salvador, Netherlands, UK, France

Imports: total value: $3.4 billion (c.i.f., 1996) commodities: raw materials, consumer goods, capital equipment, petroleum partners: US, Japan, Mexico, Guatemala, Venezuela, Germany

Debt-external: $3.2 billion (October 1996 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Costa Rican colon (C) = 100 centimos

Exchange rates: Costa Rican colones (C) per US$1-243.55 (December 1997), 232.60 (1997), 207.69 (1996), 179.73 (1995), 157.07 (1994), 142.17 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 281,042 (1983 est.)

Telephone system: very good domestic telephone service domestic: NA international: connected to Central American Microwave System; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 71, FM 0, shortwave 13

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 18

Televisions: 340,000 (1993 est.)

@Costa Rica:Transportation

Railways: total: 950 km narrow gauge: 950 km 1.067-m gauge (260 km electrified) note: the entire system was shut down in June 1995 because of insolvency; most of system maintained in good order to facilitate transfer in 1997 to private sector concessionaires

Highways: total: 35,597 km paved: 6,051 km unpaved: 29,546 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: about 730 km, seasonally navigable

Pipelines: petroleum products 176 km

Ports and harbors: Caldera, Golfito, Moin, Puerto Limon, Puerto
Quepos, Puntarenas

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 158 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 27 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 18 under 914 m: 6 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 131 914 to 1,523 m: 31 under 914 m: 100 (1997 est.)

@Costa Rica:Military

Military branches: Coast Guard, Air Section, Ministry of Public Security Force (Fuerza Publica); note-during 1996, the Ministry of Public Security reorganized and eliminated the Civil Guard, Rural Assistance Guard, and Frontier Guards as separate entities; they are now under the Ministry and operate on a geographic command basis performing ground security, law enforcement, counternarcotics, and national security (border patrol) functions; the constitution prohibits armed forces

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 964,405 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 646,873 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 35,513 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $55 million (1995)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2% (1995)

@Costa Rica:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment country for cocaine and heroin from South
America; illicit production of cannabis on small, scattered plots

______________________________________________________________________

COTE D'IVOIRE

@Cote d'Ivoire:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between
Ghana and Liberia

Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 5 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 322,460 sq km land: 318,000 sq km water: 4,460 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries:
total: 3,110 km
border countries: Burkina Faso 584 km, Ghana 668 km, Guinea 610 km,
Liberia 716 km, Mali 532 km

Coastline: 515 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three seasons-warm and dry (November to March), hot and dry (March to May), hot and wet (June to October)

Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plains; mountains in northwest

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Gulf of Guinea 0 m highest point: Mont Nimba 1,752 m

Natural resources: petroleum, diamonds, manganese, iron ore, cobalt, bauxite, copper

Land use: arable land: 8% permanent crops: 4% permanent pastures: 41% forests and woodland: 22% other: 25% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 680 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: coast has heavy surf and no natural harbors; during the rainy season torrential flooding is possible

Environment-current issues: deforestation (most of the country's forests-once the largest in West Africa-have been cleared by the timber industry); water pollution from sewage and industrial and agricultural effluents

Environment-international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

@Cote d'Ivoire:People

Population: 15,446,231 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 47% (male 3,629,286; female 3,590,782) 15-64 years: 51% (male 4,049,355; female 3,842,508) 65 years and over: 2% (male 170,120; female 164,180) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.41% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 42.15 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 16.12 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.96 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.) note: of the more than 350,000 refugees that fled to Cote d'Ivoire since 1989 to escape the civil war in Liberia, only about 210,000 remained in Cote d'Ivoire according to a 1997 census

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.03 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 95.95 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 46.24 years male: 44.73 years female: 47.8 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.97 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Ivorian(s) adjective: Ivorian

Ethnic groups: Baoule 23%, Bete 18%, Senoufou 15%, Malinke 11%, Agni, foreign Africans (mostly Burkinabe and Malians, about 3 million), non-Africans 130,000 to 330,000 (French 30,000 and Lebanese 100,000 to 300,000)

Religions: Muslim 60%, Christian 12%, indigenous 25% (some of these are also numbered among the Christians and Muslims)

Languages: French (official), 60 native dialects with Dioula the most widely spoken

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 40.1% male: 49.9% female: 30% (1995 est.)

@Cote d'Ivoire:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Cote d'Ivoire conventional short form: Cote d'Ivoire local long form: Republique de Cote d'Ivoire local short form: Cote d'Ivoire former: Ivory Coast

Data code: IV

Government type: republic; multiparty presidential regime established 1960

National capital: Yamoussoukro note: although Yamoussoukro has been the capital since 1983, Abidjan remains the administrative center; the US, like other countries, maintains its Embassy in Abidjan

Administrative divisions: 50 departments (departements, singular-departement); Abengourou, Abidjan, Aboisso, Adzope, Agboville, Agnibilekrou, Bangolo, Beoumi, Biankouma, Bondoukou, Bongouanou, Bouafle, Bouake, Bouna, Boundiali, Dabakala, Daloa, Danane, Daoukro, Dimbokro, Divo, Duekoue, Ferkessedougou, Gagnoa, Grand-Lahou, Guiglo, Issia, Katiola, Korhogo, Lakota, Man, Mankono, Mbahiakro, Odienne, Oume, Sakassou, San-Pedro, Sassandra, Seguela, Sinfra, Soubre, Tabou, Tanda, Tingrela, Tiassale, Touba, Toumodi, Vavoua, Yamoussoukro, Zuenoula note: Cote d'Ivoire may have a new administrative structure consisting of 56 departments; the following additional departments have been reported but not yet confirmed by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN); Adiake', Ale'pe', Dabon, Grand Bassam, Jacqueville, Tiebussan

Independence: 7 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: National Day, 7 August

Constitution: 3 November 1960; has been amended numerous times, last time November 1990

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review in the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Henri Konan BEDIE (since 7 December 1993); note-succeeded to the presidency following the death of President Felix HOUPHOUET-BOIGNY, who had served continuously since November 1960 head of government: Prime Minister Daniel Kablan DUNCAN (since 10 December 1993) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 22 October 1995 (next to be held October 2000); prime minister appointed by the president election results: Henri Konan BEDIE elected president; percent of vote-Henri Konan BEDIE 96%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (175 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: elections last held 27 November 1995 (next to be held November 2000) election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-PDCI 150, RDR 13, FPI 12

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party of the Cote d'Ivoire
or PDCI [Henri Konan BEDIE]; Rally of the Republicans or RDR [Djeny
KOBINA]; Ivorian Popular Front or FPI [Laurent GBAGBO]; Ivorian
Worker's Party or PIT [Francis WODIE]; Ivorian Socialist Party or PSI
[Morifere BAMBA]; over 20 smaller parties

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA,
ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC,
ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WAEMU, WCL, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Koffi Moise KOUMOUE-KOFFI chancery: 2424 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 797-0300

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Lannon WALKER embassy: 5 Rue Jesse Owens, Abidjan mailing address: 01 B. P. 1712, Abidjan telephone: [225] 21 09 79 FAX: [225] 22 32 59

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of orange (hoist side), white, and green; similar to the flag of Ireland, which is longer and has the colors reversed - green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of Italy, which is green (hoist side), white, and red; design was based on the flag of France

@Cote d'Ivoire:Economy

Economy-overview: Cote d'Ivoire is among the world's largest producers and exporters of coffee, cocoa beans, and palm oil. Consequently, the economy is highly sensitive to fluctuations in international prices for these products and to weather conditions. Despite attempts by the government to diversify the economy, it is still largely dependent on agriculture and related activities, which engage roughly 85% of the population. After several years of lagging performance, the Ivorian economy began a comeback in 1994, due to improved prices for cocoa and coffee, growth in nontraditional primary exports such as pineapples and rubber, limited trade and banking liberalization, offshore oil and gas discoveries, and generous external financing and debt rescheduling by multilateral lenders and France. The 50% devaluation of Franc Zone currencies on 12 January 1994 caused a one-time jump in the inflation rate to 26% in 1994, but the rate fell to 7% in 1996 and an estimated 3.4% in 1997. Moreover, government adherence to donor-mandated reforms led to a jump in growth rates-6.5% in GDP in 1996 and again in 1997.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$25.8 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 6.5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,700 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 31% industry: 20% services: 49% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 3.4% (1997 est.)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $2.4 billion expenditures: $2.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $600 million (1996 est.)

Industries: foodstuffs, beverages; wood products, oil refining, automobile assembly, textiles, fertilizer, construction materials, electricity

Industrial production growth rate: 9% (first half of 1996)

Electricity-capacity: 1.173 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 1.875 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 127 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: coffee, cocoa beans, bananas, palm kernels, corn, rice, manioc (tapioca), sweet potatoes, sugar; cotton, rubber; timber

Exports: total value: $4.2 billion (f.o.b., 1996) commodities: cocoa 36%, coffee 22%; tropical woods 4%, petroleum, cotton, bananas, pineapples, palm oil, cotton, fish partners: France 18%, Germany 8%, Italy 8%, Netherlands 8%, Burkina Faso, Mali, US, UK

Imports: total value: $3.2 billion (f.o.b., 1996) commodities: food, consumer goods; capital goods, fuel, transport equipment partners: France 32%, Nigeria 20%, US 6%, Ghana, Germany, Italy

Debt-external: $16.1 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $552 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1-608.36 (January 1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993) note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 87,700 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: well-developed by African standards but operating well below capacity domestic: open-wire lines and microwave radio relay international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean); 2 coaxial submarine cables

Radio broadcast stations: AM 71, FM 0, shortwave 13

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 18

Televisions: 810,000 (1993 est.)

@Cote d'Ivoire:Transportation

Railways: total: 660 km narrow gauge: 660 km 1.000-meter gauge; 25 km double track (1995 est.)

Highways: total: 50,400 km paved: 4,889 km unpaved: 45,511 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 980 km navigable rivers, canals, and numerous coastal lagoons

Ports and harbors: Abidjan, Aboisso, Dabou, San-Pedro

Merchant marine: total: 1 oil tanker (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,200 GRT/1,500 DWT (1997 est.)

Airports: 36 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 7 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 29 1,524 to 2,437 m: 8 914 to 1,523 m: 12 under 914 m: 9 (1997 est.)

@Cote d'Ivoire:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Gendarmerie,
Presidential Guard

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 3,583,410 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 1,866,896 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 172,000 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $140 million (1993)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.4% (1993)

@Cote d'Ivoire:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis, mostly for local
consumption; minor transshipment point for Southwest and Southeast
Asian heroin to Europe and occasionally to the US, and for Latin
American cocaine destined for Europe

______________________________________________________________________

CROATIA

@Croatia:Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between
Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates: 45 10 N, 15 30 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 56,538 sq km land: 56,410 sq km water: 128 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries:
total: 2,197 km
border countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina 932 km, Hungary 329 km,
Serbia and Montenegro 266 km (241 km with Serbia; 25 km with
Montenego), Slovenia 670 km

Coastline: 5,790 km (mainland 1,778 km, islands 4,012 km)

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast

Terrain: geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border, low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coast, coastline, and islands

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m highest point: Dinara 1,830 m

Natural resources: oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt

Land use: arable land: 21% permanent crops: 2% permanent pastures: 20% forests and woodland: 38% other: 19% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 30 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent and destructive earthquakes

Environment-current issues: air pollution (from metallurgical plants) and resulting acid rain is damaging the forests; coastal pollution from industrial and domestic waste; widespread casualties and destruction of infrastructure in border areas affected by civil strife

Environment-international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Desertification

Geography-note: controls most land routes from Western Europe to
Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits

@Croatia:People

Population: 4,671,584 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 17% (male 411,022; female 389,354) 15-64 years: 68% (male 1,591,716; female 1,592,485) 65 years and over: 15% (male 262,471; female 424,536) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.13% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 10.45 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 11.14 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.94 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.75 years male: 70.43 years female: 77.28 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.54 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Croat(s) adjective: Croatian

Ethnic groups: Croat 78%, Serb 12%, Muslim 0.9%, Hungarian 0.5%,
Slovenian 0.5%, others 8.1% (1991)

Religions: Catholic 76.5%, Orthodox 11.1%, Slavic Muslim 1.2%,
Protestant 0.4%, others and unknown 10.8%

Languages: Serbo-Croatian 96%, other 4% (including Italian, Hungarian,
Czechoslovak, and German)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 97% male: 99% female: 95% (1991 est.)

@Croatia:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Croatia conventional short form: Croatia local long form: Republika Hrvatska local short form: Hrvatska

Data code: HR

Government type: presidential/parliamentary democracy

National capital: Zagreb

Administrative divisions: 21 counties (zupanijas, zupanija-singular):
Bjelovar-Bilogora, City of Zagreb, Dubrovnik-Neretva, Istra, Karlovac,
Koprivnica-Krizevci, Krapina-Zagorje, Lika-Senj, Medimurje,
Osijek-Baranja, Pozega-Slavonia, Primorje-Gorski Kotar, Sibenik,
Sisak-Moslavina, Slavonski Brod-Posavina, Split-Dalmatia, Varazdin,
Virovitica-Podravina, Vukovar-Srijem, Zadar-Knin, Zagreb

Independence: 25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: Statehood Day, 30 May (1990)

Constitution: adopted on 22 December 1990

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal (16 years of age, if employed)

Executive branch: chief of state: President Franjo TUDJMAN (since 30 May 1990) head of government: Prime Minister Zlatko MATESA (since 7 November 1995); Deputy Prime Ministers Mate GRANIC (since 8 September 1992), Ivica KOSTOVIC (since 14 October 1993), Jure RADIC (since NA October 1994), Borislav SKEGRO (since 3 April 1993), and Ljerka MINTAS-HODAK (since November 1995) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 15 June 1997 (next to be held NA 2002); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president election results: President Franjo TUDJMAN reelected; percent of vote-Franjo TUDJMAN 61%, Zdravko TOMAC 21%, Vlado GOTOVAC 18%

Legislative branch: bicameral Assembly or Sabor consists of the House of Districts or Zupanijski Dom (68 seats-63 directly elected by popular vote, 5 presidentially appointed; members serve four-year terms) and House of Representatives or the Zastupnicki Dom (127 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: House of Districts-last held 13 April 1997 (next to be held NA 2001); House of Representatives-last held 29 October 1995 (next to be held NA 1999) election results: House of Districts-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party - HDZ 42, HDZ/HSS 11, HSS 2, IDS 2, SDP/PGS/HNS 2, SDP/HNS 2, HSLS/HSS/HNS 1, HSLS 1; note-in some districts certain parties ran as coalitions, while in others they ran alone; House of Representatives-percent of vote by party - HDZ 45.23%, HSS/IDS/HNS/HKDU/SBHS 18.26%, HSLS 11.55%, SDP 8.93%, HSP 5.01%; seats by party-HDZ 75, HSLS 12, HSS 10, SDP 10, IDS 4, HSP 4, HNS 2, SNS 2, HND 1, ASH 1, HKDU 1, SBHS 1, independents 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges appointed for eight-year terms by the Judicial Council of the Republic, which is elected by the House of Representatives; Constitutional Court, judges appointed for eight-year terms by the Judicial Council of the Republic, which is elected by the House of Representatives

Political parties and leaders: Croatian Democratic Union or HDZ [Franjo TUDJMAN, president]; Croatian Democratic Independents or HND [Stjepan MESIC, president]; Croatian Social Liberal Party or HSLS [Drazen BUDISA, president]; Liberal Party or LP [Vlado GOTOVAC, president]; Social Democratic Party of Croatia or SDP [Ivica RACAN]; Croatian Party of Rights or HSP [Anto DJAPIC]; Croatian Party of Rights 1861 or HSP 1861 [Dobrislav PARAGA]; Croatian Peasants' Party or HSS [Zlatko TOMCIC]; Croatian People's Party or HNS [Radimir CACIC, president]; Serbian National Party or SNS [Milan DJUKIC]; Action of the Social Democrats of Croatia or ASH [Silvije DEGEN]; Croatian Christian Democratic Union or HKDU [Marko VESELICA, president]; Istrian Democratic Assembly or IDS [Ivan JAKOVCIC]; Slanvonsko-Baranja Croatian Party or SBHS [Damir JURIC]; Primorje Gorski Kotar Alliance; Independent Democratic Serb Party or SDSS [Vojislav STANIMIROVIC]; Party of Democratic Action or SDA [Semso TANKOVIC]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: CCC, CE, CEI, EBRD, ECE,
FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending
member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO,
ITU, NAM (observer), OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Miomir ZUZUL chancery: 2343 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 588-5899 FAX: [1] (202) 588-8936 consulate(s) general: Cleveland, Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador William D. MONTGOMERY embassy: Andrije Hebranga 2, Zagreb mailing address: use street address telephone: [385] (1) 455-55-00 FAX: [385] (1) 455-85-85

Flag description: red, white, and blue horizontal bands with Croatian coat of arms (red and white checkered)

@Croatia:Economy

Economy-overview: Before the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the Republic of Croatia, after Slovenia, was the most prosperous and industrialized area, with a per capita output perhaps one-third above the Yugoslav average. Croatia faces considerable economic problems stemming from: the legacy of longtime communist mismanagement of the economy; damage during the internecine fighting to bridges, factories, power lines, buildings, and houses; the large refugee and displaced population, both Croatian and Bosnian; and the disruption of economic ties. Western aid and investment, especially in the tourist and oil industries, would help restore the economy. The government has been successful in some reform efforts-partially macroeconomic stabilization policies-and it has normalized relations with its creditors. Yet it still is struggling with privatization of large state enterprises and with bank reform.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$22.7 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 4.4% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$4,500 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 12% industry: 24% services: 64% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 3.7% (1997 est.)

Labor force: total: 1.444 million (1995) by occupation: industry and mining 31.1%, agriculture 4.3%, government 19.1% (including education and health), other 45.5% (1993)

Unemployment rate: 15.9% (yearend 1997 est.)

Budget: revenues: $5.3 billion expenditures: $6.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $78.5 million (1997 est.)

