The Project Gutenberg eBook of McGuffey's Eclectic Spelling Book

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Title: McGuffey's Eclectic Spelling Book

Author: Alexander H. McGuffey

Release date: March 24, 2005 [eBook #15456]
Most recently updated: December 14, 2020

Language: English


Produced by Don Kostuch

{Transcribers Notes: Do you remember how to spell "pharmacopoeia" or "Winnipiseogee"? This was for sixth grade! Here is a chance to expand your vocabulary or just enjoy a trip to the grade school of 1900.

The original text uses a specialized font to indicate pronunciation. Italics are used to specify words or syllables in the text. The approximations given here retain only the emphasis (accent). See the DOC or PDF format for the original graphics.

Don Kostuch}


McGUFFEY'S [Registered]


McGuffey Editions and Colophon are Trademarks of

John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


PREFACE. In revising this book, care has been taken to preserve all the excellences that have so long and so favorably distinguished McGUFFEY'S ECLECTIC SPELLING-BOOK: and the chief changes that have been made, have been suggested by the evident plan of the original work.

The old system of indicating the pronunciation by numerals, called "superiors," has been abandoned, and the diacritical marks used by Webster have been adopted. The Revised Speller conforms in orthography, pronunciation, and syllabication to the latest edition of Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. Exercises have been given on each of the distinctive marks used in the book, as will be seen by reference to Lessons 36-57.

A number of lessons have been added in the department of prefixes and suffixes, and now nearly all the more common of these etymological principles have been explained. (See Lessons 136-167.) In arranging the text of the several lessons, the object has been not to appeal merely to arbitrary memory, but to associate each lesson with some principle of sound, meaning, or accent, which would tend to aid the pupil in acquiring a knowledge of our language. Several distinct lessons on pronunciation are given, and towards the close of the book numerous lessons of difficult words in orthography have been introduced.

Instead of indicating silent letters by italics, as has hitherto been done, a new type has been made in which such letters are canceled, thus enabling the pupil to discover their status at a glance.

The pages have been enlivened, as in the other books of this Series, by attractive engravings.

The publishers take pleasure in acknowledging the valuable services of
W. B. Watkins, D. D., who planned and executed this revision.


Copyright, 1879, by Van Antwerp, Bragg & Co.


The English Alphabet consists of twenty-six letters, viz.: a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h,i,j,k,l,m,n,o,p,q,r,s,t,u,v,w,x,y,z.

Letters are divided into VOWELS and CONSONANTS.

The Vowels are those letters which can be perfectly sounded without the aid of any other letter. The vowels are a, e, i, o, u, w, and y.

The vowel sounds of w and y are the same as those of u and i. A, e, and o are always vowels. I, u, w, and y are sometimes consonants.

A Diphthong is the union of two vowels in one sound. When both vowels are sounded, the diphthong is called PROPER, because then it is really a DIPHTHONG, or double sound; that is, the sounds of the vowels unite; as, oi in oil; ou in sound.

When only one of the vowels is sounded, the diphthong is called IMPROPER, because then, as one of the vowels is silent, it is not properly a DIPHTHONG, though it takes that name; as, oa in boat, ui in suit, where a and i are silent.

The following diphthongs are in common use, viz.: oi, oy, ou, ow, ae, ai, au, aw, ay, ea, ei, eo, eu, ew, ey, ia, ie, oa, oe, ua, ue, ui; as in toil, boy, round, plow, seal, coal, head, sail, say, aught, yeoman. Of these, oi, oy, ou, and ow are generally proper diphthongs; though sometimes ou and ow are improper, as in famous, where o is silent, and in slow, where w is silent.

A Triphthong is the union of three vowels in one syllable; as, eau in beau, iew in view. The triphthong is properly a union of letters, not sounds.


All the vowels, and some of the consonants, have several sounds; in this book these sounds are indicated by diacritical marks, as in the following tables:


Sound as is ——- ——- a ate a care a arm a last a all oo fool

e eve e err i ice o ode u use

Short Sounds.

Sound as is ——- ——- a am e elm i in o odd u up oo look


oi,oy,as in oil, boy ou,ow, as in out, owl

TABLE OF SUBVOCALS Sound as is ——- ——- b bib d did g gig j jug n nine m maim ng hang l lull

v valve th this z zinc zh azure r rare w we y yet

TABLE OF ASPIRATES Sound as is ——- ——- f fife h him k cake p pipe s same

t tart sh she ch chat th thick wh why

NOTE.—The foregoing forty-four sounds are those most employed in the English language. Some of these sounds are represented by other letters, as shown in the following table. For further instruction concerning the sounds, see Lessons 36-57.

TABLE OF SUBSTITUTES. Sound for as in ——- —- ——- a o what e a there e a feint i e police i e sir o u son o oo to o oo wolf o a fork o e work u oo full u e burn u oo rude y i fly

y i myth c k can c s cite ch sh chaise ch k chaos g j gem n ng ink s z as s sh sure x gz exact gh f laugh ph f phlox qu k pique[1] qu kw quit

[Footnote 1: The u is canceled in this book when qu is sounded like k.]

W, in its vowel sounds, corresponds with u; an in new (pro. nu).

A has, in a few words, the sound of e; as in any (pro. en'ny).

U has, in a few words, the sound of e; as in bury (pro. ber'ry); or that of i, as in busy (pro. biz'y).


The Consonants are those letters which can not be perfectly sounded without the aid of a vowel. The consonants are b, c, d, f, g, h, l, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, x, z, and sometimes i, u, w, and y. The consonants are divided into MUTES and SEMI-VOWELS.

The Mutes are those consonants that admit of no sound without the aid of a vowel. They are b, d, k, p, q, t, and c and g hard.

The Semi-vowels are those consonants that can be sounded imperfectly by themselves. They are f, h, j, l, m, n, r, s, v, x, z, and c and g soft.

Four of the semi-vowels are called LIQUIDS; viz., l, m, n, and r. They are called liquids because they unite so readily with other sounds, or flow into them.


A Syllable is a sound, or a combination of sounds, uttered by a single impulse of the voice: it may have one or more letters; as a, bad, bad-ness.

A Word is either a syllable or a combination of syllables; as, not, notion.

A word of one syllable is called a Monosyllable; as, man.

A word of two syllables is called a Dissyllable; as, manly.

A word of three syllables is called a Trisyllable; as, manliness. Words of more than three syllables are called Polysyllables.

Accent is a stress of voice placed upon some one syllable more than the others. Every word composed of two or more syllables has one of them accented. This accent is denoted by a mark (') at the end of the accented syllable; as, mid'night, a ban'don.

A Primitive Word is one which is not derived from any other word; as, man, great, full.

A Derivative Word is one which is formed from some other word by adding something to it; as, manful, greatness, fully.

A Simple Word is one which is not composed of more than one word; as, kind, man, stand, ink.

A Compound Word is one that is composed of two or more simple words; as, ink-stand, wind-mill.

Spelling is naming or writing the letters of a word.

Script Alphabet [Illustration: The following letter are shown in an ideal hand-written script.]


LOWER-CASE LETTERS. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z


THE ALPHABET. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z


A [Illustration: Axe]
B [Illustration: Boy]
C [Illustration: Cat]
D [Illustration: Dog]
E [Illustration: Elk]
F [Illustration: Fox]
G [Illustration: Girl]
H [Illustration: Hen]
I [Illustration: Ink]
J [Illustration: Jug]
K [Illustration: Kid (Goat)]
L [Illustration: Lark]
M [Illustration: Man]
N [Illustration: Nut]
O [Illustration: Ox]
P [Illustration: Pig]
Q [Illustration: Quail]
R [Illustration: Rat
S [Illustration: Sun]
T [Illustration: Top]
U [Illustration: Urn]
V [Illustration: Vine]
W [Illustration: Wren]
X [Illustration: letter X]
Y [Illustration: Yak]
Z [Illustration: Zebra]


Lesson 1.


Short Sound of A.

am cat gap ban cap an bad bag can map as mad gag fan nap at pad hag pan rap ax sad lag ran hap rat gad tag tan jam sat sap fag van ham

Short Sound of E.

bed den net sell tent led ken pet nest rent red men set zest sent wed wen yet test went beg jet sex pest felt leg let fell rest pelt hen met bell jest melt

Lesson 2.


Short Sound of I.

if rid him sin jig it lid rim tin rig is sip fix dig bib bit tip six fig jib hit nip din big rib sit lip pin pig fib

Short Sound of O.

on cob nod box dot ox job pod hop jot got rob rod mop lot cot sob log sop pot jot cod hog pop rot lot God dog top not

Short Sound of U.

up mud rum rut gush us dug sum hung dust cub mug bun bung must hub pug dun lung rust rub tug run sung gust bud jug sun hulk drum

Lesson 3.


man lap pat tap had fin get ten wet peg fit dim mix hid his hot rot fob dot con rug hum fun hut cut

had fun hug gum flog den fog dip nag dram did tub fog bet help sod hod gun pen lift lad bet did cog rush

Lesson 4.

Long Sound of A.

date jade came cage bane late fade dame page lace mate rate same sage wake

Long Sound of E.

me we she heed weed fee jeer feed deed deep feel leer meek keep peep seek veer beef reel weep

Long Sound of I.

pile dike fire life bide file like tire rife hide mile pike sire wife ride

Long Sound of O.

code dolt bone hope dote node jolt cone pope note bode molt hone rope vote rove bolt tone cope hold

Long Sound of U.

lure cube mute lune huge cure tube duke dune pule pure lute jute use cue

Lesson 5.

Short Sounds of Vowels.

crab bled chip shot bump grab fled ship blot lump drab sled whip spot pump slab sped slip plot jump stab then drip trot hump brag bent spit clog bulk cram best crib frog just clan hemp gift plod drug clad vest king stop shut dash west grit clod hush

Lesson 6.

Various Vowel Sounds.

bard deal tank dell ill card veal rank tell bill hard meal sank well fill bark neat hank yell rill dark heat dank belt hill dint bang dime rave cull hint fang lime gave dull lint gang tine lave gull mint hang fine pave hull tint rang mine save mull

Lesson 7.

Long Sounds of Vowels.

blaze sneer drive globe dean craze creed tribe drone bean shape steep brine stone bead state sleek spire probe beam crape fleet bride shore lean fume smite blame clear mope spume spite flame drear mold fluke quite slate blear tore flume whine spade spear robe dure spine prate smear poke

Lesson 8.

Various Sounds of Vowels.

clasp small cramp bring moan grasp stall stamp cling coast flask fall grand sling toast graft wall stand swing roast craft squall lamp thing roach book boon stork wad pod good spoon horse was rob took bloom snort wash rock foot broom short wast soft hook stool north what lost

Lesson 9.

Long Sounds of Vowels under the Accent.

fa'tal le'gal lo'cal cu'bit na'tal re'gal fo'cal du'el pa'pal re'al vo'cal hu'man pa'gan pe'nal o'ral u'nit ba'by ta'per o'val du'ly la'dy di'al to'tal fu'ry la'zy tri'al bo'ny ju'ry ma'zy fi'nal co'ny pu'ny na'vy vi'tal go'ry pu'pil ra'cy ri'val ro'sy hu'mid Sa'tan vi'al po'sy tu'mid

Lesson 10.

Short Sounds of Vowels under the Accent.

al'um el'der civ'il cul'prit al'to hec'tic dit'ty clum'sy can'ter helm'et gid'dy dul'cet mar'ry fen'nel fil'ly fun'nel ral'ly ken'nel sil'ly gul'ly nap'kin bel'fry liv'id buck'et hap'py ed'dy lim'it gus'set pan'try en'try lim'ber sul'len ram'mer en'vy riv'et sum'mon mam'mon test'y lin'en hur'ry tab'let self'ish mil'let mul'let

Lesson 11.

Various Sounds of A.

care fast charm camp war mare mast chart damp warp share cask lard hand warm spare mask arm land ward snare past yard sand warn game scar lake waft fray lame spar dale raft play name star gale chaff gray fame garb cape aft stay tame barb shame staff bray

Lesson 12.

Various Sounds of A.

dan'ger am'ber lard'er clat'ter man'ger ban'ter mar'gin flat'ter quak'er ban'ner ar'dent lat'ter qua'ver hand'y ar'my mat'ter dra'per man'na art'ist pat'ter wa'ger can'cer har'vest tat'ter fa'vor pan'der par'ty rag'ged fla'vor tam'per tar'dy rack'et sa'vor plan'et ar'dor van'ish ma'jor ham'per car'pet gal'lant ca'per stam'mer gar'ment pat'tern

Lesson 13.

Various Sounds of E.

sheep ce'dar bet'ter cler'gy creep fe'ver fet'ter fer'vor sleep tre'mor let'ter her'mit sweep ge'nus en'ter mer'cy speed se'cret ev'er ser'mon breeze re'bus nev'er ser'pent teeth se'quel sev'er mer'chant sneeze se'quence dex'ter ver'bal breed he'ro mem'ber ver'dict bleed ze'ro plen'ty per'son freed se'cant ven'om fer'ment

Lesson 14.

Various Sounds of I.

bird bri'er bib'ber thir'ty birch ci'der bit'ter thirst'y chirp mi'ser dif'fer third'ly flirt spi'der din'ner birch'en girl vi'per frit'ter chirp'er shirt cli'ent lit'ter girl'ish squirm gi'ant riv'er gird'er squirt i'tem shiv'er stir'less third i'cy sil'ver first'ly girt spi'ral in'ner birth'day gird i'vy liv'er mirth'ful

Lesson 15.

Various Sounds of O.

bro'ker col'ic cor'net worst clo'ver ton'ic cor'set come drov'er top'ic or'gan love gro'cer mor'al sor'did dove o'ver com'ma tor'pid shoot o'dor dog'ged form'al moon so'lar doc'tor for'ty moose po'lar cop'per lord'ly tooth pok'er fod'der morn'ing gorge home'ly fos'ter orb'it most po'em pon'der mor'tal prop

Lesson 16.

Various Sounds of U.

hu'mor but'ter mur'der pru'dent ju'ror mut'ter mur'mur fru'gal tu'mor rud'der tur'ban tru'ly stu'por shut'ter tur'nip tru'ant tu'tor suf'fer tur'key cru'et cu'rate sup'per pur'port bru'in lu'cid mum'my curl'y dru'id stu'dent mus'ket fur'ry ru'in stu'pid num'ber fur'nish ru'by lu'nar nut'meg cur'vet bru'tal tu'mult stut'ter bur'den gru'el

Lesson 17.

Various Sounds of the Vowels.

June furl husk from halt dupe hurl musk pomp malt tune turn rusk romp salt flute churn stung long waltz plume hurt pluck song swan glue curl drunk strong wasp droop deck chill for sheath gloom neck drill corn shell loop next quill fork shorn hoof text skill form shout roof desk spill sort shrub proof nest frill torch shrug

Lesson 18.

Words Accented on the last Syllable.

a wake' be hest' be hind' re cede' be came' be set' be side' con crete' be have' ca det' be tide' com pete' be take' de fend' de rive' se crete' e late' de pend' re cite' con cede' per vade' re pel' re tire' con vene' for sake' at tend' re vile' im pede' a bate' con sent' re mise' re plete' cre ate' im pend' re vive' un seen' es tate' im pel' con nive' su preme' re late' com pel' ex cite' re lease'

Lesson 19.

be rate' a bode' ex pire' a cute' a pace' a lone' con fide' a buse' re bate' a tone' con fine' con fuse' de bate' af ford' con spire' de duce' de face' ca jole' po lite' de lude' de fame' de pose' re cline' ma ture' se date' com pose' re fine' pol lute' col late' en force' re pine' pro cure' re gale' en robe' re quire' re buke' em pale' ex plore' re spire' re duce' en gage' ex pose' u nite' se clude' en rage' im port' en twine' se cure'

Lesson 20.

blade plash bream dress twine glade clash cream swim blind grade crash dream spend grind shade smash gleam speck spike trade trash steam fresh smile skate slash stream whelp while brisk drove blush cheap carve quilt grove flush peach farce filth stove slush teach parse pinch clove brush reach barge flinch smote crush bleach large mince store thrush glean snarl

Lesson 21.

ab'bey rec'ord pit'y col'ter ab'bot check'er dis'tant fo'cus atom ed'it din'gy glo'ry ash'es lev'el diz'zy lo'cust cap'tor meth'od fin'ish mo'ment car'rot splen'did gim'let po'tent cav'il ves'per spir'it co'gent ehap'ter west'ern tim'id do'tage chat'tel bed'lam pig'gin no'ted fath'om des'pot tin'sel stor'age gal'lon ren'der tip'pet sto'ry gal'lop tem'pest wit'ness pro'test

Lesson 22.

shake chose march pine oil snake prose parch wild moil baste those starch mild coil haste froze larch tile foil taste force lark slide soil paste porch stark glide toil bunch broth prism spent boy hunch cloth sixth fence coy lunch froth stint hence hoy punch moth smith pence joy plump botch whist thence toy stump stock midst whence cloy

Lesson 23.

Monosyllables miscellaneously arranged.

free clip shelf quest shine spin hate chide flax wore shad tape fringe still think band race clock trim marsh pack mire cheek door booth bath kite full clung wince dock bank frock loft spray gold fell troop pulp join pipe pink glass grape friz club hilt lurk pose brow shop last cloud zest grace

Lesson 24.

