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Title: Greek in a Nutshell

Author: James Strong

Release date: February 1, 2004 [eBook #11130]
Most recently updated: June 25, 2020

Language: English


Greek in a Nutshell,

An Outline of

Designed for Beginners in the New Testament.



Professor of Exegetical Theology in Drew Theological Seminary


Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1876, by
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington.


This little Manual was originally prepared for the NORMAL CLASS, at the request of the editor of that Journal, and was at the same time expected to form an instruction book at the Sunday-School Assembly annually held at Chautauqua. This accounts for its form in twelve series of two pages each. The reading lessons, however, have been made sufficiently full for subsequent study. Of course the simplest elements only of the Greek language can be comprised in such narrow limits; nor can a full vocabulary or ready facility be acquired in so short a course. Nevertheless, a good beginning may be made, and that is "half the battle" in any enterprise. It is believed that a thorough mastery of this small volume will prove a conquest over all the real difficulties of the original tongue of the New Testament.

J. S.




Form. Name. Sound.
A α Al'pha a in man, [arm.1]
Β β Be'ta b
Γ γ Gam'ma g in go, [king.2]
Δ δ Del'ta d
Ε ε Ep'silon e in met.
Ζ ζ Ze'ta dz in adze.
Η η E'ta e in they.
Θ ϑ or θ The'ta th in thin.
Ι ι Io'ta i in tin, [machine 3]
Κ κ or ϗ Kap'pa k
Λ λ Lamb'da l
Μ μ Mu m
Ν ν Nu n
Ξ ξ Xi x
Ο ο Om'icron ο in not.
Π π Pi p
Ρ ρ Rho r
Σ σ, final ς Sig'ma s in this.
Τ τ Tau t in it.
Υ υ U'psilon u in full.
Φ φ Phi f
χ χ Khi kh (German ch.)
ψ ψ Psi ps
Ω ω O'mega ο in no.

§ 2. Notes on the Alphabet.

1. α sounds broad, like a in arm, at the end of a word, and before ρ final or ρ followed by a different consonant.

2. γ has the nasal sound, like ng in king, before γ, κ, χ, or ξ.

3. ι has its long sound, like i in machine, at the end of a syllable.

Every letter is sounded, and, with the above exceptions, invariably the same.


§ 3. Each word, except a very few monosyllables, has one of the following accents written over a vowel in it, which marks the place of the spoken tone. A few small words, called enclitics, generally throw their accent, as an acute, on the last syllable of the preceding word.

§ 4. The acute ('), which is the foundation of all the accents, stands on one of the last three syllables. In verbs, with the exception of certain forms, it stands as far toward the beginning of the word as the rules below allow. In other parts of speech it stands on the same syllable as in the ground-form, (that given in the lexicon,) except as required by these rules. When the last syllable has a long vowel or diphthong it stands on the syllable before the last.

§ 5. The grave accent (`) is only written in place of the acute on the last syllable when not before a pause, or when unemphatic. It is understood to belong to all other syllables.

§ 6. The circumflex (~) is placed on a syllable formed by the combination of two, the first of which had an acute and the second a grave; hence only on the last, or next to the last syllable, and only on a long vowel or a diphthong. When the last syllable has a short vowel, such a penult, if accented, takes the circumflex.


§ 7. A vowel beginning a word takes either the rough breathing, (῾), which is pronounced like h, or else, to show the absence of that, the smooth breathing, (᾿), which has no appreciable sound. Initial ρ and υ always take the rough breathing; and double ρ in the middle of a word takes the smooth breathing on the first, and the rough on the second.

§ 8. The vowels are short, (ε and ο,) long, (η and ω,) or doubtful, (α, ι, and υ,) which last, although naturally short, are sometimes lengthened by derivation.

§ 9. The diphthongs are as follows:--

Proper. With Iota Subscript. Improper.
αι sounds ay ᾳ = α ηυ = η and υ
ει sounds i ῃ = η ωυ = ω and υ
οι sounds oy ῳ = ω
υι sounds we
αυ sounds ow
ευ sounds yu
ου sounds oo

§ 10. In diphthongs the breathing and accent are written over the second vowel. A capital (initial) letter in other cases takes them before it.

§ 11. The punctuation marks are the comma, (,), the semicolon, (·), the period, (.), and the interrogation point, (;).



§ 12. When two consonants come together the first is made homogeneous with the second, as follows:--

§ 13. Mutes of a different class must have the same degree of hardness according to the following classification:--

Smooth. Middle. Rough. Sibilant (with s.)
Kappa-mutes. κ γ χ ξ
Pi-mutes π β φ ψ
Tau-mutes τ δ ϑ ζ

§ 14. A smooth final mute is roughened before a vowel with the rough breathing. A rough mute is not doubled, nor can successive syllables begin with an aspirate. A tau-mute is sometimes dropped before σ, and always before κ; before a different tau-mute it is changed into σ.

§ 15. Before μ a kappa-mute is changed into γ, a pi-mute into μ, and a tau-mute into σ.

§ 16. ν before a kappa-mute becomes γ, before a pi-mute μ, before a liquid (λ, μ, ν, or ρ) it is changed into the same liquid, before σ or ζ it is dropped.

§ 17. ν is appended to certain endings in σι or ε before a pause or a vowel.

§ 18. There are several other less important rules, and some exceptions to most of the above.

§ 19. A long vowel or diphthong is used as an equivalent for two (usually short) vowels in immediate succession, or as a compensation for the omission of a consonant, sometimes for both.

§ 20. The changes in the union of two vowels are various, depending upon their comparative strength, position, and relation to the long vowels, or diphthongs respectively. They are readily learned by practice.

§ 21. Compensation is not always thus made for the omission of a consonant. Sometimes the omission occurs too far back in the derivation to be easily traced.

§ 22. A final vowel is sometimes elided before another vowel, and its place indicated by the apostrophe, (').

§ 23. There are several dialects, which chiefly affect the vowels, (like provincial pronunciation;) but in later Greek (to which the New Testament belongs) they were merged in "the common dialect," the Attic pre-dominating.


Nouns are of three declensions, three genders, three numbers, and five cases, all indicated by changes of termination.

§ 24. The declensions (numbered 1, 2, and 3) are only different modes of inflection.

§ 25. Names and designations of males, nations, the months, rivers, and winds, are almost invariably masculine; those of females, countries, islands, cities, trees, and plants, are usually feminine; of the neuter gender are most names of fruits and diminutives, and always the names of the letters, infinitives, clauses, indeclinable words, and words used as the symbol of a sound. In the third declension especially the (grammatical) gender in many instances is arbitrary.

§ 26. The singular and plural are used as in English. The dual denotes two or a pair; it is comparatively rare, and never occurs in the New Testament.

§ 27. The cases express the relations of words to each other in a sentence, as follows:--

Name. Use. Equivalent.
Nominative. Subject of a finite verb. (Simple form.)
Genitive. Origin or ownership. From, of, etc.
Dative. Position or manner. In, by, for, to, etc.
Accusative. Direction or object. Toward, into, etc.
Vocative. Address. O!

§ 28. The following are the terminations of the First Declension:--

Singular. Cases. Plural.
Masc. Fem. Masc. and Fem.
ας or ης α or η Nominative. αι
ον ας or ης Genitive. ῶν
ᾳ or η Dative. αις
αν or ην Accusative. ας
α or η Vocative. αι
Dual. Nom., Acc., Voc., α; Gen., Dat., αιν.

§ 29. The α in the terminations of the singular is mostly used when ρ, ε,or ι precedes it; and in the Nom., Acc., and Voc. when λ or σ, and frequently when ν, precedes it. A few nouns have α in the Gen. sing.



§ 30. The following are the terminations of the Second Declension:--

Singular. Cases. Plural.
Masc. Neut. Masc. Neut.
ος ον Nominative. οι α
ου Genitive. ων
Dative. οις
ον Accusative. ους α
ε ον Vocative. οι α
Dual. Nom., Acc., Voc., ω; Gen., Dat., οιν.

§ 31. The few fem. nouns of this declension take the masc. terminations. The Voc. masc. sing. is occasionally ος.

§ 32. The following are the terminations of the Third Declension:--

Singular. Cases. Plural.
Masc. and Fem. Neut. Masc. and Fem. Neut.
ς (or long vowel before final letter.) (naked stem.) Nominative. ες α
ος Genitive. ων
ι Dative. σι(ν)
ν or α (naked stem.) Accusative. ας α
(like Nom. or Neut.) (naked stem.) Vocative. ες α
Dual. Nom., Acc., Voc., ε; Gen., Dat., οιν.

§ 33. The Nom. sing. is so often changed by the euphonic rules that the stem of the noun is best seen in the Gen. Nouns in ις, υς, and ευς take the (Attic) Gen. εως, (ω regarded as short.) The α of the Acc. sing. is usually after a consonant. Many irregularities and some anomalies occur, which may generally be learned from the lexicon.