Industries: chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal, electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum, paper, wood products, construction materials, textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum refining, food and beverages; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 0% (1995)

Electricity-capacity: 3.593 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 7.15 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 2,315 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: wheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflower seed, alfalfa, clover, olives, citrus, grapes, vegetables; livestock breeding, dairy farming

Exports: total value: $4.3 billion (f.o.b., 1997) commodities: machinery and transport equipment 13.6%, miscellaneous manufactures 27.6%, chemicals 14.2%, food and live animals 12.2%, raw materials 6.1%, fuels and lubricants 9.4%, beverages and tobacco 2.7% (1993) partners: Germany 22%, Italy 21%, Slovenia 18% (1994)

Imports: total value: $9.1 billion (c.i.f., 1997) commodities: machinery and transport equipment 23.1%, fuels and lubricants 8.8%, food and live animals 9.0%, chemicals 14.2%, miscellaneous manufactured articles 16.0%, raw materials 3.5%, beverages and tobacco 1.4% (1993) partners: Germany 21%, Italy 19%, Slovenia 10% (1994)

Debt-external: $5.904 billion (October 1997)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA note: IMF has given Croatia $192 million; World Bank has given Croatia $100 million

Currency: 1 Croatian kuna (HRK) = 100 lipas

Exchange rates: Croatian kuna per US$1-6.369 (January 1998), 6.101 (1997), 5.434 (1996), 5.230 (1995), 5.996 (1994), 3.577 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 1.216 million (1993 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: NA international: no satellite earth stations

Radio broadcast stations: AM 14, FM 8, shortwave 0

Radios: 1.1 million

Television broadcast stations: 12 (repeaters 2)

Televisions: 1.52 million (1992 est.)

@Croatia:Transportation

Railways: total: 1,907 km standard gauge: 1,907 km 1.435-m gauge (769 km electrified) note: some lines remain inoperative or not in use; disrupted by territorial dispute (1997)

Highways: total: 27,247 km paved: 22,206 km (including 318 km of expressways) unpaved: 5,041 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 785 km perennially navigable; Sava blocked by downed bridges

Pipelines: crude oil 670 km; petroleum products 20 km; natural gas 310 km (1992); note-under repair following territorial dispute

Ports and harbors: Dubrovnik, Omisalj, Ploce, Pula, Rijeka, Sibenik,
Split, Zadar

Merchant marine: total: 72 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 793,114 GRT/1,187,908 DWT ships by type: bulk 13, cargo 31, chemical tanker 2, combination bulk 5, container 5, liquefied gas 1, multi-function large load carrier 3, oil tanker 2, passenger 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 3, short-sea passenger 5 note: Croatia owns an additional 80 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,057,523 DWT operating under the registries of Malta, Liberia, Cyprus, Panama, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (1997 est.)

Airports: 71 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 20 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 6 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 7 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 51 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 8 under 914 m: 42 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1997 est.)

@Croatia:Military

Military branches: Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air and Air Defense
Forces, Frontier Guard, Home Guard

Military manpower-military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 1,191,191 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 945,746 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 33,736 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $1.5 billion (1997)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 8.2% (1997)

@Croatia:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: Eastern Slavonia, which was held by ethnic Serbs during the ethnic conflict, was returned to Croatian control by the UN Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia on 15 January 1998; Croatia and Italy made progress toward resolving a bilateral issue dating from WWII over property and ethnic minority rights; significant progress has been made with Slovenia toward resolving a maritime border dispute over direct access to the sea in the Adriatic; Serbia and Montenegro is disputing Croatia's claim to the Prevlaka Peninsula in southern Croatia because it controls the entrance to Boka Kotorska in Montenegro; Prevlaka is currently under observation by the UN military observer mission in Prevlaka (UNMOP)

Illicit drugs: transit point along the Balkan route for Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe; a minor transit point for maritime shipments of South American cocaine bound for Western Europe

______________________________________________________________________

CUBA

@Cuba:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, south of Florida

Geographic coordinates: 21 30 N, 80 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 110,860 sq km land: 110,860 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries: total: 29 km border countries: US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay 29 km note: Guantanamo Naval Base is leased by the US and thus remains part of Cuba

Coastline: 3,735 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November to
April); rainy season (May to October)

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling plains with rugged hills and mountains in the southeast

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Pico Turquino 2,005 m

Natural resources: cobalt, nickel, iron ore, copper, manganese, salt, timber, silica, petroleum

Land use: arable land: 24% permanent crops: 7% permanent pastures: 27% forests and woodland: 24% other: 18% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 9,100 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: the east coast is subject to hurricanes from August to October (in general, the country averages about one hurricane every other year); droughts are common

Environment-current issues: pollution of Havana Bay; overhunting threatens wildlife populations; deforestation

Environment-international agreements: party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Marine Life Conservation

Geography-note: largest country in Caribbean

@Cuba:People

Population: 11,050,729 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 22% (male 1,247,339; female 1,182,612) 15-64 years: 69% (male 3,795,310; female 3,777,454) 65 years and over: 9% (male 490,883; female 557,131) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.42% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 13.13 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 7.35 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.89 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.64 years male: 73.29 years female: 78.13 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.57 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Cuban(s) adjective: Cuban

Ethnic groups: mulatto 51%, white 37%, black 11%, Chinese 1%

Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 85% prior to CASTRO assuming power; Protestants, Jehovah's Witnesses, Jews, and Santeria are also represented

Languages: Spanish

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 95.7% male: 96.2% female: 95.3% (1995 est.)

@Cuba:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Cuba conventional short form: Cuba local long form: Republica de Cuba local short form: Cuba

Data code: CU

Government type: Communist state

National capital: Havana

Administrative divisions: 14 provinces (provincias,
singular-provincia) and 1 special municipality* (municipio especial);
Camaguey, Ciego de Avila, Cienfuegos, Ciudad de La Habana, Granma,
Guantanamo, Holguin, Isla de la Juventud*, La Habana, Las Tunas,
Matanzas, Pinar del Rio, Sancti Spiritus, Santiago de Cuba, Villa
Clara

Independence: 20 May 1902 (from Spain 10 December 1898; administered by the US from 1898 to 1902)

National holiday: Rebellion Day, 26 July (1953); Liberation Day, 1
January (1959)

Constitution: 24 February 1976

Legal system: based on Spanish and American law, with large elements of Communist legal theory; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 16 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President of the Council of State and President of the Council of Ministers Fidel CASTRO Ruz (prime minister from February 1959 until 24 February 1976 when office was abolished; president since 2 December 1976); First Vice President of the Council of State and First Vice President of the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (since 2 December 1976); note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President of the Council of State and President of the Council of Ministers Fidel CASTRO Ruz (prime minister from February 1959 until 24 February 1976 when office was abolished; president since 2 December 1976); First Vice President of the Council of State and First Vice President of the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (since 2 December 1976); note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the president of the Council of State, appointed by the National Assembly note: there is also a Council of State whose members are elected by the National Assembly elections: president and vice president elected by the National Assembly; election last held 24 February 1998 (next to be held NA) election results: Fidel CASTRO Ruz elected president; percent of legislative vote-NA; Raul CASTRO Ruz elected vice president; percent of legislative vote-NA

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly of People's Power or Asemblea Nacional del Poder Popular (601 seats, elected directly from slates approved by special candidacy commissions; members serve five-year terms) elections: last held 11 January 1998 (next to be held NA 2003) election results: percent of vote-NA; seats-PCC 601

Judicial branch: People's Supreme Court (Tribunal Supremo Popular), president, vice president, and other judges are elected by the National Assembly

Political parties and leaders: only party-Cuban Communist Party or PCC
[Fidel CASTRO Ruz, first secretary]

International organization participation: CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IAEA,
ICAO, ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat
(nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer),
NAM, OAS (excluded from formal participation since 1962), PCA, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none; note-Cuba has an Interests Section in the Swiss Embassy, headed by Principal Officer Fernando REMIREZ DE ESTENOZ; address: Cuban Interests Section, Swiss Embassy, 2630 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009; telephone: [1] (202) 797-8518

Diplomatic representation from the US: none; note-the US has an Interests Section in the Swiss Embassy, headed by Principal Officer Michael G. KOZAK; address: USINT, Swiss Embassy, Calzada between L and M Streets, Vedado Seccion, Havana; telephone: 33-3551 through 3559 and 33-3543 through 3547 (operator assistance required); FAX: 33-3700; protecting power in Cuba is Switzerland

Flag description: five equal horizontal bands of blue (top and bottom) alternating with white; a red equilateral triangle based on the hoist side bears a white five-pointed star in the center

@Cuba:Economy

Economy-overview: The state plays the primary role in the economy and controls practically all foreign trade. The government has undertaken several reforms in recent years to stem excess liquidity, increase labor incentives, and alleviate serious shortages of food, consumer goods, and services. The liberalized agricultural markets introduced in October 1994, at which state and private farmers sell above-quota production at unrestricted prices, have broadened legal consumption alternatives and reduced black market prices. Government efforts to lower subsidies to unprofitable enterprises and to shrink the money supply caused the semi-official exchange rate for the Cuban peso to move from a peak of 120 to the dollar in the summer of 1994 to 23 to the dollar by yearend 1997. New taxes introduced in 1996 helped drive down the number of self-employed workers from 208,000 in January 1996 to 176,000 by September 1997. Havana announced in 1995 that GDP declined by 35% during 1989-93, the result of lost Soviet aid and domestic inefficiencies. The drop in GDP apparently halted in 1994, when Cuba reported 0.7% growth, followed by increases of 2.5% in 1995 and 7.8% in 1996. Growth slowed again in 1997, to 2.5%, in part due to a poor sugar harvest. Export earnings declined 3% in 1997, to $1.9 billion, the result of lower sugar export volume and lower world prices for nickel and sugar. Imports remained unchanged in 1997 at $3.2 billion. Tourism plays a key role in foreign currency earnings. The disparity between those at the top of the ladder and those at the bottom has increased markedly in the past 10 years. Living standards for the average Cuban remain at a depressed level compared with 1990.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$16.9 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 2.5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,540 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 7.6% industry: 34.8% services: 57.6% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: NA%

Labor force: total: 4.5 million economically active population (1996 est.) by occupation: services and government 30%, industry 22%, agriculture 20%, commerce 11%, construction 10%, transportation and communications 7% (June 1990) note: state sector 76%, non-state sector 24% (1996 est.)

Unemployment rate: 8% (1996 est.)

Budget: revenues: $NA expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: sugar, petroleum, food, tobacco, textiles, chemicals, paper and wood products, metals (particularly nickel), cement, fertilizers, consumer goods, agricultural machinery

Industrial production growth rate: 6% (1995 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 3.988 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 10.105 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 924 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: sugarcane, tobacco, citrus, coffee, rice, potatoes and other tubers, beans; livestock

Exports: total value: $1.9 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.) commodities: sugar, nickel, tobacco, shellfish, medical products, citrus, coffee partners: Russia 18%, Netherlands 14% Canada 13% (1997 est.)

Imports: total value: $3.2 billion (c.i.f., 1997 est.) commodities: petroleum, food, machinery, chemicals partners: Spain 14%, Russia 12%, Mexico 9% (1997 est.)

Debt-external: $10.5 billion (convertible currency, 1996); another $20 billion owed to Russia (1996)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $46 million (1997 est.)

Currency: 1 Cuban peso (Cu$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Cuban pesos (Cu$) per US$1-1.0000 (non-convertible, official rate, linked to the US dollar)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 229,000

Telephone system: among the world's least developed telephone systems domestic: NA international: satellite earth station-1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 150, FM 5, shortwave 1

Radios: 2.14 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 58

Televisions: 2.5 million (1993 est.)

@Cuba:Transportation

Railways: total: 4,677 km standard gauge: 4,677 km 1.435-m gauge (132 km electrified) note: a large amount of track is in private use by sugar plantations

Highways: total: 27,700 km paved: 15,484 km unpaved: 12,216 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 240 km

Ports and harbors: Cienfuegos, Havana, Manzanillo, Mariel, Matanzas,
Nuevitas, Santiago de Cuba

Merchant marine: total: 17 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 91,981 GRT/126,416 DWT ships by type: cargo 9, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 6 note: Cuba owns an additional 41 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 463,155 DWT operating under the registries of Panama, Cyprus, Malta, and Belize (1997 est.)

Airports: 171 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 77 over 3,047 m: 7 2,438 to 3,047 m: 9 1,524 to 2,437 m: 14 914 to 1,523 m: 11 under 914 m: 36 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 94 914 to 1,523 m: 33 under 914 m: 61 (1997 est.)

@Cuba:Military

Military branches: Revolutionary Armed Forces (FAR) includes ground
forces, Revolutionary Navy (MGR), Air and Air Defense Force (DAAFAR),
Territorial Troops Militia (MTT), and Youth Labor Army (EJT); The
Border Guard (TGF), which is controlled by the Interior Ministry

Military manpower-military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 3,060,954 females age 15-49: 3,010,932 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 1,898,351 females: 1,861,976 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 67,200 females: 63,716 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: roughly 4% (1995 est.)

Military-note: Moscow, for decades the key military supporter and supplier of Cuba, cut off almost all military aid by 1993

@Cuba:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased to US and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease

Illicit drugs: territory serves as lesser transshipment zone for cocaine bound for the US

______________________________________________________________________

CYPRUS

@Cyprus:Geography

Location: Middle East, island in the Mediterranean Sea, south of
Turkey

Geographic coordinates: 35 00 N, 33 00 E

Map references: Middle East

Area: total: 9,250 sq km (note-3,355 sq km are in the Turkish Cypriot area) land: 9,240 sq km water: 10 sq km

Area-comparative: about 0.6 times the size of Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 648 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate, Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters

Terrain: central plain with mountains to north and south; scattered but significant plains along southern coast

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m highest point: Olympus 1,952 m

Natural resources: copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt, marble, clay earth pigment

Land use: arable land: 12% permanent crops: 5% permanent pastures: 0% forests and woodland: 13% other: 70% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 390 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: moderate earthquake activity

Environment-current issues: water resource problems (no natural reservoir catchments, seasonal disparity in rainfall; sea water intrusion to island's largest aquifier; increased salinization in the north); water pollution from sewage and industrial wastes; coastal degradation; loss of wildlife habitats from urbanization

Environment-international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

@Cyprus:People

Population: 748,982 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 25% (male 94,006; female 89,256) 15-64 years: 65% (male 245,739; female 241,935) 65 years and over: 10% (male 33,989; female 44,057) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.69% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 13.93 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 7.51 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.44 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.97 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 76.79 years male: 74.62 years female: 79.07 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.03 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Cypriot(s) adjective: Cypriot

Ethnic groups: Greek 78% (99.5% of the Greeks live in the Greek Cypriot area; 0.5% of the Greeks live in the Turkish Cypriot area), Turkish 18% (1.3% of the Turks live in the Greek Cypriot area; 98.7% of the Turks live in the Turkish Cypriot area), other 4% (99.2% of the other ethnic groups live in the Greek Cypriot area; 0.8% of the other ethnic groups live in the Turkish Cypriot area)

Religions: Greek Orthodox 78%, Muslim 18%, Maronite, Armenian
Apostolic, and other 4%

Languages: Greek, Turkish, English

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 94% male: 98% female: 91% (1987 est.)

@Cyprus:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Cyprus conventional short form: Cyprus note: the Turkish Cypriot area refers to itself as the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC)

Data code: CY

Government type: republic note: a disaggregation of the two ethnic communities inhabiting the island began after the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this separation was further solidified following the Turkish intervention in July 1974 following a Greek junta-based coup attempt, which gave the Turkish Cypriots de facto control in the north; Greek Cypriots control the only internationally recognized government; on 15 November 1983 Turkish Cypriot "President" Rauf DENKTASH declared independence and the formation of a "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC), which has been recognized only by Turkey; both sides publicly call for the resolution of intercommunal differences and creation of a new federal system of government

National capital: Nicosia note: the Turkish Cypriot area's capital is Lefkosa (Nicosia)

Administrative divisions: 6 districts; Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos; note-Turkish Cypriot area administrative divisions include Kyrenia, all but a small part of Famagusta, and small parts of Nicosia and Larnaca

Independence: 16 August 1960 (from UK) note: Turkish Cypriot area proclaimed self-rule on 13 February 1975 from Republic of Cyprus

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October note: Turkish Cypriot area celebrates 15 November as Independence Day

Constitution: 16 August 1960; negotiations to create the basis for a new or revised constitution to govern the island and to better relations between Greek and Turkish Cypriots have been held intermittently; in 1975 Turkish Cypriots created their own constitution and governing bodies within the "Turkish Federated State of Cyprus," which was renamed the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" in 1983; a new constitution for the Turkish Cypriot area passed by referendum on 5 May 1985

Legal system: based on common law, with civil law modifications

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Glafcos CLERIDES (since 28 February 1993); note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government; post of vice president is currently vacant; under the 1960 constitution, the post is reserved for a Turkish Cypriot head of government: President Glafcos CLERIDES (since 28 February 1993); note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government; post of vice president is currently vacant; under the 1960 constitution, the post is reserved for a Turkish Cypriot cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed jointly by the president and vice president elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 15 February 1998 (next to be held NA February 2003) election results: Glafcos CLERIDES elected president; percent of vote-Glafcos CLERIDES 50.8%, George IAKOVOU 49.2% note: Rauf R. DENKTASH has been "president" of the Turkish Cypriot area since 13 February 1975 ("president" elected by popular vote for a five-year term); elections last held 15 and 22 April 1995 (next to be held NA April 2000); results-Rauf R. DENKTASH 62.5%, Dervis EROGLU 37.5%; Dervis EROGLU has been "prime minister" of the Turkish Cypriot area since 16 August 1996; there is a Council of Ministers (cabinet) in the Turkish Cypriot area

Legislative branch: unicameral-Greek Cypriot area: House of Representatives or Vouli Antiprosopon (80 seats of which only 56 assigned to the Greek Cypriots are filled; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms); Turkish Cypriot area: Assembly of the Republic or Cumhuriyet Meclisi (50 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: Greek area: last held 26 May 1996 (next to be held May 2001); Turkish area: last held 12 December 1993 (next to be held December 1998) election results: Greek area: House of Representatives-percent of vote by party-DISY 34.5%, AKEL (Communist) 33.0%, DIKO 16.4%, EDEK 8.1%, KED 3.7%, others 4.1%; seats by party-DISY 20, AKEL (Communist) 19, DIKO 10, EDEK 5, KED 2; Turkish area: Assembly of the Republic-percent of vote by party-UBP 29.9%, DP 29.2%, CTP 24.2% TKP 13.3%, others 3.4%; seats by party-UBP (conservative) 17, DP 15, CTP 13, TKP 5; as of 13 May 1997, seats by party-UBP 18, DP 13, CTP 13, TKP 5, independent 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the Supreme Council of Judicature note: there is also a Supreme Court in the Turkish Cypriot area

