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Title: The Scholemaster

Author: Roger Ascham

Release date: August 1, 1999 [eBook #1844]
Most recently updated: December 31, 2020

Language: English


Produced by Judy Boss

[Transcriber's Note: I have omitted signature designations, have transcribed Greek characters but not italicized them, and have expanded the usual Renaissance contractions for "m" and "n" as well as the abbreviation for Latin terminal "que"; marginalia are separated from textual line by // and a curly bracket or vertical line vertically exending over more than one line is represented by a curly bracket on each successive line. I have also closed : and ? with the word preceding.]

[Updater's note: The previous version of this file used HTML tags and entities to indicate Latin1 and Unicode characters. These have been replaced with the actual characters. Italics are now indicated with surrounding underscore characters, and superscripts with a preceding "^".]



Or plaine and perfite way of tea- chyng children, to vnderstand, write, and speake, the Latin tong, but specially purposed for the priuate brynging vp of youth in Ientle- men and Noble mens houses, and commodious also for all such, as haue forgot the Latin tonge, and would, by themselues, with- out a Scholemaster, in short tyme, and with small paines, recouer a sufficient habilitie, to vnder- stand, write, and speake Latin.

By Roger Ascham.

An. 1570.


    Printed by Iohn Daye, dwelling
    ouer Aldersgate.

Cum Gratia & Priuilegio Regiæ Maiestatis, per Decennium.

[page intentionally blank]

To the honorable Sir William

Cecill Knight, principall Secretarie to

the Quenes most excellent Maiestie.

SOndry and reasonable be the causes why learned men haue vsed to offer and dedicate such workes as they put abrode, to some such personage as they thinke fittest, either in respect of abilitie of defense, or skill for iugement, or priuate regard of kindenesse and dutie. Euery one of those considerations, Syr, moue me of right to offer this my late husbands M. Aschams worke vnto you. For well remembryng how much all good learnyng oweth vnto you for defense therof, as the Vniuersitie of Cambrige, of which my said late husband was a member, haue in chosing you their worthy Chaunceller acknowledged, and how happily you haue spent your time in such studies & caried the vse therof to the right ende, to the good seruice of the Quenes Maiestie and your contrey to all our benefites, thyrdly how much my sayd husband was many wayes bound vnto you, and how gladly and comfortably he vsed in hys lyfe to recognise and report your goodnesse toward hym, leauyng with me then hys poore widow and a great sort of orphanes a good comfort in the hope of your good continuance, which I haue truly found to me and myne, and therfore do duely and dayly pray for you and yours: I could not finde any man for whose name this booke was more agreable for hope [of] protection, more mete for submission to iudgement, nor more due for respect of worthynesse of your part and thankefulnesse of my husbandes and myne. Good I trust it shall do, as I am put in great hope by many very well learned that can well iudge therof. Mete therefore I compt it that such good as my husband was able to doe and leaue to the common weale, it should

174 Preface.

    be receiued vnder your name, and that the world should owe thanke
    therof to you, to whom my husband the authour of it was for good
    receyued of you, most dutiefully bounden. And so besechyng you, to
    take on you the defense of this booke, to auaunce the good that may
    come of it by your allowance and furtherance to publike vse and
    benefite, and to accept the thankefull recognition of me and my poore
    children, trustyng of the continuance of your good me-
    morie of
M. Ascham and his, and dayly commen-
    dyng the prosperous estate of you and yours to
    God whom you serue and whoes you
    are, I rest to trouble you.

    Your humble Margaret

    A Præface to the

    WHen the great plage was at London, the yeare 1563.
    the Quenes Maiestie Queene Elizabeth, lay at her
    Castle of Windsore: Where, vpon the 10. day of December,
    it fortuned, that in Sir William Cicells chamber, hir Highnesse
    Principall Secretarie, there dined togither these personages,
    M. Secretarie him selfe, Syr William Peter, Syr J. Mason,
    D. Wotton, Syr Richard Sackuille Treasurer of the Exchecker,
    Syr Walter Mildmaye Chauncellor of the Exchecker, M.
    Haddon Master of Requestes, M. John Astely Master of the
    Iewell house, M. Bernard Hampton, M. Nicasius, and J.
    Of which number, the most part were of hir Maiesties most
    honourable priuie Counsell, and the reast seruing hir in verie
    good place. I was glad than, and do reioice yet to remember,
    that my chance was so happie, to be there that day, in the
    companie of so manie wise & good men togither, as hardly
    than could haue beene piked out againe, out of all England
         M. Secretarie hath this accustomed maner, though his head
    be neuer so full of most weightie affaires of the Realme, yet, at
    diner time he doth seeme to lay them alwaies aside: and findeth
    euer fitte occasion to taulke pleasantlie of other matters,
    but most gladlie of some matter of learning: wherein, he will
    curteslie heare the minde of the meanest at his Table.
         Not long after our sitting doune, I haue strange newes
    brought me, sayth M. Secretarie, this morning, that diuerse
    Scholers of Eaton, be runne awaie from the
    Schole, for feare of beating. Whereupon, M. //M. Secreta-
    Secretarie tooke occasion, to wishe, that some //rie.

176 A Præface to the Reader.

more discretion were in many Scholemasters, in vsing correction, than commonlie there is. Who many times, punishe rather, the weakenes of nature, than the fault of the Scholer. Whereby, many Scholers, that might else proue well, be driuen to hate learning, before they knowe, what learning meaneth: and so, are made willing to forsake their booke, and be glad to be put to any other kinde of liuing. M. Peter, as one somewhat seuere of nature, said plainlie, M. Peter. // that the Rodde onelie, was the sworde, that must keepe, the Schole in obedience, and the Scholer M. Wotton. // in good order. M. Wotton, á man milde of nature, with soft voice, and fewe wordes, inclined to M. Secretaries iudgement, and said, in mine opinion, the Schole- Ludus li- // house should be in deede, as it is called by name, terarum. // the house of playe and pleasure, and not of feare Plato de // and bondage: and as I do remember, so saith Rep. 7. // Socrates in one place of Plato. And therefore, if a Rodde carie the feare of à Sworde, it is no maruell, if those that be fearefull of nature, chose rather to forsake the Plaie, than to stand alwaies within the feare of a Sworde in a fonde mans handling. M. Mason, after his maner, was M. Mason. // verie merie with both parties, pleasantlie playing, both, with the shrewde touches of many courste boyes, and with the small discretion of many leude Scholemasters. M. Haddon was fullie of M. Peters opinion, and said, that M. Haddon. // the best scholemaster of our time, was the greatest beater, and named the Person. Though, quoth I, it was his good fortune, to send from his Schole, The Author of // vnto the Vniuersitie, one of the best Scholers in this booke. // deede of all our time, yet wise men do thinke, that that came so to passe, rather, by the great towardnes of the Scholer, than by the great beating of the Master: and whether this be true or no, you your selfe are best witnes. I said somewhat farder in the matter, how, and whie, yong children, were soner allured by loue, than driuen by beating, to atteyne good learning: wherein I was the bolder to say my minde, bicause M. Secretarie curteslie prouoked me thereunto: or else, in such à companie, and namelie in his præsence, my wonte is, to be more willing, to vse mine eares, than to occupie my tonge.

A Præface to the Reader. 177

Syr Walter Mildmaye, M. Astley, and the rest, said verie litle: onelie Syr Rich. Sackuill, said nothing at all. After dinner I went vp to read with the Queenes Maiestie. We red than togither in the Greke tongue, as I well remember. // Demost. that noble Oration of Demosthenes against æschines, // peri pa- for his false dealing in his Ambassage to king // rapresb. Philip of Macedonie. Syr Rich. Sackuile came vp sone after: and finding me in hir Maiesties priuie chamber, he // Syr R. tooke me by the hand, & carying me to à // Sackuiles windoe, said, M. Ascham, I would not for à good // communi- deale of monie, haue bene, this daie, absent from // cation with diner. Where, though I said nothing, yet I gaue // the Author as good eare, and do consider as well the taulke, // of this that passed, as any one did there. M. Secretarie said very // booke. wisely, and most truely, that many yong wittes be driuen to hate learninge, before they know what learninge is. I can be good witnes to this my selfe: For à fond Scholemaster, before I was fullie fourtene yeare olde, draue me so, with feare of beating, from all loue of learninge, as nowe, when I know, what difference it is, to haue learninge, and to haue litle, or none at all, I feele it my greatest greife, and finde it my greatest hurte, that euer came to me, that it was my so ill chance, to light vpon so lewde à Scholemaster. But seing it is but in vain, to lament thinges paste, and also wisdome to looke to thinges to cum, surely, God willinge, if God lend me life, I will make this my mishap, some occasion of good hap, to litle Robert Sackuile my sonnes sonne. For whose bringinge vp, I would gladlie, if it so please you, vse speciallie your good aduice. I heare saie, you haue à sonne, moch of his age: we wil deale thus togither. Point you out à Scholemaster, who by your order, shall teache my sonne and yours, and for all the rest, I will prouide, yea though they three do cost me a couple of hundred poundes by yeare: and beside, you shall finde me as fast à Frend to you and yours, as perchance any you haue. Which promise, the worthie Ientleman surelie kept with me, vntill his dying daye. We had than farther taulke togither, of bringing vp of children: of the nature, of quicke, and hard wittes: // The cheife of the right choice of à good witte: of Feare, and // pointes of loue in teachinge children. We passed from // this booke.

178 A Præface to the Reader.

    children and came to yonge men, namely, Ientlemen: we
    taulked of their to moch libertie, to liue as they lust: of their
    letting louse to sone, to ouer moch experience of ill, contrarie to
    the good order of many good olde common welthes of the
    Persians and Grekes: of witte gathered, and good fortune
    gotten, by some, onely by experience, without learning. And
    lastlie, he required of me verie earnestlie, to shewe, what I
    thought of the common goinge of Englishe men into Italie.
    But, sayth he, bicause this place, and this tyme, will not suffer
    so long taulke, as these good matters require, therefore I pray
    you, at my request, and at your leysure, put in some order of
    writing, the cheife pointes of this our taulke, concerning the
    right order of teachinge, and honestie of liuing, for the good
    bringing vp of children & yong men. And surelie, beside
    contentinge me, you shall both please and profit verie many
    others. I made some excuse by lacke of habilitie, and weakenes
    of bodie: well, sayth he, I am not now to learne, what you can
    do. Our deare frende, good M. Goodricke, whose iudgement I
    could well beleue, did once for all, satisfye me fullie therein.
    Againe, I heard you say, not long agoe, that you may thanke
    Syr John Cheke, for all the learninge you haue: And I know
    verie well my selfe, that you did teach the Quene. And
    therefore seing God did so blesse you, to make you the Scholer
    of the best Master, and also the Scholemaster of the best
    Scholer, that euer were in our tyme, surelie, you should please
    God, benefite your countrie, & honest your owne name, if you
    would take the paines, to impart to others, what you learned
    of soch à Master, and how ye taught such à scholer. And, in
    vttering the stuffe ye receiued of the one, in declaring the
    order ye tooke with the other, ye shall neuer lacke, neither
    matter, nor maner, what to write, nor how to write in this
    kinde of Argument.
         I beginning some farther excuse, sodeinlie was called to
    cum to the Queene. The night following, I slept litle, my
    head was so full of this our former taulke, and I so mindefull,
    somewhat to satisfie the honest request of so deare à frend,
    I thought to præpare some litle treatise for a New yeares gift
    that Christmas. But, as it chanceth to busie builders, so, in
    building thys my poore Scholehouse (the rather bicause the forme
    of it is somewhat new, and differing from others) the worke

A Præf ace to the Reader. 179

rose dailie higher and wider, than I thought it would at the beginninge. And though it appeare now, and be in verie deede, but a small cotage, poore for the stuffe, and rude for the workemanship, yet in going forward, I found the site so good, as I was lothe to giue it ouer, but the making so costlie, outreaching my habilitie, as many tymes I wished, that some one of those three, my deare frendes, with full pursses, Syr Tho. Smithe, M. // {Smith. Haddon, or M. Watson, had had the doing of it. // M. {Haddon. Yet, neuerthelesse, I my selfe, spending gladlie // {Watson. that litle, that I gatte at home by good Syr Iohn // Syr_ I._ Cheke, and that that I borrowed abroad of my // Cheke. frend Sturmius, beside somewhat that was left me // I. Sturmius. in Reuersion by my olde Masters, Plato, Aristotle, // Plato. and Cicero, I haue at last patched it vp, as I could, // Aristotle. and as you see. If the matter be meane, and meanly handled, // Cicero. I pray you beare, both with me, and it: for neuer worke went vp in worse wether, with mo lettes and stoppes, than this poore Scholehouse of mine. Westminster Hall can beare some witnesse, beside moch weakenes of bodie, but more trouble of minde, by some such sores, as greue me to toche them my selfe, and therefore I purpose not to open them to others. And, in middes of outward iniuries, and inward cares, to encrease them withall, good Syr Rich. Sackuile dieth, that worthie Ientleman: That earnest // Syr R. fauorer and furtherer of Gods true Religion: // Sackuill. That faithfull Seruitor to his Prince and Countrie: A louer of learning, & all learned men: Wise in all doinges: Curtesse to all persons: shewing spite to none: doing good to many: and as I well found, to me so fast à frend, as I neuer lost the like before. Whan he was gone, my hart was dead. There was not one, that woare à blacke gowne for him, who caried à heuier hart for him, than I. Whan he was gone, I cast this booke àwaie: I could not looke vpon it, but with weping eyes, in remembring him, who was the onelie setter on, to do it, and would haue bene, not onelie à glad commender of it, but also à sure and certaine comfort, to me and mine, for it. Almost two yeares togither, this booke lay scattered, and neglected, and had bene quite giuen ouer of me, if the goodnesse of one had not giuen me some life and spirite againe. God, the

180 A Præface to the Reader.

mouer of goodnesse, prosper alwaies him & his, as he hath many times comforted me and mine, and, I trust to God, shall comfort more and more. Of whom, most iustlie I may saie, and verie oft, and alwaies gladlie, I am wont to say, that sweete verse of Sophocles, spoken by Oedipus to worthie Theseus.

    Soph. in // echo [gar] acho dia se, kouk allon broton.
    Oed. Col. //

    Thys hope hath helped me to end this booke: which, if he
    allowe, I shall thinke my labours well imployed, and shall not
    moch æsteme the misliking of any others. And I trust, he
    shall thinke the better of it, bicause he shall finde the best part
    thereof, to cum out of his Schole, whom he, of all men loued
    and liked best.
         Yet some men, frendly enough of nature, but of small
    iudgement in learninge, do thinke, I take to moch paines, and
    Plato in // spend to moch time, in settinge forth these
    initio // childrens affaires. But those good men were
    Theagis. // neuer brought vp in Socrates Schole, who saith
    ou gar esti // plainlie, that no man goeth àbout à more godlie
    peri otou // purpose, than he that is mindfull of the good
    theioterou // bringing vp, both of hys owne, and other mens
    anthropos // children.
    an bouleu- //
    saito, e // Therfore, I trust, good and wise men, will
    peri pai- // thinke well of this my doing. And of other, that
    deias, kai // thinke otherwise, I will thinke my selfe, they are
    ton auton, // but men, to be pardoned for their follie, and
    kai ton // pitied for their ignoraunce.
    oikeion. //
         In writing this booke, I haue had earnest respecte to three
    speciall pointes, trothe of Religion, honestie in liuing, right order
    in learning. In which three waies, I praie God, my poore
    children may diligently waulke: for whose sake, as nature
    moued, and reason required, and necessitie also somewhat
    compelled, I was the willinger to take these paines.
         For, seing at my death, I am not like to leaue them any
    great store of liuing, therefore in my life time, I thought good
    to bequeath vnto them, in this litle booke, as in my Will and
    Testament, the right waie to good learning: which if they
    followe, with the feare of God, they shall verie well cum to
    sufficiencie of liuinge.
         I wishe also, with all my hart, that yong M. Rob. Sackuille,

A Præface to the Reader. 181

    may take that fructe of this labor, that his worthie Grauntfather
    purposed he should haue done: And if any other do take, either
    proffet, or pleasure hereby, they haue cause to thanke M.
    Robert Sackuille, for whom speciallie this my Scholemaster was
         And one thing I would haue the Reader consider in
    readinge this booke, that bicause, no Scholemaster hath charge
    of any childe, before he enter into hys Schole, therefore I
    leauing all former care, of their good bringing vp, to wise and
    good Parentes, as à matter not belonging to the Scholemaster,
    I do appoynt thys my Scholemaster, than, and there to begin,
    where his office and charge beginneth. Which charge lasteth
    not long, but vntill the Scholer be made hable to go to the
    Vniuersitie, to procede in Logike, Rhetoricke, and other kindes
    of learning.
         Yet if my Scholemaster, for loue he beareth to hys
    Scholer, shall teach hym somewhat for hys furtherance,
    and better iudgement in learning, that may serue
    him seuen yeare after in the Vniuersitie, he
    doth hys Scholer no more wrong, nor de-
    serueth no worse name therby, than he
    doth in London, who sellinge silke
    or cloth vnto his frend, doth
    giue hym better measure,
    than either hys pro-
    mise or bargaine

Farewell in Christ.

The first booke for the youth.

    AFter the childe hath learned perfitlie the eight partes of
    speach, let him then learne the right ioyning togither of
    substantiues with adiectiues, the nowne with the verbe, the
    relatiue with the antecedent. And in learninge farther hys
    Syntaxis, by mine aduice, he shall not vse the common order
    in common scholes, for making of latines: wherby, the childe
    Cic. de // commonlie learneth, first, an euill choice of wordes,
    Cla. or. // (and right choice of wordes, saith Cæsar, is the
    foundation of eloquence) than, a wrong placing
    of wordes: and lastlie, an ill framing of the sentence, with
    a peruerse iudgement, both of wordes and sentences. These
    Making of // faultes, taking once roote in yougthe, be neuer, or
    Lattines // hardlie, pluckt away in age. Moreouer, there is
    marreth // no one thing, that hath more, either dulled the
    Children. // wittes, or taken awaye the will of children from
    learning, then the care they haue, to satisfie their masters, in
    making of latines.
         For, the scholer, is commonlie beat for the making, when
    the master were more worthie to be beat for the mending, or
    rather, marring of the same: The master many times, being
    as ignorant as the childe, what to saie properlie and fitlie to the
         Two scholemasters haue set forth in print, either of them
    Horman. // a booke, of soch kinde of latines, Horman and
    Whitting- // Whittington.
    ton. //
         A childe shall learne of the better of them,
    that, which an other daie, if he be wise, and cum to iudgement,
    he must be faine to vnlearne againe.

The first booke for the youth. 183

There is a waie, touched in the first booke of Cicero De Oratore, which, wiselie brought into scholes, // 1. De Or. truely taught, and constantly vsed, would not onely take wholly away this butcherlie feare in making of latines, but would also, with ease and pleasure, and in short time, as I know by good experience, worke a true choice and placing of wordes, a right ordering of sentences, an easie vnderstandyng of the tonge, a readines to speake, a facultie to write, a true iudgement, both of his owne, and other mens doinges, what tonge so euer he doth vse. The waie is this. After the three Concordances learned, as I touched before, let the master read vnto hym the Epistles of Cicero, gathered togither and chosen out by Sturmius, for the capacitie of children. First, let him teach the childe, cherefullie and plainlie, the cause, and matter of the letter: then, let him construe it into Englishe, so oft, as the childe may // The order easilie carie awaie the vnderstanding of it: // of teaching. Lastlie, parse it ouer perfitlie. This done thus, let the childe, by and by, both construe and parse it ouer againe: so, that it may appeare, that the childe douteth in nothing, that his master taught him before. After this, the childe must take a paper booke, and sitting in some place, where no man shall prompe him, by him self, let him translate into Englishe his former lesson. Then shewing it to his master, let the master take from him his latin booke, and // Two pa- pausing an houre, at the least, than let the childe // per bokes. translate his owne Englishe into latin againe, in an other paper booke. When the childe bringeth it, turned into latin, the master must compare it with Tullies booke, and laie them both togither: and where the childe doth well, either in chosing, or true placing of Tullies wordes, let the master // Children praise him, and saie here ye do well. For I // learne by assure you, there is no such whetstone, to // prayse. sharpen a good witte and encourage a will to learninge, as is praise. But if the childe misse, either in forgetting a worde, or in chaunging a good with a worse, or misordering the sentence, I would not haue the master, either froune, or chide with him, if the childe haue done his diligence, and vsed no trewandship

184 The first booke teachyng

therein. For I know by good experience, that a childe shall Ientlenes // take more profit of two fautes, ientlie warned of, in teaching. // then of foure thinges, rightly hitt. For than, the master shall haue good occasion to saie vnto him. N. Tullie would haue vsed such a worde, not this: Tullie would haue placed this word here, not there: would haue vsed this case, this number, this person, this degree, this gender: he would haue vsed this moode, this tens, this simple, rather than this compound: this aduerbe here, not there: he would haue ended the sentence with this verbe, not with that nowne or participle, etc. In these fewe lines, I haue wrapped vp, the most tedious part of Grammer: and also the ground of almost all the Rewles, that are so busilie taught by the Master, and so hardlie learned by the Scholer, in all common Scholes: which after this sort, the master shall teach without all error, and the scholer shall learne without great paine: the master being led by so sure a guide, and the scholer being brought into so plaine and easie a waie. And therefore, we do not contemne Rewles, but we gladlie teach Rewles: and teach them, more plainlie, sensiblie, and orderlie, than they be commonlie taught in common Scholes. For whan the Master shall compare Tullies booke with his Scholers translation, let the Master, at the first, lead and teach his Scholer, to ioyne the Rewles of his Grammer booke, with the examples of his present lesson, vntill the Scholer, by him selfe, be hable to fetch out of his Grammer, euerie Rewle, for euerie Example: So, as the Grammer booke be euer in the Scholers hand, and also vsed of him, as a Dictionarie, for euerie present vse. This is a liuely and perfite waie of teaching of Rewles: where the common waie, vsed in common Scholes, to read the Grammer alone by it selfe, is tedious for the Master, hard for the Scholer, colde and vn- cumfortable for them bothe. Let your Scholer be neuer afraide, to aske you any dout, but vse discretlie the best allurements ye can, to encorage him to the same: lest, his ouermoch fearinge of you, driue him to seeke some misorderlie shifte: as, to seeke to be helped by some other booke, or to be prompted by some other Scholer, and so goe aboute to begile you moch, and him selfe more.

the brynging vp of youth. 185

With this waie, of good vnderstanding the mater, plaine construinge, diligent parsinge, dailie translatinge, cherefull admonishinge, and heedefull amendinge of faultes: neuer leauinge behinde iuste praise for well doinge, I would haue the Scholer brought vp withall, till he had red, & translated ouer y^e first booke of Epistles chosen out by Sturmius, with a good peece of a Comedie of Terence also. All this while, by mine aduise, the childe shall vse to speake no latine: For, as Cicero saith in like mater, with like wordes, loquendo, male loqui discunt. And, that excellent // Latin learned man, G. Budæus, in his Greeke Com- // speakyng. mentaries, sore complaineth, that whan he began // G. Budæus. to learne the latin tonge, vse of speaking latin at the table, and elsewhere, vnaduisedlie, did bring him to soch an euill choice of wordes, to soch a crooked framing of sentences, that no one thing did hurt or hinder him more, all the daies of his life afterward, both for redinesse in speaking, and also good iudge- ment in writinge. In very deede, if children were brought vp, in soch a house, or soch a Schole, where the latin tonge were properlie and perfitlie spoken, as Tib. and Ca. Gracci were brought vp, in their mother Cornelias house, surelie, than the dailie vse of speaking, were the best and readiest waie, to learne the latin tong. But, now, commonlie, in the best Scholes in England, for wordes, right choice is smallie regarded, true proprietie whollie neglected, confusion is brought in, barbariousnesse is bred vp so in yong wittes, as afterward they be, not onelie marde for speaking, but also corrupted in iudgement: as with moch adoe, or neuer at all, they be brought to right frame againe. Yet all men couet to haue their children speake latin: and so do I verie earnestlie too. We bothe, haue one purpose: we agree in desire, we wish one end: but we differ somewhat in order and waie, that leadeth rightlie to that end. Other would haue them speake at all aduentures: and, so they be speakinge, to speake, the Master careth not, the Scholer knoweth not, what. This is, to seeme, and not to bee: except it be, to be bolde without shame, rashe without skill, full of words without witte. I wish to haue them speake so, as it may well appeare, that the braine doth gouerne the tonge, and that reason leadeth

186 The first booke teachyng

    forth the taulke. Socrates doctrine is true in Plato, and well
    Plato. // marked, and truely vttered by Horace in Arte
    Horat. // Poetica, that, where so euer knowledge doth accom-
    panie the witte, there best vtterance doth alwaies
    awaite vpon the tonge: For, good vnderstanding must first be bred
    Much wri- // in the childe, which, being nurished with skill, and
    tyng bree- // vse of writing (as I will teach more largelie
    deth ready // hereafter) is the onelie waie to bring him to
    speakyng. // iudgement and readinesse in speakinge: and that
    in farre shorter time (if he followe constantlie the trade of this
    litle lesson) than he shall do, by common teachinge of the
    common scholes in England.
         But, to go forward, as you perceiue, your scholer to goe
    better and better on awaie, first, with vnderstanding his lesson
    more quicklie, with parsing more readelie, with translating
    more spedelie and perfitlie then he was wonte, after, giue him
    longer lessons to translate: and withall, begin to teach him,
    The second // both in nownes, & verbes, what is Proprium, and
    degree and // what is Translatum, what Synonymum, what
    order in // Diuersum, which be Contraria, and which be
    teachyng. // most notable Phrases in all his lecture.
                                     _{Rex Sepultus est
              Proprium. {magnificè.

                                    {Cum illo principe,
              Translatum. {Sepulta est & gloria
                                    {et Salus Reipublicæ.

              Synonyma. {Ensis, Gladius.
                                      {Laudare, prædicare.

                                      {Diligere, Amare.
              Diuersa. {Calere, Exardescere.
                                     {Inimicus, Hostis.

                                     {Acerbum & luctuosum
                                     { bellum.
              Contraria. {Dulcis & lœta
                                     { Pax.

                                     {Dare verba.
              Phrases. {abjicere obedientiam._

the brynging vp of youth. 187

Your scholer then, must haue the third paper booke: in the which, after he hath done his double transla- // The thyrd tion, let him write, after this sort foure of these // paper boke. forenamed sixe, diligentlie marked out of eurie lesson.

             Quatuor. {Diuersa.

Or else, three, or two, if there be no moe: and if there be none of these at all in some lecture, yet not omitte the order, but write these.

{Diuersa nulla. {Contraria nulla. etc.

This diligent translating, ioyned with this heedefull marking, in the foresaid Epistles, and afterwarde in some plaine Oration of Tullie, as, pro lege Manil: pro Archia Poeta, or in those three ad C. Cæs: shall worke soch a right choise of wordes, so streight a framing of sentences, soch a true iudge- ment, both to write skilfullie, and speake wittlelie, as wise men shall both praise, and maruell at. If your scholer do misse sometimes, in marking rightlie these foresaid sixe thinges, chide not hastelie: for that shall, both dull his witte, and discorage his diligence: // Ientleness but monish him gentelie: which shall make // in teaching. him, both willing to amende, and glad to go forward in loue and hope of learning. I haue now wished, twise or thrise, this gentle nature, to be in a Scholemaster: And, that I haue done so, neither by chance, nor without some reason, I will now // Loue. declare at large, why, in mine opinion, loue is // Feare. fitter than feare, ientlenes better than beating, to bring vp a childe rightlie in learninge. With the common vse of teaching and beating in common scholes of England, I will not greatlie contend: // Common which if I did, it were but a small grammaticall // Scholes. controuersie, neither belonging to heresie nor

188 The first booke teachyng

treason, nor greatly touching God nor the Prince: although in very deede, in the end, the good or ill bringing vp of children, doth as much serue to the good or ill seruice, of God, our Prince, and our whole countrie, as any one thing doth beside. I do gladlie agree with all good Scholemasters in these pointes: to haue children brought to good perfitnes in learning: to all honestie in maners: to haue all fautes rightlie amended: to haue euerie vice seuerelie corrected: but for the order and waie that leadeth rightlie to these pointes, we somewhat differ. Sharpe // For commonlie, many scholemasters, some, as Schole- // I haue seen, moe, as I haue heard tell, be of so masters. // crooked a nature, as, when they meete with a hard witted scholer, they rather breake him, than bowe him, rather marre him, then mend him. For whan the scholemaster is angrie with some other matter, then will he sonest faul to beate his scholer: and though he him selfe should be punished for his folie, yet must he beate some scholer for his pleasure: though there be no cause for him to do so, nor yet fault in the scholer to deserue so. These ye will say, be fond scholemasters, and fewe they be, that be found to be soch. They be fond in deede, but surelie ouermany soch be found euerie where. But Nature // this I will say, that euen the wisest of your great punished. // beaters, do as oft punishe nature, as they do correcte faultes. Yea, many times, the better nature, is sorer punished: For, if one, by quicknes of witte, take his lesson readelie, an other, by hardnes of witte, taketh it not so speedelie: the first is alwaies commended, the other is commonlie punished: whan a wise scholemaster, should rather discretelie consider the right disposition of both their natures, and not so moch wey what either of them is able to do now, Quicke // as what either of them is likelie to do hereafter. wittes for // For this I know, not onelie by reading of bookes learnyng. // in my studie, but also by experience of life, abrode in the world, that those, which be commonlie the wisest, the best learned, and best men also, when they be olde, were neuer commonlie the quickest of witte, when they were yonge. The causes why, amongst other, which be many, that moue me thus to thinke, be these fewe, which I will recken. Quicke wittes commonlie, be apte to take, vnapte to keepe: soone hote and desirous of this and that: as colde and sone

the brynging vp of youth. 189

wery of the same againe: more quicke to enter spedelie, than hable to pearse farre: euen like ouer sharpe tooles, whose edges be verie soone turned. Soch wittes delite them selues in easie and pleasant studies, and neuer passe farre forward in hie and hard sciences. And therefore the quickest wittes commonlie may proue the best Poetes, but not the wisest Orators: readie of tonge to speake boldlie, not deepe of iudgement, // Quicke either for good counsell or wise writing. Also, // wittes, for for maners and life, quicke wittes commonlie, be, // maners & in desire, newfangle, in purpose, vnconstant, light // lyfe. to promise any thing, readie to forget euery thing: both benefite and inurie: and therby neither fast to frend, nor fearefull to foe: inquisitiue of euery trifle, not secret in greatest affaires: bolde, with any person: busie, in euery matter: sothing, soch as be present: nipping any that is absent: of nature also, alwaies, flattering their betters, enuying their equals, despising their inferiors: and, by quicknes of witte, verie quicke and readie, to like none so well as them selues. Moreouer commonlie, men, very quicke of witte, be also, verie light of conditions: and thereby, very readie of disposition, to be caried ouer quicklie, by any light cumpanie, to any riot and vnthriftines when they be yonge: and therfore seldome, either honest of life, or riche in liuing, when they be olde. For, quicke in witte, and light in maners, be either seldome troubled, or verie sone wery, in carying a verie heuie purse. Quicke wittes also be, in most part of all their doinges, ouer- quicke, hastie, rashe, headie, and brainsicke. These two last wordes, Headie, and Brainsicke, be fitte and proper wordes, rising naturallie of the matter, and tearmed aptlie by the condition of ouer moch quickenes of witte. In yougthe also they be, readie scoffers, priuie mockers, and euer ouer light and mery. In aige, sone testie, very waspishe, and alwaies ouer miserable: and yet fewe of them cum to any great aige, by reason of their misordered life when they were yong: but a great deale fewer of them cum to shewe any great counten- ance, or beare any great authoritie abrode in the world, but either liue obscurelie, men know not how, or dye obscurelie, men marke not whan. They be like trees, that shewe forth, faire blossoms & broad leaues in spring time, but bring out small and not long lasting fruite in haruest time: and that