Words in which the final e is silent.

ca'ble nee'dle rab'ble bub'ble fa'ble Bi'ble sam'ple bun'dle ga'ble ti'tle sim'ple crum'ble sa'ble ri'fle tem'ple muf'fle sta'ble no'ble dim'ple muz'zle cra'dle fick'le fid'dle pud'dle la'dle am'ple kin'dle ruf'fle ma'ple ap'ple lit'tle tum'ble sta'ple baffle bot'tle pur'ple bee'tle bat'tle cob'ble cir'cle fee'ble cat'tle fond'le sad'dle

Lesson 25.

an'gel ab'sent bish'op blun'der ba'sis ac'rid big'ot blus'ter ca'ter blank'et bil'let cus'tom fla'grant clas'sic blis'ter cut'ler fra'grant crag'gy cin'der cut'ter has'ty dam'sel crick'et sum'mer ha'tred dan'dy fif'ty sun'der la'bel fab'ric fil'let shud'der pa'tent fam'ish lim'pid thun'der sa'cred fran'tic pil'fer tum'bler state'ment lath'er pil'lar ul'cer va'cate lav'ish print'er un'der

Lesson 26.


NOTE TO TEACHERS.—These lessons are intended as exercises in the meaning as well as the spelling of words. Distinguish carefully words of similar sound, but which differ in their spelling. At the recitation the sentences should be read aloud by the teacher, and the pupils required to write them out neatly and correctly upon their slates or on the blackboard.

He ate seven or eight apples. Send the pale maid with the pail of milk. He owed for the paper on which he wrote an ode to the moon. We are not quite ready for the quiet man. Age gives edge to wine. He said the idol looked like a satyr. Clever satire often rouses the idle.

Lesson 27.

Sounds of ai, ou, ow, and ea,

paid bound cow cheat head grain found how treat dead staid ground town beast stead waif hound growl bleat tread rail mound clown preach dread flail pound frown speak thread quail round crown streak sweat snail sound drown feast death

Lesson 28.

Dissyllables with short Sounds of Vowels.

ad'age fren'zy bick'er blos'som bal'last emp'ty crit'ic cot'ton bant'ling gen'try dig'it com'ic can'to mer'it flim'sy drop'sy ras'cal men'tal flip'pant flor'id las'so sher'iff frig'id frol'ic an'tic ten'dril in'fant gos'pel sad'ness vel'lum in'gress gos'sip sal'ver vel'vet in'mate hor'rid sand'y nec'tar in'quest jol'ly mag'got ves'try in'sect rock'et

Lesson 29.

Trisyllables with short Sounds of the Vowels.

bal'co ny del'i cate lib'er ate bar'o ny des'o late lim'i tate cav'i ty der'o gate im'mo late fac'ul ty dev'as tate in'di cate grav'i ty em'u late in'ti mate mal'a dy hes'i tate in'du rate van'i ty med'i tate in'vo cate am'pu tate pet'ri fy ir'ri tate ab'so lute plen'i tude lit'i gate al'ti tude rec'ti tude mil'i tate am'bu lance res'o lute stip'u late

Lesson 30.

Miscellaneous Sounds.

prime swine straw crawl brawn snore gloss flank brick charge crow quench green tinge shark Scotch chest goose brand thrift space prow twist flange crank wealth slice twain limp screw throb thrice chess flake soon flesh finch flash flaw twelve flung clean loaf scale

Lesson 31.

Long Sounds of I and U, and short Sounds of E and I.

a bide' ac cuse' con tend' ad mit' a like' im pure' con tent' ad dict' a live' im pute' in tend' as sist' a rise' as sume' in tent' com mit' de cide' com mute' dis sect' con sist' de file' com mune' de ject' de pict' de fine' com pute' de test' dis till' de ride' con clude' de tect' emit' de sire' con fute' in spect' en list' di vide' dis pute' ob ject' en rich' di vine' en dure' re spect' for bid'

Lesson 32.

Silent Letters.

B is silent after m and before t, and p is silent before s. The silent letters are canceled in this lesson, as they are throughout the book.

lamb numb debt debt'or comb bomb doubt doubt'ful tomb crumb psalm sub'tle dumb thumb pshaw psal'ter


The lamb is a dumb animal. He climbed the hill to the tomb, but his limbs became numb. Comb your hair, but do not thumb your book. Bombs are now commonly called "shells." The debtor, who was a subtle man, doubted his word, and gave not a crumb of comfort. Take your psalter and select a joyous psalm. His answer was, "Pshaw!"

Lesson 33.

Sounds of igh, oa, shr, and thr.

nigh load coax shrank thrash thigh oats hoax shrewd threat fight boat oath shrift throng light oak coach shrike throve flight foal float shrunk thrust fright goat poach thrill throat tight soap hoarse three thrum

Lesson 34.

Long and short Sounds of A, and short Sound of E.

gain a bash' dis patch' pre tend' nail ca bal' dis tract' re flect' taint ca nal' ex pand' re fresh' trail cra vat' a bet' re lent' aim de camp' be deck' re ject' maim pro tract' be held' re quest' train re cant' be quest' re bel' strain re fract' de fect' re gress' chain re lax' e lect' re press' paint at tack' e rect' sub ject quaint at tract' e vent' neg'lect'

Lesson 35.

Short Sounds of Vowels under the Accent.

ac'ci dent ben'e fit dif'fer ent ad'a mant brev'i ty dif'fi cult am'i ty clem'en cy fil'a ment an'i mal des'ti ny in'cre ment an'nu al neg'li gent in'do lent can'is ter pend'u lum his'to ry flat'ter y rem'e dy in'ju ry fam'i ly reg'u lar pil'lo ry lax'i ty rel'e vant sim'i lar man'i fest pen'i tence tit'u lar man'i fold pen'e trate tim'or ous

Lesson 36.


In this lesson, and in the pages immediately following, will be found forty-three exercises on the various sounds of the English language. Some of these have been given already, but are repeated here for the more thorough instruction of the pupil Let the teacher carefully discriminate between the different sounds of the vowels, and fully drill the scholars in their correct enunciation.

1. Regular Long Sound of A, marked a.

make la'tent brave a base'ment safe cham'ber crave a bate'ment gaze pas'try grave ad ja'cent saint man'gy shave a wa'ken

Lesson 37.

2. Regular Short Sound of A, marked a.

span ad'der crack can'di date trap an'vil gland cal'i co plat ban'ish slack grat'i tude sham bran'dy plaid mag'is trate

3. Sound of A before r in such words as air, care, marked a.

dare af fair' chair trans par'ent rare de spair' prayer for bear'ance flare be ware' scare par'ent age glare com pare' square care'ful ness

Lesson 38.

4. Sound of the Italian A, as in arm, marked a.

farm ar'bor guard ar'gu ment harm ar'mor daunt ar'ti choke barn bar'ber harsh car'di nal yarn car'go jaunt car'pen ter

5. Sound of A in certain words before ff, ft, ss, st, sk, sp, and in a few before nce and nt, marked a, as in staff.

mass chance gasp chan'cel lor class pass'port quaff chan'cer y vast mas'ter chant craft'i ness task graft'ed prance ad van'tage

Lesson 39.

6. Sound of broad A. as in all, marked a.

thrall de bauch' drawl au'di ence tall de fault' pawn laud'a ble wart de fraud' sprawl plaus'i ble awe as sault' warmth talk'a tive

7. Short Sound of broad A, as in what, marked a.

wan wan'ton squash squal'id ness wand wan'der squab was'ish ly squat squan'der squad watch'ful ness wat'ch wal'low swamp what ev'er

Lesson 40.

8. Regular Long Sound of E, as in eve, marked e.

feel fe'male wean de'i ty keel pee'vish these de'cen cy glee que'ry priest e gre'gious deem nei'ther cheer fre'quen cy

9. Regular Short Sound of E, as in end, marked e.

ebb pen'ny sledge, en'e my fret sec'ond spread rec'og nize helm ten'der knelt len'i ty them rec'tor cleft mem'o ry

Lesson 41.

10. Sound of E as in there, marked e, This corresponds with the sound of a in care.

ne'er par terre' where up on' where ere long' where un to' there of' there by' where a bouts' heir'ess where at' where with al'

11. Sound of E like a, as in prey, marked e.

they neigh'bor neigh'bor hood whey hei'nous sur vey'or freight o bey' pur vey'ance deign in veigh' con vey'ance

Lesson 42.

12. Sound of E before r, verging toward the sound of u in urge, and marked e.

term er'mine terse ter'ma gant pearl ear'ly merge per'son al err per'fect yearn mer'chan dise learn mer'cer swerve ser'mon ize

13. Regular Long Sound of I. as in ice, marked i.

fife di'et Christ brib'er y crime qui'et spice di'a dem shrine fi'at strive li'a ble thrive pli'ant slime i'ci cle

Lesson 43.

14. Regular Short Sound of I, as in ill, marked i.

sting piv'ot spring dif'fi dent bliss splin'ter twitch pin'a fore inch tin'der thick in'fa my strip wick'ed sphinx lit'ur gy

15. Sound of I like that of long e, as in pique, marked i.

pe tite' fa tigue' mag a zine' an tique' in trigue' sub ma rine' ca price' po lice' ver'di gris fas cine' va lise' quar'an tine

Lesson 44.

16. Sound of I before r, verging toward u in urge, marked i.

stir birth'right girth girl'ish ness first gird'le thirst mirth'ful ness firm irk'some firth thir'ti eth skirt vir'gin smirch flirt'ing ly

17. Regular Long Sound of O, as in old, marked o.

host po'et chrome fo'lio smoke to'ry blown glo'ri fy sport lo'cate scold o'pi ate slope so'lo droll po'et ry

Lesson 45.

18. Regular Short Sound of O, as in not, marked o.

bond mon'ster croft lon'gi tude frost pot'ter sconce prompt'i tude lodge lodg'ment mosque nom'i nate prong yon'der frond ob'li gate

19. Sound of O like short u, as in dove, marked o.

month blood'shed sponge cov'ert ly glove love'ly tongue cov'e nant shove noth'ing flood broth'er hood front cov'et blood moth'er Iy

Lesson 46.

20. Sound of O like oo long, as in do, marked o.

whom tour'ist group who ev'er move rou tine' prove shoe'-mak er tour through out' douche en tomb'ment shoe en tomb' youth mov'ing ly

21. Sound of O like oo short, as in wolf, marked o.

wolf bo'som em bo'som wol ver ene' would wom'an un bo'som wom'an ly could wolf'ish wom'an hood wom'an ish should wolf'-net worst'ed wolf'ish ly

Lesson 47.

22. Sound of 0 like a (broad a), as in form, marked o.

born tort'ure corpse form'al ist horn fork'ed thorn cor'mo rant morse' for'mer scorn hor'ta tive lorn for'ward scorch mor'ti fy

23. Another mark has been added in this book to indicate a sound of O where it precedes r, as in work, marked o.

work wor'thy worse wor'thi ly word wor'ship world world'li ness worm ef'fort whorl wor'ship er wort world'ly whort work'ing-man

Lesson 48.

24. Regular Long Sound of double 0, as in moon, marked 00.

tool moon'shine groom boor'ish ness noon noon'tide school gloom'i ly spool bloom'ing soothe room'i ness groove gloom'y smooth sooth'say ing

25. Regular Short Sound of double O, as in wool, marked oo.

wool hood'wink brook coop'er age look look'out crook rook'er y rook wood'land shook book'-bind er hood wool'ly stood crook'ed ness

Lesson 49.

26. Regular Long Sound of U, as in mute. marked u.

sue beau'ty deuce beau'ti ful lieu feud'al sluice cu'ti cle nude cu'bic juice mu'ti ny suit flu'id fugue pu'ri ty

27. Regular Short Sound of U, as in but, marked u.

lungs slum'ber clump but'ter y plush rus'set stunt cus'to dy dunce duch'ess skulk 1ux'u ry trump scuf'fle young sum'ma ry

Lesson 50.

28. Sound of U when preceded by r in the same syllable, as in rude, marked u. It is the same sound as oo.

true ru'mor prune cru'di ty crude ru'ral truce rhru'ma tism cruse truf fle spruce pru'dent ly rule bru'tish cruise pru'ri ent

29. Sound of U like that of short oo, as in put, marked u.

bull pul'pit ful'ly ful fill'ment pull pul'ley bush'y bul'le tin put cush'ion puss'y bull'ion ist push bul'wark butch'er bush'i ness

Lesson 51.

30. Sound of U before r in such words as urge, marked u.

urge jour'ney spurn ur'gen cy burn stur'geon nurse curl'i ness spur church'man curst jour'nal ist curb bur'gess burst hurt'ful ness

31. Regular Long Sound of Y, as in fly, marked y.

ap ply' ty'rant pyre dy'nas ty de ny' hy'dra type an'ti type re ly' ty'phus fyke a sy'lum re ply' ty'ro chyme hy e'na

Lesson 52.

32. Regular Short Sound of Y, as in hymn, marked y.

pyx sys'tem lymph sym'me try cyst syn'tax nymph syn'co pe tymp phys'ic tryst syn'dic ate Styx lyr'ic rynd syn op'sis

33. The sound of oi or oy (unmarked), as heard in oil, oyster.

oint re coil' spoil en joy'ment voice re joice' moist dis joint'ed troy de stroy' broil em ploy'ment poise em ploy' choice ap point'ment

Lesson 53.

34. The sound of ow (unmarked), as heard in owl. When the ow is sounded as in blown, the o is marked long (blown).

howl al low' crowd flow'er y gown en dow' prowl pow'er ful cowl vow'el scowl em bow'el down row'el brown en dow'ment

35. The diphthong ou has two leading sounds: that of ow in words derived from the Anglo-Saxon, as in out; and that of oo in words derived from the French, as in soup.

sour found'ling fount an nounce'ment pout ground'less mount un found'ed soup rou lette' croup crou'pi er roup group'ing wound trou'ba dour

Lesson 54.

36. The consonant C has two regular sounds: as soft c in cede, marked c; as hard c in cot, where it has the sound of k, and is marked c.

cives ac'id trace De cem'ber mace sol'ace brace in ces'sant clot tac'tic curd en act'ment acts traf'fic cave e lect'or

37. The sound of N as heard in link, is marked thus, n, which is the same sound as that represented by ng.

lank monk'ey drink con'gru ous monk con'gress trunk sin'gu lar sunk lan'guage conch drunk'en ness

Lesson 55.

38. S bas two regular sounds: when unmarked it has its sharp or hissing sound, as in yes; when marked thus, s, it has the buzzing sound of z in zeal.

sick mass'y smelt pos sess'ive pest vest'ment gross as sess'or has a muse' grows re sem'ble ease in fuse' ruse res'o nant

39. Ch has three sounds: unmarked (English ch), it has nearly the sound of tsh, as in child; marked thus, eh (French ch), it has the sound of sh, as in chaise; and marked thus, ch (Latin ch), it has the sound of k, as in chorus.

such speech'less child choc'o late chef ma chine' chaise chiv'al ry chasm chem'ist chrism char'ac ter

Lesson 56.

40. G has two regular sounds: marked thus, g (g hard), it has the sound of g in go; marked thus, g (g soft), it has the compound sound of j, as in gem.

gear'ing gew'gaw slug gid'di ness gen'tile slug'gish crag guil'lo tine gen'der gest'ure gibe gen'er al

41. Th has two sounds: its sharp sound, as in thing, which is unmarked, and its soft sound, as in thine, marked th.

thin the'ist breath myth'ic al thaw the'sis theft the'o ry this gath'er thine hith'er to than both'er breathe oth'er wise

Lesson 57.

42. X has three sounds: its regular sharp sound (unmarked) like ks, as in expect, and its soft or flat sound like gz, as in exist, marked x;. At the beginning of words x has the sound of z as in xebec (ze'bec).

ex'it ex pan'sive' ex tra'ne ous ex cel' ex'pi ate ex te'ri or ex alt' ex am'ple ex ec'u tive' ex empt' ex ult'ant ex or'di um

43. Q is followed in all cases by u, and has usually the sound of kw, as in queen; but in a few words derived from the French, qu is sounded like k, as in coquette.

quack queer'ly quoit qui e'tus queen quo'rum quote quo ta'tion plaque piqu'ant bisque co quet'tish clique' co quet' torque piqu'an cy

Lesson 58.

cas cade' a base' in clude' a larm' ex change' a maze' ad jure' a far' in flame' a brade' de pute' re mark' ob late' cru sade' re fuse' de bark' par take' de base' ma nure' em bark' ad dress' re gret' in ject' ac quit' re flex' ex cept' in vent' a drift' ar rest' ex pect' mo lest' re miss' con test' ex pend' op press' be fit' de press' ex press' re dress' per sist'

Lesson 59.


NOTE.—These exercises on words of similar sound, instead of being gathered into a single department, are interspersed throughout the book.

raised, lifted up. plait, a fold. razed, destroyed. plate, flattened metal. pries, inspects closely. plumb, perpendicular. prize, to value. plum, a fruit. pray, to supplicate. place, site; spot. prey, a spoil. plaice, a fish. pore, a small opening. please, to gratify. pour, to cause to flow. pleas, excuses. poll, the head. bell, a sounding vessel. pole, a rod; a perch. belle, a fine young lady.