Political parties and leaders: Greek Cypriot area: Restorative Party
of the Working People or AKEL (Communist Party) [Dimitrios
CHRISTOFIAS]; Democratic Rally or DISY [Nikos ANASTASIADHIS];
Democratic Party or DIKO [Spyros KYPRIANOU]; United Democratic Union
of Cyprus or EDEK [Vassos LYSSARIDIS]; Eurodemocratic Renewal Movement
[Alexis GALANOS]; United Democrats Movement or EDI (formerly Free
Democrats Movement or KED) [George VASSILIOU]; New Horizons [Nikolaos
KOUTSOU, secretary general]; Ecologists [Yeoryios PERDHIKIS]; Turkish
Cypriot area: National Unity Party or UBP [Dervis EROGLU]; Communal
Liberation Party or TKP [Mustafa AKINCI]; Republican Turkish Party or
CTP [Mehmet ALI TALAT]; Unity and Sovereignty Party or BEP [Arif Salih
KIRDAG]; Democratic Party or DP [Serdar DENKTASH]; National Birth
Party or UDP [Enuer EMIN]; New Cyprus Party of YKP [Alpay DURDURAN];
Our Party or BP [Okyay SADIKOGLU]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Pan-Cyprian Labor Federation or
PEO (Communist controlled); Confederation of Cypriot Workers or SEK
(pro-West); Federation of Turkish Cypriot Labor Unions or Turk-Sen;
Confederation of Revolutionary Labor Unions or Dev-Is

International organization participation: C, CCC, CE, EBRD, ECE, EU
(applicant), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
NAM, OAS (observer), OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Andros A. NIKOLAIDES chancery: 2211 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 462-5772 FAX: [1] (202) 483-6710 consulate(s) general: New York note: representative of the Turkish Cypriot area in the US is Ahmet ERDENGIZ, office at 1667 K Street NW, Washington, DC, telephone [1] (202) 887-6198

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Kenneth C. BRILL embassy: corner of Metochiou and Ploutarchou Streets, Engomi, Nicosia mailing address: P. O. Box 4536, FPO AE 09836 telephone: [357] (2) 776400 FAX: [357] (2) 780944

Flag description: white with a copper-colored silhouette of the island (the name Cyprus is derived from the Greek word for copper) above two green crossed olive branches in the center of the flag; the branches symbolize the hope for peace and reconciliation between the Greek and Turkish communities note: the Turkish Cypriot flag has a horizontal red stripe at the top and bottom between which is a red crescent and red star on a white field

@Cyprus:Economy

Economy-overview: The Greek Cypriot economy is small and prosperous, but highly susceptible to external shocks. Industry contributes 22% to GDP and employs 25% of the labor force, while the service sector contributes 73% to GDP and employs 62% of the labor force. Erratic growth rates in the 1990s reflect the economy's vulnerability to swings in tourist arrivals, caused by political instability on the island and fluctuations in economic conditions in Western Europe. The Turkish Cypriot economy has about one-third the per capita GDP of the south. Because it is recognized only by Turkey, it has had much difficulty arranging foreign financing, and foreign firms have hesitated to invest there. The economy remains heavily dependent on agriculture and government service, which together employ about half of the work force. Moreover, the small, vulnerable economy has suffered because the Turkish lira is legal tender. To compensate for the economy's weakness, Turkey provides direct and indirect aid to nearly every sector. In January 1997, Turkey signed a $250 million economic cooperation accord with the Turkish Cypriot area to support tourism, education, and industry.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$11.19 billion (Greek Cypriot area: purchasing power parity-$9.75 billion; Turkish Cypriot area: purchasing power parity - $1.44 billion) (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 2.4% (Greek Cypriot area: 2.5%; Turkish Cypriot area: 1.7%) (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$13,500 (Greek Cypriot area: purchasing power parity-$15,000; Turkish Cypriot area: purchasing power parity-$8,000) (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: Greek Cypriot area: agriculture 4.4%; industry 22.4%; services 73.2% (1996); Turkish Cypriot area: agriculture 10%; industry 24.6%; services 65.4% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: Greek Cypriot area: 3.5% (1997 est.); Turkish Cypriot area: 87.5% (1997 est.)

Labor force: total: Greek Cypriot area: 299,700 by occupation: services 62%, industry 25%, agriculture 13% (1995) total: Turkish Cypriot area: 76,500 (1996) by occupation: services 66%, industry 11%, agriculture 23% (1995)

Unemployment rate: Greek Cypriot area: 3.3% (1997 est.); Turkish
Cypriot area: 6.4% (1996)

Budget: revenues: Greek Cypriot area-$2.9 billion, Turkish Cypriot area-$171 million expenditures: Greek Cypriot area-$3.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $345 million, Turkish Cypriot area-$306 million, including capital expenditures of $56.8 million (1997 est.)

Industries: food, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metal products, tourism, wood products

Industrial production growth rate: Greek Cypriot area: -4% (1996);
Turkish Cypriot area: 5.1% (1995)

Electricity-capacity: 666,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 2.6 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 3,530 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: potatoes, citrus, vegetables, barley, grapes, olives, vegetables

Exports: total value: Greek Cypriot area: $1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1996) commodities: citrus, potatoes, grapes, wine, cement, clothing and shoes partners: Russia 19.1%, Bulgaria 16.4%, UK 11.3%, Greece 6.3%, Germany 4.8% total value: Turkish Cypriot area: $70.5 million (f.o.b., 1996) commodities: citrus, potatoes, textiles partners: Turkey 48.2%, UK 21.3%, other EU 13.7%

Imports: total value: Greek Cypriot area: $3.6 billion (f.o.b., 1996) commodities: consumer goods, petroleum and lubricants, food and feed grains, machinery partners: US 17.8%, UK 11.9%, Italy 9.7%, Germany 7.5%, Greece 7.6% total value: Turkish Cypriot area: $318.4 million (f.o.b., 1996) commodities: food, minerals, chemicals, machinery partners: Turkey 55.3%, UK 13.8%, other EU 11.6%

Debt-external: Greek Cypriot area: $1.56 billion (1997)

Economic aid: Greek Cypriot area: recipient-$187 million (1990-94) in grants; Turkish Cypriot area: recipient-$700 million (1990-97) from Turkey in grants and loans that are usually forgiven

Currency: 1 Cypriot pound (£C) = 100 cents; 1 Turkish lira (TL) = 100 kurus

Exchange rates: Cypriot pounds per US1$-0.5326 (January 1998), 0.5135 (1997), 0.4663 (1996), 0.4522 (1995), 0.4915 (1994), 0.4970 (1993); Turkish liras (TL) per US$1-187,477 (November 1997), 81,405 (1996), 45,845.1 (1995), 29,608.7 (1994), 10,984.6 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: Greek Cypriot area: 367,000 (1996 est.); Turkish Cypriot area: 80,000 (1996 est.)

Telephone system: excellent in both the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot areas domestic: open wire, fiber-optic cable, and microwave radio relay international: tropospheric scatter; 3 coaxial and 5 fiber-optic submarine cables; satellite earth stations-3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean), 2 Eutelsat, 2 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: Greek Cypriot area: AM 4, FM 36, shortwave 1, Turkish Cypriot area: AM 2, FM 6, shortwave 0

Radios: Greek Cypriot area: 500,000 (1996 est.); Turkish Cypriot area: 130,000 (1996 est.)

Television broadcast stations: Greek Cypriot area: 8 (repeaters 34);
Turkish Cypriot area: 2

Televisions: Greek Cypriot area: 300,000 (1996 est.); Turkish Cypriot area: 90,000 (1996 est.)

@Cyprus:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: Greek Cypriot area: 10,415 km; Turkish Cypriot area: 2,350 km paved: Greek Cypriot area: 5,947 km; Turkish Cypriot area: 1,370 km unpaved: Greek Cypriot area: 4,468 km (1996 est.); Turkish Cypriot area: 980 km

Ports and harbors: Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Paphos,
Vasilikos Bay

Merchant marine: total: 1,533 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 23,330,565 GRT/37,272,825 DWT ships by type: bulk 471, cargo 568, chemical tanker 23, combination bulk 48, combination ore/oil 12, container 139, liquefied gas tanker 5, oil tanker 142, passenger 7, passenger-cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 54, roll-on/roll-off cargo 42, short-sea passenger 16, specialized tanker 3, vehicle carrier 2 note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 45 countries among which are Greece 673, Germany 159, Russia 57, Latvia 28, Netherlands 25, Japan 24, Cuba 22, China 18, Belgium 17, and Poland 14; Cyprus owns 78 additional ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,623,560 DWT that operate under the registries of Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Belize, Cambodia, Cayman Islands, Hong Kong, Liberia, Malta, Panama, and Philippines (1997 est.)

Airports: 15 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 12 2,438 to 3,047 m: 8 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 4 (1997 est.)

@Cyprus:Military

Military branches: Greek Cypriot area: Greek Cypriot National Guard
(GCNG; includes air and naval elements); Hellenic Forces Regiment on
Cyprus (ELDYK); Greek Cypriot Police; Turkish Cypriot area: Turkish
Cypriot Security Force (TCSF), Turkish Forces Regiment on Cyprus
(KTKA), Turkish mainland army units

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 192,389 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 132,252 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 6,220 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $405 million (1996)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 5.4% (1996)

@Cyprus:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: 1974 hostilities divided the island into two de facto autonomous areas, a Greek Cypriot area controlled by the internationally recognized Cypriot Government (59% of the island's land area) and a Turkish-Cypriot area (37% of the island), that are separated by a UN buffer zone (4% of the island); there are two UK sovereign base areas within the Greek Cypriot portion of the island

Illicit drugs: transit point for heroin and hashish via air routes and container traffic to Europe, especially from Lebanon and Turkey; some cocaine transits as well

______________________________________________________________________

CZECH REPUBLIC

@Czech Republic:Geography

Location: Central Europe, southeast of Germany

Geographic coordinates: 49 45 N, 15 30 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 78,703 sq km land: 78,645 sq km water: 58 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries:
total: 1,881 km
border countries: Austria 362 km, Germany 646 km, Poland 658 km,
Slovakia 215 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

Terrain: Bohemia in the west consists of rolling plains, hills, and plateaus surrounded by low mountains; Moravia in the east consists of very hilly country

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Elbe River 115 m highest point: Snezka 1,602 m

Natural resources: hard coal, soft coal, kaolin, clay, graphite

Land use: arable land: 41% permanent crops: 2% permanent pastures: 11% forests and woodland: 34% other: 12% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 240 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: air and water pollution in areas of northwest Bohemia and in northern Moravia around Ostrava present health risks; acid rain damaging forests

Environment-international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol

Geography-note: landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest and most significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a traditional military corridor between the North European Plain and the Danube in central Europe

@Czech Republic:People

Population: 10,286,470 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 17% (male 907,744; female 864,202) 15-64 years: 69% (male 3,555,822; female 3,548,548) 65 years and over: 14% (male 541,031; female 869,123) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.11% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 8.96 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 10.92 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.92 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.79 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 74.11 years male: 70.75 years female: 77.65 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.17 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Czech(s) adjective: Czech note: 300,000 Slovaks declared themselves Czech citizens in 1994

Ethnic groups: Czech 94.4%, Slovak 3%, Polish 0.6%, German 0.5%, Gypsy 0.3%, Hungarian 0.2%, other 1%

Religions: atheist 39.8%, Roman Catholic 39.2%, Protestant 4.6%,
Orthodox 3%, other 13.4%

Languages: Czech, Slovak

Literacy: definition: age NA and over can read and write total population: 99% (est.) male: NA% female: NA%

@Czech Republic:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Czech Republic conventional short form: Czech Republic local long form: Ceska Republika local short form: Ceska Republika

Data code: EZ

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Prague

Administrative divisions: 8 regions (kraje, kraj-singular); Jihocesky,
Jihomoravsky, Praha, Severocesky, Severomoravsky, Stredocesky,
Vychodocesky, Zapadocesky

Independence: 1 January 1993 (from Czechoslovakia)

National holiday: National Liberation Day, 8 May; Founding of the
Republic, 28 October

Constitution: ratified 16 December 1992; effective 1 January 1993

Legal system: civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to bring it in line with Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) obligations and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Vaclav HAVEL (since 2 February 1993) head of government: Prime Minister Josef TOSOVSKY (since 16 December 1997); Deputy Prime Ministers Josef LUX (since NA June 1992), Jaroslav SEDIVY (since NA January 1998), Jiri SKALICKY (since NA June 1997) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister elections: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term; election last held 20 January 1998 (next to be held NA January 2003); prime minister appointed by the president election results: Vaclav HAVEL elected president; percent of parliamentary vote-NA; Vaclav HAVEL received 47 of 81 votes in the Senate and 99 out of 200 votes in the Chamber of Deputies (second round of voting)

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (81 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve staggered two-, four-, and six-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Snemovna Poslancu (200 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: Senate-last held 15-16 and 22-23 November 1996 (next to be held NA November 1998-to replace/re-elect 20 senators serving two-year terms); Chamber of Deputies-last held 31 May-1 June 1996 (early elections to be held NA June 1998) election results: Senate-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-governing coalition (ODS 32, KDU-CSL 13, ODA 7), opposition (CSSD 25, KCSM 2, DEU 1, independent 1); Chamber of Deputies-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party - governing coalition (ODS 68, KDU-CSL 18, ODA 13), opposition (CSSD 61, KCSM 22, SPR-RSC 18)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chairman and deputy chairmen are appointed by the president for life; Constitutional Court, chairman and deputy chairmen are appointed by the president for life

Political parties and leaders: Civic Democratic Party or ODS [Vaclav KLAUS, chairman]; Civic Democratic Alliance or ODA [Jiri SKALICKY, chairman]; Christian Democratic Union-Czech People's Party or KDU-CSL [Josef LUX, chairman]; Czech Social Democrats or CSSD-left opposition [Milos ZEMAN, chairman]; Communist Party or KSCM - left opposition [Miroslav GREBENICEK, chairman]; Assembly for the Republic or SPR-RSC-extreme right radical [Miroslav SLADEK, chairman]; Democratic Union or DEU [Ratibor MAJZLIK, chairman] note: the governing coalition resigned in November 1997; a caretaker government, led by Prime Minister Josef TOSOVSKY, was appointed by President HAVEL in December 1997; new general elections will most likely be held in June 1998; there are three new parties that have not been voted into office, but were created in the wake of Prime Minister KLAUS' resignation: Freedom Union or US [Jan RUML, chairman], Conservative Consensus Party [Ivan MASEK and Cestmir HOFHANZL], and Party of the Democratic Center [Josef WAGNER, chairman]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Czech-Moravian Chamber of Trade
Unions; Civic Movement

International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, CCC,
CE (guest), CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat,
Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NSG, OECD, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMOP, UNOMIG, UNPREDEP, UPU, WEU (associate partner),
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Aleksandr VONDRA chancery: 3900 Spring of Freedom Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 274-9101, 9102 FAX: [1] (202) 966-8540 consulate(s) general: Los Angeles

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Jenonne R. WALKER embassy: Trziste 15, 11801 Prague 1 mailing address: Unit 28129, APO AE 09114; State pouch: American Embassy Prague, Washington, DC 20521-5630 telephone: [420] (2) 5732-0663, 5731-3814 FAX: [420] (2) 5732-0584

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side (almost identical to the flag of the former Czechoslovakia)

@Czech Republic:Economy

Economy-overview: Political and financial crises in 1997 shattered the Czech Republic's image as one of the most stable and prosperous of post-Communist states. Delays in enterprise restructuring and failure to develop a well-functioning capital market played major roles in Czech economic troubles, which culminated in a currency crisis in May. The currency was forced out of its fluctuation band as investors worried that the current account deficit, which reached about 8% of GDP in 1996, would become unsustainable. After expending $3 billion in vain to support the currency, the central bank let it float. The growing current account imbalance reflected a surge in domestic demand and poor export performance, as wage increases outpaced productivity. The government was forced to introduce two austerity packages later in the spring which cut government spending by 2.5% of GDP. A tough 1998 budget continues the painful medicine. These problems were compounded in the summer of 1997 by unprecedented flooding which inundated much of the eastern part of the country. Czech difficulties in 1997 contrast with earlier achievements of strong GDP growth, a balanced budget, and inflation and unemployment that were among the lowest in the region. The Czech economy's transition problems continue to be too much direct and indirect government influence on the privatized economy, the sometimes ineffective management of privatized firms, and a shortage of experienced financial analysts for the banking system. Prague forecasts a balanced budget, 2.2% GDP growth, 5.2% unemployment, and 10% inflation for 1998.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$111.9 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 0.7% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$10,800 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 5% industry: 40.6% services: 54.4% (1996)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 10% (1997)

Labor force: total: 5.124 million (1997) by occupation: industry 33.1%, agriculture 6.9%, construction 9.1%, transport and communications 7.2%, services 43.7% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 5% (1997 est.)