§ 34. These are declined like nouns, having sometimes three sets of terminations for the respective genders, sometimes two, (masc. and fem. alike,) rarely but one, (all genders alike.) The masc. and neut. are always of the same declension, (second or third,) and the fem., when different, always of the first. Participles are declined like adjectives.

§ 35. Adjectives are compared either by using an adverb expressive of degree, or, more regularly, by adding to the stem of the positive the syllables ότερος or ίων for the comparative, and ότατος or ιστος for the superlative. Some euphonic changes occur in making these additions, which then take the regular declensional endings.


§ 36. The cardinal numbers are either simple, (the units, tens, and a few others,) or compound, (intermediate numbers.) Those from one to four inclusive, and the hundreds and thousands, are declined like adjectives. They may all be learned from the lexicon.

§ 37. The ordinals are mostly formed from the cardinals by adjective endings.


§ 38. Of the personal pronouns, those of the 1st and 2d persons only are specially noteworthy, being declined as nouns irregularly:--

I or Me. We or Us. Thou or Thee. Ye or You.
Nominative. ἐγώ ἡμεῖς σύ ὑμεῖς
Genitive. (ἐ)μοῦ ἡμῶν σοῦ ὑμῶν
Dative. (ἐ)μοί ἡμῖν σοί ὑμῖν
Accusative. (ἐ)μέ ἡμᾶς σέ ὑμᾶς

§ 39. The rest are declined as adjectives--masc. ος, fem, η, neut. ο; often compounded, one or both parts being declined; but, with the exception of τις, (interrogative τίς, indefinite τὶς,) neut. τι, Gen. τινος, of the third declension, the article (definite only) and the demonstrative alone are very peculiar in declension, as follows:--

Singular. The. Plural.
Masc. Neut. Fem. Masc. Neut. Fem.
τό Nominative. οἱ τά αἱ
τοῦ τῆς Genitive. τῶν τῶν
τῷ τῇ Dative. τοῖς ταῖς
τόν τό τήν Accusative. -ούς τά τάς
Dual. Nom., Acc., Voc., τώ, τά; Gen., Dat., τοῖν, ταῖν.


Singular. This, These. Plural.
Masc. Neut. Fem. Masc. Neut. Fem.
οὗτος τοῦτο αὕτη Nominative. οὗτοι ταῦτα αὗται
τούτου ταύτης Genitive. τούτων τούτων
τούτῳ -αύτῃ Dative. τούτοις ταύταις
τουτου τοῦτο ταυτην Accusative. τούτους ταῦτα ταύτας
Dual. Nom., Acc., Voc., τούτω, ταῦτα; Gen., Dat., τούτοιν, ταύταιν



§ 40. There are three Voices, Active, Middle, and Passive, generally distinguished by the termination.

The Middle is properly reflexive. Some of its tenses have an active meaning. A few verbs, called deponent, are throughout pass. in form, but act. or mid. in meaning.

§ 41. There are five Mood in each voice, the Indicative, Imperative, Subjunctive, Optative, and Infinitive, to which may be added the Participles; they are mostly known by means of the union-vowel--that which immediately precedes the termination.

§ 42. The Indic., Imper., Infin., and Participles correspond to the English, and have a short union-vowel, (ε, ο, or α,) except the Perf. and Pluperf. pass., which have no union-vowel; the Pluperf. act. and mid., which have ει; and the Aorists pass., which have η or its equivalent.

§ 43. The Imper. has but two persons. 2d and 3d. The Infin. has but one termination for all numbers and persons, and is very often used as a neut. noun, with the article, etc., yet retaining its construction as a verb.

§ 44. The Subj. and Opt. are used in certain dependent relations, like the English subjunctive and potential; the former has a long union-vowel, (η or ω,) and the latter a diphthong, (οι, αι, or ει.) The former generally represents an act as contingent upon outward circumstances, and the latter upon a will.

§ 45. The Tenses are nine, the Present, Imperfect, Perfect, Pluperfect, two Aorists, (1st and 2d, equivalent in sense,) and three Futures, (1st and 2d, equivalent to each other, and 3d, very rarely used;) they are distinguished by certain letters prefixed, inserted, or added to the stem or root of the verb. They represent time as compared with the present, and never date from that of a preceding verb.

§ 46. The Pres., Perf., Pluperf., and Fut. answer very nearly to the same tenses in English.

§ 47. The Imperf. denotes an act as going on, but incomplete or habitual at some time past: "was doing," etc.

§ 48. The Aorists indicate a single act at a definite time, (past in the Indic., but undetermined in the others moods.)

§ 49. All the tenses with respect to form may be classed thus:--

I. Primary, or Absolute. Present. Perfect. Futures.
II. Secondary, or Historical. Imperfect. Pluperfect. Aorists.

These classes usually have the following endings respectively:--

Active Form. Persons. Middle and Passive.
I. II. I. II.
Pres. and Fut. Perf. Opt. Sing.
ο -- ν μι 1st μαι μην
ις ς 2d σαι (σ)ο
ι -- 3d ται το
μεν 1st μεϑα
τε 2d σϑε
(ντ) σι (ν) (σα)ν 3d νται ντο
[2d, τον, 3d, την. Dual. 1st, μεϑον, 2d, σϑον, 3d, σϑην.]

Notes on the Table of Verb Endings.

§ 50. In the Pres. and Fut. the ο of the 1st sing. act. is contracted (with the union-vowel) into ω, and the σαι of the 2d sing. pass. into ῃ or ει.

§ 51. Signification limits the primary terminations to the Indic. and Subj., and the secondary to the Indic. and Opt.: likewise the Imperf. and Pluperf. to the Indic., and the Imper. to the Pres., the Aorists and (rarely) the Perf.

§ 52. The active terminations are assumed throughout by the Perf. and Pluperf. mid., and the Aorists pass.

§ 53. The terminations of the Imper. are analogous to the secondary in the act., and in the mid. and pass. they are merely the same strengthened, thus: Sing. 2d,--[Aor. pass, ϑι, 1st Aor. act. (σ)ov] (pass. ο [1st Aor. mid. ι] or σο); 3d, τω (pass. σϑω,) Plur. 2d, τε (pass. σϑε); 3d, τωσαν [or contr. ντων] (pass, σϑωσαν. [Dual. 2d, τον (σϑον); 3d, των (σϑων,)]

§ 54. The Infin. in the act. forms ends in εν, [contr., with union-vowel into ειν] (Pres., Fut., and 2d Aor.,) αι, (1st Aor.,) or ναι, (Perf. act. and mid. and both Aor. pass.;) elsewhere in σϑαι.

§ 55. In the Participles the stem ends in ντ in the act. forms, (except the Perf. act. and mid., which have ότ;) the rest take μεν, (Perf. pass, μέν.) These latter are [masc. and neut.] of the second declension, the others of the third.

§ 56. Verbs in μι insert σ before the final ι of the 3d pers. sing. Pres. Indic. act., and vary in a few other terminations, chiefly by contraction.



§ 57. The root of every primitive verb is a monosyllable, consisting of a short vowel (α, ε, ι, ο, or υ) between two (usually simple) consonants. Sometimes one or the other of the latter has been dropped far back in the etymology. This root is most readily found in the 1st Fut., subject only to euphonic changes. The 2d Aor. always has a monosyllabic root, with a single vowel never long; but this may be somewhat different from the true root. Primitive verbs only have a 2d Aor.

§ 58. The Pres. and Imperf. commonly strengthen the root, either by adding a hard consonant, (sometimes more than one,) or (oftener) by changing the root vowel into the corresponding long one or diphthong.

§ 59. The following tenses add certain characteristic letters to the root:--

1st Fut. and 1st Aor. act. and mid., (of verbs not liquid,) and 3d Fut.ο
1st Aor. pass.ϑ
1st Fut. pass.ϑησ
2d Fut. pass.ηο
2d (in liquid verbs 1st) Fut. act. and mid.ε
Perf. and Pluperf. Act. of pure and liquid verbsκ
Perf. and pluperf. act. ending in a pi- or kappa-mute(῾)

§ 60. Tenses expressing past time (Imperf. and Aorists Indic.) prefix ε ("syllabic augment") to the root; this coalesces with an initial vowel ("temporal augment") into the corresponding long vowel or diphthong. The Perf., Pluperf., and 3d Fut. not only do the same throughout the moods, but also prefix to the syllabic augment the initial consonant of the root ("reduplication") when this is a simple consonant or a mute followed by a liquid. The Pluperf. prefixes a second syllabic augment to the reduplication.

§ 61. Initial ρ, (which is doubled after the syllabic augment,) βλ, γλ, and γν, do not, except in a few cases, allow the reduplication. Verbs compounded with a preposition generally take the augment, etc., between it and the primitive. A few other irregularities occur.

