The Project Gutenberg eBook of Arkansas Governors and United States Senators

This ebook is for the use of anyone anywhere in the United States and most other parts of the world at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this ebook or online at If you are not located in the United States, you will have to check the laws of the country where you are located before using this eBook.

Title: Arkansas Governors and United States Senators

Author: John L. Ferguson

Release date: December 31, 2005 [eBook #17433]

Language: English


E-text prepared by Shannon Seyler



John L. Ferguson
State Historian

Arkansas History Commission
Little Rock



This list of Arkansas governors and United States senators, with brief biographies of each person who has served in these offices, is intended to benefit students and others who have expressed interest in a published summary of such information. We have omitted the dozens of "acting governors," including some who served for substantial periods of time, as well as senators who held office only briefly. Copies of this publication are free, and the material is not copyrighted or restricted.


On March 2, 1819, Arkansas was legally separated from Missouri and became the Territory of Arkansas. The act became effective on July 4 following. During the territorial period the governors were appointed by the President of the United States, with the approval of the United States Senate, for terms of three years.

1. James Miller, 1819-1824

Lawyer, soldier. Born in New Hampshire, 1776. Educated at Amherst
Academy and Williams College, Massachusetts. Admitted to bar, 1803.
Married Martha Ferguson, 1801; two children. Married Ruth Flint, 1806;
five children.

Commissioned major of infantry in regular army, 1808. Lieutenant colonel, 1810; colonel, 1812; brigadier general, 1814. Hero of Battle of Lundy's Lane, Canada, 1814. Received Congressional gold medal for gallantry, 1814. Resigned from army, 1819.

Governor of Arkansas, 1819-1824. United States collector of customs,
Salem, Massachusetts, 1824-1849. Died 1851.

2. George Izard, 1825-1828

Soldier. Born in England, 1776. Attended military schools in England, Germany, and France. Commissioned lieutenant in artillerists and engineers, United States Army, 1794. Captain, 1799. Resigned from army, 1803. Married Elizabeth Carter Shippen, 1803; three children.

Accepted new commission as colonel of artillery, 1812. Brigadier general, 1813; major general, 1814. Honorably discharged, 1815. Governor of Arkansas from 1825 until his death in 1828.

3. John Pope, 1829-1835

Lawyer. Born in Virginia, 1770. Married Ann Henry Christian, c.1795.
Married Elizabeth Johnson, 1810; two children. Married Frances Watkins
Walton, 1820.

State senator, Kentucky, 1798-1799, 1825-1829. Member, Kentucky House of Representatives, 1802, 1806-1807, 1823-1825. United States senator from Kentucky, 1807-1813. Professor of law, Transylvania University, 1813-1816. Secretary of State of Kentucky, 1816-1819. Governor of Arkansas, 1829-1835. Congressman from Kentucky, 1837-1843. Died 1845.

4. William S. Fulton, 1835-1836

Lawyer. Born in Maryland, 1795. Graduated from Baltimore College, 1813. Moved to Tennessee after serving in War of 1812. Admitted to bar, 1817. Military secretary to General Andrew Jackson in Florida campaign of 1818. Moved to Alabama, 1820. Married Matilda Nowland, 1823; four children.

Elected judge of county court, Florence, Alabama, 1822. Secretary
of Territory of Arkansas, 1829-1835. Last governor of Territory of
Arkansas, 1835-1836. United States senator from Arkansas, 1836-1844.
Died 1844.


Arkansas was admitted to the Union as the twenty-fifth state on June 15, 1836. From 1836 until 1874, governors were elected for four-year terms. During the remainder of our history the term of office has been two years.

1. James S. Conway, 1836-1840

Planter, surveyor, Democrat. Born in Tennessee, 1798. Came to Arkansas from Missouri, 1820. Married Mary Jane Bradley, 1826; six children.

First surveyor-general of Arkansas Territory. Inaugurated as first governor of the State of Arkansas, September 13, 1836. In 1840 retired to "Walnut Hill," his plantation in Lafayette County. Died 1855.