Lesson 60.

bight, a bay. piece, a part. bite, to seize with the teeth. peace, quietness. bloat, to swell. new, not old. blote, to dry and smoke. knew, did know. board, a plank. gnu, a quadruped. bored, did bore. limb, a branch. bread, food. limn, to draw or paint. bred, reared. arc, part of a circle. blue, a color. ark, a vessel. blew, did blow. prays, supplicates. boar, the male swine. praise, honor. bore, to pierce. preys, spoils.

Lesson 61.

Words accented on the last Syllable.

ab rupt' dis cuss' a cross' a gree' an nul' de duct' a dopt' a sleep' con struct' in duct' a loft' es teem' in struct' re but' a non' de cree' in trust' re sult' be long' de gree' at tire' in vite' com port' dis close' en tice' o blige' re port' dis pose' en tire' per spire' con sole' re store' in cline' sub lime' re pose' en throne' in cite' sur vive' con voke' ex plode'

Lesson 62.


Dost consider that dust thou art? He paid the servant his hire, and the wages were higher than last year. With whoop and hurra they tore the hoop from the barrel. The mower will cut more grass to-morrow. The foreign consul took counsel with the enemy, and called a council of war. English consols are high. Kings are sometimes guilty of flagrant wrongs. Many a fragrant flower blooms unseen. He tore his clothes in a struggle to close the door. His course toward that coarse lad was wrong.

Lesson 63.

Words accented on the first Syllable.

con'tact nos'tril cur'ry pun'gent for'est prod'uct ful'crum rus'tic hob'by prob'lem hud'dle rub'bish loft'y ros'ter pub'lic sulk'y log'ic tor'rent pub'lish sul'try af'flux bank'rupt kin'dred scrib'ble am'bush cam'phor pick'et trip'let an'them hav'oc tick'et trick'le an'nals hag'gard wick'et liz'ard as'pect hatch'et in'voice vil'la

Lesson 64.

cam'bric de'ist cy'press trib'al ca'dence e'qual Fri'day cri'sis da'tive free'dom ice'berg hy'drant na'tive need'ful li'bel sci'ence pave'ment meet'ing mi'grate si'lent duke'dom boun'ty pow'der boy'hood dur'ance coun'ty prow'ess clois'ter cu'beb cow'ard sound'ings joy'ous pu'trid drow'sy tow'el loi'ter pur'ist fount'ain tow'er loy'al

Lesson 65.

beard build palm verse witch crease built calf search script eaves squint half fern guess heave live talk kern start leap stick walk sperm wrath knee cliff chalk serve floor spleen writ lawn were czar have bronze daub herb haunch frank buzz fault strength flaunt slake snatch spawn sneak haunt smack dredge drift purse sharp clamp church fund clutch kneel

Lesson 66.

en no'ble, in duce'ment a bu'sive, e lope'ment a cu'men pe ru'sal ex po'nent ac cu'sant pur su'ant he ro'ic al lure'ment re fus'al pro mo'tive a muse'ment sul phu'ric de tach'ment es tab'lish at tend'ant dog mat'ic fa nat'ic as sem'blage dra mat'ic fan tas'tic ap pend'ant ec stat'ic gi gan'tic in tes'tate e las'tic in hab'it com'pen sate

Lesson 67.

cit, a citizen. wreak, to revenge. sit, to rest on a seat. reek, vapor. duct, a channel. bier, a carriage for the dead. ducked, plunged under. beer, fermented liquor. chuff, a clown. rest, quietness; ease. chough (chuf), a bird. wrest, to turn; to twist. coin, metal stamped. ring, a circle. coigne, a corner. wring, to twist. cole, a kind of cabbage. rote, repetition. coal, carbon. wrote, did write. find, to discover. strait, a narrow channel. fined, did fine; mulcted. straight, not crooked. prints, calicoes. wave, an undulation. prince, a king's son. waive, to refuse.

Lesson 68.

bole, the body of a tree. hist, hush! bowl, a vessel. hissed, did hiss. boll, a pod. paws, the feet of beasts. nose, part of the face. pause, a stop. knows, does know. faun, a sylvan god. mote, a particle. fawn, a young deer. moat, a ditch. pride, vanity. toled, allured. pried, did pry. told, did tell. wain, a wagon. tolled, did toll. wane, to decrease. rein, part of a bridle. see, to behold. rain, falling water. sea, a body of water. reign, to rule. si, a term in music.

Lesson 69.

a float' post pone' di lute' de mure' be low' pro rogue' a new' de plume' be moan' dis course' dis use' re cruit' be stow' de port' en sue' re cluse' de plore' re mote' im bue' re fute' a breast' at tempt' a bridge' e clipse' a head' dis tress' dis miss' e vince' be friend' con nect' a midst' ex tinct' be held' bur lesque' be twixt' for give' in flect' de flect' be witch' in flict'

Lesson 70.

Long Sounds of Vowels.

au stere' de crease' ap peal' dis creet' be queath' in crease' ap pear' en treat' re vere' de mean' ap pease' ex treme' be seech' fu see' ar rear' gran dee' bo hea' re peal' blas pheme' im peach' a light' de scribe' ac quire' dis guise' a wry' de spise' at trite' es quire' be guile' pre scribe' as sign' ig nite' be lie' de cline' de mise' in quire' de prive' re quite' com prise' ma lign'

Lesson 71.

Words accented on the Penult.

a mend'ed con tent'ed di lem'ma an gel'ic re flect'ive dis tem'per ap pen'dix de crep'it do mes'tic as sem'bly de fend'ant em bel'lish as sess'ment de mer'it em bez'zle pa rent'al re fresh'ing re dun'dant po et'ic re plen'ish a sun'der pre sent'ed re sent'ment con cur'rent pu tres'cent re splen'dent ef ful'gent pre vent'ive sur ren'der en cum'ber

Lesson 72.

Trisyllables with the short Sounds of the Vowels.

ac quit'tal de liv'er in sip'id be nig'nant di min'ish in trin'sic be wil'der con sist'ent ma lig'nant com mit'ment con tin'gent pa cif'ic con sid'er e nig'ma pro hib'it a bol'ish car bon'ic em bod'y ab hor'rent co los'sus har mon'ic ad com'plish de mol'ish im pos'tor ad mon'ish a pos'tate la con'ic al lot'ment des pot'ic ma son'ic

Lesson 73.

hart, the male deer. hour, sixty minutes. heart, the seat of life. our, belonging to us. hear, to perceive by the ear in, within. inn, a hotel. here, in this place. key, a fastener. heard, did hear. quay (ke), a wharf. herd, a drove. rhyme, poetry. hie, to hasten. rime, white frost. high, lofty. knot, a fastening of cord. him, objective case of he. hymn, a song of praise. not, negation. hole, an opening. know, to understand. whole, all; entire. no, not so.

Lesson 74.

The Vowel in the last Syllable silent.

ba'con sweet'en dam'son bit'ten to'ken trea'son fat'ten driv'en bra'zen weak'en flax'en kit'ten ha'ven wea'sel glad'den pris'on ha'zel height'en hap'pen quick'en maid'en light'en mad'den ris'en ma'son lik'en rav'el smit'ten ra'ven rip'en sad'den stiff'en shak'en tight'en red'den swiv'el wea'zen wid'en fresh'en writ'ten tak'en bro'ken o'pen fast'en wak'en clo'ven leav'en glis'ten spok'en froz'en length'en drunk'en dea'con gold'en reck'on mut'ton

Lesson 75.

The Vowel in the last Syllable not silent.

cray'on asp'en tal'on glu'ten de'mon cab'in wag'on cit'ron ci'on drag'on sud'den kitch'en si'phon flag'on fel'on mit'ten co'lon lin'den lem'on pis'ton o'men grav'el mel'on her'on bar'rel bev'el chan'nel flan'nel par'cel plat'en chick'en slov'en

Lesson 76.

Dissyllables with the long Sounds of the Vowels.

a'gue fa'mous cai'tiff ci'pher ca'lyx fail'ure fra'cas high'land cha'os faith'ful gate'-way mo'hair dai'ly frail'ty name'sake oak'um dai'sy game'ster stra'tum poul'tice bea'dle neat'ly mea'sles trea'cle bea'ver clear'ance peo'ple trea'tise drear'y cre'dence le'gion treat'ment ea'ger flee'cy re'gion twee'zers mean'ness greed'y stee'ple wea'ry

Lesson 77.

Words ending with ow, the last Letter being silent.

ar'row sal'low fel'low win'dow har'row tal'1ow mel'low win'now nar'row shal'low fal'low wid'ow mar'row shad'ow mead'ow bor'row spar'row el'bow bil'low mor'row

Words containing ei or ie, promiscuously arranged.

grieve re trieve' be siege' de ceiv'er thieve ag grieve' bre vier' de ceit'ful ceiled a piece' de ceive' dis sei'zin pieced con ceit' re lief' a chiev'ing sheik be lieve' re lieve' re ceiv'er

Lesson 78.

aught, any thing. oar, for rowing. ought, should. ore, unrefined metal. wry, crooked. o'er, over. rye, a kind of grain. ow'er, one who owes. lead, a metal. adds, joins to. led, did lead. adz, a joiner's tool. read, perused. ale, a liquor. red, a color. ail, to feel pain. read, to peruse. ate, did eat. reed, a plant. eight, twice four. all, the whole. ant, an insect. awl, a sharp instrument. aunt, a relation.

Lesson 79.

bald, without hair. air, the atmosphere. bawled, cried out. ere, before. bad, ill; vicious. e'er, ever. bade, past tense of bid. heir, one who inherits. baize, a kind of cloth. aisle, walk in a church. bays, plural of bay. isle, an island. bear, an animal. I'll, I will. bare, naked. cere, to cover with wax. bay, part of the ocean. sear, to burn; dry. bey, a Turkish officer. seer, a prophet. be, to exist. ball, a round body. bee, an insect. bawl, to cry out.

Lesson 80.

gai'ter plant'ain shriv'el jaun'dice clev'er das'tard jos'tle si'lex paint'er scab'bard but'ton mas'tiff way'ward scaf'fold pic'nic sar'casm di'gest sham'bles grum'ble tar'nish light'ning tran'script hus'tle tar'tar por'trait nest'ling mur'rain ha rangue' nov'ice men'ace rum'ble re lapse' Tues'day pen'ance troub'le pro fess' cli'mate shep'herd ar'gue re venge' wrist'let whole'some pin'cers flight'y

Lesson 81.


To essay the task, requires courage. The discourse was an able essay. An agent will assay the ore, and forward a receipt. Contemn a mean act; but do not always condemn the actor. They were to seize the fort, and cease firing. They affect great grief; but do not effect their purpose. Do you dissent from my opinion? The hill was difficult of descent. A decent regard for others' ills is human. They advise the young to take the advice of the old. The enemy will invade the rich province. They were strongly inveighed against.

Lesson 82.

ed'u cate em'er y meth'od ist eb'on y ex'o dus pen'i tent ef'fi gy fel'o ny sen'ti nel el'e phant gen'e sis fel'low ship em'bas sy fed'er al res'i dent ad'mi ral can'ni bal myr'i ad ag'o ny fac'to ry slip'per y al'i ment gal'ler y min'u end al'co hol man'u al tyr'an ny am'nes ty par'a sol sym'pho ny

Lesson 83.

mul'ber ry cul'ti vate am'ulet mus'cu lar jus'ti fy an'ces try pun'ish ment mul'ti ply Cal'va ry sub'se quent mul'ti tude cav'al ry sup'pli cant sub'sti tute mar'i gold am'pli fy cam'o mile bat'ter y grat'i fy pan'to mime can'o py pac'i fy rad'i cal char'i ty rar'e fy pat'ron ize chas'ti ty sanc'ti fy sat'el lite maj'es ty

Lesson 84.

bail, surety. bold, brave. bale, a pack of goods. bowled, did bowl. bait, a lure. bourn, a limit. bate, to lessen. borne, carried. base, low; vile. bow, a weapon. bass, a part in music. beau (bo), a man of dress. beach, the shore. break, to sever by force. beech, a kind of tree. brake, a thicket. beat, to strike. bruise, to crush. beet, a vegetable. brews (bruz), does brew. bin, a box. by, near. been (bin), existed. buy, to purchase.

Lesson 85.

berth, a sleeping-place. cast, to throw. birth, coming into life. caste, an order or class. braid, to weave. cede, to yield. brayed, did bray. seed, to sow; to scatter. breach, a gap. coarse, not fine. breech, the hinder part. course, way; career. broach, a spit; to pierce. dam, mother of beasts. brooch, an ornament. damn, to condemn. but, except. cane, a reed; a staff. butt, a cask; a mark. Cain, a man's name. call, to name. ceil, to line the top of caul, a kind of net-work. seal, a sea animal.

Lesson 86.


The ensign would not sign the paper. His design was known. He maligned his rival, and suffered condign punishment. A benign face. He was arraigned after the campaign. He deigned not to feign surprise. Squirrels gnaw the bark. He affirmed it with phlegm. The knight carried a knapsack. He had a knack for rhymes. She knew how to knead the dough. They cut the knot with a knife. The curfew tolls the knell of parting day. The knave had hard knuckles, but little knowledge.

Lesson 87.

Sounds of O and U.

con'dor sol'id or'ange spon'dee doc'trine loz'enge os'trich toc'sin cos'tive of'fal pomp'ous jock'ey fos'sil of'fice pon'tiff mot'ley frost'y ol'ive prom'ise nos'trum ton'nage nov'el cum'brous buck'le won'der boot'y cus'tard bus'tle won'drous move'ment flour'ish dud'geon wont'ed stuc'co hun'dred dun'geon wor'ry buz'zard hus'band lunch'eon

Lesson 88.

Short Sounds of Vowels.

doub'le bed'stead eb'on fend'er knuck'le cher'ub eph'od heav'y nour'ish cres'cent es'sence heif'er south'ern crev'ice eth'ics jeal'ous frus'trate dex'trous feath'er jel'ly rep'tile ster'ile brim'stone ab'bess ref'use ves'tige dic'tate ad'junct sen'tence wed'lock frig'ate dag'ger skep'tic Wednes'day pil'lage bram'ble speck'le zeal'ous trib'ute cal'lous

Lesson 89.

cell, a small room. cart, a vehicle. sell, to barter away. carte, a bill of fare. cent, a small coin. dear, costly; beloved. sent, did send. deer, an animal. scent, odor; smell. due, owing; fit. chased, did chase. dew (du), moisture condensed. chaste, pure. clause, part of a sentence. doe, the female deer. claws, the nails of a beast. dough, unbaked paste. cord, a small rope. dram, a glass of spirits. chord, musical tones in hamony drachm, a small weight. fane, a temple. cote, a pen; a fold. fain, gladly. coat, an outer garment. feign, to pretend.

Lesson 90.

be speak' ab solve' ad judge' in dulge' nan keen' de volve' be grudge' re pulse' im plead' dis solve' sub duct' suc cumb' con ceal' re solve' be numb' af front' con geal' re spond' con vulse' a mong' re frain' re print' re proach' re take' re main' re strict' en croach' re trace' re strain' re sist' pa trol' re pay' re tain' sub mit' pa role' de lay' re tail' dis tinct' be fore' al lay'

Lesson 91.

dust, powdered earth. day, twenty-four hours. dost, second person of do. dey, a Turkish title. earn, to gain by labor. ewe (yu), a female sheep. urn, a kind of vase. you, the person spoken to. ern, the sea-eagle. die, to expire. yew (yu), a kind of tree. dye, to color. eye, the organ of sight. draught (draft), drawing I, myself. ay, yes. draft, a bill of exchange. aye, an affirmative vote. dun, a dark color. flee, to run away. done, performed. flea, an insect. fate, destiny. flew (flu) , did fly. fete, a festival. flue, a passage for smoke.

Lesson 92.

ag'ile hack'ney pas'sive bis'cuit al'oes knap'sack prac'tice fil'bert dac'tyl lad'der rab'id im'age fash'ion lat'tice rap'id im'pulse gal'ley lan'cet tac'tics mil'dew bit'tern crys'tal crim'son kid'ney brisk'et dis'tance grid'dle lin'tel cis'tern dis'taff live'long liq'uid chim'ney dwin'dle gyp'sy liq'uor chis'el pick'le hith'er rid'dance

Lesson 93.

slui'cy bol'ster cer'tain driz'zle jui'cy court'ship sur'ly tick'le stew'ard fro'ward sur'geon twink'le jew'el co'coa ear'nest thim'ble neu'tral nose'gay jour'nal vil'lain cor'ner gor'gon au'dit so'da cor'sair lord'ship caus'tic so'fa. corse'let mor'bid awk'ward so'ber for'feit mort'gage gaud'y sto'ic gor'geous mor'sel lau'rel to'paz

Lesson 94.