190 The first booke teachyng

onelie soch, as fall, and rotte, before they be ripe, and so, neuer, or seldome, cum to any good at all. For this ye shall finde most true by experience, that amongest a number of quicke wittes in youthe, fewe be found, in the end, either verie fortunate for them selues, or verie profitable to serue the common wealth, but decay and vanish, men know not which way: except a very fewe, to whom peraduenture blood and happie parentage, may perchance purchace a long standing vpon the stage. The which felicitie, because it commeth by others procuring, not by their owne deseruinge, and stand by other mens feete, and not by their own, what owtward brag so euer is borne by them, is in deed, of it selfe, and in wise mens eyes, of no great estimation. Some wittes, moderate enough by nature, be many tymes Som sci- // marde by ouer moch studie and vse of some ences hurt // sciences, namelie, Musicke, Arithmetick, and mens wits, // Geometrie. Thies sciences, as they sharpen mens and mar // wittes ouer moch, so they change mens maners mens ma- // ouer sore, if they be not moderatlie mingled, & ners. // wiselie applied to som good vse of life. Marke all Mathe- Mathe- // maticall heades, which be onely and wholy bent maticall // to those sciences, how solitarie they be themselues, heades. // how vnfit to liue with others, & how vnapte to serue in the world. This is not onelie knowen now by common experience, but vttered long before by wise mens Iudgement Galen. // and sentence. Galene saith, moch Musick marreth Plato. // mens maners: and Plato hath a notable place of the same thing in his bookes de Rep. well marked also, and excellentlie translated by Tullie himself. Of this matter, I wrote once more at large, XX. yeare a go, in my booke of shoting: now I thought but to touch it, to proue, that ouer moch quicknes of witte, either giuen by nature, or sharpened by studie, doth not commonlie bring forth, eyther greatest learning, best maners, or happiest life in the end. Contrariewise, a witte in youth, that is not ouer dulle, Hard wits // heauie, knottie and lumpishe, but hard, rough, and in learning. // though somwhat staffishe, as Tullie wisheth otium, quietum, non languidum: and negotium cum labore, non cum periculo, such a witte I say, if it be, at the first well handled by the mother, and rightlie smothed and wrought as it

the brynging vp of youth. 191

should, not ouerwhartlie, and against the wood, by the schole- master, both for learning, and hole course of liuing, proueth alwaies the best. In woode and stone, not the softest, but hardest, be alwaies aptest, for portrature, both fairest for pleasure, and most durable for proffit. Hard wittes be hard to receiue, but sure to keepe: painefull without werinesse, hedefull without wauering, constant without newfanglenes: bearing heauie thinges, thoughe not lightlie, yet willinglie: entring hard thinges, though not easelie, yet depelie, and so cum to that perfitnes of learning in the ende, that quicke wittes, seeme in hope, but do not in deede, or else verie seldome, // Hard wits euer attaine vnto. Also, for maners and life, hard // in maners wittes commonlie, ar hardlie caried, either to // and lyfe. desire euerie new thing, or else to meruell at euery strange thinge: and therfore they be carefull and diligent in their own matters, not curious and busey in other mens affaires: and so, they becum wise them selues, and also ar counted honest by others. They be graue, stedfast, silent of tong, secret of hart. Not hastie in making, but constant in keping any promise. Not rashe in vttering, but ware in considering euery matter: and therby, not quicke in speaking, but deepe of iudgement, whether they write, or giue counsell in all waightie affaires. And theis be the men, that becum in the end, both most happie for themselues, and alwaise best estemed abrode in the world. I haue bene longer in describing, the nature, the good or ill successe, of the quicke and hard witte, than perchance som will thinke, this place and matter doth require. But // The best my purpose was hereby, plainlie to vtter, what // wittes dri- iniurie is offered to all learninge, & to the common // uen from welthe also, first, by the fond father in chosing, // learnyng, but chieflie by the lewd scholemaster in beating // to other li- and driuing away the best natures from learning. A childe // uyng. that is still, silent, constant, and somewhat hard of witte, is either neuer chosen by the father to be made a scholer, or else, when he commeth to the schole, he is smally regarded, little looked vnto, he lacketh teaching, he lacketh coraging, he lacketh all thinges, onelie he neuer lacketh beating, nor any word, that may moue him to hate learninge, nor any deed that may driue him from learning, to any other kinde of liuing. And when this sadde natured, and hard witted child, is bette

192 The first booke teachyng

from his booke, and becummeth after eyther student of Hard wits // the common lawe, or page in the Court, or proue best // seruingman, or bound prentice to a merchant, in euery // or to som handiecrafte, he proueth in the ende, kynde of // wiser, happier and many tymes honester too, than life. // many of theis quick wittes do, by their learninge. Learning is, both hindred and iniured to, by the ill choice of them, that send yong scholers to the vniuersities. Of whom must nedes cum all our Diuines, Lawyers, and Physicions. Thies yong scholers be chosen commonlie, as yong apples be The ill // chosen by children, in a faire garden about S. choice of // Iames tyde: a childe will chose a sweeting, because it wittes for // is presentlie faire and pleasant, and refuse a Runnet, learnyng. // because it is than grene, hard, and sowre, whan the one, if it be eaten, doth breed, both wormes and ill humors: the other if it stand his tyme, be ordered and kepte as it should, is holsom of it self, and helpeth to the good digestion of other meates: Sweetinges, will receyue wormes, rotte, and dye on the tree, and neuer or seldom cum to the gathering for good and lasting store. For verie greafe of harte I will not applie the similitude: but hereby, is plainlie seen, how learning is robbed of hir best wittes, first by the great beating, and after by the ill chosing of scholers, to go to the vniuersities. Whereof cummeth partelie, that lewde and spitefull prouerbe, sounding to the greate hurte of learning, and shame of learned men, that, the greatest Clerkes be not the wisest men. And though I, in all this discourse, seem plainlie to prefer, hard and roughe wittes, before quicke and light wittes, both for learnyng and maners, yet am I not ignorant that som quicknes of witte, is a singuler gifte of God, and so most rare emonges men, and namelie such a witte, as is quicke without lightnes, sharpe without brittlenes, desirous of good thinges without newfanglenes, diligent in painfull thinges without werisomnes, and constant in good will to do all thinges well, as I know was in Syr Iohn Cheke, and is in som, that yet liue, in whome all theis faire qualities of witte ar fullie mette togither. But it is notable and trewe, that Socrates saith in Plato to Plato in // his frende Crito. That, that number of men is Critone. // fewest, which far excede, either in good or ill, in wisdom of folie, but the meane betwixt both, be

the brynging vp of youth. 193

the greatest number: which he proueth trewe in diuerse other thinges: as in greyhoundes, emonges which fewe // Verie are found, exceding greate, or exceding litle, // good, or exceding swift, or exceding slowe: And therfore/ verie ill I speaking of quick and hard wittes, I ment, the // men, be common number of quicke and hard wittes, // fewest in emonges the which, for the most parte, the hard // number. witte, proueth manie times, the better learned, wiser and honester man: and therfore, do I the more lament, that soch wittes commonlie be either kepte from learning, by fond fathers, or bet from learning by lewde scholemasters. And speaking thus moche of the wittes of children for learning, the opportunitie of the place, and good- // Horsemen nes of the matter might require to haue here // be wiser in declared the most speciall notes of a good witte for // knowledge learning in a childe, after the maner and custume // of a good of a good horsman, who is skilfull, to know, and // Colte, than hable to tell others, how by certein sure signes, a // scholema- man may choise a colte, that is like to proue an // sters be, in other day, excellent for the saddle. And it is // knowledge pitie, that commonlie, more care is had, yea and // of a good that emonges verie wise men, to finde out rather a cunnynge // witte. man for their horse, than a cunnyng man for their // A good Ri- children. They say nay in worde, but they do so // der better in deede. For, to the one, they will gladlie giue // rewarded a stipend of 200. Crounes by yeare, and loth // than a good to offer to the other, 200. shillinges. God, that // Schole- sitteth in heauen laugheth their choice to skorne, // master. and rewardeth their liberalitie as it should: for he suffereth them, to haue, tame, and well ordered horse, but // Horse well wilde and vnfortunate Children: and therfore in // broken, the ende they finde more pleasure in their horse, // children ill than comforte in their children. // taught. But concerning the trewe notes of the best wittes for learning in a childe, I will reporte, not myne own opinion, but the very iudgement of him, that was counted the best teacher and wisest man that learning maketh mention of, // Plato in 7. and that is Socrates in Plato, who expresseth // de Rep. orderlie thies seuen plaine notes to choise a good witte in a child for learninge.

194 The first booke teachyng

                         {1 Euphues.
                         {2 Mnemon.
    Trewe {3 Philomathes.
    notes of a {4 Philoponos.
    good witte. {5 Philekoos.
                         {6 Zetetikos.
                         {7 Philepainos.

And bicause I write English, and to Englishemen, I will plainlie declare in Englishe both, what thies wordes of Plato meane, and how aptlie they be linked, and how orderlie they folow one an other.

1. Euphues.

Is he, that is apte by goodnes of witte, and appliable by Witte. // readines of will, to learning, hauing all other Will. // qualities of the minde and partes of the bodie, that must an other day serue learning, not trobled, mangled, and halfed, but sounde, whole, full, & hable to do their The tong. // office: as, a tong, not stamering, or ouer hardlie drawing forth wordes, but plaine, and redie to The voice. // deliuer the meaning of the minde: a voice, not softe, weake, piping, wommanishe, but audible, Face. // stronge, and manlike: a countenance, not werishe Stature. // and crabbed, but faire and cumlie: a personage, not wretched and deformed, but taule and goodlie Learnyng // for surelie, a cumlie countenance, with a goodlie ioyned // stature, geueth credit to learning, and authoritie with a cum- // to the person: otherwise commonlie, either, open lie perso- // contempte, or priuie disfauour doth hurte, or nage. // hinder, both person and learning. And, euen as a faire stone requireth to be sette in the finest gold, with the best workmanshyp, or else it leseth moch of the Grace and price, euen so, excellencye in learning, and namely Diuinitie, ioyned with a cumlie personage, is a meruelous Iewell in the world. And how can a cumlie bodie be better employed, than to serue the fairest exercise of Goddes greatest gifte, and that is learning. But commonlie, the fairest bodies, ar bestowed on the foulest purposes. I would it were not so: and with examples herein I will not medle: yet I wishe, that

the brynging vp of youth. 195

those shold, both mynde it, & medle with it, which haue most occasion to looke to it, as good and wise fathers shold do, and greatest authoritie to amend it, as good & wise magistrates ought to do: And yet I will not let, openlie to lament the vnfortunate case of learning herein. For, if a father haue foure sonnes, three faire and well formed both mynde and bodie, the fourth, // Deformed wretched, lame, and deformed, his choice shalbe, // creatures to put the worst to learning, as one good enoughe // commonlie to becum a scholer. I haue spent the most parte // set to lear- of my life in the Vniuersitie, and therfore I can // nyng. beare good witnes that many fathers commonlie do thus: wherof, I haue hard many wise, learned, and as good men as euer I knew, make great, and oft complainte: a good horseman will choise no soch colte, neither for his own, nor yet for his masters sadle. And thus moch of the first note.

2 Mnemon.

         Good of memorie, a speciall parte of the first note euphues,
    and a mere benefite of nature: yet it is so // Memorie.
    necessarie for learning, as Plato maketh it a
    separate and perfite note of it selfe, and that so principall a note,
    as without it, all other giftes of nature do small seruice to
    learning. Afranius, that olde Latine Poete maketh // Aul. Gel.
    Memorie the mother of learning and wisedome,
    saying thus.
         Vsus me genuit, Mater peperit memoria, and though it be the
    mere gifte of nature, yet is memorie well preserued by vse, and
    moch encreased by order, as our scholer must // Three sure
    learne an other day in the Vniuersitie: but in // signs of a
    a childe, a good memorie is well known, by three // good me-
    properties: that is, if it be, quicke in receyuing, // morie.
    sure in keping, and redie in deliuering forthe againe.

3 Philomathes.

Giuen to loue learning: for though a child haue all the giftes of nature at wishe, and perfection of memorie at wil, yet if he haue not a speciall loue to learning, he shall neuer attaine to moch learning. And therfore Isocrates, one of the noblest

196 The first booke teachyng

scholemasters, that is in memorie of learning, who taught Kinges and Princes, as Halicarnassæus writeth, and out of whose schole, as Tullie saith, came forth, mo noble Capitanes, mo wise Councelors, than did out of Epeius horse at Troie. This Isocrates, I say, did cause to be written, at the entrie of his schole, in golden letters, this golden sentence, ean es philomathes, ese polymathes which excellentlie said in Greeke, is thus rudelie in Englishe, if thou louest learning, thou shalt attayne to moch learning.

4. Philoponos.

Is he, that hath a lust to labor, and a will to take paines. For, if a childe haue all the benefites of nature, with perfection of memorie, loue, like, & praise learning neuer so moch, yet if he be not of him selfe painfull, he shall neuer attayne vnto it. And yet where loue is present, labor is seldom absent, and namelie in studie of learning, and matters of the mynde: and therfore did Isocrates rightlie iudge, that if his scholer were philomathes he cared for no more. Aristotle, variing from Isocrates in priuate affaires of life, but agreing with Isocrates in common iudgement of learning, for loue and labor in learning, is of the same opinion, vttered in these wordes, in his Rhetorike 2 Rhet. ad // ad Theodecten. Libertie kindleth loue: Loue Theod. // refuseth no labor: and labor obteyneth what so euer it seeketh. And yet neuerthelesse, Goodnes of nature may do little good: Perfection of memorie, may serue to small vse: All loue may be employed in vayne: Any labor may be sone graualed, if a man trust alwaies to his own singuler witte, and will not be glad somtyme to heare, take aduise, and learne of an other: And therfore doth Socrates very notablie adde the fifte note.

5. Philekoos.

He, that is glad to heare and learne of an other. For otherwise, he shall sticke with great troble, where he might go easelie forwarde: and also catche hardlie a verie litle by his owne toyle, whan he might gather quicklie a good deale, by an nothers mans teaching. But now there be some, that haue great loue to learning, good lust to labor, be willing to learne of others, yet, either of a fonde shamefastnes, or else of a proud

the brynging vp of youth. 197

folie, they dare not, or will not, go to learne of an nother: And therfore doth Socrates wiselie adde the sixte note of a good witte in a childe for learning, and that is.

6. Zetetikos.

He, that is naturallie bold to aske any question, desirous to searche out any doute, not ashamed to learne of the meanest, not affraide to go to the greatest, vntill he be perfitelie taught, and fullie satisfiede. The seuenth and last poynte is.

7. Philepainos.

         He, that loueth to be praised for well doing, at his father,
    or masters hand. A childe of this nature, will earnestlie loue
    learnyng, gladlie labor for learning, willinglie learne of other,
    boldlie aske any doute. And thus, by Socrates iudgement, a
    good father, and a wise scholemaster, shold chose a childe to
    make a scholer of, that hath by nature, the foresayd perfite
    qualities, and cumlie furniture, both of mynde and bodie: hath
    memorie, quicke to receyue, sure to keape, and readie to deliuer:
    hath loue to learning: hath lust to labor: hath desire to learne
    of others: hath boldnes to aske any question: hath mynde holie
    bent, to wynne praise by well doing.
         The two firste poyntes be speciall benefites of nature:
    which neuerthelesse, be well preserued, and moch encreased by
    good order. But as for the fiue laste, loue, labor, gladnes to
    learne of others, boldnes to aske doutes, and will to wynne
    praise, be wonne and maintened by the onelie wisedome and
    discretion of the scholemaster. Which fiue poyntes, whether a
    scholemaster shall worke soner in a childe, by fearefull beating,
    or curtese handling, you that be wise, iudge.
         Yet some men, wise in deede, but in this matter, more by
    seueritie of nature, than any wisdome at all, do laugh at vs, when
    we thus wishe and reason, that yong children should rather be
    allured to learning by ientilnes and loue, than compelled to
    learning, by beating and feare: They say, our reasons serue
    onelie to breede forth talke, and passe a waie tyme, but we
    neuer saw good scholemaster do so, nor neuer red of wise man
    that thought so.
         Yes forsothe: as wise as they be, either in other mens
    opinion, or in their owne conceite, I will bring the contrarie

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iudgement of him, who, they them selues shall confesse, was as wise as they are, or else they may be iustlie thought to haue small witte at all: and that is Socrates, whose iudgement in Plato in 7. // Plato is plainlie this in these wordes: which, de Rep. // bicause they be verie notable, I will recite them in his owne tong, ouden mathema meta douleias chre manthanein: oi men gar tou somatos ponoi bia ponoumenoi cheiron ouden to soma apergazontai; psyche de, biaion ouden emmonon mathema: in Englishe thus, No learning ought to be learned with bondage: For bodelie labors, wrought by compul- sion, hurt not the bodie: but any learning learned by compulsion, tarieth not long in the mynde: And why? For what soeuer the mynde doth learne vnwillinglie with feare, the same it doth quicklie forget without care. And lest proude wittes, that loue not to be contraryed, but haue lust to wrangle or trifle away troth, will say, that Socrates meaneth not this of childrens teaching, but of som other higher learnyng, heare, what Socrates in the same place doth more plainlie say: me toinyn bia, o ariste, tous paidas en tois mathemasin, alla paizontas trephe, that is to say, and therfore, my deare frend, bring not vp your children in learning by compulsion and feare, but by playing and pleasure. And you, that do read Plato, as The right // ye shold, do well perceiue, that these be no readyng of // Questions asked by Socrates, as doutes, but they Plato. // be Sentences, first affirmed by Socrates, as mere trothes, and after, giuen forth by Socrates, as right Rules, most necessarie to be marked, and fitte to be folowed of all them, that would haue children taughte, as they should. And in this counsell, iudgement, and authoritie of Socrates I will repose my selfe, vntill I meete with a man of the contrarie mynde, whom I may iustlie take to be wiser, than I thinke Socrates Yong Ien- // was. Fonde scholemasters, neither can vnder- tlemen, be // stand, nor will folow this good counsell of Socrates, wiselier // but wise ryders, in their office, can and will do taught to // both: which is the onelie cause, that commonly, ryde, by com- // the yong ientlemen of England, go so vnwillinglie mon ry- // to schole, and run so fast to the stable: For in ders, than // verie deede fond scholemasters, by feare, do to learne, // beate into them, the hatred of learning, and wise by common // riders, by ientle allurements, do breed vp in Schole- // masters. //

the brynging vp of youth. 199

them, the loue of riding. They finde feare, & bondage in scholes, They feele libertie and freedome in stables: which causeth them, vtterlie to abhore the one, and most gladlie to haunt the other. And I do not write this, that in exhorting to the one, I would dissuade yong ientlemen from the other: yea I am sorie, with all my harte, that they be giuen no more to riding, then they be: For, of all outward qualities, // Ryding. to ride faire, is most cumelie for him selfe, most necessarie for his contrey, and the greater he is in blood, the greater is his praise, the more he doth excede all other therein. It was one of the three excellent praises, amongest the noble ientlemen the old Percians, Alwaise to say troth, to ride faire, and shote well: and so it was engrauen vpon Darius tumbe, as Strabo beareth witnesse. // Strabo. 15.

         Darius the king, lieth buried here,
            Who in riding and shoting had neuer peare.

         But, to our purpose, yong men, by any meanes, leesing the
    loue of learning, whan by tyme they cum to their owne rule,
    they carie commonlie, from the schole with them, a perpetuall
    hatred of their master, and a continuall contempt of learning.
    If ten Ientlemen be asked, why they forget so sone in Court,
    that which they were learning so long in schole, eight of them,
    or let me be blamed, will laie the fault on their ill handling, by
    their scholemasters.
         Cuspinian doth report, that, that noble Emperor Maxi-
, would lament verie oft, his misfortune herein.
         Yet, some will say, that children of nature, loue pastime,
    and mislike learning: bicause, in their kinde, the // Pastime.
    one is easie and pleasant, the other hard and
    werisom: which is an opinion not so trewe, as // Learnyng.
    some men weene: For, the matter lieth not so much in the
    disposition of them that be yong, as in the order & maner of
    bringing vp, by them that be old, nor yet in the difference of
    learnyng and pastime. For, beate a child, if he daunce not well,
    & cherish him, though he learne not well, ye shall haue him,
    vnwilling to go to daunce, & glad to go to his booke. Knocke
    him alwaies, when he draweth his shaft ill, and fauor him
    againe, though he faut at his booke, ye shall haue hym verie
    loth to be in the field, and verie willing to be in the schole.

200 The first booke teachyng

    Yea, I saie more, and not of my selfe, but by the iudgement of
    those, from whom few wisemen will gladlie dissent, that if euer
    the nature of man be giuen at any tyme, more than other, to
    receiue goodnes, it is in innocencie of yong yeares, before, that
    experience of euill, haue taken roote in hym. For, the pure
    cleane witte of a sweete yong babe, is like the newest wax,
    most hable to receiue the best and fayrest printing: and like a
    new bright siluer dishe neuer occupied, to receiue and kepe
    cleane, anie good thyng that is put into it.
         And thus, will in children, wiselie wrought withall, maie
    Will. } | // easelie be won to be verie well willing to
              }in Children.| // learne. And witte in children, by nature,
    Witte.} | // namelie memorie, the onelie keie and keper of
    all learning, is readiest to receiue, and surest to kepe anie maner
    of thing, that is learned in yougth: This, lewde and learned, by
    common experience, know to be most trewe. For we remember
    nothyng so well when we be olde, as those things which we
    learned when we were yong: And this is not straunge, but
    Yong yeares // common in all natures workes. Euery man sees,
    aptest for // (as I sayd before) new wax is best for printyng:
    learnyng. // new claie, fittest for working: new shorne woll,
    aptest for sone and surest dying: new fresh flesh, for good and
    durable salting. And this similitude is not rude, nor borowed
    of the larder house, but out of his scholehouse, of whom, the
    wisest of England, neede not be ashamed to learne. Yong
    Graftes grow not onelie sonest, but also fairest, and bring alwayes
    forth the best and sweetest frute: yong whelpes learne easelie
    to carie: yong Popingeis learne quicklie to speake: And so, to
    be short, if in all other thinges, though they lacke reason, sens,
    and life, the similitude of youth is fittest to all goodnesse,
    surelie nature, in mankinde, is most beneficiall and effectuall in
    this behalfe.
         Therfore, if to the goodnes of nature, be ioyned the
    wisedome of the teacher, in leading yong wittes into a right and
    plaine waie of learnyng, surelie, children, kept vp in Gods feare,
    and gouerned by his grace, maie most easelie be brought well to
    serue God and contrey both by vertue and wisedome.
         But if will, and witte, by farder age, be once allured from
    innocencie, delited in vaine sightes, filed with foull taulke,
    crooked with wilfulnesse, hardned with stubburnesse, and let

the brynging vp of youth. 201

    louse to disobedience, surelie it is hard with ientlenesse, but
    vnpossible with seuere crueltie, to call them backe to good
    frame againe. For, where the one, perchance maie bend it,
    the other shall surelie breake it: and so in stead of some hope,
    leaue an assured desperation, and shamelesse con- // Xen. 1. Cy-
    tempt of all goodnesse, the fardest pointe in all // ri Pæd.
    mischief, as Xenophon doth most trewlie and most
    wittelie marke.
         Therfore, to loue or to hate, to like or contemne, to plie
    this waie or that waie to good or to bad, ye shall haue as ye vse
    a child in his youth.
         And one example, whether loue or feare doth worke more
    in a child, for vertue and learning, I will gladlie report: which
    maie be hard with some pleasure, and folowed with more profit.
    Before I went into Germanie, I came to Brodegate in Leceter-
    shire, to take my leaue of that noble Ladie Iane
, to whom I was exceding moch beholdinge. // Lady Iane
    Hir parentes, the Duke and Duches, with all the // Grey.
    houshould, Gentlemen and Gentlewomen, were huntinge in the
    Parke: I founde her, in her Chamber, readinge Phædon Platonis
    in Greeke, and that with as moch delite, as som ientleman wold
    read a merie tale in Bocase. After salutation, and dewtie done,
    with som other taulke, I asked hir, whie she wold leese soch
    pastime in the Parke? smiling she answered me: I wisse, all
    their sporte in the Parke is but a shadoe to that pleasure, that I
    find in Plato: Alas good folke, they neuer felt, what trewe
    pleasure ment. And howe came you Madame, quoth I, to this
    deepe knowledge of pleasure, and what did chieflie allure you
    vnto it: seinge, not many women, but verie fewe men haue
    atteined thereunto. I will tell you, quoth she, and tell you
    a troth, which perchance ye will meruell at. One of the
    greatest benefites, that euer God gaue me, is, that he sent me
    so sharpe and seuere Parentes, and so ientle a scholemaster.
    For when I am in presence either of father or mother, whether
    I speake, kepe silence, sit, stand, or go, eate, drinke, be merie,
    or sad, be sowyng, plaiyng, dauncing, or doing anie thing els,
    I must do it, as it were, in soch weight, mesure, and number,
    euen so perfitelie, as God made the world, or else I am so
    sharplie taunted, so cruellie threatened, yea presentlie some
    tymes, with pinches, nippes, and bobbes, and other waies, which

202 The first booke teachyng

I will not name, for the honor I beare them, so without measure misordered, that I thinke my selfe in hell, till tyme cum, that I must go to M. Elmer, who teacheth me so ientlie, so pleasantlie, with soch faire allurementes to learning, that I thinke all the tyme nothing, whiles I am with him. And when I am called from him, I fall on weeping, because, what soeuer I do els, but learning, is ful of grief, trouble, feare, and whole misliking vnto me: And thus my booke, hath bene so moch my pleasure, & bringeth dayly to me more pleasure & more, that in respect of it, all other pleasures, in very deede, be but trifles and troubles vnto me. I remember this talke gladly, both bicause it is so worthy of memorie, & bicause also, it was the last talke that euer I had, and the last tyme, that euer I saw that noble and worthie Ladie. I could be ouer long, both in shewinge iust causes, and in recitinge trewe examples, why learning shold be taught, rather by loue than feare. He that wold see a perfite discourse of it, Sturmius // let him read that learned treatese, which my frende de Inst. // Ioan. Sturmius wrote de institutione Principis, to Princ. // the Duke of Cleues. The godlie counsels of Salomon and Iesus the sonne of Qui par- // Sirach, for sharpe kepinge in, and bridleinge of cit virgæ, // youth, are ment rather, for fatherlie correction, odit filium. // then masterlie beating, rather for maners, than for learninge: for other places, than for scholes. For God forbid, but all euill touches, wantonnes, lyinge, pickinge, slouthe, will, stubburnnesse, and disobedience, shold be with sharpe chastise- ment, daily cut away. This discipline was well knowen, and diligentlie vsed, among the Græcians, and old Romanes, as doth appeare in Aristophanes, Isocrates, and Plato, and also in the Comedies of Plautus: where we see that children were vnder the rule of three persones: Præceptore, Pædagogo, Parente: the scholemaster 1. Schole- // taught him learnyng with all ientlenes: the master. // Gouernour corrected his maners, with moch 2. Gouer- // sharpenesse: The father, held the sterne of his nour. // whole obedience: And so, he that vsed to teache, 3. Father. // did not commonlie vse to beate, but remitted that ouer to an other mans charge. But what shall we saie, whan now in our dayes, the scholemaster is vsed, both for Præceptor

the brynging vp of youth. 203

in learnyng, and Pædagogus in maners. Surelie, I wold he shold not confound their offices, but discretelie vse the dewtie of both so, that neither ill touches shold be left vnpunished, nor ientlesse in teaching anie wise omitted. And he shall well do both, if wiselie he do appointe diuersitie of tyme, & separate place, for either purpose: vsing alwaise soch discrete modera- tion as the scholehouse should be counted a sanctuarie against feare: and verie well learning, a // The schole common perdon for ill doing, if the fault, of it // house. selfe be not ouer heinous. And thus the children, kept vp in Gods feare, and preserued by his grace, finding paine in ill doing, and pleasure in well studiyng, shold easelie be brought to honestie of life, and perfitenes of learning, the onelie marke, that good and wise fathers do wishe and labour, that their children, shold most buselie, and carefullie shot at. There is an other discommoditie, besides crueltie in schole- masters in beating away the loue of learning from // Youth of children, which hindreth learning and vertue, and // England good bringing vp of youth, and namelie yong // brought vp ientlemen, verie moch in England. This fault // with to is cleane contrary to the first. I wished before, // much li- to haue loue of learning bred vp in children: // bertie. I wishe as moch now, to haue yong men brought vp in good order of liuing, and in some more seuere discipline, then commonlie they be. We haue lacke in England of soch good order, as the old noble Persians so carefullie vsed: // Xen. 7. whose children, to the age of xxi. yeare, were // Cyri Ped. brought vp in learnyng, and exercises of labor, and that in soch place, where they should, neither see that was vncumlie, nor heare that was vnhonest. Yea, a yong ientleman was neuer free, to go where he would, and do what he liste him self, but vnder the kepe, and by the counsell, of some graue gouernour, vntill he was, either maryed, or cald to beare some office in the common wealth. And see the great obedience, that was vsed in old tyme to fathers and gouernours. No sonne, were he neuer so old of yeares, neuer so great of birth, though he were a kynges sonne, might not mary, but by his father and mothers also consent. Cyrus the great, after he had conquered Babylon, and subdewed

204 The first booke teachyng

Riche king Crœsus with whole Asia minor, cummyng tryumph- antlie home, his vncle Cyaxeris offered him his daughter to wife. Cyrus thanked his vncle, and praised the maide, but for mariage he answered him with thies wise and sweete wordes, as Xen. 8. Cy- // they be vttered by Xenophon, o kuazare, to ri. Pæd. // te genos epaino, kai ten paida, kai dora boulomai de, ephe, syn te tou patros gnome kai [te] tes metros tauta soi synainesai, &c., that is to say: Vncle Cyaxeris, I commend the stocke, I like the maide, and I allow well the dowrie, but (sayth he) by the counsell and consent of my father and mother, I will determine farther of thies matters. Strong Samson also in Scripture saw a maide that liked him, but he spake not to hir, but went home to his father, and his mother, and desired both father and mother to make the mariage for him. Doth this modestie, doth this obedience, that was in great kyng Cyrus, and stoute Samson, remaine in our yongmen at this daie? no surelie: For we liue not longer after them by tyme, than we liue farre different from them by good order. Our tyme is so farre from that old discipline and obedience, as now, not onelie yong ientlemen, but euen verie girles dare without all feare, though not without open shame, where they list, and how they list, marie them selues in spite of father, mother, God, good order, and all. The cause of this euill is, that youth is least looked vnto, when they stand [in] most neede of good kepe and regard. It auail- eth not, to see them well taught in yong yeares, and after whan they cum to lust and youthfull dayes, to giue them licence to liue as they lust them selues. For, if ye suffer the eye of a yong Ientleman, once to be entangled with vaine sightes, and the eare to be corrupted with fond or filthie taulke, the mynde shall quicklie fall seick, and sone vomet and cast vp, all the holesome doctrine, that he receiued in childhoode, though he were neuer so well brought vp before. And being ons inglutted with vanitie, he will streight way loth all learning, and all good counsell to the same. And the parents for all their great cost Great mens // and charge, reape onelie in the end, the frute sonnes // of grief and care. worst // This euill, is not common to poore men, as God brought // will haue it, but proper to riche and great mens vp. //

the brynging vp of youth. 205

children, as they deserue it. In deede from seuen, to seuentene, yong ientlemen commonlie be carefullie enough brought vp: But from seuentene to seuen and twentie (the most dangerous tyme of all a mans life, and most slipperie to stay well in) they haue commonlie the reigne of all licens in their owne // Wise men hand, and speciallie soch as do liue in the Court. // fond fa- And that which is most to be merueled at, // thers. commonlie, the wisest and also best men, be found the fondest fathers in this behalfe. And if som good father would seick some remedie herein, yet the mother (if the house hold of our Lady) had rather, yea, & will to, haue her sonne cunnyng & bold, in making him to lyue trimlie when he is yong, than by learning and trauell, to be able to serue his Prince and his contrie, both wiselie in peace, and stoutelie in warre, whan he is old. The fault is in your selues, ye noble mens sonnes, and therefore ye deserue the greater blame, that // Meane commonlie, the meaner mens children, cum to // mens sonnes be, the wisest councellours, and greatest doers, // come to in the weightie affaires of this Realme. And // great au- why? for God will haue it so, of his prouidence: // thoritie. bicause ye will haue it no otherwise, by your negligence. And God is a good God, & wisest in all his doinges, that will place vertue, & displace vice, in those // Nobilitie kingdomes, where he doth gouerne. For he // without knoweth, that Nobilitie, without vertue and // wisedome. wisedome, is bloud in deede, but bloud trewelie, without bones & sinewes: & so of it selfe, without the other, verie weeke to beare the burden of weightie affaires. The greatest shippe in deede commonlie carieth the greatest burden, but yet alwayes with the greatest ieoperdie, not onelie for the persons and goodes committed vnto it, // Nobilitie but euen for the shyppe it selfe, except it be // with wise- gouerned, with the greater wisdome. // dome. But Nobilitie, gouerned by learning and wisedome, is in deede, most like a faire shippe, // | { Wisedom. hauyng tide and winde at will, vnder // | { the reule of a skilfull master: whan // | Nobilite with-{ contrarie wise, a shippe, caried, yea // | { Out wise- with the hiest tide & greatest winde, // | { dome.