§ 62. Verbs are classified in conjugation according to the radical letter following the root vowel, or diphthong, in the 1st pers. sing. Pres. Indic. act., lexicon form: in "liquid" verbs (not derivatives in άνω, which is merely strengthened for άω) this is a liquid; in "pure" verbs it is absent, so that the root appears to end in a vowel, etc. Very many verbs seem to be anomalous in some of their forms in consequence of deriving these from an obsolete kindred root. The lexicon gives most of these peculiarities.

§ 63. Liquid verbs almost always strengthen their root in the Pres. and Imperf.; they lengthen it in the 1st Aor. act. and mid. by changing the root vowel, if α into η, if ε into ει, while ι and ν merely become long. ε as a root vowel is generally changed into α in the 1st Aor. and 1st Fut. pass., the Perf. and Pluperf. act. and pass., and the 2d Aor. and 2d Fut. throughout, and again into ο in the Perf. and Pluperf. mid.

§ 64. The above strengthening in the Pres. and Imperf. consists in doubling λ, annexing ν to μ; or, in case of ν or ρ, in adding ι to a preceding α or ε, or lengthening ι or υ. The radical ν is often dropped in Perf. and Pluperf.

§ 65. Verbs with ε followed by a pi- or kappa-mute in the root frequently neglect to strengthen it in the Pres. and Imperf.; and verbs with ε in the root preceded by a liquid, usually change it into α and ο in the same tenses as liquid verbs, except in the 1st Aor. and Fut. pass.

§ 66. Pure verbs lengthen the root vowel before a tense characteristic, also in the Perf. and Pluperf. pass. A few occasionally neglect this, and some insert σ instead.

§ 67. Verbs in μι (lexicon form instead of ω) are but another mode of conjugating pure verbs (being the only primitives of that class whose root ends in α, ε, or o) in the Pres., Imperf., and 2d Aor.; in all which tenses the union-vowel coalesces with the root vowel. They have a peculiar inflection, chiefly by reason of the Imperf. and 2d Aor. act. taking throughout the terminations of the Aorists pass. The Pres. and Imperf. reduplicate with ι the initial consonant, (prefixing simply ί if that cannot be done, and sometimes adopting other modes of strengthening,) and in the act. they lengthen the root in the Indic., α or ε into η, ο into ω. The 2d Aor. (those in υμι being factitious have not this tense) has in the act. a long vowel or diphthong throughout, except the Imperative ε or o, and the Participle.

Notes on Certain Verbs in μι.

§ 68. τίϑημι [to put] has, in the Act., 1st Aor. ἒϑηκα, Perf. τέϑεικα; ὀίὀωμι [to give] has, 1st Aor., ἒδωκα.

§ 69. εἰμί [to be] is inflected thus: εὶ [thou art], ἐστί(ν) [is], ἐσμέν, ἐστί, εἰσί(ν) [we, ye, they are], ἱσϑι [be thou], ὤν [being], etc.; the rest mostly regular. See the lexicon for these, and for ἵημι [to send], and εἰμι [to go].

§ 70. Several verbs annex σκω, ίνω, (ν)νυμι, etc., instead of μι, etc., in the Pres. and Imperf.



§ 71. All words placed under the same construction agree together in all the accidents which they possess in common.

§ 72. "Apposition" occurs as in English.

§ 73. Adjectives agree with their nouns in gender, number, and case.

§ 74. The noun is often understood, especially if neut., ("things.")

§ 75. Sometimes a relative is "attracted" into the case of the omitted antecedent.

§ 76. A verb agrees with its subject nominative in number and person.

§ 77. The case of the subject of the Infin. depends upon other relations.

§ 78. Neuters plur. generally have a sing. verb.


§ 79. Any word may govern another (or others) which in sense is dependent upon it in the case appropriate for expressing such relation either with or without a preposition.

     |                >>>---|----->                |
  Genitive.              Dative.              Accusative.

§ 80. GENITIVE, denoting origin, answering to Whence? and expressed by from.

§ 81. "Local," involving external relations of space, either in a literal or a figurative sense. This includes actual motion from an object, generally with a preposition, (ἀπό ἐκ παρά;) separation from it, usually with verbs compounded with a preposition; and commencement.

§ 82. "Causal," denoting a more internal relation, as if the outgoing of some agency or property, as follows:--

§ 83. Active, either direct, inferential, or metaphysical. This includes relations of source, (e.g., derivation, [commonly with ἐκ, sometimes ἀπό, direct authorship with ὐπό,] possession, property, [often with an Infin.]) partitive use, (e.g., a class, material, partial relations,) and the Gen. of time, (in the course of which,) especially the "Gen. absolute," with a Participle, as affording occasion.

§ 84. Passive, that is, indirect, the act being for the sake of the Gen. This includes verbs implying a mental operation, adjectives, and other words denoting skill, and the Gen. of crime or purpose, (the last mostly an Infin. with the article.)

§ 85. Mutual, e.g., comparison and price or penalty.

§ 86. The "attributive Gen." is a comprehensive relation, arising under several of the above heads, between two nouns designating different objects, which may be thus expressed: When two nouns are connected with each other, that one which completes the idea of the other and defines it more fully is put in the Gen.

§ 87. Dative, denoting position, answering to Where? and expressed by at.

§ 88. "Local," involving the more palpable relations of position. This includes the place, (at, by, near, in the midst of; generally with ἐν, ἐπί, παρά, etc.,) association, accompaniment, (frequently with σύν,) and the time (as a date) or circumstances of a transaction.

§ 89. "Causal," denoting the object upon which the act or state appears, thus conceived as sharing in producing it, as follows:--

§ 90. Personal, either actually or so imagined. This includes words expressing a correlative idea, as community, (in varied relations,) likeness, possession, agency, reference, etc.

§ 91. Instrumental, as the mediate cause, e.g., the ground or reason, the means, the instrument, manner, and the measure of excess or deficiency.

§ 92. In comprehensive phrase the "attributive Dat." expresses many indirect relations of an object to or for which an act is performed or a condition sustained.

§ 93. Accusative, denoting direction, answering to Whither? and expressed by toward.

§ 94. "Local" involving the boundary, place, or object of motion, especially with εἰς.

§ 95. "Causal," involving an influence, change, or result, as impressed upon the object, as follows:--

§ 96. The effect, either the thing effected, an attribute of the effect, or the effect intended.

§ 97. The object acted upon, e.g., with directly transitive verbs, those expressing a good or bad influence, patience, swearing, sometimes a mental affection, etc.; also the space or way after a verb of motion; the time, (throughout which,) measure, and weight; and finally ("Attributive Accusative") with any verb or adj. (sometimes other words) to define its application more closely, especially if of kindred signification.

Order of Words in a Sentence.

§ 98. This is usually not, as in English, that of grammatical dependence, but rather the order of thought; important or emphatic words come first, after the connecting particles; prepositions and the article precede their nouns; and qualifying terms are grouped in a harmonious balance around the principal ones.


Exercise on John 1, 1-5.

1 Ἐν1     ἀρχῇ2      ἦν34  Λόγος,5 καὶ64  Λόγος6 ἦν3
  In  the beginning was the Word,   and  the Word   was

2 πρὸς7 τὸν8 θεόν,9 καὶ6 θεὸς10 ἦν34  Λόγος.5 Οὗτος11
  with       God,   and  God    was the Word.   This one

3 ἦν3 ἐν1      ἀρχῇ2      πρὸς7 τὸν8 θεόν.9 Πάντα12   δι'13
  was in  the beginning with       God.   All things by

  αὐτοῦ14 ἐγένετο,15 καὶ6 χωρὶς16 αὐτοῦ14 ἐγένετο15   οὐδὲ17
  him     were made, and  without him     was made    not even

4 ἓν1819      γέγονεν.20     Ἐν1 αὐτῷ21  ζωὴ22  ἦν,3 καὶ6
  one thing which    has been made. In  him     life   was, and

523  ζωὴ22 ἦν3 τὸ24 φῶς25 τῶν26 ἀνϑρώπων·27 καὶ6 τὸ24
  the  life  was the  light       of men;     and  the

  φως25 ἐν1 τῇ28 σκοτίᾳ29 φαίνει,30 καὶ623 σκοτία31
  light in  the  darkness shines,   and  the darkness

  αὐτὸ32 οὐ33 κατέλαβεν.34
  it     not  admitted.

Directions.--Spell the Greek, giving the English equivalents of the consonants, (as in § 1,) and the exact phonetic value or sound of the vowels. Call the rough breathing h. Be careful to put the spoken accent where it is written. Continue this practice through all the passages given in the following lessons, until the words can be pronounced readily and accurately. Familiarize yourself with the forms of the letters by writing them. Let the pupil do this while learning the foregoing grammatical lessons, and after the recitation of each of them let the teacher direct attention, while the passage at the head of the reading lessons is pronounced, to the examples illustrating each point, as they occur--by way of paradigm.

