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Title: Sketch of Grammar of the Chippeway Languages

Author: John Summerfield

Release date: November 14, 2006 [eBook #19807]
Most recently updated: July 22, 2010

Language: English

Credits: Produced by Louise Hope, C. J. Lippert, David Starner and the Online
Distributed Proofreading Team at (This
file was produced from images generously made available
by the Canadian Institute for Historical Microreproductions


This is an updated version of an e-text originally produced in November 2006; see end of text for notes.

The e-text consists of two separately published books:

Spellings for the Schools in the Chipeway Language
Sketch of Grammar of the Chippeway Language

In the first book (Spellings...), the hyphen - is used to separate syllables. In the second book (Grammar...) the hyphen seems to represent the glottal stop.

In the word lists of the first book, the first entry in each column was sometimes— but not consistently— capitalized. This capitalization has been retained, whether or not the e-text layout replicates the original.

A few punctuation marks in the paradigms and vocabulary lists have been supplied or regularized. Other errors and anomalies are noted with mouse-hover popups. Bracketed text is in the original.

Notes on Updated Text

Contents (added by transcriber)

Spellings for the Schools



Sketch of Grammar

Nouns, Pronouns

Adjectives (including Numbers)


Participles, Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, Interjections

A Fable

Formation of Words










Ah-ne-she-nah-pay, Oo-te-ke-too-we-nun; Kah-ke-ke-noo-ah-mah-ween-twah e-kewh, Ka-nah-wah-pahn-tah-gigk Mah-ze-nah-e-kun.



Printed for the Canada Conference Missionary Society.


chart showing letters A-Z, a-z, numerals 1-0, punctuation




Words of one Syllable.


Words of two Syllables accented on the second.
Ah keh
ah keeng
ah kik
ah mik
ahn doohm
ah nungk
ah owh
ah pa
ah pweh
ah sin
ah tick
ah toon
e mah
e kewh
e newh
e qua
I yahdt
kah yawsk
ke tahn
ke quis
ke nwazhe
mah quah
me nick
me quom
me zeh
me squeh
me tigk
nah maih
ne gigk
ne peh
ne peeng
ne sing


Words of two Syllables, accented on the second.
Ne sweh
oo chawzhe
oo kaudt
oo kowh
oo kun
oo mah
oo nick
oo ninje
oon taus
oo pin
oo saum
Oo zidt
oo skonzhe
oo taih
qui yuck
shing quawk
shing koub
shing kaugk
tah zheh
te pigk
wah zhusk


Words of two syllables accented on the 1st & 2nd.
Ah zheh
a shkum
a sance
a squach
a tah
a yaudt
a zheh
che mon
che pywh
kah che
ka kate
ka gooh
ke kah
ke kooh
ke zhick
ke zis
ki ya
koo koosh
mah che
mah kuk
mah mick
mah noo
mahn tdah
ma quah
me chim
me kun
me kaunce
me nance
me quaich
me quon
me tdush
me owh
me zhusk
nah nindt
na kowh
na yaub
ne win
ning kah


Words of three syllables accented on the 1st & 2nd.
noo sa
noo tdin
noo tding
noong koom
oo jee
pah mah
pa kah
pe toon
poo neh
se peh
sah keh
sau kie
she shebe
tain ta
wa nain
wa quain
wau poose
we kah
we nin
we yause
we pidt
ween sah


Words of three Syllables, accented on the second and third.
Ah je chaugk
ah kah mingk
ah neen teh
ah ne moosh
ah ne peesh
ah noo kee
ah pa kish
ah quing koos
ah she kun
ah wah kahn
ah wa seeh
ah yah pa
ah zhoo gun
a me quahn
a yah chick
a yah yun
a zhah yun
ka yah peh
mah ke sin
mah ne toonce
mah ne toosh
mah ske moodt
me ke seh
me sah owh
nah kah mooh
ne zhe kaih
oo me meh
oo nah kun
oo ne shkaudt
oo que son
oon tah shahn
oo ske zhick
oo se tongk
pe je nuck
shah wain tung
shah wa nim


Words of three Syllables, accented on the second and
half accent on the third.
E nah shka
e qua sance
e shkoo ta
ke na pigk
ke noo zhai
mah noo min
me quain tun
me sah poose
me she min
me she kaih
me she nuck
me tig koonce
mun tah min
nah ma koos
nah ma pin


Words of three Syllables accented on the first and third.
Pah ke tin
wau be gun
wau bah maudt
wau be min


Words of three syllables accented on the last.
Ah nah quodt
e we te
ing koo che
ing koo twaus
ish pe ming
ka ah koo
kah kah keh
kah nah ka
kah ke nick
kah ke nah
kah shah kance
kah sah meh
kah moo keede
kah we kah
ka ka keh
ka koo weene
ka ke quait
ke me wun
ke nah wah
ke ke che
ke she kudt
ke she kuck
ko se non
me nah wah
me ne zis
me ze saih
moo koo mon
mun ne too
mun ne toogk
nah koo shah


Words of three syllables accented on the last.
nah too way
neen ah windt
ne se tum
ning ke che
noo se non
nowh ah quay
oo che pway
oo ke mah
oo me squeem
pah pah say
pe me zeh
pe na sheeh
pe pah kim
pe she keh
sah ke maih
sah ke toodt
se wah quahn
shah kah nosh
shong qua sheh
shoo ne yah
tah be schooch
tah que shin
ta pain tungk
ta pwa tungk
tain ta seh
wah ne toodt
wah wah noon
wa koo nain
wa wa neh
weje e shin
wig ke waum
we nah wah
we wah quahn


Words of four syllables, accented on the second and fourth.
Ah chit ah mooh
ah kuck koo jeesh
ah sun ah kooh
ah wah se seh
e nah pe yook
ke pah e kun
ke pim oo say
ke tah e kun
me squah ta seh
ne pwah kah win
ne wah pah tahn
oo ka yah wis
oo mah kah keh
oo mong ke zheh
oo tah pe nick
oo tah pe nun
oo ta e min
oo que se mon
oo wig ke waum
pah ske se gun
she kah kah winzhe
ta pwa tah wick
wah oo na seh


Words of four syllables accented on the sixth.
Ah quah tah sheeh
ah se ke nauk
ah zhah wah maig
ain tah che yungk
ke zhe tah yook
maun nah ta nis
na pwah kah chick
pah kah ah quaih
too too shah boo
waug ke koo mon
wah wah ska sheh


Words of five syllables, a full accent on the last,
and half accent on the second.
Ah kin tah soo win
ah nah me ah win
ah ne she nah pay
ah quah ne pe sahn
ah sin ne se kah
ke moo te schke win
ke nah we schke win
mah ze nah e kun
me ne te we nun
me skoo te se min
me tig quah ke zin
mon nain e te win
ne kah ne se took
neeng ke te mah kis
ne skah te se win
nin tah wa mah took
ne te ke koo took
oo kah ke qua win
oo zhe pe e kun
pah kun te se win
pah pah ke wah yahn
shah wa ne te win
sah ke e te win
ween tah mah we shin
we too kah we shin


Words of five syllables, accented on the first, the third and last.
Pa zhe go kah zhee
peen tah kah ta waun
oo ke mah we win
oo te ke too win
she pe koo pah tick
wah ne squa se win

Accented on the two first and last.

Too toosh pim me tay

Words of six syllables accented on the third and last.
Kah ke pah te se win
kah ke qua we ne neh
kah nah wah pa me shin
kah nah wa ne me shin
mah noo min e ka zheeh
mah kah ta e ne neh
e she wa pe se win
ta pwa yain tah moo win


Accented on the second and last.
Ke too ke mah me non
kah ke pah te se win
na nahn tah we e waidt
oo mah ze nah e kun
wah wah pe ko noo jeeh


Accented on the third and two last.
ka ke noo ah mah kaidt
mah che ah ye e wish
ah koo koo pe nah gun
ah wah che wun nah gun

Accented on the 4th and last.

Ahn e me tah koo zin.



Ke-sha-mun-ne-too Oo-que-son Oo-tah-nu-me-tah-koo-se-win.