The awl is used by all shoe-makers. He said that he would do aught that he ought to do. The man who stole the bale of goods gave bail. The Bey rode a bay horse around the bay. Deer break through the brake and brush. He had just lain down in the narrow lane. The horse with the long mane ran through the main street of a town in Maine. Which of the pair of fine pears will you pare for the child? The joiner's plane will smooth the plain door. You can rein your horse, if it should rain. The kings reign wisely.

Lesson 95.

bal'us trade fab'ri cate bev'er age al'ka li gal'ax y cher'u bim al'ka line mas'to don dem'o crat ap'o gee mack'er el den'i zen al'i quot mar'i ner den'si ty as'ter isk par'a graph ex'or cist az'i muth par'al lax ed'i fy bach'e lor par'a gon em'a nate cal'a bash par'a pet em'pha size cal'a mus par'a phrase ep'i cure

Lesson 96.

fir, a kind of tree. fort, a stronghold. fur, soft hair. forte, one's strong point. faint, weak; languid. forth, forward. feint, a pretense. fourth, the next after third. fair, clear; handsome. fare, food; cost of passage. frays, quarrels. phrase, part of a sentence, feet, plural of foot. fore, toward the front. feat, an exploit. four, twice two. floe, a large piece of ice. foul, impure. flow, a current. fowl, a bird. flour, ground wheat. freeze, to become ice. flow'er, a blossom. frieze, a kind of cloth.

Lesson 97.

ex'pe dite' ped'i ment cur'ren cy hel'le bore pel'i can ful'some ly per'i gee pet'u lant nul'li ty reg'i cide rec'om pense sub'si dy rec'on dite' spher'ic al sub'ter fuge fif'ti eth syn'o nym con'ju gate mir'a cle tyr'an nize con'tro vert nim'ble ness witch'er y con'se crate rig'or ous wil'der ness cor'o net ris'i ble whim'si cal dom'i nant

Lesson 98.

ar'bi trate hard'i hood for'mu la ar'ma ment har'le quin gor'mand ize ar'mis tice car'ni val or'der ly ar'chi tect car'bon ate or'di nal arch'er y gar'den er or'di nate bar'ba rism gar'ni ture or'phan age dec'i mal met'a phor crit'i cism des'pot ism ed'it or cyl'in der em'pha sis sen'a tor mys'ter y ep'i taph ser'a phim mys'ti fy leth'ar gy spec'i men phys'ic al pen'ta teuch spec'u late typ'i fy

Lesson 99.

Short and long Sounds of the Vowels.

but'ler com'mon dis'mal blem'ish buck'ler dog'ma dis'trict elem'ent cud'gel dol'phin mim'ic cher'ry judg'ment hos'tile mis'sive cred'it snuff'ers mod'ern syn'od em'bers bond'age con'vent cli'max aid'ance cot'tage soph'ist fi'brous bail'iff for'age sor'rel hy'brid base'ment hos'tage stop'ple hy'men brace'let pros'trate tod'dy hy'phen brave'ly

Lesson 100.

furs, skins with soft hair. groan, a deep sigh. furze, a prickly shrub. grown, increased. gage, to pledge. gall, bile. gauge, to measure. Gaul, old name of France. gate, door; entrance. gild, to overlay with gold. gait, manner of walking. guild, a corporation. gilt, adorned with gold. gloze, to smooth over. guilt, crime. glows, shines. great, large; vast. guest, a visitor. grate, a range of bars. guessed, did guess. grease, soft fat. hale, sound; healthy. Greece, a country. hail, frozen rain.

Lesson 101.

a lert' ex pert' sub vert' re move' as sert' in ert' su perb' a do' a ver' in fer' ab surd' a loof' a vert' in sert' re cur' bal loon' con cern' in vert' de mur' buf foon' per vert' pre fer' dis turb' hal loo' a vail' re claim' dis play" be fall' a wait' ab stain' en tail' re call' de cay' ac quaint' ob tain' en thrall' de claim' af fray' con tain' re sort' de fray' as suage' per suade' as sort' pre vail' block ade' a broad' be sought'

Lesson 102.

al'pha pad'lock ad'dle hon'ey an'ise plac'id bar'rack com'fort brack'et Sab'bath man'date moth'er dam'ask saf'fron man'ly oth'er mad'der stag'nant stag'nate smoth'er clos'et con'trite cher'ish ves'tal com'ment oc'tave den'tist leg'ate con'course vol'ume fresh'et mem'brane con'text bon'fire rel'ish mes'sage con'vex con'quer rem'nant res'cue

Lesson 103.

flout a fresh' fir'kin a'er ate' meant con temn' serv'ile la'i ty wren con tempt' skir'mish de'vi ous quick com mand' ster'ling re'al ize solve com mence' sur'feit re'qui em wrong com mend' ur'gent co'gen cy quince com pact' fur'lough no'ti fy shrimp com plaint' jas'mine po'ten cy cause es tray' lack'ey o'ri ole gauze ap proach' latch'et o'ri ent quoin cor rode' mat'in jo'vi al squaw cur tail' scat'ter vo'ta ry cross re pute' sav'age zo'di ac

Lesson 104.


I accept all your presents except the last. His joy was in excess, at the news of his access to fortune. Though your terms exceed my expectations, I must accede to them. The best cosmetic is air and exercise. He pretended to exorcise evil spirits. Both assent to go up the ascent. He was indicted for inditing a false letter. Champagne is made in France. The soldiers crossed the champaign. The law will levy a tax to build a levee. The levee was held at the mayor's residence. The senior brother was addressed as seignior.

Lesson 105.

cer'ti fy for'ti fy cog'ni zance fer'ti lize for'ti tude con'ju gal herb'al ist fort'u nate glob'u lar serv'i tude or'di nance or'i gin ter'mi nate or'gan ism hom'i ly fer'ven cy ar'bi ter af'flu ent mer'cu ry ar'ter y bal'us ter nurs'er y har'mo ny bar'ri er per'fi dy lar'ce ny bar'ris ter per'ju ry har'mo nize car'ri on

Lesson 106.

Words accented on the first Syllable.

cler'ic al fes'ti val li'bra ry el'e gy eth'ic al like'li hood em'i grant her'ald ry mi'cro cosm em'per or her'e tic mi'cro scope ep'i gram her'o ism ni'tro gen pa'pa cy di'a lect ped'ant ry fla'gran cy di'a gram ped'es tal fra'gran cy di'a ry med'i cine ra'di ance fin'er y lex'i con sla'ver y i'vo ry sed'u lous main'te nance pli'a ble quer'u lous

Lesson 107.

Monosyllables representing different Sounds.

stray sleet strike trope curse ache fleece trite grope hearse bathe steer splice broke purge lathe speech stripe stroke scourge plaint sphere tithe cloak verge brain fief yield crock squeal slave field fierce block league quake thief pierce flock plead stave fiend tierce shock squeak plague shriek niece mock heath

Lesson 108.


Make Sentences containing the following Words.

bough, a branch of a tree. grieves, laments. bow, to bend. greaves, armor for the legs. brute, a beast. hew (hu), to cut; to chop. bruit, to noise abroad. hue, a color; dye. cite, to summon. Hugh, a man's name. site, a situation. kill, to deprive of life. sight, the sense of seeing. kiln, a large oven. climb, to ascend. leaf, of a tree or book. clime, climate; region. lief, willingly; gladly. core, the inner part. maze, an intricate place. corps, a body of soldiers. maize, Indian corn. creek, a narrow inlet. mean, low; middle point. creak, a grating noise. mien, air; manner.

Lesson 109.

Miscellaneous Sounds.

bul'let coop'er nor'mal pre cise' bull'y wool'en or'phan pre side' bull'ock cool'ly tor'por pro scribe' bul'rush scoun'drel quar'ter com mode' bush'el bal'sam ac claim' en gross' bull'ion squad'ron o paque' con sume' crup'per war'rant sca lene' pre sume' cuck'oo quad'rant se cede' be dew'

Lesson 110.

false naught pitch batch edge quart sought flitch match hedge sward bought stitch hatch ledge swarm bright fitch latch wedge thwart plight hitch patch fledge bilge budge fosse breadth twinge bridge judge thong breast print ridge drudge notch cleanse fling hinge grudge blotch friend string cringe plunge prompt knell swift

Lesson 111.

hall, a large room. hoop, a ring; a band. haul, to drag by force. whoop, to make a noise. hay, dried grass. hied, made haste. hey! an exclamation. hide, to conceal. hare, an animal. hoard, to lay up. hair, of the head. horde, a tribe. heal, to cure. hoes, plural of hoe. heel, hinder part of the foot. hose, stockings. jam, a conserve of fruit. hire, wages. jamb, the sidepiece of a high'er, more high. door or fireplace. hoe, a farming tool. knead, to work dough. ho! an exclamation. need, want.

Lesson 112.

faith theme length sor'row sol'emn scrape chime launch dur'ing hire'ling strange whilst morgue gib'bet tres'pass greet smart pledge bod'kin shil'ling perch badge gourd gos'ling mat'tock champ dodge schist lob'by ram'part drench brawl flounce tan'sy tran'quil squeeze dwarf screech lock'et cun'ning grist yawl spasm van'dal her'ring shrink grant starve ex'tra drug'gist copse spunk scalp cut'lass spon'sor

Lesson 113.

knight, a title of honor. lee, the sheltered side. night, time of darkness. lea, a meadow; field. knave, a wicked person. lie, to deceive. nave, hub of a wheel. lye, water passed through ashes. loan, any thing lent. links, parts of a chain. lone, solitary. lynx, an animal. knap, a small protuberance. loch, a lake. nap, a short sleep. lough (lok), a lake. lac, a kind of gum. lock, to fasten a door. lack, to want; need. lax, loose; vague. laid, placed. lacks, wants; needs. lade, to load. lacs, plural of lac.

Lesson 114.

Words containing I consonant, sounded like Y consonant; as alien, pronounced al'yen.

al'ien on'ion bat tal'ion sav'ior bil'ious pe cul'iar pan'nier brill'iant re bell'ion un'ion fil'ial dis un'ion sen'ior mill'ion o pin'ion jun'ior pill'ion do min'ion gal'liard pin'ion com mun'ion span'iel trill'ion mut'u al val'iant coll'ier punc til'io bill'iards pon'iard punc til'ious bill'ion ruff'ian ver mil'ion In'dian Chris'tian aux il'ia ry

Lesson 115.

The following words, according to the analogy of the English language, should he spelled with the termination er, with the exception of the last word of each line.

cen'ter mi'ter spec'ter sep'ul cher fi'ber ni'ter o'cher the'a ter lus'ter som'ber mau'ger ma neu'ver mea'ger sa'ber um'ber cal'i ber me'ter scep'ter om'ber ac cou'ter a'cre na'cre lu'cre mas'sa cre

Lesson 116.

In the following words, ng is pronounced as if the g were doubled; as anger, pronounced ang'ger.

an'ger lan'guor jin'gle youn'ger an'gle lan'guid min'gle con'ger an'gry man'gle sin'gle bun'gler an'guish man'go tin'gle hun'ger clan'gor san'guine din'gle hun'gry dan'gle span'gled lon'ger wran'gler fan'gled span'gle lon'gest fin'ger jan'gle tan'gle stron'ger lan'guish ban'gle wran'gle bun'gle un'guent

Lesson 117.

In the following, S has the sound of sh as sure, (pro. shure).

sure'ly cen'sure fis'sure is'su ance sure'ness press'ure ton'sure as sur'ance sure'ty is'sue as sure' in sur'ance sug'ar tis'sue in sure' in sur'er

The following words are spelled, according to analogy, with the termination se.

con dense' dis pense' im mense' pre tense' de fense' ex pense' of fense' sus pense' re cense' in cense' pre pense' li'cense

Lesson 118.

lane, a narrow passage. main, chief lain, past participle of lie. mane, hair on the neck of a horse. mail, armor. lapse, to fall. male, masculine. laps, plural of lap. mark, a sign. leak, to run out. marque, letters of reprisal. leek, a kind of onion. mead, a drink. lo! behold! meed, reward. low, not high. meet, fit; proper. lore, learning. mete, to measure. low'er, more low. meat, food in general. maid, a maiden. might, strength; power. made, finished. mite, a small insect.

Lesson 119.

mode', way; manner. nay, no. mowed, cut down. neigh, to cry as a horse. mule, an animal. nit, egg of an insect. mewl (mul), to squall. knit, to unite. mist, fine rain. gneiss, a kind of mineral. missed, did miss. more, a greater quantity. nice, delicate; fine. mow'er, one who mows. owe, to be bound. muse, to meditate. oh! alas! mews (muz), an inclosure. ode, a poem. owed, indebted. none, not one. one (wun), a single thing. nun, a religious woman. won, gained.

Lesson 120.

a mal'gam ate cheese e man'ci pate as sas'sin ate dirt e rad'i cate ca pac'i tate bleak e vac'u ate co ag'u late goad a ban'don ment con cat'e nate slouch in fat'u ate con fab'u late gone in val'i date con grat'ulate scarf be at'i fy con tam'i nate nerve pro cras'ti nate de cap'i tate raid re tal'i ate e jac'u late graze e vap'o rate e lab'o rate stale pre var'i cate

Lesson 121.

cir'cus ca pac'i ty an'a gram cur'few com par'i son am'bi ent cur'tain com par'a tive al'li gate fer'tile com pat'i ble cal'a mine fer'vid con cav'i ty hal'cy on fur'nace de clar'a tive Jes'u it fur'long di ag'o nal ped'i gree mer'maid di am'e ter reg'is ter nerv'ous dog mat'ic al rev'el ry pur'chase em bas'sa dor skep'tic al sur'face de prav'i ty ver'i ly

Lesson 122.

In words like the following, sier, zier, sure, zure, su, sion, and sia are pronounced zhur, zhur, zhu, zhun, and zha.

bra'sier em bra'sure cas'u al ly gla'zier e ras'ure cas'u ist ry gra'zier e va'sion treas'ur er ship ras'ure in va'sion us'u al ly seiz'ure per sua'sion pleas'ur a ble ho'sier ad he'sion meas'ur a ble o'sier co he'sion oc ca'sion al fu'sion am bro'sia pro vis'ion al az'ure, dis clos'ure u su'ri ous meas'ure ex plo'sion dis com pos'ure pleas'ure col lu'sion in de cis'ion

Lesson 123.


brid'al, belonging to a bride. met'al, a substance. met'tle, spirit. bri'dle, a check; a curb. vice, defect; fault. les'son, a task for recitation. vise, an instrument. wail, to lament. less'en, to make less. wale, to mark with stripes.

Filled with choler, he seized the youth by the collar. The priest filled the censer. He is a censor of the press. The ship took divers persons as divers for pearls. The plaintiff assumed a plaintive air. To lessen the number of exercises, will make an easier lesson.

Lesson 124.

scrive'ner friv'o lous fru gal'i ty slug'gard im'age ry gram mat'ic al stub'born in'di go hi lar'i ty sub'urbs in'sti gate hu man'i ty symp'tom liq'ui date in hab'it ant med'ley pil'grim age i ras'ci ble peas'ant fish'er y le gal'i ty pheas'ant hick'o ry lo cal'i ty pen'sive in'ter est lo quac'i ty pres'ence mit'ti mus men dac'i ty read'y min'strel sy ra pac'i ty

Lesson 125.

NOTE.—These words are not exactly alike in sound, and should be carefully distinguished.

as sist'ance, help; relief rab'bit, an animal. as sist'ants, helpers. rab'bet, a term in carpentry. de vis'er, an inventor. di vi'sor, a term in Arithmetic. lin'e a ment, a feature. lin'i ment, an ointment. def'er ence, respect. prin'ci pal, chief dif'fer ence, variation. prin'ci ple, rule of action. in gen'u ous, open; free. li'ar, one who tells lies. in gen'ious, having skill. lyre, a kind of harp.

Lesson 126.


His assistants gave him great assistance. He was the deviser of the machine. Which is the larger, the divisor or the quotient? This difference being settled, he will pay due deference to your opinion. The ingenious mechanic was also an ingenuous man. Not a lineament could be recognized by his friends. Apply to the wound a healing liniment. The principal in the agreement was devoid of moral principle. Though a great liar, he could play upon the lyre. The rabbit was tame. The carpenter will rabbet the boards.

Lesson 127.

In words like the following, U should receive its proper consonant sound; as nature, pronounced nat'yur.

nat'ure sig'na ture ag'ri cult ure creat'ure sep'ul ture leg'is la ture feat'ure fur'ni ture ar'chi tect ure fut'ure for'feit ure tem'per a ture capt'ure lig'a ture lit'er a ture rapt'ure ap'er ture flo'ri cult ure text'ure quad'ra ture ju'di ca ture pict'ure ad vent'ure hor'ti cult ure script'ure con ject'ure man u fact'ure

Lesson 128.

pail, a wooden vessel. Paul, a man's name. pale, not bright. pall, a covering. pear, a fruit. pique, to give offense. pare, to cut thin. peak, the top. pair, a couple. peer, a nobleman. raze, to pull down. pier, a wharf raise, to lift up. quartz, a kind of rock. rays, beams of light. quarts, measures. pain, uneasiness. plain, smooth. pane, a square of glass. plane, a surface; tool. peel, rind; skin. quire, twenty-four sheets of paper. peal, a sound of bells. port, a harbor. choir (kwir), a band of singers. Porte, a Turkish court.