Budget: revenues: $14.2 billion expenditures: $14.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997)

Industries: fuels, ferrous metallurgy, machinery and equipment, coal, motor vehicles, glass, armaments

Industrial production growth rate: 6.9% (1996)

Electricity-capacity: 13.85 million kW (1994)

Electricity-production: 53.285 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 5,069 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, cattle, poultry; forest products

Exports: total value: $21.7 billion (f.o.b., 1996) commodities: machinery and equipment 32.7%, manufactured goods 28.8%, raw materials and fuel 9.2%, food 4.1% (1996) partners: EU 60.9%, CEFTA 21.4%, Slovakia 13.9%, EFTA 1.7% (1996)

Imports: total value: $27.7 billion (f.o.b., 1996) commodities: machinery and equipment 38.2%, manufactured goods 19.3%, raw materials and fuels 12.4%, and food 5.6% (1996) partners: EU 61.1%, CEFTA 16.3%, Slovakia 11.8%, EFTA 2.2% (1996)

Debt-external: $20.7 billion (1996)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 koruna (Kc) = 100 haleru

Exchange rates: koruny (Kcs) per US$1-35.357 (January 1998), 31.698 (1997), 27.145 (1996), 26.541 (1995), 28.785 (1994), 29.153 (1993) note: values before 1993 reflect Czechoslovak exchange rates

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 3,349,539 (1993 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth stations-2 Intersputnik (Atlantic and
Indian Ocean regions)

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: NA

@Czech Republic:Transportation

Railways: total: 9,440 km standard gauge: 9,344 km 1.435-m standard gauge (2,688 km electrified at three voltages; 1,885 km double track) narrow gauge: 96 km 0.760-m narrow gauge (1996)

Highways: total: 55,489 km paved: 55,489 km (including 423 km of expressways) unpaved: 0 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: NA km; the Elbe (Labe) is the principal river

Pipelines: natural gas 5,400 km

Ports and harbors: Decin, Prague, Usti nad Labem

Merchant marine: total: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 110,233 GRT/192,998 DWT ships by type: bulk 3 under Maltese flag, cargo 2 under the Cypriot flag (1997 est.)

Airports: 66 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 33 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 7 1,524 to 2,437 m: 10 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 13 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 33 914 to 1,523 m: 17 under 914 m: 16 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1997 est.)

@Czech Republic:Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force, Civil Defense

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 2,699,023 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 2,056,386 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 78,188 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $1.22 billion (1996)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2.2% (1996)

@Czech Republic:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: Liechtenstein claims restitution for 1,600 sq km of territory in the Czech Republic confiscated from its royal family in 1918; the Czech Republic insists that restitution does not go back before February 1948, when the communists seized power; individual Sudeten German claims for restitution of property confiscated in connection with their expulsion after World War II; unresolved property issues with Slovakia over redistribution of former Czechoslovak federal property

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and hashish and Latin American cocaine to Western Europe; domestic consumption-especially of locally produced synthetic drugs-on the rise

______________________________________________________________________

DENMARK

@Denmark:Geography

Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, on a peninsula north of Germany

Geographic coordinates: 56 00 N, 10 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 43,094 sq km land: 42,394 sq km water: 700 sq km note: includes the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea and the rest of metropolitan Denmark, but excludes the Faroe Islands and Greenland

Area-comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Massachusetts

Land boundaries: total: 68 km border countries: Germany 68 km

Coastline: 7,314 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 4 nm continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: temperate; humid and overcast; mild, windy winters and cool summers

Terrain: low and flat to gently rolling plains

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Lammefjord -7 m highest point: Ejer Bavnehoj 173 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, fish, salt, limestone, stone, gravel and sand

Land use: arable land: 60% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 5% forests and woodland: 10% other: 25% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 4,350 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding is a threat in some areas of the country (e.g., parts of Jutland, along the southern coast of the island of Lolland) that are protected from the sea by a system of dikes

Environment-current issues: air pollution, principally from vehicle and power plant emissions; nitrogen and phosphorus pollution of the North Sea; drinking and surface water becoming polluted from animal wastes and pesticides

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile
Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the
Sea

Geography-note: controls Danish Straits (Skagerrak and Kattegat) linking Baltic and North Seas; about one-quarter of the population lives in Copenhagen

@Denmark:People

Population: 5,333,617 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 18% (male 496,886; female 471,891) 15-64 years: 67% (male 1,807,384; female 1,760,353) 65 years and over: 15% (male 330,385; female 466,718) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.49% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 12.18 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 11.08 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.77 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.17 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 76.31 years male: 73.64 years female: 79.12 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.68 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Dane(s) adjective: Danish

Ethnic groups: Scandinavian, Eskimo, Faroese, German

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 91%, other Protestant and Roman
Catholic 2%, other 7% (1988)

Languages: Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (an Eskimo dialect), German (small minority)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 99% (1980 est.) male: NA% female: NA%

@Denmark:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of Denmark conventional short form: Denmark local long form: Kongeriget Danmark local short form: Danmark

Data code: DA

Government type: constitutional monarchy

National capital: Copenhagen

Administrative divisions: metropolitan Denmark-14 counties (amter, singular-amt) and 2 kommunes*; (stad); Arhus, Bornholm, Fredericksberg*, Frederiksborg, Fyn, Kobenhavn, Kobenhavn*, Nordjylland, Ribe, Ringkobing, Roskilde, Sonderjylland, Storstrom, Vejle, Vestsjalland, Viborg note: see separate entries for the Faroe Islands and Greenland, which are part of the Danish realm and self-governing administrative divisions

Independence: in 10th century first organized as a unified state; in 1849 became a constitutional monarchy

National holiday: Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)

Constitution: 1849 was the original constitution; there was a major overhaul 5 June 1953, allowing for a unicameral legislature and a female chief of state

Legal system: civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 January 1972); Heir Apparent Crown Prince FREDERIK, elder son of the queen (born 26 May 1968) head of government: Prime Minister Poul Nyrup RASMUSSEN (since 25 January 1993) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the queen elections: none; the queen is a constitutional monarch; prime minister appointed by the queen

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Folketing (179 seats; members are elected on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 11 March 1998 (next to be held NA 2002) election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-progovernment parties: Social Democrats 65, Socialist People's Party 13, Radical Liberal Party 7, Unity Party 5; opposition: Progress Party 42, Conservative People's Party 16, Danish People's Party 13, Center Democrats 8, other parties 10

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the monarch for life

Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party [Poul Nyrup
RASMUSSEN]; Conservative Party [Torben RECHENDORFF]; Liberal Party
[Uffe ELLEMANN-JENSEN]; Socialist People's Party [Holger K. NIELSEN];
Progress Party [Kirsten JAKOBSEN]; Center Democratic Party [Mimi
JAKOBSEN]; Social Liberal Party [Marianne JELVED]; Unity Party [none];
Danish People's Party [Pia KJAERSGAARD]; Radical Liberal Party
[Margrethe VESTAGER]; Conservative People's Party [Torben RECHENDORFF]

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB,
Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, ESA,
EU, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol,
IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OECD, OSCE, PCA,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMOGIP, UNMOP,
UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNPREDEP, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (observer), WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Knud-Erik TYGESEN chancery: 3200 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 234-4300 FAX: [1] (202) 328-1470 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Edward E. ELSON embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds Alle 24, 2100 Copenhagen mailing address: PSC 73, APO AE 09716 telephone: [45] (31) 42 31 44 FAX: [45] (35) 43 02 23

Flag description: red with a white cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side, and that design element of the Dannebrog (Danish flag) was subsequently adopted by the other Nordic countries of Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden

@Denmark:Economy

Economy-overview: This thoroughly modern market economy features high-tech agriculture, up-to-date small-scale and corporate industry, extensive government welfare measures, comfortable living standards, and high dependence on foreign trade. Denmark is a net exporter of food. The center-left coalition government will concentrate on reducing the persistently high unemployment rate and the budget deficit as well as following the previous government's policies of maintaining low inflation and a current account surplus. The coalition also vows to maintain a stable currency. The coalition has lowered marginal income taxes while maintaining overall tax revenues; boosted industrial competitiveness through labor market and tax reforms and increased research and development funds; and improved welfare services for the neediest while cutting paperwork and delays. Prime Minister RASMUSSEN's reforms focus on adapting Denmark to the criteria for European integration by 1999; Copenhagen has won from the European Union (EU) the right to opt out of the European Monetary Union (EMU). Denmark is, in fact, one of the few EU countries likely to fit into the EMU on time. Growth may fall off slightly to 2.8% in 1998, and inflation may rise to 2.5%.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$122.5 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$23,200 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 4% industry: 27% services: 69% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 2.2% (1997 est.)

Labor force: total: 2,895,950 by occupation: private services 40%, government services 30%, manufacturing and mining 19%, construction 6%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 5% (1995)

Unemployment rate: 7.9% (1997 est.)

Budget: revenues: $62.1 billion expenditures: $66.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1996 est.)

Industries: food processing, machinery and equipment, textiles and clothing, chemical products, electronics, construction, furniture, and other wood products, shipbuilding

Industrial production growth rate: 1.3% (1996)

Electricity-capacity: 10.604 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 34.244 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 6,432 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: grain, potatoes, rape, sugar beets; meat, dairy products; fish

Exports: total value: $48.8 billion (f.o.b., 1996) commodities: machinery and instruments 25%, meat and meat products, fuels, dairy products, ships, fish, chemicals partners: Germany 22.5%, Sweden 9.7%, UK 7.9%, Norway 5.9%, France 5.4%, Netherlands 4.4%, US 4.0% (1995)

Imports: total value: $43.2 billion (c.i.f., 1996) commodities: machinery and equipment, petroleum 25%, chemicals, grain and foodstuffs, textiles, paper partners: Germany 21.7%, Sweden 11.7%, Netherlands 7.0%, UK 6.6%, France 5.2%, Norway 4.9%, US 4.7%, Japan 3.5%, FSU 1.7% (1995)

Debt-external: $44 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid: donor: ODA, $1.34 billion (1993)

Currency: 1 Danish krone (DKr) = 100 oere

Exchange rates: Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1-6.916 (January 1998), 6.604 (1997), 5.799 (1996), 5.602 (1995), 6.361 (1994), 6.484 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 4.025 million (1995 est.), of which 822,000 are mobile telephones

Telephone system: excellent telephone and telegraph services domestic: buried and submarine cables and microwave radio relay form trunk network, four cellular radio communications systems international: 18 submarine fiber-optic cables linking Denmark with Norway, Sweden, Russia, Poland, Germany, Netherlands, UK, Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Canada; satellite earth stations-6 Intelsat, 10 Eutelsat, 1 Orion, 1 Inmarsat (Blaavand-Atlantic-East); note-the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) share the Danish earth station and the Eik, Norway, station for world-wide Inmarsat access

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 50 (1996 est.)

Televisions: 3 million (1996 est.)

@Denmark:Transportation

Railways: total: 3,358 km (510 km privately owned and operated) standard gauge: 3,358 km 1.435-m gauge (440 km electrified; 760 km double track) (1996)

Highways: total: 71,600 km paved: 71,600 km (including 880 km of expressways) unpaved: 0 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 417 km

Pipelines: crude oil 110 km; petroleum products 578 km; natural gas 700 km

Ports and harbors: Alborg, Arhus, Copenhagen, Esbjerg, Fredericia,
Grena, Koge, Odense, Struer

Merchant marine: total: 327 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,972,331 GRT/6,894,091 DWT ships by type: bulk 14, cargo 118, chemical tanker 16, container 76, liquefied gas tanker 24, livestock carrier 6, oil tanker 25, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 14, roll-on/roll-off cargo 22, short-sea passenger 9, specialized tanker 2 note: Denmark has created its own internal register, called the Danish International Ship register (DIS); DIS ships do not have to meet Danish manning regulations, and they amount to a flag of convenience within the Danish register (1997 est.)

Airports: 118 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 28 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 7 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 13 under 914 m: 3 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 90 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 7 under 914 m: 82 (1997 est.)

@Denmark:Military

Military branches: Royal Danish Army, Royal Danish Navy, Royal Danish
Air Force, Home Guard

Military manpower-military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 1,324,150 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 1,137,563 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 32,918 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $2.9 billion (1997 est.)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.6% (1997 est.)

@Denmark:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Iceland, Ireland, and the UK (Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall area)

______________________________________________________________________

DJIBOUTI

@Djibouti:Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea, between Eritrea and Somalia

Geographic coordinates: 11 30 N, 43 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 22,000 sq km land: 21,980 sq km water: 20 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Massachusetts

Land boundaries: total: 508 km border countries: Eritrea 113 km, Ethiopia 337 km, Somalia 58 km

Coastline: 314 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: desert; torrid, dry

Terrain: coastal plain and plateau separated by central mountains

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Asal -155 m highest point: Moussa Ali 2,028 m

Natural resources: geothermal areas

Land use: arable land: NA% permanent crops: NA% permanent pastures: 9% forests and woodland: 0% other: 91% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: earthquakes; droughts; occasional cyclonic disturbances from the Indian Ocean bring heavy rains and flash floods

Environment-current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water; desertification

Environment-international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ship Pollution signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: strategic location near world's busiest shipping lanes and close to Arabian oilfields; terminus of rail traffic into Ethiopia; mostly wasteland

@Djibouti:People

Population: 440,727 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 43% (male 94,399; female 94,154) 15-64 years: 55% (male 127,190; female 113,582) 65 years and over: 2% (male 5,877; female 5,525) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.51% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 41.75 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 14.69 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -11.91 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.11 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.06 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 102.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 51.07 years male: 49.06 years female: 53.15 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.94 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Djiboutian(s) adjective: Djiboutian

Ethnic groups: Somali 60%, Afar 35%, French, Arab, Ethiopian, and
Italian 5%

Religions: Muslim 94%, Christian 6%

Languages: French (official), Arabic (official), Somali, Afar

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 46.2% male: 60.3% female: 32.7% (1995 est.)

@Djibouti:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Djibouti conventional short form: Djibouti former: French Territory of the Afars and Issas, French Somaliland

Data code: DJ

Government type: republic

National capital: Djibouti

Administrative divisions: 5 districts (cercles, singular-cercle); 'Ali
Sabih, Dikhil, Djibouti, Obock, Tadjoura

Independence: 27 June 1977 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 June (1977)

Constitution: multiparty constitution approved in referendum 4
September 1992

Legal system: based on French civil law system, traditional practices, and Islamic law

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch: chief of state: President HASSAN GOULED Aptidon (since 24 June 1977) head of government: Prime Minister BARKAT Gourad Hamadou (since 30 September 1978) cabinet: Council of Ministers responsible to the president elections: president elected by popular vote to a six-year term; election last held 7 May 1993 (next to be held NA 1999) election results: President HASSAN GOULED reelected; percent of vote-NA

Legislative branch: unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (65 seats; members are elected to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 19 December 1997 (next to be held NA 2002) election results: percent of vote-NA; seats-RPP 65; note-RPP (the ruling party) dominated

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: ruling party: People's Progress Assembly or RPP [Hassan GOULED Aptidon] other parties: Democratic Renewal Party or PRD [Mohamed Jama ELABE]; Democratic National Party or PND [ADEN Robleh Awaleh]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Front for the Restoration of
Unity and Democracy or FRUD, and affiliates; Movement for Unity and
Democracy or MUD

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL,
AMF, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol,
IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO,
WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador ROBLE Olhaye Oudine chancery: Suite 515, 1156 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005 telephone: [1] (202) 331-0270 FAX: [1] (202) 331-0302

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Lange SCHERMERHORN embassy: Plateau du Serpent, Boulevard Marechal Joffre, Djibouti mailing address: B. P. 185, Djibouti telephone: [253] 35 39 95 FAX: [253] 35 39 40

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of light blue (top) and light green with a white isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bearing a red five-pointed star in the center

@Djibouti:Economy

Economy-overview: The economy is based on service activities connected with the country's strategic location and status as a free trade zone in northeast Africa. Two-thirds of the inhabitants live in the capital city, the remainder being mostly nomadic herders. Scanty rainfall limits crop production to fruits and vegetables, and most food must be imported. Djibouti provides services as both a transit port for the region and an international transshipment and refueling center. It has few natural resources and little industry. The nation is, therefore, heavily dependent on foreign assistance to help support its balance of payments and to finance development projects. An unemployment rate of 40% to 50% continues to be a major problem. Per capita consumption dropped an estimated 35% over the last seven years because of recession, civil war, and a high population growth rate (including immigrants and refugees). Faced with a multitude of economic difficulties, the government has fallen in arrears on long-term external debt and has been struggling to meet the stipulations of foreign aid donors.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$520 million (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 0.5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,200 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 3% industry: 20% services: 77% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 3% (1997 est.)

Labor force: total: 282,000 by occupation: agriculture 75%, industry 11%, services 14% (1991 est.)

Unemployment rate: 40%-50% (1996 est.)

Budget: revenues: $156 million expenditures: $175 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997 est.)

Industries: limited to a few small-scale enterprises, such as dairy products and mineral-water bottling

Industrial production growth rate: 3% (1996 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 85,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 180 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 427 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: fruits, vegetables; goats, sheep, camels

Exports: total value: $39.6 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.) commodities: hides and skins, coffee (in transit) (1995) partners: Ethiopia 45%, Somalia, Yemen, Saudi Arabia (1996)

Imports: total value: $200.5 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.) commodities: foods, beverages, transport equipment, chemicals, petroleum products (1995) partners: France, Ethiopia, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Thailand (1996)

Debt-external: $276 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Djiboutian franc (DF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Djiboutian francs (DF) per US$1-177.721 (fixed rate since 1973)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 7,200 (1986 est.)

Telephone system: telephone facilities in the city of Djibouti are adequate as are the microwave radio relay connections to outlying areas of the country domestic: microwave radio relay network international: submarine cable to Jiddah, Suez, Sicily, Marseilles, Colombo, and Singapore; satellite earth stations-1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; Medarabtel regional microwave radio relay telephone network

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 17,000 (1993 est.)

@Djibouti:Transportation

Railways: total: 97 km (Djibouti segment of the Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad) narrow gauge: 97 km 1.000-m gauge note: in April 1998, Djibouti and Ethiopia announced plans to revitalize the century-old railroad that links their capitals

Highways: total: 2,890 km paved: 364 km unpaved: 2,526 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Djibouti

Merchant marine: total: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,369 GRT/3,030 DWT (1997 est.)