Neeng-ke-che noo-se-non, Ish-pe-ming a-yah-yun. Ka-che-mun-ne-too-we-ne-kah-soo-yun. Ke-ke-che-ke-too-ke-mah-we-win pe-tah-we-she-nom. A-na-ne-me-wong-kane oo-mah-ke-zhe ah-keeng ne-kah-e-she-wa-pe-se-min; tah-pe-schooch a-she-wa-buk e-we-ty Ish-pe-ming. Me-she-she-nom ka-ne-tah-soo ke-she-kuk me-chim pe-mah-te-se-win. Ki-ya pa-kah-shah-wa-ne-me-she-nom che-sah-ke-che-wa-pe-nah-mah-we-yong mah-che-ah-ye-e-wish, nah-sahb-e-koo a-she shah-wa-ne-mong-ke-twah oo-kooh kah-pah-tah-e-yah-me-ke-chik, ki-ya keen e-she-shah-wa-ne-me-she-nom. Ka-goo we-kah ing-koo-chee ah-ne-e-she-we-she-she-kah-kane che-nah-ne-sah-ne-se-yong; mah-noo sah-koo kah-ke-nah shah-koo-te-nah-mah-we-she-nom mah-che-ah-ye-e-wish. Keen-mah-ween ke te-pain-tahn ke-che-oo-ke-mah-we-win, ki-ya euh ke-che-e-she-wa-pe-se-win, ki-ya euh ah-nah-me-ah-win ka-che-me-nwa-tah-quok, kah-ke-nik ki-ya kah-ke-nik.—Amen.


Ah-noo-shoo-tah-mah-ka-win, che-pwah-we-se-ningk.

O Ke-sha-mun-ne-too Ish-pe-ming a-yah-yun, Shah-wain-tah-mah-we-she-nom mahn-tdah me-chim-pe-mah-te-se-win, 12 kah-pah-ke-te-nah-mah-we-yongk; me-tdush ka-oon-je-mah-skah-we-se-yongk che-ah-noo-ke-tah-koo yun; me-owh Jesus Christ a-spa-ne-moo-yongk. Amen.


Ah-noo-shoo-tah-mah-ka-win, kah-e-squah, we-se-ningk.

O Ke-sha-mun-ne-too, neeng-keche Noo-se-non, me-quaich wa-wa-neh kah-we-se-ne-yongk noo-koom, ki-ya ain-tah-soo-ke-she-kuck shah-wain-ne-me-yongk; me-sah-owh Jesus Christ kah-ke-nigk ka-ah-pa-ne-moo-yongk. Amen.








Of some of the most common Words.






The following pages were written as an exercise for my leisure hours, while attending the Oneida Conference Seminary during the past winter. As it is the first attempt that, to my knowledge, has ever been made to reduce the Chippeway language to any system, it cannot be expected to be otherwise than imperfect, and perhaps may hereafter be found to be, in some respects, erroneous. It is, however, as free from errors as my present means have enabled me to make it. It has been printed at the request of my friends, by a fellow student, at his own suggestion and expense.


Cazenovia, April 10, 1834.



The Letters used in the Chippeway Language, are twenty-one, viz. A, a; B, b; C, c; D, d; E, e; G, g; H, h; I, i; J, j; K, k; M, m; N, n; O, o; P, p; Q, q; S, s; T, t; U, u; W, w; Y, y; Z, z. F, L, R, V, and X, are not used.

There are, in the Chippeway Language, ten parts of Speech, namely, the article, the noun, the pronoun, the adjective, the verb, the participle, the adverb, the preposition, the conjunction, and the interjection.


There is but one Article, used definitely both in the masculine and neuter genders, viz. Owh, the, m.; Ewh, the, n.


A Noun is the name of any person, place, or thing; as, Eneneh, man; Kahdahnahqueeng, Kingston; metig, tree.

Nouns are of two sorts, Common and Proper.

Common Nouns stand for kinds containing many sorts, or for sorts containing many individuals under them; as, Ahwaseeh, animal; eneneh, man; kegownh, fish; penaseh, bird.

Proper Nouns are the names appropriated to individuals, as, Charles, Cazenovia, Ganges. [N.B. Proper names, with a few exceptions, are the same as in English.]

To Nouns belong gender, person, number, and case.


Gender is the distinction of nouns with regard to sex.

Nouns have three genders, the masculine, the feminine, and the neuter.

The masculine gender denotes males; as, Eneneh, man.

The feminine gender is applied to animals, fishes, and birds; as, Nahbak, a she bear, &c.

The neuter gender denotes things without sex; as, Wewahquon, a hat.


Number is the distinction of objects as one or more.


Nouns are of two numbers, the singular and the plural.

The singular number implies but one object; as, Mahzenahegun, a book.

The plural number implies more than one; as, Mahzhenahegahnun, books.


Nouns have three cases, the nominative, the possessive, and the objective.

The nominative case simply expresses the name of a thing, &c.; as, Owh quewesanceoobahkahmegezeh, the boy plays.

The possessive case expresses the relation of property or possession, and always ends with the letter o; as, Noosayo wegewaum, my father's house.

The objective case expresses the object of an action or of relation; as John owejeahn Charles, John assists Charles.

Nouns may be declined in the following manner:

Singular. Plural.
Nom. Case, Eneneh, man. Enenewug, men.
Poss. Case, Eneneho, man's. Enenewugo, men's.
Obj. Case, Eneneh, man. Enenewug, men.


A Pronoun is a word used instead of a noun, to avoid repeating the same word; as, Pahpenatum eneneh, the man is happy; Pahpenatum, he is happy.


There are three personal pronouns, viz. Neen, I; keen, thou; ween, he; with their plurals, Nenahwind, we; kenahwah, ye or you; wenahwah, they.

Personal pronouns have person, number, gender and case.

The persons of pronouns are three in each number, viz.

Neen, I, is the first person,
Keen, thou, is the second person,
Ween, he, is the third person,
} Singular.
Nenahwind, we, is the first person,
Kenahwah, you, is the second person,
Wenahwah, they, is the third person,
} Plural.

Number.—Pronouns have two numbers, the singular and the plural.

5 Case.—Pronouns have three cases, the nominative, the possessive, and the objective.

Pronouns cannot be declined. The cases of each person have the same form.

First person. Singular. Plural.
Nom. Neen, I. Nenahwind, we.
Poss. Neen, mine. Nenahwind, ours.
Obj. Neen, me. Nenahwind, us.


An Adjective is a word added to a noun to express its quality; as, quahnoj eneneh, a good man; menwawezheh eneneh, an industrious man.

Adjectives are not varied to agree with their nouns, nor do they have any regular comparison.

The following is a list of Numeral Adjectives:

Pazhick, 1
Neezhe, 2
Nesweh, 3
Newin, 4
Nahnun, 5
Ingoodwahsweh, 6
Neswahsweh, 7
Shahsweh, 8
Shongsweh, 9
Metahsweh, 10

Metahsweh ahshepazhick,

ahsheneezhe, 12
ahshenesweh, 13
ahshenewin, 14
ahshenahnun, 15
ahsheingoodwahsweh, 16
ahsheneswahsweh, 17
ahsheswahsweh, 18
ahsheshongsweh, 19
Nestahnah, 20
Nestahnah ahshepachick, 21
ahsheneezhe, 22
ahshenesweh, 23
ahshenewin, 24
ahshenahnun, 25

Nestahnah ahsheingoodwahsweh,

ahsheneswahsweh, 27
ahsheshahsweh, 28
ahsheshongsweh, 29
Nesemetahnah, 30
Nemedahnah, 40
Nahnemedahnah, 50
Ingoodwahsemedahnah, 60
Neswahsemedahnah, 70
Swahsemedahnah, 80
Shonggahswehmedahnah, 90
Ingoodwak, 100
Nezhwak, 200
Neswak, 300
Newak, 400
Nahnwak, 500
Ingoodwahswak, 600
Nezhahswak, 700
Shawhswak, 800
Shongahswak, 900
Medahswak, 1000
Neezhemedahswak, 2000
Medahswehdahswak, 10,000
Nestahnahdahswak, 20,000
Nemedahnahdahswak, 40,000


A Verb is a word which signifies to be, to do, or to suffer; as, Nedahyah, I am; Nedebahkoonewa, I rule; Nedebahkoonegoo, I am ruled.

Verbs are of three kinds, active, passive, and neuter.

A Verb Active expresses an action, and necessarily implies an agent and an object acted upon; as, Nezhahgeah James, I love James.

A Verb Passive expresses passion or a suffering or the receiving of an action, and implies an object acted upon, and an agent by which it is acted upon; as, Chezhahwane­ding, to be loved; John ooje­zhahwanemah neen, John is loved by me.

A Verb Neuter expresses neither action nor passion, but being or a state of being; as, Nenebah, I sleep; Nenahmahdub, I sit.

Verbs have number, person, mood and tense.


Verbs have two numbers, the singular and the plural.

There are three persons in each number; as,

Pers. Singular. Plural.

Nezhahwanega, I love.

Nezhahwane­gamin, we love.


Kezhahwanega, thou lovest.

Kezhahwane­gaim, you love.


Zhawanega, he loves.

Zhahwanegawug, they love.


The moods are five, Indicative, Subjunctive, Imperative, Potential, and the Infinitive.