206 The first booke teachyng

    lacking a skilfull master, most commonlie, doth either, sinck it
    selfe vpon sandes, or breake it selfe vpon rockes. And euen so,
    Vaine plea- // how manie haue bene, either drowned in vaine
    sure, and // pleasure, or ouerwhelmed by stout wilfulnesse,
    stoute wil- // the histories of England be able to affourde ouer
    fulnes, two // many examples vnto vs. Therfore, ye great and
    greatest // noble mens children, if ye will haue rightfullie
    enemies to // that praise, and enioie surelie that place, which
    Nobilitie. // your fathers haue, and elders had, and left vnto
    you, ye must kepe it, as they gat it, and that is, by the onelie
    waie, of vertue, wisedome, and worthinesse.
         For wisedom, and vertue, there be manie faire examples in
    this Court, for yong Ientlemen to folow. But they be, like
    faire markes in the feild, out of a mans reach, to far of, to shote
    at well. The best and worthiest men, in deede, be somtimes
    seen, but seldom taulked withall: A yong Ientleman, may
    somtime knele to their person, smallie vse their companie, for
    their better instruction.
         But yong Ientlemen ar faïne commonlie to do in the Court,
    as yong Archers do in the feild: that is take soch markes, as be
    Ill compa- // nie them, although they be neuer so foule to
    nie marreth // shote at. I meene, they be driuen to kepe
    youth. // companie with the worste: and what force ill
    companie hath, to corrupt good wittes, the wisest men know
         And not ill companie onelie, but the ill opinion also of the
    The Court // most part, doth moch harme, and namelie of
    iudgeth // those, which shold be wise in the trewe de-
    worst of the // cyphring, of the good disposition of nature, of
    best natures // cumlinesse in Courtlie maners, and all right
    in youth. // doinges of men.
         But error and phantasie, do commonlie occupie, the place
    of troth and iudgement. For, if a yong ientleman, be demeure
    and still of nature, they say, he is simple and lacketh witte: if
    he be bashefull, and will soone blushe, they call him a babishe
    Xen. in 1. // and ill brought vp thyng, when Xenophon doth
    Cyr. Pæd. // preciselie note in Cyrus, that his bashfulnes in
    youth, was y^e verie trewe signe of his vertue &
    The Grace // stoutnes after: If he be innocent and ignorant of
    in Courte. // ill, they say, he is rude, and hath no grace, so

the brynging vp of youth. 207

vngraciouslie do som gracelesse men, misuse the faire and godlie word GRACE. But if ye would know, what grace they meene, go, and looke, and learn emonges them, and ye shall see that it is: First, to blush at nothing. And blushyng in youth, sayth Aristotle is nothyng els, but feare to do ill: which feare beyng once lustely fraid away from youth, then foloweth, // Grace of to dare do any mischief, to contemne stoutly any // Courte. goodnesse, to be busie in euery matter, to be skilfull in euery thyng, to acknowledge no ignorance at all. To do thus in Court, is counted of some, the chief and greatest grace of all: and termed by the name of a // Cic. 3. de vertue, called Corage & boldnesse, whan Crassus // Or. in Cicero teacheth the cleane contrarie, and that most wittelie, saying thus: Audere, cum bonis // Boldnes etiam rebus coniunctum, per seipsum est magnopere // yea in a fugiendum. Which is to say, to be bold, yea // good mat- in a good matter, is for it self, greatlie to be // ter, not to exchewed. // be praised. Moreouer, where the swing goeth, there to follow, fawne, flatter, laugh and lie lustelie at other mens liking. // More To face, stand formest, shoue backe: and to the // Grace of meaner man, or vnknowne in the Court, to // Courte. seeme somwhat solume, coye, big, and dangerous of looke, taulk, and answere: To thinke well of him selfe, to be lustie in contemning of others, to haue some trim grace in a priuie mock. And in greater presens, to beare a braue looke: to be warlike, though he neuer looked enimie in the face in warre: yet som warlike signe must be vsed, either a slouinglie busking, or an ouerstaring frounced hed, as though out of euerie heeres toppe, should suddenlie start out a good big othe, when nede requireth, yet praised be God, England hath at // Men of this time, manie worthie Capitaines and good // warre, best souldiours, which be in deede, so honest of // of conditi- behauiour, so cumlie of conditions, so milde of // ons. maners, as they may be examples of good order, to a good sort of others, which neuer came in warre. But to retorne, where I left: In place also, to be able to raise taulke, and make discourse of euerie rishe: to haue a verie good // Palmistrie. will, to heare him selfe speake: To be seene

208 The first booke teachyng

    in Palmestrie, wherby to conueie to chast eares, som fond or
    filthie taulke:
         And if som Smithfeild Ruffian take vp, som strange
    going: som new mowing with the mouth: som wrinchyng
    with the shoulder, som braue prouerbe: som fresh new othe,
    that is not stale, but will rin round in the mouth: som new
    disguised garment, or desperate hat, fond in facion, or gaurish
    in colour, what soeuer it cost, how small soeuer his liuing be,
    by what shift soeuer it be gotten, gotten must it be, and vsed
    with the first, or els the grace of it, is stale and gone: som
    part of this gracelesse grace, was discribed by me, in a little
    rude verse long ago.

         {To laughe, to lie, to flatter, to face:
         {Foure waies in Court to win men grace.
         {If thou be thrall to none of thiese,
         {Away good Peek goos, hens Iohn Cheese:
         {Marke well my word, and marke their dede,
         {And thinke this verse part of thy Crede.

Would to God, this taulke were not trewe, and that som mens doinges were not thus: I write not to hurte any, but to {Councell. | // proffit som: to accuse none, but to monish Ill{ | // soch, who, allured by ill counsell, and folowing { | // ill example, contrarie to their good bringyng vp, {Company. | // and against their owne good nature, yeld ouer- moch to thies folies and faultes: I know many seruing men, Seruinge // of good order, and well staide: And againe, I men. // heare saie, there be som seruing men do but ill Terentius. // seruice to their yong masters. Yea, rede Terence Plautus. // and Plaut. aduisedlie ouer, and ye shall finde in those two wise writers, almost in euery commedie, no vn- Serui cor- // thriftie yong man, that is not brought there vnto, ruptelæ // by the sotle inticement of som lewd seruant. iuuenum. // And euen now in our dayes Getæ and Daui, Gnatos and manie bold bawdie Phormios to, be preasing in, Multi Ge- // to pratle on euerie stage, to medle in euerie tæ pauci // matter, whan honest Parmenos shall not be hard, Parmeno- // but beare small swing with their masters. Their nes. // companie, their taulke, their ouer great experience

the brynging vp of youth. 209

    in mischief, doth easelie corrupt the best natures, and best
    brought vp wittes.
         But I meruell the lesse, that thies misorders be emonges
    som in the Court, for commonlie in the contrie // Misorders
    also euerie where, innocencie is gone: Bashful- // in the coun-
    nesse is banished: moch presumption in yougthe: // trey.
    small authoritie in aige: Reuerence is neglected: dewties be
    confounded: and to be shorte, disobedience doth ouerflowe the
    bankes of good order, almoste in euerie place, almoste in euerie
    degree of man.
         Meane men haue eies to see, and cause to lament, and
    occasion to complaine of thies miseries: but other haue
    authoritie to remedie them, and will do so to, whan God shall
    think time fitte. For, all thies misorders, be Goddes iuste
    plages, by his sufferance, brought iustelie vpon vs, for our
    sinnes, which be infinite in nomber, and horrible in deede, but
    namelie, for the greate abhominable sin of vn- // Contempt
    kindnesse: but what vnkindnesse? euen such // of Gods
    vnkindnesse as was in the Iewes, in contemninge // trewe Re-
    Goddes voice, in shrinking from his woorde, in // ligion.
    wishing backe againe for ægypt, in committing aduoultrie and
    hordom, not with the women, but with the doctrine of Babylon,
    did bring all the plages, destructions, and Captiuities, that fell
    so ofte and horriblie, vpon Israell.
         We haue cause also in England to beware of vnkindnesse,
    who haue had, in so fewe yeares, the Candel of Goddes
    worde, so oft lightned, so oft put out, and yet // Doctrina
    will venture by our vnthankfulnesse in doctrine // Mores.
    and sinfull life, to leese againe, lighte, Candle,
    Candlesticke and all.
         God kepe vs in his feare, God grafte in vs the trewe
    knowledge of his woorde, with a forward will to folowe it, and
    so to bring forth the sweete fruites of it, & then shall he
    preserue vs by his Grace, from all maner of terrible dayes.
         The remedie of this, doth not stand onelie, // Publicæ
    in making good common lawes for the hole // Leges.
    Realme, but also, (and perchance cheiflie) // Domestica
    in obseruing priuate discipline euerie man care- // disciplina.
    fullie in his own house: and namelie, if speciall // Cognitio
    regard be had to yougth: and that, not so moch, // boni.

210 The first booke teachyng

    in teaching them what is good, as in keping them from that,
    that is ill.
         Therefore, if wise fathers, be not as well waare in weeding
    Ignoratio // from their Children ill thinges, and ill companie,
    mali. // as they were before, in graftinge in them
    learninge, and prouiding for them good schole-
    masters, what frute, they shall reape of all their coste & care,
    common experience doth tell.
         Here is the place, in yougthe is the time whan som
    Some // ignorance is as necessarie, as moch knowledge,
    ignorance, // and not in matters of our dewtie towardes God,
    as good as // as som wilful wittes willinglie against their owne
    knowledge. // knowledge, perniciouslie againste their owne
    conscience, haue of late openlie taught. In deede S. Chryso-
    Chrisost. de // stome, that noble and eloquent Doctor, in a
    Fato. // sermon contra fatum, and the curious serchinge of
    natiuities, doth wiselie saie, that ignorance therein,
    is better than knowledge: But to wring this sentence, to
    wreste thereby out of mens handes, the knowledge of Goddes
    doctrine, is without all reason, against common sence, contrarie
    to the iudgement also of them, which be the discretest men, and
    Iulia. Apo- // best learned, on their own side. I know, Iulianus
    stat. // Apostata did so, but I neuer hard or red, that any
    auncyent father of the primitiue chirch, either
    thought or wrote so.
         But this ignorance in yougthe, which I spake on, or rather
    Innocency // this simplicitie, or most trewlie, this innocencie,
    in youth. // is that, which the noble Persians, as wise Xenophon
    doth testifie, were so carefull, to breede vp their
    yougth in. But Christian fathers commonlie do not so. And
    I will tell you a tale, as moch to be misliked, as the Persians
    example is to be folowed.
         This last somer, I was in a Ientlemans house: where
    A childe ill // a yong childe, somewhat past fower yeare olde,
    brought // cold in no wise frame his tongue, to saie, a litle
    vp. // shorte grace: and yet he could roundlie rap out,
    so manie vgle othes, and those of the newest facion, as som
    good man of fourescore yeare olde hath neuer hard named
    Ill Pa- // before: and that which was most detestable of
    rentes. // all, his father and mother wold laughe at it. I

the brynging vp of youth. 211

moche doubte, what comforte, an other daie, this childe shall bring vnto them. This Childe vsing moche the companie of seruinge men, and geuing good eare to their taulke, did easelie learne, which he shall hardlie forget, all daies of his life here- after: So likewise, in the Courte, if a yong Ientleman will ventur him self into the companie of Ruffians, it is ouer greate a ieopardie, lest, their facions, maners, thoughtes, taulke, and deedes, will verie sone, be euer like. The confounding of companies, breedeth confusion of good maners // Ill compa- both in the Courte, and euerie where else. // nie. And it maie be a great wonder, but a greater shame, to vs Christian men, to vnderstand, what a heithen writer, Isocrates, doth leaue in memorie of writing, concerning the // Isocrates. care, that the noble Citie of Athens had, to bring vp their yougthe, in honest companie, and vertuous discipline, whose taulke in Greke, is, to this effect, in Englishe. "The Citie, was not more carefull, to see their Children "well taughte, than to see their yong men well // In Orat. "gouerned: which they brought to passe, not so // Ariopag. "much by common lawe, as by priuate discipline. "For, they had more regard, that their yougthe, by good order "shold not offend, than how, by lawe, they might be punished: "And if offense were committed, there was, neither waie to "hide it, neither hope of pardon for it. Good natures, were "not so moche openlie praised as they were secretlie marked, "and watchfullie regarded, lest they should lease the goodnes "they had. Therefore in scholes of singing and dauncing, and "other honest exercises, gouernours were appointed, more "diligent to ouersee their good maners, than their masters were, "to teach them anie learning. It was som shame to a yong "man, to be seene in the open market: and if for businesse, he "passed throughe it, he did it, with a meruelous modestie, and "bashefull facion. To eate, or drinke in a Tauerne, was not "onelie a shame, but also punishable, in a yong man. To "contrarie, or to stand in termes with an old man, was more "heinous, than in som place, to rebuke and scolde with his "owne father: with manie other mo good orders, and faire disciplines, which I referre to their reading, that haue lust to looke vpon the description of such a worthie common welthe.

212 The first booke teachyng

         And to know, what worthie frute, did spring of soch
    Good sede, // worthie seade, I will tell yow the most meruell
    worthie // of all, and yet soch a trothe, as no man shall
    frute. // denie it, except such as be ignorant in knowledge
    of the best stories.
         Athens, by this discipline and good ordering of yougthe, did
    Athenes. // breede vp, within the circute of that one Citie,
    within the compas of one hondred yeare, within
    the memorie of one mans life, so manie notable Capitaines in
    warre, for worthinesse, wisdome and learning, as be scarse
    Roma. // matchable no not in the state of Rome, in the
    compas of those seauen hondred yeares, whan it
    florished moste.
         And bicause, I will not onelie saie it, but also proue it, the
    The noble // names of them be these. Miltiades, Themistocles,
    Capitaines // Xantippus, Pericles, Cymon, Alcybiades, Thrasybulus,
    of Athens. // Conon, Iphicrates, Xenophon, Timotheus, Theopompus,
    Demetrius, and diuers other mo: of which euerie one, maie
    iustelie be spoken that worthie praise, which was geuen to
    Scipio Africanus, who, Cicero douteth, whether he were, more
    noble Capitaine in warre, or more eloquent and wise councelor
    æmil. // in peace. And if ye beleue not me, read dili-
    Probus. // gentlie, æmilius Probus in Latin, and Plutarche
    Plutarchus. // in Greke, which two, had no cause either to
    flatter or lie vpon anie of those which I haue
         And beside nobilitie in warre, for excellent and matchles
    The lear- // masters in all maner of learninge, in that one
    ned of A- // Citie, in memorie of one aige, were mo learned
    thenes. // men, and that in a maner altogether, than all
    tyme doth remember, than all place doth affourde, than all other
    tonges do conteine. And I do not meene of those Authors,
    which, by iniurie of tyme, by negligence of men, by crueltie of
    fier and sworde, be lost, but euen of those, which by Goddes
    grace, are left yet vnto us: of which I thank God, euen my
    poore studie lacketh not one. As, in Philosophie, Plato, Aris-
    totle, Xenophon, Euclide
and Theophrast: In eloquens and Ciuill
    lawe, Demosthenes, æschines, Lycurgus, Dinarchus, Demades,
    Isocrates, Isæus, Lysias, Antisthenes, Andocides
: In histories, He-
    rodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon
: and which we lacke, to our

the brynging vp of youth. 213

    great losse, Theopompus and Eph[orus]: In Poetrie æschylus,
    Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes
, and somwhat of Menander,
sister sonne.
         Now, let Italian, and Latin it self, Spanishe, French,
    Douch, and Englishe bring forth their lerning, // Learnyng,
    and recite their Authors, Cicero onelie excepted, // chiefly con-
    and one or two moe in Latin, they be all patched // teined in
    cloutes and ragges, in comparison of faire wouen // the Greke,
    broade clothes. And trewelie, if there be any // and in no o-
    good in them, it is either lerned, borowed, or // ther tong.
    stolne, from some one of those worthie wittes of Athens.
         The remembrance of soch a common welthe, vsing soch
    discipline and order for yougthe, and thereby bringing forth to
    their praise, and leauing to vs for our example, such Capitaines
    for warre, soch Councelors for peace, and matcheles masters,
    for all kinde of learninge, is pleasant for me to recite, and not
    irksum, I trust, for other to heare, except it be soch, as make
    neither counte of vertue nor learninge.
         And whether, there be anie soch or no, I can not well tell:
    yet I hear saie, some yong Ientlemen of oures, // Contem-
    count it their shame to be counted learned: and // ners of
    perchance, they count it their shame, to be // learnyng.
    counted honest also, for I heare saie, they medle as litle with the
    one, as with the other. A meruelous case, that Ientlemen
    shold so be ashamed of good learning, and neuer a whit ashamed
    of ill maners: soch do saie for them, that the
    Ientlemen of France do so: which is a lie, as // Ientlemen
    God will haue it. Langæus, and Bellæus that be // of France.
    dead, & the noble Vidam of Chartres, that is aliue, and infinite
    mo in France, which I heare tell of, proue this to be most false.
    And though som, in France, which will nedes be Ientlemen,
    whether men will or no, and haue more ientleshipe in their hat,
    than in their hed, be at deedlie feude, with both learning and
    honestie, yet I beleue, if that noble Prince, king Francis the
    first were aliue, they shold haue, neither place in // Franciscus
    his Courte, nor pension in his warres, if he had // I. Nobilis.
    knowledge of them. This opinion is not French, // Francorum
    but plaine Turckishe: from whens, some Frenche // Rex.
    fetche moe faultes, than this: which, I praie God, kepe out of

214 The first booke teachyng

    England, and send also those of oures better mindes, which
    bend them selues againste vertue and learninge, to the con-
    tempte of God, dishonor of their contrie to the hurt of manie
    others, and at length, to the greatest harme, and vtter destruction
    of themselues.
         Som other, hauing better nature, but lesse witte, (for ill
    commonlie, haue ouer moch witte) do not vtterlie dispraise
    Experience // learning, but they saie, that without learning,
    without // common experience, knowledge of all facions, and
    learnyng. // haunting all companies, shall worke in yougthe,
    both wisdome, and habilitie, to execute anie weightie affaire.
    Surelie long experience doth proffet moch, but moste, and
    almost onelie to him (if we meene honest affaires) that is dili-
    gentlie before instructed with preceptes of well doinge. For
    good precepts of learning, be the eyes of the minde, to looke
    wiselie before a man, which waie to go right, and which not.
         Learning teacheth more in one yeare than experience in
    Learnyng. // twentie: And learning teacheth safelie. when
    experience maketh mo miserable then wise. He
    Experience. // hasardeth sore, that waxeth wise by experience.
    An vnhappie Master he is, that is made cunning by manie
    shippewrakes: A miserable merchant, that is neither riche or
    wise, but after som bankroutes. It is costlie wisdom, that is
    bought by experience. We know by experience it selfe, that it
    is a meruelous paine, to finde oute but a short waie, by long
    wandering. And surelie, he that wold proue wise by
    experience, he maie be wittie in deede, but euen like a swift
    runner, that runneth fast out of his waie, and vpon the night,
    he knoweth not whither. And verilie they be fewest of
    number, that be happie or wise by vnlearned experience. And
    looke well vpon the former life of those fewe, whether your
    example be old or yonge, who without learning haue gathered,
    by long experience, a litle wisdom, and som happines: and
    whan you do consider, what mischiefe they haue committed,
    what dangers they haue escaped (and yet xx. for one, do
    perishe in the aduenture) than thinke well with your selfe,
    whether ye wold, that your owne son, should cum to wisdom
    and happines, by the waie of soch experience or no.
         It is a notable tale, that old Syr Roger Chamloe, somtime

the brynging vp of youth. 215

cheife Iustice, wold tell of him selfe. When he was Auncient in Inne of Courte, Certaine yong Ientlemen // Syr Roger were brought before him, to be corrected for Chamloe. certaine misorders: And one of the lustiest saide: Syr, we be yong ientlemen, and wisemen before vs, haue proued all facions, and yet those haue done full well: this they said, because it was well knowen, that Syr Roger had bene a good feloe in his yougth. But he aunswered them verie wiselie. In deede saith he, in yougthe, I was, as you ar now: and I had twelue feloes like vnto my self, but not one of them came to a good ende. And therfore, folow not my example in yougth, but folow my councell in aige, if euer ye thinke to cum to this place, or to thies yeares, that I am cum vnto, lesse ye meete either with pouertie or Tiburn in the way. Thus, experience of all facions in yougthe, beinge, in profe, alwaise daungerous, in isshue, seldom lucklie, is // Experience. a waie, in deede, to ouermoch knowledge, yet vsed commonlie of soch men, which be either caried by som curious affection of mynde, or driuen by som hard necessitie of life, to hasard the triall of ouer manie perilous aduentures. Erasmus the honor of learning of all oure time, saide wiselie that experience is the common schole- // Erasmus. house of foles, and ill men: Men, of witte and // Experience, honestie, be otherwise instructed. For there be, // the schole- that kepe them out of fier, and yet was neuer // house of burned: That beware of water, and yet was neuer // Foles, and nie drowninge: That hate harlottes, and was // ill men. neuer at the stewes: That abhorre falshode, and neuer brake promis themselues. But will ye see, a fit Similitude of this aduentured experience. A Father, that doth let louse his son, to all experiences, is most like a fond Hunter, that letteth slippe a whelpe to the hole herde. Twentie to one, he shall fall vpon a rascall, and let go the faire game. Men that hunt so, be either ignorant persones, preuie stealers, or night walkers. Learning therefore, ye wise fathers, and good bringing vp, and not blinde & dangerous experience, is the next and readiest waie, that must leede your Children, first, to wisdom, and than to worthinesse, if euer ye purpose they shall cum there. And to saie all in shorte, though I lacke Authoritie to giue

216 The first booke teachyng

counsell, yet I lacke not good will to wisshe, that the yougthe How expe- // in England, speciallie Ientlemen, and namelie no- rience may // bilitie, shold be by good bringing vp, so grounded proffet. // in iudgement of learninge, so founded in loue of honestie, as, whan they shold be called forthe to the execution of great affaires, in seruice of their Prince and contrie, they might be hable, to vse and to order, all experiences, were they good were they bad, and that, according to the square, rule, and line, of wisdom learning and vertue. And, I do not meene, by all this my taulke, that yong Diligent // Ientlemen, should alwaies be poring on a booke, learninge // and by vsing good studies, shold lease honest ought to be // pleasure, and haunt no good pastime, I meene ioyned with // nothing lesse: For it is well knowne, that I both pleasant // like and loue, and haue alwaies, and do yet still pastimes, // vse, all exercises and pastimes, that be fitte for my namelie in a // nature and habilitie. And beside naturall dispo- ientleman. // sition, in iudgement also, I was neuer, either Stoick in doctrine, or Anabaptist in Religion, to mislike a merie, pleasant, and plaifull nature, if no outrage be committed, against lawe, mesure, and good order. Therefore, I wold wishe, that, beside some good time, fitlie appointed, and constantlie kepte, to encrease by readinge, the knowledge of the tonges and learning, yong ientlemen shold Learnyng // vse, and delite in all Courtelie exercises, and ioyned with // Ientlemanlike pastimes. And good cause whie: pastimes. // For the self same noble Citie of Athenes, iustlie commended of me before, did wiselie and vpon great considera- tion, appoint, the Muses, Apollo, and Pallas, to be patrones of Musæ. // learninge to their yougthe. For the Muses, besides learning, were also Ladies of dauncinge, Apollo. // mirthe and ministrelsie: Apollo, was god of shooting, and Author of cunning playing vpon Instrumentes: Pallas. // Pallas also was Laidie mistres in warres. Wher- bie was nothing else ment, but that learninge shold be alwaise mingled, with honest mirthe, and cumlie exercises: and that warre also shold be gouerned by learning, and moderated by wisdom, as did well appeare in those Capitaines of Athenes named by me before, and also in Scipio & Cæsar, the two Diamondes of Rome.

the brynging vp of youth. 217

And Pallas, was no more feared, in weering ægida, than she was praised, for chosing Oliva: whereby shineth // Learning the glory of learning, which thus, was Gouernour // rewleth & Mistres, in the noble Citie of Athenes, both of // both warre warre and peace. // and peace. Therefore, to ride cumlie: to run faire at the tilte or ring: to plaie at all weapones: to shote faire in bow, or surelie in gon: to vaut lustely: to runne: to leape: to wrestle: // The pas- to swimme: To daunce cumlie: to sing, and playe // times that of instrumentes cunnyngly: to Hawke: to hunte: // be fitte for to playe at tennes, & all pastimes generally, which // Courtlie be ioyned with labor, vsed in open place, and on // Ientlemen. the day light, conteining either some fitte exercise for warre, or some pleasant pastime for peace, be not onelie cumlie and decent, but also verie necessarie, for a Courtlie Ientleman to vse. But, of all kinde of pastimes, fitte for a Ientleman, I will, godwilling, in fitter place, more at large, declare fullie, in my booke of the Cockpitte: which I do write, to // The Cok- satisfie som, I trust, with som reason, that be // pitte. more curious, in marking other mens doinges, than carefull in mendying their owne faultes. And som also will nedes busie them selues in merueling, and adding thereunto vnfrendlie taulke, why I, a man of good yeares, and of no ill place, I thanke God and my Prince, do make choise to spend soch tyme in writyng of trifles, as the schole of shoting, the Cockpitte, and this booke of the first Principles of Grammer, rather, than to take some weightie matter in hand, either of Religion, or Ciuill discipline. Wise men I know, will well allow of my choise herein: and as for such, who haue not witte of them selues, but must learne of others, to iudge right of mens doynges, let them // A booke of read that wise Poet Horace in his Arte Poetica, // a lofty title, who willeth wisemen to beware, of hie and loftie // beareth the Titles. For, great shippes, require costlie tack- // brag of o- ling, and also afterward dangerous gouernment: // uergreat a Small boates, be neither verie chargeable in // promise. makyng, nor verie oft in great ieoperdie: and yet they cary many tymes, as good and costlie ware, as greater vessels do. A meane Argument, may easelie beare, the light burden of a small faute, and haue alwaise at hand, a ready excuse for

218 The first booke teachyng

    ill handling: And, some praise it is, if it so chaunce, to be
    The right // better in deede, than a man dare venture to
    choise, to // seeme. A hye title, doth charge a man, with
    chose a fitte // the heauie burden, of to great a promise: and
    Argument // therefore sayth Horace verie wittelie, that, that
    to write // Poete was a verie foole, that began hys booke,
    vpon. // with a goodlie verse in deede, but ouer proude
    Hor. in // a promise.
    Arte Poet. //

Fortunam Priami cantabo & nobile bellum,

And after, as wiselie.

Quantò rectiùs hic, qui nil molitur ineptè. etc.

    Meening Homer, who, within the compasse of a smal
    Homers // Argument, of one harlot, and of one good wife,
    wisdom in // did vtter so moch learning in all kinde of sciences,
    choice of // as, by the iudgement of Quintilian, he deserueth
    his Argu- // so hie a praise, that no man yet deserued to sit
    ment. // in the second degree beneth him. And thus moch
    out of my way, concerning my purpose in spending penne, and
    paper, & tyme, vpon trifles, & namelie to aunswere some, that
    haue neither witte nor learning, to do any thyng them selues,
    neither will nor honestie, to say well of other.
         To ioyne learnyng with cumlie exercises, Conto Baldesær
    The Cor- // Castiglione in his booke, Cortegiano, doth trimlie
    tegian, an // teache: which booke, aduisedlie read, and dili-
    excellent // gentlie folowed, but one yeare at home in
    booke for a // England, would do a yong ientleman more good,
    ientleman. // I wisse, then three yeares trauell abrode spent in
    Italie. And I meruell this booke, is no more read in the Court,
    than it is, seying it is so well translated into English by a worthie
    Syr Tho. // Ientleman Syr Th. Hobbie, who was many wayes
    Hobbye. // well furnished with learnyng, and very expert in
    knowledge of diuers tonges.
         And beside good preceptes in bookes, in all kinde of tonges,
    this Court also neuer lacked many faire examples, for yong
    Examples // ientlemen to folow: And surelie, one example,
    better than // is more valiable, both to good and ill, than xx.
    preceptes. // preceptes written in bookes: and so Plato, not in
    one or two, but diuerse places, doth plainlie teach.

the brynging vp of youth. 219

         If kyng Edward had liued a litle longer, his onely example
    had breed soch a rase of worthie learned ientlemen, // King Ed. 6.
    as this Realme neuer yet did affourde.
         And, in the second degree, two noble Primeroses of
    Nobilitie, the yong Duke of Suffolke, and Lord // The yong
    H. Matreuers, were soch two examples to the // Duke of
    Court for learnyng, as our tyme may rather wishe, // Suffolke.
    than looke for agayne. // L. H. Mar-
    // treuers.
         At Cambrige also, in S. Iohns Colledge, in
    my tyme, I do know, that, not so much the good statutes, as two
    Ientlemen, of worthie memorie Syr Iohn Cheke, // Syr John
    and Doctour Readman, by their onely example // Cheke.
    of excellency in learnyng, of godlynes in liuyng, of
    diligencie in studying, of councell in exhorting, of good order in
    all thyng, did breed vp, so many learned men, in // D. Read-
    that one College of S. Iohns, at one time, as I // man.
    beleue, the whole Vniuersitie of Louaine, in many
    yeares, was neuer able to affourd.
         Present examples of this present tyme, I list not to
    touch: yet there is one example, for all the Ien- // Queene
    tlemen of this Court to folow, that may well // Elisabeth.
    satisfie them, or nothing will serue them, nor no
    example moue them, to goodnes and learning.
         It is your shame, (I speake to you all, you yong Ientlemen
    of England) that one mayd should go beyond you all, in excel-
    lencie of learnyng, and knowledge of diuers tonges. Pointe
    forth six of the best giuen Ientlemen of this Court, and all they
    together, shew not so much good will, spend not so much tyme,
    bestow not so many houres, dayly orderly, & constantly, for the
    increase of learning & knowledge, as doth the Queenes Maiestie
    her selfe. Yea I beleue, that beside her perfit readines, in
    Latin, Italian, French, & Spanish, she readeth here now at
    Windsore more Greeke euery day, than some Prebendarie of
    this Chirch doth read Latin in a whole weeke. And that
    which is most praise worthie of all, within the walles of her
    priuie chamber, she hath obteyned that excellencie of learnyng,
    to vnderstand, speake, & write, both wittely with head, and
    faire with hand, as scarse one or two rare wittes in both the
    Vniuersities haue in many yeares reached vnto. Amongest
    all the benefites y^t God hath blessed me with all, next the

220 The first booke teachyng

    knowledge of Christes true Religion, I counte this the greatest,
    that it pleased God to call me, to be one poore minister in
    settyng forward these excellent giftes of learnyng in this most
    excellent Prince. Whose onely example, if the rest of our
    Ill Exam- // nobilitie would folow, than might England be,
    ples haue // for learnyng and wisedome in nobilitie, a spectacle
    more force, // to all the world beside. But see the mishap of
    then good // men: The best examples haue neuer such forse
    examples. // to moue to any goodnes, as the bad, vaine, light
    and fond, haue to all ilnes.
         And one example, though out of the compas of learning,
    yet not out of the order of good maners, was notable in this
    Courte, not fullie xxiiij. yeares a go, when all the actes of
    Parlament, many good Proclamations, diuerse strait commanude-
    mentes, sore punishment openlie, speciall regarde priuatelie, cold
    not do so moch to take away one misorder, as the example of
    one big one of this Courte did, still to kepe vp the same: The
    memorie whereof, doth yet remaine, in a common prouerbe of
    Birching lane.
         Take hede therfore, ye great ones in y^e Court, yea though
    Great men // ye be y^e greatest of all, take hede, what ye do,
    in Court, // take hede how ye liue. For as you great ones
    by their // vse to do, so all meane men loue to do. You be
    example, // in deed, makers or marrers, of all mens maners
    make or // within the Realme. For though God hath placed
    marre, all // yow, to be cheife in making of lawes, to beare
    other mens // greatest authoritie, to commaund all others: yet
    maners. // God doth order, that all your lawes, all your authoritie, all your
    commaundementes, do not halfe so moch with meane men, as
    Example // doth your example and maner of liuinge. And
    in Religion. // for example euen in the greatest matter, if yow
    your selues do serue God gladlie and orderlie for
    conscience sake, not coldlie, and somtyme for maner sake, you
    carie all the Courte with yow, and the whole Realme beside,
    earnestlie and orderlie to do the same. If yow do otherwise,
    yow be the onelie authors, of all misorders in Religion, not
    onelie to the Courte, but to all England beside. Infinite shall
    be made cold in Religion by your example, that neuer were
    hurt by reading of bookes.
         And in meaner matters, if three or foure great ones in

the brynging vp of youth. 221

Courte, will nedes outrage in apparell, in huge hose, in mon- strous hattes, in gaurishe colers, let the Prince Pro- // Example clame, make Lawes, order, punishe, commaunde // in apparell. euerie gate in London dailie to be watched, let all good men beside do euerie where what they can, surelie the misorder of apparell in mean men abrode, shall neuer be amended, except the greatest in Courte will order and mend them selues first. I know, som greate and good ones in Courte, were authors, that honest Citizens of London, shoulde watche at euerie gate, to take misordered persones in apparell. I know, that honest Londoners did so: And I sawe, which I saw than, & reporte now with some greife, that som Courtlie men were offended with these good men of London. And that, which greued me most of all, I sawe the verie same tyme, for all theis good orders, commaunded from the Courte and executed in London, I sawe I say, cum out of London, euen // Masters, vnto the presence of the Prince, a great rable of // Vshers, & meane and light persons, in apparell, for matter, // Scholers against lawe, for making, against order, for facion, // of fense. namelie hose, so without all order, as he thought himselfe most braue, that durst do most in breaking order and was most monsterous in misorder. And for all the great commaunde- mentes, that came out of the Courte, yet this bold misorder, was winked at, and borne withall, in the Courte. I thought, it was not well, that som great ones of the Court, durst declare themselues offended, with good men of London, for doinge their dewtie, & the good ones of the Courte, would not shew them- selues offended, with ill men of London, for breaking good order. I fownde thereby a sayinge of Socrates to be most trewe that ill men be more hastie, than good men be forwarde, to prosecute their purposes, euen as Christ himselfe saith, of the Children of light and darknes. Beside apparell, in all other thinges to, not so moch, good lawes and strait commaundementes as the example and maner of liuing of great men, doth carie all meane men euerie where, to like, and loue, & do, as they do. For if but two or three noble men in the Court, wold but beginne to // Example shoote, all yong Ientlemen, the whole Court, all // in shoo- London, the whole Realme, wold straight waie // tyng. exercise shooting.