2. Archibald Yell, 1840-1844

Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Tennessee, 1797 or 1799. Served in War of 1812, and in Seminole War of 1818. Married Mary Scott, 1821; two children. Married Ann Jordan Moore, 1827; four children. Married Maria Ficklin, 1836.

Member, Tennessee House of Representatives, 1827. Came to Arkansas 1831. Receiver at federal land office in Little Rock, 1831-1832. Moved to Fayetteville, 1834. Territorial judge, 1835-1836. Congressman, 1836-1839, 1845-1847. Governor, 1840-1844.

Left Congress in 1846 to become colonel of First Arkansas Volunteer
Cavalry, Mexican War. Killed at Battle of Buena Vista, Mexico, 1847.

3. Thomas S. Drew, 1844-1849

Planter, peddler, lawyer, Democrat. Born in Tennessee, 1802. Came to
Arkansas 1818. Clerk of Clark County, 1823-1825. Moved to what is now
Randolph County, 1826. Married Cinderella Bettis, 1826, five children.

Judge of Lawrence County, 1832-1833. Delegate to Arkansas constitutional convention, 1836. Governor, 1844-1849. Resigned as governor, 1849, and returned to Pocahontas. Moved to Hood County, Texas, after death of his wife in 1872. Died in Texas, 1879.

4. John S. Roane, 1849-1852

Planter, lawyer, Democrat. Born in Tennessee, 1817. Attended Cumberland
College, Princeton, Kentucky. Came to Arkansas 1837, settled at Pine
Bluff. Moved to Van Buren 1842. Speaker, Arkansas House of
Representatives, 1844-1845.

Served in Mexican War. Returned to Pine Bluff, 1848. Governor, 1849-1852. Married Mary K. Smith, 1855; five children. Brigadier general, Confederate Army. Died 1867.

5. Elias N. Conway, 1852-1860

Surveyor, public official, Democrat. Born in Tennessee, 1812; younger brother of Governor James S. Conway. Came to Arkansas from Missouri 1833. Territorial auditor, 1835-1836. State auditor, 1836-1849. Governor, 1852-1860. Never married. Died 1892.

6. Henry M. Rector, 1860-1862

Planter, lawyer, Independent Democrat. Born in Kentucky, 1816. Came to
Arkansas from Missouri, 1835; settled in Hot Springs. Married Ernestine
Flora Linde, 1860; one child.

Appointed federal marshal, 1842. State senator, 1848-1852. Moved
to Little Rock, 1854. Member, House of Representatives, 1854-1855.
Associate justice, Supreme Court, 1859-1860. Governor, 1860-1862.
Delegate, constitutional convention of 1874. Died 1899.

7. Harris Flanagin, 1862-1865

Lawyer, Confederate. Born in New Jersey, 1817. Moved to Clark County, Arkansas, from Illinois, 1837. Married Martha E. Nash, 1851; five children.

Member, House of Representatives, 1842-1843. Delegate, secession convention, 1861. Colonel, Confederate Army. Governor, 1862-1865. Delegate, constitutional convention of 1874. Died 1874.

8. Isaac Murphy, 1864-1868

Teacher, lawyer, Unionist Democrat. Born in Pennsylvania, 1799.
Settled in Tennessee, 1830; came to Arkansas 1834. Married Angelina A.
Lockhart, 1830; eight children.

Member, House of Representatives, Washington County, 1848-1849. Went to California 1849, returned 1853. Moved to Huntsville, Madison County, 1854. State senator, 1856-1857.

Delegate, secession convention of 1861; only member who refused to vote for secession of Arkansas from the Union. Served with Union Army, 1861-1863. Organized Unionist state government in Little Rock, 1864; served as governor until displaced by Radical Republicans, 1868. Died in Huntsville, 1882.

9. Powell Clayton, 1868-1871

Civil engineer, soldier, Republican. Born in Pennsylvania, 1833.
Educated in the common schools, the Partridge Military Academy in
Bristol, Pennsylvania, and in an engineering school at Wilmington,
Delaware. Moved to Kansas, 1855; became city engineer of Leavenworth,
Kansas, 1859.