Airports: 11 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 2 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 9 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 5 under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)

@Djibouti:Military

Military branches: Djibouti National Army (includes Navy and Air
Force), National Security Force (Force Nationale de Securite),
National Police Force

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 104,450 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 61,319 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $26 million (1989)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Djibouti:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

DOMINICA

@Dominica:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, about one-half of the way from Puerto Rico to Trinidad and Tobago

Geographic coordinates: 13 30 N, 61 20 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 750 sq km land: 750 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly more than four times the size of
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 148 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds; heavy rainfall

Terrain: rugged mountains of volcanic origin

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Morne Diablatins 1,447 m

Natural resources: timber

Land use: arable land: 9% permanent crops: 13% permanent pastures: 3% forests and woodland: 67% other: 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: flash floods are a constant threat; destructive hurricanes can be expected during the late summer months

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

@Dominica:People

Population: 65,777 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 27% (male 8,987; female 8,826) 15-64 years: 63% (male 21,231; female 20,464) 65 years and over: 10% (male 2,572; female 3,697) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: -1.33% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 17.35 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 6.29 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -24.36 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 9.04 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.8 years male: 74.94 years female: 80.8 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Dominican(s) adjective: Dominican

Ethnic groups: black, Carib Amerindian

Religions: Roman Catholic 77%, Protestant 15% (Methodist 5%, Pentecostal 3%, Seventh-Day Adventist 3%, Baptist 2%, other 2%), none 2%, unknown 1%, other 5%

Languages: English (official), French patois

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school total population: 94% male: 94% female: 94% (1970 est.)

@Dominica:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Commonwealth of Dominica conventional short form: Dominica

Data code: DO

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Roseau

Administrative divisions: 10 parishes; Saint Andrew, Saint David,
Saint George, Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Luke, Saint Mark, Saint
Patrick, Saint Paul, Saint Peter

Independence: 3 November 1978 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 November (1978)

Constitution: 3 November 1978

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Crispin Anselm SORHAINDO (since 25 October 1993) head of government: Prime Minister Edison C. JAMES (since 12 June 1995) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister elections: president elected by the House of Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 4 October 1993 (next to be held NA October 1998); prime minister appointed by the president election results: Crispin Anselm SORHAINDO elected president; percent of legislative vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly (30 seats, 9 appointed senators, 21 elected by popular vote representatives; members serve five-year terms) elections: last held 12 June 1995; byelections held 13 August 1996 (next to be held by October 2000) election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-UWP 12, DLP 5, DFP 4

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (located in Saint Lucia), one of the six judges must reside in Dominica and preside over the Court of Summary Jurisdiction

Political parties and leaders: Dominica Freedom Party or DFP [Charles
SAVARIN]; Dominica Labor Party or DLP [Rosie DOUGLAS]; United Workers
Party or UWP [Edison JAMES]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Dominica Liberation Movement or
DLM (a small leftist party)

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, C, Caricom, CDB,
ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM (observer), OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant) chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016 telephone: [1] (202) 364-6781 FAX: [1] (202) 364-6791 consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Dominica; the Ambassador to Dominica resides in Bridgetown (Barbados), but travels frequently to Dominica

Flag description: green with a centered cross of three equal bands-the vertical part is yellow (hoist side), black, and white-the horizontal part is yellow (top), black, and white; superimposed in the center of the cross is a red disk bearing a sisserou parrot encircled by 10 green five-pointed stars edged in yellow; the 10 stars represent the 10 administrative divisions (parishes)

@Dominica:Economy

Economy-overview: The economy is dependent on agriculture and thus is highly vulnerable to climatic conditions, notably tropical storms. Agriculture, primarily bananas, accounts for 26% of GDP and employs 40% of the labor force. Development of the tourist industry remains difficult because of the rugged coastline, lack of beaches, and the lack of an international airport. Hurricane Luis devastated the country's banana crop in September 1995; tropical storms had wiped out one-quarter of the crop in 1994 as well. The government is attempting to develop an offshore financial industry in order to diversify the island's production base.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$208 million (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3.7% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$2,500 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 26% industry: NA% services: NA% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 1.7% (1996)

Labor force: total: 25,000 by occupation: agriculture 40%, industry and commerce 32%, services 28% (1984)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1992 est.)

Budget: revenues: $77 million expenditures: $78 million, including capital expenditures of $22 million (FY95/96)

Industries: soap, coconut oil, tourism, copra, furniture, cement blocks, shoes

Industrial production growth rate: -0.4% (1996 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 8,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 37 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 448 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: bananas, citrus, mangoes, root crops, coconuts; forestry and fisheries potential not exploited

Exports: total value: $51.8 million (f.o.b., 1996) commodities: bananas 50%, soap, bay oil, vegetables, grapefruit, oranges partners: Caricom countries 47%, UK 36%, US 7% (1996 est.)

Imports: total value: $98.1 million (f.o.b., 1996) commodities: manufactured goods, machinery and equipment, food, chemicals partners: US 41%, Caricom 25%, UK 13%, Netherlands, Canada

Debt-external: $110 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1-2.7000 (fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications

Telephones: 14,613 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: fully automatic network international: microwave radio relay and SHF radiotelephone links to Martinique and Guadeloupe; VHF and UHF radiotelephone links to Saint Lucia

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: 45,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 cable

Televisions: 5,200 (1993 est.)

@Dominica:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 780 km paved: 393 km unpaved: 387 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Portsmouth, Roseau

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Dominica:Military

Military branches: Commonwealth of Dominica Police Force (includes
Special Service Unit, Coast Guard)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Dominica:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and
Europe; minor cannabis producer

______________________________________________________________________

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

@Dominican Republic:Geography

Location: Caribbean, eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of Haiti

Geographic coordinates: 19 00 N, 70 40 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 48,730 sq km land: 48,380 sq km water: 350 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly more than twice the size of New Hampshire

Land boundaries: total: 275 km border countries: Haiti 275 km

Coastline: 1,288 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 6 nm

Climate: tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation; seasonal variation in rainfall

Terrain: rugged highlands and mountains with fertile valleys interspersed

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Lago Enriquillo -46 m highest point: Pico Duarte 3,175 m

Natural resources: nickel, bauxite, gold, silver

Land use: arable land: 21% permanent crops: 9% permanent pastures: 43% forests and woodland: 12% other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 2,300 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: occasional hurricanes (July to October)

Environment-current issues: water shortages; soil eroding into the sea damages coral reefs; deforestation

Environment-international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Desertification, Endangered Species, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection signed, but not ratified: Climate Change, Law of the Sea

Geography-note: shares island of Hispaniola with Haiti (eastern two-thirds is the Dominican Republic, western one-third is Haiti)

@Dominican Republic:People

Population: 7,998,766 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 35% (male 1,435,698; female 1,382,377) 15-64 years: 60% (male 2,452,310; female 2,379,991) 65 years and over: 5% (male 165,602; female 182,788) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.63% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 26.42 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.73 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 44.26 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 69.73 years male: 67.53 years female: 72.04 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.06 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Dominican(s) adjective: Dominican

Ethnic groups: white 16%, black 11%, mixed 73%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: Spanish

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 82.1% male: 82% female: 82.2% (1995 est.)

@Dominican Republic:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Dominican Republic conventional short form: none local long form: Republica Dominicana local short form: none

Data code: DR

Government type: republic

National capital: Santo Domingo

Administrative divisions: 29 provinces (provincias,
singular-provincia) and 1 district* (distrito); Azua, Baoruco,
Barahona, Dajabon, Distrito Nacional*, Duarte, Elias Pina, El Seibo,
Espaillat, Hato Mayor, Independencia, La Altagracia, La Romana, La
Vega, Maria Trinidad Sanchez, Monsenor Nouel, Monte Cristi, Monte
Plata, Pedernales, Peravia, Puerto Plata, Salcedo, Samana, Sanchez
Ramirez, San Cristobal, San Juan, San Pedro de Macoris, Santiago,
Santiago Rodriguez, Valverde

Independence: 27 February 1844 (from Haiti)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 February (1844)

Constitution: 28 November 1966

Legal system: based on French civil codes

Suffrage: 18 years of age, universal and compulsory; married persons regardless of age note: members of the armed forces and police cannot vote

Executive branch: chief of state: President Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna (since 16 August 1996); Vice President Jaime David FERNANDEZ Mirabal (since 16 August 1996); note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna (since 16 August 1996); Vice President Jaime David FERNANDEZ Mirabal (since 16 August 1996); note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the president elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year term; election last held 16 May 1996; runoff election held 30 June 1996 (next to be held 16 May 2000) election results: President FERNANDEZ elected to his first term; percent of vote-Leonel FERNANDEZ (PLD) 51.25%, Jose Francisco PENA Gomez (PRD) 48.75%

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the Senate or Senado (30 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (120 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: Senate-last held 30 May 1994 (next to be held NA May 1998); Chamber of Deputies-last held 16 May 1994 (next to be held NA May 1998) election results: Senate-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-PRSC 15, PLD 1, PRD 14; Chamber of Deputies-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party - PLD 13, PRSC 50, PRD 57

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), judges are elected by a Council made up of legislative and executive members with the president presiding

Political parties and leaders: major parties: Social Christian Reformist Party or PRSC [Joaquin BALAGUER Ricardo]; Dominican Liberation Party or PLD [Lidio CADET]; Dominican Revolutionary Party or PRD [Jose Franciso PENA Gomez]; Independent Revolutionary Party or PRI minor parties: National Veterans and Civilian Party or PNVC [Juan Rene BEAUCHAMPS Javier]; Liberal Party of the Dominican Republic or PLRD [Andres Van Der HORST]; Democratic Quisqueyan Party or PQD [Elias WESSIN Chavez]; National Progressive Force or FNP [Pelegrin CASTILLO]; Popular Christian Party or PPC [Rogelio DELGADO Bogaert]; Dominican Communist Party or PCD [Narciso ISA Conde]; Dominican Workers' Party or PTD [Ivan RODRIGUEZ]; Anti-Imperialist Patriotic Union or UPA [Ignacio RODRIGUEZ Chiappini]; Alliance for Democracy Party or APD [Maximilano Rabelais PUIG Miller, Nelsida MARMOLEJOS, Vicente BENGOA]; Democratic Union or UD [Fernando ALVAREZ Bogaert] note: in 1983 several leftist parties, including the PCD, joined to form the Dominican Leftist Front or FID; however, they still retain individual party structures

Political pressure groups and leaders: Collective of Popular
Organizations or COP

International organization participation: ACP, Caricom (observer),
ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM,
ISO (subscriber), ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM (guest), OAS,
OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO,
WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Bernardo VEGA Boyrie chancery: 1715 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 332-6280, 6281 FAX: [1] (202) 265-8057 consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico), Miami, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico) consulate(s): Charlotte Amalie (Virgin Islands), Detroit, Houston, Jacksonville, Mobile, and Ponce (Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant) embassy: corner of Calle Cesar Nicolas Penson and Calle Leopoldo Navarro, Santo Domingo mailing address: Unit 5500, APO AA 34041 telephone: [1] (809) 221-2171, 221-8100 FAX: [1] (809) 686-7437

Flag description: a centered white cross that extends to the edges, divides the flag into four rectangles-the top ones are blue (hoist side) and red, the bottom ones are red (hoist side) and blue; a small coat of arms is at the center of the cross

@Dominican Republic:Economy

Economy-overview: Economic reforms launched in late 1994 contributed to exchange rate stabilization, reduced inflation, and strong GDP growth in 1995-96. In 1996, there was increased mineral and petroleum exploration, and a new investment law that allows for repatriation of capital dividends has drawn more investment to the island. Upon coming to power in August 1996, President FERNANDEZ nevertheless inherited a trouble-ridden economy hampered by a pressured peso, a large external debt, nearly bankrupt state-owned enterprises, and a manufacturing sector hindered by daily power outages. In December, FERNANDEZ presented a bold economic reform package-including such reforms as the devaluation of the peso, income tax cuts, a 50% increase in sales taxes, reduced import tariffs, and increased gasoline prices-in an attempt to create a market-oriented economy that can compete internationally. Even though reforms are moving ahead at a slow pace, the economy grew vigorously in 1997, with tourism and telecommunications leading the advance. The government is working to increase electric generating capacity, a key to continued economic growth.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$38.3 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 7% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$4,700 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 15% industry: 22% services: 63% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 10.9% (1997 est.)

Labor force: 2.3 million to 2.6 million by occupation: agriculture 50%, services and government 32%, industry 18% (1991 est.)

Unemployment rate: 30% (1996 est.)

Budget: revenues: $2 billion expenditures: $2 billion, including capital expenditures of $994 million (1996 est.)

Industries: tourism, sugar processing, ferronickel and gold mining, textiles, cement, tobacco

Industrial production growth rate: 6.3% (1995 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 1.447 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 6.5 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 865 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: sugarcane, coffee, cotton, cocoa, tobacco, rice, beans, potatoes, corn, bananas; cattle, pigs, dairy products, meat, eggs

Exports: total value: $815 million (f.o.b., 1996) commodities: ferronickel, sugar, gold, coffee, cocoa partners: US 45%, EU 34%, Canada, Japan, Puerto Rico (1995)

Imports: total value: $3.7 billion (f.o.b., 1996) commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum, cotton and fabrics, chemicals and pharmaceuticals partners: US 44%, EU 16%, Venezuela 11%, Netherlands Antilles, Mexico, Japan (1995)

Debt-external: $3.6 billion (1997)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $21 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Dominican peso (RD$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Dominican pesos (RD$) per US$1-14.332 (December 1997), 14.265 (1997), 13.775 (1996), 13.597 (1995), 13.160 (1994), 12.676 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 190,000 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: relatively efficient system based on islandwide microwave radio relay network international: 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 120, FM 0, shortwave 6

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 18 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 728,000 (1993 est.)

@Dominican Republic:Transportation

Railways: total: 757 km standard gauge: 375 km 1.435-m gauge (Central Romana Railroad) narrow gauge: 142 km 0.762-m gauge (Dominica Government Railway); 240 km operated by sugar companies in various gauges (0.558-m, 0.762-m, 1.067-m gauges) (1995)

Highways: total: 12,600 km paved: 6,224 km unpaved: 6,376 km (1996 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 96 km; petroleum products 8 km

Ports and harbors: Barahona, La Romana, Puerto Plata, San Pedro de
Macoris, Santo Domingo

Merchant marine: total: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,587 GRT/1,165 DWT (1997 est.)

Airports: 36 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 14 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 22 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 6 under 914 m: 15 (1997 est.)

@Dominican Republic:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 2,119,278 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 1,332,971 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 80,784 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $116 million (1994)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.4% (1994)

@Dominican Republic:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US through Puerto Rico

______________________________________________________________________

ECUADOR

@Ecuador:Geography

Location: Western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the
Equator, between Colombia and Peru

Geographic coordinates: 2 00 S, 77 30 W

Map references: South America

Area: total: 283,560 sq km land: 276,840 sq km water: 6,720 sq km note: includes Galapagos Islands

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Nevada

Land boundaries: total: 2,010 km border countries: Colombia 590 km, Peru 1,420 km

Coastline: 2,237 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: claims continental shelf between mainland and Galapagos Islands territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical along coast becoming cooler inland

Terrain: coastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands (sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Chimborazo 6,267 m

Natural resources: petroleum, fish, timber

Land use: arable land: 6% permanent crops: 5% permanent pastures: 18% forests and woodland: 56% other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 5,560 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity; periodic droughts

Environment-current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution; pollution from oil production wastes

Environment-international agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world

@Ecuador:People

Population: 12,336,572 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 36% (male 2,253,920; female 2,175,402) 15-64 years: 60% (male 3,636,637; female 3,725,766) 65 years and over: 4% (male 254,432; female 290,415) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.86% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 23.16 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.17 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.56 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 32.07 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.8 years male: 69.19 years female: 74.54 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.75 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Ecuadorian(s) adjective: Ecuadorian

Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Amerindian and Spanish) 55%, Amerindian 25%, Spanish 10%, black 10%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: Spanish (official), Amerindian languages (especially
Quechua)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 90.1% male: 92% female: 88.2% (1995 est.)

@Ecuador:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Ecuador conventional short form: Ecuador local long form: Republica del Ecuador local short form: Ecuador

Data code: EC

Government type: republic

National capital: Quito

Administrative divisions: 21 provinces (provincias,
singular-provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo,
Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los
Rios, Manabi, Morona-Santiago, Napo, Pastaza, Pichincha, Sucumbios,
Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe

Independence: 24 May 1822 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 10 August (1809) (independence of
Quito)

Constitution: 10 August 1979

Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal, compulsory for literate persons ages 18-65, optional for other eligible voters

Executive branch: chief of state: President Fabian ALARCON Rivera (since 11 February 1997); Vice President Pedro AGUAYO (since 1 April 1998); note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Fabian ALARCON Rivera (since 11 February 1997); Vice President Pedro AGUAYO (since 1 April 1998); note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government note: in an unusual, out of cycle change in executive power, Congress on 11 February 1997 elected then Congress President ALARCON to be Interim President until August 1998 after ousting former President BUCARAM because of "mental incapacity"; ARTEAGA remained vice president until March 1998 cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 19 May 1996; runoff election held 7 July 1996; note-because of the February 1997 unusual change in executive power, the next presidential elections will take place 31 May 1998 election results: runoff election; percent of vote-Abdala BUCARAM Ortiz 54%, Jaime NEBOT 46%; note-in February 1997, Congress elected ALARCON to be Interim President until August 1998, with 57 of 82 Congressmen voting in favor of him

Legislative branch: unicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional (82 seats; 12 members are popularly elected at-large nationally to serve four-year terms; 70 members are popularly elected by province for two-year terms) elections: last held 19 May 1996 (next to be held 31 May 1998) election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-PSC 27, PRE 19, DP 12, P-NP 8, ID 4, FRA 3, MPD 2, PCE 2, CFP 1, independents and other 4; note - defections by members of congress are commonplace, resulting in frequent changes in the numbers of seats held by the various parties

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), judges are elected by
Congress

Political parties and leaders: Center-Right parties: Social Christian Party or PSC [Jaime NEBOT Saadi, president]; Ecuadorian Conservative Party or PCE [Freddy BRAVO] Center-Left parties: Democratic Left or ID [Rodrigo BORJA Cevallos, leader]; Popular Democracy or DP [Jamil MAHUAD, leader]; Radical Alfarista Front or FRA [Fabian ALARCON, director]; Roldosista Party or PRE [Abdala BUCARAM, leader] Leftist parties: Popular Democratic Movement or MPD [leader NA] Populist parties: Roldosist Party or PRE [Abdala BUCARAM Ortiz, director]; Concentration of Popular Forces or CFP [Averroes BUCARAM, leader]; Popular Revolutionary Action or APRE [Frank VARGAS Passos, leader]; Pachakutik-New Country or P-NP [Freddy EHLERS] Far-Left parties: Popular Democratic Movement or MPD [Juan Jose CASTELLO, leader]

International organization participation: AG, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA,
MINUGUA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Alberto Federico MASPONS GUZMAN chancery: 2535 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009 telephone: [1] (202) 234-7200 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, and San Francisco consulate(s): Newark

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Leslie ALEXANDER embassy: Avenida 12 de Octubre and Avenida Patria, Quito mailing address: APO AA 34039 telephone: [593] (2) 562-890 FAX: [593] (2) 502-052 consulate(s) general: Guayaquil

Flag description: three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue, and red with the coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag; similar to the flag of Colombia that is shorter and does not bear a coat of arms

@Ecuador:Economy

Economy-overview: Ecuador has substantial oil resources and rich agricultural areas. As an exporter of primary products such as oil, bananas, and shrimp, fluctuations in world market prices can have a substantial domestic impact. Growth has been uneven in recent years as the government has repeatedly initiated ill-conceived fiscal stabilization measures. The populist government of Abdala BUCARAM Ortiz proposed a major currency reform in 1996, but popular discontent with new austerity measures and rampant official corruption undermined his government's position. Congress replaced BUCARAM with Fabian ALARCON in February 1997. ALARCON has adopted a minimalist economic program that puts off major decisions until the next elected government takes office in August 1998. Ecuador joined the World Trade Organization in 1996, but has failed to comply with many of its accession commitments. Growth slowed to 2.0% in 1996, due to a lack of investment caused by political uncertainty and high domestic interest rates, but economic activity picked up in 1997. Exports and economic growth in 1998 may be adversely affected by lower world oil prices and, to a smaller extent, by El Nino.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$53.4 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3.4% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$4,400 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 12% industry: 37% services: 51% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 31% (1997 est.)