Lesson 129.

X with the sound of gz; as exact, pronounced egz act'.

ex act' ex act'ly ex ag'g'er ate ex ist' ex am'ine ex an'i mate ex ult' ex em'plar ex as'per ate ex hale' ex er'tion ex ec'u trix ex haust' ex hib'it ex hil'a rate ex ert' ex ist'ence ex on'er ate ex hort' ex ist'ent ex em'pli fy ex ude' ex ot'ic ex or'bi tant ex ergue' ex haust'ive ux o'ri ous

Lesson 130.

Ti has often the sound of sh: followed by on, it is pronounced shun.

na'tion ces sa'tion de vi a'tion pa'tient col la'tion dep re da'tion fac'tious cre a'tion des per a'tion frac'tious dic ta'tion lib er a'tion sta'tion do na'tion me di a'tion lo'tion du ra'tion mod er a'tion mo'tion e qua'tion nu mer a'tion no'tion tes ta'tion op er a'tion po'tion for ma'tion tol er a'tion por'tion frus tra'tion trep i da'tion quo'tient gra da'tion val u a'tion

Lesson 131.

Other examples in which final tion is pronounced shun.

men'tion ab strac'tion ed u ca'tion sec'tion at trac'tion em ula'tion frac'tion de trac'tion ex cla ma'tion dic'tion dis trac'tion ex pec ta'tion fic'tion ex trac'tion ex por ta'tion fric'tion in frac'tion fer men ta'tion junc'tion pro trac'tion gen er a'tion ac'tion re frac'tion grav i ta'tion cap'tion re trac'tion hab i ta'tion op'tion con trac'tion il lus tra'tion fac'tion sub trac'tion im por ta'tion

Lesson 132.

Examples in which sci, ti, and ci have the sound of sh.

auc'tion au da'cious ab er ra'tion cau'tion ca pa'cious ad mi ra'tion cau'tious ve ra'cious ad o ra'tion gla'cial fal la'cious ad u la'tion gra'cious fu ga'cious ag gra va'tion spa'cious lo qua'cious ap pli ca'tion Gre'cian ra pa'cious ap pro ba'tion spe'cious sa ga'cious prep a ra'tion par'tial te na'cious pres er va'tion con'science vi va'cious proc la ma'tion spe'cie vo ra'cious prof a na'tion

Lesson 133.

Ci, ce, and si with the sound of sh.

spe'cies ju di'cial ac ces'sion o'cean lo gi'cian com pres'sion so'cial ma gi'cian de clen'sion spe'cial mu si'cian ex pres'sion cru'cial tac ti'cian im pres'sion pre'cious op ti'cian op pres'sion pas'sion pa tri'cian pre ten'sion man'sion phy si'cian suc ces'sion pen'sion pro vin'cial trans gres'sion ten'sion fi nan'cial ad mis'sion tor'sion om nis'cient con cus'sion

Lesson 134


They propose to alter the place of the altar. He cast his ballot for mayor. The ballet dancer and the ballad singer arrived. The wine seller lived in a cellar. He said that the cymbal was a symbol of music. They sent an arrant rogue on the errand. His manner of conducting the manor did not suit the lord. The prophet of Mammon foretold great profit. The relics of the kingdom were saved by the relict of the king. The stature of the statue of Liberty is fixed by statute.

Lesson 135.

rack, an engine of torture. write, to make letters. wrack, a sea-plant. wright, a workman. rap, to strike. roe, eggs of a fish. wrap, to roll together. row, to impel with oars. reck, to heed; to care. rose, a flower. wreck, destruction. rows, does row. rice, a kind of grain. roes, plural of roe. rise, increase; ascent. sees, beholds. rite, a ceremony. seas, large bodies of water. right, not wrong. seize, to lay hold of

Lesson 136.


Many words are formed by adding something to the end of another word. The added part is called an affix; as ly, added to man, forms manly. In this, and the following seventeen lessons, the more common affixes are indicated.

Plurals formed by adding s to the Singular.

roofs so'los ty'ros al bi'nos hoofs ha'los jun'tos me men'tos scarfs las'sos can'tos oc ta'vos truths ze'ros quar'tos si roc'cos

Plurals formed by adding es to the Singular.

ech'oes to ma'toes po ta'toes car'goes mu lat'toes bra va'does mot'toes vol ca'noes por'ti coes grot'toes mos qui'toes vi ra'goes

Lesson 137.

Words in which f and fe are changed into ves in the Plural: as, leaf, leaves; wife, wives.

beeves lives thieves calves our selves' sheaves wives wolves halves them selves' leaves knives loaves shelves your selves'

Words in which Y final is changed into ies in the Plural.

skies la'dies to'ries gro'cer ies spies du'ties can'dies for'ger ies cries beau'ties tro'phies gal'ler ies

Lesson 138.

Words ending in Y which form the Plural by adding a.

toys chim'neys al'leys at tor'neys drays val'leys pul'leys Sat'ur days buoys mon'eys tur'keys hol'i days whys jour'neys mon'keys cor du roys'

Words in which the Plurals are formed irregularly. As the Plural only is given, the teacher might require the pupil to ascertain the Singular, and to spell it.

mice cri'ses ter'mi ni chil'dren neb'u lae a lum'ni ver'te brae stra'ta syn op'ses geese { kine, cows } { staves, staffs} { broth'ers,breth'ren } { pease, peas} { dies, dice}

Lesson 139.

Ing signifies continuing to; as talking, continuing to talk. The following words, in taking their suffix, double the final letter. The last letter is doubled when the word ends with a single consonant preceded by a single vowel.

plan'ning win'ning stop'ping a bet'ting fret'ting blot'ting gun'ning re bel'ling bid'ding rob'bing shut'ting o mit'ting

Other words ending with consonants, which do not double the final letter.

act'ing fail'ing mean'ing ex pand'ing land'ing rain'ing coax'ing con sent'ing build'ing sail'ing suit'ing vis'it ing

Lesson 140.

Words ending in e silent, generally drop the e in adding ing.

mak'ing seiz'ing rul'ing ex pir'ing nam'ing forc'ing lin'ing re fus'ing plagu'ing hedg'ing squeez'ing in trigu'ing ach'ing writ'ing schem'ing alleg'ing

The final e is retained when it is necessary to prevent a change of pronunciation, or to maintain the identity of a word.

hoe'ing shoe'ing change'a ble toe'ing singe'ing trace'able tinge'ing dye'ing peace'a ble foe'man blue'ness charge'a ble

Lesson 141.

Ed, as a suffix, generally signifies did. In words like the following the e in ed is silent, and the wards, though of two and three syllables, are pronounced in one and two.

blazed wedged boiled be reaved drained solved coiled be sieged' hailed called soiled blas phemed' lamed hauled bowed ac quired' paved mauled crowned con trol1ed' stowed warmed plowed a bused' saved warned roused ac cused' feared warped scoured com muned' flowed proved soured con fused' glued shoved dodged de coyed' begged loved filled en joyed'

Lesson 142.

In words like the following, ed is pronounced as t; and, although of two and three syllables, the words are pronounced in one and two.

graced fixed es caped' at tacked' scraped mixed em braced' con fessed' cracked boxed en grossed' op pressed'

In other words formed by the affix ed, the last letter is doubled in words of one syllable, or in words accented on the last syllable, when they end with a single consonant preceded by a single vowel; as, wed, wed'ded. If the word ends in any other consonant than d or t, the e in ed becomes silent, and the two syllables become one; as, hem, hemmed, pronounced hemd.

jut'ted shunned com pelled o mit'ted fret'ted tapped e quipped' im bed'ded fit'ted rubbed de murred' com mit'ted

Lesson 143.

Words not included in the ahove rule, do not double the final consonant.

act'ed failed quar'reled ex pand'ed land'ed rained bar'reled mer'it ed rest'ed coaxed trav'eled vis'it ed

Y is sometimes changed into i; as cry, cried.

cried dried mar'ried glo'ried tried fried tar'ried sto'ried shied spied car'ried wor'ried

Lesson 144.

Ar, er, and or signify one who does, or that which does; as, baker, one who bakes. If the word ends in e, r only is added. After a consonant y is generally changed into i. Another letter is sometimes united to the affix; as law, law'yer. The final consonants are doubled, as in Lesson 142.

beg'gar bank'er bak'er cre a'tor dig'ger plant'er pa'cer cru sad'er dip'per build'er pav'er dic ta'tor clip'per giv'er stran'ger en grav'er trot'ter 1aw'yer writ'er sur viv'or los'er saw'yer boast'er be liev'er woo'er read'er mourn'er ad vis'er vouch'er rid'er own'er as sign'er wres'tler dy'er rul'er in vei'gler

Lesson 145.

Words formed by the Affixes er or or.

be gin'ner la'bor er nav'i ga tor in dors'er rea'son er ded'i ca tor de sert'er li'bel er cal'cu la tor dis turb'er wag'on er spec'u la tor u surp'er con'quer or pros'e cu tor con duct'or for'eign er cul'ti va tor tor ment'or cus'tom er mul'ti pli er en chant'er mur'der er nu'mer a tor sup port'er gov'ern or gen'er a tor ag gress'or pen'sion er ra'di a tor

Lesson 146.

In adjectives, er is generally added to form the comparative, and est to form the superlative; as, rich, richer, richest.

strict'er fierc'est wealth'i er wor'thi est broad'er slow'est greed'i er read'i est bright'er gaunt'est drear'i er haugh'ti est

Ly is an abbreviation of like; as manly for man-like, or like a man. Ly is still further shortened into y; as, rock, rocky.

bright'ly eas'y heav'i ly thor'oug ly gay'ly earth'y heart'i ly might'i ly no'bly speed'y read'i ly has'ti ly wind'y spon'gy tar'di ly stead'i ly

Lesson 147.

Ness is from the Saxon nesse, and means state or quality; as, neatness, state of being neat.

bleak'ness smooth'ness come'li ness fierce'ness numb'ness drow'si ness hoarse'ness wrong'ness naught'i ness calm'ness sweet'ness wea'ri ness

The termination full adds its own meaning to the word; as, joyful, full of joy. The final l is omitted in the derivatives.

change'ful mourn'ful skill'ful fan'ci ful fright'ful woe'ful will'ful pit'i ful spite'ful wrath'ful aw'ful du'ti ful

Lesson 148.

The termination less gives a negative meaning to the derivative; as graceless, without grace.

brain'less sight'less friend'less worth'less cease'less soul'less head'less house'less guile'less friut'less guilt'less noise'less

The affix age signifies the pay for, a state of being, or composed of; as cartage, the pay for carting.

mar'riage fer'ri age vag'a bond age herb'age her'mit age dis ad van'tage wharf'age pat'ron age es'pi on age

Lesson 149.

The suffix al signifies relating to; an signifies pertaining to; ant and ent, in many instances, signify the agent or doer.

tid'al com'ic al me dic'i nal ur'ban pub'li can di oc'e san claim'ant as sist'ant i tin'er ant a'gent pres'i dent cor re spond'ent

Able and ible signify that may be, capable of being, fit or worthy to be, or capacity.

eat'a ble blam'a ble am'i ca ble sal'a ble laugh'a ble nav'i ga ble leg'i ble for'ci ble com bus'ti ble cred'i ble au'di ble in del'i ble

Lesson 150.

Ist, ster, ee, and ess, generally signify the person who, or thing which.
The last is an affix denoting the feminine gender.

aur'ist phys'i cist pi a'nist tap'ster chor'is ter for'est er grant ee' mort ga gee' as sign ee' em'press shep'herd ess mar'chion ess

Dom signifies the office of or state of being; hood, the state of being; ish, somewhat, like; and ism, the condition or doctrines of.

king'dom chris'ten dom hea'then dom child'hood maid'en hood live'li hood knav'ish yel'low ish a'gu ish Bud'dhism Meth'od ism Mor'mon ism

Lesson 151.

Eer or ier generally signifies one who has charge of; en means made of, or, with adjectives, to make; ic signifies pertaining to, belonging to, or like; and ise or ize, to make, to become, or to assimilate.

cash ier' fin an cier' gon do lier' cloth'ier en gi neer' can non eer' beech'en be hold'en em bold'en bright'en en light'en en liv'en civ'ic ce phal'ic me tal'lic u'til ize cat'e chise crit'i cise sat'ir ize civ'il ize os'tra cize

Lesson 152.

Ion and ment denote the state of being, or the act of; fy, to make or become; ance or ence, the act or state of; ive, having a tendency to, or the power or nature of; ory, the power or nature of, or belonging to; and ous, partaking of, or full of.

dis per'sion di ver'sion as per'sion ex cep'tion e lec'tion con di'tion a tone'ment a gree'ment dec're ment de'i fy stu'pe fy sat'is fy an noy'ance ac cord'ance con cord'ance oc cur'rence ab hor'rence in dul'gence a mu'sive con clu'sive of fen'sive cur'so ry ar'mo ry man'da to ry dan'ger ous li'bel ous har mo'ni ous

Lesson 153.

Kin, ling, let, and ule indicate smallness or diminution.

lamb'kin man'i kin la'dy kin duck'ling un'der ling fos'ter ling leaf'let riv'u let flag'eo let glob'ule mol'e cule an i mal'cule

Some means like or same, full of, or very; ward denotes in the direction of; ure means state of; and y, full of, or composed of.

tire'some cum'ber some vent'ure some east'ward heav'en ward aft'er ward verd'ure cur'va ture im post'ure smok'y sin'ew y sil'ver y

Lesson 154.

ruff, an article of dress. roar, to make a loud noise. rough (ruf), uneven. row'er, one who rows. retch, to vomit. sail, a sheet of canvas. wretch, a miserable person. sale, the act of selling. rode, did ride. seen, beheld. road, a way; route. scene, a view. rowed, did row. seine, a net for fishing. room, an apartment. slay, to kill. rheum, a serous fluid. sleigh, a vehicle on runners. sow, to scatter seed. sley, a weaver's reed. sew (so), to use a needle. seem, to appear. so, thus; in like manner. seam, a line of junction.

Lesson 155.

rude, uncivil; rough. slow, not fast. rood, fourth of an acre. sloe, a kind of fruit. serf, a slave; servant. sun, the source of light. surf, a swell of the sea. son, a male child. serge, a kind of cloth. steel, refined iron. surge, to rise; to swell. steal, to rob; to pilfer. sheer, pure; clear. stile, steps over a fence. shear, to cut or clip. style, manner of writing. side, a part; a margin. stare, to look fixedly. sighed, did sigh. stair, a step. slew (slu), did slay. sweet, pleasing to the taste. slue, to slip aside. suite (swet), retinue.

Lesson 156.


When a syllable or word is placed before another word, it is called a prefix. The prefix re generally gives the idea of repetition or return; as, recall, to call back.

re build' re ap pear' re an'i mate re touch' re as cend' re gen'er ate re seat' re im burse' re sus'ci tate re view' ro doub'le re ver'ber ate

The prefix un generally gives a negative meaning; as, unapt, not apt.

un paid' un friend'ly un court'ly un clean' un health'y un ea'sy un known' un stead'y un fruit'ful un nerve' un err'ing un learn'ed

Lesson 157.

In, also, has a negative meaning; it often becomes im, il, ir, or ig, for the sake of sound.

in act'ive in sin cere' ir res'o lute im prop'er im po lite' ir re lig'ious il le'gal il lu'sive irre spect'ive ig no'ble ig'no rant ir'ri ta ble

im ma te ri al'i ty im prac ti ca bil'i ty in di vis i bil'i ty in de struc ti bil'i ty in com pat i bil'i ty ir re sist i bil'i ty in com press i bil'i ty im pen e tra bil'i ty

Lesson 158.

Dis is a Latin particle, and has the force of a negative or privative; as, disagree, not to agree, disarm, to deprive of arms.

dis please' dis ap pear' dis con tin'ue dis joint' dis be lieve' dis in her'it dis lodge' dis o blige' dis or'gan ize dis charge' dis cour'age dis sim'i lar dis grace' dis cov'er dis crim'i nate

The prefix after conveys its own meaning.

aft'er piece aft'er noon aft'er most aft'er guard aft'er math aft'er-thought

Lesson 159.

Post is a Latin word, meaning after.

post'script post-di lu'vi an post me rid'i an post'-date post po si'tion post'hu mous ly

Other words are formed by prefixing the English word post, a letter- carrier.

post'al post'man post'mark post'-chaise post'-town post'-office post-haste' post'boy post'mas ter

Bene is a Latin prefix, signifying well.

ben'e dict ben e fac'tion be nef'i cence ben'e fice ben e fi'cial be nev'o lence

Lesson 160.

Fore adds its own meaning to the word; as foretaste, to taste before; pre is from the Latin prae, before; ante (Latin), before. Anti (Greek), means against or opposite.

fore'sight fore tell'er fore bod'ing ly fore'most fore knowl'edge fore de ter'mine fore know' fore'cas tle pre med'i tate pre fix' pre cau'tion pre oc'cu py pre judge' pre ced'ing pre-em'i nent pre serve' pre des'tine an te pas'chal pre sage' an'te past an te mun'dane pre text' an'te date an te nup'tial fore warn' an'ti pode an ti cli'max fore'front an'ti dote an ti feb'rile

Lesson 161.