Parsing Notes on the Above.

1. Ἐν--prep. atonic, § 3; stands first, § 98.

2. ἀρχῇ--noun, from nom. ἀρχή, 1st decl. fem., § 28; circumflex, § 6; local dat., § 88; emphatic position, § 98.

3. ἦν--verb, irreg. in μι, § 69; 3d pers. sing. imperf. indic. act., § 47; ν appended irreg. as ending, § 49; long vowel, § 67.

4. ὁ--art., nom. masc. sing., § 39; agrees with its noun, § 73; following, § 98.

5. Αόγος--noun, 2d decl. nom. sing. masc., § 30; subject of ἡν, § 76; balances clause, § 98.

6. καί--conj., changed accent, § 5; position, § 98.

7. πρός--prep., lit., towards; gov. acc., § 27; accent, § 5.

8. τόν--art., acc. sing. masc., § 39; agreement, § 73.

9. θεόν--noun, lit., [the] deity; 2d decl. masc., § 25; acc. sing., § 30; government, § 94; position, § 98.

10. θεός--same as 9; nom. agreeing with subj., § 71; without the art. because the predicate; emphatic position, § 98.

11. Οὖτος--pron., § 39; agrees with Αόγος, understood (§ 73) as subj. of sentence; first as connective; accent, § 6; and breathing, § 10.

12. Πάντα --adj. pron., from τάς, (stem, πάντ); 3d decl. nom. plur. neut., § 32; indef. without noun expressed, § 74; subject of sentence; emphatic position, § 98.

13. δι'--prep, for δια, with final letter elided, § 22.

14. αὐτοῦ--adj. pron. used as personal; gen. masc. sing., § 30; causal, § 82. Gen. and dat. of 1st and 2d decl. are always circumflex when accented on last syllable.

15. ἐγένετο--verb, came to be, lit., was born; from γίνομαι, (for γίγνομαι, strengthened [§ 63] by reduplication, [§ 67,] and then contracted for γιγεν;) depon., § 40; true root γεν, [our kin,] § 57, here appearing in 2d aor. mid., § 48; ἐ is simple aug., (hence the verb is in the indic., § 60;) third ε is mood-vowel, § 42; το is 3d pers. sing. mid., § 49; agreement with subj., § 78.

16. χωρίς--prep., lit., apart; accent, § 5; case after, § 81.

17. οὐδέ--compound neg. particle, from οὐ and δε.

18. ἓv--numeral adj., § 74; 3d decl. nom. sing. neut., § 32; subj. of ἐγένετο.

19. ὃ--relative adj., § 39; 2d decl. nom. sing. neut., § 34; agreement, § 73; subj. of γέγονε.

20. γέγονεν--verb, same as 15; root-vowel changed in perf. mid., § 63; γε is reduplication, § 60; last ε is mood-vowel of indic., § 42; no additional ending, § 44; hence 3d pers. sing. (perf.) act., § 52; final ν added before pause, § 17.

21. αὐτῳ-- pron., same as 14; dat. sing. masc., § 30; government, as 2.

22. ζωή --noun, 1st decl. fem. nom. sing., § 28; subject of verb following.

23. ἡ--art., fem. nom. sing., § 39; agrees with ζωή, § 73; atonic, § 3.

24. τό--art., neut. nom. sing., § 39; agrees with φῶς.

25. φῶς--noun, 3d. decl. nom. sing. neut., (stem φῶτ for φάοτ); ς here added (as some neut. nouns have) and τ dropped, § 14; predicate nom., § 71.

26. τῶν--art., gen. plur. masc., § 39; agreement, § 73.

27. ἀνϑρώπων--noun, from ἄν. ϑρωπος; 2d decl. gen. plur. masc., § 32; government, § 86; accent, § 4.

28. τῇ--art., dat. sing. fem., § 39; agreement, § 73.

29. σκοτία--noun from σκοτία; 1st decl. dat. sing. fem., § 29; final α, § 29; ι subscript, § 9; government, § 88.

30. φαίνει--verb, from φαίνω; root, φαν, strengthened, § 64; ε is mood-vowel of indic., § 42; final ι is tense-ending of pres. 3d sing. act., § 49; agrees with φῶς, § 76.

31. σκοτία--noun, as 29; nom. sing., subj. of clause.

32. αὐτό--pron., as 21; acc. neut. sing., § 39; object of κατέλαβε, § 97.

33. οὐ-- simple neg. adv.; atonic, § 3.

34. κατέλαβεν--verb, from καταλαμβάνω; comp. of κατά, down, and λαμβάνω, I receive; the root of the simple verb is λαβ, here appearing in the 2d Aor., § 57; aug., § 60, excluding final α of prep., § 61; last ε likewise shows indic., § 42; no tense-ending in 3d pers. sing. act. secondary, § 49 ν appended. § 17. The tense expresses the act of the Jews in rejecting Christ.

Lesson VIII.

Exercise on John 1, 6-11.

 6 Ἐγένετο1  ἄνϑρωπος2 ἀπεσταλμένος3 παρὰ4 θεοῦ,5 ὄνομα6
   There was a man     sent          from  God,   the name

 7 αὐτῷ7       Ἰωάννης·8 οὗτος9    ἠλϑεν10 εἰς11 μαρτυρίαν,12 ἵνα13
   to him was    John:   this one came     for   testimony    that

   μαρτυρήσῃ14         περὶ15     τοῦ16 Φωτός,17 ἵνα13 πάντες18
   he might testify concerning   the   Light,  that    all

 8 πιστεύσωσι19     δἰ20   αὐτοῦ.21 Οὐκ22 ἦν23 ἐκεῖνος24  τὸ25 Φῶς,26
   might believe through   him.    Not  was  that one  the  Light,

 9 ἀλλ'27 ἵνα13 μαρτυρήσῃ14         περὶ15   τοῦ16 Φωτός.17  Ἠν23
   but    that he might testify concerning the   Light.   There was

   τὸ25 Φῶς26 τὸ25 ἀληϑινόν,2829 φωτίζει30 πάντα31 ἄνϑρωπον,32
   the  Light the  true one, which lights    every     man,

10 ἐρχόμενον33 εἰς11 τὸν34 κόσμον.35 Ἐν36 τῷ37 κόσμῳ38 ἦv,23
   coming      into  the  world.   In   the  world   he was,

   καὶ3940 κόσμος41   δἰ20   αὐτοῦ21 ἐγένετο,1 καὶ3940 κόσμος41
   and  the  world  through   him    was made, and the   world

11 αὐτὸν42 οὐκ22 ἔγνω.43 Εἰς11 τὰ44 ἴδια45       ἧλϑε,10 καὶ39 οἱ46
   him     not  knew.   To    the  own things he came, and the

   ἴδιοι47     αὐτὸν42 οὐ22 παρέλαβαν.48
   own persons him   not    received.

1. Ἐγένετο--See lesson vii, No. 15.

2. ἄνϑρωπος--See vii, 27; subj. of sentence.

3. ἀπεσταλμένος--part. from ἀποστέλλω, lit., I send away; comp. of prep, ἀπό, off, and στέλλω, I send; root στελ, vowel changed, § 63; aug. cuts off final ο of prep., § 61; no reduplication, § 60; perf. tense because aug. beyond indic., § 60; and no union-vowel, § 42; pass. part. ending μεν, (§ 55,) accent; ος is nom. masc. sing., §§ 34, 30; agrees with ἄνϑρωπος, § 73.

4. παρά--prep., lit., near; with gen., =from near.

5. θεοῦ--See vii, 9, 10; here gen., § 81.

6. ὄνομα--noun; neut, 3d decl. nom. sing.; (stem, ονοματ, final mute always dropped for euphony;) subj. to was understood, (copula may freely be supplied.)

7. αὐτῷ--pers. adj. pron.; dat. sing. masc. from αὐτός, vii, 14; governed, § 92.

8. Ἰωάννης--prop. noun; 1st decl. masc. nom. sing., § 28; predicate after neut. verb, (understood,) agreeing with subj., § 71.

9. οὗτος--See vii, 11.

10. ἠλϑεν--verb, assigned to ἔρχομαι, but really from defective ἐλεύϑω; root, ελϑ; temporal aug., [ε+ε=η,] § 60; hence indic., as union-vowel (ε) following also shows, § 42; simple root 2d aor., § 57; hence no tense ending in 3d pers. sing. act., § 49; ν appended, § 17; accent, § 6.

11. εἰς--prep., lit., to, that is, here, for the purpose of; atonic, § 3.

12. μαρτυρίαν--noun; 1st decl. fem. acc. sing., from ία, § 28; governed, § 96.

13. ἵνα--conj., meaning, in order that; introducing dependent clause.