222 The first booke teachyng

What praise shold they wynne to themselues, what com- moditie shold they bring to their contrey, that would thus deserue to be pointed at: Beholde, there goeth, the author of good order, the guide of good men. I cold say more, and yet not ouermuch. But perchance, som will say, I haue stepte to farre, out of my schole, into the common welthe, from teaching Written not // a yong scholer, to monishe greate and noble men: for great // yet I trust good and wise men will thinke and men, but for // iudge of me, that my minde was, not so moch, great mens // to be busie and bold with them, that be great children. // now, as to giue trewe aduise to them, that may be great hereafter. Who, if they do, as I wishe them to do, how great so euer they be now, by blood and other mens meanes, they shall becum a greate deale greater hereafter, by learninge, vertue, and their owne desertes: which is trewe praise, right worthines, and verie Nobilitie in deede. Yet, if som will needes presse me, that I am to bold with great men, & stray to Ad Philip. // farre from my matter, I will aunswere them with S. Paul, siue perc ontentionem, siue quocunqe modo, modò Christus prædicetur, &c. euen so, whether in place, or out of place, with my matter, or beside my matter, if I can hereby either prouoke the good, or staye the ill, I shall thinke my writing herein well imployed. But, to cum downe, from greate men, and hier matters, to my litle children, and poore scholehouse againe, I will, God willing, go forwarde orderlie, as I purposed, to instructe Children and yong men, both for learninge and maners. Hitherto, I haue shewed, what harme, ouermoch feare bringeth to children: and what hurte, ill companie, and ouer- moch libertie breedeth in yougthe: meening thereby, that from seauen yeare olde, to seauentene, loue is the best allurement to learninge: from seauentene to seauen and twentie, that wise men shold carefullie see the steppes of yougthe surelie staide by good order, in that most slipperie tyme: and speciallie in the Courte, a place most dangerous for yougthe to liue in, without great grace, good regarde, and diligent looking to. Syr Richard Sackuile, that worthy Ientlemen of worthy Trauelyng // memorie, as I sayd in the begynnynge, in the into Ita- // Queenes priuie Chamber at Windesore, after he lie. // had talked with me, for the right choice of a good

the brynging vp of youth. 223

witte in a child for learnyng, and of the trewe difference betwixt quicke and hard wittes, of alluring yong children by ientlenes to loue learnyng, and of the speciall care that was to be had, to keepe yong men from licencious liuyng, he was most earnest with me, to haue me say my mynde also, what I thought, concernyng the fansie that many yong Ientlemen of England haue to trauell abroad, and namely to lead a long lyfe in Italie. His request, both for his authoritie, and good will toward me, was a sufficient commaundement vnto me, to satisfie his pleasure, with vtteryng plainlie my opinion in that matter. Syr quoth I, I take goyng thither, and liuing there, for a yonge ientleman, that doth not goe vnder the kepe and garde of such a man, as both, by wisedome can, and authoritie dare rewle him, to be meruelous dangerous. And whie I said so than, I will declare at large now: which I said than priuatelie, and write now openlie, not bicause I do contemne, either the knowledge of strange and diuerse tonges, and namelie the // The Ita- Italian tonge, which next the Greeke and Latin // lian tong. tonge, I like and loue aboue all other: or else bicause I do despise, the learning that is gotten, or the experi- ence that is gathered in strange contries: or for any priuate malice that beare to Italie: which contrie, and // Italia. in it, namelie Rome, I haue alwayes speciallie honored: bicause, tyme was, whan Italie and // Roma. Rome, haue bene, to the greate good of vs that now liue, the best breeders and bringers vp, of the worthiest men, not onelie for wise speakinge, but also for well doing, in all Ciuill affaires, that euer was in the worlde. But now, that tyme is gone, and though the place remayne, yet the olde and present maners, do differ as farre, as blacke and white, as vertue and vice. Vertue once made that contrie Mistres ouer all the worlde. Vice now maketh that contrie slaue to them, that before, were glad to serue it. All men seeth it: They themselues confesse it, namelie soch, as be best and wisest amongest them. For sinne, by lust and vanitie, hath and doth breed vp euery where, common contempt of Gods word, priuate contention in many families, open factions in euery Citie: and so, makyng them selues bonde, to vanitie and vice at home, they are content to beare the yoke of seruyng straungers abroad. Italie now, is not that Italie, that it was wont to be: and therfore now, not so

224 The first booke teachyng

fitte a place, as some do counte it, for yong men to fetch either wisedome or honestie from thence. For surelie, they will make other but bad Scholers, that be so ill Masters to them selues. Yet, if a ientleman will nedes trauell into Italie, he shall do well, to looke on the life, of the wisest traueler, that euer traueled thether, set out by the wisest writer, that euer spake with tong, Gods doctrine onelie excepted: and that is Vlysses in Vlysses. // Homere. Vlysses, and his trauell, I wishe our Homere. // trauelers to looke vpon, not so much to feare them, with the great daungers, that he many tymes suffered, as to instruct them, with his excellent wisedome, which he alwayes and euerywhere vsed. Yea euen those, that be learned and wittie trauelers, when they be disposed to prayse traueling, as a great commendacion, and the best Scripture they haue for it, they gladlie recite the third verse of Homere, in his first booke of Odyssea, conteinyng a great prayse of Vlysses, for odys. a. // the witte he gathered, & wisdome he vsed in his traueling. Which verse, bicause, in mine opinion, it was not made at the first, more naturallie in Greke by Homere, nor after turned more aptlie into Latin by Horace, than it was a good while ago, in Cambrige, translated into English, both plainlie for the sense, and roundlie for the verse, by one of the best Scholers, that euer S. Iohns Colledge bred, M. Watson, myne old frend, somtime Bishop of Lincolne, therfore, for their sake, that haue lust to see, how our English tong, in auoidyng barbarous ryming, may as well receiue, right quantitie of sillables, and trewe order of versifiyng (of which matter more at large here- after) as either Greke or Latin, if a cunning man haue it in handling, I will set forth that one verse in all three tonges, for an Example to good wittes, that shall delite in like learned exercise. <b>Homerus.</b> pollon d anthropon iden astea kai noon egno. <b>Horatius.</b> Qui mores hominum multorum vidit & vrbes. <b>M. Watson.</b> All trauellers do gladly report great prayse of Vlysses, For that he knew many mens maners, and saw many Cities.

the brynging vp of youth. 225

         And yet is not Vlysses commended, so much, nor so oft, in
    Homere, bicause he was polytropos, that is, // | {polytropos.
    skilfull in many mens manners and facions, as // | Vlyss. {
    bicause he was polymetis, that is, wise in all // | { polymetis.
    purposes, & ware in all places: which wisedome and warenes
    will not serue neither a traueler, except Pallas be // Pallas from
    alwayes at his elbow, that is Gods speciall grace // heauen.
    from heauen, to kepe him in Gods feare, in all
    his doynges, in all his ieorneye. For, he shall not alwayes
    in his absence out of England, light vpon a
    ientle Alcynous, and walke in his faire gardens // | Alcynous. od. 2.
    full of all harmelesse pleasures: but he shall // |
    sometymes, fall, either into the handes of some // |
    cruell Cyclops, or into the lappe of some wanton // | Cyclops. od. 1.
    and dalying Dame Calypso: and so suffer the // | Calypso. od. e.
    danger of many a deadlie Denne, not so full of // |
    perils, to distroy the body, as, full of vayne // |
    pleasures, to poyson the mynde. Some Siren // | Sirenes. }
    shall sing him a song, sweete in tune, but // | }
    sownding in the ende, to his vtter destruction. // | Scylla. } od.
    If Scylla drowne him not, Carybdis may fortune // | Caribdis. }
    swalow hym. Some Circes shall make him, of // | Circes. od. k.
    a plaine English man, a right Italian. And at
    length to hell, or to some hellish place, is he likelie to go: from
    whence is hard returning, although one Vlysses, and that by
    Pallas ayde, and good counsell of Tiresias once // od. l.
    escaped that horrible Den of deadly darkenes.
         Therfore, if wise men will nedes send their sonnes into
    Italie, let them do it wiselie, vnder the kepe and garde of him,
    who, by his wisedome and honestie, by his example and
    authoritie, may be hable to kepe them safe and sound, in the
    feare of God, in Christes trewe Religion, in good order and
    honestie of liuyng: except they will haue them run headling,
    into ouermany ieoperdies, as Vlysses had done many tymes, if
    Pallas had not alwayes gouerned him: if he had not vsed, to
    stop his eares with waxe: to bind him selfe to // od. m.
    the mast of his shyp: to feede dayly, vpon that // od. k.
    swete herbe Moly with the blake roote and // Moly Her-
    white floore, giuen vnto hym by Mercurie, to // ba.
    auoide all the inchantmentes of Circes. Wherby, the Diuine

226 The first booke teachyng

    Poete Homer ment couertlie (as wise and Godly men do iudge)
    Psal. 33. // that loue of honestie, and hatred of ill, which
    Dauid more plainly doth call the feare of God:
    the onely remedie agaynst all inchantementes of sinne.
         I know diuerse noble personages, and many worthie Ientle-
    men of England, whom all the Siren songes of Italie, could
    neuer vntwyne from the maste of Gods word: nor no inchant-
    ment of vanitie, ouerturne them, from the feare of God, and
    loue of honestie.
         But I know as many, or mo, and some, sometyme my
    deare frendes, for whose sake I hate going into that countrey the
    more, who, partyng out of England feruent in the loue of
    Christes doctrine, and well furnished with the feare of God,
    returned out of Italie worse transformed, than euer was any in
    Circes Court. I know diuerse, that went out of England, men
    of innocent life, men of excellent learnyng, who returned out
    of Italie, not onely with worse maners, but also with lesse
    learnyng: neither so willing to liue orderly, nor yet so hable to
    speake learnedlie, as they were at home, before they went
    abroad. And why? Plato y^t wise writer, and worthy
    traueler him selfe, telleth the cause why. He went into Sicilia,
    a countrey, no nigher Italy by site of place, than Italie that is
    now, is like Sicilia that was then, in all corrupt maners and
    licenciousnes of life. Plato found in Sicilia, euery Citie full of
    vanitie, full of factions, euen as Italie is now. And as Homere,
    like a learned Poete, doth feyne, that Circes, by pleasant in-
    chantmentes, did turne men into beastes, some into Swine, som
    into Asses, some into Foxes, some into Wolues etc. euen so
    Plat. ad // Plato, like a wise Philosopher, doth plainelie
    Dionys. // declare, that pleasure, by licentious vanitie, that
    Epist. 3. // sweete and perilous poyson of all youth, doth
    ingender in all those, that yeld vp themselues to her, foure
    notorious properties.
                             {1. lethen
    The fruits // {2. dysmathian
    of vayne // {3. achrosynen
    pleasure. // {4. ybrin.
         The first, forgetfulnes of all good thinges learned before:
    Causes // the second, dulnes to receyue either learnyng or
    why men // honestie euer after: the third, a mynde embracing

the brynging vp of youth. 227

lightlie the worse opinion, and baren of discretion // returne out to make trewe difference betwixt good and ill, // of Italie, betwixt troth, and vanitie, the fourth, a proude // lesse lear- disdainfulnes of other good men, in all honest // ned and matters. Homere and Plato, haue both one // worse ma- meanyng, looke both to one end. For, if a man // nered. inglutte himself with vanitie, or walter in filthi- // Homer and nes like a Swyne, all learnyng, all goodnes, is // Plato ioy- sone forgotten: Than, quicklie shall he becum // ned and ex- a dull Asse, to vnderstand either learnyng or //pounded. honestie: and yet shall he be as sutle as a Foxe, // A Swyne. in breedyng of mischief, in bringyng in misorder, // An Asse. with a busie head, a discoursing tong, and a factious harte, in // A Foxe. euery priuate affaire, in all matters of state, with this pretie propertie, alwayes glad to commend the worse // aphrosyne, partie, and euer ready to defend the falser // Quid, et opinion. And why? For, where will is giuen // vnde. from goodnes to vanitie, the mynde is sone caryed from right iudgement, to any fond opinion, in Religion, in Philosophie, or any other kynde of learning. The fourth fruite of vaine pleasure, by Homer and Platos iudgement, is pride // hybris. in them selues, contempt of others, the very badge of all those that serue in Circes Court. The trewe meenyng of both Homer and Plato, is plainlie declared in one short sentence of the holy Prophet of God // Hieremias Hieremie, crying out of the vaine & vicious life // 4. Cap. of the Israelites. This people (sayth he) be fooles and dulhedes to all goodnes, but sotle, cunning and bolde, in any mischiefe. &c. The true medicine against the inchantmentes of Circes, the vanitie of licencious pleasure, the inticementes of all sinne, is, in Homere, the herbe Moly, with the blacke roote, and white flooer, sower at the first, but sweete in the end: which, Hesiodus termeth the study of vertue, hard and // Hesiodus irksome in the beginnyng, but in the end, easie // de virtute. and pleasant. And that, which is most to be marueled at, the diuine Poete Homere sayth plainlie that this medicine against sinne and vanitie, is not found // Homerus, out by man, but giuen and taught by God. And // diuinus for some one sake, that will haue delite to read // Poeta.

228 The first booke teachyng

that sweete and Godlie Verse, I will recite the very wordes of Homere and also turne them into rude English metre.

chalepon de t oryssein andrasi ge thnetoisi, theoi de te panta dynantai.

In English thus.

No mortall man, with sweat of browe, or toile of minde, But onely God, who can do all, that herbe doth finde.

Plato also, that diuine Philosopher, hath many Godly medicines agaynst the poyson of vayne pleasure, in many places, but specially in his Epistles to Dionisius the tyrant of Plat. ad // Sicilie: yet agaynst those, that will nedes becum Dio. // beastes, with seruyng of Circes, the Prophet Psal. 32 // Dauid, crieth most loude, Nolite fieri sicut equus et mulus: and by and by giueth the right medi- cine, the trewe herbe Moly, In camo & freno maxillas eorum constringe, that is to say, let Gods grace be the bitte, let Gods feare be the bridle, to stay them from runnyng head- long into vice, and to turne them into the right way agayne. Psal. 33. // Dauid in the second Psalme after, giueth the same medicine, but in these plainer wordes, Diuerte à malo, & fac bonum. But I am affraide, that ouer many of our trauelers into Italie, do not exchewe the way to Circes Court: but go, and ryde, and runne, and flie thether, they make great hast to cum to her: they make great sute to serue her: yea, I could point out some with my finger, that neuer had gone out of England, but onelie to serue Circes, in Italie. Vanitie and vice, and any licence to ill liuyng in England was counted stale and rude vnto them. And so, beyng Mules and Horses before they went, returned verie Swyne and Asses home agayne: yet euerie where verie Foxes with suttle A trewe // and busie heades; and where they may, verie Picture of // wolues, with cruell malicious hartes. A mer- a knight of // uelous monster, which, for filthines of liuyng, for Circes // dulnes to learning him selfe, for wilinesse in Court. // dealing with others, for malice in hurting without cause, should carie at once in one bodie, the belie of a Swyne, the head of an Asse, the brayne of a Foxe, the wombe of a wolfe. If you thinke, we iudge amisse, and write to sore

the brynging vp of youth. 229

against you, heare, what the Italian sayth of the English man, what the master reporteth of the scholer: who // The Ita- vttereth playnlie, what is taught by him, and what // lians iudge- learned by you, saying, Englese Italianato, e vn // ment of diabolo incarnato, that is to say, you remaine men // Englishmen in shape and facion, but becum deuils in life // brought vp and condition. This is not, the opinion of one, // in Italie. for some priuate spite, but the iudgement of all, in a common Prouerbe, which riseth, of that learnyng, and those maners, which you gather in Italie: a good Scholehouse // The Ita- of wholesome doctrine: and worthy Masters of // lian diffa- commendable Scholers, where the Master had // meth him rather diffame hym selfe for hys teachyng, than // selfe, to not shame his Scholer for his learning. A good // shame the nature of the maister, and faire conditions of the // Englishe scholers. And now chose you, you Italian English men, // man. whether you will be angrie with vs, for calling you monsters, or with the Italianes, for callyng you deuils, or else with your owne selues, that take so much paines, and go so farre, to make your selues both. If some yet do not well vnder- // An Eng- stand, what is an English man Italianated, I will // lish man plainlie tell him. He, that by liuing, & traueling // Italiana- in Italie, bringeth home into England out of Italie, // ted. the Religion, the learning, the policie, the experience, the maners of Italie. That is to say, for Religion, // | {1 Religion.} Papistrie or worse: for learnyng, lesse // | {2 Learn- } commonly than they caried out with // | { ing. } them: for pollicie, a factious hart, a // | {3 Pollicie. } discoursing head, a mynde to medle in // |The{ }gotten in all mens matters: for experience, // | {4 Experi- }Italie. plentie of new mischieues neuer // | { ence. } knowne in England before: for maners, // | {5 Maners. } varietie of vanities, and chaunge of // | filthy lyuing. These be the inchantementes of Circes, brought out of Italie, to marre mens maners in England: much, by example of ill life, but more by preceptes of fonde // Italian bookes, of late translated out of Italian into // bokes trans- English, sold in euery shop in London, com- // lated into mended by honest titles the soner to corrupt // English. honest maners: dedicated ouer boldlie to vertuous and honor-

230 The first booke teachyng

    able personages, the easielier to begile simple and innocent wittes.
    hand.gif // It is pitie, that those, which haue authoritie and
    charge, to allow and dissalow bookes to be printed,
    be no more circumspect herein, than they are. Ten Sermons
    at Paules Crosse do not so moch good for mouyng men to trewe
    doctrine, as one of those bookes do harme, with inticing men
    to ill liuing. Yea, I say farder, those bookes, tend not so moch
    to corrupt honest liuyng, as they do, to subuert trewe Religion.
    Mo Papistes be made, by your mery bookes of Italie, than by
    your earnest bookes of Louain. And bicause our great
    Phisicians, do winke at the matter, and make no counte of this
    sore, I, though not admitted one of their felowshyp, yet hauyng
    bene many yeares a prentice to Gods trewe Religion, and trust
    to continewe a poore iorney man therein all dayes of my life,
    for the dewtie I owe, & loue I beare, both to trewe doctrine,
    and honest liuing, though I haue no authoritie to amend the
    sore my selfe, yet I will declare my good will, to discouer the
    sore to others.
         S. Paul saith, that sectes and ill opinions, be the workes of
    Ad Gal. 5. // the flesh, and frutes of sinne, this is spoken, no
    more trewlie for the doctrine, than sensiblie for
    the reason. And why? For, ill doinges, breed ill thinkinges.
    And of corrupted maners, spryng peruerted iudgementes. And
    Voluntas} {Bonum. | // how? there be in man two speciall
                  } Respicit. { | // thinges: Mans will, mans mynde,
    Mens } { Verum. | Where will inclineth to goodnes,
    the mynde is bent to troth: Where will is caried from goodnes
    to vanitie, the mynde is sone drawne from troth to false
    opinion. And so, the readiest way to entangle the mynde with
    false doctrine, is first to intice the will to wanton liuyng.
    Therfore, when the busie and open Papistes abroad, could not,
    by their contentious bookes, turne men in England fast enough,
    from troth and right iudgement in doctrine, than the sutle and
    hand.gif // secrete Papistes at home, procured bawdie bookes
    to be translated out of the Italian tonge, whereby
    ouer many yong willes and wittes allured to wantonnes, do now
    boldly contemne all seuere bookes that sounde to honestie and
    godlines. In our forefathers tyme, whan Papistrie, as a standyng
    poole, couered and ouerflowed all England, fewe bookes were
    read in our tong, sauyng certaine bookes of Cheualrie, as they

the brynging vp of youth. 231

sayd, for pastime and pleasure, which, as some say, were made in Monasteries, by idle Monkes, or wanton Chanons: as one for example, Morte Arthure: the whole pleasure // Morte Ar- of which booke standeth in two speciall poyntes, // thur. in open mans slaughter, and bold bawdrye: In which booke those be counted the noblest Knightes, that do kill most men without any quarell, and commit fowlest aduoulteries by sutlest shiftes: as Sir Launcelote, with the wife of king Arthure his master: Syr Tristram with the wife of king Marke his vncle: Syr Lamerocke with the wife of king Lote, // hand.gif that was his own aunte. This is good stuffe, for wise men to laughe at, or honest men to take pleasure at. Yet I know, when Gods Bible was banished the Court, and Morte Arthure receiued into the Princes chamber. What toyes, the dayly readyng of such a booke, may worke in the will of a yong ientleman, or a yong mayde, that liueth welthelie and idlelie, wise men can iudge, and honest men do pitie. And yet ten Morte Arthures do not the tenth part so much harme, as one of these bookes, made in Italie, and translated in // hand.gif England. They open, not fond and common wayes to vice, but such subtle, cunnyng, new, and diuerse shiftes, to cary yong willes to vanitie, and yong wittes to mischief, to teach old bawdes new schole poyntes, as the simple head of an English man is not hable to inuent, nor neuer was hard of in England before, yea when Papistrie ouerflowed all. Suffer these bookes to be read, and they shall soone displace all bookes of godly learnyng. For they, carying the will to vanitie, and marryng good maners, shall easily // hand.gif corrupt the mynde with ill opinions, and false iudgement in doctrine: first, to thinke ill of all trewe Religion, and at last to thinke nothyng of God hym selfe, one speciall pointe that is to be learned in Italie, and Italian // hand.gif bookes. And that which is most to be lamented, and therfore more nedefull to be looked to, there be moe of these vngratious bookes set out in Printe within these fewe monethes, than haue bene sene in England many score yeare before. And bicause our English men made Italians, can not hurt, but certaine persons, and in certaine places, therfore these Italian bookes are made English, to bryng mischief enough

232 The first booke teachyng

    openly and boldly, to all states great and meane, yong and old,
    euery where.
         And thus yow see, how will intised to wantonnes, doth
    easelie allure the mynde to false opinions: and how corrupt
    maners in liuinge, breede false iudgement in doctrine: how sinne
    and fleshlines, bring forth sectes and heresies: And therefore
    suffer not vaine bookes to breede vanitie in mens willes, if yow
    would haue Goddes trothe take roote in mens myndes.
         That Italian, that first inuented the Italian Prouerbe
    against our Englishe men Italianated, ment no more their
    The Ita- // vanitie in liuing, than their lewd opinion in
    lian pro- // Religion. For, in calling them Deuiles, he carieth
    uerbe ex- // them cleane from God: and yet he carieth them
    pounded. // no farder, than they willinglie go themselues,
    that is, where they may freely say their mindes, to the open
    contempte of God and all godlines, both in liuing and doctrine.
         And how? I will expresse how, not by a Fable of Homere,
    nor by the Philosophie of Plato, but by a plaine troth of
    Goddes word, sensiblie vttered by Dauid thus. Thies men,
    abhominabiles facti in studijs suis, thinke verily, and singe
    gladlie the verse before, Dixit insipiens in Corde suo, non est
    Psa. 14. // Deus: that is to say, they geuing themselues vp to
    vanitie, shakinge of the motions of Grace, driuing
    from them the feare of God, and running headlong into all
    sinne, first, lustelie contemne God, than scornefullie mocke his
    worde, and also spitefullie hate and hurte all well willers
    thereof. Than they haue in more reuerence, the triumphes of
    Petrarche: than the Genesis of Moses: They make more
    accounte of Tullies offices, than S. Paules epistles: of a tale in
    Bocace, than a storie of the Bible. Than they counte as
    Fables, the holie misteries of Christian Religion. They make
    Christ and his Gospell, onelie serue Ciuill pollicie: Than
    neyther Religion cummeth amisse to them: In tyme they be
    Promoters of both openlie: in place againe mockers of both
    priuilie, as I wrote once in a rude ryme.

         Now new, now olde, now both, now neither,
         To serue the worldes course, they care not with whether.

For where they dare, in cumpanie where they like, they

the brynging vp of youth. 233

    boldlie laughe to scorne both protestant and Papist. They
    care for no scripture: They make no counte of generall
    councels: they contemne the consent of the Chirch: They passe
    for no Doctores: They mocke the Pope: They raile on Luther:
    They allow neyther side: They like none, but onelie
    themselues: The marke they shote at, the ende they looke for,
    the heauen they desire, is onelie, their owne present pleasure,
    and priuate proffit: whereby, they plainlie declare, of whose
    schole, of what Religion they be: that is, Epicures in liuing,
    and atheoi in doctrine: this last worde, is no more vnknowne
    now to plaine English men, than the Person was vnknown
    somtyme in England, vntill som Englishe man tooke peines, to
    fetch that deuelish opinion out of Italie. Thies men, thus
    Italianated abroad, can not abide our Godlie // The Ita-
    Italian Chirch at home: they be not of that // lian Chirche
    Parish, they be not of that felowshyp: they like // in London.
    not y^t preacher: they heare not his sermons: Excepte som-
    tymes for companie, they cum thither, to heare the Italian tonge
    naturally spoken, not to hear Gods doctrine trewly preached.
         And yet, thies men, in matters of Diuinitie, openlie pretend
    a great knowledge, and haue priuatelie to them selues, a verie
    compendious vnderstanding of all, which neuertheles they will
    vtter when and where they liste: And that is this: All the
    misteries of Moses, the whole lawe and Cerimonies, the
    Psalmes and Prophetes, Christ and his Gospell, GOD and the
    Deuill, Heauen and Hell, Faith, Conscience, Sinne, Death, and
    all they shortlie wrap vp, they quickly expounde with this one
    halfe verse of Horace.
                        Credat Iudæus Appella.
         Yet though in Italie they may freely be of no Religion, as
    they are in Englande in verie deede to, neuerthelesse returning
    home into England they must countenance the profession of
    the one or the other, howsoeuer inwardlie, they laugh to
    scorne both. And though, for their priuate matters they can
    follow, fawne, and flatter noble Personages, contrarie to them
    in all respectes, yet commonlie they allie them- // Papistrie
    selues with the worst Papistes, to whom they be // and impie-
    wedded, and do well agree togither in three // tie agree in
    proper opinions: In open contempte of Goddes // three opini-
    worde: in a secret securitie of sinne: and in // ons.

234 The first booke teachyng

    a bloodie desire to haue all taken away, by sword or burning,
    Pigius. // that be not of their faction. They that do
    read, with indifferent iudgement, Pygius and
    Machiaue- // _Machiauel,/i>, two indifferent Patriarches of thies
    lus. // two Religions, do know full well that I say trewe.
         Ye see, what manners and doctrine, our Englishe men fetch
    out of Italie: For finding no other there, they can bring no
    Wise and // other hither. And therefore, manie godlie and
    honest tra- // excellent learned Englishe men, not manie yeares
    uelers. // ago, did make a better choice, whan open crueltie
    draue them out of this contrie, to place themselues there, where
    Germanie. // Christes doctrine, the feare of God, punishment
    of sinne, and discipline of honestie, were had in
    speciall regarde.
         I was once in Italie my selfe: but I thanke God, my
    Venice. // abode there, was but ix. dayes: And yet I sawe
    in that litle tyme, in one Citie, more libertie to
    sinne, than euer I hard tell of in our noble Citie of London in
    London. // ix. yeare. I sawe, it was there, as free to sinne,
    not onelie without all punishment, but also
    without any mans marking, as it is free in the Citie of London,
    to chose, without all blame, whether a man lust to weare Shoo
    or pantocle. And good cause why: For being vnlike in troth
    of Religion, they must nedes be vnlike in honestie of liuing.
    Seruice of // For blessed be Christ, in our Citie of London,
    God in // commonlie the commandementes of God, be more
    England. // diligentlie taught, and the seruice of God more
    reuerentlie vsed, and that daylie in many priuate mens houses,
    Seruice of // than they be in Italie once a weeke in their
    God in I- // common Chirches: where, masking Ceremonies,
    talie. // to delite the eye, and vaine soundes, to please
    the eare, do quite thrust out of the Chirches, all seruice of
    The Lord // God in spirit and troth. Yea, the Lord Maior
    Maior of // of London, being but a Ciuill officer, is com-
    London. // monlie for his tyme, more diligent, in punishing
    sinne, the bent enemie against God and good order, than all
    The In- // the bloodie Inquisitors in Italie be in seauen yeare.
    quisitors in // For, their care and charge is, not to punish
    Italie. // sinne, not to amend manners, not to purge
    doctrine, but onelie to watch and ouersee that Christes trewe

the brynging vp of youth. 235

Religion set no sure footing, where the Pope hath any Iurisdiction. I learned, when I was at Venice, that there it is counted good pollicie, when there be foure or fiue // An ungod- brethren of one familie, one, onelie to marie: & // lie pollicie. all the rest, to waulter, with as litle shame, in open lecherie, as Swyne do here in the common myre. Yea, there be as fayre houses of Religion, as great prouision, as diligent officers, to kepe vp this misorder, as Bridewell is, and all the Masters there, to kepe downe misorder. And therefore, if the Pope himselfe, do not onelie graunt pardons to furder thies wicked purposes abrode in Italie, but also (although this present Pope, in the beginning, made som shewe of misliking thereof) assigne both meede and merite to the maintenance of stewes and brothelhouses at home in Rome, than let wise men thinke Italie a safe place for holsom doctrine, and godlie manners, and a fitte schole for yong ientlemen of England to be brought vp in. Our Italians bring home with them other faultes from Italie, though not so great as this of Religion, yet a great deale greater, than many good men can well beare. For commonlie they cum home, common contemners of mariage // Contempt and readie persuaders of all other to the same: // of mariage. not because they loue virginitie, but, being free in Italie, to go whither so euer lust will cary them, they do not like, that lawe and honestie should be soch a barre to their like libertie at home in England. And yet they be, the greatest makers of loue, the daylie daliers, with such pleasant wordes, with such smilyng and secret countenances, with such signes, tokens, wagers, purposed to be lost, before they were purposed to be made, with bargaines of wearing colours, floures, and herbes, to breede occasion of ofter meeting of him and her, and bolder talking of this and that &c. And although I haue seene some, innocent of all ill, and stayde in all honestie, that haue vsed these thinges without all harme, without all suspicion of harme, yet these knackes were brought first into England by them, that learned them before in Italie in Circes Court: and how Courtlie curtesses so euer they be counted now, yet, if the meaning and maners of some that do vse them, were somewhat

236 The first booke teachyng

amended, it were no great hurt, neither to them selues, nor to others. An other propertie of this our English Italians is, to be meruelous singular in all their matters: Singular in knowledge, ignorant of nothyng: So singular in wisedome (in their owne opinion) as scarse they counte the best Counsellor the Prince hath, comparable to them: Common discoursers of all matters: busie searchers of most secret affaires: open flatterers of great men: priuie mislikers of good men: Faire speakers, with smiling countenances, and much curtessie openlie to all men. Ready bakbiters, sore nippers, and spitefull reporters priuilie of good men. And beyng brought vp in Italie, in some free Citie, as all Cities be there: where a man may freelie discourse against what he will, against whom he lust: against any Prince, agaynst any gouernement, yea against God him selfe, and his whole Religion: where he must be, either Guelphe or Gibiline, either French or Spanish: and alwayes compelled to be of some partie, of some faction, he shall neuer be compelled to be of any Religion: And if he medle not ouer much with Christes true Religion, he shall haue free libertie to embrace all Religions, and becum, if he lust at once, without any let or punishment, Iewish, Turkish, Papish, and Deuillish. A yong Ientleman, thus bred vp in this goodly schole, to learne the next and readie way to sinne, to haue a busie head, a factious hart, a talkatiue tonge, fed with discoursing of factions: led to contemne God and his Religion, shall cum home into England, but verie ill taught, either to be an honest man him self, a quiet subiect to his Prince, or willyng to serue God, vnder the obedience of trewe doctrine, or within the order of honest liuing. I know, none will be offended with this my generall writing, but onelie such, as finde them selues giltie priuatelie therin: who shall haue good leaue to be offended with me, vntill they begin to amende them selues. I touch not them that be good: and I say to litle of them that be nought. And so, though not enough for their deseruing, yet sufficientlie for this time, and more els when, if occasion so require. And thus farre haue I wandred from my first purpose of teaching a child, yet not altogether out of the way, bicause

the brynging vp of youth. 237

this whole taulke hath tended to the onelie aduauncement of trothe in Religion, and honestie of liuing: and hath bene wholie within the compasse of learning and good maners, the speciall pointes belonging in the right bringyng vp of youth. But to my matter, as I began, plainlie and simplie with my yong Scholer, so will I not leaue him, God willing, vntill I haue brought him a per- fite Scholer out of the Schole, and placed him in the Vniuersitie, to becum a fitte student, for Logicke and Rhetoricke: and so after to Phisicke, Law, or Diuinitie, as aptnes of na- ture, aduise of frendes, and Gods disposition shall lead him.

The ende of the first booke.

The second booke.