The word miss signifies to err, to go wrong; in the compound the last s is omitted.

mis guide' mis be lief' mis reck'on mis spell' mis con ceive' mis con'strue mis choose' mis di rect' mis gov'ern mis chance' mis re cite' mis guid'ance

Words formed by the prefixes up and under.

up raise' un der lay' un'der hand up heave' un der write' un'der growth up'right un der sign' un'der brush up'ward un der neath' un'der shot

Lesson 162.

Words formed by the prefixes out and over.

out brave' o ver reach' o'ver board out grow' o ver awe' o'ver alls out pour' o ver flow' o'ver night out talk' o ver freight' o'ver sight

Counter, from the Latin contra, against.

coun'ter pane coun'ter sign coun ter move' coun'ter feit coun'ter point coun ter weight'

Extra (Latin), beyond.

ex tra ju di'cial ex tra phys'ic al ex tra pro vin'cial ex tra trop'ic al

Lesson 163.

Semi (Latin), and hemi (Greek), ha1f; super (Latin), over or above; trans
(Latin), beyond or through; and inter (Latin), among or between.

sem'i breve sem'i co lon sem'i qua ver sem'i tone sem'i cir cle sem i ton'ic hem'i sphere hem'i cy cle hem i morph'ic hem'i trope hem i he'dral hem i spher'ic su per add' su per fi'cial su per in duce' su per scribe' su per'flu ous su per struct'ure tran scend'ent trans at lan'tic tran'si to ry trans fig'ure trans fus'i ble trans mis'si ble in'ter course in ter mit'tent in ter reg'num in'ter lude in ter ces'sor in ter sec'tion


Ad signifies to, and for euphony takes the forms of ac, af, ag, al, an, ap, ar, and as; as ad and verto, advert, to turn to.

ad duce' al lure' as sail' ag'gre gate ac count' an nex' ad vance' ag'gra vate ac cord' ar rive' ad'verb ap pend'age af fix' as cend' ad'verse ar'ro gance

Bi (from Latin bis, twice) means two, double, or in two.

bi'fid bi den'tate bi no'mi al bi'form bi cor'nous bi en'ni al bi'nate bi fur'cate bi noc'ular bi'ped bi lin'gual bi valv'u lar bi sect' bi par'tite bi sul'phu ret

Lesson 165.

Con (Latin cum, with) signifies with or together; it takes the forms of com, col, co, cog, and cor, for ease in pronunciation.

con vert' con de scend' con ven'tion al com press' com pan'ion com pen sa'tion col lect' col'lo quy col lat'er al co here' co-ex ist' co-ex ten'sive cog'nate cog'ni zant cog nos'ci ble cor rect' cor re spond' cor o na'tion con cur' con vul'sion con sec'u tive con dign' con vey'er con se quen'tial con form' con tu'sion con nat'u ral

Lesson 166.

De signifies down or from; epi significs on, near, during; and ex has the meaning out of. Ex also becomes e, ec, or ef.

de scend' ex tract' ep i dem'ic de tract' e vade' ep'i lep sy de note' ef fuse' ep i glot'tis de vote' ec'logue ep i derm'is

Dia, ob, per, and circum mean respectively apart, against, through, and around. With English words, dis gives a negative meaning.

dis tend' dis sev'er dis em bar'rass ob trude' ob lique'ly ob lit'er ate per plex' per fect'ive per sist'en cy cir'cuit cir cum volve' cir cum ja'cent

Lesson 167.

Mal signifies evil, ill; mono is from Greek monos, single; pan (Greek), signifies all, every thing; and poly (Greek polus), many.

mal'con tent ma li'cious ma lev'o lent mon'o tone mon'o gram mo nop'o Iy pan'o ply pan'the ist pan o ra'ma pol'y gon pol'y pus pol'y the ism

Pro is a Latin preposition signifying for, before, and forth; uni (Latin unus, one) signifies one or producing one; syn (sometimes syl and sym) signifies together; and sub (sometimes suf, sup, and sug) denotes under, below.

pro'noun u'ni ty syn'the sis sub scribe' pro pel' u'ni form syl'la ble suf'fix pro duce' u'ni corn sym'pa thy sup press' pro vide' u'ni val ve syn tac'tic sug gest'

Lesson 168.

Compound Words promiscuously arranged.

ale'-house lime'-kiln hedge'hog hail'stone boat'man pen'knife lay'man four'score grist'-mill safe'guard load'stone mid'night waist'coat oat'meal pitch'fork bee'-hive pole'-star ship'wreck key'-stone snow'-drop wrist'band knee'-pan sports'man block'head bride'groom jew's'-harp cross'-bow light'-house luke'warm off'spring

Lesson 169.

Compound Words.

Lisle'-glove night'fall harts'horn north-east' book'-case corn'-stalk joint'-stock foot'stool loop'-hole well'-bred cork'screw bur'dock snuff'-box watch'-word whirl'pool towns'man broom'stick fools'cap house'wife dooms'day work'shop char'coal brown'-bread for sooth' out weigh' down'right down'cast horn'pipe tooth'ache noon'day heir'loom air'brake law'suit

Lesson 170.

Compound Words.

can'dle stick post'al-card but'ter fly hand'ker chief cop'y-book wa'ter-fall bed'-cham ber oft'en times gas'-me ter ev'er green type'-writ er cler'gy man gen'tle man jour'ney man bric'-a-brac pep'per mint hum'ming-bird na'vy-yard camp'-meet ing musk'-mel on fool'-hard y mas'ter piece blood'-ves sel al might'y pass'o ver hon'ey-comb by'stand er fowl'ing-piece stem'-wind er bass'-vi ol pow'der-horn school'-mas ter tale'-bear er

Lesson 171.


A'bel, a man's name. de scend'ent, falling. a'ble, powerful. cough'er, one who coughs. al'ley, a narrow passage. coffer, a chest. al ly', one who assists. can'died, covered with sugar. al lu'sion, a reference. can'did, honest; truthful. il lu'sion, mockery. cent'u ry, 100 years. de scend'ant, offspring. sen'try, a guard.

The able man's name was Abel. A narrow alley. France was an ally of England in the Crimean war. He made an allusion to the illusion that possessed him. His descendant was descendent from the same line. The cougher sat on the coffer. The candid youth ate the candied cakes. The sentry wore a costume of the last century.

Lesson 172.

Words spelled alike, whose Pronunciation and Meaning differ.

aye, always. conjure, to enchant. aye, an affirmative vote. bow, a weapon. chose, did choose. bow, part of a ship. chose, a thing; a chattel. chap, a boy. bass, a term in music. chap, the jaw. bass, a fish. gout, a disease. conjure', to implore. gout, taste; relish.

Lesson 173.

Words spelled alike, whose Pronunciation and Meaning differ.

mall, a public walk. scald, a poet. mall, a mallet. sew'er (so'er), one who sews. slough (sluf), a snake's skin. sew'er (su'er), a drain. slough, a miry place. court'e sy, civility. wear, a dam in a river. courte'sy, a slight bow. wear, waste. slav'er, a slave ship. min'ute (min'it), sixty seconds. slav'er, spittle. mi nute', very small. i'ron y (i'urn y), of iron. hind'er, in the rear. i'ron y, ridicule. hin'der, to obstruct. worst'ed, a kind of yarn. scald, a burn. worst'ed, defeated.

Lesson 174.

Words in which the letter A is often mispronounced. Some of the words in this and succeeding lessons have two pronunciations, but in all cases the preferable one is given.

hearth mam ma' an'cient fra'ter nize grass a slant' la'va com man dant' slant pa pa' saun'ter ti a'ra gape a las' pal'frey al ter'nate gaunt al'mond rap'ine af fla'tus far scath'less dra'ma hi a'tus swathe pag'eant la'ma ba na'na lance stal'wart da'ta sul ta'na calm aft'er ma'gi man da'mus laugh par'ent pa'thos oc ta'vo

Lesson 175.

Words in which A is frequently mispronounced.

chal'dron ar ca'num u ra'ni urn na'tant er ra'tum a qua'ri um hal'berd ver ba'tim ap pa ra'tus tas'sel val'en tine ig no ra'mus sau'cy ca'ri ous ir ra'tion al mael'strom tra'che a lit er a'ti squa'lor bar bar'ic lit er a'tim dai'ry bar ri cade' ul ti ma'tum ca'ret ra'di us mar a nath'a gra'tis chol'e ra gym na'si um ra'dix ca na'ry ex pa'ti ate

Lesson 176.

Sounds of A frequently mispronounced.

gla'mour sac'ra ment glance al'ways raft'er a'pri cot zouave a mass' scal'lop gar'ru lous drain Ar'ab craft'y bra va'do stanch ba'thos grass'y de fal'cate scarce cal'dron em balm' ca ca'o cant chas'ten a ghast' rail'ler y can't fac'ile was'sail an dan'te strap fair'y balm'y hal'i but yacht ga'la al'der na'ive te scath qua'si Al'dine fi na'le calk lo cale'

Lesson 177.

Sounds of A often mispronounced.

swath pau'per gra va'men a men' halve ha'rem to ma'to gua'no jean pa sha' sa'li ent na'ive catch fac'et pa'ri ah har'ass balm fal'chion far ra'go sat'ire groat laugh'ter tap'es try jal'ap trance tar'iff de ca'dence e clat' yea ba salt' a're a prai'rie are hur ra' va ga'ry ra'tion shaft ba ton' cu'po la Sal'ic scared quag'mire cu ra'tor ta'pis

Lesson 178.

Words in which the Sounds of E are often mispronounced.

ei'ther eq'ui ty leg'end a ry pre'cept ten'a ble ab ste'mi ous weap'on e'go tism a me'na ble prel'ate ter'ra pin a pe'ri ent yel'low al le'gro ste're o type ven due' in her'ent sac ri le'gious for get' le'ni ent be nef'i cent stead'y yes'ter day a men'i ty en'gine e'qua ble e le'gi ac ket'tle pe'o ny hy men e'al treb'le e'qui poise em py re'an

Lesson 179.

Words in which the Sounds of E are often mispronounced.

leant pet'rel cere'ment les see' dreamt se'ries lei'sure me lee' eyre seam'stress ef fete' deaf'en rear steel'yard en feoff' rou'e deaf sex'ton keel'son e lite' teat fe'brile' seck'eI khe dive' pert fec'und bes'tial res'pite tete sen'na fet'id there'fore feoff ten'et fe'tich pref'ace egg tep'id se'nile tet'ter yet le'ver he'lot met'ric

Lesson 180.

Words in which the Sounds of E are often mispronounced.

per'uke nep'o tism ter'ri ble neth'er as cet'ic res'in ous pet'al red'o lent rec'i pe res'in co te rie' tet'a nus ra ceme' em ploy e' ref'lu ent pre'lude at ta che' hy e'mal me'grim pre'mi er cer'e brum ven'ue o bei'sance ve'he ment bre vet' gen'er a def'i cit car tel' Ma dei'ra splen'e tic e'pact her'o ine i de'a

Lesson 181.

Words in which the Sounds of I are often mispronounced.

fi'nite mer'can tile pa ri'e tal pro'file pi az'za rec i ta tive' de bris' he gi'ra an ni'hi late A'pril de cli'vous cal li'o pe fi nanec' O ri'on he li'ac al ox'ide i tal'ic zo di'ac al ar'chives ho ri'zon i soch'ro nous vis'or si'ne cure men in gi'tis sir'up so ri'tes ma ni'ac al bas tile' bron chi'tis scar la ti'na rib'ald trip'ar tite i so therm'al

Lesson 182.

Words in which the Sounds of I are often mispronounced.

rid ti rade' py ri'tes vive ton tine' fa ri'na rinse bro'mine mar'i time shire li'chen pi a'no width ob lique' vir'u lent si'ren vis'count cyn'o sure ti'ny vi'rile is'o late li'en spike'nard vol'a tile an'ile trib'une en fran'chise ei'der qui'nine, de ci'sive, tri'o di late' pu'er ile

Lesson 183.

Words in which the Sounds of I are often mispronounced.

fu'tile as pir'ant ad ver tis'er ar tiste' in quir'y tri syl'la ble fi nesse' sub sid'ence' ka lei'do scope stir'rup chas'tise ment ad ver'tise ment sub'tile di gres'sion in ter ne'cine chlo'rine di men'sion lar yn gi'tis Al'pine di plo'ma mi rac'u lous chi cane' sim'o ny in ci'so ry cui sine' crin'o line vi vip'a rous li'lac par'a digm is o la'tion vic'ar e chi'nus si mul ta'ne ous

Lesson 184.

Words in which 0 is sometimes mispronounced.

holm tro'phy mon'as ter y yolk on'ly proc'u ra tor scoff mon'grel mi cros'co py nonce be troth' drom'e da ry cost proc'ess zo ol'o gy won't doc'ile al lop'a thy wont prov'ost au tom'a ton shone grov'e1 hy drop'a thy sloth fore'head La oc'o on forge joc'und pho tog'ra phy doth don'key in ter loc'u tor

Lesson 185.

Words in which O is sometimes mispronounced.

front'ier ap ro pos' ab do'men plov'er vo'ca ble dis com'fit a mour' pos til'ion court'e ous hov'er pre co'cious pa rot'id sur tout' o'o lite con do'lence sloth'fu1 dol'or ous cog no'men Sou chong' ca lor'ic op po'nent caout'choue front'is piece co ro'na re volt' prob'i ty col'port eur fort'night pome gran'ate po'ta ble com'pass sov'er eign a ro'ma

Lesson 186.

Words in which U is sometimes mispronounced.

tulle col'umn in au'gu rate joust sut'ure ce ru'le an guide pup'pet vi tu'per ate yours su'mac ac cu'mu late ghoul ful'some co ad ju'tor gi'aour con'duit pu'pil la ry de but cu'cum ber in'sti tute duc'at tru'cu lent eu re'ka U'lan con nois seur' cae su'ra sup'ple ju'gu lar con'sti tute du'ty nu'mer ous tour'na ment

Lesson 187.

Words properly accented on the first Syllable.

con'strue com'bat ant pu'is sance trav'erse dis'pu tant in'ter im ramp'ant gon'do la au'top sy ath'lete pleth'o ra tym'pa num syr'inge mis'chiev ous wise'a cre ex'tant blas'phe mous or'ches tral brig'and con'ver sant im'po tent con'cord san'he drim con'gru ent dis'cord con'tra ry im'be cile do'nate pro'te an pha'e ton ob'long dis'ci pline ret'i na

Lesson 188.

roll, to turn over and over. soar, to mount upward. role, a part performed. stake, a pointed stick. sign, a token; a mark. steak, a slice of flesh. sine, a line in geometry. step, a pace; a foot-print. skull, part of the head. steppe, a dreary plain. scull, to impel a boat. stoop, to bend forward. sleeve, an arm cover. stoup, a basin; a pitcher. sleave, untwisted silk. sum, the amount; whole. slight, to neglect; feeble. some, a part; a portion. sleight, dexterity. tale, that which is told. soul, the immortal spirit. tail, terminal appendage. sole, bottom of the foot. tare, allowance in weight. sore, a hurt; painful. tear, to rend; to lacerate.

Lesson 189.

tacks, small nails. toe, part of the foot. tax, import; duty. tow, coarse part of flax. throne, seat of a king. tract, a region. thrown, cast. tracked, followed. team, horses hitched together their, belonging to them. teem, to bring forth. there, in that place. tear, water from the eye. throw, to cast; to hurl. tier, a row or rank. throe, agony. threw (thru), did throw. tide, rising of the sea. through, from end to end. tied, bound; fastened. time, duration. toad, a harmless reptile. thyme, a pungent herb. towed, drawn by a rope.

Lesson 190.

Words properly accented on the first Syllable.

prog'ress eq'ui page ex'qui site ly in'grate phos'phor us com'pa ra ble pae'an lu'di crous per'emp to ry cou'pon vic'i nage or'tho e py du'ress in'te gral ex'em pla ry good'man in'te ger lam'en ta ble o'zone an'ces tor in'ter est ing a'corn an'ti podes con'tu me ly pro'logue at'ro phy sub'lu na ry thir'teen com'plai sant va'ri o loid sar'dine det'o nate e'ti o late

Lesson 191.

Words properly accented on the second Syllable.

trust ee' he ral'dic ap pel'la tive mon soon' ple thor'ic a nem'o ne pro lix' re cu'sant ar tif i cer back slide' ple be'ian ar bit'ra ment where as' pre ced'ence con sum'mate ly gain say' le the'an ca mel'o pard re cess' il lus'trate con not'a tive pla card' im mob'ile in ter'po late a dept' phi lip'pic te leg'ra phy suc cess' o de'on pe riph'ra sis ro mance' e la'ine re con'nais sance

Lesson 192.

Words properly accented on the second Syllable.

cos tume' so no'rous re med'i less with draw' ly ce'um pre ced'en cy suc cinct' mu se'um hy per'bo le ex cess' e ner'vate py ram'i dal de funct' ac cli'mate te leph'o ny ca nine' in un'date il lus'tra tive' mo rale' con den'sate ex ec'u tor re lay' Lin nae'an ex tem'po re si moom' ob jur'gate gla di'o lus re course' ad um'brate in fer'a ble ac cess' cho re'us chal ced'o ny

Lesson 193.