The Indicative declares or affirms positively, or it asks a question; as, Zhahwanega, he loves; Zhahwaneganah? Does he love?

The Subjunctive expresses action or passion in a doubtful manner; as, Kespin zhahwane­gaid, if he loves.

The Imperative is used for commanding, exhorting, and entreating; as, Mahjahn keen, depart thou; Noodahmooyook, do thou listen.

The Potential implies possibility, liberty, power, will; as, Tahgemewan kahnahbuge, it may rain; Kegahwesenemin kiya kahmenequamin, we shall eat and drink.

The Infinitive simply expresses the signification of the verb; as, Cheezechegang, to do; Chegegedoong, to speak.


Verbs have six tenses, the present, the imperfect, the perfect, the pluperfect, the first and second future tenses.

The present tense represents a present action as taking place at the time in which it is mentioned; as, Nebop, I laugh; Newob, I see; Nedenadum, I think.

The imperfect tense denotes past action or event however distant, finished, but without defining the exact time of its completion; as, Oodanongezahbahneeg ahpe naquaskahwod, they were travelling to the town when he met them.

The perfect tense refers not only to what is past but also conveys an allusion to the present time; as, Ahzheh negegezhetoon nemahzhenahegun, I have finished my letter.

The pluperfect tense represents a thing, not only as past, but also as prior to some other point of time specified in the sentence; as, Ahzehnegegezhetonahbun letter chebwabedahgweshing, I had finished my letter before he arrived.

The first future tense represents the action as yet to come, either with or without respect to the precise time when; as, Owh kezis tahbemookahum wahbung, the sun will rise to-morrow.

The second future tense represents a future action that will be accomplished before another future action; as, Negahwesenenahbun nahwahquaig, I shall have dined at twelve o'clock.

A Verb is conjugated in the following manner:

TO LOVE.—indicative mood.

Present Tense.
Sing. 1. Nezhahwanega, I love.
2. Kezhahwanega, Thou lovest.
3. Zhahwanega, He loves.
Plur. 1. Nezhahwane­gamin, We love.
2. Kezhahwane­gaim, Ye or you love.
3. Zhahwanegawug, They love.
Sing. 1. Nege­zhahwanega, I loved.
2. Kege­zhahwanega, Thou lovedst.
3. Kezhahwanega, He loved.
8 Plur.

1. Nege­zhahwane­gamin,

We loved.

2. Kege­zhahwane­gaim,

Ye or you loved.
3. Kezhawanegawug, They loved.

1. Ahzehnege­zhahwanega,

I have loved.

2. Ahzehkege­zhahwanega,

Thou hast loved.

3. Ahzehke­zhahwanega,

He has loved.

1. Ahzehnege­zhahwane­gamin,

We have loved.

2. Ahzehkege­zhahwane­gaim,

Ye or you have loved.

3. Ahzehke­zhahwane­gawug,

They have loved.

1. Ahzehnege­zhahwane­ganahbun,

I had loved.

2. Ahzehkege­zhahwane­ganahbun,

Thou hadst loved.

3. Ahzehke­zhahwane­gabun,

He had loved.

1. Ahzehnegezhawanegaminahbun,

We had loved.

2. Ahzehkege­zhahwane­gamwahbun,

You had loved.

3. Ahzehke­zhahwane­gabahneeg,

They had loved.
First Future.
Sing. 1. Negah­zhahwanega,

I shall or will love.

2. Kegah­zhahwanega,

Thou shalt or wilt love.

3. Tahzhahwanega,

He shall or will love.


1. Negah­zhahwane­gamin,

We shall or will love.

2. Kegah­zhahwane­gaim,

You shall or will love.

3. Tahzhahwane­gawug,

They shall or will love.

Second Future.

1. Negah­zhahwane­ganahbun,

I shall have loved.

2. Kegah­zhahwane­ganahbun,

Thou wilt have loved.

3. Tahzhahwane­gabun,

He will have loved.

1. Negah­zhahwane­gaminahbun,

We shall have loved.

2. Kegah­zhahwane­gamwahbun,

You will have loved.

3. Tahzhahwane­gabahneeg,

They will have loved.

Present Tense.

1. Tahgahneenega­zhahwanega,

Let me love.

2. Zhahwanegain, or

Love thou, or do thou love.

3. Tahgahween tahzhahwanega,

Let him love.
9 Plur.

1. Tahgahnenahwind gahzhahwane­gamin,

Let us love.

2. Zhahwanegayook, or Kezhahwane­gaimnah,

Love ye or you, or do you love.

3. Tahgahwenahwah tahzhahwane­gawug,

Let them love.
Present Tense.
Sing. 1. Nedah­zhahwanega, I may love.
2. Kedah­zhahwanega, Thou mayest love.
3. Tahzhahwanega, He may love.

1. Nedah­zhahwane­gamin,

We may love.

2. Kedah­zhahwane­gaim,

You may love.

3. Tahzhahwane­gawug.

They may love.
Imperfect Tense.

1. Nedahge­zhahwanega,

I might love.

2. Kedahge­zhahwanega,

Thou mightest love.
3. Tahge­zhahwanega, He might love.

1. Nedahge­zhahwane­gamin,

We might love.

2. Kedahge­zhahwane­gaim,

You might love.

3. Tahge­zhahwane­gawug,

They might love.
Perfect Tense.

1. Nedahgewe­zhahwanega,

I may have loved.

2. Kedahgewe­zhahwanega,

Thou mayst have loved.

3. Tahgewe­zhahwanega,

He may have loved.

1. Nedahgewe­zhahwane­gamin,

We may have loved.

2. Kedahgewe­zhahwane­gaim,

You may have loved.

3. Tahgewe­zhahwane­gawug,

They may have loved.

Pluperfect Tense.

1. Nedahgewe­zhahwane­ganahbun,

I might have loved.

2. Kedahgewe­zhahwane­ganahbun,

Thou mightest have loved.

3. Tahgewe­zhahwane­gabun,

He might have loved.


1. Nedahgewe­zhahwane­gaminahbun,

We might have loved.

2. Kedahgewe­zhahwane­gamwahbun,

You might have loved.

3. Tahgewe­zhahwane­gabahneeg,

They might have loved.

Present Tense.

Kespin zhahwane­gayaun,

If I love.

Kespin zhahwane­gayun,

If thou lovest.

Kespin zhahwahnegaid,

If he loves.

Kespin zhahwane­gayong,

If we love.

Kespin zhahwane­gayaig,

If you love.

Kespin zhahwane­gawod,

If they love.
Pres. Chezhahwane­gang, To love.
Perf. Chege­zhahwane­gang, To have loved.
Fut. Ahyegwahwe­zhahwane­gang, To be about to love.
Present, Zhahwaneding, Loving.
Perfect, Zhahwanemind, Loved.

Conjugation of the Verb TO BE.

Present Tense.
Sing. Nedahyah, I am.
Kedahyah, Thou art.
Ahyah, He is.
Plur. Nedahyahmin, We are.
Kedahyaum, Ye or you are.
Ahyahwug, They are.
Imperfect Tense.
Sing. Nedahyahnahbun, I was.
Kedahyahnahbun, Thou wast.
Ahyahbun, He was.
Plur. Nedahyahmenahbun, We were.
Kedahyahmwahbun, You were.
Ahyahbahneeg, They were.
Perfect Tense.
Sing. Negeahyahnahbun, I have been.
Kegeahyahnahbun, Thou hast been.
Keahyahbun, He has been.
Plur. Negeahyahmin, We have been.
11 Kegeahyaum, You have been.
Keahyahwug, They have been.
Pluperfect Tense.


I had been.


Thou hadst been.
Keweahyahbun, He had been.
Plur. Nedahgeweahyahmin, We had been.
Kedahgeweahyaum, You had been.
Keahyahbahneeg, They had been.
First Future Tense.
Sing. Negahahyah, I shall be.
Kegahahyah, Thou wilt be.
Tahahyah, He will be.
Plur. Negahahyahmin, We shall be.
Kegahahyaum, You will be.
Tahahyahwug, They will be.
Second Future Tense.
Sing. Negahgeahyahnahbun, I shall have been.

Thou wilt have been.

Tahgeahyahbun, He will have been.


We shall have been.


You will have been.

They will have been.

Sing. Tahgahnenegahahyah, Let me be.
Ahyaun kegeahyahun,

Be thou or do thou be.

Tahgahweendahahyah, Let him be.
Plur. Tahgahnenahwindnegahahyahmin,   Let us be.

Be ye or you or do you be.

Tahgahdahahyahwug, Let them be.
Present Tense.


I may be.


Thou mayst be.
Koonemah-dahahyah, He may be.


We may be.


You may be.


They may be.
Imperfect Tense.


I might be.


Thou mightest be.