    AFter that your scholer, as I sayd before, shall cum in
    deede, first, to a readie perfitnes in translating, than, to a
    ripe and skilfull choice in markyng out hys sixe pointes, as,
              {1. Proprium.
              {2. Translatum.
              {3. Synonymum.
              {4. Contrarium.
              {5. Diuersum.
              {6. Phrases.
         Than take this order with him: Read dayly vnto him,
    Cicero. // some booke of Tullie, as the third booke of
    de Senectute, Epistles chosen out by Sturmius, de Amicitia,
    or that excellent Epistle conteinyng almost the
    whole first book ad Q. fra: some Comedie of
    Terentius. // Terence or Plautus: but in Plautus, skilfull
    Plautus. // must be vsed by the master, to traine his Scholler
    to a iudgement, in cutting out perfitelie ouer old and vnproper
    Iul. Cæsar. // wordes: Cæs. Commentaries are to be read with
    all curiositie, in specially without all exception to
    be made, either by frende or foe, is seene, the vnspotted
    proprietie of the Latin tong, euen whan it was, as the Grecians
    say, in akme, that is, at the hiest pitch of all perfitenesse: or
    T. Liuius. // some Orations of T. Liuius, such as be both longest
    and plainest.
         These bookes, I would haue him read now, a good deale at
    euery lecture: for he shall not now vse dalie translation, but
    onely construe againe, and parse, where ye suspect, is any nede:
    yet, let him not omitte in these bookes, his former exercise, in

The ready way to the Latin tong. 239

marking diligently, and writyng orderlie out his six pointes. And for translating, vse you your selfe, euery second or thyrd day, to chose out, some Epistle ad Atticum, some notable common place out of his Orations, or some other part of Tullie, by your discretion, which your scholer may not know where to finde: and translate it you your selfe, into plaine naturall English, and than giue it him to translate into Latin againe: allowyng him good space and tyme to do it, both with diligent heede, and good aduisement. Here his witte shalbe new set on worke: his iudgement, for right choice, trewlie tried: his memorie, for sure reteyning, better exercised, than by learning, any thing without the booke: & here, how much he hath proffited, shall plainly appeare. Whan he bringeth it translated vnto you, bring you forth the place of Tullie: lay them together: compare the one with the other: commend his good choice, & right placing of wordes: Shew his faultes iently, but blame them not ouer sharply: for, of such missings, ientlie admonished of, proceedeth glad & good heed taking: of good heed taking, springeth chiefly knowledge, which after, groweth to perfitnesse, if this order, be diligentlie vsed by the scholer & iently handled by the master: for here, shall all the hard pointes of Grammer, both easely and surelie be learned vp: which, scholers in common scholes, by making of Latines, be groping at, with care & feare, & yet in many yeares, they scarse can reach vnto them. I remember, whan I was yong, in the North, they went to the Grammer schole, litle children: they came from thence great lubbers: alwayes learning, and litle profiting: learning without booke, euery thing, vnder- standyng within the booke, litle or nothing: Their whole knowledge, by learning without the booke, was tied onely to their tong & lips, and neuer ascended vp to the braine & head, and therfore was sone spitte out of the mouth againe: They were, as men, alwayes goyng, but euer out of the way: and why? For their whole labor, or rather great toyle without order, was euen vaine idlenesse without proffit. In deed, they tooke great paynes about learning: but employed small labour in learning: Whan by this way prescribed in this booke, being streight, plaine, & easie, the scholer is alwayes laboring with pleasure, and euer going right on forward with proffit: always laboring I say, for, or he haue construed

240 The second booke teachyng

parced, twise translated ouer by good aduisement, marked out his six pointes by skilfull iudgement, he shall haue necessarie occasion, to read ouer euery lecture, a dosen tymes, at the least. Which, bicause he shall do alwayes in order, he shall do it alwayes with pleasure: And pleasure allureth loue: loue hath lust to labor: labor alwayes obteineth his purpose, as most Rhet. 2 // trewly, both Aristotle in his Rhetoricke & Oedipus In Oedip. Tyr. // in Sophocles do teach, saying, pan gar ekponou- Epist. lib. 7. // menon aliske. et. cet. & this oft reading, is the verie right folowing, of that good Counsell, which Plinie doth geue to his frende Fuscus, saying, Multum, non multa. But to my purpose againe: Whan, by this diligent and spedie reading ouer, those forenamed good bokes of Tullie, Terence, Cæsar, and Liuie, and by this second kinde of translating out of your English, tyme shall breed skill, and vse shall bring perfection, than ye may trie, if you will, your scholer, with the third kinde of translation: although the two first wayes, by myne opinion, be, not onelie sufficent of them selues, but also surer, both for the Masters teaching, and scholers learnyng, than this third way is: Which is thus. Write you in English, some letter, as it were from him to his father, or to some other frende, naturallie, according to the disposition of the child, or some tale, or fable, or plaine narration, according as Aphthonius beginneth his exercises of learning, and let him translate it into Latin againe, abiding in soch place, where no other scholer may prompe him. But yet, vse you your selfe soch discretion for choice therein, as the matter may be within the compas, both for wordes and sentences, of his former learning and reading. And now take heede, lest your scholer do not better in some point, than you your selfe, except ye haue bene diligentlie exercised in these kindes of translating before: I had once a profe hereof, tried by good experience, by a deare frende of myne, whan I came first from Cambrige, to serue the Queenes Maiestie, than Ladie Elizabeth, lying at worthie Syr Ant. Denys in Cheston. Iohn Whitneye, a yong ientleman, was my bedfeloe, who willyng by good nature and prouoked by mine aduise, began to learne the Latin tong, after the order declared in this booke. We began after Christmas: I read vnto him Tullie de Amicitia, which he did euerie day

the ready way to the Latin tong. 241

twise translate, out of Latin into English, and out of English into Latin agayne. About S. Laurence tyde after, to proue how he proffited, I did chose out Torquatus taulke de Amicitia, in the later end of the first booke de finib. bicause that place was, the same in matter, like in wordes and phrases, nigh to the forme and facion of sentences, as he had learned before in de Amicitia. I did translate it my selfe into plaine English, and gaue it him to turne into Latin: Which he did, so choislie, so orderlie, so without any great misse in the hardest pointes of Grammer, that some, in seuen yeare in Grammer Scholes, yea, & some in the Vniuersities to, can not do halfe so well. This worthie yong Ientleman, to my greatest grief, to the great lamentation of that whole house, and speciallie to that most noble Ladie, now Queene Elizabeth her selfe, departed within few dayes, out of this world. And if in any cause, a man may without offence of God speake somewhat vngodlie, surely, it was some grief vnto me, to see him hie so hastlie to God, as he did. A Court, full of soch yong Ientlemen, were rather a Paradise than a Court vpon earth. And though I had neuer Poeticall head, to make any verse, in any tong, yet either loue, or sorrow, or both, did wring out of me than, certaine carefull thoughtes of my good will towardes him, which in my murning for him, fell forth, more by chance, than either by skill or vse, into this kinde of misorderlie meter.

    Myne owne Iohn Whitney, now farewell, now death doth parte vs
    No death, but partyng for a while, whom life shall ioyne agayne.
    Therfore my hart cease sighes and sobbes, cease sorowes seede to sow,
    Wherof no gaine, but greater grief, and hurtfull care may grow.
    Yet, whan I thinke vpon soch giftes of grace as God him lent,
    My losse, his gaine, I must a while, with ioyfull teares lament.
    Yong yeares to yelde soch frute in Court, where seede of vice is sowne,
    Is sometime read, in some place seene, amongst vs seldom knowne.
    His life he ledde, Christes lore to learne, with will to worke the
    He read to know, and knew to liue, and liued to praise his name.
    So fast to frende, so foe to few, so good to euery weight,
    I may well wishe, but scarcelie hope, agayne to haue in sight.

242 The second booke teachyng

    The greater ioye his life to me, his death the greater payne:
    His life in Christ so surelie set, doth glad my hearte agayne:
    His life so good, his death better, do mingle mirth with care,
    My spirit with ioye, my flesh with grief, so deare a frend to spare.
    Thus God the good, while they be good, doth take, and leaues vs ill,
    That we should mend our sinfull life, in life to tary still.
    Thus, we well left, be better rest, in heauen to take his place,
    That by like life, and death, at last, we may obteine like grace.
    Myne owne Iohn Whiteney agayne fairewell, a while thus parte in
    Whom payne doth part in earth, in heauen great ioye shall ioyne

         In this place, or I procede farder, I will now declare, by
    whose authoritie I am led, and by what reason I am moued, to
    thinke, that this way of duble translation out of one tong into
    an other, in either onelie, or at least chiefly, to be exercised,
    speciallie of youth, for the ready and sure obteining of any
         There be six wayes appointed by the best learned men, for
    the learning of tonges, and encreace of eloquence, as

{1. Translatio linguarum. {2. Paraphrasis. {3. Metaphrasis. {4. Epitome. {5. Imitatio. {6. Declamatio.

All theis be vsed, and commended, but in order, and for respectes: as person, habilitie, place, and tyme shall require. The fiue last, be fitter, for the Master, than the scholer: for men, than for children: for the vniuersities, rather than for Grammer scholes: yet neuerthelesse, which is, fittest in mine opinion, for our schole, and which is, either wholie to be refused, or partlie to be vsed for our purpose, I will, by good authoritie, and some reason, I trust perticularlie of euerie one, and largelie enough of them all, declare orderlie vnto you.

the ready way to the Latin tong. 243

Translatio Linguarum.

Translation, is easie in the beginning for the scholer, and bringeth also moch learning and great iudgement to the Master. It is most common, and most commendable of all other exercises for youth: most common, for all your con- structions in Grammer scholes, be nothing els but translations: but because they be not double translations, as I do require, they bring forth but simple and single commoditie, and bicause also they lacke the daily vse of writing, which is the onely thing that breedeth deepe roote, buth in y^e witte, for good vnderstanding, and in y^e memorie, for sure keeping of all that is learned. Most commendable also, & that by y^e iudgement of all authors, which intreate of theis exercises. Tullie in the person of L. Crassus, whom he // 1. de Or. maketh his example of eloquence and trewe iudgement in learning, doth, not onely praise specially, and chose this way of translation for a yong man, but doth also discommend and refuse his owne former wont, in exercising Paraphrasin & Metaphrasin. Paraphrasis is, to take some eloquent Oration, or some notable common place in Latin, and expresse it with other wordes: Metaphrasis is, to take some notable place out of a good Poete, and turn the same sens into meter, or into other wordes in Prose. Crassus, or rather Tullie, doth mislike both these wayes, bicause the Author, either Orator or Poete, had chosen out before, the fittest wordes and aptest composition for that matter, and so he, in seeking other, was driuen to vse the worse. Quintilian also preferreth translation before all other exercises: yet hauing a lust, to dissent, from // Quint. x. Tullie (as he doth in very many places, if a man read his Rhetoricke ouer aduisedlie, and that rather of an enuious minde, than of any iust cause) doth greatlie commend Paraphrasis, crossing spitefullie Tullies iudgement in refusing the same: and so do Ramus and Talæus euen at this day in France to. But such singularitie, in dissenting from the best mens iudgementes, in liking onelie their owne opinions, is moch misliked of all them, that ioyne with learning, discretion, and wisedome. For he, that can neither like Aristotle in Logicke and Philosophie, nor Tullie in Rhetoricke and

244 The second booke teachyng

    Eloquence, will, from these steppes, likelie enough presume, by
    like pride, to mount hier, to the misliking of greater matters:
    that is either in Religion, to haue a dissentious head, or in the
    common wealth, to haue a factious hart: as I knew one
    a student in Cambrige, who, for a singularitie, began first to
    dissent, in the scholes, from Aristotle, and sone after became
    a peruerse Arrian, against Christ and all true Religion: and
    studied diligentlie Origene, Basileus, and S. Hierome, onelie to
    gleane out of their workes, the pernicious heresies of Celsus,
, and Heluidius, whereby the Church of Christ, was so
    poysoned withall.
         But to leaue these hye pointes of diuinitie, surelie, in this
    quiet and harmeles controuersie, for the liking, or misliking of
    Paraphrasis for a yong scholer, euen as far, as Tullie goeth
    beyond Quintilian, Ramus, and Talæus, in perfite Eloquence,
    * Plinius // euen so moch, by myne opinion, cum they
    Secundus. // behinde Tullie, for trew iudgement in teaching
    Plinius de- // the same.
    dit Quin- // * Plinius Secundus, a wise Senator, of great
    tiliano // experience, excellentlie learned him selfe, a liberall
    præceptori // Patrone of learned men, and the purest writer, in
    suo, in ma- // myne opinion, of all his age, I except not
    trimonium // Suetonius, his two scholemasters Quintilian and
    filiæ, 50000 // Tacitus, nor yet his most excellent learned Vncle, the Elder
    numum. // Plinius, doth expresse in an Epistle to his frende
    Epist. lib. 7, // Fuscus, many good wayes for order in studie:
    Epist. 9. // but he beginneth with translation, and preferreth
    it to all the rest: and bicause his wordes be notable, I will
    recite them.

Vtile in primis, vt multi præcipiunt, ex Græco in Latinum, & ex Latino vertere in Græcum: Quo genere exercitationis, proprietas splendorque verborum, apta structura sententiarum, figurarum copia & explicandi vis colligitur. Præterea, imitatione optimorum, facultas similia inueniendi paratur: & quæ legentem, fefellissent, transferentem fugere non possunt. Intelligentia ex hoc, & iudicium acquiritur._

Ye perceiue, how Plinie teacheth, that by this exercise of double translating, is learned, easely, sensiblie, by litle and litle, not onelie all the hard congruities of Grammer, the choice of

the ready way to the Latin tong. 245

aptest wordes, the right framing of wordes and sentences, cumlines of figures and formes, fitte for euerie matter, and proper for euerie tong, but that which is greater also, in marking dayly, and folowing diligentlie thus, the steppes of the best Autors, like inuention of Argumentes, like order in disposition, like vtterance in Elocution, is easelie gathered vp: whereby your scholer shall be brought not onelie to like eloquence, but also, to all trewe vnderstanding and right iudgement, both for writing and speaking. And where Dionys. Halicarnassæus hath written two excellent bookes, the one, de delectu optimorum verborum, the which, I feare, is lost, the other, of the right framing of wordes and sentences, which doth remaine yet in Greeke, to the great proffet of all them, that trewlie studie for eloquence, yet this waie of double translating, shall bring the whole proffet of both these bookes to a diligent scholer, and that easelie and pleasantlie, both for fitte choice of wordes, and apt composition of sentences. And by theis authorities and reasons am I moued to thinke, this waie of double translating, either onelie or chieflie, to be fittest, for the spedy and perfit atteyning of any tong. And for spedy atteyning, I durst venture a good wager, if a scholer, in whom is aptnes, loue, diligence, & constancie, would but translate, after this sorte, one litle booke in Tullie, as de senectute, with two Epistles, the first ad Q. fra: the other ad lentulum, the last saue one, in the first booke, that scholer, I say, should cum to a better knowledge in the Latin tong, than the most part do, that spend foure or fiue yeares, in tossing all the rules of Grammer in common scholes. In deede this one booke with these two Epistles, is not sufficient to affourde all Latin wordes (which is not necessarie for a yong scholer to know) but it is able to furnishe him fully, for all pointes of Grammer, with the right placing ordering, & vse of wordes in all kinde of matter. And why not? for it is read, that Dion. Prussæus, that wise Philosopher, & excellent orator of all his tyme, did cum to the great learning & vtterance that was in him, by reading and folowing onelie two bookes, Phædon Platonis, and Demosthenes most notable oration peri parapres- beias. And a better, and nerer example herein, may be, our most noble Queene Elizabeth, who neuer toke yet, Greeke nor Latin Grammer in her hand, after the first declining of a nowne and a verbe, but onely by this double translating of

246 The second booke teachyng

Demosthenes and Isocrates dailie without missing euerie forenone, and likewise som part of Tullie euery afternone, for the space of a yeare or two, hath atteyned to soch a perfite vnderstanding in both the tonges, and to soch a readie vtterance of the latin, and that wyth soch a iudgement, as they be fewe in nomber in both the vniuersities, or els where in England, that be, in both tonges, comparable with her Maiestie. And to conclude in a short rowme, the commodities of double translation, surelie the mynde by dailie marking, first, the cause and matter: than, the wordes and phrases: next, the order and composition: after the reason and argumentes: than the formes and figures of both the tonges: lastelie, the measure and compas of euerie sentence, must nedes, by litle and litle drawe vnto it the like shape of eloquence, as the author doth vse, which is red. And thus much for double translation.


Paraphrasis, the second point, is not onelie to expresse at Lib. x. // large with moe wordes, but to striue and contend (as Quintilian saith) to translate the best latin authors, into other latin wordes, as many or thereaboutes. This waie of exercise was vsed first by C. Crabo, and taken vp for a while, by L. Crassus, but sone after, vpon dewe profe thereof, reiected iustlie by Crassus and Cicero: yet allowed and made sterling agayne by M. Quintilian: neuerthelesse, shortlie after, by better assaye, disalowed of his owne scholer Plinius Secundus, who termeth it rightlie thus Audax contentio. It is a bold comparison in deede, to thinke to say better, than that is best. Soch turning of the best into worse, is much like the turning of good wine, out of a faire sweete flagon of siluer, into a foule mustie bottell of ledder: or, to turne pure gold and siluer, into foule brasse and copper. Such kinde of Paraphrasis, in turning, chopping, and changing, the best to worse, either in the mynte or scholes, (though M. Brokke and Quintilian both say the contrary) is moch misliked of the best and wisest men. I can better allow an other kinde of Paraphrasis, to turne rude and barbarus, into proper and eloquent: which neuerthelesse is an exercise, not fitte for a scholer, but for a perfite master, who in plentie hath

the ready way to the Latin tong. 247

    good choise, in copie hath right iudgement, and grounded skill,
    as did appeare to be in Sebastian Castalio, in translating Kemppes
    booke de Imitando Christo.
         But to folow Quintilianus aduise for Paraphrasis, were euen
    to take paine, to seeke the worse and fowler way, whan the
    plaine and fairer is occupied before your eyes.
         The olde and best authors that euer wrote, were content
    if occasion required to speake twise of one matter, not to change
    the wordes, but rhetos, that is, worde for worde to expresse it
    againe. For they thought, that a matter, well expressed with
    fitte wordes and apt composition, was not to be altered, but
    liking it well their selues, they thought it would also be well
    allowed of others.
         A scholemaster (soch one as I require) knoweth that I say
         He readeth in Homer, almost in euerie booke, and speciallie
    in Secundo et nono Iliados, not onelie som verses, // Homerus.
    but whole leaues, not to be altered with new, // {2.
    but to be vttered with the old selfe same wordes. // {IL. {
         He knoweth, that Xenophon, writing twise of // {9.
    Agesilaus, once in his life, againe in the historie // Xenophon.
    of the Greekes, in one matter, kepeth alwayes the selfe same
    wordes. He doth the like, speaking of Socrates, both in the
    beginning of his Apologie and in the last ende of apomnemoneu-
         Demosthenes also in 4. Philippica doth borow his owne
    wordes vttered before in his oration de Chersoneso.
    He doth the like, and that more at large, in his // Demost-
    orations, against Androtion and Timocrates. // henes.
         In latin also, Cicero in som places, and Virgil in mo, do
    repeate one matter, with the selfe same wordes. // Cicero.
    Thies excellent authors, did thus, not for lacke // Virgilius.
    of wordes, but by iudgement and skill: whatso-
    euer, other, more curious, and lesse skilfull, do thinke, write,
    and do.
         Paraphrasis neuerthelesse hath good place in learning, but
    not, by myne opinion, for any scholer, but is onelie to be left
    to a perfite Master, eyther to expound openlie a good author
    withall, or to compare priuatelie, for his owne exercise, how
    some notable place of an excellent author, may be vttered with

248 The second booke teachyng

other fitte wordes: But if ye alter also, the composition, forme, and order than that is not Paraphrasis, but Imitatio, as I will fullie declare in fitter place. The scholer shall winne nothing by Paraphrasis, but onelie, if we may beleue Tullie, to choose worse wordes, to place them out of order, to feare ouermoch the iudgement of the master, to mislike ouermuch the hardnes of learning, and by vse, to gather vp faultes, which hardlie will be left of againe. The master in teaching it, shall rather encrease hys owne labor, than his scholers proffet: for when the scholer shall bring vnto his master a peece of Tullie or Cæsar turned into other latin, then must the master cum to Quintilians goodlie lesson de Emendatione, which, (as he saith) is the most profitable part of teaching, but not in myne opinion, and namelie for youthe in Grammer scholes. For the master nowe taketh double paynes: first, to marke what is amisse: againe, to inuent what may be sayd better. And here perchance, a verie good master may easelie both deceiue himselfe, and lead his scholer into error. It requireth greater learning, and deeper iudgement, than is to be hoped for at any scholemasters hand: that is, to be able alwaies learnedlie and perfitelie

{Mutare quod ineptum est: {Transmutare quod peruersum est: {Replere quod deest; {Detrahere quod obest: {Expungere quod inane est.

And that, which requireth more skill, and deaper conside- racion

{Premere tumentia: {Extollere humilia: {Astringere luxuriantia: {Componere dissoluta.

The master may here onelie stumble, and perchance faull in teaching, to the marring and mayning of the Scholer in learning, whan it is a matter, of moch readyng, of great learning, and tried iudgement, to make trewe difference betwixt

the ready way to the Latin tong. 249

{Sublime, et Tumidum: {Grande, et immodicum: {Decorum, et ineptum: {Perfectum, et nimium.

Some men of our time, counted perfite Maisters of eloquence, in their owne opinion the best, in other mens iudgements very good, as Omphalius euerie where, Sadoletus in many places, yea also my frende Osorius, namelie in his Epistle to the Queene & in his whole booke de Iusticia, haue so ouer reached them selues, in making trew difference in the poyntes afore rehearsed, as though they had bene brought vp in some schole in Asia, to learne to decline rather then in Athens with Plato, Aristotle, and Demosthenes, (from whence Tullie fetched his eloquence) to vnderstand, what in euerie matter, to be spoken or written on, is, in verie deede, Nimium, Satis, Parum, that is for to say, to all considerations, Decorum, which, as it is the hardest point, in all learning, so is it the fairest and onelie marke, that scholers, in all their studie, must alwayes shote at, if they purpose an other day to be, either sounde in Religion, or wise and discrete in any vocation of the common wealth. Agayne, in the lowest degree, it is no low point of learnyng and iudgement for a Scholemaster, to make trewe difference betwixt

{Humile & depressum: {Lene & remissum: {Siccum & aridum: {Exile & macrum: {Inaffectatum & neglectum.

In these poyntes, some, louing Melancthon well, as he was well worthie, but yet not considering well nor wiselie, how he of nature, and all his life and studie by iudgement was wholly spent in genere Disciplinabili, that is, in teaching, reading, and expounding plainlie and aptlie schole matters, and therfore imployed thereunto a fitte, sensible, and caulme kinde of speaking and writing, some I say, with very well louyng, but not with verie well weying Melancthones doinges, do frame them selues a style, cold, leane, and weake, though the matter be neuer so warme & earnest, not moch vnlike vnto one, that had a pleasure, in a roughe, raynie, winter

250 The second booke teachyng

day, to clothe him selfe with nothing els, but a demie, bukram cassok, plaine without plites, and single with out lyning: which will neither beare of winde nor wether, nor yet kepe out the sunne, in any hote day. Some suppose, and that by good reason, that Melancthon Paraphra- // him selfe came to this low kinde of writing, by sis in vse of // vsing ouer moch Paraphrasis in reading: For teaching, // studying therebie to make euerie thing streight hath hurt // and easie, in smothing and playning all things to Melanch- // much, neuer leaueth, whiles the sence it selfe be tons stile in // left, both lowse and lasie. And some of those writing. // Paraphrasis of Melancthon be set out in Printe, as, Pro Archia Poeta, & Marco Marcello: But a scholer, by myne opinion, is better occupied in playing or sleping, than in spendyng time, not onelie vainlie but also harmefullie, in soch a kinde of exercise. If a Master woulde haue a perfite example to folow, how, in Genere sublimi, to auoide Nimium, or in Mediocri, to atteyne Satis, or in Humili, to exchew Parum, let him read diligently Cicero. // for the first, Secundam Philippicam, for the meane, De Natura Deorum, and for the lowest, Partitiones. Or, if in an other tong, ye looke for like example, in like Demost- // perfection, for all those three degrees, read Pro henes. // Ctesiphonte, Ad Leptinem, & Contra Olympiodorum, and, what witte, Arte, and diligence is hable to affourde, ye shall plainely see. For our tyme, the odde man to performe all three perfitlie, whatsoeuer he doth, and to know the way to do them skilfullie, Ioan. Stur. // what so euer he list, is, in my poore opinion, Ioannes Sturmius. He also councelleth all scholers to beware of Paraphrasis, except it be, from worse to better, from rude and barbarous, to proper and pure latin, and yet no man to exercise that neyther, except soch one, as is alreadie furnished with plentie of learning, and grounded with stedfast iudgement before. All theis faultes, that thus manie wise men do finde with the exercise of Paraphrasis, in turning the best latin, into other, as good as they can, that is, ye may be sure, into a great deale worse, than it was, both in right choice for proprietie, and trewe placing, for good order is committed also commonlie in all

the ready way to the Latin tong. 251

    common scholes, by the scholemasters, in tossing and trobling
    yong wittes (as I sayd in the beginning) with that boocherlie
    feare in making of Latins.
         Therefore, in place, of Latines for yong scholers, and of
    Paraphrasis for the masters, I wold haue double translation
    specially vsed. For, in double translating a perfite peece of
    Tullie or Cæsar, neyther the scholer in learning, nor y^e
    in teaching can erre. A true tochstone, a sure metwand lieth
    before both their eyes. For, all right congruitie: proprietie of
    wordes: order in sentences: the right imitation, to inuent good
    matter, to dispose it in good order, to confirme it with good
    reason, to expresse any purpose fitlie and orderlie, is learned
    thus, both easelie & perfitlie: Yea, to misse somtyme in this
    kinde of translation, bringeth more proffet, than to hit right,
    either in Paraphrasi or making of Latins. For though ye say
    well, in a latin making, or in a Paraphrasis, yet you being but
    in doute, and vncertayne whether ye saie well or no, ye gather
    and lay vp in memorie, no sure frute of learning thereby: But
    if ye fault in translation, ye ar easelie taught, how perfitlie to
    amende it, and so well warned, how after to exchew, all soch
    faultes againe.
         Paraphrasis therefore, by myne opinion, is not meete for
    Grammer scholes: nor yet verie fitte for yong men in the
    vniuersitie, vntill studie and tyme, haue bred in them, perfite
    learning, and stedfast iudgement.
         There is a kinde of Paraphrasis, which may be vsed, without
    all hurt, to moch proffet: but it serueth onely the Greke and
    not the latin, nor no other tong, as to alter linguam Ionicam aut
into meram Atticam: A notable example there is left
    vnto vs by a notable learned man Diony: Halicarn: who, in his
    booke, peri syntaxeos, doth translate the goodlie storie of
    Candaules and Gyges in 1. Herodoti, out of Ionica lingua,
    Atticam. Read the place, and ye shall take, both pleasure and
    proffet, in conference of it. A man, that is exercised in reading,
    Thucydides, Xenophon, Plato, and Demosthenes, in vsing to turne,
    like places of Herodotus, after like sorte, shold shortlie cum to
    soch a knowledge, in vnderstanding, speaking, and writing the
    Greeke tong, as fewe or none hath yet atteyned in England.
    The like exercise out of Dorica lingua may be also vsed, if a
    man take that litle booke of Plato, Timæus Locrus, de Animo et

252 The second booke teachyng

natura, which is written Dorice, and turne it into soch Greeke, as Plato vseth in other workes. The booke, is but two leaues: and the labor wold be, but two weekes: but surelie the proffet, for easie vnderstanding, and trewe writing the Greeke tonge, wold conteruaile wyth the toile, that som men taketh, in otherwise coldlie reading that tonge, two yeares. And yet, for the latin tonge, and for the exercise of Para- phrasis, in those places of latin, that can not be bettered, if some yong man, excellent of witte, corragious in will, lustie of nature, and desirous to contend euen with the best latin, to better it, if he can, surelie I commend his forwardnesse, and for his better instruction therein, I will set before him, as notable an example of Paraphrasis, as is in Record of learning. Cicero him selfe, doth contend, in two sondrie places, to expresse one matter, with diuerse wordes: and that is Paraphrasis, saith Quintillian. The matter I suppose is taken out of Panætius: and therefore being translated out of Greeke at diuers times, is vttered for his purpose, with diuers wordes and formes: which kinde of exercise, for perfite learned men, is verie profitable.

2. De Finib.

a. Homo enim Rationem habet à natura menti datam quæ, & causas rerum et consecutiones videt, & similitudines, transfert, & disiuncta coniungit, & cum præsentibus futura copulat, omnemque complectitur vitæ consequentis statum. b. Eademque ratio facit hominem hominum appetentem, cumque his, natura, & sermone in vsu congruentem: vt profectus à caritate domesticorum ac suorum, currat longius, & se implicet, primò Ciuium, deinde omnium mortalium societati: vtque non sibi soli se natum meminerit, sed patriæ, sed suis, vt exigua pars ipsi relinquatur. c. Et quoniam eadem natura cupiditatem ingenuit homini veri inueniendi, quod facillimè apparet, cum vacui curis, etiam quid in cœlo fiat, scire auemus, &c.

1. Officiorum.

a. Homo autem, qui rationis est particeps, per quam conse- quentia cernit, & causas rerum videt, earumque progressus, et quasi antecessiones non ignorat, similitudines, comparat, rebusque præsentibus adiungit, atque annectit futuras, facile totius vitæ cursum videt, ad

the ready way to the Latin tong. 253

eamque degendam præparat res necessarias. b. Eademque natura vi rationis hominem conciliat homini, & ad Orationis, & ad vitæ societatem: ingeneratque imprimis præcipuum quendam amorem in eos, qui procreati sunt, impellitque vt hominum cœtus & celebrari inter se, & sibi obediri velit, ob easque causas studeat parare ea, quæ suppeditent ad cultum & ad victum, nec sibi soli, sed coniugi, liberis, cæterisque quos charos habeat, tuerique debeat. c. Quæ cura exsuscitat etiam animos, & maiores ad rem gerendam facit: impri- misque hominis est propria veri inquisitio atque inuestigatio: ita cum sumus necessarijs negocijs curisque vacui, tum auemus aliquid videre, audire, addiscere, cognitionemque rerum mirabilium. &c.

         The conference of these two places, conteinyng so excellent
    a peece of learning, as this is, expressed by so worthy a witte,
    as Tullies was, must needes bring great pleasure and proffit to
    him, that maketh trew counte, of learning and honestie. But
    if we had the Greke Author, the first Patterne of all, and therby
    to see, how Tullies witte did worke at diuerse tymes, how, out
    of one excellent Image, might be framed two other, one in face
    and fauor, but somwhat differing in forme, figure, and color,
    surelie, such a peece of workemanship compared with the
    Paterne it selfe, would better please the ease of honest, wise,
    and learned myndes, than two of the fairest Venusses, that euer
    Apelles made.
         And thus moch, for all kinde of Paraphrasis, fitte or vnfit,
    for Scholers or other, as I am led to thinke, not onelie, by mine
    owne experience, but chiefly by the authoritie & iudgement of
    those, whom I my selfe would gladliest folow, and do counsell
    all myne to do the same: not contendyng with any other, that
    will otherwise either thinke or do.


This kinde of exercise is all one with Paraphrasis, saue it is out of verse, either into prose, or into some other kinde of meter: or els, out of prose into verse, which was // Plato in Socrates exercise and pastime ( as Plato reporteth) // Phædone. when he was in prison, to translate æsopes Fabules into verse. Quintilian doth greatlie praise also this exercise: but bicause Tullie doth disalow it in yong men, by myne opinion, it were not well to vse it in Grammer Scholes, euen

254 The second booke teachyng

    for the selfe same causes, that be recited against Paraphrasis.
    And therfore, for the vse, or misuse of it, the same is to be
    thought, that is spoken of Paraphrasis before. This was
    Sulpitius exercise: and he gathering vp therby, a Poeticall kinde
    of talke, is iustlie named of Cicero, grandis et Tragicus Orator:
    which I think is spoken, not for his praise, but for other mens
    warning, to exchew the like faulte. Yet neuertheles, if our
    Scholemaster for his owne instruction, is desirous, to see a
    perfite example hereof, I will recite one, which I thinke, no
    man is so bold, will say, that he can amend it: & that is
    Hom. 1. Il. // Chrises the Priestes Oration to the Grekes, in
    Pla. 3. Rep. // beginnyng of Homers Ilias, turned excellentlie
    into prose by Socrates him selfe, and that aduised-
    lie and purposelie for other to folow: and therfore he calleth
    this exercise, in the same place, mimesis, that is, Imitatio, which
    is most trew: but, in this booke, for teachyng sake, I will name
    it Metaphrasis, reteinyng the word, that all teachers, in this
    case, do vse.