Words properly accented on the second Syllable.

ex traor'di na ry in ter'po la tor in com'pa ra ble con sol'a to ry ir ref'ra ga ble de lib'er a tive ir rep'a ra ble' pro thon'o ta ry ir rev'o ca ble dis crim'i na tive in dis'so lu ble com mem'o ra tive in dis'pu ta ble ac cel'er a tive in ex'o ra ble sa lu'ta to ry ab sol'u to ry pa ri'e ta ry de mon'stra tive ly nun cu'pa to ry oc tog'e na ry in ex'pli ca ble

Lesson 194.

Words properly accented on the third Syllable.

rev er ie' am a teur' dem o ni'ac al ob li gor' bom ba zine' ho me op'a thy jag u ar' tam bour ine' ap o the'o sis im pro vise' ric o chet' [noun] her e dit'a ment or mo lu' mule teer' spon ta ne'i ty et i quette' mau so le'um ep i zo'o ty av a lanche con ser va'tor hy per bo're an as sign or' cot y le'don ep i cu're an po lo naise' no men clat'ure Pyth a go're an cat a falque' hy men e'an hip po pot'a mus dis ha bille' den u da'tion rec i proc'i ty

Lesson 195.

Words frequently mispronounced, or improperly accented.

mulet sa'chem jave'lin hos'tler soot asth'ma chest'nut de'tail [noun] noose le'gend wres'tle fa cade' twice de sign' [noun] or'chis strych'nine niche isth'mus list'en per'fume [noun] salve this'tle bay'ou mus tache' height rai'sn gib'bous bas'ket milch a dult' gla'cier Gae'lic browse [noun] psalm'ist griev'ous Le vant' [noun] vase oft'en na'sal soft'en

Lesson 196.

Words frequently mispronounced, or improperly accented.

though goose'ber ry da guerre'o type gist sooth'say er cab ri o let' fifth ju've nile min i a ture' drought lic'o rice leg er de main' nook a pos'tle char i ot eer' poor ar'gen tine an i mad vert' roil Ar min'ian av oir du pois' sauce de co'rous Cy clo pe'an rhythm cyc'la men Eu ro pe'an schism so'journ er spo li a'tion root cov'et ous in'ter est ed

Lesson 197.

Words frequently mispronounced, or improperly accented.

pom'mel ab'jeet ness nu mis'ma tist bel'lows ab'a cus ig nit'i ble fig'ure ad'verse'ly Jan'u a ry di rect' Bur'gun dy Feb'ru a ry as'sets Bed'ou in in'ven to ry je june' en vi'rons cor'ol la ry ver'min ex'ple tive vi'o la ble ran'sack um'pi rage rep'a ra ble short'-lived o'a sis des'pi ca ble so'journ ar'se nic bap'tis ter y cais'son ar'ti san pres'by ter y

Lesson 198.

Words frequently mispronounced, or improperly accented.

in'nate chol'er ic se'cre to ry ter'mites gon'fa lon dec're to ry way'lay cen'tu ple ex'ple to ry slaugh'ter re'tro cede con sis'to ry frag'ile nu'cle us pre cep'to ry car'riage cen'tau ry rep'er to ry thor'ough co quet'ry chi rur'ger y sched'ule sto mach'ic sperm a ce'ti grand'eur in'ter stice pan e gyr'ist hir sute' ce ram'ic pan'e gy rize ben'zine re volt'ing mel lif'lu ous

Lesson 199.

Words frequently mispronounced, or impropedy accented.

ag'gran dize dem'on strate tur'mer ic al'der man tre men'dous mne mon'ic Al'co ran stu pen'dous vir'e lay al'ge bra gov'ern ment ex'pur gate mis'tle toe Ar'a bic am'ber-gris pres'by ter com'bat ive min'a ret rasp'ber ry com'mu nist or'de al ven'i son com'plai sance plat'i num pos'i tive con'verse ly fem'i nine dis hon'est dis as'ter gen'u ine chiv'al ric dram'a tist por tent'ous

Lesson 200.

Words to be carefully discriminated.

cor'po ral, an officer. ve'ni al, pardonable. cor po're al, bodily. ve'nal, mercenary; base. du'al ist, a believer in two gods. ap'po site, suitable; fit. op'po site, over against. du'el ist, one who fights a duel ac cla ma'tion, a slout. ac cli ma'tion, inurement to climate. de scen'sion, descent. dis sen'sion, strife. an'a lyze, to separate. ce're ous, like wax. an'nal ize. to record. se'ri ous, grave; solemn. or'a cle, a prophet. Sir'i us, the dog-star. au'ri cle, the external ear.

Lesson 201.

The words opposite one another in the lines have nearly the same meaning, and are called Synonyms.

au'thor ize com mis'sion em pow'er ap par'ent ob'vi ous ev'i dent ac cord'ant con'so nant a gree'ing de port'ment de mean'or be hav'ior di dac'tic pre cep'tive in struc'ive fla gi'tious a tro'cious out ra'geous ad her'ent par'ti san fol'low er in'di gence pen'u ry pov'er ty syc'o phant par'a site flat'ter er har'bin ger pre cur'sor fore run'ner

Lesson 202.

to, towards; unto. vane, a weathercock. too, also. vain, proud; empty. two, one and one. vein, a blood-vessel. trey, three at cards. waste, to consume; loss. tray, a shallow vessel. waist, part of the body. vale, a valley; a dell. ware, merchandise. veil, a cover; a curtain. wear, to use; to waste. wait, to tarry; to stay. way, a road; manner. weight, heaviness; load. weigh, to balance. weighted, balanced. week, seven days. wade, to walk in water. weak, not strong. weth'er, a sheep. wood, timber; a forest. weath'er, state of the air. would, preterit of will.

Lesson 203.

Words sometimes incorrectly pronounced alike, but which should be carefully discriminated.

line loin creek crick sex sects loam loom pint point yon yawn lose loose sat sot least lest morn mourn phase face scrawl scroll rout route laud lord tents tense stalk stock east yeast with withe can ken dawn don close clothes blanch blench dose doze coarse corse want wont wen when white wight wax whacks alms arms moor more

Lesson 204.

Words nearly alike in Sound, to be carefully distinguished.

as say' es say' ep'ic ep'och de cease' dis ease' bea'con beck'on de scent' dis sent' coffin cough'ing de vice' de vise' grist'ly gris'ly huz za' hus sar' di'vers di'verse in tense' in tents' cho'ral cor'al a loud' al lowed' gant'let gaunt'let im merse' a merce' mu'sic mu'cic af fect' ef fect' rad'ish red'dish e lude' al lude' sculp'tor sculpt'ure Cas'tile cast'-steel hum'ble um'bel

Lesson 205.

as cent', steepness. bur'y (ber'ry), to cover with earth. as sent', agreement. an'chor, for a ship. ber'ry, a small fruit. ank'er, a liquid measure. can'non, a great gun. al'ter, to change. can'on, a rule or law. al'tar, a place for sacrifice. ceil'ing, top of a room. au'ger, an instrument. seal'ing, as with wax. au'gur, to foretell. cel'lar, a lower room. bur'row, hole for shelter. sel'ler, one who sells. bor'ough, a corporate town. ces'sion, a giving up. ses'sion, a sitting. bold'er, more bold. cous'in, a relation. bowl'der, a large pebble. coz'en, to cheat.

Lesson 206.

cen'su al, of the census. phil'ter, a love-charm. sen'su al, carnal. great'er, larger. coun'cil, an assembly. gra'ter, that which grates. coun'sel, advice. ho'ly, sacred; pure. can'vas, a kind of coarse cloth. whol'ly, entirely. can'vass, to discuss. mar'tin, a bird. crew'el, worsted yarn. mar'ten, a kind of weasel. cru'el, inhuman; savage. man'ner, form; method. cyg'net, a young swan. man'or, district. sig'net, a seal. man'tel, shelf over a fireplace. chol'er, anger; wrath. man'tle, a cloak. col'lar, for the neck. mar'tial, warlike. fil'ter, to strain. mar'shal, an officer.

Lesson 207.

Words nearly alike in Sound, to be carefully distinguished.

con'so nance con'so nants cen'sus sen'ses e lys'i an e lis'ion Lat'in lat'ten e mer'sion im mer'sion con'cert con'sort for'mer ly form'ally cor'nice Corn'ish pass'a ble pas'si ble hal'low halo pe ti'tion par ti'tion rel'ic rel'ict com'i ty com mit'tee or'der ord'ure dep ra va'tion dep ri va'tion fa'ther far'ther ve rac'i ty vo rac'i ty plaint'iff plaint'ive sta'tion a ry sta'tion er y pa'tience pa'tients

Lesson 208.

Words nearly alike in Sound, to be carefully distinguished.

bile boil ad her'ence ad her'ents wig whig con fi dant' con'fi dent God gaud at tend'ance at tend'ants dance daunts ac'ci dence ac'ci dents dome doom e lic'it il lic'it wheel weal em'i nence im'mi nence lease lees e rup'tion ir rup'tion sense since sal'a ry cel'er y dross draws bar'ren ness bar'on ess whit wit proph'e cy proph'e sy

Lesson 209.

med'al, a stamped coin. pen'cil, used for writing. med'dle, to interfere. pen'sile, hanging. mi'nor, one under age. pet'ty, small; little. mi'ner, a worker in mines. pet'it', a term in law. mit'y, full of mites. pom'ace, ground apples. might'y, powerful. pum'ice, a spongy stone. na'val, of ships. rig'or, severity; stiffness. na'vel, the central part. rig'ger, one who rigs. cen'sor, one who censures. suck'er, a kind of fish. cens'er, a pan for incense. suc'cor, help; assistance. pan'nel, a kind of saddle. sur'plus, excess. pan'el, a jury roll. sur'pluce, a clerical dress.

Lesson 210.

pal'let, a small bed. com'pli ment, regard. pal'ate, part of the mouth. com'ple ment, fullness. pal'ette, an oval board. coun'sel or, an adviser. em'i grate, to move out. coun'cil or, member of a council. im'mi grate, to move in. cas'tor, the beaver. straight'en, to make straight. cast'er, one who casts. strait'en, to narrow. cur'rent, running. cal'en dar, an almanac. cur'rant, a small fruit. cal'en der, a hot press. cap'i tol, a public edifice. sut'ler, an army trader. cap'i tal, principal. sub'tler, more subtle.

Lesson 211.

Words which require Care in Spelling.

jilt dol'lar rip'ple nat'u ral gyre schol'ar trip'le gut'tur al jow1 grap'ple pop'py lit'er al troll chap'el cop'y diz'zi ly goal ren'net sun'ny bus'i ly knoll sen'ate mon'ey ver'ti cal dole freck'le glim'mer ar'ti cle turf shek'el prim'er du'te ous verb wit'ty tread'le beau'te ous pirn cit'y ped'dle fin'i cal perk hop'per cod'dle pin'na cle surd prop'er mod'el cyn'ic al

Lesson 212.

Words which require Care in Spelling.

scream com'et peb'ble in ter cede' screen vom'it reb'el su per sede' sheave plum'met sib'yl col'o nize sheet sum'mit spin'et ad ver tise' shield ver'y lin'net par'a lyze twirl mer'ry cam'el se'cre cy churl bod'y tram'mel ec'sta sy clerk shod'dy mam'mal vac'il late quirk mud'dy sev'en fas'ci nate fraud stud'y heav'en co er'cion broad guin'ea par'rot de ter'sion awe'd nin'ny clar'et ex er'tion

Lesson 213.

Words which require Care in Spelling.

grief do'ing a byss' hid'e ous sheaf stew'ing a miss' pre'vi ous guile, yeo'man as sess' im'pi ous chyle chlo'ral ab'scess a'que ous rend know'ing sick'le par'ti cle wrench go'ing nick'el crit'ic al dearth con dole' tal'ents dil'i gent worth con trol' bal'ance el'e gant mirth en roll' si'lence fal'li ble earth dis pel' com peer' prel'a cy spurt fore tell' ad here' jeal'ous y

Lesson 214.

Words which require Care in Spelling.

which stom'ach re prieve' in i'tial ditich sau'sage con ceive' of fi'cial feud word'y de grade' es sen'tial sued tur'gid a fraid' sol sti'tial prude ver'ger pre pare' a bun'dant wooed vir'tue for bear' de pend'ent balk leop'ard bar'ter in veigh'er shawl lep'er tar'tar be tray'er guise fam'ine mar'tyr di'a logue sighs gam'mon suc ceed' dy nam'ics flies salm'on ac cede' me chan ics

Lesson 215.

Words which require Care in Spelling.

wield scan'dal se rene' an'no tate weird han'dle un clean' an'o dyne swale clam'or be tween' col on nade' swain gram'mar ma rine' ser e nade' storm ham'mer com plete' dom i neer' swarm palm'er de feat' bel ve dere' scythe sa'tyr de ceit' pen'ni less writhe trai'tor co erce' mon'ey less sieve wait'er dis burse' joc'u lar give cra'ter dis perse' jock'ey ing

Lesson 216.

Words which require Care in Spelling.

skein val'id kir'tle pol'i cy slain sal'ad tur'tle leg'a cy crane mal'let fer'tile cur'ti lage sword val'et myr'tle syn'a gogue boast breez'y wid'geon cod'i cil ghost greasy pig'eon dom'i cile queer gar'den mal'ice ver'sa tile brief par'don pal'ace hyp'o crite spoke e'vil tor'toise hip'po drome croak ea'gle mor'tise scen'er y self pole'ax sel'vage ple'na ry sylph poult'ry por'ridge dean'er y

Lesson 217.

Words which require Care in Spelling.

zinc col'lege con fer' u ten'sil brink knowl'edge a stir' pre hen'sile fought leath'er oc cur' fa tigu'ing caught teth'er ef face' be lea'guer wrought cau'cus e rase' si li'ceous fuse mawk'ish chas tise' vex a'tious news au'thor bap tize' fa ce'tious views awn'ing a chieve' sus pi'cion choose ar'id per ceive' po si'tion wooes heir'ship be reave' in cis'ion ooze air'y re nown' de ris'ion whose car'ry re nounce' e di'tion

Lesson 218.

Words which require Care in Spelling.

earl ran'cor in vade' di ur'nal knurl can'ker up braid' hi ber'nal shirk flux'ion ur bane' at tor'ney jerk suc'tion or dain' de ter'gent pith hos'pice a dieu' con ta'gion myth au'spice im brue' her ba'ceous growth bot'tom pre cede' frol'ic some loath au'tumn pro ceed' frol'ick ing loathe trunn'ion re deem' de pres'sion clothe bun'ion ex treme' dis cre'tion

Lesson 219.

Words which require Care in Spelling.

risk coup'le wry'ness ve'hi cle wrist cup'board ri'ot typ'ic al shred cho'rus ly'rist ob'sta cle dread po'rous li'vre pro'to col scheme hill'y ten'on mys'tic al chief lil'y pen'non mis'ti ness siege san'dal ros'trum rec're ant seat can'dle phan'tom reck'on er seethe nu'tant fan'ion wretch'ed ly keyed neu'ter ver'sion of'fi cer tweed nui'sance ter'tian oph'i cleide

Lesson 220.

Words containing silent Letters.

thought hand'some re doubt' hec'a tomb wreathe vict'uals re scind' sci'o list wreath scis'sors gneis'sose co a lesce' rhomb schot'tish be nign' ap'a thegm gnat g'no'mon cam paign' di'a phragm rogue' for'eign ar raign' psy'chic al gnaw dough'ty op pugn' sac'cha rine gnash haugh'ty re sign' rheu mat'ic gnarl chron'ic de light' rhap'so dy gnome daugh'ter ex pugn' rhet'o ric phlegm ghast'ly af fright' ca tarrh'al

Lesson 221.

Silent Letters.

taught hon'est ca tarrh' pneu mat'ics source gher'kin con demn' psal'ter y brought chalk'y de mesne' pneu mo'ni a realm isl'and de pot' rhi noc'e ros vault naph'tha burgh'er ren'dez vous knob gris'tle calk'er jeop'ard y qualm thros'tle, rhom'boid hem'or rhage wroth chris'ten tme'sis rhiz'o pod fraugt jeop'ard ptis'an ptar'mi gan knock wrig'gle, psy'chic pseu'do nym knife bris'tle rhym'er psalm'ist ry

Lesson 222.

Words liable to be misspelled.

tres'tle glu'ey ness collect'i ble' pa paw' crys'tal line e ras'a ble gey'ser chrys'a lis ac cor'di on gaug'ing lach'ry mose sac er do'tal co log'ne ker'o sene' ef fer ves'cence qua drille' glyc'er ine tran quil'li ty sky'ey ar'go naut com mit'ti ble sor'ghum fore'bod'ing cor us ca'tion sur vey' ex cheq'uer mac a ro'ni starve'ling sib'yl line pic'ca lil li pro'gramme sib'i lant fil'i bus ter

Lesson 223.