He might be.


We might be.


You might be.


They might be.
Perfect Tense.


I may have been.


Thou mayst have been.


He may have been.

Koonemah nedahgeahyahminnahbun,

We may have been.

Koonemah kedahgeahyahmwahbun,

You may have been.

Koonemah tahgeahyahbahneeg,

They may have been.
Pluperfect Tense.

Koonemah nedahgeweahyahnahbun,

I might have been.

Koonemah kedahgeweahyahnahbun,

Thou mightest have been.

Koonemah tahgeweahyahbun,

He might have been.

Koonemah nedahgeweahgahmenanbun,

We might have been.

Koonemah kedahgeweahyahmwahbun,

You might have been.

Koonemah tahgeweahyahbahneeg,

They might have been.

Present Tense.
Sing. Kespin ahyahyaun, If I be.
Kespin ahyahyun, If thou be.
Kespin ahyaud, If he be.
Plur. Kespin ahyahyong, If we be.
Kespin ahyahyaig, If you be.
Kespin ahyahwaud, If they be.
Imperfect Tense.

Kespin ahyahyahbaun,

If I were.
13 Kespin ahyahyahbun, If thou wert.
Kespin ahyahpun, If he were.

Kespin ahyahyongebun,

If we were.

Kespin ahyahyaigoobun,

If you were.
Kespin ahyahwahpun, If they were.
Present. Cheahyong, To be.
Perfect. Chegeahyong, To have been.
Pres. Ahyong, Being.
Perf. Ahyod, Been.

Conjugation of the Passive Verb TO BE LOVED.

Present Tense.
Singular. Nezhahwane­megoo, I am loved.
Kezhahwane­megoo, Thou art loved.
Zhahwanemah, He is loved.
Plural. Nezhahwane­megoomin, We are loved.
Kezhahwane­megoom, You are loved.
Zhahwanemahwug, They are loved.


I was loved.


Thou wast loved.
Zhahwanemahbun, He was loved.


We were loved.


You were loved.
Zhahwanemahbahneeg, They were loved.
Singular. Nege­zhahwane­megoo, I have been loved.
14 Kege­zhahwane­megoo,

Thou hast been loved.

Kezhahwanemah, He has been loved.


We have been loved.

You have been loved.


They have been loved.



I had been loved.


Thou hadst been loved.

Kezhahwane­mahbun, He had been loved.


We had been loved.


You had been loved.


They had been loved.

First Future.
Singular. Negah­zhahwane­megoo, I shall be loved.
Kegah­zhahwane­megoo, Thou wilt be loved.
Tazhahwanemah, He will be loved.


We shall be loved.


You will be loved.
Tahzhahwane­mahwug, They will be loved.
Second Future.


I shall have been loved.


Thou wilt have been loved.


He will have been loved.



We shall have been loved.


You will have been loved.


They will have been loved.


Tahgahnenegah zhahwane­megoo,

Let me be loved.

Tahgahkegah zhahwane­megoo,

Be thou loved or
do thou be loved.

Tahgahween tahzhahwanemah,

Let him be loved.

Tahgahnenahwind negah­zhahwane­megoomin,

Let us be loved.

Tahgahkenahwah kahzhahwane­megoom,

Be you loved or do you be loved.

Tahgahwenahwah tahzhahwane­mahwug,

Let them be loved.
Present Tense.


I may be loved.


Thou mayest be loved.


He may be loved.


We may be loved.


You may be loved.


They may be loved.
Imperfect Tense.


I might be loved.


Thou mightest be loved.


He might be loved.


We might be loved.


You might be loved.


They might be loved.

Perfect Tense.


I may have been loved.


Thou mayest have been loved.


He may have been loved.

Plural. 16


We may have been loved.


You may have been loved.


They may have been loved.

Pluperfect Tense.


I might have been loved.


Thou mightest have been loved.


He might have been loved.



We might have been loved.


You might have been loved.


They might have been loved.

Present Tense.

Kespin zhahwane­megooyaun,

If I be loved.

Kespin zhahwane­megooyun,

If thou be loved.

Kespin zhahwane­mind,

If he be loved.

Kespin zhahwane­megooyong,

If we be loved.

Kespin zhahwane­megooyaig,

If you be loved.

Kespin zhahwane­mindwah,

If they be loved.
Imperfect Tense.

Kespin zhahwane­megooyahbaun,

If I were loved.

Kespin zhahwane­megooyahbun,

If thou wert loved.

Kespin zhahwane­mindebun,

If he were loved.
17 Plural.

Kespin zhahwane­megooyonggebun,

If we were loved.

Kespin zhahwane­megooyaiggoobun,

If you were loved.

Kespin zhahwane­mindwahbun,

If they were loved.
Present. Chezhahwane­megoong,   To be loved.
Perfect. Chege­zhahwane­megoong,   To have been loved.
Present. Zhahwanemegoong, Being loved.
Perfect. Zhahwanemind, Loved.


A Participle is a word derived from a Verb, and has the nature of a verb and also of an adjective.

Verbs have two participles, the present and the perfect.

The present participle denotes action or being continued, but not finished. It generally ends in ing, eng, or g; as, Tebahkooneding, Ruling, &c.

The perfect participle denotes action or being, finished. This can also be distinguished by its ending in ed or d; as Pahpid, laughed; Shoshomequanid, smiled.


An Adverb is a word used to modify the sense of a verb, &c.; as, Kagate quahnoj eneneh, a truly good man.

List of Adverbs:

1. Ingooding, once; neshing, twice; nesing, thrice.

2. Netum, first; Esquache, lastly.

3. Omah, here; ahnedeh, where; negoojee, somewhere; kahweenegoojee, nowhere; ishpeming nahkayah, upward; nesahye-ee nahkayah, downward; esquayong nahkayah, backward; negaun nahkayah, forward, &c.

4. Noogoom, now; chekezheguk, to-day; mawezhah, long ago; pejenahgooh, yesterday; noomahyah, lately; wahbung, to-morrow; bahmah, by and by; kahmahsheh, not yet; kahyahsekah, instantly; waweeb, immediately.


5. Pahgee, little; ahneenmenik, how much.

6. Koonemah, perhaps; mekahweh, perchance.

7. Kagate, verily; aahe, yes, &c.

8. Kah, no; kahweengahnahga, not at all.

9. Ahneen, how; ahneeshnah, why; ahnahpe, when.

10. Nahwuj, more; kagahkoo, most.


Prepositions serve to connect words with one another and to show the relation between them; as, Cazenove angkeojemahjahkezhodt York, he went from Cazenovia to York.

List of Prepositions:

Pahzhejahye-ee, over; ahnahmahye-ee, under; shepahye-ee, through; ishpeming, above; nesahye-ee, below; keoonjee, from; peoonjee, from; ahwashema, beyond; chegahye-ee, near; negaun, before; Ishquayong, behind; wahsah, off; oogejahye-ee, on or upon; magwaahye-ee, among; ahzheh, after; ahpahgahjeahye-ee, against; ahgahmahye-ee, across; kewetahye-ee, around; nahwahye-ee, amidst; enahkayah, toward, &c.


A Conjunction is a word used to connect sentences, so as out of two to make one.

Conjunctions are of two sorts, the Copulative and the Disjunctive.

The following are some of the Conjunctions:

Cop. Kiya, and; Kespin, if; Owh, that; nahyanze, both; dushween, then; ahpe, since; mesah, therefore; ahnesh, wherefore.

Dis. Atah, but; ahzheh, as; dush, than; koone, though; mahmesahwahwah, unless; kespuge, except; pooch, yet.


An Interjection is a word used to express the sudden emotions of the speaker; as, Tahwah! pemahdezewin 19 nelojegootoge! Alas! I fear for life! O neboowin! Ahneshekewesahgandahmoowin? O death! Where is thy sting?

List of Interjections:

Earnestness or Grief; O! ah! tahwah, alas!

Joy; Yahhahne! yahhahne! &c.

Wonder; Mahmahkahdahkahmig, strange! hahe, hah!

Aversion; Saih! ahwas, away!

Attention; Nah, hark! Nahbin, behold!

Surprise or Fear; Ingee! Tauneyohne! yohe!

Laughter; Ha! ha! ha!

Requesting silence; Easta, hist! pezahnahbin, silence!

Calling; ahneene, halloo!

Salutation; Mequaich, welcome!

A FABLE—[Translated from the English.]


The second page of the "Fable" is imperfectly reproduced, so the last letter on each printed line is conjectural. They are shown here in lighter type.

Kegahweendahmoonin kache dahkooahyod ahdesookaun, kecheoneshesheh dushweengooh.