Brigadier general, Union Army; came to Arkansas with army during Civil
War. At close of war, settled on a cotton plantation near Pine Bluff.
Married Adeline McGraw, 1865; five children.

Governor, 1868-1871; resigned in 1871 to become United States senator
for term ending 1877. Moved from Little Rock to Eureka Springs, 1882.
United States ambassador to Mexico, 1897-1905. Lived in Washington,
D.C. from 1912 until his death in 1915.

Note: The unexpired portion of Powell Clayton's term as governor,
      1871-1873, was completed by Ozra A. Hadley, president of the
      State Senate.

10. Elisha Baxter, 1873-1874

Lawyer, Republican. Born in North Carolina, 1827. Married Harriet
Patton, 1849; six children. Came to Arkansas 1852, settled in
Batesville. Member, House of Representatives, 1854-1855, 1858-1859.
Prosecuting attorney, 1861-1862.

Raised and commanded Fourth Arkansas Mounted Infantry Regiment (Union) during Civil War. Elected to State Supreme Court, 1864, and then to United States Senate, but not allowed to take his seat. Circuit judge, 1868-1873. Governor, 1873-1874; his term of office was cut short by the Brooks-Baxter War and the adoption of a new state constitution. Died 1899.

11. Augustus H. Garland, 1874-1877

Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Tennessee, 1832. His parents came to what
is now Miller County, Arkansas, 1833; later the family located in
Washington, Hempstead County. Educated in a private school at
Washington; at St. Mary's College, Lebanon, Kentucky; and at St.
Joseph's College, Bardstown, Kentucky, where he graduated 1849. Married
Virginia Saunders, 1853; eight children. Moved to Little Rock, 1856.

Delegate, secession convention, 1861. Delegate to Provisional Congress of Confederate States, 1861; Confederate congressman, 1861-1864; Confederate States senator, 1864-1865. Governor, 1874-1877. United States senator, 1877-1885. Attorney General of the United States under President Grover Cleveland, 1885-1889; first Arkansan to hold a cabinet post. Died 1899.

12. William R. Miller, 1877-1881

Lawyer, Democrat. Born at Batesville, Arkansas, 1823. Clerk of Independence County, 1848-1854. Married Susan Elizabeth Bevens, 1849; seven children.

State auditor, 1854-1855, 1857-1860, 1861-1864, 1866-1868, 1874-1877, 1887. Accountant of Real Estate Bank of Arkansas, 1855-1856. Governor, 1877-1881; first native Arkansan to hold office. Died 1887.

13. Thomas J. Churchill, 1881-1883

Planter, soldier, lawyer, Democrat. Born in Kentucky, 1824. Educated at
St. Mary's College and Transylvania University. Served in Mexican War.
Moved to Arkansas 1848, acquired a plantation near Little Rock. Married
Anne Maria Sevier, 1849; six children.

Postmaster at Little Rock, 1857-1861. Major general, Confederate Army; commanded at the Battle of Arkansas Post, 1863. State treasurer, 1874-1881. Governor, 1881-1883. Died 1905.

14. James H. Berry, 1883-1885

Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Alabama, 1841. When he was seven, his father moved to Carrollton, Carroll County, Arkansas. Attended Berryville Academy. Served in Confederate Army; lost a leg at Battle of Corinth. Married Elizabeth Quaile, 1865; six children. Moved to Bentonville, 1869.

Served in House of Representatives from Carroll County, 1866-1867; from
Washington and Benton Counties, 1873-1874. Speaker of the House, 1874.
Circuit judge, 1878-1882. Governor, 1883-1885. United States senator,
1885-1907. Died 1913.

15. Simon P. Hughes, 1885-1889

Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Tennessee, 1830. Moved to Pulaski County,
Arkansas, with his parents, 1844. Educated in Tennessee, 1846-1849.
Returned to Arkansas 1849 and became a farmer. Sheriff, Monroe County,
1854-1856. Began practice of law at Clarendon, 1857. Married Ann E.
Blakemore, 1857; nine children.