Words liable to be misspelled.

fleam ey'ing gen e al'o gy glyph wee'vil bac ca lau're ate liege lac'quer ab o rig'i nes cuish du et' ar chae ol'o gy taunt quar tet' as a fet'i da drap phe'nix er y sip'e las fleche rogu'ish ho mo ge'ne ous frere whey'ey hy per crit'i cism jardes ledg'er ich thy ol'o gy crypt sach'el ig'nis-fat u us sou lar'ynx lack a dai'si cal

Lesson 224.

Words frequently mispronounced.

for'tress dan'druff prod'uce con cise' car'bine fran'chise com'bat dis own' chlo'ride hom'age thith'er dis dain' cof'fee rhu'barb o'nyx di vulge' com'rade cov'ert dis arm' ex tol' sau'cer ma'tron jo cose' for bade' dec'ade mon'ad bour geois' suf fuse' quin'sy pa'tron Cay enne' pos sess' gal'lows lith'arge con tour' fare well' mis'le par'tridge di verge' be neath' fau'cet wa'ter di vert' re source'

Lesson 225
Words frequently mispronounced.

di'a mond par'a dise cin cho'nit chan de lier' a'li as in vei'gle gran'a ry par'a chute stra te'gic cou'ri er pot-pour ri' ex cur'sion eg'lan tine hy'gi ene a cous'tics sor'cer y con'fis cate an cho'vy ex'tir pate psal'mo dy pa la'ver cor'di al guard'i an Cau ca'sian cor'ri dor com'mu nism ap par'el gas'e ous sub al'tern so pra'no doc'i ble cou ra'geous im mor telle'

Lesson 226.

Words liable to be misspelled.

som'er sault how'itz er bar'y tone stim'u lus syc'a more bil'lings gate sil'hou ette a bridg'ment bry'o ny pa vil'ion ad'di ble cen'ti ped quin till'ion aes thet'ic cim'e ter ci vil'ian al'che my col'an der cen'ti gram ar'que buse cop'i er ma nil'la ai'lan'tus nas tur'tium eu'pho ny as bes'tus chic'o ry pros'e lyte as cend'ant hei'nous ness pu'tre fy syz'y gy deb o nair' pro bos'cis bar'be cue por'phy ry

Lesson 227.

Words liable to be misspelled.

bal'dric mal fea'sance cal lig'ra phy ban'yan sur'cin gle dys'en ter y bau'ble pleu'ri sy rem i nis'cence la pel' por'ce lain hy poc'ri sy ker'chief os'cil late hy pot'e nuse gnos'tic del'e ble syn ec'do che but'-end lau'da num si de're al cam'phene crys'tal lize ad sci ti'tious catch'up pol'y glot am au ro'sis cess'-pool guer ril'la lill i pu'tian ci gar' quin tes'sence lil i a'ceos

Lesson 228.

Words liable to be misspelled.

clew coif'fure con fec'tion er y clinch fledge'ling klep to ma'ni a sleuth af'ghan cor nu co'pi a blonde che nille' cot y led'o nous glebe che mise' di u tur'ni ty gyves chas'seur terp sich o re'an guy chev'ron me temp sy cho'sis crutch cor'ymb me te or'o lite touch e leve' per ip neu'mo ny kraal hogs'head phar ma co poe'ia chintz meer'scham phar ma ceu'tic al ceirge buhr'-stone sac cha rif'er ous

Lesson 229.

Words liable to be misspelled or mispronounced.

el e phan ti'a sis ir re cog'ni za ble par a di si'ac al gu ber na to'ri al par a pher na'li a el ee mos'y na ry ver i si mil'i tude pol y cot y le'don tin tin nab u la'tion het er o ge'ne ous su per e rog'a tive hi e ro glyph'ic al pu sil la nim'i ty hyp o chon dri'ac al phan tas ma go'ri a his to ri og'ra pher ob'li ga to ri ly in dis'so lu ble'ness id i o syn'cra sy in dis'pu ta ble'ness ir re me'di a ble' er y si pel'a tous ip e cac u an'ha ir ref'ra ga ble ness

Lesson 230.

Words of irregular Pronunciation.

of (ov) tough (tuf) trough (trawf) sice (siz) hough (hok) bus'y (biz'y) tige (tej) fiord (fyord) ma'ny (men'y) says (sez) bouy (bwoy) pret'ty (prit'ty) said (sed) cough (kawf) wom'en (wim'en) loir (lwar) mont (mong) cann on' (kan yun') a'ny (en'y) rouge (roozh) sa lon' (sa long') newt (nut) mauve (mov) chap'eau (shap'o) beaux (boz) ruche (roosh) cha teau' (sha to') once (wuns) Czech (tchek) cro quet (kro ka') i'ron (i'urn) caf'e (kaf 'a) men age' (-azh')

Lesson 231.

Words of irregular Pronunciation.

pa tois' (pat wa') bou quet' (boo ka') bi jou (be zhoo') breech'es (brich'ez) phthis'ic (tiz'ik) por'poise (por'pus) bu'reau (bu'ro) a gain' (a gen') En'glish (ing'glish) dis cern' (diz zern') flam'beau (flam'bo) e nough' (e nuf') haut'boy (ho'boy) en nui' (ong nwe') hic'cough (hik'kup) ron deau' (ron do') right'eous (ri'chus) vign ette' (vin yet') cham'ois (sham'my) squir'rel (or skwur'rel) bou'doir (boo'dwor) suf fice' (suf fiz') ser'geant (sar'jent) cor'tege (kor'tazh)

Lesson 232.

Words of irregular Pronunciation.

sough (suf) men ag'e rie (men azh'e ry) myrrh (mer) ci ce ro'ne (che che- or sis'e-) suave (swav) chev'aux-de-frise (shev'o de frez) shew (sho) pap'ier-ma che (pap'ya ma sha) strew (stru) de col le te' (da kol le ta') bouffe (boof) tic-dou lou reux' (tik doo lo roo') nom (nong) ver mi cel'li (-chel'li or -sel'li) clough (kluf) su per fi'cies (su per fish'ez) nee (na) ra tion a'le (rash un a'le) ghat (gawt) ha bit u e (a bit n a') creux (kru) hal le lu jah (hal le lu'ya)

Lesson 233.

Words of irregular Pronunciation.

bus'i ness (biz'nes) roq'ue laure (rok'e lor) colo nel (kur'nel) sac'ri fice (sak'ri fiz) hau teur' (ho tur') chef-d'oeuvre' (sha doovr') bdell'ium (del'yum) es cri toire' (es kri twor') cui rass' (kwe ras') belles-let'tres (bel let'ter) gauch rie' (gosh re') res tau rant' (res to rang') trous seau' (troo so') mign on ette' (min yon et') gun'wale (gun'nel) fuch'si a (fook'si a) dah'lia (dal'ya) re veil'le (re val'ya) soi ree' (swa ra') pap e terie' (pap a tre') sap'phire' (saf'ir) sur veil'lance' (-val'yans) cog'nac (kon'yak) Ple'ia des (ple'ya dez)

Lesson 234.

Words of irregular Pronunciation.

nes'cience (nesh'ens) re cher che' (ruh sher sha') ba rege' (ba razh') so bri quet' (so bre ka') diph'thong (dif-) aid'-de-camp (ad'de kong) sol'dier (sol'jer) mag gio're (mad jo'ra) fort'une' (fort'yun) made moi selle' (-mwa zel') neph'ew (nef'yu) fleur-de-lis' (flur de le') let'tuce (let'tis) deb au chee' (deb o she') en tree' (ong tra') res er voir' (rez er vwor') re gime' (ra zhem') eis tedd'fod (is teth'fod) scru toire' (skru twor') pro te ge' (pro ta zha') phy sique' (fe zek') de noue'ment (-noo'mong)

Lesson 235.

Words of irregular Pronunciation.

cri tique' (kri tek') en core' (ong kor') pen chant' (pong shong') se ance' (sa ongs') chig'non (shen'yong) mor ceau' (mor so') cha let' (sha la') dan seuse' (dong zurz') e lan' (a lang') sang-froid' (song frwa') mem'oir (mem'wor) qui vive (ke vev) mon sieur' (mo ser') faux pas' (fo pa') blanc-mange' (blo-monj') bon ton (bong tong) a mende' (a mongd') bon'mot (bong'mo) cen time' (son tem') mil lier' (mi lya') biv'ouac (biv'wak) sa vant' (sa vong')

Lesson 236.

Names of Men.

Charles Ad'am Har'old A'sa
Frank Al'bert Hen'ry Bas'il
George An'drew Ho'mer Ca'leb
Hugh Ar'thur I'saac Ce'phas
James Clar'ence Ja'cob Cy'rus
Job Da'vid Jo'seph Eu'gene
John Ed'ward Lew'is Fe'lix
Luke Ed'win No'ah Ja'bez
Mark Ez'ra Pat'rick Leon'ard
Saul Fran'cis Pe'ter Mo'ses
Ralph Gil'bert Will'iam Rob'ert

Lesson 237.

Names of Men.

Her'bert Ab'sa lom Al ex an'der
Hi'ram An'tho ny An dro ni'cus
Hor'ace Ben'ja min Bar thol'o mew
Ja'son E li'jah Eb en e'zer
Jes'se Fer'di nand Em man'u el
Law'rence Fred'er ick E ze'ki el
Le'vi I sa'iah (-ya) Jer e mi'ah
Lu'ther Le an'der Le on'i das
Os'car Ol'i ver Na po'le on
Phil'ip Sam'u el The oph'i lus
Rich'ard Tim'o thy Zech a ri'ah

Lesson 238.

Names of Women.

Anne A'da Es'ther Lo'is
Blanche Ag'nes Eu'nice Lu'cy
Eve Al'ice E'va Ma'bel
Grace An'na Fan'ny Mar'tha
Jane Ber'tha Flo'ra Ma'ry
Jean Clar'a Fran'ces My'ra
Kate Co'ra Ger'trude Nan'cy
Maud E'dith Hel'en Ra'chel
May Ed'na Han'nah Rho'da
Pearl El'la I'da Sa'rah
Ruth Em'ma Lau'ra Su'san

Lesson 239.

Names of Women.

A'my Ad'e line A me'li a
Bet'sey A man'da Ar a bel'la
Bridg'et Bar'ba ra Dor o the'a
Char'lotte Be'a trice E liz'a beth
Chlo'e Deb'o rah E van'ge line
Dor'cas E li'za Fe lic'i a
Di'nah Em'i ly Fred er i'ca
El'len Mar'ga ret Ge'or gi an'a
Flor'ence Pris cil'la Is a bel'la
Ja net' Re bec'ca La vin'i a
Ro'sa Su san'na Vic to'ri a

Lesson 240.

Abbreviations used in Writing and Printing.

A. or Am., Answer. Bro., Brother.
A. B., Bachelor of Arts. C. H., Court-House.
A. C., or B. C., Before Christ. Co., Company; County.
                                   C. O. D., Collect on delivery.
A. D., In the year of our Lord.
A. M., Master of Arts; Before Cr., Credit.
noon; In the year of the world. D. D., Doctor of Divinity.
                                   Do., or ditto, The same.
Bart., Baronet. Dr., Doctor; Debtor.
Bbl., Barrel; barrels. e. g. (exempli gratia), For example.
B. L., Bachelor of Laws.

Lesson 241.

Abbreviations used in Writing and Printing.

Ed., Editor; Edition. H. B. M., Her Britannic Majesty.
Eng., England; English.
Esq., Esquire. Hhd., Hogshead.
Etc. (et cetera), And so forth. H.R., House of Representatives.
Fri., Friday.
Fahr., Fahrenheit. Ibid., In the same place.
F.R.S., Fellow of the Royal Society. Id.(idem), The same.
                                       i. e. (id est), That is.
Gen., General; Genesis. Jas., James.
Gov., Governor. Jun. or Jr., Junior.
G.P.O., General Post-Office. Lat., Latitude.
                                       Lb., Pound; pounds.

Lesson 242.

Abbreviations used in Writing and Printing.

LL. D., Doctor of Laws. Mrs., Mistress.
Long., Longitude. N., North.
L. S., Place of the Seal. N. A., North America.
M., Monsieur. MS., Manuscript.
M. C., Member of Congress. No., Number.
Mon., Monday. N. B. (nota bene), Take notice.
M. D., Doctor of Medicine. pp., Pages.
Messrs., Gentlemen. Per., By the.
M. P., Member of Parliament. P. M., Postmaster; Afternoon.
                                 P.O., Post-Office.
Mr., Mister; Master. Prof, Professor.

Lesson 243.

Abbreviations used in Writing and Printing.

P. S., Postscript. St., Saint; Street.
Pub. Doc., Public Document. Sun., Sunday.
                              Supt., Superintendent.
Pxt., He painted it. Thurs., Thursday.
Sc., He engraved it. Tues., Tuesday.
Q. M., Quartermaster. V., vid., or vide, See.
Rec'd., Received. Viz.(videlicet), Namely.
Rev., Reverend. Vol., Volume.
S., Shilling; South. Vs. (versus), Against.
S. A., South America. Wed., Wednesday.
Sat., Saturday. W.I., West Indies.
Sen., Senior; Senator. Wt., Weight.

Lesson 244.

Abbreviations of the States, with their Pronunciation.

Ala., Al a ba'ma. Ia., I'o wa.
Ark., Ar'kan sas. Kan., Kan'sas.
Cal., Cal i for'ni a. Ky., Ken tuck'y.
Col. or Colo., Col o ra'do. Lou. or La., Lou i si a'na.
Conn. or Ct., Con nect'i cut Mass., Mas sa chu'setts.
                                Md., Ma'ry land.
Del., Del'a ware. Me., Maine.
Flor. or Fla., Flor'i da. Mich., Mich'i gan.
Geo. or Ga., Geor'gi a. Minn., Min ne so'ta.
Ill., Il li nois'. Miss., Mis sis sip'pi.
Ind., In di an'a. Mo., Mis sou'ri.

Lesson 245.

Abbreviations of the States, with their Pronunciation.

Neb., Ne bras'ka. R. I., Rhode Is1'and.
N. C., North Car o li'na. S. C., South Car o li'na.
N. H., New Hamp'shire Tenn., Ten nes see'.
                                  Tex., Tex'as.
N. J., New Jer'sey. Uh., U'tah (yoo'ta).
Nev., Ne va'da. U.S.A., U nit'ed States of A mer'i ca.
N. Y., New York.
Or., Or'e gon. Va., Vir gin'i a.
O., O hi'o. Vt., Ver mont'.
Pa. or Penn., Penn syl va'ni a. Wis., Wis con'sin.
                                  W Va., West Vir gin'i a.

Lesson 246.

American and Foreign Geographical Names.

Al'ba ny Ba'den Al le ghe'ny
Ayr (ar) Bal'ti more A'si a (a'shi a)
Aulne (on) Bor deaux' (-do') Cin cin na'ti
Bos'ton Chi ca'go Eu phra'tes
Chey enne' Cai'ro Ha wai'i
Main Cey'lon' Pal'es tine
Mo bile' I'ser (e'zer) Phil a del'phi a
Pau (po) Mad rid' Pyr'e nees
Saone Mil wau'kee Szeg ed in'
Seine Mon ta'na Vi en'na
Thames (temz) New Or'leans Wash'ing ton

Lesson 247.

Other Geographical Names of frequent Mispronunciation.

Guanaxuato (gwa na hwa'to) Aube (ob)
Poughkeepsie (po kip'si) Caen (kon)
Worcester (woos'ter) Dieppe (dyep)
Youghiogheny (yoh'ho ga'ni) Foix (fwa)
Newfoundland (nu'fund land) Joux (zhoo)
Chuquisaca (choo ke sa'ka) Lisle (lel)
Guatemala (ga te ma'la) Moux (moo)
Winnipiseogee (-pis sok'ki) Oude (owd)
Venezuela (ven e zwe'la) Sioux (soo)
Altamaha (al ta ma ha') Thau (to)
Chautauqua (sha ta'kwa) Y (i)

Lesson 248.


A Comma [, ] denotes the slightest degree of separation between the elements of a sentence.

A Semicolon [; ] denotes a degree of separation somewhat greater than that indicated by a comma.

A Colon [:] marks a still greater degree of separation than a semicolon.

A Period [.] usually indicates the close of a sentence.

The Interrogation Point [?] is used at the end of a question.

The Exclamation Point [!] denotes astonishment or other emotion.

A Hyphen [ - ] is used to join words or syllables.

A Dash [-] marks a sudden break or stop in a sentence.

A Parenthesis [( )] includes words which might be left out without injuring the sense.

Brackets [ ] inclose words, etc., intended to explain or rectify what precedes or follows.

An Apostrophe ['] indicates the omission of one or more letters; or denotes the possessive case.

Quotation Marks [" "] show that the passage included, is taken from some other author.


A Capital should begin: (1) the first word of every sentence, and of every line of poetry; (2) proper names of persons, places, months, and days; (3) all appellations of the Deity; (4) titles of honor; (5) names of things personified; (6) names denoting the race or nation of individuals; (7) adjectives derived from proper names; (8) the first word of a direct quotation or speech; (9) the principal words in the titles of books; (10) words denoting important events, the chief subject of a composition, etc. (11) The pronoun I and the interjection O are always capitals.