Wahgoosh ingooding keezhahgoobun haberdashero dahdahwawegahmig. Emah metahskahkahmig ahyahtanegoobun kache gwahnahjewong mask, keoonje ozhechegahdagoobun ahwegah cheahyood mamahjenood ahpe herongh azhe obahkahmegezhejin. Ewh mask egewh mawezhah, meowh ahpe owh ahdesookaun tebaindahgowk, ahgwahnahung kahkenah ewh ostegwan dahgooh helmiting, kiya kahwekah mamahjenood ezheoobahkahmegezhese ayahsenenegoon. Mahmahdah wechegawenebun, owhdush ezhechegang kahweendush kedahwahbahdah zhenon ewh odangowh owh wabahkahmegezid, kiya koonemah anahnookewenegwain nahchebahpid or mahwid, ewh mask ahpun ewh nahsob azhenahgowk.

Owh wahgoosh kahgezheyaindum, wahjapezeh. Oge quakenon ewh mask menahwah kiya menahwah. Oge gahnahwahbahdaun emah ahgwahjeeye-ee, kiya gahnahwahbahdaun emah peenjahye-ee.

Ewh ahgwahjeeye-ee keche shooshoo ahyahgoobun 20 kiya kegezhechegahdagoobun! Ewh peenjahye-ee webahgoobun. Kagate onesheshin oostegwan ayaug omah, ekedoo owh wahgoosh; kagate mejenahwa yahdahkahmig kahwenaindib ahyahsenoog!

Nahnind quahnoj quewesansug ahyahwug kiya equasansug kemahzheh ekoogenedwah oowh enaindahmoowod kahween kagoo ohbahbah mahndahsenahwah, ewh atah oobeshegadahgoosewenewah, ahgoonwatahtesuwod kagoo chekekadahmoowod medush azhe quakeskahwod enahkahkayah wahwazheowening. Koonemah eneneh odah ahtood ewh onindj emah ostegwahning onowh pazhik kiya tahekedooh kahekedood owh wahgoosh kagate sahquahnoj owh oostegwan omah ayog kagate sah mejenah wayahdahkahmig ahyah senoog ewh wenaindib.

Eneneh tahezhah ishpeming, ahyahnzig menoo bemahdezewin, ahyahnzig kechetwahwezewin, ahyahnzig ogemahwewin, ahyahnzig kekenooahmahdewin, ahyahwahsig wejekewayun; kah dushween tahezhahsee ewhety ishpeming ahyahwahsig Christ.

A man may go to heaven without health, without wealth, without honor, without learning, without friends; but he can never go to heaven without Christ.



It is difficult with us to speak the words themselves.—The words odoon, onik, okod, ozid, okun, do not mean respectively, mouth, arm, leg, foot, bone; but his mouth, his arm, his leg, his foot, his bone. By leaving out the letter o we have the words mouth, arm, &c. themselves: thus, doon, nik, kod, zid, kun. The former is the usual way of speaking, the latter is correct.

By the following illustration it will be better understood how words are formed:

my thy or your his
Nindj, a hand, nenindj, kenindj, onindj,
Nik, an arm, nenik, kenik, onik,
Doon, a mouth, nedoon kedoon, odoon,
Bid, a tooth, nebid, kebid, owebid,
Daih, a heart, nedaih, kedaih, odaih,
Kown, a liver, nekown, kekown, okown,
Kun, a bone, nekun, kekun, okun,
Skunze, a nail, neskunze, keskunze, oskunze,
Kod, a leg, nekod, kekod, okod,
Bowm, a thigh, nebowm, kebowm, obowm,
Dis, a navel, nedis, kedis, odis,
Pun, a light, nepun, kepun, opun,
Zid, a foot, nezid, kezid, ozid,
Yos, flesh, neyos, keyos, oweyos,
Yowh, a body, neyowh, keyowh, oweyowh,
Oose, father, noose, koose, osun,
Gah, mother, negah, kegah, ogeen,
Siyahn, brother, nesiyahn, kesiyahn, osiyayun,
Shema, sister, neshema, keshema, oshemayun,
Tahwug, an ear, netahwug, ketahwug, otahwug.


Alphabetization is as in the original.

 A   B   C   D   E   H   I   K   M   N 
 O   P   Q   S   T   U   W   Z 


Aahe, adv. yes

Ahbenoojhee, n. a child

Ahbewin, n. a room

Ahnind, adj. some

Ahpe, adv. then, when

Ahkeh, n. the earth

Ahkeeng, in the earth

Ahzheh, adv. after

Ahneendeh, adv. where?

Ahyahyun, v. art thou

Ahweyah, n. a certain one

Ahnung, sing.,
Ahnungoog, plu.
} n. a star

Ahyah, v. he is, was

Ahneen, adv. how?

Ahwon, n. fog, dew, mist

Ahsin, n. a stone

Ahnweh, n. a bullet

Ahnahquod, n. a cloud

Ahnookewin, n. a work

Ahnemeke, n. thunder

Ahkoozewin, n. sickness

Ahpahbewin, n. a saddle, or a thing to sit on

Ahpwahgun, n. a pipe

Ahnahpe, adv. when

Ahgwahnahung, pt. covered

Ahgwahjeeng, outdoors

Ahpequashemoon, n. pillow

} n. a basket, the latter signifies a vessel to carry or gather with

Ahnahmeahwin, n. religion

Aindahnahbid, v. sitteth

Aindahyaun, n. my house or home

Aiskum, adv. more

Anwahchegaid, n. a prophet

Amequahn, n. a spoon

Atah, conj. but

Ahsamah, n. tobacco

Ahnahmahkahmig, Ahnahmahkeeng, under the earth or ground

Ahgahming, n. other side

Ahyahmook, v. receive it, or take it

Ahshum, v. feed him, or give him something to eat

Ahgahwahta, n. a shadow

Ahwashema, prep. beyond

Ahgwewin, n. a garment

Ahgookayowh, n. a bait, or something to allure animals to a snare

Ahgahjewin, n. bashfulness

Ahquahnebesohn, n. rainbow

} n. name of a thing or place. In asking a question we say what is the name of that thing or place?