Homerus. I. Iliad.

o gar elthe thoas epi neas Achaion, lysomenos te thygatra, pheron t apereisi apoina, stemmat echon en chersin ekebolou Apollonos, chryseo ana skeptro kai elisseto pantas Achaious, Atreida de malista duo, kosmetore laon. Atreidai te, kai alloi euknemides Achaioi, ymin men theoi doien, Olympia domat echontes, ekpersai Priamoio polin eu d oikad ikesthai paida d emoi lysai te philen, ta t apoina dechesthai, azomenoi Dios uion ekebolon Apollona. enth alloi men pantes epeuphemesan Achaioi aideisthai th ierea, kai aglaa dechthai apoina all ouk Atreide Agamemnoni endane thymo, alla kakos aphiei, krateron d epi mython etellen. me se, geron, koilesin ego para neusi kicheio, e nyn dethynont, e ysteron autis ionta, me ny toi ou chraisme skeptron, kai stemma theoio ten d ego ou lyso, prin min kai geras epeisin, emetero eni oiko, en Argei telothi patres

the ready way to the Latin tong. 255

iston epoichomenen, kai emon lechos antioosan. all ithi, me m erethize saoteros os ke neeai. os ephat eddeisen d o geron, kai epeitheto mytho be d akeon para thina polyphloisboio thalasses, polla d epeit apaneuthe kion erath o geraios Apolloni anakti, ton eukomos teke Leto. klythi meu, argyrotox, os Chrysen amphibebekas, killan te zatheen, Tenedoio te iphi anasseis, smintheu, ei pote toi Charient epi neon erepsa, e ei de pote toi kata piona meri ekea tauron, ed aigon, tode moi kreenon eeldor tiseian Danaoi ema dakrua soisi belessin.

Socrates in 3. de Rep. saith thus,

Phraso gar aneu metrou, ou gar eimi poietikos.

elthen o Chryses tes te thygatros lytra pheron, kai iketes ton Achaion, malista de ton basileon: kai eucheto, ekeinois men tous theous dounai elontas ten Troian, autous de sothenai, ten de thygatera oi auto lysai, dexamenous apoina, kai ton theon aidesthentas. Toiauta de eipontos autou, oi men alloi esebonto kai synenoun, o de Agamemnon egriainen, entel- lomenos nyn te apienai, kai authis me elthein, me auto to te skeptron, kai ta tou theou stemmata ouk eparkesoi. prin de lythenai autou thygatera, en Argei ephe gerasein meta ou. apienai de ekeleue, kai me erethizein, ina sos oikade elthoi. o de presbytes akousas edeise te kai apeei sige, apocho- resas d ek tou stratopedou polla to Apolloni eucheto, tas te eponymias tou theou anakalon kai ypomimneskon kai apaiton, ei ti popote e en naon oikodomesesin, e en ieron thysiais kecharismenon doresaito. on de charin kateucheto tisai tous Achaious ta a dakrua tois ekeinon belesin.

To compare Homer and Plato together, two wonders of nature and arte for witte and eloquence, is most pleasant and profitable, for a man of ripe iudgement. Platos turning of Homer in this place, doth not ride a loft in Poeticall termes, but goeth low and soft on foote, as prose and Pedestris oratio should do. If Sulpitius had had Platos consideration, in right

256 The second booke teachyng

    vsing this exercise, he had not deserued the name of Tragicus
, who should rather haue studied to expresse vim Demos-
, than furorem Poætæ, how good so euer he was, whom he
    did folow.
         And therfore would I haue our Scholemaster wey well
    together Homer and Plato, and marke diligentlie these foure
    pointes, what is kept: what is added: what is left out: what
    is changed, either, in choise of wordes, or forme of sentences:
    which foure pointes, be the right tooles, to handle like a worke-
    man, this kinde of worke: as our Scholer shall better vnder-
    stand, when he hath bene a good while in the Vniuersitie:
    to which tyme and place, I chiefly remitte this kinde of exercise.
         And bicause I euer thought examples to be the best kinde
    of teaching, I will recite a golden sentence out of that Poete,
    which is next vnto Homer, not onelie in tyme, but also in
    worthines: which hath bene a paterne for many worthie
    wittes to follow, by this kind of Metaphrasis, but I will content
    my selfe, with foure workemen, two in Greke, and two in Latin,
    soch, as in both the tonges, wiser & worthier, can not be looked
    for. Surelie, no stone set in gold by most cunning workemen,
    is in deed, if right counte be made, more worthie the looking
    on, than this golden sentence, diuerslie wrought vpon, by soch
    foure excellent Masters.

Hesiodus. 2.

         1. outos men panariotos, os auto panta noese,
             phrassamenos ta k epeita kai es telos esin ameino:
         2. esthlos d au kakeinos, os eu eiponti pithetai,
         3. os de ke met autos noee, met allou akouon
             en thymo balletai, o d aut achreios aner.

              ¶ Thus rudelie turned into
                   base English.

              1. That man in wisedome passeth all,
                  to know the best who hath a head:

              2. And meetlie wise eeke counted shall,
                  who yeildes him selfe to wise mens read:

              3. Who hath no witte, nor none will heare,
                  amongest all fooles the bell may beare.

the ready way to the Latin tong. 257

Sophocles in Antigone.

              1. Phem egoge presbeuein poly,
                  Phynai ton andra pant epiotemes pleon:
              2. Ei d oun (philei gar touto me taute repein),
                  Kai ton legonton eu kalon to manthanein.

Marke the wisedome of Sophocles, in leauyng out the last sentence, because it was not cumlie for the sonne to vse it to his father.

D. Basileus in his Exhortation to youth.

Memnesthe tou Esiodou, os phesi, ariston men einai ton par eautou ta deonta xynoronta. 2. Esthlon de kakei- non, ton tois, par eteron ypodeicheisin epomenon. 3. ton de pros oudeteron epitedeion achreion einai pros apanta.

¶ M. Cic. Pro A. Cluentio.

1. Sapientissimum esse dicunt eum, cui, quod opus sit, ipsi veniat in mentem: 2. Proxime accedere illum, qui alterius bene inuentis obtemperet. 3. In stulticia contra est: minus enim stultus est is, cui nihil in mentem venit, quam ille, qui, quod stultè alteri venit in mentem comprobat.

Cicero doth not plainlie expresse the last sentence, but doth inuent it fitlie for his purpose, to taunt the folie and simplicitie in his aduersarie Actius, not weying wiselie, the sutle doynges of Chrysogonus and Staienus.

¶ Tit. Liuius in Orat. Minutij. Lib. 22.

1. Sæpe ego audiui milites; eum primum esse virum, qui ipse consulat, quid in rem sit: 2. Secundum eum, qui bene monenti obediat: 3. Qui, nec ipse consulere, nec alteri parere scit, eum extremi esse ingenij.

Now, which of all these foure, Sophocles, S. Basil, Cicero, or Liuie, hath expressed Hesiodus best, the iudgement is as hard, as the workemanship of euerie one is most excellent in deede. An other example out of the Latin tong also I will recite, for the worthines of the workeman therof, and that is Horace, who hath

258 The second book teachyng

so turned the begynning of Terence Eunuchus, as doth worke in me, a pleasant admiration, as oft so euer, as I compare those two places togither. And though euerie Master, and euerie good Scholer to, do know the places, both in Terence and Horace, yet I will set them heare, in one place togither, that with more pleasure, they may be compared together.

¶ Terentius in Eunucho.

Quid igitur faciam? non eam? ne nunc quidem cum accersor ultrò? an potius ita me comparem, non perpeti meretricum con- tumelias? exclusit: reuocat, redeam? non, si me obsecret. PAR- MENO a little after. Here, quæ res in se neque consilium neque modum habet vllum, eam consilio regere non potes. In Amore hæc omnia insunt vitia, iniuriæ, suspiciones, inimicitiæ, induciæ, bellum, pax rursum. Incerta hæc si tu postules ratione certa facere, nihilo plus agas, quem si des operam, vt cum ratione insanias.

¶ Horatius, lib. Ser. 2. Saty. 3.

                   Nec nunc cum me vocet vltro,
         Accedam? an potius mediter finire dolores?
         Exclusit: reuocat, redeam? non si obsecret. Ecce
         Seruus non Paulo sapientior: ô Here, quæ res
         Nec modum habet, neque consilium, ratione modóque
         Tractari non vult. In amore, hæc sunt mala, bellum,
         Pax rursum: hæc si quis tempestatis propè ritu
         Mobilia, et cæca fluitantia sorte, laboret
         Reddere certa, sibi nihilò plus explicet, ac si
         Insanire paret certa ratione, modòque.

This exercise may bring moch profite to ripe heads, and stayd iudgementes: bicause, in traueling in it, the mynde must nedes be verie attentiue, and busilie occupide, in turning and tossing it selfe many wayes: and conferryng with great pleasure, the varietie of worthie wittes and iudgementes togither: But this harme may sone cum therby, and namelie to yong Scholers, lesse, in seeking other wordes, and new forme of sentences, they chance vpon the worse: for the which onelie cause, Cicero thinketh this exercise not to be fit for yong men.

the ready way to the Latin tong. 259


         This is a way of studie, belonging, rather to matter, than to
    wordes: to memorie, than to vtterance: to those that be
    learned alreadie, and hath small place at all amonges yong
    scholers in Grammer scholes. It may proffet priuately some
    learned men, but it hath hurt generallie learning it selfe, very
    moch. For by it haue we lost whole Trogus, the best part of
    T. Liuius, the goodlie Dictionarie of Pompeius festus, a great
    deale of the Ciuill lawe, and other many notable bookes, for the
    which cause, I do the more mislike this exercise, both in old
    and yong.
         Epitome, is good priuatelie for himselfe that doth worke it,
    but ill commonlie for all other that vse other mens labor therein:
    a silie poore kinde of studie, not vnlike to the doing of those
    poore folke, which neyther till, nor sowe, nor reape themselues,
    but gleane by stelth, vpon other mens growndes. Soch, haue
    emptie barnes, for deare yeares.
         Grammer scholes haue fewe Epitomes to hurt them, except
    Epitheta Textoris, and such beggarlie gatheringes, as Horman,
, and other like vulgares for making of latines: yea
    I do wishe, that all rules for yong scholers, were shorter than
    they be. For without doute, Grammatica it selfe, is sooner and
    surer learned by examples of good authors, than by the naked
    rewles of Grammarians. Epitome hurteth more, in the vni-
    uersities and studie of Philosophie: but most of all, in diuinitie
    it selfe.
         In deede bookes of common places be verie necessarie, to
    induce a man, into an orderlie generall knowledge, how to
    referre orderlie all that he readeth, ad certa rerum Capita, and
    not wander in studie. And to that end did P. Lombardus the
    master of sentences and Ph. Melancthon in our daies, write two
    notable bookes of common places.
         But to dwell in Epitomes and bookes of common places, and
    not to binde himselfe dailie by orderlie studie, to reade with all
    diligence, principallie the holyest scripture and withall, the best
    Doctors, and so to learne to make trewe difference betwixt, the
    authoritie of the one, and the Counsell of the other, maketh so
    many seeming, and sonburnt ministers as we haue, whose

260 The second booke teachyng

    learning is gotten in a sommer heat, and washed away, with
    a Christmas snow againe: who neuerthelesse, are lesse to be
    blamed, than those blind bussardes, who in late yeares, of
    wilfull maliciousnes, would neyther learne themselues, nor
    could teach others, any thing at all.
         Paraphrasis hath done lesse hurt to learning, than Epitome:
    for no Paraphrasis, though there be many, shall neuer take
    away Dauids Psalter. Erasmus Paraphrasis being neuer so
    good, shall neuer banishe the new Testament. And in an
    other schole, the Paraphrasis of Brocardus, or Sambucus, shal
    neuer take Aristotles Rhetoricke, nor Horace de Arte Poetica, out
    of learned mens handes.
         But, as concerning a schole Epitome, he that wold haue an
    example of it, let him read Lucian peri kallous which is the
    verie Epitome of Isocrates oration de laudibus Helenæ,
    he may learne, at the least, this wise lesson, that a man ought
    to beware, to be ouer bold, in altering an excellent mans
         Neuertheles, some kinde of Epitome may be vsed, by men
    of skilful iudgement, to the great proffet also of others. As if
    a wise man would take Halles Cronicle, where moch good
    matter is quite marde with Indenture Englishe, and first change,
    strange and inkhorne tearmes into proper, and commonlie vsed
    wordes: next, specially to wede out that, that is superfluous
    and idle, not onelie where wordes be vainlie heaped one vpon
    an other, but also where many sentences, of one meaning, be
    clowted vp together as though M. Hall had bene, not writing
    the storie of England, but varying a sentence in Hitching
    schole: surelie a wise learned man, by this way of Epitome, in
    cutting away wordes and sentences, and diminishing nothing at
    all of the matter, shold leaue to mens vse, a storie, halfe as
    moch as it was in quantitie, but twise as good as it was, both
    for pleasure and also commoditie.
         An other kinde of Epitome may be vsed likewise very well,
    to moch proffet. Som man either by lustines of nature, or
    brought by ill teaching, to a wrong iudgement, is ouer full of
    words, sentences, & matter, & yet all his words be proper, apt
    & well chosen: all his sentences be rownd and trimlie framed:
    his whole matter grownded vpon good reason, & stuffed with
    full arguments, for his intent & purpose. Yet when his talke

the ready way to the Latin tong. 261

shalbe heard, or his writing be red, of soch one, as is, either of my two dearest frendes, M. Haddon at home, or Iohn Sturmius in Germanie, that Nimium in him, which fooles and vnlearned will most commend, shall eyther of thies two, bite his lippe, or shake his heade at it. This fulnes as it is not to be misliked in a yong man, so in farder aige, in greater skill, and weightier affaires, it is to be temperated, or else discretion and iudgement shall seeme to be wanting in him. But if his stile be still ouer rancke and lustie, as some men being neuer so old and spent by yeares, will still be full of youthfull conditions as was Syr F. Bryan, and euer- more wold haue bene: soch a rancke and full writer, must vse, if he will do wiselie the exercise of a verie good kinde of Epitome, and do, as certaine wise men do, that be ouer fat and fleshie: who leauing their owne full and plentifull table, go to soiorne abrode from home for a while, at the temperate diet of some sober man: and so by litle and litle, cut away the grosnesse that is in them. As for an example: If Osorius would leaue of his lustines in striuing against S. Austen, and his ouer rancke rayling against poore Luther, and the troth of Gods doctrine, and giue his whole studie, not to write any thing of his owne for a while, but to translate Demosthenes, with so straite, fast, & temperate a style in latine, as he is in Greeke, he would becume so perfit & pure a writer, I beleue, as hath bene fewe or none sence Ciceroes dayes: And so, by doing himself and all learned moch good, do others lesse harme, & Christes doctrine lesse iniury, than he doth: & with all, wyn vnto himselfe many worthy frends, who agreing with him gladly, in y^e loue & liking of excellent learning, are sorie to see so worthie a witte, so rare eloquence, wholie spent and consumed, in striuing with God and good men. Emonges the rest, no man doth lament him more than I, not onelie for the excellent learning that I see in him, but also bicause there hath passed priuatelie betwixt him and me, sure tokens of moch good will, and frendlie opinion, the one toward the other. And surelie the distance betwixt London and Lysbon, should not stoppe, any kinde of frendlie dewtie, that I could, eyther shew to him, or do to his, if the greatest matter of all did not in certeyne pointes, separate our myndes. And yet for my parte, both toward him, and diuerse others

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here at home, for like cause of excellent learning, great wisdome, and gentle humanitie, which I haue seene in them, and felt at their handes my selfe, where the matter of indifference is mere conscience in a quiet minde inwardlie, and not contentious malice with spitefull rayling openlie, I can be content to followe this rewle, in misliking some one thing, not to hate for anie thing els. But as for all the bloodie beastes, as that fat Boore of the Psal. 80. // wood: or those brauling Bulles of Basan: or any lurking Dormus, blinde, not by nature, but by malice, & as may be gathered of their owne testimonie, giuen ouer to blindnes, for giuing ouer God & his word; or soch as be so lustie runnegates, as first, runne from God & his trew doctrine, than, from their Lordes, Masters, & all dewtie, next, from them selues & out of their wittes, lastly from their Prince, contrey, & all dew allegeance, whether they ought rather to be pitied of good men, for their miserie, or contemned of wise men, for their malicious folie, let good and wise men deter- mine. And to returne to Epitome agayne, some will iudge moch boldnes in me, thus to iudge of Osorius style: but wise men do know, that meane lookers on, may trewelie say, for a well made Picture: This face had bene more cumlie, if that hie redde in the cheeke, were somwhat more pure sanguin than it is: and yet the stander by, can not amend it himselfe by any way. And this is not written to the dispraise but to the great commendation of Osorius, because Tullie himselfe had the same fulnes in him: and therefore went to Rodes to cut it away: and saith himselfe, recepi me domum prope mutatus, nam quasi referuerat iam oratio. Which was brought to passe I beleue, not onelie by the teaching of Molo Appollonius but also by a good way of Epitome, in binding him selfe to translate meros Atticos Oratores, and so to bring his style, from all lowse grosnesse, to soch firme fastnes in latin, as is in Demosthenes in Greeke. And this to be most trew, may easelie be gathered, not onelie of L. Crassus talke in 1. de Or. but speciallie of Ciceroes owne deede in translating Demosthenes and æschines orations peri steph. to that verie ende and purpose. And although a man growndlie learned all readie, may take moch proffet him selfe in vsing, by Epitome, to draw other mens

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workes for his owne memorie sake, into shorter rowme, as Conterus hath done verie well the whole Metamorphosis of Ouid, & Dauid Cythræus a great deale better, the ix. Muses of Hero- dotus, and Melanchthon in myne opinion, far best of all, the whole storie of Time, not onelie to his own vse, but to other mens proffet and hys great prayse, yet, Epitome is most necessarie of all in a mans owne writing, as we learne of that noble Poet Virgill, who, if Donatus say trewe, in writing that perfite worke of the Georgickes, vsed dailie, when he had written 40. or 50. verses, not to cease cutting, paring, and pollishing of them, till he had brought them to the nomber of x. or xij. And this exercise, is not more nedefullie done in a great worke, than wiselie done, in your common dailie writing, either of letter, or other thing else, that is to say, to peruse diligentlie, and see and spie wiselie, what is alwaies more than nedeth: For, twenty to one, offend more, in writing to moch, than to litle: euen as twentie to one, fall into sicknesse, rather by ouer moch fulnes, than by anie lacke or emptinesse. And therefore is he alwaies the best English Physition, that best can geue a purgation, that is, by way of Epitome, to cut all ouer much away. And surelie mens bodies, be not more full of ill humors, than commonlie mens myndes (if they be yong, lustie, proude, like and loue them selues well, as most men do) be full of fansies, opinions, errors, and faultes, not onelie in inward inuention, but also in all their vtterance, either by pen or taulke. And of all other men, euen those that haue y^e inuentiuest heades, for all purposes, and roundest tonges in all matters and places (except they learne and vse this good lesson of Epitome) commit commonlie greater faultes, than dull, staying silent men do. For, quicke inuentors, and faire readie speakers, being boldned with their present habilitie to say more, and perchance better to, at the soden for that present, than any other can do, vse lesse helpe of diligence and studie than they ought to do: and so haue in them commonlie, lesse learning, and weaker iudgement, for all deepe considerations, than some duller heades, and slower tonges haue. And therefore, readie speakers, generallie be not the best, playnest, and wisest writers, nor yet the deepest iudgers in weightie affaires, bicause they do not tarry to weye and iudge all thinges, as they should: but hauing their heades ouer full of

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matter, be like pennes ouer full of incke, which will soner blotte, than make any faire letter at all. Tyme was, whan I had experience of two Ambassadors in one place, the one of a hote head to inuent, and of a hastie hand to write, the other, colde and stayd in both: but what difference of their doinges was made by wise men, is not vnknowne to some persons. The Bishop of Winchester Steph: Gardiner had a quicke head, and a readie tong, and yet was not the best writer in England. Cicero in Brutus doth wiselie note the same in Serg: Galbo, and Q. Hortentius, who were both, hote, lustie, and plaine speakers, but colde, lowse, and rough writers: And Tullie telleth the cause why, saying, whan they spake, their tong was naturally caried with full tyde & wynde of their witte: whan they wrote their head was solitarie, dull, and caulme, and so their style was blonte, and their writing colde: Quod vitium, sayth Cicero, peringeniosis hominibus neque satis doctis plerumque accidit. And therfore all quick inuentors, & readie faire speakers, must be carefull, that, to their goodnes of nature, they adde also in any wise, studie, labor, leasure, learning, and iudgement, and than they shall in deede, passe all other, as I know some do, in whome all those qualities are fullie planted, or else if they giue ouer moch to their witte, and ouer litle to their labor and learning, they will sonest ouer reach in taulke, and fardest cum behinde in writing whatsoeuer they take in hand. The methode of Epitome is most necessarie for soch kinde of men. And thus much concerning the vse or misuse of all kinde of Epitomes in matters of learning.

[dingbat omitted] Imitatio.

         Imitation, is a facultie to expresse liuelie and perfitelie that
    example: which ye go about to folow. And of it selfe, it is
    large and wide: for all the workes of nature, in a maner be
    examples for arte to folow.
         But to our purpose, all languages, both learned and mother
    tonges, be gotten, and gotten onelie by Imitation. For as ye
    vse to heare, so ye learne to speake: if ye heare no other, ye
    speake not your selfe: and whome ye onelie heare, of them ye
    onelie learne.
         And therefore, if ye would speake as the best and wisest do,

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ye must be conuersant, where the best and wisest are: but if yow be borne or brought vp in a rude contrie, ye shall not chose but speake rudelie: the rudest man of all knoweth this to be trewe. Yet neuerthelesse, the rudenes of common and mother tonges, is no bar for wise speaking. For in the rudest contrie, and most barbarous mother language, many be found can speake verie wiselie: but in the Greeke and latin tong, the two onelie learned tonges, which be kept, not in common taulke, but in priuate bookes, we finde alwayes, wisdome and eloquence, good matter and good vtterance, neuer or seldom a sonder. For all soch Authors, as be fullest of good matter and right iudgement in doctrine, be likewise alwayes, most proper in wordes, most apte in sentence, most plaine and pure in vttering the same. And contrariwise, in those two tonges, all writers, either in Religion, or any sect of Philosophie, who so euer be founde fonde in iudgement of matter, be commonlie found as rude in vttering their mynde. For Stoickes, Anabaptistes, and Friers: with Epicures, Libertines and Monkes, being most like in learning and life, are no fonder and pernicious in their opinions, than they be rude and barbarous in their writinges. They be not wise, therefore that say, what care I for a mans wordes and vtterance, if his matter and reasons be good. Soch men, say so, not so moch of ignorance, as eyther of some singular pride in themselues, or some speciall malice or other, or for some priuate & perciall matter, either in Religion or other kinde of learning. For good and choice meates, be no more requisite for helthie bodies, than proper and apte wordes be for good matters, and also plaine and sensible vtterance for the best and depest reasons: in which two pointes standeth perfite eloquence, one of the fairest and rarest giftes that God doth geue to man. Ye know not, what hurt ye do to learning, that care not for wordes, but for matter, and so make a deuorse betwixt the tong and the hart. For marke all aiges: looke vpon the whole course of both the Greeke and Latin tonge, and ye shall surelie finde, that, whan apte and good wordes began to be neglected, and properties of those two tonges to be confounded, than also began, ill deedes to spring: strange maners to oppresse good orders, newe and fond opinions to striue with olde and trewe doctrine, first in Philosophie: and after in Religion: right

266 The second booke teachyng

iudgement of all thinges to be peruerted, and so vertue with learning is contemned, and studie left of: of ill thoughtes cummeth peruerse iudgement: of ill deedes springeth lewde taulke. Which fower misorders, as they mar mans life, so destroy they good learning withall. But behold the goodnesse of Gods prouidence for learning: all olde authors and sectes of Philosophy, which were fondest in opinion, and rudest in vtterance, as Stoickes and Epicures, first contemned of wise men, and after forgotten of all men, be so consumed by tymes, as they be now, not onelie out of vse, but also out of memorie of man: which thing, I surelie thinke, will shortlie chance, to the whole doctrine and all the bookes of phantasticall Anabaptistes and Friers, and of the beastlie Libertines and Monkes. Againe behold on the other side, how Gods wisdome hath wrought, that of Academici and Peripatetici, those that were wisest in iudgement of matters, and purest in vttering their myndes, the first and chiefest, that wrote most and best, in either tong, as Plato and Aristotle in Greeke, Tullie in Latin, be so either wholie, or sufficiently left vnto vs, as I neuer knew yet scholer, that gaue himselfe to like, and loue, and folow chieflie those three Authors but he proued, both learned, wise, and also an honest man, if he ioyned with all the trewe doctrine of Gods holie Bible, without the which, the other three, be but fine edge tooles in a fole or mad mans hand. But to returne to Imitation agayne: There be three kindes of it in matters of learning. The whole doctrine of Comedies and Tragedies, is a perfite imitation, or faire liuelie painted picture of the life of euerie degree of man. Of this Imitation writeth Plato at large in 3. de Rep. but it doth not moch belong at this time to our purpose. The second kind of Imitation, is to folow for learning of tonges and sciences, the best authors. Here riseth, emonges proude and enuious wittes, a great controuersie, whether, one or many are to be folowed: and if one, who is that one: Seneca, or Cicero: Salust or Cæsar, and so forth in Greeke and Latin. The third kinde of Imitation, belongeth to the second: as when you be determined, whether ye will folow one or mo, to know perfitlie, and which way to folow that one: in what

the ready way to the Latin tong. 267

    place: by what meane and order: by what tooles and instru-
    mentes ye shall do it, by what skill and iudgement, ye shall
    trewelie discerne, whether ye folow rightlie or no.
         This Imitatio, is dissimilis materiei similis tractatio: and also,
    similis materiei dissimilis tractatio, as Virgill folowed Homer: but
    the Argument to the one was Vlysses, to the other æneas.
    Tullie persecuted Antonie with the same wepons of eloquence,
    that Demosthenes vsed before against Philippe.
         Horace foloweth Pindar, but either of them his owne
    Argument and Person: as the one, Hiero king of Sicilie, the
    other Augustus the Emperor: and yet both for like respectes,
    that is, for their coragious stoutnes in warre, and iust gouern-
    ment in peace.
         One of the best examples, for right Imitation we lacke, and
    that is Menander, whom our Terence, (as the matter required) in
    like argument, in the same Persons, with equall eloquence, foote
    by foote did folow.
         Som peeces remaine, like broken Iewelles, whereby men
    may rightlie esteme, and iustlie lament, the losse of the
         Erasmus, the ornament of learning, in our tyme, doth wish
    that som man of learning and diligence, would take the like
    paines in Demosthenes and Tullie, that Macrobius hath done in
    Homer and Virgill, that is, to write out and ioyne together,
    where the one doth imitate the other. Erasmus wishe is good,
    but surelie, it is not good enough: for Macrobius gatherings for
    the æneidos out of Homer, and Eobanus Hessus more diligent
    gatherings for the Bucolikes out of Theocritus, as they be not
    fullie taken out of the whole heape, as they should be, but euen
    as though they had not sought for them of purpose, but fownd
    them scatered here and there by chance in their way, euen so,
    onelie to point out, and nakedlie to ioyne togither their
    sentences, with no farder declaring the maner and way, how
    the one doth folow the other, were but a colde helpe, to the
    encrease of learning.
         But if a man would take this paine also, whan he hath layd
    two places, of Homer and Virgill, or of Demosthenes and
    togither, to teach plainlie withall, after this sort.
         1. Tullie reteyneth thus moch of the matter, thies
    sentences, thies wordes:

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2. This and that he leaueth out, which he doth wittelie to this end and purpose. 3. This he addeth here. 4. This he diminisheth there. 5. This he ordereth thus, with placing that here, not there. 6. This he altereth and changeth, either, in propertie of wordes, in forme of sentence, in substance of the matter, or in one, or other conuenient circumstance of the authors present purpose. In thies fewe rude English wordes, are wrapt vp all the necessarie tooles and instrumentes, wherewith trewe Imita- tion is rightlie wrought withall in any tonge. Which tooles, I openlie confesse, be not of myne owne forging, but partlie left vnto me by the cunningest Master, and one of the worthiest Ientlemen that euer England bred, Syr Iohn Cheke: partelie borowed by me out of the shoppe of the dearest frende I haue out of England, Io. St. And therefore I am the bolder to borow of him, and here to leaue them to other, and namelie to my Children: which tooles, if it please God, that an other day, they may be able to vse rightlie, as I do wish and daylie pray, they may do, I shal be more glad, than if I were able to leaue them a great quantitie of land. This foresaide order and doctrine of Imitation, would bring forth more learning, and breed vp trewer iudgement, than any other exercise that can be vsed, but not for yong beginners, bicause they shall not be able to consider dulie therof. And trewelie, it may be a shame to good studentes who hauing so faire examples to follow, as Plato and Tullie, do not vse so wise wayes in folowing them for the obteyning of wisdome and learning, as rude ignorant Artificers do, for gayning a small commoditie. For surelie the meanest painter vseth more witte, better arte, greater diligence, in hys shoppe, in folowing the Picture of any meane mans face, than commonlie the best studentes do, euen in the vniuersitie, for the atteining of learning it selfe. Some ignorant, vnlearned, and idle student: or some busie looker vpon this litle poore booke, that hath neither will to do good him selfe, nor skill to iudge right of others, but can lustelie contemne, by pride and ignorance, all painfull diligence and right order in study, will perchance say, that I am to precise, to

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    curious, in marking and piteling thus about the imitation of
    others: and that the olde worthie Authors did neuer busie their
    heades and wittes, in folowyng so preciselie, either the matter
    what other men wrote, or els the maner how other men wrote.
    They will say, it were a plaine slauerie, & inurie to, to shakkle
    and tye a good witte, and hinder the course of a mans good
    nature with such bondes of seruitude, in folowyng other.
         Except soch men thinke them selues wiser then Cicero for
    teaching of eloquence, they must be content to turne a new
         The best booke that euer Tullie wrote, by all mens iudge-
    ment, and by his owne testimonie to, in writyng wherof, he
    employed most care, studie, learnyng and iudgement, is his
    book de Orat. ad Q. F. Now let vs see, what he did for the
    matter, and also for the maner of writing therof. For the
    whole booke consisteth in these two pointes onelie: In good
    matter, and good handling of the matter. And first, for the
    matter, it is whole Aristotles, what so euer Antonie in the
    second, and Crassus in the third doth teach. Trust not me,
    but beleue Tullie him selfe, who writeth so, first, in that goodlie
    long Epistle ad P. Lentulum, and after in diuerse places ad
. And in the verie booke it selfe, Tullie will not haue
    it hidden, but both Catulus and Crassus do oft and pleasantly lay
    that stelth to Antonius charge. Now, for the handling of the
    matter, was Tullie so precise and curious rather to follow an
    other mans Paterne, than to inuent some newe shape him selfe,
    namelie in that booke, wherin he purposed, to leaue to
    posteritie, the glorie of his witte? yea forsoth, that he did.
    And this is not my gessing and gathering, nor onelie performed
    by Tullie in verie deed, but vttered also by Tullie in plaine
    wordes: to teach other men thereby, what they should do, in
    taking like matter in hand.
         And that which is specially to be marked, Tullie doth vtter
    plainlie his conceit and purpose therein, by the mouth of
    the wisest man in all that companie: for sayth Scæuola him
    selfe, Cur non imitamur, Crasse, Socratem illum, qui est in Phædro
    Platonis &c.

         And furder to vnderstand, that Tullie did not obiter and
    bichance, but purposelie and mindfullie bend him selfe to
    a precise and curious Imitation of Plato, concernyng the shape

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    and forme of those bookes, marke I pray you, how curious
    Tullie is to vtter his purpose and doyng therein, writing thus to
         Quod in his Oratorijs libris, quos tantopere laudas, personam
    desideras Scæuolæ, non eam temerè dimoui: Sed feci idem, quod in
    politeia Deus ille noster Plato, cum in Piræeum Socrates venisset ad
    Cephalum locupletem & festiuum Senem, quoad primus ille sermo
    haberetur, adest in disputando senex: Deinde, cum ipse quoque
    commodissimè locutus esset, ad rem diuinam dicit se velle discedere,
    neque postea reuertitur. Credo Platonem vix putasse satis consonum
    fore, si hominem id ætatis in tam longo sermone diutius retinuisset:
    Multo ego satius hoc mihi cauendum putaui in Scæuola, qui & ætate
    et valetudine erat ea qua meministi, & his honoribus, vt vix satis
    decorum videretur eum plures dies esse in Crassi Tusculano. Et erat
    primi libri sermo non alienus à Scæuolæ studijs: reliqui libri
    technologian habent, vt scis. Huic ioculatoriæ disputationi senem
    illum vt noras, interesse sanè nolui.