14. μαρτυρήσῃ--verb, from μαρτυρέω; first η is root-vowel, lengthened before tense-sign, (§ 66,) which is σ of 1st fut., § 59; ῃ is union-vowel of subj., (§ 44,) the subscribed ι being 3d pers. sing. act., § 49; accent, § 4.

15. περῖ--prep., lit., around; governs gen., § 82.

16. τοῦ--art.; gen. sing. neut., § 39.

17. Φωτός--noun, see vii, 25. Gen. (sing.) and dat. (sing. and plur.) of monosyllables of 3d decl. accent the ultimate.

18. πάντες--See vii, 12; nom. masc. plur., men being understood, § 74; subj. of clause.

19. πιστεύσωσι--verb, from πιστεύω; second σ is sign of 1st fut., § 59; ω sign of subj., § 44; σι 3d plur. act., § 49.

20. δἰ--See vii, 13.

21. αὐτοῦ--See vii, 14.

22. Οὐκ--neg. adv., same as οὐ, (vii, 83,) with euphonic κ before a vowel.

23. ἦν--See vii, 3.

24. ἐκεῖνος--demonst, adj. pron., § 39; =he, nom. masc. sing., subj. of sentence, § 27; accent, § 6.

25. τὸ--See vii, 24.

26. Φῶς--See vii, 25.

27. ἀλλ᾿--conj. for ἀλλά, final vowel elided, § 22.

28. ἀληϑινόν--adj., from ἀληϑινός; neut. 2d decl., § 34; nom. sing., § 30; agreeing with Φῶς, § 73.

29. ὃ--See vii, 19.

30. φωτίζει--verb, from φωτίζω; strengthened root, § 58; ε union vowel of indic., § 42; final ι 3d sing. (pres.) act., § 49.

31. πάντα--indef. adj., see No. 18; acc. sing. masc. agreeing with ἄνϑρωπον, § 73.

32. ἄνϑρωπον--noun, see No. 2; acc. sing., § 30; governed, § 97.

33. ἐρχόμενον--part. from ἔρχομαι, see No. 10; deponent, § 40; pres. pass., § 55; sing., § 30; either acc. masc., (and then agreeing with ἄνϑρωπον,) or, as is better, (see John iii, 19,) nom. neut., (and then agreeing with φῶς.)

34. τόν--See vii, 8.

35. κόσμον--noun, from κόσμος; acc. sing. 2d decl., § 30; governed, § 94.

36. ἐν--See vii, 1.

37. τῷ--art., dat. sing. masc., § 39; agrees with κοσμῳ, § 73.

38. κόσμῳ--noun, see No. 35; dat. sing., § 8.

39. καί--See vii, 6.

40. ὁ--See vii, 4.

41. κόσμος--noun, see No. 35; subj., § 27.

42. αὐτόν--pron., see No. 7; acc. sing. masc., § 97.

43. ἔγνω--verb, from γιγνώσκω, (strengthened [§ 70] from root γνω, [§ 67,] =our know); 2d aor., § 57; ε is augment of indic., § 60; ω is root and union-vowel, § 67; no other ending, hence 3d sing. act., § 49.

44. τὰ--art., plur. neut. acc., § 39.

45. ἴδια--adj., fr. ἴδιος; plur. neut. acc., § 30; agreement, § 74; meaning home here, (lit., the own things of him;) government, § 44.

46. οἱ--art., nom. plur. masc., § 39.

47. ἴδιοι--adj., see No. 45; nom. plur. masc., § 30; meaning family here, § 74; subj., § 27.

48. παρέλαβον--verb from παραλαμβάνω, compounded with παρά, near, (see No. 4,) as in vii, 34; 2d aor., § 57; indic., § 42; 3d plur., § 49.



12 Ὁσοι1    δὲ2      ἔλαβον3  αὐτόν,4 ἔδωκεν5 αὐτοῖς6 ἐξσυσίαν7
   Whoever, however, received him,    he gave to them privilege

   τέκνα8      θεοῦ9 γενέσϑαι,10 τοῖς11       πιστεύουσιν12 εἰς13 τὸ14
   children of God   to become,  to the ones believing     to    the

13 ὄνομα15 αὐτοῦ·16 οἳ17 οὐκ18 ἐξ19 αἱμάτων,20 οὐδὲ21 ἐκ
   name    of him;  who  not   out  of bloods, nor    out of

   ϑελήματος22 σαρκός,23 οὐδὲ ἐκ  ϑελήματος22 ἀνδρός,24 ἀλλ'25 ἐκ
   will        of flesh, nor  out of will     of man,   but    out

14 θεοῦ   ἐγεννήϑησαν.26 Καὶ ὁ   Λόγος27 σὰρξ28 ἐγένετο,29 καὶ
   of God were born.     And the Word    flesh  became,    and

   ἐσκήνωσεν30 ἐν31  ἡμῖν,32 (καὶ ἐϑεασάμεϑα33 τὴν δόξαν34
   tented      among us,      and we beheld    the glory   of

   αὐτοῦ, δόξαν ὡς35 μονογενοῦς36     παρά37    Πατρός,38)   πλήρης39
   him, glory as   of an only-born near from a Father,) full

15 χάριτος40 καὶ ἀληϑείας.41 Ἰωάννης42 μαρτυρεῖ43 περὶ44
   of grace  and truth.      John      testifies  about

  αὐτοῦ,  καὶ κέκραγε45  λέγων·46 Οὗτος47 ἦν48     ὃν49  εἶπον·50 Ὁ
   him, and has cried, saying.  This    was he whom  I said,  The

   ὀπίσω51           μοῦ52 ἐρχόμενος53 ἔμπροσϑέν54 μου γέγονεν,55  ὅτι56
   one behind me    coming,     before      me  has become; because

16 πρῶτός57 μου   ἦν.     Καὶ ἐκ  τοῦ    πληρώματος58 αὐτοῦ  ἡμεῖς59
   first    of me he was. And out of the fullness     of him WE

17 πάντες60 ἐλάβομεν,61 καὶ62 χάριν63 ἀντὶ64 χάριτος· ὅτι     ὁ
   all      received,   and   grace   for    grace:   because the

   νόμος65 δίὰ     Μωϋσέως66 εδόϑη,67   ἡ   χάρις καὶ ἡ   ἀλήϑεια
   law      through Moses     was given; the grace and the truth

18 διὰ     Ἰησοῦ68 Χριστοῦ69 ἐγένετο.70 θεὸν71 οὐδείς72 ἐώρακε73
   through Jesus   Christ    became.    God    no-one   has seen

   πώποτε·74 ὁ   μονογενὴς75 Υἱός,76 ὁ         ὢν77  εἰς78  τὸν
   ever;     the only-born   Son,    the one  being into   the

   κόλπον79 τοῦ    Πατρός, ἐκεῖνος80   ἐξηγήσατο.81
   bosom    of the Father, that one explained Him.

1. Comp. ὅσος, § 39; nom. plur. masc., § 30.

2. Not first, § 98.

3. λαμβάνω, vii, 34; 3 plur. 2 aor. act.

4. vii, 14; acc. sing. masc., § 39; gov., § 97.

5. διδωμι, § 68; 3 sing., § 49; aug., § 60; mood-vowel, § 42; ν, § 17.

6. No. 4; dat. plur. masc., § 92.

7. ἐξονσία, § 28; acc. sing., § 97.

8. τέκυον, § 30; acc. sing., after neut. verb γενέσϑαι, § 72.

9. vii, 9; gen. sing. § 86.

10. vii, 15; 2 aor. mid. infin., § 54; accent peculiar.

11. vii, 4; dat. plur. masc., § 73.

12. πιστεύω; str. pres., § 58; act. part., § 55; οντς (§ 42) becomes ους, §§ 14, 16, 19; 3 decl., § 55; dat. plur., § 32; agrees with αὐτοῖς, § 72; as if a noun, § 74.

13. viii, 9; denotes close union.

14. § 39; agree., § 73.

15. neut. 3 decl. acc. sing., § 32; τ dropped in stem υατ, § 18; gov., § 94.

16. As No. 6; gov., § 86.

17. vii, 19; nom. plur. masc., § 30; subj. of ἐγεννήϑησαν, § 27.

18. viii, 8.

19. For ἐκ before a vowel, § 18; atonic, § 3.

20. αἷμα, neut. 3 decl. like No. 15; gen., § 81; plur. is Hebraistic, of natural descent; accent, § 4.

21. vii, 17, used as conj.

22. ϑέλημα, like No. 15; gov., § 81.

23. σάρξ, fem. 3 decl., § 32; gov., § 86; accent special.

24. ἀνήρ, irreg. 3 decl.; gen. sing., § 86.

25. vii, 20.

26. γεννάω, strictly, I beget; prim. as vii, 15; 2 aor. pass. 3 plur., (analyze.)

27. vii, 5.

28. No. 23; nom. sing., § 32; ξ, § 13.

29. vii, 15.

30. σκηνόω, from σκῆνος, a tent; 1 aor. act. 3 sing., (analyze.)