Ahgwahjeeye-ee, n. outside

Anahnookewenegwain, business, or it was his business

Anaindahmon, n. thy will

Azheahyog, v. as it is

Azhegooh, v. as we

Azhemahmahjenoojin, part. played or acted

Ahgoonwatahdezoowod, v. they refuse

Ahyahsenenegoon, when there is none or no

Ainind, pt. called

Ahwas, adv. away

Ahsub, n. a net

Ahyog, is here

Ahpugn, adv. always, usually, the same

Ahmooh, n. a bee

Ahmik, n. a beaver

Ahnim, n. a mean fellow

Ahnit, n. a spear

Ahnebeesh, n. a leaf

Ahnwabewin, n. a rest

Ahnahmeawegahmig, n. a church, meeting-house, or praying-house

Ahskekoomon, n. lead

Ahskahtowhe, n. a skin or hide

Asquach, adv. falsely, vain

Ahdesookaun, n. story, fable

Ahnwahtin, not boisterous

Ahwebah, n. or adj. calm

Ahkahkahzha, n. coal

Ahyegagah, adv. soon, directly

Ahnoodezeh, adv. greedy

Ahnowh, prep. though

Ahtoon, put it down

Ahneenmenik, adv. how much

Ahneendeh, adv. where

Ahneendehnahkayah, adv. which way

Ahnahmahye-ee, prep. under

Ahpahgahjeahye-ee, prep. against

Ahyahwug, v. there are

Ahgahmahye-ee, prep. across

Ahneeshnah, adv. why

Ahdick, n. a rein-deer

Ahjedahmoo, n. a red squirrel

Ahsahnahgoo, n. a black squirrel

Ahgwegoos, n. a chip-monk

Ahkuckoojeesh, n. a ground-hog

Ahdoomahkoomasheeh, n. a monkey, which signifies louse catcher or hunter

Ahnemoosh, n. a dog

Aasebun, n. a raccoon

Aayabegoo, n. an ant

Aayanee, n. opossum

Ahzhahwahmaig, n. a salmon

Ahshegun, n. rock-bass

Ahgwahdahsheh, n. sun-fish

Ahwahsesee, n. cat-fish

Ahmahkahkee, n. a toad

Ahgoonaqua, n. tree-toad

Ahndaig, n. a raven

Ahshahgeh, n. a crane

Ahsegenak, n. a black-bird

Ahjegahdashib, n. water-hen

Ahsenesekab, n. gravel

Ahkik, n. a kettle

Ahbewh, n. a paddle


Ahzod, n. poplar

Ahneshenahbay, n. an Indian man

Apahgeeshemoog, n. west

Ahahwa, n. a species of duck

Ahwahkaun, n. cattle

Ahgahwosk, n. gypsum

Ahshahwask, n. a sword

Ahgwesemon, n. a pumpkin

Ahgwejekinzhaegun, n. an and-iron

Ahskebug, n. a green leaf

Ahgahwahtaown, n. an umbrella

Ahdahwaweneneh, n. a merchant

Ahkahnok, n. a corn-cob

Azheshahwask, n. a rifle

Ahnejemin, n. pease

Auskig, n. a seal

Ahgookewahsegun, n. sealing-wax

Ahpahgedoon, v. throw it


Bakah, v. to stop

Bahmah, adv. by and by

Bazhig, adj. one

Bahtay, n. smoke

Bahgaun, n. a nut

Bahbegwon, n. a bugle

Bakahnuk, adj. the other

Bahnahjetoon, v. destroy it

Bahtahzewin, n. sin

Bahgundahegawegahmig, n. a barn, or a house to thresh grain in

Bewegahegun, n. a chip

Bemahdezewin, n. life

Beezhahyaun, v. if I come

Bemoosain, v. to walk

Bewahbik, n. iron

Bedoon, v. bring it, or fetch it

Benetoon, v. clean it

Boodahwahgun, n. chimney, fire-place

Bewuyh, n. fur


Chegahye-ee, prep. near

Cheahnwabing, v. to rest

Cheshahdahegun, n. broom, sweeping instrument

Chepahping, pt. laughing

Chebwah, prep. before

Chebuyh, n. a corpse, dead body

Chemaun, n. a boat, a canoe

Chemenewung, v. to yield fruit

Chese, n. a turnip

Chahchaum, v. to sneeze

Cheahyong, v. to be


Dush, conj. but

Dushween, adv. then, there.
Weendush, and he;
owhdush, and the;
medush, and then;
egewhdush, and they

Doombenon, v. to lift

Doon, n. a mouth

Dahdahwawegahmig, n. a store or shop

Danguyh, n. the face


Eneneh, n. a man

Enenewug, n. men

Equa, n. a woman

Equawug, n. women


Equasance, n. a girl, or little woman

Emeh, adv. there (near,)—sometimes means, into, or in the

Ewhety, adv. there (distant,) in that place

Egewh, pro. them

Enah! int. hark! see!

Enewh, pro. these

Ezhah, v. to go

Ewh, a. the

Eskooday, n. fire

Esquache, adj. last

Ezhahdah, v. let us go

Esquahdaim, n. a door

Enaindahmoowin, n. mind, thought, will

Ekedoowin, n. a word

Eebahdun, n. butter

Enenahbik, n. a rock

Enenahtig, n. a maple-tree

Ezhechegaid, n. means or manner

Ekedooh, v. to say, or he said

Enahkayah, prep. towards

Ewedehnahkayah, adv. that way

Enaindahming, pt. thinking

Equah, n. a louse.


How, v. let us

Hah! int. the same as Ha! in English.


Ishpeming, n. heaven, or above

Inggoojhee, adv. somewhere

Ingoodwahsweh, adj. six

Ishpemesahgoong, n. chamber

Ingoodwak, adj. one hundred

Inggooding, adv. once

Inggwahekaun, n. the grave

Innoozoowahgun, n. a name-sake

Ingee! int. This word is used by children when they are afraid of something that is large

Inggoodoogunze, n. a cluster of fruit.


Keshamunedoo, n. Merciful Spirit or Being

Kechemunedoo, n. God, or Great Good Spirit

Kecheahjechaugk, n. Great Holy Spirit

Kecheogemah, n. King, or great Chief

Kedemahganemeshin, have mercy on me

Kegekaindaun, v. thou knowest

Kechegahmeh, n. a lake

Kegezhaib, n. the morning

Ketegahnans, n. a garden

Kedahyah, v. thou art

Kedahyaum, v. you are

Ke-ne-nah? Is it you?

Kahween, adv. no sir, no, no

Kah, adv. no

Keen, pro. you, or thou

Koosay, n. sing. your father

Koone, n. snow

Kezis, n. the sun

Kiya, conj. and

Kegwis, n. your son


Kegah, n. your mother

Ketegaun, n. a field

Kahkenah, adj. all, whole

Koosenon, n. our father

Koosewah, n. pl. your father

Koosemah, v. may, might

Kahgequawin, n. law

Kahbabeboon, all winter

Kahbanebin, all summer

Kahgenig, adv. forever

Kahwekah, adv. never

Kagooshish, n. something

Kebemoosay, v. he walked

Kedaun, n. your daughter

Kezheguk, n. day

Kezhik, n. sky

Kahweenegoojee, adv. nowhere

Kegedoon, v. to speak, (in the imperative mood)

Ke-ekedooh, v. he said

Kedenin, I tell you

Keskeezhik, n. your eye

Kooskoozin, v. to awake

Kespin, conj. if

Kesenah, adj. cold

Kagooh, shall not

Keche, adj. great

Kechauze, n. your nose

Ketegaweneneh, n. a husbandman

Keskejewahyaun, n. a waist-coat

Kewadenoong, n. north

Kekewaown, n. a flag

Kagate, adv. truly, verily

Koondun, v. swallow it

Kahmahsheh, adv. not yet

Kahskahdin, v. to congeal, to freeze

Kagooween, you shall not, or thou shall not

Kagebahdezid, n. a fool

Kenebood, pt. died

Kategang, v. to sow or plant

Keskahkezhegang, v. to reap

Kahgega, adj. eternal

Kazhedin, adv. immediately

Keahgoonwatum, v. he denied

} adj. old

Kegaung, n. a virgin

Kegowh, n. a fish

Keskemon, n. a whet-stone

Keskeboojegun, n. a saw

Kechepezoon, n. a girdle, a sash, a belt

Kebeshang, adj. deaf

Kepahgah, adj. thick

Kebesquang, adj. hoarse

Kesahgehenah? Do you love me?

Kenahweskewin, n. falsehood

Kashahweahyah, adj. loose

Kondahegwahsowin, n. thimble, an instrument used to push with in sewing

Kahyahtenewaid, n. a mid-wife

Kahezhewabuk, it was so

Kekenahwahjechegun, n. a sign or mark

Kegedooweneneh, n. a speaker or lawyer

Kahgahgewinze, n. hemlock

Kahgahgeh, n. wind-pipe

Kekindewin, n. a covenant

Kezebegahegahnahboo, n. soap suds

Kahskahkoonegun, n. corn-crib

Kahskahegun, n. a scraper


Koozhe, n. a beak

Koonekahdin, n. frost, snow

Kechemekun, n. a high-way

Kagah, adv. mostly

Kahweengagoo, n. nothing

Kegahweendahmoon, I will tell you

Kahgequaweneneh, n. an exhorter, or preacher

Kegowhyekaweneneh, n. a fisherman

Kekaindahmoowad, v. to learn, to know

Kahgahnahga, do not

Kemahzeh, adv. badly

Kegezhechegahdagoobun, pt. completed

Kahgezheyaindum, adj. sagacious

Kagahgoo, adv. almost

Kahyask, n. a gull

Kahgahgehshee, n. a crow

Kookoosh, n. a hog

Kookookoo-ooh, n. an owl

Kenoozha, n. a pike

Kewetahye-ee, prep. around

Kedahgahbezhew, n. a wild-cat

Kaugk, n. a porcupine

Kahgebahdezewin, n. foolishness

Keskekechegun, n. a partition


Mahnedoo, n. a spirit

Mahjahn, v. march on

Mahzhenahegun, n. a book, paper, &c.