Labor force: total: 4.2 million by occupation: agriculture 29%, manufacturing 18%, commerce 15%, services and other activities 38% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 6.9% with widespread underemployment (August 1997 est.)

Budget: revenues: $3.6 billion (1997) expenditures: $3.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1996 est.)

Industries: petroleum, food processing, textiles, metal work, paper products, wood products, chemicals, plastics, fishing, lumber

Industrial production growth rate: 2.4% (1997 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 2.754 million kW (1996)

Electricity-production: 9.27 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 600 kWh (1996)

Agriculture-products: bananas, coffee, cocoa, rice, potatoes, manioc, plantains, sugarcane; cattle, sheep, pigs, beef, pork, dairy products; balsa wood; fish, shrimp

Exports: total value: $3.4 billion (f.o.b., 1997) commodities: petroleum 30%, bananas 26%, shrimp 16%, cut flowers 2%, fish 1.9% partners: US 39%, Latin America 25%, EU countries 22%, Asia 12%

Imports: total value: $2.9 billion (c.i.f., 1997) commodities: transport equipment, consumer goods, vehicles, machinery, chemicals partners: US 32%, EU 19%, Latin America 35%, Asia 11%

Debt-external: $12.5 billion (1997)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $153 million (1993) note: received $12.7 million from the US and $160 million from other countries in 1995

Currency: 1 sucre (S/) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: sucres (S/) per US$1-4,498.0 (January 1998), 3,988.3 (1997), 3,189.5 (1996), 2,564.5 (1995), 2,196.7 (1994), 1,919.1 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 586,300 (1994 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: facilities generally inadequate and unreliable international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 272, FM 0, shortwave 39

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 33

Televisions: 940,000 (1992 est.)

@Ecuador:Transportation

Railways: total: 965 km (single track) narrow gauge: 965 km 1.067-m gauge

Highways: total: 43,249 km paved: 5,752 km unpaved: 37,497 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 1,500 km

Pipelines: crude oil 800 km; petroleum products 1,358 km

Ports and harbors: Esmeraldas, Guayaquil, La Libertad, Manta, Puerto
Bolivar, San Lorenzo

Merchant marine: total: 18 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 84,423 GRT/137,272 DWT ships by type: liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 14, passenger 3 (1997 est.)

Airports: 183 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 52 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 6 1,524 to 2,437 m: 10 914 to 1,523 m: 16 under 914 m: 18 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 131 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 38 under 914 m: 90 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1997 est.)

@Ecuador:Military

Military branches: Army (Ejercito Ecuatoriano), Navy (Armada
Ecuatoriana, includes Marines), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Ecuatoriana),
National Police

Military manpower-military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 3,168,489 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 2,139,516 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 127,810 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $411 million (1997)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2.1% (1997)

@Ecuador:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: three sections of the boundary with Peru are in dispute

Illicit drugs: significant transit country for derivatives of coca originating in Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru; minor illicit producer of coca; importer of precursor chemicals used in production of illicit narcotics; important money-laundering hub

______________________________________________________________________

EGYPT

@Egypt:Geography

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between
Libya and the Gaza Strip

Geographic coordinates: 27 00 N, 30 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 1,001,450 sq km land: 995,450 sq km water: 6,000 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly more than three times the size of New
Mexico

Land boundaries:
total: 2,689 km
border countries: Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 255 km, Libya 1,150 km,
Sudan 1,273 km

Coastline: 2,450 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters

Terrain: vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Qattara Depression -133 m highest point: Mount Catherine 2,629 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc

Land use: arable land: 2% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 0% forests and woodland: 0% other: 98% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 32,460 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes, flash floods, landslides, volcanic activity; hot, driving windstorm called khamsin occurs in spring; dust storms, sandstorms

Environment-current issues: agricultural land being lost to urbanization and windblown sands; increasing soil salinization below Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches, and marine habitats; other water pollution from agricultural pesticides, raw sewage, and industrial effluents; very limited natural fresh water resources away from the Nile which is the only perennial water source; rapid growth in population overstraining natural resources

Environment-international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, shortest sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea; size, and juxtaposition to Israel, establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics

@Egypt:People

Population: 66,050,004 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 36% (male 12,173,882; female 11,637,239) 15-64 years: 60% (male 20,108,426; female 19,718,302) 65 years and over: 4% (male 1,074,271; female 1,337,884) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.86% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 27.31 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 8.41 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 69.23 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 62.07 years male: 60.09 years female: 64.14 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.41 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Egyptian(s) adjective: Egyptian

Ethnic groups: Eastern Hamitic stock (Egyptians, Bedouins, and
Berbers) 99%, Greek, Nubian, Armenian, other European (primarily
Italian and French) 1%

Religions: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 94% (official estimate), Coptic
Christian and other 6% (official estimate)

Languages: Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 51.4% male: 63.6% female: 38.8% (1995 est.)

@Egypt:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt conventional short form: Egypt local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah local short form: Misr former: United Arab Republic (with Syria)

Data code: EG

Government type: republic

National capital: Cairo

Administrative divisions: 26 governorates (muhafazat,
singular-muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrah, Al
Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah, Al Isma'iliyah, Al Jizah, Al
Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah, Al Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid, Ash
Sharqiyah, As Suways, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa'id, Dumyat,
Janub Sina', Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina', Suhaj

Independence: 28 February 1922 (from UK)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 23 July (1952)

Constitution: 11 September 1971

Legal system: based on English common law, Islamic law, and Napoleonic codes; judicial review by Supreme Court and Council of State (oversees validity of administrative decisions); accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state: President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK (since 14 October 1981) head of government: Prime Minister Kamal Ahmed El-GANZOURI (since 4 January 1996) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president elections: president nominated by the People's Assembly for a six-year term, the nomination must then be validated by a national, popular referendum; national referendum last held 4 October 1993 (next to be held NA October 1999); prime minister appointed by the president election results: national referendum validated President MUBARAK's nomination by the People's Assembly to a third term

Legislative branch: bicameral system consists of the People's Assembly or Majlis al-Sha'b (454 seats; 444 elected by popular vote, 10 appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms) and the Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura-which functions only in a consultative role (264 seats; 176 elected by popular vote, 88 appointed by the president; members serve NA-year terms) elections: People's Assembly-last held 29 November 1995 (next to be held NA 2000); Advisory Council-last held 7 June 1995 (next to be held NA) election results: People's Assembly-percent of vote by party-NDP 72%, independents 25%, opposition 3%; seats by party-NDP 317, independents 114, NWP 6, NPUG 5, Nasserist Arab Democratic Party 1, Liberals 1; Advisory Council-percent of vote by party-NDP 99%, independents 1%; seats by party-NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Party (NDP),
President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK, leader, is the dominant party; legal
opposition parties are as follows: New Wafd Party (NWP), Fu'ad SIRAJ
AL-DIN; Socialist Labor Party (SLP), Ibrahim SHUKRI; National
Progressive Unionist Grouping (NPUG), Khalid MUHI AL-DIN; Socialist
Liberal Party, Mustafa Kamal MURAD; Democratic Unionist Party,
Mohammed 'Abd-al-Mun'im TURK; Umma Party, Ahmad al-SABAHI; Misr
al-Fatah Party (Young Egypt Party), leader NA; Nasserist Arab
Democratic Party, Dia' al-din DAWUD; Democratic Peoples' Party, Anwar
AFIFI; The Greens Party, Kamal KIRAH; Social Justice Party, Muhammad
'ABDAL-'AL
note: formation of political parties must be approved by government

Political pressure groups and leaders: despite a constitutional ban against religious-based parties, the technically illegal Muslim Brotherhood constitutes MUBARAK's potentially most significant political opposition; MUBARAK tolerated limited political activity by the Brotherhood for his first two terms, but has moved more aggressively in the past two years to block its influence; trade unions and professional associations are officially sanctioned

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACC, ACCT
(associate), AfDB, AFESD, AG (observer), AL, AMF, BSEC (observer),
CAEU, CCC, EBRD, ECA, ESCWA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MONUA, NAM,
OAPEC, OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNOMIG, UNOMIL, UNPREDEP, UNRWA,
UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ahmed MAHER al-Sayed chancery: 3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 895-5400 FAX: [1] (202) 244-4319, 5131 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, New York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel KURTZER embassy: (North Gate) 8, Kamel El-Din Salah Street, Garden City, Cairo mailing address: Unit 64900, APO AE 09839-4900 telephone: [20] (2) 3557371 FAX: [20] (2) 3573200 branch office: Alexandria

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with the national emblem (a shield superimposed on a golden eagle facing the hoist side above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of Yemen, which has a plain white band; also similar to the flag of Syria that has two green stars and to the flag of Iraq, which has three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a horizontal line centered in the white band

@Egypt:Economy

Economy-overview: At the end of the 1980s, Egypt faced problems of low productivity and poor economic management, compounded by the adverse social effects of excessive population growth, high inflation, and massive urban overcrowding. In the face of these pressures, in 1991 Egypt undertook wide-ranging macroeconomic stabilization and structural reform measures. This reform effort has been supported by three successive IMF arrangements, the last of which was concluded in October 1996. Egypt's reform efforts-and its participation in the Gulf war coalition-also led to massive debt relief under the Paris Club arrangements. Although the pace of reform has been uneven and slower than envisaged under the IMF programs, substantial progress has been made in improving macroeconomic performance. Budget deficits have been slashed while foreign reserves in 1997 were at an all-time high. And Egypt has been moving toward a more decentralized, market-oriented economy. These economic reforms and growing investment opportunities have prompted increasing foreign investment, but incoming capital has largely been concentrated in stock market portfolio flows. Egypt's economy also has been hit by a sharp downturn in tourism-a key foreign exchange and job producing sector-following the 17 November 1997 massacre of foreign tourists at Luxor. Although Egypt will probably regain these revenues over time, the slump in tourism is likely to slow the GDP growth rate in 1998.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$267.1 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 5.2% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$4,400 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 17% industry: 32% services: 51% (1996)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 4.9% (1997)

Labor force: total: 17.4 million (1996 est.) by occupation: agriculture 40%, services, including government 38%, industry 22% (1990 est.)

Unemployment rate: 9.4% (1997 est.)

Budget: revenues: $19.2 billion expenditures: $19.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $4 billion (FY96/97 est.)

Industries: textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, petroleum, construction, cement, metals

Industrial production growth rate: 8.5% (1996 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 13.04 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 48.5 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 778 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits, vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats; annual fish catch about 140,000 metric tons

Exports: total value: $5.1 billion (f.o.b., FY96/97 est.) commodities: crude oil and petroleum products, cotton yarn, raw cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals partners: EU, US, Japan

Imports: total value: $15.5 billion (c.i.f., FY96/97 est.) commodities: machinery and equipment, foods, fertilizers, wood products, durable consumer goods, capital goods partners: US, EU, Japan

Debt-external: $30.5 billion (1996/97 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $1.713 billion (1993)

Currency: 1 Egyptian pound (£E) = 100 piasters

Exchange rates: Egyptian pounds (£E) per US$1-3.4 (November 1994), 3.369 (November 1993), 3.345 (November 1992); market rate-3.3880 (January 1998), 3.3880 (1997), 3.3880 (1996), 3.3900 (1995), 3.3910 (1994), 3.3718 (1993)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications

Telephones: 2.2 million (1993)

Telephone system: large system by Third World standards but inadequate for present requirements and undergoing extensive upgrading domestic: principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and microwave radio relay international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean), 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat; 5 coaxial submarine cables; tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave radio relay to Israel; participant in Medarabtel

Radio broadcast stations: AM 39, FM 6, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 41

Televisions: 5 million (1993 est.)

@Egypt:Transportation

Railways: total: 4,751 km standard gauge: 4,751 km 1,435-m gauge (42 km electrified; 951 km double track)

Highways: total: 64,000 km paved: 49,984 km unpaved: 14,016 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 3,500 km (including the Nile, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo Waterway, and numerous smaller canals in the delta); Suez Canal, 193.5 km long (including approaches), used by oceangoing vessels drawing up to 16.1 m of water

Pipelines: crude oil 1,171 km; petroleum products 596 km; natural gas 460 km

Ports and harbors: Alexandria, Al Ghardaqah, Aswan, Asyut, Bur
Safajah, Damietta, Marsa Matruh, Port Said, Suez

Merchant marine: total: 161 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,225,989 GRT/1,899,818 DWT ships by type: bulk 24, cargo 60, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 15, passenger 42, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 15, short-sea passenger 3 (1997 est.)

Airports: 89 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 70 over 3,047 m: 11 2,438 to 3,047 m: 39 1,524 to 2,437 m: 15 914 to 1,523 m: 2 under 914 m: 3 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 19 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 6 under 914 m: 9 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1997 est.)

@Egypt:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Command

Military manpower-military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 17,350,925 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 11,247,896 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 683,868 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $3.28 billion (FY95/96)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 8.2% (FY95/96)

@Egypt:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: administrative boundary with Sudan does not coincide with international boundary creating the "Hala'ib Triangle," a barren area of 20,580 sq km

Illicit drugs: a transit point for Southwest Asian and Southeast Asian heroin and opium moving to Europe and the US; popular transit stop for Nigerian couriers; large domestic consumption of hashish from Lebanon and Syria

______________________________________________________________________

EL SALVADOR

@El Salvador:Geography

Location: Middle America, bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between
Guatemala and Honduras

Geographic coordinates: 13 50 N, 88 55 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 21,040 sq km land: 20,720 sq km water: 320 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Massachusetts

Land boundaries: total: 545 km border countries: Guatemala 203 km, Honduras 342 km

Coastline: 307 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical; rainy season (May to October); dry season (November to April)

Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow coastal belt and central plateau

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Cerro El Pital 2,730 m

Natural resources: hydropower, geothermal power, petroleum

Land use: arable land: 27% permanent crops: 8% permanent pastures: 29% forests and woodland: 5% other: 31% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,200 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: known as the Land of Volcanoes; frequent and sometimes very destructive earthquakes and volcanic activity

Environment-current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution; contamination of soils from disposal of toxic wastes

Environment-international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography-note: smallest Central American country and only one without a coastline on Caribbean Sea

@El Salvador:People

Population: 5,752,067 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 37% (male 1,088,579; female 1,042,087) 15-64 years: 58% (male 1,575,806; female 1,748,250) 65 years and over: 5% (male 135,556; female 161,789) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.57% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 26.71 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 6.32 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.73 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 29.07 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 69.66 years male: 66.31 years female: 73.17 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.06 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Salvadoran(s) adjective: Salvadoran

Ethnic groups: mestizo 94%, Amerindian 5%, white 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 75% note: there is extensive activity by Protestant groups throughout the country; by the end of 1992, there were an estimated 1 million Protestant evangelicals in El Salvador

Languages: Spanish, Nahua (among some Amerindians)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 71.5% male: 73.5% female: 69.8% (1995 est.)