31. vii, 1.

32. § 38; gov., § 88.

33. ϑείομαι, depon., § 40; 1 aor, mid., 1 plur., (analyze;) subj. ἡμεῖς understood, unemphatic.

34. δόξα, § 29; acc. sing., § 97.

35. atonic, § 3.

36. μονογενής, 3 decl., two term., § 34; gen. sing. masc., § 86; έος becomes οῦς, § 6.

37. Takes gen., dat., or acc.

38. πατήρ, 3 decl., contr. like No. 24; gov., § 81.

39. 3 decl., like No. 36; nom. sing. masc., § 73.

40. χάρις, (τ dropped, § 14); 3 decl. fem. sing., § 83.

41. ἀλήϑεια, § 29; gen.sing., § 83; accent, § 4.

42. 1 decl. masc., § 28.

43. μαρτυρέω, § 62; pres. ind. act., § 42; 3 sing., § 49; έει becomes εῖ, § 20.

44. Gen. as if from the center, § 81.

45. κράξω, (§ 58) for κραγ, § 57; perf. act., § 60; irreg., § 59; 3 sing., § 49.

46. λέγω, § 65; pres. part. act., § 55; nom. masc. sing., § 32; ων for οντς, § 19, and viii, 5.

47. § 39.

48. vii, 3.

49. vii, 19; acc. sing. masc., attrib., § 97.

50. Def. verb; 2 aor. act. ind., 3 sing. for εεπ, (analyze.)

51. Gov. gen. like No. 44.

52. § 38.

53. ἔρχομαι, depon., § 40; pres. part., § 55; nom. masc. sing., § 30.

54. No. 51; accent from "enclitic," § 3.

55. vii, 20.

56. Conj.

57. For πρότατος, § 35; gov. gen. compar., (§ 85,) or attrib., § 86.

58. πλήρωμα, like No. 22; gov., § 81.

59. § 38; emphat., No. 33.

60. vii, 12; nom. plur. masc., § 73.

61. No. 3; 1 plur., § 49.

62. Even.

63. No. 40; acc. sing., § 32; depends upon ἐλάβομεν, § 97; τ of stem dropped, § 18.

64. Gov. gen., § 85.

65. § 30.

66. Μωϋσέως, § 32; Attic gen., § 33; gov., § 82.

67. δίδωμι, § 67; reg. in 1 aor. pass., § 59; irreg. short root vowel, § 66; long union-vowel, § 42; 3 sing., § 52.

68. Irreg. gen. sing. from Ἰησοῦς, § 30.

69. Χριστός, § 40.

70. vii, 15.

71. vii, 9.

72. Comp. of οὐδέ, vii, 17, and εἷς, numeral, irreg.

73. ὁράω, irreg. redup., § 60; perf. act., § 59; 3 sing.

74. Comp. adv.

75. No. 36.

76. § 30.

77. εἰμί, § 69; like No. 46.

78. No 13.

79. § 30.

80. viii, 19.

81. Depon. ἐξηγήομαι, § 40; 1 aor. mid., § 59; aug. merged in first η, § 61; indic., § 42; 3 sing., § 49.


EXERCISE ON OUR LORD'S PRAYER, (Matt, vi, 9-13; Luke xi, 2-4.)

Οὕτως οὖν       προσεύχεσϑε1 ὑμεῖς· (Ὅταν     προσεύχησϑε,2
Thus  therefore     pray      YE:  (Whenever    ye pray,

λέγετε·3) Πάτερ4 ἡμῶν   ὁ        ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς,5 ἁγιασϑήτω6      τὸ
say:)     Father of us, the one  in the  heavens, let be hallowed the

ὄνομά7 σου,     έλϑέτω8   ἡ  βασιλεία9 σου,     γενηϑήτω10   τὸ
name   of thee; let come the kingdom   of thee; let be done  the

ϑέλημἄ11 σου      ως ἐν οὐρανῷ12 καὶ  ἐπὶ  τῆς γῆς,13 τὸν ἄρτον14
will   of thee,   as in heaven, also upon the earth; the bread

ἡμῶν   τὸν ἐπιούσιον15 δὸς16 (δίδου17) ἡμῖν  σήμερον,18     (τὸ19
of us, the  needful,   give  (give)   to us to-day; as to the time

καϑ᾽20 ἡμέραν,21) καὶ ἄφες22  ἡμῖν  τὰ  ὀφειλήματα23 (τὰς ἁμαρτίας24)
by     day;     and forgive to us the debts        (the sins)

ἡμῶν,  ὡς καὶ  ἡμεῖς ἀφίεμεν25 τοῖς   ὀφειλέταις26 ἡμῶν,  (καὶ
of us, as also we    forgive   to the debtors    of us; (and this do,

γὰρ αὐτοἱ27    ἀφίεμεν25      παντὶ28 ὀφε λοντι29 ἡμῖν,)  καὶ μὴ
for ourselves we forgive to every one owing    to us;) and not

εἰσενέγκῃς30     ἡμᾶς εἰς  πειρασμόν,31 ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι32      ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ
mayest thou lead us   into trial;       but  deliver thou us   away

τοῦ      πονηροῦ·33 [ὅτι     σοῦ     ἐστὶν34 ἡ   βασιλεία,9 καὶ  ἡ
from the evil:      [because of thee is      the kingdom,   and  the

δύναμις,35 καὶ ἡ   δόξα36 εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας.37 ἀμήν.38]
power,     and the glory  to  the  ages.     Amen.]

Remark.--The words above in parentheses are the variations in the passage of Luke. The concluding doxology in brackets is not found in the oldest manuscripts, and is probably spurious.

1. προσεύχομαι, lit., pray towards; depon., § 40; pres., § 58; indic., § 42; 2d plur. mid., § 49.

2. Subj., § 42; required by conditional particle preceding, § 44.

3. λέγω; pres., § 65; imper., § 42; 2d plur. act., § 49.

4. πατήρ, (accent irregularly shifted;) 3d decl., § 32; voc. sing., § 27.

5. οὐρανός, § 30; dat. plur., § 88.

6. ἁγιάζω, root ἁγιαδ, from ἅγιος =holy; 1st aor. pass., § 59; σ for δ, § 14; η in imper., § 42; 3d pers. sing., § 53; as if act., § 52.

7. ix, 5; accent, § 3.

8. viii, 8; 2d aor. § 48; imper. § 42; 3d sing. act., § 53.

9. Nom. sing. fem., § 29; cannot take the enclitic's accent (§ 3) like No. 7, as another acute immediately precedes.

10. γίνομαι, vii, 15; 1st aor. pass., No. 6; first η assumed irreg. as if a deriv.

11. No. 7.

12. No. 5; dat. sing., § 88.

13. γῆ, § 28; gen. sing., of place all over, like time, § 83.

14. ἄρτος. § 30; acc. sing. § 97.

15. ἐπιούσιος, prob. comp. of ἐπί, for, and οὐσία, subsistence; used only here; acc. sing. masc., § 34.

16. From δίδωμι, § 67; irreg,, 2d aor. imp. 2d sing. act.

17. Same verb; irreg. pres. imper. 2d sing. act.

18. Compound adv.

19. Elliptical, § 74; "attrib. acc." § 97.

20. For κατά, §§ 22, 14.

21. From ἡμέρα, § 29; acc. sing. of time, § 97; here distributive, daily.

22. From ἀφίημι=send away; ἀπό and ἵημι, § 69; irreg. 2d aor. imper.; 2d sing. act., like No. 16.

23. From ὀφείλημα, like No. 7; acc. plur. neut., § 32.

24. From ἁμαρτία. § 28.

25. From same as No. 22; pres. ind. 1st plur. act., § 49;

26. From ὀφειλέτης, § 28; dat. plur., § 92.

27. Def. adj. pron., § 39; used as pers. of all persons.

28. From πᾶς, see vii, 12; dat. sing. masc., § 32.

29. Pres. act. part, of ὀφείλω, like ix, 12; dat. sing. masc., § 92.

30. Assigned to εἰσφέρω, but really belonging to the defective cognate, εἰσήνεγκα, irreg. reduplicate, 1st aor., from εἰς, into, and an obsolete ἔγκω, (for ενκω, § 16;) subj., § 41, (dependent end upon an implied verb of wishing or deprecating § 44;) 2d sing. act., § 51.