Mahjemunedoo, n. an evil spirit, or the devil

Mahzhenenee, n. an image

Mahskemoodance, n. satchel

Mahkahday, n. powder, or black

Megwon, n. a feather, quill

Mekun, n. a road

Mejim, n. food

Mezhusk, n. hay, weed, grass

Menesis, n. hair, of the head

Mequom, n. ice

Metig, n. a tree

Mesheh, n. fire-wood

Metigmahkuk, n. a trunk

Meowh, only, the one to whose

Minjemeneshin, v. hold me

Metigmahkezin, n. shoe, or wooden shoe

Me-ewhmenek, it is enough

Mahdwayahbegahegun, n. a fiddle, or a sonorific instrument, whose strings are capable of vibrating

Megezeh, n. an eagle

Moozhuk, adv. often

Mookoomon, n. a knife

Moozwahgun, n. scissors

Menookahmeh, n. spring, a season of the year

Menahwahzeh, adj. cheerful

Mequamdun, v. remember it

Mezhenahwa, n. a disciple

Mahkundwaweneneh, n. a robber

Mahmahweh, adv. together

Mezheshenon, v. give us

Mesquagin, n. purple

Mahkahdaeneneh, n. a black man

Mahkahdaequa, n. a black woman


Mawezhah, adv. anciently, long ago

Metegwob, n. a bow

Moskin, n. full

Mahdwawa, n. a sound

Menoodahchin, adv. enough

Menekaun, n. seed

Menequang, v. to drink

Mahskoosen, n. a marsh, a bog, a fen

Mamangwah, n. a butterfly

Mahskeeg, n. a swamp

Mahmahjenoowin, n. miracle

Mahnahtaneseweneneh, n. a shepherd

Mahskahwezewin, strength

Mahjetong, v. to begin

Mahkuk, n. a pail, or box

Mahkahkoosug, n. a barrel

Megahzooweneneh, n. a soldier, a man of war, or a fighting man

Mahmahkahdezing, v. to boast

Megoos, n. an awl

Menis, n. an island

Mahwewin, v. to cry

Memenik, v. be quiet

Mahskekeh, n. medicine

Mahnedoosh, n. an insect, a worm

Mahbah, this one

Mesahkoodoonahgun, n. beard, the hair that grows on the lips and chin

Mondahmin, n. corn

Mechekahnok, n. a fence

Metegoominzhe, n. an oak

Mahskooda, n. plains, flats, or level ground

Mahgeahyah, adj. big

Mahgoobedoong, v. to squeeze

Mayahgezid, n. a stranger

Menahwah, adv. again, more and more

Mamahjenoojin, v. he played

Metahskahkahmig, n. the ground, or on the ground

Menoomenik, adj. sufficient

Mamahjenood, n. an actor

Magwaahye-ee, prep. among

Mahnahtanis, n. a sheep

Meshebezhee, n. a lion

Mahengun, n. a wolf

Mesahbooze, n. a goat

Mahquah, n. a bear

Moaze, n. a moose

Mahskoodaysay, n. a quail

Mahnoomenekashee, n. a mud-hen

Mezhesay, n. a turkey

Mesahmaig, n. a whale

Mahzhahmagoos, n. trout

Mahnoomin, n. rice

Mezheh, adv. everywhere

Magwah, adv. while

Manmooyahwahgaindahmoowin, n. thankfulness

Meshejemin, n. a currant, (fruit)

Mahzahn, n. a thistle

Mahjegooday, n. a petticoat

Menekahnekah, adv. seedy

Mejenahwayahdahkahmig, n. pity

Mahmahdahwechegawenebun, it was a strange custom

Menesenoo, n. a hero

Mesquahsin, n. brick, which signifies, red stone

Mesahowh, that is


Moosay, n. a worm

Moong, n. a loon

Meene, n. a kind of fruit

Mahjekewis, adj. the eldest

Meskoodesemin, n. a bean

Mategwahkezinekaid, n. a shoe-maker

Menahwenahgowd, v. look pleasant

Meneweyook, v. be fruitful

Megeskun, n. a hook

Mezesok, n. a horse-fly

Mahwahdooskahegun, n. a rake

Mookoojegun, n. a plane, or drawing-knife

Mahskemood, n. a bag

Moonegwana, n. a meadow-lark

Meshawa, n. an elk

Mahskekeweneneh, n. a physician.


Nebahgun, n. a bed, a place to sleep on

Newewesin, I want to eat

Nonggon, adj. light

Nee, Ne, pro. I, me, my

Negah, n. my mother

Neezhe, adj. two

Nesweh, adj. three

Newin, adj. four

Nahnun, adj. five

Newob, v. I see

Noongoom, adv. now

Nahgudge, adv. little while

Nedaih, n. my heart

Nekod, n. my leg

Noodin, n. wind

Nahdin, v. go and fetch it

Nezid, n. my foot

Nagowh, n. sand

Noodosh, adj. least

Neenatah, but me, only me

Nezhekaih, adj. alone

Netum, adj. first

Negaun, prep. before

Nahpahna, n. flour

Nahsahkoonun, open it

Nebahkahda, I am hungry

Nahbahgesug, n. a board

Nahgahmoowin, n. a hymn, or a song

Nahme-eding, pt. meeting

Nahongahnik, n. a maid

Nahwahye-ee, n. diameter

Nejekewa, n. a comrade

Nejee, n. a friend

Nanahdahwe-ewaid, n. a saviour

Nahbequon, n. a vessel, a ship

Nahbequahneshee, n. a sailor, or a man that sails or attends ships

Nebewah, n. many

Nahboob, n. soup

Neweahyahwah, I want him

Nasawin, n. breath

Nedezedaahe, v. I dare

Nahzequaegun, n. a curry-comb

Nekebee, covered with water, or overflowed

Nayob, back again

Nahgowh, n. a sleeve

Nedenaindum, v. I think

Nahwahquay, n. the middle of the day, noon

Neskahdezewin, n. anger


Nasagwahbedaoonance, n. a pin, which signifies to prick with

Negekaindaun, v. I know

Nebwahkahwin, n. wisdom

Newahwezhandum, v. I am glad

Nahmahdahbin, v. sit thou

Nahmahdahbing, v. to sit

Noodahgoozing, pt. roaring

Nedekedoowin, my word

Negetim, I am lazy

Nezheka, adv. apart

Nesahye-ee, adv. down

Negaunnahkayah, adv. forward

Nesahye-ee, prep. below

Nahwahye-ee, prep. amidst

Nahmaih, n. a sturgeon

Nahmabin, n. mullet

Nekah, n. a wild goose

Nahkayah, n. a way

Nebeh, n. water

Nebeeng, In the water


Ogemah, n. a chief

Oojechog, n. a soul

Oondaus, v. to come

Omah, adv. here

Owh, a. the

Oowh, pro. this

Oogooh, pro. those, their

Oogemekaun, he found it

Oogeoozhetoon, he made it

Oodahpenun, take it

Oonekig, n. a parent

Oopegagun, n. a rib

Opequoj, n. an air-bladder

Oonzegun, n. a boiler, or a kettle

Oodanggowh, n. his face,—
[for an explanation of this and several of the following words, see page 21]

Oochauze, n. his nose

Oodoon, n. his mouth

Onowh, n. his cheek

Ostegawn, n. his head

Oskezhizk, n. his eye

Omahmowh, n. eyebrow

Odanegoom, n. nostril

Odaih, n. heart

Onik, n. arm

Otahwug, n. ear

Okod, n. leg

Ozid, n. foot

Onoogun, n. hip

Onindj, n. hand

Ojetud, n. tendon

Oquagun, n. neck

Opequon, n. back

Obowm, n. thigh

Okahkegun, n. breast

Ozhebeenguyh, n. tear

Omesud, n. paunch

Odoosquahyob, n. vein

Okun, n. bone

Odaewaun, n. their heart

Oskunze, n. nail of the finger and the hoof of a horse, or all kinds of hoofs

Odaun, n. daughter

Ootanowh, n. town, city, village, however we say kecheotanowh for great town or city, by adding nance, it means small town or village

Odataig, n. gills of a fish

Onejegun, n. fin of a fish

Ozhegown, n. tail of a fish


Okodahkik, n. a pot, a kettle that has legs, or a leg-kettle

Oozaum, adv. too much

Oogee, pro. he

Opin, n. a potatoe

Obewuyh, n. fur

Omemee, n. a pigeon

Onegwegun, n. a wing

Oskenahway, n. a youth, a young man

Odahbaun, n. a sled

Ongwahmezin, be ye faithful

Oogaah, n. pickerel

Ogejebeeg, surface of the water

Ozhahwahnoong, n. south

Okayahwis, n. herring

Oojeeg, n. a fisher

Ogah, n. mother

Oose, n. father

Opecheh, n. a robin

Onesheshid, a clever one

Ookoozhe, n. a beak

Oskezegookahjegun, n. spectacle

Onahgooshig, n. the evening

Okahquon, n. shin

Ogeeozheaun, he made them

Ogeeozhetoon, he made it

Oskunzhekahjegun, n. a horse-shoe

Oombahquahegun, n. a lever


Pabahmahjemood, n. a messenger

Poonahkunjegun, n. anchor

Pookedoonze, n. a pear

Pahdahkemoojeskahjegun, n. a spur

Pewakoodahmahgun, n. shavings

Pahketaegun, n. a hammer

Pemenegun, n. a gimlet, an auger

Penahquahn, n. a comb

Pezhekeence, n. a calf

Pesahkahmegeboojegun, n. a harrow

Pequahegun, n. a hill

Pabahbahgahne, n. a pancake

Pazhegwahnoong, one place

Panggwon, adj. dry

Pahquonge, n. a stump

Pahgasaun, n. a plum

Pahpenadumoowin, n. happiness

Pahquazhegun, n. bread

Pahskezegun, n. a gun

Pahquazhegunush, n. wheat

Pahnezid, adj. holy

Pazhegoogahzhee, n. a horse or an animal not cloven-footed

Pashebeegun, n. a rule

Peshegaindahgoozewin, n. glory

Pepoon, n. winter

Pezahneewawin, n. peace

Pahzegween, v. to arise

Penasewug, n. fowls

Pewahbum, v. come and see him

Pewahbundun, v. come and see it

Pajeewe, adj. weak

Pesahgeskebik, n. darkness

Pesekun, put it on

Peenzekahwahgun, n. a coat or loose garment


Pahwahbekezegun, n. a stove or an iron box that is capable of being warmed through