         If Cicero had not opened him selfe, and declared hys owne
    thought and doynges herein, men that be idle, and ignorant, and
    enuious of other mens diligence and well doinges, would haue
    sworne that Tullie had neuer mynded any soch thing, but that
    of a precise curiositie, we fayne and forge and father soch
    thinges of Tullie, as he neuer ment in deed. I write this, not
    for nought: for I haue heard some both well learned, and
    otherwayes verie wise, that by their lustie misliking of soch
    diligence, haue drawen back the forwardnes of verie good wittes.
    But euen as such men them selues, do sometymes stumble vpon
    doyng well by chance and benefite of good witte, so would
    I haue our scholer alwayes able to do well by order of learnyng
    and right skill of iudgement.
         Concernyng Imitation, many learned men haue written,
    with moch diuersitie for the matter, and therfore with great
    contrarietie and some stomacke amongest them selues. I
    haue read as many as I could get diligentlie, and what I
    thinke of euerie one of them, I will freelie say my mynde.
    With which freedome I trust good men will beare, bicause
    it shall tend to neither spitefull nor harmefull controuersie.
         In Tullie, it is well touched, shortlie taught, not fullie
    Cicero. // declared by Ant. in 2. de Orat: and afterward
    in Orat. ad Brutum, for the liking and misliking

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of Isocrates: and the contrarie iudgement of Tullie against Caluus, Brutus, and Calidius, de genere dicendi Attico & Asiatico. Dionis. Halic. peri mimeseos. I feare is lost: which Author, next Aristotle, Plato, and Tullie, of all // Dio. Hali- other, that write of eloquence, by the iudgement // car. of them that be best learned, deserueth the next prayse and place. Quintilian writeth of it, shortly and coldlie for the matter, yet hotelie and spitefullie enough, agaynst the // Quintil. Imitation of Tullie. Erasmus, beyng more occupied in spying other mens faultes, than declaryng his own aduise, is mistaken of // Erasmus. many, to the great hurt of studie, for his authoritie sake. For he writeth rightlie, rightlie vnderstanded: he and Longolius onelie differing in this, that the one seemeth to giue ouermoch, the other ouer litle, to him, whom they both, best loued, and chiefly allowed of all other. Budæus in his Commentaries roughlie and obscurelie, after his kinde of writyng: and for the matter, // Budæus. caryed somwhat out of the way in ouermuch misliking the Imitation of Tullie. // Ph. Me- Phil. Melancthon, learnedlie and trewlie. // lanch. Camerarius largely with a learned iudgement, // Ioa. Cam- but somewhat confusedly, and with ouer rough // mer. a stile. Sambucus, largely, with a right iudgement but somewhat a crooked stile. // Sambucus. Other haue written also, as Cortesius to // Cortesius. Politian, and that verie well: Bembus ad Picum // P. Bembus. a great deale better, but Ioan. Sturmius de // Ioan. Stur- Nobilitate literata, & de Amissa dicendi ratione, // mius. farre best of all, in myne opinion, that euer tooke this matter in hand. For all the rest, declare chiefly this point, whether one, or many, or all, are to be followed: but Sturmius onelie hath most learnedlie declared, who is to be followed, what is to be followed, and the best point of all, by what way & order, trew Imitation is rightlie to be exercised. And although Sturmius herein doth farre passe all other, yet hath he not so fullie and perfitelie done it, as I do wishe he had, and as I know he could. For though he hath done it perfitelie for precept, yet hath he

272 The second booke teachyng

    not done it perfitelie enough for example: which he did, neither
    for lacke of skill, nor by negligence, but of purpose, contented
    with one or two examples bicause he was mynded in those two
    bookes, to write of it both shortlie, and also had to touch other
         Barthol. Riccius Ferrariensis also hath written learnedlie,
    diligentlie and verie largelie of this matter euen as hee did before
    verie well de Apparatu linguæ Lat. He writeth the better in
    myne opinion, bicause his whole doctrine, iudgement, and
    order, semeth to be borowed out of Io. Stur. bookes. He
    addeth also examples, the best kinde of teaching: wherein he
    doth well, but not well enough: in deede, he committeth no
    faulte, but yet, deserueth small praise. He is content with the
    meane, and followeth not the best: as a man, that would feede
    vpon Acornes, whan he may eate, as good cheape, the finest
    wheat bread. He teacheth for example, where and how, two
    or three late Italian Poetes do follow Virgil: and how Virgil
    him selfe in the storie of Dido, doth wholie Imitate Catullus in
    the like matter of Ariadna: Wherein I like better his diligence
    and order of teaching, than his iudgement in choice of examples
    for Imitation. But, if he had done thus: if he had declared
    where and how, how oft and how many wayes Virgil doth folow
    Homer, as for example the comming of Vlysses to Alcynous and
    Calypso, with the comming of æneas to Cartage and
Dido: Like-
    wise the games running, wrestling, and shoting, that Achilles
    maketh in Homer, with the selfe same games, that æneas
    maketh in Virgil: The harnesse of Achilles, with the harnesse
    of æneas, and the maner of making of them both by Vulcane:
    The notable combate betwixt Achilles and Hector, with as
    notable a combate betwixt æneas and Turnus. The going
    downe to hell of Vlysses in Homer, with the going downe to hell
    of Æneas in Virgil: and other places infinite mo, as similitudes,
    narrations, messages, discriptions of persones, places, battels,
    tempestes, shipwrackes, and common places for diuerse purposes,
    which be as precisely taken out of Homer, as euer did Painter in
    London follow the picture of any faire personage. And when
    thies places had bene gathered together by this way of diligence
    than to haue conferred them together by this order of teaching
    as, diligently to marke what is kept and vsed in either author,
    in wordes, in sentences, in matter: what is added: what is left

the ready way to the Latin tong. 273

    out: what ordered otherwise, either præponendo, interponendo, or
    postponendo: And what is altered for any respect, in word,
    phrase, sentence, figure, reason, argument, or by any way of
    circumstance: If Riccius had done this, he had not onely bene
    well liked, for his diligence in teaching, but also iustlie com-
    mended for his right iudgement in right choice of examples for
    the best Imitation.
         Riccius also for Imitation of prose declareth where and how
    Longolius doth folow Tullie, but as for Longolius, I would not
    haue him the patern of our Imitation. In deede: in Longolius
    shoppe, be proper and faire shewing colers, but as for shape,
    figure, and naturall cumlines, by the iudgement of best iudging
    artificers, he is rather allowed as one to be borne withall, than
    especially commended, as one chieflie to be folowed.
         If Riccius had taken for his examples, where Tullie him selfe
    foloweth either Plato or Demosthenes, he had shot than at the
    right marke. But to excuse Riccius, somwhat, though I can
    not fullie defend him, it may be sayd, his purpose was, to teach
    onelie the Latin tong, when thys way that I do wish, to ioyne
    Virgil with Homer, to read Tullie with Demosthenes and
    requireth a cunning and perfite Master in both the tonges. It
    is my wish in deede, and that by good reason: For who so euer
    will write well of any matter, must labor to expresse that, that
    is perfite, and not to stay and content himselfe with the meane:
    yea, I say farder, though it be not vnposible, yet it is verie rare,
    and meruelous hard, to proue excellent in the Latin tong, for
    him that is not also well seene in the Greeke tong. Tullie him
    selfe, most excellent of nature, most diligent in labor, brought
    vp from his cradle, in that place, and in that tyme, where and
    whan the Latin tong most florished naturallie in euery mans
    mouth, yet was not his owne tong able it selfe to make him so
    cunning in his owne tong, as he was in deede: but the
    knowledge and Imitation of the Greeke tong withall.
         This he confesseth himselfe: this he vttereth in many places,
    as those can tell best, that vse to read him most.
         Therefore thou, that shotest at perfection in the Latin tong,
    thinke not thy selfe wiser than Tullie was, in choice of the way,
    that leadeth rightlie to the same: thinke not thy witte better
    than Tullies was, as though that may serue thee that was not
    sufficient for him. For euen as a hauke flieth not hie with one

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wing: euen so a man reacheth not to excellency with one tong. I haue bene a looker on in the Cokpit of learning thies many yeares: And one Cock onelie haue I knowne, which with one wing, euen at this day, doth passe all other, in myne opinion, that euer I saw in any pitte in England, though they had two winges. Yet neuerthelesse, to flie well with one wing, to runne fast with one leg, be rather, rare Maistreis moch to be merueled at, than sure examples safelie to be folowed. A Bushop that now liueth, a good man, whose iudgement in Religion I better like, than his opinion in per- fitnes in other learning, said once vnto me: we haue no nede now of the Greeke tong, when all thinges be translated into Latin. But the good man vnderstood not, that euen the best translation, is, for mere necessitie, but an euill imped wing to flie withall, or a heuie stompe leg of wood to go withall: soch, the hier they flie, the sooner they falter and faill: the faster they runne, the ofter they stumble, and sorer they fall. Soch as will nedes so flie, may flie at a Pye, and catch a Dawe: And soch runners, as commonlie, they shoue and sholder to stand formost, yet in the end they cum behind others & deserue but the hopshakles, if the Masters of the game be right iudgers. Therefore in perusing thus, so many diuerse bookes for Optima // Imitation, it came into my head that a verie pro- ratio Imi- // fitable booke might be made de Imitatione, after tationis. // an other sort, than euer yet was attempted of that matter, conteyning a certaine fewe fitte preceptes, vnto the which should be gathered and applied plentie of examples, out of the choisest authors of both the tonges. This worke would stand, rather in good diligence, for the gathering, and right iudgement for the apte applying of those examples: than any great learning or vtterance at all. The doing thereof, would be more pleasant, than painfull, & would bring also moch proffet to all that should read it, and great praise to him would take it in hand, with iust desert of thankes. Erasmus, giuyng him selfe to read ouer all Authors Greke Erasmus // and Latin, seemeth to haue prescribed to him order in his // selfe this order of readyng: that is, to note out studie. // by the way, three speciall pointes: All Adagies,

the ready way to the Latin tong. 275

all similitudes, and all wittie sayinges of most notable person- ages: And so, by one labour, he left to posteritie, three notable bookes, & namelie two his Chiliades, Apophthegmata and Similia. Likewise, if a good student would bend him selfe to read diligently ouer Tullie, and with him also at // {Plato. the same tyme, as diligently Plato, & Xenophon, // {Xenophon. with his bookes of Philosophie, Isocrates, & // Cicero. {Isocrates. Demosthenes with his orations, & Aristotle with // {Demosth. his Rhetorickes: which fiue of all other, be // {Aristotles. those, whom Tullie best loued, & specially followed: & would marke diligently in Tullie where he doth exprimere or effingere (which be the verie propre wordes of Imitation) either, Copiam Platonis or venustatem Xenophontis, suauitatem Isocratis, or vim Demosthenis, propriam & puram subtilitatem Aristotelis, and not onelie write out the places diligentlie, and lay them together orderlie, but also to conferre them with skilfull iudgement by those few rules, which I haue expressed now twise before: if that diligence were taken, if that order were vsed, what perfite knowledge of both the tonges, what readie and pithie vtterance in all matters, what right and deepe iudgement in all kinde of learnyng would follow, is scarse credible to be beleued. These bookes, be not many, nor long, nor rude in speach, nor meane in matter, but next the Maiestie of Gods holie word, most worthie for a man, the louer of learning and honestie, to spend his life in. Yea, I haue heard worthie M. Cheke many tymes say: I would haue a good student passe and iorney through all Authors both Greke and Latin: but he that will dwell in these few bookes onelie: first, in Gods holie Bible, and than ioyne with it, Tullie in Latin, Plato, Aristotle: Xenophon: Isocrates: and Demosthenes in Greke: must nedes proue an excel- lent man. Some men alreadie in our dayes, haue put to their helping handes, to this worke of Imitation. As Peri- // Perionius. onius, Henr. Stephanus in dictionario Ciceroniano, // H. Steph. and P. Victorius most praiseworthelie of all, in // P. Victor- that his learned worke conteyning xxv. bookes de // ius. varia lectione: in which bookes be ioyned diligentlie together the best Authors of both the tonges where one doth seeme to imitate an other. But all these, with Macrobius, Hessus, and other, be no

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    more but common porters, caryers, and bringers of matter and
    stuffe togither. They order nothing: They lay before you,
    what is done: they do not teach you, how it is done: They
    busie not them selues with forme of buildyng: They do not
    declare, this stuffe is thus framed by Demosthenes, and thus and
    thus by Tullie, and so likewise in Xenophon, Plato and Isocrates
    and Aristotle. For ioyning Virgil with Homer I haue suf-
    ficientlie declared before.
         The like diligence I would wish to be taken in Pindar and
    Pindarus. // Horace an equall match for all respectes.
    Horatius. // In Tragedies, (the goodliest Argument of all,
    and for the vse, either of a learned preacher, or a
    Ciuill Ientleman, more profitable than Homer, Pindar, Virgill,
    and Horace: yea comparable in myne opinion, with the doctrine
    Sophocles. // of Aristotle, Plato, and Xenophon,) the
    Euripides. // Sophocles and Euripides far ouer match our
    Seneca. // in Latin, namely in oikonomia et Decoro, although
    Senacaes elocution and verse be verie commendable for his tyme.
    And for the matters of Hercules, Thebes, Hippolytus, and Troie,
    his Imitation is to be gathered into the same booke, and to be
    tryed by the same touchstone, as is spoken before.
         In histories, and namelie in Liuie, the like diligence of
    Imitation, could bring excellent learning, and breede stayde
    iudgement, in taking any like matter in hand.
         Onely Liuie were a sufficient taske for one mans studie,
    Tit. Liuius. // to compare him, first with his fellow for all re-
    Dion. Hali- // spectes, Dion. Halicarnassæus: who both, liued in
    carn. // one tyme: tooke both one historie in hande to
    write: deserued both like prayse of learnyng and eloquence.
    Polibius. // Than with Polybius that wise writer, whom Liuie
    professeth to follow: & if he would denie it, yet
    it is plaine, that the best part of the thyrd Decade in Liuie, is in
    Thucidides. // a maner translated out of the thyrd and rest of
    Polibius: Lastlie with Thucydides, to whose Imita-
    tion Liuie is curiouslie bent, as may well appeare by that one
    1 Decad. // Oration of those of Campania, asking aide of the
    Lib. 7. // Romanes agaynst the Samnites, which is wholie
    taken, Sentence, Reason, Argument, and order,
    Thucid. 1. // out of the Oration of Corcyra, asking like aide of
    the Athenienses against them of Corinth. If some

the ready way to the Latin tong. 277

    diligent student would take paynes to compare them togither, he
    should easelie perceiue, that I do say trew. A booke, thus
    wholie filled with examples of Imitation, first out of Tullie,
    compared with Plato, Xenophon, Isocrates, Demosthenes and
    Aristotle: than out of Virgil and Horace, with Homer and
    Pindar: next out of Seneca with Sophocles and Euripides:
    out of Liuie, with Thucydides, Polibius and Halicarnassæus,
    gathered with good diligence, and compared with right order,
    as I haue expressed before, were an other maner of worke for
    all kinde of learning, & namely for eloquence, than be those
    cold gatheringes of Macrobius, Hessus, Perionius, Stephanus, and
    Victorius, which may be vsed, as I sayd before, in this case, as
    porters and caryers, deseruing like prayse, as soch men do
    wages; but onely Sturmius is he, out of whom, the trew suruey
    and whole workemanship is speciallie to be learned.
         I trust, this my writyng shall giue some good student
    occasion, to take some peece in hand of this worke of Imitation.
    And as I had rather haue any do it, than my // Opus de
    selfe, yet surelie my selfe rather than none at all. // recta imi-
    And by Gods grace, if God do lend me life, with // tandi ratione.
    health, free laysure and libertie, with good likyng
    and a merie heart, I will turne the best part of my studie and
    tyme, to toyle in one or other peece of this worke of Imitation.
         This diligence to gather examples, to giue light and vnder-
    standyng to good preceptes, is no new inuention, but speciallie vsed
    of the best Authors and oldest writers. For Aristotle // Aristoteles.
    him selfe, (as Diog. Laertius declareth) when he
    had written that goodlie booke of the Topickes, did gather out
    of stories and Orators, so many examples as filled xv. bookes,
    onelie to expresse the rules of his Topickes. These were the
    Commentaries, that Aristotle thought fit for hys // Commen-
    Topickes: And therfore to speake as I thinke, I // tarij Græ-
    neuer saw yet any Commentarie vpon Aristotles // ci et Lati-
    Logicke, either in Greke or Latin, that euer I // ni in Dia-
    lyked, bicause they be rather spent in declaryng // lect. Ari-
    scholepoynt rules, than in gathering fit examples // stotelis.
    for vse and vtterance, either by pen or talke. For preceptes in
    all Authors, and namelie in Aristotle, without applying vnto
    them, the Imitation of examples, be hard, drie, and cold, and
    therfore barrayn, vnfruitfull and vnpleasant. But Aristotle,

278 The second booke teachyng

namelie in his Topicks and Elenches, should be, not onelie fruitfull, but also pleasant to, if examples out of Plato, and other good Authors, were diligentlie gathered, and aptlie Precepta // applied vnto his most perfit preceptes there. in Aristot. // And it is notable, that my frende Sturmius writeth Exempla // herein, that there is no precept in Aristotles in Platone. // Topickes wherof plentie of examples be not manifest in Platos workes. And I heare say, that an excellent learned man, Tomitanus in Italie, hath expressed euerie fallacion in Aristotle, with diuerse examples out of Plato. Would to God, I might once see, some worthie student of Aristotle and Plato in Cambrige, that would ioyne in one booke the preceptes of the one, with the examples of the other. For such a labor, were one speciall peece of that worke of Imitation, which I do wishe were gathered together in one Volume. Cambrige, at my first comming thither, but not at my going away, committed this fault in reading the preceptes of Aristotle without the examples of other Authors: But herein, in my time thies men of worthie memorie, M. Redman, M. Cheke, M. Smith, M. Haddon, M. Watson, put so to their helping handes, as that vniuersitie, and all studentes there, as long as learning shall last, shall be bounde vnto them, if that trade in studie be trewlie folowed, which those men left behinde them there. By this small mention of Cambridge, I am caryed into three imaginations: first, into a sweete remembrance of my tyme spent there: than, into som carefull thoughts, for the greuous alteration that folowed sone after: lastlie, into much ioy to heare tell, of the good recouerie and earnest forwardnes in all good learning there agayne. To vtter theis my thoughts somwhat more largelie, were somwhat beside my matter, yet not very farre out of the way, bycause it shall wholy tend to the good encoragement and right consideration of learning, which is my full purpose in writing this litle booke: whereby also shall well appeare this sentence to be most trewe, that onely good men, by their gouernment & example, make happie times, in euery degree and state. Doctor Nico. Medcalfe, that honorable father, was Master D. Nic. // of S. Iohnes Colledge, when I came thether: A Medcalf. // man meanelie learned himselfe, but not meanely

the ready way to the Latin tong. 279

affectioned to set forward learning in others. He found that Colledge spending scarse two hundred markes by yeare: he left it spending a thousand markes and more. Which he procured, not with his mony, but by his wisdome; not chargeablie bought by him, but liberallie geuen by others by his meane, for the zeale & honor they bare to learning. And that which is worthy of memorie, all thies giuers were almost Northenmen: who being liberallie rewarded in the seruice of their Prince, bestowed it as liberallie for the good of their Contrie. Som men thought therefore, that D. Medcalfe was parciall to Northrenmen, but sure I am of this, that North- renmen were parciall, in doing more good, and geuing more landes to y^e forderance of learning, than any other // The parci- contrie men, in those dayes, did: which deede // alitie of should haue bene, rather an example of goodnes, // Northren for other to folowe, than matter of malice, for any // men in to enuie, as some there were that did. Trewly, // S. Iohnes D. Medcalfe was parciall to none: but indifferent // College. to all: a master for the whole, a father to euery one, in that Colledge. There was none so poore, if he had, either wil to goodnes, or wit to learning, that could lacke being there, or should depart from thence for any need. I am witnes my selfe, that mony many times was brought into yong mens studies by strangers whom they knew not. In which doing, this worthy Nicolaus folowed the steppes of good olde S. Nicolaus, that learned Bishop. He was a Papist in deede, but would to God, amonges all vs Protestants I might once see but one, that would winne like praise, in doing like good, for the aduauncement of learning and vertue. And yet, though he were a Papist, if any yong man, geuen to new learning (as they termed it) went beyond his fellowes, in witte, labor, and towardnes, euen the same, neyther lacked, open praise to encorage him, nor priuate exhibition to mainteyne hym, as worthy Syr I. Cheke, if he were aliue would beare good witnes and so can many mo. I my selfe one of the meanest of a great number, in that Colledge, because there appeared in me som small shew of towardnes and diligence, lacked not his fauor to forder me in learning. And being a boy, new Bacheler of arte, I chanced amonges my companions to speake against the Pope: which matter was

280 The second booke teachyng

than in euery mans mouth, bycause D. Haines and D. Skippe were cum from the Court, to debate the same matter, by preaching and disputation in the vniuersitie. This hapned the same tyme, when I stoode to be felow there: my taulke came to D. Medcalfes eare: I was called before him and the Seniores: and after greuous rebuke, and some punishment, open warning was geuen to all the felowes, none to be so hardie to geue me his voice at that election. And yet for all those open threates, the good father himselfe priuilie procured, that I should euen than be chosen felow. But, the election being done, he made countinance of great discontentation thereat. This good mans goodnes, and fatherlie discretion, vsed towardes me that one day, shall neuer out of my remembrance all the dayes of my life. And for the same cause, haue I put it here, in this small record of learning. For next Gods prouidence, surely that day, was by that good fathers meanes, Dies natalis, to me, for the whole foundation of the poore learning I haue, and of all the furderance, that hetherto else where I haue obteyned. This his goodnes stood not still in one or two, but flowed aboundantlie ouer all that Colledge, and brake out also to norishe good wittes in euery part of that vniuersitie: whereby, at this departing thence, he left soch a companie of fellowes and scholers in S. Iohnes Colledge, as can scarse be found now in some whole vniuersitie: which, either for diuinitie, on the one side or other, or for Ciuill seruice to their Prince and contrie, haue bene, and are yet to this day, notable ornaments to this whole Realme: Yea S. Iohnes did then so florish, as Trinitie college, that Princely house now, at the first erection, was but Colonia deducta out of S. Iohnes, not onelie for their Master, fellowes, and scholers, but also, which is more, for their whole, both order of learning, and discipline of maners: & yet to this day, it neuer tooke Master but such as was bred vp before in S. Iohnes: doing the dewtie of a good Colonia to her Metropolis, as the auncient Cities in Greice and some yet in Italie, at this day, are accustomed to do. S. Iohnes stoode in this state, vntill those heuie tymes, and that greuous change that chanced. An. 1553. whan mo perfite scholers were dispersed from thence in one moneth, than many Psal. 80. // yeares can reare vp againe. For, whan Aper de Sylua had passed the seas, and fastned his foote

the ready way to the Latin tong. 281

againe in England, not onely the two faire groues of learning in England were eyther cut vp, by the roote, or troden downe to the ground and wholie went to wracke, but the yong spring there, and euerie where else, was pitifullie nipt and ouertroden by very beastes, and also the fairest standers of all, were rooted vp, and cast into the fire, to the great weakning euen at this day of Christes Chirch in England, both for Religion and learning. And what good could chance than to the vniuersities, whan som of the greatest, though not of the wisest nor best learned, nor best men neither of that side, did labor to perswade, that ignorance was better than knowledge, which they ment, not for the laitie onelie, but also for the greatest rable of their spiritu- altie, what other pretense openlie so euer they made: and therefore did som of them at Cambrige (whom I will not name openlie,) cause hedge priestes fette oute of the contrie, to be made fellowes in the vniuersitie: saying, in their talke priuilie, and declaring by their deedes openlie, that he was, felow good enough for their tyme, if he could were a gowne and a tipet cumlie, and haue hys crowne shorne faire and roundlie, and could turne his Portesse and pie readilie: whiche I speake not to reproue any order either of apparell, or other dewtie, that may be well and indifferentlie vsed, but to note the miserie of that time, whan the benefites prouided for learning were so fowlie misused. And what was the frute of this seade? Verely, iudgement in doctrine was wholy altered: order in discipline very sore changed: the loue of good learning, began sodenly to wax cold: the knowledge of the tonges (in spite of some that therein had florished) was manifestly contemned: and so, y^e way of right studie purposely peruerted: the choice of good authors of mallice confownded. Olde sophistrie (I say not well) not olde, but that new rotten sophistrie began to beard and sholder logicke in her owne tong: yea, I know, that heades were cast together, and counsell deuised, that Duns, with all the rable of barbarous questionistes, should haue dispossessed of their place and rowmes, Aristotle, Plato, Tullie, // Aristoteles. and Demosthenes, when good M. Redman, and // Plato. those two worthy starres of that vniuersitie, // Cicero. M. Cheke, and M. Smith, with their scholers, had // Demost. brought to florishe as notable in Cambrige, as

282 The second booke teachyng

euer they did in Grece and in Italie: and for the doctrine of those fowre, the fowre pillers of learning, Cambrige than geuing place to no vniuersitie, neither in France, Spaine, Germanie, nor Italie. Also in outward behauiour, than began simplicitie in apparell, to be layd aside: Courtlie galantnes to be taken vp: frugalitie in diet was priuately misliked: Towne going to good Shoting. // cheare openly vsed: honest pastimes, ioyned with labor, left of in the fieldes: vnthrifty and idle games, haunted corners, and occupied the nightes: contention in youth, no where for learning: factions in the elders euery where for trifles. All which miseries at length, by Gods prouidence, had their end 16. Nouemb. 1558. Since which tyme, the yong spring hath shot vp so faire, as now there be in Cambrige againe, many goodly plantes (as did well appeare at the Queenes Maiesties late being there) which are like to grow to mightie great timber, to the honor of learning, and great good of their contrie, if they may stand their tyme, as the best plantes there were wont to do: and if som old dotterell trees, with standing ouer nie them, and dropping vpon them, do not either hinder, or crooke their growing, wherein my feare is y^e lesse, seing so worthie a Iustice of an Oyre hath the present ouersight of that whole chace, who was himselfe somtym, in the fairest spring that euer was there of learning, one of the forwardest yong plantes, in all that worthy College of S. Iohnes: who now by grace is growne to soch greatnesse, as, in the temperate and quiet shade of his wisdome, next the prouidence of God, and goodnes of one, in theis our daies, Religio for sinceritie, literæ for order and aduauncement, Respub. for happie and quiet gouernment, haue to great rejoysing of all good men, speciallie reposed them selues. Now to returne to that Question, whether one, a few, many or all, are to be folowed, my aunswere shalbe short: All, for him that is desirous to know all: yea, the worst of all, as Questionistes, and all the barbarous nation of scholemen, helpe for one or other consideration: But in euerie separate kinde of learning and studie, by it selfe, ye must follow, choiselie a few, and chieflie some one, and that namelie in our schole of eloquence, either for penne or talke. And as in portraicture and paintyng wise men chose not that workman, that can onelie make a faire hand, or a well facioned legge but soch one, as can

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furnish vp fullie, all the fetures of the whole body, of a man, woman and child: and with all is able to, by good skill, to giue to euerie one of these three, in their proper kinde, the right forme, the trew figure, the naturall color, that is fit and dew, to the dignitie of a man, to the bewtie of a woman, to the sweetnes of a yong babe: euen likewise, do we seeke soch one in our schole to folow, who is able alwayes, in all matters, to teach plainlie, to delite pleasantlie, and to cary away by force of wise talke, all that shall heare or read him: and is so excellent in deed, as witte is able, or wishe can hope, to attaine vnto: And this not onelie to serue in the Latin or Greke tong, but also in our own English language. But yet, bicause the prouid- ence of God hath left vnto vs in no other tong, saue onelie in the Greke and Latin tong, the trew preceptes, and perfite examples of eloquence, therefore must we seeke in the Authors onelie of those two tonges, the trewe Paterne of Eloquence, if in any other mother tongue we looke to attaine, either to perfit vtterance of it our selues, or skilfull iudgement of it in others. And now to know, what Author doth medle onelie with some one peece and member of eloquence, and who doth perfitelie make vp the whole bodie, I will declare, as I can call to remembrance the goodlie talke, that I haue had oftentymes, of the trew difference of Authors, with that Ientleman of worthie memorie, my dearest frend, and teacher of all the litle poore learning I haue, Syr Iohn Cheke. The trew difference of Authors is best knowne, per diuersa genera dicendi, that euerie one vsed. And therfore here I will deuide genus dicendi, not into these three, Tenuè, mediocrè, & grande, but as the matter of euerie Author requireth, as

         in Genus{Philosophicum.

These differre one from an other, in choice of wordes, in framyng of Sentences, in handling of Argumentes, and vse of right forme, figure, and number, proper and fitte for euerie matter, and euerie one of these is diuerse also in it selfe, as the first.

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              Poeticum, in {Epicum.

And here, who soeuer hath bene diligent to read aduisedlie ouer, Terence, Seneca, Virgil, Horace, or els Aristophanes, Sophocles, Homer, and Pindar, and shall diligently marke the difference they vse, in proprietie of wordes, in forme of sentence, in handlyng of their matter, he shall easelie perceiue, what is fitte and decorum in euerie one, to the trew vse of perfite Imitation. Whan M. Watson in S. Iohns College at Cambrige wrote his excellent Tragedie of Absalon, M. Cheke, he and I, for that part of trew Imitation, had many pleasant talkes togither, in com- paring the preceptes of Aristotle and Horace de Arte Poetica, with the examples of Euripides, Sophocles, and Seneca. Few men, in writyng of Tragedies in our dayes, haue shot at this marke. Some in England, moe in France, Germanie, and Italie, also haue written Tragedies in our tyme: of the which, not one I am sure is able to abyde the trew touch of Aristotles preceptes, and Euripides examples, saue only two, that euer I saw, M. Watsons Absalon, and Georgius Buckananus Iephthe. One man in Cambrige, well liked of many, but best liked of him selfe, was many tymes bold and busie, to bryng matters vpon stages, which he called Tragedies. In one, wherby he looked to wynne his spurres, and whereat many ignorant felowes fast clapped their handes, he began the Protasis with Trochæijs Octonarijs: which kinde of verse, as it is but seldome and rare in Tragedies, so is it neuer vsed, saue onelie in Epitasi: whan the Tragedie is hiest and hotest, and full of greatest troubles. I remember ful well what M. Watson merelie sayd vnto me of his blindnesse and boldnes in that behalfe although otherwise, there passed much frendship betwene them. M. Watson had an other maner care of perfection, with a feare and reuerence of the iudgement of the best learned: Who to this day would neuer suffer, yet his Absalon to go abroad, and that onelie, bicause, in locis paribus, Anapestus is twise or thrise vsed in stede of Iambus. A smal faulte, and such one, as perchance would neuer be marked, no neither in Italie nor France. This I write, not so much, to note the first, or praise the last, as to leaue in

the ready way to the Latin tong. 285

memorie of writing, for good example to posteritie, what perfection, in any tyme, was, most diligentlie sought for in like maner, in all kinde of learnyng, in that most worthie College of S. Iohns in Cambrige.

         Historicum in {Commentarios.
                   {Iustam Historiam.

For what proprietie in wordes, simplicitie in sentences, plainnesse and light, is cumelie for these kindes, Cæsar and Liuie, for the two last, are perfite examples of Imitation: And for the two first, the old paternes be lost, and as for some that be present and of late tyme, they be fitter to be read once for some pleasure, than oft to be perused, for any good Imitation of them.

Philosophicum in {Sermonem, as officia Cic. et Eth. Arist. {Contentionem.

As, the Dialoges of Plato, Xenophon, and Cicero: of which kinde of learnyng, and right Imitation therof, Carolus Sigonius hath written of late, both learnedlie and eloquentlie: but best of all my frende Ioan. Sturmius in hys Commentaries vpon Gorgias Platonis, which booke I haue in writyng, and is not yet set out in Print.

         Oratorium in {Mediocre.

Examples of these three, in the Greke tong, be plentifull & perfite, as Lycias, Isocrates, and Demosthenes: and // Lisias. all three, in onelie Demosthenes, in diuerse orations // Isocrates. as contra Olimpiodorum, in leptinem, & pro Ctesi- // Demost. phonte. And trew it is, that Hermogines writeth of Demosthenes, that all formes of Eloquence be perfite in him. In Ciceroes Orations, Medium & sublime be most // Cicero. excellentlie handled, but Humile in his Orations, is seldome sene: yet neuerthelesse in other bookes, as in some part of his offices, & specially in Partitionibus, he is comparable in hoc humili & disciplinabili genere, euen with the best that euer

286 The second booke teachyng

wrote in Greke. But of Cicero more fullie in fitter place. And thus, the trew difference of stiles, in euerie Author, and euerie kinde of learnyng may easelie be knowne by this diuision.

         in Genus {Philosophicum.