31. From πειρασμός, § 30; acc. sing., § 94.

32. From ῥύομαι, § 62; depon., § 40; 1st aor., § 59; imper. union-vowel α, § 42; 2d sing. mid., § 53.

33. Noun implied, § 74; 2d decl., § 34; gen. sing. neut., § 81.

34. From εἰμί, § 69.

35. See § 33.

36. See ix, 34.

37. From αἰών, § 32; acc. plur., § 94.

38. Adv. from the Heb., verily.



Ἐπειδήπερ1  πολλοὶ2 ἐπεχείρησαν3 ἀνατάξασϑαι4 διήγησιν5   περὶ
Inasmuch as many    undertook    to arrange   a narrative about

τῶν πεπλήροφορημένων6 ἐν    ἡμῖν7 πραγμάτων,8   καϑὼς9  παρέδοσαν10
the fully believed    among us    transactions, just as transmitted them

ἡμῖν7 οἱ  ἀπ᾽11           ἀρχῆς12   αὐτόπται13    καὶ ὑπηρέται14
to us the from the beginning eye-witnesses and ministers

τοῦ    λόγον·15 ἔόοξε16         κάμοί17     παρηκολονϑηκότι18     ἄνωϑεν19
of the word;    it seemed good to me also, having followed close from the first

πᾶσιν20        ἀκριβῶς,21 καϑεξῆς22    σοι  γράψαι,23  κράτιστε24
to all things carefully, regularly to thee to write,  most excellent

Θεόφιλε,25  ἵνα                ἐπιγνῷς26        περὶ  ὧν27      κατηχήϑης28
Theophilus, in order that thou mayest recognize about what thou wast instructed

λόγων τὴν ἀσφάλειαν.29
words the certainty.

1. Comp. of ἐπεί, since, (from ἐπί, upon, εἴ, if,) δή, now, and the intensive particle, περ.

2. Irreg. from πολύς, really an old πολλός; nom. plur. masc., § 34; persons understood, § 74.

3. From ἐπιχείρέω, lay hand upon, from ἐπί, upon, and χείρ, a hand; aug., § 61; η, § 66; 1st aor., § 59; Ind., § 42; 3d plur. act.; § 49.

4. From ἀνατάσσομαι, (comp. of ἀνά, up, i.e., thoroughly, and τάσσω, arrange;) depon., § 40; 1st aor., (root, ταγ, str. in pres. by σσ, § 58, which excludes the γ,) § 59, (ξ=γσ, § 13;) infin. mid., § 54; depends, like a nom. (§ 25) in the acc. upon ἐπεχ., § 97.

5. From διήγησις, (like πολις in the paradigm,) § 33; acc. sing. depend. on ἀνατ., § 97.

6. From πληροφορέω, comp. of πλήρης, full, φορέω, bear, i.e., in mind; redupl., § 60; η, § 66; no tense sign, § 59; perf. pass. part., § 55; gen. plur., § 30; agrees with πραγμ., § 73.

7. See § 38.

8. Like σῶμα in the paradigm; gen. plur., see viii, 13.

9. Comp. of κατά, (see x, 20,) down, i.e., exactly, and ὠς, as.

10. From παραδίδωμι, comp. of παρά, near, i.e., from one to another, and δίδωμι, § 68; 2d aor., (δο,) § 57; indic., § 60, also § 42; 3d plur. act., § 49.

11. See § 22.

12. See vii. 2.

13. From αὐτόπτης, comp. of αὐτός, self, and ὄπτομαι, I see; nom. plur. masc., § 28.

14. From ὑπηρέτης, (comp. of ὐπό, under, and ἐρέτης, rower,) § 28.

15. See paradigm.

16. From δοκέω, really an obsol. δόκω; 1st aor., § 59; indic., § 60; 3d sing. act., § 49.

17. Comp. of καί, (§ 22,) and ἐμοί, § 38; case, § 92.

18. From παρακολουϑέω, comp. of παρά, near, and ἀκολονϑέω; aug., (α+ε=η,) § 60; perf. act., § 59; second η, § 66; part., § 55; dat. sing., (§ 32,) masc., § 34; agrees with ἐμοί, § 73.

19. Deriv. adv., lit., from above, i.e., from top to bottom.

20. See viii, 16; dat. plur., § 88.

21. Adv. from ἀκριβής, exact.

22. Adv. comp. of κατά, (as No. 17,) and ἑξῆς, orderly, an old gen., § 31.

23. From γράφω, (not str., § 58;) 1st aor., as No. 4; infin. act., § 54; subj. of ἔδοξε.

24. From κράτιστος, § 34; superl., (§ 35,) of an obsol. κρατύς, strong, assigned to ἀγαϑός, good; Voc. sing. masc., § 30.

25. Nom, Θεόφιλος, § 30.

26. From ἐπιγινώκω, comp. of ἐπί, upon, i.e., by means of some reminding or determining circumstance, and γινώσκω, I know, for γίγνωσκω, § 70, (root γνο, know,) contracted like γίνομαι, vii, 15; 2d aor., § 57; subj., § 44; 2d sing. act., § 51.

27. Rel., § 39; gen. plur., § 30; agrees with λόγων, § 75; for τῶν λόγων, (§ 75,) οἶς, § 91.

28. From κατηχέω, (comp. of κατά, down, as in No. 17, and ἠχέω, I echo,) whence our catechize; 1st. aor. pass., § 59; exception to § 14; second η, § 66; third η, § 42; 2d sing., § 52.

29. From ἀσφάλεια, lit., non-tottering; acc. sing., § 29; depends upon ἐπιγ., § 97.

Paradigms of Nouns of the First Declension.

Feminine. Masculine.
Cases. Shadow. Door. Root. Honor. Youth. Judge.
Nominative. σκιά ϑύρα ῥίζα τιμή νεανίας κριτής
Genitive. σκιᾶς ϑύρας ῥίζης τιλῆς νεανίου κριτοῖ
Dative. σκιᾷ ϑύρᾳ ῥίζῃ τιμῇ νεανίᾳ κριτῇ
Accusative. σκιάν ϑύραν ῥίζαν τιμήν νεανίαν κριτήν
Vocative. σκιά ϑύρα ῥίζα τιμή νεανία κριτά
Nominative. σκιαί ϑύραι ῥίζαι τιμαί νεανίαι κριταί
Genitive. σκιῶν ϑυρῶν ῥιζῶν τιμῶν νεανιῶν κριτῶν
Dative. σκιαῖς ϑύραις ῥίζαις τιμαῖς νεανίαις κριταῖς
Accusative. σκιάς ϑύρας ῥίζας τιμάς νεανίας κριτάς
Vocative. σκιαί ϑύραι ῥίζαι τιμαί νεανίαι κριταί

Paradigms of Nouns of the Second Declension.

Masculine. Neuter.
Word. Jesus. Fig.
Cases. Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
Nominative. λόγος λόγοι Ἰησοῦς σῦκον σῦκα
Genitive. λόγου λόγων Ἰησοῦ σύκου σύκων
Dative. λόγῳ λόγοις Ἰησοῦ σύκῳ σύκοις
Accusative. λόγον λόγους Ἰησοῦν σῦκον σῦκα
Vocative. λόγε λόγοι Ἰησοῦ σῦκον σῦκα

Paradigms of Nouns of the Third Declension

Masculine and Feminine. Neuter.
Cases. Shepherd. Lion. Hair. City. Body. Light. Wall.
Nominative. ποιμήν λέων ϑρίξ πόλις σῶμα φῶς τεῖχος
Genitive. ποιμένος λέοντος τρίχός πόλεως σώματος φωτός τείχους
Dative. ποιμένι λέοντι τριχί πόλει σώματι φωατί τείχει
Accusative. ποιμένα λέοντα τρίχα πόλιν σῶμα φῶς τεῖχος
Vocative. ποιμήν λέον ϑρίξ πόλι σῶμα φῶς τεῖχος
Nominative. ποιμένες λέοντες τρίχες πόλεις σώματα φῶτά τείχη
Genitive. ποιμένων λεόντων τριχῶυ πόλεων σωμάτων φωτῶν τειχῶν
Dative. ποιμέσι λέονσι ϑριξί πόλεσι σώμασι φωσί τείχεσι
Accusative. ποιμένας λέοντας τρίχας πόλεις σώματα φῶτα τείχη
Vocative. ποιμένες λέοντες τρίχες πόλεις σώματα φῶτα τείχη

Paradigms of Adjectives, (of three terminations, § 34.)

1st and 2d Decl.--καλός, Fair.

Singular. Plural.
Cases. Masc. Fem. Neut. Masc. Fem. Neut.
Nominative. καλός καλή καλόν καλοί καλαί καλά
Genitive. καλοῦ καλῆς καλοῦ καλῶν καλῶν καλῶν
Dative. καλῷ καλῇς καλῷ καλοῖς καλαῖς καλοῖς
Accusative. καλόν καλήν καλόν καλούς καλάς καλά
Vocative. καλέ καλή καλόν καλοί καλαί καλά
Similarly, δίκαιος, δικαία, δίκαιον, Just.

1st and 3d Decl.--πᾶς, All.