Pahzhejeahje-ee, prep. over

Peendahgun, n. a pocket or pouch

Peendig, n. inside

Paquahkoostegowng, block-headed

Pequahquod, n. a ball or knot

Poodahwain, make fire

Poodahjegun, n. a musical or blowing instrument

Pookedaemin, n. a mandrake

Pahmetahgun, n. a servant

Pahbegwah, adj. rough

Pahquahskezhegun, n. a scythe

Papahmebahegood, n. a rider, a name for a dragoon

Pamahdezid, the living

Pahsquagin, n. leather

Pahbahgewahyaun, n. a shirt, calico

Pengwahshahgid, adj. naked

Pezindun, v. to hear, to listen

Pinggweh, n. ashes

Pungee, adj. little, not enough

Peendegaye-ee, prep. within

Pegiwh, n. gum, wax

Pemeday, n. oil, grease

Pequok, n. an arrow

Pooch, v. must

Pahkahahquay, n. a cock,—this bird has derived its name from its crowing; so nearly all birds

Pahpahsay, n. a wood-pecker; this, from its pecking

Penaih, n. a partridge

Pahkaunnahkayah, adv. another way


Quatahmegwaindahgoozid, n. the Almighty

Quewesance, n. a boy

Quahnoj, adj. good

Quakenun, turn it over

Quesqueshin, n. a whistle

Quahbahegun, n. a shovel

Quahnahjewun, adj. handsome

Quaich, adj. tenth

Quiyuk, adv. straight, right

Quaichegooh, just as


Shahgooda-a, n. a coward

Shahwanemeshin, bless me

Shewetahgun, n. salt

Shahwemin, n. a grape

Shemahgun, n. a shield

Shooneyah, n. silver, money

Shenganedewin, n. hatred

Sahnahgud, adj. difficult

Sahkahown, n. a cane

Sanahbanh, n. silk, or ribin

Sasahbob, n. a rope, thread

Shongahswak, adj. nine hundred

Shewahbik, n. alum, or iron of an acid taste

Shewon, adj. sour

Shonggahsweh, adj. nine

Sebeeh, n. a river

Sebeeng, in the river

Shegah, n. a widow

Shinggwok, n. a pine tree

Shahgahnosh, a white man


Shinggoos, n. a weasel

Shonggwasheh, n. a mink

Shepahye-ee, prep. through

Shegog, n. a skunk

Shesheeb, n. a duck

Sahgahquahegun, n. a nail

Shegwanahbik, n. a grind-stone

Shegwanahwis, n. fish-worm

Shesheeb-ahkik, n. a tea-kettle; (see shesheeb and ahkik,)

Sahgedoonabejegun, n. a bridle

Sahgahegun, n. a screw

Shegahgahwinze, n. an onion

Shahboonegaunce, n. a needle, it signifies to pull or push through


Tahnahgwud, v. appear

Tedebawe, n. the shore

Tebahegezeswon, n. a watch or clock

Tabanegaid, n. Lord

Tabahkoonewaid, n. a judge or ruler

Tebahkoonegawin, n. judgment

Tabwayaindahmoowin, n. a creed

Takoonewaid, n. a constable

Tabwawin, n. truth

Tahbeskooch, v. to equal

Tahweahyah, n. space

Tabwatun, v. believe thou

Tebahegun, n. a measure; by adding ce, we have, cup

Toodooshahboo, n. milk

Tawaegun, n. a drum; (see mahdwayahbegahegun,)

Tegowh, n. a wave

Tebik, n. night

Tahgah, v. to let

Tahwah, int. alas!


Undoom, call him

Umba, come and let us go


Wah, pro. what

Wahwon, n. an egg

Weyos, n. flesh, meat

Webid, n. a tooth

Ween, pro. him

Wewon, his wife

Waquain, pro. whoever

Wewahquon, n. a hat

Wahbegun, n. clay

Wahsayah, n. light

Wagoonan, what is it?

Wekah, long before

Wahbemin, n. an apple

Weendun, tell it

Wanain, who is it?

Weyowh, n. a body

Wahjewh, n. a mountain or hill

Wahowh, pro. this

Wenegun, n. marrow

Wenesis, n. hair

Wanankeen, who art thou?

Wesabgun, adj. bitter

Wagoosing, n. the son

Wahbeda, v. to ripen

Wenin, n. fat

Wahnekaun, n. a ditch

Wahbezewin, n. paleness

Weenzhoob, n. gall


Wenud, adj. dirty

Wahwahbegoonojhee, n. a mouse

Wahsahkoonajegun, n. a candle, or a thing that produces light

Wahsachegun, n. a window

Wahbahnahnug, n. the morning-star

Wahsahmoowin, n. lightning

Wesenewagun, n. a table, or something to eat on

Wegewaum, n. a house

Wetookahweshin, help me

Wetoopahmeshin, eat with me

Wanepuzhe, adv. freely

Wahyaskud, in the beginning

Weendahmahweshin, tell me

Wahgedahkahmig, on land

Wawaneh, thank you

Wahsahgung, n. pepper, or a bitter substance

Wahskoobung, adj. sweet

Wekahnesun, his brother

Wahwazhetaun, v. prepare thou

Wahnahgak, n. bark

Wahbemoojechaugown, n. a looking-glass; something used to see the image in

Weendegooh, n. a giant

Weyahgahsahne, n. dust

Wedookoodahdedah, let us help each other

Wequajeoong, v. to struggle

Wenaindib, n. brains

Wahbezhasheh, n. a martin

Wahwahskasheh, n. a deer

Wahwahtaseh, n. a lightning-bug

Wahwahyayah, adj. round

Wahgoosh, n. a fox

Wahnesquazewin, n. carelessness

Wahgahquod, n. an axe

Wahbahbik, n. tin

Wahbejeskezhegwa, adj. wall-eyed

Wob, v. to see

Wahzeswon, n. a nest

Wahbooyon, n. a blanket

Wahnechega, v. to misdo

Wahnewenon, v. to mislead

Wahbemenahboo, n. cider

Wesahgok, n. ash

Wegwos, n. birch tree, and its bark

Wegoobeminze, n. bass-wood

Wak, n. spawn


Zhahwanedewin, n. love

Zahzahgewejegun, n. an offering

Zagezewin, v. to fear

Zegahundahgawin, n. baptism

Zhahgemaih, n. a musketoe

Zheezebahquod, n. sugar.

Notes on Updated Text

This section comes from a reader1 who knows considerably more Ojibwe than the transcriber (who knows none at all):

Forms in
in Fiero
ah a, aa, aanh
au, aw aa
aih e, enh
a, ai, -ay e
e, eh i, ii
ee, eeh ii, iinh
i i, ii, ay
oo o, oo
ooh o, oo, oonh
o a, aa
u a, w
w-, -wh w
y y, ay
ch, j j, ch
ck k
k, g, gk g, k
m, -hm m
n n
-nce -ns
p, b, -be b, p
qu gw, kw
s, z, -se s, z
sh, zh, -zhe zh, sh
sk, sch sk, shk
sp shp
squ skw, shkw
st sht
t, d, -dt, -te, -de, td- d, t
Author of Spelling book:

I am convinced that 'Spelling' is by Peter Jones, as he was commissioned to put together a spelling book on June 2, 1828, and presented the manuscript to a printer in York on June 19, 1828, for the Methodist Indian Missionary School he ran, which Conference Missionary Society was a Methodist society. Also, in his book Life and journals of Kah-ke-wa-quo-na-by, in the journal entry for the 19th, it says, "Arrived at York in the afternoon, and commenced getting a small Indian spelling book, which I had written, printed at Mr. McKenzie's office." and considering "Spelling" was only 12 printed pages—3 sheets of paper—that, I think, does qualify as "a small Indian spelling book."


Several words are presented in a partial syncope form. For example, gagiina­wishkiwin to mean a fib, a lie or a falsehood, in the partial syncope form is ggiina­wishkiwin, and the full syncope form is ggiinwishkwin. Summerfield presents this word as Kenah­weskewin, n. falsehood, which seems to match the partial syncope form of the word. However, if this partial syncope is noted, so should the dozen or so other words shown in partial syncope.