Lieutenant Colonel, Confederate Army. Member, House of Representatives from Monroe County, 1866-1867. Delegate, constitutional convention of 1874. Attorney general, 1874-1877. Governor, 1885-1889. Associate justice, Supreme Court, 1889-1904. Died 1906.

16. James P. Eagle, 1889-1893

Planter, minister, Democrat. Born in Tennessee, 1837. Came with parents to Pulaski County, Arkansas, 1839. Moved to what is now Lonoke County, 1857. Lieutenant Colonel, Confederate Army. Ordained to Baptist ministry, 1869.

Member, House of Representatives, 1873-1874, 1877; Speaker of the
House, 1885. Delegate, constitutional convention of 1874. Married Mary
Kavanaugh Oldham, 1882. Governor, 1889-1893. President, Arkansas
Baptist State Convention, 1880-1904. President, Southern Baptist
Convention, 1902-1904. Died 1904.

17. William M. Fishback, 1893-1895

Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Virginia, 1831. Graduated from University of Virginia; studied law in Richmond. Came to Arkansas from Illinois 1858; settled at Fort Smith.

Delegate, secession convention, 1861. Went to Missouri 1862 and took
oath of allegiance to Union. Elected to United States Senate from
Arkansas 1864, but not allowed to take his seat. Married Adelaide
Miller, 1867; six children.

Delegate, constitutional convention of 1874. Member, House of
Representatives, Sebastian County, 1877, 1879. Governor, 1893-1895.
Died 1903.

18. James P. Clarke, 1895-1897

Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Mississippi, 1854. Graduated from law school,
University of Virginia. Came to Arkansas 1879; opened law office in
Helena. Married Sallie Moore Wooten, 1883; three children.

Member, House of Representatives, Phillips County, 1887. State senator, 1889, 1891. Attorney general, 1893-1895. Governor, 1895-1897. United States senator, 1903-1916. Died 1916.

19. Dan W. Jones, 1897-1901

Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Texas, 1839. Moved with parents to
Washington, Arkansas, 1840. Colonel, Confederate Army. Married Margaret
P. Hadley, 1864; seven children.

Prosecuting attorney, 1874-1876. Attorney general, 1885-1889. Member, House of Representatives, Pulaski County, 1891, 1915. Governor, 1897-1901. Died 1918.

20. Jeff Davis, 1901-1907

Lawyer, Democrat. Born in what is now Little River County, Arkansas, 1862. Educated in common schools; preparatory department, Arkansas Industrial University; law school, Vanderbilt University. Received law degree, Cumberland University. Married Ina McKenzie, 1882; twelve children. Married Leila Carter, 1911.

Practiced law at Russellville, Arkansas. Prosecuting attorney, 1890-1894. Attorney general, 1899-1901. Governor, 1901-1907; first governor to be elected to more than two terms. United States senator, 1907-1913. Died 1913.

21. John S. Little, 1907-1909

Lawyer, Democrat. Born at Jenny Lind, Sebastian County, Arkansas, 1851.
Attended Cane Hill College, Cane Hill, Arkansas. Married Elizabeth J.
Irwin, 1877; five children.

Prosecuting attorney, 1877-1884. Member, House of Representatives, Sebastian County, 1885. Circuit judge, 1886-1887. Congressman, 1894-1907. Governor, 1907-1909. Soon after his inauguration, he suffered a nervous collapse and was unable to perform his duties for the remainder of his term. Died 1916.

22. George W. Donaghey, 1909-1913

Building contractor, banker, Democrat. Born in Louisiana, 1856. Came to Union County, Arkansas with his parents when a child. Worked as a farmer and cowboy in Texas. Moved to Conway, 1874; became a carpenter and contractor. Attended Arkansas Industrial University (now the University of Arkansas). Married Louvinia Wallace, 1883.

Governor, 1909-1913. Philanthropist, business and civic leader for many years. Died 1937.

23. Joseph T. Robinson, 1913

Lawyer, Democrat. Born near Lonoke, Arkansas, 1872. Educated in the common schools; Arkansas Industrial University; and the law department of the University of Virginia. Admitted to bar 1895; commenced practice in Lonoke. Married Ewilda Gertrude Miller, 1896.