Singular. Plural.
Cases. Masc. Fem. Neut. Masc. Fem. Neut.
Nominative. πᾶς πᾶσα πᾶν πάντες πᾶσαι πάντα
Genitive. παντός πάσης παντός πάντων πᾶσών πάντων
Dative. παντί πάσῃ παντί πᾶσι πάσαις πᾶσι
Accusative. πάντα πάσην πᾶν παντας πάσας πάντα
Vocative. πᾶς πᾶσα πᾶν πάντες πᾶσαι πάντα

Similarly those ending in

M. F. N. M. & N. M. F. N. M. & N. M. F. N. M. & N.
ας αινα αν G. ανος ούς οῦσα όν G. όντος ώς νῖα ός G. ότος
εις εσσα εν G. εντος ων ουσα ον G. οντος ῶς ῶσα ῶς G. ῶτός
είς εῖσα έν G. έντος ῶν ῶσα ῶν G. ῶντος ύς εῖα ύ G. έος
ην εινα εν G. ενος ῶν οῦσα οῦν G. οῦντος ύς ῦσα ύν G. ύντος

Forms in two terminations are similar; for example:--

M. & F. N. Gen. M. & F. N. Gen. M. & F. N. Gen.
ας αν αντος ις ι ιτος ων ον ονος
ην εν ενος ος ον ου ωρ ορ ορος
ής έν έος ους ουν οδος ως ων ω
υς υ υος

Synopsis (1st sing., etc.) of Regular (Mute) Verbs.--τύπτω, Strike.

Active Voice.

Indic. Imper. Optat. Subj. Infin. Part.
Pres. τύπτω τύπτε τύπτω τύπτειν τύπτων
Imp'f. ἔτυπτον τύπτοιμι
1st A. τύψω τύψοιμι τύψειν τύψων
1st F. ἔτυψα τύψον τύψαιμι τύψω τύψαι τύψας
Perf. τέτυφα τέτυφε τετύφω τετυφέναι τετυφώς
Plup. ἐτετύφειν τετύφοιμι
2d A. ἔτυπον τύπε τύποιμι τύπω τυπεῖν τυπών
2d F. τυπῶ τυποῖμι τυπεῖν τυπῶν

Passive Voice.

Indic. Imper. Optat. Subj. Infin. Part.
Pres. τύπτομαι τύπτου τύπτωμαι τύπτεσϑαι τυπτόμενος
Imp'f. ἐτυπτόμην τυπτοίμην [ὠ
Perf. τέτυμμαι τέτυψο [εἴην τετυμμένος τετύφϑαι τετυμμένος
Plup. ἐτετύμμην τετυμμένος
1st A. ἐτύφϑην τύφϑητι τυφϑείην τυφϑὼ τυφϑῆναι τυφϑείς
1st F. τυφϑήσομαι τυφϑησοίμην τυφϑήσεσϑαι τυφϑησόμενος
2d A. ἐτύπην τύπηϑι τυπείην τυπῶ τυπῆναι τυπείς
2d F. τυπήσομαι τυπησοίμην τυπήσεσϑαι τυπησόμενος
3d F. τετύψομαι τετυψοίμην τετύψεσϑαι τετυψόμενος

Middle Voice.

Indic. Imper. Optat. Subj. Infin. Part.
Pres. Same throughout at the Passive
Perf. τέτυπα τέτυπε τετύπω τετυπέναι τετυπώς
Plup. ἐτετύπειν τετύποιμι
1st A. ἐτυψάμην τύψαι τυψαίμην τύψωμαι τύψασϑαι τυψάμενος
1st F. τύψομαι τυψοίμην τύψεσϑαι τυψόμενος
2d A. ἐτυπόμην τυποῦ τυποίμην τύπωμαι τυπέσϑαι τυπόμενος
2d F. τυποῦμαι τυποίμην τυπεῖσϑαι τυπούμενος

Regular Verb-Endings, (including mood-vowel.)

Active (includ. § 52.) Mid. and Pass. (except § 52.)
1 2 3 1 2 3
Ind.of Pres. and Fut. s. ω εις ει Ind. of Pres. and Fut. s. ομαι εται
p. ομεν ετε ουσι p. όμεϑα εσϑε ονται
Subjunctive throughout s. ω ης Subj. throughout (exc. Perf. Pass.4) s. ωμαι ηται
p. ωμεν ητε ωσι p. ώμεϑα ησϑε ωνται
Ind. of Perf. and 1 Aor. s. α ας ε Ind. of 1 Aor. Mid. s. άμην ω ατο
p. αμεν ατε ασι1 p. άμεϑα ασϑε αντο
Ind. of Imp. and 2 Aor. s. ον ες ε Ind. of Imp. and 2 Aor. Middle. s. όμην ου ετο
p. ομεν ετε ον p. όμεϑα εσϑε οντο
Ind. of Aor., Pass., & Opt.2 s. ην ης η Ind. of Perf. Pass.4 s. μαι σαι ται
p. ημεν ητε ησαν p. μεϑα σϑε νται
Indic. of Plup. s. ειν εις ει Ind. of Plup. Pass.4 s. μην σο το
p. ειμεν ειτε εισαν p. μεϑα σϑε ντο
Opt., exc. as ab've & bel'w s. οιμι οις οι Opt., exc. as bel'w (and Perf. Pass.4) s. οίμην οιο οιτο
p. οιμεν οιτε οιεν p. οίμεϑα οισϑε οιντο
Opt. of 1 Aor. s. αιμι αις αι Opt. of 1 Aor. Mid. s. αίμην αισο αιτο
p. αιμεν αιτε αιεν p. αίμεϑα αισϑε αιντο
Imp. of Pres., 2 Aor., & Perf. s. .... ε έτω Imper. of Pres. and 2 Aor. (Mid.) s. .... ου έσϑω
p. .... ετε έτωσαν p. .... εσϑε έσϑωσαν
Imper. of 1 Aor. s. .... ον άτω Imper. of 1 Aor. Mid. s. .... αι άσϑω
p. .... ατε άτωσαν p. .... ασϑε άσϑωσαν
Imper. of Aor. Pass. s. .... ηθι3 ήτω Imper. of 1 Perf. Pass.4 s. .... σο ϑω
p. .... ητε ήτωσαν p. .... σϑε σϑωσαν

1. But αν in 1st Aor.

2. The Opt. has an extra mood-diphthong, ει, before ending.

3. But ητι in 1st Aor., see § 14.

4. The Perf. and Plup. Pass. are often inflected periphrastically (especially in the Opt. and Subj.) by means of an auxiliary (from εἰμί, to be. with the participle.

Synopsis of Verbs in μι.

Active Voice.

Indic. Imper. Optat. Subj. Infin. Part.
Pres. ἵστημι ἵστσϑι ἱστῶ ἱστάναι ἱστάς
Imp. ἵστην ἱσταίην
2 A. ἕστην στῆϑι σταίην στῶ στῆναι στάς
Pres. τίϑημι τίϑετι τιϑῶ τιϑέναι τιϑείς
Imp. ἐτίϑην τιϑείην
2 A. ἔϑην ϑές ϑείην ϑῶ ϑῆναι ϑείς
Pres. δίδωμι δίδοϑι δίδῶ δίδόναι δίδούς
Imp. ἐδίδων διδοίην
2 A. ἔδων δός δοίην δῶ δοῦναι δούς
Pres. δείκνυμι δέικννϑι δεικνύναι δεικνύς
Imp. ἐδείκνυν

Synopsis of Verbs in μι.--(Continued.)

Middle Voice, (including Pres. and Imper. Pass.)

Indic. Imper. Optat. Subj. Infin. Part.
Pres. ἵσταμαι ἵστασο ἱστῶμαι ἵστασϑαι ἱστάμενος
Imp. ἱστάμην ἱσταίμην
2 A. ἑσταμην στάσο σταίμην στῶμαι στάσϑαι στάμενος
Pres. τίϑεμαι τιϑεσο τιϑῶμαι τίϑεσϑαι τιϑέμενος
Imp. ἐτιϑέμην τιϑείμην
2 A. ἐϑέμην ϑέτσο ϑείμην ϑῶμαι ϑέσϑαι ϑέμενος
Pres. δίδομαι δίδοσο διδῶμαι δίδοσϑαι διδόμενος
Imp. ἐδιδόμην διδοίμην
2 A. ἐδόμην δόσο δοίμην δῶμαι δόσϑαι δόμενος
Pres. δείκνυμαι δείκνυσο δείκνυσϑαι δεικνύμενοζ
Imp. ἐδείκυμην

All the other tenses are regular, as if from στάω, ϑέω, δόω, δεικνύω, meaning respectively to stand, put, give, and show.

Peculiar Endings of Verbs in μι

Singular. Plural.
1. -μι
2. -ς
3. -σι
1. -μεν
2. -τε
3. τιϑεισι

Λίδωμι has ω as a union-vowel throughout the subj. (pres. and 2d aor.) of both voices, and ἵστημι has α in the 2d and 3d sing., and 2d plur. of the subj. pres. All the other forms follow the inflection of the regular verb.