@El Salvador:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of El Salvador conventional short form: El Salvador local long form: Republica de El Salvador local short form: El Salvador

Data code: ES

Government type: republic

National capital: San Salvador

Administrative divisions: 14 departments (departamentos,
singular-departamento); Ahuachapan, Cabanas, Chalatenango, Cuscatlan,
La Libertad, La Paz, La Union, Morazan, San Miguel, San Salvador,
Santa Ana, San Vicente, Sonsonate, Usulutan

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution: 20 December 1983

Legal system: based on civil and Roman law, with traces of common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations note: Legislative Assembly passed landmark judicial reforms in 1996

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Armando CALDERON Sol (since 1 June 1994); Vice President Enrique BORGO Bustamante (since 1 June 1994); note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Armando CALDERON Sol (since 1 June 1994); Vice President Enrique BORGO Bustamante (since 1 June 1994); note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Council of Ministers elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 20 March 1994, with a run-off election held 24 April 1994 (next to be held NA March 1999) election results: Armando CALDERON Sol elected president; percent of vote-Armando CALDERON Sol (ARENA) 49.03%, Ruben ZAMORA Rivas (CD/FMLN/MNR) 24.09%, Fidel CHAVEZ Mena (PDC) 16.39%, other 10.49%; because no candidate received a majority, a run-off election was held and the results were as follows-Armando CALDERON Sol (ARENA) 68.35%, Ruben ZAMORA Rivas (CD/FMLN/MNR) 31.65%

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea Legislativa (84 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve three-year terms) elections: last held 16 March 1997 (next to be held NA March 2000) election results: percent of vote by party-ARENA 35.4%, FMLN 34.3%, PCN 8.1%, PDC 7.9%, CD 3.8%, PRSC 3.4%, PLD 3.2%, MU 2.1%, PD 1.0%, other 0.8%; seats by party - ARENA 28, FMLN 27, PCN 9, PDC 8, PRSC 3, CD 2, PLD 2, MU 1, PD 1, independent 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), judges are selected by the Legislative Assembly

Political parties and leaders: National Republican Alliance or ARENA
[Alfredo CRISTIANI]; Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front or FMLN
[Facundo GUARDADO, general coordinator]; Christian Democratic Party or
PDC [Ronal UMANA, secretary general; title in dispute]; National
Conciliation Party or PCN [Ciro CRUZ Zepeda, secretary general];
Democratic Convergence or CD [Ruben ZAMORA, secretary general];
Popular Labor Party or PPL [Jose VILANOVA, secretary general]; Liberal
Democratic Party or PLD [Kirio Waldo SALGADO, president]; Social
Christian Union or USC (formed by union of the PRSC, MU, and MSN)
[Abraham RODRIGUEZ, president]; Democratic Party or PD [Ana Guadeloupe
MARTINEZ, president]

Political pressure groups and leaders: labor organizations: National Confederation of Salvadoran Workers (CNTS)National Union of Salvadoran Workers (UNTS); Federation of the Construction Industry, Similar, Transport and other activities (FESINCONTRANS); Salvadoran Workers Central (CTS); Port Industry Union of El Salvador (SIPES); Electrical Industry Union of El Salvador (SIES); Workers Union of Electrical Corporation (STCEL) business organizations: Salvadoran Industrial Association (ASI)Salvadoran Assembly Industry Association (ASIC); National Association of Small Enterprise (ANEP)

International organization participation: BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO,
G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer),
MINURSO, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Rene A. LEON chancery: 2308 California Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 265-9671, 9672 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco consulate(s): Boston

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Anne W. PATTERSON embassy: Final Boulevard Santa Elena, Station Antiguo Cuscatlan, San Salvador mailing address: Unit 3116, APO AA 34023 telephone: [503] 278-4444 FAX: [503] 278-6011

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with the national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL; similar to the flag of Nicaragua, which has a different coat of arms centered in the white band-it features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; also similar to the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band

@El Salvador:Economy

Economy-overview: In 1997 the government emphasized a fixed exchange rate, along with conservative monetary and fiscal policies to promote foreign investment. Inflation fell to an unprecedented low of 2%. Exports reached a record level and were the main engine of growth. Productivity in other sectors remained weaker, however. For the last few years, El Salvador has experienced sizable deficits in both its trade and its fiscal accounts. The trade deficit has been offset by remittances from the large number of Salvadorans living abroad and from external aid. The deficit is expected to increase in 1998 as imports continue to rise. San Salvador is stepping up its privatization efforts in 1998 to increase revenues. Late in 1997 the legislative assembly approved a privatization law that will facilitate the sale of the state-owned telephone company sometime in 1998. The government also plans to privatize pension funds later in the year.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$17.8 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 4% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$3,000 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 15% industry: 24% services: 61% (1997 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 2% (1997)

Labor force: total: 2.26 million (1997 est.) by occupation: agriculture 40%, commerce 16%, manufacturing 15%, government 13%, financial services 9%, transportation 6%, other 1%

Unemployment rate: 7.7% (1997 est.)

Budget: revenues: $1.75 billion expenditures: $1.82 billion, including capital expenditures of $317 million (1997 est.)

Industries: food processing, beverages, petroleum, chemicals, fertilizer, textiles, furniture, light metals

Industrial production growth rate: 7% (1997 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 900,000 kW (1996)

Electricity-production: 3.5 billion kWh (1997)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 603 kWh (1997 est.)

Agriculture-products: coffee, sugarcane, corn, rice, beans, oilseed, cotton, sorghum; beef, dairy products; shrimp

Exports: total value: $1.96 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.) commodities: coffee, sugar; shrimp; textiles partners: US, Guatemala, Germany, Costa Rica, Honduras

Imports: total value: $3.5 billion (c.i.f., 1997 est.) commodities: raw materials, consumer goods, capital goods, fuels partners: US, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Venezuela, Japan

Debt-external: $2.6 billion (yearend 1997)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $763 million (1996) note: US has committed $280 million in economic assistance to El Salvador for 1995-97 (excludes military aid)

Currency: 1 Salvadoran colon (C) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Salvadoran colones (C) per US$1 (end of period)-8.755 (January 1998-1995), 8.750 (1994), 8.670 (1993) note: as of 1 June 1990, the rate is based on the average of the buying and selling rates, set on a weekly basis, for official receipts and payments, imports of petroleum, and coffee exports; prior to that date, a system of floating was in effect

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 350,000 (1997 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to Central American Microwave System

Radio broadcast stations: AM 18, FM 80, shortwave 2

Radios: 1.5 million (1997 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 11 (1996 est.)

Televisions: 700,000 (1997 est.)

@El Salvador:Transportation

Railways: total: 602 km (single track; note-some sections abandoned, unusable, or operating at reduced capacity) narrow gauge: 602 km 0.914-m gauge

Highways: total: 9,977 km paved: 1,985 km (including 266 km of expressways) unpaved: 7,992 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: Rio Lempa partially navigable

Ports and harbors: Acajutla, Puerto Cutuco, La Libertad, La Union,
Puerto El Triunfo

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 88 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 4 over 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 84 914 to 1,523 m: 18 under 914 m: 66 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1997 est.)

@El Salvador:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 1,362,504 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 864,419 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 65,130 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $104 million (1997)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 0.9% (1997)

@El Salvador:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: land boundary dispute with Honduras mostly resolved by 11 September 1992 International Court of Justice (ICJ) decision; the presidents of Honduras and El Salvador signed in January 1998 an agreement allowing citizens in the 1992 demarcated areas to choose Honduran or Salvadoran citizenship; the two countries also agreed to a final demarcation of the border within one year; the agreement awaits ratification by the legislative assemblies of both countries; with respect to the maritime boundary in the Golfo de Fonseca, ICJ referred to an earlier agreement in this century and advised that some tripartite resolution among El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua likely would be required

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine; marijuana produced for local consumption

______________________________________________________________________

EQUATORIAL GUINEA

@Equatorial Guinea:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between
Cameroon and Gabon

Geographic coordinates: 2 00 N, 10 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 28,050 sq km land: 28,050 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries: total: 539 km border countries: Cameroon 189 km, Gabon 350 km

Coastline: 296 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; always hot, humid

Terrain: coastal plains rise to interior hills; islands are volcanic

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Mount Malabo 3,008 m

Natural resources: timber, petroleum, small unexploited deposits of gold, manganese, uranium

Land use: arable land: 5% permanent crops: 4% permanent pastures: 4% forests and woodland: 46% other: 41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: violent windstorms

Environment-current issues: tap water is not potable; desertification

Environment-international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ship Pollution signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: insular and continental regions rather widely separated

@Equatorial Guinea:People

Population: 454,001 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 43% (male 97,993; female 97,470) 15-64 years: 53% (male 114,960; female 126,453) 65 years and over: 4% (male 7,597; female 9,528) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.56% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 38.9 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 13.32 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 93.45 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 53.93 years male: 51.61 years female: 56.31 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.06 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Equatorial Guinean(s) or Equatoguinean(s) adjective: Equatorial Guinean or Equatoguinean

Ethnic groups: Bioko (primarily Bubi, some Fernandinos), Rio Muni (primarily Fang), Europeans less than 1,000, mostly Spanish

Religions: nominally Christian and predominantly Roman Catholic, pagan practices

Languages: Spanish (official), French (official), pidgin English,
Fang, Bubi, Ibo

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 78.5% male: 89.6% female: 68.1% (1995 est.)

@Equatorial Guinea:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Equatorial Guinea conventional short form: Equatorial Guinea local long form: Republica de Guinea Ecuatorial local short form: Guinea Ecuatorial former: Spanish Guinea

Data code: EK

Government type: republic in transition to multiparty democracy

National capital: Malabo

Administrative divisions: 7 provinces (provincias, singular-provincia); Annobon, Bioko Norte, Bioko Sur, Centro Sur, Kie-Ntem, Litoral, Wele-Nzas

Independence: 12 October 1968 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 October (1968)

Constitution: approved by national referendum 17 November 1991; emended January 1995

Legal system: partly based on Spanish civil law and tribal custom

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal adult

Executive branch: chief of state: President Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO (since 3 August 1979) head of government: Prime Minister Serafin Seriche DOUGAN (since April 1996); First Vice Prime Minister for Foreign Affairs Miguel OYONO (since January 1998); Second Vice Prime Minister for Internal Affairs Demetrio Elo NDONG NGEFUMU (since January 1998) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president elections: president elected by popular vote to a seven-year term; election last held 25 February 1996 (next to be held NA February 2003) election results: President OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO reelected without opposition; percent of popular vote-98%

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Peoples Representatives or Camara de Representantes del Pueblo (80 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 21 November 1993 (next to be held NA 1998) election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-PDGE 68, CSDP 6, UDS 5, CLD 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal

Political parties and leaders:
ruling party: Democratic Party for Equatorial Guinea or PDGE [Brig.
Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO]
opposition parties: Convergence Party for Social Democracy or CPDS
[Santiago OBAMA, president; Placido Miko ABOGO, secretary-general];
Democratic Social Union or UDS [Camelo MODU, general secretary];
Liberal Democratic Convention or CLD [Alfonso Nsue MIFUMU, president];
Liberal Party or PL [Santos PASCUAL]; National Democratic Union or
UDENA [Jose MECHEBA Ikaka, president]; National Movement of the
Liberation of Equatorial Guinea or MONALIGE [Dr. Aldolfo Obrang BIKO,
president]; Party of the Social Democratic Coalition or PCSD
[Buenaventura Moswi M'Asumu, general coordinator]; Party of Progress
or PP [Mocache MEINGA, interim chairman]; Popular Action of Equatorial
Guinea or APGE [Casiano Masi Edu]; Popular Union or UP [Juan BITUI,
president]; Party for Progress of Equatorial Guinea or PPGE [Basilio
Ava Eworo and Domingo ABUY]; Progressive Democratic Alliance or ADP
[Antonio-Ebang Mbele Abang, president]; Social Democratic and Popular
Convergence or CSDP [Secundino Oyono Agueng Ada, general secretary];
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Benjamin-Gabriel Balingha Balinga
Alene, general secretary]; Socialist Party of Equatorial Guinea or
PSGE [Tomas MICHEBE Fernandez, general secretary]

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC,
CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OAU,
UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Pastor Micha ONDO BILE chancery: Suite 405, 1511 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20005 telephone: [1] (202) 393-0525 FAX: [1] (202) 393-0348

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Equatorial Guinea (embassy closed September 1995); US relations with Equatorial Guinea are handled through the US Embassy in Yaounde, Cameroon

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side and the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms has six yellow six-pointed stars (representing the mainland and five offshore islands) above a gray shield bearing a silk-cotton tree and below which is a scroll with the motto UNIDAD, PAZ, JUSTICIA (Unity, Peace, Justice)

@Equatorial Guinea:Economy

Economy-overview: The discovery and exploitation of large oil reserves have contributed to dramatic economic growth in recent years. Farming, forestry, and fishing are also major components of GDP. Subsistence farming predominates. Although pre-independence Equatorial Guinea counted on cocoa production for hard currency earnings, the deterioration of the rural economy under successive brutal regimes has diminished potential for agriculture-led growth. A number of aid programs sponsored by the World Bank and the IMF have been cut off since 1993 because of the government's gross corruption and mismanagement. Businesses, for the most part, are owned by government officials and their family members. Undeveloped natural resources include titanium, iron ore, manganese, uranium, and alluvial gold. The country responded favorably to the devaluation of the CFA franc in January 1994.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$660 million (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: NA%

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,500 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 46% industry: 33% services: 21% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 6% (1996 est.)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $47 million expenditures: $43 million, including capital expenditures of $7 million (1996 est.)

Industries: fishing, sawmilling

Industrial production growth rate: 7.4% (1994 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 5,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 20 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 48 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: coffee, cocoa, rice, yams, cassava (tapioca), bananas, palm oil nuts, manioc; livestock; timber

Exports: total value: $197 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.) commodities: petroleum, timber, cocoa partners: US 34%, Japan 17%, Spain 13%, China 13%, Nigeria

Imports: total value: $248 million (c.i.f., 1996 est.) commodities: petroleum, food, beverages, clothing, machinery partners: Cameroon 40%, Spain 18%, France 14%, US 8%

Debt-external: $254 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1-608.36 (January 1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993) note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 2,000 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: poor system with adequate government services
domestic: NA
international: international communications from Bata and Malabo to
African and European countries; satellite earth station-1 Intelsat
(Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 4,000 (1992 est.)

@Equatorial Guinea:Transportation

Railways: total: 0 km

Highways: total: 2,820 km paved: 0 km unpaved: 2,820 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Bata, Luba, Malabo

Merchant marine: total: 19 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 66,766 GRT/84,780 DWT ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 16, passenger 1, passenger-cargo 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 3 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 1 under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Equatorial Guinea:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Rapid Intervention Force,
National Police

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 98,960 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 50,308 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $2.5 million (FY93/94)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Equatorial Guinea:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: maritime boundary dispute with Gabon because of disputed sovereignty over islands in Corisco Bay; maritime boundary dispute with Nigeria because of disputed jurisdiction over oil-rich areas in the Gulf of Guinea

______________________________________________________________________

ERITREA

Introduction

Historical perspective: On 29 May 1991, ISAIAS Afworki, secretary general of the People's Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ), which then served as the country's legislative body, announced the formation of the Provisional Government in Eritrea (PGE) in preparation for the 23-25 April 1993 referendum on independence for the Autonomous Region of Eritrea; the referendum resulted in a landslide vote for independence, which was proclaimed on 27 April 1993.

@Eritrea:Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Djibouti and
Sudan

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 39 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 121,320 sq km land: 121,320 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly larger than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries: total: 1,630 km border countries: Djibouti 113 km, Ethiopia 912 km, Sudan 605 km

Coastline: 2,234 km total; mainland on Red Sea 1,151 km, islands in
Red Sea 1,083 km

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: hot, dry desert strip along Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter in the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually); semiarid in western hills and lowlands; rainfall heaviest during June-September except on coastal desert

Terrain: dominated by extension of Ethiopian north-south trending highlands, descending on the east to a coastal desert plain, on the northwest to hilly terrain and on the southwest to flat-to-rolling plains

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Kobar Sink -75 m highest point: Soira 3,013 m

Natural resources: gold, potash, zinc, copper, salt, probably oil and natural gas (petroleum geologists are prospecting for it), fish

Land use: arable land: 12% permanent crops: 1% permanent pastures: 48% forests and woodland: 20% other: 19% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 280 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent droughts

Environment-current issues: deforestation; desertification; soil erosion; overgrazing; loss of infrastructure from civil warfare

Environment-international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: strategic geopolitical position along world's busiest shipping lanes; Eritrea retained the entire coastline of Ethiopia along the Red Sea upon de jure independence from Ethiopia on 27 April 1993

@Eritrea:People

Population: 3,842,436 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 43% (male 826,686; female 818,323) 15-64 years: 54% (male 1,026,922; female 1,042,156) 65 years and over: 3% (male 66,222; female 62,127) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.39% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 42.52 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 12.57 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.) note: it is estimated that between 200,000 and 350,000 Eritrean refugees were still living in Sudan in mid-1997

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.06 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 78.51 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 55.31 years male: 53.19 years female: 57.51 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.99 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Eritrean(s) adjective: Eritrean

Ethnic groups: ethnic Tigrinya 50%, Tigre and Kunama 40%, Afar 4%,
Saho (Red Sea coast dwellers) 3%

Religions: Muslim, Coptic Christian, Roman Catholic, Protestant

Languages: Afar, Amharic, Arabic, Tigre and Kunama, Tigrinya, minor ethnic group languages

Literacy: NA

@Eritrea:Government

Country name: conventional long form: State of Eritrea conventional short form: Eritrea local long form: Hagere Ertra local short form: Ertra former: Eritrea Autonomous Region in Ethiopia

Data code: ER

Government type: transitional government note: following a successful referendum on independence for the Autonomous Region of Eritrea on 23-25 April 1993, a National Assembly, composed entirely of the Peoples' Front for Democracy and Justice or PFDJ, was established as a transitional legislature; a Constitutional Commission was also established to draft a constitution; ISAIAS Afworki was elected president by the transitional legislature

National capital: Asmara (formerly Asmera)

Administrative divisions: 8 provinces (singular-awraja); Akele Guzay, Barka, Denkel, Hamasen, Sahil, Semhar, Senhit, Seraye note: in May 1995 the National Assembly adopted a resolution stating that the administrative structure of Eritrea, which had been established by former colonial powers, would consist of only six provinces when the new constitution, then being drafted, would go into effect some time in 1998; the new provinces, the names of which had not been recommended by the US Board on Geographic Names for recognition by the US government, pending acceptable definition of the boundaries, were: Anseba, Debub, Debubawi Keyih Bahri, Gash-Barka, Maakel, and Semanawi Keyih Bahri; more recently, it has been reported that these provinces have been redesignated regions and renamed Southern Red Sea, Northern Red Sea, Anseba, Gash-Barka, Southern, and Central

Independence: 27 May 1993 (from Ethiopia; formerly the Eritrea
Autonomous Region)

National holiday: National Day (independence from Ethiopia), 24 May (1993)

Constitution: the transitional constitution, decreed on 19 May 1993, was replaced by a new constitution that was promulgated in May 1997

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: NA; note-the transitional constitution of 19 May 1993 did not provide rules for suffrage, but it seems likely that the final version of the constitution, which may be promulgated some time in 1998, will follow the example set in the referendum of 1993 and extend suffrage to all persons 18 years of age or older