         Which I thought in this place to touch onelie, not to
    prosecute at large, bicause, God willyng, in the Latin tong,
    I will fullie handle it, in my booke de Imitatione.
         Now, to touch more particularlie, which of those Authors,
    that be now most commonlie in mens handes, will sone affourd
    you some peece of Eloquence, and what maner a peece of
    eloquence, and what is to be liked and folowed, and what to
    be misliked and eschewed in them: and how some agayne will
    furnish you fully withall, rightly, and wisely considered, som-
    what I will write as I haue heard Syr Ihon Cheke many tymes
         The Latin tong, concerning any part of purenesse of it,
    from the spring, to the decay of the same, did not endure moch
    longer, than is the life of a well aged man, scarse one hundred
    yeares from the tyme of the last Scipio Africanus and Lælius, to
    the Empire of Augustus. And it is notable, that Velleius Pater-
writeth of Tullie, how that the perfection of eloquence did
    so remayne onelie in him and in his time, as before him, were
    few, which might moch delight a man, or after him any, worthy
    admiration, but soch as Tullie might haue seene, and such as
    might haue seene Tullie. And good cause why: for no perfec-
    tion is durable. Encrease hath a time, & decay likewise, but
    all perfit ripenesse remaineth but a moment: as is plainly seen
    in fruits, plummes and cherries: but more sensibly in flowers,
    as Roses & such like, and yet as trewlie in all greater matters.
    For what naturallie, can go no hier, must naturallie yeld &
    stoup againe.
         Of this short tyme of any purenesse of the Latin tong, for
    the first fortie yeare of it, and all the tyme before, we haue no
    peece of learning left, saue Plautus and Terence, with a litle
    rude vnperfit pamflet of the elder Cato. And as for Plautus,
    except the scholemaster be able to make wise and ware choice,

the ready way to the Latin tong. 287

first in proprietie of wordes, than in framing of Phrases and sentences, and chieflie in choice of honestie of matter, your scholer were better to play, then learne all that is in him. But surelie, if iudgement for the tong, and direction for the maners, be wisely ioyned with the diligent reading of Plautus, than trewlie Plautus, for that purenesse of the Latin tong in Rome, whan Rome did most florish in wel doing, and so thereby, in well speaking also, is soch a plentifull storehouse, for common eloquence, in meane matters, and all priuate mens affaires, as the Latin tong, for that respect, hath not the like agayne. Whan I remember the worthy tyme of Rome, wherein Plautus did liue, I must nedes honor the talke of that tyme, which we see Plautus doth vse. Terence is also a storehouse of the same tong, for an other tyme, following soone after, & although he be not so full & plentiful as Plautus is, for multitude of matters, & diuersitie of wordes, yet his wordes, be chosen so purelie, placed so orderly, and all his stuffe so neetlie packed vp, and wittely compassed in euerie place, as, by all wise mens iudgement, he is counted the cunninger workeman, and to haue his shop, for the rowme that is in it, more finely appointed, and trimlier ordered, than Plautus is. Three thinges chiefly, both in Plautus and Terence, are to be specially considered. The matter, the vtterance, the words, the meter. The matter in both, is altogether within the compasse of the meanest mens maners, and doth not stretch to any thing of any great weight at all, but standeth chiefly in vtteryng the thoughtes and conditions of hard fathers, foolish mothers, vnthrifty yong men, craftie seruantes, sotle bawdes, and wilie harlots, and so, is moch spent, in finding out fine fetches, and packing vp pelting matters, soch as in London commonlie cum to the hearing of the Masters of Bridewell. Here is base stuffe for that scholer, that should becum hereafter, either a good minister in Religion, or a Ciuill Ientleman in seruice of his Prince and contrie: except the preacher do know soch matters to confute them, whan ignorance surelie in all soch thinges were better for a Ciuill Ientleman, than knowledge. And thus, for matter, both Plautus and Terence, be like meane painters, that worke by halfes, and be cunning onelie, in making the worst part of the picture, as if one were skilfull in painting

288 The second booke teachyng

the bodie of a naked person, from the nauell downward, but nothing else. For word and speach, Plautus is more plentifull, and Terence more pure and proper: And for one respect, Terence is to be embraced aboue all that euer wrote in hys kinde of argument: Bicause it is well known, by good recorde of learning, and that by Ciceroes owne witnes that some Comedies bearyng Terence name, were written by worthy Scipio, and wise Lælius, and namely Heauton: and Adelphi. And therefore as oft as I reade those Comedies, so oft doth sound in myne eare, the pure fine talke of Rome, which was vsed by the floure of the worthiest nobilitie that euer Rome bred. Let the wisest man, and best learned that liueth, read aduisedlie ouer, the first scene of Heauton, and the first scene of Adelphi, and let him consideratlie iudge, whether it is the talke of a seruile stranger borne, or rather euen that milde eloquent wise speach, which Cicero in Brutus doth so liuely expresse in Lælius. And yet neuerthelesse, in all this good proprietie of wordes, and purenesse of phrases which be in Terence, ye must not follow him alwayes in placing of them, bicause for the meter sake, some wordes in him, somtyme, be driuen awrie, which require a straighter placing in plaine prose, if ye will forme, as I would ye should do, your speach and writing, to that excellent perfitnesse, which was onely in Tullie, or onelie in Tullies tyme. The meter and verse of Plautus and Terence be verie meane, Meter in // and not to be followed: which is not their reproch, Plautus & // but the fault of the tyme, wherein they wrote, whan Terence. // no kinde of Poetrie, in the Latin tong, was brought to perfection, as doth well appeare in the fragmentes of Ennius, Cæcilius, and others, and euidentlie in Plautus & Terence, if thies in Latin be compared with right skil, with Homer, Euripides, Aristophanes, and other in Greeke of like sort. Cicero him selfe doth complaine of this vnperfitnes, but more plainly Quintilian, saying, in Comœdia maximè claudicamus, et vix leuem consequimur vmbram: and most earnestly of all Horace in Arte Poetica, which he doth namely propter carmen Iambicum, and referreth all good studentes herein to the Imitation of the Greeke tong, saying. Exemplaria Græca nocturna versate manu, versate diurna.

the ready way to the Latin tong. 289

         This matter maketh me gladly remember, my sweete tyme
    spent at Cambrige, and the pleasant talke which I had oft with
    M. Cheke, and M. Watson, of this fault, not onely in the olde
    Latin Poets, but also in our new English Rymers at this day.
    They wished as Virgil and Horace were not wedded to follow
    the faultes of former fathers (a shrewd mariage in greater
    matters) but by right Imitation of the perfit Grecians, had
    brought Poetrie to perfitnesse also in the Latin tong, that we
    Englishmen likewise would acknowledge and vnderstand right-
    fully our rude beggerly ryming, brought first into Italie by
    Gothes and Hunnes, whan all good verses and all good learning
    to, were destroyd by them: and after caryed into France and
    Germanie: and at last, receyued into England by men of
    excellent wit in deede, but of small learning, and lesse iudge-
    ment in that behalfe.
         But now, when men know the difference, and haue the
    examples, both of the best, and of the worst, surelie, to follow
    rather the Gothes in Ryming, than the Greekes in trew versifiyng,
    were euen to eate ackornes with swyne, when we may freely
    eate wheate bread emonges men. In deede, Chauser, Th.
, of Bristow, my L. of Surrey, M. Wiat, Th. Phaer,
    and other Ientlemen, in translating Ouide, Palingenius, and
    Seneca, haue gonne as farre to their great praise, as the copie
    they followed could cary them, but, if soch good wittes, and
    forward diligence, had bene directed to follow the best examples,
    and not haue bene caryed by tyme and custome, to content
    themselues with that barbarous and rude Ryming, emonges
    their other worthy praises, which they haue iustly deserued,
    this had not bene the least, to be counted emonges men of
    learning and skill, more like vnto the Grecians, than vnto the
    Gothians, in handling of their verse.
         In deed, our English tong, hauing in vse chiefly, wordes of
    one syllable which commonly be long, doth not well receiue the
    nature of Carmen Heroicum, bicause dactylus, the aptest foote
    for that verse, conteining one long & two short, is seldom there-
    fore found in English: and doth also rather stumble than stand
    vpon Monosyllabis. Quintilian in hys learned Chapiter // hand.gif
    de Compositione, geueth this lesson de Monosyllabis,
    before me: and in the same place doth iustlie inuey against all
    Ryming, that if there be any, who be angrie with me, for

290 The second booke teachyng

misliking of Ryming, may be angry for company to, with Quintilian also, for the same thing: And yet Quintilian had not so iust cause to mislike of it than, as men haue at this day. And although Carmen Exametrum doth rather trotte and hoble, than runne smothly in our English tong, yet I am sure, our English tong will receiue carmen Iambicum as naturallie, as either Greke or Latin. But for ignorance, men can not like, & for idlenes, men will not labor, to cum to any perfitenes at all. For, as the worthie Poetes in Athens and Rome, were more carefull to satisfie the iudgement of one learned, than rashe in pleasing the humor of a rude multitude, euen so if men in England now, had the like reuerend regard to learning skill and iudgement, and durst not presume to write, except they came with the like learnyng, and also did vse like diligence, in searchyng out, not onelie iust measure in euerie meter, as euerie ignorant person may easely do, but also trew quantitie in euery foote and sillable, as onelie the learned shalbe able to do, and as the Grekes and Romanes were wont to do, surelie than rash ignorant heads, which now can easely recken vp fourten sillables, and easelie stumble on euery Ryme, either durst not, for lacke of such learnyng: or els would not, in auoyding such labor, be hand.gif // so busie, as euerie where they be: and shoppes in London should not be so full of lewd and rude rymes, as commonlie they are. But now, the ripest of tong, be readiest to write: And many dayly in setting out bookes and balettes make great shew of blossomes and buddes, in whom is neither, roote of learning, nor frute of wisedome at all. Some that make Chaucer in English and Petrarch in Italian, their Gods in verses, and yet be not able to make trew difference, what is a fault, and what is a iust prayse, in those two worthie wittes, will moch mislike this my writyng. But such men be euen like followers of Chaucer and Petrarke, as one here in England did folow Syr Tho. More: who, being most vnlike vnto him, in wit and learnyng, neuertheles in wearing his gowne awrye vpon the one shoulder, as Syr Tho. More was wont to do, would nedes be counted lyke vnto him. This mislikyng of Ryming, beginneth not now of any newfangle singularitie, but hath bene long misliked of many, and that of men, of greatest learnyng, and deepest iudgement. And soch, that defend it, do so, either for lacke of knowledge

the ready way to the Latin tong. 291

what is best, or els of verie enuie, that any should performe that in learnyng, whereunto they, as I sayd before, either for ignorance, can not, or for idlenes will not, labor to attaine vnto. And you that prayse this Ryming, bicause ye neither haue reason, why to like it, nor can shew learning to defend it, yet I will helpe you, with the authoritie of the oldest and learnedst tyme. In Grece, whan Poetrie was euen at the hiest pitch of per- fitnes, one Simmias Rhodius of a certaine singularitie wrote a booke in ryming Greke verses, naming it oon, conteyning the fable, how Iupiter in likenes of a swan, gat that egge vpon Leda, whereof came Castor, Pollux and faire Elena. This booke was so liked, that it had few to read it, but none to folow it: But was presentlie contemned: and sone after, both Author and booke, so forgotten by men, and consumed by tyme, as scarse the name of either is kept in memorie of learnyng: And the like folie was neuer folowed of any, many hondred yeares after vntill y^e Hunnes and Gothians, and other barbarous nations, of ignorance and rude singularitie, did reuiue the same folie agayne. The noble Lord Th. Earle of Surrey, first of all English men, in translating the fourth booke of Virgill: // The Earle of and Gonsaluo Periz that excellent learned man, // Surrey. and Secretarie to kyng Philip of Spaine, in // Gonsaluo translating the Vlisses of Homer out of Greke into // Periz. Spanish, haue both, by good iudgement, auoyded the fault of Ryming, yet neither of them hath fullie hite perfite and trew versifiyng. In deede, they obserue iust number, and euen feete: but here is the fault, that their feete: be feete without ioyntes, that is to say, not distinct by trew quantitie of sillables: And so, soch feete, be but numme feete: and be, euen as vnfitte for a verse to turne and runne roundly withall, as feete of brasse or wood be vnweeldie to go well withall. And as a foote of wood, is a plaine shew of a manifest maime, euen so feete, in our English versifiing, without quantitie and ioyntes, be sure signes, that the verse is either, borne deformed, vnnaturall and lame, and so verie vnseemlie to looke vpon, except to men that be gogle eyed them selues. The spying of this fault now is not the curiositie of English eyes, but euen the good iudgement also of the best // Senese that write in these dayes in Italie: and namelie of // Felice that worthie Senese Felice Figliucci, who, writyng // Figliucci.

292 The second booke teachyng

vpon Aristotles Ethickes so excellentlie in Italian, as neuer did yet any one in myne opinion either in Greke or Latin, amongest other thynges doth most earnestlie inuey agaynst the rude ryming of verses in that tong: And whan soeuer he expresseth Aristotles preceptes, with any example, out of Homer or Euripides, he translateth them, not after the Rymes of Petrarke, but into soch kinde of perfite verse, with like feete and quantitie of sillables, as he found them before in the Greke tonge: ex- hortyng earnestlie all the Italian nation, to leaue of their rude barbariousnesse in ryming, and folow diligently the excellent Greke and Latin examples, in trew versifiyng. And you, that be able to vnderstand no more, then ye finde in the Italian tong: and neuer went farder than the schole of Petrarke and Ariostus abroad, or els of Chaucer at home though you haue pleasure to wander blindlie still in your foule wrong way, enuie not others, that seeke, as wise men haue done before them, the fairest and rightest way: or els, beside the iust reproch of malice, wisemen shall trewlie iudge, that you do so, as I haue sayd and say yet agayne vnto you, bicause, either, for idlenes ye will not, or for ignorance ye can not, cum by no better your selfe. And therfore euen as Virgill and Horace deserue most worthie prayse, that they spying the vnperfitnes in Ennius and Plautus, by trew Imitation of Homer and Euripides, brought Poetrie to the same perfitnes in Latin, as it was in Greke, euen so those, that by the same way would benefite their tong and contrey, deserue rather thankes than disprayse in that behalfe. And I rejoyce, that euen poore England preuented Italie, first in spying out, than in seekyng to amend this fault in learnyng. And here, for my pleasure I purpose a litle, by the way, to play and sporte with my Master Tully: from whom commonlie I am neuer wont to dissent. He him selfe, for this point of learnyng, in his verses doth halt a litle by his leaue. He could not denie it, if he were aliue, nor those defend hym now that Tullies // loue him best. This fault I lay to his charge: saying a- // bicause once it pleased him, though somwhat gainst Eng- // merelie, yet oueruncurteslie, to rayle vpon poore land. // England, obiecting both, extreme beggerie, and

the ready way to the Latin tong. 293

    mere barbariousnes vnto it, writyng thus vnto his frend Atticus:
    There is not one scruple of siluer in that whole // Ad Att.
    Isle, or any one that knoweth either learnyng or // Lib. iv. Ep.
    letter. // 16.
         But now master Cicero, blessed be God, and his sonne Iesu
    Christ, whom you neuer knew, except it were as it pleased him
    to lighten you by some shadow, as couertlie in one place ye
    confesse saying: Veritatis tantum vmbram consectamur, // Offic.
    as your Master Plato did before you: blessed be
    God, I say, that sixten hundred yeare after you were dead and
    gone, it may trewly be sayd, that for siluer, there is more
    cumlie plate, in one Citie of England, than is in foure of the
    proudest Cities in all Italie, and take Rome for one of them.
    And for learnyng, beside the knowledge of all learned tongs and
    liberall sciences, euen your owne bookes Cicero, be as well read,
    and your excellent eloquence is as well liked and loued, and as
    trewlie folowed in England at this day, as it is now, or euer
    was, sence your owne tyme, in any place of Italie, either at
    Arpinum, where ye were borne, or els at Rome where ye were
    brought vp. And a litle to brag with you Cicero, where you
    your selfe, by your leaue, halted in some point of learnyng in
    your owne tong, many in England at this day go streight vp,
    both in trewe skill, and right doing therein.
         This I write, not to reprehend Tullie, whom, aboue all
    other, I like and loue best, but to excuse Terence, because in his
    tyme, and a good while after, Poetrie was neuer perfited in
    Latin vntill by trew Imitation of the Grecians, it was at length
    brought to perfection: And also thereby to exhorte the goodlie
    wittes of England, which apte by nature, & willing by desire,
    geue them selues to Poetrie, that they, rightly vnderstanding the
    barbarous bringing in of Rymes, would labor, as Virgil and
    Horace did in Latin, to make perfit also this point of learning,
    in our English tong.
         And thus much for Plautus and Terence, for matter, tong, and
    meter, what is to be followed, and what to be exchewed in them.
         After Plautus and Terence, no writing remayneth vntill
    Tullies tyme, except a fewe short fragmentes of L. Crassus
    excellent wit, here and there recited of Cicero for example sake,
    whereby the louers of learnyng may the more lament the losse
    of soch a worthie witte.

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And although the Latin tong did faire blome and blossome in L. Crassus, and M. Antonius, yet in Tullies tyme onely, and in Tullie himselfe chieflie, was the Latin tong fullie ripe, and growne to the hiest pitch of all perfection. And yet in the same tyme, it began to fade and stoupe, as Tullie him selfe, in Brutus de Claris Oratoribus, with weeping wordes doth witnesse. And bicause, emongs them of that tyme, there was some difference, good reason is, that of them of that tyme, should be made right choice also. And yet let the best Ciceronian in Italie read Tullies familiar epistles aduisedly ouer, and I beleue he shall finde small difference, for the Latin tong, either in propriety of wordes or framing of the stile, betwixt Tullie, and those that write vnto him. As ser. Sulpitius, A. Cecinna, M. Cælius, M. et D. Bruti, A. Pollio, L. Plancus, and diuerse Epi. Planci // other: read the epistles of L. Plancus in x. Lib. x. lib. Epist. // and for an assay, that Epistle namely to the Coss. 8. // and whole Senate, the eight Epistle in number, and what could be, eyther more eloquentlie, or more wiselie written, yea by Tullie himselfe, a man may iustly doubt. Thies men and Tullie, liued all in one tyme, were like in authoritie, not vnlike in learning and studie, which might be iust causes of this their equalitie in writing: And yet surely, they neyther were in deed, nor yet were counted in mens opinions, equall with Tullie in that facultie. And how is the difference hid in his Epistles? verelie, as the cunning of an expert Sea man, in a faire calme fresh Ryuer, doth litle differ from the doing of a meaner workman therein, euen so, in the short cut of a priuate letter, where, matter is common, wordes easie, and order not moch diuerse, small shew of difference can appeare. But where Tullie doth set vp his saile of eloquence, in some broad deep Argument, caried with full tyde and winde, of his witte and learnyng, all other may rather stand and looke after him, than hope to ouertake him, what course so euer he hold, either in faire or foule. Foure men onely whan the Latin tong was full ripe, be left vnto vs, who in that tyme did florish, and did leaue to posteritie, the fruite of their witte and learning: Varro, Salust, Cæsar, and Cicero. Whan I say, these foure onely, I am not ignorant, that euen in the same tyme, most excellent Poetes, deseruing well of the Latin tong, as Lucretius,

the ready way to the Latin tong. 295

Cattullus, Virgill and Horace, did write: But, bicause, in this litle booke, I purpose to teach a yong scholer, to go, not to daunce: to speake, not to sing, whan Poetes in deed, namelie Epici and Lyrici, as these be, are fine dauncers, and trime singers, but Oratores and Historici be those cumlie goers, and faire and wise speakers, of whom I wishe my scholer to wayte vpon first, and after in good order, & dew tyme, to be brought forth, to the singing and dauncing schole: And for this consi- deration, do I name these foure, to be the onelie writers of that tyme.


         Varro, in his bookes de lingua Latina, et Analogia as these be
    left mangled and patched vnto vs, doth not enter // Varro.
    there in to any great depth of eloquence, but as
    one caried in a small low vessell him selfe verie nie the common
    shore, not much vnlike the fisher men of Rye, and Hering men
    of Yarmouth. Who deserue by common mens opinion, small
    commendacion, for any cunning saling at all, yet neuertheles
    in those bookes of Varro good and necessarie stuffe, for that
    meane kinde of Argument, be verie well and learnedlie gathered
         His bookes of Husbandrie, are moch to be regarded, and
    diligentlie to be read, not onelie for the proprietie, // De Rep.
    but also for the plentie of good wordes, in all // Rustica.
    contrey and husbandmens affaires: which can not
    be had, by so good authoritie, out of any other Author, either
    of so good a tyme, or of so great learnyng, as out of Varro.
    And yet bicause, he was fourescore yeare old, whan he wrote
    those bookes, the forme of his style there compared with Tullies
    writyng, is but euen the talke of a spent old man: whose
    wordes commonlie fall out of his mouth, though verie wiselie,
    yet hardly and coldie, and more heauelie also, than some eares
    can well beare, except onelie for age, and authorities sake. And
    perchance, in a rude contrey argument, of purpose and iudge-
    ment, he rather vsed, the speach of the contrey, than talke of
    the Citie.
         And so, for matter sake, his wordes sometyme, be somewhat
    rude: and by the imitation of the elder Cato, old and out of vse:

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And beyng depe stept in age, by negligence some wordes do so scape & fall from him in those bookes, as be not worth the Lib. 3. // taking vp, by him, that is carefull to speake or Cap. 1. // write trew Latin, as that sentence in him, Romani, in pace à rusticis alebantur, et in bello ab his tuebantur. A good student must be therfore carefull and diligent, to read with iudgement ouer euen those Authors, which did write in the most perfite tyme: and let him not be affrayd to trie them, both in proprietie of wordes, and forme of style, by the touch stone of Cæsar and Cicero, whose puritie was neuer soiled, no not by the sentence of those, that loued them worst. All louers of learnyng may sore lament the losse of those The loue // bookes of Varro, which he wrote in his yong and of Var- // lustie yeares, with good leysure, and great learnyng roes // of all partes of Philosophie: of the goodliest argu- bookes. // mentes, perteyning both to the common wealth, and priuate life of man, as, de Ratione studij, et educandis liberis, which booke, is oft recited, and moch praysed, in the fragmentes of Nonius, euen for authoritie sake. He wrote most diligentlie and largelie, also the whole historie of the state of Rome: the mysteries of their whole Religion: their lawes, customes, and gouernement in peace: their maners, and whole discipline in warre: And this is not my gessing, as one in deed that neuer saw those bookes, but euen, the verie iudgement, & playne testimonie of Tullie him selfe, who knew & read those bookes, in these wordes: Tu ætatem Patriæ: Tu descriptiones temporum: In Acad. // _Tu sacrorum, tu sacerdotum Iura: Tu domesticam, Quest. // tu bellicam disciplinam: Tu sedem Regionum, locorum, tu omnium diuinarum humanarumque rerum nomina, genera, officia, causas aperuisti. &c. But this great losse of Varro, is a litle recompensed by the happy comming of Dionysius Halicarnassæus to Rome in Augustus dayes: who getting the possession of Varros librarie, out of that treasure house of learning, did leaue vnto vs some frute of Varros witte and diligence, I meane, his goodlie bookes de Antiquitatibus Romanorum. Varro was so estemed for his excellent learnyng, as Tullie him selfe had a reuerence to his Cic. ad // iudgement in all doutes of learnyng. And Att. // Antonius Triumuir, his enemie, and of a contrarie faction, who had power to kill and bannish whom

the ready way to the Latin tong. 297

he listed, whan Varros name amongest others was brought in a schedule vnto him, to be noted to death, he tooke his penne and wrote his warrant of sauegard with these most goodlie wordes, Viuat Varro vir doctissimus. In later tyme, no man knew better, nor liked and loued more Varros learnyng, than did S. Augustine, as they do well vnderstand, that haue diligentlie read ouer his learned bookes de Ciuitate Dei: Where he hath this most notable sentence: Whan I see, how much Varro wrote, I meruell much, that euer he had any leasure to read: and whan I perceiue how many thinges he read, I meruell more, that euer he had any leasure to write. &c. And surelie, if Varros bookes had remained to posteritie, as by Gods prouidence, the most part of Tullies did, than trewlie the Latin tong might haue made good comparison with the Greke.


Salust, is a wise and worthy writer: but he requireth a learned Reader, and a right considerer of him. // Salust. My dearest frend, and best master that euer I had // Syr Iohn or heard in learning, Syr I. Cheke, soch a man, as // Chekes if I should liue to see England breed the like // iudgement againe, I feare, I should liue ouer long, did once // and coun- giue me a lesson for Salust, which, as I shall neuer // sell for rea- forget my selfe, so is it worthy to be remembred // dyng of of all those, that would cum to perfite iudgement // Saluste. of the Latin tong. He said, that Salust was not verie fitte for yong men, to learne out of him, the puritie of the Latin tong: because, he was not the purest in proprietie of wordes, nor choisest in aptnes of phrases, nor the best in framing of sentences: and therefore is his writing, sayd he neyther plaine for the matter, nor sensible for mens vnderstanding. And what is the cause thereof, Syr, quoth I. Verilie said he, bicause in Salust writing, is more Arte than nature, and more labor than Arte: and in his labor also, to moch toyle, as it were, with an vncontented care to write better than he could, a fault common to very many men. And therefore he doth not expresse the matter liuely and naturally with common speach as ye see Xenophon doth in Greeke, but it is caried and driuen forth

298 The second booke teachyng

artificiallie, after to learned a sorte, as Thucydides doth in his orations. And how cummeth it to passe, sayd I, that Cæsar and Ciceroes talke, is so naturall & plaine, and Salust writing so artificiall and darke, whan all they three liued in one tyme? I will freelie tell you my fansie herein, said he: surely, Cæsar and Cicero, beside a singular prerogatiue of naturall eloquence geuen vnto them by God, both two, by vse of life, were daylie orators emonges the common people, and greatest councellers in the Senate house: and therefore gaue themselues to vse soch speach as the meanest should well vnderstand, and the wisest best allow: folowing carefullie that good councell of Aristotle, loquendum vt multi, sapiendum vt pauci. Salust was no soch man, neyther for will to goodnes, nor skill by learning: but ill geuen by nature, and made worse by bringing vp, spent the most part of his yougth very misorderly in ryot and lechery. In the company of soch, who, neuer geuing theyr mynde to honest doyng, could neuer inure their tong to wise speaking. But at last cummyng to better yeares, and bying witte at the dearest hand, that is, by long experience of the hurt and shame that commeth of mischeif, moued, by the councell of them that were wise, and caried by the example of soch as were good, first fell to honestie of life, and after to the loue of studie and learning: and so became so new a man, that Cæsar being dictator, made him Pretor in Numidia where he absent from his contrie, and not inured with the common talke of Rome, but shut vp in his studie, and bent wholy to reading, did write the storie of the Romanes. And for the better accomplishing of the same, he red Cato and Piso in Latin for gathering of matter and troth: and Thucydides in Greeke for the order of his storie, and furnishing of his style. Cato (as his tyme required) had more troth for the matter, than eloquence for the style. And so Salust, by gathering troth out of Cato, smelleth moch of the roughnes of his style: euen as a man that eateth garlike for helth, shall cary away with him the sauor of it also, whether he will or not. And yet the vse of old wordes is not the greatest cause of Salustes roughnes and darknesse: There be in Salust Lib. 8. // some old wordes in deed as patrare bellum, ductare Cap. 3. // exercitum, well noted by Quintilian, and verie De Orna- // much misliked of him: and supplicium for suppli- tu. // catio, a word smellyng of an older store than the

the ready way to the Latin tong. 299

    other two so misliked by Quint: And yet is that word also in
    Varro, speaking of Oxen thus, boues ad victimas faciunt, atque ad
    Deorum supplicia
: and a few old wordes mo. Read Saluste and
    Tullie aduisedly together: and in wordes ye shall finde small
    difference: yea Salust is more geuen to new wordes, than to
    olde, though som olde writers say the contrarie: as Claritudo
    for Gloria: exactè for perfectè: Facundia for
eloquentia. Thies
    two last wordes exactè and facundia now in euery mans mouth,
    be neuer (as I do remember) vsed of Tullie, and therefore
    I thinke they be not good: For surely Tullie speaking euery
    where so moch of the matter of eloquence, would not so
    precisely haue absteyned from the word Facundia, if it had
    bene good: that is proper for the tong, & common for mens
    vse. I could be long, in reciting many soch like, both olde &
    new wordes in Salust: but in very dede neyther oldnes nor
    newnesse of wordes maketh the greatest difference // The cause why
    betwixt Salust and Tullie, but first strange phrases // Salust is not
    made of good Latin wordes, but framed after the // like Tully.
    Greeke tonge, which be neyther choisly borowed of them, nor
    properly vsed by him: than, a hard composition and crooked
    framing of his wordes and sentences, as a man would say,
    English talke placed and framed outlandish like. As for
    example first in phrases, nimius et animus be two vsed wordes,
    yet homo nimius animi, is an vnused phrase. Vulgus, et amat, et
, be as common and well known wordes, as may be in the
    Latin tong, yet id quod vulgò amat fieri, for solet fieri, is but
    a strange and grekish kind of writing. Ingens et vires be
    proper wordes, yet vir ingens virium is an vnproper kinde of
    speaking and so be likewise,

{æger consilij. {promptissimus belli. {territus animi.

and many soch like phrases in Salust, borowed as I sayd not choisly out of Greeke, and vsed therefore vnproperlie in Latin. Againe, in whole sentences, where the matter is good, the wordes proper and plaine, yet the sense is hard and darke, and namely in his prefaces and orations, wherein he vsed most labor, which fault is likewise in Thucydides in Greeke, of whom Salust hath taken the greatest part of his darkenesse. For

300 The second booke teachyng

    Thucydides likewise wrote his storie, not at home in Grece, but
    abrode in Italie, and therefore smelleth of a certaine outlandish
    kinde of talke, strange to them of Athens, and diuerse from their
    writing, that liued in Athens and Grece, and wrote the same
    tyme that Thucydides did, as Lysias, Xenophon, Plato, and
    Isocrates, the purest and playnest writers, that euer wrote in any
    tong, and best examples for any man to follow whether he
    write, Latin, Italian, French, or English. Thucydides also
    semeth in his writing, not so much benefited by nature, as
    holpen by Arte, and caried forth by desire, studie, labor, toyle,
    and ouer great curiositie: who spent xxvii. yeares in writing his
    eight bookes of his history. Salust likewise wrote out of his
    Dionys. // contrie, and followed the faultes of Thuc. to
    Halycar. // moch: and boroweth of him som kinde of writing,
    ad Q. / which the Latin tong can not well beare, as Casus
    Tub. de // nominatiuus in diuerse places absolutè positus, as in
    Hist. Thuc. // that place of Iugurth, speaking de leptitanis, itaque ab
    imperatore facilè quæ petebant adepti, missæ sunt eò cohortes
. This thing in participles, vsed so oft in Thucyd. and other
    Greeke authors to, may better be borne with all, but Salust vseth
    the same more strangelie and boldlie, as in thies wordes, Multis
    sibi quisque imperium petentibus
. I beleue, the best Grammarien in
    England can scarse giue a good reule, why quisque the nominatiue
    case, without any verbe, is so thrust vp amongest so many
    oblique cases. Some man perchance will smile, and laugh to
    scorne this my writyng, and call it idle curiositie, thus to busie
    my selfe in pickling about these small pointes of Grammer, not
    fitte for my age, place and calling, to trifle in: I trust that man,
    be he neuer so great in authoritie, neuer so wise and learned,
    either, by other mens iudgement, or his owne opinion, will yet
    thinke, that he is not greater in England, than Tullie was at
    Rome, not yet wiser, nor better learned than Tullie was him
    selfe, who, at the pitch of three score yeares, in the middes of
    the broyle betwixt Cæsar and Pompeie, whan he knew not,
    whether to send wife & children, which way to go, where to
    hide him selfe, yet, in an earnest letter, amongest his earnest
    Ad Att. // councelles for those heuie tymes concerning both
    Lib. 7. Epi- // the common state of his contrey, and his owne
    stola. 3. // priuate great affaires he was neither vnmyndfull
    nor ashamed to reason at large, and learne gladlie of Atticus,

the ready way to the Latin tong. 301

a lesse point of Grammer than these be, noted of me in Salust, as, whether he should write, ad Piræea, in Piræea, or in Piræeum, or Piræeum sine præpositione: And in those heuie tymes, he was so carefull to know this small point of Grammer, that he addeth these wordes Si hoc mihi zetema persolueris, magna me molestia liberaris. If Tullie, at that age, in that authoritie, in that care for his contrey, in that ieoperdie for him selfe, and extreme necessitie of hys dearest frendes, beyng also the Prince of Eloquence hym selfe, was not ashamed to descend to these low pointes of Grammer, in his owne naturall tong, what should scholers do, yea what should any man do, if he do thinke well doyng, better than ill doyng: And had rather be, perfite than meane, sure than doutefull, to be what he should be, in deed, not seeme what he is not, in opinion. He that maketh perfitnes in the Latin tong his marke, must cume to it by choice & certaine knowledge, not stumble vpon it by chance and doubtfull ignorance: And the right steppes to reach vnto it, be these, linked thus orderlie together, aptnes of nature, loue of learnyng, diligence in right order, constancie with pleasant moderation, and alwayes to learne of them that be best, and so shall you iudge as they that be wisest. And these be those reules, which worthie Master Cheke dyd impart vnto me con- cernyng Salust, and the right iudgement of the Latin tong.


         Cæsar for that litle of him, that is left vnto vs, is like the
    halfe face of a Venus, the other part of the head beyng hidden,
    the bodie and the rest of the members vnbegon, yet so
    excellentlie done by Apelles, as all men may stand still to mase
    and muse vpon it, and no man step forth with any hope to
    performe the like.
         His seuen bookes de bello Gallico, and three de bello Ciuili, be
    written, so wiselie for the matter, so eloquentlie for the tong,
    that neither his greatest enemies could euer finde the least note
    of parcialitie in him (a meruelous wisdome of a man, namely
    writyng of his owne doynges) nor yet the best iudegers of the
    Latin tong, nor the most enuious lookers vpon other mens
    writynges, can say any other, but all things be most perfitelie
    done by him.

302 The ready way to the Latin tong.

         Brutus, Caluus, and Calidius, who found fault with Tullies
    fulnes in woordes and matter, and that rightlie, for Tullie did
    both, confesse it, and mend it, yet in Cæsar, they neither did,
    nor could finde the like, or any other fault.
         And therfore thus iustlie I may conclude of Cæsar, that
    where, in all other, the best that euer wrote, in any tyme, or in
    any tong, in Greke or Latin, I except neither Plato, Demosthenes,
    nor Tullie, some fault is iustlie noted, in Cæsar onelie, could
    neuer yet fault be found.
         Yet neuertheles, for all this perfite excellencie in
    him, yet it is but in one member of eloquence, and
    that but of one side neither, whan we must
    looke for that example to folow, which hath
    a perfite head, a whole bodie, forward
    and backward, armes and
    legges and all.