Member, House of Representatives, Lonoke County, 1895. Congressman, 1903-1913. Governor, 1913; resigned to become United States senator, 1913-1937. Democratic leader in Senate, 1923-1937. Democratic nominee for vice-president of the United States, 1928. Died 1937.

24. George W. Hays, 1913-1917

Lawyer, Democrat. Born near Camden, Arkansas, 1863. Graduated from Washington And Lee University. Married Ida Virginia Yarborough, 1895; two children.

County judge, Ouachita County, 1901-1905. Circuit judge, 1906-1913.
Governor, 1913-1917. Died 1927.

25. Charles H. Brough, 1917-1921

Educator, Democrat. Born in Mississippi, 1876. B.A., Mississippi College, 1893; Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1898; LL.B., University of Mississippi, 1902. Married Anne Wade Roark, 1908.

Professor of economics and sociology, University of Arkansas, 1904-1916. Governor 1917-1921. Chautauqua lecturer. President, Central Baptist College, Conway, 1928-1929. Died 1935.

26. Thomas C. McRae, 1921-1925

Lawyer, banker, Democrat. Born at Mount Holly, Union County, Arkansas, 1851. Graduated from Soule Business College, New Orleans, 1869; LL.B., Washington and Lee University, 1872. Married Amelia Ann White, 1874; nine children.

Member, House of Representatives, Nevada County, 1877. Congressman, 1885-1903. Delegate, constitutional convention of 1917-1918. Governor, 1921-1925. Died 1929.

27. Tom J. Terral, 1925-1927

Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Louisiana, 1882. Attended University of Kentucky; LL.B., University of Arkansas, 1910. Married Eula Terrell, 1914.

Secretary, Arkansas Senate, 1913, 1915. Secretary of State, 1917-1921.
Governor, 1925-1927. Died 1946.

28. John E. Martineau, 1927-1928

Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Missouri, 1873. A.B., Arkansas Industrial
University, 1896; graduated, University law school, 1899. Married Mrs.
Anne Holcomb Mitchell, 1909. Married Mrs. Mabel Erwin Thomas, 1919.

Member, House of Representatives, Pulaski County, 1903, 1905.
Chancellor, 1907-1927. Governor, 1927-1928; resigned to become United
States district judge, 1928-1937. Died 1937.

29. Harvey Parnell, 1928-1933

Planter, businessman, Democrat. Born in Dorsey (now Cleveland) County,
Arkansas, 1880. Married Mabel Winston, 1902; two children.

Member, House of Representatives, Chicot County, 1919, 1921. State senator, 1923, 1925. Lieutenant governor, 1927-1928. Succeeded to governorship when John E. Martineau resigned, 1928; elected to full terms 1928, 1930. Died 1936.

30. J.M. Futrell, 1933-1937

Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Greene County, Arkansas, 1870. Attended Arkansas Industrial University. Married Tera A. Smith, 1893; six children.

Member, House of Representatives, Greene County, 1897, 1901, 1903.
Circuit clerk, Greene County, 1907-1911. State senator, 1913, 1915.
Acting governor, March-July 1913. Circuit judge, 1921. Chancellor,
1923-1932. Governor, 1933-1937. Died 1955.

31. Carl E. Bailey, 1937-1941

Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Missouri, 1894. Attended business college in
Chillicothe, Missouri. Married Margaret Bristol, 1915; six children.
Married Marjorie Compton, 1943.

Prosecuting attorney, 1931-1935. Attorney general, 1935-1937. Governor, 1937-1941. Died 1948.

32. Homer M. Adkins, 1941-1945

Pharmacist, businessman, Democrat. Born near Jacksonville, Arkansas, 1890. Attended Draughon's Business College of Pharmacy. Captain, United States Army, First World War. Married Estelle Smith, 1921.

Sheriff, Pulaski County, 1923-1927. United States collector of internal revenue for Arkansas, 1933-1940. Governor, 1941-1945. Administrator, Employment Security Division, 1949-1952. Died 1964.

33. Ben T. Laney, 1945-1949

Businessman, Democrat. Born in Ouachita County, near Smackover,
Arkansas, 1896. Served in United States Navy, First World War. A.B.,
State Normal School (now State College), Conway, 1924. Graduate study,
University of Utah.

Married Lucille Kirtley, 1926; three children. Mayor of Camden, 1935-1939. Governor, 1945-1949.

34. Sid McMath, 1949-1953

Lawyer, Democrat. Born near Magnolia, Arkansas, 1912. LL.B., University of Arkansas, 1936. Married Elaine Braughton, 1937; one child. Married Anne Phillips, 1945; two children.

Lieutenant Colonel, United States Marine Corps, Second World War.
Prosecuting attorney, 1947-1949. Governor, 1949-1953.

35. Francis Cherry, 1953-1955

Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Fort Worth, Texas, 1908. Graduated Oklahoma
A.& M. College, 1930. LL.B., University of Arkansas, 1936. Married
Margaret Frierson; three children.

Lieutenant (j.g.), United States Navy, Second World War. Chancellor,
1943-1944, 1949-1952. Governor, 1953-1955. Member, United States
Subversive Activities Control Board, 1955-1963; chairman, 1963-1965.
Died 1965.

36. Orval E. Faubus, 1955-1967

Newspaperman, Democrat. Born near Combs, Arkansas, 1910. Attended
Madison County schools. Married Alta Haskins, 1931; one son. Major,
United States Army, Second World War.

Circuit Clerk, Madison County, 1939-1942. Administrative assistant to
Governor Sid McMath, highway commissioner, highway director, 1949-1953.
Postmaster, Huntsville, 1953-1954. Governor, 1955-1967.

37. Winthrop Rockefeller, 1967-

Financier, farmer, Republican. Born in New York, 1912. Attended Yale
University. Lieutenant Colonel, United States Army, Second World War.
Married Barbara Sears, 1948; one son. Married Jeannette Edris, 1956.

Moved to Arkansas, 1953. Chairman, Arkansas Industrial Development
Commission, 1955-1964. First Republican elected governor since 1872.


Each state is entitled to two United States senators. Until 1913, senators were elected by state legislatures; since that time, by popular vote. Our first senators, chosen in 1836, were Ambrose H. Sevier and William S. Fulton. In the following pages, biographies of Sevier and his successors are given first.

1. Ambrose H. Sevier 1836-1848

Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Tennessee, 1801. Came to Arkansas from
Missouri, 1821. Clerk, Territorial House of Representatives, 1821.
Member, Territorial House of Representatives, Pulaski County, 1823,
1825; speaker, 1827.

Territorial delegate to Congress, 1828-1836. United States senator, 1836-1848. United States Minister to Mexico, March-June 1848. Died 1848.

2. Solon Borland, 1848-1853

Physician, Democrat. Born in Virginia, 1808. Attended schools in North
Carolina; studied medicine; located in Little Rock, Arkansas. Major,
First Arkansas Volunteer Cavalry, Mexican War.

United States senator, 1848-1853. United States Minister to Central
American Republics, 1853-1854. Brigadier general, Confederate Army.
Died 1864.

3. Robert W. Johnson, 1853-1861

Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Kentucky, 1814. Moved with his father to
Arkansas, 1821. Graduated from St. Joseph's College, Bardstown,
Kentucky, 1833, and from Yale Law School, 1835. Practiced law in Little
Rock, Arkansas, 1835-1847.

Prosecuting attorney, 1840-1845. Congressman, 1847-1853. United States senator, 1853-1861. Delegate to provisional Confederate Congress, 1861-1862. Confederate States senator, 1862-1865. Practiced law in Washington, D.C. after the war. Died 1879.

4. Charles B. Mitchel, 1861

Physician, Democrat. Born in Tennessee, 1815. Graduated from University of Nashville, Tennessee, 1833, and from Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1836. Moved to Washington, Arkansas, where he practiced medicine for twenty-five years.

Member, House of Representatives, Hempstead County, 1848-1849. Receiver of public moneys, 1853-1856. United States senator, 1861. Confederate States senator, 1862-1864. Died 1864.

Note: Arkansas was not represented in the United States Senate from
      its secession in 1861 until the state was readmitted to the
      Union in 1868.

5. Benjamin F. Rice, 1868-1873

Lawyer, Republican. Born in New York, 1828. Member, Kentucky House of
Representatives, 1855-1856. Moved to Minnesota, 1860. Captain, Union

Settled in Little Rock, Arkansas, 1864. Active in organizing Republican party in Arkansas. United States senator, 1868-1873. Moved to Colorado 1875, and to Washington, D.C. 1882. Died 1905.

6. Stephen W. Dorsey, 1873-1879

Businessman, Republican. Born in Vermont, 1842. Moved to Ohio and
settled in Oberlin. Served in Union Army. After Civil War, returned to
Ohio; became president of Sandusky Tool Company. Elected president,
Arkansas Railway Company. Moved to Arkansas, settled in Helena.

United States senator, 1873-1879. After his service in Senate, devoted
himself to cattle raising and mining in New Mexico and Colorado.
Resided in Colfax County, New Mexico; Denver, Colorado; and Los
Angeles, California. Died 1916.

7. James D. Walker, 1879-1885

Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Kentucky, 1830. Attended private schools in
Kentucky, and Ozark Institute and Arkansas College, Fayetteville,
Arkansas. Moved to Arkansas 1847. Admitted to bar 1850; practiced law
in Fayetteville. Colonel, Confederate Army; captured at Oak Hills,
Missouri in 1861 and spent two years in military prison.

Resumed practice of law in Fayetteville, 1865. United States senator, 1879-1885. Died 1906.

8. James K. Jones, 1885-1903

Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Mississippi, 1839. Moved with his parents to Dallas County, Arkansas, 1848. Served in Confederate Army. Admitted to bar 1874 and commenced practice in Washington, Arkansas.

State senator, 1873-1877; president of Senate, 1877. Congressman, 1881-1885. United States senator, 1885-1903. Chairman, Democratic National Committee, 1896, 1900. Died 1908.

9. James P. Clarke, 1903-1916

(See "Governors of the State of Arkansas," number 18).

10. William F. Kirby, 1916-1921

Lawyer, Democrat. Born in what is now Miller County, Arkansas, 1867. Studied law at Cumberland University, Lebanon, Tennessee; graduated 1885. Admitted to bar 1885, commenced practice in Texarkana, Arkansas.

Member, House of Representatives, Miller County, 1893, 1897. State senator 1899, 1901. Author of "Kirby's Digest of the Statutes of Arkansas," 1904. Moved to Little Rock, 1907. Attorney General, 1907-1909. Associate justice, Supreme Court, 1910-1916, 1927-1934. United States senator, 1916-1921. Died 1934.

11. Thaddeus H. Caraway, 1921-1931

Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Missouri, 1871. Moved with his parents to
Clay County, Arkansas, 1883. Graduated in 1896 from Dickson (Tennessee)
College. Admitted to bar 1900, commenced practice in Osceola, Arkansas.
Moved to Lake City, Craighead County, 1900, and to Jonesboro, 1901.

Prosecuting attorney, 1908-1912. Congressman, 1913-1921. United States senator, 1921-1931. Died 1931.

12. Hattie W. Caraway, 1931-1945

Democrat, wife of Senator Thaddeus H. Caraway. Born in Tennessee, 1878. Graduated from Dickson (Tennessee) Normal College, 1896. Married and thereafter located in Jonesboro, Arkansas.

Appointed United States senator to succeed her husband 1931; elected
1932 and 1938; served 1931-1945. Member, United States Employees'
Compensation Commission, 1945-1946. Member, United States Employees'
Compensation Appeals Board, 1946-1950. Died 1950.

13. James William Fulbright, 1945-

Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Missouri, 1905. Moved with his parents to Fayetteville, Arkansas 1906. Was graduated from University of Arkansas, 1925; as a Rhodes scholar from Oxford University, England, 1928; and from law department of George Washington University, Washington, D.C., 1934. Admitted to District of Columbia bar, 1934.

Attorney, United States Department of Justice, Antitrust Division, 1934-1935. Instructor in law, George Washington University, 1935; lecturer in law, University of Arkansas, 1936-1939. President of the University of Arkansas, 1939-1941. Congressman, 1943-1945. United States senator since 1945.

1. William S. Fulton, 1836-1844

(See "Governors of the Territory of Arkansas," number 4).

2. Chester Ashley, 1844-1848

Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Massachusetts, 1790. Moved with his parents
to Hudson, New York, during infancy. Was graduated from Williams
College, Williamstown, Massachusetts, and the Litchfield (Connecticut)
Law School.

Admitted to bar 1817 and commenced practice of law in Hudson, New York.
Moved to Edwardsville, Illinois, 1818; to St. Louis, Missouri, 1819;
and to Little Rock, Arkansas, 1820. United States senator 1844-1848.
Died 1848.

3. William K. Sebastian, 1848-1861

Lawyer, planter, Democrat. Born in Tennessee, 1812. Was graduated from
Columbia College, Tennessee, about 1834. Commenced practice of law in
Helena, Arkansas, 1835.

Prosecuting attorney, 1835-1837. Circuit judge, 1840-1842. Associate
justice, Supreme Court, 1843-1845. Member and president of State
Senate, 1846-1847. United States senator, 1848-1861. Expelled from
Senate, 1861; returned to Helena and practiced law; took no part in
Confederate war effort. Moved to Memphis, 1864. Died 1865.

In 1877, the United States Senate revoked his expulsion and paid the full amount of his compensation to his children.

Note: Arkansas was not represented in the United States Senate from its secession in 1861 until the state was readmitted to the Union in 1868.

4. Alexander McDonald, 1868-1871

Businessman, banker, Republican. Born in Pennsylvania, 1832. Attended
Dickinson Seminary, Williamsport, Pennsylvania; and Lewisburg
University, Lewisburg, Pennsylvania. Moved to Kansas, 1857. Served in
Union Army. Came to Arkansas 1863, settled in Little Rock.

United States senator, 1868-1871. Engaged in development of railroads.
Moved to New York City, 1900. Died 1903.

5. Powell Clayton, 1871-1877

(See "Governors of the State of Arkansas," number 9)

6. Augustus H. Garland, 1877-1885

(See "Governors of the State of Arkansas," number 11)

7. James H. Berry, 1885-1907

(See "Governors of the State of Arkansas," number 14)

8. Joseph T. Robinson, 1913-1937

(See "Governors of the State of Arkansas," number 23)

9. John E. Miller, 1937-1941

Lawyer, banker, Democrat. Born in Missouri, 1888. Attended Southeast
Missouri State Teachers College, Cape Girardeau; and Valparaiso
(Indiana) University. Graduated from law department, University of
Kentucky, 1912. Admitted to bar 1912, commenced practice in Searcy,

Delegate, constitutional convention of 1917-1918. Prosecuting attorney, 1921-1923. Congressman, 1931-1937. United States senator from 1937 until he resigned in 1941 to become United States district judge for the western district of Arkansas.

11. Lloyd Spencer, 1941-1943

Banker, Democrat. Born in Missouri, 1893. Moved to Okolona, Arkansas, 1902. Attended Henderson College, Arkadelphia. Served in United States Navy, First World War, 1918. Moved to Hope, Arkansas, 1921.

Appointed to United States Senate 1941; term expired 1943. Served in
United States Navy, Second World War, 1943.

12. John L. McClellan, 1943-

Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Sheridan, Arkansas, 1896. Attended public schools. Admitted to bar 1913, commenced practice in Sheridan. First lieutenant, United States Army, First World War, 1917-1919.

Moved to Malvern, Arkansas, 1919. Prosecuting attorney, 1927-1930.
Congressman, 1935-1939. Resumed practice of law in Camden, Arkansas.
United States senator since 1943.