Executive branch: chief of state: President ISAIAS Afworki (since 8 June 1993); note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President ISAIAS Afworki (since 8 June 1993); note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: State Council is the collective executive authority note: the president is head of the State Council and National Assembly elections: president elected by the National Assembly; election last held 8 June 1993 (next to be held NA) election results: ISAIAS Afworki elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - ISAIAS Afworki 95%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (150 seats; term limits not established) elections: in May 1997, following the adoption of the new constitution, 75 members of the PFDJ Central Committee (the old Central Committee of the EPLF), 60 members of the 527-member Constituent Assembly which had been established in 1997 to discuss and ratify the new constitution, and 15 representatives of Eritreans living abroad were formed into a Transitional National Assembly to serve as the country's legislative body until country-wide elections to a National Assembly are held in 1998; only 75 members will be elected to the National Assembly-the other 75 will be members of the Central Committee of the PFDJ

Judicial branch: Judiciary the Supreme Court; 10 provincial courts; 29 district courts

Political parties and leaders: People's Front for Democracy and
Justice or PFDJ, the only party recognized by the government [ISAIAS
Afworki, PETROS Solomon]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Eritrean Islamic Jihad or EIJ;
Eritrean Liberation Front or ELF [ABDULLAH Muhammed]; Eritrean
Liberation Front-United Organization or ELF-UO [Mohammed Said NAWUD];
Eritrean Liberation Front-Revolutionary Council or ELF-RC [Ahmed
NASSER]

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO,
IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat
(nonsignatory user), ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Semere RUSSOM chancery: 1708 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009 telephone: [1] (202) 319-1991 FAX: [1] (202) 319-1304

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador-designate William CLARK embassy: Franklin D. Roosevelt Street, Asmara mailing address: P.O. Box 211, Asmara telephone: [291] (1) 120004 FAX: [291] (1) 127584

Flag description: red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) dividing the flag into two right triangles; the upper triangle is green, the lower one is blue; a gold wreath encircling a gold olive branch is centered on the hoist side of the red triangle

@Eritrea:Economy

Economy-overview: With independence from Ethiopia on 27 April 1993, Eritrea faced the bitter economic problems of a small, desperately poor African country. The economy is largely based on subsistence agriculture, with over 70% of the population involved in farming and herding. The small industrial sector consists mainly of light industries with outmoded technologies. Domestic output (GDP) is substantially augmented by worker remittances from abroad. Government revenues come from custom duties and taxes on income and sales. Road construction is a top domestic priority. Eritrea has inherited the entire coastline of Ethiopia and has long-term prospects for revenues from the development of offshore oil fields, offshore fishing, and tourism. Eritrea's economic future depends on its ability to master fundamental social and economic problems, e.g., overcoming illiteracy, promoting job creation, expanding technical training, attracting foreign investment, and streamlining the bureaucracy.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$2.2 billion (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 6.8% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$600 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 18% industry: 20% services: 62% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 4% (1997 est.)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $226 million expenditures: $453 million, including capital expenditures of $88 million (1996 est.)

Industries: food processing, beverages, clothing and textiles

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 73,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: NA kWh

Electricity-consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture-products: sorghum, lentils, vegetables, maize, cotton, tobacco, coffee, sisal (for making rope); livestock (including goats); fish

Exports: total value: $71 million (1996 est.) commodities: livestock, sorghum, textiles, food, small manufactures partners: Ethiopia 67%, Sudan 10%, Saudi Arabia 4%, US 3%, Italy, Yemen (1996)

Imports: total value: $499 million (1996 est.) commodities: processed goods, machinery, petroleum products partners: Ethiopia, Saudi Arabia, Italy, United Arab Emirates

Debt-external: $162 million (1995 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 nafka = 100 cents

Exchange rates: nakfa per US$1 = 7.2 (March 1998 est.) note: following independence from Ethiopia, Eritrea continued to use Ethiopian currency until late in 1997 when Eritrea issued its own currency, the nakfa, at approximately the same rate as the birr, i.e., 7.2 nakfa per US$1

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: NA

Telephone system: domestic: very inadequate; about 4 telephones per 100 families, most of which are in Asmara; government is seeking international tenders to improve the system international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (government controlled)

Televisions: NA

@Eritrea:Transportation

Railways: total: 307 km narrow gauge: 307 km 0.950-m gauge (1995 est.) note: nonoperational since 1978 except for about a 5 km stretch that was reopened in Massawa in 1994; rehabilitation of the remainder and of the rolling stock is under way; links Ak'ordat and Asmara (formerly Asmera) with the port of Massawa (formerly Mits'iwa)

Highways: total: 4,010 km paved: 874 km unpaved: 3,136 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Assab (Aseb), Massawa (Mits'iwa)

Merchant marine: total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,516 GRT/5,747 DWT ships by type: oil tanker 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 20 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 2 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 18 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 914 to 1,523 m: 6 under 914 m: 3 (1997 est.)

@Eritrea:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $40 million (1995)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Eritrea:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: a dispute with Yemen over sovereignty of the Hanish Islands in the southern Red Sea has been submitted to arbitration under the auspices of the ICJ; a decision on the Islands is expected in mid-1998

______________________________________________________________________

ESTONIA

@Estonia:Geography

Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of
Finland, between Latvia and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 59 00 N, 26 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 45,226 sq km land: 43,211 sq km water: 2,015 sq km note: includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont combined

Land boundaries: total: 633 km border countries: Latvia 339 km, Russia 294 km

Coastline: 3,794 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: limits to be fixed in coordination with neighboring states territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers

Terrain: marshy, lowlands

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m highest point: Suur Munamagi 318 m

Natural resources: shale oil (kukersite), peat, phosphorite, amber, cambrian blue clay

Land use: arable land: 22% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 11% forests and woodland: 31% other: 36% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 110 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding occurs frequently in the spring

Environment-current issues: air heavily polluted with sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products, chemicals at former Soviet military bases; Estonia has more than 1,400 natural and manmade lakes, the smaller of which in agricultural areas are heavily affected by organic waste; coastal sea water is polluted in many locations

Environment-international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ship Pollution, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

@Estonia:People

Population: 1,421,335 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 19% (male 136,278; female 131,480) 15-64 years: 67% (male 456,796; female 492,946) 65 years and over: 14% (male 66,261; female 137,574) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.99% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 9.04 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 14.15 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.76 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.48 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 13.98 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 68.52 years male: 62.5 years female: 74.83 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.29 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Estonian(s) adjective: Estonian

Ethnic groups: Estonian 64.2%, Russian 28.7%, Ukrainian 2.7%,
Byelorussian 1.5%, Finn 1%, other 1.9% (1995)

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran, Russian Orthodox, Estonian Orthodox, others include Baptist, Methodist, 7th Day Adventist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal, Word of Life, 7th Day Baptist, Judaism

Languages: Estonian (official), Russian, Ukrainian, other

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 100% male: 100% female: 100% (1989 est.)

@Estonia:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Estonia conventional short form: Estonia local long form: Eesti Vabariik local short form: Eesti former: Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: EN

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Tallinn

Administrative divisions: 15 counties (maakonnad, singular-maakond): Harjumaa (Tallinn), Hiiumaa (Kardla), Ida-Virumaa (Johvi), Jarvamaa (Paide), Jogevamaa (Jogeva), Laanemaa (Haapsalu), Laane-Virumaa (Rakvere), Parnumaa (Parnu), Polvamaa (Polva), Raplamaa (Rapla), Saaremaa (Kuessaare), Tartumaa (Tartu), Valgamaa (Valga), Viljandimaa (Viljandi), Vorumaa (Voru) note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)

Independence: 6 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 24 February (1918)

Constitution: adopted 28 June 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal for all Estonian citizens

Executive branch: chief of state: President Lennart MERI (since 5 October 1992) head of government: Prime Minister Mart SIIMANN (since 12 March 1997) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister, approved by Parliament elections: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term; if he or she does not secure two-thirds of the votes after 3 rounds of balloting, then an electoral assembly (made up of Parliament plus members of local governments) elects the president, choosing between the two candidates with the largest percentage of votes; election last held August-September 1996 (next to be held fall 2001); prime minister nominated by the president and approved by Parliament election results: Lennart MERI elected president by an electoral assembly after Parliament was unable to break a deadlock between MERI and RUUTEL; percent of electoral assembly vote-Lennert MERI 61%, Arnold RUUTEL 39%

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Riigikogu (101 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 5 March 1995 (next to be held NA March 1999) election results: percent of vote by party-KMU 32.22%, RE 16.18%, K 14.17%, Pro Patria and ERSP 7.85%, M 5.98%, Our Home is Estonia and Right-Wingers 5.0%; seats by party-KMU 41, RE 19, K 16, Pro Patria 8, Our Home is Estonia 6, M 6, Right-Wingers 5

Judicial branch: National Court, chairman appointed by the Parliament for life

Political parties and leaders: Coalition Party and Rural Union or KMU [Mart SIIMAN, chairman] made up of 4 parties: Coalition Party or EK, Country People's Party [Arnold RUUTEL, chairman]/Farmer's Assembly or EME, Rural Union or EM [Arvo SIRENDI, chairman] , and Pensioners' and Families' League or EPPL [Mai TREIAL, chairperson]; Reform Party or RE [Siim KALLAS, chairman]; Center Party or K [Edgar SAVISAAR, chairman]; Union of Pro Patria or Fatherland League (Isamaaliit) [Toivo JURGENSON, chairman]; National Independence Party or ERSP [Tunne KELAM, chairman]; Our Home is Estonia [Viktor ANDREJEV] made up of two parties: United Peoples Party and the Russian Party of Estonia; note-Our Home is Estonia split when two Russian Party of Estonia members withdrew; United Peoples Party [Viktor ANDREJEV, chairman]; Russian Party of Estonia [Nikolai MASPANOV, chairman]; Moderates or M [Andres TARAND] made up of two parties: Social Democratic Party or ESDP and Rural Center Party or EMK; Social Democratic Party [Eiki NESTOR, chairman]; Rural Center Party [Vambo KAAL, chairman]; Right-Wingers [Ulo NUGIS, chairman]; Republican Conservative [Vootele HANSEN]; Development/Progressive Party [Andra VEIDEMANN, chairwoman], note-party was created by defectors from Center Party in late spring 1996, Development Party faction split and now holds five independent seats

International organization participation: BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, EAPC,
EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC,
IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO
(correspondent), ITU, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNMIBH, UNTSO,
UPU, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Grigore-Kalev STOICESCU chancery: 2131 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 588-0101 FAX: [1] (202) 588-0108 consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Walter ANDRUSYSZYU embassy: Kentmanni 20, Tallinn EE 0001 mailing address: American Embassy Tallinn; PSC 78, Box T; APO AE 09723 telephone: [372] (6) 312-021 FAX: [372] (6) 312-025

Flag description: pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme Soviet in May 1990-three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white

@Estonia:Economy

Economy-overview: In 1997 Estonia's continued implementation of market economic reforms, disciplined fiscal and monetary policies, and a liberal free trade regime resulted in GDP growth of 10% and a drop in inflation to 11.2%. Estonia can point to its inclusion among the first group of Central and East European countries to begin EU accession talks in 1998 as its most significant economic achievement in 1997. Other economic strengths include solid investment grade rating from both Standard and Poors and Moody's, government revenue collection in excess of projections by more than 6%, growth in exports at a faster rate than imports, and record levels of foreign direct investment, among the highest per capita in Central and East Europe. Estonia privatized its shipping company in 1997, but failed to make as much progress privatizing other large infrastructure/utility companies, such as Eesti Energia and the Oil Shale company, which it plans to privatize in the next two years. The growing current account deficit, which stood at nearly 10% of GDP at yearend 1997, remains a serious concern. In 1998, GDP is expected to grow by 5.5% and inflation to fall 10%.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$9.34 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 10% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$6,450 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: agriculture: 7.1% industry: 24.9% services: 68% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 11.2% (1997 est.)

Labor force: total: 785,000 (1996 est.) by occupation: industry and construction 42%, agriculture and forestry 20%, other 38% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 3.6% (1997 est.)

Budget: revenues: $1.7 billion expenditures: $1.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $214 million (1996 est.)

Industries: oil shale, shipbuilding, phosphates, electric motors, excavators, cement, furniture, clothing, textiles, paper, shoes, apparel

Industrial production growth rate: 3% (1996 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 3.287 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 8.083 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 4,355 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: potatoes, fruits, vegetables; livestock and dairy products; fish

Exports: total value: $2 billion (f.o.b., 1996) commodities: textiles 16%, food products 16%, machinery and equipment 16%, metals 9% (1995) partners: Finland, Russia, Sweden, Germany, Latvia (1995)

Imports: total value: $3.2 billion (c.i.f., 1996) commodities: machinery and equipment 29%, foodstuffs 14%, minerals 13%, textiles 13%, metals 12% (1995) partners: Finland, Russia, Sweden, Germany (1995)

Debt-external: $270 million (January 1996)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $147 million (1993) note: Western commitments $285 million (including international financial institutions)

Currency: 1 Estonian kroon (EEK) = 100 cents (introduced in August 1992)

Exchange rates: krooni (EEK) per US$1-14.527 (January 1998), 13.882 (1997), 12.034 (1996), 11.465 (1995), 12.991 (1994), 13.223 (1993); note-krooni are tied to the German deutsche mark at a fixed rate of 8 to 1

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 400,000 (1994 est.)

Telephone system: system is antiquated; improvements are being made piecemeal, with emphasis on business needs and international connections; there are still about 150,000 unfulfilled requests for subscriber service domestic: substantial investment has been made in cellular systems which are operational throughout Estonia international: international traffic is carried to the other former Soviet republics by landline or microwave radio relay and to other countries partly by leased connection to the Moscow international gateway switch and partly by a new Tallinn-Helsinki fiber-optic, submarine cable which gives Estonia access to international circuits everywhere; access to the international packet-switched digital network via Helsinki

Radio broadcast stations: 3 commercial broadcast stations, 1 government broadcast station (1994)

Radios: 710,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 4 (1993) note: provide Estonian programs as well as Moscow Ostenkino's first and second programs

Televisions: 600,000 (1993 est.)

@Estonia:Transportation

Railways: total: 1,018 km common carrier lines only; does not include dedicated industrial lines broad gauge: 1,018 km 1.520-m gauge (132 km electrified) (1995)

Highways: total: 15,304 km paved: 8,142 km (including 65 km of expressways) unpaved: 7,162 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 500 km perennially navigable

Pipelines: natural gas 420 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Haapsalu, Narva, Paldiski, Parnu, Tallinn

Merchant marine: total: 53 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 368,340 GRT/455,696 DWT ships by type: bulk 6, cargo 27, combination bulk 1, container 5, oil tanker 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 7, short-sea passenger 5 (1997 est.)

Airports: 5 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways: total: 5 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m : 1 914 to 1,523 m: 3 (1997 est.)

@Estonia:Military

Military branches: Ground Forces, Navy/Coast Guard, Air and Air
Defense Force (not officially sanctioned), Maritime Border Guard,
Volunteer Defense League (Kaitseliit), Security Forces (internal and
border troops)

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 351,148 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service: males: 275,610 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 10,424 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $35 million (1995)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.5% (1995)

@Estonia:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: Estonian and Russian negotiators reached a technical border agreement in December 1996 which has not been ratified; Estonia claimed over 2,000 sq km territory in the Narva and Pechory regions of Russia-based on boundary established under the 1920 Peace Treaty of Tartu

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for opiates and cannabis from
Southwest Asia and the Caucasus, and cocaine from Latin America to
Western Europe and Scandinavia

______________________________________________________________________

ETHIOPIA

Introduction

Historical perspective: On 28 May 1991 the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) toppled the authoritarian government of MENGISTU Haile-Mariam and took control in Addis Ababa; a new constitution was promulgated in December 1994 and national and regional popular elections were held in May and June 1995.

@Ethiopia:Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, west of Somalia

Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 38 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 1,127,127 sq km land: 1,119,683 sq km water: 7,444 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 5,311 km
border countries: Djibouti 337 km, Eritrea 912 km, Kenya 830 km,
Somalia 1,626 km, Sudan 1,606 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation

Terrain: high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great
Rift Valley

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Denakil -125 m highest point: Ras Dashen Terara 4,620 m

Natural resources: small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash, natural gas

Land use: arable land: 12% permanent crops: 1% permanent pastures: 40% forests and woodland: 25% other: 22% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,900 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; frequent droughts

Environment-current issues: deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

Environment-international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Ozone Layer Protection signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography-note: landlocked-entire coastline along the Red Sea was lost with the de jure independence of Eritrea on 27 April 1993

@Ethiopia:People

Population: 58,390,351 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 46% (male 13,468,783; female 13,398,500) 15-64 years: 51% (male 15,095,357; female 14,812,537) 65 years and over: 3% (male 734,471; female 880,703) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.21% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 44.69 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 21.25 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.) note: repatriation of Ethiopians who fled to Sudan, Kenya, and Somalia for refuge from war and famine in earlier years, is expected to continue slowly in 1998; small numbers of Sudanese and Somali refugees, who fled to Ethiopia from the fighting in their own countries, began returning to their homes in 1998

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 125.65 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 40.85 years male: 39.76 years female: 41.97 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.88 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality: noun: Ethiopian(s) adjective: Ethiopian

Ethnic groups: Oromo 40%, Amhara and Tigrean 32%, Sidamo 9%, Shankella 6%, Somali 6%, Afar 4%, Gurage 2%, other 1%

Religions: Muslim 45%-50%, Ethiopian Orthodox 35%-40%, animist 12%, other 3%-8%

Languages: Amharic (official), Tigrinya, Orominga, Guaraginga, Somali,
Arabic, English (major foreign language taught in schools)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 35.5% male: 45.5% female: 25.3% (1995 est.)

@Ethiopia:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia conventional short form: Ethiopia local long form: YeItyop'iya Federalawi Demokrasiyawi Ripeblik local short form: YeItyop'iya abbreviation: FDRE

Data code: ET

Government type: federal republic

National capital: Addis Ababa

Administrative divisions: 9 ethnically-based administrative regions (astedader akababiwach, singular - astedader akababi) and 1 federal capital*: Addis Ababa*; Afar; Amhara; Benishangul/Gumaz; Gambela; Harar; Oromia; Somali; Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples;